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Sample records for p-selectin incubation concentration

  1. Clinical and genetic correlates of soluble P-selectin in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D S; Larson, M G; Lunetta, K L; Dupuis, J; Rong, J; Keaney, J F; Lipinska, I; Baldwin, C T; Vasan, R S; Benjamin, E J

    2008-01-01

    P-selectin is a cell adhesion molecule that is involved in atherogenesis, and soluble concentrations of this biomarker reflect cardiovascular risk. However, the clinical correlates and genetic characterization of soluble P-selectin have not been clearly elucidated. To describe clinical and genetic correlates of circulating P-selectin in the community. In Framingham Heart Study Offspring (European descent) and Omni (ethnic/racial minority) participants, we examined the association of cardiovascular risk factors with soluble P-selectin concentrations. In Offspring participants, we evaluated heritability, linkage and association of 29 SELP single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with adjusted P-selectin concentrations. In multivariable analysis of 3,690 participants (54% women, mean age 60 +/- 10 years), higher log-transformed P-selectin concentrations were inversely associated with female sex and hormone replacement therapy, and positively associated with age, ethnic/racial minority status, cigarette smoking, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, and total/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. Clinical factors explained 10.4% of the interindividual variability in P-selectin concentrations. In 571 extended pedigrees (n = 1,841) with >or= 2 phenotyped members per family, multivariable-adjusted heritability was 45.4 +/- 5.8%. Among the SELP SNPs examined, a non-synonymous SNP (rs6136) encoding a threonine-to-proline substitution at position 715 was highly significantly associated with decreased P-selectin concentrations (P = 5.2 x 10(-39)), explaining 9.7% of variation after adjustment for clinical factors. Multiple clinical factors and an SNP in the SELP gene were significantly associated with circulating P-selectin concentrations. One SNP in SELP explained significant variation in circulating P-selectin concentrations, even after accounting for known clinical correlates.

  2. Value of plasma P-selectin for vascular complications in liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fábrega, E; Casafont, F; Merino, J; de la Peña, J; Crespo, J; Amado, J A; Pons-Romero, F

    1996-06-01

    Recent data suggest that plasma P-selectin, an adhesion molecule, may be a clinically useful marker for thrombosis. Hepatic vessel thrombosis is one of the most serious complications following liver transplantation. To assess the contribution of the soluble P-selectin to this complication, we measured plasma P-selectin levels in 32 orthotopic liver transplantations, pre-, intra-, and post-operatively. We found that levels of circulating P-selectin were not different between cirrhotic patients and healthy subjects. Of the 32 patients, 8 had vascular complications. We found a significant increase in the plasma P-selectin concentration in the thrombotic group in early postoperative period compared with the non-thrombotic group (p < 0.002). It measurement may facilitate the diagnosis of thrombosis in the early postoperative period after liver transplantation, and therefore the management of these patients.

  3. Lack of influence of the COX inhibitors metamizol and diclofenac on platelet GPIIb/IIIa and P-selectin expression in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gröschel Werner

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs for reduced platelet aggregation and thromboxane A2 synthesis has been well documented. However, the influence on platelet function is not fully explained. Aim of this study was to examine the influence of the COX-1 inhibiting NSAIDs, diclofenac and metamizol on platelet activation and leukocyte-platelet complexes, in vitro. Surface expression of GPIIb/IIIa and P-selectin on platelets, and the percentage of platelet-leukocyte complexes were investigated. Methods Whole blood was incubated with three different concentrations of diclofenac and metamizol for 5 and 30 minutes, followed by activation with TRAP-6 and ADP. Rates of GPIIb/IIIa and P-selectin expression, and the percentage of platelet-leukocyte complexes were analyzed by a flow-cytometric assay. Results There were no significant differences in the expression of GPIIb/IIIa and P-selectin, and in the formation of platelet-leukocyte complexes after activation with ADP and TRAP-6, regarding both the time of incubation and the concentrations of diclofenac and metamizol. Conclusions Accordingly, the inhibitory effect of diclofenac and metamizol on platelet aggregation is not related to a reduced surface expression of P-selectin and GPIIb/IIIa on platelets.

  4. Differing patterns of P-selectin expression in lung injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bless, N M; Tojo, S J; Kawarai, H

    1998-01-01

    -selectin. In the immune complex model, upregulation of P-selectin was defined by Northern and Western blot analysis of lung homogenates, by immunostaining of lung tissue, and by vascular fixation of 125I-labeled anti-P-selectin. P-selectin protein was detected by 1 hour (long before detection of mRNA) and expression...

  5. In vitro effect of anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies on P-selectin expression, a marker of platelet activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hoxha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL associated with thromboembolic events and/or pregnancy morbidity characterize the so-called antiphospholipid syndrome (APS. Beta2glycoprotein I (β2GPI is the main target antigen for aPL, but the pathogenic role of anti-β2GPI antibodies (aβ2GPI is still unclear. Some authors assume they play a role in activating platelets. We evaluated the effects of aβ2GPI antibodies on platelet P-selectin expression. Aβ2GPI antibodies in the plasma of a pregnant APS patient were isolated by affinity chromatography at two different stages (catastrophic and quiescent of the disease. Gel filtered platelets (100 x 109/L from healthy volunteers were incubated with β2-GPI (20 µg/mL and with different concentrations (5. 25 and 50 µg/mL of aβ2GPI antibodies. P-selectin surface expression on platelets was assessed by flow cytometry using a specific fluorescent antibody directed against P-selectin. Aβ2GPI antibodies induced platelet activation only in the presence of thrombin receptor activator for peptide 6 (TRAP-6, a platelet agonist, at a subthreshold concentration. Aβ2GPI antibody enhancement on platelet surface P-selectin expression was stronger in the catastrophic than in the quiescent phase of the disease (47 vs 15%. TRAP-6 dependent platelet activation by aβ2GPI antibodies is consistent with the “two hit” pathogenetic hypothesis for thrombosis. Aβ2GPI antibodies induce higher platelet P-selectin expression during the active rather than the acute phases.

  6. Differing Patterns of P-Selectin Expression in Lung Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bless, Nicolas M.; Tojo, Shinichiro J.; Kawarai, Hiroko; Natsume, Yasuhiro; Lentsch, Alex B.; Padgaonkar, Vaishalee A.; Czermak, Boris J.; Schmal, Hagen; Friedl, Hans P.; Ward, Peter A.

    1998-01-01

    Using two models of acute lung inflammatory injury in rats (intrapulmonary deposition of immunoglobulin G immune complexes and systemic activation of complement after infusion of purified cobra venom factor), we have analyzed the requirements and patterns for upregulation of lung vascular P-selectin. In the immune complex model, upregulation of P-selectin was defined by Northern and Western blot analysis of lung homogenates, by immunostaining of lung tissue, and by vascular fixation of 125I-labeled anti-P-selectin. P-selectin protein was detected by 1 hour (long before detection of mRNA) and expression was sustained for the next 7 hours, in striking contrast to the pattern of P-selectin expression in the cobra venom factor model, in which upregulation was very transient (within the 1st hour). In the immune complex model, injury and neutrophil accumulation were P-selectin dependent. Upregulation of P-selectin was dependent on an intact complement system, and the presence of blood neutrophils was susceptible to the antioxidant dimethyl sulfoxide and required C5a but not tumor necrosis factor α. In contrast, in the cobra venom factor model, upregulation of P-selectin, which is C5a dependent, was also dimethyl sulfoxide sensitive but neutrophil independent. Different mechanisms that may explain why upregulation of lung vascular P-selectin is either transient or sustained are discussed. PMID:9777942

  7. Melanoma cell metastasis via P-selectin-mediated activation of acid sphingomyelinase in platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Katrin Anne; Beckmann, Nadine; Adams, Constantin; Hessler, Gabriele; Kramer, Melanie; Gulbins, Erich; Carpinteiro, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Metastatic dissemination of cancer cells is one of the hallmarks of malignancy and accounts for approximately 90 % of human cancer deaths. Within the blood vasculature, tumor cells may aggregate with platelets to form clots, adhere to and spread onto endothelial cells, and finally extravasate to form metastatic colonies. We have previously shown that sphingolipids play a central role in the interaction of tumor cells with platelets; this interaction is a prerequisite for hematogenous tumor metastasis in at least some tumor models. Here we show that the interaction between melanoma cells and platelets results in rapid and transient activation and secretion of acid sphingomyelinase (Asm) in WT but not in P-selectin-deficient platelets. Stimulation of P-selectin resulted in activation of p38 MAPK, and inhibition of p38 MAPK in platelets prevented the secretion of Asm after interaction with tumor cells. Intravenous injection of melanoma cells into WT mice resulted in multiple lung metastases, while in P-selectin-deficient mice pulmonary tumor metastasis and trapping of tumor cells in the lung was significantly reduced. Pre-incubation of tumor cells with recombinant ASM restored trapping of B16F10 melanoma cells in the lung in P-selectin-deficient mice. These findings indicate a novel pathway in tumor metastasis, i.e., tumor cell mediated activation of P-selectin in platelets, followed by activation and secretion of Asm and in turn release of ceramide and tumor metastasis. The data suggest that p38 MAPK acts downstream from P-selectin and is necessary for the secretion of Asm.

  8. Early Dynamics of P-selectin and Interleukin 6 Predicts Outcomes in Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pusch, Gabriella; Debrabant, Birgit; Molnar, Tihamer

    2015-01-01

    to poststroke infection, death, and functional outcome, and assessed the ability of the models to predict each outcome. RESULTS: Interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels and change of IL-6 concentrations by 72 hours correlated with the size of tissue damage indicated by S100B titers. Levels of IL-6 and P-selectin at 72...

  9. P-selectin in preterm infants suffering necrotizing enterocolitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study P-selectin, a possible cause of NEC, in the blood of preterm infants. Study design: Twenty-four consecutive preterms, clinically suspected or proven to have NEC, were enrolled in this pilot study. Their weight ranged from 1 to 2.3 Kg (mean ±SD: 1.7±0.5 Kg), age ranged from 2 to 21 days (mean ±SD: ...

  10. Role of Soluble P-Selectin Among Type 2 Diabetic Patients with and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ROC curve analysis for hsCRP and sP-selectin indicated that, sP-selectin had higher sensitivity and specificity than hsCRP in diabetic patient with coronary artery disease. In conclusion, measurement of soluble P-selectin seems more helpful marker of impending coronary artery insult in diabetic patients and had higher ...

  11. The significance of diminished sTWEAK and P-selectin content in platelets of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

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    Kazimierczyk, Remigiusz; Błaszczak, Piotr; Kowal, Krzysztof; Jasiewicz, Małgorzata; Knapp, Małgorzata; Szpakowicz, Anna; Ptaszyńska-Kopczyńska, Katarzyna; Sobkowicz, Bożena; Waszkiewicz, Ewa; Grzywna, Ryszard; Musial, Włodzimierz J; Kamiński, Karol A

    2017-12-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease characterized by proliferative changes in pulmonary arteries. There is growing evidence suggesting that soluble tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK) and P-selectin could be involved in PAH development and progression. Here we investigate whether circulating platelets may be a source of sTWEAK and contribute to diminished availability of sTWEAK and P-selectin in PAH patients. We have prospectively enrolled two independent study groups of stable patients with confirmed PAH and age matched controls: derivation (10 PAH; 15 controls) and validation (20 PAH; 12 controls). P-selectin and sTWEAK concentrations were measured in platelet-poor plasma and platelet lysate. To avoid procedural bias, in each group we employed different protocols for platelet isolation. Consistently, both in derivation and validation groups PAH patients presented significantly lower sTWEAK content in platelets than control group with no significant differences in plasma levels. Similarly, patients presented comparable to controls plasma P-selectin concentrations and lower concentration in platelet lysate. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with low platelet sTWEAK/total protein concentration ratio had more frequently detoriation of PAH in the follow-up (16.51 ± 3.32 months), log-rank test, p = .03. Patients diagnosed with pulmonary arterial hypertension present diminished sTWEAK and P-selectin storage capacity in platelets. Thrombocytes appear to be a major source of sTWEAK that could be released upon local injury and its decreased availability could have an impact on pathophysiology and prognosis in PAH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The influence of propofol on P-selectin expression and nitric oxide production in re-oxygenated human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Corcoran, T B

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Reperfusion injury is characterized by free radical production and endothelial inflammation. Neutrophils mediate much of the end-organ injury that occurs, requiring P-selectin-mediated neutrophil-endothelial adhesion, and this is associated with decreased endothelial nitric oxide production. Propofol has antioxidant properties in vitro which might abrogate this inflammation. METHODS: Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells were exposed to 20 h of hypoxia and then returned to normoxic conditions. Cells were treated with saline, Diprivan 5 microg\\/l or propofol 5 microg\\/l for 4 h after re-oxygenation and were then examined for P-selectin expression and supernatant nitric oxide concentrations for 24 h. P-selectin was determined by flow cytometry, and culture supernatant nitric oxide was measured as nitrite. RESULTS: In saline-treated cells, a biphasic increase in P-selectin expression was demonstrated at 30 min (P = 0.01) and 4 h (P = 0.023) after re-oxygenation. Propofol and Diprivan prevented these increases in P-selectin expression (P < 0.05). Four hours after re-oxygenation, propofol decreased endothelial nitric oxide production (P = 0.035). CONCLUSION: This is the first study to demonstrate an effect of propofol upon endothelial P-selectin expression. Such an effect may be important in situations of reperfusion injury such as cardiac transplantation and coronary artery bypass surgery. We conclude that propofol attenuates re-oxygenation-induced endothelial inflammation in vitro.

  13. [Effects of riboflavin combined with photosensitization on reduction of Gram-positive and Gram-negative indicating germs in plasma and P-selectin expression of apheresis platelet concentrates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xue-Yin; Xiong, Wen; Kong, Ling-Kui

    2010-08-01

    This study was purposed to confirm the practical efficacy of reducing indicating germs suspended in plasma by riboflavin and photosensitized inactivation and to evaluate its influence on activation of apheresis platelet concentrates. The synergistic effects of riboflavin combined with ultraviolet irradiation on inactivation of germs were investigated by using Escherichia Coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus Aureus (S. aureus) as Gram⁻ and Gram(+) indicating germs, respectively. The activation status of apheresis-platelet concentrates treated with riboflavin combined with ultraviolet irradiation was detected by flow cytometry. The results showed that when 50 μmol/L of riboflavin was combined with 6.2 J/ml of ultraviolet irradiation, the T/E ratios reached 1.42 for E. coli and 1.68 for S. Aureus, and reduction of E. Coli and S. Aureus were 3.87 Logs and 3.82 Logs respectively; the CD62p expression level on germ-inactivated platelets stored at 22 degrees C for 0 and 5 days were 4.92% and 36.18% respectively, which slightly increased as compared with controls (3.94% and 32.03)% (p < 0.05). It is concluded that combination of riboflavin with ultraviolet irradiation displays well synergistic effects which can reduce E. Coli and S. Aureus counts, but no significantly influence on platelets. The partial activation of liquid platelets mainly presents metabolism damage during storage, which is found at an acceptable level.

  14. P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 in T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadier, Michael; Ley, Klaus

    2017-05-01

    We review P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) as a selectin and chemokine-binding adhesion molecule. PSGL-1 is widely studied in neutrophils. Here, we focus on T cells, because PSGL-1 was recently described as a major immunomodulatory molecule during viral infection. PSGL-1 also plays a crucial role in T-cell homeostasis by binding to lymphoid chemokines, and can induce tolerance by enhancing the functions of regulatory T cells. PSGL-1 was originally described as a leukocyte ligand for P-selectin, but it is actually a ligand for all selectins (P-, L- and E-selectin), binds chemokines, activates integrins and profoundly affects T-cell biology. It has been shown recently that PSGL-1 can modulate T cells during viral infection by acting as a negative regulator for T-cell functions. Absence of PSGL-1 promotes effector CD4 and CD8 T-cell differentiation and prevents T-cell exhaustion. Consistent with this, tumor growth was significantly reduced in PSGL-1-deficient mice because of an enhanced number of effector T cells together with reduced levels of inhibitory receptors that induce T-cell exhaustion. PSGL-1 is the best-studied selectin ligand and has become a posterchild of versatility in leukocyte adhesion, inflammation and immunology. The direct involvement of PSGL-1 in T-cell biology suggests that it might be a drug target. Indeed, PSGL-1 has been tested in some clinical trials and recently, PSGL-1 blockers were proposed as a potential cotherapy in cancer immunotherapy.

  15. Plasma substance P and soluble P-selectin as biomarkers of β ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samia A. Ebeid

    2013-09-19

    Sep 19, 2013 ... Abstract Background: Hypercoagulability in thalassemia especially in thalassemia major has emerged as a complication of the disease. There is evidence of increased platelet aggregation and increased proportion of platelets expressing P-selectin in thalassemia. P-selectin is a cell adhesion molecule ...

  16. Plasma substance P and soluble P-selectin as biomarkers of β ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypercoagulab ility in thalassemia especially in thalassemia major has emerged as a complication of the disease. There is evidence of increased platelet aggregation and increased proportion of platelets expressing P-selectin in thalassemia. P-selectin is a cell adhesion molecule which plays a key role in ...

  17. Fetal wound healing using a genetically modified murine model: the contribution of P-selectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    During early gestation, fetal wounds heal with paucity of inflammation and absent scar formation. P-selectin is an adhesion molecule that is important for leukocyte recruitment to injury sites. We used a murine fetal wound healing model to study the specific contribution of P-selectin to scarless wo...

  18. Leukocyte accumulation promoting fibrin deposition is mediated in vivo by P-selectin on adherent platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palabrica, T; Lobb, R; Furie, B C; Aronovitz, M; Benjamin, C; Hsu, Y M; Sajer, S A; Furie, B

    1992-10-29

    The glycoprotein P-selectin is a cell adhesion molecule of stimulated platelets and endothelial cells, which mediates the interaction of these cells with neutrophils and monocytes. It is a membrane component of cell storage granules, and is a member of the selectin family which includes E-selectin and L-selectin. P-selectin recognizes both lineage-specific carbohydrate ligands on monocytes and neutrophils, including the Lewis x antigen, sialic acid, and a protein component. In inflammation and thrombosis, P-selectin may mediate the interaction of leukocytes with platelets bound in the region of tissue injury and with stimulated endothelium. To evaluate the role of P-selectin in platelet-leukocyte adhesion in vivo, the accumulation of leukocytes within an experimental thrombus was explored in an arteriovenous shunt model in baboons. A Dacron graft implanted within an arteriovenous shunt is thrombogenic, accumulating platelets and fibrin within its lumen. These bound platelets express P-selectin. Here we show that antibody inhibition of leukocyte binding to P-selectin expressed on platelets immobilized on the graft blocks leukocyte accumulation and inhibits the deposition of fibrin within the thrombus. These results indicate that P-selectin is an important adhesion molecule on platelets, mediating platelet-leukocyte binding in vivo, that the presence of leukocytes in thrombi is mediated by P-selectin, and that these leukocytes promote fibrin deposition.

  19. Bromelain decreases neutrophil interactions with P-selectin, but not E-selectin, in vitro by proteolytic cleavage of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Banks

    Full Text Available Stem bromelain, a cysteine protease isolated from pineapples, is a natural anti-inflammatory treatment, yet its mechanism of action remains unclear. Curious as to whether bromelain might affect selectin-mediated leukocyte rolling, we studied the ability of bromelain-treated human neutrophils to tether to substrates presenting immobilized P-selectin or E-selectin under shear stress. Bromelain treatment attenuated P-selectin-mediated tethering but had no effect on neutrophil recruitment on E-selectin substrates. Flow cytometric analysis of human neutrophils, using two antibodies against distinct epitopes within the P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1 active site, revealed that bromelain cleaves PSGL-1 to remove one of two sites required for P-selectin binding, while leaving the region required for E-selectin binding intact. These findings suggest one molecular mechanism by which bromelain may exert its anti-inflammatory effects is via selective cleavage of PSGL-1 to reduce P-selectin-mediated neutrophil recruitment.

  20. Bromelain decreases neutrophil interactions with P-selectin, but not E-selectin, in vitro by proteolytic cleavage of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Jessica M; Herman, Christine T; Bailey, Ryan C

    2013-01-01

    Stem bromelain, a cysteine protease isolated from pineapples, is a natural anti-inflammatory treatment, yet its mechanism of action remains unclear. Curious as to whether bromelain might affect selectin-mediated leukocyte rolling, we studied the ability of bromelain-treated human neutrophils to tether to substrates presenting immobilized P-selectin or E-selectin under shear stress. Bromelain treatment attenuated P-selectin-mediated tethering but had no effect on neutrophil recruitment on E-selectin substrates. Flow cytometric analysis of human neutrophils, using two antibodies against distinct epitopes within the P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) active site, revealed that bromelain cleaves PSGL-1 to remove one of two sites required for P-selectin binding, while leaving the region required for E-selectin binding intact. These findings suggest one molecular mechanism by which bromelain may exert its anti-inflammatory effects is via selective cleavage of PSGL-1 to reduce P-selectin-mediated neutrophil recruitment.

  1. CD63 is an essential cofactor to leukocyte recruitment by endothelial P-selectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Emily L; Ridger, Victoria; Ferraro, Francesco; Turmaine, Mark; Saftig, Paul; Cutler, Daniel F

    2011-10-13

    The activation of endothelial cells is critical to initiating an inflammatory response. Activation induces the fusion of Weibel-Palade Bodies (WPB) with the plasma membrane, thus transferring P-selectin and VWF to the cell surface, where they act in the recruitment of leukocytes and platelets, respectively. CD63 has long been an established component of WPB, but the functional significance of its presence within an organelle that acts in inflammation and hemostasis was unknown. We find that ablating CD63 expression leads to a loss of P-selectin-dependent function: CD63-deficient HUVECs fail to recruit leukocytes, CD63-deficient mice exhibit a significant reduction in both leukocyte rolling and recruitment and we show a failure of leukocyte extravasation in a peritonitis model. Loss of CD63 has a similar phenotype to loss of P-selectin itself, thus CD63 is an essential cofactor to P-selectin.

  2. Differential localization of P-selectin and von Willebrand factor during megakaryocyte maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zingariello, M; Fabucci, M E; Bosco, D

    2010-01-01

    Willebrand factor are two proteins present in the alpha-granules that recognize P-selectin glycoprotein ligand on neutrophils and collagen in the subendothelial matrix. These proteins may play an important role in determining the differential release of the alpha-granule contents in response to external....... These observations support the hypothesis that P-selectin and von Willebrand factor may ensure differential release of the alpha-granule content in response to external stimuli....

  3. Assembly of multimeric von Willebrand factor directs sorting of P-selectin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hop, C.; Guilliatt, A.; Daly, M.; de Leeuw, H. P.; Brinkman, H. J.; Peake, I. R.; van Mourik, J. A.; Pannekoek, H.

    2000-01-01

    We designed a model system to study the role of von Willebrand factor (vWF) in the sorting of P-selectin and the biogenesis of Weibel-Palade body (WPB)-like organelles. For that purpose, a human epithelial cell line (T24) that synthesizes P-selectin mRNA, but which is devoid of vWF mRNA synthesis

  4. Soluble P-selectin and matrix metalloproteinase 2 levels are elevated in patients with diastolic dysfunction independent of glucose metabolism disorder or coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füth, Reiner; Dinh, Wilfried; Nickl, Werner; Bansemir, Lars; Barroso, Michael Coll; Bufe, Alexander; Sause, Armin; Scheffold, Thomas; Krahn, Thomas; Ellinghaus, Peter; Lankisch, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The development of diastolic dysfunction (DDF) is multifactorial. Possible mechanisms include metabolic disturbances, myocardial fibrosis, chronic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Recognizing early stages of DDF may help to identify patients at risk of developing symptomatic DDF. Therefore, biomarkers reflecting pathophysiological changes within the myocardium were investigated in patients with DDF. Seventy-seven patients submitted for coronary angiography with stable or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) were consecutively enrolled. Those without known diabetes mellitus (DM) underwent a standardized oral glucose tolerance test. Echocardiography for the diagnosis of DDF was performed according to the European Society of Cardiology. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) serum concentrations were analyzed using the ELISA technique. A total of 36% of patients had DM and 74% had CAD. The prevalence of DDF was higher in patients with DM (89% versus 74%) and CAD (84% versus 53%) (PDDF in patients with DM was more severe with a significantly lower mitral annulus velocity of 6.5 cm/s versus 7.8 cm/s (PDDF showed significantly higher sP-selectin (140.3 mug/L versus 107.6 mug/L, PDDF. There was a significant correlation between sP-selectin and MMP-2 (P=0.01), independent of the diagnosis of DM or CAD. sP-selectin as a marker for platelet hyperactivity, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, and MMP-2 as a marker for extracellular matrix turnover were significantly elevated in patients with DDF. This elevation was independent of coexisting DM or CAD. This observation may help to identify and monitor patients with DDF.

  5. Peptides from multiple regions of the lectin domain of P-selectin inhibiting neutrophil adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavner, G A; Falcone, M; Kruszynski, M; Epps, L; Mervic, M; Riexinger, D; McEver, R P

    1993-11-01

    The selectins are a family of three structurally related glycoproteins that are integral components of leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Their involvement in the recruitment and extravasation of neutrophils is critical in mounting an inflammatory reaction. The carbohydrate nature of the selectin ligands suggests that the binding regions of the selectins are contained within the lectin-like domains of the selectins. The synthesis and evaluation for inhibition of selectin binding of overlapping peptides of the lectin and adjacent EGF-like domains of P-selectin have been used to identify small peptides that completely inhibit P-selectin-dependent neutrophil adhesion. These peptides span a region of more than 100 amino acids and may define the carbohydrate recognition domain of P-selectin.

  6. Affinity of low molecular weight fucoidan for P-selectin triggers its binding to activated human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelet, Laure; Bertholon, Isabelle; Lavigne, Damien; Vassy, Roger; Jandrot-Perrus, Martine; Chaubet, Frédéric; Letourneur, Didier

    2009-02-01

    P-selectin is an adhesion receptor expressed on activated platelets and endothelial cells. Its natural ligand, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1, is expressed on leucocytes and the P-selectin/PSGL-1 interaction is involved in leukocyte rolling. We have compared the interaction of P-selectin with several low molecular weight polysaccharides: fucoidan, heparin and dextran sulfate. Binding assays were obtained from the interaction of the polysaccharides with Sialyl Lewis X and PSGL-1 based constructs onto microtiter plates coated with P-selectin. SELDI TOF mass spectrometry was performed with anionic chips arrays coated with P-selectin in the absence or in the presence of polysaccharides. Kd were obtained from surface plasmon resonance experiments with immobilized P-selectin constructs, polysaccharides being injected in the mobile phase. Human whole blood flow cytometry experiments were performed with fluorescein isothiocyanate labelled polysaccharides with or without platelets activators. The fucoidan prevented P-selectin binding to Sialyl Lewis X with an IC(50) of 20 nM as compared to 400 nM for heparin and affinity for immobilized P-selectin with a KD of 1.2 nM, two orders of magnitude greater than the K(D) of the other polysaccharides. Mass spectrometry evidenced the formation of a complex between P-selectin and fucoidan. The intensity of the fucoidan binding to platelets was dependent on the level of platelet activation. Competition between fucoidan and an anti P-selectin antibody demonstrated the specificity of the interaction. Low molecular weight fucoidan is a promising therapeutic agent of natural origin for biomedical applications.

  7. Role of Soluble P-Selectin Among Type 2 Diabetic Patients with and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with a marked increase in the risk of coronary heart disease. Platelets play a significant role in coronary artery disease (CAD). P-selectin is a component of the platelet granule membrane that is expressed on the platelet surface membrane and shed into the plasma as ...

  8. Association between circulating levels of P-selectins and burden of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We tested the hypothesis that, in the acute phase of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), the circulating level of P-selectin (PS) is predictive of angiographic morphologic features that indicate burden of thrombus formation in the infarct-related artery (IRA). One hundred and ninety-five consecutive patients ...

  9. Incubating incubators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée; Pötz, Katharina Anna

    Setting up business incubators has become and industry in its own right. In this article, we return to incubator development studies but focus on the specific process through which involved stakeholders develop the new organization that should deliver services to future incubatees and become a self...

  10. Evolutionary conservation of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 primary structure and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schapira Marc

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1 plays a critical role in recruiting leukocytes in inflammatory lesions by mediating leukocyte rolling on selectins. Core-2 O-glycosylation of a N-terminal threonine and sulfation of at least one tyrosine residue of PSGL-1 are required for L- and P-selectin binding. Little information is available on the intra- and inter-species evolution of PSGL-1 primary structure. In addition, the evolutionary conservation of selectin binding site on PSGL-1 has not been previously examined in detail. Therefore, we performed multiple sequence alignment of PSGL-1 amino acid sequences of 14 mammals (human, chimpanzee, rhesus monkey, bovine, pig, rat, tree-shrew, bushbaby, mouse, bat, horse, cat, sheep and dog and examined mammalian PSGL-1 interactions with human selectins. Results A signal peptide was predicted in each sequence and a propeptide cleavage site was found in 9/14 species. PSGL-1 N-terminus is poorly conserved. However, each species exhibits at least one tyrosine sulfation site and, except in horse and dog, a T [D/E]PP [D/E] motif associated to the core-2 O-glycosylation of a N-terminal threonine. A mucin-like domain of 250–280 amino acids long was disclosed in all studied species. It lies between the conserved N-terminal O-glycosylated threonine (Thr-57 in human and the transmembrane domain, and contains a central region exhibiting a variable number of decameric repeats (DR. Interspecies and intraspecies polymorphisms were observed. Transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain sequences are well conserved. The moesin binding residues that serve as adaptor between PSGL-1 and Syk, and are involved in regulating PSGL-1-dependent rolling on P-selectin are perfectly conserved in all analyzed mammalian sequences. Despite a poor conservation of PSGL-1 N-terminal sequence, CHO cells co-expressing human glycosyltransferases and human, bovine, pig or rat PSGL-1 efficiently rolled on human L- or P-selectin

  11. CD24, a mucin-type glycoprotein, is a ligand for P-selectin on human tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, S; Sthoeger, Z M; Fogel, M; Weber, E; Zarn, J; Ruppert, M; Zeller, Y; Vestweber, D; Stahel, R; Sammar, M; Altevogt, P

    1997-05-01

    P-selectin (CD62P) is a Ca2+-dependent endogenous lectin that can be expressed by vascular endothelium and platelets. The major ligand for P-selectin on leukocytes is P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1). P-selectin can also bind to carcinoma cells, but the nature of the ligand(s) on these cells is unknown. Here we investigated the P-selectin binding to a breast and a small cell lung carcinoma cell line that are negative for PSGL-1. We report that CD24, a mucin-type glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked cell surface molecule on human neutrophils, pre B lymphocytes, and many tumors can promote binding to P-selectin. Latex beads coated with purified CD24 from the two carcinoma cell lines but also neutrophils could bind specifically to P-selectin-IgG. The binding was dependent on divalent cations and was abolished by treatment with O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase but not endoglycosidase F or sialidase. The beads were stained with a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) to CD57 (HNK-1 carbohydrate epitope) but did not react with MoAbs against the sialylLe(x/a) epitope. The carcinoma cells and CD24-beads derived from these cells could bind to activated platelets or P-selectin transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells (P-CHO) in a P-selectin-dependent manner and this binding was blocked by soluble CD24. Transfection of human adenocarcinoma cells with CD24 enhanced the P-selectin-dependent binding to activated platelets. Treatment of the carcinoma cells or the CD24 transfectant with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C reduced CD24 expression and P-selectin-IgG binding concomitantly. These results establish a role of CD24 as a novel ligand for P-selectin on tumor cells. The CD24/P-selectin binding pathway could be important in the dissimination of tumor cells by facilitating the interaction with platelets or endothelial cells.

  12. Platelet and endothelial cell P-selectin are required for host defense against Klebsiella pneumoniae-induced pneumosepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Stoppelaar, S F; Van't Veer, C; Roelofs, J J T H; Claushuis, T A M; de Boer, O J; Tanck, M W T; Hoogendijk, A J; van der Poll, T

    2015-06-01

    Sepsis is associated with activation of platelets and endothelial cells accompanied by enhanced P-selectin surface expression. Both platelet- and endothelial P-selectin have been associated with leukocyte recruitment and induction of inflammatory alterations. Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae is a common human sepsis pathogen, particularly in the context of pneumonia. Wild-type (WT) and P-selectin-deficient (Selp(-/-) ) mice or bone marrow chimeric mice were infected with K. pneumoniae via the airways to induce pneumosepsis. Mice were sacrificed during early (12 h after infection) or late-stage (44 h) sepsis for analyses, or followed in a survival study. Selp(-/-) mice displayed 10-1000-fold higher bacterial burdens in the lungs, blood and distant organs during late-stage sepsis. P-selectin deficiency did not influence leukocyte recruitment to the lungs, but was associated with decreased platelet-monocyte complexes and increased cytokine release. Bone marrow transfer studies revealed a role for both platelet and endothelial cell P-selectin as mice deficient in platelet or endothelial cell P-selectin displayed an intermediate phenotype in bacterial loads and survival compared with full wild-type or full knockout control mice. Both platelet and endothelial cell P-selectin contribute to host defense during Klebsiella pneumosepsis. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  13. Protective effects of oligosaccharides in P-selectin-dependent lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, M S; Paulson, J C; De Frees, S; Zheng, Z L; Lowe, J B; Ward, P A

    1993-07-08

    Neutrophil recruitment into tissues is a multistep process involving sequential engagement of adhesion molecules, including selectins (E,P,L), which are reactive with oligosaccharides, and the family of beta 2 integrins which are reactive with endothelial intercellular adhesion molecules. These processes result in the initial rolling of leukocytes along the endothelial surfaces, followed by the firm attachment of leukocytes to the endothelium. The intravenous infusion of cobra venom factor into rats results in acute lung injury that is neutrophil-dependent, oxygen radical mediated and P-selectin-dependent. Here we report that infusion of sialyl-Lewis X, a ligand for P-selectin, dramatically reduced lung injury and diminished the tissue accumulation of neutrophils, whereas irrelevant oligosaccharides had no such effects. These results suggest that sialyl-Lewis X carbohydrates may be used as a new strategy for anti-inflammatory therapy.

  14. C-type natriuretic peptide inhibits leukocyte recruitment and platelet-leukocyte interactions via suppression of P-selectin expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotland, Ramona S.; Cohen, Marc; Foster, Paul; Lovell, Matthew; Mathur, Anthony; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Hobbs, Adrian J.

    2005-10-01

    The multifaceted process of immune cell recruitment to sites of tissue injury is key to the development of an inflammatory response and involved in the pathogenesis of numerous cardiovascular disorders. We recently identified C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) as an important endothelium-derived mediator that regulates vascular tone and protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Herein, we investigated whether CNP inhibits leukocyte recruitment and platelet aggregation and thereby exerts a potential antiinflammatory influence on the blood vessel wall. We assessed the effects of CNP on leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in mouse mesenteric postcapillary venules in vivo in animals with high basal leukocyte activation (endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mice, eNOS-/-) or under acute inflammatory conditions (induced by interleukin-1 or histamine). CNP suppressed basal leukocyte rolling in eNOS-/- mice in a rapid, reversible, and concentration-dependent manner. These effects of CNP were mimicked by the selective natriuretic peptide receptor-C agonist cANF4-23. CNP also suppressed leukocyte rolling induced by IL-1 or histamine, inhibited platelet-leukocyte interactions, and prevented thrombin-induced platelet aggregation of human blood. Furthermore, analysis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, leukocytes, and platelets revealed that CNP selectively attenuates expression of P-selectin. Thus, CNP is a modulator of acute inflammation in the blood vessel wall characterized by leukocyte and platelet activation. These antiinflammatory effects appear to be mediated, at least in part, via suppression of P-selectin expression. These observations suggest that endothelial CNP might maintain an anti-atherogenic influence on the blood vessel wall and represent a target for therapeutic intervention in inflammatory cardiovascular disorders. endothelium | natriuretic peptide receptor type C | atherosclerosis | thrombosis

  15. Redistribution of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) in chemokine-treated neutrophils: a role of lipid microdomains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Saotomo; Susuki, Chie; Takeshita, Kana; Nagata, Kisaburo; Tsuji, Tsutomu

    2007-06-01

    P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) is a mucin-like cell adhesion molecule expressed on leukocyte plasma membranes and involved in platelet-leukocyte and endothelium-leukocyte interactions. The treatment of neutrophils with a low concentration of IL-8 induced the redistribution of PSGL-1 to one end of the cell to form a cap-like structure. We investigated the role of lipid microdomains in the redistribution of PSGL-1 and its effect on the adhesive characteristics of IL-8-treated neutrophils. The redistribution of PSGL-1 induced by IL-8 was inhibited by cholesterol-perturbing agents such as methyl-beta-cyclodextrin and filipin. Sucrose density gradient centrifugation analysis revealed that PSGL-1 was enriched in a low-density fraction together with the GM1 ganglioside after solubilization of the cell membranes with a nonionic detergent, Brij 58. However, when Triton X-100 was used for the solubilization, PSGL-1 was no longer recovered in the low-density fraction, although GM1 ganglioside remained in the low-density fraction. Furthermore, immunofluorescence microscopic observation demonstrated that the localization of PSGL-1 differed from that of GM1 ganglioside, suggesting that PSGL-1 is associated with a microdomain distinct from that containing the GM1 ganglioside. Treatment of neutrophils with IL-8 increased the formation of microaggregates composed of neutrophils and activated platelets, and this treatment also enhanced reactive oxygen species production in neutrophils induced by the cross-linking of PSGL-1 with antibodies. These results suggest that the association of PSGL-1 with lipid microdomains is essential for its redistribution induced by IL-8 stimulation and that the redistribution modulates neutrophil functions mediated by interactions with P-selectin.

  16. Glycopeptide Analogues of PSGL-1 Inhibit P-Selectin In Vitro and In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamurthy, Venkata R.; Sardar, Mohammed Y. R.; Yu, Ying; Song, Xuezheng; Haller, Carolyn; Dai, Erbin; Wang, Xiacong; Hanjaya-Putra, Donny; Sun, Lijun; Morikis, Vasilios; Simon, Scott I.; Woods, Robert; Cummings, Richard D.; Chaikof, Elliot L.

    2015-01-01

    Blockade of P-selectin/PSGL-1 interactions holds significant potential for treatment of disorders of innate immunity, thrombosis, and cancer. Current inhibitors remain limited due to low binding affinity or by the recognized disadvantages inherent to chronic administration of antibody therapeutics. Here we report an efficient approach for generating glycosulfopeptide mimics of N-terminal PSGL-1 through development of a stereoselective route for multi-gram scale synthesis of the C2 O-glycan bu...

  17. Sulfated Hexasaccharides Attenuate Metastasis by Inhibition of P-selectin and Heparanase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubor Borsig

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of compounds that target both heparanase and selectins is emerging as a promising approach for cancer therapy. Selectins are vascular cell adhesion molecules that mediate tumor cell interactions with platelets, leukocytes, and the vascular endothelium. Heparanase is an endoglycosidase that degrades heparan sulfate in the tumor microenvironment, cell surfaces, and vessel wall. Acting together, these molecules facilitate tumor cell arrest, extravasation, and metastasis. Here, we report the preparation of novel semisynthetic sulfated tri mannose C-C-linked dimers (STMCs endowed with heparanase and selectin inhibitory activity. The P-selectin specificity of the STMC was defined by the anomeric linkage of the C-C bond. This STMC hexasaccharide is an effective inhibitor of P-selectin in vivo. We show that selective inhibition of heparanase attenuates metastasis in B16-BL6 melanoma cells, expressing high levels of this endoglycosidase, but has no effect on the metastasis of MC-38 carcinoma cells that express little or no heparanase activity. P-selectin-specific STMC attenuated metastasis in both animal models, indicating that inhibition of tumor cell interaction with the vascular endothelium is critical for cancer dissemination. Thus, the small size, the stability of the C-C bond, and the chemically defined structure of the newly generated STMCs make them superior to heparin derivatives and signify STMCs as valuable candidates for further evaluation.

  18. Nano- to microscale dynamics of P-selectin detachment from leukocyte interfaces. II. Tether flow terminated by P-selectin dissociation from PSGL-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Volkmar; Leung, Andrew; Evans, Evan

    2005-03-01

    We have used a biomembrane force probe decorated with P-selectin to form point attachments with PSGL-1 receptors on a human neutrophil (PMN) in a calcium-containing medium and then to quantify the forces experienced by the attachment during retraction of the PMN at fixed speed. From first touch to final detachment, the typical force history exhibited the following sequence of events: i), an initial linear-elastic displacement of the PMN surface, ii), an abrupt crossover to viscoplastic flow that signaled membrane separation from the interior cytoskeleton and the beginning of a membrane tether, and iii), the final detachment from the probe tip most often by one precipitous step of P-selectin:PSGL-1 dissociation. Analyzing the initial elastic response and membrane unbinding from the cytoskeleton in our companion article I, we focus in this article on the regime of tether extrusion that nearly always occurred before release of the extracellular adhesion bond at pulling speeds > or =1 microm/s. The force during tether growth appeared to approach a plateau at long times. Examined over a large range of pulling speeds up to 150 microm/s, the plateau force exhibited a significant shear thinning as indicated by a weak power-law dependence on pulling speed, f(infinity) = 60 pN(nu(pull)/microm/s)(0.25). Using this shear-thinning response to describe the viscous element in a nonlinear Maxwell-like fluid model, we show that a weak serial-elastic component with a stiffness of approximately 0.07 pN/nm provides good agreement with the time course of the tether force approach to the plateau under constant pulling speed.

  19. In Vivo Tracking of Platelets: Circulating Degranulated Platelets Rapidly Lose Surface P-Selectin but Continue to Circulate and Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michelson, A

    1995-01-01

    To examine the hypothesis that surface P-selectin-positive (degranulated) platelets are rapidly cleared from the circulation, we developed novel methods for tracking of platelets and measurement of platelet function in vivo...

  20. Levels of platelet-derived microparticles and soluble p-selectin in patients of acute myocardial infarction (case control study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Aisha; Rubab, Zille; Abbas Rizvi, Syed Khizar; Hussain, Shabbir; Latif, Waqas; Mohsin, Shahida

    2017-07-01

    TTo measure levels of platelet-derived microparticles and soluble P-selectin in patients of acute myocardial infarction and their comparison with healthy controls. This case-control study was conducted in Department of Haematology, University of Health Sciences Lahore from April to September 2013, and comprised patients of acute myocardial infarction in group 1 and healthy controls in group 2. Platelet-derived microparticles and soluble P-selectin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. SPSS21 was used for data analysis. Of the 80 participants, 50(62.5%) were patients and 30(37.5%) were controls. The mean levels of platelet-derived microparticles and soluble P-selectin were significantly higher in group 1 compared to group 2 (45.70±10.30 vs 10.60±0.96, and 51.46±9.30 vs 9.16±1.04, respectively) (pderived microparticles and soluble P-selectin in three intervals after acute myocardial infarction (p>0.05). Although levels of platelet-derived microparticles and soluble P-selectin did not correlate to creatinekinase-myocardial band levels (p>0.05), but there was a trend of significant correlation with cardiac troponin T (pderived microparticles and soluble P-selectin can be used as novel early diagnostic marker of acute myocardial infarction.

  1. Tyrosine sulfation of native mouse Psgl-1 is required for optimal leukocyte rolling on P-selectin in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Westmuckett

    Full Text Available We recently demonstrated that tyrosine sulfation is an important contributor to monocyte recruitment and retention in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (Psgl-1 is tyrosine-sulfated in mouse monocyte/macrophages and its interaction with P-selectin is important in monocyte recruitment in atherosclerosis. However, whether tyrosine sulfation is required for the P-selectin binding function of mouse Psgl-1 is unknown. Here we test the function of native Psgl-1 expressed in leukocytes lacking endogenous tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase (TPST activity.Psgl-1 function was assessed by examining P-selectin dependent leukocyte rolling in post-capillary venules of C57BL6 mice transplanted with hematopoietic progenitors from wild type (WT → B6 or Tpst1;Tpst2 double knockout mice (Tpst DKO → B6 which lack TPST activity. We observed that rolling flux fractions were lower and leukocyte rolling velocities were higher in Tpst DKO → B6 venules compared to WT → B6 venules. Similar results were observed on immobilized P-selectin in vitro. Finally, Tpst DKO leukocytes bound less P-selectin than wild type leukocytes despite equivalent surface expression of Psgl-1.These findings provide direct and convincing evidence that tyrosine sulfation is required for optimal function of mouse Psgl-1 in vivo and suggests that tyrosine sulfation of Psgl-1 contributes to the development of atherosclerosis.

  2. Activation of platelets by in vitro whole blood contact with materials: increases in microparticle, procoagulant activity, and soluble P-selectin blood levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, C H

    2001-01-01

    Non-adherent platelets and plasma were analyzed for evidence of platelet activation after whole blood contact with materials under conditions of low shear for one hour at 37 degrees C. The contact involved adding heparinized whole blood to small diameter tubes that were connected to two arms extending from a rocking platform. For all surfaces (polyethylene, polypropylene, Silastic, PVA hydrogel) tested there was strong evidence of platelet activation in the bulk blood: platelet-derived microparticles, procoagulant platelet membranes and soluble P-selectin levels. Flow cytometric quantification of microparticles (MPs) was highly sensitive and entailed the direct determination of microparticle concentrations as opposed to the traditional quantification of microparticle percentages (relative to total number of MPs and platelets). Whole blood contact with polypropylene surfaces led to the greatest drops in bulk platelet counts and also to the lowest increases in microparticle concentrations. Flow cytometry was also used to assess procoagulant levels (annexin V binding) within a light scatter region known to contain platelets and some large microparticles. All surfaces were noted to generate a significant procoagulant population that was, based on forward light scatter, mostly very small platelets or large microparticles. In contrast, most of the P-selectin positive platelets were averaged sized. Lastly. all surfaces generated soluble P-selectin levels that were approximately double the level (25 ng ml(-1)) noted in the resting whole blood samples. In addition to our previous reports, these findings support the observation that there is strong evidence of platelet activation in the bulk that we anticipate will ultimately lead to more relevant in vitro testing of the compatibility of platelets towards materials.

  3. Development of Polymer Microcapsules Functionalized with Fucoidan to Target P-Selectin Overexpressed in Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Juenet, Maya; Aid-Launais, Rachida; Maire, Murielle; Ollivier, Véronique; Letourneur, Didier; Chauvierre, Cédric

    2017-02-01

    New tools for molecular imaging and targeted therapy for cardiovascular diseases are still required. Herein, biodegradable microcapsules (MCs) made of polycyanoacrylate and polysaccharide and functionalized with fucoidan (Fuco-MCs) are designed as new carriers to target arterial thrombi overexpressing P-selectin. Physicochemical characterizations demonstrated that microcapsules have a core-shell structure and that fucoidan is present onto the surface of Fuco-MCs. Furthermore, their sizes range from 2 to 6 µm and they are stable on storage over 30 d at 4 °C. Flow cytometry experiments evidenced the binding of Fuco-MCs for human activated platelets as compared to MCs (mean fluorescence intensity: 12 008 vs. 9, p microcapsules reveal excellent compatibility with 3T3 cells in cytotoxicity assay. One hour after intravenous injection of microcapsules, histological analysis revealed that Fuco-MCs are localized in the rat abdominal aortic aneurysm thrombotic wall and that the binding in the healthy aorta is low. In conclusion, these microcapsules appear as promising carriers for targeting of tissues characterized by P-selectin overexpression and for their molecular imaging or treatment. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Interleukin-2 regulatory effect on P-selectin and interleukin-8 production in patients with chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Shousha, Seham A; Youssef, Amany I

    2006-01-01

    Patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) show a clinical state of immunodysfunction that occurs in both humoral and cellular immunity as well as inflammatory response. In this study, we investigated the mononuclear-endothelial cells (MCs/ECs) interaction and the possible protective role of IL-2 as the main T lymphocyte activator in CRF patients. The levels of soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) as the two main mediators of MCs/ECs interaction were measured in IL-2 supplemented and non-supplemented peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) supernatant of CRF patients. The obtained results were correlated with those of sex and age matched controls. Significantly higher levels of sP-selectin and IL-8 were detected in both IL-2 supplemented and non-supplemented PBMCs culture supernatant of CRF patients than controls (P = 0.000). Those levels were significantly lower in IL-2 supplemented PBMCs culture supernatant than non-supplemented ones of both CRF (P = 0.000) (for both mediators) and normal control groups (P = 0.01, P= 0.04 for sP-selectin and IL-8 respectively). The higher sP-selectin in CRF indicates impairment of MCs/ECs interaction that may be resulted from blockade of P-selectin receptors on PBMCs by P-selectin molecules shedded from ECs to plasma and bind to PBMCs in vivo. The elevated IL-8 level in PBMCs of CRF reflect the imbalance of Thl/Th2 ratio and subsequent impairment of cellular immunity in those patients. The lower level of both sP-selectin and IL-8 in IL-2 supplemented PBMCs supernatant than in non-supplemented one seemed to be due to the IL-2 induced proliferation of Th1 lymphocytes yielding newly in vitro formed T cells which do not carry P-selectin as well as relative increase of Th1/Th2 ratio in both normal and CRF groups. Thus, IL-2 may improve the MCs/ECs interaction and correct the Th1/Th2 ratio in CRF providing a novel promising therapeutic approach to improve the immuno-pathological condition of those patients.

  5. Contribution of the CR domain to P-selectin lectin domain allostery by regulating the orientation of the EGF domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouqin Lü

    Full Text Available The allostery of P-selectin has been studied extensively with a focus on the Lec and EGF domains, whereas the contribution of the CR domain remains unclear. Here, molecular dynamics simulations (MDS combined with homology modeling were preformed to investigate the impact of the CR domain on P-selectin allostery. The results indicated that the CR domain plays a role in the allosteric dynamics of P-selectin in two ways. First, the CR1 domain tends to stabilize the low affinity of P-selectin during the equilibration processes with the transition inhibition from the S1 to S1' state by restraining the extension of the bent EGF orientation, or with the relaxation acceleration of the S2 state by promoting the bending of the extended EGF orientation. Second, the existence of CR domain increases intramolecular extension prior to complex separation, increasing the time available for the allosteric shift during forced dissociation with a prolonged bond duration. These findings further our understanding of the structure-function relationship of P-selectin with the enriched micro-structural bases of the CR domain.

  6. P-selectin, carcinoma metastasis and heparin: novel mechanistic connections with therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varki A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis is a multistep cascade initiated when malignant cells penetrate the tissue surrounding the primary tumor and enter the bloodstream. Classic studies indicated that blood platelets form complexes around tumor cells in the circulation and facilitate metastases. In other work, the anticoagulant drug heparin diminished metastasis in murine models, as well is in preliminary human studies. However, attempts to follow up the latter observation using vitamin K antagonists failed, indicating that the primary mechanism of heparin action was unrelated to its anticoagulant properties. Other studies showed that the overexpression of sialylated fucosylated glycans in human carcinomas is associated with a poor prognosis. We have now brought all these observations together into one mechanistic explanation, which has therapeutic implications. Carcinoma cells expressing sialylated fucosylated mucins can interact with platelets, leukocytes and endothelium via the selectin family of cell adhesion molecules. The initial organ colonization of intravenously injected carcinoma cells is attenuated in P-selectin-deficient mice, in mice receiving tumor cells pretreated with O-sialoglycoprotease (to selectively remove mucins from cell surfaces, or in mice receiving a single dose of heparin prior to tumor cell injection. In each case, we found that formation of a platelet coating on cancer cells was impeded, allowing increased access of leukocytes to the tumor cells. Several weeks later, all animals showed a decrease in the extent of established metastasis, indicating a long-lasting effect of the short-term intervention. The absence of obvious synergism amongst the three treatments suggests that they all act via a common pathway. Thus, a major mechanism of heparin action in cancer may be inhibition of P-selectin-mediated platelet coating of tumor cells during the initial phase of the metastatic process. We therefore suggest that heparin use in cancer be re

  7. Time-dependent inhibitory effects of cGMP-analogues on thrombin-induced platelet-derived microparticles formation, platelet aggregation, and P-selectin expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nygaard, Gyrid [Proteomic Unit at University of Bergen (PROBE), University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Herfindal, Lars; Kopperud, Reidun [Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Aragay, Anna M. [Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Molecular Biology Institute of Barcelona (IBMB, CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Holmsen, Holm; Døskeland, Stein Ove; Kleppe, Rune [Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Selheim, Frode, E-mail: Frode.Selheim@biomed.uib.no [Proteomic Unit at University of Bergen (PROBE), University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway)

    2014-07-04

    Highlights: • We investigated the impact of cyclic nucleotide analogues on platelet activation. • Different time dependence were found for inhibition of platelet activation. • Additive effect was found using PKA- and PKG-activating analogues. • Our results may explain some of the discrepancies reported for cNMP signalling. - Abstract: In platelets, nitric oxide (NO) activates cGMP/PKG signalling, whereas prostaglandins and adenosine signal through cAMP/PKA. Cyclic nucleotide signalling has been considered to play an inhibitory role in platelets. However, an early stimulatory effect of NO and cGMP-PKG signalling in low dose agonist-induced platelet activation have recently been suggested. Here, we investigated whether different experimental conditions could explain some of the discrepancy reported for platelet cGMP-PKG-signalling. We treated gel-filtered human platelets with cGMP and cAMP analogues, and used flow cytometric assays to detect low dose thrombin-induced formation of small platelet aggregates, single platelet disappearance (SPD), platelet-derived microparticles (PMP) and thrombin receptor agonist peptide (TRAP)-induced P-selectin expression. All four agonist-induced platelet activation phases were blocked when platelets were costimulated with the PKG activators 8-Br-PET-cGMP or 8-pCPT-cGMP and low-doses of thrombin or TRAP. However, extended incubation with 8-Br-PET-cGMP decreased its inhibition of TRAP-induced P-selectin expression in a time-dependent manner. This effect did not involve desensitisation of PKG or PKA activity, measured as site-specific VASP phosphorylation. Moreover, PKG activators in combination with the PKA activator Sp-5,6-DCL-cBIMPS revealed additive inhibitory effect on TRAP-induced P-selectin expression. Taken together, we found no evidence for a stimulatory role of cGMP/PKG in platelets activation and conclude rather that cGMP/PKG signalling has an important inhibitory function in human platelet activation.

  8. P-Selectin (CD62P) Expression in Liver Tissue of Biliary Atresia: A New Perspective in Etiopathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sira, Mostafa M; Sira, Ahmad M; Ehsan, Nermine A; Mosbeh, Asmaa

    2015-11-01

    The etiology of biliary atresia (BA) is still elusive. Inflammation plays a key role in bile duct and liver injury. The recruitment and accumulation of inflammatory cells is largely dependent on adhesion molecules. We aimed to investigate P-selectin (CD62P) expression in liver tissue in patients with BA compared with other neonatal cholestatic disorders. The study included 63 infants with neonatal cholestasis in 2 groups: BA group (n = 32) and non-BA group (n = 31) with non-BA cholestatic disorders as controls. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, ultrasonographic, and histopathological parameters were collected. P-selectin immunostaining was performed. Immunostaining in bile duct epithelium, cellular infiltrate, and vascular endothelial cells were scored as positive or negative. The frequency of P-selectin-positive endothelium, platelets, and bile duct epithelium was significantly higher in the BA group (72%, 72%, and 63%, respectively) than in the non-BA group (32%, 16%, and 13%, respectively) with P of 0.002, thrombocytosis versus 25% in the controls (P = 0.001 for both). The significant expression of P-selectin in endothelium, platelets, and bile duct epithelium in patients with BA suggests a potential role for this adhesion molecule in the pathogenesis of this devastating neonatal hepatic disorder. It further suggests that platelets in BA are activated and may have a role in the inflammatory process in BA.

  9. Role of H1 receptors and P-selectin in histamine-induced leukocyte rolling and adhesion in postcapillary venules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asako, H; Kurose, I; Wolf, R; DeFrees, S; Zheng, Z L; Phillips, M L; Paulson, J C; Granger, D N

    1994-04-01

    The objective of this study was to define the nature, magnitude, and mechanisms of histamine-induced leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in postcapillary venules of the rat mesentery using intravital microscopic techniques. Superfusion of the mesentery with histamine (10(-7)-10(-5) M) resulted in a dose-related increase in the number of rolling leukocytes, a reduction in rolling velocity, and an increased clearance of FITC-labeled rat albumin from blood to superfusate. The histamine-induced recruitment of rolling leukocytes and increased albumin clearance were prevented by histamine H1 (hydroxyzine, diphenhydramine) but not H2 (cimetidine) receptor antagonists. Because histamine induces expression of the adhesion molecule P-selectin in cultured endothelial cells, a monoclonal antibody directed against rat P-selectin and soluble sialyl-LewisX oligosaccharide (the carbohydrate ligand to P-selectin) were also tested as inhibitors. Both were effective in preventing the histamine-induced recruitment of rolling leukocytes, but neither agent attenuated the increased albumin clearance. These observations suggest that (a) histamine recruits rolling leukocytes and increases albumin leakage in postcapillary venules via H1 receptor activation, (b) histamine-induced recruitment of rolling leukocytes is mediated in part by P-selectin expressed on the endothelial cell surface, and (c) the histamine-induced vascular albumin leakage is unrelated to leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. Our results are consistent with the view that histamine may act as a mediator of acute inflammatory reactions.

  10. Isolation and characterization of N-feruloyltyramine as the P-selectin expression suppressor from garlic (Allium sativum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because garlic (Allium sativum) is believed to have positive health effects on cardiovascular disease, the screening of isolated fractions from a garlic extract against cardiovascular disease related-processes should help identify active compounds. Both P-selectin expression suppressing activity ag...

  11. Targeting P-Selectin by Gallium-68–Labeled Fucoidan Positron Emission Tomography for Noninvasive Characterization of Vulnerable Plaques: Correlation With In Vivo 17.6T MRI

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Xiang; Bauer, Wolfgang; Israel, Ina; Kreissl, Michael C; Weirather, Johannes; Richter, Dominik; Bauer, Elisabeth; Herold, Volker; Jakob, Peter; Buck, Andreas; Frantz, Stefan; Samnick, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    .... We proposed a new approach for noninvasive in vivo characterization of P-selectin on active plaques based on Ga-Fucoidan, which is a polysaccharidic ligand of P-selectin with a nanomolar affinity...

  12. Critical role of P-selectin-dependent leukocyte recruitment in endotoxin-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Mangell, Peter; Röme, Andrada; Wang, Yusheng; Schramm, R; Jeppsson, Bengt; Thorlacius, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To define the importance of leukocyte recruitment in endotoxin-induced gut permeability. Materials and methods: 31 male C57BL/6 mice were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Ileal permeability was measured in Ussing chambers and leukocyte-endothelium interactions studied with intravital fluorescence microscopy after 18 h. Results: LPS caused a clear-cut increase in leukocyte accumulation and intestinal permeability. Immunoneutralisation of P-selectin not only reduced leukocyt...

