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Sample records for p-n junction light-emitting

  1. Hybrid p-n junction light-emitting diodes based on sputtered ZnO and organic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Jong H.; Kitamura, M.; Arita, M.; Arakawa, Y.

    2009-01-01

    We fabricated light-emitting hybrid p-n junction devices using low temperature deposited ZnO and organic films, in which the ZnO and the organic films served as the n- and p-type component, respectively. The devices have a rectification factor as high as ∼10 3 and a current density greater than 2 A/cm 2 . Electroluminescence of the hybrid device shows the mixture of the emission bands arising from radiative charge recombination in organic and ZnO. The substantial device properties could provide various opportunities for low cost and large area multicolor light-emitting sources.

  2. Multiplication in Silicon p-n Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moll, John L.

    1965-01-01

    Multiplication values were measured in the collector junctions of silicon p-n-p and n-p-n transistors before and after bombardment by 1016 neutrons/cm2. Within experimental error there was no change either in junction fields, as deduced from capacitance measurements, or in multiplication values i...

  3. Epitaxial growth of a monolayer WSe2-MoS2 lateral p-n junction with an atomically sharp interface

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ming Yang; Shi, Yumeng; Cheng, Chia Chin; Lu, Li Syuan; Lin, Yung Chang; Tang, Hao-Ling; Tsai, Meng Lin; Chu, Chih Wei; Wei, Kung Hwa; He, Jr-Hau; Chang, Wen Hao; Suenaga, Kazu; Li, Lain-Jong

    2015-01-01

    . Spatially connected TMDC lateral heterojunctions are key components for constructing monolayer p-n rectifying diodes, light-emitting diodes, photovoltaic devices, and bipolar junction transistors. However, such structures are not readily prepared via

  4. Hybrid tunnel junction contacts to III–nitride light-emitting diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Young, Erin C.

    2016-01-26

    In this work, we demonstrate highly doped GaN p–n tunnel junction (TJ) contacts on III–nitride heterostructures where the active region of the device and the top p-GaN layers were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition and highly doped n-GaN was grown by NH3 molecular beam epitaxy to form the TJ. The regrowth interface in these hybrid devices was found to have a high concentration of oxygen, which likely enhanced tunneling through the diode. For optimized regrowth, the best tunnel junction device had a total differential resistivity of 1.5 × 10−4 Ω cm2, including contact resistance. As a demonstration, a blue-light-emitting diode on a ($20\\\\bar{2}\\\\bar{1}$) GaN substrate with a hybrid tunnel junction and an n-GaN current spreading layer was fabricated and compared with a reference sample with a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer. The tunnel junction LED showed a lower forward operating voltage and a higher efficiency at a low current density than the TCO LED.

  5. Hybrid tunnel junction contacts to III–nitride light-emitting diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Young, Erin C.; Yonkee, Benjamin P.; Wu, Feng; Oh, Sang Ho; DenBaars, Steven P.; Nakamura, Shuji; Speck, James S.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate highly doped GaN p–n tunnel junction (TJ) contacts on III–nitride heterostructures where the active region of the device and the top p-GaN layers were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition and highly doped n-GaN was grown by NH3 molecular beam epitaxy to form the TJ. The regrowth interface in these hybrid devices was found to have a high concentration of oxygen, which likely enhanced tunneling through the diode. For optimized regrowth, the best tunnel junction device had a total differential resistivity of 1.5 × 10−4 Ω cm2, including contact resistance. As a demonstration, a blue-light-emitting diode on a ($20\\bar{2}\\bar{1}$) GaN substrate with a hybrid tunnel junction and an n-GaN current spreading layer was fabricated and compared with a reference sample with a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer. The tunnel junction LED showed a lower forward operating voltage and a higher efficiency at a low current density than the TCO LED.

  6. Silicon fiber with p-n junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homa, D.; Cito, A.; Pickrell, G.; Hill, C.; Scott, B.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated a p-n junction in a fiber with a phosphorous doped silicon core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a hybrid process of the core-suction and melt-draw techniques and maintained overall diameters ranging from 200 to 900 μm and core diameters of 20–800 μm. The p-n junction was formed by doping the fiber with boron and confirmed via the current-voltage characteristic. The demonstration of a p-n junction in a melt-drawn silicon core fiber paves the way for the seamless integration of optical and electronic devices in fibers.

  7. Relationships between junction temperature, electroluminescence spectrum and ageing of light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaskuri, Anna; Kärhä, Petri; Baumgartner, Hans; Kantamaa, Olli; Pulli, Tomi; Poikonen, Tuomas; Ikonen, Erkki

    2018-04-01

    We have developed spectral models describing the electroluminescence spectra of AlGaInP and InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) consisting of the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution and the effective joint density of states. One spectrum at a known temperature for one LED specimen is needed for calibrating the model parameters of each LED type. Then, the model can be used for determining the junction temperature optically from the spectral measurement, because the junction temperature is one of the free parameters. We validated the models using, in total, 53 spectra of three red AlGaInP LED specimens and 72 spectra of three blue InGaN LED specimens measured at various current levels and temperatures between 303 K and 398 K. For all the spectra of red LEDs, the standard deviation between the modelled and measured junction temperatures was only 2.4 K. InGaN LEDs have a more complex effective joint density of states. For the blue LEDs, the corresponding standard deviation was 11.2 K, but it decreased to 3.5 K when each LED specimen was calibrated separately. The method of determining junction temperature was further tested on white InGaN LEDs with luminophore coating and LED lamps. The average standard deviation was 8 K for white InGaN LED types. We have six years of ageing data available for a set of LED lamps and we estimated the junction temperatures of these lamps with respect to their ageing times. It was found that the LEDs operating at higher junction temperatures were frequently more damaged.

  8. Axial p-n-junctions in nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, C; Shik, A; Byrne, K; Lynall, D; Blumin, M; Saveliev, I; Ruda, H E

    2015-02-27

    The charge distribution and potential profile of p-n-junctions in thin semiconductor nanowires (NWs) were analyzed. The characteristics of screening in one-dimensional systems result in a specific profile with large electric field at the boundary between the n- and p- regions, and long tails with a logarithmic drop in the potential and charge density. As a result of these tails, the junction properties depend sensitively on the geometry of external contacts and its capacity has an anomalously large value and frequency dispersion. In the presence of an external voltage, electrons and holes in the NWs can not be described by constant quasi-Fermi levels, due to small values of the average electric field, mobility, and lifetime of carriers. Thus, instead of the classical Sah-Noice-Shockley theory, the junction current-voltage characteristic was described by an alternative theory suitable for fast generation-recombination and slow diffusion-drift processes. For the non-uniform electric field in the junction, this theory predicts the forward branch of the characteristic to have a non-ideality factor η several times larger than the values 1 < η < 2 from classical theory. Such values of η have been experimentally observed by a number of researchers, as well as in the present work.

  9. Field-effect P-N junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, William; Zettl, Alexander

    2015-05-05

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to field-effect p-n junctions. In one aspect, a device includes an ohmic contact, a semiconductor layer disposed on the ohmic contact, at least one rectifying contact disposed on the semiconductor layer, a gate including a layer disposed on the at least one rectifying contact and the semiconductor layer and a gate contact disposed on the layer. A lateral width of the rectifying contact is less than a semiconductor depletion width of the semiconductor layer. The gate contact is electrically connected to the ohmic contact to create a self-gating feedback loop that is configured to maintain a gate electric field of the gate.

  10. Single P-N junction tandem photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw [Kensington, CA; Ager, III, Joel W.; Yu, Kin Man [Lafayette, CA

    2011-10-18

    A single P-N junction solar cell is provided having two depletion regions for charge separation while allowing the electrons and holes to recombine such that the voltages associated with both depletion regions of the solar cell will add together. The single p-n junction solar cell includes an alloy of either InGaN or InAlN formed on one side of the P-N junction with Si formed on the other side in order to produce characteristics of a two junction (2J) tandem solar cell through only a single P-N junction. A single P-N junction solar cell having tandem solar cell characteristics will achieve power conversion efficiencies exceeding 30%.

  11. An engineering method to estimate the junction temperatures of light-emitting diodes in multiple LED application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Xing; Hu, Run; Luo, Xiaobing

    2014-01-01

    Acquiring the junction temperature of light emitting diode (LED) is essential for performance evaluation. But it is hard to get in the multiple LED applications. In this paper, an engineering method is presented to estimate the junction temperatures of LEDs in multiple LED applications. This method is mainly based on an analytical model, and it can be easily applied with some simple measurements. Simulations and experiments were conducted to prove the feasibility of the method, and the deviations among the results obtained by the present method with those by simulation as well as experiments are less than 2% and 3%, respectively. In the final part of this study, the engineering method was used to analyze the thermal resistances of a street lamp. The material of lead frame was found to affect the system thermal resistance mostly, and the choice of solder material strongly depended on the material of the lead frame.

  12. High-performance tandem organic light-emitting diodes based on a buffer-modified p/n-type planar organic heterojunction as charge generation layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yukun; Sun, Ying; Qin, Houyun; Hu, Shoucheng; Wu, Qingyang; Zhao, Yi

    2017-04-01

    High-performance tandem organic light-emitting diodes (TOLEDs) were realized using a buffer-modified p/n-type planar organic heterojunction (OHJ) as charge generation layer (CGL) consisting of common organic materials, and the configuration of this p/n-type CGL was "LiF/N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(1-napthyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPB)/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen)/molybdenum oxide (MoOx)". The optimized TOLED exhibited a maximum current efficiency of 77.6 cd/A without any out-coupling techniques, and the efficiency roll-off was greatly improved compared to the single-unit OLED. The working mechanism of the p/n-type CGL was discussed in detail. It is found that the NPB/Bphen heterojunction generated enough charges under a forward applied voltage and the carrier extraction was a tunneling process. These results could provide a new method to fabricate high-performance TOLEDs.

  13. In situ measurement of the junction temperature of light emitting diodes using a flexible micro temperature sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Su, Ay; Liu, Yin-Chieh; Fan, Wei-Yuan; Hsieh, Wei-Jung

    2009-01-01

    This investigation aimed to fabricate a flexible micro resistive temperature sensor to measure the junction temperature of a light emitting diode (LED). The junction temperature is typically measured using a thermal resistance measurement approach. This approach is limited in that no standard regulates the timing of data capture. This work presents a micro temperature sensor that can measure temperature stably and continuously, and has the advantages of being lightweight and able to monitor junction temperatures in real time. Micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) technologies are employed to minimize the size of a temperature sensor that is constructed on a stainless steel foil substrate (SS-304 with 30 μm thickness). A flexible micro resistive temperature sensor can be fixed between the LED chip and the frame. The junction temperature of the LED can be measured from the linear relationship between the temperature and the resistance. The sensitivity of the micro temperature sensor is 0.059 ± 0.004 Ω/°C. The temperature of the commercial CREE(®) EZ1000 chip is 119.97 °C when it is thermally stable, as measured using the micro temperature sensor; however, it was 126.9 °C, when measured by thermal resistance measurement. The micro temperature sensor can be used to replace thermal resistance measurement and performs reliably.

  14. In Situ Measurement of the Junction Temperature of Light Emitting Diodes Using a Flexible Micro Temperature Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jung Hsieh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation aimed to fabricate a flexible micro resistive temperature sensor to measure the junction temperature of a light emitting diode (LED. The junction temperature is typically measured using a thermal resistance measurement approach. This approach is limited in that no standard regulates the timing of data capture. This work presents a micro temperature sensor that can measure temperature stably and continuously, and has the advantages of being lightweight and able to monitor junction temperatures in real time. Micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS technologies are employed to minimize the size of a temperature sensor that is constructed on a stainless steel foil substrate (SS-304 with 30 μm thickness. A flexible micro resistive temperature sensor can be fixed between the LED chip and the frame. The junction temperature of the LED can be measured from the linear relationship between the temperature and the resistance. The sensitivity of the micro temperature sensor is 0.059 ± 0.004 Ω/°C. The temperature of the commercial CREE® EZ1000 chip is 119.97 °C when it is thermally stable, as measured using the micro temperature sensor; however, it was 126.9 °C, when measured by thermal resistance measurement. The micro temperature sensor can be used to replace thermal resistance measurement and performs reliably.

  15. Reduced-droop green III-nitride light-emitting diodes utilizing GaN tunnel junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Abdullah I.; Young, Erin C.; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; Albadri, Abdulrahman; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P.; Speck, James S.

    2018-04-01

    We report the fabrication of low-droop high-efficiency green c-plane light-emitting diodes (LEDs) utilizing GaN tunnel junction (TJ) contacts. The LED epitaxial layers with a top p-GaN layer were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition and an n++-GaN layer was deposited by molecular beam epitaxy to form a TJ. The TJ LEDs were then compared with equivalent LEDs having a tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) contact. The TJ LEDs exhibited a higher performance and a lower efficiency droop than did the ITO LEDs. At 35 A/cm2, the external quantum efficiencies for the TJ and ITO LEDs were 31.2 and 27%, respectively.

  16. Micro-light-emitting diodes with III–nitride tunnel junction contacts grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Hwang, David

    2017-12-13

    Micro-light-emitting diodes (µLEDs) with tunnel junction (TJ) contacts were grown entirely by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. A LED structure was grown, treated with UV ozone and hydrofluoric acid, and reloaded into the reactor for TJ regrowth. The silicon doping level of the n++-GaN TJ was varied to examine its effect on voltage. µLEDs from 2.5 × 10−5 to 0.01 mm2 in area were processed, and the voltage penalty of the TJ for the smallest µLED at 20 A/cm2 was 0.60 V relative to that for a standard LED with indium tin oxide. The peak external quantum efficiency of the TJ LED was 34%.

  17. Micro-light-emitting diodes with III–nitride tunnel junction contacts grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Hwang, David; Mughal, Asad J.; Wong, Matthew S.; Alhassan, Abdullah I.; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P.

    2017-01-01

    Micro-light-emitting diodes (µLEDs) with tunnel junction (TJ) contacts were grown entirely by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. A LED structure was grown, treated with UV ozone and hydrofluoric acid, and reloaded into the reactor for TJ regrowth. The silicon doping level of the n++-GaN TJ was varied to examine its effect on voltage. µLEDs from 2.5 × 10−5 to 0.01 mm2 in area were processed, and the voltage penalty of the TJ for the smallest µLED at 20 A/cm2 was 0.60 V relative to that for a standard LED with indium tin oxide. The peak external quantum efficiency of the TJ LED was 34%.

  18. Manufacturing P-N junctions in germanium bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.N.

    1980-01-01

    A method of producing p-n junctions in Ge so as to facilitate their use as radiation detectors involves forming a body of high purity p-type germanium, diffusing lithium deep into the body, in the absence of electrolytic processes, to form a junction between n-type and p-type germanium greater than 1 mm depth. (UK)

  19. Analysis of different tunneling mechanisms of InxGa1−xAs/AlGaAs tunnel junction light-emitting transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Cheng-Han; Wu, Chao-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    The electrical and optical characteristics of tunnel junction light-emitting transistors (TJLETs) with different indium mole fractions (x = 5% and 2.5%) of the In x Ga 1−x As base-collector tunnel junctions have been investigated. Two electron tunneling mechanisms (photon-assisted or direct tunneling) provide additional currents to electrical output and resupply holes back to the base region, resulting in the upward slope of I-V curves and enhanced optical output under forward-active operation. The larger direct tunneling probability and stronger Franz-Keldysh absorption for 5% TJLET lead to higher collector current slope and less optical intensity enhancement when base-collector junction is under reverse-biased.

  20. Electronic transmission through p-n and n-p-n junctions of graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setare, M R [Department of Science of Bijar, University of Kurdistan, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jahani, D, E-mail: rezakord@ipm.co, E-mail: Dariush110@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-06-23

    In this paper, we first evaluate the electronic transmission of Dirac fermions into a p-n junction of gapped graphene and show that the final result depends on the sign of the refractive index, n. We also, by considering the appropriate wavefunctions in the region of the electrostatic potential, show that both transmission and the reflection probability turn out to be positive and less than unity instead of the negative transmission and higher than unity reflection coefficient commonly referred to as the Klein paradox. We then obtain the transmission probability corresponding to a special p-n junction for which there exists a region in which the low energy excitations of graphene acquire a finite mass and, interestingly, find that in this case the transmission is independent of the index of refraction, in contrast with the corresponding result for gapped graphene. We then discuss the validity of the solutions reported in some of the papers cited in this work which, considering the Buettiker formula, turn out to lead to the wrong results for conductivity.

  1. Nanofibrous p-n Junction and Its Rectifying Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Randomly oriented tin oxide (SnO2 nanofibers and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-poly(styrenesulfonate/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PEDOT:PSS/PVP nanofibers were prepared by a two-step electrospinning technique to form a layered fibrous mat. The current-voltage measurement revealed that the fibrous mat had an obvious diode-rectifying characteristic. The thickness of the nanofiber layers was found to have a considerable influence on the device resistance and rectifying performance. Such an interesting rectifying property was attributed to the formation of a p-n junction between the fibrous SnO2 and PEDOT:PSS/PVP layers. This is the first report that a rectifying junction can be formed between two layers of electrospun nanofiber mats, and the resulting nanofibrous diode rectifier may find applications in sensors, energy harvest, and electronic textiles.

  2. An Improvement on the Junction Temperature Measurement of Light-Emitting Diodes by using the Peak Shift Method Compared with the Forward Voltage Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Su-Ming; Wang Jin-Bin; Luo Xiang-Dong; Zhang Bo; Fu Lei; Cheng Li-Wen; Lu Wei

    2012-01-01

    The junction temperature of red, green and blue high power light emitting diodes (LEDs) is measured by using the emission peak shift method and the forward voltage method. Both the emission peak shift and the forward voltage decrease show a linear relationship relative to junction temperature. The linear coefficients of the red, green and blue LEDs for the peak shift method and the forward voltage method range from 0.03 to 0.15 nm/°C and from 1.33 to 3.59 mV/°C, respectively. Compared with the forward voltage method, the peak shift method is almost independent of bias current and sample difference. The variation of the slopes is less than 2% for the peak shift method and larger than 30% for the forward voltage method, when the LEDs are driven by different bias currents. It is indicated that the peak shift method gives better stability than the forward voltage method under different LED working conditions

  3. Bipolar Electrode Array Embedded in a Polymer Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun; Chen, Shulun; AlTal, Faleh; Hu, Shiyu; Bouffier, Laurent; Wantz, Guillaume

    2017-09-20

    A linear array of aluminum discs is deposited between the driving electrodes of an extremely large planar polymer light-emitting electrochemical cell (PLEC). The planar PLEC is then operated at a constant bias voltage of 100 V. This promotes in situ electrochemical doping of the luminescent polymer from both the driving electrodes and the aluminum discs. These aluminum discs function as discrete bipolar electrodes (BPEs) that can drive redox reactions at their extremities. Time-lapse fluorescence imaging reveals that p- and n-doping that originated from neighboring BPEs can interact to form multiple light-emitting p-n junctions in series. This provides direct evidence of the working principle of bulk homojunction PLECs. The propagation of p-doping is faster from the BPEs than from the positive driving electrode due to electric field enhancement at the extremities of BPEs. The effect of field enhancement and the fact that the doping fronts only need to travel the distance between the neighboring BPEs to form a light-emitting junction greatly reduce the response time for electroluminescence in the region containing the BPE array. The near simultaneous formation of multiple light-emitting p-n junctions in series causes a measurable increase in cell current. This indicates that the region containing a BPE is much more conductive than the rest of the planar cell despite the latter's greater width. The p- and n-doping originating from the BPEs is initially highly confined. Significant expansion and divergence of doping occurred when the region containing the BPE array became more conductive. The shape and direction of expanded doping strongly suggest that the multiple light-emitting p-n junctions, formed between and connected by the array of metal BPEs, have functioned as a single rod-shaped BPE. This represents a new type of BPE that is formed in situ and as a combination of metal, doped polymers, and forward-biased p-n junctions connected in series.

  4. A numerical model of p-n junctions bordering on surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altermatt, P.P.; Aberle, A.G.; Jianhua Zhao; Aihua Wang; Heiser, G. [University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia). Centre for Photovolatic Engineering

    2002-10-01

    Many solar cell structures contain regions where the emitter p-n junction borders on the surface. If the surface is not well passivated, a large amount of recombination occurs in such regions. This type of recombination is influenced by the electrostatics of both the p-n junction and the surface, and hence it is different from the commonly described recombination phenomena occurring in the p-n junction within the bulk. We developed a two-dimensional model for the recombination mechanisms occurring in emitter p-n junctions bordering on surfaces. The model is validated by reproducing the experimental I-V curves of specially designed silicon solar cells. It is shown under which circumstances a poor surface passivation, near where the p-n junction borders on the surface, reduces the fill factor and the open-circuit voltage. The model can be applied to many other types of solar cells. (author)

  5. Light emitting diodes as a plant lighting source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bula, R.J.; Tennessen, D.J.; Morrow, R.C. [Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics, Madison, WI (United States); Tibbitts, T.W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Electroluminescence in solid materials is defined as the generation of light by the passage of an electric current through a body of solid material under an applied electric field. A specific type of electroluminescence, first noted by Lossew in 1923, involves the generation of photons when electrons are passed through a p-n junction of certain solid materials (junction of a n-type semiconductor, an electron donor, and a p-type semiconductor, an electron acceptor). Development efforts to translate these observations into visible light emitting devices, however, was not undertaken until the 1950s. The term, light emitting diode (LEDs), was first used in a report by Wolfe, et al., in 1955. The development of this light emitting semiconductor technology dates back less than 30 years. During this period of time, the LED has evolved from a rare and expensive light generating device to one of the most widely used electronic components. The most popular applications of the LED are as indicators or as optoelectronic switches. However, several recent advances in LED technology have made possible the utilization of LEDs for applications that require a high photon flux, such as for plant lighting in controlled environments. The new generation of LEDs based on a gallium aluminum arsenide (GaAlAS) semiconductor material fabricated as a double heterostructure on a transparent substrate has opened up many new applications for these LEDs.

  6. Imaging the p-n junction in a gallium nitride nanowire with a scanning microwave microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imtiaz, Atif [Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Department of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Wallis, Thomas M.; Brubaker, Matt D.; Blanchard, Paul T.; Bertness, Kris A.; Sanford, Norman A.; Kabos, Pavel, E-mail: kabos@boulder.nist.gov [Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Weber, Joel C. [Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Coakley, Kevin J. [Information Technology Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

    2014-06-30

    We used a broadband, atomic-force-microscope-based, scanning microwave microscope (SMM) to probe the axial dependence of the charge depletion in a p-n junction within a gallium nitride nanowire (NW). SMM enables the visualization of the p-n junction location without the need to make patterned electrical contacts to the NW. Spatially resolved measurements of S{sub 11}{sup ′}, which is the derivative of the RF reflection coefficient S{sub 11} with respect to voltage, varied strongly when probing axially along the NW and across the p-n junction. The axial variation in S{sub 11}{sup ′}  effectively mapped the asymmetric depletion arising from the doping concentrations on either side of the junction. Furthermore, variation of the probe tip voltage altered the apparent extent of features associated with the p-n junction in S{sub 11}{sup ′} images.

  7. Solution-grown organic single-crystalline p-n junctions with ambipolar charge transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Congcheng; Zoombelt, Arjan P; Jiang, Hao; Fu, Weifei; Wu, Jiake; Yuan, Wentao; Wang, Yong; Li, Hanying; Chen, Hongzheng; Bao, Zhenan

    2013-10-25

    Organic single-crystalline p-n junctions are grown from mixed solutions. First, C60 crystals (n-type) form and, subsequently, C8-BTBT crystals (p-type) nucleate heterogeneously on the C60 crystals. Both crystals continue to grow simultaneously into single-crystalline p-n junctions that exhibit ambipolar charge transport characteristics. This work provides a platform to study organic single-crystalline p-n junctions. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. The effect of junction temperature on the optoelectrical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jen-Cheng; Fang, Chia-Hui; Wu, Ya-Fen; Chen, Wei-Jen; Kuo, Da-Chuan; Fan, Ping-Lin; Jiang, Joe-Air; Nee, Tzer-En

    2012-01-01

    Thermal effects on the optoelectrical characteristics of green InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been investigated in detail for a broad temperature range, from 30 °C to 100 °C. The current-dependent electroluminescence (EL) spectra, current–voltage (I–V) curves and luminescence intensity–current (L–I) characteristics of green InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs have been measured to characterize the thermal-related effects on the optoelectrical properties of the InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs. The experimental results show that both the forward voltages decreased with a slope of −3.7 mV/K and the emission peak wavelength increased with a slope of +0.02 nm/K with increasing temperature, indicating a change in the contact resistance between the metal and GaN layers and the existence of a band gap shrinkage effect. The junction temperature estimated from the forward voltage and the emission peak shift varied from 25.6 to 14.5 °C and from 22.4 to 35.6 °C, respectively. At the same time, the carrier temperature decreased from 371.2 to 348.1 °C as estimated from the slope of high-energy side of the emission spectra. With increasing injection current, there was found to be a strong current-dependent blueshift of −0.15 nm/mA in the emission peak wavelength of the EL spectra. This could be attributed to not only the stronger band-filling effect but also the enhanced quantum confinement effect that resulted from the piezoelectric polarization and spontaneous polarization in InGaN/GaN heterostructures. We also demonstrate a helpful and easy way to measure and calculate the junction temperature of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs. - Highlights: ► We examine the effect of junction temperature on the optoelectrical properties. ► Not only the band-filling effect but also the quantum confinement effect. ► Piezoelectric polarization and the spontaneous polarization in InGaN/GaN structures. ► Carrier transport was responsible for the influences on the

  9. P-N semiconductor junctions used as X-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pela, C.A.; Bruco, J.L.; Navas, E.A.; Paula, E. de; Guilardi Neto, T.

    1987-01-01

    The current response of some comercial P-N semiconductor junctions in function of X-ray incidency, in 40 to 140 KVp band used in diagnosis was characterized. Some junctions were also exposed to radiation of 80 to 250 KVp used in therapy. (C.G.C.) [pt

  10. On-chip photonic system using suspended p-n junction InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells device and multiple waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yongjin; Zhu, Guixia; Gao, Xumin; Yang, Yongchao; Yuan, Jialei; Shi, Zheng; Zhu, Hongbo; Cai, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We propose, fabricate, and characterize the on-chip integration of suspended p-n junction InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) device and multiple waveguides on the same GaN-on-silicon platform. The integrated devices are fabricated via a wafer-level process and exhibit selectable functionalities for diverse applications. As the suspended p-n junction InGaN/GaN MQWs device operates under a light emitting diode (LED) mode, part of the light emission is confined and guided by the suspended waveguides. The in-plane propagation along the suspended waveguides is measured by a micro-transmittance setup. The on-chip data transmission is demonstrated for the proof-of-concept photonic integration. As the suspended p-n junction InGaN/GaN MQWs device operates under photodiode mode, the light is illuminated on the suspended waveguides with the aid of the micro-transmittance setup and, thus, coupled into the suspended waveguides. The guided light is finally sensed by the photodiode, and the induced photocurrent trace shows a distinct on/off switching performance. These experimental results indicate that the on-chip photonic integration is promising for the development of sophisticated integrated photonic circuits in the visible wavelength region.

  11. Light-Emitting Pickles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.; Mollmann, K-P.

    2015-01-01

    We present experiments giving new insights into the classical light-emitting pickle experiment. In particular, measurements of the spectra and temperatures, as well as high-speed recordings, reveal that light emission is connected to the polarity of the electrodes and the presence of hydrogen.

  12. Two-dimensional dopant profiling of gallium nitride p-n junctions by scanning capacitance microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamhamdi, M.; Cayrel, F.; Frayssinet, E.; Bazin, A. E.; Yvon, A.; Collard, E.; Cordier, Y.; Alquier, D.

    2016-04-01

    Two-dimensional imaging of dopant profiles for n and p-type regions are relevant for the development of new power semiconductors, especially for gallium nitride (GaN) for which classical profiling techniques are not adapted. This is a challenging task since it needs a technique with simultaneously good sensitivity, high spatial resolution and high dopant gradient resolution. To face these challenges, scanning capacitance microscopy combined with Atomic Force Microscopy is a good candidate, presenting reproducible results, as demonstrated in literature. In this work, we attempt to distinguish reliably and qualitatively the various doping concentrations and type at p-n and unipolar junctions. For both p-n and unipolar junctions three kinds of samples were prepared and measured separately. The space-charge region of the p-n metallurgical junction, giving rise to different contrasts under SCM imaging, is clearly observed, enlightening the interest of the SCM technique.

  13. Polarization-enhanced InGaN/GaN-based hybrid tunnel junction contacts to GaN p-n diodes and InGaN LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, Asad J.; Young, Erin C.; Alhassan, Abdullah I.; Back, Joonho; Nakamura, Shuji; Speck, James S.; DenBaars, Steven P.

    2017-12-01

    Improved turn-on voltages and reduced series resistances were realized by depositing highly Si-doped n-type GaN using molecular beam epitaxy on polarization-enhanced p-type InGaN contact layers grown using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. We compared the effects of different Si doping concentrations and the addition of p-type InGaN on the forward voltages of p-n diodes and light-emitting diodes, and found that increasing the Si concentrations from 1.9 × 1020 to 4.6 × 1020 cm-3 and including a highly doped p-type InGaN at the junction both contributed to reductions in the depletion width, the series resistance of 4.2 × 10-3-3.4 × 10-3 Ω·cm2, and the turn-on voltages of the diodes.

  14. Epitaxial growth of a monolayer WSe2-MoS2 lateral p-n junction with an atomically sharp interface

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ming Yang

    2015-07-30

    Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) such as molybdenum sulfide MoS2 and tungsten sulfide WSe2 have potential applications in electronics because they exhibit high on-off current ratios and distinctive electro-optical properties. Spatially connected TMDC lateral heterojunctions are key components for constructing monolayer p-n rectifying diodes, light-emitting diodes, photovoltaic devices, and bipolar junction transistors. However, such structures are not readily prepared via the layer-stacking techniques, and direct growth favors the thermodynamically preferred TMDC alloys. We report the two-step epitaxial growth of lateral WSe2-MoS2 heterojunction, where the edge of WSe2 induces the epitaxial MoS2 growth despite a large lattice mismatch. The epitaxial growth process offers a controllable method to obtain lateral heterojunction with an atomically sharp interface.

  15. Formation of p-n-p junction with ionic liquid gate in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Xin; Tang, Ning; Duan, Junxi; Zhang, Yuewei; Lu, Fangchao; Xu, Fujun; Yang, Xuelin; Gao, Li; Wang, Xinqiang; Shen, Bo; Ge, Weikun

    2014-01-01

    Ionic liquid gating is a technique which is much more efficient than solid gating to tune carrier density. To observe the electronic properties of such a highly doped graphene device, a top gate made of ionic liquid has been used. By sweeping both the top and back gate voltage, a p-n-p junction has been created. The mechanism of forming the p-n-p junction has been discussed. Tuning the carrier density by ionic liquid gate can be an efficient method to be used in flexible electronics

  16. Photocurrent generation in lateral graphene p-n junction created by electron-beam irradiation

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Xuechao

    2015-07-08

    Graphene has been considered as an attractive material for optoelectronic applications such as photodetectors owing to its extraordinary properties, e.g. broadband absorption and ultrahigh mobility. However, challenges still remain in fundamental and practical aspects of the conventional graphene photodetectors which normally rely on the photoconductive mode of operation which has the drawback of e.g. high dark current. Here, we demonstrated the photovoltaic mode operation in graphene p-n junctions fabricated by a simple but effective electron irradiation method that induces n-type doping in intrinsic p-type graphene. The physical mechanism of the junction formation is owing to the substrate gating effect caused by electron irradiation. Photoresponse was obtained for this type of photodetector because the photoexcited electron-hole pairs can be separated in the graphene p-n junction by the built-in potential. The fabricated graphene p-n junction photodetectors exhibit a high detectivity up to ~3 × 1010 Jones (cm Hz1/2 W−1) at room temperature, which is on a par with that of the traditional III–V photodetectors. The demonstrated novel and simple scheme for obtaining graphene p-n junctions can be used for other optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and be applied to other two dimensional materials based devices.

  17. Photocurrent generation in lateral graphene p-n junction created by electron-beam irradiation

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Xuechao; Shen, Youde; Liu, Tao; Wu, Tao; Jie Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Graphene has been considered as an attractive material for optoelectronic applications such as photodetectors owing to its extraordinary properties, e.g. broadband absorption and ultrahigh mobility. However, challenges still remain in fundamental and practical aspects of the conventional graphene photodetectors which normally rely on the photoconductive mode of operation which has the drawback of e.g. high dark current. Here, we demonstrated the photovoltaic mode operation in graphene p-n junctions fabricated by a simple but effective electron irradiation method that induces n-type doping in intrinsic p-type graphene. The physical mechanism of the junction formation is owing to the substrate gating effect caused by electron irradiation. Photoresponse was obtained for this type of photodetector because the photoexcited electron-hole pairs can be separated in the graphene p-n junction by the built-in potential. The fabricated graphene p-n junction photodetectors exhibit a high detectivity up to ~3 × 1010 Jones (cm Hz1/2 W−1) at room temperature, which is on a par with that of the traditional III–V photodetectors. The demonstrated novel and simple scheme for obtaining graphene p-n junctions can be used for other optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and be applied to other two dimensional materials based devices.

  18. Two-dimensional non-volatile programmable p-n junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Chen, Mingyuan; Sun, Zhengzong; Yu, Peng; Liu, Zheng; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Zhang, Zengxing

    2017-09-01

    Semiconductor p-n junctions are the elementary building blocks of most electronic and optoelectronic devices. The need for their miniaturization has fuelled the rapid growth of interest in two-dimensional (2D) materials. However, the performance of a p-n junction considerably degrades as its thickness approaches a few nanometres and traditional technologies, such as doping and implantation, become invalid at the nanoscale. Here we report stable non-volatile programmable p-n junctions fabricated from the vertically stacked all-2D semiconductor/insulator/metal layers (WSe2/hexagonal boron nitride/graphene) in a semifloating gate field-effect transistor configuration. The junction exhibits a good rectifying behaviour with a rectification ratio of 104 and photovoltaic properties with a power conversion efficiency up to 4.1% under a 6.8 nW light. Based on the non-volatile programmable properties controlled by gate voltages, the 2D p-n junctions have been exploited for various electronic and optoelectronic applications, such as memories, photovoltaics, logic rectifiers and logic optoelectronic circuits.

  19. Characteristic features of silicon multijunction solar cells with vertical p-n junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guk, E.G.; Nalet, T.A.; Shvarts, M.Z.; Shuman, V.B.

    1997-01-01

    A relatively simple technology (without photolithography) based on diffusion welding and ion-plasma deposition of an insulating coating has been developed for fabricating multijunction silicon solar cells with vertical p-n junctions. The effective collection factor for such structures is independent of the wavelength of the incident light in the wavelength range λ=340-1080 nm

  20. The electronic structure of radial p-n junction silicon nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Shan-Haw; Grossman, Jeffrey

    2007-03-01

    Silicon nanowires with radial p-n junctions have recently been suggested for photovoltaic applications because incident light can be absorbed along the entire length of the wire, while photogenerated carriers only need to diffuse a maximum of one radius to reach the p-n junction. If the differential of the potential is larger than the binding energy of the electron-hole pair and has a range larger than the Bohr radius of electron-hole pair, then the charge separation mechanism will be similar to traditional silicon solar cells. However, in the small-diameter limit, where quantum confinement effects are prominent, both the exciton binding energy and the potential drop will increase, and the p-n junction itself may have a dramatically different character. We present ab initio calculations based on the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) of silicon nanowires with 2-3 nm diameter in the [111] growth direction. A radial p-n junction was formed by symmetrically doping boron and phosphorous at the same vertical level along the axis of the nanowire. The competition between the slope and character of the radial electronic potential and the exciton binding energy will presented in the context of a charge separation mechanism.

  1. Axial p-n junction and space charge limited current in single GaN nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhihua; Donatini, Fabrice; Daudin, Bruno; Pernot, Julien

    2018-01-01

    The electrical characterizations of individual basic GaN nanostructures, such as axial nanowire (NW) p-n junctions, are becoming indispensable and crucial for the fully controlled realization of GaN NW based devices. In this study, electron beam induced current (EBIC) measurements were performed on two single axial GaN p-n junction NWs grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. I-V characteristics revealed that both ohmic and space charge limited current (SCLC) regimes occur in GaN p-n junction NW. Thanks to an improved contact process, both the electric field induced by the p-n junction and the SCLC in the p-part of GaN NW were disclosed and delineated by EBIC signals under different biases. Analyzing the EBIC profiles in the vicinity of the p-n junction under 0 V and reverse bias, we deduced a depletion width in the range of 116-125 nm. Following our previous work, the acceptor N a doping level was estimated to be 2-3 × 1017 at cm-3 assuming a donor level N d of 2-3 × 1018 at cm-3. The hole diffusion length in n-GaN was determined to be 75 nm for NW #1 and 43 nm for NW #2, demonstrating a low surface recombination velocity at the m-plane facet of n-GaN NW. Under forward bias, EBIC imaging visualized the electric field induced by the SCLC close to p-side contact, in agreement with unusual SCLC previously reported in GaN NWs.

  2. Axial p-n junction and space charge limited current in single GaN nanowire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhihua; Donatini, Fabrice; Daudin, Bruno; Pernot, Julien

    2018-01-05

    The electrical characterizations of individual basic GaN nanostructures, such as axial nanowire (NW) p-n junctions, are becoming indispensable and crucial for the fully controlled realization of GaN NW based devices. In this study, electron beam induced current (EBIC) measurements were performed on two single axial GaN p-n junction NWs grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. I-V characteristics revealed that both ohmic and space charge limited current (SCLC) regimes occur in GaN p-n junction NW. Thanks to an improved contact process, both the electric field induced by the p-n junction and the SCLC in the p-part of GaN NW were disclosed and delineated by EBIC signals under different biases. Analyzing the EBIC profiles in the vicinity of the p-n junction under 0 V and reverse bias, we deduced a depletion width in the range of 116-125 nm. Following our previous work, the acceptor N a doping level was estimated to be 2-3 × 10 17 at cm -3 assuming a donor level N d of 2-3 × 10 18 at cm -3 . The hole diffusion length in n-GaN was determined to be 75 nm for NW #1 and 43 nm for NW #2, demonstrating a low surface recombination velocity at the m-plane facet of n-GaN NW. Under forward bias, EBIC imaging visualized the electric field induced by the SCLC close to p-side contact, in agreement with unusual SCLC previously reported in GaN NWs.

  3. Luminescence and squeezing of a superconducting light-emitting diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlobil, Patrik; Orth, Peter P.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate a semiconductor p -n junction in contact with superconducting leads that is operated under forward bias as a light-emitting diode. The presence of superconductivity results in a significant increase of the electroluminescence in a sharp frequency window. We demonstrate that the tunneling of Cooper pairs induces an additional luminescence peak on resonance. There is a transfer of superconducting to photonic coherence that results in the emission of entangled photon pairs and squeezing of the fluctuations in the quadrature amplitudes of the emitted light. We show that the squeezing angle can be electrically manipulated by changing the relative phase of the order parameters in the superconductors. We finally derive the conditions for lasing in the system and show that the laser threshold is reduced due to superconductivity. This reveals how the macroscopic coherence of a superconductor can be used to control the properties of light.

  4. P-N junction solar cell grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazrati Fard, M.

    2001-01-01

    Growth of GaAs epilayers by Molecular Beam Epitaxy was accomplished for the first time in Iran. The layers were grown on GaAs (001) substrates (p+ wafer) with Si impurity for p n junction solar cell fabrication at a rate of nearly one micron per hour and 0.25 micron per quarter. Crystalline quality of grown layers had been monitored during growth by Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction system. Doping profile and layer thickness was assessed by electrochemical C-V profiling method. Then Hall measurements were conducted on small samples both in room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature so giving average carrier concentration and compensation ratio. The results as like: V oc , I sc , F F, η were comparable with other laboratory reports. information for obtaining good and repeatable growths was collected. Therefore, the conditions of repeatable quality growth p n junction solar cells onto GaAs (001) substrates were determined

  5. Oscillating Magnetoresistance in Graphene p-n Junctions at Intermediate Magnetic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overweg, Hiske; Eggimann, Hannah; Liu, Ming-Hao; Varlet, Anastasia; Eich, Marius; Simonet, Pauline; Lee, Yongjin; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Richter, Klaus; Fal'ko, Vladimir I; Ensslin, Klaus; Ihn, Thomas

    2017-05-10

    We report on the observation of magnetoresistance oscillations in graphene p-n junctions. The oscillations have been observed for six samples, consisting of single-layer and bilayer graphene, and persist up to temperatures of 30 K, where standard Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations are no longer discernible. The oscillatory magnetoresistance can be reproduced by tight-binding simulations. We attribute this phenomenon to the modulated densities of states in the n- and p-regions.

  6. Polymer light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier-Thianche, Emmmanuelle

    1998-01-01

    We study sandwich type semiconducting polymer light emitting diodes; anode/polymer/cathode. ITO is selected as anode, this polymer is a blend of a commercially available polymer with a high hole transport ability: polyvinyl-carbazole and a laser dye: coumarin-515. Magnesium covered with silver is chosen for the anode. We study the influence of polymer thickness and coumarin doping ratio on electroluminescence spectrum, electric characteristics and quantum efficiency. An important drawback is that diodes lifetime remains low. In the second part of our study we determine degradations causes with X-Ray reflectivity experiments. It may be due to ITO very high roughness. We realize a new type of planar electroluminescent device: a channel type electroluminescent device in which polymer layer is inserted into an aluminium channel. Such a device is by far more stable than using classical sandwich structures with the same polymer composition: indeed, charges are generated by internal-field ionization and there is no injection from the electrode to the polymer. This avoids electrochemical reactions at electrodes, thus reducing degradations routes. (author) [fr

  7. Temperature-Dependent Asymmetry of Anisotropic Magnetoresistance in Silicon p-n Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D Z; Wang, T; Sui, W B; Si, M S; Guo, D W; Shi, Z; Wang, F C; Xue, D S

    2015-09-01

    We report a large but asymmetric magnetoresistance in silicon p-n junctions, which contrasts with the fact of magnetoresistance being symmetric in magnetic metals and semiconductors. With temperature decreasing from 293 K to 100 K, the magnetoresistance sharply increases from 50% to 150% under a magnetic field of 2 T. At the same time, an asymmetric magnetoresistance, which manifests itself as a magnetoresistance voltage offset with respect to the sign of magnetic field, occurs and linearly increases with magnetoresistance. More interestingly, in contrast with other materials, the lineshape of anisotropic magnetoresistance in silicon p-n junctions significantly depends on temperature. As temperature decreases from 293 K to 100 K, the width of peak shrinks from 90° to 70°. We ascribe these novel magnetoresistance to the asymmetric geometry of the space charge region in p-n junction induced by the magnetic field. In the vicinity of the space charge region the current paths are deflected, contributing the Hall field to the asymmetric magnetoresistance. Therefore, the observed temperature-dependent asymmetry of magnetoresistance is proved to be a direct consequence of the spatial configuration evolution of space charge region with temperature.

  8. Effect of deep dislocation levels in silicon on the properties of p-n junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharov, A.G.; Dudko, V.G.; Nabokov, G.M.; Sechenov, D.A.

    1988-07-01

    We present the results of studies on the influence of deep levels, due to dislocations in electronic-grade silicon, on the lifetime of minority carriers and on the current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics of p-n junctions. The parameters of the deep levels were determined by means of dynamic spectroscopy. The carrier lifetime in the high-resistance region of the p-n junction correlates well with the dislocation density and varies from 10/sup /minus/7/ sec to 3 /centered dot/10/sup /minus/6/ sec when the dislocation density N/sub d/ varies from 10/sup 7/ cm/sup /minus/2/ to 5 /centered dot/10/sup 3/ cm/sup /minus/2/. The voltage across the p-n junction at a high level of injection varies 1.6 to 6.2 v as a function of N/sub d/. The ionization energy of deep levels associated with dislocation in silicon is 0.44 and 0.57 eV, measured from the bottom of the conduction band.

  9. Strong Depletion in Hybrid Perovskite p-n Junctions Induced by Local Electronic Doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Qingdong; Zhang, Yupeng; Wang, Ziyu; Yuwono, Jodie A; Wang, Rongbin; Dai, Zhigao; Li, Wei; Zheng, Changxi; Xu, Zai-Quan; Qi, Xiang; Duhm, Steffen; Medhekar, Nikhil V; Zhang, Han; Bao, Qiaoliang

    2018-04-01

    A semiconductor p-n junction typically has a doping-induced carrier depletion region, where the doping level positively correlates with the built-in potential and negatively correlates with the depletion layer width. In conventional bulk and atomically thin junctions, this correlation challenges the synergy of the internal field and its spatial extent in carrier generation/transport. Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, a class of crystalline ionic semiconductors, are promising alternatives because of their direct badgap, long diffusion length, and large dielectric constant. Here, strong depletion in a lateral p-n junction induced by local electronic doping at the surface of individual CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 perovskite nanosheets is reported. Unlike conventional surface doping with a weak van der Waals adsorption, covalent bonding and hydrogen bonding between a MoO 3 dopant and the perovskite are theoretically predicted and experimentally verified. The strong hybridization-induced electronic coupling leads to an enhanced built-in electric field. The large electric permittivity arising from the ionic polarizability further contributes to the formation of an unusually broad depletion region up to 10 µm in the junction. Under visible optical excitation without electrical bias, the lateral diode demonstrates unprecedented photovoltaic conversion with an external quantum efficiency of 3.93% and a photodetection responsivity of 1.42 A W -1 . © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Salt-Doped Polymer Light-Emitting Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Bathilde

    Polymer Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells (PLECs) are solid state devices based on the in situ electrochemical doping of the luminescent polymer and the formation of a p-n junction where light is emitted upon the application of a bias current or voltage. PLECs answer the drawbacks of polymer light-emitting diodes as they do not require an ultra-thin active layer nor are they reliant on low work function cathode materials that are air unstable. However, because of the dynamic nature of the doping, they suffer from slow response times and poor stability over time. Frozen-junction PLECs offer a solution to these drawbacks, yet they are impractical due to their sub-ambient operation temperature requirement. Our work presented henceforth aims to achieve room temperature frozen-junction PLECS. In order to do that we removed the ion solvating/transporting polymer from the active layer, resulting in a luminescent polymer combined solely with a salt sandwiched between an ITO electrode and an aluminum electrode. The resulting device was not expected to operate like a PLEC due to the absence of an ion-solvating and ion-transporting medium. However, we discovered that the polymer/salt devices could be activated by applying a large voltage bias, resulting in much higher current and luminance. More important, the activated state is quasi static. Devices based on the well-known orange-emitting polymer MEH-PPV displayed a luminance storage half-life of 150 hours when activated by forward bias (ITO biased positively with respect to the aluminum) and 200 hours when activated by reverse bias. More remarkable yet, devices based on a green co-polymer displayed no notable decay in current density or luminance even after being stored for 1200 hours at room temperature! PL imaging under UV excitation demonstrates the presence of doping. These devices are described herein along with an explanation of their operating mechanisms.

  11. Transport properties of monolayer and bilayer graphene p-n junctions with charge puddles in the quantum Hall regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Shuguang

    2010-01-01

    Recent experiments have confirmed that the electron-hole inhomogeneity in graphene is a new type of charge disorder. Motivated by such confirmation, we theoretically study the transport properties of a monolayer graphene (MLG) based p-n junction and a bilayer graphene (BLG) p-n junction in the quantum Hall regime where electron-hole puddles are considered. By using the non-equilibrium Green function method, both the current and conductance are obtained. We find that, in the presence of the electron-hole inhomogeneity, the lowest quantized conductance plateau at e 2 /h emerges in the MLG p-n junction under very small charge puddle disorder strength. For a BLG p-n junction, however, the conductance in the p-n region is enhanced with charge puddles, and the lowest quantized conductance plateau emerges at 2e 2 /h. Besides, when an ideal quantized conductance plateau is formed for a MLG p-n junction, the universal conductance fluctuation is found to be 2e 2 /3h. Furthermore, we also investigate the influence of Anderson disorder on such p-n junctions and the comparison and discussion are given accordingly. To compare the two models with different types of disorder, we investigate the conductance distribution specially. Finally the influence of disorder strength on the conductance of a MLG p-n junction is investigated.

  12. Study of seed layer effect in nuclear battery with P-N diode junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Lee, Jun Sig [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byoung Gun [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A nuclear battery with diode junction is a device that converts nuclear radiation directly to electric power. The mechanism of a nuclear battery is same as the P-N junction diode for solar cell application. The photovoltaic is operated by converted photons to electrical energy in the junction. In betavoltaic battery, beta particles are collected and converted to electrical energy as similar principle as photovoltaic. A very low current, order of nano or micro amps, is generated in devices. If a radioisotope (RI) with a long halflife (over 50 years) is used, a lifetime of a power source is extended as long as halflife time of RI.. Some special applications require long-lived compact power sources. These include space equipment, sensors in remote locations (space, underground, etc.), and implantable medical devices. Conventionally, these sources rely on converting chemical energy to electricity. This means they require a large storage of chemical 'fuel' since the amount of energy released per reaction is small. The nuclear battery is a novel solution to solve the power needs of these applications. For the {sup 63}Ni beta-source we used, the half-life is 100.2 years. Hence, the power sources we describe could extend a system's operating life by several decades or even a century, during which time the system could gain learned behavior without worrying about the power turning off. Radioactive thin-film-based power sources also have energy density orders of magnitude higher than chemical-reaction-based energy sources. In this study, we fabricate nuclear battery using {sup 63}Ni source with diode junction, and studied seed layer effect for optimization of structure of p-n junction.

  13. High-efficiency p-n junction oxide photoelectrodes for photoelectrochemical water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhifeng; Yan, Lu

    2016-11-16

    Development of all oxide p-n junctions makes a significant advancement in photoelectrode catalysis functional materials. In this article, we report the preparation of TiO 2 nanorod (NR)/Cu 2 O photoanodes via a simple hydrothermal method followed by an electrochemical deposition process. This facile synthesis route can simultaneously achieve uniform TiO 2 NR/Cu 2 O composite nanostructures and obtain varied amounts of Cu 2 O by controlling the deposition time. The photocurrent density of TiO 2 NR/Cu 2 O heterojunction photoanodes enhanced the photocatalytic activity with a photocurrent density of 5.25 mA cm -2 at 1.23 V versus RHE compared to pristine TiO 2 NR photoanodes under the same conditions. It is demonstrated that the presence of Cu 2 O has played an important role in expanding the spectral response region and reducing the photogenerated charge recombination rate. More importantly, the results provide new insights into the performance of all oxide p-n junctions as photoanodes for PEC water splitting.

  14. Efficient p-n junction-based thermoelectric generator that can operate at extreme temperature conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Ruben; Angst, Sebastian; Hall, Joseph; Maculewicz, Franziska; Stoetzel, Julia; Wiggers, Hartmut; Thanh Hung, Le; Van Nong, Ngo; Pryds, Nini; Span, Gerhard; Wolf, Dietrich E.; Schmechel, Roland; Schierning, Gabi

    2018-01-01

    In many industrial processes, a large proportion of energy is lost in the form of heat. Thermoelectric generators can convert this waste heat into electricity by means of the Seebeck effect. However, the use of thermoelectric generators in practical applications on an industrial scale is limited in part because electrical, thermal, and mechanical bonding contacts between the semiconductor materials and the metal electrodes in current designs are not capable of withstanding thermal-mechanical stress and alloying of the metal-semiconductor interface when exposed to the high temperatures occurring in many real-world applications. Here we demonstrate a concept for thermoelectric generators that can address this issue by replacing the metallization and electrode bonding on the hot side of the device by a p-n junction between the two semiconductor materials, making the device robust against temperature induced failure. In our proof-of-principle demonstration, a p-n junction device made from nanocrystalline silicon is at least comparable in its efficiency and power output to conventional devices of the same material and fabrication process, but with the advantage of sustaining high hot side temperatures and oxidative atmosphere.

  15. III-V group compound semiconductor light-emitting element having a doped tantalum barrier layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oanna, Y.; Ozawa, N.; Yamashita, M.; Yasuda, N.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a III-V Group compound semiconductor light-emitting element having a III-V Group compound semiconductor body with a p-n junction and including a p-type layer involved in forming the p-n junction; and a multi-layer electrode mounted on the p-type layer of the semiconductor body. The electrode comprises a first layer of gold alloy containing a small amount of beryllium or zinc and formed in direct contact with the p-type layer of the semiconductor body and an uppermost layer formed of gold or aluminum. A tantalum layer doped with carbon, nitrogen and/or oxygen is formed between the first layer and the uppermost layer by means of vacuum vapor deposition

  16. Efficient p-n junction-based thermoelectric generator that can operate at extreme temperature conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chavez, Ruben; Angst, Sebastian; Hall, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    In many industrial processes a large proportion of energy is lost in the form of heat. Thermoelectric generators can convert this waste heat into electricity by means of the Seebeck effect. However, the use of thermoelectric generators in practical applications on an industrial scale is limited...... in part because electrical, thermal, and mechanical bonding contacts between the semiconductor materials and the metal electrodes in current designs are not capable of withstanding thermal-mechanical stress and alloying of the metal-semiconductor interface when exposed to the high temperatures occurring...... in many real-world applications. Here we demonstrate a concept for thermoelectric generators that can address this issue by replacing the metallization and electrode bonding on the hot side of the device by a p-n junction between the two semiconductor materials, making the device robust against...

  17. Dual-gate operation and carrier transport in SiGe p-n junction nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delker, C. J.; Yoo, J. Y.; Bussmann, E.; Swartzentruber, B. S.; Harris, C. T.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate carrier transport in silicon-germanium nanowires with an axial p-n junction doping profile by fabricating these wires into transistors that feature separate top gates over each doping segment. By independently biasing each gate, carrier concentrations in the n- and p-side of the wire can be modulated. For these devices, which were fabricated with nickel source-drain electrical contacts, holes are the dominant charge carrier, with more favorable hole injection occurring on the p-side contact. Channel current exhibits greater sensitivity to the n-side gate, and in the reverse biased source-drain configuration, current is limited by the nickel/n-side Schottky contact.

  18. Sb2S3:C/CdS p-n junction by laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arato, A.; Cardenas, E.; Shaji, S.; O'Brien, J.J.; Liu, J.; Castillo, G. Alan; Das Roy, T.K.; Krishnan, B.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report laser irradiated carbon doping of Sb 2 S 3 thin films and formation of a p-n junction photovoltaic structure using these films. A very thin carbon layer was evaporated on to chemical bath deposited Sb 2 S 3 thin films of approximately 0.5 μm in thickness. Sb 2 S 3 thin films were prepared from a solution containing SbCl 3 and Na 2 S 2 O 3 at 27 deg. C for 5 h and the films obtained were highly resistive. These C/Sb 2 S 3 thin films were irradiated by an expanded laser beam of diameter approximately 0.5 cm (5 W power, 532 nm Verdi laser), for 2 min at ambient atmosphere. Morphology and composition of these films were analyzed. These films showed p-type conductivity due to carbon diffusion (Sb 2 S 3 :C) by the thermal energy generated by the absorption of laser radiation. In addition, these thin films were incorporated in a photovoltaic structure Ag/Sb 2 S 3 :C/CdS/ITO/Glass. For this, CdS thin film of 50 nm in thickness was deposited on a commercially available ITO coated glass substrate from a chemical bath containing CdCl 2 , sodium citrate, NH 4 OH and thiourea at 70 deg. C . On the CdS film, Sb 2 S 3 /C layers were deposited. This multilayer structure was subjected to the laser irradiation, C/Sb 2 S 3 side facing the beam. The p-n junction formed by p-Sb 2 S 3 :C and n-type CdS showed V oc = 500 mV and J sc = 0.5 mA/cm 2 under illumination by a tungsten halogen lamp. This work opens up a new method to produce solar cell structures by laser assisted material processing

  19. Photoeffect on the p-n silicon junction under conditions of interband heating of carriers by light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrianov, A V; Valov, P M; Sukhanov, V L; Tuchkevich, V V; Shmidt, N M [AN SSSR, Leningrad. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst.

    1980-05-01

    Photoeffect on the p-n silicon junction conditioned by interband heating of carriers by the CO/sub 2/-laser light has been studied experimentally at room temperature and under nonstationary conditions. Photoelectromotive force (p.e.m.f.) with the sign opposite to the value p.e.m.f. appears in the case of direct displacement of p-n structures. The p.e.m.f. value increases with the increase of direct desplacement. Photoelectrons are shown to make the main contribution into the mechanism of p.e.m.f. formation. Lateral p.e.m.f. connected with spreading currents in the direction parallel to the surface of the p-n junction appears in the p-n structure base. It has been found out that structures with highly alloyed emitter at reverse displacement operates under standard photodiod conditions, that is due to the semiconductor lattice heating by CO/sub 2/-laser irradiation.

  20. Photoeffect on the p-n silicon junction under conditions of interband heating of carriers by light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianov, A.V.; Valov, P.M.; Sukhanov, V.L.; Tuchkevich, V.V.; Shmidt, N.M.

