WorldWideScience

Sample records for ozone state implementation

  1. 76 FR 77178 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New York State Ozone Implementation Plan Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... individuals with a pre-existing respiratory disease, such as asthma. On April 30, 2004 (69 FR 23858), EPA... coatings as part of the effort to reduce ozone pollution in the State and reach attainment of the 8-hour... protection, Air pollution control, Hydrocarbons, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart IIIi... - States With Approved State Implementation Plan Revisions Concerning CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... allocation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances to such units under § 97.388(b): Indiana Michigan North Carolina Ohio South Carolina Tennessee 2. The following States have State Implementation Plan revisions... Ozone Season allowances to such units under § 97.388(c): Indiana Michigan North Carolina Ohio South...

  3. 77 FR 13974 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New York State Ozone Implementation Plan Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ...-hour ozone standard, that they review the VOC content limits for wood adhesives. This category of adhesives is included in the CTG recommended VOC emission limits. Overall, Part 228: (1) Regulates the same.... EPA has evaluated New York's submittal for consistency with the Clean Air Act, EPA regulations, and...

  4. 78 FR 34177 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... industries. It also means providing as much assistance and flexibility as possible to the states as they work... associated with oil and gas development, internal combustion engines, incinerators, boilers and cement kilns... of much of the discussion of this rule. When a topic is discussed that is not covered by subpart 2...

  5. 77 FR 26441 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Charlotte; Ozone 2002 Base...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Charlotte; Ozone 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory... final action to approve the ozone 2002 base year emissions inventory portion of the state implementation... Air Act (CAA or Act). EPA will take action on the South Carolina submission for the ozone 2002 base...

  6. 77 FR 24399 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Atlanta; Ozone 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Atlanta; Ozone 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY... approve the ozone 2002 base year emissions inventory, portion of the state implementation plan (SIP... technology (RACT), contingency measures, a 2002 base- year emissions inventory and other planning SIP...

  7. Strategy for reducing ozone levels in the northeast United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, M.

    1992-01-01

    In the northeast USA, ozone episodes are frequent during the summer; most of these episodes last 3-4 days. The duration and frequency of these episodes is mainly determined by weather conditions. The persistence of ozone episodes in the region is explained by the fact that emissions of ozone precursors (nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC)) are like those of other regions of the USA affected by acute ozone problems. The population density, industry, and use of automobiles are other factors contributing to the difficulty of maintaining acceptable ozone levels. The ozone problem is especially severe in the New York metropolitan area and most of New Jersey. Strategies for combating ozone precursors have relied entirely on reducing emissions of VOCs, while little has been done to reduce NOx, except for automobile emissions. The Clean Air Act of 1990 provides for significant reductions of NOx and VOC from mobile sources and insists on VOC emissions reductions from stationary sources. In California, stricter emission standards for VOC and NOx have been implemented for new vehicles, requiring wider use of low- or zero-emission vehicles. The Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management (NESCAUM) organization, formed by the state agencies responsible for air quality, is aiding the northeast states to evaluate the advantages of adopting California standards for vehicles. Twelve northeast states propose to adopt the Californian low-emission vehicle program and are examining other options such as reformulated gasolines, improved maintenance and verification programs, and measures to reduce the number of miles travelled. 1 fig., 1 tab

  8. 77 FR 24440 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Atlanta; Ozone 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R04-OAR-2010-0021(b); FRL-9661-9] Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Atlanta; Ozone 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY... 2002 base year emissions inventory portion of the state implementation plan (SIP) revision submitted by...

  9. California State Implementation Plan; Final Approval of Revision; Yolo-Solano Air Quality Management District; Reasonably Available Control Technology Requirements for 1997 8-hour Ozone NAAQS

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is taking final action to approve a revision to the Yolo-Solano Air Quality Management District (YSAQMD) portion of the California SIP concerning YSAQMD regarding RACT)requirements the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS and approve negative declarations into SIP.

  10. Climate-driven ground-level ozone extreme in the fall over the Southeast United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhong; Wang, Yuhang

    2016-09-06

    Ground-level ozone is adverse to human and vegetation health. High ground-level ozone concentrations usually occur over the United States in the summer, often referred to as the ozone season. However, observed monthly mean ozone concentrations in the southeastern United States were higher in October than July in 2010. The October ozone average in 2010 reached that of July in the past three decades (1980-2010). Our analysis shows that this extreme October ozone in 2010 over the Southeast is due in part to a dry and warm weather condition, which enhances photochemical production, air stagnation, and fire emissions. Observational evidence and modeling analysis also indicate that another significant contributor is enhanced emissions of biogenic isoprene, a major ozone precursor, from water-stressed plants under a dry and warm condition. The latter finding is corroborated by recent laboratory and field studies. This climate-induced biogenic control also explains the puzzling fact that the two extremes of high October ozone both occurred in the 2000s when anthropogenic emissions were lower than the 1980s and 1990s, in contrast to the observed decreasing trend of July ozone in the region. The occurrences of a drying and warming fall, projected by climate models, will likely lead to more active photochemistry, enhanced biogenic isoprene and fire emissions, an extension of the ozone season from summer to fall, and an increase of secondary organic aerosols in the Southeast, posing challenges to regional air quality management.