  13. Detection of early stage atherosclerotic plaques using PET and CT fusion imaging targeting P-selectin in low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Ikuko, E-mail: nakamuri@riken.jp [RIKEN Center for Molecular Imaging Science, Kobe (Japan); Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Saga University, Saga (Japan); Hasegawa, Koki [RIKEN Center for Molecular Imaging Science, Kobe (Japan); Department of Pathology and Experimental Medicine, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Wada, Yasuhiro [RIKEN Center for Molecular Imaging Science, Kobe (Japan); Hirase, Tetsuaki; Node, Koichi [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Saga University, Saga (Japan); Watanabe, Yasuyoshi, E-mail: yywata@riken.jp [RIKEN Center for Molecular Imaging Science, Kobe (Japan)

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► P-selectin regulates leukocyte recruitment as an early stage event of atherogenesis. ► We developed an antibody-based molecular imaging probe targeting P-selectin for PET. ► This is the first report on successful PET imaging for delineation of P-selectin. ► P-selectin is a candidate target for atherosclerotic plaque imaging by clinical PET. -- Abstract: Background: Sensitive detection and qualitative analysis of atherosclerotic plaques are in high demand in cardiovascular clinical settings. The leukocyte–endothelial interaction mediated by an adhesion molecule P-selectin participates in arterial wall inflammation and atherosclerosis. Methods and results: A {sup 64}Cu-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid conjugated anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody ({sup 64}Cu-DOTA-anti-P-selectin mAb) probe was prepared by conjugating an anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody with DOTA followed by {sup 64}Cu labeling. Thirty-six hours prior to PET and CT fusion imaging, 3 MBq of {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-anti-P-selectin mAb was intravenously injected into low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient Ldlr-/- mice. After a 180 min PET scan, autoradiography and biodistribution of {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody was examined using excised aortas. In Ldlr-/- mice fed with a high cholesterol diet for promotion of atherosclerotic plaque development, PET and CT fusion imaging revealed selective and prominent accumulation of the probe in the aortic root. Autoradiography of aortas that demonstrated probe uptake into atherosclerotic plaques was confirmed by Oil red O staining for lipid droplets. In Ldlr-/- mice fed with a chow diet to develop mild atherosclerotic plaques, probe accumulation was barely detectable in the aortic root on PET and CT fusion imaging. Probe biodistribution in aortas was 6.6-fold higher in Ldlr-/- mice fed with a high cholesterol diet than in those fed with a normal chow diet. {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-anti-P-selectin m

  14. Heat shock protein concentration and clarity of porcine lenses incubated at elevated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzialoszynski, T M; Milne, K J; Trevithick, J R; Noble, E G

    2016-01-01

    To quantify the concentration of heat shock proteins in lenses in lens organ culture at elevated temperatures, and to examine the relation between elevated temperature and lens clarity. Pig lenses obtained from a local abattoir were dissected aseptically and incubated in medium M199 without serum for 4 days to stabilize, and lenses with protein leakage of less than 10 mg/l were obtained for heat shock exposure. Heat shock was performed by incubation for 1 h in M199 without serum at various temperatures ranging from 37 °C to 55 °C. After incubation for 24 h, cataract blurring of the images was assessed using Scantox™ and Scion Image analysis of the lens photographs. Lens homogenates were subsequently analyzed for Hsp70 and Hsp27 with western blotting. The degree of cataract blurring of the images increased with increasing temperature, but the two functional measures provided different results. Focal length inconsistency, as assessed with the back vertex distance standard error of the mean (BVD SEM; the variability in focal lengths measured at 20 equally spaced locations across the lens, Scantox™), increased nearly linearly with the heat treatment temperature. In contrast, decreased clarity, evident by a fuzzy image with lower contrast, was not markedly altered as the temperature rose until a threshold of approximately 47.5 °C. The inducible isoform of the Hsp70 family (Hsp70) of heat shock proteins was increased at all temperatures above the control except those above 50 °C. Changes in Hsp27 were less clear as the protein content increased only at the incubation temperatures of 39 °C and 48.5 °C. The porcine lens demonstrates subtle changes in the variability of the focal length, and the variability increases as the incubation temperature rises. In contrast, lens clarity is relatively stable at temperatures up to 47.5 °C, above which dramatic changes, indicative of the formation of cataracts, occur. The lens content of Hsp70 was elevated in lenses

  15. Inhibition of P-Selectin and PSGL-1 Using Humanized Monoclonal Antibodies Increases the Sensitivity of Multiple Myeloma Cells to Bortezomib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Muz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM is a plasma cell malignancy localized in the bone marrow. Despite the introduction of novel therapies majority of MM patients relapse. We have previously shown that inhibition of P-selectin and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1 play a key role in proliferation of MM and using small-molecule inhibitors of P-selectin/PSGL-1 sensitized MM cells to therapy. However, these small-molecule inhibitors had low specificity to P-selectin and showed poor pharmacokinetics. Therefore, we tested blocking of P-selectin and PSGL-1 using functional monoclonal antibodies in order to sensitize MM cells to therapy. We have demonstrated that inhibiting the interaction between MM cells and endothelial and stromal cells decreased proliferation in MM cells and in parallel induced loose-adhesion to the primary tumor site to facilitate egress. At the same time, blocking this interaction in vivo led to MM cells retention in the circulation and delayed homing to the bone marrow, thus exposing MM cells to bortezomib which contributed to reduced tumor growth and better mice survival. This study provides a better understanding of the biology of P-selectin and PSGL-1 and their roles in dissemination and resensitization of MM to treatment.

  16. Codeine to morphine concentration ratios in samples from living subjects and autopsy cases after incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg-Pedersen, Riikka Mari; Ripel, Ase; Karinen, Ritva; Vevelstad, Merete; Bachs, Liliana; Vindenes, Vigdis

    2014-03-01

    The codeine to morphine concentration ratio is used in forensic toxicology to assess if codeine has been ingested alone or if morphine and/or heroin have been ingested in addition. In our experience, this interpretation is more difficult in autopsy cases compared with samples from living persons, since high morphine concentrations are observed in cases where only codeine is assumed to have been ingested. We have investigated if codeine and morphine glucuronides are subject to cleavage to the same extent in living and autopsy cases in vitro. We included whole blood samples from eight living subjects and nine forensic autopsy cases, where only codeine ingestion was suspected. All samples were incubated for 2 weeks at 37°C and analyzed for codeine and six codeine metabolites using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A reduction in the codeine to morphine concentration ratio was found, both in samples from living subjects (mean 33%, range 22-50%) and autopsy cases (mean 37%, range 13-54%). The increase in the morphine concentrations was greater in the autopsy cases (mean 85%, max 200%) compared with that of the living cases (mean 51%, max 87%). No changes were seen for codeine or codeine-6-glucuronide concentrations. The altered ratios might mislead the forensic toxicologist to suspect morphine or heroin consumption in cases where only codeine has been ingested.

  17. Nano- to microscale dynamics of P-selectin detachment from leukocyte interfaces. I. Membrane separation from the cytoskeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Evan; Heinrich, Volkmar; Leung, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    , and iii), the final detachment from the probe tip by usually one precipitous step of P-selectin:PSGL-1 dissociation. In this first article I, we focus on the initial elastic response and its termination by membrane separation from the cytoskeleton, initiating tether formation. Quantifying membrane...... unbinding forces for rates of loading (force/time) in the elastic regime from 240 pN/s to 38,000 pN/s, we discovered that the force distributions agreed well with the theory for kinetically limited failure of a weak bond. The kinetic rate for membrane unbinding was found to increase as an exponential...

  18. Effect of thrombopoietin receptor agonists on markers of coagulation and P-selectin in patients with immune thrombocytopenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garabet, Lamya; Ghanima, Waleed; Monceyron Jonassen, Christine

    2018-01-01

    Thrombopoietin-receptor-agonists (TPO-RA) are effective treatments of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Previous long-term TPO-RA clinical trials have shown that thrombotic events occurred in 6% of TPO-RA-treated ITP patients. To explore the increased risk of thrombosis, the effects of TPO......-RA on markers of coagulation and P-selectin were studied. The study comprised two ITP cohorts and controls. Cohort 1 included 26 patients with sequential samples acquired before and during treatment with TPO-RA. Cohort 2 included a single sample in 18 patients on TPO-RA for more than one year. Thrombin...... patients in cohort 1. Significantly higher levels of F1+2, D-dimer, and PAI-1 were found in ITP patients before TPO-RA treatment and in patients on long-term TPO-RA treatment than in controls. Pre-treatment levels of sP-selectin did not differ from controls. Analysis of longitudinal trends showed...

  19. Effect of diet composition and incubation time on feed indigestible neutral detergent fiber concentration in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizsan, S J; Huhtanen, P

    2013-03-01

    Indigestible neutral detergent fiber (NDF) predicts forage digestibility accurately and precisely when determined by a 288-h ruminal in situ incubation, and it is an important parameter in mechanistic rumen models. The long incubation time required is a disadvantage. Further, intrinsic cell wall characteristics of feeds should be determined under ideal conditions for fiber digestion. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of diet composition and rumen incubation time on the concentrations of indigestible NDF (iNDF) for a wide range of feeds in dairy cows. Additionally, predicted concentrations of unavailable NDF generated using the National Research Council (NRC) model and the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) were evaluated. Indigestible NDF was evaluated in 18 feeds using 4 cows in a split-split plot design. Treatments were in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement, consisting of different diets and incubation times. Diet composition was primarily varied by changing the level of concentrate supplementation between 190 (low), 421 (medium), and 625 (high)g/kg of diet dry matter (DM). Grass silage was used as the basal forage for all cows. The feeds were incubated for 144, 216, and 288 h. Indigestible NDF was determined from 2-g samples weighed into polyester bags with a pore size of 12 µm and a pore area equal to 6% of the total surface area, giving a sample size to surface ratio of 10mg/cm(2). Across all feeds, the measured iNDF concentrations ranged from 6 to 516 g/kg of DM. The feed iNDF concentration was not affected by the cow used, but diet composition had a significant effect. The mean measured iNDF concentrations for cows consuming low-, medium-, and high-concentrate diets were 178, 186, and 197 g/kg of DM, respectively. The incubation time also affected the feed iNDF concentrations, which averaged 199, 185, and 177 g/kg of DM for 144-, 216-, and 288-h incubations, respectively. We also observed significant interactions between

  20. Relationship between Platelet PPARs, cAMP Levels, and P-Selectin Expression: Antiplatelet Activity of Natural Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Palomo, Iván

    2013-01-01

    Platelets are no longer considered simply as cells participating in thrombosis. In atherosclerosis, platelets are regulators of multiple processes, with the recruitment of inflammatory cells towards the lesion sites, inflammatory mediators release, and regulation of endothelial function. The antiplatelet therapy has been used for a long time in an effort to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases. However, limited efficacy in some patients, drug resistance, and side effects are limitations of current antiplatelet therapy. In this context, a large number of natural products (polyphenols, terpenoids, alkaloids, and fatty acids) have been reported with antiplatelet activity. In this sense, the present paper describes mechanisms of antiplatelet action of natural products on platelet P-selectin expression through cAMP levels and its role as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors agonists. PMID:24324520

  1. Relationship between Platelet PPARs, cAMP Levels, and P-Selectin Expression: Antiplatelet Activity of Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fuentes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelets are no longer considered simply as cells participating in thrombosis. In atherosclerosis, platelets are regulators of multiple processes, with the recruitment of inflammatory cells towards the lesion sites, inflammatory mediators release, and regulation of endothelial function. The antiplatelet therapy has been used for a long time in an effort to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases. However, limited efficacy in some patients, drug resistance, and side effects are limitations of current antiplatelet therapy. In this context, a large number of natural products (polyphenols, terpenoids, alkaloids, and fatty acids have been reported with antiplatelet activity. In this sense, the present paper describes mechanisms of antiplatelet action of natural products on platelet P-selectin expression through cAMP levels and its role as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors agonists.

  2. Soluble P-selectin level correlates with acetylsalicylic acid but not with clopidogrel response in patients with stable coronary artery disease after a percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Jan; Wellnhofer, Ernst; Kappert, Kai; Urban, Daniel; Meyborg, Heike; Hauptmann, Tobias; Müller, Aline; Meixner, Martin; Graf, Kristof; Fleck, Eckart; Stawowy, Philipp

    2013-06-01

    Impaired response to dual antiplatelet therapy is associated with worse cardiovascular outcome. Besides antiplatelet effects, there is evidence that both clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) have anti-inflammatory properties. However, little is known about the relationship between platelet function and inflammation under dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with stable coronary artery disease. The purpose of the study was to investigate the correlation of platelet function with soluble (s)P-selectin and soluble (s)CD40L in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention. Poor response to ASA and clopidogrel could lead to increased levels of inflammatory markers. A total of 148 patients were included. Eighty percent of the patients were on 100 mg ASA and all patients were clopidogrel naive. They underwent percutaneous coronary intervention and received a loading dose of 600 mg clopidogrel. Platelet function was assessed by light transmittance aggregometry (LTA) and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein analysis at baseline, 24 h after loading, and after 1 month of maintenance therapy, respectively. Plasma levels of sP-selectin and sCD40L were measured. To classify low responders to clopidogrel, patients were screened for genetic variants determining clopidogrel absorption and metabolization. sP-selectin levels correlated with LTA findings after stimulation with arachidonic acid (P=0.012). Further, in addition to decreased platelet reactivity observed on LTA, lower sP-selectin levels were seen in patients under ASA therapy (P=0.004). CYP2C19*2 allele carriers had a higher platelet reactivity after clopidogrel loading measured by adenosine diphosphate-induced aggregation in LTA (P=0.008) and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation (P=0.035); however, there was no difference in the inflammatory markers. Multiple regression analysis showed that variables significantly related to sP-selectin plasma levels were sCD40L (Pacid (P<0

  3. Elevated maternal serum sP-selectin levels in preeclamptic pregnancies with and without intrauterine fetal growth restriction, but not in normotensive pregnancies complicated by isolated IUGR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowska, Marzena; Laskowska, Katarzyna; Oleszczuk, Jan

    2013-02-15

    The aim of this study was to show differences of maternal serum sP-selectin levels in pregnancies complicated by intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR) in the course of preeclampsia and to compare the results with normotensive pregnant women with isolated IUGR. These studies were also conducted on preeclamptic pregnancies with appropriate-for-gestational-age weight infants and on the control normotensive pregnant women. The study was carried out on 55 patients with pregnancy complicated by fetal growth restriction in the course of preeclampsia, 70 normotensive patients with pregnancies complicated by isolated IUGR, 39 preeclamptic patients with appropriate-for-gestational-age weight fetuses and 54 healthy normotensive pregnant patients with normal fetal growth. Maternal serum levels of sP-selectin were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of sP-selectin were higher in women with pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia with and without IUGR; whereas, in the group of normotensive pregnant women with isolated fetal growth restriction, serum sP-selectin levels tended to be lower than in the control subjects, but this difference was not statistically significant. The mean values were 192.05±70.96 ng/mL in the IUGR group, 293.18±222.92 ng/mL in the PI group, 379.78±353.13 ng/mL in the P group and 227.96±134.04 ng/mL in the healthy controls (p<0.001*). Our findings may suggest that the elevated level of the soluble P-selectin is associated with preeclampsia, and that it may confirm the presence of platelet and endothelial activation, the presence of the hypercoagulant state and may be due to the systemic inflammatory response in this serious pregnancy disorder.

  4. Effect of marathon run and air travel on pre- and post-run soluble d-dimer, microparticle procoagulant activity, and p-selectin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Beth A; Augeri, Amanda L; Capizzi, Jeffrey A; Ballard, Kevin D; Kupchak, Brian R; Volek, Jeffrey S; Troyanos, Christopher; Kriz, Peter; D'Hemecourt, Pierre; Thompson, Paul D

    2012-05-15

    D-dimer, microparticles, and p-selectin are venous thrombotic risk markers. Elevated p-selectin is associated with increased cardiovascular events. We examined the effects of exercise and air travel on the markers of vascular risk in marathon runners. Forty-one persons participating in the 114th Boston Marathon (April 19, 2010) were divided into travel (n = 23) and nontravel "control" (n = 18) groups according to whether they lived more than a 4-hour plane flight or less than a 2-hour car trip from Boston. The subjects provided venous blood samples the day before, immediately after, and after returning home the day after the marathon. The blood was analyzed for soluble d-dimer, microparticle procoagulant activity, and p-selectin. D-dimer levels increased more before to immediately after (142 ± 83 to 387 ± 196 ng/mL) in the travel group than in the controls (85 ± 26 to 233 ± 95 ng/mL; p = 0.02). Moreover, 6 travel subjects versus 0 controls had d-dimer values >500 ng/mL after returning home the day after the marathon, the clinical threshold for excluding venous thrombosis (p = 0.03). P-selectin increased with exercise (p marathon (r(2) = 0.16, p = 0.01). In conclusion, the combination of exercise and travel increases venous and arterial thrombotic risk. Moreover, the p-selectin levels at rest and after exercise were greater with age. These results might explain the reports of venous thrombosis with air travel after athletic events and the reports of cardiac events in older participants running marathons. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. DEFINITION OF ACTIVATED THROMBOCYTE NUMBER WITH ANTIBODIES FOR ACTIVATED FIBRINOGEN AND P-SELECTIN IN PATIENTS WITH ESSENTIAL THROMBOCYTHEMIA AND ANTIAGGREGATION DRUG EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samo Zver

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Essential thrombocythemia (ET is a chronic myeloproliferative disease with a platelet count within the range of 400–2000 × 109/L. Higher percentage of platelets in the circulation of patients with ET express also activation markers on their membranes. Two of such markers are P-selectin and activated fibrinogen on platelet membranes. Because of frequent thrombembolic and also bleeding related complications, treatment of ET is mandatory. Patients whose platelet count is less than 1000 × 109/L and who did not suffer any thrombembolic complication during the course of the disease, are ussually treated with an antiaggregation drug, acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg/daily orally. Clopidogrel is an adenosyn-di-phosphate (ADP receptor antagonist in platelets. There is no routine clinical data about clopidogrel treatment in the patients with ET and only sporadic case reports can be find in the literature.Patients and methods. In our clinical study we compared antiaggregational effects of acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel, by measuring the P-selectin level and activated fibrinogen expression on platelet membranes.There were 35 ET patients included, within the age range between 21 and 78 years and with platelet counts within 451–952 × 109/L. None of the patients did suffer any thrombembolic complication during the course of the disease. During the sequential 14 day periods, patients received acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg/daily orally, followed by clopidogrel 75 mg/daily orally and ultimativelly, together acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg/daily orally plus clopidogrel 75 mg/daily orally. After each fourteen days period the level of P-selectin and activated fibrinogen activated platelets were determined with monoclonal antibodies on flow cytometer. Statistical evaluation was calculated on the difference of average values between the two small, independent pair groups with the t-test.Results. When the patients stopped with acetylsalicylic acid and

  6. Time course of soluble P-selectin and von Willebrand factor levels in trauma patients: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Yin, Shiyu; Sun, Ziyong; Pan, Yingying

    2013-09-14

    Coagulopathy often develops in patients with serious trauma and is correlated with the clinical outcome. The contribution of platelet activity and endothelial dysfunction to trauma-induced coagulopathy remain to be defined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the time courses of soluble P-selectin (sPsel, an index of platelet activation) and von Willebrand factor (VWF, an index of endothelial dysfunction) in trauma patients and elucidate their relationship to coagulation parameter levels, the presence of coagulopathy, and patient outcome. This prospective observational study, which took place in a university hospital intensive care unit (ICU), included 82 severely injured trauma patients. The sPsel, VWF antigen, protein C, and factor VII levels were measured and routine coagulation tests were performed upon admission to ICU and daily within the first week. The 30-day mortality rate was also determined. Thirty-seven (45.1%) patients developed coagulopathy upon admission to the ICU, and the 30-day mortality rate was 20.7% (n = 17). Both the admission sPsel and VWF levels were lower in patients with coagulopathy than in those without (p trauma patients in the ICU, lower levels of sPsel and VWF on admission were associated with the presence of coagulopathy and might not predict a better outcome. An increase in the VWF level at the end of the first week after admission to ICU was associated with increased 30-day mortality.

  7. Distamycin A Inhibits HMGA1-Binding to the P-Selectin Promoter and Attenuates Lung and Liver Inflammation during Murine Endotoxemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Rebecca M.; Lopez-Guzman, Silvia; Riascos, Dario F.; Macias, Alvaro A.; Layne, Matthew D.; Cheng, Guiying; Harris, Cailin; Chung, Su Wol; Reeves, Raymond; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Perrella, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The architectural transcription factor High Mobility Group-A1 (HMGA1) binds to the minor groove of AT-rich DNA and forms transcription factor complexes (“enhanceosomes”) that upregulate expression of select genes within the inflammatory cascade during critical illness syndromes such as acute lung injury (ALI). AT-rich regions of DNA surround transcription factor binding sites in genes critical for the inflammatory response. Minor groove binding drugs (MGBs), such as Distamycin A (Dist A), interfere with AT-rich region DNA binding in a sequence and conformation-specific manner, and HMGA1 is one of the few transcription factors whose binding is inhibited by MGBs. Objectives To determine whether MGBs exert beneficial effects during endotoxemia through attenuating tissue inflammation via interfering with HMGA1-DNA binding and modulating expression of adhesion molecules. Methodology/Principal Findings Administration of Dist A significantly decreased lung and liver inflammation during murine endotoxemia. In intravital microscopy studies, Dist A attenuated neutrophil-endothelial interactions in vivo following an inflammatory stimulus. Endotoxin induction of P-selectin expression in lung and liver tissue and promoter activity in endothelial cells was significantly reduced by Dist A, while E-selectin induction was not significantly affected. Moreover, Dist A disrupted formation of an inducible complex containing NF-κB that binds an AT-rich region of the P-selectin promoter. Transfection studies demonstrated a critical role for HMGA1 in facilitating cytokine and NF-κB induction of P-selectin promoter activity, and Dist A inhibited binding of HMGA1 to this AT-rich region of the P-selectin promoter in vivo. Conclusions/Significance We describe a novel targeted approach in modulating lung and liver inflammation in vivo during murine endotoxemia through decreasing binding of HMGA1 to a distinct AT-rich region of the P-selectin promoter. These studies highlight

  8. Distamycin A inhibits HMGA1-binding to the P-selectin promoter and attenuates lung and liver inflammation during murine endotoxemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M Baron

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The architectural transcription factor High Mobility Group-A1 (HMGA1 binds to the minor groove of AT-rich DNA and forms transcription factor complexes ("enhanceosomes" that upregulate expression of select genes within the inflammatory cascade during critical illness syndromes such as acute lung injury (ALI. AT-rich regions of DNA surround transcription factor binding sites in genes critical for the inflammatory response. Minor groove binding drugs (MGBs, such as Distamycin A (Dist A, interfere with AT-rich region DNA binding in a sequence and conformation-specific manner, and HMGA1 is one of the few transcription factors whose binding is inhibited by MGBs.To determine whether MGBs exert beneficial effects during endotoxemia through attenuating tissue inflammation via interfering with HMGA1-DNA binding and modulating expression of adhesion molecules.Administration of Dist A significantly decreased lung and liver inflammation during murine endotoxemia. In intravital microscopy studies, Dist A attenuated neutrophil-endothelial interactions in vivo following an inflammatory stimulus. Endotoxin induction of P-selectin expression in lung and liver tissue and promoter activity in endothelial cells was significantly reduced by Dist A, while E-selectin induction was not significantly affected. Moreover, Dist A disrupted formation of an inducible complex containing NF-kappaB that binds an AT-rich region of the P-selectin promoter. Transfection studies demonstrated a critical role for HMGA1 in facilitating cytokine and NF-kappaB induction of P-selectin promoter activity, and Dist A inhibited binding of HMGA1 to this AT-rich region of the P-selectin promoter in vivo.We describe a novel targeted approach in modulating lung and liver inflammation in vivo during murine endotoxemia through decreasing binding of HMGA1 to a distinct AT-rich region of the P-selectin promoter. These studies highlight the ability of MGBs to function as molecular tools for dissecting

  9. The Effect of Rice Fermented (Tape Ketan Hitam Liquid Fraction Concentrations and Incubation Times on pH, Viscosity and Organoleptic Quality of Goat Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naili Iqrimah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine of interaction and the best of percentage rice fermented liquid fraction addition and incubation times on pH, viscosity and organoleptic quality. The experimental method was designed by factorial Completely Randomized Design (CRD which three times replicated. The treatment consists of rice fermented liquid fraction concentrations by 5 %, 15 %, 25 % and 35 % (v/v  and incubation times by 0 (without incubation , 8,16 and 24 hours. The results showed that the different concentration of rice fermented liquid fraction showed a significantly different effect on pH, viscosity, colour, smell, taste and textur, while  in incubation times gave a significantly different effect on pH, viscosity, smell, taste and textur but not give a significant effect on colour. The best combination obtained from addition of rice fermented liquid fraction 25 % and 24 hours of incubation times. Key words: goat milk, rice fermented liquid fraction, incubation times

  10. Biomechanical Performances of Networked Polyethylene Glycol Diacrylate: Effect of Photoinitiator Concentration, Temperature, and Incubation Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morshed Khandaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient conduit networks can be introduced within the Polyethylene Glycol Diacrylate (PEGDA tissue construct to enable cells to survive in the scaffold. Nutrient conduit networks can be created on PEGDA by macrochannel to nanochannel fabrication techniques. Such networks can influence the mechanical and cell activities of PEGDA scaffold. There is no study conducted to evaluate the effect of nutrient conduit networks on the maximum tensile stress and cell activities of the tissue scaffold. The study aimed to explore the influence of the network architecture on the maximum tensile stress of PEGDA scaffold and compared with the nonnetworked PEGDA scaffold. Our study found that there are 1.78 and 2.23 times decrease of maximum tensile stress due to the introduction of nutrient conduit networks to the PEGDA scaffold at 23°C and 37°C temperature conditions, respectively. This study also found statistically significant effect of network architecture, PI concentration, temperature, and wait time on the maximum failure stress of PEGDA samples (P value < 0.05. Cell viability results demonstrated that networked PEGDA hydrogels possessed increased viability compared to nonnetworked and decreased viability with increased photoinitiator concentrations. The results of this study can be used for the design of PEGDA scaffold with macrosize nutrient conduit network channels.

  11. Gene deletion of P-Selectin and ICAM-1 does not inhibit neutrophil infiltration into peritoneal cavity following cecal ligation-puncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hess Karen

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neutrophil infiltration is one of the critical cellular components of an inflammatory response during peritonitis. The adhesion molecules, P-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, mediate neutrophil-endothelial cell interactions and the subsequent neutrophil transendothelial migration during the inflammatory response. Despite very strong preclinical data, recent clinical trials failed to show a protective effect of anti-adhesion therapy, suggesting that the length of injury might be a critical factor in neutrophil infiltration. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the role of P-selectin and ICAM-1 in neutrophil infiltration into the peritoneal cavity during early and late phases of peritonitis. Methods Peritonitis was induced in both male wild-type and P-selectin/ICAM-1 double deficient (P/I null mice by cecal ligation-puncture (CLP. Peripheral blood and peritoneal lavage were collected at 6 and 24 hours after CLP. The total leukocyte and neutrophil contents were determined, and neutrophils were identified with the aid of in situ immunohistochemical staining. Comparisons between groups were made by applying ANOVA and student t-test analysis. Results CLP induced a severe inflammatory response associated with a significant leukopenia in both wild-type and P/I null mice. Additionally, CLP caused a significant neutrophil infiltration into the peritoneal cavity that was detected in both groups of mice. However, neutrophil infiltration in the P/I null mice at 6 hours of CLP was significantly lower than the corresponding wild-type mice, which reached a similar magnitude at 24 hours of CLP. In contrast, in peritonitis induced by intraperitoneal inoculation of 2% glycogen, no significant difference in neutrophil infiltration was observed between the P/I null and wild-type mice at 6 hours of peritonitis. Conclusions The data suggest that alternative adhesion pathway(s independent of P-selectin and ICAM

  12. Differential expression of genes encoding CD30L and P-selectin in cattle with Johne's disease: Progress toward a diagnostic gene expression signature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Grell, S. N.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2006-01-01

    a unique gene expression signature for paraTB infection. In the present study, non-stimulated leukocytes isolated from 10 sub-clinical paraTB infected cows were examined for genes being expressed at significantly different levels than in similar cells from control cows with the same herd background. We...... of the seven genes selected for qRT-PCR, CD30 ligand (CD30L) and P-selectin were consistently differentially expressed in freshly isolated leukocytes from paraTB infected and control animals of both breeds of cattle. Although further work is clearly needed to develop a more complete gene expression signature...

  13. In vitro effect of anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies on P-selectin expression, a marker of platelet activation

    OpenAIRE

    Hoxha, A.; M. Tonello; E. Falcinelli; Giannini, S.; A. Ruffatti; A. Bontadi; P. Gresele; L. Punzi

    2012-01-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) associated with thromboembolic events and/or pregnancy morbidity characterize the so-called antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Beta2glycoprotein I (β2GPI) is the main target antigen for aPL, but the pathogenic role of anti-β2GPI antibodies (aβ2GPI) is still unclear. Some authors assume they play a role in activating platelets. We evaluated the effects of aβ2GPI antibodies on platelet P-selectin expression. Aβ2GPI antibodies in the plasma of a pregnant APS patie...

  14. Calcification response of Pleurochrysis carterae to iron concentrations in batch incubations: implication for the marine biogeochemical cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiang; Sun, Shiyong; Lin, Sen; Shen, Kexuan; Dong, Faqin; Tan, Daoyong; Nie, Xiaoqin; Liu, Mingxue; Wei, Jie

    2017-12-01

    Calcified coccolithophores, a diverse and widely distributed group of marine microalgae, produce biogenic calcite in the form of coccoliths located on the cell surface. Using batch incubations of the coccolithophorid Pleurochrysis carterae, we investigated the responses of this calcification process to iron concentrations by changing the iron supply in the initial culture media from a normal concentration to 1 ppm (parts per million), 5 ppm, and 10 ppm. Time-dependent measurements of cell population, production of inorganic carbon (coccoliths), and organic carbon (organic cellular components) showed that elevated iron supply in the growth medium of P. carterae stimulates carbon sequestration by increasing growth along enhanced photosynthetic activity and calcification. In addition, the acquired time-dependent UV-Vis and FT-IR spectra revealed that iron fertilization-enhanced coccolith calcification is accompanied by a crystalline phase transition from calcite to aragonite or amorphous phase. Our results suggest that iron concentration has a significant influence on the marine carbon cycle of coccolithophores.

  15. Quantitative Characterization of E-selectin Interaction with Native CD44 and P-selectin Glycoprotein Ligand-1 (PSGL-1) Using a Real Time Immunoprecipitation-based Binding Assay

    KAUST Repository

    Abu Samra, Dina Bashir Kamil

    2015-06-29

    Selectins (E-, P-, and L-selectins) interact with glycoprotein ligands to mediate the essential tethering/rolling step in cell transport and delivery that captures migrating cells from the circulating flow. In this work, we developed a real time immunoprecipitation assay on a surface plasmon resonance chip that captures native glycoforms of two well known E-selectin ligands (CD44/hematopoietic cell E-/L-selectin ligand and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1) from hematopoietic cell extracts. Here we present a comprehensive characterization of their binding to E-selectin. We show that both ligands bind recombinant monomeric E-selectin transiently with fast on- and fast off-rates, whereas they bind dimeric E-selectin with remarkably slow onand off-rates. This binding requires the sialyl Lewis x sugar moiety to be placed on both O- and N-glycans, and its association, but not dissociation, is sensitive to the salt concentration. Our results suggest a mechanism through which monomeric selectins mediate initial fast on and fast off kinetics to help capture cells out of the circulating shear flow; subsequently, tight binding by dimeric/oligomeric selectins is enabled to significantly slow rolling. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Standardized flavonoid-rich Eugenia jambolana seed extract retards in vitro and in vivo LDL oxidation and expression of VCAM-1 and P-selectin in atherogenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Thouaojam, Menaka C; Sankhari, Jayantha M; Jain, Mahendra; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2012-03-01

    The present inventory evaluates anti-atherogenic potential of flavonoid-rich Eugenia jambolana seed extract (EJSE) against in vitro low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, foam cell formation, and atherogenic (ATH) diet-induced experimental atherosclerosis in rats. EJSE was able to prevent in vitro LDL oxidation and oxidized LDL-induced macrophage foam cell formation. Also, EJSE supplementation to ATH rats significantly minimized increment in serum markers of LDL oxidation. The ex vivo oxidation indices were also minimized in LDL of EJSE-treated animals. Microscopic evaluation of thoracic aorta of ATH + EJSE rats recorded minimal evidence of atheromatous plaque formation, accumulation of lipid laden macrophages, calcium deposition, and expression of cell adhesion molecules (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and P-selectin). This is the first scientific report that demonstrates anti-atherogenic potential of EJSE and warrants further evaluation at clinical level.

  17. The use of surface immobilization of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 on mesenchymal stem cells to facilitate selectin mediated cell tethering and rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chi Y.; Antonopoulos, Aristotelis; Dell, Anne; Haslam, Stuart M.; Lee, Techung; Neelamegham, Sriram

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are an important candidate for cell-based therapy since they can be easily isolated and expanded, secrete beneficial paracrine factors, and differentiate into multiple lineages. Since the endothelium at sites of injury and inflammation often express adhesion molecules belonging to the selectin family, methods to endow MSCs with selectin-ligands can enhance the efficacy of cell delivery and tissue engraftment. Here, we describe a construct 19Fc[FUT7+], where the first 19 amino acids of the pan-selectin ligand PSGL-1 (P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1) was fused to a human IgG1. When expressed in HEK293T cells over-expressing the α(1,3)fucosyltransferase FUT7, 19Fc[FUT7+] is decorated by a core-2 sialyl Lewis-X sialofucosylated O-glycan. The non-covalent coupling of this protein onto MSC surface using palmitated protein G (PPG) enhanced cell binding to E- and P-selectin under hydrodynamic shear, without altering MSC multipotency. MSCs functionalized with 19Fc[FUT7+] were captured/tethered onto stimulated endothelial cell monolayers at wall shear stresses up to 4 dyn/cm2. Once captured, the cells rolled robustly up to the highest shear stress tested, 10 dyn/cm2. Unlike previous work where MSCs could only be captured onto selectin-bearing substrates at low or no-flow conditions, the current work presents a ‘glycan engineering’ strategy to enable leukocyte-like capture and rolling. PMID:23891082

  18. Cytotoxicity of β-D-glucose/sucrose-coated silver nanoparticles depends on cell type, nanoparticles concentration and time of incubation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergallo, Cristian; Panzarini, Elisa; Carata, Elisabetta; Ahmadi, Meysam; Mariano, Stefania; Tenuzzo, Bernardetta Anna; Dini, Luciana

    2016-06-01

    The use of silver NanoParticles (AgNPs) in several consumer commercialized products, like food contact materials, medical devices and cosmetics has increased significantly, owing to their antibacterial and antifungal properties. Even though the NPs are widely diffused, due to the great variety in size, coating or shape, controversial data on their possible detrimental health effects still exist. Herein, by performing an easy and fast green method synthesis, we used β-D-glucose/sucrose to stabilize AgNPs and avoid the release of cytotoxic soluble silver ions Ag+ in the culture medium. The cytotoxic effects of these β-D-Glucose/Sucrose-Coated AgNPs (AgNPs-GS) was assessed on two cell culture models, which are human liver HepG2 and human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes (PBLs) cells. AgNPs-GS, as determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analyses, had an average diameter of 30±5 nm, a spherical shape and were well-dispersed in the freshly-prepared solution. In addition, they were found spectrophotometrically stable throughout the experiment. Cytotoxicity, determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay, was evaluated by using two AgNPs-GS amounts, indicated as highest (10×103 of NPs/cell) and lowest (2×103 NPs/cell) concentration for 6, 12 and 24 h. The highest concentration of AgNPs-GS was significantly cytotoxic for both HepG2 and PBLs cells at all times, when compared with the negative control; conversely, the lowest amount of AgNPs-GS was toxic only for HepG2 cells. A significant increase of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) levels, determined by Nitro Blue Tetrazolium (NBT) reduction assay, was observed only in PBLs after treatment with NPs, by reaching maximum levels after the incubation with the lowest amount of NPs for 24 h. Significant morphological changes, depending on NPs/cell amount, characteristic of cell toxicity, like shape, cytoplasm, and nucleus alterations, were observed in lymphocytes and Hep

  19. Relevance of angiopoietin-2 and soluble P-selectin levels in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension receiving combination therapy with oral treprostinil: a FREEDOM-C2 biomarker substudy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermuly, Ralph; Seeger, Werner; Rao, Youlan; Ghofrani, Hossein A.; Gall, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Studies have suggested roles for angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) and soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) as biomarkers of disease severity and treatment response in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but additional data are required for validation. We evaluated these biomarkers using data from FREEDOM-C2, in which patients with PAH receiving stable monotherapy or combination therapy were randomized to receive additional treatment with oral treprostinil (up-titrated from 0.25 mg twice daily) or placebo for 16 weeks. Biomarker analysis was optional in FREEDOM-C2. We measured plasma Ang-2 and sP-selectin levels at baseline and at week 16, and we assessed their association with predefined outcomes (6-minute walk distance [6MWD] change from baseline >40 m, 6MWD >380 m, functional class I/II, and/or N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP] <1,800 pg/mL at week 16) using Spearman correlation, receiver operating characteristics, and logistic regression. Biomarker data were available for 83 of 157 and 95 of 153 patients in the oral treprostinil and placebo groups, respectively. In the oral treprostinil group, baseline Ang-2 levels correlated with week 16 NT-proBNP levels (P < 0.0001). Baseline Ang-2 ≥12 ng/mL was associated with a reduced likelihood of having NT-proBNP <1,800 pg/mL at week 16 (multivariate odds ratio: 0.08; 95% confidence interval: 0.02–0.32). However, Ang-2 showed no significant association with the other assessed outcomes, and sP-selectin was not associated or correlated with any of the outcomes. These data suggest that Ang-2 and sP-selectin are not associated with response to oral treprostinil in patients already receiving stable PAH therapy. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00887978. PMID:28090293

  20. An Analysis of Trafficking Receptors Shows that CD44 and P-Selectin Glycoprotein Ligand-1 Collectively Control the Migration of Activated Human T-Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal J. Ali

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Selectins guide the traffic of activated T-cells through the blood stream by mediating their tethering and rolling onto inflamed endothelium, in this way acting as beacons to help navigate them to sites of inflammation. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of E-selectin ligands expressed on activated human T-cells. We identified several novel glycoproteins that function as E-selectin ligands. Specifically, we compared the role of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1 and CD43, known E-selectin ligands, to CD44, a ligand that has not previously been characterized as an E-selectin ligand on activated human T-cells. We showed that CD44 acts as a functional E-selectin ligand when expressed on both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. Moreover, the CD44 protein carries a binding epitope identifying it as hematopoietic cell E- and/or L-selectin ligand (HCELL. Furthermore, by knocking down these ligands individually or together in primary activated human T-cells, we demonstrated that CD44/HCELL, and not CD43, cooperates with PSGL-1 as a major E-selectin ligand. Additionally, we demonstrated the relevance of our findings to chronic autoimmune disease, by showing that CD44/HCELL and PSGL-1, but not CD43, from T-cells isolated from psoriasis patients, bind E-selectin.

  1. Localization of T and B Lymphocytes to the White Pulp of the Spleen is Independent of L-, E-, and P-Selectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell H. Grayson

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available T and B cell interactions are thought to be of prime importance in the generation of a humoral immune response. These interactions are thought to take place in the secondary lymphoid organs. The largest of which is the spleen. While the pathways involved in lymphocyte migration into other secondary lymphoid organs have been unraveled, very little is understood about T and B cell migration to the spleen. We report that adoptively transferred T lymphocytes appear more rapidly within the lymphoid compartment of the spleen than do B lymphocytes. Indeed, half of the transferred T lymphocytes in the spleen appear within the white pulp by 1.4 hours. B lymphocytes take nearly 4.3 hours to achieve the same level of accumulation. In addition, T lymphocyte arrival is fucoidan sensitive, while B cells are not affected by this polysaccharide. Finally, we show that neither L-, E-, or P-selectin appears to play a significant role in the accumulation of lymphocytes in the white pulp.

  2. An Analysis of Trafficking Receptors Shows that CD44 and P-Selectin Glycoprotein Ligand-1 Collectively Control the Migration of Activated Human T-Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Amal J.

    2017-05-03

    Selectins guide the traffic of activated T-cells through the blood stream by mediating their tethering and rolling onto inflamed endothelium, in this way acting as beacons to help navigate them to sites of inflammation. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of E-selectin ligands expressed on activated human T-cells. We identified several novel glycoproteins that function as E-selectin ligands. Specifically, we compared the role of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and CD43, known E-selectin ligands, to CD44, a ligand that has not previously been characterized as an E-selectin ligand on activated human T-cells. We showed that CD44 acts as a functional E-selectin ligand when expressed on both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. Moreover, the CD44 protein carries a binding epitope identifying it as hematopoietic cell E- and/or L-selectin ligand (HCELL). Furthermore, by knocking down these ligands individually or together in primary activated human T-cells, we demonstrated that CD44/HCELL, and not CD43, cooperates with PSGL-1 as a major E-selectin ligand. Additionally, we demonstrated the relevance of our findings to chronic autoimmune disease, by showing that CD44/HCELL and PSGL-1, but not CD43, from T-cells isolated from psoriasis patients, bind E-selectin.

  3. The human megakaryocytic cell line UT-7/TPO responds to platelet agonists with intracellular Ca2+ elevation and P-selectin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Ryuji; Nawa, Katsuhiko; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2011-05-01

    Megakaryocytes have several signal transduction cascades that are similar, but not identical to platelet activation signals. In order to understand platelet signals in detail, it is useful to compare the similarities and/or differences between platelets and megakaryocytes. We evaluated platelet activation signals related to three kinds of Gq protein-coupled receptors using the megakaryocytic cell line UT-7/TPO. It was found that UT-7/TPO responded to thrombin, resulting in a continuous elevation of the [Ca2+]i (intracellular Ca2+) and P-selectin expression on the surface of the cells. Activation of integrin αIIbβ3 and thromboxane generation was not detected by any of the three stimulations. Taken together, although strong [Ca2+]i elevation by thrombin stimulation caused further P-selection expression, we could detect [Ca2+]i elevation, which is thought to be the individual signals through the thrombin, thromboxane A2 or ADP receptor, without considering the secondary signalling caused by αIIbβ3 activation and the arachidonic acid cascade using UT-7/TPO.

  4. Development of an autoimmune syndrome affecting the skin and internal organs in P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 leukocyte receptor-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Frías, A; González-Tajuelo, R; Núñez-Andrade, N; Tejedor, R; García-Blanco, M J; Vicente-Rabaneda, E; Castañeda, S; Gamallo, C; Silván, J; Esteban-Villafruela, A; Cubero-Rueda, L; García-García, C; Muñoz-Calleja, C; García-Diez, A; Urzainqui, A

    2014-11-01

    To define and characterize the progression of the spontaneous autoimmune disease that develops in mice in the absence of the leukocyte adhesion receptor P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1). Skin-resident immune cells from PSGL-1-deficient mice and C57BL/6 control mice of different ages were isolated and analyzed by flow cytometry. Biochemical parameters were analyzed in mouse serum and urine, and the presence of serum autoantibodies was investigated. Skin and internal organs were extracted, and their structure was analyzed histologically. Skin-resident innate and adaptive immune cells from PSGL-1(-/-) mice had a proinflammatory phenotype with an imbalanced T effector cell:Treg cell ratio. Sera from PSGL-1(-/-) mice had circulating autoantibodies commonly detected in connective tissue-related human autoimmune diseases. Biochemical and histologic analysis of skin and internal organs revealed skin fibrosis and structural and functional abnormalities in the lungs and kidneys. Furthermore, PSGL-1(-/-) mice exhibited vascular alterations, showing loss of dermal vessels, small vessel medial layer remodeling in the lungs and kidneys, and ischemic processes in the kidney that promote renal infarcts. Our study demonstrates that immune system overactivation due to PSGL-1 deficiency triggers an autoimmune syndrome with characteristics similar to systemic sclerosis, including skin fibrosis, vascular alterations, and systemic organ involvement. These results suggest that PSGL-1 expression contributes to the maintenance of the homeostasis of the immune system and could act as a barrier for autoimmunity in mice. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  5. Effect of incubation time, buffer type and concentration on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA production using Khao Dawk Mali 105 rice bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apinya Eamarjharn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran of Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML105 variety was selected for production of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA. The effect of incubation time on GABA production was studied and the maximum GABA was produced after 6 h of incubation. Different types of 50 mM buffers (containing 0.2% glutamic acid consisting of Tris, citric acid, boric acid and phosphate buffer (pH 5.6 were used to stabilize the pH of the reaction system. The highest GABA content (5.05 mg/g of bran was found in the phosphate buffer system. Therefore, the effect of phosphate buffer concentrations (0–200 mM on GABA production was investigated. The results showed that rice bran with phosphate buffer at a concentration of 80 mM at pH 5.6 with a rice bran to phosphate buffer at a ratio of 1–8 (weight per volume produced the highest GABA content (p ≤ 0.05. GABA production was increased about 2.7 times in the phosphate buffer system compared with the control and about 11 times compared to the initial GABA content (0.58 mg/g of bran in the rice bran. The results indicated that incubation time, buffer type and concentration significantly affect GABA production using rice bran.

  6. HuEP5C7 as a humanized monoclonal anti-E/P-selectin neurovascular protective strategy in a blinded placebo-controlled trial of nonhuman primate stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocco, J; Choudhri, Tanvir; Huang, Judy; Harfeldt, Elisabeth; Efros, Lyubov; Klingbeil, Corine; Vexler, Vladimir; Hall, William; Zhang, Yuan; Mack, William; Popilskis, Sulli; Pinsky, David J; Connolly, E Sander

    2002-11-15

    Although inhibiting interaction of beta(2) integrins with cognate immunoglobulin class adhesion receptor ligands is an effective neuroprotective strategy in small mammal models of stroke, the strategy has failed in human trials. A completely different antiadhesion receptor strategy was therefore rigorously tested in a model that may more closely approximate human reperfused stroke. Early leukoadhesive events in postischemic cerebral microvessels are mediated by upregulated selectin-class adhesion receptors on endothelial cells. Therefore, a blocking antibody prepared against common P- and E-selectin epitopes was humanized to suppress complement activation and tested in a reperfused hemispheric stroke model in Papio anubis (baboon). Histological examination of postischemic cerebral microvessels revealed a strong upregulation of E-and P-selectin expression. Placebo-blinded administration of the humanized anti-human E- and P-selectin monoclonal antibody (HuEP5C7, 20 mg/kg IV, n=9; placebo, n=9) immediately after the onset of 1 hour of temporary ischemia resulted in trends showing reduced polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) infiltration into ischemic cortex, reduced infarct volumes (by 41%), improved neurological score (by 35%), and improved ability to self-care (by 39%). Importantly, there was no evidence of systemic complement activation, immune suppression, or pathological coagulopathy associated with this therapy. These data suggest that a humanized anti-E/P-selectin antibody approach is safe and may be effective as a clinical treatment for human stroke.

  7. Hyperspectral microscopy can detect metabolic heterogeneity within bovine post-compaction embryos incubated under two oxygen concentrations (7% versus 20%).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton-McDowall, Melanie L; Gosnell, Martin; Anwer, Ayad G; White, Melissa; Purdey, Malcolm; Abell, Andrew D; Goldys, Ewa M; Thompson, Jeremy G

    2017-10-01

    Can we separate embryos cultured under either 7% or 20% oxygen atmospheres by measuring their metabolic heterogeneity? Metabolic heterogeneity and changes in metabolic profiles in morula exposed to two different oxygen concentrations were not detectable using traditional fluorophore and two-channel autofluorescence but were detectable using hyperspectral microscopy. Increased genetic and morphological blastomere heterogeneity is associated with compromised developmental competence of embryos and currently forms the basis for embryo scoring within the clinic. However, there remains uncertainty over the accuracy of current techniques, such as PGS and time-lapse microscopy, to predict subsequent pregnancy establishment. The impact of two oxygen concentrations (7% = optimal and 20% = stressed) during post-fertilisation embryo culture was assessed. Cattle embryos were exposed to the different oxygen concentrations for 8 days (D8; embryo developmental competence) or 5 days (D5; metabolism measurements). Between 3 and 4 experimental replicates were performed, with 40-50 embryos per replicate used for the developmental competency experiment, 10-20 embryos per replicate for the fluorophore and two-channel autofluorescence experiments and a total of 21-22 embryos used for the hyperspectral microscopy study. In-vitro produced (IVP) cattle embryos were utilised for this study. Post-fertilisation, embryos were exposed to 7% or 20% oxygen. To determine impact of oxygen concentrations on embryo viability, blastocyst development was assessed on D8. On D5, metabolic heterogeneity was assessed in morula (on-time) embryos using fluorophores probes (active mitochondria, hydrogen peroxide and reduced glutathione), two-channel autofluorescence (FAD and NAD(P)H) and 18-channel hyperspectral microscopy. Exposure to 20% oxygen following fertilisation significantly reduced total blastocyst, expanded and hatched blastocyst rates by 1.4-, 1.9- and 2.8-fold, respectively, compared to 7% oxygen

  8. Agent-based model of therapeutic adipose-derived stromal cell trafficking during ischemia predicts ability to roll on P-selectin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Bailey

    2009-02-01

    , or CD65. In vitro experiments confirmed this prediction; a subpopulation of hASCs slowly rolled on immobilized P-selectin at speeds as low as 2 microm/s. Thus, our work led to a fundamentally new understanding of hASC biology, which may have important therapeutic implications.

  9. Agent-based model of therapeutic adipose-derived stromal cell trafficking during ischemia predicts ability to roll on P-selectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Alexander M; Lawrence, Michael B; Shang, Hulan; Katz, Adam J; Peirce, Shayn M

    2009-02-01

    vitro experiments confirmed this prediction; a subpopulation of hASCs slowly rolled on immobilized P-selectin at speeds as low as 2 microm/s. Thus, our work led to a fundamentally new understanding of hASC biology, which may have important therapeutic implications.

  10. Description of Aspergillus flavus growth under the influence of different factors (water activity, incubation temperature, protein and fat concentration, pH, and cinnamon essential oil concentration) by kinetic, probability of growth, and time-to-detection models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosegarten, Carlos E; Ramírez-Corona, Nelly; Mani-López, Emma; Palou, Enrique; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2017-01-02

    A Box-Behnken design was used to determine the effect of protein concentration (0, 5, or 10g of casein/100g), fat (0, 3, or 6g of corn oil/100g), aw (0.900, 0.945, or 0.990), pH (3.5, 5.0, or 6.5), concentration of cinnamon essential oil (CEO, 0, 200, or 400μL/kg) and incubation temperature (15, 25, or 35°C) on the growth of Aspergillus flavus during 50days of incubation. Mold response under the evaluated conditions was modeled by the modified Gompertz equation, logistic regression, and time-to-detection model. The obtained polynomial regression models allow the significant coefficients (p0.967) the studied mold responses. After 50days of incubation, every tested model system was classified according to the observed response as 1 (growth) or 0 (no growth), then a binary logistic regression was utilized to model A. flavus growth interface, allowing to predict the probability of mold growth under selected combinations of tested factors. The time-to-detection model was utilized to estimate the time at which A. flavus visible growth begins. Water activity, temperature, and CEO concentration were the most important factors affecting fungal growth. It was observed that there is a range of possible combinations that may induce growth, such that incubation conditions and the amount of essential oil necessary for fungal growth inhibition strongly depend on protein and fat concentrations as well as on the pH of studied model systems. The probabilistic model and the time-to-detection models constitute another option to determine appropriate storage/processing conditions and accurately predict the probability and/or the time at which A. flavus growth occurs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of procedures for detaching particle-associated microbes from forage and concentrate incubated in Rusitec fermenters: efficiency of recovery and representativeness of microbial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M E; Ranilla, M J; Ramos, S; Tejido, M L; Saro, C; Carro, M D

    2009-06-01

    Three detachment procedures (DP) were evaluated for their ability to remove particle-associated microbes from digesta in Rusitec fermenters fed a 30:70 alfalfa hay:concentrate diet. Forage and concentrate were incubated in separate nylon bags, and incubation residues were treated independently. Microbial biomass was labeled with (15)NH(4)Cl. Treatments were 1) MET: residues were incubated at 38 degrees C for 15 min with saline solution (0.9% NaCl) containing 0.1% methylcellulose with continuous shaking; 2) STO: residues were mixed with cold saline solution and homogenized with a stomacher for 5 min at 230 revolutions per min; and 3) FRE: residues were immediately frozen at -20 degrees C for 72 h, thawed at 4 degrees C, mixed with saline solution, and subjected to STO procedure. Common to all treatments was storing at 4 degrees C for 24 h after the treatment, homogenization, filtration, and resuspension of residues 2 times in the treatment solutions. Microbial pellets were obtained by centrifugation, and microbial removal was estimated indirectly by measuring removal of (15)N. The PCR-single-stranded conformation polymorphism analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA was used to analyze the similarity between microbial communities attached to the substrate and those in the pellet obtained after each DP. There were no feed x DP interactions (P = 0.16 to 0.96) for any variable, except for N content in microbial pellets (P = 0.02). Detaching efficiency (P = 0.004) and total recovery (P = 0.01) were affected by DP, with STO showing the greatest values (mean values across substrates of 64.1% for detaching efficiency and 58.3% for total recovery) and MET the least values (57.0 and 51.8%). Similarity index between the microbes attached to substrates and those in the pellets were affected (P = 0.02) by DP, with MET showing greater (P microbial communities attached to the substrates and therefore could be considered the most appropriate DP method for treating digesta from Rusitec

  12. Selected immunological changes in patients with Goeckerman's therapy TNF-alpha, sE-selectin, sP-selectin, sICAM-1 and IL-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borska, L.; Fiala, Z.; Krejsek, J.; Andrys, C.; Vokurkova, D.; Hamakova, K.; Kremlacek, J.; Ettler, K. [Charles University, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic). Faculty of Medicine

    2006-07-01

    Psoriasis is one of the most frequent inflammatory skin diseases in which abnormal individual immune reactivity plays an important role. The aim of the present study was to describe selected immunological changes, concerning pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-8) and adhesion molecules (sE-selectin, sP-selectin, sICAM-1), in 56 patients cured by Goeckerman's therapy (GT). GT includes dermal application of crude coal tar (containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and exposure to UV radiation.

  13. Associations of combined polymorphisms of the platelet membrane glycoproteins Ia and IIIa and the platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 and P-Selectin genes with IVF implantation failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachadis, Nikolaos; Tsamadias, Vasileios; Vrachnis, Nikolaos; Kaparos, Georgios; Vitoratos, Nikolaos; Kouskouni, Evaggelia; Economou, Emmanuel

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the combined impact of the genetic heterogeneity of the glycoproteins Ia (GpIa) and IIIa (GpIIIa) and the platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) and P-Selectin genes on IVF embryo transfer implantation failures (IVF-ET failures). Sixty nulligravida women with previous IVF-ET failures and 60 fertile controls were genotyped for the GpIa-C807T, GpIIIa-PlA1/PA2, PECAM-1-C373G (Leu125Val) and P-Selectin-A37674C (Thr715Pro) polymorphisms by pyrosequencing. Compared with wild-type combined homozygotes, carriers of combinations of risk alleles in two gene loci were at significantly increased risk for IVF-ET failure, whereas carriers of the combination of GpIa-807T, GpIIIa-PlA2 and PECAM-1-373G alleles had OR = 52.50 (95%CI: 4.05-680.95, p IVF-ET failures especially for younger women and provided a genetic risk score with good diagnostic accuracy in the prediction of IVF-ET failures.

  14. Effects of pre-incubation of eggs in fresh water and varying sperm concentration on fertilization rate in sterlet sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Mohammad Abdul Momin; Butts, Ian Anthony Ernest; Psenicka, Martin; Linhart, Otomar

    2015-08-01

    Standardization of fertilization protocols for sterlet Acipenser ruthenus is crucial for improving reproductive techniques and for conservation purposes. Our objectives were to determine the number of sperm (tested 430,000:1, 43,000:1, 4300:1, 430:1 sperm to egg) required to fertilize eggs and explore how pre-incubation of eggs in freshwater for 0min, 0.5min, 1min, and 10min interacts with different sperm ratios. Fertilization success ranged from 29.7% at 430:1 to 84.2% at 430,000:1. Pre-incubation time had no effect on fertilization success at 430,000:1 and 43,000:1 sperm to egg ratios, while it was significant at the 4300:1 and 430:1 ratios. The use of adequate experimental suboptimal sperm to egg ratio revealed a positive effect of pre-incubation time, such that at the 430:1 ratio, 0.5min pre-incubation increased the fertilization rate than 10min. At 0min pre-incubation the proportion of fertilized eggs increased at the 430,000:1 ratio, while at 1min fertilization increased at the 4300:1 ratio. At the 10min pre-incubation time, fertilization increased at the 43,000:1 ratio. Moreover, at the 0.5min pre-incubation time, the 43,000:1 ratio increased the fertilization rate than the 430:1 ratio. Generally, for 430:1 ratio, the fertilization rate is lower than in control. Transmission electron microscopy showed that pre-incubation of eggs in water for reaction or the formation of a perivitelline space. Results suggest that with a low sperm to egg ratio 0.5 to 1min pre-incubation of eggs in freshwater prior to fertilization can enhance fertilization rate of sterlet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of pre-incubation of eggs in fresh water and varying sperm concentration on fertilization rate in sterlet sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siddique, Mohammad Abdul Momin; Butts, Ian; Psěnička, Martin

    2015-01-01

    , while it was significant at the 4300:1 and 430:1 ratios. The use of adequate experimental suboptimal sperm to egg ratio revealed a positive effect of pre-incubation time, such that at the 430:1 ratio, 0.5. min pre-incubation increased the fertilization rate than 10. min. At 0. min pre...... than the 430:1 ratio. Generally, for 430:1 ratio, the fertilization rate is lower than in control. Transmission electron microscopy showed that pre-incubation of eggs in water for reaction or the formation of a perivitelline space. Results suggest that with a low...... and explore how pre-incubation of eggs in freshwater for 0. min, 0.5. min, 1. min, and 10. min interacts with different sperm ratios. Fertilization success ranged from 29.7% at 430:1 to 84.2% at 430,000:1. Pre-incubation time had no effect on fertilization success at 430,000:1 and 43,000:1 sperm to egg ratios...

  16. A flow cytometric assay of platelet activation marker P-selectin (CD62P) distinguishes heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) from HIT with thrombosis (HITT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jy, W; Mao, W W; Horstman, L L; Valant, P A; Ahn, Y S

    1999-10-01

    Heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a well-known complication of heparin administration but usually resolves upon discontinuation without sequelae. However, a small proportion of HIT patients develop thrombosis associated with HIT, designated as HITT, which is often life-threatening and may lead to gangrene and amputations. Existing laboratory methods of confirming HIT/HITT do not distinguish between HIT and HITT. We report a flow cytometric assay of platelet activation marker CD62P to distinguish the effects of addition of HIT vs. HITT plasma to normal blood. Briefly, normal whole blood was incubated with platelet-poor plasma from 12 patients with HITT, 30 with HIT, and 65 controls, in presence and absence of heparin, and expression of CD62P was assayed by flow cytometry. When the ratios of fluorescent intensity of CD62P with heparin divided by that without heparin were compared, HITT plasma induced significantly higher ratios than HIT plasma (HITT ratios approximately 2.5 vs. HIT ratios approximately 1.2; p HITT patients were positive by this test but only 5 of 30 HIT patients were positive (p HITT from HIT and may be clinically useful in the detection of HITT, allowing early intervention for preventing catastrophic thrombosis.

  17. Changes of plasma growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors-I, thyroid hormones, and testosterone concentrations in embryos and broiler chickens incubated under monochromatic green light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that monochromatic green light stimuli during embryogenesis accelerated posthatch body weight and pectoral muscle growth of broilers. In this experiment, we further investigated whether the regulation of broiler embryonic or posthatch growth by green light stimulus during incubation is associated with the changes of some important hormones at different ages of embryos and broiler chickens. Fertile broiler eggs (Arbor Acres, n=880 were pre-weighed and randomly assigned 1 of 2 incubation treatment groups: i dark condition (control group, and ii monochromatic green light group (560 nm. The monochromatic lighting systems sourced from light-emitting diode lamps were equalised at the intensity of 15 lux (lx at eggshell level. The dark condition was set as a commercial control from day one until hatching. After hatch, 120 day-old male chicks from each group were housed under white light with an intensity of 30 lx at bird-head level. Compared with the dark condition, chicks incubated under the green light showed significantly higher growth hormone (GH levels from 19 d of embryogenesis (E19 to 5 d of posthatch (H5, and higher plasma insulinlike growth factor (IGF-I levels from both E17 to E19 and H3 to H35. No significant differences were found in plasma thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and testosterone in embryos or hatched birds between the 2 groups. These results indicate that somatotropic axis hormones (GH and IGF-I may be the most important contributor to chicken growth promoted by green light stimuli during embryogenesis.

  18. Immunologic changes in TNF-alpha, sE-selectin, sP-selectin, sICAM-1, and IL-8 in pediatric patients treated for psoriasis with the Goeckerman regimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borska, L.; Fiala, Z.; Krejsek, J.; Andrys, C.; Vokurkova, D.; Hamakova, K.; Kremlacek, J.; Ettler, K. [Charles University of Prague, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic). Faculty of Medicine

    2007-11-15

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease which is often manifested during childhood. The present study investigated changes in the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and soluble forms of adhesion molecules in children with psoriasis. The observed patient group of 26 children was treated with the Goeckerman regimen. This therapy combines dermal application of crude coal tar with ultraviolet radiation. The Psoriasis Area Severity Index decreased significantly after treatment by with the Goeckerman regimen (p < 0.001). Serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha and adhesion molecules sICAM-1, sP-selectin and sE-selectin decreased after the Goeckerman regimen. The TNF-alpha and sICAM-1 decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Our findings support the complex role of these immune parameters in the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis in children. The serum level of IL-8 increased after the Goeckerman regimen. This fact indicates that the chemokine pathway of IL-8 activity could be modulated by this treatment, most likely by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  19. Night Heron Incubation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Parental incubation behavior largely influences nest survival, a critical demographic process in avian population dynamics, and behaviors vary across species with...

  20. Integrating education and incubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée; Riis, Nina Louise Fynbo

    on the integration of extracurricular activities with formal credit awarding activities. In a Danish context, such integration has become increasingly important due to recent political reforms aimed at shortening the time it takes students to graduate in order to reduce national higher education expenditures......During the last decade student business incubation activities have become mainstream activities in Western universities. This is also the case in Danish higher education where all universities have established in-house student incubators. The models applied are different and place varied emphasis....... On this backdrop, this paper explores the following questions: • How and to what extent do university student incubators collaborate with formal study programmes? • And which factors influence this integration of curricular and extracurricular activities?...

  1. Biotinylation of biotinidase following incubation with biocytin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymes, J; Fleischhauer, K; Wolf, B

    1995-01-16

    Human serum biotinidase, purified to homogeneity (1920 units/mg protein), was incubated with biocytin prior to electrophoresis and transblotting with avidin-peroxidase. Avidin reacted with biotinidase maximally when incubated at pH 7.5-9, less at pH 7 and none below pH 7. No avidin reactivity occurred when biotinidase was incubated with biotin or in the absence of biocytin. Inclusion of the nucleophilic acceptors, ethanolamine or hydroxylamine, to the incubation mixture with biocytin and biotinidase resulted in loss of avidin reactivity. High concentrations of mercaptoethanol also prevented avidin reactivity. These results suggest that biotinidase can be biotinylated in the presence of biocytin at neutral to alkaline pH probably through a thioester bond formed with a cysteine residue in the active site of the enzyme. Biotinidase may then function as a biotinylating enzyme when incubated with appropriate nucleophilic acceptors.