    1980-01-01

    Photoeffect on the p-n silicon junction conditioned by interband heating of carriers by the CO 2 -laser light has been studied experimentally at room temperature and under nonstationary conditions. Photoelectromotive force (p.e.m.f.) with the sign opposite to the value p.e.m.f. appears in the case of direct displacement of p-n structures. The p.e.m.f. value increases with the increase of direct desplacement. Photoelectrons are shown to make the main contribution into the mechanism of p.e.m.f. formation. Lateral p.e.m.f. connected with spreading currents in the direction parallel to the surface of the p-n junction appears in the p-n structure base. It has been found out that structures with highly alloyed emitter at reverse displacement operates under standard photodiod conditions, that is due to the semiconductor lattice heating by CO 2 -laser irradiation

  1. Horizontal Assembly of Single Nanowire Diode Fabricated by p-n Junction GaN NW Grown by MOCVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hyeon Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniaxially p-n junction gallium nitride nanowires have been synthesized via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition method. Nanowires prepared on Si(111 substrates were found to grow perpendicular to the substrate, and the transmission electron microscopy studies demonstrated that the nanowires had singlecrystalline structures with a growth axis. The parallel assembly of the p-n junction nanowire was prepared on a Si substrate with a thermally grown SiO2 layer. The transport studies of horizontal gallium nitride nanowire structures assembled from p- and n-type materials show that these junctions correspond to well-defined p-n junction diodes. The p-n junction devices based on GaN nanowires suspended over the electrodes were fabricated and their electrical properties were investigated. The horizontally assembled gallium nitride nanowire diodes suspended over the electrodes exhibited a substantial increase in conductance under UV light exposure. Apart from the selectivity to different light wavelengths, high responsivity and extremely short response time have also been obtained.

  2. Broad and focused ion beams Ga+ implantation damage in the fabrication of p+-n Si shallow junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steckl, A.J.; Lin, C.M.; Patrizio, D.; Rai, A.K.; Pronko, P.P.

    1989-01-01

    The use of focused and broad beam Ga + implantation for the fabrication of p + -n Si shallow junctions is explored. In particular, the issue of ion induced damage and its effect on diode electrical properties is explored. FIB-fabricated junctions exhibit a deeper junction with lower sheet resistance and higher leakage current than the BB-implanted diodes. TEM analysis exhibits similar amorphization and recrystallization behavior for both implantation techniques with the BB case generating a higher dislocation loop density after a 900 degree C anneal. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  3. Comparative analysis of photovoltaic principles governing dye-sensitized solar cells and p-n junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisquert, Juan; Garcia-Canadas, Jorge; Mora-Sero, Ivan; Palomares, Emilio

    2004-02-01

    We discuss a generalized model for a solar cell, and the realization with heterogeneous photochemical photovoltaic converters such as the dye-sensitized solar cell. The different steps involved in the conversion of photon energy to electrical energy, indicate that a key point to consider is maintaining the separation of Fermi levels in the selective contacts to the absorber. In order to understand the irreversible processes limiting the efficient operation of the solar cell, it is necessary to obtain a precise description of the internal distribution of Fermi levels. We suggest the equivalent circuit as a central tool for obtaining such description, in relation with small perturbation measurement techniques. The fundamental steps of excitation and charge separation, and the losses by transport and charge transfer, can be represented by suitable circuit elements, and the overall circuit configuration indicates the operation of the selective contacts. The comparison of the equivalent circuits for heterogeneous dye solar cells and solid-state p-n junctions, shows the significant difference in the mechanisms of the selective contacts of these solar cells.

  4. The p - n junction under nonuniform strains: general theory and application to photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guin, L.; Jabbour, M. E.; Triantafyllidis, N.

    2018-01-01

    It is well known that mechanical strains influence the electronic properties of semiconductor devices. Modeling the fully coupled mechanical, electrical, and electronic responses of semiconductors is therefore essential for predicting the effects of mechanical loading on their overall electronic response. In the first part of this paper, we develop a general continuum model that couples the mechanical, electrical, and electronic responses of a finitely deformable semiconductor. The proposed model accounts for the dependence of the band edge energies, densities of states, and electronic mobilities on strain. The governing equations are derived from the basic principles of the thermomechanics of electromagnetic continua undergoing electronic transport. In particular, we find that there exists electronically induced strains that can exceed their electromagnetic (Maxwell) counterparts by an order of magnitude. In the second part, motivated by applications that involve the bending of a photovoltaic cell, we use asymptotic methods to compute the current-voltage characteristic of a p - n junction under nonuniform strains. We find that, for a typical monocrystalline silicon solar cell, the changes in dark current are significant, i.e., of the order of 20% for strains of 0.2%.

  5. Analytical Study of 90Sr Betavoltaic Nuclear Battery Performance Based on p-n Junction Silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahastama, Swastya; Waris, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Previously, an analytical calculation of 63 Ni p-n junction betavoltaic battery has been published. As the basic approach, we reproduced the analytical simulation of 63 Ni betavoltaic battery and then compared it to previous results using the same design of the battery. Furthermore, we calculated its maximum power output and radiation- electricity conversion efficiency using semiconductor analysis method.Then, the same method were applied to calculate and analyse the performance of 90 Sr betavoltaic battery. The aim of this project is to compare the analytical perfomance results of 90 Sr betavoltaic battery to 63 Ni betavoltaic battery and the source activity influences to performance. Since it has a higher power density, 90 Sr betavoltaic battery yields more power than 63 Ni betavoltaic battery but less radiation-electricity conversion efficiency. However, beta particles emitted from 90 Sr source could travel further inside the silicon corresponding to stopping range of beta particles, thus the 90 Sr betavoltaic battery could be designed thicker than 63 Ni betavoltaic battery to achieve higher conversion efficiency. (paper)

  6. Universal tunneling behavior in technologically relevant P/N junction diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, Paul M.; Jopling, Jason; Frank, David J.; D'Emic, Chris; Dokumaci, O.; Ronsheim, P.; Haensch, W.E.

    2004-01-01

    Band-to-band tunneling was studied in ion-implanted P/N junction diodes with profiles representative of present and future silicon complementary metal-oxide-silicon (CMOS) field effect transistors. Measurements were done over a wide range of temperatures and implant parameters. Profile parameters were derived from analysis of capacitance versus voltage characteristics, and compared to secondary-ion mass spectroscopy analysis. When the tunneling current was plotted against the effective tunneling distance (tunneling distance corrected for band curvature) a quasi-universal exponential reduction of tunneling current versus, tunneling distance was found with an attenuation length of 0.38 nm, corresponding to a tunneling effective mass of 0.29 times the free electron mass (m 0 ), and an extrapolated tunneling current at zero tunnel distance of 5.3x10 7 A/cm 2 at 300 K. These results are directly applicable for predicting drain to substrate currents in CMOS transistors on bulk silicon, and body currents in CMOS transistors in silicon-on-insulator

  7. Degradation of light emitting diodes: a proposed methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Sau; Vam Driel, Willem; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    Due to their long lifetime and high efficacy, light emitting diodes have the potential to revolutionize the illumination industry. However, self heat and high environmental temperature which will lead to increased junction temperature and degradation due to electrical overstress can shorten the life of the light emitting diode. In this research, a methodology to investigate the degradation of the LED emitter has been proposed. The epoxy lens of the emitter can be modelled using simplified Eyring methods whereas an equation has been proposed for describing the degradation of the LED emitters. (semiconductor devices)

  8. Imaging the formation of a p-n junction in a suspended carbon nanotube with scanning photocurrent microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchs, G.; Barkelid, K.M.; Bagiante, S.; Steele, G.A.; Zwiller, V.

    2011-01-01

    We use scanning photocurrent microscopy (SPCM) to investigate individual suspended semiconducting carbon nanotube devices where the potential profile is engineered by means of local gates. In situ tunable p-n junctions can be generated at any position along the nanotube axis. Combining SPCM with

  9. Direct assessment of p-n junctions in single GaN nanowires by Kelvin probe force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minj, Albert; Cros, Ana; Auzelle, Thomas; Pernot, Julien; Daudin, Bruno

    2016-09-01

    Making use of Kelvin probe force microscopy, in dark and under ultraviolet illumination, we study the characteristics of p-n junctions formed along the axis of self-organized GaN nanowires (NWs). We map the contact potential difference of the single NW p-n junctions to locate the space charge region and directly measure the depletion width and the junction voltage. Simulations indicate a shrinkage of the built-in potential for NWs with small diameter due to surface band bending, in qualitative agreement with the measurements. The photovoltage of the NW/substrate contact is studied by analyzing the response of NW segments with p- and n-type doping under illumination. Our results show that the shifts of the Fermi levels, and not the changes in surface band bending, are the most important effects under above band-gap illumination. The quantitative electrical information obtained here is important for the use of NW p-n junctions as photovoltaic or rectifying devices at the nanoscale, and is especially relevant since the technique does not require the formation of ohmic contacts to the NW junction.

  10. An apparatus and process for forming P-N junction semiconductor units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    It is stated that although many methods of ion implantation have been developed it seems that the method of 'hot implantation' is still in its infancy. In this method the target is preheated in an ion implantor during implantation of ions, leading to radiation enhanced diffusion. The apparatus described comprises the following: (i) a bell jar evacuated to -3 Torr containing four electrodes arranged in two pairs, one electrode of the first pair being in the form of a mesh; (ii) a source of high pulsating direct voltage connected to the first pair of electrodes, with the mesh electrode negatively poled, to ionise the rarified air in the bell jar and accelerate the resulting positive N and O ions; (iii) an RF voltage source connected to the other pair of electrodes to facilitate the ionisation; (iv) a dopant semiconductor body, heated by a wire wound heater, placed underneath the mesh electrode so that the accelerated ions bombard the dopant layer through the mesh electrode and implant dopant atoms in the semiconductor body. The distance between the mesh electrode and the surface of the dopant-coated semiconductive body, should be about 5mm. The mesh electrode consists of a sputtering-resistant refractory metal, and includes a cooling system. The dopant-coated semiconductive body is placed on a ceramic plate in the bell jar, and the power supply line of the heater is insulated from the voltage applied to the negative electrode, which is earthed, by using an insulated heater transformer combined with an autotransformer. The ceramic plate is attached to a plate on which the heater is wound, and the temperature of the heating should be variable between 400 0 and 500 0 C. A process for forming P-N junction semiconductor units using this apparatus is described. (U.K.)

  11. Negative differential resistance observed from vertical p+-n+ junction device with two-dimensional black phosphorous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daeyeong; Jang, Young Dae; Kweon, Jaehwan; Ryu, Jungjin; Hwang, Euyheon; Yoo, Won Jong; Samsung-SKKU Graphene/2D Center (SSGC) Collaboration

    A vertical p+-n+ homojunction was fabricated by using black phosphorus (BP) as a van der Waals two-dimensional (2D) material. The top and bottom layers of the materials were doped by chemical dopants of gold chloride (AuCl3) for p-type doping and benzyl viologen (BV) for n-type doping. The negative differential resistance (NDR) effect was clearly observed from the output curves of the fabricated BP vertical devices. The thickness range of the 2D material showing NDR and the peak to valley current ratio of NDR are found to be strongly dependent on doping condition, gate voltage, and BP's degradation level. Furthermore, the carrier transport of the p+-n+ junction was simulated by using density functional theory (DFT) and non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF). Both the experimental and simulation results confirmed that the NDR is attributed to the band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) across the 2D BP p+-n+ junction, and further quantitative details on the carrier transport in the vertical p+-n+ junction devices were explored, according to the analyses of the measured transfer curves and the DFT simulation results. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (2013R1A2A2A01015516).

  12. Porous silicon formation by hole injection from a back side p+/n junction for electrical insulation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fèvre, A; Menard, S; Defforge, T; Gautier, G

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose to study the formation of porous silicon (PS) in low doped (1 × 10 14 cm −3 ) n-type silicon through hole injection from a back side p + /n junction in the dark. This technique is investigated within the framework of electrical insulation. Three different types of junctions are investigated. The first one is an epitaxial n-type layer grown on p + doped silicon wafer. The two other junctions are carried out by boron diffusion leading to p + regions with junction depths of 20 and 115 μm. The resulting PS morphology is a double layer with a nucleation layer (NL) and macropores fully filled with mesoporous material. This result is unusual for low doped n-type silicon. Morphology variations are described depending on the junction formation process, the electrolyte composition, the anodization current density and duration. In order to validate the more interesting industrial potentialities of the p + /n injection technique, a comparison is achieved with back side illumination in terms of resulting morphology and experiments confirm comparable results. Electrical characterizations of the double layer, including NL and fully filled macropores, are then performed. To our knowledge, this is the first electrical investigation in low doped n type silicon with this morphology. Compared to the bulk silicon, the measured electrical resistivities are 6–7 orders of magnitude higher at 373 K. (paper)

  13. p-n Junction Dynamics Induced in a Graphene Channel by Ferroelectric-Domain Motion in the Substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurchak, Anatolii I.; Eliseev, Eugene A.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Strikha, Maksym V.; Morozovska, Anna N.

    2017-01-01

    The p - n junction dynamics induced in a graphene channel by stripe-domain nucleation, motion, and reversal in a ferroelectric substrate is explored using a self-consistent approach based on Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire phenomenology combined with classical electrostatics. Relatively low gate voltages are required to induce the hysteresis of ferroelectric polarization and graphene charge in response to the periodic gate voltage. Pronounced nonlinear hysteresis of graphene conductance with a wide memory window corresponds to high amplitudes of gate voltage. Also, we reveal the extrinsic size effect in the dependence of the graphene-channel conductivity on its length. We predict that the top-gate–dielectric-layer–graphene-channel–ferroelectric-substrate nanostructure considered here can be a promising candidate for the fabrication of the next generation of modulators and rectifiers based on the graphene p - n junctions.

  14. Tunnel currents produced by defects in p-n junctions of GaAs grown on vapor phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrales Guadarrama, V R; Rodríguez Rodriguez, E M; Barrales Guadarrama, R; Reyes Ayala, N

    2017-01-01

    With the purpose of assessing if the epitaxy on vapor phase technique “Close Space Vapor Deposition (CSVT)” is capable of produce thin films with adequate properties in order to manufacture p-n junctions, a study of invert and direct current was developed, in a temperature range of 94K to 293K, to junctions p-n of GaAs grown through the technique CSVT. It is shown that the dominant current, within the range 10 -7 to 10 -2 A, is consistent with a currents model of the type of internal emission form field, which shows these currents are due to the presence of localized states in the band gap. (paper)

  15. Vertical versus Lateral Two-Dimensional Heterostructures: On the Topic of Atomically Abrupt p/n-Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruiping; Ostwal, Vaibhav; Appenzeller, Joerg

    2017-08-09

    The key appeal of two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), or phosphorene for electronic applications certainly lies in their atomically thin nature that offers opportunities for devices beyond conventional transistors. It is also this property that makes them naturally suited for a type of integration that is not possible with any three-dimensional (3D) material, that is, forming heterostructures by stacking dissimilar 2D materials together. Recently, a number of research groups have reported on the formation of atomically sharp p/n-junctions in various 2D heterostructures that show strong diode-type rectification. In this article, we will show that truly vertical heterostructures do exhibit much smaller rectification ratios and that the reported results on atomically sharp p/n-junctions can be readily understood within the framework of the gate and drain voltage response of Schottky barriers that are involved in the lateral transport.

  16. Steady-state characteristics of lateral p-n junction vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhii, V.; Tsutsui, N.; Khmyrova, I.; Ikegami, T.; Vaccaro, P. O.; Taniyama, H.; Aida, T.

    2001-09-01

    We developed an analytical device model for lateral p-n junction vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (LJVCSELs) with a quantum well active region. The model takes into account the features of the carrier injection, transport, and recombination in LJVCSELs as well as the features of the photon propagation in the cavity. This model is used for the calculation and analysis of the LJVCSEL steady-state characteristics. It is shown that the localization of the injected electrons primarily near the p-n junction and the reabsorption of lateral propagating photons significantly effects the LJVCSELs performance, in particular, the LJVCSEL threshold current and power-current characteristics. The reincarnation of electrons and holes due to the reabsorption of lateral propagating photons can substantially decrease the threshold current.

  17. Experimental analysis and theoretical model for anomalously high ideality factors in ZnO/diamond p-n junction diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chengxin; Yang Guowei; Liu Hongwu; Han Yonghao; Luo Jifeng; Gao Chunxiao; Zou Guangtian

    2004-01-01

    High-quality heterojunctions between p-type diamond single-crystalline films and highly oriented n-type ZnO films were fabricated by depositing the p-type diamond single-crystal films on the I o -type diamond single crystal using a hot filament chemical vapor deposition, and later growing a highly oriented n-type ZnO film on the p-type diamond single-crystal film by magnetron sputtering. Interestingly, anomalously high ideality factors (n>>2.0) in the prepared ZnO/diamond p-n junction diode in the interim bias voltage range were measured. For this, detailed electronic characterizations of the fabricated p-n junction were conducted, and a theoretical model was proposed to clarify the much higher ideality factors of the special heterojunction diode

  18. P-n junction diodes with polarization induced p-type graded InxGa1-xN layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enatsu, Yuuki; Gupta, Chirag; Keller, Stacia; Nakamura, Shuji; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2017-10-01

    In this study, p-n junction diodes with polarization induced p-type layer are demonstrated on Ga polar (0001) bulk GaN substrates. A quasi-p-type region is obtained by linearly grading the indium composition in un-doped InxGa1-xN layers from 0% to 5%, taking advantage of the piezoelectric and spontaneous polarization fields which exist in group III-nitride heterostructures grown in the typical (0001) or c-direction. The un-doped graded InxGa1-xN layers needed to be capped with a thin Mg-doped InxGa1-xN layer to make good ohmic contacts and to reduce the on-resistance of the p-n diodes. The Pol-p-n junction diodes exhibited similar characteristics compared to reference samples with traditional p-GaN:Mg layers. A rise in breakdown voltage from 30 to 110 V was observed when the thickness of the graded InGaN layer was increased from 100 to 600 nm at the same grade composition.

  19. A multiple p-n junction structure obtained from as-grown Czochralski silicon crystals by heat treatment - Application to solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, J. Y.; Gatos, H. C.; Mao, B. Y.

    1980-01-01

    Multiple p-n junctions have been prepared in as-grown Czochralski p-type silicon through overcompensation near the oxygen periodic concentration maxima by oxygen thermal donors generated during heat treatment at 450 C. Application of the multiple p-n-junction configuration to photovoltaic energy conversion has been investigated. A new solar-cell structure based on multiple p-n-junctions was developed. Theoretical analysis showed that a significant increase in collection efficiency over the conventional solar cells can be achieved.

  20. The influence of defects produced by high energy electrons on the electrical characteristics of p-n junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.; Van Dong, N.

    1961-01-01

    The life-time of minority carriers in semi-conductors is very sensitive to the presence of defects introduced by high-energy electrons. The formation of defects thus affects the short-circuiting current and the open circuit voltage of a p-n junction, these being dependent on the life-time. In the work presented, we have bombarded several types of germanium and silicon junctions with 2 MeV electrons from a Van der Graaff, and with β-particles from radioactive sources. The experiments were carried out both at ordinary temperatures and that of liquid air. In this latter case an anomaly in the electron-volt effect was found: the short-circuiting current and the voltage in vacuo, after an initial decrease, increase again and exceed their initial maximum value before once more decreasing. A qualitative interpretation of this abnormal effect is given. (author) [fr

  1. Performance of ultra high efficiency thin germanium p-n junction solar cells intended for solar thermophotovoltaic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, E S; Loferski, J J; Spitzer, M; Schewchun, J

    1981-01-01

    The theoretical upper limit conversion efficiency as a function of cell thickness and junction position is calculated for a germanium p-n junction solar cell intended for solar thermophotovoltaic energy conversion which incorporates minority carrier mirrors and optical mirrors on both the front and back boundaries of the active part of the device. The optical mirrors provide light confinement reducing the thickness required for optimum performance while minority carrier mirrors diminish surface recombination of carriers which seriously reduce short circuit current and limit open circuit voltage. The role of non-ideal optical and minority carrier mirrors and the effect of resistivity variations are studied. The calculations are conducted under conditions of high incident power (2-25 W/cm/sup 2/) which are encountered in solar thermophotovoltaic energy conversion systems. 14 refs.

  2. Counterdoped very shallow p+/n junctions obtained by B and Sb implantation and codiffusion in Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmi, Sandro

    1998-02-01

    In this article we investigate the B and Sb codiffusion upon postimplantation annealing in order to fabricate very shallow p+/n junctions (⩽70 nm), suitable for a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology with a channel length of 0.18 μm. The junctions are prepared by implanting Sb and subsequently BF2, at a higher dose, in an n-type Si substrate. The preamorphization with Sb avoids the B channeling and increases the n-type doping in the junction region, thus confining the depth of the p layer. Furthermore, both the transient enhanced diffusion, being the B implanted in a preamorphized layer, and the standard diffusion, due to the pairing between donors and acceptors, are strongly reduced. This procedure allows us to obtain very shallow junctions even after annealings with relatively high thermal budget, like 800 °C/8 h or 900 °C/1 h, or 950 °C/10 min or 1000 °C/60 s. We verified that dopant diffusion is strongly affected by a direct donor-acceptor interaction, and that good prediction of the experimental results can only be obtained using a simulation code which takes into account the formation of neutral, near immobile, Sb-B pairs.

  3. Nuclear radiation detector based on ion implanted p-n junction in 4H-SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vervisch, V.; Issa, F.; Ottaviani, L.; Lazar, M.; Kuznetsov, A.; Szalkai, D.; Klix, A.; Lyoussi, A.; Vermeeren, L.; Hallen, A.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a new device detector based on ion implanted p-n junction in 4H-SiC for nuclear instrumentation. We showed the interest to use 10 Boron as a Neutron Converter Layer in order to detect thermal neutrons. We present the main results obtained during irradiation tests performed in the Belgian Reactor 1. We show the capability of our detector by means of first results of the detector response at different reverse voltage biases and at different reactor power (authors)

  4. Black Phosphorus-Zinc Oxide Nanomaterial Heterojunction for p-n Diode and Junction Field-Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Pyo Jin; Lee, Young Tack; Lim, June Yeong; Kim, Jin Sung; Hwang, Do Kyung; Im, Seongil

    2016-02-10

    Black phosphorus (BP) nanosheet is two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor with distinct band gap and attracting recent attention from researches because it has some similarity to gapless 2D semiconductor graphene in the following two aspects: single element (P) for its composition and quite high mobilities depending on its fabrication conditions. Apart from several electronic applications reported with BP nanosheet, here we report for the first time BP nanosheet-ZnO nanowire 2D-1D heterojunction applications for p-n diodes and BP-gated junction field effect transistors (JFETs) with n-ZnO channel on glass. For these nanodevices, we take advantages of the mechanical flexibility of p-type conducting of BP and van der Waals junction interface between BP and ZnO. As a result, our BP-ZnO nanodimension p-n diode displays a high ON/OFF ratio of ∼10(4) in static rectification and shows kilohertz dynamic rectification as well while ZnO nanowire channel JFET operations are nicely demonstrated by BP gate switching in both electrostatics and kilohertz dynamics.

  5. A simplified boron diffusion for preparing the silicon single crystal p-n junction as an educational device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiota, Koki, E-mail: a14510@sr.kagawa-nct.ac.jp; Kai, Kazuho; Nagaoka, Shiro, E-mail: nagaoka@es.kagawa-nct.ac.jp [National Institute of Technology, Kagawa College, Kagawa, Mitoyo, Takuma, Koda 551 (Japan); Tsuji, Takuto [National Institute of Technology, Suzuka College, Mie, Suzuka, Shiroko (Japan); Wakahara, Akihiro [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi, Toyohashi, Tenpaku, Hibarigaoka 1-1 (Japan); Rusop, Mohamad [University Technology Mara, Selangor, Shah Alam, 40450 (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    The educational method which is including designing, making, and evaluating actual semiconductor devices with learning the theory is one of the best way to obtain the fundamental understanding of the device physics and to cultivate the ability to make unique ideas using the knowledge in the semiconductor device. In this paper, the simplified Boron thermal diffusion process using Sol-Gel material under normal air environment was proposed based on simple hypothesis and the feasibility of the reproducibility and reliability were investigated to simplify the diffusion process for making the educational devices, such as p-n junction, bipolar and pMOS devices. As the result, this method was successfully achieved making p+ region on the surface of the n-type silicon substrates with good reproducibility. And good rectification property of the p-n junctions was obtained successfully. This result indicates that there is a possibility to apply on the process making pMOS or bipolar transistors. It suggests that there is a variety of the possibility of the applications in the educational field to foster an imagination of new devices.

  6. Design and Simulation of InGaN p-n Junction Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mesrane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The tunability of the InGaN band gap energy over a wide range provides a good spectral match to sunlight, making it a suitable material for photovoltaic solar cells. The main objective of this work is to design and simulate the optimal InGaN single-junction solar cell. For more accurate results and best configuration, the optical properties and the physical models such as the Fermi-Dirac statistics, Auger and Shockley-Read-Hall recombination, and the doping and temperature-dependent mobility model were taken into account in simulations. The single-junction In0.622Ga0.378N (Eg = 1.39 eV solar cell is the optimal structure found. It exhibits, under normalized conditions (AM1.5G, 0.1 W/cm2, and 300 K, the following electrical parameters: Jsc=32.6791 mA/cm2, Voc=0.94091 volts, FF = 86.2343%, and η=26.5056%. It was noticed that the minority carrier lifetime and the surface recombination velocity have an important effect on the solar cell performance. Furthermore, the investigation results show that the In0.622Ga0.378N solar cell efficiency was inversely proportional with the temperature.

  7. On the effect of N-GaN/P-GaN/N-GaN/P-GaN/N-GaN built-in junctions in the n-GaN layer for InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyaw, Zabu; Zhang, Zi-Hui; Liu, Wei; Tan, Swee Tiam; Ju, Zhen Gang; Zhang, Xue Liang; Ji, Yun; Hasanov, Namig; Zhu, Binbin; Lu, Shunpeng; Zhang, Yiping; Sun, Xiao Wei; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2014-01-13

    N-GaN/P-GaN/N-GaN/P-GaN/N-GaN (NPNPN-GaN) junctions embedded between the n-GaN region and multiple quantum wells (MQWs) are systematically studied both experimentally and theoretically to increase the performance of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) in this work. In the proposed architecture, each thin P-GaN layer sandwiched in the NPNPN-GaN structure is completely depleted due to the built-in electric field in the NPNPN-GaN junctions, and the ionized acceptors in these P-GaN layers serve as the energy barriers for electrons from the n-GaN region, resulting in a reduced electron over flow and enhanced the current spreading horizontally in the n- GaN region. These lead to increased optical output power and external quantum efficiency (EQE) from the proposed device.

  8. Analysis of the photo voltage decay /PVD/ method for measuring minority carrier lifetimes in P-N junction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Roos, O.

    1981-01-01

    The photo voltage decay (PVD) method for the measurement of minority carrier lifetimes in P-N junction solar cells with cell thickness comparable to or even less than the minority carrier diffusion length is examined. The method involves the generation of free carriers in the quasi-neutral bulk material by flashes of light and the monitoring of the subsequent decay of the induced open-circuit voltages as the carriers recombine, which is dependent on minority carrier recombination lifetime. It is shown that the voltage versus time curve for an ordinary solar cell (N(+)-P junction) is proportional to the inverse minority carrier lifetime plus a factor expressing the ratio of diffusion length to cell thickness. In the case of an ideal back-surface-field cell (N(+)-P-P(+) junction) however, the slope is directly proportional to the inverse minority carrier lifetime. It is noted that since most BSF cells are not ideal, possessing a sizable back surface recombination velocity, the PVD measurements must be treated with caution and supplemented with other nonstationary methods.

  9. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Induced Etch Damage of GaN p-n Junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHUL, RANDY J.; ZHANG, LEI; BACA, ALBERT G.; WILLISON, CHRISTI LEE; HAN, JUNG; PEARTON, S.J.; REN, F.

    1999-01-01

    Plasma-induced etch damage can degrade the electrical and optical performance of III-V nitride electronic and photonic devices. We have investigated the etch-induced damage of an Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) etch system on the electrical performance of mesa-isolated GaN pn-junction diodes. GaN p-i-n mesa diodes were formed by Cl 2 /BCl 3 /Ar ICP etching under different plasma conditions. The reverse leakage current in the mesa diodes showed a strong relationship to chamber pressure, ion energy, and plasma flux. Plasma induced damage was minimized at moderate flux conditions (≤ 500 W), pressures ≥2 mTorr, and at ion energies below approximately -275 V

  10. Realization of p-n junction solar cells by an ion implantation doping procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, J.C.; Hage-Ali, M.; Siffert, P.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility of using a low cost ion implantation procedure for the preparation of junction solar cells has been investigated. The method employs a d.c. glow discharge ion source and a short post acceleration structure, without any mass separation. Preparation of the cells in a continuous way is possible at competitive speeds since the ion beam current density reaches 1 mA/cm 2 . The properties of silicon cells, obtained by discharge bombardment in BF 3 or PF 5 atmosphere followed by recristallisation of the damaged layer either by thermal annealing or fast surface laser pulses, have been investigated. Rutherford backscattering, SIMS, electrical measurements have been used. Finally, characteristics and performance of the devices are presented

  11. Influence of electron irradiation at elevated temperatures on silicon diffuse structures with p-n-junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korshunov, F.P.; Marchenko, I.G.

    2012-01-01

    The behavior of the lifetime of nonequilibrium carriers (τ), reverse current (I R ), and forward voltage drop (U F ) in industrial p + -n-n + -diodes irradiated with electrons (E=6 MeV) at temperatures for the range T irr = 20-400 Celsius degree was investigated. The tests were conducted on the samples manufactured on phosphorous doped single-crystal Si during the CZ growing process of ingot (KAF) and using the nuclear reactions (KOF). The investigation showed that the problem to reach smaller τ values with a minimal increase of U F and I R in fast diodes can be solved by means of selection of a technological irradiation temperature regime. It was determined that the comparable changes of the τ value in the diode base area, the best trade-off of U F and I R in the samples (KAF) is observed at T irr = 300 Celsius degree, and in the KOF samples at T irr = 350 Celsius degree. (authors)

  12. DLTS spectra of silicon diodes with p+-n-junction irradiated with high energy krypton ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai A. Poklonski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available p+-n-Diodes have been studied. The diodes were manufactured on wafers (thickness 460 μm, (111 plane of uniformly phosphorus doped float-zone-grown single-crystal silicon. The resistivity of silicon was 90 Ω cm and the phosphorus concentration was 5×1013 cm−3. The diodes were irradiated with 250 MeV krypton ions. The irradiation fluence was 108 cm−2. Deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS was used to examine the defects induced by high energy krypton ion implantation. The DLTS spectra were recorded at a frequency of 1 MHz in the 78–290 K temperature range. The capacity-voltage characteristics have been measured at a reverse bias voltage from 0 to −19 V at a frequency of 1 MHz. We show that the main irradiation-induced defects are A-centers and divacancies. The behavior of DLTS spectra in the 150–260 K temperature range depends essentially on the emission voltage Ue. The variation of Ue allows us to separate the contributions of different defects into the DLTS spectrum in the 150–260 K temperature range. We show that, in addition to A-centers and divacancies, irradiation produces multivacancy complexes with the energy level Et = Ec−(0.5±0.02 eV and an electron capture cross section of ~4×10–13 cm2.

  13. Site-selective dopant profiling of p-n junction specimens in the dual-beam FIB/SEM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chee, K W A; Beanland, R; Midgley, P A; Humphreys, C J

    2010-01-01

    Results from site-specific dopant profiling in a dual-beam FIB/SEM system are reported. Si specimens containing p-n junctions were milled using Ga + ion beam energies ranging from 30 keV to 2 keV, and analysed in situin the vacuum chamber. We compare the dopant contrast observed when milling a cleaved surface to that obtained from a side-wall of a trench cut using 30 kV Ga + ions, and using successively lower ion beam energies. The latter technique is suitable for site-specific dopant profiling. We find that lower energy ion beam milling significantly improves contrast, but only achieves 50 % of that observed on a freshly-cleaved surface. Furthermore, the contrast on a side-wall previously milled using high energy Ga + ions is less than that of a cleaved surface subjected to the same ion beam energy.

  14. Operando x-ray photoelectron emission microscopy for studying forward and reverse biased silicon p-n junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, N., E-mail: nick.barrett@cea.fr; Gottlob, D. M.; Mathieu, C.; Lubin, C. [SPEC, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Passicousset, J. [SPEC, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); IFP Energies nouvelles, Rond-point de l’échangeur de Solaize, BP 3, 69360 Solaize (France); Renault, O.; Martinez, E. [University Grenoble-Alpes, 38000 Grenoble, France and CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 38054 Grenoble (France)

    2016-05-15

    Significant progress in the understanding of surfaces and interfaces of materials for new technologies requires operando studies, i.e., measurement of chemical, electronic, and magnetic properties under external stimulus (such as mechanical strain, optical illumination, or electric fields) applied in situ in order to approach real operating conditions. Electron microscopy attracts much interest, thanks to its ability to determine semiconductor doping at various scales in devices. Spectroscopic photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM) is particularly powerful since it combines high spatial and energy resolution, allowing a comprehensive analysis of local work function, chemistry, and electronic structure using secondary, core level, and valence band electrons, respectively. Here we present the first operando spectroscopic PEEM study of a planar Si p-n junction under forward and reverse bias. The method can be used to characterize a vast range of materials at near device scales such as resistive oxides, conducting bridge memories and domain wall arrays in ferroelectrics photovoltaic devices.

  15. Deep level transient spectroscopic analysis of p/n junction implanted with boron in n-type silicon substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakimoto, Hiroki; Nakazawa, Haruo; Matsumoto, Takashi; Nabetani, Yoichi

    2018-04-01

    For P-i-N diodes implanted and activated with boron ions into a highly-resistive n-type Si substrate, it is found that there is a large difference in the leakage current between relatively low temperature furnace annealing (FA) and high temperature laser annealing (LA) for activation of the p-layer. Since electron trap levels in the n-type Si substrate is supposed to be affected, we report on Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) measurement results investigating what kinds of trap levels are formed. As a result, three kinds of electron trap levels are confirmed in the region of 1-4 μm from the p-n junction. Each DLTS peak intensity of the LA sample is smaller than that of the FA sample. In particular, with respect to the trap level which is the closest to the silicon band gap center most affecting the reverse leakage current, it was not detected in LA. It is considered that the electron trap levels are decreased due to the thermal energy of LA. On the other hand, four kinds of trap levels are confirmed in the region of 38-44 μm from the p-n junction and the DLTS peak intensities of FA and LA are almost the same, considering that the thermal energy of LA has not reached this area. The large difference between the reverse leakage current of FA and LA is considered to be affected by the deep trap level estimated to be the interstitial boron.

  16. 5.0 kV breakdown-voltage vertical GaN p-n junction diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Kentaro; Horikiri, Fumimasa; Yoshino, Michitaka; Nakamura, Tohru; Mishima, Tomoyoshi

    2018-04-01

    A high breakdown voltage of 5.0 kV has been achieved for the first time in vertical GaN p-n junction diodes by using our newly developed guard-ring structures. A resistance device was inserted between the main diode portion and the guard-ring portion in a ring-shaped p-n diode to generate a voltage drop over the resistance device by leakage current flowing through the guard-ring portion under negatively biased conditions before breakdown. The voltage at the outer mesa edge of the guard-ring portion, where the electric field intensity is highest and the destructive breakdown usually occurs, is decreased by the voltage drop, so the electric field concentration in the portion is reduced. By adopting this structure, the breakdown voltage (V B) is raised by about 200 V. Combined with a low measured on-resistance (R on) of 1.25 mΩ cm2, Baliga’s figure of merit (V\\text{B}2/R\\text{on}) was as high as 20 GW/cm2.

  17. High resolution scanning optical imaging of a frozen planar polymer light-emitting electrochemical cell: an experimental and modelling study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faleh AlTal; Jun Gao

    2017-01-01

    Light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) are organic photonic devices based on a mixed electronic and ionic conductor.The active layer of a polymer-based LEC consists of a luminescent polymer,an ion-solvating/transport polymer,and a compatible salt.The LEC p-n or p-i-n junction is ultimately responsible for the LEC performance.The LEC junction,however,is still poorly understood due to the difficulties of characterizing a dynamic-junction LEC.In this paper,we present an experimental and modeling study of the LEC junction using scanning optical imaging techniques.Planar LECs with an interelectrode spacing of 560 μm have been fabricated,activated,frozen and scanned using a focused laser beam.The optical-beam-induced-current (OBIC) and photoluminescence (PL) data have been recorded as a function of beam location.The OBIC profile has been simulated in COMSOL that allowed for the determination of the doping concentration and the depletion width of the LEC junction.

  18. The nonideality coefficient of current-voltage characteristics for p-n junctions in a high ultrahigh-frequency (microwave) field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamirzaev, S. H.; Gulyamov, G.; Dadamirzaev, M. G.; Gulyamov, A. G.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of heating of electrons and holes on the nonideality coefficient of the current-voltage characteristic for a p-n junction in a high microwave field is studied. It is established that the nonideality coefficient for a diode depends on the type of charge carriers that make the major contribution to the current in the p-n junction. It is shown that, in some cases in silicon samples, the nonideality coefficient for the diode is governed by the temperature for holes in spite of the fact that the temperature for electrons is higher than the temperature for holes.

  19. High-resolution scanning near-field EBIC microscopy: Application to the characterisation of a shallow ion implanted p+-n silicon junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smaali, K.; Faure, J.; El Hdiy, A.; Troyon, M.

    2008-01-01

    High-resolution electron beam induced current (EBIC) analyses were carried out on a shallow ion implanted p + -n silicon junction in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a scanning probe microscope (SPM) hybrid system. With this scanning near-field EBIC microscope, a sample can be conventionally imaged by SEM, its local topography investigated by SPM and high-resolution EBIC image simultaneously obtained. It is shown that the EBIC imaging capabilities of this combined instrument allows the study of p-n junctions with a resolution of about 20 nm

  20. Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}:C/CdS p-n junction by laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arato, A. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia-Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Cardenas, E. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Shaji, S. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia-Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); O' Brien, J.J.; Liu, J. [Center for Nanoscience, University of Missouri-St. Louis, One University Boulevard, St. Louis, Missouri-63121 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Missouri-St. Louis, One University Boulevard, St. Louis, Missouri-63121 (United States); Castillo, G. Alan; Das Roy, T.K. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia-Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)], E-mail: bkrishnan@fime.uanl.mx

    2009-02-02

    In this paper, we report laser irradiated carbon doping of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films and formation of a p-n junction photovoltaic structure using these films. A very thin carbon layer was evaporated on to chemical bath deposited Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films of approximately 0.5 {mu}m in thickness. Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films were prepared from a solution containing SbCl{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} at 27 deg. C for 5 h and the films obtained were highly resistive. These C/Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films were irradiated by an expanded laser beam of diameter approximately 0.5 cm (5 W power, 532 nm Verdi laser), for 2 min at ambient atmosphere. Morphology and composition of these films were analyzed. These films showed p-type conductivity due to carbon diffusion (Sb{sub 2} S{sub 3}:C) by the thermal energy generated by the absorption of laser radiation. In addition, these thin films were incorporated in a photovoltaic structure Ag/Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}:C/CdS/ITO/Glass. For this, CdS thin film of 50 nm in thickness was deposited on a commercially available ITO coated glass substrate from a chemical bath containing CdCl{sub 2}, sodium citrate, NH{sub 4}OH and thiourea at 70 deg. C . On the CdS film, Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}/C layers were deposited. This multilayer structure was subjected to the laser irradiation, C/Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} side facing the beam. The p-n junction formed by p-Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}:C and n-type CdS showed V{sub oc} = 500 mV and J{sub sc} = 0.5 mA/cm{sup 2} under illumination by a tungsten halogen lamp. This work opens up a new method to produce solar cell structures by laser assisted material processing.

  1. Highly efficient silicon light emitting diode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Minh, P.; Holleman, J.; Wallinga, Hans

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the fabrication, using standard silicon processing techniques, of silicon light-emitting diodes (LED) that efficiently emit photons with energy around the silicon bandgap. The improved efficiency had been explained by the spatial confinement of charge carriers due to a

  2. Light emitting fabric technologies for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordon, Serge; Cochrane, Cédric; Tylcz, Jean Baptiste; Betrouni, Nacim; Mortier, Laurent; Koncar, Vladan

    2015-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is considered to be a promising method for treating various types of cancer. A homogeneous and reproducible illumination during clinical PDT plays a determinant role in preventing under- or over-treatment. The development of flexible light sources would considerably improve the homogeneity of light delivery. The integration of optical fiber into flexible structures could offer an interesting alternative. This paper aims to describe different methods proposed to develop Side Emitting Optical Fibers (SEOF), and how these SEOF can be integrated in a flexible structure to improve light illumination of the skin during PDT. Four main techniques can be described: (i) light blanket integrating side-glowing optical fibers, (ii) light emitting panel composed of SEOF obtained by micro-perforations of the cladding, (iii) embroidery-based light emitting fabric, and (iv) woven-based light emitting fabric. Woven-based light emitting fabrics give the best performances: higher fluence rate, best homogeneity of light delivery, good flexibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fluorescence lifetime imaging using light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Gordon T; Munro, Ian; Poher, Vincent; French, Paul M W; Neil, Mark A A [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Elson, Daniel S [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Hares, Jonathan D [Kentech Instruments Ltd, Unit 9, Hall Farm Workshops, South Moreton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 9AG (United Kingdom)], E-mail: gordon.kennedy@imperial.ac.uk

    2008-05-07

    We demonstrate flexible use of low cost, high-power light emitting diodes as illumination sources for fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques have been implemented at wavelengths spanning the range 450-640 nm. Additionally, we demonstrate optically sectioned fluorescence lifetime imaging by combining structured illumination with frequency-domain FLIM.

  4. Hybrid light emitting transistors (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhieddine, Khalid; Ullah, Mujeeb; Namdas, Ebinazar B.; Burn, Paul L.

    2015-10-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are well studied and established in current display applications. Light-emitting transistors (LETs) have been developed to further simplify the necessary circuitry for these applications, combining the switching capabilities of a transistor with the light emitting capabilities of an OLED. Such devices have been studied using mono- and bilayer geometries and a variety of polymers [1], small organic molecules [2] and single crystals [3] within the active layers. Current devices can often suffer from low carrier mobilities and most operate in p-type mode due to a lack of suitable n-type organic charge carrier materials. Hybrid light-emitting transistors (HLETs) are a logical step to improve device performance by harnessing the charge carrier capabilities of inorganic semiconductors [4]. We present state of the art, all solution processed hybrid light-emitting transistors using a non-planar contact geometry [1, 5]. We will discuss HLETs comprised of an inorganic electron transport layer prepared from a sol-gel of zinc tin oxide and several organic emissive materials. The mobility of the devices is found between 1-5 cm2/Vs and they had on/off ratios of ~105. Combined with optical brightness and efficiencies of the order of 103 cd/m2 and 10-3-10-1 %, respectively, these devices are moving towards the performance required for application in displays. [1] M. Ullah, K. Tandy, S. D. Yambem, M. Aljada, P. L. Burn, P. Meredith, E. B. Namdas., Adv. Mater. 2013, 25, 53, 6213 [2] R. Capelli, S. Toffanin, G. Generali, H. Usta, A. Facchetti, M. Muccini, Nature Materials 2010, 9, 496 [3] T. Takenobu, S. Z. Bisri, T. Takahashi, M. Yahiro, C. Adachi, Y. Iwasa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 2008, 100, 066601 [4] H. Nakanotani, M. Yahiro, C. Adachi, K. Yano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2007, 90, 262104 [5] K. Muhieddine, M. Ullah, B. N. Pal, P. Burn E. B. Namdas, Adv. Mater. 2014, 26,37, 6410

  5. Optimizing performance of silicon-based p-n junction photodetectors by the piezo-phototronic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaona; Yu, Ruomeng; Wen, Xiaonan; Liu, Ying; Pan, Caofeng; Wu, Wenzhuo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-12-23

    Silicon-based p-n junction photodetectors (PDs) play an essential role in optoelectronic applications for photosensing due to their outstanding compatibility with well-developed integrated circuit technology. The piezo-phototronic effect, a three-way coupling effect among semiconductor properties, piezoelectric polarizations, and photon excitation, has been demonstrated as an effective approach to tune/modulate the generation, separation, and recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs during optoelectronic processes in piezoelectric-semiconductor materials. Here, we utilize the strain-induced piezo-polarization charges in a piezoelectric n-ZnO layer to modulate the optoelectronic process initiated in a p-Si layer and thus optimize the performances of p-Si/ZnO NWs hybridized photodetectors for visible sensing via tuning the transport property of charge carriers across the Si/ZnO heterojunction interface. The maximum photoresponsivity R of 7.1 A/W and fastest rising time of 101 ms were obtained from these PDs when applying an external compressive strain of -0.10‰ on the ZnO NWs, corresponding to relative enhancement of 177% in R and shortening to 87% in response time, respectively. These results indicate a promising method to enhance/optimize the performances of non-piezoelectric semiconductor material (e.g., Si) based optoelectronic devices by the piezo-phototronic effect.

  6. GREEN LIGHT EMITTING TRICOMPONENT LUMINOPHORS OF 2-NAPHTHOL FOR CONSTRUCTION OF ORGANIC LIGHT EMITTING DEVICES

    OpenAIRE

    K. G. MANE , P. B. NAGORE , DR. S. R. PUJARI

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a previous study and incredible progress in basic theoretical modeling, and working for organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) including preparation and characteristic studies of Organo- Luminescent Materials by conventional solid state reaction technique.

  7. The effect of dephasing on edge state transport through p-n junctions in HgTe/CdTe quantum wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Tao; Song, Juntao; Sun, Qing-Feng

    2014-02-26

    Using the Landauer-Büttiker formula, we study the effect of dephasing on the transport properties of the HgTe/CdTe p-n junction. It is found that in the HgTe/CdTe p-n junction the topologically protected gapless helical edge states manifest a quantized 2e²/h plateau robust against dephasing, in sharp contrast to the case for the normal HgTe/CdTe quantum well. This robustness of the transport properties of the edge states against dephasing should be attributed to the special construction of the HgTe/CdTe p-n junction, which limits the gapless helical edge states to a very narrow region and thus weakens the influence of the dephasing on the gapless edge states to a large extent. Our results demonstrate that the p-n junction could be a substitute device for use in experimentally observing the robust edge states and quantized plateau. Finally, we present a feasible scheme based on current experimental methods.

  8. Light-emitting device test systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Mark; Brodie, Alan; George, James; Guan, Yu; Nyffenegger, Ralph

    2018-01-23

    Light-emitting devices, such as LEDs, are tested using a photometric unit. The photometric unit, which may be an integrating sphere, can measure flux, color, or other properties of the devices. The photometric unit may have a single port or both an inlet and outlet. Light loss through the port, inlet, or outlet can be reduced or calibrated for. These testing systems can provide increased reliability, improved throughput, and/or improved measurement accuracy.

  9. Safety of light emitting diodes in toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higlett, M P; O'Hagan, J B; Khazova, M

    2012-03-01

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are increasingly being used in toys. An assessment methodology is described for determining the accessible emission limits for the optical radiation from the toys, which takes account of expected use and reasonably foreseeable misuse of toys. Where data are available, it may be possible to assess the toy from the data sheet alone. If this information is not available, a simple measurement protocol is proposed.

  10. Safety of light emitting diodes in toys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higlett, M P; O'Hagan, J B; Khazova, M

    2012-01-01

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are increasingly being used in toys. An assessment methodology is described for determining the accessible emission limits for the optical radiation from the toys, which takes account of expected use and reasonably foreseeable misuse of toys. Where data are available, it may be possible to assess the toy from the data sheet alone. If this information is not available, a simple measurement protocol is proposed.

  11. White-light-emitting supramolecular gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Vakayil K; Ranjith, Choorikkat; Armaroli, Nicola

    2014-01-07

    Let there be light, let it be white: Recent developments in the use of chromophore-based gels as scaffolds for the assembly of white-light-emitting soft materials have been significant. The main advantage of this approach lies in the facile accommodation of selected luminescent components within the gel. Excitation-energy-transfer processes between these components ultimately generate the desired light output. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Broadband mid-infrared superlattice light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, R. J.; Provence, S. R.; Norton, D. T.; Boggess, T. F.; Prineas, J. P.

    2017-05-01

    InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice light-emitting diodes were fabricated to form a device that provides emission over the entire 3-5 μm mid-infrared transmission window. Variable bandgap emission regions were coupled together using tunnel junctions to emit at peak wavelengths of 3.3 μm, 3.5 μm, 3.7 μm, 3.9 μm, 4.1 μm, 4.4 μm, 4.7 μm, and 5.0 μm. Cascading the structure recycles the electrons in each emission region to emit several wavelengths simultaneously. At high current densities, the light-emitting diode spectra broadened into a continuous, broadband spectrum that covered the entire mid-infrared band. When cooled to 77 K, radiances of over 1 W/cm2 sr were achieved, demonstrating apparent temperatures above 1000 K over the 3-5 μm band. InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices are capable of emitting from 3 μm to 30 μm, and the device design can be expanded to include longer emission wavelengths.

  13. Colour tuneable light-emitting transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmeier, Eva J.; Melzer, Christian; Seggern, Heinz von [Electronic Materials Department, Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In recent years the interest in ambipolar organic light-emitting field-effect transistors has increased steadily as the devices combine switching behaviour of transistors with light emission. Usually, small molecules and polymers with a band gap in the visible spectral range serve as semiconducting materials. Mandatory remain balanced injection and transport properties for both charge carrier types to provide full control of the spatial position of the recombination zone of electrons and holes in the transistor channel via the applied voltages. As will be presented here, the spatial control of the recombination zone opens new possibilities towards light-emitting devices with colour tuneable emission. In our contribution an organic light-emitting field-effect transistors is presented whose emission colour can be changed by the applied voltages. The organic top-contact field-effect transistor is based on a parallel layer stack of acenes serving as organic transport and emission layers. The transistor displays ambipolar characteristics with a narrow recombination zone within the transistor channel. During operation the recombination zone can be moved by a proper change in the drain and gate bias from one organic semiconductor layer to another one inducing a change in the emission colour. In the presented example the emission maxima can be switched from 530 nm to 580 nm.

  14. Light Converting Inorganic Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lei; Lin, Chun-Che; Yeh, Chiao-Wen; Liu, Ru-Shi

    2010-01-01

    White light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) have matched the emission efficiency of florescent lights and will rapidly spread as light source for homes and offices in the next 5 to 10 years. WLEDs provide a light element having a semiconductor light emitting layer (blue or near-ultraviolet (nUV) LEDs) and photoluminescence phosphors. These solid-state LED lamps, rather than organic light emitting diode (OLED) or polymer light-emitting diode (PLED), have a number of advantages over conventional incand...

  15. III-nitride based light emitting diodes and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Jung; Amano, Hiroshi; Morkoç, Hadis

    2017-01-01

    The revised edition of this important book presents updated and expanded coverage of light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on heteroepitaxial GaN on Si substrates, and includes new chapters on tunnel junction LEDs, green/yellow LEDs, and ultraviolet LEDs. Over the last two decades, significant progress has been made in the growth, doping and processing technologies of III-nitride based semiconductors, leading to considerable expectations for nitride semiconductors across a wide range of applications. LEDs are already used in traffic signals, signage lighting, and automotive applications, with the ultimate goal of the global replacement of traditional incandescent and fluorescent lamps, thus reducing energy consumption and cutting down on carbon-dioxide emission. However, some critical issues must be addressed to allow the further improvements required for the large-scale realization of solid-state lighting, and this book aims to provide the readers with details of some contemporary issues on which the performanc...

  16. Efficient organic light emitting-diodes (OLEDs)

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Yi-Lu

    2015-01-01

    Following two decades of intense research globally, the organic light-emitting diode (OLED) has steadily emerged as the ultimate display technology of choice for the coming decades. Portable active matrix OLED displays have already become prevalent, and even large-sized ultra-high definition 4K TVs are being mass-produced. More exotic applications such as wearable displays have been commercialized recently. With the burgeoning success in displays, researchers are actively bringing the technology forward into the exciting solid-state lighting market. This book presents the knowledge needed for

  17. Tuning of optical and electrical properties of wide band gap Fe:SnO{sub 2}/Li:NiO p-n junctions using 80 MeV oxygen ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistry, Bhaumik V.; Joshi, U.S. [Gujarat University, Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Ahmedabad (India); Avasthi, D.K. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi (India)

    2016-12-15

    Electrical and optical properties of pristine and swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiated p-n junction diode have been investigated for advanced electronics application. Fe:SnO{sub 2}/Li:NiO p-n junction was fabricated by using pulsed laser deposition on c-sapphire substrate. The optical band gaps of Fe:SnO{sub 2} and Li:NiO films were obtained to be 3.88 and 3.37 eV, respectively. The current-voltage characteristics of the oxide-based p-n junction showed a rectifying behaviour with turn-on voltage of 0.95 V. The oxide-based p-n junction diode was irradiated to 80 MeV O{sup +6} ions with 1 x 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2} fluence. Decrease in grain size due to SHI irradiation is confirmed by the grazing angle X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. In comparison with the pristine p-n junction diode, O{sup +6} ion irradiated p-n junction diode shows the increase of surface roughness and decrease of percentage transmittance in visible region. For irradiated p-n junction diode, current-voltage curve has still rectifying behaviour but exhibits lower turn-on voltage than that of virgin p-n junction diode. (orig.)

  18. Investigation on electrical properties of diffusive p-n junctions in InP and solid solutions of InAssub(x)Psub(1-x)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agaev, Ya.; Atabaev, Kh.; Gazakov, O.

    1977-01-01

    Diodes from InP and from solid solutions of InAssub(0.6)Psub(0.4), InAssub(0.5)Psub(0.5) were obtained by the diffusion of Zn. The voltage-current characteristic was measured at a direct current in the temperature range from 80 to 300 K. The rectification factor is 10 4 and 2.5 -3.0 x10 2 , respectively, for InP and InAssub(x)Psub(1-x) p-n junctions. The lifetime, the series resistance and resistance of the p-n junction at a zero bias were calculated from an analysis of the voltage-current characteristics

  19. Semiconducting ZnSnN{sub 2} thin films for Si/ZnSnN{sub 2} p-n junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Ruifeng [Hebei Engineering Laboratory of Photoelectronic Functional Crystals, Hebei University of Technology (HEBUT), Tianjin 300401 (China); Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Key Laboratory of Additive Manufacturing Materials of Zhejiang Province, Ningbo 315201 (China); Cao, Hongtao; Liang, Lingyan, E-mail: lly@nimte.ac.cn, E-mail: swz@hebut.edu.cn; Xie, Yufang; Zhuge, Fei; Zhang, Hongliang; Gao, Junhua; Javaid, Kashif [Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Key Laboratory of Additive Manufacturing Materials of Zhejiang Province, Ningbo 315201 (China); Liu, Caichi; Sun, Weizhong, E-mail: lly@nimte.ac.cn, E-mail: swz@hebut.edu.cn [Hebei Engineering Laboratory of Photoelectronic Functional Crystals, Hebei University of Technology (HEBUT), Tianjin 300401 (China)

    2016-04-04

    ZnSnN{sub 2} is regarded as a promising photovoltaic absorber candidate due to earth-abundance, non-toxicity, and high absorption coefficient. However, it is still a great challenge to synthesize ZnSnN{sub 2} films with a low electron concentration, in order to promote the applications of ZnSnN{sub 2} as the core active layer in optoelectronic devices. In this work, polycrystalline and high resistance ZnSnN{sub 2} films were fabricated by magnetron sputtering technique, then semiconducting films were achieved after post-annealing, and finally Si/ZnSnN{sub 2} p-n junctions were constructed. The electron concentration and Hall mobility were enhanced from 2.77 × 10{sup 17} to 6.78 × 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3} and from 0.37 to 2.07 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}, corresponding to the annealing temperature from 200 to 350 °C. After annealing at 300 °C, the p-n junction exhibited the optimum rectifying characteristics, with a forward-to-reverse ratio over 10{sup 3}. The achievement of this ZnSnN{sub 2}-based p-n junction makes an opening step forward to realize the practical application of the ZnSnN{sub 2} material. In addition, the nonideal behaviors of the p-n junctions under both positive and negative voltages are discussed, in hope of suggesting some ideas to further improve the rectifying characteristics.

  20. Organic bistable light-emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liping; Liu, Jie; Pyo, Seungmoon; Yang, Yang

    2002-01-01

    An organic bistable device, with a unique trilayer structure consisting of organic/metal/organic sandwiched between two outmost metal electrodes, has been invented. [Y. Yang, L. P. Ma, and J. Liu, U.S. Patent Pending, U.S. 01/17206 (2001)]. When the device is biased with voltages beyond a critical value (for example 3 V), the device suddenly switches from a high-impedance state to a low-impedance state, with a difference in injection current of more than 6 orders of magnitude. When the device is switched to the low-impedance state, it remains in that state even when the power is off. (This is called "nonvolatile" phenomenon in memory devices.) The high-impedance state can be recovered by applying a reverse bias; therefore, this bistable device is ideal for memory applications. In order to increase the data read-out rate of this type of memory device, a regular polymer light-emitting diode has been integrated with the organic bistable device, such that it can be read out optically. These features make the organic bistable light-emitting device a promising candidate for several applications, such as digital memories, opto-electronic books, and recordable papers.

  1. Vertically p-n-junctioned GaN nano-wire array diode fabricated on Si(111) using MOCVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Hyeon; Kim, Min-Hee; Kissinger, Suthan; Lee, Cheul-Ro

    2013-04-07

    We demonstrate the fabrication of n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg nanowire arrays on (111) silicon substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method .The nanowires were grown by a newly developed two-step growth process. The diameter of as-grown nanowires ranges from 300-400 nm with a density of 6-7 × 10(7) cm(-2). The p- and n-type doping of the nanowires is achieved with Mg and Si dopant species. Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) indicates that the nanowires are relatively defect-free. The room-temperature photoluminescence emission with a strong peak at 370 nm indicates that the n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg nanowire arrays have potential application in light-emitting nanodevices. The cathodoluminscence (CL) spectrum clearly shows a distinct optical transition of GaN nanodiodes. The nano-n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg diodes were further completed using a sputter coating approach to deposit Au/Ni metal contacts. The polysilazane filler has been etched by a wet chemical etching process. The n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg nanowire diode was fabricated for different Mg source flow rates. The current-voltage (I-V) measurements reveal excellent rectifying properties with an obvious turn-on voltage at 1.6 V for a Mg flow rate of 5 sccm (standard cubic centimeters per minute).