  11. The Impact of Iodide-Mediated Ozone Deposition and Halogen Chemistry on Surface Ozone Concentrations Across the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The air quality of many large coastal areas in the United States is affected by the confluence of polluted urban and relatively clean marine airmasses, each with distinct atmospheric chemistry. In this context, the role of iodide-mediated ozone (O3) deposition over seawater and m...

  12. 78 FR 37757 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... Quality Index rather than on 1-hour ozone forecasted values; (b) forecast criteria for allowing a...

  13. The NOx Budget. Market-based control of tropospheric ozone in the northeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, Alex; Carter, Robert; Raufer, Roger

    1999-01-01

    The NOx Budget is a marketable emissions allowance system currently being adopted by states in the Northeastern US to reduce tropospheric ozone concentrations to healthful levels in a cost-effective manner. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) are currently regulated within the existing Command and Control (CAC) framework. The introduction of a market-based approach will further reduce emissions, but will not resolve all regulatory uncertainties. These implementation concerns are identified and discussed. Cost savings and emissions reductions patterns which will arise under several different scenarios are determined through the use of a dynamic, relaxed mixed-integer linear programming model of the NOx allowance market. Like other market-based pollution control programs, the NOx Budget is found to be more efficient than CAC options. Restrictions on the market designed to address perceived flaws are found to be expensive but ineffectual

  14. Ozone transmittance in a model atmosphere at Ikeja, Lagos state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation of ozone transmittance with height in the atmosphere for radiation in the 9.6m absorption band was studied using Goody's model atmosphere, with cubic spline interpolation technique to improve the quality of the curve. The data comprising of pressure and temperature at different altitudes (0-22 km) for the month of ...

  15. 77 FR 1895 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Rule 317, ``Clean Air Act Non- Attainment Fee... Air Quality Management District There are two 1-hour ozone nonattainment areas within the jurisdiction...

  16. Ozone response to emission reductions in the southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Blanchard

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ozone (O3 formation in the southeastern US is studied in relation to nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions using long-term (1990s–2015 surface measurements of the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH network, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA O3 measurements, and EPA Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET nitrate deposition data. Annual fourth-highest daily peak 8 h O3 mixing ratios at EPA monitoring sites in Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi exhibit statistically significant (p  <  0.0001 linear correlations with annual NOx emissions in those states between 1996 and 2015. The annual fourth-highest daily peak 8 h O3 mixing ratios declined toward values of ∼ 45–50 ppbv and monthly O3 maxima decreased at rates averaging ∼ 1–1.5 ppbv yr−1. Mean annual total oxidized nitrogen (NOy mixing ratios at SEARCH sites declined in proportion to NOx emission reductions. CASTNET data show declining wet and dry nitrate deposition since the late 1990s, with total (wet plus dry nitrate deposition fluxes decreasing linearly in proportion to reductions of NOx emissions by ∼ 60 % in Alabama and Georgia. Annual nitrate deposition rates at Georgia and Alabama CASTNET sites correspond to 30 % of Georgia emission rates and 36 % of Alabama emission rates, respectively. The fraction of NOx emissions lost to deposition has not changed. SEARCH and CASTNET sites exhibit downward trends in mean annual nitric acid (HNO3 concentrations. Observed relationships of O3 to NOz (NOy–NOx support past model predictions of increases in cycling of NO and increasing responsiveness of O3 to NOx. The study data provide a long-term record that can be used to examine the accuracy of process relationships embedded in modeling efforts. Quantifying observed O3 trends and relating them to reductions in ambient NOy species concentrations offers key insights into processes of general relevance to air quality management and

  17. 40 CFR 52.2088 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2088... strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the State Implementation Plan submitted by the Rhode Island Department of... revised text is set forth as follows: § 52.2088 Control strategy: Ozone. (c) Determination of Attainment...