  2. Incubation Center 306

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Robert; Olson, Barrie

    2017-01-01

    English 306, per the University of Louisville (U of L) English department course description, is "designed for advanced Business students and Arts and Sciences students anticipating careers in law, business, or government" and "concentrates on writing in a variety of forms of business discourse [and] emphasizes practicing writing…

  3. Efeito de concentração espermática e período de incubação oócitoespermatozóides na fecundação in vitro em bovinos da raça Gir Effect of sperm concentration and incubation period of oocytespermatozoa on in vitro fertilization in the Gir breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Sérgio de Almeida Camargo

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de concentrações espermáticas e períodos de incubação na fecundação in vitro com sêmen de touros Gir (Bos indicus. Oócitos maturados in vitro foram fecundados com sêmen de dois touros, nas concentrações de 1, 2 ou 4x10(6 espermatozóides/mL, por 12 ou 18 horas, e avaliada a taxa de fecundação e polispermia. Posteriormente, foi avaliada a taxa de clivagem com 72 horas e de blastocisto no oitavo dia pósfecundação. Um segundo experimento verificou o efeito de 1, 2 e 4x10(6 espermatozóides/mL por 18 horas, utilizando sêmen de três touros separadamente, bem como o efeito de 12 e 18 horas de incubação, na concentração de 1 a 2x10(6 espermatozóides/mL. Observou-se maior (PThis research evaluated the effect of sperm concentrations and incubation periods among oocytespermatozoa on in vitro fertilization with semen of Gir bulls (Bos indicus. In vitro matured oocytes were fertilized with sperm of two bulls, on concentrations of 1, 2 or 4x10(6 spermatozoa/mL during 12 or 18 hours of incubation, and evaluated the fertilization and polyspermy rate as well as cleavage on 72 hours and blastocyst on eighth day postfertilization. A second experiment evaluated the effect of concentrations of 1, 2 or 4x10(6 spermatozoa/mL for 18 hours using sperm of three bulls individually, as well as the effect of 12 and 18 hours of incubation in a concentration of 1 to 2x10(6 spermatozoa/mL. It was observed an increase (P<0.05 on polyspermy when the concentration was 4x10(6 spermatozoa/mL and that the association of this concentration with 18 hours increased (P<0.05 cleavage rate. The second experiment verified that the increase of incubation period improved (P<0.05 cleavage rate of one bull, and that when compared among themselves the bulls sperm resulted in different (P<0.05 cleavage and blastocyst rate in the same concentration or incubation period. The results showed that polyspermy is the main effect of sperm concentration

  4. BUSINESS INCUBATORS AND SUSTAINABLE INNOVATION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schebesch Klaus Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Innovative businesses are often the result of collective action of organisations involved in many-sided market structures, which can be found in and around business incubators or technology centres...

  5. Effect of oxadiazon on Clarias Grariepinus: I incubation period and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) on incubation period and hatching success of Clarias gariepinus was investigated. At the concentration of 1800ug/I applied under field conditions, the incubation period was not significantly affected (p>0.05) while the number eggs hatched ...

  6. The incubation period of kuru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huillard d'Aignaux, Jérôme N; Cousens, Simon N; Maccario, Jean; Costagliola, Dominique; Alpers, Michael P; Smith, Peter G; Alpérovitch, Annick

    2002-07-01

    Kuru is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that was identified in Papua New Guinea in the late 1950s. Several thousand cases of the disease occurred during a period of several decades. Epidemiologic investigations implicated ritual endocannibalistic funeral feasts as the likely route through which the infectious agent was spread. We estimated the incubation period distribution of kuru using a back-calculation model and explored the relation among sex, age at infection, and incubation period. Key assumptions in the model were that the number of new kuru infections in a year was proportional to the number of kuru cases dying that year, and that the epidemic arose from a single case of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease occurring around 1900. The mean incubation period of kuru was estimated at between 10.3 and 13.2 years. Point estimates of the 90th percentile ranged from 21.1 to 27.0 years. The incubation period in females was estimated to be shorter than that in males. The shortest incubation periods were estimated in adult women, who may have been exposed to the largest doses of infectious material. Our findings suggest that the relatively young age of cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease probably reflects increased levels of exposure in young people, rather than age-dependency in the incubation period.

  7. Flexible parental care: Uniparental incubation in biparentally incubating shorebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, Martin; Prüter, Hanna; Vitnerová, Hana; Tijsen, Wim; Sládeček, Martin; Alves, José A; Gilg, Olivier; Kempenaers, Bart

    2017-10-16

    The relative investment of females and males into parental care might depend on the population's adult sex-ratio. For example, all else being equal, males should be the more caring sex if the sex-ratio is male biased. Whether such outcomes are evolutionary fixed (i.e. related to the species' typical sex-ratio) or whether they arise through flexible responses of individuals to the current population sex-ratio remains unclear. Nevertheless, a flexible response might be limited by the evolutionary history of the species, because one sex may have lost the ability to care or because a single parent cannot successfully raise the brood. Here, we demonstrate that after the disappearance of one parent, individuals from 8 out of 15 biparentally incubating shorebird species were able to incubate uniparentally for 1-19 days (median = 3, N = 69). Moreover, their daily incubation rhythm often resembled that of obligatory uniparental shorebird species. Although it has been suggested that in some biparental shorebirds females desert their brood after hatching, we found both sexes incubating uniparentally. Strikingly, in 27% of uniparentally incubated clutches - from 5 species - we documented successful hatching. Our data thus reveal the potential for a flexible switch from biparental to uniparental care.

  8. Poultry Egg Incubation: Integrating and Optimizing Production Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IC Boleli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Due to its central position in the production chain, in-ovo development is influenced by pre-incubation factors that affect the quality of embryonated eggs and incubation conditions themselves, and both may influence egg hatchability and chick quality, as well as bird survival, growth performance, and phenotype in the field. The evolution of the incubation process over the years is characterized by significant scientific and technological development. Presently, the main current focuses of research are the manipulation of thermal incubation conditions, eggshell temperature, and the integrated effects of factors that influence incubation. In this context, one of the questions that needs to be asked is how effective are the current physical conditions of incubation to promote greater hatchability and better quality chicks, and higher survival and better performance in the field under adverse conditions or not. What are the new and future prospects for incubation? The purpose of this paper was to review the role of the physical agents of incubation, such as temperature, relative humidity, O2 and CO2 concentration, and egg turning and position from an integrated perspective, considering egg incubation as the transitional link between egg and poultry production.

  9. BUSINESS INCUBATORS AND SUSTAINABLE INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schebesch Klaus Bruno

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Innovative businesses are often the result of collective action of organisations involved in many-sided market structures, which can be found in and around business incubators or technology centres. Within such frame environments, many group interests beyond those of single producers and their immediate clients exist and interfere. Rather generically, important economic outcomes of innovations are sequences of cost reduction events at the level of economic sectors, where the nature of (sector-wise technology is influencing the pace of these events. At the conceptual level, we describe the social learning and social innovation process which leads to sustainable innovation by means of the influence exerted by firms on each other within constrained environments such as business incubators. These environments need not to be organized according to any sector logic. We propose that the influence exerted between firms is increasing in firm similarity, in the degree of product complementarity, and also to depend on (mutual trust relations. We note that, very much in symmetry with the role of sustainability in society as a whole, in the world of firms and markets, the incubation process may be viewed as a moderator, which attempts to overcome the disadvantages of highly paced, short-term oriented capitalist economies. In sections 2 and 3 a concept for representing the societal forces shaping sustainability and incubation for the innovating firm is described and ways of transforming the concept into concrete tools of assessment and valuation are pointed at.

  10. Business support within business incubators.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Arend J.

    2009-01-01

    Business incubators (BI) have been established worldwide as tools for company creation and small businesses support. BIs claim to help their tenants by providing them with the optimal conditions for increasing early stage survival. Practitioners and researchers agree that business support is a

  11. Diffusion of student business incubators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée; Honig, Benson; Riis, Nina Louise Fynbo

    involving experimentation, demonstration, and integration. Our study shows that universities’ responses changed over the period from initial coercive isomorphism and structural and functional decoupling of incubation from core activities towards a higher degree of integration, although still loosely coupled...... to the role of the contemporary university....

  12. Business support within business incubators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Arend J.

    2009-01-01

    Business incubators (BI) have been established worldwide as tools for company creation and small businesses support. BIs claim to help their tenants by providing them with the optimal conditions for increasing early stage survival. Practitioners and researchers agree that business support is a

  13. The evolution of business incubators: comparing demand and supply of business incubation services across different incubator generations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruneel, J.; Ratinho, Tiago; Clarysse, B.; Groen, Arend J.

    2012-01-01

    Business incubators (BIs) have been established around the world to stimulate new business creation. Whilst it is accepted that incubation models have evolved, little is known about whether existing incubators have adjusted their value proposition to incorporate recent incubation paradigms or have

  14. Saraniyadhamma Community knowledge Incubator area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripong Arundechachai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to 1 study the situation of the community knowledge incubator area at the past to the present time in Banhad,Tambon banhad, Amphoe banhad Changwat KhonKaen, 2 study guidelines Buddhadhamma “Saraniyadhamma” revised by Community knowledge application Banhad, Tambon banhad, Amphoe banhad Changwat KhonKaen, 3 study workflow of Saraniyadhamma that led to the creation of the network community knowledge incubator area together with another community. The target groups used in this research of the purposive sampling family farmers of 10, in Tambon banhad,Amphoe banhad Changwat KhonKaen. the Qualitative research.was used in this Study The results showed that 1 diversing issues in the Community live action of the relationships or occupations experience can be passed down, as well as the risk of loss the relationships between the people and people, people and supernatural. After people and nature lost in the community, but thay Continue to Perform, because community has strengths given the importance of all, to themselves, to others, generous, generosity, mounting traditions, Led to the creation Community Knowledge Incubator 2 adopting Buddhism’s “Saraniyadhamma 6” that applied to community Knowledge Incubator by giving to make immunity community. Strong The six fetures, were Principle 1: Metta-kayakamma, feature on sacrifiction, unity and synergy. Principle 2: Metta-manokamma, feature on mercifulness, collective sacrification. Principle 3: Metta-kayakamma, feature on good things, speak well, good action. Principle 4: Sadharana-bhogi, feature on humane society, mutual respect. Principle 5 Sila-samannata, feature on, follow the rules of society. Principle 5 Metta-manokamma feature on rationality, listening to the opinion of others. It found that there were process-driven learning and following six rules of saraniyadhamma, and immunity system, risk Decoupled. 3 Networks Saraniyadhamma learnt together with other

  15. What determines a successful business incubator?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Sophia; Brem, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    these results in a generic business incubation process model, which is elaborated in a pre-, main- and after-incubation phase. Finally, we introduce an incubator guide, which is summarizing the key areas into a questionnaire. Hence, on the one hand, we foster future research on business incubation with our......Business incubators have become an important pillar in the attraction and the support of innovation and entrepreneurship – in practice, and to a greater extent in theory as well. Based on earlier research, we give an overview of business incubator literature between 2001 and 2013. We review...

  16. Technology Business Incubators as Engines of Growth: Towards a distinction between Technology Incubators and Non-Technology Incubators.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Arend J.

    2009-01-01

    Business incubators are an increasingly popular tool for promoting job and wealth creation. Yet given the heterogeneity of incubation models, it is not always clear how incubators operate, what their main characteristics are and how can they best contribute to job and wealth creation. If technology

  17. Technology business incubators as engines of growth: towards a distinction between technology incubators and non-technology incubators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Arend J.; Langan Fox, Janice

    2010-01-01

    Business incubators are an increasingly popular tool for promoting job and wealth creation. Yet given the heterogeneity of incubation models, it is not always clear how incubators operate, what their main characteristics are and how can they best contribute to job and wealth creation. If technology

  18. Micro-incubator for bacterial biosensing applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Clasen, E

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available and COMSOL Multiphysics simulations are included in order to give insight on micro-incubator temperature control. The design and characterization of this micro-incubator allows for further research in biosensing applications....

  19. Concentração espermática e tempo de incubação na fecundação in vitro usando-se sêmen de touros da raça Guzerá Sperm concentration and incubation period on in vitro fecundation using sperm of Guzera bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P.B. Dias

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da concentração espermática e período de incubação e da interação dessas características sobre a fecundação in vitro (FIV usando-se sêmen de touros Guzerá. Oócitos (n=1146 maturados in vitro foram divididos em tratamentos objetivando a FIV, em esquema fatorial 3×2×2 (três touros - A, B e C, duas concentrações espermáticas - 2 e 4×10(6 espermatozóides/ml e dois tempos de incubação 12 e 18 horas. Utilizaram-se espermatozóides viáveis obtidos por swin-up. A FIV foi realizada em meio fert-talp com heparina, em incubadora com 5% de CO2 e 95% de umidade, a 38,5°C. Após incubação, 50% dos oócitos foram fixados e corados para determinação das taxas de penetração, fecundação monoespermática e poliespermia. O restante foi co-cultivado com células da granulosa em meio CR2aa por oito dias, avaliando-se a taxa de clivagem e a produção de blastocisto. Houve maior taxa de penetração (P0,05 entre os demais tratamentos. A taxa de poliespermia foi maior (PThe effects of sperm concentration, incubation period and their interaction on in vitro fertilization (IVF using sperm of Guzera bulls were evaluated. In vitro matured oocytes (n=1146 were allotted to IVF treatments in a factorial scheme 3×2×2 - three bulls (A, B and C, two sperm concentrations (2 and 4×10(6 spermatozoa/ml and two incubation periods (12 and 18h. Viable spermatozoa were obtained by swim-up. The IVF was performed using in Fert-Talp medium with heparin, on incubator with 5% CO2 and 95% humidity, at 38.5ºC. After the incubation, 50% of oocytes were fixed and stained to determine penetration, monospermic fecundation and polyspermy rates. The remainder was co-cultured with granulosa cells in CR2 medium for eight days to evaluate cleavage and embryo production rates. The penetration rate was higher (P0.05 among remainder treatments were observed. The polyspermic rate (P<0.05 was higher for higher sperm concentration and incubation

  20. Southwest Regional Clean Energy Incubation Initiative (SRCEII)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Michael [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2017-10-31

    The Austin Technology Incubator’s (ATI’s) Clean Energy Incubator at the University of Texas at Austin (ATI-CEI) utilized the National Incubator Initiative for Clean Energy (NIICE) funding to establish the Southwest Regional Clean Energy Incubation Initiative, composed of clean energy incubators from The University of Texas at Austin (UT-Austin), The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP), The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), and Texas A&M University (TAMU).

  1. The Upgrade to Hybrid Incubators in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Gao, Yuchen

    countries and emerging economics. Based on a single in-depth case-study of Tuspark Incubator, this study explores key factors and specific ways for the upgrade to hybrid incubators in the context of China. By using categorical analysis, three factors, i.e. incubation subdivision, intermediary platform......, and proactive approach, are found to be essential for a formerly government-sponsored TBI’s upgrading. The result of this study also provides new insights and several implications for incubator managers and policy makers in emerging economies. In addition, whether the key factors can be used in upgrade of other...... TBIs in China requires further study....

  2. The business incubator in a network perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøllingtoft, Anne; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2003-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of a new incubator model, the "networked incubator", which is a hybrid form of the archetypal business incubators, based on territorial synergy, relational symbiosis and economices of scale, to the benefit of the participating 'incubatees'. The question...... addressed in this paper is why this new model has emerged and what distinguishes it from the more traditional incubator model. The theoretical basis of the research is social capital theory. Empirically, the paper is based on 6 months' ethnographic data collected in one of the first known networked...

  3. Incubation of Chile's 1960 Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, B. F.; Cisternas, M.; Salgado, I.; Machuca, G.; Lagos, M.; Eipert, A.; Shishikura, M.

    2003-12-01

    Infrequent occurrence of giant events may help explain how the 1960 Chile earthquake attained M 9.5. Although old documents imply that this earthquake followed great earthquakes of 1575, 1737 and 1837, only three earthquakes of the past 1000 years produced geologic records like those for 1960. These earlier earthquakes include the 1575 event but not 1737 or 1837. Because the 1960 earthquake had nearly twice the seismic slip expected from plate convergence since 1837, much of the strain released in 1960 may have been accumulating since 1575. Geologic evidence for such incubation comes from new paleoseismic findings at the R¡o Maullin estuary, which indents the Pacific coast at 41.5§ S midway along the 1960 rupture. The 1960 earthquake lowered the area by 1.5 m, and the ensuing tsunami spread sand across lowland soils. The subsidence killed forests and changed pastures into sandy tidal flats. Guided by these 1960 analogs, we inferred tsunami and earthquake history from sand sheets, tree rings, and old maps. At Chuyaquen, 10 km upriver from the sea, we studied sand sheets in 31 backhoe pits on a geologic transect 1 km long. Each sheet overlies the buried soil of a former marsh or meadow. The sand sheet from 1960 extends the entire length of the transect. Three earlier sheets can be correlated at least half that far. The oldest one, probably a tsunami deposit, surrounds herbaceous plants that date to AD 990-1160. Next comes a sandy tidal-flat deposit dated by stratigraphic position to about 1000-1500. The penultimate sheet is a tsunami deposit younger than twigs from 1410-1630. It probably represents the 1575 earthquake, whose accounts of shaking, tsunami, and landslides rival those of 1960. In that case, the record excludes the 1737 and 1837 events. The 1737 and 1837 events also appear missing in tree-ring evidence from islands of Misquihue, 30 km upriver from the sea. Here the subsidence in 1960 admitted brackish tidal water that defoliated tens of thousands of

  4. Indirect calorimetry during incubation of hatching eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Kemp, B.

    2015-01-01

    Indirect calorimetry can be used during incubation of avian eggs to monitor the quality of the incubation process, the development of the embryo and the utilization of nutrients. Indirect calorimetry has several benefits above direct calorimetry, particularly in hatching eggs. However, to obtain

  5. Estimated Incubation Period for Zika Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krow-Lucal, Elisabeth R; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Staples, J Erin

    2017-05-01

    Information about the Zika virus disease incubation period can help identify risk periods and local virus transmission. In 2015-2016, data from 197 symptomatic travelers with recent Zika virus infection indicated an estimated incubation period of 3-14 days. For symptomatic persons with symptoms >2 weeks after travel, transmission might be not travel associated.

  6. National Security Technology Incubator Evaluation Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-12-31

    This report describes the process by which the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) will be evaluated. The technology incubator is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes a brief description of the components, steps, and measures of the proposed evaluation process. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. An effective evaluation process of the NSTI is an important step as it can provide qualitative and quantitative information on incubator performance over a given period. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety and security. The mission of the NSTI is to identify, incubate, and accelerate technologies with national security applications at various stages of development by providing hands-on mentoring and business assistance to small businesses and emerging or growing companies. To achieve success for both incubator businesses and the NSTI program, an evaluation process is essential to effectively measure results and implement corrective processes in the incubation design if needed. The evaluation process design will collect and analyze qualitative and quantitative data through performance evaluation system.

  7. Understanding management practices in business incubators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Vincent; Thijssen, Sander; Pascucci, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Following the call for process-oriented research on business incubation processes, this paper investigates the process of business incubation (BI) via an understanding of management practices and interactions. Based on a comprehensive literature review and empirical evidence of management practices

  8. Micro and Small Enterprises Incubator - Phase III

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The goals of the Mozambique Information and Communication Technology Micro and Small Enterprises Incubator (MICTI Incubator) are twofold: to identify sustainable opportunities for technology-based businesses in priority development areas; and to test the assumption that technology-based businesses can mentor the ...

  9. Encapsulation of Aloe Vera and Its Effect During Yogur Incubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Adolfo Parra Huertas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The yogurt is milk derivative highly consumed around the world,as well as aloe vera. Both have reports tocontribute to human health. The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of the addition of capsules with aloe vera during the incubation of yogurt. Aloeverawas encapsulated in alginate at two different concentrations, 1% and 2%,addingthe capsules from the moment of incubation and comparing the effect of the addition of capsules withthe non-addition of them. For these samples were determined: pH, acidity, syneresis, lactic acid bacteria count, sensory evaluation and proximate analysis. The results indicated that for the three treatments pH values and acid behaved similarly to each characteristic of the yogurt during incubation. The lactic acid bacteria count indicated that treatment with capsules containing 2% sodium alginate had higher counts. Sensorially, three treatments had a favorable acceptability; proximate analysis had favorable values . In conclusion,the tests showed the viability of encapsulated aloe vera in the manufacture of yogurt during incubation time without being affected by the concentration of sodium alginate.

  10. Networked incubators. Hothouses of the new economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, M T; Chesbrough, H W; Nohria, N; Sull, D N

    2000-01-01

    Business incubators such as Hotbank, CMGI, and Idealab! are a booming industry. Offering office space, funding, and basic services to start-ups, these organizations have become the hottest way to nurture and grow fledgling businesses. But are incubators a fleeting phenomenon born of an overheated stock market, or are they an important and lasting way of creating value and wealth in the new economy? The authors argue that one type of incubator, called a networked incubator, represents a fundamentally new and enduring organizational model uniquely suited to growing businesses in the Internet economy. It shares certain features with other incubators--mainly, it fosters a spirit of entrepreneurship and offers economies of scale. But its key distinguishing feature is its ability to give start-ups preferential access to a network of potential partners. Such incubators institutionalize their networking--they have systems in place to encourage networking, helping start-ups, for example, to meet with potential business allies. That doesn't mean incubatees get preferential treatment; it means only that they have built-in access to partnerships that might not have existed without the incubator. Even with this advantage, however, networked incubators can easily follow the road to ruin. To avoid failure, they must create a portfolio of companies and advisers that their incubatees can leverage. That can be done by strategically investing in portfolio firms and by enlisting a large set of business allies. It can also be done by establishing connections and relationships that are anchored more to the incubator than to particular individuals.

  11. Neurobiology of the incubation of drug craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, Charles L; Airavaara, Mikko; Theberge, Florence; Fanous, Sanya; Hope, Bruce T; Shaham, Yavin

    2011-08-01

    It was suggested in 1986 that cue-induced drug craving in cocaine addicts progressively increases over the first several weeks of abstinence and remains high for extended periods. During the past decade, investigators have identified an analogous incubation phenomenon in rodents, in which time-dependent increases in cue-induced drug seeking are observed after withdrawal from intravenous cocaine self-administration. Such an incubation of drug craving is not specific to cocaine, as similar findings have been observed after self-administration of heroin, nicotine, methamphetamine and alcohol in rats. In this review, we discuss recent results that have identified important brain regions involved in the incubation of drug craving, as well as evidence for the underlying cellular mechanisms. Understanding the neurobiology of the incubation of drug craving in rodents is likely to have significant implications for furthering understanding of brain mechanisms and circuits that underlie craving and relapse in human addicts. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Night Heron Incubation Data will gulls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Parental incubation behavior largely influences nest survival, a critical demographic process in avian population dynamics, and behaviors vary across species with...

  13. Climate retainment in carbon dioxide incubators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuh Matthias B.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring optimal climate conditions during cultivation is essential for successful and reproducible cell culture based investigation. Being the gold standard, carbon dioxide incubators fulfill this demand in various geometries and sizes to suit diverse cultivation applications. A door opening results in a climate breakdown followed by a restoration period during which optimal conditions cannot be guaranteed. The following paper investigates the influence of incubator door design to optimize climate retainment during the above mentioned event.

  14. INCUBATORS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladin Stefanovic

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Business incubators aim to maximize the chances of success of start - up companies by creating a supportive environment. Typically, this involves offering management assistance, mentoring, access to financing, flexible and low - cost leases, office services, etc. There is large number of business incubators in the world. In this paper issues concerned status, development and overview of existing practice in the world will be presented as well as general issues and perspectives for developing countries.

  15. Concentração de lactato de cálcio e tempo de incubação sobre a capacidade de adesão e penetração de espermatozoides suínos na membrana perivitelina do ovo da galinha Calcium lactate concentration and incubation period on the binding and penetration capacity of swine sperm in the perivitelline membrane of chicken egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Dahl Corcini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo testou o efeito de diferentes concentrações de lactato de cálcio e tempos de incubação sobre a capacidade de adesão e a penetração dos espermatozoides suínos nas membranas perivitelinas (MP de ovos de galinhas, na expectativa de desenvolver um teste para estimar o potencial de fertilidade de machos doadores de sêmen. No primeiro experimento, amostras de sêmen (n=12 foram incubadas em meio TCM com lactato de cálcio a 1,1 e 2,2µg mL-1. Posteriormente, após definida a concentração de 1,1µg mL-1 de lactato de cálcio, um segundo experimento comparou três períodos de incubação a 39°C: 10, 15 e 20min. As respostas testadas foram: a taxa de adesão (TA e o número de espermatozoides aderidos (NA na MP externa, e a taxa de penetração (TP e o número de orifícios (NO na MP interna. A TA na MP externa foi de 100%, independentemente da concentração e dos períodos testados. Com a concentração de lactato de cálcio de 1,1µg mL-1, o NA na membrana perivitelina externa e TP e NO na membrana perivitelina interna foram superiores (PThis study tested the effect of different calcium lactate concentrations and incubation periods on the binding and penetration capacity of swine sperm to the perivitelline layers (PL of chicken eggs, with the expectation of developing a test to estimate the potential fertility of boars used as sperm donors. In the first experiment, semen samples (n=12 were incubated with TCM medium ant two calcium lactate levels: 1.1 and 2.2µg mL-1. After the set up of fixed calcium lactate level (1.1µg mL-1, the second experiment compared three incubation periods: 10, 15 and 20min. The observed variables were binding rate (BR and number of bound sperm (NB in the outer PL, and penetration rate (PR and number of holes (NH in the inner PL. The BR to the outer MP was 100%, regardless of the tested concentrations and incubation periods. The NB to the outer perivitelline layer and the PR and the NH in the inner

  16. National Security Technology Incubator Business Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-12-31

    This document contains a business plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI), developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) and performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This business plan describes key features of the NSTI, including the vision and mission, organizational structure and staffing, services, evaluation criteria, marketing strategies, client processes, a budget, incubator evaluation criteria, and a development schedule. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety, security, and protection of the homeland. The NSTI is operated and managed by the Arrowhead Center, responsible for leading the economic development mission of New Mexico State University (NMSU). The Arrowhead Center will recruit business with applications for national security technologies recruited for the NSTI program. The Arrowhead Center and its strategic partners will provide business incubation services, including hands-on mentoring in general business matters, marketing, proposal writing, management, accounting, and finance. Additionally, networking opportunities and technology development assistance will be provided.

  17. An MR-compatible neonatal incubator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, M N J; Hart, A R; Lait, M; Griffiths, P D

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To develop a neonatal MR-compatible incubator for transporting babies between a neonatal intensive care unit and an MRI unit that is within the same hospital but geographically separate. Methods The system was strapped to a standard MR-compatible patient trolley, which provides space for resuscitation outside the incubator. A constant-temperature exothermic heat pad was used to maintain temperature together with a logging fluoro-optic temperature monitor and alarm system. The system has been designed to accommodate standard knee-sized coils from the major MR manufacturers. The original incubator was constructed from carbon fibre, but this required modification to prevent radiofrequency shading artefacts due to the conducting properties of the carbon fibre. A high-tensile polyester material was used, which combined light weight with high impact strength. The system could be moved onto the patient bed with the coils and infant in place by one technologist. Results Studies in eight neonatal patients produced high quality 1.5 T MR images with low motion artefacts. The incubator should also be compatible with imaging in 3 T MR systems, although further work is required to establish this. Images were acquired using both rapid and high-resolution sequences, including three-dimensional volumes, proton spectra and diffusion weighting. Conclusion The incubator provides a safe, quiet environment for neonates during transport and imaging, at low cost. PMID:22167517

  18. A system for incubations at high gas partial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Patrick; Glombitza, Clemens; Kallmeyer, Jens

    2012-01-01

    High-pressure is a key feature of deep subsurface environments. High partial pressure of dissolved gasses plays an important role in microbial metabolism, because thermodynamic feasibility of many reactions depends on the concentration of reactants. For gases, this is controlled by their partial pressure, which can exceed 1 MPa at in situ conditions. Therefore, high hydrostatic pressure alone is not sufficient to recreate true deep subsurface in situ conditions, but the partial pressure of dissolved gasses has to be controlled as well. We developed an incubation system that allows for incubations at hydrostatic pressure up to 60 MPa, temperatures up to 120°C, and at high gas partial pressure. The composition and partial pressure of gasses can be manipulated during the experiment. To keep costs low, the system is mainly made from off-the-shelf components with only very few custom-made parts. A flexible and inert PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) incubator sleeve, which is almost impermeable for gases, holds the sample and separates it from the pressure fluid. The flexibility of the incubator sleeve allows for sub-sampling of the medium without loss of pressure. Experiments can be run in both static and flow-through mode. The incubation system described here is usable for versatile purposes, not only the incubation of microorganisms and determination of growth rates, but also for chemical degradation or extraction experiments under high gas saturation, e.g., fluid-gas-rock-interactions in relation to carbon dioxide sequestration. As an application of the system we extracted organic compounds from sub-bituminous coal using H(2)O as well as a H(2)O-CO(2) mixture at elevated temperature (90°C) and pressure (5 MPa). Subsamples were taken at different time points during the incubation and analyzed by ion chromatography. Furthermore we demonstrated the applicability of the system for studies of microbial activity, using samples from the Isis mud volcano. We could

  19. A system for incubations at high gas partial pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eSauer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure is a key feature of deep subsurface environments. High partial pressure of dissolved gasses plays an important role in microbial metabolism, because thermodynamic feasibility of many reactions depends on the concentration of reactants. For gases, this is controlled by their partial pressure, which can exceed one MPa at in-situ conditions. Therefore, high hydrostatic pressure alone is not sufficient to recreate true deep subsurface in-situ conditions, but the partial pressure of dissolved gasses has to be controlled as well.We developed an incubation system that allows for incubations at hydrostatic pressure up to 60 MPa, temperatures up to 120° C and at high gas partial pressure. The composition and partial pressure of gasses can be manipulated during the experiment. The system is mainly made from off-the-shelf components with only very few custom-made parts. A flexible and inert PVDF incubator sleeve, which is almost impermeable for gases, holds the sample and separates it from the pressure fluid. The flexibility of the incubator sleeve allows for sub-sampling of the medium without loss of pressure. Experiments can be run in both static and flow through mode. The incubation system described here is usable for versatile purposes, not only the incubation of microorganisms and determination of growth rates, but also for chemical degradation or extraction experiments under high gas saturation, e.g. fluid-gas-rock-interactions in relation to carbon dioxide sequestration.As an application of the system we extracted organic acids from sub-bituminous coal using H2O as well as a H2O-CO2 mixture at elevated temperature (90°C and pressure (5 MPa. Subsamples were taken during the incubation and analysed by ion chromatography. Furthermore we demonstrated the applicability of the system for studies of microbial activity, using samples from the Isis mud volcano. We could detect an increase in sulphate reduction rate upon the addition of

  20. National Security Technology Incubator Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-02-28

    This report documents the action plan for developing the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). This action plan serves as a tool in measuring progress in the development process and delivery of services for the NSTI program. Continuous review and evaluation of the action plan is necessary in the development process of the NSTI. The action plan includes detailed steps in developing the NSTI program based on recommended best practices in incubator development by the National Business Incubation Association (NBIA). Included are tasks required to implement the NSTI, developed within a work breakdown structure. In addition, a timeline is identified for each task.

  1. National Security Technology Incubator Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-04-30

    This report documents the operations plan for developing the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI program will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The NSTI program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The operation plan includes detailed descriptions of the structure and organization, policies and procedures, scope, tactics, and logistics involved in sustainable functioning of the NSTI program. Additionally, the operations plan will provide detailed descriptions of continuous quality assurance measures based on recommended best practices in incubator development by the National Business Incubation Association (NBIA). Forms that assist in operations of NSTI have been drafted and can be found as an attachment to the document.

  2. In ovo feeding of carbohydrates and incubated at a high incubation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    sajas.v42i3.2. In ovo feeding of carbohydrates and incubated at a high incubation temperature on hatchability and glycogen status of chicks. T.M. Shafey1#, M.A. Alodan1, I.M. Al-Ruqaie2 & M.A. Abouheif1. 1 Department of Animal Production, King ...

  3. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microbiological incubator. 866.2540 Section 866.2540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2540 Microbiological...

  4. Modulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes function by incubation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel. *Corresponding author (Fax, 972-4-8542092; Email, erica@rambam.health.gov.il). Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) from healthy donors were tested for stimulated release of superoxide anions after being incubated with serum of welders and of a group of unexposed individuals.

  5. Modulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes function by incubation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) from healthy donors were tested for stimulated release of superoxide anions after being incubated with serum of welders and of a group of unexposed individuals. These two groups were further subdivided either according to age or to smoking habits. The experiments showed that ...

  6. National Security Technology Incubation Project Continuation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-09-30

    This document contains a project continuation plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI). The plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This continuation plan describes the current status of NSTI (staffing and clients), long-term goals, strategies, and long-term financial solvency goals.The Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University (NMSU) is the operator and manager of the NSTI. To realize the NSTI, Arrowhead Center must meet several performance objectives related to planning, development, execution, evaluation, and sustainability. This continuation plan is critical to the success of NSTI in its mission of incubating businesses with security technology products and services.

  7. Technology Business Incubators in China and India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Mingfeng; Baskaran, Angathevar; Pancholi, Jatin

    2011-01-01

    We present a comparative case study of Technology Business Incubators (TBIs) in two major emerging economies in Asia - China and India. We employ an integrative analytical framework that combines three broad categories of indicators (originally developed by developed by Mian, 1997): Management...... by incubators, and performance outcomes. We attempt to identify similarities and differences between the two systems, explore the reasons for performance differences, and draw policy implications. Our study shows that the differences between the TBIs in China and India are mainly due the differences between...... the NSIs of China and India, as major components of NSI such as macroeconomic conditions, national S&T policy framework, industrial structure and the nature of financial institutions have played significant role in shaping the nature and rate of TBIs development in both countries. This suggests...

  8. Social capital dimensions among incubated entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ezequiel Quijano Quijano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows contributions from leading researchers in the fi eld of social capital as support of corporate sustainability and the contribution generated by a descriptive case study based on a representative sample from entrepreneurs from the Fundación Parque de Desarrollo Tecnológico (Parquesoft in Colombia, to contrast the theoretical approaches. The findings show a slight presence of social capital in the performance of incubated entrepreneurs.

  9. In ovo feeding of carbohydrates and incubated at a high incubation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eggs from a meat-type breeder flock at 29 and 35 weeks of age were used in two trials to investigate the effects of in ovo feeding of carbohydrates (CHO) and high incubation temperature (37.5 vs. 38.5 °C (HIT)) during days 16 to 21 of incubation on hatchability traits, chick weight at hatch as an absolute value or as a ...

  10. Physics Incubator at Kansas State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, Bret; Chakrabarti, Amitabha

    Funded by a major private endowment, the physics department at Kansas State University has recently started a physics incubator program that provides support to research projects with a high probability of commercial application. Some examples of these projects will be discussed in this talk. In a parallel effort, undergraduate physics majors and graduate students are being encouraged to work with our business school to earn an Entrepreneurship minor and a certification in Entrepreneurship. We will discuss how these efforts are promoting a ``culture change'' in the department. We will also discuss the advantages and the difficulties in running such a program in a Midwest college town.

  11. Weight monitoring system for newborn incubator application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widianto, Arif; Nurfitri, Intan; Mahatidana, Pradipta; Abuzairi, Tomy; Poespawati, N. R.; Purnamaningsih., Retno W.

    2018-02-01

    We proposed weight monitoring system using load cell sensor for newborn incubator application. The weight sensing system consists of a load cell, conditioning signal circuit, and microcontroller Arduino Uno R3. The performance of the sensor was investigated by using the various weight from 0 up to 3000 g. Experiment results showed that this system has a small error of 4.313% and 12.5 g of threshold and resolution value. Compared to the typical baby scale available in local market, the proposed system has a lower error value and hysteresis.

  12. Hummingbird incubation: Female attentiveness and egg temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleck, Carol Masters

    1981-01-01

    Incubating hummingbirds adjust nest attentiveness patterns in different habitats to permit both regulation of egg temperatures for embryonic development and foraging of the adult for positive energy balance. Anna's (Calype anna) and Black-chinned (Archilochus alexandri) Hummingbirds nesting in California chaparral left the nest six to nine times during each daylight hour. Eggs usually cooled only 3-6°C during absences but sometimes cooled up to 20°C during long absences. One Anna's Hummingbird became torpid for 4.5 h at night following a rainy day; the eggs survived cooling to 11°C and hatched two days later. A Costa's Hummingbird (Calypte costae) nesting in the California desert also left the nest several times per hour in early morning and late afternoon, but shaded the eggs almost continuously during the middle of the day. A Purple-crowned Fairy (Heliothryx barroti) in the warm lowland tropics of Panama left her eggs unattended for a few relatively long periods each day rather than many short periods as do temperate zone species. This pattern is typical of other tropical hummingbirds as well probably because equable ambient temperatures mean thermoregulation of eggs is not as critical a problem as it is in other habitats. In the temperate zone, hummingbirds exhibit behavioral adaptations (timing of reproduction, segmented foraging pattern) and physiological adaptations (torpor and hypothermia) for successful incubation. Embryonic development is successful even when egg temperatures fluctuate widely.

  13. BIOREACTOR WITH LID FOR EASY ACCESS TO INCUBATION CAVITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    There is provided a bioreactor which is provided with a lid (13) that facilitates access to the incubation cavity. Specifically the end wall of the incubation cavity is constituted by the lid (13) so that removal of the cap renders the incubation cavity fully accessible.......There is provided a bioreactor which is provided with a lid (13) that facilitates access to the incubation cavity. Specifically the end wall of the incubation cavity is constituted by the lid (13) so that removal of the cap renders the incubation cavity fully accessible....

  14. Sleep Regulates Incubation of Cocaine Craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Wang, Yao; Liu, Xiaodong; Liu, Zheng; Dong, Yan; Huang, Yanhua H

    2015-09-30

    After withdrawal from cocaine, chronic cocaine users often experience persistent reduction in total sleep time, which is accompanied by increased sleep fragmentation resembling chronic insomnia. This and other sleep abnormalities have long been speculated to foster relapse and further drug addiction, but direct evidence is lacking. Here, we report that after prolonged withdrawal from cocaine self-administration, rats exhibited persistent reduction in nonrapid-eye-movement (NREM) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, as well as increased sleep fragmentation. In an attempt to improve sleep after cocaine withdrawal, we applied chronic sleep restriction to the rats during their active (dark) phase of the day, which selectively decreased the fragmentation of REM sleep during their inactive (light) phase without changing NREM or the total amount of daily sleep. Animals with improved REM sleep exhibited decreased incubation of cocaine craving, a phenomenon depicting the progressive intensification of cocaine seeking after withdrawal. In contrast, experimentally increasing sleep fragmentation after cocaine self-administration expedited the development of incubation of cocaine craving. Incubation of cocaine craving is partially mediated by progressive accumulation of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). After withdrawal from cocaine, animals with improved REM sleep exhibited reduced accumulation of CP-AMPARs in the NAc, whereas increasing sleep fragmentation accelerated NAc CP-AMPAR accumulation. These results reveal a potential molecular substrate that can be engaged by sleep to regulate cocaine craving and relapse, and demonstrate sleep-based therapeutic opportunities for cocaine addiction. Significance statement: Sleep abnormalities are common symptoms in chronic drug users long after drug withdrawal. These withdrawal-associated sleep symptoms, particularly reduction in total sleep time and deteriorating sleep quality, have been

  15. INNOVATION CLUSTERS: SOCIAL LEARNING AND BUSINESS INCUBATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Deac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable innovation is more expensive than a regular one but it may lead to long termbenefits and durable competitive advantage, especially if many firms from the networkcollude or act within constrained environments such as business incubators. The opinionformation process, which leads to sustainable innovation, may be viewed as a collectivecognitive process resembling that of branding and re-branding. Technological innovationscan be viewed as sequences of cost reduction events and, in a many-firm setting, sociallearning which leads to sustainability-oriented behaviour depends on (mutual trustrelations. The experimental modelling part of the paper illustrates selected aspects of theconcept just outlined by developing a stylized dynamic model of the firm.

  16. Innovation Incubator: Whisker Labs Technical Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, Bethany F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frank, Stephen M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, Lieko [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scheib, Jennifer G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Wells Fargo Innovation Incubator (IN2) is a program to foster and accelerate startup companies with commercial building energy-efficiency and demand management technologies. The program is funded by the Wells Fargo Foundation and co-administered by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Whisker Labs, an Oakland, California-based company, was one of four awardees in the first IN2 cohort and was invited to participate in the program because of its novel electrical power sensing technology for circuit breakers. The stick-on Whisker meters install directly on the front face of the circuit breakers in an electrical panel using adhesive, eliminating the need to open the panel and install current transducers (CTs) on the circuit wiring.

  17. A Pratical Benchmark for Quality Certification in Business Incubators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carmo, João Paulo do; Santos, Christian Mariani Lucas dos; Barros, João Paulo Soares de

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to create a practical quality benchmark for incubators. The benchmark is a model to be followed in order to help incubators deploy all processes defined by the quality accreditation label called Centro de...

  18. Effects of oil transferred from incubating gulls to their eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, K.A.; LeFever, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    No. 2 fuel oil, or water, was applied to the breast feathers of incubating laughing gulls trapped at their nest site on an island colony in Texas. Gulls were released after treatment and allowed to incubate their eggs for 5 days. Oil was transferred from the feathers of incubating adults to their eggs and resulted in 41% embryo mortality compared with 2% in controls.

  19. Egg incubator control system with short message service (sms) fault ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The egg incubator system with temperature sensor can measure the state of the incubator and automatically change to the suitable condition for the egg. The health of the egg is very important for the development of embryo. The status condition in the incubator system will appear on the liquid crystal display (LCD) screen.

  20. Towards a distinction between technology incubators and non-technology incubators: can they contribute to economic growth?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Arend J.; Fink, M.; Hatak, I.

    2010-01-01

    Business incubators are an increasingly popular tool for promoting job and wealth creation. Yet given the heterogeneity of incubation models, it is not always clear how incubators operate, what their main characteristics are and how can they best contribute to job and wealth creation. If technology

  1. In incubator live cell imaging platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscelli, Nicola; Witarski, Wojciech; van den Driesche, Sander; Vellekoop, Michael J.

    2011-06-01

    In this contribution we present an imaging platform that operates in standard incubators, allowing the investigation of multiple cell cultures at the same time. Also, the sensor platform operates with disposable multi-well plates. The system consists of four image sensors (Charge-Coupled Devices) built into a custom made holder, in which a multi-well plate can be positioned without the need of further alignment. The focal points of the image sensors are fixed at the bottom of the wells of interest. Above the multi-well plate, white light emitting LEDs with an aperture are mounted to provide orthogonal illumination over the sensors. For the observation and understanding of tumour progression, cell proliferation and cell motility studies are of great importance. For such studies, a sensor system that monitors cell motility in four wells simultaneously (of a 24-well plate) has been designed and realized. In the present work we focus on measuring the motility of adherently grown mammalian epithelial cells. Simultaneous, real-time observation of stimulated (with hepatocyte growth factor) and control samples of MDCK (Madin-Darby Canine Kidney) cells has been carried out. The presented imaging platform is an attractive and versatile alternative to conventional time-lapse microscopy to monitor the motility of individual cells. Furthermore, the high-throughput feature makes its use advantageous for the simultaneous tracking of biological samples under different conditions.

  2. FGA Temperature Control for Incubating Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Yusuf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the use of genetic algorithms (GA in the design and implementation of fuzzy logic controllers (FLC for incubating egg. What is the best to determine the membership function is the first question that has been tackled. Thus it is important to select the accurate membership functions, but these methods possess one common weakness where conventional FLC use membership function generated by human operators. The membership function selection process is done with trial and error, and it runs step by step which takes too long in solving the problem. This paper develops a system that may help users to determine the membership function of FLC using the GA optimization for the fastest processing in solving the problems. The data collection is based on the simulation results, and the results refer to the transient response specification which is maximum overshoot. From the results presented, we will get a better and exact result; the value of overshot is decreasing from 1.2800 for FLC without GA to 1.0081 with GA (FGA.

  3. Marketing Plan for the National Security Technology Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-03-31

    This marketing plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project by the Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University. The vision of the National Security Technology Incubator program is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety and security. The plan defines important aspects of developing the incubator, such as defining the target market, marketing goals, and creating strategies to reach the target market while meeting those goals. The three main marketing goals of the incubator are: 1) developing marketing materials for the incubator program; 2) attracting businesses to become incubator participants; and 3) increasing name recognition of the incubator program on a national level.

  4. National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators New Mexico Clean Energy Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Suzanne S.

    2004-12-15

    The National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators was established by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop an emerging network of business incubators for entrepreneurs specializing in clean energy enterprises. The Alliance provides a broad range of business services to entrepreneurs in specific geographic locales across the U.S. and in diverse clean energy technology areas such as fuel cells, alternative fuels, power generation, and renewables, to name a few. Technology Ventures Corporation (TVC) participates in the Alliance from its corporate offices in Albuquerque, NM, and from its sites in Northern and Southern New Mexico, California, and Nevada. TVC reports on the results of its attempts to accelerate the growth and success of clean energy and energy efficiency companies through its array of business support services. During the period from September 2002 through September 2004, TVC describes contributions to the Alliance including the development of 28 clients and facilitating capital raises exceeding $35M.

  5. Effect of Incubation Time and Sucrose Addition on the Characteristics of Cheese Whey Yoghurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhartadi, E.; Utami, R.; Nursiwi, A.; Sari, A. M.; Widowati, E.; Sanjaya, A. P.; Esnadewi, E. A.

    2017-04-01

    The effect of incubation time and concentration of sucrose addition on the characteristics of cheese whey yogurt (lactic acid content, pH, total lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity, viscosity) and sensory characteristics (color, odor, flavor, consistency, and overalls) were investigated. The cheese whey yogurt fermentation process was carried out for 24h and 36h with the addition of sucrose 8, 10, and 12% (w/w) of total solid, respectively. The results showed that the lactic acid content, total lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity, and viscosity of cheese whey yogurt were affected by the incubation time and sucrose addition. The level of pH of yogurt which was incubated at 24h and 36h were relatively in the same levels, which were 4.51 up to 4.63. Due the sensory characteristic of cheese whey yogurt the panellists gave the high score for the cheese whey yogurt which was incubated at 24h and sucrose addition 12% (w/w) of total solid. The cheese whey yogurt has 0.41% lactic acid content; pH 4.51; 7.09 log total lactic acid bacteria cells / ml; 5.78% antioxidant activity; and 5.97 cP viscosity. The best sensory and physico-chemical characteristic of cheese whey yogurt was achieved by 24h incubation time and 12% concentration of sucrose addition.

  6. Particle size alterations of feedstuffs during in situ neutral detergent fiber incubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Nørgaard, Peder; Lund, P.

    2013-01-01

    Particle size alterations during neutral detergent fiber (NDF) determination and in situ rumen incubation were analyzed by dry sieving and image analysis to evaluate the in situ procedure for estimation of NDF degradation parameters and indigestible NDF concentration in terms of particle size...

  7. Performance differentials of agglomeration and strategic groups: a test of incubation and new venture strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amezcua, A.S.; Ratinho, Tiago; Jayamohan, P.

    2013-01-01

    Our paper investigates how nascent firms ‘performance is affected by strategic group membership and industrial agglomeration. Agglomeration is defined using geographical concentration while strategic groups are measured as incubated firms that belong to the industry most highly represented within an

  8. Business Incubation in Chile: Development, Financing and Financial Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Chandra

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Business incubation in Chile is still in its nascent stages, with approximately 27 incubators supported primarily by a coalition of government and universities. Chilean business incubators tend to capitalize on regional resource strengths and have a strategic focus on high growth, high innovation, high impact businesses as a result of a government mandate to focus on developing business with high potential for economic development and job creation. The government’s efforts to create the framework conditions for entrepreneurship by investing in business incubators, organizing risk capital for early stage ventures to fill capital market gaps and support for angel networks as well as incubator funding are discussed. Policy implications for the continued growth of the incubation industry are provided.

  9. A Pratical Benchmark for Quality Certification in Business Incubators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo do Carmo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to create a practical quality benchmark for incubators. The benchmark is a model to be followed in order to help incubators deploy all processes defined by the quality accreditation label called Centro de Referência para Apoio a Novos Empreendimentos [Reference Center for Support to New Ventures] – Cerne. The purpose of this label is to standardize the processes and level the quality of the incubators. The study was based mainly on two tools of quality management. One is the PDCA cycle and the other is the 5W2H. There are countless benefits from this certification. Among such benefits: ensuring the incubated companies higher quality in rendered services; enhancing the visibility and credibility of the incubator and incubated companies; reducing process variability; increasing the competitiveness of the incubator; in addition to benefiting from a more effective and systematic management system. Thus, this practical benchmark will be very useful for any incubator that has an interest in receiving the Cerne accreditation. Those involved with the incubators had a positive experience with the objective material, with clear and organized information. With this material, it will be simpler to systematize and standardize the processes required by Cerne accreditation

  10. Electromagnetic fields in neonatal incubators: the reasons for an alert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellieni, Carlo Valerio; Nardi, Valentina; Buonocore, Giuseppe; Di Fabio, Sandra; Pinto, Iole; Verrotti, Alberto

    2017-10-23

    Neonatal incubators are important tools for sick newborns in the first few days of life. Nevertheless, their electric engine, often very close to the newborn's body, emits electromagnetic fields (EMF) to which newborns are exposed. Aim of this paper is to review the available literature on EMF exposure in incubators, and the effects of such exposures on newborns that have been investigated. We carried out a systematic review of studies about EMF emissions produced by incubators, using Medline and Embase databases from 1993 to 2017. We retrieved 15 papers that described the EMF exposure in incubators and their biological effects on babies. EMF levels in incubators appear to be between 2 and 100 mG, depending on the distance of the mattress from the electric engine. In some cases, they exceed this range. These values interfere with melatonin production or with vagal tone. Even caregivers are exposed to high EMF, above 200 mG, when working at close contact with the incubators. EMF have been described as potentially hazardous for human health, and values reported in this review are an alert to prevent babies' and caregivers' exposure when close to the incubators. A precautionary approach should be adopted in future incubator design, to prevent high exposures of newborns in incubators and of caregivers as well.

  11. Dye coupling in hypothalamic slices: dependence on in vivo hydration state and osmolality of incubation medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbett, P; Hatton, G I

    1984-12-01

    Electrotonic coupling is one mechanism which may coordinate the electrophysiological activity of a population of neurons. By measuring the incidence of dye coupling, we have investigated whether conditions that stimulate hormone secretion by hypothalamic magnocellular neuroendocrine cells affect coupling between these neurons. Neurons in the magnocellular regions of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), in slices prepared from normally hydrated or chronically dehydrated male rats, were intracellularly injected with the fluorescent dye Lucifer Yellow CH. The dye coupling index (DCI), the ratio of the number of dye-coupled neurons to the total number of filled cells, was determined for each treatment group. The DCI for slices from dehydrated animals incubated in 310 milliosmoles/kg of medium (0.121) was significantly lower than that for slices for hydrated animals incubated in medium of the same osmolality (0.333). This decrease was reversed when slices from dehydrates were incubated in medium having an osmolality of 340 milliosmoles/kg (DCI = 0.307). There was also evidence for an interaction between slices incubated in the same chamber: the DCI in slices from dehydrated animals was significantly higher (0.475) when slices from normally hydrated rats were also present in the incubation chamber. Based on these data and on cited evidence, we suggest that the osmolality of the extracellular fluid and the local concentration of sex steroid hormones may influence dye coupling in the PVN.

  12. Avian Incubation Patterns Reflect Temporal Changes in Developing Clutches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren B Cooper

    Full Text Available Incubation conditions for eggs influence offspring quality and reproductive success. One way in which parents regulate brooding conditions is by balancing the thermal requirements of embryos with time spent away from the nest for self-maintenance. Age related changes in embryo thermal tolerance would thus be expected to shape parental incubation behavior. We use data from unmanipulated Black-capped Chickadee (Poecile atricapillus nests to examine the temporal dynamics of incubation, testing the prediction that increased heat flux from eggs as embryos age influences female incubation behavior and/or physiology to minimize temperature fluctuations. We found that the rate of heat loss from eggs increased with embryo age. Females responded to increased egg cooling rates by altering incubation rhythms (more frequent, shorter on- and off- bouts, but not brood patch temperature. Consequently, as embryos aged, females were able to increase mean egg temperature and decrease variation in temperature. Our findings highlight the need to view full incubation as more than a static rhythm; rather, it is a temporally dynamic and finely adjustable parental behavior. Furthermore, from a methodological perspective, intra- and inter-specific comparisons of incubation rhythms and average egg temperatures should control for the stage of incubation.

  13. Contamination of Laboratory Bench-tops, Incubators and the Effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study recommends that spray disinfectant, mostly quaternary ammonium compounds, free of aldehydes can minimize contamination of bench-tops and microbiology incubators during routine working hours. Keywords: Laboratory, contaminants, incubators, bench-tops, spray-disinfectants. Journal of Medical Laboratory ...

  14. Development of a Biogas-powered Poultry Egg Incubator

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    the embryonic stage while the hatchability (efficiency) of the machine was 59.7%. In conclusion, the developed incubator is feasible ... Incubators are machines, which simulate the hen's role of providing fertile eggs with optimum .... rope was tied to the two opposite sides of the crate and extended outside through the walls of ...

  15. The effects of incubation period and temperature on the Hydrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 171 water samples from 3 sources were analyzed for the presence of faecal contamination by standard MPN, P/A, EC-M and H2S techniques at different temperatures and incubation times. Analysis of water samples by H2S technique showed that the incubation period of H2S bottles is highly dependent on ...

  16. Business Incubators: Creation of a Fit in Armenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorian, A.; Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the extent to which business incubation services meet tenant’s needs. Additionally, we pose the question of whether the current business incubators actually cover the needs of a particular industry. Our empirical setting is a developing country in the Caucasian Region

  17. Megapode phylogeny and the interpretation of incubation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, R.W.R.J.; Brom, T.G.

    1992-01-01

    Among megapodes, several incubation stategies can be recognized. Eggs are incubated by heat generated from microbial decomposition, volcanism, or the sun. For a long time, controversy has existed whether these strategies represent primitive traits, inherited from reptilian ancestors, or have evolved

  18. An Analysis of Socialization Incubators in Selected Military Commissioning Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-10

    Berger , P. L. & Luckmann , T. (1967). The social construction of reality...Alternate Theory of Socialization : Redux 24 Organizational Design Theories and the Socialization Incubator 35 Conclusion 37 Chapter 3 Method... Theory of Socialization in Clans: The Role of the Socialization Incubator 70 Recommendations for Further Research 71 References 72 vin LIST

  19. Development Of A Biogas-Powered Poultry Egg Incubator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study advances the utilization of biogas energy for chick production. A wooden frame still-air incubator was developed, which uses biogas as a fuel to supply heat through a burner installed at the base. A no-load test was carried out during which incubator temperatures were calibrated against ambient temperatures ...

  20. Temperature, latency and incubation time of Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a negative correlation between the water temperature, latency and incubation periods for the two species and their hybrids. The latency ... temperature. Tropical Freshwater Biology VOL. 8 1999, pp. 49-54. KEY WORDS: Latency – incubation - Clarias gariepinu - Heterobranchus longifilis – Hybrid - Brood fish.

  1. Are incubators the new wonder tool for entrepreneurship education?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toon Buddingh

    2014-01-01

    In the nineties of the last century, a lot of (ICT) incubators started in the Netherlands, many private (GorillaPark, Ant Factory, Lost Boys and Newconomy), some public, such as Twinning. Most of them stopped early this century or gone bankrupt. From 2005 university incubators like YesDelft!,

  2. The Utilization of Different Starter and Incubation Time on Texture, Fat Content and Organoleptic Properties of Nata de Milko

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khothibul Umam Al Awwaly

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to determine starter level and incubation time on the quality of nata de milko and to obtain an appropriate starter concentration and incubation time to produce a good nata de milko in terms of texture, fat content and organoleptic properties. The material used was nata de milko. The research method used was factorial experiment using a randomized block design with 2 factors, namely starter concentrations were 5%, 7.5% and 10% of media, and incubation times were 7,  9 , and 11 days. Variables observed were texture, fat content and organoleptic properties. Tunjukkan huruf latinThe results showed that gave no effect (P>0.05 between starter concentrations and incubation times on texture and fat content, and gave an effect (P<0.05 on flavour, colour, and texture (organoleptic sensory of nata de milko. Starter concentrations and incubation times gave a highly significant difference effect (P<0.01 on taste. The highest average value of the starter concentration found in 5% with texture, fat content, and organoleptic properties were 0.21 mm/g.sec, 0.22% and fresh aroma, white colour, sweet taste and chewy texture. The average value of 9-days incubation with texture value, fat content, and  organoleptic properties were 0.19 mm/g.sec, 0.12% and fresh aroma, white colour, sweet taste and chewy texture.The concentration of starter and incubation time did not show an effect on texture and fat content of nata de milko, but showed an effect on organoleptic properties. Keywords: whey, texture, fat, organoleptic, nata de milko

  3. Creativity – The Unconscious Foundations of the Incubation Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone M. eRitter

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is one of the most important assets we have to navigate through the fast changing world of the 21st century. Anecdotal accounts of creative individuals suggest that oftentimes, creative discoveries result from a process whereby initial conscious thought is followed by a period during which one refrains from task-related conscious thought. For example, one may spend an embarrassing amount of time thinking about a problem when the solution suddenly pops into consciousness while taking a shower. Not only creative individuals but also traditional theories of creativity have put a lot of emphasis on this incubation stage in creative thinking. The aim of the present article is twofold. First, an overview of the domain of incubation and creativity is provided by reviewing and discussing studies on incubation, mind-wandering, and sleep. Second, the causes of incubation effects are discussed. Previously, little attention has been paid to the causes of incubation effects and most findings do not really speak to whether the effects should be explained by unconscious processes or merely by consequences of a period of distraction. In the latter case, there is no need to assume active unconscious processes. The findings discussed in the current article support the idea that it is not merely the absence of conscious thought that drives incubation effects, but that during an incubation period unconscious processes contribute to creative thinking. Finally, practical implications and directions for future research will be discussed.

  4. Principles and Best Practices in Successful Tourism Business Incubators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea F. Şchiopu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The business incubators are entities that provide support to start-up companies, managing the obstacles faced by entrepreneurs and facilitating the hazardous process of business creation. This article aims to identify the existing views on best practices that can contribute to the achieving of business incubators’ objectives. Moreover, the present study investigates how the business incubators can ensure the success of tourism, with evidence grounded in both theory and case studies from around the world. In this paper, the authors have identified several types of incubators that could be used successfully for the benefit of start-ups in the tourism sector, such as network incubators, incubators in ecotourism or nature-based incubators. The authors also propose a new perspective on best practices in business incubation, emphasizing the role of the emotions that entrepreneurs have to cope with. Even though the studies in this area are still scarce, the authors strongly believe that this will be a topic highly discussed in the near future, given the fact that emotion and logical thought are intertwined, interacting in complex ways during problem solving, decision making, and other important forms of cognition that entrepreneurs use when pursuing their ventures.

  5. Toward a fuzzy logic control of the infant incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Narender P; Mathur, Garima; Hariharan, S I

    2009-10-01

    Premature birth is a world wide problem. Thermo regulation is a major problem in premature infants. Premature infants are often kept in infant incubators providing convective heating. Currently either the incubator air temperature is sensed and used to control the heat flow, or infant's skin temperature is sensed and used in the close loop control. Skin control often leads to large fluctuations in the incubator air temperature. Air control also leads to skin temperature fluctuations. The question remains if both the infant's skin temperature and the incubator air temperature can be simultaneously used in the control. The purpose of the present study was to address this question by developing a fuzzy logic control which incorporates both incubator air temperature and infant's skin temperature to control the heating. The control was evaluated using a lumped parameter mathematical model of infant-incubator system (Simon, B. N., N. P. Reddy, and A. Kantak, J. Biomech. Eng. 116:263-266, 1994). Simulation results confirmed previous experimental results that the on-off skin control could lead to fluctuations in the incubator air temperature, and the air control could lead to too slow rise time in the core temperature. The fuzzy logic provides a smooth control with the desired rise time.

  6. Aligning business strategy of incubator center and tenants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyawan, Yudha; Agustiani, Elly; Jumayla, Sari

    2017-06-01

    Incubator center is developed to help a particular group of small business players to achieve the expected business growth. In this center, business players often called as tenants will get assistances in pertaining with space, professional network, marketing, investment or funding, and training to improve their business capability. There are three types of incubator center, namely universities that help their alumni or business people in their surrounded area, company that supports small business as the corporate social responsibility, and independent organizations that have specialties in the business development. Some might success in increasing the capacity of the tenants, while other can have difficulties to increase the simplest business capability, e.g., to define the production cost to measure the profit. This study was intended to propose a model to align the business strategy between incubator center and its tenants. The sales and profit growth are the main priorities for the tenants together with their business capability and sustainability. The proposed alignment model provides measurement tools that link the motivation of tenants for joining the incubation process with the mission of incubator center. The linkage covered the key performance indicators (KPI), steps to achieve the target and evaluation tools to improve the current handicaps. An experiment on 4 (four) diverse business fields of the tenants of an incubator center was performed to test the model. As a result, the increase of KPI of incubator center will simultaneously yield a higher value of the tenants' sales.