  2. Investigation of p-n-junctions in n-InP based on voltage dependence of differential capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agaev, Ja.; Atabaev, Kh.; Gazakov, O.; Sadykov, K.B.

    1976-01-01

    The barrier capacity of alloyed p-n transitions on n-InP crystals grown by the crystallization method has been investigated. The transitions have been obtained by fusing In + 3 - 10% Zn. Step-by-step distribution of the impurity concentration in the space charge layer takes place in the alloyed diodes under investigation. The coefficient characterizing the impurity distribution in the space charge layer has been determined. The well-expressed dependence of I/C 2 =f/u) observed both at a room temperature and at the temperature of liquid nitrogen indicates that the density of ground carriers in the p-n regions are constant at a definite distance from the p-n transition. The main parameters of p-n transitions have been determined

  3. Light emitting device having peripheral emissive region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2013-05-28

    Light emitting devices are provided that include one or more OLEDs disposed only on a peripheral region of the substrate. An OLED may be disposed only on a peripheral region of a substantially transparent substrate and configured to emit light into the substrate. Another surface of the substrate may be roughened or include other features to outcouple light from the substrate. The edges of the substrate may be beveled and/or reflective. The area of the OLED(s) may be relatively small compared to the substrate surface area through which light is emitted from the device. One or more OLEDs also or alternatively may be disposed on an edge of the substrate about perpendicular to the surface of the substrate through which light is emitted, such that they emit light into the substrate. A mode expanding region may be included between each such OLED and the substrate.

  4. Principles of phosphorescent organic light emitting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaev, Boris; Baryshnikov, Gleb; Agren, Hans

    2014-02-07

    Organic light-emitting device (OLED) technology has found numerous applications in the development of solid state lighting, flat panel displays and flexible screens. These applications are already commercialized in mobile phones and TV sets. White OLEDs are of especial importance for lighting; they now use multilayer combinations of organic and elementoorganic dyes which emit various colors in the red, green and blue parts of the visible spectrum. At the same time the stability of phosphorescent blue emitters is still a major challenge for OLED applications. In this review we highlight the basic principles and the main mechanisms behind phosphorescent light emission of various classes of photofunctional OLED materials, like organic polymers and oligomers, electron and hole transport molecules, elementoorganic complexes with heavy metal central ions, and clarify connections between the main features of electronic structure and the photo-physical properties of the phosphorescent OLED materials.

  5. High efficient white organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Stefan; Krause, Ralf [Department of Materials Science VI, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany); Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Kozlowski, Fryderyk; Schmid, Guenter; Hunze, Arvid [Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Winnacker, Albrecht [Department of Materials Science VI, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Due to the rapid progress in the last years the performance of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) has reached a level where general lighting presents a most interesting application target. We demonstrate, how the color coordinates of the emission spectrum can be adjusted using a combinatorial evaporation tool to lie on the desired black body curve representing cold and warm white, respectively. The evaluation includes phosphorescent and fluorescent dye approaches to optimize lifetime and efficiency, simultaneously. Detailed results are presented with respect to variation of layer thicknesses and dopant concentrations of each layer within the OLED stack. The most promising approach contains phosphorescent red and green dyes combined with a fluorescent blue one as blue phosphorescent dopants are not yet stable enough to achieve long lifetimes.

  6. Nanoengineering of organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupton, J.M.

    2000-11-01

    This thesis reports nanoengineerging of the emission and transport properties of organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs). This is achieved by a control of the electronic material properties and the photonic device properties. A novel class of conjugated materials for electroluminescence (EL) applications is presented, based on successively branching, or dendritic, materials comprising an emissive core and a shielding dendritic architecture. Exciton localisation at the centre of these dendrimers is observed in both luminescence and absorption. A detailed quantum chemical investigation using an exciton model supports these findings and accurately describes the energies and oscillator strengths of transitions in the core and branches. The dendrimer generation describes the degree of branching and gives a direct measure of the separation and interaction between chromophores. Increasing generation is found to lead to a reduction in red tail emission. This correlates with an increase in operating field and LED efficiency. Dendrimer blends with triplet harvesting dendritic phosphors are also investigated and found to exhibit unique emission properties. A numerical device model is presented, which is used to describe the temperature dependence of single layer polymer LEDs by fitting the field-dependent mobility and the barrier to hole injection. The device model is also used to obtain mobility values for the dendrimer materials, which are in excellent agreement with results obtained from time-of-flight measurements. The dendrimer generation is shown to provide a direct control of hopping mobility, which decreases by two orders of magnitude as the dendrimer generation increases from 0 to 3. The photonic properties and spontaneous emission of an LED are modified by incorporating a periodic wavelength scale microstructure into the emitting film. This is found to double the amount of light emitted with no effect on the device current. An investigation of the angular dependence

  7. High Intensity Organic Light-emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiangfei

    This thesis is dedicated to the fabrication, modeling, and characterization to achieve high efficiency organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) for illumination applications. Compared to conventional lighting sources, OLEDs enabled the direct conversion of electrical energy into light emission and have intrigued the world's lighting designers with the long-lasting, highly efficient illumination. We begin with a brief overview of organic technology, from basic organic semiconductor physics, to its application in optoelectronics, i.e. light-emitting diodes, photovoltaics, photodetectors and thin-film transistors. Due to the importance of phosphorescent materials, we will focus on the photophysics of metal complexes that is central to high efficiency OLED technology, followed by a transient study to examine the radiative decay dynamics in a series of phosphorescent platinum binuclear complexes. The major theme of this thesis is the design and optimization of a novel architecture where individual red, green and blue phosphorescent OLEDs are vertically stacked and electrically interconnected by the compound charge generation layers. We modeled carrier generation from the metal-oxide/doped organic interface based on a thermally assisted tunneling mechanism. The model provides insights to the optimization of a stacked OLED from both electrical and optical point of view. To realize the high intensity white lighting source, the efficient removal of heat is of a particular concern, especially in large-area devices. A fundamental transfer matrix analysis is introduced to predict the thermal properties in the devices. The analysis employs Laplace transforms to determine the response of the system to the combined effects of conduction, convection, and radiation. This perspective of constructing transmission matrices greatly facilitates the calculation of transient coupled heat transfer in a general multi-layer composite. It converts differential equations to algebraic forms, and

  8. High resolution scanning optical imaging of a frozen planar polymer light-emitting electrochemical cell:an experimental and modelling study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faleh AlTal; Jun Gao

    2017-01-01

    Light-emitting electrochemical cells(LECs) are organic photonic devices based on a mixed electronic and ionic conductor.The active layer of a polymer-based LEC consists of a luminescent polymer,an ion-solvating/transport polymer,and a compatible salt.The LEC p-n or p-i-n junction is ultimately responsible for the LEC performance.The LEC junction,however,is still poorly understood due to the difficulties of characterizing a dynamic-junction LEC.In this paper,we present an experimental and modeling study of the LEC junction using scanning optical imaging techniques.Planar LECs with an interelectrode spacing of 560μm have been fabricated,activated,frozen and scanned using a focused laser beam.The optical-beam-induced-current(OBIC)and photoluminescence(PL) data have been recorded as a function of beam location.The OBIC profile has been simulated in COMSOL that allowed for the determination of the doping concentration and the depletion width of the LEC junction.

  9. Characterization of vertical GaN p-n diodes and junction field-effect transistors on bulk GaN down to cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilyalli, I. C.; Aktas, O.

    2015-12-01

    There is great interest in wide-bandgap semiconductor devices and most recently in vertical GaN structures for power electronic applications such as power supplies, solar inverters and motor drives. In this paper the temperature-dependent electrical behavior of vertical GaN p-n diodes and vertical junction field-effect transistors fabricated on bulk GaN substrates of low defect density (104 to 106 cm-2) is described. Homoepitaxial MOCVD growth of GaN on its native substrate and the ability to control the doping in the drift layers in GaN have allowed the realization of vertical device architectures with drift layer thicknesses of 6 to 40 μm and net carrier electron concentrations as low as 1 × 1015 cm-3. This parameter range is suitable for applications requiring breakdown voltages of 1.2 kV to 5 kV. Mg, which is used as a p-type dopant in GaN, is a relatively deep acceptor (E A ≈ 0.18 eV) and susceptible to freeze-out at temperatures below 200 K. The loss of holes in p-GaN has a deleterious effect on p-n junction behavior, p-GaN contacts and channel control in junction field-effect transistors at temperatures below 200 K. Impact ionization-based avalanche breakdown (BV > 1200 V) in GaN p-n junctions is characterized between 77 K and 423 K for the first time. At higher temperatures the p-n junction breakdown voltage improves due to increased phonon scattering. A positive temperature coefficient in the breakdown voltage is demonstrated down to 77 K; however, the device breakdown characteristics are not as abrupt at temperatures below 200 K. On the other hand, contact resistance to p-GaN is reduced dramatically above room temperature, improving the overall device performance in GaN p-n diodes in all cases except where the n-type drift region resistance dominates the total forward resistance. In this case, the electron mobility can be deconvolved and is found to decrease with T -3/2, consistent with a phonon scattering model. Also, normally-on vertical junction

  10. Van der Waals epitaxial growth and optoelectronics of large-scale WSe2/SnS2 vertical bilayer p-n junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tiefeng; Zheng, Biyuan; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Tao; Pan, Chen; Zou, Juan; Zhang, Xuehong; Qi, Zhaoyang; Liu, Hongjun; Feng, Yexin; Hu, Weida; Miao, Feng; Sun, Litao; Duan, Xiangfeng; Pan, Anlian

    2017-12-04

    High-quality two-dimensional atomic layered p-n heterostructures are essential for high-performance integrated optoelectronics. The studies to date have been largely limited to exfoliated and restacked flakes, and the controlled growth of such heterostructures remains a significant challenge. Here we report the direct van der Waals epitaxial growth of large-scale WSe 2 /SnS 2 vertical bilayer p-n junctions on SiO 2 /Si substrates, with the lateral sizes reaching up to millimeter scale. Multi-electrode field-effect transistors have been integrated on a single heterostructure bilayer. Electrical transport measurements indicate that the field-effect transistors of the junction show an ultra-low off-state leakage current of 10 -14 A and a highest on-off ratio of up to 10 7 . Optoelectronic characterizations show prominent photoresponse, with a fast response time of 500 μs, faster than all the directly grown vertical 2D heterostructures. The direct growth of high-quality van der Waals junctions marks an important step toward high-performance integrated optoelectronic devices and systems.

  11. Simultaneously Enhancing Light Emission and Suppressing Efficiency Droop in GaN Microwire-Based Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode by the Piezo-Phototronic Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingfu; Peng, Wenbo; Yu, Ruomeng; Zou, Haiyang; Dai, Yejing; Zi, Yunlong; Wu, Changsheng; Li, Shuti; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-06-14

    Achievement of p-n homojuncted GaN enables the birth of III-nitride light emitters. Owing to the wurtzite-structure of GaN, piezoelectric polarization charges present at the interface can effectively control/tune the optoelectric behaviors of local charge-carriers (i.e., the piezo-phototronic effect). Here, we demonstrate the significantly enhanced light-output efficiency and suppressed efficiency droop in GaN microwire (MW)-based p-n junction ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV LED) by the piezo-phototronic effect. By applying a -0.12% static compressive strain perpendicular to the p-n junction interface, the relative external quantum efficiency of the LED is enhanced by over 600%. Furthermore, efficiency droop is markedly reduced from 46.6% to 7.5% and corresponding droop onset current density shifts from 10 to 26.7 A cm -2 . Enhanced electrons confinement and improved holes injection efficiency by the piezo-phototronic effect are revealed and theoretically confirmed as the physical mechanisms. This study offers an unconventional path to develop high efficiency, strong brightness and high power III-nitride light sources.

  12. In situ Ni-doping during cathodic electrodeposition of hematite for excellent photoelectrochemical performance of nanostructured nickel oxide-hematite p-n junction photoanode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phuan, Yi Wen, E-mail: phuan.yi.wen@monash.edu [School of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Discipline, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor DE 47500 (Malaysia); Ibrahim, Elyas, E-mail: meibr2@student.monash.edu [School of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Discipline, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor DE 47500 (Malaysia); Chong, Meng Nan, E-mail: Chong.Meng.Nan@monash.edu [School of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Discipline, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor DE 47500 (Malaysia); Sustainable Water Alliance, Advanced Engineering Platform, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor DE 47500 (Malaysia); Zhu, Tao, E-mail: zhu.tao@monash.edu [School of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Discipline, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor DE 47500 (Malaysia); Lee, Byeong-Kyu, E-mail: bklee@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Ulsan, Nam-gu, Daehakro 93, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ocon, Joey D., E-mail: jdocon@up.edu.ph [Laboratory of Electrochemical Engineering (LEE), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Chan, Eng Seng, E-mail: chan.eng.seng@monash.edu [School of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Discipline, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor DE 47500 (Malaysia)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • NiO-hematite p-n junction photoanodes were fabricated via an in situ Ni-doping. • The fundamental mechanism of Ni{sup 2+} ions involved was elucidated. • The optimum Ni dopant was 25 M% for the highest photocurrent density. • It exhibited an excellent photoelectrochemical performance of 7-folds enhancement. - Abstract: Nanostructured nickel oxide-hematite (NiO/α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) p-n junction photoanodes synthesized from in situ doping of nickel (Ni) during cathodic electrodeposition of hematite were successfully demonstrated. A postulation model was proposed to explain the fundamental mechanism of Ni{sup 2+} ions involved, and the eventual formation of NiO on the subsurface region of hematite that enhanced the potential photoelectrochemical water oxidation process. Through this study, it was found that the measured photocurrent densities of the Ni-doped hematite photoanodes were highly dependent on the concentrations of Ni dopant used. The optimum Ni dopant at 25 M% demonstrated an excellent photoelectrochemical performance of 7-folds enhancement as compared to bare hematite photoanode. This was attributed to the increased electron donor density through the p-n junction and thus lowering the energetic barrier for water oxidation activity at the optimum Ni dopant concentration. Concurrently, the in situ Ni-doping of hematite has also lowered the photogenerated charge carrier transfer resistance as measured using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is expected that the fundamental understanding gained through this study is helpful for the rational design and construction of highly efficient photoanodes for application in photoelectrochemical process.

  13. In situ Ni-doping during cathodic electrodeposition of hematite for excellent photoelectrochemical performance of nanostructured nickel oxide-hematite p-n junction photoanode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuan, Yi Wen; Ibrahim, Elyas; Chong, Meng Nan; Zhu, Tao; Lee, Byeong-Kyu; Ocon, Joey D.; Chan, Eng Seng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • NiO-hematite p-n junction photoanodes were fabricated via an in situ Ni-doping. • The fundamental mechanism of Ni"2"+ ions involved was elucidated. • The optimum Ni dopant was 25 M% for the highest photocurrent density. • It exhibited an excellent photoelectrochemical performance of 7-folds enhancement. - Abstract: Nanostructured nickel oxide-hematite (NiO/α-Fe_2O_3) p-n junction photoanodes synthesized from in situ doping of nickel (Ni) during cathodic electrodeposition of hematite were successfully demonstrated. A postulation model was proposed to explain the fundamental mechanism of Ni"2"+ ions involved, and the eventual formation of NiO on the subsurface region of hematite that enhanced the potential photoelectrochemical water oxidation process. Through this study, it was found that the measured photocurrent densities of the Ni-doped hematite photoanodes were highly dependent on the concentrations of Ni dopant used. The optimum Ni dopant at 25 M% demonstrated an excellent photoelectrochemical performance of 7-folds enhancement as compared to bare hematite photoanode. This was attributed to the increased electron donor density through the p-n junction and thus lowering the energetic barrier for water oxidation activity at the optimum Ni dopant concentration. Concurrently, the in situ Ni-doping of hematite has also lowered the photogenerated charge carrier transfer resistance as measured using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is expected that the fundamental understanding gained through this study is helpful for the rational design and construction of highly efficient photoanodes for application in photoelectrochemical process.

  14. Characterization of GaN P-N Junction Grown on Si (111) Substrate by Plasma-assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosfariza Radzali; Rosfariza Radzali; Mohd Anas Ahmad; Zainuriah Hassan; Norzaini Zainal; Kwong, Y.F.; Woei, C.C.; Mohd Zaki Mohd Yusoff; Mohd Zaki Mohd Yusoff

    2011-01-01

    In this report, the growth of GaN pn junction on Si (111) substrate by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) is presented. Doping of GaN p-n junction has been carried out using Si and Mg as n-type dopant and p-type dopants, respectively. The sample had been characterized by PL, Raman spectroscopy, HR-XRD and SEM. PL spectrum showed strong band edge emission of GaN at ∼364 nm, indicating good quality of the sample. The image of SEM cross section of the sample showed sharp interfaces. The presence of peak ∼657 cm -1 in Raman measurement exhibited successful doping of Mg in the sample. (author)

  15. Summary of theoretical and experimental investigation of grating type, silicon photovoltaic cells. [using p-n junctions on light receiving surface of base crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L. Y.; Loferski, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental aspects are summarized for single crystal, silicon photovoltaic devices made by forming a grating pattern of p/n junctions on the light receiving surface of the base crystal. Based on the general semiconductor equations, a mathematical description is presented for the photovoltaic properties of such grating-like structures in a two dimensional form. The resulting second order elliptical equation is solved by computer modeling to give solutions for various, reasonable, initial values of bulk resistivity, excess carrier concentration, and surface recombination velocity. The validity of the computer model is established by comparison with p/n devices produced by alloying an aluminum grating pattern into the surface of n-type silicon wafers. Current voltage characteristics and spectral response curves are presented for cells of this type constructed on wafers of different resistivities and orientations.

  16. Degradation in organic light emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Vincent Vinh

    This thesis is about the fundamental causes of degradation in tris(8-Hydroxyquinoline) Aluminum (Alq3)-based organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Degradation typically occurs when a current is forced through an insulating material. Since the insulator does not support conduction waves (in its ground state), chemical restructuring must occur to accommodate the current. OLEDs have many technical advantages over the well known semiconductor-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). OLEDs have quantum efficiencies ˜1% (˜10 times higher than the LEDs), and operational power thresholds ˜.05mW (˜100 lower than the LEDs). OLEDs are preferred in power limited and portable devices; devices such as laptops and displays consume ˜1/4 of the supplied power---any power saving is significant. Other advantages, like better compliance to curved surfaces and ease of fabrication, give the OLEDs an even greater edge over the LEDs. OLEDs must have at least comparable or better lifetimes to remain attractive. Typical OLEDs last several 100hrs compared to the several 1000hrs for the LEDs. For reliable OLED application, it is necessary to understand the above breakdown mechanism. In this thesis, we attempt to understand the breakdown by looking at how OLEDs are made, how they work, and when they don't. In the opening sections, we give an overview of OLEDs and LEDs, especially how sustained luminescence is achieved through current circulation. Then in Chapter 2, we look at the basic components in the OLEDs. In Chapter 3 we look at how a hole material (like poly-vinyl carbazole or PVK) establishes an excitonic environment for the sustained luminescence in Alq3. We then approximate how potential is distributed when a simple luminescence system is in operation. In Chapter 4, we look at ways of measuring this distribution via the OLED impedance. Finally in Chapter 5, we look at the OLED stability under light emission conditions via PVK and Alq3 photoemission and photoabsorption spectra

  17. Model of a tunneling current in a p-n junction based on armchair graphene nanoribbons - an Airy function approach and a transfer matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhendi, Endi; Syariati, Rifki; Noor, Fatimah A.; Khairurrijal; Kurniasih, Neny

    2014-01-01

    We modeled a tunneling current in a p-n junction based on armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) by using an Airy function approach (AFA) and a transfer matrix method (TMM). We used β-type AGNRs, in which its band gap energy and electron effective mass depends on its width as given by the extended Huckel theory. It was shown that the tunneling currents evaluated by employing the AFA are the same as those obtained under the TMM. Moreover, the calculated tunneling current was proportional to the voltage bias and inversely with temperature

  18. Power saving regulated light emitting diode circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haville, G. D.

    1985-01-01

    A power saving regulated light source circuit, comprising a light emitting diode (LED), a direct current source and a switching transistor connected in series with the LED, a control voltage producing resistor connected in series with the LED to produce a control voltage corresponding to the current through the LED, a storage capacitor connected in parallel with the series combination of the LED and the resistor, a comparator having its output connected to the input of the transistor, the comparator having a reference input and a control input, a stabilized biasing source for supplying a stabilized reference voltage to the reference input, the control input of the comparator being connected to the control voltage producing resistor, the comparator having a high output state when the reference voltage exceeds the control voltage while having a low output state when the control voltage exceeds the reference voltage, the transistor being conductive in response to the high state while being nonconductive in response to the low state, the transistor when conductive being effective to charge the capacitor and to increase the control voltage, whereby the comparator is cycled between the high and low output states while the transistor is cycled between conductive and nonconductive states

  19. Aggregation in organic light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Abigail

    Organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology has great potential for becoming a solid state lighting source. However, there are inefficiencies in OLED devices that need to be understood. Since these inefficiencies occur on a nanometer scale there is a need for structural data on this length scale in three dimensions which has been unattainable until now. Local Electron Atom Probe (LEAP), a specific implementation of Atom Probe Tomography (APT), is used in this work to acquire morphology data in three dimensions on a nanometer scale with much better chemical resolution than is previously seen. Before analyzing LEAP data, simulations were used to investigate how detector efficiency, sample size and cluster size affect data analysis which is done using radial distribution functions (RDFs). Data is reconstructed using the LEAP software which provides mass and position data. Two samples were then analyzed, 3% DCM2 in C60 and 2% DCM2 in Alq3. Analysis of both samples indicated little to no clustering was present in this system.

  20. Colloidal quantum dot light-emitting devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Wood

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal quantum dot light-emitting devices (QD-LEDs have generated considerable interest for applications such as thin film displays with improved color saturation and white lighting with a high color rendering index (CRI. We review the key advantages of using quantum dots (QDs in display and lighting applications, including their color purity, solution processability, and stability. After highlighting the main developments in QD-LED technology in the past 15 years, we describe the three mechanisms for exciting QDs – optical excitation, Förster energy transfer, and direct charge injection – that have been leveraged to create QD-LEDs. We outline the challenges facing QD-LED development, such as QD charging and QD luminescence quenching in QD thin films. We describe how optical downconversion schemes have enabled researchers to overcome these challenges and develop commercial lighting products that incorporate QDs to achieve desirable color temperature and a high CRI while maintaining efficiencies comparable to inorganic white LEDs (>65 lumens per Watt. We conclude by discussing some current directions in QD research that focus on achieving higher efficiency and air-stable QD-LEDs using electrical excitation of the luminescent QDs.

  1. Coherence characteristics of light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Dalip Singh; Saxena, Kanchan; Dubey, Satish Kumar; Shakher, Chandra

    2010-01-01

    We report the measurement of coherence characteristics of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Experiments were performed using red and green color LEDs directly illuminating the Young's double slit kept in the far-zone. Fourier transform fringe analysis technique was used for the measurement of the visibility of interference fringes from which the modulus of degree of spectral coherence was determined. Low degree of spectral coherence, typically 0.4 for red and 0.2 for green LED with double-slit separation of 400 μm was observed. A variable slit was then kept in front of the LEDs and the double slit was illuminated with the light coming out of the slit. Experiments were performed with various slit sizes and the visibility of the interference fringes was observed. It was found that visibility of the interference fringes changes drastically in presence of variable slit kept in front of LEDs and a high degree of spectral coherence, typically 0.85 for red and 0.8 for green LED with double-slit separation of 400 μm and rectangular slit opening of 500 μm was observed. The experimental results are compared with the theoretical counterparts. Coherence lengths of both the LEDs were also determined and it was obtained 5.8±2 and 24±4 μm for green and red LEDs, respectively.

  2. Resonant cavity light-emitting diodes based on dielectric passive cavity structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledentsov, N.; Shchukin, V. A.; Kropp, J.-R.; Zschiedrich, L.; Schmidt, F.; Ledentsov, N. N.

    2017-02-01

    A novel design for high brightness planar technology light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and LED on-wafer arrays on absorbing substrates is proposed. The design integrates features of passive dielectric cavity deposited on top of an oxide- semiconductor distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), the p-n junction with a light emitting region is introduced into the top semiconductor λ/4 DBR period. A multilayer dielectric structure containing a cavity layer and dielectric DBRs is further processed by etching into a micrometer-scale pattern. An oxide-confined aperture is further amended for current and light confinement. We study the impact of the placement of the active region into the maximum or minimum of the optical field intensity and study an impact of the active region positioning on light extraction efficiency. We also study an etching profile composed of symmetric rings in the etched passive cavity over the light emitting area. The bottom semiconductor is an AlGaAs-AlAs multilayer DBR selectively oxidized with the conversion of the AlAs layers into AlOx to increase the stopband width preventing the light from entering the semiconductor substrate. The approach allows to achieve very high light extraction efficiency in a narrow vertical angle keeping the reasonable thermal and current conductivity properties. As an example, a micro-LED structure has been modeled with AlGaAs-AlAs or AlGaAs-AlOx DBRs and an active region based on InGaAlP quantum well(s) emitting in the orange spectral range at 610 nm. A passive dielectric SiO2 cavity is confined by dielectric Ta2O5/SiO2 and AlGaAs-AlOx DBRs. Cylindrically-symmetric structures with multiple ring patterns are modeled. It is demonstrated that the extraction coefficient of light to the air can be increased from 1.3% up to above 90% in a narrow vertical angle (full width at half maximum (FWHM) below 20°). For very small oxide-confined apertures 100nm the narrowing of the FWHM for light extraction can be reduced down to 5

  3. In situ Ni-doping during cathodic electrodeposition of hematite for excellent photoelectrochemical performance of nanostructured nickel oxide-hematite p-n junction photoanode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuan, Yi Wen; Ibrahim, Elyas; Chong, Meng Nan; Zhu, Tao; Lee, Byeong-Kyu; Ocon, Joey D.; Chan, Eng Seng

    2017-01-01

    Nanostructured nickel oxide-hematite (NiO/α-Fe2O3) p-n junction photoanodes synthesized from in situ doping of nickel (Ni) during cathodic electrodeposition of hematite were successfully demonstrated. A postulation model was proposed to explain the fundamental mechanism of Ni2+ ions involved, and the eventual formation of NiO on the subsurface region of hematite that enhanced the potential photoelectrochemical water oxidation process. Through this study, it was found that the measured photocurrent densities of the Ni-doped hematite photoanodes were highly dependent on the concentrations of Ni dopant used. The optimum Ni dopant at 25 M% demonstrated an excellent photoelectrochemical performance of 7-folds enhancement as compared to bare hematite photoanode. This was attributed to the increased electron donor density through the p-n junction and thus lowering the energetic barrier for water oxidation activity at the optimum Ni dopant concentration. Concurrently, the in situ Ni-doping of hematite has also lowered the photogenerated charge carrier transfer resistance as measured using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is expected that the fundamental understanding gained through this study is helpful for the rational design and construction of highly efficient photoanodes for application in photoelectrochemical process.

  4. Preparation of p-type GaN-doped SnO2 thin films by e-beam evaporation and their applications in p-n junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shuliang; Zhou, Yawei; Xu, Wenwu; Mao, Wenfeng; Wang, Lingtao; Liu, Yong; He, Chunqing

    2018-01-01

    Various transparent GaN-doped SnO2 thin films were deposited on glass substrates by e-beam evaporation using GaN:SnO2 targets of different GaN weight ratios. It is interesting to find that carrier polarity of the thin films was converted from n-type to p-type with increasing GaN ratio higher than 15 wt.%. The n-p transition in GaN-doped SnO2 thin films was explained for the formation of GaSn and NO with increasing GaN doping level in the films, which was identified by Hall measurement and XPS analysis. A transparent thin film p-n junction was successfully fabricated by depositing p-type GaN:SnO2 thin film on SnO2 thin film, and a low leakage current (6.2 × 10-5 A at -4 V) and a low turn-on voltage of 1.69 V were obtained for the p-n junction.

  5. Preparation, characterization and activity evaluation of p-n junction photocatalyst p-CaFe2O4/n-Ag3VO4 under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shifu; Zhao Wei; Liu Wei; Zhang Huaye; Yu Xiaoling; Chen Yinghao

    2009-01-01

    p-n junction photocatalyst p-CaFe 2 O 4 /n-Ag 3 VO 4 was prepared by ball milling Ag 3 VO 4 in H 2 O doped with p-type CaFe 2 O 4 . The structural and optical properties of the photocatalyst were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-vis diffuse reflection spectrum (DRS). The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of the p-CaFe 2 O 4 /n-Ag 3 VO 4 was higher than that of Ag 3 VO 4 . When the amount of doped p-CaFe 2 O 4 was 2.0 wt.% and the p-CaFe 2 O 4 /n-Ag 3 VO 4 was ball milled for 12 h, the photocatalytic degradation efficiency was 85.4%. Effect of ball milling time on the photocatalytic activity of the photocatalyst was also investigated. The mechanisms of the increase in the photocatalytic activity were discussed by the p-n junction principle.

  6. Light Emitting, Photovoltaic or Other Electronic Apparatus and System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, William Johnstone (Inventor); Lowenthal, Mark D. (Inventor); Shotton, Neil O. (Inventor); Blanchard, Richard A. (Inventor); Lewandowski, Mark Allan (Inventor); Fuller, Kirk A. (Inventor); Frazier, Donald Odell (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    The present invention provides an electronic apparatus, such as a lighting device comprised of light emitting diodes (LEDs) or a power generating apparatus comprising photovoltaic diodes, which may be created through a printing process, using a semiconductor or other substrate particle ink or suspension and using a lens particle ink or suspension. An exemplary apparatus comprises a base; at least one first conductor; a plurality of diodes coupled to the at least one first conductor; at least one second conductor coupled to the plurality of diodes; and a plurality of lenses suspended in a polymer deposited or attached over the diodes. The lenses and the suspending polymer have different indices of refraction. In some embodiments, the lenses and diodes are substantially spherical, and have a ratio of mean diameters or lengths between about 10:1 and 2:1. The diodes may be LEDs or photovoltaic diodes, and in some embodiments, have a junction formed at least partially as a hemispherical shell or cap.

  7. Efficient white organic light emitting devices with dual emitting layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yaoshan; Hwang Shiaowen; Chen Hsianhung; Lee Mengting; Shen Wenjian; Chen, C.H.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new white organic light-emitting device (OLED) with the structure of indium tin oxide / CF x / 1,4-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N'-phenylamino]-biphenyl (NPB) (30 nm)/NPB: 2,8-di(t-butyl)-5,11-di[4-(t-butyl)phenyl]-6,12-diphenylnaphthacene (20 nm; 1.6 %) / 2-methyl-9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene: p-bis(p-N,N-di-phenyl-aminostyryl)benzene (40 nm, 3%) / aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (20 nm) / LiF (1 nm) / Al (200 nm) has been investigated. The device showed white emission with a high-luminous yield of 9.75 cd/A at 20 mA/cm 2 , but its Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates appeared to change from (0.34, 0.42) at 6 mA/cm2 to (0.27, 0.37) at 200 mA/cm 2 due to the shift of recombination zone. The change of color with drive current was suppressed by introduction of an electron-blocking layer of NPB along with a hole-blocking layer of aluminum (III) bis(2-methyl-8-quinolinato)4-phenylphenolato to the white OLED which successfully confined the recombination site and achieved a luminous yield of 9.9 cd/A at 20 mA/cm 2

  8. Efficient white organic light emitting devices with dual emitting layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yaoshan [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 30050 (China); Hwang Shiaowen [Display Institute, Microelectronics and Information Systems Research Center, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 30050 (China)]. E-mail: jesse@faculty.nctu.edu.tw; Chen Hsianhung [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 30050 (China); Lee Mengting [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 30050 (China); Shen Wenjian [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 30050 (China); Chen, C.H. [Display Institute, Microelectronics and Information Systems Research Center, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 30050 (China)

    2005-09-22

    In this paper, a new white organic light-emitting device (OLED) with the structure of indium tin oxide / CF {sub x} / 1,4-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N'-phenylamino]-biphenyl (NPB) (30 nm)/NPB: 2,8-di(t-butyl)-5,11-di[4-(t-butyl)phenyl]-6,12-diphenylnaphthacene (20 nm; 1.6 %) / 2-methyl-9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene: p-bis(p-N,N-di-phenyl-aminostyryl)benzene (40 nm, 3%) / aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (20 nm) / LiF (1 nm) / Al (200 nm) has been investigated. The device showed white emission with a high-luminous yield of 9.75 cd/A at 20 mA/cm{sup 2}, but its Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates appeared to change from (0.34, 0.42) at 6 mA/cm2 to (0.27, 0.37) at 200 mA/cm{sup 2} due to the shift of recombination zone. The change of color with drive current was suppressed by introduction of an electron-blocking layer of NPB along with a hole-blocking layer of aluminum (III) bis(2-methyl-8-quinolinato)4-phenylphenolato to the white OLED which successfully confined the recombination site and achieved a luminous yield of 9.9 cd/A at 20 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  9. Ultra-Shallow P+/N Junction Formation in Si Using Low Temperature Solid Phase Epitaxy Assisted with Laser Activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Shuhei; Tanaka, Yuki; Fukaya, Takumi; Matsumoto, Satoru; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Fuse, Genshu; Kudo, Toshio; Sakuragi, Susumu

    2008-01-01

    A combination of Ge pre-amorphization implantation (Ge-PAI), low-energy B implantation and laser annealing is a promising method to form highly-activated, abrupt and ultra-shallow junctions (USJ). In our previous report of IIT 2006, we succeeded in forming pn junctions less than 10 nm using non-melt double-pulsed green laser. However, a large leakage current under reverse bias was observed consequently due to residual defects in the implanted layer. In this study, a method to form USJ is proposed: a combination of low-temperature solid phase epitaxy and non-melt laser irradiation for B activation. Ge pre-amorphization implantation was performed at energy of 6 keV with a dose of 3x10 14 /cm 2 . Then B implantation was performed at energy of 0.2 keV with a dose of 1.2x10 15 /cm 2 . Samples were annealed at 400 deg. C for 10 h in nitrogen atmosphere. Subsequently, non-melt laser irradiation was performed at energy of 690 mJ/cm 2 and pulse duration of 100 ns with intervals of 300 ns. As a result, USJ around 10 nm with better crystallinity was successfully formed. And the leakage current of pn diodes was reduced significantly. Moreover, it is proven from secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis that transient enhanced diffusion (TED) of B is specifically suppressed.

  10. Through space and through bridge channels of charge transfer at p-n nano-junctions: A DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dandu, Naveen [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, NDSU, Fargo, ND 58108 (United States); Tretiak, Sergei [Theoretical Division, Center for Nonlinear Studies (CNLS) and Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, 57069, NM 87454 (United States); Kilina, Svetlana [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, NDSU, Fargo, ND 58108 (United States); Kilin, Dmitri, E-mail: Dmitri.Kilin@ndsu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, NDSU, Fargo, ND 58108 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    Highlights: • Properties of interacting QDs depend on the fashion of interaction: through-bond or through-space. • The disconnected and undoped dimer models shows FÓ§rster band formation. • Dimer models with some doping exhibit degenerate charge-transfer excitons. • p- and n-doped qds shows polarization at the interface. • A photoexcitation polarizes p-n interface, in relation to phototovoltaic effect. - Abstract: Details of charge density distribution at p-n nano interface are analyzed with density functional theory techniques using model system of dimers of doped silicon quantum dots interacting through bond and through space. Spatial distributions of transition densities between the ground and excited states suggest the character of essential electronic excitations, which have a FÓ§rster, bound, unbound, or charge transfer character. A redistribution of electronic density from n-impurities to p-impurities results in a ground state polarization and creates an offset of energies of the bands localized on p-doped quantum dot and the bands localized on n-doped quantum dot. Although impurities contribute very few orbitals to the total density, a ground state charge redistribution and polarization are both responsible for the presence of a large number of charge transfer excitations involving solely silicon orbitals.

  11. Recent Advances in Conjugated Polymers for Light Emitting Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Alam, Javed; Dass, Lawrence Arockiasamy; Raja, Mohan

    2011-01-01

    A recent advance in the field of light emitting polymers has been the discovery of electroluminescent conjugated polymers, that is, kind of fluorescent polymers that emit light when excited by the flow of an electric current. These new generation fluorescent materials may now challenge the domination by inorganic semiconductor materials of the commercial market in light-emitting devices such as light-emitting diodes (LED) and polymer laser devices. This review provides information on unique properties of conjugated polymers and how they have been optimized to generate these properties. The review is organized in three sections focusing on the major advances in light emitting materials, recent literature survey and understanding the desirable properties as well as modern solid state lighting and displays. Recently, developed conjugated polymers are also functioning as roll-up displays for computers and mobile phones, flexible solar panels for power portable equipment as well as organic light emitting diodes in displays, in which television screens, luminous traffic, information signs, and light-emitting wallpaper in homes are also expected to broaden the use of conjugated polymers as light emitting polymers. The purpose of this review paper is to examine conjugated polymers in light emitting diodes (LEDs) in addition to organic solid state laser. Furthermore, since conjugated polymers have been approved as light-emitting organic materials similar to inorganic semiconductors, it is clear to motivate these organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and organic lasers for modern lighting in terms of energy saving ability. In addition, future aspects of conjugated polymers in LEDs were also highlighted in this review. PMID:21673938

  12. Electrical pulse burnout testing of light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalma, A.H.; Fischer, C.J.

    1975-01-01

    Electrical pulse burnout thresholds were measured in GaAs, GaAsP, and GaP light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by studying the degradation in light output and the change in I-V characteristics both during the pulse and in the steady state. Pulse widths ranging from a few hundred nsec to 100 μsec were used. Light output degradation was the most sensitive parameter and was used to determine the thresholds. Just above threshold, damage is caused by an increase in generation-recombination current in the space-charge retion. This current is non-radiative and the light output drops, but the damage is not catastrophic. At higher power, the junction burns through and shunt resistance paths are formed which more drastically degrade the light output. The experimental data match reasonably with the theoretical Wunsch--Bell/Tasca model if a burnout area of 1 / 10 the junction area is assumed. Both the adiabatic term (At -1 ) and the heat flow term (Bt - /sup 1 / 2 /) contribute in all devices, and the equilibrium term (C) contributes in some GaAsP devices. The scatter in the data for GaAs devices is greater than that for GaAsP devices, apparently because the former types have a significant fraction of mavericks with lower-than-normal thresholds. The use of LEDs to examine electrical pulse burnout is advantageous because the light output is quite sensitive to damage and the combined measurement of optical and electrical properties provides additional information about the mechanisms involved

  13. Electron-beam-induced current measurements with applied bias provide insight to locally resolved acceptor concentrations at p-n junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Abou-Ras

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Electron-beam-induced current (EBIC measurements have been employed for the investigation of the local electrical properties existing at various types of electrical junctions during the past decades. In the standard configuration, the device under investigation is analyzed under short-circuit conditions. Further insight into the function of the electrical junction can be obtained when applying a bias voltage. The present work gives insight into how EBIC measurements at applied bias can be conducted at the submicrometer level, at the example of CuInSe2 solar cells. From the EBIC profiles acquired across ZnO/CdS/CuInSe2/Mo stacks exhibiting p-n junctions with different net doping densities in the CuInSe2 layers, values for the width of the space-charge region, w, were extracted. For all net doping densities, these values decreased with increasing applied voltage. Assuming a linear relationship between w2 and the applied voltage, the resulting net doping densities agreed well with the ones obtained by means of capacitance-voltage measurements.

  14. Modulation of Quantum Tunneling via a Vertical Two-Dimensional Black Phosphorus and Molybdenum Disulfide p-n Junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaochi; Qu, Deshun; Li, Hua-Min; Moon, Inyong; Ahmed, Faisal; Kim, Changsik; Lee, Myeongjin; Choi, Yongsuk; Cho, Jeong Ho; Hone, James C; Yoo, Won Jong

    2017-09-26

    Diverse diode characteristics were observed in two-dimensional (2D) black phosphorus (BP) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) heterojunctions. The characteristics of a backward rectifying diode, a Zener diode, and a forward rectifying diode were obtained from the heterojunction through thickness modulation of the BP flake or back gate modulation. Moreover, a tunnel diode with a precursor to negative differential resistance can be realized by applying dual gating with a solid polymer electrolyte layer as a top gate dielectric material. Interestingly, a steep subthreshold swing of 55 mV/dec was achieved in a top-gated 2D BP-MoS 2 junction. Our simple device architecture and chemical doping-free processing guaranteed the device quality. This work helps us understand the fundamentals of tunneling in 2D semiconductor heterostructures and shows great potential in future applications in integrated low-power circuits.

  15. Chemically fixed p-n heterojunctions for polymer electronics by means of covalent B-F bond formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoven, Corey V.; Wang, Huiping; Elbing, Mark; Garner, Logan; Winkelhaus, Daniel; Bazan, Guillermo C.

    2010-03-01

    Widely used solid-state devices fabricated with inorganic semiconductors, including light-emitting diodes and solar cells, derive much of their function from the p-n junction. Such junctions lead to diode characteristics and are attained when p-doped and n-doped materials come into contact with each other. Achieving bilayer p-n junctions with semiconducting polymers has been hindered by difficulties in the deposition of thin films with independent p-doped and n-doped layers. Here we report on how to achieve permanently fixed organic p-n heterojunctions by using a cationic conjugated polyelectrolyte with fluoride counteranions and an underlayer composed of a neutral conjugated polymer bearing anion-trapping functional groups. Application of a bias leads to charge injection and fluoride migration into the neutral layer, where irreversible covalent bond formation takes place. After the initial charging and doping, one obtains devices with no delay in the turn on of light-emitting electrochemical behaviour and excellent current rectification. Such devices highlight how mobile ions in organic media can open opportunities to realize device structures in ways that do not have analogies in the world of silicon and promise new opportunities for integrating organic materials within technologies now dominated by inorganic semiconductors.

  16. Perovskite Materials for Light-Emitting Diodes and Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Sjoerd A; Boix, Pablo P; Yantara, Natalia; Li, Mingjie; Sum, Tze Chien; Mathews, Nripan; Mhaisalkar, Subodh G

    2016-08-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have cemented their position as an exceptional class of optoelectronic materials thanks to record photovoltaic efficiencies of 22.1%, as well as promising demonstrations of light-emitting diodes, lasers, and light-emitting transistors. Perovskite materials with photoluminescence quantum yields close to 100% and perovskite light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiencies of 8% and current efficiencies of 43 cd A(-1) have been achieved. Although perovskite light-emitting devices are yet to become industrially relevant, in merely two years these devices have achieved the brightness and efficiencies that organic light-emitting diodes accomplished in two decades. Further advances will rely decisively on the multitude of compositional, structural variants that enable the formation of lower-dimensionality layered and three-dimensional perovskites, nanostructures, charge-transport materials, and device processing with architectural innovations. Here, the rapid advancements in perovskite light-emitting devices and lasers are reviewed. The key challenges in materials development, device fabrication, operational stability are addressed, and an outlook is presented that will address market viability of perovskite light-emitting devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Recent developments in white light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohe, P. P.; Nandanwar, D. V.; Belsare, P. D.; Moharil, S. V.

    2018-05-01

    because they can emit visible light strongly under blue light irradiation. These are chemically, thermally and mechanically stable materials with high efficiency to down convert blue radiation into green and red. Efficient white light can be generated by coating these phosphors on blue LED.CRI of white emitting LED lamp can be improved significantly if green and red emitting phosphors are coated on efficient blue emitting LED chips. In this approach CRI will be maintained if appropriate combination of red, green along with blue emission is used. This article reviews some recent developments in phosphors for white light emitting diodes.

  18. Luminescence and the light emitting diode the basics and technology of leds and the luminescence properties of the materials

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, E W; Pamplin, BR

    2013-01-01

    Luminescence and the Light Emitting Diode: The Basics and Technology of LEDS and the Luminescence Properties of the Materials focuses on the basic physics and technology of light emitting diodes (LEDS) and pn junction lasers as well as their luminescence properties. Optical processes in semiconductors and the useful devices which can be made are discussed. Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the crystal structure and growth, as well as the optical and electrical properties of LED materials. The detailed fabrication of the LED is then considered, along with the lu

  19. Zn doping induced conductivity transformation in NiO films for realization of p-n homo junction diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Sheetal; Tomar, Monika; Tandon, R. P.; Gupta, Vinay

    2017-06-01

    Mixed transition metal oxide, zinc doped NiO, Z n x N i 1 - x O (x = 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.05, and 0.10), thin films have been fabricated by the RF magnetron sputtering technique in an oxygen deficit ambience at a growth temperature of 400 °C. The present report highlights the effect of Zn doping in NiO thin films on its structural, optical, and electrical properties. Optical transmission enhancement and band gap engineering in a-axis oriented NiO films have been demonstrated via Zn substitution. Hall effect measurements of the prepared samples revealed a transition from p-type to n-type conductivity in NiO at 2% Zn doping. A NiO based transparent p-n homojunction diode has been fabricated successfully, and the conduction mechanism dominating the diode properties is reported in detail. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the homojunction diode are found to obey the Space Charge Limited Conduction mechanism with non-ideal square law behaviour.

  20. Optical characterization of magnesium incorporation in p-GaN layers for core–shell nanorod light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gîrgel, I.; Šatka, A.; Priesol, J.; Coulon, P.-M.; Le Boulbar, E. D.; Batten, T.; Allsopp, D. W. E.; Shields, P. A.

    2018-04-01

    III-nitride nanostructures are of interest for a new generation of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, the characterization of doping incorporation in nanorod (NR) structures, which is essential for creating the p-n junction diodes, is extremely challenging. This is because the established electrical measurement techniques (such as capacitance–voltage or Hall-effect methods) require a simple sample geometry and reliable ohmic contacts, both of which are difficult to achieve in nanoscale devices. The need for homogenous, conformal n-type or p-type layers in core–shell nanostructures magnifies these challenges. Consequently, we demonstrate how a combination of non-contact methods (micro-photoluminescence, micro-Raman and cathodoluminescence), as well as electron-beam-induced-current, can be used to analyze the uniformity of magnesium incorporation in core–shell NRs and make a first estimate of doping levels by the evolution of band transitions, strain and current mapping. These techniques have been used to optimize the growth of core–shell nanostructures for electrical carrier injection, a significant milestone for their use in LEDs.

  1. Effect of Plasma, RF, and RIE Treatments on Properties of Double-Sided High Voltage Solar Cells with Vertically Aligned p-n Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola O. Semenenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Si-based solar cells with vertically aligned p-n junctions operating at high voltage were designed and fabricated. The plasma treatments and antireflection coating deposition on the working surfaces of both single- and multijunction cells were made using the special holders. It was shown that additional treatment of solar cells in argon plasma prior to hydrogen plasma treatment and deposition of diamond-like carbon antireflection films led to the improvement of the cell efficiency by up to 60%. Radio frequency waves support plasma generation and improve photoelectric conversion mainly due to reduction of internal stresses at the interfaces. Application of reactive ion etching technique removes the broken layer, reduces elastic strain in the wafer, decreases recombination of charge carriers in the bulk, and provides cell efficiency increase by up to ten times.

  2. All-Quantum-Dot Infrared Light-Emitting Diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhenyu; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Liu, Mengxia; Yuan, Mingjian; Ip, Alexander H.; Ahmed, Osman S.; Levina, Larissa; Kinge, Sachin; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are promising candidates for infrared electroluminescent devices. To date, CQD-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have employed a CQD emission layer sandwiched between carrier transport

  3. Evaluation of light-emitting diode beacon light fixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Rotating beacons containing filament light sources have long been used on highway maintenance trucks : to indicate the presence of the truck to other drivers. Because of advances in light-emitting diode (LED) : technologies, flashing lights containin...

  4. Fabrication of organic light emitting diode using Molybdenum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    65

    out by measuring sheet resistance, optical transmittance and surface ... role in the organic light-emitting diode (OLED) performance because it determines the .... coated glass by thermal vacuum deposition method and optimize it by using ...

  5. Vacuum Deposited Organic Light Emitting Devices on Flexible Substrates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forrest, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this eight year program was to demonstrate both passive and active matrix, flexible, small scale displays based on small molecular weight organic light emitting device (OLED) technology...

  6. Near-infrared light emitting device using semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supran, Geoffrey J.S.; Song, Katherine W.; Hwang, Gyuweon; Correa, Raoul Emile; Shirasaki, Yasuhiro; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Bulovic, Vladimir; Scherer, Jennifer

    2018-04-03

    A near-infrared light emitting device can include semiconductor nanocrystals that emit at wavelengths beyond 1 .mu.m. The semiconductor nanocrystals can include a core and an overcoating on a surface of the core.

  7. Organic light emitting diode with surface modification layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil, John D.; Bhandari, Abhinav; Buhay, Harry; Arbab, Mehran; Marietti, Gary J.

    2017-09-12

    An organic light emitting diode (10) includes a substrate (12) having a first surface (14) and a second surface (16), a first electrode (32), and a second electrode (38). An emissive layer (36) is located between the first electrode (32) and the second electrode (38). The organic light emitting diode (10) further includes a surface modification layer (18). The surface modification layer (18) includes a non-planar surface (30, 52).

  8. Organic light emitting diode with light extracting electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhandari, Abhinav; Buhay, Harry

    2017-04-18

    An organic light emitting diode (10) includes a substrate (20), a first electrode (12), an emissive active stack (14), and a second electrode (18). At least one of the first and second electrodes (12, 18) is a light extracting electrode (26) having a metallic layer (28). The metallic layer (28) includes light scattering features (29) on and/or in the metallic layer (28). The light extracting features (29) increase light extraction from the organic light emitting diode (10).

  9. Sensor fabrication method for in situ temperature and humidity monitoring of light emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Su, Ay; Liu, Yin-Chieh; Chan, Pin-Cheng; Lin, Chia-Hung

    2010-01-01

    In this work micro temperature and humidity sensors are fabricated to measure the junction temperature and humidity of light emitting diodes (LED). The junction temperature is frequently measured using thermal resistance measurement technology. The weakness of this method is that the timing of data capture is not regulated by any standard. This investigation develops a device that can stably and continually measure temperature and humidity. The device is light-weight and can monitor junction temperature and humidity in real time. Using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), this study minimizes the size of the micro temperature and humidity sensors, which are constructed on a stainless steel foil substrate (40 μm-thick SS-304). The micro temperature and humidity sensors can be fixed between the LED chip and frame. The sensitivities of the micro temperature and humidity sensors are 0.06±0.005 (Ω/°C) and 0.033 pF/%RH, respectively.

  10. Practical silicon Light emitting devices fabricated by standard IC technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharoni, H.; Monuko du Plessis; Snyman, L.W.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text:Research activities are described with regard to the development of a comprehensive approach for the practical realization of single crystal Silicon Light Emitting Devices (Si-LEDs). Several interesting suggestions for the fabrication of such devices were made in the literature but they were not adopted by the semiconductor industry because they involve non-standard fabrication schemes, requiring special production lines. Our work presents an alternative approach, proposed and realized in practice by us, permitting the fabrication of Si-LEDs using the standard conventional fully industrialized IC technology ''as is'' without any adaptation. It enables their fabrication in the same production lines of the presently existing IC industry. This means that Si-LEDs can now be fabricated simultaneously with other components, such as transistors, on the same silicon chip, using the same masks and processing procedures. The result is that the yield, reliability, and price of the above Si-LEDs are the same as the other Si devices integrated on the same chip. In this work some structural details of several practical Si-LED's designed by us, as well as experimental results describing their performance are presented. These Si-LED's were fabricated to our specifications utilizing standard CMOS/BiCMOS technology, a fact which comprises an achievement by itself. The structure of the Si-LED's, is designed according to specifications such as the required operating voltage, overall light output intensity, its dependence(linear, or non-linear) on the input signal (voltage or current), light generations location (bulk, or near-surface), the emission pattern and uniformity. Such structural design present a problem since the designer can not use any structural parameters (such as doping levels and junction depths for example) but only those which already exist in the production lines. Since the fabrication procedures in these lines are originally designed for processing of

  11. Solution-processed n-ZnO nanorod/p-Co_3O_4 nanoplate heterojunction light-emitting diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-Woo; Lee, Su Jeong; Biswas, Pranab; Lee, Tae Il; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The n-ZnO nanorods were epitaxially grown on p-Co_3O_4 nanoplates. • The heteroepitaxial p-n junction was fabricated by using hydrothermal process. • The LEDs emitted reddish-orange and violet light related to ZnO point defects. • The Co_3O_4 nanoplates function as a hole injection layer. • Junction between 1D NRs and 2D NPs provides a new approach to design nanostructures. - Abstract: A heterojunction light-emitting diode (LED) based on p-type cobalt oxide (Co_3O_4) nanoplates (NPs)/n-type zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) is demonstrated. Using a low-temperature aqueous solution process, the n-type ZnO NRs were epitaxially grown on Co_3O_4 NPs which were two-dimensionally assembled by a modified Langmuir-Blodgett process. The heterojunction LEDs exhibited a typical rectifying behavior with a turn-on voltage of about 2 V and emitted not only reddish-orange light at 610 nm but also violet light at about 400 nm. From the comparative analyses of electroluminescence and photoluminescence, it was determined that the reddish-orange light emission was related to the electronic transitions from zinc interstitials (Zn_i) to oxygen interstitials (O_i) or conduction-band minimum (CBM) to oxygen vacancies (V_O), and the violet light emission was attribute to the transition from CBM to valence-band maximum (VBM) or Zn_i to zinc vacancies (V_Z_n).

  12. [A novel yellow organic light-emitting device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chen; Wang, Hua; Hao, Yu-Ying; Gao, Zhi-Xiang; Zhou, He-Feng; Xu, Bing-She

    2008-07-01

    The fabrication of a novel organic yellow-light-emitting device using Rhodamine B as dopant with double quantum-well (DQW) structure was introduced in the present article. The structure and thickness of this device is ITO/CuPc (6 nm) /NPB (20 nm) /Alq3 (3 nm)/Alq3 : Rhodamine B (3 nm) /Alq3 (3 nm) /Al q3 : Rhodamine B(3 nm) /Alq3 (30 nm) /Liq (5 nm)/Al (30 nm). With the detailed investigation of electroluminescence of the novel organic yellow-light-emitting device, the authors found that the doping concentration of Rhodamine B (RhB) had a very big influence on luminance and efficiency of the organic yellow-light-emitting device. When doping concentration of Rhodamine B (RhB) was 1.5 wt%, the organic yellow-light-emitting device was obtained with the maximum current efficiency of 1.526 cd x A(-1) and the maximum luminance of 1 309 cd x m(-2). It can be seen from the EL spectra of the devices that there existed energy transferring from Alq3 to RhB in the organic light-emitting layers. When the doping concentration of RhB increased, lambda(max) of EL spectra redshifted obviously. The phenomenon was attributed to the Stokes effect of quantum wells and self-polarization of RhB dye molecules.

  13. Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willander, M; Nur, O; Zhao, Q X; Yang, L L [Department of Science and Technology, Linkoeping University, SE-601 74 Norrkoeping (Sweden); Lorenz, M; Cao, B Q; Zuniga Perez, J; Czekalla, C; Zimmermann, G; Grundmann, M [Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik II, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestrasse 5, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Bakin, A; Behrends, A; Al-Suleiman, M; El-Shaer, A; Che Mofor, A; Postels, B; Waag, A [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Technical University of Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Boukos, N; Travlos, A [National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Institute of Materials Science, GR 15310 Agia Paraskevi Attikis, Athens (Greece); Kwack, H S, E-mail: magwi@itn.liu.s [CEA-CNRS Group ' Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs' , Institut Neel, CNRS and Universit' e Joseph Fourier, F-38042 Grenoble (France)

    2009-08-19

    Zinc oxide (ZnO), with its excellent luminescent properties and the ease of growth of its nanostructures, holds promise for the development of photonic devices. The recent advances in growth of ZnO nanorods are discussed. Results from both low temperature and high temperature growth approaches are presented. The techniques which are presented include metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD), vapour phase epitaxy (VPE), pulse laser deposition (PLD), vapour-liquid-solid (VLS), aqueous chemical growth (ACG) and finally the electrodeposition technique as an example of a selective growth approach. Results from structural as well as optical properties of a variety of ZnO nanorods are shown and analysed using different techniques, including high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL), for both room temperature and for low temperature performance. These results indicate that the grown ZnO nanorods possess reproducible and interesting optical properties. Results on obtaining p-type doping in ZnO micro- and nanorods are also demonstrated using PLD. Three independent indications were found for p-type conducting, phosphorus-doped ZnO nanorods: first, acceptor-related CL peaks, second, opposite transfer characteristics of back-gate field effect transistors using undoped and phosphorus doped wire channels, and finally, rectifying I-V characteristics of ZnO:P nanowire/ZnO:Ga p-n junctions. Then light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on n-ZnO nanorods combined with different technologies (hybrid technologies) are suggested and the recent electrical, as well as electro-optical, characteristics of these LEDs are shown and discussed. The hybrid LEDs reviewed and discussed here are mainly presented for two groups: those based on n-ZnO nanorods and p-type crystalline substrates, and those based on n-ZnO nanorods and p-type amorphous substrates. Promising electroluminescence

  14. p - n junction diodes fabricated from isolated electrospun fibers of (P(NDI2ODT2)) and an inorganic p-doped semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Alexander; Pinto, Nicholas

    2013-03-01

    A simple method to fabricate, under ambient conditions and within seconds, p - n diodes using an individual electrospun poly{[N, N'-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5'-(2,2'-bithiophene)}-(P(NDI2ODT2)) fiber and a commercially available p-doped Si/SiO2 substrate is presented. Band bending at the fiber/Si+ interface leads to asymmetric I-V characteristic curves resembling that of a diode. The diode turn-on voltage was in the range 1V and was unaffected via UV light irradiation. The rectification ratio however could be tuned reversibly thereby making this device multifunctional. In addition to being a rectifier, the advantage of our design is the complete exposure of the rectifying junction to the surrounding environment. This has the advantage of making them attractive candidates in the potential fabrication of low power, sensitive and rapid response photo-sensors. NSF

  15. Electrically driven surface plasmon light-emitting diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadil, Ahmed; Ou, Yiyu; Iida, Daisuke

    We investigate device performance of GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with a 30-nm p-GaN layer. The metallization used to separate the p-contact from plasmonic metals, reveals limitations on current spreading which reduces surface plasmonic enhancement.......We investigate device performance of GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with a 30-nm p-GaN layer. The metallization used to separate the p-contact from plasmonic metals, reveals limitations on current spreading which reduces surface plasmonic enhancement....