  18. "OZONE SOURCE APPORTIONMENT IN CMAQ' | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone source attribution has been used to support various policy purposes including interstate transport (Cross State Air Pollution Rule) by U.S. EPA and ozone nonattainment area designations by State agencies. Common scientific applications include tracking intercontinental transport of ozone and ozone precursors and delineating anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic contribution to ozone in North America. As in the public release due in September 2013, CMAQ’s Integrated Source Apportionment Method (ISAM) attributes PM EC/OC, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, ozone and its precursors NOx and VOC, to sectors/regions of users’ interest. Although the peroxide-to-nitric acid productions ratio has been the most common indicator to distinguish NOx-limited ozone production from VOC-limited one, other indicators are implemented in addition to allowing for an ensemble decision based on a total of 9 available indicator ratios. Moreover, an alternative approach of ozone attribution based on the idea of chemical sensitivity in a linearized system that has formed the basis of chemical treatment in forward DDM/backward adjoint tools has been implemented in CMAQ. This method does not require categorization into either ozone regime. In this study, ISAM will simulate the 2010 North America ozone using all of the above gas-phase attribution methods. The results are to be compared with zero-out difference out of those sectors in the host model runs. In addition, ozone contribution wil

  19. Steady-state ozone concentration in radiation induced noble gas-oxygen discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed-Ali, H.E.; Miley, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of steady-state ozone concentrations in continuous radiation induced noble gas-O 2 and noble gas-O 2 -SF 6 mixtures has been accomplished. The discharges were created through the bombardment of the gases with energetic particles from the boron-10 (n,α) lithium-7 nuclear reaction. Three noble gases were studied, He, Ne, and Ar at partial pressures of few hundred Torr. The dose rates studied were in the order of 10 15 eV.cm -3 .s -1 . The experimental apparatus and proceedure were previously described. The experimentally observed stead-state ozone concentrations in noble gas-O 2 discharges were about an order of magnitude lower than that observed for oxygen radiolysis at similar dose rates. These results were physically explained by an enhanced role of negative ionic reactions with ozone causing its destruction. In noble gas-O 2 -SF 6 mixtures, the steady-state ozone concentrations were found to be significantly higher (3-6 times) than that without the SF 6 addition. This observation was contrary to only a small increase observed after SF 6 addition to a few hundred Torr oxygen and is explained by an enhanced rate of electron dissociative attachment of ozone in noble gas-O 2 discharges

  20. Steady-state ozone concentrations in radiation induced noble gas-oxygen discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed-Ali, H.E.; Miley, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of steady-state ozone concentrations in continuous radiation induced noble gas-O/sub 2/ and noble gas-o/sub 2/-SF/sub 6/ mixtures has been accomplished. The discharges were created through the bombardment of the gases with energetic particles from the boron-10 (n,α) lithium-7 nuclear reaction. Three noble gases were studied, He, Ne, and Ar at partial pressures of few hundred Torr. The dose rates studied were in the order of 10/sup 15/ eV . cm/sup -3/ . s/sup -1/. The experimental apparatus and procedure were previously described. The experimentally observed steady-state ozone concentrations in noble gas-O/sub 2/ discharges were about an order of magnitude lower than that observed for oxygen radiolysis at similar dose rates. These results were physically explained by an enhanced role of negative ionic reactions with ozone causing its destruction. In noble gas-O/sub 2/-SF/sub 6/ mixtures, the steady-state ozone concentrations were found to be significantly higher (3-6 times) than that without the SF/sub 6/ addition. This observation was contrary to only a small increase observed after SF/sub 6/ addition to a few hundred Torr oxygen and is explained by an enhanced rate of electron dissociative attachment of ozone in noble gas-O/sub 2/ discharges

  1. Regional impacts of oil and gas development on ozone formation in the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Marco A; Barna, Michael G; Moore, Tom

    2009-09-01

    The Intermountain West is currently experiencing increased growth in oil and gas production, which has the potential to affect the visibility and air quality of various Class I areas in the region. The following work presents an analysis of these impacts using the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx). CAMx is a state-of-the-science, "one-atmosphere" Eulerian photochemical dispersion model that has been widely used in the assessment of gaseous and particulate air pollution (ozone, fine [PM2.5], and coarse [PM10] particulate matter). Meteorology and emissions inventories developed by the Western Regional Air Partnership Regional Modeling Center for regional haze analysis and planning are used to establish an ozone baseline simulation for the year 2002. The predicted range of values for ozone in the national parks and other Class I areas in the western United States is then evaluated with available observations from the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET). This evaluation demonstrates the model's suitability for subsequent planning, sensitivity, and emissions control strategy modeling. Once the ozone baseline simulation has been established, an analysis of the model results is performed to investigate the regional impacts of oil and gas development on the ozone concentrations that affect the air quality of Class I areas. Results indicate that the maximum 8-hr ozone enhancement from oil and gas (9.6 parts per billion [ppb]) could affect southwestern Colorado and northwestern New Mexico. Class I areas in this region that are likely to be impacted by increased ozone include Mesa Verde National Park and Weminuche Wilderness Area in Colorado and San Pedro Parks Wilderness Area, Bandelier Wilderness Area, Pecos Wilderness Area, and Wheeler Peak Wilderness Area in New Mexico.