  7. Long-lasting incubation of conditioned fear in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, Charles L; Golden, Sam A; Adams-Deutsch, Tristan; Nair, Sunila G; Shaham, Yavin

    2009-05-15

    In 1937, Diven reported that human fear responses to cues previously paired with shock progressively increase or incubate over 24 hours. Since then, fear incubation has been demonstrated in both humans and nonhumans. However, the difficulty of demonstrating long-lasting fear incubation in rodents has hampered the study of the underlying mechanisms of this incubation. Here, we describe a rat procedure where fear reliably incubates over time. We trained food-restricted rats to lever-press for food pellets in daily 90-min sessions. We then gave each rat 100 30-sec tones co-terminating with a .5-sec .5-mA footshock over 10 days (10 pairings/day). Groups of rats (n = 10-15) were then given four presentations of the tone (the fear cue) 2, 15, 31, or 61 days after fear conditioning training and were assessed for conditioned suppression of lever-pressing. We found that conditioned fear responses were significantly higher 31 and 61 days after fear training than after 2 or 15 days. In control experiments, we showed that extensive tone-shock pairing is necessary for the emergence of fear incubation and that it is unlikely that non-associative factors contribute to this incubation. We describe a procedure for generating reliable and long-lasting conditioned fear incubation. Our procedure can be used to study mechanisms of fear incubation and might provide a model for studying the mechanisms of delayed-onset posttraumatic stress disorder that occur in a sub-population of people previously exposed to chronic stressors.

  8. Long-lasting incubation of conditioned fear in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, Charles L.; Golden, Sam A.; Adams-Deutsch, Tristan; Nair, Sunila G.; Shaham, Yavin

    2009-01-01

    Background In 1937, Diven (1) reported that human fear responses to cues previously paired with shock progressively increase or incubate over 24 hours. Since then, fear incubation has been demonstrated in both humans and nonhumans. However, the difficulty of demonstrating long-lasting fear incubation in rodents has hampered the study of the underlying mechanisms of this incubation. Here, we describe a rat procedure where fear reliably incubates over time. Methods We trained food-restricted rats to lever-press for food pellets in daily 90-min sessions. We then gave each rat one-hundred 30-s tones co-terminating with a 0.5-s, 0.5 mA footshock over 10 days (10 pairings per day). Groups of rats (n=10-15) were then given 4 presentations of the tone (the fear cue) 2, 15, 31 or 61 days after fear conditioning training and were assessed for conditioned suppression of lever-pressing. Results We found that conditioned fear responses were significantly higher 31 and 61 days after fear training than after 2 or 15 days. In control experiments, we showed that extensive tone-shock pairing is necessary for the emergence of fear incubation, and that it is unlikely that non-associative factors contribute to this incubation. Conclusions We describe a procedure for generating reliable and long-lasting conditioned fear incubation. Our procedure can be used to study mechanisms of fear incubation, and may provide a model for studying the mechanisms of delayed-onset posttraumatic stress disorder that occur in a sub-population of people previously exposed to chronic stressors. PMID:19167702

  9. Fibrinolytic Activity and Dose-Dependent Effect of Incubating Human Blood Clots in Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester: In Vitro Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuzar Elnager

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE has been reported to possess time-dependent fibrinolytic activity by in vitro assay. This study is aimed at investigating fibrinolytic dose-dependent activity of CAPE using in vitro assays. Methods. Standardized human whole blood (WB clots were incubated in either blank controls or different concentrations of CAPE (3.75, 7.50, 15.00, 22.50, and 30.00 mM. After 3 hours, D-dimer (DD levels and WB clot weights were measured for each concentration. Thromboelastography (TEG parameters were recorded following CAPE incubation, and fibrin morphology was examined under a confocal microscope. Results. Overall, mean DD (μg/mL levels were significantly different across samples incubated with different CAPE concentrations, and the median pre- and postincubation WB clot weights (grams were significantly decreased for each CAPE concentration. Fibrin removal was observed microscopically and indicated dose-dependent effects. Based on the TEG test, the Ly30 fibrinolytic parameter was significantly different between samples incubated with two different CAPE concentrations (15.0 and 22.50 mM. The 50% effective dose (ED50 of CAPE (based on DD was 1.99 mg/mL. Conclusions. This study suggests that CAPE possesses fibrinolytic activity following in vitro incubation and that it has dose-dependent activities. Therefore, further investigation into CAPE as a potential alternative thrombolytic agent should be conducted.

  10. Eggshell breakage by incubating black ducks fed DDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcore, J.R.; Samson, F.B.

    1973-01-01

    Black duck (Anas rubripes) hens fed 10 ppm dry weight (approximately 3 ppm wet weight) of p,p'-DDE in the diet laid eggs with shells 22 percent thinner at the equator, 30 percent thinner at the cap, and 33 percent thinner at the apex than those of controls. Natural incubation increased shell cracking more than fourfold as compared with mechanical incubation. Hens removed cracked eggs from nests, and one hen terminated incubation. Hens fed DDE produced one-fifth as many ducklings as controls. DDE in eggs of dosed hens averaged 64.9 ppm wet weight.

  11. RUMINAL FERMENTATION KINETICS OF MORINGA AND PELTIPHYLLUM SUPPLEMENTS DURING EARLY INCUBATION PERIOD IN THE IN VITRO READING PRESSURE TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jayanegara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was aimed to observe rumen fermentation kinetics of alternative supplements, i.e.Moringa oleifera and Peltiphyllum peltatum leaves added to maize silage diet as compared to aconventional supplement (barley-soya. A total of six treatments were investigated in the present study,which consisted of: maize silage (A, M. oleifera (B, P. peltatum (C, maize silage + concentrate (56:44,w/w; D, maize silage + M. oleifera (56:44, w/w; E, and maize silage + concentrate + P. peltatum(47:37:16, w/w/w; F. The feeds were incubated in vitro in three replicates (completely randomizedusing the Reading Pressure Technique system. Approximately 800 mg of the feeds were mixed by 75 mlof buffered rumen liquor. The incubation was carried out up to 12 h in bottles and gas pressure wasrecorded and released in regular intervals. Repeated sampling was conducted for analysis offermentation products at 1, 6 and 12 h of incubation period. The results showed that the nutritionalquality of Moringa and its fermentation pattern was comparable to that of barley-soya concentrate. PlainMoringa incubation resulted the highest production of iso-SCFA and soluble protein concentrationamong all treatments after 12 h incubation (P<0.05. Incubation of sole Peltiphyllum peltatum highlyhampered the fermentation rate. Production of iso-SCFA both for plain Peltiphyllum and its mixturewere comparatively low. Supplementation of Peltiphyllum increased significantly soluble proteinconcentration during 12 h incubation (P<0.05. Peltiphyllum also had a very low C2+C4/C3 ratiocompared to other treatments. It could be concluded that Moringa oleifera is a potential alternativesupplement to replace either partially or completely concentrate as a conventional supplement, andPeltiphyllum peltatum supplementation could reduce excessive protein degradation and fermentation ofthe concentrate in the rumen.

  12. Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) with higher baseline glucocorticoids also invest less in incubation and clutch mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenle, Laura A; Dudek, Alana M; Moore, Ignacio T; Bonier, Frances

    2017-04-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones facilitate responses to environmental challenges by mediating diverse physiological and behavioral changes, including resource mobilization and altered reproductive effort. Elevated glucocorticoids might indicate that an individual is facing high levels of environmental challenges and thus, elevated concentrations might be associated with reduced fitness (CORT-fitness hypothesis). Alternatively, the energetic demands of reproduction might be a challenge that requires elevated glucocorticoids to mobilize resources to support reproductive effort, ultimately increasing reproductive investment and fitness (CORT-adaptation hypothesis). Investigations of glucocorticoid-fitness relationships have yielded mixed results. Variation in the direction of this relationship could be caused in part by differences in the contexts in which the relationship was assessed. Incorporating context, such as life history stage, could be key to understanding the role of glucocorticoids in influencing fitness outcomes. We investigated the relationship between corticosterone and reproductive effort and success within a single life history stage: incubation of eggs. In an observational study, we measured baseline corticosterone in incubating female red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), monitored incubation behavior, and determined hatching success for each nest. Incubating birds with higher baseline corticosterone concentrations had more frequent, shorter incubation bouts and spent less time overall incubating their clutches of eggs than birds with lower corticosterone concentrations. Elevated corticosterone was also associated with lower clutch mass, but neither corticosterone nor incubation effort were correlated with hatching success. Although experimental tests are needed to establish causation, these results suggest that during the incubation period, corticosterone might shift resource investment towards self-maintenance, and away from current reproductive

  13. Navigating the Role of Business Incubators: A Review on the Current Literature on Business Incubation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thobekani Lose

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Business incubators (BIs are a significant tool in promoting the development of entrepreneurial firms, technology-based growth firms and economic growth in South Africa. The study reviewed the current literature on business incubation in South Africa. BIs in South Africa emerged as a popular strategy in the 1990s and most of the current literature was established in the same period. However, the current literature is still limited. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of existing knowledge on the role and effectiveness of business incubation in supporting the development of new small startup businesses. The quantitative and qualitative literature published by the academic and practitioner communities is reviewed. The searches indicated that incubation has encouraged many studies in South Africa. The studies can be categorised under the following themes: the role and contribution of incubators, success factors for business incubation, obstacles, and the relationship between incubators and entrepreneurship. The areas for further research are suggested. Two major areas that new research can explore focus on the creation of the model and selfsustainability of BIs.

  14. Learning Incubator: an instrument to foster entrepreneurship in Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Dirce Stein; Obem, Marielle Kulakowski; Pereira, Simone Barbosa; Gomes, Carine Alves; Backes, Marli Terezinha Stein; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2015-01-01

    this study aimed to know the contributions of the Learning Incubator to the process of lifelong education in health. this is a qualitative field research whose data was collected from August to December 2014 by the focus group technique. The research had 34 employees of a Teaching Hospital in the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul that participated previously in the incubation process. from the data encoded by content analysis, three themes were selected: Learning Incubator - welcoming and integrating space; An instigating instrument that enhances possibilities; Continuous and lifelong education strategy. the Learning Incubator is an important instrument to foster entrepreneurship in nursing and other health areas due to its capacity of rethinking mechanized practices, to the possibility of instigating new ways of being and acting, and to the ability of creating and developing new ideas based on individual and institutional needs.

  15. Influence of incubation temperature on sea turtle hatchling quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, David T

    2017-09-01

    Since the 1980s it has been known that incubation temperature influences the sex ratio of sea turtle hatchlings emerging from their nests, and there has been much speculation on how global climate change might threaten sea turtle populations by raising nest temperatures and causing highly female-biased hatchling sex ratios. More recently, studies have indicated that incubation temperature can also influence the size and locomotor performance of sea turtle hatchlings. Here I review recent studies that have explored the influence of incubation temperature on sea turtle hatchling quality in terms of hatchling morphology and locomotor performance. I also discuss the likely underlying mechanisms responsible for incubation temperature-induced differences in hatchling locomotor performance, and how an increase in nest temperature associated with global warming might affect recruitment of sea turtle hatchlings. © 2017 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. CO2 emissions from soil incubated with sugarcane straw and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CO2 emissions from soil incubated with sugarcane straw and nitrogen fertilizer. RF de Almeida, CH Silveira, JER Mikhael, FO Franco, BT Ribeiro, A de Siqueira Ferreira, E de Sa Mendonca, B Wendling ...

  17. Entrepreneurship and Social Capital: Evidence from a Colombian Business Incubator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Castro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the important body of research on entrepreneurship and social capital. Most previous work on social capital and business incubators has analyzed how the structure of personal networks (measured by network size or density and their quality (measured by tie strength influence venture performance. However, few studies have focused on the mobilization of partners’ resources. This paper analyses how these three dimensions of social capital —defined in this article as the structural dimension, the relational dimension and the resource dimension— are closely linked to the three types of interactions in a business incubator: networking, counseling and resourcing. An Ordinary Least Squares regression was applied to a sample made up of incubating firms in Colombia. Results from the data analysis show that resourcing interactions constitute the most significant aspect of business incubators for entrepreneurs.

  18. THE ROLE OF UNIVERSITY INCUBATORS IN STIMULATING ACADEMIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eva Stal; Tales Andreassi; Asa Fujino

    2016-01-01

    ...). Thus, such incubators do not encourage the transfer of technologies developed in universities to society, through the creation of new businesses, one of the main ways of university-industry interaction...

  19. Stochastic Modeling Approach to the Incubation Time of Prionic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, A. S.; da Silva, M. A.; Cressoni, J. C.

    2003-05-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are neurodegenerative diseases for which prions are the attributed pathogenic agents. A widely accepted theory assumes that prion replication is due to a direct interaction between the pathologic (PrPSc) form and the host-encoded (PrPC) conformation, in a kind of autocatalytic process. Here we show that the overall features of the incubation time of prion diseases are readily obtained if the prion reaction is described by a simple mean-field model. An analytical expression for the incubation time distribution then follows by associating the rate constant to a stochastic variable log normally distributed. The incubation time distribution is then also shown to be log normal and fits the observed BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) data very well. Computer simulation results also yield the correct BSE incubation time distribution at low PrPC densities.

  20. International strategies of business incubation: the USA, Germany and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Tsaplin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine strategies of business incubation in the following countries: the USA, Germany and Russia using both a comparative theoretical analysis of different performance criteria of business incubators and interviewing experts who work directly with startup companies. We find that there are more differences than similarities between the strategies of business incubation in these countries. The USA prove to be far ahead of Germany and especially Russia in supporting start-ups. The study might impact a business practice in the way of clarifying the most significant characteristics and general trends of business incubation strategies in the countries mentioned to take them into account in the process of launching and developing startup companies in one or another country.

  1. Networking behavior and contracting relationships among entrepreneurs in business incubators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebbers, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies focus on the relationship between social networks and performance. I study networking behavior as an antecedent of tie formation among entrepreneurs in business incubators. I distinguish between two types of networking behavior: individual networking orientation or building potentially

  2. Experimental Perinatology : Development of Extrauterine Fetal Incubation System

    OpenAIRE

    桑原, 慶紀; Yoshinori, KUWABARA; 東京大学; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo

    1992-01-01

    It goes without saying that the ideal situation for the immature fetus is growth within the normal environment of the maternal organism. Thus, in order to perform incubation that more closely resembles that of the fetus in utero, both in the extracorporeal and intracorporeal environment, an extrauterine fetal incubator, consisting of an artificial womb containing artificial amniotic fluid and a complete artificial placental system with a membrane oxygenator, was developed. Although similar ex...

  3. Extended incubation times improve corneal endothelial cell transplantation success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insler, M S; Lopez, J G

    1991-05-01

    To investigate the ability of extended incubation times to improve the success of endothelial cell transplantation, eight human donor corneas were denuded of their native endothelium, seeded twice during a 1-hr interval with a suspension of cultured infant human corneal endothelial cells, and then incubated for 144 hr under standard conditions. Subsequently the corneas were transplanted into African green monkeys using routine penetrating keratoplasty techniques. Rotational autografts and corneas devoid of endothelial cells served as controls. The seeded corneas appeared hazy at the time of surgery (mean pachymetry 48 hr postoperatively, 0.794 mm). Six corneas (75%) subsequently cleared, yielding a mean corneal thickness of 0.541 +/- 0.040 and 0.554 +/- 0.040 at 6 and 12 postoperative months, respectively. All control eyes showed advanced edema (thickness, greater than 1.0 mm) and developed extensive neovascularization. Clinically, the extended postseeding incubation corneas were observed to clear more rapidly and stabilize their thickness earlier than corneas incubated for only 24-48 hr. Scanning electron microscopy of extended postseeding incubation corneas revealed an intact monolayer of contact-inhibited cells with the hexagonal mosaic typical of corneal endothelium in vivo and improved intercellular contact compared with corneas incubated for only 24-48 hr.

  4. Thermophilic nitrate-reducing microorganisms prevent sulfate reduction in cold marine sediments incubated at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomnyashchaya, Yana; Rezende, Julia; Hubert, Casey

    2014-05-01

    Hydrogen sulphide produced during metabolism of sulphate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) is toxic, corrosive and causes detrimental oil reservoir souring. During secondary oil recovery, injecting oil reservoirs with seawater that is rich in sulphate and that also cools high temperature formations provides favourable growth conditions for SRM. Nitrate addition can prevent metabolism of SRM by stimulating nitrate-reducing microorganisms (NRM). The investigations of thermophilic NRM are needed to develop mechanisms to control the metabolism of SRM in high temperature oil field ecosystems. We therefore established a model system consisting of enrichment cultures of cold surface marine sediments from the Baltic Sea (Aarhus Bay) that were incubated at 60°C. Enrichments contained 25 mM nitrate and 40 mM sulphate as potential electron acceptors, and a mixture of the organic substrates acetate, lactate, propionate, butyrate (5 mM each) and yeast extract (0.01%) as potential carbon sources and electron donors. Slurries were incubated at 60°C both with and without initial pasteurization at 80°C for 2 hours. In the enrichments containing both nitrate and sulphate, the concentration of nitrate decreased indicating metabolic activity of NRM. After a four-hour lag phase the rate of nitrate reduction increased and the concentration of nitrate dropped to zero after 10 hours of incubation. The concentration of nitrite increased as the reduction of nitrate progressed and reached 16.3 mM after 12 hours, before being consumed and falling to 4.4 mM after 19-day of incubation. No evidence for sulphate reduction was observed in these cultures during the 19-day incubation period. In contrast, the concentration of sulphate decreased up to 50% after one week incubation in controls containing only sulphate but no nitrate. Similar sulfate reduction rates were seen in the pasteurized controls suggesting the presence of heat resistant SRM, whereas nitrate reduction rates were lower in the

  5. Ethosuximide is primarily metabolized by CYP3A when incubated with isolated rat liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarver, J G; Bachmann, K A; Zhu, D; Klis, W A

    1998-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) subfamily responsible for ethosuximide metabolism was investigated by HPLC assay of ethosuximide incubations with isolated rat liver microsomes from control rats and from rats treated with inducing agents to enrich hepatic microsomes in selected CYP isoforms. Inducing agents included beta-naphthoflavone (BNF, CYP1A inducer), phenobarbital (PB, CYP2B/2C/3A), isoniazid (INH, CYP2E1), clotrimazole (CTZ, CYP3A), clofibrate (CLO, CYP4A), and an imidazole CTZ-analog known as CDD3543 (CYP3A). Incubations with BNF, INH, CTZ, and control microsomes showed significantly (pCTZ microsomes vs. BNF, INH, and control microsomes at 10, 30, 60, and 120 min incubation. Ethosuximide metabolite levels generated by CTZ microsomes at 120 min were 36.5 times those of control microsomes. Correspondingly, ethosuximide concentrations were significantly (pCTZ microsomes compared with BNF, INH, and control microsomes at 60 and 120 min. Sixty-minute incubations with all microsome groups exhibited significantly (pCTZ (11.8x control) and PB (9.6x control) microsomes vs. all other groups. Antibody inhibition experiments demonstrated ethosuximide metabolite levels for PB microsomes were not affected by CYP2B1 antibodies, whereas CYP3A2 antibodies reduced metabolite levels for both PB and CTZ microsomes by over 80%. These results indicate CYP3A is primarily responsible for ethosuximide metabolism in rats.

  6. Plasma substance P and soluble P-selectin as biomarkers of β ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samia A. Ebeid

    2013-09-19

    Sep 19, 2013 ... molecule which plays a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis, mediating platelet rolling and gen- erating procoagulant molecules. Substance P is one of the tachykinins which constitute a family of neuropeptides. It now appears that platelets contain substance P which is released upon stimulation.

  7. Association between circulating levels of P-selectins and burden of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients in the HBTF group had a significantly lower prevalence of post-PCI thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) grade-3 flow than that of the LBTF group (84.52% vs 93.69%, p = 0.037). Compared with the LBTF group, the HBTF group had higher peak values of the myocardial band (MB) fraction of creatine kinase ...

  8. Association between circulating levels of P-selectins and burden of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Lin et al., 1984; Carlos and. Harlan, 1998; Frenette et al., 1995; Gamble et al., 1990). Studies have indicated that PS mediates the accu- mulation of leukocytes, which in turn promotes fibril deposition (Palabrica et al., 1992).

  9. The prognostic significance of Galectin-3 and P-Selectin in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bladder carcinoma is one of the most common malignancies in urology. The most common type of the bladder cancer is transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). TCC of bladder has a recurrence rate of more than 50%. Therefore, it is important to find some indicators that can predict for recurrence or the development of metastasis.

  10. Navigating the Role of Business Incubators: A Review on the Current Literature on Business Incubation in South Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thobekani Lose; Zinzi Nxopo; Eugine Maziriri; Welcome Madinga

    2016-01-01

    .... However, the current literature is still limited. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of existing knowledge on the role and effectiveness of business incubation in supporting the development of new small startup businesses...

  11. The Rufous Hornero (Furnarius rufus) nest as an incubation chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Felipe L S; Braga, Talita V; Roper, James J

    2015-01-01

    Foraging and incubation are mutually exclusive activities for parent birds. A trade-off is generated when a combination of food availability and temperature regulation force birds to choose one and neglect the other, at least temporarily. The Rufous Hornero builds large, oven-like, mud nests, the evolutionary cause of which remains unknown. We tested that temperature variation inside the nest is that which is expected if one function of the nest were for temperate regulation. If so, this would suggest that the nest works as an incubation chamber (but which now may serve more than one function). We divided nests into two natural treatments: nests that received more continuous direct sunshine (sun), and those that received less direct sunshine, due to shade from trees or buildings (shade). Thermometer data loggers were placed in the nest cavity and outside, in the shade of the nest, and temperature was measured every 10min. We predicted that temperatures would consistently be higher and less variable in nests than outside nests. Also, at higher ambient temperatures the nest would function better as an incubation chamber as a consequence of having evolved in a hotter climate. Thus, in Curitiba, where temperatures are lower than where the species (and nest) evolved, nests in greater sunshine should have thermal characteristics that support the incubation chamber hypothesis. Predictions were supported: with Repeated Measures ANOVA and t-tests, we found that temperatures were more constant and higher in nests, especially when in the sun, and as the season progressed (hotter ambient temperatures). We conclude that the large mud nest of the Rufous Hornero works as an incubation chamber that likely evolved to help resolve the incubation-foraging trade-off in the very seasonal and hot regions where the bird evolved. Thus, as an incubation chamber, the nest allows the bird to forage rather than incubate thereby resolving the foraging-incubation trade-off and potentially

  12. Incongruity between Prion Conversion and Incubation Period following Coinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenfeld, Katie A.; Shikiya, Ronald A.; Kincaid, Anthony E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT When multiple prion strains are inoculated into the same host, they can interfere with each other. Strains with long incubation periods can suppress conversion of strains with short incubation periods; however, nothing is known about the conversion of the long-incubation-period strain during strain interference. To investigate this, we inoculated hamsters in the sciatic nerve with long-incubation-period strain 139H prior to superinfection with the short-incubation-period hyper (HY) strain of transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME). First, we found that 139H is transported along the same neuroanatomical tracks as HY TME, adding to the growing body of evidence indicating that PrPSc favors retrograde transneuronal transport. In contrast to a previous report, we found that 139H interferes with HY TME infection, which is likely due to both strains targeting the same population of neurons following sciatic nerve inoculation. Under conditions where 139H blocked HY TME from causing disease, the strain-specific properties of PrPSc corresponded with the strain that caused disease, consistent with our previous findings. In the groups of animals where incubation periods were not altered, we found that the animals contained a mixture of 139H and HY TME PrPSc. This finding expands the definition of strain interference to include conditions where PrPSc formation is altered yet disease outcome is unaltered. Overall, these results contradict the premise that prion strains are static entities and instead suggest that strain mixtures are dynamic regardless of incubation period or clinical outcome of disease. IMPORTANCE Prions can exist as a mixture of strains in naturally infected animals, where they are able to interfere with the conversion of each other and to extend incubation periods. Little is known, however, about the dynamics of strain conversion under conditions where incubation periods are not affected. We found that inoculation of the same animal with two strains

  13. Testing of mechanical ventilators and infant incubators in healthcare institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badnjevic, Almir; Gurbeta, Lejla; Jimenez, Elvira Ruiz; Iadanza, Ernesto

    2017-01-01

    The medical device industry has grown rapidly and incessantly over the past century. The sophistication and complexity of the designed instrumentation is nowadays rising and, with it, has also increased the need to develop some better, more effective and efficient maintenance processes, as part of the safety and performance requirements. This paper presents the results of performance tests conducted on 50 mechanical ventilators and 50 infant incubators used in various public healthcare institutions. Testing was conducted in accordance to safety and performance requirements stated in relevant international standards, directives and legal metrology policies. Testing of output parameters for mechanical ventilators was performed in 4 measuring points while testing of output parameters for infant incubators was performed in 7 measuring points for each infant incubator. As performance criteria, relative error of output parameters for mechanical ventilators and absolute error of output parameters for infant incubators was calculated. The ranges of permissible error, for both groups of devices, are regulated by the Rules on Metrological and Technical Requirements published in the Official Gazette of Bosnia and Herzegovina No. 75/14, which are defined based on international recommendations, standards and guidelines. All ventilators and incubators were tested by etalons calibrated in an ISO 17025 accredited laboratory, which provides compliance to international standards for all measured parameters.The results show that 30% of the tested medical devices are not operating properly and should be serviced, recalibrated and/or removed from daily application.

  14. Physical and chemical properties of biochars co-composted with biowastes and incubated with a chicken litter compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naser; Clark, Ian; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A; Shea, Syd; Meier, Sebastian; Qi, Fangjie; Kookana, Rai S; Bolan, Nanthi

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted where three biochars, made from macadamia nutshell (MS), hardwood shaving (WS) and chicken litter (CL), were co-composted with chicken manure and sawdust, and also incubated with a chicken litter based commercial compost. Biochars were added at the rates of 5% and 10% in the co-composting and 10% and 20% in the incubation experiment. The rates of biochar had no consistent effect on the change in element contents of composted- or incubated-biochars. The biochar C demonstrated recalcitrance in both composting and incubation systems. Composting increased the CEC of biochars probably due to thermophilic oxidation. The increases in CEC of WS and CL were 6.5 and 2.2 times, respectively, for composting. Translocation of elements, between biochar and compost medium, occurred in both directions. In most cases, biochars gained elements under the influence of positive difference of concentrations (i.e., when compost medium had higher concentration of elements than biochar), while in some cases they lost elements despite a positive difference. Biochar lost some elements (WS: B; CL: B, Mg and S) under the influence of negative difference of concentrations. Some biochars showed strong affinity for B, C, N and S: the concentration of these elements gained by biochars surpassed the concentration in the respective composting medium. The material difference in the biochars did not have influence on N retention: all three netbag-biochars increased their N content. The cost of production of biochar-compost will be lower in co-composting than incubation, which involves two separate processes, i.e., composting and subsequent incubation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An Investigative Study into Perspectives and Experiences of Incubates at the Chandaria Business Innovation and Incubation Centre at the Kenyatta University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyanyiwa, Takaruza; Mutsau, Morgen; Rudhumbu, Norman; Svotwa, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The study presents results from an investigative study undertaken at the Kenyatta University (KU) Chandaria Business Innovation and Incubation Centre. A total of 10 incubates representing 10 projects were engaged in face to face interviews. The incubates were appreciative of the value that incubation centre such as the one at KU contributed to…

  16. Cholesteryl ester accumulation in macrophages incubated with low density lipoprotein pretreated with cigarette smoke extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokode, M.; Kita, T.; Arai, H.; Kawai, C.; Narumiya, S.; Fujiwara, M.

    1988-04-01

    Although cigarette smoking is one of the major risk factors for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, the precise mechanisms of its adverse effects have not been fully elucidated. We incubated low density lipoprotein (LDL) with cigarette smoke (CS) extract and examined the incorporation of the lipoprotein by macrophages in vitro. When incubated with macrophages, LDL pretreated with CS extract (100 micrograms/ml) stimulated cholesteryl (/sup 14/C)oleate synthesis approximately equal to 12.5-fold that with unmodified LDL and transformed macrophages to cells rich in lipid droplets positively stained with oil red O. Enhancement in cholesteryl ester synthesis was dependent on the concentration of CS-modified LDL and exhibited saturation kinetics. When subjected to electrophoreses, CS-modified LDL migrated to a more anionic position than did unmodified LDL and showed extensive fragmentation of apolipoprotein B. This LDL modification depended upon the incubation time and concentration of the CS extract. Superoxide dismutase inhibited modification of LDL by 52%, suggesting that superoxide anion is, at least in part, involved. These results suggest that CS extract alters LDL into a form recognized and incorporated by macrophages. Such modification if it occurs in vivo, could explain the increased incidence of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease in smokers.

  17. A field-based technique for sediment incubation experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C. Rooney

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sediment incubation experiments have been a cornerstone in limnology for improving our understanding of sediment processes in aquatic ecosystems. Experiments are usually performed in the laboratory, which has several limitations, including: additional handling that may disturb the integrity of the sediments, the financial expense of purchasing and maintaining growth chambers and anaerobic gloveboxes, and the inability to exactly recreate the ambient environmental conditions experienced by sediments in natural ecosystems. Furthermore, laboratory-based techniques are simply not possible with flocculent sediments from eutrophic ecosystems that are highly prone to separation following changes in pressure. Here, we describe a field-based technique for incubating sediment cores that is simple, versatile, and inexpensive. Our in situ incubation technique is highly effective for exposing sediments to natural temperature, pressure, and light regimes, and easily maintaining sediments under anaerobic conditions.

  18. Incubation times of dinosaur eggs via embryonic metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Scott A.

    2016-08-01

    The incubation times for the eggs of 21 dinosaurs are determined from an estimate of their embyronic metabolic rate and the mass of the hatchlings via a mass growth model based on conservation of energy. Embryos in extant birds and crocodiles are studied in order to determine the best model for embryonic metabolism and growth. These results are used to develop a theoretical model that predicts the incubation times of an egg. This model is applied to dinosaur eggs and provides a unique window into dinosaur reproduction. The dinosaurs studied come from both Saurischia and Ornithischia. The incubation times vary from about 28 days for Archaeopteryx lithographica to about 76 days for Alamosaurus sanjuanensis.

  19. High incubation temperatures enhance mitochondrial energy metabolism in reptile embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bao-Jun; Li, Teng; Gao, Jing; Ma, Liang; Du, Wei-Guo

    2015-03-09

    Developmental rate increases exponentially with increasing temperature in ectothermic animals, but the biochemical basis underlying this thermal dependence is largely unexplored. We measured mitochondrial respiration and metabolic enzyme activities of turtle embryos (Pelodiscus sinensis) incubated at different temperatures to identify the metabolic basis of the rapid development occurring at high temperatures in reptile embryos. Developmental rate increased with increasing incubation temperatures in the embryos of P. sinensis. Correspondingly, in addition to the thermal dependence of mitochondrial respiration and metabolic enzyme activities, high-temperature incubation further enhanced mitochondrial respiration and COX activities in the embryos. This suggests that embryos may adjust mitochondrial respiration and metabolic enzyme activities in response to developmental temperature to achieve high developmental rates at high temperatures. Our study highlights the importance of biochemical investigations in understanding the proximate mechanisms by which temperature affects embryonic development.

  20. Influence of incubation time of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai and antifungal activity of culture filtrate against Bipolaris oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Juniors Pérez Torres

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work was developed at Agriculture Microbiology laboratory in the Agriculture Faculty at Universidad Central “Martha Abreu” de Las Villas, with the aim to evaluate the influence of incubation time of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai on antifungal activity of its culture filtrates against Bipolaris oryzae. Flask with Czapek broth was used for growing T. harzianum, then one disc of mycelium were incubated during 20 and 30 days at 28±1ºC and dark. Trichoderma harzianum (strain A-34 was submited to filtration process, and comparison were done among concentration of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% (v/v. Major inhibition porcentaje were observed in concentrations of 75% y 100% both at 20 and 30 days of incubation. At 20 day the inhibition porcentaje was greater in comparsison with 30 days.

  1. Temperature induced decoupling of enzymatic hydrolysis and carbon remineralization in long-term incubations of Arctic and temperate sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robador, Alberto; Brüchert, Volker; Steen, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    , as demonstrated by increased concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved carbohydrates. This effect was stronger at higher incubation temperatures, particularly in the Arctic sediments. In all experiments, concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFA) were low, indicating tight coupling......Extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis of high-molecular weight organic matter is the initial step in sedimentary organic carbon degradation and is often regarded as the rate-limiting step. Temperature effects on enzyme activities may therefore exert an indirect control on carbon mineralization. We...... explored the temperature sensitivity of enzymatic hydrolysis and its connection to subsequent steps in anoxic organic carbon degradation in long-term incubations of sediments from the Arctic and the North Sea. These sediments were incubated under anaerobic conditions for 24 months at temperatures of 0, 10...

  2. Romanian Framework for Creative Industries and Virtual Incubators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Victor IONESCU

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to promote creative industries in Romania, as partners of VIC, we propose an application project related to a personalized guide ofSouth-East Region of Romania as a result of creative firms cooperation. This guide should be a demand of assistance and cooperation with theEuropean partners and must be a signal that Romanian creative firms exist and want to growth up. On the other hand, we try to realize a newframework for virtual incubators in Romania. We have to realize this because there are only information technology incubators in Romania.

  3. A comparison of artificial incubation and natural incubation hatching success of gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) eggs in southern Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Krista M.; Qualls, Carl P.; Ennen, Joshua R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have found that Gopher Tortoise, Gopherus polyphemus, populations in southern Mississippi exhibit low recruitment, due in part to very low hatching success of their eggs. We sought to determine if the cause(s) of this low hatching success was related to egg quality (intrinsic factors), unsuitability of the nest environment (extrinsic factors), or a combination of the two. In 2003, hatching success was monitored simultaneously for eggs from the same clutches that were incubated in the laboratory and left to incubate in nests. A subset of randomly chosen eggs from each clutch was incubated in the laboratory under physical conditions that were known to be conducive to successful hatching to estimate the proportion of eggs that were capable of hatching in a controlled setting. Hatching success in the laboratory was compared with that of eggs incubated in natural nests to estimate the proportion of eggs that failed to hatch presumably from extrinsic factors. Laboratory hatching success was 58.8%, suggesting that roughly 40% of the eggs were intrinsically incapable of hatching even when incubated under controlled conditions. Hatching success in natural nests, 16.7%, was significantly lower than hatching success in the laboratory, suggesting that approximately 42.1% of eggs were capable of hatching but failed to hatch due to some extrinsic aspect(s) of the nest environment. Thus, the low hatching success of Gopher Tortoise eggs in southern Mississippi appears to be attributable to a combination of intrinsic (egg quality) and extrinsic (nest environment) factors.

  4. Variable Charge of Ultisols due to Phosphate Application and Incubation Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mahbub

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The laboratoryexperiment was conducted to study the effect of phosphate (P application and its incubation time on pHo (pH at thepoint of zero charge and variable charge of ultisols . The determined parameters were pHo and variable surfacecharges.Soil samples were added by 0, 375 and 1,125 mg P kg-1 (or 0, 50 and 150% of the P sorption maximum,respectively. Then, they were incubated for 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks. The variable surface-charges and pHo weredetermined by using the activity of potential determining ions (H+ and OH- within two salt concentrations as counterions (0.1N and 0.001N CaCl2 through a potentiometric titration method. The results were indicated that the high Psorption and 766 mg P kg-1 in maximum sorption were due to high contents in clay fractions and aluminum as well aslow pH of experimental soil. Application of P and incubation time were able to decrease pHo and to increase negativesurface-charges. Additionals of 375 and 1.125 mg P kg-1 incubated for 8 weeks gave the value of pHo 2.86 and 2.69;as well as the magnitude of negative charges 14.48 and 16.76 cmol(-.kg-1, respectively (both for 0.001N CaCl2.For pH > pHo (the characteristic of variable charge soils, the higher the salt (CaCl2 concentration and pH solution,the higher the negative surface-charge.

  5. Successful isolation of Helicobacter pylori after prolonged incubation: A case report of prolonged incubation for H. pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The culture of Helicobacter pylori from a gastric biopsy is the “gold standard” in the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. However, the primary isolation of H. pylori from gastric biopsies is rather demanding. The duration of incubation for the isolation of H. pylori has been recommended to be five to seven days: in the present case, we found that a prolonged incubation period allowed the successful isolation of H. pylori from a patient with ulcus ventriculi. Biopsies were placed directly into transport medium and processed for culture within two hours. On day 14, one suspected H. pylori-like colony appeared on one of the plates. The isolate was confirmed to be H. pylori based on its typical colony morphology, negative Gram stain, and positive urease, catalase and oxidase tests. The isolate, requiring 14 days recovery, later exhibited the normal growth characteristics of H. pylori strains, indicating its unusually long incubation requirement was a temporary predicament.

  6. Graduate Entrepreneurship Incubation Environments: A Framework of Key Success Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dajani, Haya; Dedoussis, Evangelos; Watson, Erika; Tzokas, Nikalaos

    2014-01-01

    The benchmarking framework developed in this study is specifically designed for higher education institutions to consider when developing environments to encourage entrepreneurship among their students, graduates and staff. The objective of the study was to identify key success factors of Graduate Entrepreneurship Incubator Environments (GEIEs)…

  7. Business incubators: (How) do they help their tenants?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Arend J.; Oakey, R.; Groen, A.; van der Sijde, P.; Cook, G.

    2013-01-01

    Business incubators (BI) have been established worldwide as tools for company creation and small businesses support. BIs claim to help their tenants by providing them with the optimal conditions for increasing early stage survival and long-term performance. Practitioners and researchers agree that

  8. Rabies With Unusually Long Incubation Period in a Nigerian Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rabies is a highly contagious viral infection of the nervous system with a still as yet high mortality rate even in advanced settings. Management maybe enhanced with early presentation. The incubation period usually ranges from 7 days to I year with a mean of 1 - 2 months. Method: The case report of a 34 year ...

  9. A comparison of methods for incubating zooplankton diapausing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determining the composition of zooplankton in endorheic pans can be challenging, and live sampling of these microcrustaceans does not give a true indication of their species diversity and abundance. The incubation of zooplankton diapausing eggs can assist in determining their diversity and abundance. In this study the ...

  10. CO2 emissions from soil incubated with sugarcane straw and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-08-13

    CO2 until the 79th. DAI) and initial accumulated respiration (Σ-CO2 until the 5th DAI). Analytical procedures. At the 80th DAI, the incubated soils were sieved (2 mm opening) to remove the remaining crop residue from the soil.

  11. State of the art incubator for controlled atmosphere studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1998-01-01

    A state of the art incubator for studies of the biological effect of controlled atmosphere was designed. Working conditions are all combinations of: Temperature (5 to 40°C), Humidity (25 to 98%), oxygen (0.1 to 30%) and nitrogen (0.1 to 50%). Several points were given specific considerations...

  12. Incubation of Spirometra eggs at laboratory conditions by Modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incubation of Spirometra eggs was conducted in the helminthology laboratory Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sokoine University of Agriculture during the period July to September, 2012. Spirometra eggs from faeces of naturally infected lions (Panthera leo) from Tarangire National Park, Tanzania were cultured at laboratory ...

  13. Systematic factors that affect ostrich egg incubation traits | Brand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data obtained from a pair-mated ostrich flock maintained at Oudtshoorn, South Africa, were used to estimate environmental and genetic parameters for egg weight (EWT), water loss of incubated eggs up to 21 days (WL21), water loss up to 35 days (WL35), pipping time (PT) and weight of day-old chicks (CWT). Between ...

  14. Mind Wandering and the Incubation Effect in Insight Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tengteng; Zou, Hong; Chen, Chuansheng; Luo, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Although many anecdotes suggest that creative insights often arise during mind wandering, empirical research is still sparse. In this study, the number reduction task (NRT) was used to assess whether insightful solutions were related to mind wandering during the incubation stage of the creative process. An experience sampling paradigm was used to…

  15. Innovation Hubs, student driven incubators in regional perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der J.D. (Han)

    2016-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.14261/postit/0AC5BB0E-3951-48E2-B00D49D5194985A7 In 2015 and 2016, Saxion University of Applied Sciences organized the 2nd and 3rd edition of the Regional Innovation and Entrepreneurship Conference (RIEC).   University Business Incubators (UBI) are being considered

  16. Business incubators: (how) do they support their tenants?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Arend J.

    2009-01-01

    Business incubators (BI) have been established worldwide as tools for company creation and small businesses support. BIs claim to help their tenants by providing them with the optimal conditions for increasing early stage survival. Practitioners and researchers agree that business support is a

  17. Passive solar poultry eggs incubator: II development and preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tests carried out on the incubator during day time operations indicate that passive systems can be used to solve the heating problems of poultry farmers with free energy from the sun. Further tests and development work are still in progress. Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology Vol. 3(2) 2003: 30-36 ...

  18. A recirculating incubation system for hatching small batches of fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water flowed out of the incubation unit through a small section of glass and then plastic tubing inserted through a second hole in the rubber stopper to a PVC drain manifold. The system was used to hatch successfully small batches of artificially fer-tilized, naturally spawned eggs (50-150) of isolated blue tilapia Oreochromis ...

  19. Human-centered incubator : Beyond a design concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, R.H.M.; Willemsen, H.

    2013-01-01

    We read with interest the paper by Ferris and Shepley1 on a human-centered design project with university students on neonatal incubators. It is interesting to see that in the design solutions and concepts as presented by Ferris and Shepley,1 human-centered design played an important role. In 2005,

  20. High turnover of fungal hyphae in incubation experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de F.T.; Baath, E.; Kuyper, T.W.; Bloem, J.

    2009-01-01

    Soil biological studies are often conducted on sieved soils without the presence of plants. However, soil fungi build delicate mycelial networks, often symbiotically associated with plant roots (mycorrhizal fungi). We hypothesized that as a result of sieving and incubating without plants, the total

  1. Water loss during incubation in red bishop (Euplectes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parry. Institute of Natural Resources, University of Natal, P.O. Box 37S,. Pietermaritzburg 3200, Republic of South Africa. ·To whom correspondence should be addressed. Received 10 August 1981; accepted 18 September 1981. Avian eggs lose weight during incubation and this weight loss, almost entirely due to water loss ...

  2. An Automated System for Incubation of Pelagic Fish Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Jørgensen

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available An automated system for incubation of pelagic fish eggs is described. The system has an internal air driven water circulation which separates healthy and dead or strongly infected eggs. A processor controlled, pulsed water exchange provides a strongly reduced water requirement. The equipment has also an automated temperature and salinity control and adjustment.

  3. What determines hatchling weight: breeder age or incubated egg weight?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AB Traldi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to determine which factor influences weight at hatch of broiler chicks: breeder age or incubated egg weight. In Experiment 1, 2340 eggs produced by 29- and 55-week-old Ross® broiler breeders were incubated. The eggs selected for incubation weighed one standard deviation below and above average egg weight. In Experiment 2, 2160 eggs weighing 62 g produced by breeders of both ages were incubated. In both experiments, 50 additional eggs within the weight interval determined for each breeder age were weighed, broken, and their components were separated and weighed. At hatch, hatchlings were sexed and weighed, determining the average initial weight of the progeny of each breeder age. Data were analyzed using the Analyst program of SAS® software package. In Experiment 1, the weight difference between eggs produced by young and mature breeders was 10.92 g, and the component that mostly influenced this difference was the yolk (7.51 g heavier in mature breeders, compared with 4.23 g difference in albumen and 0.8 g in eggshell weights. Hatchling weight difference was 9.4 g higher in eggs from mature breeders. In Experiment 2, egg weight difference was only 0.74 g, but yolk weight was 4.59 g higher in the eggs of mature breeders. The results obtained in the present study indicate that hatchling weight is influenced by egg weight, and not by breeder age.

  4. MARKETING CHALLENGES FOR SOUTH AFRICAN PUBLIC SECTOR BUSINESS INCUBATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donaldson Walter James

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship and innovation form the cornerstone of economic development in many developing countries. Through this, rather ideal combination employment can be enhanced, communities can be uplifted through education, and growth can be increased through discretionary purchasing power. This cycle has positive spinoffs which can alleviate poverty and decrease famine. Recent local research suggests that more than eighty percent of entrepreneurs, start-ups and Business ‘Incubatees’ don’t make it through their first year of establishment after leaving a Business Incubator programme. This paper tries to identify some of the marketing challenges faced by Business Incubators, and indeed BIMs in the Public Sector environment in South Africa. Identification and highlighting the possible drawbacks for ‘incubatees’ may assist them with success or meeting competitive challenges when they depart from the security of the relevant programmes. This study examines some of the skills, knowledge and attributes required for BIMs in this sector and what is required to meet the business and marketing challenges faced to remain sustainable. The survey was aimed at the largest, focused segment of South African Business Incubators affiliated to the industrial public sector and the hypothesis was to prove that strategic marketing information, acumen and knowledge is a key differentiator towards the growth and sustainability of Business Incubators in that sector. It is notable that these marketing challenges may also compare favourably with several other public sector segments in relevant countries of the southern African region as similar macroeconomic challenges are faced.

  5. Business incubators in China: An inquiry into the variables associated with incubatee success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sonobe, Tetsushi; Zhang, Haiyang

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the association between the outcome of business incubation and the resources used by incubators, by using a small panel of science and technology business incubators (STBIs) in China...

  6. Incubating Innovation: A standard model for nurturing new businesses, the incubator gains prominence in the world of biotech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifantini, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Incubators, accelerators, innovation centers, launch pads. Everyone defines the idea a bit differently, but, generally, these infrastructures refer to a subsidized space where fledgling companies get support?a combination of mentorship, funding, low rent, networking opportunities, and other training?with the goal of propelling early businesses to success.

  7. Thermal management in closed incubators: New software for assessing the impact of humidity on the optimal incubator air temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanaud, Stéphane; Decima, Pauline; Pelletier, Amandine; Libert, Jean-Pierre; Durand, Estelle; Stephan-Blanchard, Erwan; Bach, Véronique; Tourneux, Pierre

    2017-08-01

    Low-birth-weight (LBW) neonates are nursed in closed incubators to prevent transcutaneous water loss. The RH's impact on the optimal incubator air temperature setting has not been studied. On the basis of a clinical cohort study, we modelled all the ambient parameters influencing body heat losses and gains. The algorithm quantifies the change in RH on the air temperature, to maintain optimal thermal conditions in the incubator. Twenty-three neonates (gestational age (GA): 30.0 [28.9-31.6] weeks) were included. A 20% increase and a 20% decrease in the RH induced a change in air temperature of between -1.51 and +1.85°C for a simulated 650g neonate (GA: 26 weeks), between -1.66 and +1.87°C for a 1000g neonate (GA: 31 weeks), and between -1.77 and +1.97°C for a 2000g neonate (GA: 33 weeks) (pair temperature=a+b relative humidity +c age +d weight (p<0.001). We have developed new mathematical equations for calculating the optimal temperature for the incubator air as a function of the latter's relative humidity. The software constitutes a decision support tool for improving patient care in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antifungal treatments in artificial incubation of crayfish eggs (Pacifastacus leniusculus, Astacidae: Searching for alternatives to formaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Carral

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the concerns about the safety of the use of formaldehyde as antifungal agent, the effects of three alternative chemicals (potassium sorbate, copper hydroxide and magnesium chloride were tested in the artificial incubation of signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus eggs. Eight treatments were performed during 15 min every other day: formaldehyde at 3000 ppm (control, potassium sorbate at 5000 and 10000 ppm, copper hydroxide at 40, 60, 80 and 200 ppm, and magnesium chloride at 10000 ppm. Eggs were incubated in a flow through system at a density of 20 eggs·cm−2. After 61 days of incubation, the highest efficiencies were obtained with 200 ppm of copper hydroxide (77.6% of survivors to stage 2 with no significant differences from the control (74.3%. Lower concentrations of copper hydroxide resulted in high egg mortality whereas potassium sorbate and magnesium chloride were ineffective to avoid fungal growth and total egg mortality took place. From the obtained results, copper hydroxide baths at 200 ppm could be considered as a good alternative to formaldehyde.

  9. Use of serum biochemistry to evaluate nutritional status and health of incubating common eiders (Somateria mollissima) in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmen, T.; Franson, J.C.; Hario, Martti; Sankari, S.; Kilpi, Mikael; Lindstrom, K.

    2001-01-01

    During 1997–1999, we collected serum samples from 156 common eider (Somateria mollissima) females incubating eggs in the Finnish archipelago of the Baltic Sea. We used serum chemistry profiles to evaluate metabolic changes in eiders during incubation and to compare the health and nutritional status of birds nesting at a breeding area where the eider population has declined by over 50% during the past decade, with birds nesting at two areas with stable populations. Several changes in serum chemistries were observed during incubation, including (1) decreases in serum glucose, total protein, albumin, β‐globulin, and γ‐globulin concentrations and (2) increases in serum uric acid, creatine kinase, and β‐hydroxybutyrate concentrations. However, these changes were not consistent throughout the 3‐yr period, suggesting differences among years in the rate of carbohydrate, lipid, and protein utilization during incubation. The mean serum concentrations of free fatty acids, glycerol, and albumin were lowest and the serum α‐ and γ‐globulin levels were highest in the area where the eider population has declined, suggesting a role for nutrition and diseases in the population dynamics of Baltic eiders.

  10. UNIVERSITIES AND INCUBATORS: KEY FACTORS DRIVING ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Mahlmann Kipper

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic diversification is an utterly important factor for regions that are directly or indirectly related to any productive mechanisms and seek to strengthen their foundations for the generation of jobs and income. Within this context, to invest in business preparation and maturation, especially in the ones related to the technological area, turns out to be an interesting mean of diversifying a regional economy that is facing the risk of stagnation. This study considers the importance of the role taken on by universities and their incubators in driving entrepreneurship and supporting the creation of new companies and the innovative capacity of a country through knowledge transfer amongst universities and companies, generating benefits and socioeconomic progress in a country. It also conducts a case study on a company of the information technology area, recently incubated and whose major objective consists in becoming part of this economic diversification basis.

  11. Innovation, incubation and entrepreneurship case studies from IIT Kanpur

    CERN Document Server

    Khandekar, Sameer

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on promoting entrepreneurial ecosystems within universities and educational institutes. It especially emphasizes the thriving systems and practices existing within the Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (IITK). It discusses cases and successes of the SIDBI Incubation and Innovation Centre in the Institute. This edited volume highlights the vision of IITK and describes a few of the major achievements of the past few years. It especially showcases the requirements and challenges of creating, sustaining, and boosting such entrepreneurial ecosystems and incubation centres. The contents of this book will be useful to researchers, administrators, and corporate collaborators working in the area of monetizing technology coming from educational institutions by converting it to successful products and business ideas. .

  12. Influence of incubation management on pipping position, hatching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incubated ostrich eggs with intermediate levels of water loss, i.e. between 9.0 and 18.9% of fresh-egg weight, were more likely to pip in the correct position overall than those with higher or lower levels of water loss. Chicks from eggs stored for intermediate periods, i.e. 3, 4 and 6 days prior to being set, were more likely to pip ...

  13. New York Nano-Bio Molecular Information Technology (NYNBIT) Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Digendra K

    2008-12-19

    This project presents the outcome of an effort made by a consortium of six universities in the State of New York to develop a Center for Advanced technology (CAT) in the emerging field of Nano-Bio-Molecular Information Technology. The effort consists of activities such as organization of the NYNBIT incubator, collaborative research projects, development of courses, an educational program for high schools, and commercial start-up programs.

  14. Prolonged incubation of processed human spermatozoa will increase DNA fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, A; Khalili, M A; Halvaei, I; Roodbari, F

    2014-05-01

    One of the causes of failure in ART is sperm DNA fragmentation which may be associated with long period of spermatozoa incubation at 37 °C. The objective was to evaluate the rate of sperm DNA fragmentation using the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test after swim-up at different time intervals prior to use. In this prospective study, 21 normozoospermic specimens were analysed. The samples were incubated at 37 °C after preparation by direct swim-up. DNA fragmentation was assessed at different time intervals (0, 1, 2 and 3 h) using SCD test. Spermatozoa with no DNA fragmentation showed large- or medium-sized halos, and sperm cells with DNA fragmentation showed either a small halo or no halo. The rates of normal morphology and progressive motility after sperm processing were 72.33 ± 2.53% and 90 ± 1.02%, respectively. The rate of sperm DNA fragmentation was significantly higher after 2 h (8.81 ± 0.93%, P = 0.004) and 3 h (10.76 ± 0.89%, P fragmentation. Therefore, sperm samples intended for ART procedures should be used within 2 h of incubation at 37 °C. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Histopathological Changes in Tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos Incubated in Crude Extracts of Camellia Seed and Mangosteen Pericarp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Pinlaor, Somchai; Tesana, Smarn; Aunpromma, Surasit; Booyarat, Chantana; Sriraj, Pranee; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Punjaruk, Wiyada

    2013-01-01

    The present study was performed to observe histopathological changes in tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos (Gastropoda, Bithyniidae) incubated in crude extract solutions of camellia (Camellia oleifera) seed and mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp, and furthermore to estimate the molluscicidal effects of 2 plant substances. Substantial numbers of bithyniid snails were incubated in various concentrations of 2 plant solution for 24 hr. As the positive control, snails incubated in various concentrations of niclosamide, a chemical molluscicide, were used. The histopathological findings were observed in sectioned snail specimens of each experimental and control groups. The results showed that both camellia and mangosteen extracts had molluscicidal effects at 24 hr with 50% lethal concentration (LC50) at concentrations of 0.003 and 0.002 g/ml, respectively, while niclosamide had LC50 at concentrations 0.599 ppm. B. siamensis goniomphalos snail tissues (foot, gill, and digestive system) showed disruption of columnar muscle fibers of the foot, reduction of the length and number of gill cilia, numerous mucous vacuoles, and irregularly shaped of epithelial cells. Irregular apical and calciferous cells, dilatation of the digestive gland tubule, and large hemolymphatic spaces, and irregular apical surfaces, detachment of cilia, and enlargement of lysosomal vacuoles of epidermis were also shown in all groups. By the present study, it is confirmed that 2 plants, camellia and mangosteen, are keeping some substance having molluscicidal effects, and histopathological findings obtained in this study will provide some clues in further studies on their action mechanisms to use them as natural molluscicides. PMID:24327779

  16. Protective effects of thioltransferase in rat lens incubated with high glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Yu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the effect of high glucose on the redox system of the cultured rat lenses in vitro, and evaluate the effect of thioltransferase(TTaseagainst oxidative stress in diabetic cataract. METHODS: Lenses were incubated with different concentrations of glucose: control group(5.5mmol/L, high glucose groups(35.5, 65.5, 95.5mmol/Land mannitol control group for 7d. Following incubation, the lenses were evaluated daily using a dissecting microscope. After 7d of incubation, lenses were homogenized in lysis buffer and processed for measurement the activity of TTase, catalase(CAT, superoxide dismutase(SODand the specific value of GSSG/T-GSH. RESULTS: The lenses treated with high glucose exhibited mistlike opacity in the early stages, while the lenses of control group remained relatively transparent. With the rise of the concentration of high glucose, the activity of TTase increased and the maximum appeared in 35.5mmol/L group(1.743±0.20mU/mg protein, PP>0.05. The specific value of GSSG/T-GSH of lenses with high glucose groups increased compared with the control groups, there were 2.89, 2.57 and 2.42 times to the normal control group(PPPCONCLUSION: The antioxidant system of the lens was activated by the high glucose following the increased activity of TTase, the specific value of GSSG/T-GSH, and the decreased activities of CAT and SOD. The gradually decreased oxidation resistance in the lens may contribute to the development of diabetic cataract.

  17. EMPOWERING IT ENTREPRENEURSHIPS: WHAT’S THE CONTRIBUTION OF BUSINESS INCUBATORS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wescley Silva Xavier

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the contribution of Business Incubators for small IT business. In this way, a deep research in three Brazilian IT Incubators was developed. We investigated the perception of incubators’ managers, tenant and graduated entrepreneurs regarding to the key elements of incubation process, as support and infrastructure, university-incubator interaction, and management training. Our findings indicate some deficiencies in IT Incubators, predominantly in prospecting customers, attracting financial resources, and establishing relationships within universities and research centers.

  18. Trust as a determinant of entrepreneurs' preference to remain tenants in Turkish business incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aşcigil, Semra F; Magner, Nace R; Temel, Elif Karabulut

    2011-08-01

    Relations of two types of trust by entrepreneurs with the entrepreneurs' preference to remain an incubator tenant were examined using questionnaire data from 67 owners of companies in 6 Turkish incubators. As hypothesized, trust in incubator management had a positive and unique relation with preference to remain an incubator tenant. However, trust in other incubator tenants did not show the hypothesized positive and unique relation with preference to remain a tenant; the results indicated the relation is negative.

  19. Cellular Automata with network incubation in information technology diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseo, Renato; Guidolin, Mariangela

    2010-06-01

    Innovation diffusion of network goods determines direct network externalities that depress sales for long periods and delay full benefits. We model this effect through a multiplicative dynamic market potential driven by a latent individual threshold embedded in a special Cellular Automata representation. The corresponding mean field approximation of its aggregate version is a Riccati equation with a closed form solution. This allows the detection of a change-point time separating an incubation period from a subsequent take-off due to a collective threshold (critical mass). Weighted nonlinear least squares are the main inferential methodology. An application is analysed with reference to USA fax machine diffusion.

  20. External Service Providers to the National Security Technology Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-02-28

    This report documents the identification and assessment of external service providers to the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant to Arrowhead Center, New Mexico State University. This report contains 1) a summary of the services to be provided by NSTI; 2) organizational descriptions of external service providers; and 3) a comparison of NSTI services and services offered by external providers.

  1. A rumor transmission model with incubation in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jianwen; Wu, Wenjiang

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a rumor transmission model with incubation period and constant recruitment in social networks. By carrying out an analysis of the model, we study the stability of rumor-free equilibrium and come to the local stable condition of the rumor equilibrium. We use the geometric approach for ordinary differential equations for showing the global stability of the rumor equilibrium. And when ℜ0 = 1, the new model occurs a transcritical bifurcation. Furthermore, numerical simulations are used to support the analysis. At last, some conclusions are presented.

  2. Emerging Connections: Quantum & Classical Optics Incubator Program Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesky, Marcia [Optical Society of America, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-11-06

    The Emerging Connections: Quantum & Classical Optics Incubator was a scientific meeting held in Washington, DC on 6-8 November 2016. This Incubator provided unique and focused experiences and valuable opportunities to discuss advances, challenges and opportunities regarding this important area of research. Quantum optics and classical optics have coexisted for nearly a century as two distinct, but consistent descriptions of light in their respective domains. Recently, a number of detailed examinations of the structure of classical light beams have revealed that effects widely thought to be solely quantum in origin also have a place in classical optics. These new quantum-classical connections are informing classical optics in meaningful ways specifically by expanding understanding of optical coherence. Simultaneously, relationships discovered with classical light beams now also serve as a vehicle to illuminate concepts that no longer solely belong to the quantum realm. Interference, polarization, coherence, complementarity and entanglement are a partial list of elementary notions that now appear to belong to both quantum and classical optics. The goal of this meeting was to bring emerging quantum-classical links into wider view and to indicate directions in which forthcoming and future work would promote discussion and lead to a more unified understanding of optics.