  16. Effect of low temperature and electron irradiation on the volt-ampere characteristics of silicon structures with p-n junctions; Vliyanie nizkikh temperatur i ehlektronnogo oblucheniya na vol`t-ampernye kharakteristiki kremnievykh struktur s p-n perekhodami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korshunov, F P [and others

    1994-12-31

    Features of volt-ampere characteristic behaviour of silicon, diffusion p-n-p structures making up the basis of force diodes under their operation in the mode of nominal and overload current densities are investigated.

  17. Hybrid Light-Emitting Diode Enhanced With Emissive Nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopylov, Oleksii

    This thesis investigates a new type of white light emitting hybrid diode, composed of a light emitting GaN/InGaN LED and a layer of semiconductor nanocrystals for color conversion. Unlike standard white LEDs, the device is configured to achieve high color conversion efficiency via non-radiative e......This thesis investigates a new type of white light emitting hybrid diode, composed of a light emitting GaN/InGaN LED and a layer of semiconductor nanocrystals for color conversion. Unlike standard white LEDs, the device is configured to achieve high color conversion efficiency via non...... of the hybrid diode fabrication including process techniques for GaN LED and incorporation of the nanocrystals are presented with the emphasis on the differences with standard LED processing. Results and analysis of optical and electrical characterization including photoluminescence (PL), micro-PL, time......-resolved PL and electroluminescence (EL) together with current-voltage characteristics are presented to evaluate the device performance. A clear evidence of non-radiative energy transfer was seen in the carrier dynamics of both the LED and the nanocrystals when the quantum well – nanocrystals separation...

  18. Organic light emitting diodes with spin polarized electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arisi, E.; Bergenti, I.; Dediu, V.; Loi, M.A.; Muccini, M.; Murgia, M.; Ruani, G.; Taliani, C.; Zamboni, R.

    2003-01-01

    Electrical and optical properties of Alq3 based organic light emitting diodes with normal and spin polarized electrodes are presented. Epitaxial semitransparent highly spin polarized La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 were used as hole injector, substituting the traditional indium tin oxide electrode. A comparison of

  19. Liquid metals as electrodes in polymer light emitting diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, G.G.; Gommans, H.H.P.; Denier van der Gon, A.W.; Brongersma, H.H.

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate that liquid metals can be used as cathodes in light emitting diodes (pLEDs). The main difference between the use of liquid cathodes and evaporated cathodes is the sharpness of the metal–polymer interface. Liquid metal cathodes result in significantly sharper metal–organic interfaces

  20. Photon extraction from nitride ultraviolet light-emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schowalter, Leo J; Chen, Jianfeng; Grandusky, James R

    2015-02-24

    In various embodiments, a rigid lens is attached to a light-emitting semiconductor die via a layer of encapsulant having a thickness insufficient to prevent propagation of thermal expansion mismatch-induced strain between the rigid lens and the semiconductor die.

  1. Improvement in light-extraction efficiency of light emitting diode ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of various microlens parameters such as diameter and area fraction on light-extraction efficiency was systematically studied. Improvement of 4% in extraction efficiency was obtained by employing it on white light emitting diode. The area fraction of microlenses was increased up to 0.34 by reducing the spin speed.

  2. Light emitting structures porous silicon-silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monastyrskii, L.S.; Olenych, I.B.; Panasjuk, M.R.; Savchyn, V.P.

    1999-01-01

    The research of spectroscopic properties of porous silicon has been done. Complex of photoluminescence, electroluminescence, cathodoluminescence, thermostimulated depolarisation current analyte methods have been applied to study of geterostructures and free layers of porous silicon. Light emitting processes had tendency to decrease. The character of decay for all kinds of luminescence were different

  3. Operation of AC Adapters Visualized Using Light-Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regester, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    A bridge rectifier is a diamond-shaped configuration of diodes that serves to convert alternating current(AC) into direct current (DC). In our world of AC outlets and DC electronics, they are ubiquitous. Of course, most bridge rectifiers are built with regular diodes, not the light-emitting variety, because LEDs have a number of disadvantages. For…

  4. An assessment of ultraviolet radiation components of light emitted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of ultraviolet radiation components of light emitted from electric arc and their possible exposure risks. ... The study of Ultraviolet Radiation has of recent become interesting because of the health hazards it poses to human. Apart from its intensity reaching the earth from the sun, other man-made sources have ...

  5. Light Converting Inorganic Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiao-Wen Yeh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available White light-emitting diodes (WLEDs have matched the emission efficiency of florescent lights and will rapidly spread as light source for homes and offices in the next 5 to 10 years. WLEDs provide a light element having a semiconductor light emitting layer (blue or near-ultraviolet (nUV LEDs and photoluminescence phosphors. These solid-state LED lamps, rather than organic light emitting diode (OLED or polymer light-emitting diode (PLED, have a number of advantages over conventional incandescent bulbs and halogen lamps, such as high efficiency to convert electrical energy into light, reliability and long operating lifetime. To meet with the further requirement of high color rendering index, warm light with low color temperature, high thermal stability and higher energy efficiency for WLEDs, new phosphors that can absorb excitation energy from blue or nUV LEDs and generate visible emissions efficiently are desired. The criteria of choosing the best phosphors, for blue (450-480 nm and nUV (380-400 nm LEDs, strongly depends on the absorption and emission of the phosphors. Moreover, the balance of light between the emission from blue-nUV LEDs and the emissions from phosphors (such as yellow from Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ is important to obtain white light with proper color rendering index and color temperature. Here, we will review the status of phosphors for LEDs and prospect the future development.

  6. Atom probe tomography of a commercial light emitting diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D J; Prosa, T J; Olson, D; Lawrence, D; Clifton, P H; Kelly, T F; Lefebvre, W

    2013-01-01

    The atomic-scale analysis of a commercial light emitting diode device purchased at retail is demonstrated using a local electrode atom probe. Some of the features are correlated with transmission electron microscopy imaging. Subtle details of the structure that are revealed have potential significance for the design and performance of this device

  7. Performance of injection-limited polymer light-emitting diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, P.W.M.; Woudenberg, T.V.; Huiberts, H.; Jabbour, GE; Carter, SA; Kido, J; Lee, ST; Sariciftci, NS

    2002-01-01

    The electro-optical characteristics of a polymer light emitting diode (PLED) with a strongly reduced hole injection have been investigated. The device consists of a poly-p-phenylene vinylene semiconductor with a Ag hole injecting contact, which has an injection barrier of about 1 eV. It is observed

  8. The Light-Emitting Diode as a Light Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, William H.; Hack, W. Nathan; Tran, Kiet; Vira, Zeeshan; Pickett, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    A light-emitting diode (LED) and operational amplifier can be used as an affordable method to provide a digital output indicating detection of an intense light source such as a laser beam or high-output LED. When coupled with a microcontroller, the combination can be used as a multiple photogate and timer for under $50. A similar circuit is used…

  9. Light Converting Inorganic Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Lin, Chun-Che; Yeh, Chiao-Wen; Liu, Ru-Shi

    2010-01-01

    White light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) have matched the emission efficiency of florescent lights and will rapidly spread as light source for homes and offices in the next 5 to 10 years. WLEDs provide a light element having a semiconductor light emitting layer (blue or near-ultraviolet (nUV) LEDs) and photoluminescence phosphors. These solid-state LED lamps, rather than organic light emitting diode (OLED) or polymer light-emitting diode (PLED), have a number of advantages over conventional incandescent bulbs and halogen lamps, such as high efficiency to convert electrical energy into light, reliability and long operating lifetime. To meet with the further requirement of high color rendering index, warm light with low color temperature, high thermal stability and higher energy efficiency for WLEDs, new phosphors that can absorb excitation energy from blue or nUV LEDs and generate visible emissions efficiently are desired. The criteria of choosing the best phosphors, for blue (450−480 nm) and nUV (380−400 nm) LEDs, strongly depends on the absorption and emission of the phosphors. Moreover, the balance of light between the emission from blue-nUV LEDs and the emissions from phosphors (such as yellow from Y3Al5O12:Ce3+) is important to obtain white light with proper color rendering index and color temperature. Here, we will review the status of phosphors for LEDs and prospect the future development.

  10. Tuning the colour of white polymer light emitting diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, M.M. de; Sarfert, W.; Paetzold, R.

    2010-01-01

    Colour tuning of white polymer light emitting diode (LED) light sources can be attained by various methods at various stages in the production process of the lamps and/or by the design of the active material incorporated in the LEDs. In this contribution we will describe the methods and discuss the

  11. POWER, METALLURGICAL AND CHEMICAL MECHANICAL ENGINEERING THERMOELECTRIC EVENTS IN LIGHT-EMITTING BIPOLAR SEMICONDUCTOR STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Magomedova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The development of light-emitting bipolar semiconductor structures having a low level of parasitic heat release.Methods. A method for converting thermoelectric heat in bipolar semiconductor structures into optical radiation to divert the excess energy into the environment was developed. At the same time, the cooling effect on thermoelectric junctions remains. Instead of an inertial process of conductive or convective heat transfer, practically instantaneous heat removal from electronic components to the environment takes place.Results. As a result, light-emitting bipolar semiconductor structures will allow more powerful devices with greater speed and degree of integration to be created. It is possible to produce transparent LED matrices with a two-way arrangement of transparent solar cells and mirror metal electrodes along the perimeter. When current is applied, the LED matrix on one of the transitions will absorb thermal energy; on other electrodes, it will emit radiation that is completely recovered into electricity by means of transparent solar cells following repeated reflection between the mirror electrodes. The low efficiency of solar cells will be completely compensated for with the multiple passages of photons through these batteries.Conclusion. Light-emitting bipolar semiconductor structures will not only improve the reliability of electronic components in a wide range of performance characteristics, but also improve energy efficiency through the use of optical radiation recovery. Semiconductor thermoelectric devices using optical phenomena in conjunction with the Peltier effect allow a wide range of energy-efficient components of radio electronic equipment to be realised, both for discrete electronics and for microsystem techniques. Systems for obtaining ultra-low temperatures in order to achieve superconductivity are of particular value. 

  12. Investigation of organic light emitting diodes for interferometric purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakula, Anna; Zimak, Marzena; Sałbut, Leszek

    2011-05-01

    Recently the new type of light source has been introduced to the market. Organic light emitting diode (OLED) is not only interesting because of the low applying voltage, wide light emitting areas and emission efficiency. It gives the possibility to create a light source of a various shape, various color and in the near future very likely even the one that will change shape and spectrum in time in controlled way. Those opportunities have not been in our reach until now. In the paper authors try to give an answer to the question if the new light source -OLED - is suitable for interferometric purposes. Tests cover the short and long term spectrum stability, spectrum changes due to the emission area selection. In the paper the results of two OLEDs (red and white) are shown together with the result of an attempt to use them in an interferometric setup.

  13. All-Quantum-Dot Infrared Light-Emitting Diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhenyu

    2015-12-22

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are promising candidates for infrared electroluminescent devices. To date, CQD-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have employed a CQD emission layer sandwiched between carrier transport layers built using organic materials and inorganic oxides. Herein, we report the infrared LEDs that use quantum-tuned materials for each of the hole-transporting, the electron-transporting, and the light-emitting layers. We successfully tailor the bandgap and band position of each CQD-based component to produce electroluminescent devices that exhibit emission that we tune from 1220 to 1622 nm. Devices emitting at 1350 nm achieve peak external quantum efficiency up to 1.6% with a low turn-on voltage of 1.2 V, surpassing previously reported all-inorganic CQD LEDs.

  14. Light emitting diodes for today's energy conscious world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanier, J

    2000-10-01

    The role played by light emitting diodes in back lighting, decorative illumination, emergency lighting, and automated signage are described as indicators of the many benefits and advantages of LED technology. The basic principles underlying the functioning of LEDs are explained, including the reasons behind their high efficiency in applications requiring colour. The difference between wattage and lumens is clarified; wattage refers to power consumption, whereas lumens measure brightness or light output, the measure most significant in the case of LEDs.

  15. Silicon based light-emitting materials and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Weide

    1999-01-01

    Silicon based light-emitting materials and devices are the key to optoelectronic integration. Recently, there has been significant progress in materials engineering methods. The author reviews the latest developments in this area including erbium doped silicon, porous silicon, nanocrystalline silicon and Si/SiO 2 superlattice structures. The incorporation of these different materials into devices is described and future device prospects are assessed

  16. Active targeting of tumor cells using light emitting bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Sung Min; Min, Jung Joon; Hong, Yeong Jin; Kim, Hyun Ju; Le, Uuenchi N.; Rhee, Joon Haeng; Song, Ho Chun; Heo, Young Jun; Bom, Hee Seung; Choy, Hyon E

    2004-01-01

    The presence of bacteria and viruses in human tumors has been recognized for more than 50 years. Today, with the discovery of bacterial strains that specifically target tumors, and aided by genomic sequencing and genetic engineering, there is new interest in the use of bacteria as tumor vectors. Here, we show that bacteria injected intravenously into live animals entered and replicated in solid tumors and metastases using the novel imaging technology of biophotonics. Bioluminescence operon (LuxCDABE) or fluorescence protein, GFP) has been cloned into pUC19 plasmid to engineer pUC19lux or pUC19gfp. Engineered plasmid was transformed into different kinds of wild type (MG1655) or mutant E. coli (DH5, ppGpp, fnr, purE, crpA, flagella, etc.) strains to construct light emitting bacteria. Xenograft tumor model has been established using CT26 colon cancer cell line. Light emitting bacteria was injected via tail vein into tumor bearing mouse. In vivo bioluminescence imaging has been done after 20 min to 14 days of bacterial injection. We observed localization of tumors by light-emitting E. coli in tumor (CT-26) bearing mice. We confirmed the presence of light-emitting bacteria under the fluorescence microscope with E. coli expressing GFP. Althoug varying mutants strain with deficient invading function has been found in tumor tissues, mutant strains of movement (flagella) couldn't show any light signal from the tumor tissue under the cooled CCD camera, indicating bacteria may actively target the tumor cells. Based on their 'tumor-finding' nature, bacteria may be designed to carry multiple genes or drugs for detection and treatment of cancer, such as prodrug-converting enzymes, toxins, angiogenesis inhibitors and cytokines

  17. Laterally injected light-emitting diode and laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mary A.; Crawford, Mary H.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2015-06-16

    A p-type superlattice is used to laterally inject holes into an III-nitride multiple quantum well active layer, enabling efficient light extraction from the active area. Laterally-injected light-emitting diodes and laser diodes can enable brighter, more efficient devices that impact a wide range of wavelengths and applications. For UV wavelengths, applications include fluorescence-based biological sensing, epoxy curing, and water purification. For visible devices, applications include solid state lighting and projection systems.

  18. Impact of fluorine co-implantation on B deactivation and leakage currents in low and high energy Ge preamorphised p+n shallow junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girginoudi, D.; Tsiarapas, C.

    2008-01-01

    The impact of fluorine (F) co-implantation on boron (B) deactivation and B TED, as well as on the I-V characteristics of p + n shallow junctions, have been studied for low (10 keV) and high (70 keV) energy Ge preamorphised (PAI) n-type Si samples, that were annealed at 600 deg. C and 700 deg. C. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the existence of defects and dislocation loops (DLs) in the EOR region. It has been found that F stabilizes the EOR defect population via the increase of EOR defect density and the percentage of the stable DLs. This phenomenon is more pronounced when the preamorphisation is shallow (10 keV Ge energy). SIMS and sheet resistance measurements showed the formation of BICs, which implies B deactivation and increased B TED, especially in the shallow PAI samples and at the 700 deg. C annealing temperature. The role of F on B deactivation is multiplex: in the 70 keV PAI samples, and at 600 deg. C annealing temperature, F forms clusters with B causing further B deactivation. In the case of 700 deg. C annealing temperature, F probably forms fluorine-vacancy (F-V) clusters that trap silicon interstitials (Is), thus reducing the possibility of forming BICs and, therefore, resulting in B re-activation and suppression of B TED. Conversely, in the 10-keV PAI samples, and irrespective of the annealing temperature, F improves significantly the sheet resistance, and we suggest that this is a result of the contribution of two physical mechanisms: in the EOR region, F is trapped into DLs, which release less Is than other types of defects. In the amorphous part of Si, there are probably F-V clusters that trap the Is released from the EOR region. Although F in most cases improves B deactivation, it increases the reverse leakage currents, probably due to the stabilization of the EOR defects. As regards the carrier-transport mechanisms, it has been found that the dominant mechanism is the generation-recombination process under forward bias as well as under

  19. Doping of nano structures for light emitting diode applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S. W.; Yoo, H. J.; Jeong, E. S.; Park, S. H.

    2006-04-01

    Lighting Emitting Diodes (LED) have been widely studied and developed for practical applications and the LED market in the world have been dramatically expended. GaN-based LEDs are mostly used. However, for diverse application, we should first solved several problems in the GaN-based LEDs, thermal heating effects and low light emitting efficiency. The thermal heating effects reduce the life time of LEDs and the low light emitting efficiency are disadvantageous in competition with electric lights. In this project, we studied the possibility of ZnO nanomaterials as LEDs. We have developed a techniques to fabricated reproducible ZnO nanorod arrays on various substrates with 40 - 100 nm diameters. We have successfully fabricated two-dimensional ZnO film growth on one-dimensional nanorods. We have also systematically studied ZnO nanorod growth on GaN and Al 2 O 3 substrated with different proton treatments to understand the ZnO nanorod growth mechanism. These techniques will be used to develop p-ZnO/n-ZnO nanomaterials as LEDs

  20. Si light-emitting device in integrated photonic CMOS ICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kaikai; Snyman, Lukas W.; Aharoni, Herzl

    2017-07-01

    The motivation for integrated Si optoelectronics is the creation of low-cost photonics for mass-market applications. Especially, the growing demand for sensitive biochemical sensors in the environmental control or medicine leads to the development of integrated high resolution sensors. Here CMOS-compatible Si light-emitting device structures are presented for investigating the effect of various depletion layer profiles and defect engineering on the photonic transition in the 1.4-2.8 eV. A novel Si device is proposed to realize both a two-terminal Si-diode light-emitting device and a three-terminal Si gate-controlled diode light-emitting device in the same device structure. In addition to the spectral analysis, differences between two-terminal and three-terminal devices are discussed, showing the light emission efficiency change. The proposed Si optical source may find potential applications in micro-photonic systems and micro-optoelectro-mechanical systems (MOEMS) in CMOS integrated circuitry.

  1. Organic light-emitting diodes with direct contact-printed red, green, blue, and white light-emitting layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sun-Zen; Peng, Shiang-Hau; Ting, Tzu-Yu; Wu, Po-Shien; Lin, Chun-Hao; Chang, Chin-Yeh; Shyue, Jing-Jong; Jou, Jwo-Huei

    2012-10-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of using direct contact-printing in the fabrication of monochromatic and polychromatic organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Bright devices with red, green, blue, and white contact-printed light-emitting layers with a respective maximum luminance of 29 000, 29 000, 4000, and 18 000 cd/m2 were obtained with sound film integrity by blending a polymeric host into a molecular host. For the red OLED as example, the maximum luminance was decreased from 29 000 to 5000 cd/m2 as only the polymeric host was used, or decreased to 7000 cd/m2 as only the molecular host was used. The markedly improved device performance achieved in the devices with blended hosts may be attributed to the employed polymeric host that contributed a good film-forming character, and the molecular host that contributed a good electroluminescence character.

  2. The dynamic behavior of thin-film ionic transition metal complex-based light-emitting electrochemical cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Sebastian B., E-mail: sebastian.meier@belectric.com, E-mail: wiebke.sarfert@siemens.com [Department of Materials Science VI: Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, CT RTC MAT IEC-DE, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Hartmann, David; Sarfert, Wiebke, E-mail: sebastian.meier@belectric.com, E-mail: wiebke.sarfert@siemens.com [Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, CT RTC MAT IEC-DE, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Winnacker, Albrecht [Department of Materials Science VI: Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-09-14

    Light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) have received increasing attention during recent years due to their simple architecture, based on solely air-stabile materials, and ease of manufacture in ambient atmosphere, using solution-based technologies. The LEC's active layer offers semiconducting, luminescent as well as ionic functionality resulting in device physical processes fundamentally different as compared with organic light-emitting diodes. During operation, electrical double layers (EDLs) form at the electrode interfaces as a consequence of ion accumulation and electrochemical doping sets in leading to the in situ development of a light-emitting p-i-n junction. In this paper, we comment on the use of impedance spectroscopy in combination with complex nonlinear squares fitting to derive key information about the latter events in thin-film ionic transition metal complex-based light-emitting electrochemical cells based on the model compound bis-2-phenylpyridine 6-phenyl-2,2´-bipyridine iridium(III) hexafluoridophosphate ([Ir(ppy)₂(pbpy)][PF₆]). At operating voltages below the bandgap potential of the ionic complex used, we obtain the dielectric constant of the active layer, the conductivity of mobile ions, the transference numbers of electrons and ions, and the thickness of the EDLs, whereas the transient thickness of the p-i-n junction is determined at voltages above the bandgap potential. Most importantly, we find that charge transport is dominated by the ions when carrier injection from the electrodes is prohibited, that ion movement is limited by the presence of transverse internal interfaces and that the width of the intrinsic region constitutes almost 60% of the total active layer thickness in steady state at a low operating voltage.

  3. Polarized emission from light-emitting electrochemical cells using uniaxially oriented polymer thin films of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-bithiophene)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Masumi; Sakanoue, Tomo; Takenobu, Taishi

    2018-03-01

    Uniaxially oriented poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-bithiophene) (F8T2) films were prepared on rubbed polyimide substrates and applied to emitting layers of light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs). The layered structure of the uniaxially oriented F8T2 film and ionic liquid electrolytes enabled us to demonstrate LEC operations with high anisotropic characteristics both in emission and charge transport. Polarized electroluminescence (EL) from electrochemically induced p-n junctions in the uniaxially oriented F8T2 was obtained. The dichroic ratios of EL were the same as those of photoluminescence, suggesting that the doping process into the oriented F8T2 did not interrupt the polymer ordering. This indicates the usefulness of the layered structure of the polymer/electrolyte for the fabrication of LECs based on highly oriented polymer films. In addition, uniaxially oriented F8T2 was found to show reduced threshold energy in optically pumped amplified spontaneous emission. These demonstrations suggest the advantage of uniaxially oriented polymer-based LECs for potential application in future electrically pumped lasers.

  4. Improved power efficiency of blue fluorescent organic light-emitting diode with intermixed host structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Shouzhen; Zhang, Shiming; Zhang, Zhensong; Wu, Yukun; Wang, Peng; Guo, Runda; Chen, Yu; Qu, Dalong; Wu, Qingyang; Zhao, Yi, E-mail: yizhao@jlu.edu.cn; Liu, Shiyong

    2013-11-15

    High power efficiency (PE) p-bis(p-N,N-diphenyl-aminostyryl)benzene (DSA-ph) based fluorescent blue organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is demonstrated by utilizing intermixed host (IH) structure. The PE outperforms those devices based on single host (SH), mixed host (MH), and double emitting layers (DELs). By further optimizing the intermixed layer, peak PE of the IH device is increased up to 8.7 lm/W (1.7 times higher than conventional SH device), which is the highest value among the DSA-ph based blue device reported so far. -- Highlights: • DSA-ph based blue fluorescent OLEDs are fabricated. • The intermixed host structure is first introduced into the blue devices. • Blue device with the highest power efficiency based on DSA-ph is obtained.

  5. A fast and zero-biased photodetector based on GaTe-InSe vertical 2D p-n heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, W.; Jin, Z.; Yuan, J.; Zhang, J.; Jia, S.; Dong, L.; Yoon, J.; Zhou, L.; Vajtai, R.; Tour, J. M.; Ajayan, P. M.; Hu, P.; Lou, J.

    2018-04-01

    p-n junctions serve as the building blocks for fundamental semiconductor devices, such as solar cells, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and photodetectors. With recent studies unveiling the excellent optoelectronic properties of two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, they are considered to be superb candidates for high performance p-n junctions. Here, we fabricate a vertical GaTe-InSe van der Waals (vdWs) p-n heterojunction by a PDMS-assisted transfer technique without etching. The fabricated p-n heterojunction shows gate-tunable current-rectifying behavior with a rectification factor reaching 1000. In addition, it features fast photodetection under zero bias as well as a high power conversion efficiency (PCE). Under 405 nm laser excitation, the zero-biased photodetector shows a high responsivity of 13.8 mA W-1 as well as a high external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 4.2%. Long-term stability is also observed and a response time of 20 µs is achieved due to stable and fast carrier transit through the built-in electric field in the depletion region. Fast and efficient charge separation in the vertical 2D p-n junction paves the way for developing 2D photodetectors with zero dark current, high speed and low power consumption.

  6. Capturing triplet emission in white organic light emitting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jai [Faculty of EHSE, School of Engineering and IT, B-purple-12, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT 0909 (Australia)

    2011-08-15

    The state-of-the art in the white organic light emitting devices (WOLEDs) is reviewed for further developments with a view to enhance the capture of triplet emission. In particular, applying the new exciton-spin-orbit-photon interaction operator as a perturbation, rates of spontaneous emission are calculated in a few phosphorescent materials and compared with experimental results. For iridium based phosphorescent materials the rates agree quite well with the experimental results. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Improved emission spectrum from quantum dot superluminescent light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L.H.; Rossetti, M.; Fiore, A. [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Electronics, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Occhi, L.; Velez, C. [EXALOS AG, Technoparkstrasse 1, 8005 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2006-12-15

    The size dispersion of InAs quantum dots (QD) was optimized to broaden the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. A broad PL spectral width up to 96 nm is achieved from a single QD layer with InAs thickness smaller than 2.4 monolayers at a growth temperature of 510 C. QD Superluminescent light emitting diodes with an ultrawide (115 nm), smooth output spectrum are obtained by incorporating this QD layer into chirped stacked structures. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Light-emitting diodes - Their potential in biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Naichia Gary; Wu, Chia-Hao [College of Applied Sciences, MingDao University, 369 Wen-Hua Road, Peetou, Changhua 52345 (China); Cheng, Ta Chih [Department of Tropical Agriculture and International Cooperation, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 1 Hseuh-Fu Rd., Nei-Pu Hsiang, Pingtung 91201 (China)

    2010-10-15

    The rapid development of high brightness light-emitting diodes (LEDs) makes feasible the use of LEDs, among other light sources (such as laser, intense pulse light and other incoherent light systems), for medical treatment and light therapy. This paper provides a general review on red, green, blue, ultraviolet LED applications in photo rejuvenation and medical treatments of a variety of physical abnormalities, as well as the relief of stress, circadian rhythm disorders, and seasonal affective disorder. The review, concentrated in the papers published after 1990, intends to show that LEDs are well qualified to succeed its more energy demanding counterparts in the named areas and beyond. (author)

  9. Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Simone; Thomschke, Michael; Lüssem, Björn; Leo, Karl

    2011-11-07

    We review top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), which are beneficial for lighting and display applications, where non-transparent substrates are used. The optical effects of the microcavity structure as well as the loss mechanisms are discussed. Outcoupling techniques and the work on white top-emitting OLEDs are summarized. We discuss the power dissipation spectra for a monochrome and a white top-emitting OLED and give quantitative reports on the loss channels. Furthermore, the development of inverted top-emitting OLEDs is described.

  10. White polymer light-emitting diode based on polymer blending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Kyun; Kwon, Soon Kab; Kim, Jun Young; Park, Tae Jin; Song, Dae Ho; Kwon, Jang Hyuk; Choo, Dong Jun; Jang, Jin; Jin, Jae Kyu; You, Hong

    2006-01-01

    A series of white polymer light emitting devices have been fabricated by using a polymer blending system of polyfluorene-based blue and MEH-PPV red polymers. A device structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/polymer/LiF/Al was employed. The white polymer device exhibited a current efficiency of 4.33 cd/A (4,816 cd/m 2 , Q.E. = 1.9 %) and a maximum luminance of 21,430 cd/m 2 at 9.2 V. The CIE coordinates were (0.35, 0.37) at 5 V and (0.29, 0.30) at 9 V.

  11. Investigation of phosphorescent blue organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Chien-Shu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Technical University of Braunschweig (Germany); Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Krause, Ralf [Department of Materials Science VI, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Kozlowski, Fryderyk; Hunze, Arvid [Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Kowalsky, Wolfgang [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Technical University of Braunschweig (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Recently, rapid development of phosphorescent materials has significantly improved the efficiency of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). By using efficient phosphorescent emitter materials white OLEDs with high power efficiency values could be demonstrated. But especially blue phosphorescent devices, due to stability issues, need to be further investigated und optimized. In this work, blue OLED devices based on the phosphorescent emitter FIrpic were investigated. Single-carrier hole-only as well as electron-only devices were fabricated and characterized to study the impact of charge carriers on device performance.

  12. Determination of illuminants representing typical white light emitting diodes sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jost, S.; Ngo, M.; Ferrero, A.

    2017-01-01

    is to develop LED-based illuminants that describe typical white LED products based on their Spectral Power Distributions (SPDs). Some of these new illuminants will be recommended in the update of the CIE publication 15 on colorimetry with the other typical illuminants, and among them, some could be used......Solid-state lighting (SSL) products are already in use by consumers and are rapidly gaining the lighting market. Especially, white Light Emitting Diode (LED) sources are replacing banned incandescent lamps and other lighting technologies in most general lighting applications. The aim of this work...... to complement the CIE standard illuminant A for calibration use in photometry....

  13. Photoresponse of poly(para-phenylenevinylene) light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, X.; Raikh, M.; Vardeny, Z.V.; Yang, Y.; Moses, D.

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the photoresponses of poly(para-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) light-emitting diodes (LED's) with PPV derivatives sandwiched between tin oxide (ITO) and metals including calcium, aluminum, and copper. Under illumination all diodes exhibit relatively large photoconductive I(V) responses which cross the dark I(V) curve at a forward-bias voltage V 0 that scales with the difference in work functions between the ITO and metal electrodes, the open-circuit voltage saturates at V 0 and is temperature independent, and the enhanced electroluminescence intensity of the illuminated LED's correlates with the photocurrent

  14. Optimization of freeform lightpipes for light-emitting-diode projectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Florian; Rolland, Jannick

    2008-03-01

    Standard nonimaging components used to collect and integrate light in light-emitting-diode-based projector light engines such as tapered rods and compound parabolic concentrators are compared to optimized freeform shapes in terms of transmission efficiency and spatial uniformity. We show that the simultaneous optimization of the output surface and the profile shape yields transmission efficiency within the étendue limit up to 90% and spatial uniformity higher than 95%, even for compact sizes. The optimization process involves a manual study of the trends for different shapes and the use of an optimization algorithm to further improve the performance of the freeform lightpipe.

  15. Sensor Fabrication Method for in Situ Temperature and Humidity Monitoring of Light Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yuan Lee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work micro temperature and humidity sensors are fabricated to measure the junction temperature and humidity of light emitting diodes (LED. The junction temperature is frequently measured using thermal resistance measurement technology. The weakness of this method is that the timing of data capture is not regulated by any standard. This investigation develops a device that can stably and continually measure temperature and humidity. The device is light-weight and can monitor junction temperature and humidity in real time. Using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS, this study minimizes the size of the micro temperature and humidity sensors, which are constructed on a stainless steel foil substrate (40 μm-thick SS-304. The micro temperature and humidity sensors can be fixed between the LED chip and frame. The sensitivities of the micro temperature and humidity sensors are 0.06 ± 0.005 (Ω/°C and 0.033 pF/%RH, respectively.

  16. Light collection optics for measuring flux and spectrum from light-emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Mark A.; DiRegolo, Joseph A.; Gluszczak, Michael R.

    2016-05-24

    Systems and methods for accurately measuring the luminous flux and color (spectra) from light-emitting devices are disclosed. An integrating sphere may be utilized to directly receive a first portion of light emitted by a light-emitting device through an opening defined on the integrating sphere. A light collector may be utilized to collect a second portion of light emitted by the light-emitting device and direct the second portion of light into the integrating sphere through the opening defined on the integrating sphere. A spectrometer may be utilized to measure at least one property of the first portion and the second portion of light received by the integrating sphere.

  17. Printing method for organic light emitting device lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Hyun Chul; Kim, Seon Hoon; Kim, Doo-Gun; Kim, Tae-Un; Kim, Snag-Gi; Hong, Kyung-Jin; So, Soon-Yeol

    2013-03-01

    Organic Light Emitting Device (OLED) has a characteristic to change the electric energy into the light when the electric field is applied to the organic material. OLED is currently employed as a light source for the lighting tools because research has extensively progressed in the improvement of luminance, efficiency, and life time. OLED is widely used in the plate display device because of a simple manufacture process and high emitting efficiency. But most of OLED lighting projects were used the vacuum evaporator (thermal evaporator) with low molecular. Although printing method has lower efficiency and life time of OLED than vacuum evaporator method, projects of printing OLED actively are progressed because was possible to combine with flexible substrate and printing technology. Printing technology is ink-jet, screen printing and slot coating. This printing method allows for low cost and mass production techniques and large substrates. In this research, we have proposed inkjet printing for organic light-emitting devices has the dominant method of thick film deposition because of its low cost and simple processing. In this research, the fabrication of the passive matrix OLED is achieved by inkjet printing, using a polymer phosphorescent ink. We are measured optical and electrical characteristics of OLED.

  18. Blue Light Emitting Polyphenylene Dendrimers with Bipolar Charge Transport Moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Two light-emitting polyphenylene dendrimers with both hole and electron transporting moieties were synthesized and characterized. Both molecules exhibited pure blue emission solely from the pyrene core and efficient surface-to-core energy transfers when characterized in a nonpolar environment. In particular, the carbazole- and oxadiazole-functionalized dendrimer (D1 manifested a pure blue emission from the pyrene core without showing intramolecular charge transfer (ICT in environments with increasing polarity. On the other hand, the triphenylamine- and oxadiazole-functionalized one (D2 displayed notable ICT with dual emission from both the core and an ICT state in highly polar solvents. D1, in a three-layer organic light emitting diode (OLED by solution processing gave a pure blue emission with Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage 1931 CIE xy = (0.16, 0.12, a peak current efficiency of 0.21 cd/A and a peak luminance of 2700 cd/m2. This represents the first reported pure blue dendrimer emitter with bipolar charge transport and surface-to-core energy transfer in OLEDs.

  19. Blue Light Emitting Polyphenylene Dendrimers with Bipolar Charge Transport Moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang; Auer-Berger, Manuel; Gehrig, Dominik W; Blom, Paul W M; Baumgarten, Martin; Schollmeyer, Dieter; List-Kratochvil, E J W; Müllen, Klaus

    2016-10-20

    Two light-emitting polyphenylene dendrimers with both hole and electron transporting moieties were synthesized and characterized. Both molecules exhibited pure blue emission solely from the pyrene core and efficient surface-to-core energy transfers when characterized in a nonpolar environment. In particular, the carbazole- and oxadiazole-functionalized dendrimer ( D1 ) manifested a pure blue emission from the pyrene core without showing intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) in environments with increasing polarity. On the other hand, the triphenylamine- and oxadiazole-functionalized one ( D2 ) displayed notable ICT with dual emission from both the core and an ICT state in highly polar solvents. D1 , in a three-layer organic light emitting diode (OLED) by solution processing gave a pure blue emission with Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage 1931 CIE xy = (0.16, 0.12), a peak current efficiency of 0.21 cd/A and a peak luminance of 2700 cd/m². This represents the first reported pure blue dendrimer emitter with bipolar charge transport and surface-to-core energy transfer in OLEDs.

  20. New Optoelectronic Technology Simplified for Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre F. S. Guedes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED, using an optically transparent substrate material and organic semiconductor materials, has been widely utilized by the electronic industry when producing new technological products. The OLED are the base Poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene, PEDOT, and Polyaniline, PANI, were deposited in Indium Tin Oxide, ITO, and characterized by UV-Visible Spectroscopy (UV-Vis, Optical Parameters (OP and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. In addition, the thin film obtained by the deposition of PANI, prepared in perchloric acid solution, was identified through PANI-X1. The result obtained by UV-Vis has demonstrated that the Quartz/ITO/PEDOT/PANI-X1 layer does not have displacement of absorption for wavelengths greaters after spin-coating and electrodeposition. Thus, the spectral irradiance of the OLED informed the irradiance of 100 W/m2, and this result, compared with the standard Light Emitting Diode (LED, has indicated that the OLED has higher irradiance. After 1000 hours of electrical OLED tests, the appearance of nanoparticles visible for images by SEM, to the migration process of organic semiconductor materials, was present, then. Still, similar to the phenomenon of electromigration observed in connections and interconnections of microelectronic devices, the results have revealed a new mechanism of migration, which raises the passage of electric current in OLED.

  1. Organic Light-Emitting Transistors: Materials, Device Configurations, and Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Congcong; Chen, Penglei; Hu, Wenping

    2016-03-09

    Organic light-emitting transistors (OLETs) represent an emerging class of organic optoelectronic devices, wherein the electrical switching capability of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and the light-generation capability of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are inherently incorporated in a single device. In contrast to conventional OFETs and OLEDs, the planar device geometry and the versatile multifunctional nature of OLETs not only endow them with numerous technological opportunities in the frontier fields of highly integrated organic electronics, but also render them ideal scientific scaffolds to address the fundamental physical events of organic semiconductors and devices. This review article summarizes the recent advancements on OLETs in light of materials, device configurations, operation conditions, etc. Diverse state-of-the-art protocols, including bulk heterojunction, layered heterojunction and laterally arranged heterojunction structures, as well as asymmetric source-drain electrodes, and innovative dielectric layers, which have been developed for the construction of qualified OLETs and for shedding new and deep light on the working principles of OLETs, are highlighted by addressing representative paradigms. This review intends to provide readers with a deeper understanding of the design of future OLETs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Highly Efficient Spectrally Stable Red Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Zhou, Chenkun; Worku, Michael; Wang, Xi; Ling, Yichuan; Gao, Hanwei; Zhou, Yan; Miao, Yu; Guan, Jingjiao; Ma, Biwu

    2018-05-01

    Perovskite light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have recently attracted great research interest for their narrow emissions and solution processability. Remarkable progress has been achieved in green perovskite LEDs in recent years, but not blue or red ones. Here, highly efficient and spectrally stable red perovskite LEDs with quasi-2D perovskite/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) composite thin films as the light-emitting layer are reported. By controlling the molar ratios of organic salt (benzylammonium iodide) to inorganic salts (cesium iodide and lead iodide), luminescent quasi-2D perovskite thin films are obtained with tunable emission colors from red to deep red. The perovskite/polymer composite approach enables quasi-2D perovskite/PEO composite thin films to possess much higher photoluminescence quantum efficiencies and smoothness than their neat quasi-2D perovskite counterparts. Electrically driven LEDs with emissions peaked at 638, 664, 680, and 690 nm have been fabricated to exhibit high brightness and external quantum efficiencies (EQEs). For instance, the perovskite LED with an emission peaked at 680 nm exhibits a brightness of 1392 cd m -2 and an EQE of 6.23%. Moreover, exceptional electroluminescence spectral stability under continuous device operation has been achieved for these red perovskite LEDs. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Solution-processed n-ZnO nanorod/p-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoplate heterojunction light-emitting diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong-Woo; Lee, Su Jeong; Biswas, Pranab [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae Il [Department of BioNano Technology, Gachon University, 1342 Seongnam Daero, Seongnam 13120 (Korea, Republic of); Myoung, Jae-Min, E-mail: jmmyoung@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • The n-ZnO nanorods were epitaxially grown on p-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoplates. • The heteroepitaxial p-n junction was fabricated by using hydrothermal process. • The LEDs emitted reddish-orange and violet light related to ZnO point defects. • The Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoplates function as a hole injection layer. • Junction between 1D NRs and 2D NPs provides a new approach to design nanostructures. - Abstract: A heterojunction light-emitting diode (LED) based on p-type cobalt oxide (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoplates (NPs)/n-type zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) is demonstrated. Using a low-temperature aqueous solution process, the n-type ZnO NRs were epitaxially grown on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs which were two-dimensionally assembled by a modified Langmuir-Blodgett process. The heterojunction LEDs exhibited a typical rectifying behavior with a turn-on voltage of about 2 V and emitted not only reddish-orange light at 610 nm but also violet light at about 400 nm. From the comparative analyses of electroluminescence and photoluminescence, it was determined that the reddish-orange light emission was related to the electronic transitions from zinc interstitials (Zn{sub i}) to oxygen interstitials (O{sub i}) or conduction-band minimum (CBM) to oxygen vacancies (V{sub O}), and the violet light emission was attribute to the transition from CBM to valence-band maximum (VBM) or Zn{sub i} to zinc vacancies (V{sub Zn}).

  4. III-nitride based light emitting diodes and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Jung; Amano, Hiroshi; Morkoç, Hadis

    2013-01-01

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are already used in traffic signals, signage lighting, and automotive applications. However, its ultimate goal is to replace traditional illumination through LED lamps since LED lighting significantly reduces energy consumption and cuts down on carbon-dioxide emission. Despite dramatic advances in LED technologies (e.g., growth, doping and processing technologies), however, there remain critical issues for further improvements yet to be achieved for the realization of solid-state lighting. This book aims to provide the readers with some contemporary LED issues, which have not been comprehensively discussed in the published books and, on which the performance of LEDs is seriously dependent. For example, most importantly, there must be a breakthrough in the growth of high-quality nitride semiconductor epitaxial layers with a low density of dislocations, in particular, in the growth of Al-rich and and In-rich GaN-based semiconductors. The materials quality is directly dependent on th...

  5. Current path in light emitting diodes based on nanowire ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limbach, F; Hauswald, C; Lähnemann, J; Wölz, M; Brandt, O; Trampert, A; Hanke, M; Jahn, U; Calarco, R; Geelhaar, L; Riechert, H

    2012-01-01

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been fabricated using ensembles of free-standing (In, Ga)N/GaN nanowires (NWs) grown on Si substrates in the self-induced growth mode by molecular beam epitaxy. Electron-beam-induced current analysis, cathodoluminescence as well as biased μ-photoluminescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electrical measurements indicate that the electroluminescence of such LEDs is governed by the differences in the individual current densities of the single-NW LEDs operated in parallel, i.e. by the inhomogeneity of the current path in the ensemble LED. In addition, the optoelectronic characterization leads to the conclusion that these NWs exhibit N-polarity and that the (In, Ga)N quantum well states in the NWs are subject to a non-vanishing quantum confined Stark effect. (paper)

  6. Cooling analysis of a light emitting diode automotive fog lamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadravec Matej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of cooling fins inside of a light emitting diode fog lamp is studied using computational fluid dynamics. Diffusion in heat sink, natural convection and radiation are the main principles of the simulated heat transfer. The Navier-Stokes equations were solved by the computational fluid dynamics code, including Monte Carlo radiation model and no additional turbulence model was needed. The numerical simulation is tested using the existing lamp geometry and temperature measurements. The agreement is excellent inside of few degrees at all measured points. The main objective of the article is to determine the cooling effect of various heat sink parts. Based on performed simulations, some heat sink parts are found to be very ineffective. The geometry and heat sink modifications are proposed. While radiation influence is significant, compressible effects are found to be minor.

  7. Analytic formalism for current crowding in light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyu-Seok

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analytic approach to simulating current crowding (CC) in light-emitting diodes with parallel p- and n-contacts. The electrical potential difference across the p-i-n layers is derived from the Laplace equation, whereas the current density through the p-i-n layers is obtained from the current density - voltage relation of a single-diode model. Since these two properties influence each other, they are calculated iteratively. It is found that CC depends on the applied voltage (or the average current density), the sheet resistances of the p- and the n-contact layers, the width of the active region, and the specific series resistance and ideality factor of the p-i-n layers. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Quantum key distribution with an entangled light emitting diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzurnak, B.; Stevenson, R. M.; Nilsson, J.; Dynes, J. F.; Yuan, Z. L.; Skiba-Szymanska, J.; Shields, A. J. [Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-28

    Measurements performed on entangled photon pairs shared between two parties can allow unique quantum cryptographic keys to be formed, creating secure links between users. An advantage of using such entangled photon links is that they can be adapted to propagate entanglement to end users of quantum networks with only untrusted nodes. However, demonstrations of quantum key distribution with entangled photons have so far relied on sources optically excited with lasers. Here, we realize a quantum cryptography system based on an electrically driven entangled-light-emitting diode. Measurement bases are passively chosen and we show formation of an error-free quantum key. Our measurements also simultaneously reveal Bell's parameter for the detected light, which exceeds the threshold for quantum entanglement.

  9. Dr. Harry Whelan With the Light Emitting Diode Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The red light from the Light Emitting Diode (LED) probe shines through the fingers of Dr. Harry Whelan, a pediatric neurologist at the Children's Hospital of Wisconsin in Milwaukee. Dr. Whelan uses the long waves of light from the LED surgical probe to activate special drugs that kill brain tumors. Laser light previously has been used for this type of surgery, but the LED light illuminates through all nearby tissues, reaching parts of tumors that shorter wavelengths of laser light carnot. The new probe is safer because the longer wavelengths of light are cooler than the shorter wavelengths of laser light, making the LED less likely to injure normal brain tissue near the tumor. Also, it can be used for hours at a time while still remaining cool to the touch. The probe was developed for photodynamic cancer therapy under a NASA Small Business Innovative Research Program grant. The program is part of NASA's Technology Transfer Department at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  10. Kinetics of transient electroluminescence in organic light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Manju; Kumar, Pankaj; Chand, Suresh; Brahme, Nameeta; Kher, R. S.; Khokhar, M. S. K.

    2008-08-01

    Mathematical simulation on the rise and decay kinetics of transient electroluminescence (EL) in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is presented. The transient EL is studied with respect to a step voltage pulse. While rising, for lower values of time, the EL intensity shows a quadratic dependence on (t - tdel), where tdel is the time delay observed in the onset of EL, and finally attains saturation at a sufficiently large time. When the applied voltage is switched off, the initial EL decay shows an exponential dependence on (t - tdec), where tdec is the time when the voltage is switched off. The simulated results are compared with the transient EL performance of a bilayer OLED based on small molecular bis(2-methyl 8-hydroxyquinoline)(triphenyl siloxy) aluminium (SAlq). Transient EL studies have been carried out at different voltage pulse amplitudes. The simulated results show good agreement with experimental data. Using these simulated results the lifetime of the excitons in SAlq has also been calculated.

  11. Smartphone-Driven Low-Power Light-Emitting Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hea-Ja An

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-level light (laser therapy (LLLT has been widely researched in the recent past. Existing LLLT studies were performed based on laser. Recently, studies using LED have increased. This study presents a smartphone-driven low-power light-emitting device for use in colour therapy as an alternative medicine. The device consists of a control unit and a colour probe. The device is powered by and communicates with a smartphone using USB On-The-Go (OTG technology. The control unit controls emitting time and intensity of illumination with the configuration value of a smartphone application. Intensity is controlled by pulse width modulation (PWM without feedback. A calibration is performed to resolve a drawback of no feedback. To calibrate, intensity is measured in every 10 percent PWM output. PWM value is linearly calibrated to obtain accurate intensity. The device can control the intensity of illumination, and so, it can find application in varied scenarios.

  12. Blue fluorescent organic light emitting diodes with multilayered graphene anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Joohyun; Choi, Hong Kyw; Moon, Jaehyun; Shin, Jin-Wook; Joo, Chul Woong; Han, Jun-Han; Cho, Doo-Hee; Huh, Jin Woo; Choi, Sung-Yool; Lee, Jeong-Ik; Chu, Hye Yong

    2012-01-01

    As an innovative anode for organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), we have investigated graphene films. Graphene has importance due to its huge potential in flexible OLED applications. In this work, graphene films have been catalytically grown and transferred to the glass substrate for OLED fabrications. We have successfully fabricated 2 mm × 2 mm device area blue fluorescent OLEDs with graphene anodes which showed 2.1% of external quantum efficiency at 1000 cd/m 2 . This is the highest value reported among fluorescent OLEDs using graphene anodes. Oxygen plasma treatment on graphene has been found to improve hole injections in low voltage regime, which has been interpreted as oxygen plasma induced work function modification. However, plasma treatment also increases the sheet resistance of graphene, limiting the maximum luminance. In summary, our works demonstrate the practical possibility of graphene as an anode material for OLEDs and suggest a processing route which can be applied to various graphene related devices.

  13. Quantum dot superluminescent light emitting diodes: Ideal blackbody radiators?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, Martin; Elsaesser, Wolfgang [Institute of Applied Physics, Darmstadt University of Technology (Germany); Hopkinson, Mark [Dept. E and E.E, University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Krakowski, Michel [Alcatel Thales, III-V Lab. (France)

    2008-07-01

    Quantum dot (QD) superluminescent light emitting diodes (SLEDs) provide large optical bandwidths at desired wavelengths and are therefore promising devices for incoherent light application. The intensity noise behavior of QD SLEDs is of fundamental physical interest as it provides insight into the photon emission process. We performed high precision intensity noise measurements over several decades of optical output power. For low driving currents spontaneous emission leads to Shot Noise. For high currents we find excess noise behavior with Amplified Spontaneous Emission acting as the dominant source of noise. The QD SLEDs' noise can be described as blackbody radiation noise with a limited number of optical modes. It is therefore possible to identify the SLEDs' relevant intensity noise parameters.

  14. Chemically Addressable Perovskite Nanocrystals for Light-Emitting Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Haizhu

    2017-07-10

    Whereas organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite nanocrystals (PNCs) have remarkable potential in the development of optoelectronic materials, their relatively poor chemical and colloidal stability undermines their performance in optoelectronic devices. Herein, this issue is addressed by passivating PNCs with a class of chemically addressable ligands. The robust ligands effectively protect the PNC surfaces, enhance PNC solution processability, and can be chemically addressed by thermally induced crosslinking or radical-induced polymerization. This thin polymer shield further enhances the photoluminescence quantum yields by removing surface trap states. Crosslinked methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3) PNCs are applied as active materials to build light-emitting diodes that have low turn-on voltages and achieve a record luminance of over 7000 cd m−2, around threefold better than previous reported MA-based PNC devices. These results indicate the great potential of this ligand passivation approach for long lifespan, highly efficient PNC light emitters.

  15. Oxycarbonitride phosphors and light emitting devices using the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanqiang; Romanelli, Michael Dennis; Tian, Yongchi

    2013-10-08

    Disclosed herein is a novel family of oxycarbidonitride phosphor compositions and light emitting devices incorporating the same. Within the sextant system of M--Al--Si--O--N--C--Ln and quintuplet system of M--Si--O--N--C--Ln (M=alkaline earth element, Ln=rare earth element), the phosphors are composed of either one single crystalline phase or two crystalline phases with high chemical and thermal stability. In certain embodiments, the disclosed phosphor of silicon oxycarbidonitrides emits green light at wavelength between 530-550 nm. In further embodiments, the disclosed phosphor compositions emit blue-green to yellow light in a wavelength range of 450-650 nm under near-UV and blue light excitation.

  16. Hybrid perovskites: Approaches towards light-emitting devices

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2016-10-06

    The high optical gain and absorption of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have attracted extensive research for photonic device applications. Using the bromide halide as an example, we present key approaches of our work towards realizing efficient perovskites based light-emitters. The approaches involved determination of optical constants for the hybrid perovskites thin films, fabrication of photonic nanostructures in the form of subwavelength grating reflector patterned directly on the hybrid perovskites as light manipulation layer, and enhancing the emission property of the hybrid perovskites by using microcavity structure. Our results provide a platform for realization of hybrid perovskites based light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting and display applications. © 2016 IEEE.

  17. Surface displacement imaging by interferometry with a light emitting diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilhaire, Stefan; Grauby, Stephane; Jorez, Sebastien; Lopez, Luis David Patino; Rampnoux, Jean-Michel; Claeys, Wilfrid

    2002-01-01

    We present an imaging technique to measure static surface displacements of electronic components. A device is supplied by a transient current that creates a variation of temperature, thus a surface displacement. To measure the latter, a setup that is based on a Michelson interferometer is used. To avoid the phenomenon of speckle and the drawbacks inherent to it, we use a light emitting diode as the light source for the interferometer. The detector is a visible CCD camera that analyzes the optical signal containing the information of surface displacement of the device. Combining images, we extract the amplitude of the surface displacement. Out-of-plane surface-displacement images of a thermoelectric device are presented

  18. Application of Surface Plasmonics for Semiconductor Light-Emitting Diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadil, Ahmed

    This thesis addresses the lack of an efficient semiconductor light source at green emission colours. Considering InGaN based quantum-well (QW) light-emitters and light-emitting diodes (LEDs), various ways of applying surface plasmonics and nano-patterning to improve the efficiency, are investigated....... By placing metallic thin films or nanoparticles (NPs) in the near-field of QW light-emitters, it is possible to improve their internal quantum efficiency (IQE) through the Purcell enhancement effect. It has been a general understanding that in order to achieve surface plasmon (SP) coupling with QWs......-QW coupling does not necessarily lead to emission enhancement. The findings of this work show that the scattering and absorption properties of NPs play a crucial role in determining whether the implementation will improve or degrade the optical performance. By applying these principles, a novel design...

  19. Light emitting fabric for photodynamic treatment of actinic keratosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thecua, E.; Vicentini, C.; Vignion, A.-S.; Lecomte, F.; Deleporte, P.; Mortier, L.; Szeimies, R.-M.; Mordon, S.

    2017-02-01

    The integration of optical fibers into flexible textile structures, by using knitting or weaving processes can allow the development of flexible light sources. The paper aims to present a new technology: Light Emitting Fabrics (LEF), which can be used for example for PDT of Actinic Keratosis in Dermatology. The predetermined macro-bending of optical fibers, led to a homogeneous side emission of light over the entire surface of the fabric. Tests showed that additional curvatures when applying the LEF on non-planar surfaces had no impact on light delivery and proved that LEF can adapt to the human morphology. The ability of the LEF, coupled with a 635nm LASER source, to deliver a homogeneous light to lesions is currently assessed in a clinical trial for the treatment of AK of the scalp by PDT. The low irradiance and progressive activation of the photosensitizer ensure a pain reduction, compared to discomfort levels experienced by patients during a conventional PDT session.

  20. Hybrid perovskites: Approaches towards light-emitting devices

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Dursun, Ibrahim; Priante, Davide; Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Ng, Tien Khee; Bakr, Osman; Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-01-01

    The high optical gain and absorption of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have attracted extensive research for photonic device applications. Using the bromide halide as an example, we present key approaches of our work towards realizing efficient perovskites based light-emitters. The approaches involved determination of optical constants for the hybrid perovskites thin films, fabrication of photonic nanostructures in the form of subwavelength grating reflector patterned directly on the hybrid perovskites as light manipulation layer, and enhancing the emission property of the hybrid perovskites by using microcavity structure. Our results provide a platform for realization of hybrid perovskites based light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting and display applications. © 2016 IEEE.

  1. High mobility solution-processed hybrid light emitting transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Bright; Kim, Jin Young; Ullah, Mujeeb; Burn, Paul L.; Namdas, Ebinazar B.; Chae, Gil Jo; Cho, Shinuk; Seo, Jung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of high-performance, solution-processed hybrid (inorganic-organic) light emitting transistors (HLETs). The devices employ a high-mobility, solution-processed cadmium sulfide layer as the switching and transport layer, with a conjugated polymer Super Yellow as an emissive material in non-planar source/drain transistor geometry. We demonstrate HLETs with electron mobilities of up to 19.5 cm 2 /V s, current on/off ratios of >10 7 , and external quantum efficiency of 10 −2 % at 2100 cd/m 2 . These combined optical and electrical performance exceed those reported to date for HLETs. Furthermore, we provide full analysis of charge injection, charge transport, and recombination mechanism of the HLETs. The high brightness coupled with a high on/off ratio and low-cost solution processing makes this type of hybrid device attractive from a manufacturing perspective

  2. Longitudinally mounted light emitting plasma in a dielectric resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliard, Richard; DeVincentis, Marc; Hafidi, Abdeslam; O' Hare, Daniel; Hollingsworth, Gregg [LUXIM Corporation, 1171 Borregas Avenue, Sunnyvale, CA 94089 (United States)

    2011-06-08

    Methods for coupling power from a dielectric resonator to a light-emitting plasma have been previously described (Gilliard et al IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. at press). Inevitably, regardless of the efficiency of power transfer, much of the emitted light is absorbed in the resonator itself which physically surrounds much if not all of the radiating material. An investigation into a method is presented here for efficiently coupling power to a longitudinally mounted plasma vessel which is mounted on the surface of the dielectric material of the resonator, thereby eliminating significant absorption of light within the resonator structure. The topology of the resonator and its physical properties as well as those of the metal halide plasma are presented. Results of basic models of the field configuration and plasma are shown as well as a configuration suitable as a practical light source.