  3. Temperature during the last week of incubation. III. Effects on chicken embryo physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maatjens, C M; van Roovert-Reijrink, I A M; Engel, B; van der Pol, C W; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2017-05-01

    We investigated effects of eggshell temperature (EST) of 35.6, 36.7, 37.8, or 38.9°C applied from d of incubation (E) 15, E17, or E19 onward on chicken embryo physiology. A total of 2,850 first-grade eggs of a 43-week-old Ross 308 broiler breeder flock were incubated at an EST of 37.8°C until E15. From E15, E17, or E19 onward, eggs were incubated at an EST of 35.6, 36.7, 37.8, or 38.9°C. Plasma glucose, uric acid, and lactate concentrations, and hepatic glycogen amount and concentration were measured at E15, E17, E19, internal pipping (IP), external pipping (EP), and hatch.An EST of 38.9°C applied from E15 onward decreased the amount of hepatic glycogen from E19 to IP and resulted in a lower glycogen amount at IP compared to all other EST. At EP, when oxygen (O2) becomes largely available, an EST of 38.9°C resulted in a higher glycogen amount and concentration compared to IP, which suggests that plasma glucose between IP and EP might be used for building up hepatic glycogen reserves. However, hepatic glycogen levels remained considerably lower at IP, EP, and hatch at an EST of 38.9°C, compared to an EST of 35.6 and 36.7°C.Opposite to an EST of 38.9°C, from IP onward, an EST of 35.6°C resulted in a higher glycogen amount and concentration compared to all other EST, which might be caused by the higher O2 availability relative to the lower metabolic rate, which provided time to build up glycogen stores from excessive glucose. A higher availability of hepatic glycogen might contribute to an improved physiological status of the broiler chicken embryo toward hatch. Hepatic gluconeogenesis is crucial for developing embryos, as glucose is the major energy source from IP until hatch. At hatch, no effect of EST was found for glucose, uric acid, or lactate.Results of this study emphasize that EST of 35.6 and 36.7°C from E15 onward appear to be beneficial for chicken embryo physiology. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Shifts in bacterial communities of eggshells and antimicrobial activities in eggs during incubation in a ground-nesting passerine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Grizard

    Full Text Available Microbial invasion of egg contents is a cause of embryonic death. To counter infection risks, the embryo is protected physically by the eggshell and chemically by antimicrobial proteins. If microbial pressure drives embryo mortality, then females may have evolved, through natural selection, to adapt their immune investment into eggs. Although frequently hypothesized, this match between immune allocation and microorganisms has not been explored yet. To examine if correlations between microbes on eggs and immunity in eggs exist, we collected eggs from red-capped larks (Calandrella cinerea and simultaneously examined their bacterial communities and antimicrobial components--pH, lysozyme and ovotransferrin--during natural incubation. Using molecular techniques, we find that bacterial communities are highly dynamic: bacterial abundance increases from the onset to late incubation, Shannon's α-diversity index increases during early incubation stages, and β-diversity analysis shows that communities from 1 day-old clutches are phylogenetically more similar to each other than the older ones. Regarding the antimicrobials, we notice a decrease of pH and lysozyme concentration, while ovotransferrin concentration increases during incubation. Interestingly, we show that two eggs of the same clutch share equivalent immune protection, independent of clutch age. Lastly, our results provide limited evidence of significant correlation between antimicrobial compounds and bacterial communities. Our study examined simultaneously, for the first time in a wild bird, the dynamics of bacterial communities present on eggshells and of albumen-associated antimicrobial components during incubation and investigated their relationship. However, the link between microorganisms and immunity of eggs remains to be elucidated further. Identifying invading microbes and their roles in embryo mortality, as well as understanding the role of the eggshell microbiome, might be key to

  5. Effect of Kiwi Shell and Incubation Time on Mobility of Lead and Cadmium in Contaminated Clay Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Lorestani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effectiveness of kiwi shell was investigated to reduce the mobility of Lead and Cadmium in clay soil in different intervals. For this purpose a clay soil sample was contaminated with Lead and Cadmium in distinct dishes with 10 and 600 ppm concentrations respectively and mixed with 5% kiwi shell. Samples were placed in incubator, and then sampling of soil in incubator was performed in intervals 3 hours, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Heavy metals concentrations were determined in different fractions of soil including exchangeable, carbonate, Fe-Mn oxides, organic matter, and residual with sequential extraction procedure and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed that during incubation, Lead concentration in treatments with kiwi shell rather than control soil increased in carbonate from 19.48 to 26.18 and in organic matter from 9.06 to 18.66 percent. Exchangeable, Fe-Mn oxides and residual fractions decreased from 11.48 to 6.69, 45.72 to 39.83 and 14.21 to 7.90 percent respectively. In samples with absorbent compared with control soil, Cadmium concentration in carbonate and organic matter increased from 28.20 to 38.40 and 18.76 to 24.72, while in exchangeable, Fe-Mn oxides and residual decreased from 16.66 to 13.69, 37.25 to 19.65 and 6.24 to 3.61 percent respectively. This study revealed that kiwi shell function in decreasing Cadmium and Lead mobility in studied clay soil were increased with increasing incubation time, but Cadmium compared with Lead required additional time to transfer and mobility to constant and stable soil fractions such as, organic matter and Fe-Mn oxides.

  6. Biparental incubation-scheduling: no experimental evidence for major energetic constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, Martin; Cresswell, Will; Rutten, Anne L; Valcu, Mihai; Kempenaers, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Incubation is energetically demanding, but it is debated whether these demands constrain incubation-scheduling (i.e., the length, constancy, and timing of incubation bouts) in cases where both parents incubate. Using 2 methods, we experimentally reduced the energetic demands of incubation in the semipalmated sandpiper, a biparental shorebird breeding in the harsh conditions of the high Arctic. First, we decreased the demands of incubation for 1 parent only by exchanging 1 of the 4 eggs for an artificial egg that heated up when the focal bird incubated. Second, we reanalyzed the data from the only published experimental study that has explicitly tested energetic constraints on incubation-scheduling in a biparentally incubating species (Cresswell et al. 2003). In this experiment, the energetic demands of incubation were decreased for both parents by insulating the nest cup. We expected that the treated birds, in both experiments, would change the length of their incubation bouts, if biparental incubation-scheduling is energetically constrained. However, we found no evidence that heating or insulation of the nest affected the length of incubation bouts: the combined effect of both experiments was an increase in bout length of 3.6min (95% CI: -33 to 40), which is equivalent to a 0.5% increase in the length of the average incubation bout. These results demonstrate that the observed biparental incubation-scheduling in semipalmated sandpipers is not primarily driven by energetic constraints and therefore by the state of the incubating bird, implying that we still do not understand the factors driving biparental incubation-scheduling.

  7. Physico-chemical properties of late-incubation egg amniotic fluid and a potential feed supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Omede

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study explored the physico-chemical properties of late-incubation egg amniotic fluid and a potential in ovo feed (IOF supplement. Methods Amniotic fluid was collected from broiler breeders (Ross 308, 51 weeks and Cobb 500, 35 weeks on day 17 after incubation. A mixture of high-quality soy protein supplement – Hamlet Protein AviStart (HPA was serially diluted in MilliQ water to obtain solutions ranging from 150 to 9.375 mg/mL. The mixtures were heat-treated (0, 30, 60 minutes in a waterbath (80°C and then centrifuged to obtain supernatants. The amniotic fluid and HPA supernatants were analysed for their physico-chemical properties. Results Only viscosity and K+ were significantly (p<0.05 different in both strains. Of all essential amino acids, leucine and lysine were in the highest concentration in both strains. The osmolality, viscosity and pCO2 of the supernatants decreased (p<0.05 with decreasing HPA concentration. Heat treatment significantly (p<0.05 affected osmolality, pH, and pCO2, of the supernatants. The interactions between HPA concentration and heat treatment were significant with regards to osmolality (p<0.01, pH (p<0.01, pCO2 (p<0.05, glucose (p<0.05, lactate (p<0.01 and acid-base status (p<0.01 of HPA solutions. The Ca2+, K+, glucose, and lactate increased with increasing concentration of HPA solution. The protein content of HPA solutions decreased (p<0.05 with reduced HPA solution concentrations. The supernatant from 150 mg/mL HPA solution was richest in glutamic acid, aspartic acid, arginine and lysine. Amino acids concentrations were reduced (p<0.05 with each serial dilution but increased with longer heating. Conclusion The values obtained in the primary solution (highest concentration are close to the profiles of high-protein ingredients. This supplement, as a solution, hence, may be suitable for use as an IOF supplement and should be tested for this potential.

  8. ''The Incubation Period for Void Swelling and its Dependence on Temperature, Dose Rate, and Dislocation Structure Evolution''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surh, M P; Sturgeon, J B; Wolfer, W G

    2002-06-13

    Void swelling in structural materials used for nuclear reactors is characterized by an incubation period whose duration largely determines the usefulness of the material for core components. Significant evolution of the dislocation and void microstructures that control radiation-induced swelling can occur during this period. Thus, a theory of incubation must treat time-dependent void nucleation in combination with dislocation evolution, in which the sink strengths of voids and dislocations change in concert. We present theoretical results for void nucleation and growth including the time-dependent, self-consistent coupling of point defect concentrations to the evolution of both void populations and dislocation density. Simulations show that the incubation radiation dose is a strong function of the starting dislocation density and of the dislocation bias factors for vacancy and interstitial absorption. Irradiation dose rate and temperature also affect the duration of incubation. The results are in general agreement with experiment for high purity metals.

  9. Rabies viral encephalitis with proable 25 year incubation period!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Shankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of rabies viral encephalitis in a 48-year-old male with an unusually long incubation period, historically suspected to be more than 20 years. The case was referred for histological diagnosis following alleged medical negligence to the forensic department. The histology and immunocytochemical demonstration of rabies viral antigen established the diagnosis unequivocally. The case manifested initially with hydrophobia and aggressive behavior, although he suddenly went to the bathroom and drank a small amount of water. History of dog bite 25 years back was elicited retrospectively following clinical suspicion. There was no subsequent history to suggest nonbite exposure to a rabid dog to consider recent event causing the disease, although this cannot be totally excluded.

  10. Garlic essential oil increases rates of eggs fertilization and hatching of Rhamdia quelen larvae in an artificial incubation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Garcia Marengoni

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of garlic (Allium sativum essential oil on the rates of eggs fertilization and hatching and on the normal development of larvae of artificially incubated silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen. The experiment was carried out using a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments and five replicates. The treatments consisted of introducing garlic essential oil into the incubators, which used a closed system of water recirculation, at concentrations of 0, 1, 3, and 5mg L-1. Rates of eggs fertilization and larval hatching were determined at 10 and 24h after the beginning of eggs hydration. Morphology of larvae was assessed with the aid of a stereo microscope to determine the rate of normal development. The concentration of 5mg L-1 promoted better rates of eggs fertilization and larval hatching. Concentrations of garlic essential oil had a linear effect on eggs fertilization rates and larval hatching. Garlic oil did not influence the morphology of the larvae (P>0.05. It is recommended to use 5mg L-1 of garlic essential oil to promote better rates of eggs fertilization and larval hatching of artificially incubated silver catfish.

  11. Prions in Milk from Ewes Incubating Natural Scrapie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroux, Caroline; Simon, Stéphanie; Benestad, Sylvie L.; Maillet, Séverine; Mathey, Jacinthe; Lugan, Séverine; Corbière, Fabien; Cassard, Hervé; Costes, Pierrette; Bergonier, Dominique; Weisbecker, Jean-Louis; Moldal, Torffin; Simmons, Hugh; Lantier, Frederic; Feraudet-Tarisse, Cécile; Morel, Nathalie; Schelcher, François; Grassi, Jacques; Andréoletti, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Since prion infectivity had never been reported in milk, dairy products originating from transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-affected ruminant flocks currently enter unrestricted into the animal and human food chain. However, a recently published study brought the first evidence of the presence of prions in mammary secretions from scrapie-affected ewes. Here we report the detection of consistent levels of infectivity in colostrum and milk from sheep incubating natural scrapie, several months prior to clinical onset. Additionally, abnormal PrP was detected, by immunohistochemistry and PET blot, in lacteal ducts and mammary acini. This PrPSc accumulation was detected only in ewes harbouring mammary ectopic lymphoid follicles that developed consequent to Maedi lentivirus infection. However, bioassay revealed that prion infectivity was present in milk and colostrum, not only from ewes with such lympho-proliferative chronic mastitis, but also from those displaying lesion-free mammary glands. In milk and colostrum, infectivity could be recovered in the cellular, cream, and casein-whey fractions. In our samples, using a Tg 338 mouse model, the highest per ml infectious titre measured was found to be equivalent to that contained in 6 µg of a posterior brain stem from a terminally scrapie-affected ewe. These findings indicate that both colostrum and milk from small ruminants incubating TSE could contribute to the animal TSE transmission process, either directly or through the presence of milk-derived material in animal feedstuffs. It also raises some concern with regard to the risk to humans of TSE exposure associated with milk products from ovine and other TSE-susceptible dairy species. PMID:19079578

  12. Prions in milk from ewes incubating natural scrapie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lacroux

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since prion infectivity had never been reported in milk, dairy products originating from transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE-affected ruminant flocks currently enter unrestricted into the animal and human food chain. However, a recently published study brought the first evidence of the presence of prions in mammary secretions from scrapie-affected ewes. Here we report the detection of consistent levels of infectivity in colostrum and milk from sheep incubating natural scrapie, several months prior to clinical onset. Additionally, abnormal PrP was detected, by immunohistochemistry and PET blot, in lacteal ducts and mammary acini. This PrP(Sc accumulation was detected only in ewes harbouring mammary ectopic lymphoid follicles that developed consequent to Maedi lentivirus infection. However, bioassay revealed that prion infectivity was present in milk and colostrum, not only from ewes with such lympho-proliferative chronic mastitis, but also from those displaying lesion-free mammary glands. In milk and colostrum, infectivity could be recovered in the cellular, cream, and casein-whey fractions. In our samples, using a Tg 338 mouse model, the highest per ml infectious titre measured was found to be equivalent to that contained in 6 microg of a posterior brain stem from a terminally scrapie-affected ewe. These findings indicate that both colostrum and milk from small ruminants incubating TSE could contribute to the animal TSE transmission process, either directly or through the presence of milk-derived material in animal feedstuffs. It also raises some concern with regard to the risk to humans of TSE exposure associated with milk products from ovine and other TSE-susceptible dairy species.

  13. Distribution of Major Basic Protein on Human Airway following In Vitro Eosinophil Incubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailing Xue

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Major basic protein (MBP released from activated eosinophils may influence airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR by either direct effects on airway myocytes or by an indirect effect. In this study, human bronchi, freshly isolated human eosinophils, or MBP purified from human eosinophil granules were incubated for studying eosinophil infiltration and MBP localization. Eosinophils immediately adhered to intact human airway as well as to cultured human airway myocytes and epithelium. Following incubation 18–24 h, eosinophils migrated into the airway media, including the smooth muscle layer, but had no specific recruitment to airway neurons. Eosinophils released significant amounts of MBP within the airway media, including areas comprising the smooth muscle layer. Most deposits of MBP were focally discrete and restricted by immunologic detection to a maximum volume of ∼300 μm3 about the eosinophil. Native MBP applied exogenously was immediately deposited on the surface of the airway, but required at least 1 h to become detected within the media of the airway wall. Tissue MBP infiltration and deposition increased in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, these findings suggest that eosinophil-derived cationic proteins may alter airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR in vivo by an effect that is not limited to the bronchial epithelium.

  14. Evolution of Sr distribution coefficient as a function of time, incubation conditions and measurement technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Guo [Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Staunton, Siobhan [UMR Rhizosphere and Symbiose, INRA, place Viala, 34060 Montpellier, Cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: staunton@ensam.inra.fr

    2005-07-01

    A thorough understanding of the dynamics of radiostrontium in soil is required to allow accurate long-term predictions of its mobility. We have followed the soil solution distribution of {sup 85}Sr as a function of time under controlled conditions over 4 months and studied the effect of soil moisture content and organic matter amendments. Data have been compared to redox conditions and soil pH. To fuel the ongoing debate on the validity of distribution coefficient (K {sub d}) values measured in dilute suspension, we have compared values obtained from the activity concentration in soil solution obtained by centrifugation to data obtained in suspension with or without air-drying of the soil samples after incubation. The {sup 85}Sr adsorption properties of soil, incubated without prior contamination were also measured. There is some time-dependent adsorption of Sr. This is partly due to changing soil composition due to the decomposition of added organic matter and anaerobic conditions induced by flooding. There is also a kinetic effect, but adsorption remains largely reversible. Most of the observed effects are lost when soil is suspended in electrolyte solution.

  15. APPLICATION OF THE MODEL CERNE FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF CRITERIA INCUBATION SELECTION IN TECHNOLOGY BASED BUSINESSES : A STUDY IN INCUBATORS OF TECHNOLOGICAL BASE OF THE COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clobert Jefferson Passoni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Business incubators are a great source of encouragement for innovative projects, enabling the development of new technologies, providing infrastructure, advice and support, which are key elements for the success of new business. The technology-based firm incubators (TBFs, which are 154 in Brazil. Each one of them has its own mechanism for the selection of the incubation companies. Because of the different forms of management of incubators, the business model CERNE - Reference Center for Support for New Projects - was created by Anprotec and Sebrae, in order to standardize procedures and promote the increase of chances for success in the incubations. The objective of this study is to propose selection criteria for the incubation, considering CERNE’s five dimensions and aiming to help on the decision-making in the assessment of candidate companies in a TBF incubator. The research was conducted from the public notices of 20 TBF incubators, where 38 selection criteria were identified and classified. Managers of TBF incubators validated 26 criteria by its importance via online questionnaires. As a result, favorable ratings were obtained to 25 of them. Only one criterion differed from the others, with a unfavorable rating.

  16. Mobi-incubation user experience for rural entrepreneurs in emerging economies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chelule, E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Business incubation has long been a successful economic development tool in developed and emerging economies. It helps entrepreneurs start businesses that remain sustainable. However, business incubation theory designed for developed countries...

  17. Small business incubators: An emerging phenomenon in South Africa's SMME economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mukovhe Masutha; Christian M. Rogerson

    2014-01-01

    .... This article analyses the state of business incubation in South Africa drawing attention to marked differences between the groups of public sector business incubators as opposed to those business...

  18. Small business incubators: An emerging phenomenon in South Africa’s SMME economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mukovhe Masutha; Christian M. Rogerson

    2014-01-01

    .... This article analyses the state of business incubation in South Africa drawing attention to marked differences between the groups of public sector business incubators as opposed to those business...

  19. Development of hematological respiratory variables in late chicken embryos: the relative importance of incubation time and embryo mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazawa, Hiroshi; Andrewartha, Sarah J; Burggren, Warren W

    2011-07-01

    Oxygen demand increases during embryonic development, requiring an increase in red blood cells (RBCs) containing hemoglobin (Hb) to transport O(2) between the respiratory organ and systemic tissues. A thorough ontogenetic understanding of the onset and maturation of the complex regulatory processes for RBC concentration ([RBC]), Hb concentration ([Hb]), hematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular indices (mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration ([MCHb])) is currently lacking. We hypothesize that during the last half of incubation when the respiratory organ (the chorioallantoic membrane) envelops most of the egg contents, mean corpuscular indices will stabilize. Accordingly, Hct, [RBC] and [Hb] must also all change proportionally across development. Further, we hypothesize that the hematological respiratory variables develop and mature as a function of incubation duration, independently of embryonic growth. As predicted, a similar increase in Hct (from 18.7±0.6% on day 10 (d10) to 34.1±0.5% on d19 of incubation), [RBC] (1.13±0.03×10(6)/μL to 2.50±0.03×10(6)/μL) and [Hb] (6.1±0.2 g% to 11.2±0.1 g%) occurred during d10-19. Both [RBC] and [Hb] demonstrated high linear correlation with Hct, resulting in constant [MCHb] (~33 g% from d10 to d19). The decrease in MCV (from ~165 μ(3) on d10 to ~140 μ(3) on d13) and MCH (~55 pg to ~45 pg) during d10-13, may be attributed to a changeover from larger primary to smaller secondary and adult-type erythrocytes with MCV and MCH remaining constant (~140 μ(3) and ~45 pg respectively) for the rest of the incubation period (d13-19). Hematological respiratory values on a given incubation day were identical between embryos of different masses using either natural mass variation or experimental growth acceleration, indicating that the hematological variables develop as a function of incubation time, irrespective of embryo growth. Copyright © 2011. Published by

  20. Effects of time of egg collection and pre-incubation treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hatching success of artificially incubated ostrich eggs can be influenced by egg management prior to setting the eggs in the incubator. This can include the length of time and conditions to which eggs are exposed in nests prior to collection and the conditions under which eggs are stored prior to incubation.

  1. A study of knowledge supernetworks and network robustness in different business incubators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haihong; Wu, Wenqing; Zhao, Liming

    2016-04-01

    As the most important intangible resource of the new generation of business incubators, knowledge has been studied extensively, particularly with respect to how it spreads among incubating firms through knowledge networks. However, these homogeneous networks do not adequately describe the heterogeneity of incubating firms in different types of business incubators. To solve the problem of heterogeneity, the notion of a knowledge supernetwork has been used both to construct a knowledge interaction model among incubating firms and to distinguish social network relationships from knowledge network relationships. The process of knowledge interaction and network evolution can then be simulated with a few rules for incubating firms regarding knowledge innovation/absorption, social network connection, and entry and exit, among other aspects. Knowledge and networks have been used as performance indicators to evaluate the evolution of knowledge supernetworks. Moreover, we study the robustness of incubating firms' social networks by employing four types of attack strategies. Based on our simulation results, we conclude that there have been significant knowledge interaction and network evolution among incubating firms on a periodic basis and that both specialized and diversified business incubators have every advantage necessary in terms of both knowledge and networks to cultivate start-up companies. As far as network robustness is concerned, there is no obvious difference between the two types of business incubators with respect to the stability of their network structures, but specialized business incubators have stronger network communication abilities than diversified business incubators.

  2. The see-saw a vertical-lift incubator designed for channel catfish egg masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish egg masses are typically incubated in baskets that are suspended in water that is agitated with rotating or oscillating paddles. We designed and tested a new vertical-lift incubator (the “See-Saw”) to incubate channel catfish egg masses. Preliminary research in commercial hatcheries...

  3. Evaluating propagation method performance over time with Bayesian updating: an application to incubator testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, Sarah J.; Chandler, J. N.; Olsen, G.H.; Shafer, C. C.; Hartup, Barry K.; Urbanek, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    In captive-rearing programs, small sample sizes can limit the quality of information on performance of propagation methods. Bayesian updating can be used to increase information on method performance over time. We demonstrate an application to incubator testing at USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. A new type of incubator was purchased for use in the whooping crane (Grus americana) propagation program, which produces birds for release. We tested the new incubator for reliability, using sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) eggs as surrogates. We determined that the new incubator should result in hatching rates no more than 5% lower than the available incubators, with 95% confidence, before it would be used to incubate whooping crane eggs. In 2007, 5 healthy chicks hatched from 12 eggs in the new incubator, and 2 hatched from 5 in an available incubator, for a median posterior difference of method, where a veterinarian determined whether eggs produced chicks that, at hatching, had no apparent health problems that would impede future release. We used the 2007 estimates as priors in the 2008 analysis. In 2008, 7 normal chicks hatched from 15 eggs in the new incubator, and 11 hatched from 15 in an available incubator, for a median posterior difference of 19%, with 95% credible interval (-8%, 44%). The increased sample size has increased our understanding of incubator performance. While additional data will be collected, at this time the new incubator does not appear adequate for use with whooping crane eggs.

  4. Network brokers or hit makers? Analyzing the influence of incubation on start-up investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rijnsoever, Frank J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314100334; Van Weele, Marijn A.; Eveleens, Chris P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369284704

    Incubators are a prominent way to support technology based start-ups. Yet, it remains unclear to what extent these incubators enhance start-up performance, nor is it known through which mechanisms this would occur. In this paper we test two mechanisms to explain the relationship between incubation

  5. Anaerobic incubation of membrane filter cultures for improved detection of fecal coliforms from recreational waters.

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, J D; Tunnicliff, B; Brickler, S K; Kramer, R E; Sinclair, N A

    1984-01-01

    Anaerobic incubation of membrane filter cultures significantly enhanced detection of fecal coliforms in surface-water samples from recreational beaches. In contrast to standard aerobic incubation, anaerobic incubation suppressed overgrowth of masking, noncoliform bacteria but did not increase the frequency of fecal coliform recovery.

  6. Soil respiration is not limited by reductions in microbial biomass during long-term soil incubations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declining rates of soil respiration are reliably observed during long-term laboratory incubations, but the cause is uncertain. We explored different controls on soil respiration during long-term soil incubations. Following a 707 day incubation (30 C) of soils from cultivated and forested plots at Ke...

  7. Unpainting the black box : exploring mechanisms and practices of start-up incubators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weele, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Although incubators have become one of the most prominent instruments to stimulate the emergence and growth of start-ups, questions are being raised about their effectiveness. One major obstacle to evaluate the effectiveness of incubators is that the incubator remains a ‘black box’: the extant

  8. Stability and recovery of DNA origami structure with cation concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Wang, Ping; Liu, Yang; Liu, Ting; Xu, Yan; Zhu, Shanshan; Zhu, Jun; Ye, Kai; Huang, Guang; Dannong, He

    2018-01-01

    We synthesized triangular and rectangular DNA origami nanostructures and investigated the stability and recovery of them under low cation concentration. Our results demonstrated that the origami nanostructures would melt when incubated in low cation concentration, and recover whilst kept in the concentration for less than 10 min. However, extending the incubation time would lead to irreversible melting. Our results show the possibility of application of DNA origami nanostructures for things such as a sensor for cation concentration response, etc.

  9. Fostering Entrepreneurship through Business Incubation: The Role and Prospects of Postsecondary Vocational-Technical Education. Report 1: Survey of Business Incubator Clients and Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Gantes, Victor M.; And Others

    A national survey examined the collective experiences of entrepreneurs, business incubator managers, and postsecondary institutions involved in educational and training strategies aimed at fostering entrepreneurship. The sample included incubators sponsored by universities (n=75), two-year colleges (n=25), and other sources (n=100). The survey…

  10. Business Incubation as an Instrument of Innovation: The Experience of South America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the experience of business incubation as an innovative developmental instrument based on the recent experience of the South American countries of Brazil and Chile and the Caribbean island nation of Trinidad and Tobago. A qualitative research method was adopted involving a review of published reports, journal articles and relevant case studies; and face-to-face semi-structured interviews with incubator managerial staff. The major findings are that there are great similarities among the incubators studied in terms of their links to universities, services offered, and funding challenges, but there is growing acceptance of incubation as a potentially valid tool for promoting business development and innovation although most incubators are at the early stage. The paper is original because the case study application to incubation in Trinidad and Tobago is new with only one related article published, and this study therefore adds value to the body of research because business incubation has been under-researched in the study area. The research is limited to the extent that the case study focuses on a comparison of selected incubator features and did not include the views of clients. The practical implications of this study is that sponsors of incubators and managers need to obtain a deeper understanding of the incubation ecosystem especially with regard to innovation-based incubators, if successful innovative businesses are to emerge. The results of the study can also be generalized over the small island developing states of the Caribbean.

  11. Decisions for the IVF laboratory: comparative analysis of embryo culture incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Jason E

    2014-05-01

    Incubators in the IVF laboratory play a pivotal role in providing a stable and appropriate culture environment required for optimizing embryo development and clinical outcomes. With technological advances, several types of incubators are now available and careful consideration is required for selection. Examination of variables, such as recovery/stabilization of temperature, gas atmosphere and humidity, as well as understanding various approaches utilized by each device to regulate these variables, is critical. Additionally, a comprehensive examination of clinical studies that compare various incubators may provide insight into their efficacy. Other factors, both technical and practical, must also be considered when selecting an incubator. Importantly, proper management, including patient volume and workflow, is paramount in optimizing function of any incubator, regardless of the technology incorporated. This review highlights incubator function and reviews key environmental variables controlled and the technology utilized in various units. Additionally, existing comparative studies focused on incubator recovery and clinical outcomes are critically analysed. Finally, strategies employed for incubator management, as well as future potential incubator improvements are discussed. While existing reports indicate that smaller benchtop/topload incubators provide faster recovery of environmental variables, there is no clear advantage of any particular incubator based on clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antibody incubation at 37°C improves fluorescent immunolabeling in free-floating thick tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xia; Feng, Ya-Ping; Du, Bin; Sun, Han-Ru; Ding, You-Quan; Qi, Jian-Guo

    2017-03-01

    Fluorescent immunolabeling and imaging in free-floating thick (50-60 μm) tissue sections is relatively simple in practice and enables design-based non-biased stereology, or 3-D reconstruction and analysis. This method is widely used for 3-D in situ quantitative biology in many areas of biological research. However, the labeling quality and efficiency of standard protocols for fluorescent immunolabeling of these tissue sections are not always satisfactory. Here, we systematically evaluate the effects of raising the conventional antibody incubation temperatures (4°C or 21°C) to mammalian body temperature (37°C) in these protocols. Our modification significantly enhances the quality (labeling sensitivity, specificity, and homogeneity) and efficiency (antibody concentration and antibody incubation duration) of fluorescent immunolabeling of free-floating thick tissue sections.

  13. Selective medium for growth of Campylobacter in containers incubated aerobically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction. Campylobacter are traditionally cultured in primary containers inside of secondary containers filled with microaerobic atmospheres. Recent findings indicated that media supplemented with optimal concentrations of amino acids, organic acids, and bicarbonate support Campylobacter growth ...

  14. 脑心通胶囊对老年人2型糖尿病颈动脉内膜中层厚度和血浆β血小板球蛋白P选择素及纤溶酶原激活物抑制剂1的影响%The effect of Naoxintong capsule treatment on carotid artery intima-media thickness, serum beta thromboglobulin,P-selectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in elderly type 2 diabetic patients with subclinical atherosclerotic vascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊; 程森华; 杨晓翠; 孙国香; 徐更华; 王益波

    2017-01-01

    目的 探讨脑心通胶囊治疗老年2型糖尿病血管病变患者对其颈动脉内膜中层厚度(IMT)、血浆β-血小板球蛋白(β-TG)、P-选择素(CD62p)和纤溶酶原激活物抑制剂-1(PAI-1)的影响.方法 回顾性研究,选择医院2014年6月至2015年5月收治的110例老年2型糖尿病血管病变患者为研究对象.数字抽签随机分为观察组和对照组(各55例),入选患者均给予常规治疗,观察组患者同时给予脑心通胶囊治疗.对比分析两组患者血浆β-TG、CD62p和PAI-1水平变化. 结果 治疗前,两组患者颈动脉IMT、PAI-1、β-TG和CD62p水平比较,差异无统计学意义(均P>0.05).治疗后,观察组与对照组患者比较,颈动脉IMT(1.31±0.26)mm比(1.44±0.26)mm,差异有统计学意义(t=4.058,P<0.05);观察组患者血浆PAI-1、β-TG和CD62p水平与对照组比较,PAI-1(2.23±0.48)μg/L比(2.56±0.61)μg/L、β TG(29.76±10.24) μg/L比(35.98±10.35)μg/L,CD62p(162.3±21.5)ng/L比(176.96±20.3)ng/L,差异有统计学意义(t值分别为3.965、11.293、14.624,均P<0.05). 结论 脑心通胶囊治疗2型糖尿病亚临床血管病变患者有利于减少颈动脉内膜中层厚度,降低血小板释放活性,减轻患者机体氧化应激反应,从而减轻老年2型糖尿病患者血管病变.%Objective To investigate the effects of Naoxintong Capsule treatment on the carotid artery intima media thickness(IMT),plasma beta thromboglobulin(beta TG),P-selectin(CD62p)and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI 1)in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and subclinical atherosclerotic vascular disease.Methods In retrospective study,110 cases of elderly patients with type 2 diabetic vascular diseases were selected and admitted as study subjects from June 2014 to May 2015.They were randomized into observation group and control group(n=55,each).All patients were given routine treatment.The patients in the observation group were treated with Naoxintong Capsule.The levels of

  15. Additional double-wall roof in single-wall, closed, convective incubators: Impact on body heat loss from premature infants and optimal adjustment of the incubator air temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanaud, Stéphane; Decima, Pauline; Pelletier, Amandine; Libert, Jean-Pierre; Stephan-Blanchard, Erwan; Bach, Véronique; Tourneux, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Radiant heat loss is high in low-birth-weight (LBW) neonates. Double-wall or single-wall incubators with an additional double-wall roof panel that can be removed during phototherapy are used to reduce Radiant heat loss. There are no data on how the incubators should be used when this second roof panel is removed. The aim of the study was to assess the heat exchanges in LBW neonates in a single-wall incubator with and without an additional roof panel. To determine the optimal thermoneutral incubator air temperature. Influence of the additional double-wall roof was assessed by using a thermal mannequin simulating a LBW neonate. Then, we calculated the optimal incubator air temperature from a cohort of human LBW neonate in the absence of the additional roof panel. Twenty-three LBW neonates (birth weight: 750-1800g; gestational age: 28-32 weeks) were included. With the additional roof panel, R was lower but convective and evaporative skin heat losses were greater. This difference can be overcome by increasing the incubator air temperature by 0.15-0.20°C. The benefit of an additional roof panel was cancelled out by greater body heat losses through other routes. Understanding the heat transfers between the neonate and the environment is essential for optimizing incubators. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Incubation temperature effects on hatchling performance in the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah R Fisher

    Full Text Available Incubation temperature has significant developmental effects on oviparous animals, including affecting sexual differentiation for several species. Incubation temperature also affects traits that can influence survival, a theory that is verified in this study for the Northwest Atlantic loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta. We conducted controlled laboratory incubations and experiments to test for an effect of incubation temperature on performance of loggerhead hatchlings. Sixty-eight hatchlings were tested in 2011, and 31 in 2012, produced from eggs incubated at 11 different constant temperatures ranging from 27°C to 33°C. Following their emergence from the eggs, we tested righting response, crawling speed, and conducted a 24-hour long swim test. The results support previous studies on sea turtle hatchlings, with an effect of incubation temperature seen on survivorship, righting response time, crawling speed, change in crawl speed, and overall swim activity, and with hatchlings incubated at 27°C showing decreased locomotor abilities. No hatchlings survived to be tested in both years when incubated at 32°C and above. Differences in survivorship of hatchlings incubated at high temperatures are important in light of projected higher sand temperatures due to climate change, and could indicate increased mortality from incubation temperature effects.

  17. Effects of incubation temperature on growth and performance of the veiled chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Robin M

    2008-10-01

    I evaluated the effect of incubation temperature on phenotypes of the veiled chameleon, Chamaeleo calyptratus. I chose this species for study because its large clutch size (30-40 eggs or more) allows replication within clutches both within and among experimental treatments. The major research objectives were (1) to assess the effect of constant low, moderate, and high temperatures on embryonic development, (2) to determine whether the best incubation temperature for embryonic development also produced the "best" hatchlings, and (3) to determine how a change in incubation temperature during mid-development would affect phenotype. To meet these objectives, I established five experimental temperature regimes and determined egg survival and incubation length and measured body size and shape, selected body temperatures, and locomotory performance of lizards at regular intervals from hatching to 90 d, or just before sexual maturity. Incubation temperature affected the length of incubation, egg survival, and body mass, but did not affect sprint speed or selected body temperature although selected body temperature affected growth in mass independently of treatment and clutch. Incubation at moderate temperatures provided the best conditions for both embryonic and post-hatching development. The highest incubation temperatures were disruptive to development; eggs had high mortality, developmental rate was low, and hatchlings grew slowly. Changes in temperature during incubation increased the among-clutch variance in incubation length relative to that of constant temperature treatments. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Compact, Engineered, 2-Micron Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Prototype: A New NASA Instrument Incubator Program Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Koch, Grady J.; Yu, Jirong; Singh, Upendra N.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Wang, Jinxue; Petros, Mulugeta

    2005-01-01

    A new project, selected in 2005 by NASA s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) under the Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), will be described. The 3-year effort is intended to design, fabricate, and demonstrate a packaged, rugged, compact, space-qualifiable coherent Doppler wind lidar (DWL) transceiver capable of future validation in an aircraft and/or Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The packaged DWL will utilize the numerous advances in pulsed, solid-state, 2-micron laser technology at NASA s Langley Research Center (LaRC) in such areas as crystal composition, architecture, efficiency, cooling techniques, pulse energy, and beam quality. The extensive experience of Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems (RSAS) in coherent lidar systems, in spacebased sensors, and in packaging rugged lidar systems will be applied to this project. The packaged transceiver will be as close to an envisioned space-based DWL system as the resources and technology readiness allow. We will attempt to facilitate a future upgrade to a coherent lidar system capable of simultaneous wind and CO2 concentration profile measurements. Since aerosol and dust concentration is also available from the lidar signal, the potential for a triple measurement lidar system is attractive for both Earth and Mars remote sensing. A key follow on step after the IIP will be to add a telescope, scanner, and software for aircraft validation. This IIP should also put us in a position to begin a parallel formulation study in the 2006-2007 timeframe for a space-based DWL demonstration mission early next decade.

  19. Riverine Dissolved Organic Matter Degradation Modeled Through Microbial Incubations of Vascular Plant Leachates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfmann, J.; Hernes, P.; Chuang, C. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) contains as much carbon as is in the atmosphere, provides the main link between terrestrial and marine carbon reservoirs, and fuels the microbial food web. The fate and removal of DOM is a result of several complex conditions and processes, including photodegradation, sorption/desorption, dominant vascular plant sources, and microbial abundance. In order to better constrain factors affecting microbial degradation, laboratory incubations were performed using Sacramento River water for microbial inoculums and vascular plant leachates. Four vascular plant sources were chosen based on their dominance in the Sacramento River Valley: gymnosperm needles from Pinus sabiniana (foothill pine), angiosperm dicot leaves from Quercus douglassi (blue oak), angiosperm monocot mixed annual grasses, and angiosperm monocot mixed Schoenoplectus acutus (tule) and Typha spp. (cattails). Three concentrations of microbial inoculum were used for each plant material, ranging from 0.2% to 10%. Degradation was monitored as a function of time using dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV-Vis absorbance, and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM), and was compared across vascular plant type and inoculum concentration.

  20. Effect of dextrose, valine, glycine and thiamine on growth rate of Lactobacillus acidophillus incubated at various temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Monadi Sefidan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In numerous studies the beneficial impacts of probiotics on human health have been documented. Hence, there is a strong trend for the production of such foods and dairy products in particular, by many of the food processing establishments. In this regard, one of the major perequisites is to recognize the optimum conditions affecting the growth of probiotic organisms. This study aimed to investigate the impact of various concentrations of dextrose, valine, glycine and thiamine as well as different incubation temperatures on growth rate of Lactobacillus acidophillus in steril milk. In order to locate the ideal temperature, L. acidophillus was incubated at 38 °C, 40 °C, 42 °C and 44 °C. Moreover, thiamine (0, 5, 10 and 15 ppm, dextrose (0, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1%, glycine and valine (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 ppm was added to steril milk. The acidity of milk-as an indication of bacterial activity-was measured periodically during 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h of incubation. In comparison with the other temperatures, the activity of L. acidophillus was found significantly (P < 0.05 higher at 42 °C. According to the results, addition of dextrose, valine, glycine did not accelerate the production of acidic components; however, it seems that these substances could enhance the potency of L. acidophillus to produce gas and proteolytic enzymes.

  1. Incubation at 25 °C prevents acid crash and enhances alcohol production in Clostridium carboxidivorans P7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramió-Pujol, Sara; Ganigué, Ramon; Bañeras, Lluís; Colprim, Jesús

    2015-09-01

    Incubation of carboxydotrophs at 37 °C provides optimal conditions for their growth. However, a fast accumulation of organic acids, specifically acetate, during the exponential growth phase may result in low alcohol production and substrate consumption due to a phenomenon known as "acid crash". The present work investigates growth and productivity of Clostridium carboxidivorans P7 at two incubation temperatures. At 37 °C the culture was not able to override the "acid crash", resulting in low ethanol titers (1.56 mM). On the other hand, lower metabolic rates at 25 °C enhanced ethanol and butanol production (32.1 and 14.5 mM, respectively). Moreover, at low temperatures, hexanol and caproic acid were also produced at significant concentrations, 8.21 and 9.02 mM respectively, among the highest values reported for P7. Our results demonstrate that production of biofuels with longer carbon chains molecules may be enhanced incubating syngas-fermenting acetogenic bacteria at sub-optimal temperatures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. INCUBATORS WITHIN UNIVERSITY AND CLUSTERED CONTEXTS: CASES OF NATIONAL CHIAO TUNG UNIVERSITY (NCTU AND NATIONAL TSING HUA UNIVERSITY (NTHU INCUBATORS IN HSINCHU, TAIWAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Akmaliah Adham

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Research literature on business incubators has highlighted the significance of clustered locational contexts and networking as key to an incubator's success. Using the case study approach, this study aimed to test the validity of this framework for explaining the level of success of the National Chiao Tung University (NCTU and National Tsing Hua University (NTHU Incubators in Hsinchu, Taiwan – both of which are highly-networked, cluster-centric and university-based. In-depth interviews were conducted with the managers of both incubators, and these were followed by information gathering on university patents and knowledge transfers from the research and development (R&D office at each university. Analysis found that the incubators' locational contexts determined the degree and manner of their networking, but their profitability and growth potential were influenced by many other factors working in combination. Satisfying their sponsors' requirements and serving their core functions through sound management and strategic planning appeared to be the key to achieving profitability and sustainability, with benefits for all stakeholders. These constructs provide directions for more research on the performance of incubators and other business entities that are located within university and clustered contexts.

  3. University Business Incubators: An Institutional Demand Side Perspective on Value Adding Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Dahms

    2016-09-01

    Contribution & Value Added: The study addresses a research gap, identifying crosscountry differences in the demand of potential entrepreneurs for value adding features provided in University Business Incubators (UBI.

  4. Mind the wind: microclimate effects on incubation effort of an arctic seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høyvik Hilde, Christoffer; Pélabon, Christophe; Guéry, Loreleï; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Descamps, Sébastien

    2016-04-01

    The energetic costs of reproduction in birds strongly depend on the climate experienced during incubation. Climate change and increasing frequency of extreme weather events may severely affect these costs, especially for species incubating in extreme environments. In this 3-year study, we used an experimental approach to investigate the effects of microclimate and nest shelter on the incubation effort of female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) in a wild Arctic population. We added artificial shelters to a random selection of nesting females, and compared incubation effort, measured as body mass loss during incubation, between females with and without shelter. Nonsheltered females had a higher incubation effort than females with artificial shelters. In nonsheltered females, higher wind speeds increased the incubation effort, while artificially sheltered females experienced no effect of wind. Although increasing ambient temperatures tended to decrease incubation effort, this effect was negligible in the absence of wind. Humidity had no marked effect on incubation effort. This study clearly displays the direct effect of a climatic variable on an important aspect of avian life-history. By showing that increasing wind speed counteracts the energetic benefits of a rising ambient temperature, we were able to demonstrate that a climatic variable other than temperature may also affect wild populations and need to be taken into account when predicting the effects of climate change.

  5. Knowledge service decision making in business incubators based on the supernetwork model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liming; Zhang, Haihong; Wu, Wenqing

    2017-08-01

    As valuable resources for incubating firms, knowledge resources have received gradually increasing attention from all types of business incubators, and business incubators use a variety of knowledge services to stimulate rapid growth in incubating firms. Based on previous research, we generalize the knowledge transfer and knowledge networking services of two main forms of knowledge services and further divide knowledge transfer services into knowledge depth services and knowledge breadth services. Then, we construct the business incubators' knowledge supernetwork model, describe the evolution mechanism among heterogeneous agents and utilize a simulation to explore the performance variance of different business incubators' knowledge services. The simulation results show that knowledge stock increases faster when business incubators are able to provide knowledge services to more incubating firms and that the degree of discrepancy in the knowledge stock increases during the process of knowledge growth. Further, knowledge transfer services lead to greater differences in the knowledge structure, while knowledge networking services lead to smaller differences. Regarding the two types of knowledge transfer services, knowledge depth services are more conducive to knowledge growth than knowledge breadth services, but knowledge depth services lead to greater gaps in knowledge stocks and greater differences in knowledge structures. Overall, it is optimal for business incubators to select a single knowledge service or portfolio strategy based on the amount of time and energy expended on the two types of knowledge services.

  6. Small business incubators: An emerging phenomenon in South Africa’s SMME economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukovhe Masutha

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa much policy attention is focused on the potential of the small, medium and micro-enterprise (SMME economy for job creation. Nevertheless, despite government support for the SMME economy, high mortality rates are experienced by start-up enterprises. In common with international experience South Africa has adopted business incubation as a strategic tool for assisting the survival as well as building the competitiveness of SMMEs. This article analyses the state of business incubation in South Africa drawing attention to marked differences between the groups of public sector business incubators as opposed to those business incubators which have been initiated by the private sector.

  7. Effect of incubation temperature on isolation of cytomegalovirus from fresh clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, W W; Menegus, M A

    1983-10-01

    The sensitivity of WI-38 cell monolayers for the isolation of cytomegalovirus from fresh clinical specimens was reduced by 41% when cultures were incubated at 33 rather than at 36 degrees C. The mean time to initial detection of cytomegalovirus cytopathic effects in cultures incubated at 33 degrees C was 4.3 days later than in cultures incubated at 36 degrees C (4.0 and 5.4 days later for saliva and urine cultures, respectively). Thus, incubation of cultures at 33 degrees C seriously compromises the efficiency with which cytomegalovirus can be isolated from clinical specimens.

  8. A system for incubations at high gas partial pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Patrick; Glombitza, Clemens; Kallmeyer, Jens

    2012-01-01

    High-pressure is a key feature of deep subsurface environments. High partial pressure of dissolved gasses plays an important role in microbial metabolism, because thermodynamic feasibility of many reactions depends on the concentration of reactants. For gases, this is controlled by their partial ....... Furthermore we demonstrated the applicability of the system for studies of microbial activity, using samples from the Isis mud volcano. We could detect an increase in sulfate reduction rate upon the addition of methane to the sample....

  9. Impact of recently upwelled water on productivity investigated using in situ and incubation-based methods in Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Cara C.; Stanley, Rachel H. R.; Nicholson, David P.; Smith, Jason M.; Timothy Pennington, J.; Fewings, Melanie R.; Squibb, Michael E.; Chavez, Francisco P.

    2017-03-01

    Photosynthetic conversion of CO2 to organic carbon and the transport of this carbon from the surface to the deep ocean is an important regulator of atmospheric CO2. To understand the controls on carbon fluxes in a productive region impacted by upwelling, we measured biological productivity via multiple methods during a cruise in Monterey Bay, California. We quantified net community production and gross primary production from measurements of O2/Ar and O2 triple isotopes (17Δ), respectively. We simultaneously conducted incubations measuring the uptake of 14C, 15NO3-, and 15NH4+, and nitrification, and deployed sediment traps. At the start of the cruise (Phase 1) the carbon cycle was at steady state and the estimated net community production was 35(10) and 35(8) mmol C m-2 d-1 from O2/Ar and 15N incubations, respectively, a remarkably good agreement. During Phase 1, net primary production was 96(27) mmol C m-2 d-1 from C uptake, and gross primary production was 209(17) mmol C m-2 d-1 from 17Δ. Later in the cruise (Phase 2), recently upwelled water with higher nutrient concentrations entered the study area, causing 14C and 15NO3- uptake to increase substantially. Continuous O2/Ar measurements revealed submesoscale variability in water mass structure and likely productivity in Phase 2 that was not evident from the incubations. These data demonstrate that O2/Ar and 15N incubation-based NCP estimates can give equivalent results in an N-limited, coastal system, when the nonsteady state O2 fluxes are negligible or can be quantified.

  10. Leukocyte rolling on P-selectin: a three-dimensional numerical study of the effect of cytoplasmic viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khismatullin, Damir B; Truskey, George A

    2012-04-18

    Rolling leukocytes deform and show a large area of contact with endothelium under physiological flow conditions. We studied the effect of cytoplasmic viscosity on leukocyte rolling using our three-dimensional numerical algorithm that treats leukocyte as a compound droplet in which the core phase (nucleus) and the shell phase (cytoplasm) are viscoelastic fluids. The algorithm includes the mechanical properties of the cell cortex by cortical tension and considers leukocyte microvilli that deform viscoelastically and form viscous tethers at supercritical force. Stochastic binding kinetics describes binding of adhesion molecules. The leukocyte cytoplasmic viscosity plays a critical role in leukocyte rolling on an adhesive substrate. High-viscosity cells are characterized by high mean rolling velocities, increased temporal fluctuations in the instantaneous velocity, and a high probability for detachment from the substrate. A decrease in the rolling velocity, drag, and torque with the formation of a large, flat contact area in low-viscosity cells leads to a dramatic decrease in the bond force and stable rolling. Using values of viscosity consistent with step aspiration studies of human neutrophils (5-30 Pa·s), our computational model predicts the velocities and shape changes of rolling leukocytes as observed in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Leukocyte Rolling on P-Selectin: A Three-Dimensional Numerical Study of the Effect of Cytoplasmic Viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khismatullin, Damir B.; Truskey, George A.

    2012-01-01

    Rolling leukocytes deform and show a large area of contact with endothelium under physiological flow conditions. We studied the effect of cytoplasmic viscosity on leukocyte rolling using our three-dimensional numerical algorithm that treats leukocyte as a compound droplet in which the core phase (nucleus) and the shell phase (cytoplasm) are viscoelastic fluids. The algorithm includes the mechanical properties of the cell cortex by cortical tension and considers leukocyte microvilli that deform viscoelastically and form viscous tethers at supercritical force. Stochastic binding kinetics describes binding of adhesion molecules. The leukocyte cytoplasmic viscosity plays a critical role in leukocyte rolling on an adhesive substrate. High-viscosity cells are characterized by high mean rolling velocities, increased temporal fluctuations in the instantaneous velocity, and a high probability for detachment from the substrate. A decrease in the rolling velocity, drag, and torque with the formation of a large, flat contact area in low-viscosity cells leads to a dramatic decrease in the bond force and stable rolling. Using values of viscosity consistent with step aspiration studies of human neutrophils (5–30 Pa·s), our computational model predicts the velocities and shape changes of rolling leukocytes as observed in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22768931

  12. Circulating microparticles and plasma levels of soluble E- and P-selectins in patients with systemic sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lars; Østergaard, O; Ullman, S

    2013-01-01

    Microparticles (MPs) may be involved in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc), which includes vasculopathy, endothelial cell activation, and coagulation activation. Circulating MPs from SSc patients were characterized and their relationship with soluble markers of vascular activation...

  13. Excitation Emission Matrix Spectra (EEMS) of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter Produced during Microbial Incubation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, N.; Nelson, N. B.; Parsons, R.

    2013-12-01

    The chromophoric or light-absorbing fraction of dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is present ubiquitously in natural waters and has a significant impact on ocean biogeochemistry, affecting photosynthesis and primary production as well direct and indirect photochemical reactions (Siegel et al., 2002; Nelson et al., 2007). It has been largely researched in the past few decades, however the exact chemical composition remains unknown. Instrumental methods of analysis including simultaneous excitation-emission fluorescence spectra have allowed for further insight into source and chemical composition. While certain excitation-emission peaks have been associated with ';marine' sources, they have not been exclusively linked to bacterial production of CDOM (Coble, 1996; Zepp et al., 2004). In this study, ';grazer diluted' seawater samples (70% 0.2μm filtered water; 30% whole water) were collected at the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) site in the Sargasso Sea (31° 41' N; 64° 10' W) and incubated with an amendment of labile dissolved organic carbon (10μM C6H12O6), ammonium (1μM NH4Cl) and phosphate (0.1μM K2HPO4) to facilitate bacterial production. These substrates and concentrations have been previously shown to facilitate optimum bacterial and CDOM production (Nelson et al., 2004). Sample depths were chosen at 1m and 200m as water at these depths has been exposed to UV light (the Subtropical Mode Water at 200m has been subducted from the surface) and therefore has low initial concentrations of CDOM. After the samples were amended, they were incubated at in-situ temperatures in the dark for 72 hours, with bacteria counts, UV-Vis absorption and EEMS measurements taken at 6-8 hour intervals. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) measurements were collected daily. For the surface water experiment specific bacteria populations were investigated using Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) analysis. Results showed a clear production of bacteria and production of CDOM, which

  14. A meta-analysis of experiments linking incubation conditions with subsequent leg weakness in broiler chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Groves

    Full Text Available A series of incubation and broiler growth studies were conducted using one strain of broiler chicken (fast feathering dam line observing incubation effects on femoral bone ash % at hatch and the ability of the bird to remain standing at 6 weeks of age (Latency-To-Lie. Egg shell temperatures during incubation were consistently recorded. Parsimonious models were developed across eight studies using stepwise multiple linear regression of egg shell temperatures over 3-day periods and both bone ash at hatch and Latency-To-Lie. A model for bone ash at hatch explained 70% of the variation in this factor and revealed an association with lower egg shell temperatures during days 4-6 and 13-15 and higher egg shell temperatures during days 16-18 of incubation. Bone ash at hatch and subsequent Latency-To-Lie were positively correlated (r = 0.57, P<0.05. A model described 66% of the variation Latency-To-Lie showing significant association of the interaction of femoral ash at hatch and lower average egg shell temperatures over the first 15 days of incubation. Lower egg shell temperature in the early to mid incubation process (days 1-15 and higher egg shell temperatures at a later stage (days 16-18 will both tend to delay the hatch time of incubating eggs. Incubation profiles that resulted in later hatching chicks produced birds which could remain standing for a longer time at 6 weeks of age. This supports a contention that the effects of incubation observed in many studies may in fact relate more to earlier hatching and longer sojourn of the hatched chick in the final stage incubator. The implication of these outcomes are that the optimum egg shell temperature during incubation for broiler leg strength development may be lower than that regarded as ideal (37.8°C for maximum hatchability and chick growth.

  15. Influence of pre-storage incubation on hatchability traits, thyroid hormones, antioxidative status and immunity of newly hatched chicks at two chicken breeder flock ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeid, T A; Twfeek, F A; Assar, M H; Bealish, A M; Abd El-Karim, R E; Ragab, M

    2017-11-01

    Egg storage longer than 7 days is associated with negative effects on hatchability traits. Pre-storage incubation has been a suggested method to reduce the negative effects of long-term storage times by enhancing the developmental stage of the embryo and probably reducing the embryonic stress. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of pre-storage incubation and storage time on hatchability characteristics, chick quality and serum thyroid hormones, antioxidative properties and immunoglobulin Y (IgY) concentrations of newly hatched chicks at two breeder flock ages. A total of 8000 fertile eggs were obtained from two different ages of chicken breeder hens (Egyptian local cross, Inshas). Half of the eggs were collected from young breeder hens (28 weeks old) and the other half from old breeder hens (50 weeks old). In each breeder flock age, eggs were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design in a 2×4 factorial arrangement, with two storage periods (4 or 14 days) and four pre-storage incubation durations (0, 4, 6 or 8 h at 37.5°C). At 28 and 50 weeks of age, pre-storage incubation and its interaction with storage period influenced significantly the apparent fertility, hatchability of set eggs and hatchability of fertile eggs and this improvement in hatchability is attributed to the reduction in embryonic mortality (early, intermediate and late). Pre-storage incubation for 6 or 8 h elevated significantly the grade A chicks and reduced the grade B chicks in comparison with non-heated controls. Interestingly, for eggs stored for 14 days, pre-storage incubation for 6 or 8 h enhanced serum triiodothyronine, thyroxine, glutathione peroxidase activity, total antioxidant capacity and IgY concentrations significantly and decreased serum malondialdehyde concentration significantly in the newly hatched chicks. It could be concluded that pre-storage incubation enhanced the hatching results, improved the antioxidative properties, reduced

  16. You can't always get what you want : How entrepreneur's perceived resource needs affect the incubator's assertiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weele, Marijn; van Rijnsoever, Frank J.; Nauta, Frans

    2017-01-01

    A possible explanation for the disappointing performance of incubators is that start-ups do not take full advantage of the resources offered by the incubator. In explaining the low usage of the incubator's resources, existing studies neglect that incubated entrepreneurs may not be aware of the gaps

  17. Tenant Recruitment and Support Processes in Sustainability-Profiled Business Incubators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Natasha; Kanda, Wisdom

    2016-01-01

    Recruitment and support processes in sustainability-profiled incubators have received little research attention. The article addresses this knowledge gap in an empirical investigation of three sustainability-oriented incubators in Sweden, Finland and Germany. The data are based on interviews with managers, stakeholders and tenants in Green Tech…

  18. The Effect of Incubator Type on Hatchability and Chick Survival of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eggs were collected daily for viability test before setting and hatching in two different types of incubators; electric cabinet and kerosene incubators. Both were maintained at a temperature of 40°C and 25% relative humidity. Hatched chicks were monitored for the first six weeks of life to determine chick survival. Data obtained ...

  19. Effects of temperature and CO2 during late incubation on broiler chicken development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maatjens, C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Incubation conditions need to be adjusted to meet embryonic requirements to obtain optimal chick quality and hatchability. Eggshell temperature (EST) can be used as a non- invasive method to determine embryo temperature. A high EST of 38.9°C during the second or third week of incubation

  20. Effect of location of eggs in the incubator on hatchability of eggs from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of location in an incubator on the hatching characteristics of eggs obtained from Bronze turkeys of different ages, viz. at the ages of 8, 10 and 12 months. In the study 330 eggs were placed in each of six locations within an incubator, totalling 1 980 eggs from each age ...

  1. Changes in the air cell volume of artificially incubated ostrich eggs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 2160 images of candled, incubated ostrich eggs were digitized to determine the percentage of egg volume occupied by the air cell at different stages of incubation. The air cell on average occupied 2.5% of the volume of fresh eggs. For eggs that hatched successfully, this volume increased to an average of 24.4% ...

  2. Does incubation temperature fluctuation influence hatchling phenotypes in reptiles? A test using parthenogenetic geckos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrewartha, Sarah J; Mitchell, Nicola J; Frappell, Peter B

    2010-01-01

    Many lineages of parthenogenetic organisms have persisted through significant environmental change despite the constraints imposed by their fixed genotype and limited evolutionary potential. The ability of parthenogens to occur sympatrically with sexual relatives may in part be due to phenotypic plasticity in their responses to their environment, especially with respect to incubation temperature--a maternally selected trait. Here we measured the incubation temperatures selected by two lineages of triploid parthenogenic geckos in the Heteronotia binoei complex by allowing them to deposit clutches along a thermal gradient. The average nest temperature selected was 28.4 degrees C, with no significant differences between parthenogenic races or individual clones. To investigate the effect of nest-temperature variability on physiological and morphological traits, we incubated eggs from different races at one of four incubation regimes (32 degrees +/- 0 degrees, +/- 3 degrees , +/- 5 degrees , or +/- 9 degrees C). Embryos incubated at constant 32 degrees C developed faster than embryos reared under increasing extremes of diel temperature fluctuation (+/- 3 degrees , +/- 5 degrees C), and incubation at 32 degrees +/- 9 degrees C was unsuccessful. Incubation regime had no effect on the body size, preferred substrate temperature, or mass-specific .V(O2) of hatchlings. However, parthenogenic race had a significant effect on egg mass, tail length, snout-to-vent length, total length, and .V(O2) . We conclude that developmental traits are strongly influenced by clonal genotypes in this parthenogenic complex but are well buffered against fluctuations in incubation temperature.

  3. Lupus anticoagulant increases activated partial thromboplastin time (PTT) prolongation in incubated 1:1 mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monis, Grace; Ferrell, Chris; Reyes, Morayma

    2012-01-01

    Our study analyzes the effects of incubation time and strength of lupus anticoagulant (LAC) on clotting times and prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time (PTT) 1:1 mix assays with incubation. The prolongation in seconds of PTT 1:1 mix after incubation in the confirmed presence or absence of LAC was correlated to strength of the LAC as well as length of incubation (1 vs. 2 hours). Our study suggests that when screening for possible Factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitors, a 2 hour incubation of a PTT 1:1 mix increases the frequency of false positives as compared to 1 hour incubation, and that most of these false positives are due to LACs. Prolongation of clotting times for PTT 1:1 mixes in patients with LAC is influenced by both length of incubation time and strength of the LAC. When using PTT 1:1 mixes to screen for FVIII inhibitors, the effect of a possible LAC on the interpretation of the PTT prolongation should be considered. This effect is influenced by both incubation time and LAC strength.

  4. Are they really helping? : an assessment of evolving business incubators'value proposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruneel, Johan; Ratinho, Tiago; Clarysse, Bart; Groen, Arend J.

    2010-01-01

    Most studies about business incubation describe an array of available services but often fail to present the tenants’ assessment quality. We set out to investigate if business incubators differ in terms of their value proposition. To do so, we identify three distinct generations of business

  5. The Sustainability and Challenges of Business Incubators in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thobekani Lose

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding the growing interest in business incubation programmes and the benefits derived from such programmes, the path is beset by numerous challenges. This paper investigates the challenges faced by business incubators (BIs as they strive to support their clients. The study utilized a qualitative approach to collect data by way of interviews to gain in-depth knowledge and understanding of the concept and challenges of business incubators. The data were collected using structured and unstructured in-depth personal interviews, which were carried out with the respondents of business incubators in the Western Cape. The research participants for this study were limited to the business incubators on the database of a local organization that promotes small and medium enterprises (SMEs development strategy and programmes in the Western Cape Province. All five business incubators on the database were deemed suitable for the study. The results indicated that an average of twenty-five entrepreneurs graduated from the incubation programme in the last five years. Furthermore, lack of sponsorship, production space, advanced technological facilities (prototype and expansion to different areas were found to be among the challenges hindering incubators.

  6. Microbial infection affects egg viability and incubation behavior in a tropical passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark I. Cook; Steven R. Beissinger; Gary A. Toranzos; Roberto A. Arendt Rodriguez

    2004-01-01

    Many avian species initiate incubation before clutch completion, which causes eggs to hatch asynchronously. This influences brood competitive dynamics and often results in nestling mortality. The prevailing hypotheses contend that parents incubate early because asynchronous hatching provides fitness benefits to parents or surviving offspring. An alternative idea is...

  7. Avian incubation inhibits growth and diversification of bacterial assemblages on eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Shawkey

    Full Text Available Microbial infection is a critical source of mortality for early life stages of oviparous vertebrates, but parental defenses against infection are less well known. Avian incubation has been hypothesized to reduce the risk of trans-shell infection by limiting microbial growth of pathogenic bacteria on eggshells, while enhancing growth of commensal or beneficial bacteria that inhibit or competitively exclude pathogens. We tested this hypothesis by comparing bacterial assemblages on naturally incubated and experimentally unincubated eggs at laying and late incubation using a universal 16S rRNA microarray containing probes for over 8000 bacterial taxa. Before treatment, bacterial assemblages on individual eggs from both treatment groups were dissimilar to one another, as measured by clustering in non-metric dimensional scaling (NMDS ordination space. After treatment, assemblages of unincubated eggs were similar to one another, but those of incubated eggs were not. Furthermore, assemblages of unincubated eggs were characterized by high abundance of six indicator species while incubated eggs had no indicator species. Bacterial taxon richness remained static on incubated eggs, but increased significantly on unincubated eggs, especially in several families of Gram-negative bacteria. The relative abundance of individual bacterial taxa did not change on incubated eggs, but that of 82 bacterial taxa, including some known to infect the interior of eggs, increased on unincubated eggs. Thus, incubation inhibits all of the relatively few bacteria that grow on eggshells, and does not appear to promote growth of any bacteria.