  3. Degradation of phosphorescent blue organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Chien-Shu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Technical University of Braunschweig (Germany); Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Steinbacher, Frank [Department of Materials Science VI, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Krause, Ralf; Hunze, Arvid [Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Kowalsky, Wolfgang [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Technical University of Braunschweig (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Development of phosphorescent materials has significantly improved the efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). By using efficient red, green and blue phosphorescent emitter materials high efficient white OLEDs can be achieved. However, due to low stability of blue phosphorescent materials the lifetime of phosphorescent white OLEDs remains an issue. As a result, degradation of blue phosphorescent materials needs to be further investigated and improved. In this work, blue OLED devices based on the phosphorescent emitter FIrpic were investigated. Single-carrier hole-only as well as electron-only devices were fabricated. For investigation of degradation process the devices were stressed with electrical current and UV-light to study the impact of charge carriers as well as excitons and exciton-polaron quenching on the stability of the blue dye.

  4. Origin of electrophosphorescence from a doped polymer light emitting diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, P. A.; Palilis, L. C.; O'Brien, D. F.; Giebeler, C.; Cadby, A. J.; Lidzey, D. G.; Campbell, A. J.; Blau, W.; Bradley, D. D. C.

    2001-01-01

    The origin of electrophosphorescence from a doped polymer light emitting diode (LED) has been investigated. A luminescent polymer host, poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO), was doped with a red phosphorescent dye, 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaethyl-21H,23H-porphyrin platinum(II) (PtOEP). The maximum external quantum efficiency of 3.5% was obtained at a concentration of 4% PtOEP by weight. Energy transfer mechanisms between PFO and PtOEP were studied by absorption, photoluminescence, and photoinduced absorption spectroscopy. Even though electroluminescence spectra were dominated by PtOEP at a concentration of only 0.2 wt% PtOEP, Forster transfer of singlet excitons was weak and there was no evidence for Dexter transfer of triplet excitons. We conclude that the dominant emission mechanism in doped LED's is charge trapping followed by recombination on PtOEP molecules

  5. Diode characteristics and residual deep-level defects of p+n abrupt junctions fabricated by rapid thermal annealing of boron implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usami, A.; Katayama, M.; Wada, T.; Tokuda, Y.

    1987-01-01

    p + n diodes were fabricated by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) of boron implanted silicon in the annealing temperature range 700-1100 0 C for around 7 s, and the RTA temperature dependence of electrical characteristics of these diodes was studied. Deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements were made to evaluate residual deep-level defects in the n-type bulk. Three electron traps were observed in p + n diodes fabricated by RTA at 700 0 C. It was considered that these three traps were residual point defects near the tail of the implantation damage after RTA. Residual defect concentrations increased in the range 700-900 0 C and decreased in the range 1000-1100 0 C. The growth of defects in the bulk was ascribed to the diffusion of defects from the implanted layer during RTA. Concentrations of electron traps observed in p + n diodes fabricated by RTA at 1100 0 C were approx. 10 12 cm -3 . It was found that these residual deep-level defects observed by DLTS were inefficient generation-recombination centres since the reverse current was independent of the RTA temperatures. (author)

  6. Degradation effects of the active region in UV-C light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaab, Johannes; Haefke, Joscha; Ruschel, Jan; Brendel, Moritz; Rass, Jens; Kolbe, Tim; Knauer, Arne; Weyers, Markus; Einfeldt, Sven; Guttmann, Martin; Kuhn, Christian; Enslin, Johannes; Wernicke, Tim; Kneissl, Michael

    2018-03-01

    An extensive analysis of the degradation characteristics of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes emitting around 265 nm is presented. The optical power of LEDs stressed at a constant dc current of 100 mA (current density = 67 A/cm2 and heatsink temperature = 20 °C) decreased to about 58% of its initial value after 250 h of operation. The origin of this degradation effect has been studied using capacitance-voltage and photocurrent spectroscopy measurements conducted before and after aging. The overall device capacitance decreased, which indicates a reduction of the net charges within the space-charge region of the pn-junction during operation. In parallel, the photocurrent at excitation energies between 3.8 eV and 4.5 eV and the photocurrent induced by band-to-band absorption in the quantum barriers at 5.25 eV increased during operation. The latter effect can be explained by a reduction of the donor concentration in the active region of the device. This effect could be attributed to the compensation of donors by the activation or diffusion of acceptors, such as magnesium dopants or group-III vacancies, in the pn-junction space-charge region. The results are consistent with the observed reduction in optical power since deep level acceptors can also act as non-radiative recombination centers.

  7. Manipulating Ion Migration for Highly Stable Light-Emitting Diodes with Single-Crystalline Organometal Halide Perovskite Microplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingming; Shan, Xin; Geske, Thomas; Li, Junqiang; Yu, Zhibin

    2017-06-27

    Ion migration has been commonly observed as a detrimental phenomenon in organometal halide perovskite semiconductors, causing the measurement hysteresis in solar cells and ultrashort operation lifetimes in light-emitting diodes. In this work, ion migration is utilized for the formation of a p-i-n junction at ambient temperature in single-crystalline organometal halide perovskites. The junction is subsequently stabilized by quenching the ionic movement at a low temperature. Such a strategy of manipulating the ion migration has led to efficient single-crystalline light-emitting diodes that emit 2.3 eV photons starting at 1.8 V and sustain a continuous operation for 54 h at ∼5000 cd m -2 without degradation of brightness. In addition, a whispering-gallery-mode cavity and exciton-exciton interaction in the perovskite microplatelets have both been observed that can be potentially useful for achieving electrically driven laser diodes based on single-crystalline organometal halide perovskite semiconductors.

  8. Enhanced Performance of Bipolar Cascade Light Emitting Diodes by Doping the Aluminum Oxide Apertures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siskaninetz, William

    2004-01-01

    Performance improvements in multiple-stage, single-cavity bipolar cascade light emitting diodes including reduced operating voltages, enhanced light generation, and reduced device heating are obtained...

  9. Phosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Diodes Implementing Platinum Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecton, Jeremy Exton

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are a promising approach for display and solid state lighting applications. However, further work is needed in establishing the availability of efficient and stable materials for OLEDs with high external quantum efficiency's (EQE) and high operational lifetimes. Recently, significant improvements in the internal quantum efficiency or ratio of generated photons to injected electrons have been achieved with the advent of phosphorescent complexes with the ability to harvest both singlet and triplet excitons. Since then, a variety of phosphorescent complexes containing heavy metal centers including Os, Ni, Ir, Pd, and Pt have been developed. Thus far, the majority of the work in the field has focused on iridium based complexes. Platinum based complexes, however, have received considerably less attention despite demonstrating efficiency's equal to or better than their iridium analogs. In this study, a series of OLEDs implementing newly developed platinum based complexes were demonstrated with efficiency's or operational lifetimes equal to or better than their iridium analogs for select cases. In addition to demonstrating excellent device performance in OLEDs, platinum based complexes exhibit unique photophysical properties including the ability to form excimer emission capable of generating broad white light emission from a single emitter and the ability to form narrow band emission from a rigid, tetradentate molecular structure for select cases. These unique photophysical properties were exploited and their optical and electrical properties in a device setting were elucidated. Utilizing the unique properties of a tridentate Pt complex, Pt-16, a highly efficient white device employing a single emissive layer exhibited a peak EQE of over 20% and high color quality with a CRI of 80 and color coordinates CIE(x=0.33, y=0.33). Furthermore, by employing a rigid, tetradentate platinum complex, PtN1N, with a narrow band emission into a

  10. Radiation effects on the current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics of advanced p-n junction diodes surrounded by shallow trench isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poyai, A.; Simoen, E.; Claeys, C.; Hayama, K.; Kobayashi, K.; Ohyama, H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of 20 MeV proton irradiation on the current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of different geometry n + -p-well junction diodes surrounded by shallow trench isolation and processed in a 0.18 μm CMOS technology. From I-V characteristics, a higher current damage coefficient was found for the bulk than for the peripheral component. The radiation-induced boron de-activation resulted in a lowering of the p-well doping, which has been derived from high-frequency C-V measurements. This was confirmed by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) analysis, revealing the presence of interstitial boron related radiation defects. As will be demonstrated for the bulk leakage-current damage coefficient, the electric field enhanced generation rate of charge carriers and the radiation-induced boron de-activation should be accounted for properly

  11. Topological Insulator Bi2Se3/Si-Nanowire-Based p-n Junction Diode for High-Performance Near-Infrared Photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Biswajit; Das, Nirmalya S; Sarkar, Samrat; Chatterjee, Biplab K; Chattopadhyay, Kalyan K

    2017-07-12

    Chemically derived topological insulator Bi 2 Se 3 nanoflake/Si nanowire (SiNWs) heterojunctions were fabricated employing all eco-friendly cost-effective chemical route for the first time. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed proper phase formation of Bi 2 Se 3 nanoflakes. The morphological features of the individual components and time-evolved hybrid structures were studied using field emission scanning electron microscope. High resolution transmission electron microscopic studies were performed to investigate the actual nature of junction whereas elemental distributions at junction, along with overall stoichiometry of the samples were analyzed using energy dispersive X-ray studies. Temperature dependent current-voltage characteristics and variation of barrier height and ideality factor was studied between 50 and 300 K. An increase in barrier height and decrease in the ideality factor were observed with increasing temperature for the sample. The rectification ratio (I + /I - ) for SiNWs substrate over pristine Si substrate under dark and near-infrared (NIR) irradiation of 890 nm was found to be 3.63 and 10.44, respectively. Furthermore, opto-electrical characterizations were performed for different light power intensities and highest photo responsivity and detectivity were determined to be 934.1 A/W and 2.30 × 10 13 Jones, respectively. Those values are appreciably higher than previous reports for topological insulator based devices. Thus, this work establishes a hybrid system based on topological insulator Bi 2 Se 3 nanoflake and Si nanowire as the newest efficient candidate for advanced optoelectronic materials.

  12. Light emitting diode excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sean J; JiJi, Renée D

    2002-12-01

    An excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence instrument has been developed using a linear array of light emitting diodes (LED). The wavelengths covered extend from the upper UV through the visible spectrum: 370-640 nm. Using an LED array to excite fluorescence emission at multiple excitation wavelengths is a low-cost alternative to an expensive high power lamp and imaging spectrograph. The LED-EEM system is a departure from other EEM spectroscopy systems in that LEDs often have broad excitation ranges which may overlap with neighboring channels. The LED array can be considered a hybrid between a spectroscopic and sensor system, as the broad LED excitation range produces a partially selective optical measurement. The instrument has been tested and characterized using fluorescent dyes: limits of detection (LOD) for 9,10-bis(phenylethynyl)-anthracene and rhodamine B were in the mid parts-per-trillion range; detection limits for the other compounds were in the low parts-per-billion range (LED-EEMs were analyzed using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), which allowed the mathematical resolution of the individual contributions of the mono- and dianion fluorescein tautomers a priori. Correct identification and quantitation of six fluorescent dyes in two to six component mixtures (concentrations between 12.5 and 500 ppb) has been achieved with root mean squared errors of prediction (RMSEP) of less than 4.0 ppb for all components.

  13. The thermal management of high power light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ming-Seng; Huang, Jen-Wei; Shyu, Feng-Lin

    2012-10-01

    Thermal management had an important influence not only in the life time but also in the efficiency of high power light emitting diodes (HPLEDs). 30 watts in a single package have become standard to the industrial fabricating of HPLEDs. In this study, we fabricated both of the AlN porous films, by vacuum sputtering, soldered onto the HPLEDs lamp to enhance both of the heat transfer and heat dissipation. In our model, the ceramic enables transfer the heat from electric device to the aluminum plate quickly and the porous increase the quality of the thermal dissipation between the PCB and aluminum plate, as compared to the industrial processing. The ceramic films were characterized by several subsequent analyses, especially the measurement of real work temperature. The X-Ray diffraction (XRD) diagram analysis reveals those ceramic phases were successfully grown onto the individual substrates. The morphology of ceramic films was investigated by the atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show those porous films have high thermal conduction to the purpose. At the same time, they had transferred heat and limited work temperature, about 70°, of HPLEDs successfully.

  14. Green Fluorescent Organic Light Emitting Device with High Luminance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning YANG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we fabricated the small molecule green fluorescent bottom-emission organic light emitting device (OLED with the configuration of glass substrate/indium tin oxide (ITO/Copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc 25 nm/ N,N’-di(naphthalen-1-yl-N,N’-diphenyl-benzidine (NPB 45 nm/ tris(8-hydroxyquinoline aluminium (Alq3 60 nm/ Lithium fluoride (LiF 1 nm/Aluminum (Al 100 nm where CuPc and NPB are the hole injection layer and the hole transport layer, respectively. CuPc is introduced in this device to improve carrier injection and efficiency. The experimental results indicated that the turn-on voltage is 2.8 V with a maximum luminance of 23510 cd/m2 at 12 V. The maximum current efficiency and power efficiency are 4.8 cd/A at 100 cd/m2 and 4.2 lm/W at 3 V, respectively. The peak of electroluminance (EL spectrum locates at 530 nm which is typical emission peak of green light. In contrast, the maximum current efficiency and power efficiency of the device without CuPc are only 4.0 cd/A at 100 mA/cm2 and 4.2 lm/W at 3.6 V, respectively.

  15. Efficiency optimization of green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jung Soo; Jeon, Woo Sik; Yu, Jae Hyung [Department of Information Display, Kyung Hee University, Dongdaemoon-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Pode, Ramchandra, E-mail: rbpode@khu.ac.k [Department of Physics, Kyung Hee University, Dongdaemoon-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jang Hyuk, E-mail: jhkwon@khu.ac.k [Department of Information Display, Kyung Hee University, Dongdaemoon-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-01

    Using a narrow band gap host of bis[2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-pyridine]beryllium (Bepp{sub 2}) and green phosphorescent Ir(ppy){sub 3} [fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium III] guest concentration as low as 2%, high efficiency phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (PHOLED) is realized. Current and power efficiencies of 62.5 cd/A (max.), 51.0 lm/W (max.), and external quantum efficiency (max.) of 19.8% are reported in this green PHOLED. A low current efficiency roll-off value of 10% over the brightness of 10,000 cd/m{sup 2} is noticed in this Bepp{sub 2} single host device. Such a high efficiency is obtained by the optimization of the doping concentration with the knowledge of the hole trapping and the emission zone situations in this host-guest system. It is suggested that the reported device performance is suitable for applications in high brightness displays and lighting.

  16. High efficiency electrophosphorescence from bilayer organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Minghang; Lin, Ming-Te; Shepherd, Nigel D [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Chen, Wei-Hsuan; Oswald, Iain; Omary, Mohammad [Department of Chemeistry, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States)

    2011-09-14

    An electron mobility of 2.7 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} was measured for the phosphorescent emitter bis[3,5-bis(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazolato]platinum(II)(Pt(ptp)2), which prompted its evaluation as both the emissive layer and electron transport layer in organic light emitting diodes with a simple bilayer structure. Power and external quantum efficiencies of 54.0 {+-} 0.2 lm W{sup -1} and 15.9% were obtained, which as far as we could ascertain are amongst the highest reported values for bilayer devices. We ascribe the high device efficiency to the combination of the high electron mobility, short excited-state lifetime (117 ns) and high luminescence quantum yield (60%) of the bis[3,5-bis(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazolato]platinum(II). The colour temperature of the devices was 2855 K at 5 V, which places the emission in the 'warm' light spectral region.

  17. Multilayer polymer light-emitting diodes by blade coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shin-Rong; Meng, Hsin-Fei; Lee, Kuan-Chen; Horng, Sheng-Fu

    2008-10-01

    Multilayer polymer light-emitting diodes fabricated by blade coating are presented. Multilayer of polymers can be easily deposited by blade coating on a hot plate. The multilayer structure is confirmed by the total thickness and the cross section view in the scanning electron microscope. The film thickness variation is only 3.3% in 10cm scale and the film roughness is about 0.3nm in the micron scale. The efficiency of single layer poly(para-phenylene vinylene) copolymer Super Yellow and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO, deep blue) devices are 9 and 1.7cd/A, respectively, by blade coating. The efficiency of the PFO device is raised to 2.9cd/A with a 2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-5-(4-biphenylyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD) hole-blocking layer and to 2.3cd/A with a poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-(4,4'-(N-(4-sec-butylphenyl))diphenylamine)] elec-tron-blocking layer added by blade coating.

  18. Applications of Light Emitting Diodes in Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jianfei; Xiong, Daxi

    2017-11-01

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) have become the main light sources for general lighting, due to their high lumen efficiency and long life time. Moreover, their high bandwidth and the availability of diverse wavelength contents ranging from ultraviolet to infrared empower them with great controllability in tuning brightness, pulse durations and spectra. These parameters are the essential ingredients of the applications in medical imaging and therapies. Despite the fast advances in both LED technologies and their applications, few reviews have been seen to link the controllable emission properties of LEDs to these applications. The objective of this paper is to bridge this gap by reviewing the main control techniques of LEDs that enable creating enhanced lighting patterns for imaging and generating effective photon doses for photobiomodulation. This paper also provides the basic mechanisms behind the effective LED therapies in treating cutaneous and neurological diseases. The emerging field of optogenetics is also discussed with a focus on the application of LEDs. The multidisciplinary topics reviewed in this paper can help the researchers in LEDs, imaging, light therapy and optogenetics better understand the basic principles in each other's field; and hence to stimulate the application of LEDs in health care.

  19. Emerging Transparent Conducting Electrodes for Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tze-Bin Song

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs have attracted much attention in recent years as next generation lighting and displays, due to their many advantages, including superb performance, mechanical flexibility, ease of fabrication, chemical versatility, etc. In order to fully realize the highly flexible features, reduce the cost and further improve the performance of OLED devices, replacing the conventional indium tin oxide with better alternative transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs is a crucial step. In this review, we focus on the emerging alternative TCE materials for OLED applications, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs, metallic nanowires, conductive polymers and graphene. These materials are selected, because they have been applied as transparent electrodes for OLED devices and achieved reasonably good performance or even higher device performance than that of indium tin oxide (ITO glass. Various electrode modification techniques and their effects on the device performance are presented. The effects of new TCEs on light extraction, device performance and reliability are discussed. Highly flexible, stretchable and efficient OLED devices are achieved based on these alternative TCEs. These results are summarized for each material. The advantages and current challenges of these TCE materials are also identified.

  20. Thin film Encapsulations of Flexible Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Fa-Ta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Various encapsulated films for flexible organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs were studied in this work, where gas barrier layers including inorganic Al2O3 thin films prepared by atomic layer deposition, organic Parylene C thin films prepared by chemical vapor deposition, and their combination were considered. The transmittance and water vapor transmission rate of the various organic and inorgabic encapsulated films were tested. The effects of the encapsulated films on the luminance and current density of the OLEDs were discussed, and the life time experiments of the OLEDs with these encapsulated films were also conducted. The results showed that the transmittance are acceptable even the PET substrate were coated two Al2O3 and Parylene C layers. The results also indicated the WVTR of the PET substrate improved by coating the barrier layers. In the encapsulation performance, it indicates the OLED with Al2O3 /PET, 1 pair/PET, and 2 pairs/PET presents similarly higher luminance than the other two cases. Although the 1 pair/PET encapsulation behaves a litter better luminance than the 2 pairs/PET encapsulation, the 2 pairs/PET encapsulation has much better life time. The OLED with 2 pairs/PET encapsulation behaves near double life time to the 1 pair encapsulation, and four times to none encapsulation.

  1. Carrier Modulation Layer-Enhanced Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jwo-Huei Jou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic light-emitting diode (OLED-based display products have already emerged in the market and their efficiencies and lifetimes are sound at the comparatively low required luminance. To realize OLED for lighting application sooner, higher light quality and better power efficiency at elevated luminance are still demanded. This review reveals the advantages of incorporating a nano-scale carrier modulation layer (CML, also known as a spacer, carrier-regulating layer, or interlayer, among other terms, to tune the chromaticity and color temperature as well as to markedly improve the device efficiency and color rendering index (CRI for numerous OLED devices. The functions of the CML can be enhanced as multiple layers and blend structures are employed. At proper thickness, the employment of CML enables the device to balance the distribution of carriers in the two emissive zones and achieve high device efficiencies and long operational lifetime while maintaining very high CRI. Moreover, we have also reviewed the effect of using CML on the most significant characteristics of OLEDs, namely: efficiency, luminance, life-time, CRI, SRI, chromaticity, and the color temperature, and see how the thickness tuning and selection of proper CML are crucial to effectively control the OLED device performance.

  2. Engineering of Semiconductor Nanocrystals for Light Emitting Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Todescato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor nanocrystals are rapidly spreading into the display and lighting markets. Compared with liquid crystal and organic LED displays, nanocrystalline quantum dots (QDs provide highly saturated colors, wide color gamut, resolution, rapid response time, optical efficiency, durability and low cost. This remarkable progress has been made possible by the rapid advances in the synthesis of colloidal QDs and by the progress in understanding the intriguing new physics exhibited by these nanoparticles. In this review, we provide support to the idea that suitably engineered core/graded-shell QDs exhibit exceptionally favorable optical properties, photoluminescence and optical gain, while keeping the synthesis facile and producing QDs well suited for light emitting applications. Solid-state laser emitters can greatly profit from QDs as efficient gain materials. Progress towards fabricating low threshold, solution processed DFB lasers that are optically pumped using one- and two-photon absorption is reviewed. In the field of display technologies, the exploitation of the exceptional photoluminescence properties of QDs for LCD backlighting has already advanced to commercial levels. The next big challenge is to develop the electroluminescence properties of QD to a similar state. We present an overview of QLED devices and of the great perspectives for next generation display and lighting technologies.

  3. Instense red phosphors for UV light emitting diode devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fa-Bin; Tian, Yan-Wen; Chen, Yong-Jie; Xiao, Lin-Jiu; Liu, Yun-Yi

    2010-03-01

    Ca(x)Sr1-x-1.5y-0.5zMoO4:yEu3+ zNa+ red phosphors were prepared by solid-state reaction using Na+ as charge supply for LEDs (light emitting diodes). The content of charge compensator, Ca2+ concentration, synthesis temperature, reaction time, and Eu3+ concentration were the keys to improving the properties of luminescence and crystal structure of red phosphors. The photoluminescence spectra shows the red phosphors are effectively excited at 616 nm by 311 nm, 395 nm, and 465 nm light. The wavelengths of 395 and 465 nm nicely match the widely applied emission wavelengths of ultraviolet or blue LED chips. Its chromaticity coordinates (CIE) are calculated to be x = 0.65, y = 0.32. Bright red light can be observed by the naked eye from the LED-based Ca0.60Sr0.25MoO4:0.08Eu3+ 0.06Na+.

  4. Kinetics of transient electroluminescence in organic light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Manju; Brahme, Nameeta; Kumar, Pankaj; Chand, Suresh; Kher, R S; Khokhar, M S K

    2008-01-01

    Mathematical simulation on the rise and decay kinetics of transient electroluminescence (EL) in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is presented. The transient EL is studied with respect to a step voltage pulse. While rising, for lower values of time, the EL intensity shows a quadratic dependence on (t - t del ), where t del is the time delay observed in the onset of EL, and finally attains saturation at a sufficiently large time. When the applied voltage is switched off, the initial EL decay shows an exponential dependence on (t - t dec ), where t dec is the time when the voltage is switched off. The simulated results are compared with the transient EL performance of a bilayer OLED based on small molecular bis(2-methyl 8-hydroxyquinoline)(triphenyl siloxy) aluminium (SAlq). Transient EL studies have been carried out at different voltage pulse amplitudes. The simulated results show good agreement with experimental data. Using these simulated results the lifetime of the excitons in SAlq has also been calculated

  5. Infrared Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Carbon Nanotube Emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Arko; Murawski, Caroline; Zakharko, Yuriy; Zaumseil, Jana; Gather, Malte C

    2018-03-01

    While organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) covering all colors of the visible spectrum are widespread, suitable organic emitter materials in the near-infrared (nIR) beyond 800 nm are still lacking. Here, the first OLED based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as the emitter is demonstrated. By using a multilayer stacked architecture with matching charge blocking and charge-transport layers, narrow-band electroluminescence at wavelengths between 1000 and 1200 nm is achieved, with spectral features characteristic of excitonic and trionic emission of the employed (6,5) SWCNTs. Here, the OLED performance is investigated in detail and it is found that local conduction hot-spots lead to pronounced trion emission. Analysis of the emissive dipole orientation shows a strong horizontal alignment of the SWCNTs with an average inclination angle of 12.9° with respect to the plane, leading to an exceptionally high outcoupling efficiency of 49%. The SWCNT-based OLEDs represent a highly attractive platform for emission across the entire nIR. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Time-dependent simulation of organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifi, M J

    2009-01-01

    Several methods to simulate the behavior of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been proposed in the past. In this paper, we develop a previous method, based on the master equation, in order to allow the simulation of time-dependent behavior and transient states. The calculation algorithm of the program that we have written is described. The time-dependent behaviors of two simple monolayer devices and of a more complicated three-layer device were simulated by means of this program, and the results are discussed. The results show that the turn-off speed of an OLED might be very slow, especially in the case of a multilayer device. This behavior is related to the low mobility of the organic material in weak electric fields. An interesting feature of the time behavior is pointed out, whereby the recombination rate may become considerably larger after the falling edge of an applied voltage pulse. Moreover, the validity of the transient electro-luminescent method for measuring carrier mobility in organic material has been examined by means of simulation. The results show that there is some inconsistency especially in high electric fields

  7. White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reineke, Sebastian; Lindner, Frank; Schwartz, Gregor; Seidler, Nico; Walzer, Karsten; Lüssem, Björn; Leo, Karl

    2009-05-14

    The development of white organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) holds great promise for the production of highly efficient large-area light sources. High internal quantum efficiencies for the conversion of electrical energy to light have been realized. Nevertheless, the overall device power efficiencies are still considerably below the 60-70 lumens per watt of fluorescent tubes, which is the current benchmark for novel light sources. Although some reports about highly power-efficient white OLEDs exist, details about structure and the measurement conditions of these structures have not been fully disclosed: the highest power efficiency reported in the scientific literature is 44 lm W(-1) (ref. 7). Here we report an improved OLED structure which reaches fluorescent tube efficiency. By combining a carefully chosen emitter layer with high-refractive-index substrates, and using a periodic outcoupling structure, we achieve a device power efficiency of 90 lm W(-1) at 1,000 candelas per square metre. This efficiency has the potential to be raised to 124 lm W(-1) if the light outcoupling can be further improved. Besides approaching internal quantum efficiency values of one, we have also focused on reducing energetic and ohmic losses that occur during electron-photon conversion. We anticipate that our results will be a starting point for further research, leading to white OLEDs having efficiencies beyond 100 lm W(-1). This could make white-light OLEDs, with their soft area light and high colour-rendering qualities, the light sources of choice for the future.

  8. A white organic light emitting diode with improved stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhilin; Jiang Xueyin; Zhu Wenqing; Zhang Buxin; Xu Shaohong

    2001-01-01

    A white organic light emitting diode (OLED) has been constructed by employing a new blue material and a red dye directly doped in the blue emitting layer. For comparison, another white cell with a blocking layer has also been made. The configurations of the devices are ITO/CuPc/NPB/JBEM(P):DCJT/Alq/MgAg (device 1) and ITO/CuPc/NPB/TPBi:DCJT/Alq/MgAg (device 2) where copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) is the buffer layer, N,N'-bis-(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-1.1'bipheny1-4-4'-diamine (NPB) is the hole transporting layer, 9,10-bis(3'5'-diaryl)phenyl anthracene doped with perylene (JBEM(P)) is the new blue emitting material, N,arylbenzimidazoles (TPBi) is the hole blocking layer, tris(8-quinolinolato)aluminium complex (Alq) is the electron transporting layer, and DCJT is a red dye. A stable and current independent white OLED has been obtained in device 1, which has a maximum luminance of 14 850 cd m -2 , an efficiency of 2.88 Lm W -1 , Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates of x=0.32, y=0.38 between 4-200 mA cm -2 , and a half lifetime of 2860 h at the starting luminance of 100 cd m -2 . Device 1 has a stability more than 50 times better than that of device 2. (author)

  9. Printable candlelight-style organic light-emitting diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, J. H.; Singh, M.; Song, W. C.; Liu, S. H.

    2017-06-01

    Candles or oil lamps are currently the most friendly lighting source to human eyes, physiology, ecosystems, artifacts, environment, and night skies due to their blue light-less emission. Candle light also exhibits high light-quality that provides visual comfort. However, they are relatively low in power efficacy (0.3 lm/W), making them energy-wasting, besides having problems like scorching hot, burning, catching fire, flickering, carbon blacking, oxygen consuming, and release of green house gas etc. In contrast, candlelight organic light-emitting diode (OLED) can be made blue-hazard free and energy-efficient. The remaining challenges are to maximize its light-quality and enable printing feasibility, the latter of which would pave a way to cost-effective manufacturing. We hence demonstrate herein the design and fabrication of a candlelight OLED via wet-process. From retina protection perspective, its emission is 13, 12 and 8 times better than those of the blue-enriched white CFL, LED and OLED. If used at night, it is 9, 6 and 4 times better from melatonin generation perspective.

  10. Organic light emitting diodes on ITO-free polymer anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehse, Karsten; Schwartz, Gregor; Walzer, Karsten; Leo, Karl [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, TU Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The high material cost of indium, being the main component of the commonly used indium-tin-oxide anodes (ITO) in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), is an obstacle for the production of efficient low-cost OLEDs. Therefore, new anode materials are needed for large scale OLED production. Recently, we demonstrated that the polymer PEDOT:PSS can substitute ITO as anode. Another highly conductive polymer is polyaniline (PANI) that provides 200 S/cm with a work function of 4.8 eV. In this study, we use PANI as anode for OLEDs (without ITO layer underneath the polymer) with electrically doped hole- and electron transport layers and intrinsic materials in between. Fluorescent blue (Spiro-DPVBi) as well as phosphorescent green (Ir(ppy){sub 3}) and red emitters (Ir(MDQ){sub 2}(acac)) were used for single colour and white OLEDs. Green single and double emission OLEDs achieve device efficiencies of 34 lm/W and 40.7 lm/W, respectively. The white OLED shows a power efficiency of 8.9 lm/W at 1000 cd/m{sup 2} with CIE coordinates of (0.42/0.39).

  11. Near-field photometry for organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Harikumar, Krishnan; Isphording, Alexandar; Venkataramanan, Venkat

    2013-03-01

    Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) technology is rapidly maturing to be ready for next generation of light source for general lighting. The current standard test methods for solid state lighting have evolved for semiconductor sources, with point-like emission characteristics. However, OLED devices are extended surface emitters, where spatial uniformity and angular variation of brightness and colour are important. This necessitates advanced test methods to obtain meaningful data for fundamental understanding, lighting product development and deployment. In this work, a near field imaging goniophotometer was used to characterize lighting-class white OLED devices, where luminance and colour information of the pixels on the light sources were measured at a near field distance for various angles. Analysis was performed to obtain angle dependent luminous intensity, CIE chromaticity coordinates and correlated colour temperature (CCT) in the far field. Furthermore, a complete ray set with chromaticity information was generated, so that illuminance at any distance and angle from the light source can be determined. The generated ray set is needed for optical modeling and design of OLED luminaires. Our results show that luminance non-uniformity could potentially affect the luminaire aesthetics and CCT can vary with angle by more than 2000K. This leads to the same source being perceived as warm or cool depending on the viewing angle. As OLEDs are becoming commercially available, this could be a major challenge for lighting designers. Near field measurement can provide detailed specifications and quantitative comparison between OLED products for performance improvement.

  12. Device model investigation of bilayer organic light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crone, B. K.; Davids, P. S.; Campbell, I. H.; Smith, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    Organic materials that have desirable luminescence properties, such as a favorable emission spectrum and high luminescence efficiency, are not necessarily suitable for single layer organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) because the material may have unequal carrier mobilities or contact limited injection properties. As a result, single layer LEDs made from such organic materials are inefficient. In this article, we present device model calculations of single layer and bilayer organic LED characteristics that demonstrate the improvements in device performance that can occur in bilayer devices. We first consider an organic material where the mobilities of the electrons and holes are significantly different. The role of the bilayer structure in this case is to move the recombination away from the electrode that injects the low mobility carrier. We then consider an organic material with equal electron and hole mobilities but where it is not possible to make a good contact for one carrier type, say electrons. The role of a bilayer structure in this case is to prevent the holes from traversing the device without recombining. In both cases, single layer device limitations can be overcome by employing a two organic layer structure. The results are discussed using the calculated spatial variation of the carrier densities, electric field, and recombination rate density in the structures. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  13. Spin-polarized light-emitting diodes based on organic bipolar spin valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardeny, Zeev Valentine; Nguyen, Tho Duc; Ehrenfreund, Eitan Avraham

    2017-10-25

    Spin-polarized organic light-emitting diodes are provided. Such spin-polarized organic light-emitting diodes incorporate ferromagnetic electrodes and show considerable spin-valve magneto-electroluminescence and magneto-conductivity responses, with voltage and temperature dependencies that originate from the bipolar spin-polarized space charge limited current.

  14. p-i-n Homojunction in Organic Light-Emitting Transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisri, Satria Zulkarnaen; Takenobu, Taishi; Sawabe, Kosuke; Tsuda, Satoshi; Yomogidao, Yohei; Yamao, Takeshi; Hotta, Shu; Adachi, Chihaya; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    A new method for investigating light-emitting property in organic devices is demonstrated. We apply the ambipolar light-emitting transistors (LETS) to directly observe the recombination zone, and find a strong link between the transistor performance and the zone size. This finding unambiguously

  15. Tetracene-based organic light-emitting transistors: optoelectronic properties and electron injection mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santato, C.; Capelli, R.; Loi, M.A.; Murgia, M.; Cicoira, F.; Roy, Arunesh; Stallinga, P; Zamboni, R.; Rost, C.; Karg, S.F.; Muccini, M.

    2004-01-01

    Optoelectronic properties of light-emitting field-effect transistors (LETs) fabricated on bottom-contact transistor structures using a tetracene film as charge-transport and light-emitting material are investigated. Electroluminescence generation and transistor current are correlated, and the bias

  16. Heat transfer and structure stress analysis of micro packaging component of high power light emitting diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Chih-Neng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the heat transfer and structural stress analysis of the micro- scale packaging structure of a high-power light emitting diode. The thermal-effect and thermal-stress of light emitting diode are determined numerically. Light emitting diode is attached to the silicon substrate through the wire bonding process by using epoxy as die bond material. The silicon substrate is etched with holes at the bottom and filled with high conductivity copper material. The chip temperature and structure stress increase with input power consumption. The micro light emitting diode is mounted on the heat sink to increase the heat dissipation performance, to decrease chip temperature, to enhance the material structure reliability and safety, and to avoid structure failure as well. This paper has successfully used the finite element method to the micro-scale light emitting diode heat transfer and stress concentration at the edges through etched holes.

  17. Improving lumen maintenance by nanopore array dispersed quantum dots for on-chip light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quan; Yang, Fan; Wan, Renzhuo; Fang, Dong

    2017-12-01

    The temperature stability of quantum dots (QDs), which is crucial for integrating into high power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in the on-chip configuration, needs to be further improved. In this letter, we report warm white LEDs, where CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles were incorporated into a porous anodic alumina (PAA) matrix with a chain structure by the self-assembly method. Experiments demonstrate that the QD concentration range in toluene solvent from 1% mg/μl to 1.2% mg/μl in combination with the PAA matrix shows the best luminous property. To verify the reliability of the as-prepared device, a comparison experiment was conducted. It indicates excellent lumen maintenance of the light source and less chromaticity coordinate shift under accelerated life testing conditions. Experiments also prove that optical depreciation was only up to 4.6% of its initial value after the 1500 h aging test at the junction temperature of 76 °C.

  18. Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaeho; Han, Tae-Hee; Park, Min-Ho; Jung, Dae Yool; Seo, Jeongmin; Seo, Hong-Kyu; Cho, Hyunsu; Kim, Eunhye; Chung, Jin; Choi, Sung-Yool; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Tae-Woo; Yoo, Seunghyup

    2016-06-02

    Graphene-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have recently emerged as a key element essential in next-generation displays and lighting, mainly due to their promise for highly flexible light sources. However, their efficiency has been, at best, similar to that of conventional, indium tin oxide-based counterparts. We here propose an ideal electrode structure based on a synergetic interplay of high-index TiO2 layers and low-index hole-injection layers sandwiching graphene electrodes, which results in an ideal situation where enhancement by cavity resonance is maximized yet loss to surface plasmon polariton is mitigated. The proposed approach leads to OLEDs exhibiting ultrahigh external quantum efficiency of 40.8 and 62.1% (64.7 and 103% with a half-ball lens) for single- and multi-junction devices, respectively. The OLEDs made on plastics with those electrodes are repeatedly bendable at a radius of 2.3 mm, partly due to the TiO2 layers withstanding flexural strain up to 4% via crack-deflection toughening.

  19. Progress in Piezo-Phototronic-Effect-Enhanced Light-Emitting Diodes and Pressure Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Caofeng; Chen, Mengxiao; Yu, Ruomeng; Yang, Qing; Hu, Youfan; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-02-24

    Wurtzite materials exhibit both semiconductor and piezoelectric properties under strains due to the non-central symmetric crystal structures. The three-way coupling of semiconductor properties, piezoelectric polarization and optical excitation in ZnO, GaN, CdS and other piezoelectric semiconductors leads to the emerging field of piezo-phototronics. This effect can efficiently manipulate the emission intensity of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by utilizing the piezo-polarization charges created at the junction upon straining to modulate the energy band diagrams and the optoelectronic processes, such as generation, separation, recombination and/or transport of charge carriers. Starting from fundamental physics principles, recent progress in piezo-phototronic-effect-enhanced LEDs is reviewed; following their development from single-nanowire pressure-sensitive devices to high-resolution array matrices for pressure-distribution mapping applications. The piezo-phototronic effect provides a promising method to enhance the light emission of LEDs based on piezoelectric semiconductors through applying static strains, and may find perspective applications in various optoelectronic devices and integrated systems. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Molecular beam epitaxial growth of Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 topological insulators on GaAs (111 substrates: a potential route to fabricate topological insulator p-n junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoquan Zeng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available High quality Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 topological insulators films were epitaxially grown on GaAs (111 substrate using solid source molecular beam epitaxy. Their growth and behavior on both vicinal and non-vicinal GaAs (111 substrates were investigated by reflection high-energy electron diffraction, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. It is found that non-vicinal GaAs (111 substrate is better than a vicinal substrate to provide high quality Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 films. Hall and magnetoresistance measurements indicate that p type Sb2Te3 and n type Bi2Te3 topological insulator films can be directly grown on a GaAs (111 substrate, which may pave a way to fabricate topological insulator p-n junction on the same substrate, compatible with the fabrication process of present semiconductor optoelectronic devices.

  1. White organic light-emitting diodes from three emitter layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, M.S. [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, SungKyunKwan University, Suwon, Gyonggi-Do, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, J.T. [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, SungKyunKwan University, Suwon, Gyonggi-Do, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, C.H. [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, SungKyunKwan University, Suwon, Gyonggi-Do, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J.H. [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, SungKyunKwan University, Suwon, Gyonggi-Do, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, G.Y. [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, SungKyunKwan University, Suwon, Gyonggi-Do, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: gyyeom@skku.edu

    2006-11-23

    Three-wavelength white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) were fabricated using two doped layers, which were obtained by separating the recombination zones into three emitter layers. A sky blue emission originated from the 4,4'-bis(2,2'-diphenylethen-1-yl)biphenyl (DPVBi) layer. A green emission originated from a tris(8-quinolinolato)aluminum (III) (Alq{sub 3}) host doped with a green fluorescent 10-(2-benzothiazolyl)-1,1,7,7-tetramethyl-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H,5H,11H-[1] benz opyrano [6,7,8-ij]-quinolizin-11-one (C545T) dye. An orange emission was obtained from the N,N'-bis(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPB) host doped with a red fluorescent dye, 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-tert-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4 H-pyran (DCJTB). A white light resulted from the partial excitations of these three emitter layers by controlling the layer thickness and concentration of the fluorescent dyes in each emissive layer simultaneously. The electroluminescent spectrum of the device was not sensitive to the driving voltage of the device. The white light device showed a maximum luminance of approximately 53,000 cd/m{sup 2}. The external quantum and power efficiency at a luminance of approximately 100 cd/m{sup 2} were 2.62% and 3.04 lm/W, respectively.

  2. Zinc oxide nanorods/polymer hybrid heterojunctions for white light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willander, M.; Nur, O.; Zaman, S.; Zainelabdin, A.; Bano, N.; Hussain, I.

    2011-06-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) with its deep level defect emission covering the whole visible spectrum holds promise for the development of intrinsic white lighting sources with no need of using phosphors for light conversion. ZnO nanorods (NRs) grown on flexible plastic as substrate using a low temperature approach (down to 50 °C) were combined with different organic semiconductors to form hybrid junction. White electroluminescence (EL) was observed from these hybrid junctions. The configuration used for the hybrid white light emitting diodes (LEDs) consists of two-layers of polymers on the flexible plastic with ZnO NRs on the top. The inorganic/organic hybrid heterojunction has been fabricated by spin coating the p-type polymer poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT : PSS) for hole injection with an ionization potential of 5.1 eV and poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) is used as blue emitting material with a bandgap of 3.3 eV. ZnO NRs are grown on top of the organic layers. Two other configurations were also fabricated; these are using a single MEH PPV (red-emitting polymer) instead of the PFO and the third configuration was obtained from a blend of the PFO and the MEH PPV. The white LEDs were characterized by scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction (XRD), current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, room temperature photoluminescence (PL) and EL. The EL spectrum reveals a broad emission band covering the range from 420 to 800 nm, and the emissions causing this white luminescence were identified.

  3. Zinc oxide nanorods/polymer hybrid heterojunctions for white light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willander, M; Nur, O; Zaman, S; Zainelabdin, A; Bano, N; Hussain, I

    2011-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) with its deep level defect emission covering the whole visible spectrum holds promise for the development of intrinsic white lighting sources with no need of using phosphors for light conversion. ZnO nanorods (NRs) grown on flexible plastic as substrate using a low temperature approach (down to 50 0 C) were combined with different organic semiconductors to form hybrid junction. White electroluminescence (EL) was observed from these hybrid junctions. The configuration used for the hybrid white light emitting diodes (LEDs) consists of two-layers of polymers on the flexible plastic with ZnO NRs on the top. The inorganic/organic hybrid heterojunction has been fabricated by spin coating the p-type polymer poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT : PSS) for hole injection with an ionization potential of 5.1 eV and poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) is used as blue emitting material with a bandgap of 3.3 eV. ZnO NRs are grown on top of the organic layers. Two other configurations were also fabricated; these are using a single MEH PPV (red-emitting polymer) instead of the PFO and the third configuration was obtained from a blend of the PFO and the MEH PPV. The white LEDs were characterized by scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction (XRD), current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, room temperature photoluminescence (PL) and EL. The EL spectrum reveals a broad emission band covering the range from 420 to 800 nm, and the emissions causing this white luminescence were identified.

  4. High efficient photocatalytic activity from nanostructuralized photonic crystal-like p-n coaxial hetero-junction film photocatalyst of Cu3SnS4/TiO2 nanotube arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Liu, Fang-Ting; Chang, Yin; Wang, Jian; Wang, Cheng-Wei

    2017-12-01

    Structuring the materials in the form of photonic crystals is a new strategy for photocatalytic applications. Herein, a new concept of photonic crystal-induced p-n coaxial heterojunction film photocatalyst of Cu3SnS4/TiO2 (CTS/PhC-TNAs) was well-designed and successfully fabricated by combining periodic pulse anodic oxidation and in-situ self-assembling methods Such nanostructured CTS/PhC-TNAs exhibited significantly improved photocatalytic degradation activity under simulated sunlight irradiation with methyl orange (MO) as the target pollutants. Within 120 min, 82% of the MO (10 mg/L) was photodegraded and its kinetic constant per specific surface area reached 0.05332 μmol/m2h, which is 1.6 and 12.8 times more quickly than that of PhC-TNAs and CTS, respectively. Its significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity could be mainly attributed to a joint effect of the unique photonic crystal property of PhC-TNAs and the nanostructured hollow p-n coaxial hetero-junction, which result in an increased efficiency of charge separation and transfer and also an improved spectral response capability. This photonic crystal film photocatalyst has the potential for enhancing the photocatalytic activity via further optimizing the photonic stop band of PhC-TNAs. The study presents a new means to design the kind of photonic crystal structural-induced novel photocatalysts with high photocatalytic activities in pollution treatment.

  5. Forward voltage short-pulse technique for measuring high power laser array junction temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Byron L. (Inventor); Amzajerdian, Frazin (Inventor); Barnes, Bruce W. (Inventor); Baker, Nathaniel R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of measuring the temperature of the P-N junction within the light-emitting region of a quasi-continuous-wave or pulsed semiconductor laser diode device. A series of relatively short and low current monitor pulses are applied to the laser diode in the period between the main drive current pulses necessary to cause the semiconductor to lase. At the sufficiently low current level of the monitor pulses, the laser diode device does not lase and behaves similar to an electronic diode. The voltage across the laser diode resulting from each of these low current monitor pulses is measured with a high degree of precision. The junction temperature is then determined from the measured junction voltage using their known linear relationship.

  6. Benzoporphyrin derivative and light-emitting diode for use in photodynamic therapy: Applications of space light-emitting diode technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, Harry T.; Houle, John M.; Bajic, Dawn M.; Schmidt, Meic H.; Reichert, Kenneth W. II; Meyer, Glenn A.

    1998-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer treatment modality that recently has been applied as adjuvant therapy for brain tumors. PDT consists of intravenously injecting a photosensitizer, which preferentially accumulates in tumor cells, into a patient and then activating the photosensitizer with a light source. This results in free radical generation followed by cell death. The development of more effective light sources for PDT of brain tumors has been facilitated by applications of space light-emitting diode array technology; thus permitting deeper tumor penetration of light and use of better photosensitizers. Currently, the most commonly used photosensitizer for brain tumor PDT is Photofrin registered . Photofrin registered is a heterogeneous mixture of compounds derived from hematoporphyrin. Photofrin registered is activated with a 630 nm laser light and does destroy tumor cells in animal models and humans. However, treatment failure does occur using this method. Most investigators attribute this failure to the limited penetration of brain tissue by a 630 nm laser light and to the fact that Photofrin registered has only a minor absorption peak at 630 nm, meaning that only a small fraction of the chemical is activated. Benzoporphyrin Derivative Monoacid Ring A (BPD) is a new, second generation photosensitizer that can potentially improve PDT for brain tumors. BPD has a major absorption peak at 690 nm, which gives it two distinct advantages over Photofrin registered . First, longer wavelengths of light penetrate brain tissue more easily so that larger tumors could be treated, and second, the major absorption peak means that a larger fraction of the drug is activated upon exposure to light. In the first part of this project we have studied the tumoricidal effects of BPD in vitro using 2A9 canine glioma and U373 human glioblastoma cell cultures. Using light emitting diodes (LED) with a peak emission of 688 nm as a light source, cell kill of up to 86 percent was

  7. Gallium-Nitride-Based Light-Emitting Diodes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Lehovec and colleagues at the Signal Corps Engineering Labora- tory, in 1951 ... junction (Figure 3b), the potential barrier is reduced from V. 0 to. (V. 0. – V). .... A A Bright, The Electric-Lamp Industry: Technological Change and. Economic ...

  8. A high efficiency lateral light emitting device on SOI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.; Le Minh, P.; Holleman, J.; Zieren, V.; Goossens, M.J.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2005-01-01

    The infrared light emission of lateral p/sup +/-p-n/sup +/ diodes realized on SIMOX-SOI (separation by implantation of oxygen - silicon on insulator) substrates has been studied. The confinement of the free carriers in one dimension due to the buried oxide was suggested to be a key point to increase

  9. Efficient and bright organic light-emitting diodes on single-layer graphene electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Oida, Satoshi; Tulevski, George S.; Han, Shu-Jen; Hannon, James B.; Sadana, Devendra K.; Chen, Tze-Chiang

    2013-08-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes are emerging as leading technologies for both high quality display and lighting. However, the transparent conductive electrode used in the current organic light-emitting diode technologies increases the overall cost and has limited bendability for future flexible applications. Here we use single-layer graphene as an alternative flexible transparent conductor, yielding white organic light-emitting diodes with brightness and efficiency sufficient for general lighting. The performance improvement is attributed to the device structure, which allows direct hole injection from the single-layer graphene anode into the light-emitting layers, reducing carrier trapping induced efficiency roll-off. By employing a light out-coupling structure, phosphorescent green organic light-emitting diodes exhibit external quantum efficiency >60%, while phosphorescent white organic light-emitting diodes exhibit external quantum efficiency >45% at 10,000 cd m-2 with colour rendering index of 85. The power efficiency of white organic light-emitting diodes reaches 80 lm W-1 at 3,000 cd m-2, comparable to the most efficient lighting technologies.

  10. Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes in water disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhunen, Sari; Särkkä, Heikki; Sillanpää, Mika

    2009-06-01

    The novel system of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs) was studied in water disinfection. Conventional UV lamps, like mercury vapor lamp, consume much energy and are considered to be problem waste after use. UV LEDs are energy efficient and free of toxicants. This study showed the suitability of LEDs in disinfection and provided information of the effect of two emitted wavelengths and different test mediums to Escherichia coli destruction. Common laboratory strain of E. coli (K12) was used and the effects of two emitted wavelengths (269 and 276 nm) were investigated with two photolytic batch reactors both including ten LEDs. The effects of test medium were examined with ultrapure water, nutrient and water, and nutrient and water with humic acids. Efficiency of reactors was almost the same even though the one emitting higher wavelength had doubled optical power compared to the other. Therefore, the effect of wavelength was evident and the radiation emitted at 269 nm was more powerful. Also, the impact of background was studied and noticed to have only slight deteriorating effect. In the 5-min experiment, the bacterial reduction of three to four log colony-forming units (CFU) per cubic centimeter was achieved, in all cases. When turbidity of the test medium was greater, part of the UV radiation was spent on the absorption and reactions with extra substances on liquid. Humic acids can also coat the bacteria reducing the sensitivity of the cells to UV light. The lower wavelength was distinctly more efficient when the optical power is considered, even though the difference of wavelengths was small. The reason presumably is the greater absorption of DNA causing more efficient bacterial breakage. UV LEDs were efficient in E. coli destruction, even if LEDs were considered to have rather low optical power. The effect of wavelengths was noticeable but the test medium did not have much impact. This study found UV LEDs to be an optimal method for bacterial

  11. Surface Plasmon Enhanced Phosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazan, Guillermo; Mikhailovsky, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the proposed work was to develop the fundamental understanding and practical techniques for enhancement of Phosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Diodes (PhOLEDs) performance by utilizing radiative decay control technology. Briefly, the main technical goal is the acceleration of radiative recombination rate in organometallic triplet emitters by using the interaction with surface plasmon resonances in noble metal nanostructures. Increased photonic output will enable one to eliminate constraints imposed on PhOLED efficiency by triplet-triplet annihilation, triplet-polaron annihilation, and saturation of chromophores with long radiative decay times. Surface plasmon enhanced (SPE) PhOLEDs will operate more efficiently at high injection current densities and will be less prone to degradation mechanisms. Additionally, introduction of metal nanostructures into PhOLEDs may improve their performance due to the improvement of the charge transport through organic layers via multiple possible mechanisms ('electrical bridging' effects, doping-like phenomena, etc.). SPE PhOLED technology is particularly beneficial for solution-fabricated electrophosphorescent devices. Small transition moment of triplet emitters allows achieving a significant enhancement of the emission rate while keeping undesirable quenching processes introduced by the metal nanostructures at a reasonably low level. Plasmonic structures can be introduced easily into solution-fabricated PhOLEDs by blending and spin coating techniques and can be used for enhancement of performance in existing device architectures. This constitutes a significant benefit for a large scale fabrication of PhOLEDs, e.g. by roll-to-roll fabrication techniques. Besides multieexciton annihilation, the power efficacy of PhOLEDs is often limited by high operational bias voltages required for overcoming built-in potential barriers to injection and transport of electrical charges through a device. This problem is especially

  12. Magnetic field effect in organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedermeier, Ulrich

    2009-12-14

    The discovery of a magnetic field dependent resistance change of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) in the year 2003 has attracted considerable scientific and industrial research interest. However, despite previous progress in the field of organic spin-electronics, the phenomenon of the ''organic magnetoresistance (OMR) effect'' is not yet completely understood. In order to improve the understanding of the microscopic mechanisms which ultimately cause the OMR effect, experimental investigations as well as theoretical considerations concerning the OMR are addressed in this thesis. In polymer-based OLED devices the functional dependencies of the OMR effect on relevant parameters like magnetic field, operating voltage, operating current and temperature are investigated. Based on these results, previously published models for potential OMR mechanisms are critically analyzed and evaluated. Finally, a concept for the OMR effect is favored which suggests magnetic field dependent changes of the spin state of electron-hole pairs as being responsible for changes in current flow and light emission in OLEDs. In the framework of this concept it is possible to explain all results from own measurements as well as results from literature. Another important finding made in this thesis is the fact that the value of the OMR signal in the investigated OLED devices can be enhanced by appropriate electrical and optical conditioning processes. In particular, electrical conditioning causes a significant enhancement of the OMR values, while at the same time it has a negative effect on charge carrier transport and optical device characteristics. These results can be explained by additional results from charge carrier extraction measurements which suggest that electrical conditioning leads to an increase in the number of electronic trap states inside the emission layer of the investigated OLED devices. The positive influence of trap states on the OMR effect is

  13. Simulations of charge transport in organic light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Simon James

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis, two approaches to the modelling of charge transport in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are presented. The first is a drift-diffusion model, normally used when considering conventional crystalline inorganic semiconductors (e.g. Si or lll-V's) which have well defined energy bands. In this model, electron and hole transport is described using the current continuity equations and the drift-diffusion current equations, and coupled to Poisson's equation. These equations are solved with the appropriate boundary conditions, which for OLEDs are Schottky contacts; carriers are injected by thermionic emission and tunnelling. The disordered nature of the organic semiconductors is accounted for by the inclusion of field-dependent carrier mobilities and Langevin optical recombination. The second approach treats the transport of carriers in disordered organic semi-conductors as a hopping process between spatially and energetically disordered sites. This method has been used previously to account for the observed temperature and electric field dependence of carrier mobilities in disordered organic semiconductors. A hopping transport model has been developed which accounts explicitly for the structure in highly ordered films of rigid rod liquid-crystalline conjugated polymers. Chapter 2 discusses the formation of metal-semiconductor contacts, and current injection processes in OLEDs. If the barrier to carrier injection at a metal-semiconductor contact is small, or the contact is Ohmic, then the current may be space charge limited; this second limiting regime of current flow for OLEDs is also described. The remainder of Chapter 2 describes the drift-diffusion model used in this work in some detail. Chapter 3 contains results obtained from modelling the J-V characteristics of single-layer OLEDs, which are compared to experimental data in order to validate the drift-diffusion model. Chapter 4 contains results of simulating bi-layer OLEDs; rather than examining J

  14. Advanced light emitting device structures for optoelectronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, J.

    2002-01-01

    Several factors are driving the recent development of light emitting devices (LED,s). The most important ones are brightness, available efficiency, architecture form flexibility, rugged construction and low applied voltages. These are contributing to growth in markets such as traffic lights, automotive brake signals and instrument displays, video displays, traffic signals, decorative signs and the many uses of the new white LED-based products. A new developments are directed to various materials used for high brightness HB-LED,s based on AlGaAs (red), AlInGaP (yellow-green to red) and InGaN (blue, green and white) devices. The development of LED,s depends on epitaxial growth advances, mainly molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). As a technology improved, the performace of visible LED,s increased at the rate 10x per decade from less than 0.1 lm/W to the best red and orange LED,s now providing about 100 lm/W. The main engineering challenge is now the extraction or the ability to get all the light out of the chip to where it is needed. This has led to novel changes in the shape of the LED chip and to the replacement of GaAs with transparent GaP substrate throught wafer bonding after the LED has been produced. Most of the focus for nitride devices (InGaN) is to develop improved or new substrate materials to replace sapphire and enable the growth of lower defect density materials. Organic LED,s (OLED,s) have been undergone dramatic improvements in performace in the last five years. Two main technologies for OLED,s have emerged in the last decade, either based on conjaguated polymers, or sublimed films of small molecules. Recent improvements have taken OLED,s to luminous efficiency greater than 20 lm/W. However, in contrast to conventional LED,s, OLED,s share many of the properties associated with other organic substances and polymers. They allow more design flexibility than inorganic LED,s and thus lead to the high

  15. Irradiation Pattern Analysis for Designing Light Sources-Based on Light Emitting Diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, E.; Stolik, S.; La Rosa, J. de; Valor, A.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays it is possible to design light sources with a specific irradiation pattern for many applications. Light Emitting Diodes present features like high luminous efficiency, durability, reliability, flexibility, among others as the result of its rapid development. In this paper the analysis of the irradiation pattern of the light emitting diodes is presented. The approximation of these irradiation patterns to both, a Lambertian, as well as a Gaussian functions for the design of light sources is proposed. Finally, the obtained results and the functionality of bringing the irradiation pattern of the light emitting diodes to these functions are discussed. (Author)

  16. Slanted n-ZnO/p-GaN nanorod arrays light-emitting diodes grown by oblique-angle deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ju Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available High-efficient ZnO-based nanorod array light-emitting diodes (LEDs were grown by an oblique-angle deposition scheme. Due to the shadowing effect, the inclined ZnO vapor-flow was selectively deposited on the tip surfaces of pre-fabricated p-GaN nanorod arrays, resulting in the formation of nanosized heterojunctions. The LED architecture composed of the slanted n-ZnO film on p-GaN nanorod arrays exhibits a well-behaving current rectification of junction diode with low turn-on voltage of 4.7 V, and stably emits bluish-white luminescence with dominant peak of 390 nm under the operation of forward injection currents. In general, as the device fabrication does not involve passivation of using a polymer or sophisticated material growth techniques, the revealed scheme might be readily applied on other kinds of nanoscale optoelectronic devices.

  17. In 0.35Ga 0.65P light-emitting diodes grown by gas-source MBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masselink, W. Ted; Zachau, Martin

    1993-02-01

    This paper describes the growth and optical characteristics of In yGa 1- yP with 0.3Raman spectra of these undoped films and observe strong excitonic luminescence over the entire composition range investigated. The band gap derived from the luminescence excitation spectra corresponds to that of a fully relaxed InGaP film with no residual strain, which is confirmed by the Raman measurements. Light-emitting diodes with peak (300 K) emission centered at less than 590 nm have been fabricated from p-i-n junctions in In 0.35Ga 0.65P. This alloy is close to that with the largest direct band gap in the In yGa 1- y P system and has lattice mismatch from the GaAs substrate of 1%.

  18. Best practices : bus signage for persons with visual impairments : light-emitting diode (LED) signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This best-practices report provides key information regarding the use of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) sign technologies to present destination and route information on transit vehicles. It will assist managers and engineers in the acquisition and use o...

  19. Evaluation of light-emitting diode beacon light fixtures : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Rotating beacons containing filament light sources have long been used on highway maintenance trucks : to indicate the presence of the truck to other drivers. Because of advances in light-emitting diode (LED) : technologies, flashing lights containin...

  20. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes on Solution-Processed Graphene Transparent Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Junbo; Agrawal, Mukul; Becerril, Héctor A.; Bao, Zhenan; Liu, Zunfeng; Chen, Yongsheng; Peumans, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical estimates indicate that graphene thin films can be used as transparent electrodes for thin-film devices such as solar cells and organic light-emitting diodes, with an unmatched combination of sheet resistance and transparency. We

  1. Robust Visible and Infrared Light Emitting Devices Using Rare-Earth-Doped GaN

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steckl, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Rare earth (RE) dopants (such as Er, Eu, Tm) in the wide bandgap semiconductor (WBGS) GaN are investigated for the fabrication of robust visible and infrared light emitting devices at a variety of wavelengths...

  2. Efficient light emitting devices based on phosphorescent partially doped emissive layers

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2013-01-01

    We report efficient organic light emitting devices employing an ultrathin phosphor emissive layer. The electroluminescent spectra of these devices can be tuned by introducing a low-energy emitting phosphor layer into the emission zone. Devices

  3. Novel Biomedical Device Utilizing Light-Emitting Nanostructures Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Goldman, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    and viruses in fluids. A novel sample preparation technique that exploits micromembrane filtration and centrifugation methods has been developed for this device. The technique greatly reduces the time required to prepare the sample and the amount of sample needed to perform an accurate and comprehensive analysis. Last, and probably most important, because of the nano-light-emitting source and the novel sample preparation technique, the overall size of the device could be reduced dramatically. This device will serve as a nanoscale lab-on-a-chip for in situ microorganism detection and will enable tests to be performed on a time scale of minutes rather than days. Thus, it is ideally suited for monitoring the environmental conditions onboard the International Space Station and the space shuttles, thereby enhancing the safety of the astronauts. In addition, the device has important commercial applications, such as detecting the presence of bacteria and viruses in water at food- and beverage-processing centers, water treatment plants, and restaurants. Also, this technology has the potential to be used to detect bacteria and viruses in more complex fluids, such as blood--which in all likelihood would revolutionize blood analysis as it is performed today. This project was made possible through the Director's Discretionary Fund and is ongoing. In addition, this project provides funding to Dr. Rachel Goldman of the University of Michigan for the research and development of nanostructured quantum dots.

  4. MOLED: Simulation of multilayer organic light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houili, H.; Tutiš, E.; Lütjens, H.; Bussac, M. N.; Zuppiroli, L.

    2003-12-01

    MOLED solves the dynamics of electrons and holes in multilayer Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLED). The carriers are injected on the positive and negative electrodes of the device by tunneling through a potential barrier. Thermal excitation processes across the barrier are also included. In the interior of the device the electron-hole recombination occurs when the two carriers are close enough, according to a model inspired from the one of Langevin. A fraction of these recombined pairs gives photons. The charge transport inside the organic material occurs through hopping. Several choices of mobility formulae are available in the code. MOLED can be used for OLEDs with an arbitrary number of layers. The output consists of numerous fields that describe the device performance. For example, there are the current, the recombination and the charge density distributions, the electric field distribution, the current-voltage characteristics and the device internal quantum efficiency. Program summaryTitle of program: MOLED Catalogue identifier: ADSG Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADSG Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Operating systems under which the program has been tested: Unix, Linux Programming language used: FORTRAN 90 Memory required to execute with typical data: 2 MB No. of bytes in distributed program: 26 942 No. of bits in a word: 64 Peripherals used: permanent disk storage No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3695 Distribution format: tar gzip file Nature of the physical problem: Injection of electrons and holes into an organic electroluminescent material occurs through tunneling from metal electrodes. The transport of carriers inside the molecular medium proceeds by hopping from one molecule to another. The emission of light is a result of their radiative Langevin recombination (for a review see [Scott et al., Synthetic Metals 111-112 (2000) 289; Friend et al

  5. Assessing the use of Low Voltage UV-light Emitting Miniature LEDs for Marine Biofouling Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    of that required to drive traditional UV mercury lamps . Secondly, given their small size and relatively low cost, UV LEDs provide ease of maintenance...UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Assessing the use of Low Voltage UV -light Emitting Miniature LEDs for Marine Biofouling Control Richard...settling organisms. The introduction of miniature UV light emitting diodes ( LEDs ) as a light source enables them to be embedded into thin, flexible

  6. Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanopillar light-emitting diode arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Fadil, Ahmed; Ou, Haiyan

    Nanopillar InGaN/GaN green light-emitting diode arrays were fabricated by using self-assembled nanopatterning and dry etching process. Both internal and external quantum efficiency were increased due to strain relaxation and enhanced light extraction.......Nanopillar InGaN/GaN green light-emitting diode arrays were fabricated by using self-assembled nanopatterning and dry etching process. Both internal and external quantum efficiency were increased due to strain relaxation and enhanced light extraction....

  7. The Development of Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes on p-SiC Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummer, Gordon

    Ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) are promising light sources for purification, phototherapy, and resin curing applications. Currently, commercial UV LEDs are composed of AlGaN-based n-i-p junctions grown on sapphire substrates. These devices suffer from defects in the active region, inefficient p-type doping, and poor light extraction efficiency. This dissertation addresses the development of a novel UV LED device structure, grown on p-SiC substrates. In this device structure, the AlGaN-based intrinsic (i) and n-layers are grown directly on the p-type substrate, forming a p-i-n junction. The intrinsic layer (active region) is composed of an AlN buffer layer followed by three AlN/Al0.30Ga0.70N quantum wells. After the intrinsic layer, the n-layer is formed from n-type AlGaN. This device architecture addresses the deficiencies of UV LEDs on sapphire substrates while providing a vertical device geometry, reduced fabrication complexity, and improved thermal management. The device layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The material properties were optimized by considering varying growth conditions and by considering the role of the layer within the device. AlN grown at 825 C and with a Ga surfactant yielded material with screw dislocation density of 1x10 7 cm-2 based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. AlGaN alloys grown in this work contained compositional inhomogeneity, as verified by high-resolution XRD, photoluminescence, and absorption measurements. Based on Stokes shift measurements, the degree of compositional inhomogeneity was correlated with the amount of excess Ga employed during growth. Compositional inhomogeneity yields carrier localizing potential fluctuations, which are advantages in light emitting device layers. Therefore, excess Ga growth conditions were used to grow AlN/Al0.30Ga0.70N quantum wells (designed using a wurtzite k.p model) with 35% internal quantum efficiency. Potential fluctuations limit the mobility of carriers

  8. [Multiplayer white organic light-emitting diodes with different order and thickness of emission layers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Lu, Fu-Han; Cao, Jin; Zhu, Wen-Qing; Jiang, Xue-Yin; Zhang, Zhi-Lin; Xu, Shao-Hong

    2008-02-01

    In multilayer OLED devices, the order and thickness of the emission layers have great effect on their spectrum. Based on the three basic colours of red, blue and green, a series of white organic light-emitting diodes(WOLEDS)with the structure of ITO/CuPc(12 nm)/NPB(50 nm)/EML/LiF(1 nm)/Al(100 nm) and a variety of emission layer's orders and thicknesses were fabricated. The blue emission material: 2-t-butyl-9,10-di-(2-naphthyl)anthracene (TBADN) doped with p-bis(p-N, N-diphenyl-amono-styryl)benzene(DSA-Ph), the green emission material: tris-[8-hydroxyquinoline]aluminum(Alq3) doped with C545, and the red emission material: tris-[8-hydroxyquinoline]aluminum( Alq3) doped with 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6-(1, 1, 7, 7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) were used. By adjusting the order and thickness of each emission layer in the RBG structure, we got a white OLED with current efficiency of 5.60 cd x A(-1) and Commission Internationale De L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0. 34, 0.34) at 200 mA x cm(-2). Its maximum luminance reached 20 700 cd x m(-2) at current density of 400 mA x cm(-2). The results were analyzed on the basis of the theory of excitons' generation and diffusion. According to the theory, an equation was set up which relates EL spectra to the luminance efficiency, the thickness of each layer and the exciton diffusion length. In addition, in RBG structure with different thickness of red layer, the ratio of th e spectral intensity of red to that of blue was calculated. It was found that the experimental results are in agreement with the theoretical values.

  9. Using copper substrate to enhance the thermal conductivity of top-emission organic light-emitting diodes for improving the luminance efficiency and lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Sheng; Wang, Shun-Hsi; Chen, Chuan-Hung; Cheng, Chien-Lung; Liao, Teh-Chao

    2009-12-01

    The influence of heat dissipation on the performances of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is investigated by measuring junction temperature and by calculating the rate of heat flow. The calculated rate of heat flow reveals that the key factors include the thermal conductivity, the substrate thickness, and the UV glue. Moreover, the use of copper substrate can effectively dissipate the joule heat, which then reduces the temperature gradient. Finally, it is shown that the use of a high thermal conductivity thinner substrate can enhance the thermal conductivity of OLED and the luminance efficiency as well.

  10. Quantum-dot light-emitting diodes utilizing CdSe /ZnS nanocrystals embedded in TiO2 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung-Hee; Kumar, Ch. Kiran; Lee, Zonghoon; Kim, Kyung-Hyun; Huh, Chul; Kim, Eui-Tae

    2008-11-01

    Quantum-dot (QD) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are demonstrated on Si wafers by embedding core-shell CdSe /ZnS nanocrystals in TiO2 thin films via plasma-enhanced metallorganic chemical vapor deposition. The n-TiO2/QDs /p-Si LED devices show typical p-n diode current-voltage and efficient electroluminescence characteristics, which are critically affected by the removal of QD surface ligands. The TiO2/QDs /Si system we presented can offer promising Si-based optoelectronic and electronic device applications utilizing numerous nanocrystals synthesized by colloidal solution chemistry.

  11. Low driving voltage blue, green, yellow, red and white organic light-emitting diodes with a simply double light-emitting structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhensong; Yue, Shouzhen; Wu, Yukun; Yan, Pingrui; Wu, Qingyang; Qu, Dalong; Liu, Shiyong; Zhao, Yi

    2014-01-27

    Low driving voltage blue, green, yellow, red and white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with a common simply double emitting layer (D-EML) structure are investigated. Our OLEDs without any out-coupling schemes as well as n-doping strategies show low driving voltage, e.g. white OLED, respectively. This work demonstrates that the low driving voltages and high efficiencies can be simultaneously realized with a common simply D-EML structure.

  12. Light emitting diode with high aspect ratio submicron roughness for light extraction and methods of forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting [Ventura, CA

    2011-04-26

    The surface morphology of an LED light emitting surface is changed by applying a reactive ion etch (RIE) process to the light emitting surface. High aspect ratio, submicron roughness is formed on the light emitting surface by transferring a thin film metal hard-mask having submicron patterns to the surface prior to applying a reactive ion etch process. The submicron patterns in the metal hard-mask can be formed using a low cost, commercially available nano-patterned template which is transferred to the surface with the mask. After subsequently binding the mask to the surface, the template is removed and the RIE process is applied for time duration sufficient to change the morphology of the surface. The modified surface contains non-symmetric, submicron structures having high aspect ratio which increase the efficiency of the device.

  13. Characteristics of organic light emitting diodes with copper iodide as injection layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stakhira, P., E-mail: stakhira@polynet.lviv.u [Lviv Polytechnic National University, S. Bandera, 12, Lviv, 79013 (Ukraine); Cherpak, V.; Volynyuk, D.; Ivastchyshyn, F. [Lviv Polytechnic National University, S. Bandera, 12, Lviv, 79013 (Ukraine); Hotra, Z. [Lviv Polytechnic National University, S. Bandera, 12, Lviv, 79013 (Ukraine); Rzeszow University of Technology, W. Pola 2, Rzeszow, 35-959 (Poland); Tataryn, V. [Lviv Polytechnic National University, S. Bandera, 12, Lviv, 79013 (Ukraine); Luka, G. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-09-30

    We have studied the use of a thin copper iodide (CuI) film as an efficient injection layer of holes from indium tin oxide (ITO) anode in a light-emitting diode structure based on tris-8-hydroxyquinoline aluminium (Alq3). The results of impedance analysis of two types of diode structures, ITO/CuI/Alq3/poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether/Al and ITO/Alq3/poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether/Al, are presented. Comparative analysis of their current density-voltage, luminance-voltage and impedance characteristics shows that presence of CuI layer facilitates injection of holes from ITO anode into the light-emitting layer Alq3 and increases electroluminescence efficiency of the organic light emitting diodes.

  14. Nanocrystalline silicon as the light emitting material of a field emission display device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biaggi-Labiosa, A; Sola, F; Resto, O; Fonseca, L F; Gonzalez-BerrIos, A; Jesus, J De; Morell, G

    2008-01-01

    A nanocrystalline Si-based paste was successfully tested as the light emitting material in a field emission display test device that employed a film of carbon nanofibers as the electron source. Stable emission in the 550-850 nm range was obtained at 16 V μm -1 . This relatively low field required for intense cathodoluminescence (CL) from the PSi paste may lead to longer term reliability of both the electron emitting and the light emitting materials, and to lower power consumption. Here we describe the synthesis, characterization, and analyses of the light emitting nanostructured Si paste and the electron emitting C nanofibers used for building the device, including x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Raman spectroscopy. The corresponding spectra and field emission curves are also shown and discussed

  15. Silicon light-emitting diodes and lasers photon breeding devices using dressed photons

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on a novel phenomenon named photon breeding. It is applied to realizing light-emitting diodes and lasers made of indirect-transition-type silicon bulk crystals in which the light-emission principle is based on dressed photons. After presenting physical pictures of dressed photons and dressed-photon phonons, the principle of light emission by using dressed-photon phonons is reviewed. A novel phenomenon named photon breeding is also reviewed. Next, the fabrication and operation of light emitting diodes and lasers are described The role of coherent phonons in these devices is discussed. Finally, light-emitting diodes using other relevant crystals are described and other relevant devices are also reviewed.

  16. Ultra-bright and highly efficient inorganic based perovskite light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liuqi; Yang, Xiaolei; Jiang, Qi; Wang, Pengyang; Yin, Zhigang; Zhang, Xingwang; Tan, Hairen; Yang, Yang (Michael); Wei, Mingyang; Sutherland, Brandon R.; Sargent, Edward H.; You, Jingbi

    2017-06-01

    Inorganic perovskites such as CsPbX3 (X=Cl, Br, I) have attracted attention due to their excellent thermal stability and high photoluminescence quantum efficiency. However, the electroluminescence quantum efficiency of their light-emitting diodes was CsPbBr3 lattice and by depositing a hydrophilic and insulating polyvinyl pyrrolidine polymer atop the ZnO electron-injection layer to overcome these issues. As a result, we obtained light-emitting diodes exhibiting a high brightness of 91,000 cd m-2 and a high external quantum efficiency of 10.4% using a mixed-cation perovskite Cs0.87MA0.13PbBr3 as the emitting layer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the brightest and most-efficient green perovskite light-emitting diodes reported to date.

  17. Novel recycle technology for recovering rare metals (Ga, In) from waste light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan, Lu; Xia, Fafa; Ye, Qiuyu; Xiang, Xishu; Xie, Bing, E-mail: bxie@des.ecnu.edu.cn

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Rare metals (Ga, In) are separated and recycled from waste light-emitting diodes. • Pyrolysis, physical disaggregation and vacuum metallurgy separation are proposed. • There is no hazardous materials produced in this process. - Abstract: This work develops a novel process of recycling rare metals (Ga, In) from waste light-emitting diodes using the combination of pyrolysis, physical disaggregation methods and vacuum metallurgy separation. Firstly, the pure chips containing InGaN/GaN are adopted to study the vacuum separation behavior of rare metals, which aims to provide the theoretical foundation for recycling gallium and indium from waste light-emitting diodes. In order to extract the rare-metal-rich particles from waste light-emitting diodes, pyrolysis and physical disaggregation methods (crushing, screening, grinding and secondly screening) are studied respectively, and the operating parameters are optimized. With low boiling points and high saturation vapor pressures under vacuum, gallium and indium are separated from rare-metal-rich particles by the process of evaporation and condensation. By reference to the separating parameters of pure chips, gallium and indium in waste light-emitting diodes are recycled with the recovery efficiencies of 93.48% and 95.67% under the conditions as follows: heating temperature of 1373 K, vacuum pressure of 0.01–0.1 Pa, and holding time of 60 min. There are no secondary hazardous materials generated in the whole processes. This work provides an efficient and environmentally friendly process for recycling rare metals from waste light-emitting diodes.

  18. P N Shukla

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. P N Shukla. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 110 Issue 2 June 2001 pp 103-110. High Iridium concentration of alkaline rocks of Deccan and implications to K/T boundary · P N Shukla N Bhandari Anirban Das A D Shukla J S Ray · More Details ...

  19. Inkjet printing the three organic functional layers of two-colored organic light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenen, Michiel J.J.; Slaats, Thijs M.W.L.; Eggenhuisen, Tamara M.; Groen, Pim

    2015-01-01

    Inkjet printing allows for the roll-2-roll fabrication of organic electronic devices at an industrial scale. In this paper we demonstrate the fabrication of two-colored organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) in which three adjacent organic device layers were inkjet printed from halogen free inks. The resulting devices demonstrate the possibilities offered by this technique for the fabrication of OLEDs for signage and personalized electronics. - Highlights: • Two-colored organic light emitting diodes with 3 inkjet printed device layers were fabricated. • All materials were printed from halogen free inks. • Inkjet printing of emissive materials is suitable for signage applications

  20. Molecular-scale simulation of electroluminescence in a multilayer white organic light-emitting diode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mesta, Murat; Carvelli, Marco; de Vries, Rein J

    2013-01-01

    we show that it is feasible to carry out Monte Carlo simulations including all of these molecular-scale processes for a hybrid multilayer organic light-emitting diode combining red and green phosphorescent layers with a blue fluorescent layer. The simulated current density and emission profile......In multilayer white organic light-emitting diodes the electronic processes in the various layers--injection and motion of charges as well as generation, diffusion and radiative decay of excitons--should be concerted such that efficient, stable and colour-balanced electroluminescence can occur. Here...

  1. Investigations of thin p-GaN light-emitting diodes with surface plasmon compatible metallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadil, Ahmed; Ou, Yiyu; Iida, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    We investigate device performance of InGaN light-emitting diodes with a 30-nm p-GaN layer. The metallization used to separate the p-contact from plasmonic metals, reveals limitations on current spreading which reduces surface plasmonic enhancement.......We investigate device performance of InGaN light-emitting diodes with a 30-nm p-GaN layer. The metallization used to separate the p-contact from plasmonic metals, reveals limitations on current spreading which reduces surface plasmonic enhancement....

  2. Investigations of thin p-GaN light-emitting diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadil, Ahmed; Ou, Yiyu; Iida, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    We investigate device performance of InGaN light-emitting diodes with a 30-nm p-GaN layer. The metallization used to separate the p-contact from plasmonic metals, reveals limitations on current spreading which reduces surface plasmonic enhancement.......We investigate device performance of InGaN light-emitting diodes with a 30-nm p-GaN layer. The metallization used to separate the p-contact from plasmonic metals, reveals limitations on current spreading which reduces surface plasmonic enhancement....

  3. Efficient light emitting devices based on phosphorescent partially doped emissive layers

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2013-05-29

    We report efficient organic light emitting devices employing an ultrathin phosphor emissive layer. The electroluminescent spectra of these devices can be tuned by introducing a low-energy emitting phosphor layer into the emission zone. Devices with the emissive layer consisting of multiple platinum-complex/spacer layer cells show a peak external quantum efficiency of 18.1%, which is among the best EQE values for platinum-complex based light emitting devices. Devices with an ultrathin phosphor emissive layer show stronger luminance decay with the operating time compared to the counterpart devices having a host-guest emissive layer.

  4. Printed assemblies of ultrathin, microscale inorganic light emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John A.; Nuzzo, Ralph; Kim, Hoon-sik; Brueckner, Eric; Park, Sang Il; Kim, Rak Hwan

    2017-05-09

    Described herein are printable structures and methods for making, assembling and arranging electronic devices. A number of the methods described herein are useful for assembling electronic devices where one or more device components are embedded in a polymer which is patterned during the embedding process with trenches for electrical interconnects between device components. Some methods described herein are useful for assembling electronic devices by printing methods, such as by dry transfer contact printing methods. Also described herein are GaN light emitting diodes and methods for making and arranging GaN light emitting diodes, for example for display or lighting systems.

  5. Study of recombination processes for 'electron-hole' pairs in germanium irradiated by {gamma} rays from {sup 60}Co using the photovoltaic effect in P-N junctions; Etude du processus de recombinaison des paires ''electron-trou'' dans le germanium irradie par les rayons {gamma} du cobalt 60 a l'aide de l'effet photovoltaique dans les jonctions P-N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahedi-Mochadam, A A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-10-01

    Using the photo-voltaic effect in p-n junctions, we have studied, during bombardment, the mechanism of the recombination of 'electron-hole' pairs in the presence of structure defects produced in germanium of the N and P types by {gamma} rays from a Co{sup 60} source. At 310 K the level of the recombination centres is situated 0.25 eV above the conduction band and the capture cross-sections of the holes and of the electrons have the respective values of: {sigma}{sub p} = 4 X 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2} and {sigma}{sub n} = 3 X 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2}. The value of {sigma}{sub n} appears to be under-estimated because the number of defects in P-type samples appears to be lower than that in N-type samples. These results lead to the conclusion that the interstitials are responsible for the recombination. At 80 K it has been found that in N-type samples, a shallow level exists at O.05 eV below the conduction band with a capture cross-section for the holes of {sigma}{sub p} {>=} 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2}. We believe that in this case the recombination of charge carriers is controlled by the neighbouring 'defect-interstitial' pairs. In P-type samples at low temperature, the life-time is practically constant during irradiation. This fact is attributed to a spontaneous annealing of defects ol purely electrical origin. In the last part of the work the study of the photo-voltaic effect applied to the problem of gamma radiation dosimetry is considered. It is shown that such dosimeters, based on this principle, make it possible to measure the intensity of gamma rays over a very wide range. (author) [French] En utilisant l'effet photovoltaique dans les jonctions p-n, nous avons etudie au cours du bombardement le mecanisme de recombinaison des paires 'electron-trou' en presence des defauts de structure introduits dans le germanium de type N et de type P par les rayons gamma d'une source de Co{sup 60}. A 310 K, le niveau des centres de recombinaison se trouve a 0,25 eV au-dessous de la bande

  6. Efficient light harvesting from flexible perovskite solar cells under indoor white light-emitting diode illumination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucarelli, G.; Di Giacomo, F.; Zardetto, V.; Creatore, M.; Brown, T.M.

    2017-01-01

    This is the first report of an investigation on flexible perovskite solar cells for artificial light harvesting by using a white light-emitting diode (LED) lamp as a light source at 200 and 400 lx, values typically found in indoor environments. Flexible cells were developed using either

  7. Light extraction efficiency enhancement for fluorescent SiC based white light-emitting diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Ou, Yiyu; Argyraki, Aikaterini

    Fluorescent SiC based white light-emitting diodes(LEDs) light source, as an innovative energy-efficient light source, would even have longer lifetime, better light quality and eliminated blue-tone effect, compared to the current phosphor based white LED light source. In this paper, the yellow...

  8. Passivation of organic light emitting diode anode grid lines by pulsed Joule heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janka, M.; Gierth, R.; Rubingh, J.E.; Abendroth, M.; Eggert, M.; Moet, D.J.D.; Lupo, D.

    2015-01-01

    We report the self-aligned passivation of a current distribution grid for an organic light emitting diode (OLED) anode using a pulsed Joule heating method to align the passivation layer accurately on the metal grid. This method involves passing an electric current through the grid to cure a polymer

  9. Nanostructured current-confined single quantum dot light-emitting diode at 1300 nm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monat, C.; Alloing, B.; Zinoni, C.; Li, L.; Fiore, A.

    2006-01-01

    A novel light-emitting-diode structure is demonstrated, which relies on nanoscale current injection through an oxide aperture to achieve selective excitation of single InAs/GaAs quantum dots. Low-temp. electroluminescence spectra evidence discrete narrow lines around 1300 nm (line width ~ 75 micro

  10. Peculiarities of electrooptical characteristics of gallium phosphide light-emitting diodes in high injection level conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Hontaruk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electroluminescence of green N-doped gallium phosphide light-emitting diodes was studied. The negative differential resistance region in the current-voltage characteristics was found at low temperature (Т ≤ 90 К. Possible reason of this phenomenon is the redistribution of recombinational flows between annihilation channels on isolated nitrogen atoms and annihilation channel on the NN1 pairs.

  11. Bright infrared quantum-dot light-emitting diodes through inter-dot spacing control

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Liangfeng; Choi, Joshua J.; Stachnik, David; Bartnik, Adam C.; Hyun, Byung-Ryool; Malliaras, George G.; Hanrath, Tobias; Wise, Frank W.

    2012-01-01

    Infrared light-emitting diodes are currently fabricated from direct-gap semiconductors using epitaxy, which makes them expensive and difficult to integrate with other materials. Light-emitting diodes based on colloidal semiconductor quantum dots, on the other hand, can be solution-processed at low cost, and can be directly integrated with silicon. However, so far, exciton dissociation and recombination have not been well controlled in these devices, and this has limited their performance. Here, by tuning the distance between adjacent PbS quantum dots, we fabricate thin-film quantum-dot light-emitting diodes that operate at infrared wavelengths with radiances (6.4 W sr '1 m '2) eight times higher and external quantum efficiencies (2.0%) two times higher than the highest values previously reported. The distance between adjacent dots is tuned over a range of 1.3 nm by varying the lengths of the linker molecules from three to eight CH 2 groups, which allows us to achieve the optimum balance between charge injection and radiative exciton recombination. The electroluminescent powers of the best devices are comparable to those produced by commercial InGaAsP light-emitting diodes. By varying the size of the quantum dots, we can tune the emission wavelengths between 800 and 1,850 nm.© 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  12. Influence of a partially oxidized calcium cathode on the performance of polymeric light emitting diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, G.G.; Jong, de M.P.; Janssen, F.J.J.; Sturm, J.M.; IJzendoorn, van L.J.; Denier van der Gon, A.W.; Voigt, de M.J.A.; Brongersma, H.H.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the influence of the presence of oxygen during the deposition of the calcium cathode on the structure and on the performance of polymeric light emitting diodes (pLEDs). The oxygen background pressure during deposition of the calcium cathode of polymeric LEDs was varied. Subsequently,

  13. All-solution processed polymer light-emitting diodes with air stable metal-oxide electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyn, P. de; Moet, D.J.D.; Blom, P.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    We present an all-solution processed polymer light-emitting diode (PLED) using spincoated zinc oxide (ZnO) and vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) as electron and hole injecting contact, respectively. We compare the performance of these devices to the standard PLED design using PEDOT:PSS as anode and Ba/Al as

  14. The efficiency challenge of nitride light-emitting diodes for lighting

    KAUST Repository

    Weisbuch, Claude; Piccardo, Marco; Martinelli, Lucio; Iveland, Justin; Peretti, Jacques; Speck, James S.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. We discuss the challenges of light-emitting diodes in view of their application to solid-state lighting. The requirement is to at least displace the quite efficient fluorescent, sodium, and high

  15. Medical Applications of Space Light-Emitting Diode Technology--Space Station and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, H.T.; Houle, J.M.; Donohoe, D.L.; Bajic, D.M.; Schmidt, M.H.; Reichert, K.W.; Weyenberg, G.T.; Larson, D.L.; Meyer, G.A.; Caviness, J.A.

    1999-06-01

    Space light-emitting diode (LED) technology has provided medicine with a new tool capable of delivering light deep into tissues of the body, at wavelengths which are biologically optimal for cancer treatment and wound healing. This LED technology has already flown on Space Shuttle missions, and shows promise for wound healing applications of benefit to Space Station astronauts.

  16. Determination of the trap-assisted recombination strength in polymer light emitting diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuik, Martijn; Nicolai, Herman T.; Lenes, Martijn; Wetzelaer, Gert-Jan A. H.; Lu, Mingtao; Blom, Paul W. M.

    2011-01-01

    The recombination processes in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) based polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) are investigated. Photogenerated current measurements on PLED device structures reveal that next to the known Langevin recombination also trap-assisted recombination is an important recombination

  17. Non-radiative recombination losses in polymer light-emitting diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuik, M.; Koster, L. J. A.; Dijkstra, A. G.; Wetzelaer, G. A. H.; Blom, P. W. M.

    We present a quantitative analysis of the loss of electroluminescence in light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) due to the combination of non-radiative trap-assisted recombination and exciton quenching at the metallic cathode. It is

  18. Determination of the trap-assisted recombination strength in polymer light emitting diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuik, M.; Nicolai, H.T.; Lenes, M.; Wetzelaer, G.-J.A.H.; Lu, M.; Blom, P.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The recombination processes in poly(p -phenylene vinylene) based polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) are investigated. Photogenerated current measurements on PLED device structures reveal that next to the known Langevin recombination also trap-assisted recombination is an important recombination

  19. Finding the Average Speed of a Light-Emitting Toy Car with a Smartphone Light Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapucu, Serkan

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to demonstrate how the average speed of a light-emitting toy car may be determined using a smartphone's light sensor. The freely available Android smartphone application, "AndroSensor," was used for the experiment. The classroom experiment combines complementary physics knowledge of optics and kinematics to find the…

  20. Organic light-emitting devices with fullerene/aluminum composite anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Q.L.; Li, C.M.; Wang, M.L.; Sun, X.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Our previous work demonstrates that fullerene/Aluminum (C 60 /Al) can be used as a composite anode in organic solar cells. In this work, we report that an organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) can be made with the C 60 /Al composite anode as well. The OLEDs show comparable current density and brightness to the traditional devices with the indium tin oxide anode

  1. Interband cascade light emitting devices based on type-II quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Rui Q.; Lin, C.H.; Murry, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    The authors discuss physical processes in the newly developed type-II interband cascade light emitting devices, and review their recent progress in the demonstration of the first type-II interband cascade lasers and the observation of interband cascade electroluminescence up to room temperature in a broad mid-infrared wavelength region (extended to 9 μm)

  2. A triphenylamine substituted quinacridone derivative for solution processed organic light emitting diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilz da Cunha, M.; Do, T.T.; Yambem, S.D.; Pham, H.D.; Chang, S.; Manzhos, S.; Katoh, R.; Sonar, P.

    2018-01-01

    We report on a novel quinacridone derivative design, namely, 2,9-bis(4-(bis(4-methoxyphenyl)amino)phenyl)-5,12-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-5,12-dihydroquinolino[2,3-b]acridine-7,14-dione (TPA-QA-TPA) for possible use as a solution processable emissive layer in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). TPA-QA-TPA

  3. Bright infrared quantum-dot light-emitting diodes through inter-dot spacing control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liangfeng; Choi, Joshua J; Stachnik, David; Bartnik, Adam C; Hyun, Byung-Ryool; Malliaras, George G; Hanrath, Tobias; Wise, Frank W

    2012-05-06

    Infrared light-emitting diodes are currently fabricated from direct-gap semiconductors using epitaxy, which makes them expensive and difficult to integrate with other materials. Light-emitting diodes based on colloidal semiconductor quantum dots, on the other hand, can be solution-processed at low cost, and can be directly integrated with silicon. However, so far, exciton dissociation and recombination have not been well controlled in these devices, and this has limited their performance. Here, by tuning the distance between adjacent PbS quantum dots, we fabricate thin-film quantum-dot light-emitting diodes that operate at infrared wavelengths with radiances (6.4 W sr(-1) m(-2)) eight times higher and external quantum efficiencies (2.0%) two times higher than the highest values previously reported. The distance between adjacent dots is tuned over a range of 1.3 nm by varying the lengths of the linker molecules from three to eight CH(2) groups, which allows us to achieve the optimum balance between charge injection and radiative exciton recombination. The electroluminescent powers of the best devices are comparable to those produced by commercial InGaAsP light-emitting diodes. By varying the size of the quantum dots, we can tune the emission wavelengths between 800 and 1,850 nm.

  4. Hand-Drawn Resistors and a Simple Tester Using a Light-Emitting Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Abe, Mayumi

    2012-01-01

    A thick line drawn on a sheet of paper with a 6B pencil is electrically conductive and its resistance can be roughly estimated using a simple tester made of a light-emitting diode (LED) and a lithium coin-type cell. Using this hand-drawn resistor and the LED tester, we developed teaching materials that help students to understand how electrical…

  5. Current Spreading Layer with High Transparency and Conductivity for near-ultraviolet light emitting diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Li; Jensen, Flemming; Herstrøm, Berit

    Transparent conductive aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) layer was deposited on GaN-based near-ultraviolet (NUV) light emitting epitaxial wafers as current spreading layer by a sputtering process. Efforts were made to improve the electrical properties of AZO in order to produce ohmic contact....

  6. Efficient electron injection from solution-processed cesium stearate interlayers in organic light-emitting diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzelaer, G. A. H.; Najafi, A.; Kist, R. J. P.; Kuik, M.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2013-01-01

    The electron-injection capability of solution-processed cesium stearate films in organic light-emitting diodes is investigated. Cesium stearate, which is expected to exhibit good solubility and film formation due to its long hydrocarbon chain, is synthesized using a straightforward procedure.

  7. Tuning Optoelectronic Properties of Ambipolar Organic Light-Emitting Transistors Using a Bulk-Heterojunction Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loi, Maria Antonietta; Rost-Bietsch, Constance; Murgia, Mauro; Karg, Siegfried; Riess, Walter; Muccini, Michele

    2006-01-01

    Bulk-heterojunction engineering is demonstrated as an approach to producing ambipolar organic light-emitting field-effect transistors with tunable electrical and optoelectronic characteristics. The electron and hole mobilities, as well as the electroluminescence intensity, can be tuned over a large

  8. Highly efficient exciplex organic light-emitting diodes incorporating a heptazine derivative as an electron acceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Nomura, Hiroko; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Adachi, Chihaya

    2014-06-11

    Highly efficient exciplex systems incorporating a heptazine derivative () as an electron acceptor and 1,3-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)benzene () as an electron donor are developed. An organic light-emitting diode containing 8 wt% : as an emitting layer exhibits a maximum external quantum efficiency of 11.3%.

  9. Trap-assisted and Langevin-type recombination in organic light-emitting diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzelaer, G. A. H.; Kuik, M.; Nicolai, H. T.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2011-01-01

    Trapping of charges is known to play an important role in the charge transport of organic semiconductors, but the role of traps in the recombination process has not been addressed. Here we show that the ideality factor of the current of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) in the

  10. High tunability and superluminescence in InAs mid-infrared light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherstnev, V.V.; Krier, A.; Hill, G.

    2002-01-01

    We report on the observation of super luminescence and high spectral current tunability (181 nm) of InAs light emitting diodes operating at 3.0 μm. The source is based on an optical whispering gallery mode which is generated near the edges of the mesa and which is responsible for the superluminescence. (author)

  11. Polymer Light-Emitting Diode Prepared by Floating-Off Film-Transfer Technique

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Jihoon; Kim, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Floating-off film-transfer technique was used for the formation of semiconducting polymer multi-layers and the effect on the performance of polymer light-emitting diode (PLED) was studied. This method

  12. Three-dimensional modeling of charge transport, injection and recombination in organic light-emitting diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holst, van der J.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are ideally suited for lighting and display applications. Commercial OLED displays as well as OLED white-light sources are presently being introduced to the market. Essential electronic processes in OLEDs are the injection of electrons and holes into an organic

  13. Bright infrared quantum-dot light-emitting diodes through inter-dot spacing control

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Liangfeng

    2012-05-06

    Infrared light-emitting diodes are currently fabricated from direct-gap semiconductors using epitaxy, which makes them expensive and difficult to integrate with other materials. Light-emitting diodes based on colloidal semiconductor quantum dots, on the other hand, can be solution-processed at low cost, and can be directly integrated with silicon. However, so far, exciton dissociation and recombination have not been well controlled in these devices, and this has limited their performance. Here, by tuning the distance between adjacent PbS quantum dots, we fabricate thin-film quantum-dot light-emitting diodes that operate at infrared wavelengths with radiances (6.4 W sr \\'1 m \\'2) eight times higher and external quantum efficiencies (2.0%) two times higher than the highest values previously reported. The distance between adjacent dots is tuned over a range of 1.3 nm by varying the lengths of the linker molecules from three to eight CH 2 groups, which allows us to achieve the optimum balance between charge injection and radiative exciton recombination. The electroluminescent powers of the best devices are comparable to those produced by commercial InGaAsP light-emitting diodes. By varying the size of the quantum dots, we can tune the emission wavelengths between 800 and 1,850 nm.© 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  14. Color Shift Modeling of Light-Emitting Diode Lamps in Step-Loaded Stress Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Miao; Yang, Daoguo; Huang, J.; Zhang, Maofen; Chen, Xianping; Liang, Caihang; Koh, S.W.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2017-01-01

    The color coordinate shift of light-emitting diode (LED) lamps is investigated by running three stress-loaded testing methods, namely step-up stress accelerated degradation testing, step-down stress accelerated degradation testing, and constant stress accelerated degradation testing. A power

  15. Finding the Acceleration and Speed of a Light-Emitting Object on an Inclined Plane with a Smartphone Light Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapucu, Serkan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how the acceleration and speed of a light-emitting object on an inclined plane may be determined using a smartphone's light sensor. A light-emitting object was released from the top of an inclined plane and its illuminance values were detected by a smartphone's light sensor during its subsequent motion down the plane. Using…

  16. A green-light-emitting, spontaneously blinking fluorophore based on intramolecular spirocyclization for dual-colour super-resolution imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Shin-Nosuke; Kamiya, Mako; Morozumi, Akihiko; Urano, Yasuteru

    2017-12-19

    We have developed the first green-light-emitting, spontaneously blinking fluorophore (SBF), HEtetTFER. In combination with our near-infrared-light-emitting SBF (HMSiR), HEtetTFER allows dual-colour single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) in buffer solution without any additive and without photoactivation.

  17. High-quality uniaxial In(x)Ga(1-x)N/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) nanowires (NWs) on Si(111) grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and light-emitting diode (LED) fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Yong-Ho; Navamathavan, R; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Lee, Cheul-Ro

    2013-03-01

    This article describes the growth and device characteristics of vertically aligned high-quality uniaxial p-GaN/InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQW)/n-GaN nanowires (NWs) on Si(111) substrates grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique. The resultant nanowires (NWs), with a diameter of 200-250 nm, have an average length of 2 μm. The feasibility of growing high-quality NWs with well-controlled indium composition MQW structure is demonstrated. These resultant NWs grown on Si(111) substrates were utilized for fabricating vertical-type light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The steep and intense photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra are observed, based on the strain-free NWs on Si(111) substrates. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) analysis revealed that the MQW NWs are grown along the c-plane with uniform thickness. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of these NWs exhibited typical p-n junction LEDs and showed a sharp onset voltage at 2.75 V in the forward bias. The output power is linearly increased with increasing current. The result indicates that the pulsed MOCVD technique is an effective method to grow uniaxial p-GaN/InxGa1-xN/GaN MQW/n-GaN NWs on Si(111), which is more advantageous than other growth techniques, such as molecular beam epitaxy. These results suggest the uniaxial NWs are promising to allow flat-band quantum structures, which can enhance the efficiency of LEDs.

  18. Structural effects of a light emitting copolymer having perylene moieties in the side chain on the electroluminescent characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Ho; Ryu, Seung Hoon; Jang, Hee Dong; Oh, Se Young

    2004-01-01

    We have synthesized a novel side chain light emitting copolymer. The side chain light emitting copolymer has a perylene moiety as an emitting unit and methylmethacrylate (MMA) as a spacer to decrease the concentration quenching of light emitting site in the polymer intrachain. These polymers are very soluble in most organic solvents such as monochlorobenzene, tetrahydrofuran, chloroform and benzene. The single-layered electroluminescent (EL) device consisting of ITO/carrier transporting copolymer and light emitting copolymer/Al was manufactured. The carrier transporting copolymer has triphenylamine moiety as a hole transporting unit and triazine moiety as an electron transporting unit in the polymer side chain. This device exhibits maximum external quantum efficiency when the MMA contents of light emitting copolymer is 30 wt.%. In particular, the device emits more blue light as MMA contents increase

  19. Thermal characterizations analysis of high-power ThinGaN cool-white light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raypah, Muna E.; Devarajan, Mutharasu; Ahmed, Anas A.; Sulaiman, Fauziah

    2018-03-01

    Analysis of thermal properties plays an important role in the thermal management of high-power (HP) lighting-emitting diodes (LEDs). Thermal resistance, thermal capacitance, and thermal time constant are essential parameters for the optimal design of the LED device and system, particularly for dynamic performance study. In this paper, thermal characterization and thermal time constant of ThinGaN HP LEDs are investigated. Three HP cool-white ThinGaN LEDs from different manufacturers are used in this study. A forward-voltage method using thermal transient tester (T3Ster) system is employed to determine the LEDs' thermal parameters at various operating conditions. The junction temperature transient response is described by a multi-exponential function model to extract thermal time constants. The transient response curve is divided into three layers and expressed by three exponential functions. Each layer is associated with a particular thermal time constant, thermal resistance, and thermal capacitance. It is found that the thermal time constant of LED package is on the order of 22 to 100 ms. Comparison between the experimental results is carried out to show the design effects on thermal performance of the LED package.

  20. Characterization of electrically-active defects in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with laser-based failure analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Mary A.; Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Cole, Edward I.

    2016-01-01

    Laser-based failure analysis techniques demonstrate the ability to quickly and non-intrusively screen deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for electrically-active defects. In particular, two laser-based techniques, light-induced voltage alteration and thermally-induced voltage alteration, generate applied voltage maps (AVMs) that provide information on electrically-active defect behavior including turn-on bias, density, and spatial location. Here, multiple commercial LEDs were examined and found to have dark defect signals in the AVM indicating a site of reduced resistance or leakage through the diode. The existence of the dark defect signals in the AVM correlates strongly with an increased forward-bias leakage current. This increased leakage is not present in devices without AVM signals. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of a dark defect signal site revealed a dislocation cluster through the pn junction. The cluster included an open core dislocation. Even though LEDs with few dark AVM defect signals did not correlate strongly with power loss, direct association between increased open core dislocation densities and reduced LED device performance has been presented elsewhere [M. W. Moseley et al., J. Appl. Phys. 117, 095301 (2015)

  1. Characterization of electrically-active defects in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with laser-based failure analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Mary A.; Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Cole, Edward I. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1086 (United States)

    2016-01-14

    Laser-based failure analysis techniques demonstrate the ability to quickly and non-intrusively screen deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for electrically-active defects. In particular, two laser-based techniques, light-induced voltage alteration and thermally-induced voltage alteration, generate applied voltage maps (AVMs) that provide information on electrically-active defect behavior including turn-on bias, density, and spatial location. Here, multiple commercial LEDs were examined and found to have dark defect signals in the AVM indicating a site of reduced resistance or leakage through the diode. The existence of the dark defect signals in the AVM correlates strongly with an increased forward-bias leakage current. This increased leakage is not present in devices without AVM signals. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of a dark defect signal site revealed a dislocation cluster through the pn junction. The cluster included an open core dislocation. Even though LEDs with few dark AVM defect signals did not correlate strongly with power loss, direct association between increased open core dislocation densities and reduced LED device performance has been presented elsewhere [M. W. Moseley et al., J. Appl. Phys. 117, 095301 (2015)].

  2. Current, voltage and temperature distribution modeling of light-emitting diodes based on electrical and thermal circuit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, J; Shim, J-I; Shin, D-S

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a modeling method based on the three-dimensional electrical and thermal circuit analysis to extract current, voltage and temperature distributions of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). In our model, the electrical circuit analysis is performed first to extract the current and voltage distributions in the LED. Utilizing the result obtained from the electrical circuit analysis as distributed heat sources, the thermal circuit is set up by using the duality between Fourier's law and Ohm's law. From the analysis of the thermal circuit, the temperature distribution at each epitaxial film is successfully obtained. Comparisons of experimental and simulation results are made by employing an InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue LED. Validity of the electrical circuit analysis is confirmed by comparing the light distribution at the surface. Since the temperature distribution at each epitaxial film cannot be obtained experimentally, the apparent temperature distribution is compared at the surface of the LED chip. Also, experimentally obtained average junction temperature is compared with the value calculated from the modeling, yielding a very good agreement. The analysis method based on the circuit modeling has an advantage of taking distributed heat sources as inputs, which is essential for high-power devices with significant self-heating. (paper)

  3. Aluminum nitride coatings using response surface methodology to optimize the thermal dissipated performance of light-emitting diode modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Ming-Der; Lei, Peng-Da; Kong, Ling-Hua; Liu, Cheng-Wu

    2018-05-01

    This study optimizes the thermal dissipation ability of aluminum nitride (AlN) ceramics to increase the thermal performance of light-emitting diode (LED) modulus. AlN powders are deposited on heat sink as a heat interface material, using an electrostatic spraying process. The junction temperature of the heat sink is developed by response surface methodology based on Taguchi methods. In addition, the structure and properties of the AlN coating are examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In the XPS analysis, the AlN sub-peaks are observed at 72.79 eV for Al2p and 398.88 eV for N1s, and an N1s sub-peak is assigned to N-O at 398.60eV and Al-N bonding at 395.95eV, which allows good thermal properties. The results have shown that the use of AlN ceramic material on a heat sink can enhance the thermal performance of LED modules. In addition, the percentage error between the predicted and experimental results compared the quadric model with between the linear and he interaction models was found to be within 7.89%, indicating that it was a good predictor. Accordingly, RSM can effectively enhance the thermal performance of an LED, and the beneficial heat dissipation effects for AlN are improved by electrostatic spraying.

  4. Magnetically modulated electroluminescence from hybrid organic/inorganic light-emitting diodes based on electron donor-acceptor exciplex blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zhiyong; Baniya, Sangita; Zhang, Chuang; Sun, Dali; Vardeny, Z. Valy

    2016-03-01

    We report room temperature magnetically modulated electroluminescence from a hybrid organic/inorganic light-emitting diode (h-OLED), in which an inorganic magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with large room temperature magnetoresistance is coupled to an N,N,N ',N '-Tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)benzidine (MeO-TPD): tris-[3-(3-pyridyl)mesityl]borane (3TPYMB) [D-A] based OLED that shows thermally activated delayed luminescence. The exciplex-based OLED provides two spin-mixing channels: upper energy channel of polaron pairs and lower energy channel of exciplexes. In operation, the large resistance mismatch between the MTJ and OLED components is suppressed due to the non-linear I-V characteristic of the OLED. This leads to enhanced giant magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) at room temperature. We measured MEL of ~ 75% at ambient conditions. Supported by SAMSUNG Global Research Outreach (GRO) program, and also by the NSF-Material Science & Engineering Center (MRSEC) program at the University of Utah (DMR-1121252).

  5. P N Kotru

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Volume 33 Issue 4 August 2010 pp 377-382 Electrical Properties. Dielectric and thermal studies on gel grown strontium tartrate pentahydrate crystals ... High resolution X-ray diffraction studies on unirradiated and irradiated strontium hexaferrite crystals · Balwinder Kaur Monita Bhat F Licci Ravi Kumar K K Bamzai P N Kotru.

  6. Enhanced quantum efficiency in blue-emitting polymer/dielectric nanolayer nanocomposite light-emitting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Hyeok; Lim, Yong Taik; Park, O Ok; Yu, Jae-Woong; Kim, Jai Kyeong; Kim, Young Chul

    2004-01-01

    Light-emitting devices based on environmentally stable, blue-emitting polymer/dielectric nanolayer nanocomposites were fabricated by blending poly(di-octylfluorene) (PDOF) with organo-clay. By reducing the excimer formation that leads to long wavelength tails, the photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) color purity of the device was enhanced. When a conjugated polymer/dielectric nanolayer nanocomposite is applied to an EL device, we expect an electronic structure similar to the well-known quantum well in small nanodomains. The ratio of PDOF/organo-clay was regulated from 2:1 to 0.5:1 (w/w). The light-emitting device of 0.5:1 (w/w) blend demonstrated the highest quantum efficiency (QE), 0.72% (ph/el), which is ∼500 times higher value compared with that of the pure PDOF layer device. However, the driving voltage of the nanocomposite devices tended to increase with increasing organo-clay content

  7. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes on Solution-Processed Graphene Transparent Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Junbo

    2010-01-26

    Theoretical estimates indicate that graphene thin films can be used as transparent electrodes for thin-film devices such as solar cells and organic light-emitting diodes, with an unmatched combination of sheet resistance and transparency. We demonstrate organic light-emitting diodes with solution-processed graphene thin film transparent conductive anodes. The graphene electrodes were deposited on quartz substrates by spincoating of an aqueous dispersion of functionalized graphene, followed by a vacuum anneal step to reduce the sheet resistance. Small molecular weight organic materials and a metal cathode were directly deposited on the graphene anodes, resulting in devices with a performance comparable to control devices on indium-tin-oxide transparent anodes. The outcoupling efficiency of devices on graphene and indium-tin-oxide is nearly identical, in agreement with model predictions. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  8. Light-emitting Si films formed by neutral cluster deposition in a thin O2 gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Y.; Takei, M.; Ohno, H.; Shida, S.; Goda, K.

    2005-01-01

    We have fabricated the light-emitting Si-rich and oxygen-rich amorphous SiO 2 (a-SiO 2 ) films using the neutral cluster deposition (NCD) method without and with oxygen gas admitted, respectively, and demonstrate for the first time that these films show a photoluminescent feature. The Si thin films were observed by atomic force microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and analyzed by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) and FTIR-attenuated total reflection measurements. All of the PL spectra show mountainous distribution with a peak around 620 nm. It is found that the increase in the oxygen termination in the a-SiO 2 films evidently makes the PL intensity increase. It is demonstrated that NCD technique is one of the hopeful methods to fabricate light-emitting Si thin films

  9. [White organic light emitting device with dyestuff DCJTB blended in polymer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Fei; Xu, Zheng; Zhang, Fu-Jun; Wang, Yong; Zhao, Su-Ling

    2008-04-01

    The Alq3 and DCJTB were blended with poly (N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) in different weight ratios and spin coated into films. Multilayer devices with the light emitting layer PVK : Alq3 : DCJTB were fabricated, and their structure was ITO/ PVK : Alq3 : DCJTB/ BCP/Alq3/LiF/Al in which BCP and Alq3 were employed as the hole-blocking and electron-transporting layers respectively, PVK is the blue light-emitting as well as hole-transporting layer. The mass proportion of PVK relative to Alq3 was tuned while the quality ratio of PVK to DCJTB remained (100 : 1). Finally, fairly pure and stabile white emission was achieved when PVK : Alq3 : DCJTB was 100 : 5 : 1. The CIE coordinate was (0.33, 0.36) at 14 V, which is very stable at various biases (10-14 V).

  10. Manufacturing polymer light emitting diode with high luminance efficiency by solution process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miyoung; Jo, SongJin; Yang, Ho Chang; Yoon, Dang Mo; Kwon, Jae-Taek; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Choi, Ju Hwan; Lee, Bum-Joo; Shin, Jin-Koog

    2012-06-01

    While investigating polymer light emitting diodes (polymer-LEDs) fabricated by solution process, surface roughness influences electro-optical (E-O) characteristics. We expect that E-O characteristics such as luminance and power efficiency related to surface roughness and layer thickness of emitting layer with poly-9-Vinylcarbazole. In this study, we fabricated polymer organic light emitting diodes by solution process which guarantees easy, eco-friendly and low cost manufacturing for flexible display applications. In order to obtain high luminescence efficiency, E-O characteristics of these devices by varying parameters for printing process have been investigated. Therefore, we optimized process condition for polymer-LEDs by adjusting annealing temperatures of emission, thickness of emission layer showing efficiency (10.8 cd/A) at 10 mA/cm2. We also checked wavelength dependent electroluminescence spectrum in order to find the correlation between the variation of efficiency and the thickness of the layer.

  11. The influence of melt purification and structure defects on mid-infrared light emitting diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Krier, A

    2003-01-01

    Mid-infrared light emitting diodes which exhibit more than 7 mW (pulsed) and 0.35 mW dc output power at 3.3 mu m and at room temperature have been fabricated by liquid phase epitaxy using Pb as a neutral solvent. Using Pb solution an increase in pulsed output power of between two and three times was obtained compared with InAs light emitting diodes (LEDs) made using rare-earth gettering. The performance improvements were attributed to a reduction in residual carrier concentration arising from the removal of un-intentional donors and structure defects in the InAs active region material. These LEDs are well matched to the CH sub 4 absorption spectrum and potentially could form the basis of a practical infrared CH sub 4 gas sensor.

  12. Pure white-light emitting ultrasmall organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunis, Meghan B; Lawrence, Katie N; Dutta, Poulami; Siegel, Amanda P; Sardar, Rajesh

    2016-10-14

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, direct band-gap semiconductors, have shown tremendous promise for optoelectronic device fabrication. We report the first colloidal synthetic approach to prepare ultrasmall (∼1.5 nm diameter), white-light emitting, organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite nanoclusters. The nearly pure white-light emitting ultrasmall nanoclusters were obtained by selectively manipulating the surface chemistry (passivating ligands and surface trap-states) and controlled substitution of halide ions. The nanoclusters displayed a combination of band-edge and broadband photoluminescence properties, covering a major part of the visible region of the solar spectrum with unprecedentedly large quantum yields of ∼12% and photoluminescence lifetime of ∼20 ns. The intrinsic white-light emission of perovskite nanoclusters makes them ideal and low cost hybrid nanomaterials for solid-state lighting applications.

  13. Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Himchan; Jeong, Su-Hun; Park, Min-Ho; Kim, Young-Hoon; Wolf, Christoph; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Heo, Jin Hyuck; Sadhanala, Aditya; Myoung, NoSoung; Yoo, Seunghyup; Im, Sang Hyuk; Friend, Richard H.; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2015-12-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites are emerging low-cost emitters with very high color purity, but their low luminescent efficiency is a critical drawback. We boosted the current efficiency (CE) of perovskite light-emitting diodes with a simple bilayer structure to 42.9 candela per ampere, similar to the CE of phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes, with two modifications: We prevented the formation of metallic lead (Pb) atoms that cause strong exciton quenching through a small increase in methylammonium bromide (MABr) molar proportion, and we spatially confined the exciton in uniform MAPbBr3 nanograins (average diameter = 99.7 nanometers) formed by a nanocrystal pinning process and concomitant reduction of exciton diffusion length to 67 nanometers. These changes caused substantial increases in steady-state photoluminescence intensity and efficiency of MAPbBr3 nanograin layers.

  14. AlGaInN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipshidze, G.; Kuryatkov, V.; Borisov, B.; Holtz, M.; Nikishin, S.; Temkin, H.

    2002-01-01

    Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si(111) by gas-source molecular-beam epitaxy with ammonia are described. The layers are composed of superlattices of AlGaN/GaN and AlN/AlGaInN. The layers are doped n and p type with Si and Mg, respectively. Hole concentration of 4x10 17 cm -3 , with a mobility of 8 cm2/Vs, is measured in Al 0.4 Ga 0.6 N/GaN. We demonstrate effective n- and p-type doping of structures based on AlN/AlGaInN. Light-emitting diodes based on these structures show light emission between 290 and 334 nm

  15. Highly efficient single-layer dendrimer light-emitting diodes with balanced charge transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthopoulos, Thomas D.; Markham, Jonathan P. J.; Namdas, Ebinazar B.; Samuel, Ifor D. W.; Lo, Shih-Chun; Burn, Paul L.