  8. A Framework of Successful E-Business Incubator for Indonesian Public Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Gozali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In many developed countries, many business incubators take part to help starts-up company to develop their own business; especially the baby born business cannot compete with the giant industries that have become the old business players. Universities play an important role in motivating young graduates to become technology entrepreneur. Unemployment in Indonesia is still the main issue for the government program to increase welfare in the future. In year 2014 the data from Statistic Center of Indonesia state that Indonesia has 4% unemployment from Indonesia’ work generation. In Indonesia, incubators has been developed since 1992 initiated by the government, Cooperative Department and also universities. This effort continued in 1997 when there was a program called the Development of Entrepreneurship Culture in universities, and of its activity was New Entrepreneur Incubator. The objectives of the research are to investigate the success factor for e-business incubator, and to propose and develop a framework for successful e-business incubator for public universities in Indonesia. Research location is in Indonesia for the public universities that have their e-business incubator. This research will conduct quantitative and qualitative analyses based on data collection from incubator managers and business founders in Indonesia. The result of this research is a framework for successful e-business incubator in Indonesian public universities.

  9. A Study of Business Incubators: Models, Best Practices, and Recommendations for NASA and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide NASA-Kennedy Space Center with information and recommendations to support establishing one or more technology-based business incubators In Florida. The study involved assembling information about incubators: why they succeed, why they fail, how they are organized, and what services they provide. Consequently, this study focuses on widely-recognized "best practices," needed to establish successful technology- based business incubators. The findings are used to optimize the design and implementation of one or more technology-based business incubators to be established in Florida. Recommendations reflect both the essential characteristics of successful incubators and the optimal business demographics in Florida. Appendix A provides a fuller description of the objectives of the study. Technology-based business incubators are an increasing catalyst of new business development across the USi Incubators focus on providing entrepreneurs and small start-up firms with a wide array of support services necessary to bring forth new products and processes based on technologies developed in the nation's federal and private laboratories and universities. Appendix B provides extensive discussion of findings relative to technology- based business incubators.

  10. Artificial incubation of muscovy duck eggs : Why some eggs hatch and others do not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harun, MAS; Veeneklaas, RJ; Visser, GH; Van Kampen, M

    This study was designed to gain insight into the influence of spraying and cooling, during artificial incubation, on the embryo metabolic rate and hatching ability of Muscovy duck eggs. Three times a week 93 incubated eggs were sprayed and cooled for 0.5 h at room temperature. Daily embryo metabolic

  11. The Incubator Concept as an Entry Mode Option for Danish SME's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the relevance of an alternative entry mode, the incubator concept. Such an alternative entry mode like the so-called incubator is increasingly being used as a shortcut or bridge to a distant market. In-depth qualitative research on a selected case (Kelsen...

  12. Survival and development of lake herring (Coregonus artedii) eggs at various incubation temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Peter J.; Brooke, L.T.; Lindsey, C.C.; Woods, C.S.

    1970-01-01

    Lake herring eggs stripped and fertilized from a local stock were incubated in a constant-flow incubator at constant temperatures ranging from 0 to 12.1° C. Rate of development, percentage survival, percentage of abnormal and normal hatching, and length of fry at hatching were determined. The average incubation time from fertilization to 50% hatch varied from 37 days at 9.9-10.3° C to 236 days at 0.5° C. The optimum temperature range for normal development was approximately 2 to 8° C. Eggs incubated at 0 and 12.1° C developed but did not hatch. Mortality was high among eggs incubated at 0.5 and 10.0° C. Most of the mortalities came during the early stages of development. The incidence of abnormalities was highest among fry hatched at 10° C, and was high in the one incubation series in which the eggs were rolled because of a high flow rate. Total length of fry at hatching decreased with increased incubation temperature. A comparison of survival and development between lake herring and whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) at various constant incubation temperatures suggests that lake herring have a higher optimum temperature (5.6 °C) than whitefish (0.5 °C) for successful development.

  13. Characterization of injury in isolated rat proximal tubules during cold incubation and rewarming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Bienholz

    Full Text Available Organ shortage leads to an increased utilization of marginal organs which are particularly sensitive to storage-associated damage. Cold incubation and rewarming-induced injury is iron-dependent in many cell types. In addition, a chloride-dependent component of injury has been described. This work examines the injury induced by cold incubation and rewarming in isolated rat renal proximal tubules. The tissue storage solution TiProtec® and a chloride-poor modification, each with and without iron chelators, were used for cold incubation. Incubation was performed 4°C for up to 168 h, followed by rewarming in an extracellular buffer (3 h at 37°C. After 48, 120 and 168 h of cold incubation LDH release was lower in solutions containing iron chelators. After rewarming, injury increased especially after cold incubation in chelator-free solutions. Without addition of iron chelators LDH release showed a tendency to be higher in chloride-poor solutions. Following rewarming after 48 h of cold incubation lipid peroxidation was significantly decreased and metabolic activity was tendentially better in tubules incubated with iron chelators. Morphological alterations included mitochondrial swelling and fragmentation being partially reversible during rewarming. ATP content was better preserved in chloride-rich solutions. During rewarming, there was a further decline of ATP content in the so far best conditions and minor alterations under the other conditions, while oxygen consumption was not significantly different compared to non-stored control tubules. Results show an iron-dependent component of preservation injury during cold incubation and rewarming in rat proximal renal tubules and reveal a benefit of chloride for the maintenance of tubular energy state during cold incubation.

  14. Characterization of injury in isolated rat proximal tubules during cold incubation and rewarming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienholz, Anja; Walter, Björn; Pless-Petig, Gesine; Guberina, Hana; Kribben, Andreas; Witzke, Oliver; Rauen, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Organ shortage leads to an increased utilization of marginal organs which are particularly sensitive to storage-associated damage. Cold incubation and rewarming-induced injury is iron-dependent in many cell types. In addition, a chloride-dependent component of injury has been described. This work examines the injury induced by cold incubation and rewarming in isolated rat renal proximal tubules. The tissue storage solution TiProtec® and a chloride-poor modification, each with and without iron chelators, were used for cold incubation. Incubation was performed 4°C for up to 168 h, followed by rewarming in an extracellular buffer (3 h at 37°C). After 48, 120 and 168 h of cold incubation LDH release was lower in solutions containing iron chelators. After rewarming, injury increased especially after cold incubation in chelator-free solutions. Without addition of iron chelators LDH release showed a tendency to be higher in chloride-poor solutions. Following rewarming after 48 h of cold incubation lipid peroxidation was significantly decreased and metabolic activity was tendentially better in tubules incubated with iron chelators. Morphological alterations included mitochondrial swelling and fragmentation being partially reversible during rewarming. ATP content was better preserved in chloride-rich solutions. During rewarming, there was a further decline of ATP content in the so far best conditions and minor alterations under the other conditions, while oxygen consumption was not significantly different compared to non-stored control tubules. Results show an iron-dependent component of preservation injury during cold incubation and rewarming in rat proximal renal tubules and reveal a benefit of chloride for the maintenance of tubular energy state during cold incubation.

  15. The effects of heterospecifics and climatic conditions on incubation behavior within a mixed-species colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Hothem, Roger L.; Howe, Kristy H.; Casazza, Michael L.; Eadie, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Parental incubation behavior largely influences nest survival, a critical demographic process in avian population dynamics, and behaviors vary across species with different life history breeding strategies. Although research has identified nest survival advantages of mixing colonies, behavioral mechanisms that might explain these effects is largely lacking. We examined parental incubation behavior using video-monitoring techniques on Alcatraz Island, California, of black-crowned night-heron Nycticorax nycticorax(hereinafter, night-heron) in a mixed-species colony with California gulls Larus californicus and western gulls L. occidentalis. We first quantified general nesting behaviors (i.e. incubation constancy, and nest attendance), and a suite of specific nesting behaviors (i.e. inactivity, vigilance, preening, and nest maintenance) with respect to six different daily time periods. We employed linear mixed effects models to investigate environmental and temporal factors as sources of variation in incubation constancy and nest attendance using 211 nest days across three nesting seasons (2010–2012). We found incubation constancy (percent of time on the eggs) and nest attendance (percent of time at the nest) were lower for nests that were located < 3 m from one or more gull nest, which indirectly supports the predator protection hypothesis, whereby heterospecifics provide protection allowing more time for foraging and other self-maintenance activities. To our knowledge, this is the first empirical evidence of the influence of one nesting species on the incubation behavior of another. We also identified distinct differences between incubation constancy and nest attentiveness, indicating that these biparental incubating species do not share similar energetic constraints as those that are observed for uniparental species. Additionally, we found that variation in incubation behavior was a function of temperature and precipitation, where the strength of these effects

  16. Egg turning behavior and incubation temperature in Forster’s terns in relation to mercury contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gregory T.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Shaffer, Scott A.

    2018-01-01

    Egg turning behavior is an important determinant of egg hatchability, but it remains relatively understudied. Here, we examined egg turning rates and egg temperatures in Forster’s terns (Sterna forsteri). We used artificial eggs containing a data logger with a 3-D accelerometer, a magnetometer, and a temperature thermistor to monitor parental incubation behavior of 131 tern nests. Overall, adults turned their eggs an average (±SD) of 3.8 ± 0.8 turns h-1, which is nearly two times higher than that of other seabirds. Egg turning rates increased with nest initiation date. We also examined egg turning rates and egg temperatures in relation to egg mercury contamination. Mercury contamination has been shown to be associated with reduced egg hatchability, and we hypothesized that mercury may decrease egg hatchability via altered egg turning behavior by parents. Despite the high variability in egg turning rates among individuals, the rate of egg turning was not related to mercury concentrations in sibling eggs. These findings highlight the need for further study concerning the potential determinants of egg turning behavior.

  17. Redox oscillation affecting mercury mobility from highly contaminated coastal sediments: a mesocosm incubation experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emili A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg mobility at the sediment-water interface was investigated during a laboratory incubation experiment on highly contaminated sediments (up to 23 μg g−1 of the Gulf of Trieste. Undisturbed sediment was collected in front of the Isonzo River mouth, which inflows Hg-rich suspended material originating from the Idrija (NW Slovenia mining district. Since hypoxic and anoxic conditions at the bottom are frequently observed, a redox oscillation was simulated in the laboratory at in situ temperature, using a dark flux chamber. Temporal variations of several parameters were monitored simultaneously: dissolved Hg and methylmercury (MeHg, O2, NH4+, NO3−+NO2−, PO43−, H2S, dissolved Fe and Mn, dissolved inorganic and organic carbon (DIC and DOC. Benthic fluxes of Hg and MeHg were higher under anoxic conditions while re-oxygenation caused concentrations of MeHg and Hg to rapidly drop, probably due to re-adsorption onto Fe/Mn oxyhydroxides and enhanced demethylation. Hence, during anoxic events, sediments of the Gulf of Trieste may be considered as an important source of dissolved Hg species for the water column. However, re-oxygenation of the bottom compartment mitigates Hg and MeHg release from the sediment, thus acting as a natural “defence” from possible interaction between the metal and the aquatic organisms.

  18. SOCIAL NET: A CASE STUDY OF THE UNIVERSITY NET OF POPULAR COOPERATIVES TECHNOLOGICAL INCUBATORS (PCTIS NET FROM THE INTERACTION AMONG THE INCUBATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Matos Pereira Lopes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this assignment was to identify if the University Net of Popular Cooperatives Technological Incubators (PCTIs Net is a social net. The research was an exploratory nature study with descriptive character, the technical procedure of the present research was the case study. The questionnaire was applied in 82% of the incubators belonging to the PCTIs Net, and interviews. The information acquired through the questionnaire was gathered and tabulated to compose the characterization of the net incubators and the social analyzer. With the Pajek program was created the social analyzer and the centralizing box. Was performed to compare the results with previous work Rennó et al. (2010 proposed that the same goal using a different approach. Ending the analysis guided by the characteristics of a social net, it was observed that the PCTIs Net is a social net, however it was emphasized that the existing communication is a point where the net needs to be fortified.

  19. Incubation and hatch management: consequences for bone mineralization in Cobb 500 meat chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, W I; Groves, P J

    2017-08-08

    From ~35 days of age fast growing meat chickens spend extended periods sitting or lying and less time standing. In a fast-feathering parent line lower early incubation temperatures which delayed chick hatch time, improved bone ash and extended their standing time. This incubation study assessed the consequences of incubation temperatures, hatch time and chick management at hatch/take off on femoral bone ash (BA) in Cobb 500 meat chickens. Embryos were incubated under either Control (between 37.8°C and 38.2°C egg shell temperature (EST)) or a Slow start (from 37.2°C at sett (the start of incubation), reaching 37.8°C EST at day 13 incubation), temperatures. Hatched chicks were identified at 492 h (20.5 days of incubation - classified as early (E)) or, between >492 and ⩽516 h (>20.5 and ⩽21.5 days of incubation - classified as late (L)), from setting. The E hatch chicks were allocated across three post-hatch treatments; treatment 1: E hatch chicks that were sampled E at 492 h from setting; treatment 2: E hatch chicks that were fed for a further 24 h in a floorpen before being sampled L at 516 h from setting; treatment 3: E hatch chicks that spent a further 24 h in the incubator before being sampled L at 516 h from setting. All L hatch chicks formed one treatment group which was sampled L at 516 h (i.e. L hatch chicks sampled L). It is not possible to sample L hatching chicks E hence this treatment is absent from the experimental design. Slow start incubation resulted in a higher total hatch percentage with a greater proportion of chicks hatching L, compared with the Control incubation. The L hatching chicks had significantly higher BA than the E hatching chicks. Of the E hatching chicks, those sampled both E and L had significantly lower BA than E hatching chicks fed for 24 h before L sampling. The E hatch, fed and sampled L chicks had the numerically highest BA, which was not significantly different from the BA of the L hatching chicks sampled L These results

  20. CO2 dinamics and priming effect of different Hungarian soils based on laboratory incubation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacháry, Dóra; Szalai, Zoltán; Filep, Tibor; Kovács, József; Jakab, Gergely

    2017-04-01

    Soil processes are particularly important in terms of global carbon cycle, as soils globally contain approximately 2000 Gt carbon, which is higher than the carbon stock of the atmosphere and the terrestrial ecosystem together. Therefore small alterations in the soils' carbon sequestration potential can generate rapid and significant changes in the atmosphere carbon concentration. Soil texture is one of the most important soil parameters which plays a significant role in soil carbon sequestration. Fine textured soils generally considered containing more microbial biomass, and having a lower rate of biomass turnover and organic matter decomposition than coarse textured soils. In spite of this, several recent studies have shown contradicting trends. Our aim was to investigate the influence of the basic soil properties (texture, pH, organic matter content, etc.) on the biological and physicochemical processes determining the soil CO2 emission. Thirteen Hungarian soil samples (depth of 0-20 cm) were incubated during six months. The samples are mainly high clay and organic matter content forest soils, but two forest soils developed on sand were also collected. The soils are derived from C3 forests and C3 croplands from different sites of Hungary. C4 maize residues were added to the soils in order to get natural 13C enrichment for stable isotope measurement purposes and for quantifying the priming effect caused by the crop residue addition. The temperature (20°C) and humidity (70% field capacity) conditions were kept constant in an incubator. The soil respiration was measured at specified intervals (on day 3, 8, 15, 30, 51, 79, 107, 135 and 163) and trapped in 2M NaOH and quantified by titration with 1M HCl. Our first results based on the cumulative CO2 respiration values show positive priming for all type of soils. Results confirm the statement that in certain cases fine textured soils release more CO2. To determine which soil properties influence the most the soil CO2

  1. Concentration device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    A concentration device (2) for filter filtration concentration of particles (4) from a volume of a fluid (6). The concentration device (2) comprises a filter (8) configured to filter particles (4) of a predefined size in the volume of the fluid (6). The concentration device (2) comprises...

  2. Influence of egg pre-storage heating period and storage length on incubation results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FHA Silva

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed at evaluating the influence of different heating times of settable eggs of Cobb 500® broiler breeders before submitting them to different storage periods on egg weight loss, embryo mortality, and hatchability. A total number of 1,980 eggs were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, comprising nine treatments with 22 replicates of 10 eggs each. The following factors were analyzed: pre-storage heating periods (0, 6, 12 hours at 36.92°C and storage periods (4, 9, 14 days at 12.06°C. After storage, eggs were incubated under usual conditions, and were transferred to the hatcher at 442 hours of incubation. Eggs were weighed before heating, incubation, and transference to determine weight loss. Partial hatchability was determined at 480 hours, and total hatchability at 498 hours of incubation. Embryo mortality was determined in non-hatched eggs. It was concluded that heating eggs for six hour before storage improves incubation results as it decreases incubation length and late embryo mortality, therefore its use can be indicated in commercial operations. Storing eggs for 14 days and pre-heating for 14 days and pre-heating for 12 hours severely impair incubation results, and therefore are not recommended.

  3. Factors affecting incubation patterns and sex roles of black oystercatchers in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Caleb S.; Haig, Susan M.; Goldstein, Michael I.; Huso, Manuela M. P.

    2012-01-01

    Studies examining the effects of human disturbance on avian parental behavior and reproductive success are fundamental to bird conservation. However, many such studies fail to also consider the influence of natural threats, a variable environment, and parental roles. Our work examines interactive relationships of cyclical (time of day, tide, temperature, seasonality) and stochastic (natural/human disturbance) processes with incubation patterns (attendance, bout lengths, recess rates) of the Black Oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani), a shorebird of conservation concern. We used 24-hour-per-day video monitoring of 13 molecularly-sexed breeding pairs to systematically examine incubation, revealing previously undocumented information that may inform conservation practices for the genus. Seven of 22 video-monitored nests failed, primarily from egg depredation by nocturnally-active mammals. Analyses of 3177 hrs of video footage indicated a near doubling of incubation bout lengths at night, corresponding to the increased risk of nighttime egg predation. Females had higher overall nest attendance (54% vs. 42%) and longer mean incubation bout lengths than males (88 min vs. 73 min). Uninterrupted incubation bouts were over twice as long as bouts interrupted by disturbance. Incubating males departed nests substantially more frequently due to nest-area disturbances than females in one, but not both, years of our study. Our findings suggest that sexes exhibit different, but complimentary, incubation patterns, facilitating efficient egg care in a dynamic environment with several nest threats. We emphasize the importance of considering natural influences when evaluating human threats to shorebird reproductive behavior and success.

  4. Spectroscopic characterization of organic matter of a soil and vinasse mixture during aerobic or anaerobic incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doelsch, Emmanuel; Masion, Armand; Cazevieille, Patrick; Condom, Nicolas

    2009-06-01

    Mineralization potentials are often used to classify organic wastes. These methods involve measuring CO(2) production during batch experiments, so variations in chemical compounds are not addressed. Moreover, the physicochemical conditions are not monitored during the reactions. The present study was designed to address these deficiencies. Incubations of a mixture of soil and waste (vinasse at 20% dry matter from a fermentation industry) were conducted in aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and liquid samples obtained by centrifugation were collected at 2h, 1d and 28 d. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) patterns highlighted that: there was a "soil effect" which increased organic matter (OM) degradation in all conditions compared to vinasse incubated alone; and OM degradation was faster under aerobic conditions since 500 mgkg(-1) of C remained after aerobic incubation, as compared to 4000 mgkg(-1) at the end of the anaerobic incubation period. No changes were detected by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) between 2h and 1d incubation. At 28 days incubation, the FTIR signal of the aerobic samples was deeply modified, thus confirming the high OM degradation. Under anaerobic conditions, the main polysaccharide contributions (nu(C-O)) disappeared at 1000 and 1200 cm(-1), as also confirmed by the (13)C NMR findings. Under aerobic incubation, a 50% decrease in the polysaccharide proportion was observed. Under anaerobic conditions, significant chemical modifications of the organic fraction were detected, namely formation of low molecular weight organic acids.

  5. DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED IN ISO 9001:2008 IMPLEMENTATION PROJECTS IN INCUBATED TECHNOLOGY-BASED COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gome Salgado

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Quality Management Systems (QMS are designed to continuously improve the performance of organizations aiming to constantly improve their services seeking to overcome their results. Thus, for the services and/or products offered to transmit confidence and credibility, they should be designed within appropriate norms and standards. This research aims to assess the difficulties encountered by the incubated companies participating in the PRIME-FINEP project and developing projects for certification of their QMS in accordance with ISO 9001:2008. An exploratory survey was performed in nine incubated technology-based companies (TBC, through a questionnaire with 21 questions totaling the opinion of 20 respondents. After analyzing the data it is concluded, with statistical meaning, that the TBC's with little incubation time present difficulties in implementing the quality policy (5.3, difficulty not identified in other studies conducted in large companies. However difficulties similar to those of the large companies are present in the incubated TBC, and are the following: documentation requirements (4.2 present in all incubated companies (regardless of incubation time, and design and development (7.3 present in companies with little incubation time. The difficulty in implementing the quality policy (5.3 is reflected in the achievement of the QMS certification project in accordance with ISO 9001:2008.

  6. Low temperature accumulation of hydrogen through incubation of forsterite in buffered water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubeck, Anna; Thanh Duc, Nguyen; Bastviken, David; Holm, Nils G.

    2010-05-01

    In order to test whether or not methane producing archaea may survive solely on the products forming through the hydration of olivine, we have analyzed the products formed from the low temperature incubation of natural forsterite sand in buffered water. Already after one month of incubation, the molecular hydrogen concentration was high enough to theoretically sustain the survival of methanogenic archaea at temperatures above 30° C. Also, many important trace elements were present as well as a low enough redox potential. Introduction Hydrocarbons are known to be formed through the reduction of CO2 by H2 in the so called Fischer-Tropsch Type or Sabatier reaction in hydrothermal systems (Charlou 2002; Holm 1998; Rushdi A. 2001), but the temperatures used are often higher than at least 100° C. (McCollom 2009). Hydrocarbon and/or hydrogen formation in lower temperature environments would expand the plausible sites for the existence and growth of microbial communities and possibly also the abiotic formation of organic compounds. Therefore we have tested the potential abiotic H2 and CH4 production in a mixture of forsterite and buffered water at temperatures ranging from 30° C to 70° C. Discussion We have analyzed the methane and hydrogen formation coupled to the hydration of forsterite in three different temperatures, 30° C, 50° C and 70° C. In all temperatures, there is a consistent and temperature dependent release of methane into the headspace of the reaction cells. Even at temperatures as low as 30° C there is a clear methane and hydrogen release already after one month of incubation. This indicates that reactions coupled to the hydration of natural forsterite are forming or releasing methane and hydrogen at very low temperatures. Therefore, environments in which methane and hydrogen may be released and thus also sustain the growth or survival of certain microorganisms, might be more widespread than previously thought. Also, reactions such as the Fischer

  7. The central amygdala nucleus is critical for incubation of methamphetamine craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Zeric, Tamara; Kambhampati, Sarita; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin

    2015-03-13

    Cue-induced methamphetamine seeking progressively increases after withdrawal but mechanisms underlying this 'incubation of methamphetamine craving' are unknown. Here we studied the role of central amygdala (CeA), ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), brain regions implicated in incubation of cocaine and heroin craving, in incubation of methamphetamine craving. We also assessed the role of basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC). We trained rats to self-administer methamphetamine (10 days; 9 h/day, 0.1 mg/kg/infusion) and tested them for cue-induced methamphetamine seeking under extinction conditions during early (2 days) or late (4-5 weeks) withdrawal. We first confirmed that 'incubation of methamphetamine craving' occurs under our experimental conditions. Next, we assessed the effect of reversible inactivation of CeA or BLA by GABAA+GABAB receptor agonists (muscimol+baclofen, 0.03+0.3 nmol) on cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during early and late withdrawal. We also assessed the effect of muscimol+baclofen reversible inactivation of vmPFC, dmPFC, and OFC on 'incubated' cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during late withdrawal. Lever presses in the cue-induced methamphetamine extinction tests were higher during late withdrawal than during early withdrawal (incubation of methamphetamine craving). Muscimol+baclofen injections into CeA but not BLA decreased cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during late but not early withdrawal. Muscimol+baclofen injections into dmPFC, vmPFC, or OFC during late withdrawal had no effect on incubated cue-induced methamphetamine seeking. Together with previous studies, results indicate that the CeA has a critical role in incubation of both drug and non-drug reward craving and demonstrate an unexpected dissociation in mechanisms of incubation of methamphetamine vs cocaine craving.

  8. Kinetics of N2O production and reduction in a nitrate-contaminated aquifer inferred from laboratory incubation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymann, D.; Geistlinger, H.; Well, R.; von der Heide, C.; Flessa, H.

    2010-06-01

    Knowledge of the kinetics of N2O production and reduction in groundwater is essential for the assessment of potential indirect emissions of the greenhouse gas. In the present study, we investigated this kinetics using a laboratory approach. The results were compared to field measurements in order to examine their transferability to the in situ conditions. The study site was the unconfined, predominantly sandy Fuhrberger Feld aquifer in northern Germany. A special characteristic of the aquifer is the occurrence of the vertically separated process zones of heterotrophic denitrification in the near-surface groundwater and of autotrophic denitrification in depths beyond 2-3 m below the groundwater table, respectively. The kinetics of N2O production and reduction in both process zones was studied during long-term anaerobic laboratory incubations of aquifer slurries using the 15N tracer technique. We measured N2O, N2, NO3-, NO2-, and SO42- concentrations as well as parameters of the aquifer material that were related to the relevant electron donors, i.e. organic carbon and pyrite. The laboratory incubations showed a low denitrification activity of heterotrophic denitrification with initial rates between 0.2 and 13 μg N kg-1 d-1. The process was carbon limited due to the poor availability of its electron donor. In the autotrophic denitrification zone, initial denitrification rates were considerably higher, ranging between 30 and 148 μg N kg-1 d-1, and NO3- as well as N2O were completely removed within 60 to 198 days. N2O accumulated during heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrification, but maximum concentrations were substantially higher during the autotrophic process. The results revealed a satisfactory transferability of the laboratory incubations to the field scale for autotrophic denitrification, whereas the heterotrophic process less reflected the field conditions due to considerably lower N2O accumulation during laboratory incubation. Finally, we applied a

  9. Kinetics of N2O production and reduction in a nitrate-contaminated aquifer inferred from laboratory incubation experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Flessa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the kinetics of N2O production and reduction in groundwater is essential for the assessment of potential indirect emissions of the greenhouse gas. In the present study, we investigated this kinetics using a laboratory approach. The results were compared to field measurements in order to examine their transferability to the in situ conditions. The study site was the unconfined, predominantly sandy Fuhrberger Feld aquifer in northern Germany. A special characteristic of the aquifer is the occurrence of the vertically separated process zones of heterotrophic denitrification in the near-surface groundwater and of autotrophic denitrification in depths beyond 2–3 m below the groundwater table, respectively. The kinetics of N2O production and reduction in both process zones was studied during long-term anaerobic laboratory incubations of aquifer slurries using the 15N tracer technique. We measured N2O, N2, NO3-, NO2-, and SO42- concentrations as well as parameters of the aquifer material that were related to the relevant electron donors, i.e. organic carbon and pyrite. The laboratory incubations showed a low denitrification activity of heterotrophic denitrification with initial rates between 0.2 and 13 μg N kg−1 d−1. The process was carbon limited due to the poor availability of its electron donor. In the autotrophic denitrification zone, initial denitrification rates were considerably higher, ranging between 30 and 148 μg N kg−1 d−1, and NO3- as well as N2O were completely removed within 60 to 198 days. N2O accumulated during heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrification, but maximum concentrations were substantially higher during the autotrophic process. The results revealed a satisfactory transferability of the laboratory incubations to the field scale for autotrophic denitrification, whereas the heterotrophic process less reflected the field conditions due to considerably lower N2O accumulation during laboratory incubation

  10. Incubation of curing brines for the production of ready-to-eat, uncured, no-nitrite-or-nitrate-added, ground, cooked and sliced ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, B L; Sebranek, J G; Rust, R E; Mendonca, A

    2011-12-01

    Salt concentration, vegetable juice powder (VJP) concentration and temperature were investigated to determine necessary conditions for incubation of curing brines including VJP and a starter culture containing Staphylococcus carnosus prior to production of naturally cured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added meat products. Subsequently, incubated brines were utilized to produce no-nitrate/nitrite-added sliced ham in which quality characteristics and residual nitrite concentrations were measured to determine feasibility of brine incubation for nitrate conversion prior to injection. Two ham treatments (one with VJP and starter culture; one with pre-converted VJP) and a nitrite-added control were used. No differences (P>0.05) were found for color in the VJP treatments. Control sliced ham was redder after 42 days of storage, retaining significantly (P<0.05) greater a* (redness) than either of the VJP treatments. Residual nitrite concentration was greater (P<0.05) in the control hams during the first week of storage. While the nitrite-added control retained greater red color and initially had more residual nitrite than the VJP treatments, the two VJP treatments did not differ from each other. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Implementation of PID control using Arduino microcontrollers for glucose measurements and micro incubator applications

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Hugo; Mattsson, Viktor; Senek, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    The task is to build a low-cost thermostat and design necessary elements to perform a study on water mixed glucose-impedance at different temperatures and cell growth in a temperature-controlled incubator housing a magnetic field of up to 3 mT. The incubator was designed in solidworks and made to fit petri dishes of two relevant sizes and necessary wiring. The coils designed to extend across the large of the incubator with six turns and a 4A current to yield a sixth of the required magnetic f...

  12. European business venturing in times of digitisation - An analysis of for-profit business incubators in a triple helix context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreusel, Nico; Roth, Natalie; Brem, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    -dominated incubation landscape may influence established theoretical frameworks. Within this context, this paper analyses 11 German business incubators to look at the most common types of for-profit business incubators in Germany and their main characteristics. Moreover, it introduces classification criteria......Business incubators have been developed as a key component of entrepreneurial activities in countries all over Europe. These incubators have a non-profit or a for-profit profile, with one-third located in Germany. The increased engagement of private business in what was a public...... for these incubators. Another aspect of the analysis is the effect of the triple helix dimensions of the different incubation types. The results show that two additional types of incubators can be identified in addition to the traditional public business incubator model, namely 'company builders' and 'accelerators...

  13. Analysis of platelet-derived extracellular vesicles in plateletpheresis concentrates: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Anne; Orsó, Evelyn; Kelsch, Reinhard; Pereira, Melanie; Kamhieh-Milz, Julian; Salama, Abdulgabar; Fischer, Michael B; Meyer, Eduardo; Frey, Beat M; Schmitz, Gerd

    2017-06-01

    Routine quantification of platelet-derived extracellular vesicles (PL-EVs) may be useful in the quality control (QC) of platelet concentrates (PCs). The aim of this multicenter study was to establish and validate a consensus protocol for the standardized PL-EV quantification using conventional flow cytometers. Eighty-six PCs were investigated in five blood transfusion centers (A-E) on Days 0 and 5. The centers used different apheresis instruments: Trima Accel (n = 56) and/or Amicus (n = 30). PCs were prepared using standard methods (sd-PCs; n = 73; A-D) or with pathogen inactivation (PI [PI-PCs]; n = 13; E). Platelet (PLT) count was determined using conventional hematology analyzers. PLT degranulation (P-selectin expression in response to thrombin receptor PAR1 activation) and PL-EVs were analyzed by flow cytometry. During storage, PLT count remained stable in 58 PCs (A, C, E), whereas a decrease was observed in 12 PCs (B). PLT degranulation declined in all PCs (p < 0.001) and PL-EVs increased in 74 PCs (A, C-E; p < 0.001). Certain donor variables (e.g., plasma cholesterol, immature PLT fraction) were associated with lower PL-EVs. In Trima-produced PCs, PL-EVs were significantly lower (D) and PLT degranulation was superior compared to PCs prepared with the Amicus (A, D). PL-EVs were 10-fold lower in PI-PCs, compared to sd-PCs. However, similar QC trends were demonstrated for both PC groups during storage. PL-EV analysis in a QC program of PCs was successfully performed with results comparable among the different centers. PLT degranulation and vesiculation were primarily affected by preparation techniques. © 2017 AABB.

  14. Perfil do suporte oferecido pelas incubadoras brasileiras às empresas incubadas The profile of the support offered by the brazilian incubators to the incubated companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Maury Raupp

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo objetiva delinear o perfil do suporte oferecido pelas incubadoras brasileiras às empresas incubadas. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, de natureza quanti-qualitativa, realizado por meio de pesquisa survey. A população da pesquisa corresponde a 179 incubadoras brasileiras, tendo-se obtido um retorno de 37 delas. A coleta de dados deu-se com base em questionário enviado por e-mail aos coordenadores das incubadoras. Inicia-se o estudo fazendo uma breve incursão teórica acerca de incubadoras de empresas, fases do processo de incubação e suporte das incubadoras às empresas incubadas. Na seqüência, identifica-se os procedimentos metodológicos adotados. Em seguida, procede-se à descrição e análise dos dados coletados. Por último, apresenta-se as conclusões do estudo realizado, bem como recomendações para futuras pesquisas.The goal of this article is to outline the profile of the support offered by the Brazilian incubators to the incubated companies. This is a descriptive study, based on both quality and quantity, done through a survey. The target of the research was 179 Brazilian incubators, having heard from 37 of them. The data collection was based on questionnaire sent through e-mail to the coordinators of the incubators. The study began with a brief theoretical foray about incubators of companies. After that, the adopted methodological procedures are identified. Then, the description and the analysis of the data collected are done. At last, the conclusion of the study and recommendation for future researches are presented.

  15. EHS matrix incubated in media containing penicillin retains sufficient concentrations of antibiotic to inhibit growth of susceptible microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Mark P; Niedziela, Dagmara A; Keane, Orla M

    2017-08-01

    In studying the interaction between bacteria and host cells in vitro, the latter are frequently cultured on commercially available biotic matrices such as Matrigel® or Geltrex®. To avoid contamination, host cells are commonly grown in the presence of antibiotics. However, we present here the finding that cell culture on such a matrix in the presence of antibiotics interferes with the outcome of subsequent infection experiments by virtue of diminished bacterial survival. By comparing outcomes for penicillin-susceptible and resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, we show that residual penicillin remains in the matrix despite the antibiotics' withdrawal from culture. Hence, the use of antibiotics should be avoided in this context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cryopreservation of ram semen with antioxidant supplemented soybean lecithin-based extenders and impacts on incubation resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, M Berk; Alcay, Selim; Gokce, Elif; Ustuner, Burcu

    2016-06-01

    The scope of this study was investigation the affects of various antioxidants on 1% soybean lecithin-based semen extenders for ram semen cryopreservation. Ejaculates, collected via electrically stimulated ejaculation, that have a thick consistency, rapid wave motion (3-5 on a 0-5 scale) and >75% initial motility were pooled. The pooled samples were split into four equal aliquots as 5 mM Methionine, 5 mM Cysteamine, 1 mM Cysteine and a sample of antioxidant-free control group. Each sample group was diluted to a ratio of 1/5 (semen/extender, v/v) as final concentration and two step dilution method was used for cryopreservation. Extender groups were assessed for sperm motility, plasma membrane functional integrity using hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST), damaged acrosome using FITC-Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA-FITC) and DNA integrity using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). Semen samples also incubated for 6 h in humidified air with 5% CO2 at 39 °C to evaluate post-thaw incubation resilience of semen characteristics. The results showed that freezing and thawing procedures had negative effects on motility (P membrane integrity (P < 0.05) and acrosomal integrity (P < 0.05). After 6 h of incubation time, the Cysteine supplemented extender group yielded significantly higher results than other extender groups in terms of spermatological parameters. Furthermore MDA levels in the antioxidant groups were lower than control group (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, there were no significant differences among antioxidant groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prolonged pre-incubation increases the susceptibility of Galleria mellonella larvae to bacterial and fungal infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Niall; Surlis, Carla; Maher, Amie; Gallagher, Clair; Carolan, James C; Clynes, Martin; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Galleria mellonella larvae are widely used for assessing the virulence of microbial pathogens and for measuring the in vivo activity of antimicrobial agents and produce results comparable to those that can be obtained using mammals. The aim of the work described here was to ascertain the effect of pre-incubation at 15°C for 1, 3, 6 or 10 weeks on the susceptibility of larvae to infection with Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. Larvae infected with C. albicans after 1 week pre-incubation at 15°C showed 73.3 ± 3.3% survival at 24 hours post-infection while those infected after 10 weeks pre-incubation showed 30 ± 3.3% survival (P mellonella larvae are a useful in vivo model system but the duration of the pre-incubation stage significantly affects their susceptibility to microbial pathogens possibly as a result of altered metabolism. PMID:25785635

  18. The Sustainability and Challenges of Business Incubators in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lose, Thobekani; Tengeh, Robertson

    2015-01-01

    ... by numerous challenges. This paper investigates the challenges faced by business incubators (BIs) as they strive to support their clients. The study utilized a qualitative approach to collect data...

  19. How can the gap between educations and student incubators be bridged at higher educational institutes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Mette Lindahl; Rasmussen, Jan Erik Røjkjær; Brandt, Erika Zimmer

    2015-01-01

    entrepreneurship is student incubators is considered a privilege for carefully selected students, though reality is that for most other educations, students enrol in the education with an image of becoming employees. This foster a mind-set where problems are given and the sensitivity towards spotting opportunities...... of applicants for the student incubators. Does this mean that there is no need for student incubators at these institutions? Arguably not, it is merely a symptom of the fact that for some students the path to developing an entrepreneurial mind-set is longer and the gap are wider advocating the need of building......Student incubators in various shapes and forms are found at many higher educational institutes, they are becoming an increasingly important part of solving the challenges of educating entrepreneurial graduates that has arisen in the wake of the second academic revolution (Etzkowitz, 2003...

  20. The design of multi temperature and humidity monitoring system for incubator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junyu; Xu, Peng; Peng, Zitao; Qiang, Haonan; Shen, Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    Currently, there is only one monitor of the temperature and humidity in an incubator, which may cause inaccurate or unreliable data, and even endanger the life safety of the baby. In order to solve this problem,we designed a multi-point temperature and humidity monitoring system for incubators. The system uses the STC12C5A60S2 microcontrollers as the sender core chip which is connected to four AM2321 temperature and humidity sensors. We select STM32F103ZET6 core development board as the receiving end,cooperating with Zigbee wireless transmitting and receiving module to realize data acquisition and transmission. This design can realize remote real-time observation data on the computer by communicating with PC via Ethernet. Prototype tests show that the system can effectively collect and display the information of temperature and humidity of multiple incubators at the same time and there are four monitors in each incubator.

  1. The design of neonatal incubators: a systems-oriented, human-centered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, T K; Shepley, M M

    2013-04-01

    This report describes a multidisciplinary design project conducted in an academic setting reflecting a systems-oriented, human-centered philosophy in the design of neonatal incubator technologies. Graduate students in Architectural Design and Human Factors Engineering courses collaborated in a design effort that focused on supporting the needs of three user groups of incubator technologies: infant patients, family members and medical personnel. Design teams followed established human-centered design methods that included interacting with representatives from the user groups, analyzing sets of critical tasks and conducting usability studies with existing technologies. An iterative design and evaluation process produced four conceptual designs of incubators and supporting equipment that better address specific needs of the user groups. This report introduces the human-centered design approach, highlights some of the analysis findings and design solutions, and offers a set of design recommendations for future incubation technologies.

  2. Effects of caffeine supplementation in post-thaw human semen over different incubation periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariz, J R; Hallak, J

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of caffeine supplementation in post-cryopreservation human semen over different incubation periods. After collection by masturbation, 17 semen samples were analysed according to World Health Organization criteria, processed and cryopreserved with TEST-yolk buffer (1 : 1) in liquid nitrogen. After a thawing protocol, samples were incubated with 2 mm of caffeine for 0, 5, 15, 30 or 60 min, followed by analysis of motility and mitochondrial activity using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB). Mean variance analysis was performed, and P caffeine was associated with an increase in sperm motility, particularly 15-min incubation, suggesting that incubation with caffeine can be an important tool in patients with worsening seminal quality undergoing infertility treatment. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Mobile Incubation in Waved Albatross (Phoebastria irrorata: Associated Hatching Failure and Artificial Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. Awkerman

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Waved albatrosses often relocate their eggs during incubation by placing the egg between the tarsi and shuffling forward. This behavior frequently results in eggs becoming lodged between rocks, accounting for at least 10%, and perhaps as much as 80%, of breeding failures. Because albatross populations worldwide are currently threatened, artificial means of augmenting reproductive success may be necessary to mitigate losses caused by anthropogenic effects. We characterize the frequency and extent of egg movement; test several hypotheses related to microhabitat, timing, and incubation location to explain the behavior; and investigate the utility of repositioning lodged eggs in a location in which breeding birds might resume incubation. Egg rescue increased both the likelihood of continued incubation as well as the hatching rate in our experiment, and provides an efficient, low-cost management option for this species.

  4. Multi-channel real time active noise control system for infant incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lichuan; Gujjula, Shruthi; Kuo, Sen M

    2009-01-01

    Excessive noise levels inside infants incubators in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) contribute to number of harmful effects on the infant's health. This paper develops and implements practical active noise control (ANC) systems for the infant incubators. The filtered-X least mean square (FXLMS) algorithm is used to cancel the noise inside the incubator. The multi-channel and pseudo multi-channel ANC systems are proposed to enhance the noise cancellation performance in terms of cancellation gain and quiet zone. An experimental setup based on real Giraffe incubator from GE Healthcare is used for real-time experiments. The results show that the ANC system can dramatically reduce the noise and cost effective.

  5. Refeeding signal in fasting-incubating king penguins: changes in behavior and egg temperature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. Groscolas; F. Decrock; M.-A. Thil; C. Fayolle; C. Boissery; J.-P. Robin

    2000-01-01

    .... Behavior and egg temperature (Tegg) were continuously monitored by video monitoring and biotelemetry, respectively, in fasting-incubating king penguins kept in a pen to prevent relief by the partner until spontaneous egg abandonment...

  6. Equipment-free incubation of recombinase polymerase amplification reactions using body heat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crannell, Zachary Austin; Rohrman, Brittany; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    ...) reactions for isothermal amplification of HIV-1 DNA. After measuring the temperature of mock reactions at 4 body locations, the axilla was chosen as the ideal site for comfortable, convenient incubation...

  7. Informal networks in business development services: case studies from two Brazilian business incubators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Corradi (Ariane Agnes)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: The central idea of this paper is claiming business incubators as brokerage environments where entrepreneurs have access to resourceful actors. Brokerage relates to the development of bridging social capital (Knorringa, Staveren 2006) through which new information, ideas

  8. Curcumin uptake enhancement using low dose light illumination during incubation in Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Renan A.; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; da Silva, Ana P.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Guimarães, Francisco E. G.

    2017-07-01

    A new PDI protocol is presented in this study. C. albicans cells pre-illuminated with a low dose light demonstrated an increase of curcumin uptake when compared to dark incubation, leading to a higher PDI efficacy.

  9. Development Of A Neonatal Incubator Analyzer [desenvolvimento De Um Analisador De Incubadoras Neonatais

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrino J.C.; Leite H.J.D.; Kalid R.A.; Hermini A.H.; Lepikson H.A.

    2011-01-01

    Although designed to benefit premature newborns (NB) by creating an artificial environment close to the uterine conditions, the use of neonatal incubators may expose the NB to several sources of risk. Periodic inspections for verification of minimum requirements of performance and safety can identify these and their degrees of impact, helping to minimize them. In order to automate the metrological evaluation essays in neonatal incubators, we present the development of an analyzer with the cap...

  10. External Service Providers to the National Security Technology Incubator: Formalization of Relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-04-30

    This report documents the formalization of relationships with external service providers in the development of the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI). The technology incubator is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report summarizes the process in developing and formalizing relationships with those service providers and includes a sample letter of cooperation executed with each provider.

  11. Antipredator behaviour of hatchling snakes: effects of incubation temperature and simulated predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger

    1998-09-01

    All animals that are exposed to predators must distinguish dangerous from nondangerous threats and respond correctly. In reptiles, emerging hatchlings are vulnerable to a wide range of predators, particularly if they emerge during daylight. In these experiments I tested the response of pine snake, Pituophis melanoleucus, hatchlings incubated at 22-23, 27-28, or 32-33 degreesC to visual and vibratory stimuli to examine antipredator behaviour. Emerging hatchlings were exposed to one of five conditions: (1) hawk model, (2) white head model with no facial features, (3) white head model with black eyes, (4) a person, or (5) a vibration without a visual stimulus. I tested the null hypotheses of no differences in response as a function of predator type or incubation temperature. Emergence behaviour when undisturbed was affected by incubating temperature, and antipredatory behaviour was affected by both predator type and incubation temperature. Pine snake hatchlings responded more protectively (withdrawal into tunnels) than defensively (striking), responded with less intensity to a vibration compared with visual predator stimuli, and required longer to respond to a head model without eyes than to all other predator types. Given the relatively small size of hatchlings, it is adaptive for them to withdraw into the nest rather than attack a predator. Hatchlings from eggs that were incubated at medium temperatures required less time to emerge from their underground nests when undisturbed, and had stronger protective responses than snakes incubated at other temperatures. These results suggest that hatchlings incubated at medium temperatures are generally less vulnerable to predators than hatchlings incubated at higher or lower temperatures. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  12. Concentration risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matić Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration risk has been gaining a special dimension in the contemporary financial and economic environment. Financial institutions are exposed to this risk mainly in the field of lending, mostly through their credit activities and concentration of credit portfolios. This refers to the concentration of different exposures within a single risk category (credit risk, market risk, operational risk, liquidity risk.

  13. Concentration on Callus Induction in Sugarcane

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SP726180 and CO-. 001) and cultured in a modified MS medium supplemented with varying concentrations of. 2,4-D. After sterilization, the explants were incubated in the growth chamber at 270C and monitored for callus induction for four Weeks.

  14. Composition and location of simulated lake-shore redds influence incubation success in kokanee, Oncorhynchus nerka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincel, M.J.; Chipps, S.R.; Bennett, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    Methods for improving spawning habitat for lakeshore spawning kokanee, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), were explored by quantifying incubation success of embryos exposed to three substrate treatments in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, USA. Substrate treatments included no modification that used existing gravels in the lake (EXISTING), a cleaned substrate treatment where existing gravels were sifted in the water column to remove silt (CLEANED) and the addition of new, silt-free gravel (ADDED). Incubation success was evaluated using Whitlock-Vibert incubation boxes buried within each substrate treatment that contained recently fertilised embryos. Upon retrieval, live and dead sac fry and eyed eggs were enumerated to determine incubation success (sac fry and eyed eggs ?? 100/number of fertilised embryos). Incubation success varied significantly among locations and redd treatments. In general, incubation success among ADDED redds (0.0-13.0%) was significantly lower than that for EXISTING (1.4-61.0%) and CLEANED (0.4-62.5%) redds. Adding new gravel to spawning areas changed the morphometry of the gravel-water interface and probably exposed embryos to disturbance from wave action and reduced embryo survival. Moreover, efforts to improve spawning habitat for lakeshore spawning kokanee should consider water depth and location (e.g. protected shorelines) as important variables. Adding clean gravel to existing spawning areas may provide little benefit if water depth or lake-bottom morphometry are altered. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Leaching of soils during laboratory incubations does not affect soil organic carbon mineralisation but solubilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Domínguez, Beatriz; Studer, Mirjam S; Hagedorn, Frank; Niklaus, Pascal A; Abiven, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory soil incubations provide controlled conditions to investigate carbon and nutrient dynamics; however, they are not free of artefacts. As carbon and nitrogen cycles are tightly linked, we aimed at investigating whether the incubation-induced accumulation of mineral nitrogen (Nmin) biases soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralisation. For this, we selected two soils representative of the C:N ratio values found in European temperate forests, and applied two incubation systems: 'closed' beakers and 'open' microlysimeters. The latter allowed leaching the soil samples during the incubation. By the end of the 121-day experiment, the low C:N soil significantly accumulated more Nmin in beakers (5.12 g kg-1 OC) than in microlysimeters (3.00 g kg-1 OC) but there was not a significant difference in SOC mineralisation at any point of the experiment. On the other hand, Nmin did not accumulate in the high C:N soil but, by the end of the experiment, leaching had promoted 33.9% more SOC solubilisation than beakers. Therefore, we did not find evidence that incubation experiments introduce a bias on SOC mineralisation. This outcome strengthens results from soil incubation studies.

  16. Key Factors Affecting a Technology Entrepreneur's Choice of Incubator or Accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane A. Isabelle

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Technology entrepreneurship rarely succeeds in isolation; increasingly, it occurs in interconnected networks of business partners and other organizations. For entrepreneurs lacking access to an established business ecosystem, incubators and accelerators provide a possible support mechanism for access to partners and resources. Yet, these relatively recent approaches to supporting entrepreneurship are still evolving. Therefore, it can be challenging for entrepreneurs to assess these mechanisms and to make insightful decisions on whether or not to join an incubator or accelerator, and which incubator or accelerator best meets their needs. In this article, five key factors that entrepreneurs should take into consideration about incubators and accelerators are offered. Insights are drawn from two surveys of managers and users of incubators and accelerators. An understanding of these five key success factors (stage of venture, fit with incubator’s mission, selection and graduation policies, services provided, and network of partners and potential pitfalls will help entrepreneurs confidently enter into a relationship with an incubator or accelerator.

  17. Sod1 deficiency reduces incubation time in mouse models of prion disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen Akhtar

    Full Text Available Prion infections, causing neurodegenerative conditions such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and kuru in humans, scrapie in sheep and BSE in cattle are characterised by prolonged and variable incubation periods that are faithfully reproduced in mouse models. Incubation time is partly determined by genetic factors including polymorphisms in the prion protein gene. Quantitative trait loci studies in mice and human genome-wide association studies have confirmed that multiple genes are involved. Candidate gene approaches have also been used and identified App, Il1-r1 and Sod1 as affecting incubation times. In this study we looked for an association between App, Il1-r1 and Sod1 representative SNPs and prion disease incubation time in the Northport heterogeneous stock of mice inoculated with the Chandler/RML prion strain. No association was seen with App, however, significant associations were seen with Il1-r1 (P = 0.02 and Sod1 (P<0.0001 suggesting that polymorphisms at these loci contribute to the natural variation observed in incubation time. Furthermore, following challenge with Chandler/RML, ME7 and MRC2 prion strains, Sod1 deficient mice showed highly significant reductions in incubation time of 20, 13 and 24%, respectively. No differences were detected in Sod1 expression or activity. Our data confirm the protective role of endogenous Sod1 in prion disease.

  18. Incubating rainbow trout in soft water increased their later sensitivity to cadmium and zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, Christopher A.; Hennessy, Daniel P.; Dillon, Frank S.

    2010-01-01

    Water hardness is well known to affect the toxicity of some metals; however, reports on the influence of hardness during incubation or acclimation on later toxicity to metals have been conflicting. We incubated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) near the confluence of two streams, one with soft water and one with very-soft water (average incubation hardnesses of about 21 and 11 mg/L as CaCO3, respectively). After developing to the swim-up stage, the fish were exposed for 96-h to a mixture of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) in water with a hardness of 27 mg/L as CaCO3. The fish incubated in the higher hardness water were about two times more resistant than the fish incubated in the extremely soft water. This difference was similar or greater than the difference that would have been predicted by criteria hardness equations had the fish been tested in the different acclimation waters. We think it is plausible that the energy demands for fish to maintain homeostasis in the lower hardness water make the fish more sensitive to metals that inhibit ionoregulation such as Cd and Zn. We suggest that if important decisions were to be based upon test results, assumptions of adequate hardness acclimation should be carefully considered and short acclimation periods avoided. If practical, incubating rainbow trout in the control waters to be tested may reduce uncertainties in the possible influences of differing rearing water hardness on the test results.

  19. Concentrator Photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Luque, Antonio L

    2007-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar-energy conversion is one of the most promising technologies for generating renewable energy, and conversion of concentrated sunlight can lead to reduced cost for solar electricity. In fact, photovoltaic conversion of concentrated sunlight insures an efficient and cost-effective sustainable power resource. This book gives an overview of all components, e.g. cells, concentrators, modules and systems, for systems of concentrator photovoltaics. The authors report on significant results related to design, technology, and applications, and also cover the fundamental physics and market considerations. Specific contributions include: theory and practice of sunlight concentrators; an overview of concentrator PV activities; a description of concentrator solar cells; design and technology of modules and systems; manufacturing aspects; and a market study.

  20. Role of Dorsomedial Striatum Neuronal Ensembles in Incubation of Methamphetamine Craving after Voluntary Abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, Daniele; Venniro, Marco; Zhang, Michelle; Bossert, Jennifer M; Warren, Brandon L; Hope, Bruce T; Shaham, Yavin

    2017-01-25

    We recently developed a rat model of incubation of methamphetamine craving after choice-based voluntary abstinence. Here, we studied the role of dorsolateral striatum (DLS) and dorsomedial striatum (DMS) in this incubation. We trained rats to self-administer palatable food pellets (6 d, 6 h/d) and methamphetamine (12 d, 6 h/d). We then assessed relapse to methamphetamine seeking under extinction conditions after 1 and 21 abstinence days. Between tests, the rats underwent voluntary abstinence (using a discrete choice procedure between methamphetamine and food; 20 trials/d) for 19 d. We used in situ hybridization to measure the colabeling of the activity marker Fos with Drd1 and Drd2 in DMS and DLS after the tests. Based on the in situ hybridization colabeling results, we tested the causal role of DMS D1 and D2 family receptors, and DMS neuronal ensembles in "incubated" methamphetamine seeking, using selective dopamine receptor antagonists (SCH39166 or raclopride) and the Daun02 chemogenetic inactivation procedure, respectively. Methamphetamine seeking was higher after 21 d of voluntary abstinence than after 1 d (incubation of methamphetamine craving). The incubated response was associated with increased Fos expression in DMS but not in DLS; Fos was colabeled with both Drd1 and Drd2 DMS injections of SCH39166 or raclopride selectively decreased methamphetamine seeking after 21 abstinence days. In Fos-lacZ transgenic rats, selective inactivation of relapse test-activated Fos neurons in DMS on abstinence day 18 decreased incubated methamphetamine seeking on day 21. Results demonstrate a role of DMS dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the incubation of methamphetamine craving after voluntary abstinence and that DMS neuronal ensembles mediate this incubation. In human addicts, abstinence is often self-imposed and relapse can be triggered by exposure to drug-associated cues that induce drug craving. We recently developed a rat model of incubation of methamphetamine craving

  1. The effects of suboptimal eggshell temperature during incubation on broiler chick quality, live performance, and further processing yield

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joseph, N S; Lourens, A; Moran, Jr, E T

    2006-01-01

    .... Two experiments were performed to determine the effect of low EST at the start of incubation and high EST at the end of incubation on hatchability, chick quality, 6-wk live performance, and breast...

  2. Influence of the incubation conditions on culture media to optimize primary isolation of Mycobacterium bovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Yumi Ikuta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of Mycobacterium bovis is critical to a surveillance system for bovine tuberculosis based on detection of lesions in abattoirs. Thus, four solid culture media and three incubation conditions were investigated to elucidate which combination overcomes the others by assessing growth, time to the first appearance of colonies and their number. Ninety-seven samples of granulomatous lesions were submitted to the decontamination procedure by 1-hexadecylpyridinium chloride at 0.75% w/v, and inoculated on two egg-based media, Stonebrink’s (ST and Löwenstein-Jensen’s with sodium pyruvate (LJp, and two agar-based media, tuberculosis blood agar (B83 and Middlebrook 7H11 medium (7H11. Each medium was incubated at 37°C for 90 days in three incubation conditions: in air, in air containing 10% carbon dioxide (CO2, and in air in slopes closed with burned hydrophobic cotton and subsequently plugged with a cork to create a microaerophilic atmosphere. The colonies appeared faster and in higher number when incubated in air containing 10% CO2 (p < 0.01, independent of media. B83 showed a faster growth and detected more isolates at 30 days of incubation, when compared to ST (0.0178, LJp (p < 0.0001 and 7H11 (p < 0.0001, though there was no difference between B83, ST and LJp at 60 and 90 days of incubation. 7H11 presented the lowest number of isolates (p < 0.0001 and a longer period for the appearance of the first colony (p < 0.001. According to our findings, the concomitant use of ST and B83 media incubated in air containing 10% CO2 increases the isolation of M. bovis in a shorter period of time, which improves bovine tuberculosis diagnosis.

  3. Effects of human recreation on the incubation behavior of American Oystercatchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, C.P.; Simons, T.R.

    2006-01-01

    Human recreational disturbance and its effects on wildlife demographics and behavior is an increasingly important area of research. We monitored the nesting success of American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) in coastal North Carolina in 2002 and 2003. We also used video monitoring at nests to measure the response of incubating birds to human recreation. We counted the number of trips per hour made by adult birds to and from the nest, and we calculated the percent time that adults spent incubating. We asked whether human recreational activities (truck, all-terrain vehicle [ATV], and pedestrian traffic) were correlated with parental behavioral patterns. Eleven a priori models of nest survival and behavioral covariates were evaluated using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) to see whether incubation behavior influenced nest survival. Factors associated with birds leaving their nests (n = 548) included ATV traffic (25%), truck traffic (17%), pedestrian traffic (4%), aggression with neighboring oystercatchers or paired birds exchanging incubation duties (26%), airplane traffic (1%) and unknown factors (29%). ATV traffic was positively associated with the rate of trips to and away from the nest (??1 = 0.749, P behaviors. Nest survival models incorporating the frequency of trips by adults to and from the nest, and the percentage of time adults spent incubating, were somewhat supported in the AIC analyses. A low frequency of trips to and from the nest and, counter to expectations, low percent time spent incubating were associated with higher daily nest survival rates. These data suggest that changes in incubation behavior might be one mechanism by which human recreation affects the reproductive success of American Oystercatchers.

  4. Co-incubation of PMN and CaCo-2 cells modulates inflammatory potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, M B; Schaefer, C A; Hecker, M; Morty, R E; Witzenrath, M; Seeger, W; Mayer, K

    2017-05-20

    Polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN) are activated in inflammatory reactions. Intestinal epithelial cells are relevant for maintaining the intestinal barrier. We examined interactions of PMN and intestinal epithelial cell-like CaCo-2 cells to elucidate their regulation of inflammatory signalling and the impact of cyclooxygenase (COX), nitric oxide (NO) and platelet-activating factor (PAF). Human PMN and CaCo-2 cells, separately and in co-incubation, were stimulated with the calcium ionophore A23187 or with N-Formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanin (fMLP) that activates PMN only. Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and respiratory Burst were measured. To evaluate the modulation of inflammatory crosstalk we applied inhibitors of COX (acetyl salicylic acid; ASA), NO-synthase (N-monomethyl-L-arginin; L-NMMA), and the PAF-receptor (WEB2086). Unstimulated, co-incubation of CaCo-2 cells and PMN led to significantly reduced Burst and elevated HNE as compared to PMN. After stimulation with A23187, co-incubation resulted in an inhibition of Burst and HNE. Using fMLP co-incubation failed to modulate Burst but increased HNE. Without stimulation, all three inhibitors abolished the effect of co-incubation on Burst but did not change HNE.  ASA partly prevented modulation of Burst L-NMMA and WEB2086 did not change Burst but abolished mitigation of HNE. Without stimulation, co-incubation reduced Burst and elevated HNE. Activation of PMN and CaCo-2 cells by fMLP as compared to A23187 resulted in a completely different pattern of Burst and HNE, possibly due to single vs. dual cell activation. Anti-inflammatory effect of co-incubation might in part be due to due to COX-signalling governing Burst whereas NO- and PAF-dependent signalling seemed to control HNE release.

  5. Channel catfish hatchery production efficiency using a vertical-lift incubator the see-saw at various egg loading densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish spawns are typically incubated in ¼-in mesh baskets suspended in water that is agitated with paddles positioned between baskets. We tested a new vertical-lift incubator (the “See-Saw”) to incubate channel catfish spawns. Previous research demonstrated that when loaded with spawns at...

  6. Construction of Agricultural University Students’ Entrepreneurship Incubation Base – Taking Sichuan Agricultural University as a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Xia Yao; Jianping Xie; Linchun He

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, as an effective practice in university students’ entrepreneurship education, construction of university students’ entrepreneurship incubation base has been rapidly developed in different universities. This paper takes construction of the entrepreneurship incubation base in Sichuan Agricultural University as a case study, analyzes the current status of university students’ entrepreneurship incubation base and makes a discussion on establishment of management institution, f...