    2003-06-01

    High-efficiency single-layer-solution-processed green light-emitting diodes based on a phosphorescent dendrimer are demonstrated. A peak external quantum efficiency of 10.4% (35 cd/A) was measured for a first generation fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium cored dendrimer when blended with 4,4'-bis(N-carbazolyl)biphenyl and electron transporting 1,3,5-tris(2-N-phenylbenzimidazolyl)benzene at 8.1 V. A maximum power efficiency of 12.8 lm/W was measured also at 8.1 V and 550 cd/m2. These results indicate that, by simple blending of bipolar and electron-transporting molecules, highly efficient light-emitting diodes can be made employing a very simple device structure.

  16. Influence of doping location and width of dimethylquinacridone on the performance of organic light emitting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jingze; Yahiro, Masayuki; Ishida, Kenji; Matsushige, Kazumi

    2005-01-01

    The influence of doping location and width of fluorescent dimethylquinacridone (DMQA) molecules on the performance of organic light emitting devices has been systematically investigated. While the doped zone is located at the interface of the hole transport layer (HTL) and the light emitting layer (EML), doping in the HTL leads to significant improvement of the external quantum efficiency relative to the undoped device, whereas the efficiency is lower than that of doping in the EML. This phenomenon is explained according to the electroluminescence (EL) process of the doped DMQA, which is dominated by Foerster energy transfer. Additionally, a device with dual doping in both HTL and EML exhibits the highest efficiency. The EL and photoluminescence spectra are also dependent on the doping sites

  17. Influence of Pre-trimethylindium flow treatment on blue light emitting diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Bing; Zhao, Jun Liang; Dai, Hai Tao; Wang, Shu Guo; Lin, Ray-Ming; Chu, Fu-Chuan; Huang, Chou-Hsiung; Yu, Sheng-Fu; Sun, Xiao Wei

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Pre-trimethylindium (TMIn) flow treatment prior to quantum well growth on blue light emitting diode properties were investigated. High-resolution X-ray diffraction indicated that Pre-TMIn flow treatment did not change the composition of indium in quantum wells, but influenced electrical and optical properties of blue light emitting diode. Electroluminescence exhibited redshift with increasing TMIn treatment time. Though, the forward voltage became a little larger with longer Pre-TMIn treatment time due to the slight phase separation and indium aggregation, the efficiency droop of the device was improved effectively. - Highlights: • Pre-trimethylindium treatment can lead to longer wavelength. • External quantum efficiency can be improved effectively. • Electrical properties are not decreased using Pre-trimethylindium treatment

  18. Influence of Pre-trimethylindium flow treatment on blue light emitting diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Bing; Zhao, Jun Liang [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Dai, Hai Tao, E-mail: htdai@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wang, Shu Guo [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Lin, Ray-Ming, E-mail: rmlin@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Electronic Engineering and Green Technology Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Chu, Fu-Chuan; Huang, Chou-Hsiung [Graduate Institute of Electronic Engineering and Green Technology Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Yu, Sheng-Fu [Institute of Microelectronics and Department of Electrical Engineering, Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Sun, Xiao Wei, E-mail: xwsun@sustc.edu.cn [South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen, Guangdong (China)

    2014-01-31

    The effects of Pre-trimethylindium (TMIn) flow treatment prior to quantum well growth on blue light emitting diode properties were investigated. High-resolution X-ray diffraction indicated that Pre-TMIn flow treatment did not change the composition of indium in quantum wells, but influenced electrical and optical properties of blue light emitting diode. Electroluminescence exhibited redshift with increasing TMIn treatment time. Though, the forward voltage became a little larger with longer Pre-TMIn treatment time due to the slight phase separation and indium aggregation, the efficiency droop of the device was improved effectively. - Highlights: • Pre-trimethylindium treatment can lead to longer wavelength. • External quantum efficiency can be improved effectively. • Electrical properties are not decreased using Pre-trimethylindium treatment.

  19. Optimization of emission color and efficiency of organic light emitting diodes for lighting applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Stefan; Krause, Ralf [Department of Materials Science VI, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Kozlowski, Fryderyk; Schmid, Guenter; Hunze, Arvid [Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Winnacker, Albrecht [Department of Materials Science VI, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In recent years the performance of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) has reached a level where OLED lighting presents an interesting application target. Research activities therefore focus amongst other things on the development of high efficient and stable white light emitting devices. We demonstrate how the color coordinates can be adjusted to achieve a warm white emission spectrum, whereas the OLED stack contains phosphorescent red and green dyes combined with a fluorescent blue one. Detailed results are presented with respect to a variation of layer thicknesses and dopant concentrations of the emission layers. Furthermore the influence of various dye molecules and hence different energy level alignments between host and dopants on color and efficiency will be discussed.

  20. InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode microwires of submillimeter length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, W. V., E-mail: lundin.vpegroup@mail.ioffe.ru; Rodin, S. N.; Sakharov, A. V.; Lundina, E. Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Usov, S. O. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Research and Engineering Center of Submicron Heterostructures for Microelectronics (Russian Federation); Zadiranov, Yu. M.; Troshkov, S. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Tsatsulnikov, A. F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Research and Engineering Center of Submicron Heterostructures for Microelectronics (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    Microcrystalline wire-like InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes designed as core–shell structures 400–600 μm in length are grown by metal–organic vapor-phase epitaxy on sapphire and silicon substrates. The technology of the titanium-nanolayer-induced ultrafast growth of nanowire and microwire crystals is used. As a current is passed through the microcrystals, an electroluminescence signal is observed in the blue–green spectral region.

  1. Topology optimisation of passive coolers for light-emitting diode lamps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Joe

    2015-01-01

    This work applies topology optimisation to the design of passive coolers for light-emitting diode (LED) lamps. The heat sinks are cooled by the natural convection currents arising from the temperature difference between the LED lamp and the surrounding air. A large scale parallel computational....... The optimisation results show interesting features that are currently being incorporated into industrial designs for enhanced passive cooling abilities....

  2. Continuous light-emitting Diode (LED) lighting for improving food quality

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, C; Bian, Z

    2016-01-01

    Lighting-emitting diodes (LEDs) have shown great potential for plant growth and development, with higher luminous efficiency and positive impact compared with other artificial lighting. The combined effects of red/blue or/and green, and white LED light on plant growth and physiology, including chlorophyll fluorescence, nitrate content and phytochemical concentration before harvest, were investigated. The results showed that continuous light (CL)\\ud exposure at pre-harvest can effectively redu...

  3. Light emitting diodes (LED): applications in forest and native plant nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; Jeremiah R. Pinto; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2013-01-01

    It was quotes like this that made us want to learn more about light emitting diodes (LED). Other than knowing that LEDs were the latest innovation in artificial lighting, we knew that we had a lot to learn. So we started by reviewing some of the basics. The following review is a brief synopsis of how light affects plants and some discussion about LED lighting. If you...

  4. Highly Efficient Perovskite-Quantum-Dot Light-Emitting Diodes by Surface Engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun; Quan, Li Na; Zhao, Yongbiao; Peng, Wei; Banavoth, Murali; Sarmah, Smritakshi P.; Yuan, Mingjian; Sinatra, Lutfan; AlYami, Noktan; Liu, Jiakai; Yassitepe, Emre; Yang, Zhenyu; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Mohammed, Omar F.; Lu, Zheng Hong; Kim, Dong Ha; Sargent, Edward H.; Bakr, Osman

    2016-01-01

    A two-step ligand-exchange strategy is developed, in which the long-carbon-chain ligands on all-inorganic perovskite (CsPbX3, X = Br, Cl) quantum dots (QDs) are replaced with halide-ion-pair ligands. Green and blue light-emitting diodes made from the halide-ion-paircapped quantum dots exhibit high external quantum efficiencies compared with the untreated QDs.

  5. Inkjet Printing of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Alcohol-Soluble Polyfluorenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odod, A. V.; Gadirov, R. M.; Solodova, T. A.; Kurtsevich, A. E.; Il'gach, D. M.; Yakimanskii, A. V.; Burtman, V.; Kopylova, T. N.

    2018-04-01

    Ink compositions for inkjet printing based on poly(9.9-dioctylfluorene) and its alcohol-soluble analog are created. Current-voltage, brightness-voltage, and spectral characteristics are compared for one- and twolayer polymer structures of organic light-emitting diodes. It is shown that the efficiency of the alcohol-soluble polyfluorene analog is higher compared to poly(9.9-dioctylfluorene), and the possibility of viscosity optimization is higher compared to aromatic chlorinated solvents.

  6. Improved light extraction from white organic light-emitting devices using a binary random phase array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inada, Yasuhisa, E-mail: inada.yasuhisa@jp.panasonic.com; Nishiwaki, Seiji; Hirasawa, Taku; Nakamura, Yoshitaka; Hashiya, Akira; Wakabayashi, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Masa-aki [R and D Division, Panasonic Corporation, 1006 Kadoma, Kadoma City, Osaka 571-8501 (Japan); Matsuzaki, Jumpei [Device Development Center, Eco Solutions Company, Panasonic Corporation, 1048 Kadoma, Osaka 571-8686 Japan (Japan)

    2014-02-10

    We have developed a binary random phase array (BRPA) to improve the light extraction performance of white organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs). We demonstrated that the scattering of incoming light can be controlled by employing diffraction optics to modify the structural parameters of the BRPA. Applying a BRPA to the substrate of the WOLED leads to enhanced extraction efficiency and suppression of angle-dependent color changes. Our systematic study clarifies the effect of scattering on the light extraction of WOLEDs.

  7. Extracting the emitter orientation in organic light-emitting diodes from external quantum efficiency measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Tobias D., E-mail: Tobias.Schmidt@physik.uni-augsburg.de; Reichardt, Lukas J.; Wehrmeister, Sebastian; Scholz, Bert J.; Mayr, Christian; Brütting, Wolfgang, E-mail: Wolfgang.Bruetting@physik.uni-augsburg.de [Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); Rausch, Andreas F.; Wehlus, Thomas; Reusch, Thilo C. G. [OSRAM OLED GmbH, Wernerwerkstrasse 2, 93049 Regensburg (Germany); Ciarnáin, Rossá Mac; Danz, Norbert [Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering, 07745 Jena (Germany)

    2014-07-28

    Emitter orientation will play a major role in future applications of organic light-emitting diodes due to its strong impact on the efficiency of the devices. Up to now, determining the orientation of transition dipole moments required elaborate angular-dependent measurements of the light emission pattern. In this paper, we present a simplified and straightforward method to extract the emitter orientation from external quantum efficiency measurements. We demonstrate the validity of the method on three different dye-doped emitting systems.

  8. Study of voltage decrease in organic light emitting diodes during the initial stage of lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusumano, P.

    2016-02-01

    We report the results of lifetime DC testing at constant current of not-encapsulated organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on Tris (8 idroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) as emitting material. In particular, a voltage decrease during the initial stage of the lifetime test is observed. The cause of this behavior is also discussed, mainly linked to initial Joule self-heating of the device, rising its temperature above room temperature until thermal equilibrium is reached at steady state.

  9. Improved light extraction from white organic light-emitting devices using a binary random phase array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Yasuhisa; Nishiwaki, Seiji; Hirasawa, Taku; Nakamura, Yoshitaka; Hashiya, Akira; Wakabayashi, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Masa-aki; Matsuzaki, Jumpei

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a binary random phase array (BRPA) to improve the light extraction performance of white organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs). We demonstrated that the scattering of incoming light can be controlled by employing diffraction optics to modify the structural parameters of the BRPA. Applying a BRPA to the substrate of the WOLED leads to enhanced extraction efficiency and suppression of angle-dependent color changes. Our systematic study clarifies the effect of scattering on the light extraction of WOLEDs

  10. White organic light emitting diodes based on fluorene-carbazole dendrimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usluer, Özlem; Demic, Serafettin; Kus, Mahmut; Özel, Faruk; Serdar Sariciftci, Niyazi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report on theProd. Type: FTP fabrication and characterization of blue and white light emitting devices based on two fluorene-carbazole containing dendrimers and para-sexiphenyl (6P) oligomers. Blue light emitting diodes were fabricated using 9′,9″-(9,9-dioctyl-9H-fluorene-2,7-diyl)bis-9′H-9,3′:6′,9″-tercarbazole (OFC-G2) and 9′,9″-(9,9′-spirobi[fluorene]-2,7-diyl)bis-9′H-9,3′:6′,9″-tercarbazole (SBFC-G2) dendrimers as a hole transport and emissive layer (EML) and 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP) as an electron transport layer. White light emitting diodes were fabricated using 6P and these two dendrimers as an EML. OLED device with the structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS (50 nm)/OFC-G2 (40 nm)/6P (20 nm)/LiF:Al (0.5:100 nm) shows maximum luminance of nearly 1400 cd/m 2 and a Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates of (0.27, 0.30) at 12 V. -- Highlights: • White organic light emitting diodes have been fabricated using two fluorene-carbazole dendrimers and para-sexiphenyl (6P) oligomers. • When only these two dendrimers are used as EML, OLED devices are emitted blue light. • The emission colors of OLED devices change from blue to white when 6P is coated on dendrimer films

  11. Solution processed, white emitting tandem organic light-emitting diodes with inverted device architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfle, Stefan; Schienle, Alexander; Bernhard, Christoph; Bruns, Michael; Lemmer, Uli; Colsmann, Alexander

    2014-08-13

    Fully solution processed monochromatic and white-light emitting tandem or multi-photon polymer OLEDs with an inverted device architecture have been realized by employing WO3 /PEDOT:PSS/ZnO/PEI charge carrier generation layers. The luminance of the sub-OLEDs adds up in the stacked device indicating multi-photon emission. The white OLEDs exhibit a CRI of 75. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Gap state related blue light emitting boron-carbon core shell structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Paviter; Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, Bikramjeet; Kaur, Gurpreet; Singh, Kulwinder; Kumar, Akshay; Kumar, Manjeet; Bala, Rajni; Thakur, Anup

    2016-01-01

    Boron-carbon core shell structures have been synthesized by solvo-thermal synthesis route. The synthesized material is highly pure. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the reduction of reactants in to boron and carbon. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the shell is uniform with average thickness of 340 nm. Photo luminescence studies showed that the material is blue light emitting with CIE color coordinates: x=0.16085, y=0.07554.

  13. Advanced Oxidation of Tartrazine and Brilliant Blue with Pulsed Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Robert; Mudimbi, Patrick; Miller, Michael E.; Magnuson, Matthew; Willison, Stuart; Phillips, Rebecca; Harper, Willie F.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UVLEDs) coupled with hydrogen peroxide as an advanced oxidation process (AOP) for the degradation of two test chemicals. Brilliant Blue FCF consistently exhibited greater degradation than tartrazine, with 83% degradation after 300 minutes at the 100% duty cycle compared with only 17% degradation of tartrazine under the same conditions. These differences are attributable to the structural properties of the compounds. Duty...

  14. White organic light emitting diodes based on fluorene-carbazole dendrimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usluer, Özlem, E-mail: usluerozlem@yahoo.com.tr [Department of Chemistry, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, 48000 Muğla (Turkey); Demic, Serafettin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Izmir Katip Çelebi University, 35620 Çiğli, Izmir (Turkey); Kus, Mahmut, E-mail: mahmutkus1@gmail.com [Chemical Engineering Department and Advanced Technology R and D Center, Selçuk University, Konya (Turkey); Özel, Faruk [Chemical Engineering Department and Advanced Technology R and D Center, Selçuk University, Konya (Turkey); Serdar Sariciftci, Niyazi [Linz Institute for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS), Physical Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University, Altenbergerstr. 69, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2014-02-15

    In this paper, we report on theProd. Type: FTP fabrication and characterization of blue and white light emitting devices based on two fluorene-carbazole containing dendrimers and para-sexiphenyl (6P) oligomers. Blue light emitting diodes were fabricated using 9′,9″-(9,9-dioctyl-9H-fluorene-2,7-diyl)bis-9′H-9,3′:6′,9″-tercarbazole (OFC-G2) and 9′,9″-(9,9′-spirobi[fluorene]-2,7-diyl)bis-9′H-9,3′:6′,9″-tercarbazole (SBFC-G2) dendrimers as a hole transport and emissive layer (EML) and 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP) as an electron transport layer. White light emitting diodes were fabricated using 6P and these two dendrimers as an EML. OLED device with the structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS (50 nm)/OFC-G2 (40 nm)/6P (20 nm)/LiF:Al (0.5:100 nm) shows maximum luminance of nearly 1400 cd/m{sup 2} and a Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates of (0.27, 0.30) at 12 V. -- Highlights: • White organic light emitting diodes have been fabricated using two fluorene-carbazole dendrimers and para-sexiphenyl (6P) oligomers. • When only these two dendrimers are used as EML, OLED devices are emitted blue light. • The emission colors of OLED devices change from blue to white when 6P is coated on dendrimer films.

  15. Electrical and Optical Enhancement in Internally Nanopatterned Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fina, Michael Dane

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have made tremendous technological progress in the past two decades and have emerged as a top competitor for next generation light-emitting displays and lighting. State-of-the-art OLEDs have been reported in literature to approach, and even surpass, white fluorescent tube efficiency. However, despite rapid technological progress, efficiency metrics must be improved to compete with traditional inorganic light-emitting diode (LED) technology. Organic materials possess specialized traits that permit manipulations to the light-emitting cavity. Overall, as demonstrated within, these modifications can be used to improve electrical and optical device efficiencies. This work is focused at analyzing the effects that nanopatterned geometric modifications to the organic active layers play on device efficiency. In general, OLED efficiency is complicated by the complex, coupled processes which contribute to spontaneous dipole emission. A composite of three sub-systems (electrical, exciton and optical) ultimately dictate the OLED device efficiency. OLED electrical operation is believed to take place via a low-mobility-modified Schottky injection process. In the injection-limited regime, geometric effects are expected to modify the local electric field leading to device current enhancement. It is shown that the patterning effect can be used to enhance charge carrier parity, thereby enhancing overall recombination. Current density and luminance characteristics are shown to be improved by OLED nanopatterning from both the model developed within and experimental techniques. Next, the optical enhancement effects produced by the nanopatterned array are considered. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations are used to determine positional, spectral optical enhancement for the nanopatterned device. The results show beneficial effects to the device performance. The optical enhancements are related to the reduction in internal radiative

  16. Full color organic light-emitting devices with microcavity structure and color filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Liu, Hongyu; Sun, Runguang

    2009-05-11

    This letter demonstrated the fabrication of the full color passive matrix organic light-emitting devices based on the combination of the microcavity structure, color filter and a common white polymeric OLED. In the microcavity structure, patterned ITO terraces with different thickness were used as the anode as well as cavity spacer. The primary color emitting peaks were originally generated by the microcavity and then the second resonance peak was absorbed by the color filter.

  17. Highly Efficient Perovskite-Quantum-Dot Light-Emitting Diodes by Surface Engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun

    2016-08-16

    A two-step ligand-exchange strategy is developed, in which the long-carbon-chain ligands on all-inorganic perovskite (CsPbX3, X = Br, Cl) quantum dots (QDs) are replaced with halide-ion-pair ligands. Green and blue light-emitting diodes made from the halide-ion-paircapped quantum dots exhibit high external quantum efficiencies compared with the untreated QDs.

  18. Color Shift Modeling of Light-Emitting Diode Lamps in Step-Loaded Stress Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Miao; Yang, Daoguo; Huang, J.; Zhang, Maofen; Chen, Xianping; Liang, Caihang; Koh, S.W.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2017-01-01

    The color coordinate shift of light-emitting diode (LED) lamps is investigated by running three stress-loaded testing methods, namely step-up stress accelerated degradation testing, step-down stress accelerated degradation testing, and constant stress accelerated degradation testing. A power model is proposed as the statistical model of the color shift (CS) process of LED products. Consequently, a CS mechanism constant is obtained for detecting the consistency of CS mechanisms among various s...

  19. Amber light-emitting diode comprising a group III-nitride nanowire active region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, George T.; Li, Qiming; Wierer, Jr., Jonathan J.; Koleske, Daniel

    2014-07-22

    A temperature stable (color and efficiency) III-nitride based amber (585 nm) light-emitting diode is based on a novel hybrid nanowire-planar structure. The arrays of GaN nanowires enable radial InGaN/GaN quantum well LED structures with high indium content and high material quality. The high efficiency and temperature stable direct yellow and red phosphor-free emitters enable high efficiency white LEDs based on the RGYB color-mixing approach.

  20. Design of passive coolers for light-emitting diode lamps using topology optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Joe; Sigmund, Ole; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2018-01-01

    Topology optimised designs for passive cooling of light-emitting diode (LED) lamps are investigated through extensive numerical parameter studies. The designs are optimised for either horizontal or vertical orientations and are compared to a lattice-fin design as well as a simple parameter......, while maintaining low sensitivity to orientation. Furthermore, they exhibit several defining features and provide insight and general guidelines for the design of passive coolers for LED lamps....

  1. Non-doped white organic light-emitting diodes based on aggregation-induced emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Shuming; Kwok, Hoi Sing [Center for Display Research, Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Zhao Zujin; Tang, Ben Zhong, E-mail: eekwok@ust.h [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-03-10

    Non-doped white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) based on newly synthesized bluish-green light-emitting material 1,3,6,8-tetrakis [4-(1,2,2-triphenylvinyl)phenyl]pyrene (TTPEPy) and red light-emitting material 4-(4-(1,2,2-triphenylvinyl)phenyl)-7-(5-(4-(1,2,2-triphenylvinyl) phenyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole (BTPETTD) have been demonstrated. A maximum efficiency of 7.4 cd A{sup -1}, 4 lm W{sup -1} and brightness of 18 000 cd m{sup -2} have been achieved by employing 3 nm thick 4, 4'-bis [N-(1-naphthyl-1-)-N-phenyl-amino]- biphenyl (NPB) as an electron-blocking layer. The WOLEDs exhibit a high colour rendering index of 90 and moderate colour stability with 1931 Commision International de L'Eclairage coordinates changing from (0.41, 0.41) to (0.38, 0.40) over a wide range of driving voltages. Moreover, the non-doped WOLEDs enjoy a reduced efficiency roll-off due to their nature of aggregation-induced emission.

  2. Surface plasmon enhanced organic light emitting diodes by gold nanoparticles with different sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Chia-Yuan; Chen, Ying-Chung [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Kan-Lin [Department of Electronic Engineering, Fortune Institute of Technology, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chien-Jung, E-mail: chien@nuk.edu.tw [Department of Applied Physics, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2015-11-30

    Highlights: • Different varieties, sizes, and shapes for nanoparticles will generate different surface plasmon resonance effects in the devices. • The red-shift phenomenon for absorption peaks is because of an increasing contribution of higher-order plasmon modes for the larger gold nanoparticles. • The mobility of electrons in the electron-transport layer of organic light-emitting diodes is a few orders of magnitude lower than that of holes in the hole-transport layer of organic light-emitting diodes. - Abstract: The influence of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with different sizes doped into (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate)) (PEDOT:PSS) on the performance of organic light-emitting diodes is investigated in this study. The current efficiency of the device, at a current density of 145 mA/cm, with PEDOT:PSS doped with GNPs of 8 nm is about 1.57 times higher than that of the device with prime PEDOT:PSS because the absorption peak of GNPs is closest to the photoluminescence peak of the emission layer, resulting in maximum surface plasmon resonance effect in the device. In addition, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy also reveals the maximum surface plasmon resonance effect in the device when the mean particle size of GNPs is 8 nm.

  3. Invariable optical properties of phosphor-free white light-emitting diode under electrical stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Long; Hao, Fang; Sheng-Li, Qi; Li-Wen, Sang; Wen-Yu, Cao; Jian, Yan; Jun-Jing, Deng; Zhi-Jian, Yang; Guo-Yi, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports that a dual-wavelength white light-emitting diode is fabricated by using a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition method. Through a 200-hours' current stress, the reverse leakage current of this light-emitting diode increases with the aging time, but the optical properties remained unchanged despite the enhanced reverse leakage current. Transmission electron microscopy and cathodeluminescence images show that indium atoms were assembled in and around V-shape pits with various compositions, which can be ascribed to the emitted white light. Evolution of cathodeluminescence intensities under electron irradiation is also performed. Combining cathodeluminescence intensities under electron irradiation and above results, the increase of leakage channels and crystalline quality degradation are realized. Although leakage channels increase with aging, potential fluctuation caused by indium aggregation can effectively avoid the impact of leakage channels. Indium aggregation can be attributed to the mechanism of preventing optical degradation in phosphor-free white light-emitting diode. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  4. Non-doped white organic light-emitting diodes based on aggregation-induced emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shuming; Kwok, Hoi Sing; Zhao Zujin; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2010-01-01

    Non-doped white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) based on newly synthesized bluish-green light-emitting material 1,3,6,8-tetrakis [4-(1,2,2-triphenylvinyl)phenyl]pyrene (TTPEPy) and red light-emitting material 4-(4-(1,2,2-triphenylvinyl)phenyl)-7-(5-(4-(1,2,2-triphenylvinyl) phenyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole (BTPETTD) have been demonstrated. A maximum efficiency of 7.4 cd A -1 , 4 lm W -1 and brightness of 18 000 cd m -2 have been achieved by employing 3 nm thick 4, 4'-bis [N-(1-naphthyl-1-)-N-phenyl-amino]- biphenyl (NPB) as an electron-blocking layer. The WOLEDs exhibit a high colour rendering index of 90 and moderate colour stability with 1931 Commision International de L'Eclairage coordinates changing from (0.41, 0.41) to (0.38, 0.40) over a wide range of driving voltages. Moreover, the non-doped WOLEDs enjoy a reduced efficiency roll-off due to their nature of aggregation-induced emission.

  5. GaN light-emitting device based on ionic liquid electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Tomoaki; Sakanoue, Tomo; Takenobu, Taishi

    2018-06-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are attractive materials for fabricating unique hybrid devices based on electronics and electrochemistry; thus, IL-gated transistors and organic light-emitting devices of light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) are investigated for future low-voltage and high-performance devices. In LECs, voltage application induces the formation of electrochemically doped p–n homojunctions owing to ion rearrangements in composites of semiconductors and electrolytes, and achieves electron–hole recombination for light emission at the homojunctions. In this work, we applied this concept of IL-induced electrochemical doping to the fabrication of GaN-based light-emitting devices. We found that voltage application to the layered IL/GaN structure accumulated electrons on the GaN surface owing to ion rearrangements and improved the conductivity of GaN. The ion rearrangement also enabled holes to be injected by the strong electric field of electric double layers on hole injection contacts. This simultaneous injection of holes and electrons into GaN mediated by ions achieves light emission at a low voltage of around 3.4 V. The light emission from the simple IL/GaN structure indicates the usefulness of an electrochemical technique in generating light emission with great ease of fabrication.

  6. Printing Smart Designs of Light Emitting Devices with Maintained Textile Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Verboven

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To maintain typical textile properties, smart designs of light emitting devices are printed directly onto textile substrates. A first approach shows improved designs for alternating current powder electroluminescence (ACPEL devices. A configuration with the following build-up, starting from the textile substrate, was applied using the screen printing technique: silver (10 µm/barium titanate (10 µm/zinc-oxide (10 µm and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophenepoly(styrenesulfonate (10 µm. Textile properties such as flexibility, drapability and air permeability are preserved by implementing a pixel-like design of the printed layers. Another route is the application of organic light emitting devices (OLEDs fabricated out of following layers, also starting from the textile substrate: polyurethane or acrylate (10–20 µm as smoothing layer/silver (200 nm/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophenepoly(styrenesulfonate (35 nm/super yellow (80 nm/calcium/aluminum (12/17 nm. Their very thin nm-range layer thickness, preserving the flexibility and drapability of the substrate, and their low working voltage, makes these devices the possible future in light-emitting wearables.

  7. Printing Smart Designs of Light Emitting Devices with Maintained Textile Properties †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verboven, Inge; Stryckers, Jeroen; Mecnika, Viktorija; Vandevenne, Glen; Jose, Manoj

    2018-01-01

    To maintain typical textile properties, smart designs of light emitting devices are printed directly onto textile substrates. A first approach shows improved designs for alternating current powder electroluminescence (ACPEL) devices. A configuration with the following build-up, starting from the textile substrate, was applied using the screen printing technique: silver (10 µm)/barium titanate (10 µm)/zinc-oxide (10 µm) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)poly(styrenesulfonate) (10 µm). Textile properties such as flexibility, drapability and air permeability are preserved by implementing a pixel-like design of the printed layers. Another route is the application of organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) fabricated out of following layers, also starting from the textile substrate: polyurethane or acrylate (10–20 µm) as smoothing layer/silver (200 nm)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)poly(styrenesulfonate) (35 nm)/super yellow (80 nm)/calcium/aluminum (12/17 nm). Their very thin nm-range layer thickness, preserving the flexibility and drapability of the substrate, and their low working voltage, makes these devices the possible future in light-emitting wearables. PMID:29438276

  8. Red light emitting solid state hybrid quantum dot-near-UV GaN LED devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hongjoo; Lee, Seonghoon

    2007-01-01

    We produced core-shell (CdSe)ZnSe quantum dots by direct colloidal chemical synthesis and the surface-passivation method-an overcoating of the core CdSe with a larger-bandgap material ZnSe. The (CdSe)ZnSe quantum dots(QDs) play the role of a colour conversion centre. We call these quantum dots nanophosphors. We fabricated red light emitting hybrid devices of (CdSe)ZnSe QDs and a near-UV GaN LED by combining red light emitting (CdSe)ZnSe quantum dots (as a colour conversion centre) with a near-UV(NUV) GaN LED chip (as an excitation source). A few good red phosphors have been known for UV excitation wavelengths, and red phosphors for UV excitation have been sought for a long time. Here we tested the possibility of using (CdSe)ZnSe QDs as red nanophosphors for UV excitation. The fabricated red light emitting hybrid device of (CdSe)ZnSe and a NUV GaN LED chip showed a good luminance. We demonstrated that the (CdSe)ZnSe quantum dots were promising red nanophosphors for NUV excitation and that a red LED made of QDs and a NUV excitation source was a highly efficient hybrid device

  9. Device Optimization and Transient Electroluminescence Studies of Organic light Emitting Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lijuan Zou

    2003-01-01

    Organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) are among the most promising for flat panel display technologies. They are light, bright, flexible, and cost effective. And while they are emerging in commercial product, their low power efficiency and long-term degradation are still challenging. The aim of this work was to investigate their device physics and improve their performance. Violet and blue OLEDs were studied. The devices were prepared by thermal vapor deposition in high vacuum. The combinatorial method was employed in device preparation. Both continuous wave and transient electroluminescence (EL) were studied. A new efficient and intense UV-violet light emitting device was developed. At a current density of 10 mA/cm 2 , the optimal radiance R could reach 0.38 mW/cm 2 , and the quantum efficiency was 1.25%. using the delayed EL technique, electron mobilities in DPVBi and CBP were determined to be ∼ 10 -5 cm 2 /Vs and ∼ 10 -4 cm 2 /Vs, respectively. Overshoot effects in the transient El of blue light emitting devices were also observed and studied. This effect was attributed to the charge accumulation at the organic/organic and organic/cathode interfaces

  10. Device Optimization and Transient Electroluminescence Studies of Organic light Emitting Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lijuan Zou

    2003-08-05

    Organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) are among the most promising for flat panel display technologies. They are light, bright, flexible, and cost effective. And while they are emerging in commercial product, their low power efficiency and long-term degradation are still challenging. The aim of this work was to investigate their device physics and improve their performance. Violet and blue OLEDs were studied. The devices were prepared by thermal vapor deposition in high vacuum. The combinatorial method was employed in device preparation. Both continuous wave and transient electroluminescence (EL) were studied. A new efficient and intense UV-violet light emitting device was developed. At a current density of 10 mA/cm{sup 2}, the optimal radiance R could reach 0.38 mW/cm{sup 2}, and the quantum efficiency was 1.25%. using the delayed EL technique, electron mobilities in DPVBi and CBP were determined to be {approx} 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/Vs and {approx} 10{sup -4} cm{sup 2}/Vs, respectively. Overshoot effects in the transient El of blue light emitting devices were also observed and studied. This effect was attributed to the charge accumulation at the organic/organic and organic/cathode interfaces.

  11. High-efficient and brightness white organic light-emitting diodes operated at low bias voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Yu, Junsheng; Yuan, Kai; Jian, Yadong

    2010-10-01

    White organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) used for display application and lighting need to possess high efficiency, high brightness, and low driving voltage. In this work, white OLEDs consisted of ambipolar 9,10-bis 2-naphthyl anthracene (ADN) as a host of blue light-emitting layer (EML) doped with tetrabutyleperlene (TBPe) and a thin codoped layer consisted of N, N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (NPB) as a host of yellow light-emitting layer doped with 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-tert-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidin-4-yl-vinyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) were investigated. With appropriate tuning in the film thickness, position, and dopant concentration of the co-doped layer, a white OLED with a luminance yield of 10.02 cd/A with the CIE coordinates of (0.29, 0.33) has been achieved at a bias voltage of 9 V and a luminance level of over 10,000 cd/m2. By introducing the PIN structure with both HIL and bis(10- hydroxybenzo-quinolinato)-beryllium (BeBq2) ETL, the power efficiency of white OLED was improved.

  12. Micro-light-emitting-diode array with dual functions of visible light communication and illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yong; Guo Zhi-You; Sun Hui-Qing; Huang Hong-Yong

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate high-speed blue 4 × 4 micro-light-emitting-diode (LED) arrays with 14 light-emitting units (two light-emitting units are used as the positive and negative electrodes for power supply, respectively) comprising multiple quantum wells formed of GaN epitaxial layers grown on a sapphire substrate, and experimentally test their applicability for being used as VLC transmitters and illuminations. The micro-LED arrays provide a maximum −3-dB frequency response of 60.5 MHz with a smooth frequency curve from 1 MHz to 500 MHz for an optical output power of 165 mW at an injection current of 30 mA, which, to our knowledge, is the highest response frequency ever reported for blue GaN-based LEDs operating at that level of optical output power. The relationship between the frequency and size of the device single pixel diameter reveals the relationship between the response frequency and diffusion capacitance of the device. (paper)

  13. Effect of interface voids on electroluminescence colors for ZnO microdisk/p-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ran; Choi, Ji Eun; Kim, Hyeong Jin; Jeong, Junseok; Kim, Jong Chan; Kim, Yong-Jin; Jeong, Hu Young; Hong, Young Joon

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the influence of voids on the electroluminescence (EL) emission color of ZnO microdisk/p-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes (LEDs). For this study, position-controlled microdisk arrays were fabricated on patterned p-GaN via wet chemical epitaxy of ZnO, and specifically, the use of trisodium citrate dihydrate (TCD) yielded high-density voids at the bottom of the microdisk. Greenish yellow or whitish blue EL was emitted from the microdisk LEDs formed with or without TCD, respectively, at reverse-bias voltages. Such different EL colors were found to be responsible for the relative EL intensity ratio between indigo and yellow emission peaks, which were originated from radiative recombination at p-GaN and ZnO, respectively. The relative EL intensity between dichromatic emissions is discussed in terms of (i) junction edge effect provoked by interfacial voids and (ii) electron tunneling probability depending on the depletion layer geometry.

  14. ZnSe Light Emitting Diode Quantum Efficiency and Emission Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahbudin U.K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnSe has demonstrated as a potential candidate in realizing advance LED in some appications for current and future works that utilize a cheaper preparation technique. Blue and white LEDs have been shown to spread across compound semiconductors. This II-VI compound semiconductor with a direct and wide band gap is used in the study which focused on a preparation and its characterization. The device is developed using a circular chip of ZnSe but only part of the active region is designed to allow shorter computation time. Analyses of the proposed LED are performed in an environment that allows optical transition and nonradiative recombination mechanisms. Voltage variation from 0 V to 1.5 V is maintained throughout the observation. The curent-voltage plot shows the p-n junction or diode behavior with central emissive layer. The two dimensions surface emission rate obtained indicates that voltage increment causes the emission concentration to become higher near the central pcontact. The LED efficiency is assessed in terms of internal quantum efficiency and emitting rate.

  15. GaN-Based Multiple-Quantum-Well Light-Emitting Diodes Employing Nanotechnology for Photon Management

    KAUST Repository

    Hsiao, Yu Hsuan; Tsai, Meng Lin; He, Jr-Hau

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructures have been proved to be an efficient way of modifying/improving the performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The achievements in photon management include strain relaxation, light extraction enhancement, radiation pattern

  16. Usability of light-emitting diodes in precision approach path indicator systems by individuals with marginal color vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    To save energy, the FAA is planning to convert from incandescent lights to light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in : precision approach path indicator (PAPI) systems. Preliminary work on the usability of LEDs by color vision-waivered pilots (Bullough, Skinne...

  17. Origin of colour stability in blue/orange/blue stacked phosphorescent white organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Hyun; Jang, Jyongsik; Yook, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Jun Yeob

    2009-01-01

    The origin of colour stability in phosphorescent white organic light-emitting diodes (PHWOLEDs) with a blue/orange/blue stacked emitting structure was studied by monitoring the change in a recombination zone. A balanced recombination zone shift between the blue and the orange light-emitting layers was found to be responsible for the colour stability in the blue/orange/blue stacked PHWOLEDs.

  18. A Strategy for Architecture Design of Crystalline Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes with High Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yifei; Wu, Wen; Dong, Hua; Li, Guangru; Xi, Kai; Divitini, Giorgio; Ran, Chenxin; Yuan, Fang; Zhang, Min; Jiao, Bo; Hou, Xun; Wu, Zhaoxin

    2018-06-01

    All present designs of perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) stem from polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) or perovskite solar cells. The optimal structure of PeLEDs can be predicted to differ from PLEDs due to the different fluorescence dynamics and crystallization between perovskite and polymer. Herein, a new design strategy and conception is introduced, "insulator-perovskite-insulator" (IPI) architecture tailored to PeLEDs. As examples of FAPbBr 3 and MAPbBr 3 , it is experimentally shown that the IPI structure effectively induces charge carriers into perovskite crystals, blocks leakage currents via pinholes in the perovskite film, and avoids exciton quenching simultaneously. Consequently, as for FAPbBr 3 , a 30-fold enhancement in the current efficiency of IPI-structured PeLEDs compared to a control device with poly(3,4ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) as hole-injection layer is achieved-from 0.64 to 20.3 cd A -1 -while the external quantum efficiency is increased from 0.174% to 5.53%. As the example of CsPbBr 3 , compared with the control device, both current efficiency and lifetime of IPI-structured PeLEDs are improved from 1.42 and 4 h to 9.86 cd A -1 and 96 h. This IPI architecture represents a novel strategy for the design of light-emitting didoes based on various perovskites with high efficiencies and stabilities. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. All-inorganic white light emitting devices based on ZnO nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nannen, Ekaterina

    2012-09-21

    Semiconductor nanaocrystals (NCs) are very promising candidates for lightweight large-area rollable displays and light emitting devices (LEDs). They are expected to combine the efficiency, robustness and color tunability of conventional semiconductor LEDs with the flexible fabrication techniques known from OLED technology, since the NCs are compatible with solution processing and therefore can be deposited on virtually any substrates including glass and plastic. Today, NC-LEDs consist of chemically synthesized QDs embedded in organic charge injection and transport layers. The organic layers limit the robustness of the NC-LEDs and result in significant constrictions within the device fabrication procedure, such as organic evaporation steps, inert (i.e. humidity and oxygen free) atmosphere and obligatory encapsulation. These limitations during the production process as well as complex chemical synthesis route of the implemented NCs and organic components lead to high fabrication costs and low turnover. So far, only prototype devices have been introduced by several research groups and industrial companies. Still, the main concern retarding NC-LEDs from market launch is the high content of toxic heavy metals like Cd in the active nanocrystalline light emitting material. Within this work, possible environmentally safe and ambient-air-compatible alternatives to conventional QDs and organics were explored, with the main focus on design and fabrication of completely inorganic white NC-LEDs with commercial ZnO nanoparticles as an active light emitting material. While the electrical transport properties through the NC-network of the commercially available VP AdNano {sup registered} ZnO2O particles were already to some extent explored, their optical properties and therefore suitability as an active light emitter in NC-LEDs were not studied so far. (orig.)

  20. Steps towards a GaN nanowire based light emitting diode and its integration with Si-MOS technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limbach, Friederich

    2012-06-22

    This work is concerned with the realization and investigation of a light emitting diode (LED) structure within single GaN nanowires (NWs) and its integration with Si technology. To this end first a general understanding of the GaN NW growth is given. This is followed by investigations of the influence which doping species, such as Mg and Si, have on the growth of the NWs. The experience gathered in these studies set the basis for the synthesis of nominal p-i-n and n-i-p junctions in GaN NWs. Investigations of these structures resulted in the technologically important insight, that p-type doping with Mg is achieved best if it is done in the later NW growth stage. This implies that it is beneficial for a NW LED to place the p-type segment on the NW top. Another important component of an LED is the active zone where electron-hole recombination takes place. In the case of planar GaN LEDs, this is usually achieved by alloying Ga and In to form InGaN. In order to be able to control the growth under a variety of conditions, we investigate the growth of InGaN in the form of extended segments on top of GaN NWs, as well as multi quantum wells (MQWs) in GaN NWs. All the knowledge gained during these preliminary studies is harnessed to reach the overall goal: The realization of a GaN NW LED. Such structures are fabricated, investigated and processed into working LEDs. Finally, a report on the efforts of integrating III-nitride NW LEDs and Si based metaloxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) technology is given. This demonstrates the feasibility of the monolithic integration of both devices on the same wafer at the same time.

  1. Al/WO{sub 3}/Au as the interconnecting layer for efficient tandem white organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Hongmei; Dai Yanfeng; Ma Dongge [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)], E-mail: mdg1014@ciac.jl.cn

    2008-05-21

    White light emission from tandem organic light-emitting diodes consisting of blue and red light units separated by a transparent interconnecting layer of Al/WO{sub 3}/Au has been realized. The devices have a structure of indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/molybdenum oxide (MoO{sub 3}) (8 nm)/N, N'-di(naphthalene-1-yl)-N, N'-diphenyl-benzidine (NPB)(100 nm)/p-bis(p-N,N-diphenyl-aminostyryl)benzene) (DSA-ph):2-methyl-9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene (MADN)(40 nm)/tris(8-hydroxylquinoline) aluminium (Alq{sub 3}) (10 nm)/LiF(1 nm)/Al(2 nm)/WO{sub 3}(3 nm)/Au(16 nm)/MoO{sub 3}(5 nm)/NPB(60 nm)/Alq{sub 3}: 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7- tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB)(30 nm)/Alq{sub 3}(30 nm)/LiF(1 nm)/Al(150 nm). It can be seen that a stable white light emission, including 461 and 491 nm peaks from DSA-ph and 620 nm peak from DCJTB, with Commission International De L'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates from (0.35, 0.33) at 8 V to (0.37, 0.30) at 12 V was obtained. The current efficiency and brightness of the white devices are basically equal to the sum of the blue unit and red unit devices. The maximum brightness reached 20 700 cd m{sup -2} at a bias of 23 V, and the maximum current efficiency was 9.1 cd A{sup -1} at a current density of 0.41 mA cm{sup -2}. (fast track communication)

  2. Integrated porous-silicon light-emitting diodes: A fabrication process using graded doping profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barillaro, G.; Diligenti, A.; Pieri, F.; Fuso, F.; Allegrini, M.

    2001-01-01

    A fabrication process, compatible with an industrial bipolar+complementary metal - oxide - semiconductor (MOS)+diffusion MOS technology, has been developed for the fabrication of efficient porous-silicon-based light-emitting diodes. The electrical contact is fabricated with a double n + /p doping, achieving a high current injection efficiency and thus lower biasing voltages. The anodization is performed as the last step of the process, thus reducing potential incompatibilities with industrial processes. The fabricated devices show yellow-orange electroluminescence, visible with the naked eye in room lighting. A spectral characterization of light emission is presented and briefly discussed. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  3. Influence of ITO patterning on reliability of organic light emitting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhaokui; Naka, Shigeki; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films are widely used for a transparent electrode of organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) because of its excellent conductivity and transparency. Two types of ITO substrates with different surface roughness were selected to use as anode of OLEDs. In addition, two types of etching process of ITO substrate, particularly the etching time, were also carried out. It was found that the surface roughness and/or the etching process of ITO substrate strongly influenced on an edge of ITO surface, further affected the operating characteristics and reliability of devices.

  4. Recycling of Gallium from End-of-Life Light Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs are widely utilized. They are applied as backlighting in Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD and TV sets or as lighting equipments in homes, cars, instruments and street-lightning. End of life equipments are containing more and more LEDs. The recovery of valuable materials – such as Ga, Au, Cu etc. – from the LEDs is essential for the creating the circular economy. First task is the development of a proper recycling technology. Most of the researchers propose fully chemical or thermal-chemical pathway for the recycling of LEDs.

  5. Lamination of organic solar cells and organic light emitting devices: Models and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyewole, O. K.; Yu, D.; Du, J.; Asare, J.; Fashina, A.; Anye, V. C.; Zebaze Kana, M. G.; Soboyejo, W. O.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a combined experimental, computational, and analytical approach is used to provide new insights into the lamination of organic solar cells and light emitting devices at macro- and micro-scales. First, the effects of applied lamination force (on contact between the laminated layers) are studied. The crack driving forces associated with the interfacial cracks (at the bi-material interfaces) are estimated along with the critical interfacial crack driving forces associated with the separation of thin films, after layer transfer. The conditions for successful lamination are predicted using a combination of experiments and computational models. Guidelines are developed for the lamination of low-cost organic electronic structures

  6. Structural, electrical and luminescent characteristics of ultraviolet light emitting structures grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. Polyakov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrical and luminescent properties of near-UV light emitting diode structures (LEDs prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE were studied. Variations in photoluminescence and electroluminescence efficiency observed for LEDs grown under nominally similar conditions could be attributed to the difference in the structural quality (dislocation density, density of dislocations agglomerates of the GaN active layers, to the difference in strain relaxation achieved by growth of AlGaN/AlGaN superlattice and to the presence of current leakage channels in current confining AlGaN layers of the double heterostructure.

  7. Aluminum-doped zinc oxide films as transparent conductive electrode for organic light-emitting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X.; Wong, F.L.; Fung, M.K.; Lee, S.T.

    2003-01-01

    Highly transparent conductive, aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) films were deposited on glass substrates by midfrequency magnetron sputtering of metallic aluminum-doped zinc target. ZnO:Al films with surface work functions between 3.7 and 4.4 eV were obtained by varying the sputtering conditions. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were fabricated on these ZnO:Al films. A current efficiency of higher than 3.7 cd/A, was achieved. For comparison, 3.9 cd/A was achieved by the reference OLEDs fabricated on commercial indium-tin-oxide substrates

  8. STUDY OF DEGRADATION MECHANISM AND PACKAGING OF ORGANIC LIGHT EMITTING DEVICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Xu

    2003-01-01

    Organic Light Emitting Devices (OLED) have attracted much attention recently, for their applications in future Flat Panel Displays and lighting products. However, their fast degradation remained a major obstacle to their commercialization. Here we present a brief summary of our studies on both extrinsic and intrinsic causes for the fast degradation of OLEDs. In particular, we focus on the origin of the dark spots by "rebuilding" cathodes, which confirms that the growth of dark spots occurs primarily due to cathode delamination. In the meantime, we recapture the findings from the search for suitable OLED packaging materials, in particular polymer composites, which provide both heat dissipation and moisture resistance, in addition to electrical insulation.

  9. Highly efficient white organic light-emitting devices consisting of undoped ultrathin yellow phosphorescent layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shengqiang [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China); Yu, Junsheng, E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China); Ma, Zhu; Zhao, Juan [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2013-02-15

    High-efficiency white organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs) based on an undoped ultrathin yellow light-emitting layer and a doped blue light-emitting layer were demonstrated. While the thickness of blue light-emitting layer, formed by doping a charge-trapping phosphor, iridium(III) bis(4 Prime ,6 Prime -difluorophenylpyridinato)tetrakis(1-pyrazolyl)borate (FIr6) in a wide bandgap host, was kept constant, the thickness of neat yellow emissive layer of novel phosphorescent material, bis[2-(4-tertbutylphenyl)benzothiazolato-N,C{sup 2 Prime }]iridium (acetylacetonate) [(t-bt){sub 2}Ir(acac)] was varied to optimize the device performance. The optimized device exhibited maximum luminance, current efficiency and power efficiency of 24,000 cd/m{sup 2} (at 15.2 V), 79.0 cd/A (at 1550 cd/m{sup 2}) and 40.5 lm/W (at 1000 cd/m{sup 2}), respectively. Besides, the white-light emission covered a wide range of visible spectrum, and the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates were (0.32, 0.38) with a color temperature of 5800 K at 8 V. Moreover, high external quantum efficiency was also obtained in the high-efficiency WOLEDs. The performance enhancement was attributed to the proper thickness of (t-bt){sub 2}Ir(acac) layer that enabled adequate current density and enough phosphorescent dye to trap electrons. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly efficient WOLEDs based on two complementary layers were fabricated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The yellow emissive layer was formed by utilizing undoping system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The blue emissive layer was made by host-guest doping system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thickness of the yellow emissive layer was varied to make device optimization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimized device achieved high power efficiency of 40.5 lm/W.

  10. Efficient hole injection in organic light-emitting diodes using polyvinylidenefluoride as an interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Soon Ok; Soo Yook, Kyoung [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Dankook University, Jukjeon-dong, Suji-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi 448-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun Yeob, E-mail: leej17@dankook.ac.k [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Dankook University, Jukjeon-dong, Suji-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi 448-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The effect of the polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) interlayer on the hole injection and the device performances of the green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) was investigated. The hole current density of the hole only device was improved and the power efficiency of the green PHOLEDs was enhanced from 10.5 to 12.5 lm/W by the PVDF interlayer. The reduction of the interfacial energy barrier was responsible for the high hole current density in the PVDF interlayer based green PHOLEDs.

  11. Solid State pH Sensor Based on Light Emitting Diodes (LED) As Detector Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, King Tong; Shepherd, R.; Diamond, Danny; Diamond, Dermot

    2006-01-01

    A low-power, high sensitivity, very low-cost light emitting diode (LED)-based device developed for low-cost sensor networks was modified with bromocresol green membrane to work as a solid-state pH sensor. In this approach, a reverse-biased LED functioning as a photodiode is coupled with a second LED configured in conventional emission mode. A simple timer circuit measures how long (in microsecond) it takes for the photocurrent generated on the detector LED to discharge its capacitance from lo...

  12. Natural substrate lift-off technique for vertical light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Yu; Lan, Yu-Pin; Tu, Po-Min; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Lin, Chien-Chung; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Chi, Gou-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2014-04-01

    Hexagonal inverted pyramid (HIP) structures and the natural substrate lift-off (NSLO) technique were demonstrated on a GaN-based vertical light-emitting diode (VLED). The HIP structures were formed at the interface between GaN and the sapphire substrate by molten KOH wet etching. The threading dislocation density (TDD) estimated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was reduced to 1 × 108 cm-2. Raman spectroscopy indicated that the compressive strain from the bottom GaN/sapphire was effectively released through the HIP structure. With the adoption of the HIP structure and NSLO, the light output power and yield performance of leakage current could be further improved.

  13. Towards developing a tandem of organic solar cell and light emitting diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jai [School of Engineering and IT, B-purple-12, Faculty of EHS, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT 0909 (Australia)

    2011-01-15

    It is proposed here to design a tandem of organic solar cell (OSC) and white organic light emitting diode (WOLED) which can generate power in the day time from the sun and provide lighting at night. With the advancement of chemical technology, such device is expected to be very-cost effective and reasonably efficient. A device thus fabricated has the potential of meeting the world's sustainable domestic and commercial power and lighting needs (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Noniterative algorithm for improving the accuracy of a multicolor-light-emitting-diode-based colorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pao-Keng

    2012-05-01

    We present a noniterative algorithm to reliably reconstruct the spectral reflectance from discrete reflectance values measured by using multicolor light emitting diodes (LEDs) as probing light sources. The proposed algorithm estimates the spectral reflectance by a linear combination of product functions of the detector's responsivity function and the LEDs' line-shape functions. After introducing suitable correction, the resulting spectral reflectance was found to be free from the spectral-broadening effect due to the finite bandwidth of LED. We analyzed the data for a real sample and found that spectral reflectance with enhanced resolution gives a more accurate prediction in the color measurement.

  15. Accuracy Improvement for Light-Emitting-Diode-Based Colorimeter by Iterative Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pao-Keng

    2011-09-01

    We present a simple algorithm, combining an interpolating method with an iterative calculation, to enhance the resolution of spectral reflectance by removing the spectral broadening effect due to the finite bandwidth of the light-emitting diode (LED) from it. The proposed algorithm can be used to improve the accuracy of a reflective colorimeter using multicolor LEDs as probing light sources and is also applicable to the case when the probing LEDs have different bandwidths in different spectral ranges, to which the powerful deconvolution method cannot be applied.

  16. Efficient organic light-emitting devices with platinum-complex emissive layer

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2011-01-18

    We report efficient organic light-emitting devices having a platinum-complex emissive layer with the peak external quantum efficiency of 17.5% and power efficiency of 45 lm W−1. Variation in the device performance with platinum-complex layer thickness can be attributed to the interplay between carrier recombination and intermolecular interactions in the layer. Efficient white devices using double platinum-complex layers show the external quantum efficiency of 10%, the Commission Internationale d’Énclairage coordinates of (0.42, 0.41), and color rendering index of 84 at 1000 cd m−2.

  17. Charge injection and transport properties of an organic light-emitting diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Juhasz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The charge behavior of organic light emitting diode (OLED is investigated by steady-state current–voltage technique and impedance spectroscopy at various temperatures to obtain activation energies of charge injection and transport processes. Good agreement of activation energies obtained by steady-state and frequency-domain was used to analyze their contributions to the charge injection and transport. We concluded that charge is injected into the OLED device mostly through the interfacial states at low voltage region, whereas the thermionic injection dominates in the high voltage region. This comparison of experimental techniques demonstrates their capabilities of identification of major bottleneck of charge injection and transport.

  18. Background story of the invention of efficient blue InGaN light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Shuji [University of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Shuji Nakamura discovered p-type doping in Gallium Nitride (GaN) and developed blue, green, and white InGaN based light emitting diodes (LEDs) and blue laser diodes (LDs). His inventions made possible energy efficient, solid-state lighting systems and enabled the next generation of optical storage. Together with Isamu Akasaki and Hiroshi Amano, he is one of the three recipients of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics. In his Nobel lecture, Shuji Nakamura gives an overview of this research and the story of his inventions. (copyright 2015 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Ultraviolet electroluminescence from zinc oxide nanorods/deoxyribonucleic acid hybrid bio light-emitting diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rohini Bhardwaj; Nagpal, Swati; Arora, Swati; Bhatnagar, Pramod Kumar; Mathur, Parmatma Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diode using salmon deoxyribonucleic acid (sDNA)-cetyltrimethylammonium complex as an electron blocking layer and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods as emissive material was fabricated. UV emission, which was blue shifted up to 335 nm with respect to the band edge emission of 390 nm, was observed. This blue shift was caused due to accumulation of electrons in the conduction band of ZnO because of a high potential barrier existing at the sDNA/ZnO interface.

  20. Combination of carbon dot and polymer dot phosphors for white light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chun; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Kai; Reckmeier, Claas; Zhang, Tieqiang; Zhang, XiaoYu; Zhao, Jun; Wu, Changfeng; Yu, William W; Rogach, Andrey L

    2015-07-28

    We realized white light-emitting diodes with high color rendering index (85-96) and widely variable color temperatures (2805-7786 K) by combining three phosphors based on carbon dots and polymer dots, whose solid-state photoluminescence self-quenching was efficiently suppressed within a polyvinyl pyrrolidone matrix. All three phosphors exhibited dominant absorption in the UV spectral region, which ensured the weak reabsorption and no energy transfer crosstalk. The WLEDs showed excellent color stability against the increasing current because of the similar response of the tricolor phosphors to the UV light variation.

  1. Efficient Flexible Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Graphene Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hong-Kyu; Kim, Hobeom; Lee, Jaeho; Park, Min-Ho; Jeong, Su-Hun; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kwon, Sung-Joo; Han, Tae-Hee; Yoo, Seunghyup; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2017-03-01

    Highly efficient organic/inorganic hybrid perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) based on graphene anode are developed for the first time. Chemically inert graphene avoids quenching of excitons by diffused metal atom species from indium tin oxide. The flexible PeLEDs with graphene anode on plastic substrate show good bending stability; they provide an alternative and reliable flexible electrode for highly efficient flexible PeLEDs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Study on scalable Coulombic degradation for estimating the lifetime of organic light-emitting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wenwen; Hou Xun; Wu Zhaoxin; Liang Shixiong; Jiao Bo; Zhang Xinwen; Wang Dawei; Chen Zhijian; Gong Qihuang

    2011-01-01

    The luminance decays of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are investigated with initial luminance of 1000 to 20 000 cd m -2 through a scalable Coulombic degradation and a stretched exponential decay. We found that the estimated lifetime by scalable Coulombic degradation deviates from the experimental results when the OLEDs work with high initial luminance. By measuring the temperature of the device during degradation, we found that the higher device temperatures will lead to instabilities of organic materials in devices, which is expected to result in the difference between the experimental results and estimation using the scalable Coulombic degradation.