  7. Can incubators work in Africa? Acorn Technologies and the entrepreneur-centric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakma, Justin; Masum, Hassan; Singer, Peter A

    2010-12-13

    Incubators are organizations that support the growth of new and typically technology-based enterprises, by providing business support services that bring together human and financial capital. Although the traditional role of incubators has been for economic development, they may also be a useful policy lever to tackle global health, by fostering the development and delivery of local health innovation.Given its high disease burden, life sciences incubators hold particular potential for Africa. As the most industrially advanced African nation, South Africa serves as a litmus test for identifying effective incubator policies. The case study method was used to illustrate how one such publicly funded incubator founded in 2002, Acorn Technologies, helped to catalyze local health product innovation. Acorn helped to support twelve biomedical device firms. One of them, Real World Diagnostics, was founded by a trainee from Acorn's innovative internship program (Hellfire). It developed rapid strip diagnostic tests for locally prevalent diseases including schistosomiasis and HIV, and reported $2 million (USD) in revenue in 2009.Acorn achieved this success by operating as a non-profit virtual incubator with little physical infrastructure. Employing a virtual model in combination with stringent selection criteria of capital efficiency for clients proved to be effective in reducing its own fixed costs. Acorn focused on entrepreneurship training and networking, both critical at an early stage in an environment dominated by multinational biomedical device companies.Acorn and its clients learned that employing a cross-subsidy business model allowed one to generate royalty revenue through imports to subsidize R&D for local diseases. However, funding constraints and government expectations for rapid self-sustainability forced Acorn to merge with its sister biotechnology incubator in 2009. A key to Acorn's achievements was identifying entrepreneurs with technologies with health and

  8. Can incubators work in Africa? Acorn Technologies and the entrepreneur-centric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Incubators are organizations that support the growth of new and typically technology-based enterprises, by providing business support services that bring together human and financial capital. Although the traditional role of incubators has been for economic development, they may also be a useful policy lever to tackle global health, by fostering the development and delivery of local health innovation. Given its high disease burden, life sciences incubators hold particular potential for Africa. As the most industrially advanced African nation, South Africa serves as a litmus test for identifying effective incubator policies. The case study method was used to illustrate how one such publicly funded incubator founded in 2002, Acorn Technologies, helped to catalyze local health product innovation. Discussion Acorn helped to support twelve biomedical device firms. One of them, Real World Diagnostics, was founded by a trainee from Acorn’s innovative internship program (Hellfire). It developed rapid strip diagnostic tests for locally prevalent diseases including schistosomiasis and HIV, and reported $2 million (USD) in revenue in 2009. Acorn achieved this success by operating as a non-profit virtual incubator with little physical infrastructure. Employing a virtual model in combination with stringent selection criteria of capital efficiency for clients proved to be effective in reducing its own fixed costs. Acorn focused on entrepreneurship training and networking, both critical at an early stage in an environment dominated by multinational biomedical device companies. Acorn and its clients learned that employing a cross-subsidy business model allowed one to generate royalty revenue through imports to subsidize R&D for local diseases. However, funding constraints and government expectations for rapid self-sustainability forced Acorn to merge with its sister biotechnology incubator in 2009. Summary A key to Acorn’s achievements was identifying entrepreneurs

  9. Factors related to shell deaths during artificial incubation of ostrich eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Brand

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available he ostrich industry experiences a high rate of embryonic mortalities during artificial incubation of eggs. Embryonic deaths were studied from data recorded on 37 740 fertile eggs incubated artificially during the 1998-2005 breeding seasons. Roughly 10 000 eggs that sustained embryonic mortalities were classified according to the stage and nature of death, i.e. before 21 days of incubation, after 21 days of incubation, deaths after pipping and rotten eggs. Although infection may have played a role in ~1300 rotten eggs, no detailed knowledge of the pathogens involved was available. The remainder of deaths could not be related to pathogens and the deaths were thus generally referred to as non-infectious. The overall level of embryonic mortality in all the eggs studied was 28.5 %. Overall embryonic mortality was affected by incubator, with higher levels (57.0 % found in eggs incubated in an African Incubator(R and also in eggs that were transferred between incubators during incubation (38.1 %. Overall embryonic mortality also increased in eggs produced by older females. Eggs produced in the autumn had the highest level of embryonic mortality at 53.6 %, whereas eggs produced in the winter had a marginally higher level of embryonic mortalities of 29.2 % compared with eggs produced during summer (27.4 %. Eggs produced by South African (SA Black males crossed to Zimbabwean Blue females had high levels of embryonic losses of 45.7 %. The embryonic mortality of eggs produced by SA Blacks or Zimbabwean Blue breeding birds subjected to pure breeding was similar at ~33-34 %, but embryonic mortality was improved in eggs produced by Zimbabwean Blue males crossed to SA Black females (27 %. Embryonic mortality was increased in eggs that were set directly (32.0 % or subjected to longer than 6 days of storage (43.5 %. Embryonic mortality was affected by year. The results that were obtained will assist in determining non-infectious factors that have a negative

  10. Can incubators work in Africa? Acorn Technologies and the entrepreneur-centric model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer Peter A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incubators are organizations that support the growth of new and typically technology-based enterprises, by providing business support services that bring together human and financial capital. Although the traditional role of incubators has been for economic development, they may also be a useful policy lever to tackle global health, by fostering the development and delivery of local health innovation. Given its high disease burden, life sciences incubators hold particular potential for Africa. As the most industrially advanced African nation, South Africa serves as a litmus test for identifying effective incubator policies. The case study method was used to illustrate how one such publicly funded incubator founded in 2002, Acorn Technologies, helped to catalyze local health product innovation. Discussion Acorn helped to support twelve biomedical device firms. One of them, Real World Diagnostics, was founded by a trainee from Acorn’s innovative internship program (Hellfire. It developed rapid strip diagnostic tests for locally prevalent diseases including schistosomiasis and HIV, and reported $2 million (USD in revenue in 2009. Acorn achieved this success by operating as a non-profit virtual incubator with little physical infrastructure. Employing a virtual model in combination with stringent selection criteria of capital efficiency for clients proved to be effective in reducing its own fixed costs. Acorn focused on entrepreneurship training and networking, both critical at an early stage in an environment dominated by multinational biomedical device companies. Acorn and its clients learned that employing a cross-subsidy business model allowed one to generate royalty revenue through imports to subsidize R&D for local diseases. However, funding constraints and government expectations for rapid self-sustainability forced Acorn to merge with its sister biotechnology incubator in 2009. Summary A key to Acorn’s achievements was

  11. Elasticity and breaking strength of synthetic suture materials incubated in various equine physiological and pathological solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, C M; Buckley, C T; Jenner, F; Moissonnier, P; Brama, P A J

    2014-07-01

    Selection of suture material in equine surgery is often based on costs or subjective factors, such as the surgeon's personal experience, rather than objective facts. The amount of objective data available on durability of suture materials with regard to specific equine physiological conditions is limited. To evaluate the effect of various equine physiological and pathological fluids on the rate of degradation of a number of commonly used suture materials. In vitro material testing. Suture materials were exposed in vitro to physiological fluid, followed by biomechanical analysis. Three absorbable suture materials, glycolide/lactide copolymer, polyglactin 910 and polydioxanone were incubated at 37°C for 7, 14 or 28 days in phosphate-buffered saline, equine serum, equine urine and equine peritoneal fluid from an animal with peritonitis. Five strands of each suture material type were tested to failure in a materials testing machine for each time point and each incubation medium. Yield strength, strain and Young's modulus were calculated, analysed and reported. For all suture types, the incubation time had a significant effect on yield strength, percentage elongation and Young's modulus in all culture media (PYoung's modulus in all culture media (Pmaterial characteristics tested, polydioxanone showed the least variation across the incubation period in each culture medium. The duration of incubation and the type of fluid have significant effects on the biomechanical properties of various suture materials. These findings are important for evidence-based selection of suture material in clinical cases. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  12. Sitting in the sun: Nest microhabitat affects incubation temperatures in seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Lorinda A; Downs, Colleen T; Brown, Mark

    2016-08-01

    During incubation parent birds are committed to a nest site and endure a range of ambient conditions while regulating egg temperatures. Using artificial eggs containing temperature loggers alongside ambient temperature (Ta) controls, incubation profiles were determined for four tropical seabird species at different nest site locations. Camera traps were used for ad-hoc behavioural incubation observations. Eggs experienced a range of temperatures during incubation and varied significantly between species and in some cases between different microhabitats within a species. Such variation has important consequences in the phenotypic expression of both physical and physiological traits of chicks, and ultimately species fitness. Exposed nest sites were more strongly correlated to Tas. Camera traps highlighted different incubation strategies employed by these species that could be related to trade-offs in predator defence, feeding habits, and temperature regulation of eggs. This study provides evidence that species with similar breeding habits could be affected by environmental stressors in similar ways and that the differences shown in nest site selection could negate some of these effects. We propose that habitats providing suitable nest microclimates will become increasingly important for the successful breeding of seabird species, particularly under predicted climate change scenarios. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Toxicity of cryoprotectants on Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1837 (curimba embryos in an experimental incubator (Characiformes: Prochilodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella A. J. Paula

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effect of cryoprotectant substances on Prochilodus lineatus embryos in an experimental incubator. The prospective study applied combinations of polyvinyl alcohol, hydroxyethyl cellulose, gelatin and fetal bovine serum with dimethyl sulfoxide and ethylene glycol in a new experimental incubator. The morphology of embryos, larval viability and the efficiency of experimental incubators in maintaining the quality of embryos were evaluated. This study demonstrates the efficient association between hydroxyethylcellulose and dimethyl sulfoxide as greater viability (p<0.05 was found for embryos (72.9 ± 23.9%. It should also be noted the permeation of cryoprotectants in embryos through the changes found in chorion diameter, embryo diameter and embryo volume comparing the treatments versus control group (water (p<0.05, this results can help in future cryopreservation protocols. Although the temperature and oxygenation differed between the usual and experimental incubators (p<0.05, the results showed a high fertilization rate (79.6 ± 13.2% for experimental incubators (p<0.05 which is sufficient for the maintenance of embryos in a cryoprotective environment and effectively allows experimentation for long periods with cryoprotectant substances. Cryopreservation of fish embryos has not been accomplished yet and new approaches are required for understanding the permeability of teleost embryos, especially in Brazilian native species.

  14. Influence of incubation temperature on biofilm formation and corrosion of carbon steel by Serratia marcescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harimawan, Ardiyan; Devianto, Hary; Kurniawan, Ignatius Chandra; Utomo, Josephine Christine

    2017-01-01

    Microbial induced corrosion (MIC) or biocorrosion is one type of corrosion, directly or indirectly influenced by microbial activities, by forming biofilm and adhering on the metal surface. When forming biofilm, the microorganisms can produce extracellular products which influence the cathodic and anodic reactions on metal surfaces. This will result in electrochemical changes in the interface between the biofilm and the metal surface, leading to corrosion and deterioration of the metal. MIC might be caused by various types of microorganism which leads to different corrosion mechanism and reaction kinetics. Furthermore, this process will also be influenced by various environmental conditions, such as pH and temperature. This research is aimed to determine the effect of incubation temperature on corrosion of carbon steel caused by Serratia marcescens in a mixture solution of synthetic seawater with Luria Bertani medium with a ratio of 4:1. The incubation was performed for 19 days with incubation temperature of 30, 37, and 50°C. The analyses of biofilm were conducted by total plate count (TPC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Biofilm was found to be evenly growth on the surface and increasing with increasing incubation temperature. It consists of functional group of alcohol, alkane, amine, nitro, sulfate, carboxylic acid, and polysulfide. The analyses of the corrosion were conducted by gravimetric and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Higher incubation temperature was found to increase the corrosion rate. However, the corrosion products were not detected by XRD analysis.

  15. Dissolution and aggregation of Cu nanoparticles in culture media: effects of incubation temperature and particles size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingxiangyu; Fernández-Cruz, María Luisa; Connolly, Mona; Schuster, Michael; Navas, José María

    2015-01-01

    Here, the effects of incubation temperature and particle size on the dissolution and aggregation behavior of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) in culture media were investigated over 96 h, equivalent to the time period for acute cell toxicity tests. Three CuNPs with the nominal sizes of 25, 50, and 100 nm and one type of micro-sized particles (MPs, 500 nm) were examined in culture media used for human and fish hepatoma cell lines acute tests. A large decrease in sizes of CuNPs in the culture media was observed in the first 24 h incubation, and subsequently the sizes of CuNPs changed slightly over the following 72 h. Moreover, the decreasing rate in size was significantly dependent on the incubation temperature; the higher the incubation temperature, the larger the decreasing rate in size. In addition to that, we also found that the release of copper ions depended on the incubation temperature. Moreover, the dissolution rate of Cu particles increased very fast in the first 24 h, with a slight increase over the following 72 h.

  16. Dissolution and aggregation of Cu nanoparticles in culture media: effects of incubation temperature and particles size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lingxiangyu [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology (China); Fernández-Cruz, María Luisa; Connolly, Mona [Spanish National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology - INIA, Department of Environment (Spain); Schuster, Michael [Technische Universität München, Department of Chemistry (Germany); Navas, José María, E-mail: jmnavas@inia.es [Spanish National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology - INIA, Department of Environment (Spain)

    2015-01-15

    Here, the effects of incubation temperature and particle size on the dissolution and aggregation behavior of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) in culture media were investigated over 96 h, equivalent to the time period for acute cell toxicity tests. Three CuNPs with the nominal sizes of 25, 50, and 100 nm and one type of micro-sized particles (MPs, ∼500 nm) were examined in culture media used for human and fish hepatoma cell lines acute tests. A large decrease in sizes of CuNPs in the culture media was observed in the first 24 h incubation, and subsequently the sizes of CuNPs changed slightly over the following 72 h. Moreover, the decreasing rate in size was significantly dependent on the incubation temperature; the higher the incubation temperature, the larger the decreasing rate in size. In addition to that, we also found that the release of copper ions depended on the incubation temperature. Moreover, the dissolution rate of Cu particles increased very fast in the first 24 h, with a slight increase over the following 72 h.

  17. Analysis of the Organizational Structure of Enterprises of Technological Basis With Projects Without Incubators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Gimenes Bera Oshita

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The contingency theory assumes that the structure of the organization involves environment, people, technologies and administrative techniques for achieving the objectives of the company, which must comply with the contingent factors and the environment in which it is inserted. Being that, by the evolution of technology companies must be innovative from an organic structure. Thus, the incubated companies have innovative feature, this way: how is the organizational structure of enterprises of technological basis with projects in incubators? This research aims to asses and classify the organizational structure of enterprises of technological basis with projects in incubators in the State of Paraná. To achieve this goal it carried out a literature review on the contingency theory. Afterwards it was applied the questionnaire with companies incubated in that sought to identify their organizational structure Trough the applied methodology was found that, in General, incubated companies presented some mechanistic designs features with command-based rules and procedures in that only one person takes the decision, which way be the reflection of a technological breakthrough in which companies migrate to a mechanistic designs structure for organic , as well as in the results of Joan Woodward (1958, in which the occurrence of technological advancement, companies use the mechanistic designs structure, changing later to organic.

  18. Concentrated Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar

    2014-01-01

    This entry summarizes the main theoretical contributions and empirical findings in relation to concentrated ownership from a law and economics perspective. The various forms of concentrated ownership are described as well as analyzed from the perspective of the legal protection of investors...

  19. Gelation behaviour of a bent-core dihydrazide derivative: effect of incubation temperature in chloroform and toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunxue; Zhang, Tianren; Ji, Nan; Zhang, Yan; Bai, Binglian; Wang, Haitao; Li, Min

    2016-02-07

    In this work, a new kind of gelator, 1,3-bis[(3,4-dioctyloxy phenyl) hydrazide]phenylene (BP8-C), containing two dihydrazide units as the rigid bent-core, has been synthesized and investigated. It was demonstrated that BP8-C is an efficient gelator which can gel various organic solvents, such as ethanol, benzene, toluene, chloroform, etc. Both an opaque gel (O-gel) and a transparent gel (T-gel), which is more stable, were obtained with BP8-C in chloroform at different incubation temperatures. Kinetic data based on fluorescence spectra revealed that the T-gels showed a larger Avrami parameter (n = 1.44 at 20 °C) than that of the O-gels (n = 1.21 for gelation at temperatures below 0 °C). While BP8-C did form the opaque gel in toluene, gelation took longer at lower incubation temperatures and even precipitated out below 0 °C. The kinetic Avrami analysis on sols of BP8-C with different concentrations shows a two-phrase mechanism, i.e. the n values are between 0.88 and 1.74 followed by 1.69 and 3.01 throughout the temperature range of 5 °C and 35 °C for 5.34 mg mL(-1) BP8-C in toluene, indicating that the fibers formed first and then bundled to produce compact networks. We propose that supersaturation governs the formation of gel in chloroform and that the diffusion process denominates gelation in toluene. XRD and FT-IR measurements confirmed that the xerogels prepared at different temperatures in different solvents exhibited a Col(h) structure and that there are three molecules in one columnar slice. Our results indicate that the gelation process, morphology of the gels and thus the final properties of the gels depend strongly on the preparation conditions such as temperature, solvent, concentration, etc.

  20. N Mineralisation from Bioresources Incubated at 12.5°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. Ives

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils treated with lime-amended biosolids (LAB, poppy seed waste (PSW, anaerobically digested biosolids (ADB and poppy mulch (PM and incubated at 12.5°C for 56 days released 45%, 36%, 25%, and −8%, respectively, of total applied N as plant available nitrogen (PAN by the end of the incubation. The mineralisation rates were contrary to expectations based on the C : N ratios of the four products: LAB (5 : 1, PSW (7 : 1, ADB (3 : 1, and PM (16 : 1. PM showed a significant negative priming effect over the incubation period. These results have implications for production agriculture in temperate regions where application and incorporation of bio-resources traditionally occurs in autumn and spring when soil and air temperatures are relatively low. Current application times may not be suitable for nitrogen release to satisfy crop demand.

  1. Composition of incubation solution impacts in vitro protein uptake to silicone hydrogel contact lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heynen, Miriam; Luensmann, Doerte; Jones, Lyndon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To determine the impact of incubation solution composition on protein deposition to silicone hydrogel (SH) contact lenses using a simplistic and a complex model of the tear film. Methods Three SH materials – senofilcon A (SA), lotrafilcon B (LB), and balafilcon A (BA) – were incubated in two different solutions; Solution A was a simplistic augmented buffered saline solution containing a single protein, whereas Solution B was a complex artificial tear solution (ATS), containing the augmented buffered saline solution in addition to proteins, lipids, and mucins (pH=7.4). The proteins of interest (lysozyme, lactoferrin, albumin) were radiolabeled with Iodine-125 (2% protein of interest) and the accumulation of the conjugated protein to the lens materials was determined after 1, 7, 14, and 28 days of incubation. Protein deposition was measured using a gamma counter and the raw data were translated into absolute amounts (µg/lens) via extrapolation from standards. Results After 28 days, lysozyme uptake was significantly lower on BA lenses when incubated in Solution A (33.7 μg) compared to Solution B (56.2 μg), plenses deposited similar amounts of lysozyme when incubated in either Solution A (2.6 μg) or Solution B (4.1 μg), p>0.05. LB lenses also deposited similar amounts of lysozyme for both solutions (Solution A: 5.0 μg, Solution B: 4.7 μg, p>0.05). After 28 days, BA lenses accumulated approximately twice the amount of lactoferrin than the other lens materials, with 30.3 μg depositing when exposed to Solution A and 22.0 μg with Solution B. The difference between the two solutions was statistically significant (plenses regardless of incubation solution composition (Solution A: 8.2 μg, Solution B: 11.2 μg, p>0.05). After 28 days, albumin deposition onto BA lenses was significantly greater when lenses were incubated in Solution B (1.7 μg) compared to Solution A (0.9 μg), plenses when incubated in either solution (0.6 μg versus 0.7 μg, p>0.05). LB

  2. Male songbirds provide indirect parental care by guarding females during incubation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedy, B.C.; Martin, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    Across many taxa, guarding of fertile mates is a widespread tactic that enhances paternity assurance. However, guarding of mates can also occur during the nonfertile period, and the fitness benefits of this behavior are unclear. Male songbirds, for example, sometimes guard nonfertile females during foraging recesses from incubation. We hypothesized that guarding postreproductive mates may have important, but unrecognized, benefits by enhancing female foraging efficiency, thereby increasing time spent incubating eggs. We tested the hypothesis in 2 songbird species by examining female behavior during natural and experimentally induced absences of males. Male absence caused increased vigilance in foraging females that decreased their efficiency and resulted in less time spent incubating eggs. Male guarding of nonfertile females can thus provide a previously unrecognized form of indirect parental care.

  3. How do entrepreneurs’ characteristics influence the benefits from the various elements of a business incubator?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monsson, Christian Kjær; Jørgensen, Søren Berg

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate empirically that differences in characteristics of entrepreneurs result in benefits from different elements of a regional incubator programme. Design/methodology/approach – The authors use mixed methods consisting of in-depth interviews...... and a survey of 100 incubatees in order to study entrepreneurs within a specific incubator programme called the Growth Factories located in Region Zealand, Denmark. Findings – The authors find that there are significant differences in the perceived benefit of various business incubator elements for incubatees...... depending on their entrepreneurial characteristics. Research limitations/implications – Future studies are particularly important in order to learn which elements provide the different kinds of entrepreneurs with a critical factor in determining their success or failure. Practical...

  4. Effect of temperature on incubation period, embryonic mortality, hatch rate, egg water loss and partridge chick weight (Rhynchotus rufescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakage ES

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of incubation temperature (34.5; 35.5; 36.5; 37.5 and 38.5ºC, on incubation period, embryonic mortality, hatching rate, water loss and chick weight at hatch, using daily incubation of partridge (Rhynchotus rufescens eggs. The highest hatching percentage was obtained between 35.5 and 36.5ºC. Incubation length and temperature were inversely proportional. Water loss was lower in eggs incubated at low temperatures as compared to high temperatures. There was no difference among incubation temperatures in absolute and relative hatchling weights. Early embryonic mortality increased at low temperatures (36.5ºC. Our results show that, under conditions of daily incubation of eggs in the same incubator, higher hatching rate can be obtained using temperatures between 35.5ºC and 36.5ºC; incubation temperature is inversely proportional to incubation length, and absolute and relative weights of partridge chicks are not affected by incubation temperature.

  5. Prevention of Biomaterial Infection by Pre-Operative Incubation with Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Tanoira, Ramón; Aarnisalo, Antti A; Eklund, Kari K; Han, Xia; Soininen, Antti; Tiainen, Veli-Matti; Esteban, Jaime; Kinnari, Teemu J

    2017-04-01

    Cells of tissues and biofilm forming bacteria compete for the living space on the surface of an implant. We hypothesized the incubation of the implant (titanium, polydimethylsiloxane, and polystyrene surface) with human cells before implantation as a strategy to prevent bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. After 24 hours of incubation with human osteogenic sarcoma SaOS-2 cells (1 × 10 5 cells/mL), the materials were incubated for 4.5 hours or two days with Staphylococcus aureus in serial 1:10 dilutions of 10 8 colony-forming units/mL. The bacterial adherence and biofilm biomass on materials pre-incubated with SaOS-2 cells were compared with our previous results on materials incubated only with bacteria or in simultaneous co-culture of SaOS-2 cells and S. aureus. Fluorescent microscopy and crystal violet stain were used. The number of viable SaOS-2 and bacterial cells present was tested using colorimetric methods (MTT, LDH) and drop plate method, respectively. The pre-treatment with human cells was associated with a reduction of bacterial colonization of the biomaterial at 4.5 hours and 48 hours compared with the non-pre-treated materials. The presence of bacteria decreased the number of viable human cells on all materials. ( Supplementary Fig. 1 ; see online supplementary materials at www.liebertpub.com/sur ). These results suggest that the pre-operative incubation of prostheses with host cells could prevent infection of biomaterials.

  6. Student experimenter and sponsor display SE83-9 'Chix in Space' incubator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Student experimenter John C. Vellinger (left) explains components of an incubator for his Student Experiment (SE) 83-9 Chicken Embryo Development in Space or 'Chix in Space' to be carried onboard STS-29 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Mark S. Deusser, representing the sponsoring organization, holds up the incubator for inspection by STS-29 crewmembers who will monitor in-space operation of the experiment. Mission Specialist (MS) Robert C. Springer is partially visible in the lower right foreground. The student's sponsor is Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC).

  7. How can the gap between educations and student incubators be bridged at higher educational institutes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Mette Lindahl; Rasmussen, Jan Erik Røjkjær; Brandt, Erika Zimmer

    2015-01-01

    ). It is in the DNA of some educational institutes like Babson and in some educational programs like the business degrees to work with entrepreneurship. But it comes natural for a minority of the total student body to see them self as entrepreneurs and act as such. At some educations and educational institutes...... bridges between the educations and the student incubators. With this contribution we wish to exemplify to educators and decision makers involved in student incubators, how students, also from non-business background, can be introduced to entrepreneurship enabling them to spot their own entrepreneurial...

  8. A Theory for the Incubation Period Following a Stress Reduction During Creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde-Sørensen, Jørgen

    1978-01-01

    A dislocation model is presented for the phenomena following a stress reduction during creep. It is suggested that an incubation period for the production of new mobile dislocations arises because attractive junctions on the verge of breaking just before the stress reduction are no longer so after...... the stress reduction. The breaking stress of the junctions must be lowered by climb movements in the surrounding network before the junctions can break and release new mobile dislocations. On the basis of these concepts, an expression is derived for the length of the incubation period. This theoretical...

  9. Business Incubators – Favorable Environment for Small and Medium Enterprises Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia MORARU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The biggest problem for many small and medium enterprises (SMEs is not the idea or the product provided and neither its customers, but their needs. High prices of production and office space are critical to the survival of a small business. Incubators come as a response to the needs of small and medium enterprises in key steps of a business, such as initiation and market penetration. An incubator aims to have a positive effect on the economic health of an area, of a community.

  10. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes for drug delivery: Efficiency related to length and incubation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciortino, Niccolò; Fedeli, Stefano; Paoli, Paolo; Brandi, Alberto; Chiarugi, Paola; Severi, Mirko; Cicchi, Stefano

    2017-04-15

    Batches of oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes differing in length were adopted to prepare two drug delivery systems (DDS) loaded with doxorubicin. The different internalization of the two batches, verified by atomic emission spectroscopy onto cell lysates, was also confirmed by the different toxicity of the same DDS loaded with doxorubicin. In vitro experiments evidenced, after 48h of incubation, the superior efficacy of the shortest nanotubes. However, upon prolonging the incubation time up to 72h the difference in efficiency was minimized due to the spontaneous release of doxorubicin by the non-internalized long nanotubes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Concentrating Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  12. Comparison between in vitro properties of washed platelet concentrates suspended in M-sol and those in BRS-A, both of which were prepared with an automated cell processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, Akira; Hirayama, Junichi; Nogawa, Masayuki; Shiba, Masayuki; Satake, Masahiro; Takamoto, Shigeru; Tadokoro, Kenji

    2017-04-01

    Washed platelet concentrate (WPC) is prepared manually in general, but automated preparation is desirable to minimize variation in the WPC quality and enhance WPC production. Recently, the software was improved for an automated cell processor (ACP) to control all processes of WPC preparation. M-sol and BRS-A, which are mixtures of medical solutions, are widely used for WPC preparation with a manual method in Japan. In this study, we prepared WPC suspended in M-sol (WPC-M) or BRS-A (WPC-B) with the ACP, and compared their in vitro properties during 7-day storage. PC was divided into two equal aliquots for WPC-M and WPC-B. A divided PC, medical solutions and disposable materials were set in the ACP, and it was started to prepare WPC-M or WPC-B on Day 0. Prepared WPC was stored on a flatbed shaker until Day 7. The pH of WPC-M and WPC-B was maintained above 6.8 during the 7-day storage. The differences in aggregation (%), HSR (%), P-selectin expression, GPIbα expression, and phosphatidylserine expression between WPC-M and WPC-B were minimal until Day 3. The in vitro properties of WPC-B are not markedly different from those of WPC-M until Day 3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of some cultural experimental methods to study the effects of antibiotics on microbial activities in a soil: An incubation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaei, Ali; Lakzian, Amir; Haghnia, Gholamhosain; Astaraei, Alireza; Rasouli-Sadaghiani, MirHassan; Teresa Ceccherini, Maria; Datta, Rahul

    2017-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) are two of most widely used antibiotics in livestock and poultry industry. After consumption of antibiotics, a major portion of these compounds is excreted through the feces and urine of animals. Land application of antibiotic-treated animal wastes has caused increasing concern about their adverse effects on ecosystem health. In this regard, inconsistent results have been reported regarding the effects of antibiotics on soil microbial activities. This study was conducted based on the completely randomized design to the measure microbial biomass carbon, cumulative respiration and iron (III) reduction bioassays. Concentrations of OTC and SMX including 0, 1, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg were spiked in triplicate to a sandy loam soil and incubated for 21 days at 25°C. Results showed that the effects of OTC and SMX antibiotics on cumulative respiration and microbial biomass carbon were different. SMX antibiotic significantly affected soil microbial biomass carbon and cumulative respiration at different treatments compared to control with increasing incubation time. OTC antibiotic, on the other hand, negatively affected cumulative respiration compared to control treatment throughout the incubation period. Although OTC antibiotic positively affected microbial biomass carbon at day one of incubation, there was no clear trend in microbial biomass carbon between different treatments of this antibiotic after that time period. Nevertheless, sulfamethoxazole and oxytetracycline antibiotics had similar effects on iron (III) reduction such that they considerably affected iron (III) reduction at 1 and 10 mg/kg, and iron (III) reduction was completely inhibited at concentrations above 10 mg/kg. Hence, according to our results, microbial biomass carbon and cumulative respiration experiments are not able alone to exhibit the effect of antibiotics on soil microbial activity, but combination of these two experiments with iron (III

  14. Application of an optimized flow cytometry-based quantification of Platelet Activation (PACT): Monitoring platelet activation in platelet concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicken, Cécile H; Roest, Mark; Henskens, Yvonne M C; de Laat, Bas; Huskens, Dana

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that flow cytometry is a reliable test to quantify platelet function in stored platelet concentrates (PC). It is thought that flow cytometry is laborious and hence expensive. We have optimized the flow cytometry-based quantification of agonist induced platelet activation (PACT) to a labor, time and more cost-efficient test. Currently the quality of PCs is only monitored by visual inspection, because available assays are unreliable or too laborious for use in a clinical transfusion laboratory. Therefore, the PACT was applied to monitor PC activation during storage. The optimized PACT was used to monitor 5 PCs during 10 days of storage. In brief, optimized PACT uses a ready-to-use reaction mix, which is stable at -20°C. When needed, a test strip is thawed and platelet activation is initiated by mixing PC with PACT. PACT was based on the following agonists: adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen-related peptide (CRP) and thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP-6). Platelet activation was measured as P-selectin expression. Light transmission aggregometry (LTA) was performed as a reference. Both PACT and LTA showed platelet function decline during 10-day storage after stimulation with ADP and collagen/CRP; furthermore, PACT showed decreasing TRAP-induced activation. Major differences between the two tests are that PACT is able to measure the status of platelets in the absence of agonists, and it can differentiate between the number of activated platelets and the amount of activation, whereas LTA only measures aggregation in response to an agonist. Also, PACT is more time-efficient compared to LTA and allows high-throughput analysis. PACT is an optimized platelet function test that can be used to monitor the activation of PCs. PACT has the same accuracy as LTA with regard to monitoring PCs, but it is superior to both LTA and conventional flow cytometry based tests with regard to labor-, time- and cost efficiency.

  15. Key Factors Affecting a Technology Entrepreneur's Choice of Incubator or Accelerator

    OpenAIRE

    Diane A. Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Technology entrepreneurship rarely succeeds in isolation; increasingly, it occurs in interconnected networks of business partners and other organizations. For entrepreneurs lacking access to an established business ecosystem, incubators and accelerators provide a possible support mechanism for access to partners and resources. Yet, these relatively recent approaches to supporting entrepreneurship are still evolving. Therefore, it can be challenging for entrepreneurs to assess these mechanisms...

  16. Incubation lighting schedules and their interaction with matched or mismatched post hatch lighting schedules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van der Carla W.; Roovert-Reijrink, van Inge A.M.; Aalbers, Gerald; Kemp, Bas; Brand, van den Henry

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of leg pathologies in broiler chickens with a developmental origin may be decreased by stimulating embryonic bone development through lighting schedules during incubation, but this may depend on post hatch lighting conditions. Aim was to investigate how lighting schedules during

  17. Perinatal development and nutrient utilization in chickens : effects of incubation conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, R.

    2010-01-01

    Suboptimal incubation conditions can negatively affect survival and development of chicken embryos. However, physiological mechanisms that may explain these effects, and the long-lasting consequences are largely unknown. Therefore, the first aim of this thesis was to investigate effects of eggshell

  18. The minimal incubation period from the onset of Barrett's oesophagus to symptomatic adenocarcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. den Hoed (Caroline); M. van Blankenstein (Mark); J. Dees (Jan); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground:The interval between the onset of Barrett's oesophagus (BO) and oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) can be termed the incubation period. However, the unrecorded onset of BO precludes its direct observation.Methods:Determining the range of intervals between BO diagnosis and OAC

  19. Effects of breeder age and pre-incubation storage of eggs on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two thousand four hundred quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) hatching eggs were used to determine the effects of breeder age and pre-incubation storage time on egg traits, hatching traits and the growth of some selected organs in newly hatched chicks. Eggs from two non-commercial flocks (aged 10 vs. 40 weeks) of the ...

  20. Computer-generated versus nurse-determined strategy for incubator humidity and time to regain birthweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, Onno K.; Mulder, Paul G. H.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.

    2008-01-01

    To compare effects on premature infants' weight gain of a computer-generated and a nurse-determined incubator humidity strategy. An optimal humidity protocol is thought to reduce time to regain birthweight. Prospective randomized controlled design. Level IIIC neonatal intensive care unit in the

  1. The impact of egg incubation temperature on the personality of oviparous reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siviter, Harry; Charles Deeming, D; Rosenberger, Joanna; Burman, Oliver H P; Moszuti, Sophie A; Wilkinson, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Personality traits, defined as differences in the behavior of individual animals of the same species that are consistent over time and context, such as 'boldness,' have been shown to be both heritable and be influenced by external factors, such as predation pressure. Currently, we know very little about the role that early environmental factors have upon personality. Thus, we investigated the impact of incubation temperature upon the boldness on an oviparous reptile, the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). Eggs, from one clutch, were incubated at two different average temperatures within the normal range. After hatching the lizards were raised under the same environmental conditions. Novel object and novel environment tests were used to assess personality. Each test was repeated in both the short term and the long term. The results revealed that incubation temperature did impact upon 'boldness' but only in the short term and suggests that, rather than influencing personality, incubation temperature may have an effect on the development of behavioral of oviparous reptiles at different stages across ontogeny.

  2. Mycobacterium and Aerobic Actinomycete Culture: Are Two Medium Types and Extended Incubation Times Necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simner, Patricia J; Doerr, Kelly A; Steinmetz, Lory K; Wengenack, Nancy L

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterial cultures are historically performed using a liquid medium and a solid agar medium with an incubation period of up to 60 days. We performed a retrospective analysis of 21,494 mycobacterial and aerobic actinomycetes cultures performed over 10 months to determine whether two medium types remain necessary and to investigate whether culture incubation length can be shortened. Specimens were cultured using Bactec MGIT liquid medium and Middlebrook 7H11/S7H11 solid medium with incubation periods of 42 and 60 days, respectively. Time-to-positivity and the identity of isolates recovered from each medium were evaluated. A total of 1,205/21,494 cultures (6%) were positive on at least one medium. Of the 1,353 isolates recovered, 1,110 (82%) were nontuberculous mycobacteria, 145 (11%) were aerobic actinomycetes, and 98 (7%) wereMycobacterium tuberculosiscomplex. Assessing medium types, 1,121 isolates were recovered from solid medium cultures, 922 isolates were recovered from liquid medium cultures, and 690 isolates were recovered on both media. Liquid cultures were positive an average of 10 days before solid cultures when the two medium types were positive (Pculture and demonstrates that solid medium incubation times may be reduced to 6 weeks without significantly impacting sensitivity. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Design of an Incubator for Premature Infant Based on LabVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lina; Zhou, Runjing

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the system structure, hardware circuits, control algorithms, and software program of the incubator for premature infant based on LabVIEW. The main advantages of this device are that preheating is less time than others, the capability of meeting of emergency is provided, control track of temperature and humidity are visible, operation is easy to clinical practice, and maintainability is possessed.

  4. Cold Spots in Neonatal Incubators Are Hot Spots for Microbial Contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goffau, Marcus C.; Bergman, Klasien A.; de Vries, Hendrik J.; Meessen, Nico E. L.; Degener, John E.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal stability is essential for the survival and well-being of preterm neonates. This is achieved in neonatal incubators by raising the ambient temperature and humidity to sufficiently high levels. However, potentially pathogenic microorganisms also can thrive in such warm and humid environments.

  5. Evaluation of the effect of temperature and time of incubation on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The complete blood count (CBC) is one of the most common tests requested by physicians. The results of this test are affected by different factors such as temperature and time of incubation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate changes in CBC results at room temperature (RT). In a cross-sectional study, ...

  6. Ambient-temperature incubation for the field detection of Escherichia coli in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J; Stauber, C; Murphy, J L; Khan, A; Mu, T; Elliott, M; Sobsey, M D

    2011-04-01

     Escherichia coli is the pre-eminent microbiological indicator used to assess safety of drinking water globally. The cost and equipment requirements for processing samples by standard methods may limit the scale of water quality testing in technologically less developed countries and other resource-limited settings, however. We evaluate here the use of ambient-temperature incubation in detection of E. coli in drinking water samples as a potential cost-saving and convenience measure with applications in regions with high (>25°C) mean ambient temperatures.   This study includes data from three separate water quality assessments: two in Cambodia and one in the Dominican Republic. Field samples of household drinking water were processed in duplicate by membrane filtration (Cambodia), Petrifilm™ (Cambodia) or Colilert® (Dominican Republic) on selective media at both standard incubation temperature (35–37°C) and ambient temperature, using up to three dilutions and three replicates at each dilution. Matched sample sets were well correlated with 80% of samples (n = 1037) within risk-based microbial count strata (E. coli CFU 100 ml−1 counts of 1000), and a pooled coefficient of variation of 17% (95% CI 15–20%) for paired sample sets across all methods.   These results suggest that ambient-temperature incubation of E. coli in at least some settings may yield sufficiently robust data for water safety monitoring where laboratory or incubator access is limited.

  7. Predicting nitrous oxide emissions from manure properties and soil moisture: An incubation experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Khagendra Raj; Arthur, Emmanuel; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2016-01-01

    Field-applied manure is a source of essential plant nutrients, but benefits may be partly offset by high rates of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, as modified by manure characteristics and soil properties. In a 28-d incubation experiment we quantified short-term emissions of N2O from a sandy loam...

  8. Microbiology of feed samples incubated in nylon bags in the rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiology of feed samples incubated in nylon bags in the rumen of sheep. J.H.F. Meyer*. National Chemical Research Laborotary,. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research,. P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, Republic of South Africa. R.l. Mackie. Animal and Dairy Science Research Institute,. Private BagX2,Irene 1675, ...

  9. Effect of location of eggs in the incubator on hatchability of eggs from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aa

    Keywords: Egg location, hatchability, incubation, egg size, turkey. # Corresponding author. E-mail: mozcelik@mehmetakif.edu.tr. Introduction. One of the main objectives in turkey breeder production is to increase the number of poults .... the shell and dried, or hatched but adhered to the shell) death rates were determined.

  10. 21 CFR 866.1645 - Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system. 866.1645 Section 866.1645 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... determining in vitro susceptibility of bacterial pathogens isolated from clinical specimens. Test results...

  11. INCUBATORS AND GOVERNMENT POLICY FOR DEVELOPING IT INDUSTRY AND REGION IN EMERGING ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Atiqah Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Incubation, a concept supported by a variety of economic cluster theories, is a vital element in economic development in developed countries. The entrepreneurial businesses that they house often improve the developed economies in terms of not only jobs but also wealth creation. The question that this article embraces is as follows: "Do incubators play the same vital role in economic development in developing regions of the world?" We use the case study methodology to develop this query in a focus area of regional development in an emerging economy. We examine the implementation of three incubators located in designated cybercities. The cybercity concept is one of the Malaysian government's initiatives to encourage the development of the IT industry within the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC Program. This study takes advantage of the 10-year development of cybercities by performing a longitudinal study. We found that these incubators did well in achieving their initial performance objectives, but they need to catch up with developed countries' continued rapid progress.

  12. Effect of semen preparation technique and its incubation on sperm quality in the Moroccan population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboulmaouahib, S; Madkour, A; Kaarouch, I; Saadani, B; Sefrioui, O; Louanjli, N; Copin, H; Cadi, R; Benkhalifa, M

    2017-08-01

    In in vitro fertilisation (IVF), sperm preparation as critical part and influencing the sperm quality is especially dependent on the chosen technique itself and incubation parameters including temperature and CO2. In this study, we compared firstly density-gradient centrifugation technique (DGC) to the adapted DGC using the sperm pellet of 80% fraction (DGC/80P) in order to improve the sperm yield. Secondly, this study led to evaluate different sperm incubation conditions based on temperature effect (room temperature (RT = 23°C) versus 35°C) and in the other hand, with or without 5% CO2 during 24 hrs. Based on evaluating sperm conventional parameters and the DNA damage using TUNEL assay, our result showed that DGC/80P increased sperm quality compared to DGC with 25% of improvement. For temperature incubation effect after 24 hrs, 35°C increased the DNA damage and decreased the sperm quality while RT could improve sperm motility by 38%. Moreover, the sperm incubation with 5% CO2 after 24 hrs realised a negative impact on sperm parameters and its DNA damage. Indeed, for current IVF practice, a good sperm quality can be maintained for several hours at room temperature, while the sperm preparation is processed using the DGC/80P without CO2. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. The influence of incubation time on adenovirus quantitation in A549 cells by most probable number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cell culture based assays used to detect waterborne viruses typically call for incubating the sample for at least two weeks in order to ensure that all the culturable virus present is detected. Historically, this estimate was based, at least in part, on the length of time used fo...

  14. ANTIMICROBIAL BIO-NONWOVEN FABRICS FOR EYES'S SWATH AND DIAPERS FOR INFANT'S INCUBATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ElSayed A. ElNashar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An infant incubator is a piece of equipment common to pediatric hospitals, birthing centers and neonatal intensive care units. While the unit may serve several specific functions, it is generally used to provide a safe and stable environment for newborn infants, often those who were born prematurely or with an illness or disability that makes them especially vulnerable for the first several months of life. The objective of this research was to gain a better understanding of New Approach for a Bio-Nonwoven fabrics and infant's incubator in terms of the specific materials as MaterBi/PCL® as Bioplastic and the elements of comfort, drivers associated with it and its waste biodegradation by different methods. Shortly after birth, the beginning in first hours of life babies with neonatal, a byproduct of the red blood cells decomposition. Many convenient features to consider with tow basic disposable eyes` swathe and diapers on infant’s incubator options: cloth of basic disposable eyes` swathe and diapers, with their end use properties. The form design of eyes` swathe® and diapers® shapes, for infant’s incubator stage then consider convenience, cost, and environmental waste.

  15. A Model for Promoting Poultry Industry Development in Togo: Part 1. Management Practices and Incubation Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tona, K.; Agbonon, A.; Eklu-Gadegbeku, K.; Teteh, A.; Simons, P.; Buyse, J.; Everaert, N.; Kemp, B.; Decuypere, E.; Gbeassor, M.

    2014-01-01

    In commercial poultry husbandry practice, the hatchery takes over the incubation of bird eggs in order to provide as many day-old chicks as needed at any time to farmers. The main bottleneck for poultry industry development in Togo is the lack of day-old chick supply. Indeed, there is no proficient

  16. The role of science parks and business incubators in converging countries: Evidence from Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratinho, Tiago; Henriques, Elsa

    2010-01-01

    Researchers and economic development professionals have linked the technology transfer and high-tech firm output from science parks (SP) and business incubators (BI) to economic growth, as well as job and wealth creation in developed and developing countries. Yet little has been said about their

  17. Are they helping? An examination of business incubators' impact on tenant firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratinho, Tiago

    2011-01-01

    Business incubators (BI) have been established throughout the world as spurs to economic growth. Promoters and BIs‟ managers claim an important role in creating companies, support them till graduation and therefore often boast their contribution to job and wealth creation. Particularly since the

  18. Utilizing pretreatment and fungal incubation to enhance the nutritional value of canola meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the optimal pretreatment and fungal strain to reduce glucosinolates (GLS), fiber, and residual sugars while increasing the nutritional value of canola meal. Submerged incubation conditions were used to evaluate four pretreatment methods (extrusion, hot wa...

  19. Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and particle concentrations are associated with greater levels of endothelial activation markers in Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Brian T; Bielinski, Suzette J; Decker, Paul A; Berardi, Cecilia; Larson, Nicholas B; Pankow, James S; Michos, Erin D; Hanson, Naomi Q; Herrington, David M; Tsai, Michael Y

    High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are well characterized for their role in reverse cholesterol transport but may confer other cardiovascular benefits-specifically, HDL may suppress the endothelial activation cascade in the initiating stages of atherogenesis. It was the primary aim of this study to examine the relations of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), total HDL particle (HDL-P) concentrations, and HDL-P subclasses with circulating levels of endothelial activation markers in a subcohort of Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants. HDL-C was measured by enzymatic assay, and total HDL-P and subclass concentrations were assessed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Concentrations of circulating endothelial activation markers were determined through immunoassay. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the cross-sectional associations between HDL variables and endothelial markers with statistical adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, sex, education, systolic blood pressure, hypertension medication use, body mass index, smoking status, lipid-lowering medication use, serum creatinine, diabetes, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and coronary artery calcium. HDL-C and HDL-P were found to be inversely associated with soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, soluble vascular intracellular adhesion molecule-1, sL-selectin, and sP-selectin; HDL-P was additionally inversely associated with sE-selectin. Participants with low levels of HDL-C (<40 mg/dL) or HDL-P (<25th percentile) showed 3%-12% higher mean levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule and compared with those above these levels (all P < .01). Coupled with previous evidence, our findings suggest a modest to moderate relation of HDL and circulating levels of endothelial activation markers in humans. Whether this relationship may have clinical implications in suppressing atherogenesis or coronary heart disease development requires additional research. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid

  20. Fate of lignin, cutin and suberin in soil organic matter fractions - an incubation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Carsten W.; Mueller, Kevin E.; Freeman, Katherine H.; Ingrid, Kögel-Knabner

    2010-05-01

    The turnover of soil organic matter (SOM) is controlled by its chemical composition, its spatial accessibility and the association with the mineral phase. Separation of bulk soils by physical fractionation and subsequent chemical analysis of these fractions should give insights to how compositional differences in SOM drive turnover rates of different size-defined carbon pools. The main objective of this study was to elucidate the relative abundance and recalcitrance of lignin, cutin and suberin in aggregated bulk soils and SOM fractions in the course of SOM decomposition. Bulk soils and physically-separated size fractions (sand, silt and clay) of the Ah horizon of a forest soil (under Picea abies L.Karst) were parallel incubated over a period of one year. In order to differentiate between particulate OM (POM) and mineral-associated SOM the particle size fractions were additionally separated by density after the incubation experiment. We used solid-state 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS (after copper oxide oxidation and solvent extraction) to analyze the composition of the incubated samples. The abundance and isotopic composition (including 13C and 14C) of the respired CO2 further enabled us to monitor the dynamics of SOM mineralization. This approach allowed for differentiating between C stabilization of soil fractions due to accessibility/aggregation and to biochemical recalcitrance at different scales of resolution (GC-MS, NMR). We found a relative enrichment of alkyl C and decreasing lignin contents in the order of sand lignin ratios with decreasing particle size. An accumulation of aliphatic C compounds was especially found for the small silt and clay sized particulate OM (POM). For the fresh particulate OM (POM) of the sand fraction a clear decay of lignin was observed in the course of the incubation experiment, indicated by decreasing C/V and increasing ac/alV ratios. A relative decrease of aliphatic C in the incubated fractions compared to the incubated

  1. Fundamental Space Biology-1: HHR and Incubator for ISS Space Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirven-Brooks, M.; Fahlen, T.; Sato, K.; Reiss-Bubenheim, D.

    The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) is developing an Incubator and a Habitat Holding Rack (HHR) to support life science experiments aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The HHR provides for cooling and power needs, and supports data transfer (including telemetry, commanding, video processing, Ethernet), video compression, and data and command storage). The Incubator is a habitat that provides for controlled temperature between +4 C and +45 C and air circulation. It has a set of connector ports for power, analog and digital sensors, and video pass-through to support experiment-unique hardware within the Incubator specimen chamber. The Incubator exchanges air with the ISS cabin. The Fundamental Space Biology-1 (FSB-1) Project will be delivering, the HHR and two Incubators to ISS. The two inaugural experiments to be conducted on ISS using this hardware will investigate the biological effects of the space environment on two model organisms, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae; yeast) and Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans; nematode). The {M}odel {Y}east {C}ultures {o}n {S}tation (MYCOS) experiment will support examination of the effect of microgravity and cosmic radiation on yeast biology. In the second series of experiments during the same increment, the effects of microgravity and space environment radiation on C. elegans will be examined. The {F}undamental Space Biology {I}ncubator {E}xperiment {R}esearch using {C}. {e}legans (FIERCE) study is designed to support a long duration, multi-generational study of nematodes. FIERCE on-orbit science operations will include video monitoring, sub-culturing and periodic fixation and freezing of samples. For both experiments, investigators will be solicited via an International Space Life Sciences Research Announcement. In the near future, the Centrifuge Accommodation Module will be delivered to ISS, which will house the SSBRP 2.5 m Centrifuge Rotor. The Incubator can be placed onto the Centrifuge

  2. Microbially-mediated Destabilization Of Sedimentary Organic Carbon: Isotopic Tracking of Carbon Movement in Laboratory Incubations of Glucose-amended Aquifer Sediment to Determine Priming Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pracht, L. E.; Polizzotto, M.; Neumann, R. B.

    2016-12-01

    Arsenic-contaminated groundwater is a worldwide concern; the result of both geogenic and anthropogenic sources. In naturally-contaminated systems, organic carbon fueling reductive dissolution is considered to be the primary mechanism of mobilization of arsenic off sediment into groundwater. Previous laboratory incubations of aquifer sediment and groundwater collected from a contaminated subsurface system in Bangladesh revealed a pool of biologically available organic carbon mobilized from the sandy sediment. Results indicated that sediments can contain chemically labile organic carbon that is physically protected or otherwise inaccessible to microbial communities. Disturbance of the aquifer matrix could destabilize this pool of sedimentary organic carbon and fuel microbial reactions that mobilize contaminants such as arsenic. Here we present results from laboratory incubations conducted to test the "priming" hypothesis, that an influx of bioavailable surface-derived organic carbon can fuel microbial reactions that target the solid phase and destabilize sedimentary organic carbon, fueling further reactions. Waters containing a range of glucose concentrations were mixed with sediment collected from a Cambodian aquifer, and concentrations and isotopic signatures of carbon were tracked over time in each material phase. The aquifer sediment contained arsenic-bearing oxide minerals, and thus, dissolved concentrations of arsenic, iron, and manganese concentrations were also measured. Results conceptually demonstrate how both surface and sedimentary derived organic carbon can interact to fuel microbial reactions that mobilize arsenic and impact groundwater quality.

  3. Calculation of incubation period and serial interval from multiple outbreaks of Marburg virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlin, Boris I

    2014-12-13

    Marburg viruses have been responsible for a number of outbreaks throughout sub-Saharan Africa, as well as a number of laboratory infections. Despite many years of experience with the viruses, little is known about several important epidemiologic parameters relating to the development of Marburg virus disease. The analysis uses pooled data from all Marburg cases between 1967 and 2008 to develop estimates for the incubation period and the clinical onset serial interval (COSI). Data were obtained from original outbreak investigation forms (n=406) and from published data (n=45). Incubation periods were calculated for person-to-person exposure, for laboratory-acquired infections, and for presumed zoonotic exposures. Similar analysis was conducted for COSI, using only cases with unambiguous person-to-person transmission where both the primary and the secondary case patients had well-defined illness onsets. Seventy-six cases were retained for the incubation period analysis. Incubation periods ranged from a minimum of 2 days in the case of two laboratory workers to a maximum of at least 26 days for a person-to-person household transmission. Thirty-eight cases were retained for COSI analysis. The median COSI was 11 days, with an interquartile range of 8 to 15. This study extends the maximum known incubation period of Marburg virus disease to 26 days. The analysis was severely hampered by a lack of completeness in epidemiologic data. It is necessary to prioritize obtaining more accurate epidemiologic data in future outbreaks; greater use of COSI may facilitate an improved understanding of outbreak dynamics in Marburg and other diseases.

  4. Shaping of Competencies of Managers in Academic Incubators of Entrepreneurship in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurowska-Pysz Joanna

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Participation of future entrepreneurs in Academic Incubators of Entrepreneurship (AIE in Poland is one of the innovative paths to shape their managerial competences. The aim of the paper is to analyse and evaluate the activities of the AIEs as an environment inside of which managerial competencies are formed, and formulate recommendations concerning the improvement of AIEs, in terms of the development of managerial skills of future entrepreneurs. Design/methodology/approach: The author relied on research - study surveys and empirical, qualitative, exploratory research, which were supported by figures. The author focused on four important issues: - Motives of researchers and students interested in the support of AIE; - The quality of support offered by the incubator to its participants as well as the frequency of use of this support by future entrepreneurs; - The possibility of extending the support system for AIE participants; - Traits / managerial and entrepreneurial competences desired in people running their own businesses. Results: AIE participants are focused primarily on implementing their business ventures and to a much lesser extent, care about the simultaneous development of their managerial competencies to manage these projects. It is manifested, among other by differentiated assessment of the suitability of certain forms of support from the incubator and the low intensity of use of this support. Despite this, AIE participants perceive the development of desirable traits and strengthening of specific entrepreneurial, management competencies. It is not a very dynamic growth, although it translates into their motivation to start a business after leaving the incubator. Conclusion: It is recommended to place greater emphasis on mobilizing the future entrepreneurs to make use of forms of support for the development of their managerial competences. It is necessary for complex preparation of future entrepreneurs to

  5. Effects of soil moisture on the temperature sensitivity of soil heterotrophic respiration: a laboratory incubation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Zhou

    Full Text Available The temperature sensitivity (Q10 of soil heterotrophic respiration (Rh is an important ecological model parameter and may vary with temperature and moisture. While Q10 generally decreases with increasing temperature, the moisture effects on Q10 have been controversial. To address this, we conducted a 90-day laboratory incubation experiment using a subtropical forest soil with a full factorial combination of five moisture levels (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% water holding capacity--WHC and five temperature levels (10, 17, 24, 31, and 38°C. Under each moisture treatment, Rh was measured several times for each temperature treatment to derive Q10 based on the exponential relationships between Rh and temperature. Microbial biomass carbon (MBC, microbial community structure and soil nutrients were also measured several times to detect their potential contributions to the moisture-induced Q10 variation. We found that Q10 was significantly lower at lower moisture levels (60%, 40% and 20% WHC than at higher moisture level (80% WHC during the early stage of the incubation, but became significantly higher at 20%WHC than at 60% WHC and not significantly different from the other three moisture levels during the late stage of incubation. In contrast, soil Rh had the highest value at 60% WHC and the lowest at 20% WHC throughout the whole incubation period. Variations of Q10 were significantly associated with MBC during the early stages of incubation, but with the fungi-to-bacteria ratio during the later stages, suggesting that changes in microbial biomass and community structure are related to the moisture-induced Q10 changes. This study implies that global warming's impacts on soil CO2 emission may depend upon soil moisture conditions. With the same temperature rise, wetter soils may emit more CO2 into the atmosphere via heterotrophic respiration.

  6. Pyruvate incubation enhances glycogen stores and sustains neuronal function during subsequent glucose deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Pavan K; Sadgrove, Matthew P; Galeffi, Francesca; Turner, Dennis A

    2012-01-01

    The use of energy substrates, such as lactate and pyruvate, has been shown to improve synaptic function when administered during glucose deprivation. In the present study, we investigated whether prolonged incubation with monocarboxylate (pyruvate or lactate) prior rather than during glucose deprivation can also sustain synaptic and metabolic function. Pyruvate pre-incubation(3-4h) significantly prolonged (>25 min) the tolerance of rat hippocampal slices to delayed glucose deprivation compared to control and lactate pre-incubated slices, as revealed by field excitatory post synaptic potentials (fEPSPs); pre-incubation with pyruvate also reduced the marked decrease in NAD(P)H fluorescence resulting from glucose deprivation. Moreover, pyruvate exposure led to the enhancement of glycogen stores with time, compared to glucose alone (12 μmol/g tissue at 4h vs. 3.5 μmol/g tissue). Prolonged resistance to glucose deprivation following exogenous pyruvate incubation was prevented by glycogenolysis inhibitors, suggesting that enhanced glycogen mediates the delay in synaptic activity failure. The application of an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist enhanced glycogen utilization and prolonged the time to synaptic failure, further confirming this hypothesis of the importance of glycogen. Moreover, tissue levels of ATP were also significantly maintained during glucose deprivation in pyruvate pretreated slices compared to control and lactate. In summary, these experiments indicate that pyruvate exposure prior to glucose deprivation significantly increased the energy buffering capacity of hippocampal slices, particularly by enhancing internal glycogen stores, delaying synaptic failure during glucose deprivation by maintaining ATP levels, and minimizing the decrease in the levels of NAD(P)H. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Unexpectedly long incubation period of Plasmodium vivax malaria, in the absence of chemoprophylaxis, in patients diagnosed outside the transmission area in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Silveira Bressan Clarisse

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2010, Brazil recorded 3343,599 cases of malaria, with 99.6% of them concentrated in the Amazon region. Plasmodium vivax accounts for 86% of the cases circulating in the country. The extra-Amazonian region, where transmission does not occur, recorded about 566 cases imported from the Amazonian area in Brazil and South America, from Central America, Asia and African countries. Prolonged incubation periods have been described for P. vivax malaria in temperate climates. The diversity in essential biological characteristics is traditionally considered as one possible explanation to the emergence of relapse in malaria and to the differences in the duration of the incubation period, which can also be explained by the use of chemoprophylaxis. Studying the reported cases of P. vivax malaria in Rio de Janeiro, where there is no vector transmission, has made it possible to evaluate the extension of the incubation period and to notice that it may be extended in some cases. Methods Descriptive study of every malaria patients who visited the clinic in the last five years. The mean, standard deviation, median, minimum and maximum of all incubation periods were analysed. Results From the total of 80 patients seen in the clinic during the study time, with confirmed diagnosis of malaria, 49 (63% were infected with P. vivax. Between those, seven had an estimated incubation period varying from three to 12 months and were returned travellers from Brazilian Amazonian states (6 and Indonesia (1. None of them had taken malarial chemoprophylaxis. Conclusions The authors emphasize that considering malaria as a possible cause of febrile syndrome should be a post-travel routine, independent of the time elapsed after exposure in the transmission area, even in the absence of malaria chemoprophylaxis. They speculate that, since there is no current and detailed information about the biological cycle of human malaria plasmodia's in Brazil, it is possible

  8. Cell viability, collagen synthesis and cytokine expression in human osteoblasts following incubation with generated wear particles using different bone cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Christoph; Lochner, Katrin; Jonitz, Anika; Lenz, Robert; Duettmann, Oliver; Hansmann, Doris; Bader, Rainer

    2013-07-01

    In total hip arthroplasty, wear particles generated at articulating surfaces and interfaces between bone, cement and implants have a negative impact on osteoblasts, leading to osteolysis and implant loosening. The aim of this experimental study was to determine the effects of particulate wear debris generated at the interface between straight stainless steel hip stems (Exeter(®)) and three different bone cements (Palacos(®) R, Simplex™ P and Cemex(®) Genta) on cell viability, collagen synthesis and cytokine expression in human osteoblasts. Primary osteoblasts were treated with various concentrations of wear particles. The synthesis of procollagen type I and different cytokines was analysed, and markers for apoptosis and necrosis were also detected. The cytokine synthesis rates in the osteoblasts were initially increased and varied, depending on incubation time and particle concentration. Specific differences in the synthesis rates of interleukin (IL)‑6, IL-8, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were observed with the different bone cements examined. The negative effect of the particles on the synthesis of procollagen type I and increased rates of cell apoptosis and necrosis were observed with all three cements analysed. Our present data suggest that wear particles from the interface between the total hip stem and bone cement have a significant effect on viability, cytokine expression and collagen synthesis in human osteoblasts, depending on the bone cement used.

  9. Formation Ratios of Zearalanone, Zearalenols, and Zearalanols versus Zearalenone during Incubation of Fusarium semitectum on Sorghum and Ratios in Naturally Contaminated Sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Koji; Ishikuro, Eiichi; Noriduki, Hiroko; Ichinoe, Masakatsu

    2015-01-01

    We incubated Fusarium semitectum on sorghum and measured the production of zearalenone (ZEN) and ZEN-related compounds (zearalanone (ZAN), α-zearalenol (α-ZEL), β-zearalenol (β-ZEL), α-zearalanol (α-ZAL) and β-zearalanol (β-ZAL)) in the culture by LC-MS. Of the five ZEN-related compounds, ZAN and β-ZEL were mainly detected. The concentrations of ZEN and the five ZEN-related compounds increased until 9 days after incubation and then increased slightly or stayed constant between days 9 and 15. The ratios of α-ZEL, β-ZEL, α-ZAL and β-ZAL to ZEN decreased in a similar manner after 7 days, whereas the ratio of ZAN to ZEN remained constant after 5 days. Analysis of naturally contaminated sorghum by LC-MS/MS revealed that the production ratio of α-ZEL to ZEN was inconsistent with that of our in vitro incubation analysis. The results indicate that ZAN might not be suitable for use as an internal standard.

  10. THE BUSINESS INCUBATORS AS A LEVER FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND SUPPORT OF YOUNG ENTREPRENEURS IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana MIRZAC

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The business incubators are an instrument of indirect financial support mechanisms in the field of business entrepreneurship of small and medium business, as in the final stage of incubation operators can obtain the status of a successful enterprise and help support new entrepreneurs that are working effectively and which are at the stage of incubation. The university incubators meet the need for action to support businesses resulting primarily from activities of universities having the main goal to turn research results into productive technological activities, with efficient economic results.

  11. Royal jelly supplemented soybean lecithin-based extenders improve post-thaw quality and incubation resilience of goat spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcay, Selim; Toker, M Berk; Onder, N Tekin; Gokce, Elif

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate different concentrations of royal jelly (RJ) supplemented extenders for post-thaw quality and incubation resilience of goat spermatozoa. Semen samples were collected from five goats. Pooled semen were diluted with soybean lecithin-based extender without RJ (control) or supplemented with different concentrations (0.25, 0.5 and 0.75%) of RJ (RJ0.25, RJ0.5, RJ0.75 respectively), at a final concentration of 150 × 106 spermatozoon/mL. Semen samples were assessed for sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity using hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) damaged acrosome using FITC-Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA-FITC) and DNA integrity using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). The addition of RJ (0.5%, 0.75%) led to higher percentages of subjective motilities (55.33 ± 2.29%, 57.67 ± 2.58%) compared to control and RJ0.25 groups (49.00 ± 2,80%, 51.67 ± 3.09%) (P membrane functional integrities (66.40 ± 1.34%, 68.20 ± 2.05%) and lower defected acrosome rates (24.60 ± 3.36%, 23.80 ± 2.27%) compared to the other groups (P  0.05). In the end of incubation, motility and HOST rates of RJ0.5 (14.00 ± 3.87%, 31.20 ± 3.70%) and RJ0.75 (15.00 ± 3.27%, 29.20 ± 2.59%) groups were higher than control (8.00 ± 2.54%, 18.20 ± 3.11%) and RJ0.25 (9.00 ± 2.07%, 20.60 ± 2.88%) groups (P < 0.05). Also defected acrosome and DNA fragmation rates of RJ0.5 (32.20 ± 1.30%, 5.4 ± 0.55%) and RJ0.75 (29.20 ± 1.30%, 5.80 ± 0.45%) groups were significantly lower than control (38.80 ± 0.84%, 7.40 ± 1.34%) and RJ0.25 (39.80 ± 2.05%, 7.00 ± 1.58) groups. This study shows that RJ supplemented extenders have beneficial effect on goat sperm parameters at 0 h and 6 h of incubation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nitrification and denitrification in a midwestern stream containing high nitrate: In situ assessment using tracers in dome-shaped incubation chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.L.; Böhlke, J.K.; Repert, D.A.; Hart, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    The extent to which in-stream processes alter or remove nutrient loads in agriculturally impacted streams is critically important to watershed function and the delivery of those loads to coastal waters. In this study, patch-scale rates of in-stream benthic processes were determined using large volume, open-bottom benthic incubation chambers in a nitrate-rich, first to third order stream draining an area dominated by tile-drained row-crop fields. The chambers were fitted with sampling/mixing ports, a volume compensation bladder, and porewater samplers. Incubations were conducted with added tracers (NaBr and either 15N[NO3-], 15N[NO2-], or 15N[NH4+]) for 24-44 h intervals and reaction rates were determined from changes in concentrations and isotopic compositions of nitrate, nitrite, ammonium and nitrogen gas. Overall, nitrate loss rates (220-3,560 ??mol N m-2 h-1) greatly exceeded corresponding denitrification rates (34-212 ??mol N m-2 h-1) and both of these rates were correlated with nitrate concentrations (90-1,330 ??M), which could be readily manipulated with addition experiments. Chamber estimates closely matched whole-stream rates of denitrification and nitrate loss using 15N. Chamber incubations with acetylene indicated that coupled nitrification/denitrification was not a major source of N2 production at ambient nitrate concentrations (175 ??M), but acetylene was not effective for assessing denitrification at higher nitrate concentrations (1,330 ??M). Ammonium uptake rates greatly exceeded nitrification rates, which were relatively low even with added ammonium (3.5 ??mol N m-2 h-1), though incubations with nitrite demonstrated that oxidation to nitrate exceeded reduction to nitrogen gas in the surface sediments by fivefold to tenfold. The chamber results confirmed earlier studies that denitrification was a substantial nitrate sink in this stream, but they also indicated that dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) turnover rates greatly exceeded the rates of

  13. Influx of CO2 from Soil Incubated Organic Residues at Constant Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoukat Ali Abro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperature induced CO2 from genotypic residue substances is still less understood. Two types of organic residues (wheat- maize were incubated at a constant temperature (25°C to determine the rate and cumulative influx of CO2 in laboratory experiment for 40 days. Further, the effect of surface and incorporated crop residues with and without phosphorus addition was also studied. Results revealed that mixing of crop residues increased CO2-C evolution significantly & emission rare was 37% higher than that of control. At constant temperature, soil mixed residues, had higher emission rates CO2-C than the residues superimposed. There was linear correlation of CO2-C influxed for phosphorus levels and residue application ways with entire incubation at constant temperature. The mixing of organic residues to soil enhanced SOC levels and biomass of microbially bound N; however to little degree ammonium (NH4-N and nitrate NO3-N nitrogen were decreased.

  14. The value of business incubation services for early stage start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Brian; Tanev, Stoyan; Jensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The paper focuses on conceptualizing the value of business incubation services for early stage start-ups that are typical of university-based entrepreneurial ecosystems. The challenge of such conceptualization consists in two main issues. The first issue is taking into account the specificity...... of the needs of early stage start-ups since they: i) do not have a well-articulated business model but work towards establishing one; ii) operate under conditions of significantly high risks and uncertainties; and iii) have not developed the minimum viable set of partners that would enable them to demonstrate...... that they could create value for the different stakeholders involved in their business ecosystem. The second issue is the need to categorize the various types of business incubators before examining the way they create value for early start-ups. In most national or regional entrepreneurial ecosystems...

  15. Fatal nosocomial spread of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever with very short incubation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, HamidReza; Sheybani, Fereshte; Bojdi, Amin; Khosravi, Nasrin; Mostafavi, Irandokht

    2013-03-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is a tick-borne viral zoonosis with the potential of human-to-human transmission with case fatality rates from 3% to 50%. The incubation period depends on host, route of infection, and viral dose. Herein, we report a nosocomial spread of the disease in a hospital at Mashhad, northeastern Iran, with a very short incubation period for one of the secondary cases. The patient was a medical student who had a negligible contact with a Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever patient during his admission to the hospital. The time interval between the contact and the onset of symptoms was merely 20 hours. Unfortunately, he died within 1 week of exposure.

  16. [Utility of prolonged incubation and terminal subcultures of blood cultures from immunocompromised patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloaga, R; Procopio, A; Manganello, S; Ivanovic, V; Romay, N; Pirosanto, Y; Fernández, A; Zudiker, R; Echeverría, A; Nagel, C; del Castillo, M; López, E; Gutfraind, Z; Tokumoto, M; Guelfand, L

    2001-01-01

    The value of blind terminal subcultures (7 and 30 days) and prolonged incubation (30 days) of blood cultures from immunosuppressed patients was analyzed in the Fundación Favaloro, the Fundación para la Lucha contra las Enfermedades Neurológicas de la Infancia and the Hospital de Niños Ricardo Gutiérrez. A total of 2707 blood cultures and 369 patients were included (transplantation of solid organs 154, oncohematologic disorders 106 and solid tumors 109). Bact-Alert bottles were incubated at 35 degrees C for 30 days in the Bact-Alert System. Bottles with positive signals were routinely removed, and aliquots of the broth were Gram stained and subcultured aerobically in chocolate agar and Sabouraud agar. A total of 136 bacteremic episodes were obtained. The positivization time of blood cultures was 81.6% at 24 h, 93.3% at 48 h, 94.5% at 72 h and 97.7% within 7 days. Only 3 (2.2%) episodes were positive by blind terminal subcultures and 1 (0.75%) by prolonged incubation (14 days). The median time and range of positivization in hours were 13.8 and 2.2-168, respectively. The microorganisms isolated were coagulase negative staphylococci (n = 24), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 22), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 21), Escherichia coli (n = 18), Acinetobacter spp (n = 9), Candida spp (n = 8), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 6), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 5), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 5), Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella spp and Capnocytophaga sputigena (n = 2), Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus faecium, Citrobacter diversus, Candida albicans, Klebsiella oxytoca, Chryseomonas luteola, Serratia marcescens, Abiotrophia spp, Campylobacter jejuni, Moraxella catarrhalis, Moraxella urethralis, Neisseria sicca, beta hemolytic group G streptococci, Rhodococcus equi, Micrococcus spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Streptococcus mitis (n = 1). In our experience, blind terminal subcultures and prolonged incubation of blood cultures from immunosuppressed patients are unnecessary and

  17. Image quality associated with the use of an MR-compatible incubator in neonatal neuroimaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Regan, K

    2012-04-01

    MRI in the neonate poses significant challenges associated with patient transport and monitoring, and the potential for diminished image quality owing to patient motion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a dedicated MR-compatible incubator with integrated radiofrequency coils in improving image quality of MRI studies of the brain acquired in term and preterm neonates using standard MRI equipment.

  18. The translation of an incubator: the case of the Lighthouse in Bubulo, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Henricson, Kristina; Palmås, Karl

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews a social entrepreneurial initiative to set up a solar-powered incubator in Bubulo, Uganda, initiated by a group of Sweden-based entrepreneurship students. Using an Actor-Network Theoryinformed approach, it addresses the question of how the original aims of the initiative shifted as it moved from Sweden to Uganda, securing new allies and resources. In the tracing of this movement from northern Europe to central Africa, concepts from Actor-Network Theory, such as ‘translati...

  19. Validation of the in vitro ruminant digestibility method applied on Daisy Incubator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elena Cismileanu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Determination of digestibility for ruminant feeds is important for nutritive value evaluation, and for practical use the in vitro methods are widely applied. The new version of Tilley-Terry in vitro method was used on Ankom Daisy Incubator and validated by testing repeatability, reproducibility and correlation with previous method version. All these validation parameters have been attended and the new version of method is indicated for current use.

  20. Effects of temperature, light and incubation period on production, germination and bioactivity of Trichoderma atroviride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryaei, A; Jones, E E; Ghazalibiglar, H; Glare, T R; Falloon, R E

    2016-04-01

    The goal was to determine the effect of temperature, light and incubation period on production, germination and bioactivity of Trichoderma atroviride LU132 against Rhizoctonia solani. The incubation temperatures of 20, 25 or 30°C were assessed on the production of T. atroviride conidia under constant light over a 25 and 50 days periods. The resulting conidia were also studied for germination and bioactivity. Conidium production was maximum at 25°C after 20 days. The second peak of conidium production occurred at 45-50 days. Incubation at 25°C after 15 days showed optimum production of T. atroviride LU132. Conidia produced at 30°C gave the greatest germination and bioactivity in comparison with incubation at 20 or 25°C. This study indicates that the temperature at which conidia of T. atroviride are produced affects germination and bioactivity. Formulations based on production of the high conidia yield may not result in optimal bioactivity and there is a trade-off between quantity and quality of T. atroviride LU132 conidia. Conidium production was shown to be a continuous process, and increased under a dark/light regime. This is the first report of bimodal conidium production in a Trichoderma biological control agent (BCA), which is likely to be on 20 days cycle, and is dependent on colony age rather than abiotic factors. Conidia produced after 15 days are likely to be the most suitable for use in commercial production of this strain as a BCA. Most studies on Trichoderma-based BCA have only shown the effect of culture conditions on the high conidia yield regardless of conidium quality. This study is the first report on conidium quality affected by principal culture conditions for Trichoderma biological control formulations. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Autotrophic growth of bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers in freshwater sediment microcosms incubated at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yucheng; Ke, Xiubin; Hernández, Marcela; Wang, Baozhan; Dumont, Marc G; Jia, Zhongjun; Conrad, Ralf

    2013-05-01

    Both bacteria and archaea potentially contribute to ammonia oxidation, but their roles in freshwater sediments are still poorly understood. Seasonal differences in the relative activities of these groups might exist, since cultivated archaeal ammonia oxidizers have higher temperature optima than their bacterial counterparts. In this study, sediment collected from eutrophic freshwater Lake Taihu (China) was incubated at different temperatures (4°C, 15°C, 25°C, and 37°C) for up to 8 weeks. We examined the active bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers in these sediment microcosms by using combined stable isotope probing (SIP) and molecular community analysis. The results showed that accumulation of nitrate in microcosms correlated negatively with temperature, although ammonium depletion was the same, which might have been related to enhanced activity of other nitrogen transformation processes. Incubation at different temperatures significantly changed the microbial community composition, as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes. After 8 weeks of incubation, [(13)C]bicarbonate labeling of bacterial amoA genes, which encode the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A, and an observed increase in copy numbers indicated the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in all microcosms. Nitrosomonas sp. strain Is79A3 and Nitrosomonas communis lineages dominated the heavy fraction of CsCl gradients at low and high temperatures, respectively, indicating a niche differentiation of active bacterial ammonia oxidizers along the temperature gradient. The (13)C labeling of ammonia-oxidizing archaea in microcosms incubated at 4 to 25°C was minor. In contrast, significant (13)C labeling of Nitrososphaera-like archaea and changes in the abundance and composition of archaeal amoA genes were observed at 37°C, implicating autotrophic growth of ammonia-oxidizing archaea under warmer conditions.

  2. Autotrophic Growth of Bacterial and Archaeal Ammonia Oxidizers in Freshwater Sediment Microcosms Incubated at Different Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yucheng; Ke, Xiubin; Hernández, Marcela; Wang, Baozhan; Dumont, Marc G.; Jia, Zhongjun; Conrad, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Both bacteria and archaea potentially contribute to ammonia oxidation, but their roles in freshwater sediments are still poorly understood. Seasonal differences in the relative activities of these groups might exist, since cultivated archaeal ammonia oxidizers have higher temperature optima than their bacterial counterparts. In this study, sediment collected from eutrophic freshwater Lake Taihu (China) was incubated at different temperatures (4°C, 15°C, 25°C, and 37°C) for up to 8 weeks. We e...

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Nanoparticles Made from Co-Incubation of SOD and Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Cai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The attractive potential of natural superoxide dismutase (SOD in the fields of medicine and functional food is limited by its short half-life in circulation and poor permeability across the cell membrane. The nanoparticle form of SOD might overcome these limitations. However, most preparative methods have disadvantages, such as complicated operation, a variety of reagents—some of them even highly toxic—and low encapsulation efficiency or low release rate. The aim of this study is to present a simple and green approach for the preparation of SOD nanoparticles (NPs by means of co-incubation of Cu/Zn SOD with glucose. This method was designed to prepare nanoscale aggregates based on the possible inhibitory effect of Maillard reaction on heating-induced aggregation during the co-incubation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE results indicated that the Maillard reaction occurred during the co-incubation process. It was found that enzymatically active NPs of Cu/Zn SOD were simultaneously generated during the reaction, with an average particle size of 175.86 ± 0.71 nm, and a Zeta potential of −17.27 ± 0.59 mV, as established by the measurement of enzymatic activity, observations using field emission scanning electron microscope, and analysis of dynamic light scattering, respectively. The preparative conditions for the SOD NPs were optimized by response surface design to increase SOD activity 20.43 fold. These SOD NPs showed storage stability for 25 days and better cell uptake efficacy than natural SOD. Therefore, these NPs of SOD are expected to be a potential drug candidate or functional food factor. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the preparation of nanoparticles possessing the bioactivity of the graft component protein, using the simple and green approach of co-incubation with glucose, which occurs frequently in the food industry during thermal processing.

  4. Calculation of incubation period and serial interval from multiple outbreaks of Marburg virus disease

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlin, Boris I

    2014-01-01

    Background Marburg viruses have been responsible for a number of outbreaks throughout sub-Saharan Africa, as well as a number of laboratory infections. Despite many years of experience with the viruses, little is known about several important epidemiologic parameters relating to the development of Marburg virus disease. The analysis uses pooled data from all Marburg cases between 1967 and 2008 to develop estimates for the incubation period and the clinical onset serial interval (COSI). Method...

  5. Use of raw or incubated organic wastes as amendments in reducing pesticide leaching through soil columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Benito, J M; Brown, C D; Herrero-Hernández, E; Arienzo, M; Sánchez-Martín, M J; Rodríguez-Cruz, M S

    2013-10-01

    Soil amendment with organic wastes is becoming a widespread management practice since it can effectively solve the problems of uncontrolled waste accumulation and improve soil quality. However, when simultaneously applied with pesticides, organic wastes can significantly modify the environmental behaviour of these compounds. This study evaluated the effect of sewage sludges (SS), grape marc (GM) and spent mushroom substrates (SMS) on the leaching of linuron, diazinon and myclobutanil in packed columns of a sandy soil with low organic matter (OM) content (Soil plus amendments had been incubated for one month (1 m) or 12 months (12 m). Data from the experimental breakthrough curves (BTCs) were fitted to the one-dimensional transport model CXTFIT 2.1. All three amendments reduced leaching of linuron and myclobutanil relative to unamended soil. SMS was the most effective in reducing leaching of these two compounds independent of whether soil was incubated for 1 m or 12 m. Soil amendments increased retardation coefficients (Rexp) by factors of 3 to 5 for linuron, 2 to 4 for diazinon and 3 to 5 for myclobutanil relative to unamended soil. Leaching of diazinon was relatively little affected by soil amendment compared to the other two compounds and both SS and SMS amendment with 1m incubation resulted in enhanced leaching of diazinon. The leaching data for linuron and myclobutanil were well described by CXTFIT (mean square error, MSEpesticides were similar in soils incubated for one month or one year, indicating that the effect of amendment on leaching persists over relatively long periods of time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Detecting Virus Exposure During the Pre Symptomatic Incubation Period Using Physiological Data (with Supplementary Materials)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    sub-clinical physiological markers . Using high-resolution physiological data from non-human primate studies of Ebola and Marburg viruses, we pre...models are trained to detect the post-exposure class at distinct time epochs: one model is tuned to detect subtle data markers during the incubation...biological events – particularly systemic release of pro- inflammatory chemokines and cytokines from infected phagocytes [47-51], as well as afferent

  7. Effect of particle size and microbial phytase on phytate degradation in incubated maize and soybean meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of screen size (1, 2 and 3 mm) and microbial phytase (0 and 1000 FTU/kg as-fed) on phytate degradation in maize (100% maize), soybean meal (100% SBM) and maize–SBM (75% maize and 25% SBM) incubated in water for 0, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h at 38°C...

  8. Incubation of Methamphetamine and Palatable Food Craving after Punishment-Induced Abstinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnova, Irina N; Marchant, Nathan J; Ladenheim, Bruce; McCoy, Michael T; Panlilio, Leigh V; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin; Cadet, Jean L

    2014-01-01

    In a rat model of drug craving and relapse, cue-induced drug seeking progressively increases after withdrawal from methamphetamine and other drugs, a phenomenon termed ‘incubation of drug craving'. However, current experimental procedures used to study incubation of drug craving do not incorporate negative consequences of drug use, which is a common factor promoting abstinence in humans. Here, we studied whether incubation of methamphetamine craving is observed after suppression of drug seeking by adverse consequences (punishment). We trained rats to self-administer methamphetamine or palatable food for 9 h per day for 14 days; reward delivery was paired with a tone-light cue. Subsequently, for one group within each reward type, 50% of the lever-presses were punished by mild footshock for 9–10 days, whereas for the other group lever-presses were not punished. Shock intensity was gradually increased over time. Next, we assessed cue-induced reward seeking in 1-h extinction sessions on withdrawal days 2 and 21. Response-contingent punishment suppressed extended-access methamphetamine or food self-administration; surprisingly, food-trained rats showed greater resistance to punishment than methamphetamine-trained rats. During the relapse tests, both punished and unpunished methamphetamine- and food-trained rats showed significantly higher cue-induced reward seeking on withdrawal day 21 than on day 2. These results demonstrate that incubation of both methamphetamine and food craving occur after punishment-induced suppression of methamphetamine or palatable food self-administration. Our procedure can be used to investigate mechanisms of relapse to drug and palatable food seeking under conditions that more closely approximate the human condition. PMID:24584329

  9. Food supplementation fails to reveal a trade-off between incubation and self-maintenance in female house wrens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassie J Lothery

    Full Text Available Incubating birds must allocate their time and energy between maintaining egg temperature and obtaining enough food to meet their own metabolic demands. We tested the hypothesis that female house wrens (Troglodytes aedon face a trade-off between incubation and self-maintenance by providing females with supplemental food during incubation. We predicted that food supplementation would increase the amount of time females devoted to incubating their eggs, lower their baseline plasma corticosterone levels (a measure of chronic stress, and increase their body mass, haematocrit (a measure of anaemia, and reproductive success relative to control females. As predicted, food-supplemented females spent a greater proportion of time incubating their eggs than control females. Contrary to expectation, however, there was no evidence that food supplementation significantly influenced female baseline plasma corticosterone levels, body mass, haematocrit, or reproductive success. However, females with high levels of corticosterone at the beginning of incubation were more likely to abandon their nesting attempt after capture than females with low levels. Corticosterone significantly increased between the early incubation and early nestling stages of the breeding cycle in all females. These results suggest that although food supplementation results in a modest increase in incubation effort, it does not lead to significantly lower levels of chronic stress as reflected in lower baseline corticosterone levels. We conclude that female house wrens that begin the incubation period with low levels of plasma corticosterone can easily meet their own nutritional needs while incubating their eggs, and that any trade-off between incubation and self-feeding does not influence female reproductive success under the conditions at the time of our study.

  10. Offspring sex in a TSD gecko correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guo-Hua; Yang, Jing; Wang, Jin; Ji, Xiang

    2012-12-01

    We incubated eggs of the Japanese gecko Gekko japonicus at three temperatures, and measured yolk testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E2) levels at three time points in embryonic development (oviposition, 1/3 of incubation, and 2/3 of incubation), to examine whether maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant in the species. Eggs incubated at 24 °C and 32 °C produced mostly females, and eggs incubated at 28 °C almost a 50:50 sex ratio of hatchlings. Female-producing eggs were larger than male-producing eggs. Clutches in which eggs were incubated at the same temperature produced mostly same-sex siblings. Yolk T level at laying was negatively related to eggs mass, and yolk E2/T ratio was positively related to egg mass. Results of two-way ANOVA with incubation temperature and stage as the factors show that: yolk E2 level was higher at 32 °C than at 24 °C; yolk T level was higher, whereas yolk E2/T ratio was smaller, at 28 °C than at 24 °C; yolk E2 and T levels were higher at 2/3 than at 1/3 of incubation. Our data in G. japonucus show that: (1) maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant; (2) incubation temperature affects the dynamics of developmental changes in yolk steroid hormones; (3) influences of yolk steroid hormones on offspring sex are secondary relative to incubation temperature effects; and (4) offspring sex correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones.

  11. Buying Time—The Immune System Determinants of the Incubation Period to Respiratory Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Moran

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory viruses cause disease in humans characterized by an abrupt onset of symptoms. Studies in humans and animal models have shown that symptoms are not immediate and appear days or even weeks after infection. Since the initial symptoms are a manifestation of virus recognition by elements of the innate immune response, early virus replication must go largely undetected. The interval between infection and the emergence of symptoms is called the incubation period and is widely used as a clinical score. While incubation periods have been described for many virus infections the underlying mechanism for this asymptomatic phase has not been comprehensively documented. Here we review studies of the interaction between human pathogenic respiratory RNA viruses and the host with a particular emphasis on the mechanisms used by viruses to inhibit immunity. We discuss the concept of the “stealth phase”, defined as the time between infection and the earliest detectable inflammatory response. We propose that the “stealth phase” phenomenon is primarily responsible for the suppression of symptoms during the incubation period and results from viral antagonism that inhibits major pathways of the innate immune system allowing an extended time of unhindered virus replication.

  12. Mentoring Entrepreneurial Networks: mapping conceptions of participants in technological-based business incubators in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontes Regis, Helder

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent entrepreneurship research agenda includes the analysis of cognitive structures of successful entrepreneurs, revealing an important tool for the examination of an entrepreneurial career. Using techniques of cognitive maps, this study explores the concepts of a successful career and the network itself, as a whole, for career development. Fifty-three entrepreneurs were studied, in seven technological incubators in the city of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Specifically, this study aimed to map the shared meanings of the incubated entrepreneurs regarding informal support networks. Such networks support the entrepreneurial career and the present study explores the characteristics and the conceptual model that underlies the networks. The data collection was achieved through interviews through a free evocation technique. The shared meanings indicate the existence of inherent thought categories that support network context in the incubator environment, mainly the mentoring networks. The results endorse the interpretation of an informal mentoring model emerging from the dominant evocations concerning a successful career and of the network itself as promoter of career development.

  13. The Occurrence and Development of Amylase Enzymes in Incubated, De-embryonated Maize Kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, L D; Jennings, P H

    1975-05-01

    The development of amylase activity in extracts from de-embryonated and GA(3)-treated de-embryonated maize kernels (Zea mays L.) was determined during a 10-day incubation period. The increase in activity was compared with activity extracted from endosperms dissected from germinating whole kernels. Chromatographic analysis of reaction products as well as physicochemical characterization demonstrated that the activities from GA(3)-treated and nontreated tissue were comparable and that part of the activity was attributable to alpha-amylase.Concomitant with the increase in activity was the appearance of a number of starch-degrading bands, as evidenced by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Actinomycin-D (20 mug/ml) and cycloheximide (5 mug/ml), when present in the incubation medium at early periods of incubation, were capable of inhibiting the development of amylase activity and of preventing the appearance of the starch-degrading bands.The results indicate that the development of alpha-amylase activity in de-embryonated maize kernels is independent of an embryo or an exogenous source of gibberellic acid and suggest that this process involved protein synthesis.

  14. The Impact of Recycled Neonatal Incubators in Nigeria: A 6-Year Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hippolite Onyejiaka Amadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria has a record of high newborn mortality as an estimated 778 babies die daily, accounting for a ratio of 48 deaths per 1000 live births. The aim of this paper was to show how a deteriorating neonatal delivery system in Nigeria may have, in part, been improved by the application of a novel recycled incubator technique (RIT. Retrospective assessment of clinical, technical, and human factors in 15 Nigerian neonatal centres was carried out to investigate how the application of RIT impacted these factors. Pre-RIT and post-RIT neonatal mortalities were compared by studying case files. Effect on neonatal nursing was studied through questionnaires that were completed by 79 nurses from 9 centres across the country. Technical performance was assessed based on 10-indices scores from clinicians and nurses. The results showed an increase in neonatal survival, nursing enthusiasm, and practice confidence. Appropriately recycled incubators are good substitutes to the less affordable modern incubators in boosting neonatal practice outcome in low-income countries.

  15. Influence of high-dose cortisol on the biomechanics of incubated porcine corneal strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerl, Eberhard; Zubaty, Viktoria; Terai, Naim; Pillunat, Lutz E; Raiskup, Frederik

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the change in biomechanical properties of the cornea induced by high-dose hydrocortisone. The influence of hydrocortisone was investigated in 12 fresh porcine corneas incubated in culture medium of 2.5 muM of hydrocortisone for 7 days. Twelve additional porcine corneas incubated in culture medium without hydrocortisone for the same time served as the control group. Strips of cornea were cut and the stress-strain relationship was measured in a biomaterial tester. Young's modulus was calculated. After incubation, the thickness of the cornea was 1120+/-130 mum in the control group and 1320+/-90 mum in the hydrocortisone group. The hydrocortisone-treated corneas were 18% thicker compared to the control corneas. However, the difference in the biomechanical stress value at 10% strain was significantly larger. In the control group, the stress value measured 122+/-40 kPa, and in the hydrocortisone group, it measured 77+/-19 kPa (P=.003), representing a reduction of the corneal stiffness by 37% due to hydrocortisone treatment. Young's modulus was reduced by 42.8% from 2.90+/-1.10 MPa in the control group to 1.66+/-0.49 in the hydrocortisone group. Hydrocortisone is a modulating factor of the biomechanical properties of the cornea. The significance of the cortisol status of the patient and its influence on the biomechanical stability of the cornea should be considered in the development of keratectasia in keratoconus or after refractive surgery. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Ostriches' reproduction behaviour and mastery of natural incubation under farming conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennou Sebei, Salwa; Bergaoui, Ridha

    2009-03-01

    This study describes the ostriches' behaviour in natural incubation and two key elements to improve this way of reproduction: artificial introduction of eggs in the nest and modifying the nest location when not adequate. Six females and 3 males were observed during four reproduction seasons. The results show that it is possible to lead ostriches change the nest. Eggs incubation was the male and the main female's responsibility; the second female of the trio shared this task in 85% of cases. Presence of eggs incited ostriches to sit in the nest. Incubation per se began when the couple took turns in a regular way to perform this role; mating and laying stopped. Hatching was marked by a higher aggressiveness among parents who watched over the nest to ensure the hatching of late eggs and continued to sit in the nest as long as there were eggs. The mean fertility and hatchability of set eggs were 58.68 and 41.55% respectively. Fertile eggs had less than 12 days of storage when introduction into the nest. Viability at 3 months of the chicks kept with their parents was higher than that of the chicks reared by our care (82% and 57% respectively).

  17. Incubation of human blood fractions leads to changes in apparent miRNA abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Jørgensen, Stine Thuen; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    A basic investigation on the presence and composition of miRNA species and their reaction to in vitro incubation and stimulation (borosilicate glass beads), in plasma, platelet-rich plasma (PRP), red blood cells (RBC), peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells...... in significant changes in the abundance of miR-21, miR-155, Let-7c and Let 7f in plasma, miR-21, miR-23a and miR-150 in RBC and miR-15b, miR-126, miR155 and Let-7g in PBMC, while no change was seen in PRP and PMN. Interestingly, in the samples incubated with glass beads, no miRNAs were significantly affected...... in plasma, RBC, PBMC and PMN, while expression of miR-25, miR15a, miR-126 and miR223 was significantly changed in PRP. Thus, PRP, as the only blood fraction depended on stimulation to change its miRNA profile upon incubation. For the other fractions, stimulation either leveled out the changes induced...

  18. The Occurrence and Development of Amylase Enzymes in Incubated, De-embryonated Maize Kernels 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, L. D.; Jennings, Paul H.

    1975-01-01

    The development of amylase activity in extracts from de-embryonated and GA3-treated de-embryonated maize kernels (Zea mays L.) was determined during a 10-day incubation period. The increase in activity was compared with activity extracted from endosperms dissected from germinating whole kernels. Chromatographic analysis of reaction products as well as physicochemical characterization demonstrated that the activities from GA3-treated and nontreated tissue were comparable and that part of the activity was attributable to α-amylase. Concomitant with the increase in activity was the appearance of a number of starch-degrading bands, as evidenced by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Actinomycin-D (20 μg/ml) and cycloheximide (5 μg/ml), when present in the incubation medium at early periods of incubation, were capable of inhibiting the development of amylase activity and of preventing the appearance of the starch-degrading bands. The results indicate that the development of α-amylase activity in de-embryonated maize kernels is independent of an embryo or an exogenous source of gibberellic acid and suggest that this process involved protein synthesis. Images PMID:16659187

  19. Sound levels in a neonatal intensive care unit significantly exceeded recommendations, especially inside incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Johanna; de Suremain, Aurelie; Berne Audeoud, Frederique; Ego, Anne; Debillon, Thierry

    2017-12-01

    This study measured sound levels in a 2008 built French neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and compared them to the 2007 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations. The ultimate aim was to identify factors that could influence noise levels. The study measured sound in 17 single or double rooms in the NICU. Two dosimeters were installed in each room, one inside and one outside the incubators, and these conducted measurements over a 24-hour period. The noise metrics measured were the equivalent continuous sound level (Leq ), the maximum noise level (Lmax ) and the noise level exceeded for 10% of the measurement period (L10 ). The mean Leq , L10 and Lmax were 60.4, 62.1 and 89.1 decibels (dBA), which exceeded the recommended levels of 45, 50 and 65 dBA (p < 0.001), respectively. The Leq inside the incubator was significantly higher than in the room (+8 dBA, p < 0.001). None of the newborns' characteristics, the environment or medical care was correlated to an increased noise level, except for a postconceptional age below 32 weeks. The sound levels significantly exceeded the AAP recommendations, particularly inside incubators. A multipronged strategy is required to improve the sound environment and protect the neonates' sensory development. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Preliminary data on growth and enzymatic abilities of soil fungus Humicolopsis cephalosporioides at different incubation temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elíades, Lorena Alejandra; Cabello, Marta N; Pancotto, Verónica; Moretto, Alicia; Rago, María Melisa; Saparrat, Mario C N

    2015-01-01

    Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp & Endl.) Krasser, known as "lenga" is the most important timber wood species in southernmost Patagonia (Argentina). Humicolopsis cephalosporioides Cabral & Marchand is a soil fungus associated with Nothofagus pumilio forests, which has outstanding cellulolytic activity. However, there is no information about the ability of this fungus to use organic substrates other than cellulose, and its ability to produce different enzyme systems, as well as its response to temperature. The aim of this study was to examine the role of H. cephalosporioides in degradation processes in N. pumilio forests in detail by evaluating the in vitro ability of four isolates of this fungus to grow and produce different lytic enzyme systems, and their response to incubation temperature. The ability of the fungi to grow and produce enzyme systems was estimated by inoculating them on agar media with specific substrates, and the cultures were incubated at three temperatures. A differential behavior of each strain in levels of growth and enzyme activity was found according to the medium type and/or incubation temperature. A intra-specific variability was found in H. cephalosporioides. Likewise a possible link between the saprotrophic role of this fungus in N. pumilio forests and the degradation of organic matter under stress conditions, such as those from frosty environments, was also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Incubation temperature, morphology and performance in loggerhead (Caretta caretta) turtle hatchlings from Mon Repos, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Elizabeth L.; Booth, David T.; Limpus, Colin J.

    2015-01-01

    Marine turtles are vulnerable to climate change because their life history and reproduction are tied to environmental temperatures. The egg incubation stage is arguably the most vulnerable stage, because marine turtle eggs require a narrow range of temperatures for successful incubation. Additionally, incubation temperature affects sex, emergence success, morphology and locomotor performance of hatchlings. Hatchlings often experience high rates of predation in the first few hours of their life, and increased size or locomotor ability may improve their chances of survival. Between 2010 and 2013 we monitored the temperature of loggerhead (Caretta caretta; Linnaeus 1758) turtle nests at Mon Repos Rookery, and used these data to calculate a mean three day maximum temperature (T3dm) for each nest. We calculated the hatching and emergence success for each nest, then measured the mass, size and locomotor performance of hatchlings that emerged from those nests. Nests with a T3dm greater than 34°C experienced a lower emergence success and produced smaller hatchlings than nests with a T3dm lower than 34°C. Hatchlings from nests with a T3dm below 34°C performed better in crawling and swimming trials than hatchlings from nests with a T3dm above 34°C. Thus even non-lethal increases in global temperatures have the potential to detrimentally affect fitness and survival of marine turtle hatchlings. PMID:26002933

  2. Buying time-the immune system determinants of the incubation period to respiratory viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermesh, Tamar; Moltedo, Bruno; López, Carolina B; Moran, Thomas M

    2010-11-01

    Respiratory viruses cause disease in humans characterized by an abrupt onset of symptoms. Studies in humans and animal models have shown that symptoms are not immediate and appear days or even weeks after infection. Since the initial symptoms are a manifestation of virus recognition by elements of the innate immune response, early virus replication must go largely undetected. The interval between infection and the emergence of symptoms is called the incubation period and is widely used as a clinical score. While incubation periods have been described for many virus infections the underlying mechanism for this asymptomatic phase has not been comprehensively documented. Here we review studies of the interaction between human pathogenic respiratory RNA viruses and the host with a particular emphasis on the mechanisms used by viruses to inhibit immunity. We discuss the concept of the "stealth phase", defined as the time between infection and the earliest detectable inflammatory response. We propose that the "stealth phase" phenomenon is primarily responsible for the suppression of symptoms during the incubation period and results from viral antagonism that inhibits major pathways of the innate immune system allowing an extended time of unhindered virus replication.

  3. Incubation temperature, morphology and performance in loggerhead (Caretta caretta turtle hatchlings from Mon Repos, Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L. Sim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Marine turtles are vulnerable to climate change because their life history and reproduction are tied to environmental temperatures. The egg incubation stage is arguably the most vulnerable stage, because marine turtle eggs require a narrow range of temperatures for successful incubation. Additionally, incubation temperature affects sex, emergence success, morphology and locomotor performance of hatchlings. Hatchlings often experience high rates of predation in the first few hours of their life, and increased size or locomotor ability may improve their chances of survival. Between 2010 and 2013 we monitored the temperature of loggerhead (Caretta caretta; Linnaeus 1758 turtle nests at Mon Repos Rookery, and used these data to calculate a mean three day maximum temperature (T3dm for each nest. We calculated the hatching and emergence success for each nest, then measured the mass, size and locomotor performance of hatchlings that emerged from those nests. Nests with a T3dm greater than 34°C experienced a lower emergence success and produced smaller hatchlings than nests with a T3dm lower than 34°C. Hatchlings from nests with a T3dm below 34°C performed better in crawling and swimming trials than hatchlings from nests with a T3dm above 34°C. Thus even non-lethal increases in global temperatures have the potential to detrimentally affect fitness and survival of marine turtle hatchlings.

  4. Time-lapse systems for embryo incubation and assessment in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Sarah; Arroll, Nicola; Cree, Lynsey M; Jordan, Vanessa; Farquhar, Cindy

    2015-02-27

    Embryo incubation and assessment is a vital step in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Traditionally, embryo assessment has been achieved by removing embryos from a conventional incubator daily for assessment of quality by an embryologist, under a light microscope. Over recent years time-lapse systems (TLSs) have been developed which can take digital images of embryos at frequent time intervals. This allows embryologists, with or without the assistance of computer algorithms, to assess the quality of the embryos without physically removing them from the incubator.The potential advantages of a TLS include the ability to maintain a stable culture environment, therefore limiting the exposure of embryos to changes in gas composition, temperature and movement. Additionally a TLS has the potential advantage of improving embryo selection for ART treatment by utilising additional information gained through monitoring embryo development. To determine the effect of a TLS compared to conventional embryo incubation and assessment on clinical outcomes in couples undergoing ART. A comprehensive search of all the major electronic databases, including grey literature, was undertaken in co-ordination with the Trials Search Co-ordinator of the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group in July 2014 and repeated in November 2014 to confirm that the review is up to date. Two authors (SA and NA) independently scanned the titles and abstracts of the articles retrieved by the search. Full texts of potentially eligible randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were obtained and examined independently by the authors for their suitability according to the review inclusion criteria. In the case of doubt between the two authors, a third author (LC) was consulted to gain consensus. The selection process is documented with a Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) flow chart. Data were obtained and extracted by two authors. Disagreement was resolved

  5. Accumulation of genistein and lipophilic genistein derivatives in lipoproteins during incubation with human plasma in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaamanen, Maija; Adlercreutz, Herman; Jauhiainen, Matti; Tikkanen, Matti J

    2003-03-17

    Atherosclerosis is initiated by the uptake and retention of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) into the arterial intima. We have previously shown that dietary isoflavone phytoestrogens inhibit LDL oxidation in vitro. The inhibition could have been caused by undetected isoflavone metabolites associated with lipoproteins. In the present study, we incubated human plasma with [3H]genistein, both with and without the lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) inhibitor dithionitrobenzoic acid (DTNB). Our results indicated that the 3H-label was attached to both high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and LDL, and that it represented both underivatized genistein and lipophilic derivatives of genistein, part of which were identified as fatty acid monoesters. The latter was demonstrated by the findings that DTNB decreased the HDL and LDL associated radioactivity in the lipophilic fraction isolated by hydrophobic chromatography and that saponification hydrolysis liberated a corresponding part of the 3H-label. Two-dimensional reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (TLC) demonstrated that a corresponding part of the radioactivity comigrated with genistein monoester standards in the absence of DTNB but was abolished if DTNB had been present in the incubation. In summary, incubation of plasma with [3H]genistein resulted in accumulation of underivatized genistein as well as lipophilic genistein derivatives in lipoproteins. A smaller part of the latter were genistein monoesters, while part remained unidentified. Our results suggest an explanation for the increased oxidation resistance of isolated LDL during intake of soybean isoflavones.

  6. Sperm function during incubation with oestrus oviductal fluid differs in bulls with different fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaresan, A; Johannisson, A; Bergqvist, A-S

    2017-06-01

    Spermatozoa undergo several modifications in the oviduct before acquiring fertilising capacity. Although spermatozoa are exposed to similar conditions in the oviduct, the speed of the response varies with the male and the state of the spermatozoa. We hypothesised that spermatozoa from bulls with different fertility may differ in their ability to respond to oviductal fluid (ODF). Frozen-thawed spermatozoa from four bulls were incubated with oestrus oviductal fluid (OODF) for 6h. Sperm kinematics, tyrosine phosphorylation, phosphorylation patterns, capacitation and acrosome reaction were analysed at hourly intervals. The amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH) and straightness coefficient (STR) were higher (P<0.05) in bulls with higher fertility compared with those with lower fertility, at 1-4h of incubation. At 4h of incubation and onwards, spermatozoa from bulls with higher fertility showed a lower degree (P<0.05) of tyrosine phosphorylation and higher degree of capacitation and acrosome reaction. At least five tyrosine-phosphorylated sperm proteins were detected in all bulls. However, the expression of two phosphorylated sperm proteins (183 and 109 kDa) was upregulated in bulls with lower fertility. It may be concluded that cryopreserved spermatozoa from high- and low- fertile bulls differ in their ability to respond to OODF. This may help in developing tools for assessing fertility of bulls, once validated in more animals.

  7. Effects of N-ammonoxidized lignins amendment on N availability and soil fertility: An incubation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    María De la Rosa, José; López-Martín, María; Liebner, Falk; Knicker, Heike

    2013-04-01

    The shift towards a biobased economy will probably generate the application of bioenergy by-products and charred residues to the soil as either amendments or fertilizers. The process of ammonoxidation (application of gaseous oxygen and aqueous ammonia under ambient pressure breaks down aromatic lignin moieties and introduces N in the form of urea, amides and amines), converts lignin, a major by-product of the pulp and paper industry, or other ligneous materials into artificial humic matter (N-lignin). The use of N-ammonoxidized lignin as soil improvers is in theory an economically viable solution, especially interesting for agricultural areas of Mediterranean countries, in which additional factors such as water shortage and fires contribute to declining N availability by lowering nutrient diffusion, litter input or sequestration of N in charred structures. However, limited research has been done to determine how this will influence C and N dynamics and soil fertility. Therefore we performed pot experiments in which a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was grown on a typical Andalusian soil (chromic Luvisol) after amendment of N-lignins highly enriched in 15N (Sarkanda and Indulin ammonoxidized lignins) for 75 days. For comparison, the incubation was also carried out on soils fertilized with 15NO3 and unfertilized (control). The application of ammonoxidized lignins altered the pH and electrical conductivity of the soil. At higher concentrations a retardation of seed germination was evidenced, an observation that needs further considerations before N-enriched technical lignins can be applied in agriculture. After 75 days, the plant shoots from the pots amended with15N-Indulin and 15N-Sarkanda accumulated 8% and 20%, respectively of the initial 15N (15N0). The N was efficiently sequestered from fast release or leaching and most of 15N0 remained in the soil (64%) in the 15N-Indulin pots. In contrast, the 15N-Sarkanda pots showed a lower efficiency in the N

  8. Effects of egg incubation condition on the post-hatching growth and performance of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Kathleen M. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY),Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1990-12-01

    The effect of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth and performance capacities of the common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina was investigated in the laboratory. Turtle eggs were collected from four sites in New York State and randomly assigned to four incubation temperature treatments to produce males (constant 26°C and downshifted 30-26-30°C) and females (constant 30°C and upshifted 26-30-26°C) under constant and altered temperature regimes. The incubation conditions resulted in 92% males from the constant 26°C group and 93% males from the downshifted group. 100% females resulted from both the constant 30°C group and the upshifted group. Turtles hatching from eggs incubated constantly at 26°C were significantly larger than hatchlings from eggs incubated at a constant 30°C or downshifted. Hatchlings were raised in individual aquaria at 25°C and fed earthworms and fish. After a 9-month growth period, turtles which had been incubated at a constant 30°C gained significantly more mass than did turtles from eggs which had been downshifted or upshifted. There was no extended effect of incubation condition on Post-hatching performance and learning ability as measured by righting and feeding responses. Thus, the mass gain differences seen in this study suggest that physiological differences do result as the consequence of incubation condition. However, these physiological differences are not reflected in normal locomotive or feeding behavior.

  9. Effects of egg incubation condition on the post-hatching growth and performance of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, K.M.

    1990-12-01

    The effect of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth and performance capacities of the common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina was investigated in the laboratory. Turtle eggs were collected from four sites in New York State and randomly assigned to four incubation temperature treatments to produce males (constant 26[degree]C and downshifted 30-26-30[degree]C) and females (constant 30[degree]C and upshifted 26-30-26[degree]C) under constant and altered temperature regimes. The incubation conditions resulted in 92% males from the constant 26[degree]C group and 93% males from the downshifted group. 100% females resulted from both the constant 30[degree]C group and the upshifted group. Turtles hatching from eggs incubated constantly at 26[degree]C were significantly larger than hatchlings from eggs incubated at a constant 30[degree]C or downshifted. Hatchlings were raised in individual aquaria at 25[degree]C and fed earthworms and fish. After a 9-month growth period, turtles which had been incubated at a constant 30[degree]C gained significantly more mass than did turtles from eggs which had been downshifted or upshifted. There was no extended effect of incubation condition on Post-hatching performance and learning ability as measured by righting and feeding responses. Thus, the mass gain differences seen in this study suggest that physiological differences do result as the consequence of incubation condition. However, these physiological differences are not reflected in normal locomotive or feeding behavior.

  10. IN Like Flint: How the Innovation Incubator at UM-Flint Fosters Social Entrepreneurship in a City Remaking Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Nic

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on how the University of Michigan-Flint's Innovation Incubator supports emerging for-profit businesses and nonprofit organizations through programming, business plan development, and ongoing mentorship. The Incubator is especially interested in supporting start-ups that address key social issues in the surrounding community,…

  11. Towards gene banking amphibian maternal germ lines: short-term incubation, cryoprotectant tolerance and cryopreservation of embryonic cells of the frog, Limnodynastes peronii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Lawson

    Full Text Available Gene banking is arguably the best method available to prevent the loss of genetic diversity caused by declines in wild populations, when the causes of decline cannot be halted or reversed. For one of the most impacted vertebrate groups, the amphibians, gene banking technologies have advanced considerably, and gametes from the male line can be banked successfully for many species. However, cryopreserving the female germ line remains challenging, with attempts at cryopreserving oocytes unsuccessful due to their large size and yolk content. One possible solution is to target cryopreservation of early embryos that contain the maternal germ line, but consist of smaller cells. Here, we investigate the short term incubation, cryoprotectant tolerance, and cryopreservation of dissociated early embryonic cells from gastrulae and neurulae of the Striped Marsh Frog, Limnodynastes peronii. Embryos were dissociated and cells were incubated for up to 24 hours in various media. Viability of both gastrula and neurula cells remained high (means up to 40-60% over 24 hours of incubation in all media, although viability was maintained at a higher level in Ca(2+-free Simplified Amphibian Ringer; low speed centrifugation did not reduce cell viability. Tolerance of dissociated embryonic cells was tested for two cryoprotectants, glycerol and dimethyl sulphoxide; dissociated cells of both gastrulae and neurulae were highly tolerant to both-indeed, cell viability over 24 hours was higher in media containing low-to-medium concentrations than in equivalent cryoprotectant-free media. Viability over 24 hours was lower in concentrations of cryoprotectant higher than 10%. Live cells were recovered following cryopreservation of both gastrula and neurula cells, but only at low rates. Optimal cryodiluents were identified for gastrula and neurula cells. This is the first report of a slow cooling protocol for cryopreservation of amphibian embryonic cells, and sets future research

  12. Effects of artificial eggs on prolactin secretion, steroid levels, brood patch development, incubation onset and clutch size in the yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Melanie; Setiawan, Alvin N; Davis, Lloyd S

    2007-04-01

    Several studies have shown that the transition from egg laying to incubation behavior in birds is associated with changes in plasma levels of prolactin and steroid hormones. However, any effect of the tactile and visual input provided by eggs at initiating these hormonal changes has not been fully investigated in wild birds. A few days before yellow-eyed penguins, Megadyptes antipodes, started egg laying, we placed an artificial egg into their nests or under cages next to their nest. We then investigated the effect of the tactile and/or visual stimulus of such an artificial egg on prolactin secretion, steroid hormone levels (total androgen, estradiol and progesterone), brood patch development, incubation onset and clutch size in these penguins. Prolactin levels rose in females in response to having an artificial egg in the nest, while they declined considerably in males. Total androgen concentrations in males were less than 7% of those of control males and the levels prior to egg placement. Brood patch width increased in both males and females. Additionally, an egg in the nest caused yellow-eyed penguin pairs to attend and sit prone on their nest more frequently. Females that initiated egg laying 1 or 2 days after placement of the artificial egg in the nest, laid a full clutch of two eggs, while most other females that were exposed to an artificial egg in their nest, laid only a single egg. In contrast, the visual stimulus of an artificial egg alone (that was placed under a cage) did not influence hormone levels, brood patch development, incubation behavior or clutch size. The stimulation of an egg in the nest influences prolactin and total androgen levels in yellow-eyed penguins, particularly in males. While brood patch development and incubation behavior were initiated and egg laying was terminated in response to an artificial egg in the nest, the exact endocrine mechanisms underlying these physiological and behavioral changes remain poorly understood. We

  13. A large volume striped bass egg incubation chamber: design and comparison with a traditional method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    I conducted a comparative study of a new jar design (experimental chamber) with a standard egg incubation vessel (McDonald jar). Experimental chambers measured 0.4 m in diameter by 1.3 m in height and had a volume of 200 L. McDonald hatching jars measured 16 cm in diameter by 45 cm in height and had a volume of 6 L. Post-hatch survival was estimated at 48, 96 and 144 h. Stocking rates resulted in an average egg density of 21.9 eggs ml-1 (range = 21.6 – 22.1) for McDonald jars and 10.9 eggs ml-1 (range = 7.0 – 16.8) for experimental chambers. I was unable to detect an effect of container type on survival to 48, 96 or 144 h. At 144 h striped bass fry survival averaged 37.3% for McDonald jars and 34.2% for experimental chambers. Survival among replicates was significantly different. Survival of striped bass significantly decreased between 96 and 144 h. Mean survival among replicates ranged from 12.4 to 57.3%. I was unable to detect an effect of initial stocking density on survival. Experimental jars allow for incubation of a larger number of eggs in a much smaller space. As hatchery production is often limited by space or water supply, experimental chambers offer an alternative to extending spawning activities, thereby reducing manpower and cost. However, the increase in the number of eggs per rearing container does increase the risk associated with catastrophic loss of a production unit. I conclude the experimental chamber is suitable for striped bass egg incubation.

  14. Extinction of conditioned cues attenuates incubation of cocaine craving in adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Heather B; Zbukvic, Isabel C; Luikinga, Sophia J; Lawrence, Andrew J; Kim, Jee Hyun

    2017-09-01

    Relapse to drug use is often precipitated by exposure to drug associated cues that evoke craving. Cue-induced drug craving has been observed in both animals and humans to increase over the first few weeks of abstinence and remain high over extended periods, a phenomenon known as 'incubation of craving'. As adolescence represents a period of vulnerability to developing drug addiction, potentially due to persistent reactivity to drug associated cues, we first compared incubation of cocaine craving in adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent (P35) and adult (P70) rats were trained to lever press to obtain intravenous cocaine, with each drug delivery accompanied by a light cue that served as the conditioned stimulus (CS). Following acquisition of stable responding, rats were tested for cue-induced cocaine-seeking after either 1 or 30days of abstinence. Additional groups of rats were also tested after 30days of abstinence, however these rats were subjected to a cue extinction session 1week into the abstinence period. Rats were injected with aripiprazole, a dopamine 2 receptor (D2R)-like partial agonist, or vehicle, 30min prior to cue extinction. We found that adolescent and adult rats acquired and maintained a similar level of cocaine self-administration, and rats of both ages exhibited a higher level of cue-induced cocaine-seeking if they were tested after 30days of abstinence compared to 1day. Incubation of cocaine craving was significantly reduced to 1day levels in both adults and adolescents that received cue extinction training. Administration of aripiprazole prior to cue extinction did not further reduce cue-induced drug-seeking. These results indicate that cue extinction training during abstinence may effectively reduce cue-induced relapse at a time when cue-induced drug craving is usually high. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Transmission of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus during the Incubation Period in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Pacheco, Juan M; Brito, Barbara P; Moreno-Torres, Karla I; Branan, Matt A; Delgado, Amy H; Rodriguez, Luis L; Arzt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the quantitative characteristics of a pathogen's capability to transmit during distinct phases of infection is important to enable accurate predictions of the spread and impact of a disease outbreak. In the current investigation, the potential for transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) during the incubation (preclinical) period of infection was investigated in seven groups of pigs that were sequentially exposed to a group of donor pigs that were infected by simulated-natural inoculation. Contact-exposed pigs were comingled with infected donors through successive 8-h time slots spanning from 8 to 64 h post-inoculation (hpi) of the donor pigs. The transition from latent to infectious periods in the donor pigs was clearly defined by successful transmission of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) to all contact pigs that were exposed to the donors from 24 hpi and later. This onset of infectiousness occurred concurrent with detection of viremia, but approximately 24 h prior to the first appearance of clinical signs of FMD in the donors. Thus, the latent period of infection ended approximately 24 h before the end of the incubation period. There were significant differences between contact-exposed groups in the time elapsed from virus exposure to the first detection of FMDV shedding, viremia, and clinical lesions. Specifically, the onset and progression of clinical FMD were more rapid in pigs that had been exposed to the donor pigs during more advanced phases of disease, suggesting that these animals had received a higher effective challenge dose. These results demonstrate transmission and dissemination of FMD within groups of pigs during the incubation period of infection. Furthermore, these findings suggest that under current conditions, shedding of FMDV in oropharyngeal fluids is a more precise proxy for FMDV infectiousness than clinical signs of infection. These findings may impact modeling of the propagation of FMD outbreaks that initiate

  16. Role of ventral medial prefrontal cortex in incubation of cocaine craving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koya, Eisuke; Uejima, Jamie L.; Wihbey, Kristina A.; Bossert, Jennifer M.; Hope, Bruce T.; Shaham, Yavin

    2009-01-01

    Cue-induced drug-seeking in rodents progressively increases after withdrawal from cocaine, suggesting that cue-induced cocaine craving incubates over time. Here, we explored the role of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, a brain area previously implicated in cue-induced cocaine seeking) in this incubation. We trained rats to self-administer cocaine for 10 d (6 h/d, infusions were paired with a tone-light cue), and then assessed after 1 or 30 withdrawal days the effect of exposure to cocaine cues on lever presses in extinction tests. We found that cue-induced cocaine-seeking in the extinction tests was higher after 30 withdrawal days than after 1 day. The time-dependent increases in extinction responding were associated with large (ventral mPFC) or modest (dorsal mPFC) increases in ERK phosphorylation (a measure of ERK activity and an index of neuronal activation). After 30 withdrawal days, ventral but not dorsal injections of muscimol+baclofen (GABAa+GABAb receptor agonists that inhibit neuronal activity) decreased extinction responding. After 1 withdrawal day, ventral but not dorsal mPFC injections of bicuculline+saclofen (GABAa+GABAb receptor antagonists that increase neuronal activity) strongly increased extinction responding. Finally, muscimol+baclofen had minimal effect on extinction responding after 1 day, and in cocaine-experienced rats, ventral mPFC injections of muscimol+baclofen or bicuculline+saclofen had no effect on lever presses for an oral sucrose solution. The present results indicate that ventral mPFC neuronal activity plays an important role in the incubation of cocaine craving. PMID:18565549

  17. Biomaterials trigger endothelial cell activation when co-incubated with human whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herklotz, Manuela; Hanke, Jasmin; Hänsel, Stefanie; Drichel, Juliane; Marx, Monique; Maitz, Manfred F; Werner, Carsten

    2016-10-01

    Endothelial cell activation resulting from biomaterial contact or biomaterial-induced blood activation may in turn also affect hemostasis and inflammatory processes in the blood. Current in vitro hemocompatibility assays typically ignore these modulating effects of the endothelium. This study describes a co-incubation system of human whole blood, biomaterial and endothelial cells (ECs) that was developed to overcome this limitation. First, human endothelial cells were characterized in terms of their expression of coagulation- and inflammation-relevant markers in response to various activators. Subsequently, their capacity to regulate hemostasis as well as complement and granulocyte activation was monitored in a hemocompatibility assay. After blood contact, quiescent ECs exhibited anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties. When they were co-incubated with surfaces exhibiting pro-coagulant or pro-inflammatory characteristics, the ECs down-regulated coagulation but not complement or leukocyte activation. Analysis of intracellular levels of the endothelial activation markers E-selectin and tissue factor showed that co-incubation with model surfaces and blood significantly increased the activation state of ECs. Finally, the coagulation- and inflammation-modulating properties of the ECs were tested after blood/biomaterial exposure. Pre-activation of ECs by biomaterials in the blood induced a pro-coagulant and pro-inflammatory state of the ECs, wherein the pro-coagulant response was higher for biomaterial/blood pre-activated ECs than for TNF-α-pre-activated cells. This work provides evidence that biomaterials, even without directly contacting the endothelium, affect the endothelial activation state with and have consequences for plasmatic and cellular reactions in the blood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus during the incubation period in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Stenfeldt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the quantitative characteristics of a pathogen’s capability to transmit during distinct phases of infection is important to enable accurate predictions of the spread and impact of a disease outbreak. In the current investigation, the potential for transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV during the incubation (preclinical phase of infection was investigated in seven groups of pigs that were sequentially exposed to a group of donor pigs that were infected by simulated-natural inoculation. Contact-exposed pigs were co-mingled with infected donors through successive eight-hour time slots spanning from 8 to 64 hours post inoculation (hpi of the donor pigs. The transition from latent to infectious periods in the donor pigs was clearly defined by successful transmission of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD to all contact pigs that were exposed to the donors from 24 hpi and later. This onset of infectiousness occurred concurrent with detection of viremia, but approximately 24 hours prior to the first appearance of clinical signs of FMD in the donors.Thus, the latent period of infection ended approximately 24 hours earlier than the end of the incubation period. There were significant differences between contact-exposed groups in the time elapsed from virus exposure to the first detection of FMDV shedding, viremia and clinical lesions. Specifically, the onset and progression of clinical FMD was more rapid in pigs that had been exposed to the donor pigs during more advanced phases of disease, suggesting that these animals had received a higher effective challenge dose. These results demonstrate transmission and dissemination of FMD within groups of pigs during the incubation period of infection. Furthermore, the findings suggest that under current conditions, shedding of FMDV in oropharyngeal fluids is a more precise proxy for FMDV infectiousness than clinical signs of infection. These findings may impact modeling of the propagation of

  19. Experimental incubations elicit profound changes in community transcription in OMZ bacterioplankton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J Stewart

    Full Text Available Sequencing of microbial community RNA (metatranscriptome is a useful approach for assessing gene expression in microorganisms from the natural environment. This method has revealed transcriptional patterns in situ, but can also be used to detect transcriptional cascades in microcosms following experimental perturbation. Unambiguously identifying differential transcription between control and experimental treatments requires constraining effects that are simply due to sampling and bottle enclosure. These effects remain largely uncharacterized for "challenging" microbial samples, such as those from anoxic regions that require special handling to maintain in situ conditions. Here, we demonstrate substantial changes in microbial transcription induced by sample collection and incubation in experimental bioreactors. Microbial communities were sampled from the water column of a marine oxygen minimum zone by a pump system that introduced minimal oxygen contamination and subsequently incubated in bioreactors under near in situ oxygen and temperature conditions. Relative to the source water, experimental samples became dominated by transcripts suggestive of cell stress, including chaperone, protease, and RNA degradation genes from diverse taxa, with strong representation from SAR11-like alphaproteobacteria. In tandem, transcripts matching facultative anaerobic gammaproteobacteria of the Alteromonadales (e.g., Colwellia increased 4-13 fold up to 43% of coding transcripts, and encoded a diverse gene set suggestive of protein synthesis and cell growth. We interpret these patterns as taxon-specific responses to combined environmental changes in the bioreactors, including shifts in substrate or oxygen availability, and minor temperature and pressure changes during sampling with the pump system. Whether such changes confound analysis of transcriptional patterns may vary based on the design of the experiment, the taxonomic composition of the source community

  20. Recycling vs. stabilisation of soil sugars - a long-term laboratory incubation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basler, A.; Dippold, M.; Helfrich, M.; Dyckmans, J.

    2015-06-01

    Independent of its chemical structure carbon (C) persists in soil for several decades, controlled by stabilisation and recycling. To disentangle the importance of the two factors on the turnover dynamics of soil sugars, an important compound of soil organic matter (SOM), a three year incubation experiment was conducted on a silty loam soil under different types of land use (arable land, grassland and forest) by adding 13C-labeled glucose. The compound specific isotope analysis of soil sugars was used to examine the dynamics of different sugars during incubation. Sugar dynamics were dominated by a pool of high mean residence times (MRT) indicating that recycling plays an important role for sugars. However, this was not substantially affected by soil C content. Six months after label addition the contribution of the label was much higher for microbial biomass than for CO2 production for all examined soils, corroborating that substrate recycling was very effective within the microbial biomass. Two different patterns of tracer dynamics could be identified for different sugars: while fucose (fuc) and mannose (man) showed highest label contribution at the beginning of the incubation with a subsequent slow decline, galactose (gal) and rhamnose (rha) were characterised by slow label incorporation with subsequently constant levels, which indicates that recycling is dominating the dynamics of these sugars. This may correspond to (a) different microbial growing strategies (r and K-strategist) or (b) location within or outside the cell membrane (lipopolysaccharides vs. exopolysaccharides) and thus be subject of different re-use within the microbial food web. Our results show how the microbial community recycles substrate very effectively and that high losses of substrate only occur during initial stages after substrate addition.