  3. White organic light-emitting diodes with 9, 10-bis (2-naphthyl) anthracene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan Yunxia; Niu Lianbin [Key Laboratory of Optical Engineering, College of Physics and Information Technology, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 400047 (China)], E-mail: gyxybsy@126.com, E-mail: niulb03@126.com

    2009-03-01

    White organic light-emitting diodes were fabricated by 9, 10-bis (2-naphthyl) anthracene (ADN) doped with Rubrene with a structure of ITO/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) / NPB /ADN: Rubrene /Alq{sub 3} /CsF/Mg:Ag/Ag. Multilayer organic devices using AND and Rubrene as an emitting layer produced white emissions with good chromaticity and luminous efficiency as high as 5.93 cd/A. This performance can be explained by Foerster energy transfer from the blue-emitting host to the orange-emitting dopant.

  4. Optimization of light quality from color mixing light-emitting diode systems for general lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders

    2012-01-01

    are simulated using radiometrically measured single LED spectra. The method uses electrical input powers as input parameters and optimizes the resulting spectral power distribution with regard to color rendering index, correlated color temperature and chromaticity distance. The results indicate Pareto optimal......To address the problem of spectral light quality from color mixing light-emitting diode systems, a method for optimizing the spectral output of multicolor LED system with regards to standardized quality parameters has been developed. The composite spectral power distribution from the LEDs...

  5. White organic light-emitting diodes with 9, 10-bis (2-naphthyl) anthracene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Yunxia; Niu Lianbin

    2009-01-01

    White organic light-emitting diodes were fabricated by 9, 10-bis (2-naphthyl) anthracene (ADN) doped with Rubrene with a structure of ITO/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) / NPB /ADN: Rubrene /Alq 3 /CsF/Mg:Ag/Ag. Multilayer organic devices using AND and Rubrene as an emitting layer produced white emissions with good chromaticity and luminous efficiency as high as 5.93 cd/A. This performance can be explained by Foerster energy transfer from the blue-emitting host to the orange-emitting dopant.

  6. Transparent Heat-Resistant PMMA Copolymers for Packing Light-Emitting Diode Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ling Yeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Transparent and heat-resistant poly(methyl methacrylate copolymers were synthesized by bulk polymerizing methyl methacrylate (MMA, isobornyl methacrylate (IBMA, and methacrylamide (MAA monomers. Copolymerization was performed using a chain transfer agent to investigate the molecular weight changes of these copolymers, which exhibited advantages including a low molecular weight distribution, excellent optical properties, high transparency, high glass transition temperature, low moisture absorption, and pellets that can be readily mass produced by using extrusion or jet injection for packing light-emitting diode materials.

  7. Phosphorescence as a probe of exciton formation and energy transfer in organic light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Segal, M.

    2004-01-01

    The development of highly efficient phosphorescent molecules has approximately quadrupled the quantum efficiency of organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). By harnessing triplet as well as singlet excitons, efficient molecular phosphorescence has also enabled novel studies of exciton physics in organic semiconductors. In this review, we will summarize recent progress in understanding exciton formation and energy transfer using phosphorescent molecular probes. Particular emphasis is given to two topics of current interest: energy transfer in blue phosphorescent OLEDs, and quantifying the formation ratio of singlet to triplet excitons in small-molecular weight materials and polymers. (orig.)

  8. High-efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes using thermally activated delayed fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishide, Jun-ichi; Hiraga, Yasuhide; Nakanotani, Hajime; Adachi, Chihaya

    2014-01-01

    White organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) have attracted much attention recently, aimed for next-generation lighting sources because of their high potential to realize high electroluminescence efficiency, flexibility, and low-cost manufacture. Here, we demonstrate high-efficiency WOLED using red, green, and blue thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials as emissive dopants to generate white electroluminescence. The WOLED has a maximum external quantum efficiency of over 17% with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates of (0.30, 0.38).

  9. Efficient organic light-emitting devices with platinum-complex emissive layer

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui; Wu, Fang-Iy; Haverinen, Hanna; Li, Jian; Cheng, Chien-Hong; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2011-01-01

    We report efficient organic light-emitting devices having a platinum-complex emissive layer with the peak external quantum efficiency of 17.5% and power efficiency of 45 lm W−1. Variation in the device performance with platinum-complex layer thickness can be attributed to the interplay between carrier recombination and intermolecular interactions in the layer. Efficient white devices using double platinum-complex layers show the external quantum efficiency of 10%, the Commission Internationale d’Énclairage coordinates of (0.42, 0.41), and color rendering index of 84 at 1000 cd m−2.

  10. White organic light-emitting devices incorporating nanoparticles of II-VI semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Jin H; Bertoni, Cristina; Dunn, Steve; Wang, Changsheng; Talapin, Dmitri V; Gaponik, Nikolai; Eychmueller, Alexander; Hua Yulin; Bryce, Martin R; Petty, Michael C

    2007-01-01

    A blue-green fluorescent organic dye and red-emitting nanoparticles, based on II-VI semiconductors, have been used together in the fabrication of white organic light-emitting devices. In this work, the materials were combined in two different ways: in the form of a blend, and as separate layers deposited on the opposite sides of the substrate. The blended-layer structure provided purer white emission. However, this device also exhibited a number of disadvantages, namely a high drive voltage, a low efficiency and some colour instability. These problems could be avoided by using a device structure that was fabricated using separate dye and nanoparticle layers

  11. Organic light-emitting diodes with a spacer enhanced exciplex emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fei; Chen, Rui; Sun, Handong; Wei Sun, Xiao

    2014-04-01

    By introducing a spacer molecule into the blended exciplex emissive layer, the performance of the bulk heterojunction exciplex organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) was improved dramatically; the maximum luminous efficiency was enhanced by about 22% from 7.9 cd/A to 9.7 cd/A, and the luminous efficiency drop was reduced by 28% at 400 mA/cm2. Besides the suppressed annihilation of exciton, the time-resolved photoluminescence measurements indicated that the spacer enhanced the delayed fluorescence through increasing the backward intersystem crossing rate from the triplet to singlet exciplex state. This method is useful for developing high performance exciplex OLEDs.

  12. Enhancement of mosquito trapping efficiency by using pulse width modulated light emitting diodes

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yu-Nan; Liu, Yu-Jen; Chen, Yi-Chian; Ma, Hsin-Yi; Lee, Hsiao-Yi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a light-driving bug zapper is presented for well controlling the diseases brought by insects, such as mosquitoes. In order to have the device efficient to trap the insect pests in off-grid areas, pulse width modulated light emitting diodes (PWM-LED) combined with a solar power module are proposed and implemented. With specific PWM electric signals to drive the LED, it is found that no matter what the ability of catching insects or the consumed power efficiency can be enhanced t...

  13. Quantitative description of charge-carrier transport in a white organic light-emitting diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, M.; Anderson, M.; Thomschke, M.; Widmer, J.; Furno, M.; Scholz, R.; Lüssem, B.; Leo, K.

    2011-10-01

    We present a simulation model for the analysis of charge-carrier transport in organic thin-film devices, and apply it to a three-color white hybrid organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with fluorescent blue and phosphorescent red and green emission. We simulate a series of single-carrier devices, which reconstruct the OLED layer sequence step by step. Thereby, we determine the energy profiles for hole and electron transport, show how to discern bulk from interface limitation, and identify trap states.

  14. Weak-microcavity organic light-emitting diodes with improved light out-coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sang-Hwan; Song, Young-Woo; Lee, Joon-gu; Kim, Yoon-Chang; Lee, Jong Hyuk; Ha, Jaeheung; Oh, Jong-Suk; Lee, So Young; Lee, Sun Young; Hwang, Kyu Hwan; Zang, Dong-Sik; Lee, Yong-Hee

    2008-08-18

    We propose and demonstrate weak-microcavity organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays with improved light-extraction and viewing-angle characteristics. A single pair of low- and high-index layers is inserted between indium tin oxide (ITO) and a glass substrate. The electroluminescent (EL) efficiencies of discrete red, green, and blue weak-microcavity OLEDs are enhanced by 56%, 107%, and 26%, respectively, with improved color purity. Moreover, full-color passive-matrix bottom-emitting OLED displays are fabricated by employing low-index layers of two thicknesses. As a display, the EL efficiency of white color was 27% higher than that of a conventional OLED display.

  15. Wireless Power Transmission to Organic Light Emitting Diode Lighting Panel with Magnetically Coupled Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Hae; Han, Jun-Han; Kang, Seung-Youl; Cheon, Sanghoon; Lee, Myung-Lae; Ahn, Seong-Deok; Zyung, Taehyoung; Lee, Jeong-Ik; Moon, Jaehyun; Chu, Hye Yong

    2012-09-01

    We are successful to lit the organic light emitting diode (OLED) lighting panel through the magnetically coupled wireless power transmission technology. For the wireless power transmission, we used the operation frequency 932 kHz, specially designed double spiral type transmitter, small and thin receiver on the four layered printed circuit board, and schottky diodes for the full bridge rectifier. Our white OLED is a hybrid type, in which phosphorescent and fluorescent organics are used together to generate stable white color. The total efficiency of power transmission is around 72%.

  16. Extraction of surface plasmons in organic light-emitting diodes via high-index coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Bert J; Frischeisen, Jörg; Jaeger, Arndt; Setz, Daniel S; Reusch, Thilo C G; Brütting, Wolfgang

    2012-03-12

    The efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is still limited by poor light outcoupling. In particular, the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at metal-organic interfaces represents a major loss channel. By combining optical simulations and experiments on simplified luminescent thin-film structures we elaborate the conditions for the extraction of SPPs via coupling to high-index media. As a proof-of-concept, we demonstrate the possibility to extract light from wave-guided modes and surface plasmons in a top-emitting white OLED by a high-index prism.

  17. A tunable lighting system integrated by inorganic and transparent organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-jing; Zhang, Tao; Jin, Ya-fang; Liu, Shi-shen; Yuan, Shi-dong; Cui, Zhao; Zhang, Li; Wang, Wei-hui

    2014-05-01

    A tunable surface-emitting integrated lighting system is constructed using a combination of inorganic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and transparent organic LEDs (OLEDs). An RB two-color LED is used to supply red and blue light emission, and a green organic LED is used to supply green light emission. Currents of the LED and OLED are tuned to produce a white color, showing different Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates and correlated color temperatures with a wide adjustable range. Such an integration can compensate for the lack of the LED's luminance uniformity and the transparent OLED's luminance intensity.

  18. Compact light-emitting diode lighting ring for video-assisted thoracic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Kuan; Chang, Feng-Chen; Wang, Wen-Zhe; Hsieh, Chih-Cheng; Kao, Fu-Jen

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a foldable ring-shaped light-emitting diode (LED) lighting assembly, designed to attach to a rubber wound retractor, is realized and tested through porcine animal experiments. Enabled by the small size and the high efficiency of LED chips, the lighting assembly is compact, flexible, and disposable while providing direct and high brightness lighting for more uniform background illumination in video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). When compared with a conventional fiber bundle coupled light source that is usually used in laparoscopy and endoscopy, the much broader solid angle of illumination enabled by the LED assembly allows greatly improved background lighting and imaging quality in VATS.

  19. Light-Emitting Diode-Based Illumination System for In Vitro Photodynamic Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Defu Chen; Huifen Zheng; Zhiyong Huang; Huiyun Lin; Zhidong Ke; Shusen Xie; Buhong Li

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a light-emitting diode- (LED-) based illumination system that can be used as an alternative light source for in vitro photodynamic therapy (PDT). This illumination system includes a red LED array composed of 70 LEDs centered at 643 nm, an air-cooling unit, and a specific-designed case. The irradiance as a function of the irradiation distance between the LED array and the sample, the homogeneity and stability of irradiation, and the effect of long-time irrad...

  20. Light emitting diodes as an alternative ambient illumination source in photolithography environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corell, Dennis Dan; Ou, Haiyan; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    We explored an alternative light emitting diode (LED) - based solution to replace the existing yellow fluorescent light tubes (YFT) used in photolithography rooms. A no-blue LED lamp was designed and a prototype was fabricated. For both solutions, the spectral power distribution (SPD) was measured......, the colorimetric values were calculated, and a visual comparison using Gretagmacbeth colorcharts was performed. The visual comparison showed that the LED bulb was better to render colors despite a low color rendering index (CRI). Furthermore, the LED bulb was tested in a photolithography room...... and there was no exposure to the photoresist even after 168 hours illumination....

  1. New fluorescent dipolar pyrazine derivatives for non-doped red organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Baoxiang; Zhou Quanguo; Geng Yanhou; Cheng Yanxiang; Ma Dongge; Xie Zhiyuan; Wang Lixiang; Wang Fosong

    2006-01-01

    Dipolar fluorescent compounds containing electron-accepting pyrazine-2,3-dicarbonitrile and electron-donating arylamine moiety have been designed and synthesized. The optical and electrochemical properties of these compounds can be adjusted by changing π-bridge length and the donor (D) strength. Organic light-emitting devices based on these compounds are fabricated. Saturated red emission of (0.67, 0.33) and the external quantum efficiency as high as 1.41% have been demonstrated for one of these compounds

  2. Compact light-emitting diode lighting ring for video-assisted thoracic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Kuan; Chang, Feng-Chen; Wang, Wen-Zhe; Hsieh, Chih-Cheng; Kao, Fu-Jen

    2014-10-01

    In this work, a foldable ring-shaped light-emitting diode (LED) lighting assembly, designed to attach to a rubber wound retractor, is realized and tested through porcine animal experiments. Enabled by the small size and the high efficiency of LED chips, the lighting assembly is compact, flexible, and disposable while providing direct and high brightness lighting for more uniform background illumination in video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). When compared with a conventional fiber bundle coupled light source that is usually used in laparoscopy and endoscopy, the much broader solid angle of illumination enabled by the LED assembly allows greatly improved background lighting and imaging quality in VATS.

  3. Aging characteristics of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes at an extremely high current density of 3.5 kA cm−2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Pengfei; Liu, Ran; Althumali, Ahmad; Gu, Erdan; Watson, Ian M; Dawson, Martin D

    2016-01-01

    The aging characteristics of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes (micro-LEDs) with different sizes have been studied at an extremely high current density 3.5 kA cm −2 for emerging micro-LED applications including visible light communication (VLC), micro-LED pumped organic lasers and optogenetics. The light output power of micro-LEDs first increases and then decreases due to the competition of Mg activation in p-GaN layer and defect generation in the active region. The smaller micro-LEDs show less light output power degradation compared with larger micro-LEDs, which is attributed to the lower junction temperature of smaller micro-LEDs. It is found that the high current density without additional junction temperature cannot induce significant micro-LED degradation at room temperature but the combination of the high current density and high junction temperature leads to strong degradation. Furthermore, the cluster LEDs, composed of a micro-LED array, have been developed with both high light output power and less light output degradation for micro-LED applications in solid state lighting and VLC. (paper)

  4. Fabrication of white light-emitting diodes based on UV light-emitting diodes with conjugated polymers-(CdSe/ZnS) quantum dots as hybrid phosphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyunchul; Chung, Wonkeun; Lee, Chang Hun; Kim, Sung Hyun

    2012-07-01

    White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated using GaN-based 380-nm UV LEDs precoated with the composite of blue-emitting polymer (poly[(9,9-dihexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-co-(2-methoxy-5-{2-ethylhexyloxy)-1 ,4-phenylene)]), yellow green-emitting polymer (poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-(1,4-benzo-{2,1',3}-thiadiazole)]), and 605-nm red-emitting quantum dots (QDs). CdSe cores were obtained by solvothermal route using CdO, Se precursors and ZnS shells were synthesized by using diethylzinc, and hexamethyldisilathiane precursors. The optical properties of CdSe/ZnS QDs were characterized by UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The structural data and composition of the QDs were transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and EDX technique. The quantum yield and size of the QDs were 58.7% and about 6.7 nm, respectively. Three-band white light was generated by hybridizing blue (430 nm), green (535 nm), and red (605 nm) emission. The color-rendering index (CRI) of the device was extremely improved by introducing the QDs. The CIE-1931 chromaticity coordinate, color temperature, and CRI of a white LED at 20 mA were (0.379, 0.368), 3969 K, and 90, respectively.

  5. Mobility balance in the light-emitting layer governs the polaron accumulation and operational stability of organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Min; Lee, Chang-Heon; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2017-11-01

    Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays are lighter and more flexible, have a wider color gamut, and consume less power than conventional displays. Stable materials and the structural design of the device are important for OLED longevity. Control of charge transport and accumulation in the device is particularly important because the interaction of excitons and polarons results in material degradation. This research investigated the charge dynamics of OLEDs experimentally and by drift-diffusion modeling. Parallel capacitance-voltage measurements of devices provided knowledge of charge behavior at different driving voltages. A comparison of exciplex-forming co-host and single host structures established that the mobility balance in the emitting layers determined the amount of accumulated polarons in those layers. Consequently, an exciplex-forming co-host provides a superior structure in terms of device lifetime and efficiency because of its well-balanced mobility. Minimizing polaron accumulation is key to achieving long OLED device lifetimes. This is a crucial aspect of device physics that must be considered in the device design structure.

  6. Blue light emitting diodes for optical stimulation of quartz in retrospective dosimetry and dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Duller, G.A.T.; Murray, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    Recently developed blue light emitting diodes (LEDs) for the optical stimulation of quartz for use in routine optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating and retrospective dosimetry have been tested. For similar power densities, it was found that the higher energy light provided by the blue LE......, preliminary results from ramping the blue light power output with time are demonstrated. It is shown that this technique enables the separation of OSL components with differing stimulation rates.......Recently developed blue light emitting diodes (LEDs) for the optical stimulation of quartz for use in routine optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating and retrospective dosimetry have been tested. For similar power densities, it was found that the higher energy light provided by the blue LEDs...... (470 nm) gives order of magnitude greater rate of stimulation in quartz than that from conventional blue-green light filtered from a halogen lamp. A practical blue LED OSL configuration is described. From comparisons of OSL decay curves produced by green and blue light sources, and by examination...

  7. Polaron self-localization in white-light emitting hybrid perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Cortecchia, Daniele

    2017-02-03

    Two-dimensional (2D) perovskites with the general formula APbX are attracting increasing interest as solution processable, white-light emissive materials. Recent studies have shown that their broadband emission is related to the formation of intra-gap colour centres. Here, we provide an in-depth description of the charge localization sites underlying the generation of such radiative centres and their corresponding decay dynamics, highlighting the formation of small polarons trapped within their lattice distortion field. Using a combination of spectroscopic techniques and first-principles calculations to study the white-light emitting 2D perovskites (EDBE)PbCl and (EDBE)PbBr, we infer the formation of Pb , Pb, and X (where X = Cl or Br) species confined within the inorganic perovskite framework. Due to strong Coulombic interactions, these species retain their original excitonic character and form self-trapped polaron-excitons acting as radiative colour centres. These findings are expected to be relevant for a broad class of white-light emitting perovskites with large polaron relaxation energy.

  8. Novel asymmetrical pyrene derivatives as light emitting materials: Synthesis and photophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yang; Wang Dong; Wang Lei; Li Zhengqiang; Cui Qing; Zhang Haiquan; Yang Huai

    2012-01-01

    A series of novel substituted pyrene derivatives with asymmetrical groups have been successfully synthesized in excellent yield. Structures of the asymmetrical compound were fully characterized by 1 H-NMR, IR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. By introducing ethynyl functions to pyrene, we obtained highly efficient blue and green light emitting materials. It has been demonstrated that the emission characteristics of pyrene derivatives have been bathochromatically tuned in the visible region by extending the π-conjugation. The photophysical properties of these compounds were carefully examined in different organic solvents and different concentrations. The electrochemical properties and geometrical electronic structures of the new pyrene derivatives have been investigated by cyclic voltammograms and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. - Highlights: ► It is the first research about asymmetrial pyrene derivatives as highly efficient light emitting materials. ► The solvatochromism and concentration effect of the new compounds have been discussed. ► Furthermore, the electrochemical properties and geometrical electronic structures were also investigated in this paper.

  9. Origin of the Electroluminescence from Annealed-ZnO/GaN Heterojunction Light-Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Chiang Hsu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addressed the effect of post-annealed treatment on the electroluminescence (EL of an n-ZnO/p-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diode (LED. The bluish light emitted from the 450 °C-annealed LED became reddish as the LED annealed at a temperature of 800 °C under vacuum atmosphere. The origins of the light emission for these LEDs annealed at various temperatures were studied using measurements of electrical property, photoluminescence, and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES depth profiles. A blue-violet emission located at 430 nm was associated with intrinsic transitions between the bandgap of n-ZnO and p-GaN, the green-yellow emission at 550 nm mainly originating from the deep-level transitions of native defects in the n-ZnO and p-GaN surfaces, and the red emission at 610 nm emerging from the Ga-O interlayer due to interdiffusion at the n-ZnO/p-GaN interface. The above-mentioned emissions also supported the EL spectra of LEDs annealed at 700 °C under air, nitrogen, and oxygen atmospheres, respectively.

  10. Highly efficient phosphorescent blue and white organic light-emitting devices with simplified architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chih-Hao, E-mail: chc@saturn.yzu.edu.tw [Department of Photonics Engineering, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan 32003 (China); Ding, Yong-Shung; Hsieh, Po-Wei; Chang, Chien-Ping; Lin, Wei-Chieh [Department of Photonics Engineering, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan 32003 (China); Chang, Hsin-Hua, E-mail: hhua3@mail.vnu.edu.tw [Department of Electro-Optical Engineering, Vanung University, Chung-Li, Taiwan 32061 (China)

    2011-09-01

    Blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices (PhOLEDs) with quantum efficiency close to the theoretical maximum were achieved by utilizing a double-layer architecture. Two wide-triplet-gap materials, 1,3-bis(9-carbazolyl)benzene and 1,3,5-tri[(3-pyridyl)-phen-3-yl]benzene, were employed in the emitting and electron-transport layers respectively. The opposite carrier-transport characteristics of these two materials were leveraged to define the exciton formation zone and thus increase the probability of recombination. The efficiency at practical luminance (100 cd/m{sup 2}) was as high as 20.8%, 47.7 cd/A and 31.2 lm/W, respectively. Furthermore, based on the design concept of this simplified architecture, efficient warmish-white PhOLEDs were developed. Such two-component white organic light-emitting devices exhibited rather stable colors over a wide brightness range and yielded electroluminescence efficiencies of 15.3%, 33.3 cd/A, and 22.7 lm/W in the forward directions.

  11. Enhancement of efficiency and stability of phosphorescent OLEDs based on heterostructured light-emitting layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Byung Doo, E-mail: bdchin@dankook.ac.kr [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering and Center for Photofunctional Energy Materials, Dankook University, Jukjeon-dong, Suji-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 448-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-23

    The light-emitting efficiency and stability of a phosphorescent organic light-emitting device (OLED), whose emission characteristics are strongly dominated not only by the energy transfer but also by the charge carrier trapping influenced by heterostructured emissive layers, are studied. The variation of the material combination of the heterostructured emitter, both for mixed and double layer configuration, affects the charge injection behaviour, luminous efficiency and stability. Both double and mixed emitter configurations yield low-voltage and high-efficiency behaviour (51 lm W{sup -1} at 1000 cd m{sup -2}; 30 lm W{sup -1} at 10 000 cd m{sup -2}). Such an improvement in power efficiency at elevated brightness is sufficiently universal, while the enhancement of device half-lifetime is rather sensitive to the circumstantial layout of heterostructural emitters. With an optimal mixture of hole-transport type and electron-transport type, a half-lifetime of more than 2500 h at 4000 cd m{sup -2} is obtained, which is 8 times the half-lifetime of control devices with a single emitter structure. The origin and criterion for enhancement of efficiency and lifetime are discussed in terms of the carrier transport behaviour with a specific device architecture.

  12. A Closed-Loop Smart Control System Driving RGB Light Emitting Diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Saggaf, Abeer

    2015-05-01

    The demand for control systems that are highly capable of driving solid-state optoelectronic devices has significantly increased with the advancement of their efficiency and elevation of their current consumption. This work presents a closed-loop control system that is based on a microcontroller embedded system capable of driving high power optoelectronic devices. In this version of the system, the device in the center of control is a high-power red, green, and blue light emitting diode package. The system features a graphical user interface, namely an Android mobile phone application, in which the user can easily use to vary the light color and intensity of the light-emitting device wirelessly via Bluetooth. Included in the system is a feedback mechanism constituted by a red, green, and blue color sensor through which the user can use to observe feedback color information about the emitted light. The system has many commercial application including in-door lighting and research application including plant agriculture research fields.

  13. An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniyasu, Yoshitaka; Kasu, Makoto; Makimoto, Toshiki

    2006-05-18

    Compact high-efficiency ultraviolet solid-state light sources--such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes--are of considerable technological interest as alternatives to large, toxic, low-efficiency gas lasers and mercury lamps. Microelectronic fabrication technologies and the environmental sciences both require light sources with shorter emission wavelengths: the former for improved resolution in photolithography and the latter for sensors that can detect minute hazardous particles. In addition, ultraviolet solid-state light sources are also attracting attention for potential applications in high-density optical data storage, biomedical research, water and air purification, and sterilization. Wide-bandgap materials, such as diamond and III-V nitride semiconductors (GaN, AlGaN and AlN; refs 3-10), are potential materials for ultraviolet LEDs and laser diodes, but suffer from difficulties in controlling electrical conduction. Here we report the successful control of both n-type and p-type doping in aluminium nitride (AlN), which has a very wide direct bandgap of 6 eV. This doping strategy allows us to develop an AlN PIN (p-type/intrinsic/n-type) homojunction LED with an emission wavelength of 210 nm, which is the shortest reported to date for any kind of LED. The emission is attributed to an exciton transition, and represents an important step towards achieving exciton-related light-emitting devices as well as replacing gas light sources with solid-state light sources.

  14. Effect of Dopant Activation on Device Characteristics of InGaN-based Light Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroce, Nicholas; Liu, Guangyu; Tan, Chee-Keong; Arif, Ronald A.; Lee, Soo Min; Tansu, Nelson

    2015-03-01

    Achieving high uniformity in growths and device characteristics of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is important for large scale manufacturing. Dopant activation and maintaining control of variables affecting dopant activation are critical steps in the InGaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) fabrication process. In the epitaxy of large scale production LEDs, in-situ post-growth annealing is used for activating the Mg acceptor dopant in the p-AlGaN and p-GaN of the LEDs. However, the annealing temperature varies with respect to position in the reactor chamber, leading to severe uniform dopant activation issue across the devices. Thus, it is important to understand how the temperature gradient and the resulting variance in Mg acceptor activation will alter the device properties. In this work, we examine the effect of varying p-type doping levels in the p-GaN layers and AlGaN electron blocking layer of the GaN LEDs on the optoelectronic properties including the band profile, carrier concentration, current density, output power and quantum efficiency. By understanding the variations and its effect, the identification of the most critical p-type doping layer strategies to address this variation will be clarified.

  15. Bigger, Brighter, Bluer-Better?Current light-emitting devices- adverse sleep properties and preventative strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eGringras

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveIn an effort to enhance the efficiency, brightness and contrast of light-emitting (LE devices during the day, displays often generate substantial short-wavelength (blue-enriched light emissions that can adversely affect sleep. We set out to verify the extent of such short-wavelength emissions, produced by a tablet (iPad Air, e-reader (Kindle Paperwhite 1st generation and smartphone (iPhone 5s and to determine the impact of strategies designed to reduce these light emissions. SettingUniversity of Surrey dedicated chronobiology facility.MethodsFirstly, the spectral power of all the light-emitting (LE devices was assessed when displaying identical text. Secondly, we compared the text output with that of ‘Angry Birds’-a popular top 100 ‘App Store’ game. Finally we measured the impact of two strategies that attempt to reduce the output of short-wavelength light emissions. The first strategy employed an inexpensive commercially available pair of orange-tinted ‘blue-blocking’ glasses. The second tested an app designed to be ‘sleep-aware’ whose designers deliberately attempted to reduce blue-enriched light emissions.ResultsAll the LE devices shared very similar enhanced blue-light peaks when displaying text. This included the output from the backlit Kindle Paperwhite device. The spectra when comparing text to the Angry Birds game were also very similar, although the

  16. A Closed-Loop Smart Control System Driving RGB Light Emitting Diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Saggaf, Abeer

    2015-01-01

    The demand for control systems that are highly capable of driving solid-state optoelectronic devices has significantly increased with the advancement of their efficiency and elevation of their current consumption. This work presents a closed-loop control system that is based on a microcontroller embedded system capable of driving high power optoelectronic devices. In this version of the system, the device in the center of control is a high-power red, green, and blue light emitting diode package. The system features a graphical user interface, namely an Android mobile phone application, in which the user can easily use to vary the light color and intensity of the light-emitting device wirelessly via Bluetooth. Included in the system is a feedback mechanism constituted by a red, green, and blue color sensor through which the user can use to observe feedback color information about the emitted light. The system has many commercial application including in-door lighting and research application including plant agriculture research fields.

  17. Design of micro, flexible light-emitting diode arrays and fabrication of flexible electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Dan; Wang, Weibiao; Liang, Zhongzhu; Liang, Jingqiu; Qin, Yuxin; Lv, Jinguang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we design micro, flexible light-emitting diode (LED) array devices. Using theoretical calculations and finite element simulations, we analyze the deformation of the conventional single electrode bar. Through structure optimization, we obtain a three-dimensional (3D), chain-shaped electrode structure, which has a greater bending degree. The optimized electrodes not only have a bigger bend but can also be made to spin. When the supporting body is made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), the maximum bending degree of the micro, flexible LED arrays (4  ×  1 arrays) was approximately 230 µ m; this was obtained using the finite element method. The device (4  ×  1 arrays) can stretch to 15%. This paper describes the fabrication of micro, flexible LED arrays using microelectromechancial (MEMS) technology combined with electroplating technology. Specifically, the isolated grooves are made by dry etching which can isolate and protect the light-emitting units. A combination of MEMS technology and wet etching is used to fabricate the large size spacing. (paper)

  18. Comparison of organic light emitting diodes with different mixed layer structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kee, Y.Y.; Siew, W.O. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya (Malaysia); Yap, S.S. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya (Malaysia); Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Tou, T.Y., E-mail: tytou@mmu.edu.my [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya (Malaysia)

    2014-11-03

    A mixed-source thermal evaporation method was used to fabricate organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with uniformly mixed (UM), continuously graded mixed (CGM) and step-wise graded, mixed (SGM) light-emitting layers. N,N′-Bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-diphenylbenzidine and Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum were used, respectively, as the hole- and electron-transport materials. As compared to the conventional, heterojunction OLED, the maximum brightness of UM-, CGM- and SGM-OLEDs without charge injection layers were improved by 2.2, 3.8 and 2.1 times, respectively, while the maximum power efficiencies improved by 1.5, 3.2 and 1.9 times. These improvements were discussed in terms of more distributed recombination zone and removal of interfacial barrier. - Highlights: • Fabrication of OLEDs using a mixed-source evaporation technique • Three different types of mixed-host OLEDs with better brightness • Improved electroluminescence and power efficiencies as compared to conventional OLED.

  19. Numerical study of the light output intensity of the bilayer organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Feiping

    2017-02-01

    The structure of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is one of most important issues that influence the light output intensity (LOI) of OLEDs. In this paper, based on a simple but accurate optical model, the influences of hole and electron transport layer thickness on the LOI of bilayer OLEDs, which with N,N0- bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N0- bis(phenyl)- benzidine (NPB) or N,N'- diphenyl-N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4-diamine (TPD) as hole transport layer, with tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) as electron transport and light emitting layers, were investigated. The laws of LOI for OLEDs under different organic layer thickness values were obtained. The results show that the LOI of devices varies in accordance with damped cosine or sine function as the increasing of organic layer thickness, and the results show that the bilayer OLEDs with the structure of Glass/ITO/NPB (55 nm)/Alq3 (75 nm)/Al and Glass/ITO/TPB (60 nm)/Alq3 (75 nm)/Al have most largest LOI. When the thickness of Alq3 is less than 105 nm, the OLEDs with TPD as hole transport layer have larger LOI than that with NPB as hole transport layer. The results obtained in this paper can present an in-depth understanding of the working mechanism of OLEDs and help ones fabricate high efficiency OLEDs.

  20. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with a Perylene Interlayer Between the Electrode-Organic Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Dhrubajyoti; Sarma, Ranjit

    2018-01-01

    The performance of an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with a vacuum-deposited perylene layer over a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) surface is reported. To investigate the effect of the perylene layer on OLED performance, different thicknesses of perylene are deposited on the FTO surface and their current density-voltages (J-V), luminance-voltages (L-V) and device efficiency characteristics at their respective thickness are studied. Further analysis is carried out with an UV-visible light double-beam spectrophotometer unit, a four-probe resistivity unit and a field emission scanning electron microscope set up to study the optical transmittance, sheet resistance and surface morphology of the bilayer anode film. We used N,N'-bis(3-methyl phenyl)- N,N'(phenyl)-benzidine (TPD) as the hole transport layer, Tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum (Alq3) as a light-emitting layer and lithium fluoride as an electron injection layer. The luminance efficiency of an OLED structure with a 9-nm-thick perylene interlayer is increased by 2.08 times that of the single-layer FTO anode OLED. The maximum value of current efficiency is found to be 5.25 cd/A.

  1. In Situ Preparation of Metal Halide Perovskite Nanocrystal Thin Films for Improved Light-Emitting Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lianfeng; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Tran, Nhu L; Wu, Fan; Xiao, Zhengguo; Kerner, Ross A; Lin, YunHui L; Scholes, Gregory D; Yao, Nan; Rand, Barry P

    2017-04-25

    Hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskite semiconductors are attractive candidates for optoelectronic applications, such as photovoltaics, light-emitting diodes, and lasers. Perovskite nanocrystals are of particular interest, where electrons and holes can be confined spatially, promoting radiative recombination. However, nanocrystalline films based on traditional colloidal nanocrystal synthesis strategies suffer from the use of long insulating ligands, low colloidal nanocrystal concentration, and significant aggregation during film formation. Here, we demonstrate a facile method for preparing perovskite nanocrystal films in situ and that the electroluminescence of light-emitting devices can be enhanced up to 40-fold through this nanocrystal film formation strategy. Briefly, the method involves the use of bulky organoammonium halides as additives to confine crystal growth of perovskites during film formation, achieving CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 and CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 perovskite nanocrystals with an average crystal size of 5.4 ± 0.8 nm and 6.4 ± 1.3 nm, respectively, as confirmed through transmission electron microscopy measurements. Additive-confined perovskite nanocrystals show significantly improved photoluminescence quantum yield and decay lifetime. Finally, we demonstrate highly efficient CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 red/near-infrared LEDs and CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 green LEDs based on this strategy, achieving an external quantum efficiency of 7.9% and 7.0%, respectively, which represent a 40-fold and 23-fold improvement over control devices fabricated without the additives.

  2. Improving the Stability of Metal Halide Perovskite Materials and Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Himchan; Kim, Young-Hoon; Wolf, Christoph; Lee, Hyeon-Dong; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2018-01-25

    Metal halide perovskites (MHPs) have numerous advantages as light emitters such as high photoluminescence quantum efficiency with a direct bandgap, very narrow emission linewidth, high charge-carrier mobility, low energetic disorder, solution processability, simple color tuning, and low material cost. Based on these advantages, MHPs have recently shown unprecedented radical progress (maximum current efficiency from 0.3 to 42.9 cd A -1 ) in the field of light-emitting diodes. However, perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) suffer from intrinsic instability of MHP materials and instability arising from the operation of the PeLEDs. Recently, many researchers have devoted efforts to overcome these instabilities. Here, the origins of the instability in PeLEDs are reviewed by categorizing it into two types: instability of (i) the MHP materials and (ii) the constituent layers and interfaces in PeLED devices. Then, the strategies to improve the stability of MHP materials and PeLEDs are critically reviewed, such as A-site cation engineering, Ruddlesden-Popper phase, suppression of ion migration with additives and blocking layers, fabrication of uniform bulk polycrystalline MHP layers, and fabrication of stable MHP nanoparticles. Based on this review of recent advances, future research directions and an outlook of PeLEDs for display applications are suggested. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Characterization of metal-functionalized flax orbitide as a new candidate for light-emitting semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Robert; Bazylewski, Paul; Chang, Gap Soo; Jadhav, Pramodkumar; Shen, Jianheng; Okinyo-Owiti, Denis Paskal; Reaney, Martin; Yang, Jian; Sammynaiken, Ramaswami

    2015-01-01

    Organic materials display promise in numerous electronic applications, complimentary to traditional semi-conducting materials. Cyclolinopeptides show promise in light-emitting applications as an organic semiconductor. Photoluminescence measurements indicate charge transfer between the peptide and the metal, resulting in an increase in intensity of the emission from around the metal in the Cyclolinopeptide complex. Complementary X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) shows a change in occupation of energy states in the peptide when complexed with the metal, indicating charge transfer, but peak positions show the peptide is not chemically changed by the metal. Combining X-ray emission and XANES provides element specific partial density of states, to estimate the element specific energy gap which is the proposed emission range for the peptide material. Organic light emitting diode devices have been fabricated, although no measurable emission has been seen as of yet. The devices have diode like current-voltage characteristics showing the peptide is semi-conducting with a threshold voltage of approximately 2.5 V. (paper)

  4. White organic light-emitting diodes based on electroplex from polyvinyl carbazole and carbazole oligomers blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei-Peng, Chen; Bin, Xu; Wen-Jing, Tian; Zu-Jin, Zhao; Ping, Lü; Chan, Im

    2010-01-01

    White organic light-emitting diodes with a blue emitting material fluorene-centred ethylene-liked carbazole oligomer (Cz6F) doped into polyvinyl carbazole (PVK) as the single light-emitting layer are reported. The optical properties of Cz6F, PVK, and PVK:Cz6F blends are studied. Single and double layer devices are fabricated by using PVK: Cz6F blends, and the device with the configuration of indium tin oxide (ITO)/PVK:Cz6F/tris(8-hydroxyquinolinate)aluminium (Alq 3 )/LiF/A1 exhibits white light emission with Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage chromaticity coordinates of (0.30, 0.33) and a brightness of 402 cd/m 2 . The investigation reveals that the white light is composed of a blue–green emission originating from the excimer of Cz6F molecules and a red emission from an electroplex from the PVK:Cz6F blend films

  5. Electroplex emission at PVK/Bphen interface for application in white organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Liang; Li Fushan; Xie Jiangxing; Wu Chaoxing; Zheng Yong; Chen Dongling; Xu Sheng; Guo Tailiang; Qu Bo; Chen Zhijian; Gong Qihuang

    2011-01-01

    White organic light-emitting diode (WOLED) with a structure of ITO/poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK)/4,7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline (Bphen)/tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq 3 )/LiF/Al has been fabricated via the thermal evaporation technique. The electroluminescence (EL) spectrum of the as-fabricated WOLED covers from 380 to 700 nm of the visible light region with a wide blue emission from PVK and an interesting new red emission. The red emission at 613 nm in EL spectra of the WOLED was attributed to electroplex emission at PVK/Bphen interface since it was not observed in photoluminescence spectra. The WOLED showed a Commission International De l'Eclairage coordinate of (0.31, 0.32), which is very close to the standard white coordinate (0.33, 0.33). - Highlights: → A white organic light-emitting diode was fabricated by vacuum deposition. → A new red emission at 613 nm was observed in the electroluminescence spectra. → Red emission comes from electroplex instead of exciplex at PVK/Bphen interface. → The device has a CIE coordinate of (0.31, 0.32).

  6. White organic light-emitting diodes based on electroplex from polyvinyl carbazole and carbazole oligomers blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei-Peng; Xu, Bin; Zhao, Zu-Jin; Tian, Wen-Jing; Lü, Ping; Im, Chan

    2010-03-01

    White organic light-emitting diodes with a blue emitting material fluorene-centred ethylene-liked carbazole oligomer (Cz6F) doped into polyvinyl carbazole (PVK) as the single light-emitting layer are reported. The optical properties of Cz6F, PVK, and PVK:Cz6F blends are studied. Single and double layer devices are fabricated by using PVK: Cz6F blends, and the device with the configuration of indium tin oxide (ITO)/PVK:Cz6F/tris(8-hydroxyquinolinate)aluminium (Alq3)/LiF/A1 exhibits white light emission with Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage chromaticity coordinates of (0.30, 0.33) and a brightness of 402 cd/m2. The investigation reveals that the white light is composed of a blue-green emission originating from the excimer of Cz6F molecules and a red emission from an electroplex from the PVK:Cz6F blend films.

  7. Highly efficient phosphorescent blue and white organic light-emitting devices with simplified architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chih-Hao; Ding, Yong-Shung; Hsieh, Po-Wei; Chang, Chien-Ping; Lin, Wei-Chieh; Chang, Hsin-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices (PhOLEDs) with quantum efficiency close to the theoretical maximum were achieved by utilizing a double-layer architecture. Two wide-triplet-gap materials, 1,3-bis(9-carbazolyl)benzene and 1,3,5-tri[(3-pyridyl)-phen-3-yl]benzene, were employed in the emitting and electron-transport layers respectively. The opposite carrier-transport characteristics of these two materials were leveraged to define the exciton formation zone and thus increase the probability of recombination. The efficiency at practical luminance (100 cd/m 2 ) was as high as 20.8%, 47.7 cd/A and 31.2 lm/W, respectively. Furthermore, based on the design concept of this simplified architecture, efficient warmish-white PhOLEDs were developed. Such two-component white organic light-emitting devices exhibited rather stable colors over a wide brightness range and yielded electroluminescence efficiencies of 15.3%, 33.3 cd/A, and 22.7 lm/W in the forward directions.

  8. Surface modification and characterization of indium-tin oxide for organic light-emitting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Z Y; Jiang, Y D

    2006-10-15

    In this work, we used different treatment methods (ultrasonic degreasing, hydrochloric acid treatment, and oxygen plasma) to modify the surfaces of indium-tin oxide (ITO) substrates for organic light-emitting devices. The surface properties of treated ITO substrates were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), sheet resistance, contact angle, and surface energy measurements. Experimental results show that the ITO surface properties are closely related to the treatment methods, and the oxygen plasma is more efficient than the other treatments since it brings about smoother surfaces, lower sheet resistance, higher work function, and higher surface energy and polarity of the ITO substrate. Moreover, polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells (PLECs) with differently treated ITO substrates as device electrodes were fabricated and characterized. It is found that surface treatments of ITO substrates have a certain degree of influence upon the injection current, brightness, and efficiency, but hardly upon the turn-on voltages of current injection and light emission, which are in agreement with the measured optical energy gap of the electroluminescent polymer. The oxygen plasma treatment on the ITO substrate yields the best performance of PLECs, due to the improvement of interface formation and electrical contact of the ITO substrate with the polymer blend in the PLECs.

  9. Study of electrical fatigue by defect engineering in organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassmann, Andrea; Yampolskii, Sergey V.; Klein, Andreas; Albe, Karsten; Vilbrandt, Nicole; Pekkola, Oili; Genenko, Yuri A.; Rehahn, Matthias; Seggern, Heinz von

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Electrical fatigue is investigated in PPV-based polymer light-emitting diodes. • Bromide defects remaining from Gilch synthesis limit PLED lifetime. • Electrical stress yields lower hole mobility and transition to dispersive transport. • Triplet excitons reduce lifetime and EL-emission-induced degradation observed. • Self-consistent drift-diffusion model for charge carrier injection and transport. - Abstract: In this work the current knowledge on the electrical degradation of polymer-based light-emitting diodes is reviewed focusing especially on derivatives of poly(p-phenylene-vinylene) (PPV). The electrical degradation will be referred to as electrical fatigue and is understood as mechanisms, phenomena and material properties that change during continuous operation of the device at constant current. The focus of this review lies especially on the effect of chemical synthesis on the transport properties of the organic semiconductor and the device lifetimes. In addition, the prominent transparent conductive oxide indium tin oxide as well as In 2 O 3 will be reviewed and how their properties can be altered by the processing conditions. The experiments are accompanied by theoretical modeling shining light on how the change of injection barriers, charge carrier mobility or trap density influence the current–voltage characteristics of the diodes and on how and which defects form in transparent conductive oxides used as anode

  10. Solution-processed white organic light-emitting devices based on small-molecule materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dongdong; Wu Zhaoxin; Zhang Xinwen; Wang Dawei; Hou Xun

    2010-01-01

    We investigated solution-processed films of 4,4'-bis(2,2-diphenylvinyl)-1,1'-bibenyl (DPVBi) and its blends with N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (TPD) by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM result shows that the solution-processed films are pin-free and their morphology is smooth enough to be used in OLEDs. We have developed a solution-processed white organic light-emitting device (WOLEDs) based on small-molecules, in which the light-emitting layer (EML) was formed by spin-coating the solution of small-molecules on top of the solution-processed hole-transporting layer. This WOLEDs, in which the EML consists of co-host (DPVBi and TPD), the blue dopant (4,4'-bis[2-(4-(N,N-diphenylamino)phenyl)vinyl]biphenyl) and the yellow dye (5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphtacene), has a current efficiency of 6.0 cd/A at a practical luminance of 1000 cd/m 2 , a maximum luminance of 22500 cd/m 2 , and its color coordinates are quite stable. Our research shows a possible approach to achieve efficient and low-cost small-molecule-based WOLEDs, which avoids the complexities of the co-evaporation process of multiple dopants and host materials in vacuum depositions.

  11. [Effects of white organic light-emitting devices using color conversion films on electroluminescence spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qing-Chuan; Wu, Xiao-Ming; Hua, Yu-Lin; Qi, Qing-Jin; Li, Lan; Yin, Shou-Gen

    2010-06-01

    The authors report a novel white organic light-emitting device (WOLED), which uses a strategy of exciting organic/ inorganic color conversion film with a blue organic light-emitting diode (OLED). The luminescent layer of the blue OLED was prepared by use of CBP host blended with a blue highly fluorescent dye N-BDAVBi. The organic/inorganic color conversion film was prepared by dispersing a mixture of red pigment VQ-D25 and YAG : Ce3+ phosphor in PMMA. The authors have achieved a novel WOLED with the high color stability by optimizing the thickness and fluorescent pigment concentration of the color conversion film. When the driving voltage varied between 6 and 14 V, the color coordinates (CIE) varied slightly from (0.354, 0.304) to (0.357, 0.312) and the maximum current efficiency is about 5.8 cd x A(-1) (4.35 mA x cm(-2)), the maximum brightness is 16 800 cd x m(-2) at the operating voltage of 14 V.

  12. Stacking multiple connecting functional materials in tandem organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Deng-Ke; Jiang, Nan; Lu, Zheng-Hong

    2017-02-01

    Tandem device is an important architecture in fabricating high performance organic light-emitting diodes and organic photovoltaic cells. The key element in making a high performance tandem device is the connecting materials stack, which plays an important role in electric field distribution, charge generation and charge injection. For a tandem organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with a simple Liq/Al/MoO3 stack, we discovered that there is a significant current lateral spreading causing light emission over an extremely large area outside the OLED pixel when the Al thickness exceeds 2 nm. This spread light emission, caused by an inductive electric field over one of the device unit, limits one’s ability to fabricate high performance tandem devices. To resolve this issue, a new connecting materials stack with a C60 fullerene buffer layer is reported. This new structure permits optimization of the Al metal layer in the connecting stack and thus enables us to fabricate an efficient tandem OLED having a high 155.6 cd/A current efficiency and a low roll-off (or droop) in current efficiency.

  13. Light emitting diode package element with internal meniscus for bubble free lens placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarsa, Eric; Yuan, Thomas C.; Becerra, Maryanne; Yadev, Praveen

    2010-09-28

    A method for fabricating a light emitting diode (LED) package comprising providing an LED chip and covering at least part of the LED chip with a liquid encapsulant having a radius of curvature. An optical element is provided having a bottom surface with at least a portion having a radius of curvature larger than the liquid encapsulant. The larger radius of curvature portion of the optical element is brought into contact with the liquid encapsulant. The optical element is then moved closer to the LED chip, growing the contact area between said optical element and said liquid encapsulant. The liquid encapsulant is then cured. A light emitting diode comprising a substrate with an LED chip mounted to it. A meniscus ring is on the substrate around the LED chip with the meniscus ring having a meniscus holding feature. An inner encapsulant is provided over the LED chip with the inner encapsulant having a contacting surface on the substrate, with the meniscus holding feature which defines the edge of the contacting surface. An optical element is included having a bottom surface with at least a portion that is concave. The optical element is arranged on the substrate with the concave portion over the LED chip. A contacting encapsulant is included between the inner encapsulant and optical element.

  14. Highly stable cesium lead iodide perovskite quantum dot light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chen; Huang, Chun-Ying; Sanehira, Erin M.; Luther, Joseph M.; Lin, Lih Y.

    2017-11-01

    Recently, all-inorganic perovskites such as CsPbBr3 and CsPbI3, have emerged as promising materials for light-emitting applications. While encouraging performance has been demonstrated, the stability issue of the red-emitting CsPbI3 is still a major concern due to its small tolerance factor. Here we report a highly stable CsPbI3 quantum dot (QD) light-emitting diode (LED) with red emission fabricated using an improved purification approach. The device achieved decent external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 0.21% at a bias of 6 V and outstanding operational stability, with a L 70 lifetime (EL intensity decreases to 70% of starting value) of 16 h and 1.5 h under a constant driving voltage of 5 V and 6 V (maximum EQE operation) respectively. Furthermore, the device can work under a higher voltage of 7 V (maximum luminance operation) and retain 50% of its initial EL intensity after 500 s. These findings demonstrate the promise of CsPbI3 QDs for stable red LEDs, and suggest the feasibility for electrically pumped perovskite lasers with further device optimizations.

  15. Fast Postmoisture Treatment of Luminescent Perovskite Films for Efficient Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haoran; Li, Xiaomin; Yuan, Mingjian; Yang, Xuyong

    2018-04-01

    Despite the recent advances in the performance of perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs), the effects of water on the perovskite emissive layer and its electroluminescence are still unclear, even though it has been previously demonstrated that moisture has a significant impact on the quality of perovskite films in the fabrication process of perovskite solar cells and is a prerequisite for obtaining high-performance PeLEDs. Here, the effects of postmoisture on the luminescent CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 (MAPbBr 3 ) perovskite films are systematically investigated. It is found that postmoisture treatment can efficiently control the morphology and growth of perovskite films and only a fast moisture exposure at a 60% high relative humidity results in significantly improved crystallinity, carrier lifetime, and photoluminescence quantum yield of perovskite films. With the optimized moisture-treated perovskite films, a high-performance PeLED is fabricated, exhibiting a maximum current efficiency of 20.4 cd A -1 , which is an almost 20-fold enhancement when compared with perovskite films without moisture treatment. The results provide valuable insights into the moisture-assisted growth of luminescent perovskite films and will aid in the development of high-performance perovskite light-emitting devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Formation of definite GaN p-n junction by Mg-ion implantation to n--GaN epitaxial layers grown on a high-quality free-standing GaN substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Takuya; Saijo, Yusuke; Kato, Shigeki; Mishima, Tomoyoshi; Nakamura, Tohru

    2015-12-01

    P-type conversion of n--GaN by Mg-ion implantation was successfully performed using high quality GaN epitaxial layers grown on free-standing low-dislocation-density GaN substrates. These samples showed low-temperature PL spectra quite similar to those observed from Mg-doped MOVPE-grown p-type GaN, consisting of Mg related donor-acceptor pair (DAP) and acceptor bound exciton (ABE) emission. P-n diodes fabricated by the Mg-ion implantation showed clear rectifying I-V characteristics and UV and blue light emissions were observed at forward biased conditions for the first time.

  17. Efficient single light-emitting layer pure blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices with wide gap host and matched interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yunlong; Zhou, Liang, E-mail: zhoul@ciac.ac.cn; Cui, Rongzhen; Li, Yanan; Zhao, Xuesen; Zhang, Hongjie, E-mail: hongjie@ciac.ac.cn

    2015-12-15

    In this work, we report the highly efficient pure blue electroluminescent (EL) device based on bis[(3,5-difluoro-4-cyanophenyl)pyridine]picolinate iridium(III) (FCNIrpic) doped 9-(4-tert-Butylphenyl)-3,6-bis(triphenylsilyl)-9H-carbazole (CzSi) film. The matched energy levels of FCNIrpic and CzSi are helpful in facilitating the trapping of carriers, while the high triplet energy of CzSi can well avoid the undesired reverse energy transfer. More importantly, the injection of holes was further accelerated by inserting 5 nm 4,4′,4″-Tri(9-carbazoyl)triphenylamine (TcTa) film between hole transport layer and lighting-emitting layer (EML) as interlayer. Consequently, EL performances were significantly enhanced attributed to wider recombination zone and better balance of holes and electrons. Interestingly, single-EML device displayed higher performances than those of double-EMLs device. Finally, pure blue EL device with the structure of ITO/MoO{sub 3} (3 nm)/TAPC (40 nm)/TcTa (5 nm)/FCNIrpic (20%): CzSi (30 nm)/TmPyPB (40 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (100 nm) realized the maximum brightness, current efficiency, power efficiency and external quantum efficiency up to 12,505 cd/m{sup 2}, 36.20 cd/A, 28.42 lm/W and 16.9%, respectively. Even at the high brightness of 1000 cd/m{sup 2}, current efficiency and external quantum efficiency up to 17.40 cd/A and 8.1%, respectively, can be retained by the same device.

  18. Enhancement of efficiencies for tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices with a p-type charge generation layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Byung Soo; Jeon, Young Pyo; Lee, Dae Uk; Kim, Tae Whan, E-mail: twk@hanayng.ac.kr

    2014-10-15

    The operating voltage of the tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device with a 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile layer was improved by 3% over that of the organic light-emitting device with a molybdenum trioxide layer. The maximum brightness of the tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device at 21.9 V was 26,540 cd/m{sup 2}. The dominant peak of the electroluminescence spectra for the devices was related to the fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium emission. - Highlights: • Tandem OLEDs with CGL were fabricated to enhance their efficiency. • The operating voltage of the tandem OLED with a HAT-CN layer was improved by 3%. • The efficiency and brightness of the tandem OLED were 13.9 cd/A and 26,540 cd/m{sup 2}. • Efficiency of the OLED with a HAT-CN layer was lower than that with a MoO{sub 3} layer. - Abstract: Tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices with a 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile or a molybdenum trioxide charge generation layer were fabricated to enhance their efficiency. Current density–voltage curves showed that the operating voltage of the tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device with a 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile layer was improved by 3% over that of the corresponding organic light-emitting device with a molybdenum trioxide layer. The efficiency and the brightness of the tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device were 13.9 cd/A and 26,540 cd/m{sup 2}, respectively. The current efficiency of the tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device with a 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile layer was lower by 1.1 times compared to that of the corresponding organic light-emitting device with molybdenum trioxide layer due to the decreased charge generation and transport in the 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile layer resulting from triplet–triplet exciton annihilation.

  19. Color optimization of conjugated-polymer/InGaN hybrid white light emitting diodes by incomplete energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chi-Jung; Lai, Chun-Feng; Madhusudhana Reddy, P.; Chen, Yung-Lin; Chiou, Wei-Yung; Chang, Shinn-Jen

    2015-01-01

    By using the wavelength conversion method, white light emitting diodes (WLEDs) were produced by applying mixtures of polysiloxane and fluorescent polymers on InGaN based light emitting diodes. UV curable organic–inorganic hybrid materials with high refractive index (1.561), compromised optical, thermal and mechanical properties was used as encapsulants. Red light emitting fluorescent FABD polymer (with 9,9-dioctylfluorene (F), anthracene (A) and 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (B), and 4,7-bis(2-thienyl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (D) repeating units) and green light emitting fluorescent FAB polymer were used as wavelength converters. The encapsulant/fluorescent polymer mixture and InGaN produce the white light by incomplete energy transfer mechanism. WLEDs with high color rendering index (CRI, about 93), and tunable correlated color temperature (CCT) properties can be produced by controlling the composition and chemical structures of encapsulating polymer and fluorescent polymer in hybrid materials, offering cool-white and neutral-white LEDs. - Highlights: • Highly efficient white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) were produced. • Conjugated-polymer/InGaN hybrid WLEDs by incomplete energy transfer mechanism. • WLEDs with high color-rendering index and tunable correlated color temperature. • Polysiloxane encapsulant with superior optical, mechanical and thermal properties

  20. Evaluation of inorganic and organic light-emitting diode displays for signage application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pratibha; Kwok, Harry

    2006-08-01

    High-brightness, inorganic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been successfully utilized for edge-lighting of large displays for signage. Further interest in solid-state lighting technology has been fueled with the emergence of small molecule and polymer-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this paper, edgelit inorganic LED-based displays and state-of-the-art OLED-based displays are evaluated on the basis of electrical and photometric measurements. The reference size for a signage system is assumed to be 600 mm x 600mm based on the industrial usage. With the availability of high power light-emitting diodes, it is possible to develop edgelit signage systems of the standard size. These displays possess an efficacy of 18 lm/W. Although, these displays are environmentally friendly and efficient, they suffer from some inherent limitations. Homogeneity of displays, which is a prime requirement for illuminated signs, is not accomplished. A standard deviation of 3.12 lux is observed between the illuminance values on the surface of the display. In order to distribute light effectively, reflective gratings are employed. Reflective gratings aid in reducing the problem but fail to eliminate it. In addition, the overall cost of signage is increased by 50% with the use of these additional components. This problem can be overcome by the use of a distributed source of light. Hence, the organic-LEDs are considered as a possible contender. In this paper, we experimentally determine the feasibility of using OLEDs for signage applications and compare their performance with inorganic LEDs. Passive matrix, small-molecule based, commercially available OLEDs is used. Design techniques for implementation of displays using organic LEDs are also discussed. It is determined that tiled displays based on organic LEDs possess better uniformity than the inorganic LED-based displays. However, the currently available OLEDs have lower light-conversion efficiency and higher costs than the