  2. Health Benefits of Decreases in PM2.5 and Ozone in the United States from 1998 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, O.; Zhang, Y.; Tong, D.; van Donkelaar, A.; Martin, R.; West, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Between 1990 and 2015 the US average concentration of PM2.5 decreased by 37% and ozone decreased by 22%, driven by environmental regulations and technological advances. These decreases in pollutants are expected to have brought substantial benefits for public health in the US. Here we assess the effects of this decrease by estimating the total burden of PM2.5 and ozone on premature mortality, each year between 1998-2016. Two data sets of ambient concentration were implemented in the health impact analysis that included different subsets of the time period. First, we use data from the North American Chemical Reanalysis project, which uses OMI NO2 and MODIS AOD observations for data assimilation to constrain ozone and PM2.5 between 2009-2016. Second, we use satellite-derived estimates of ground-level PM2.5 using AOD retrievals from NASA satellites combined with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model between 1998-2015; these estimates are calibrated to ground-based observations using a geographically weighted regression. Using yearly data on population and baseline mortality provided by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), we assess how air pollution-related mortality has changed annually within the continental United States, and analyze trends to determine how effectively the health burden has been reduced by environmental regulations and other factors.

  3. Evaluating ozone air pollution effects on pines in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul R. Miller; Kenneth W. Stolte; Daniel M. Duriscoe; John Pronos

    1996-01-01

    Historical and technical background is provided about ozone air pollution effects on ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws) and Jeffrey (P. jeffreyi Grev. and Balf.) pines in forests of the western United States. The principal aim is to document the development of field survey methods to be applied to assessment of chronic...

  4. Aerosols from fires: an examination of the effects on ozone photochemistry in the Western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoyan; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Carlton, Annmarie G

    2012-11-06

    This study presents a first attempt to investigate the roles of fire aerosols in ozone (O(3)) photochemistry using an online coupled meteorology-chemistry model, the Weather Research and Foresting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). Four 1-month WRF-Chem simulations for August 2007, with and without fire emissions, were carried out to assess the sensitivity of O(3) predictions to the emissions and subsequent radiative feedbacks associated with large-scale fires in the Western United States (U.S.). Results show that decreases in planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) resulting from the radiative effects of fire aerosols and increases in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the fires tend to increase modeled O(3) concentrations near the source. Reductions in downward shortwave radiation reaching the surface and surface temperature due to fire aerosols cause decreases in biogenic isoprene emissions and J(NO(2)) photolysis rates, resulting in reductions in O(3) concentrations by as much as 15%. Thus, the results presented in this study imply that considering the radiative effects of fire aerosols may reduce O(3) overestimation by traditional photochemical models that do not consider fire-induced changes in meteorology; implementation of coupled meteorology-chemistry models are required to simulate the atmospheric chemistry impacted by large-scale fires.

  5. Ozone, Fine Particulate Matter, and Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease Mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yongping; Balluz, Lina; Strosnider, Heather; Wen, Xiao Jun; Li, Chaoyang; Qualters, Judith R

    2015-08-01

    Short-term effects of air pollution exposure on respiratory disease mortality are well established. However, few studies have examined the effects of long-term exposure, and among those that have, results are inconsistent. To evaluate long-term association between ambient ozone, fine particulate matter (PM2.5, particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less), and chronic lower respiratory disease (CLRD) mortality in the contiguous United States. We fit Bayesian hierarchical spatial Poisson models, adjusting for five county-level covariates (percentage of adults aged ≥65 years, poverty, lifetime smoking, obesity, and temperature), with random effects at state and county levels to account for spatial heterogeneity and spatial dependence. We derived county-level average daily concentration levels for ambient ozone and PM2.5 for 2001-2008 from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's down-scaled estimates and obtained 2007-2008 CLRD deaths from the National Center for Health Statistics. Exposure to ambient ozone was associated with an increased rate of CLRD deaths, with a rate ratio of 1.05 (95% credible interval, 1.01-1.09) per 5-ppb increase in ozone; the association between ambient PM2.5 and CLRD mortality was positive but statistically insignificant (rate ratio, 1.07; 95% credible interval, 0.99-1.14). This study links air pollution exposure data with CLRD mortality for all 3,109 contiguous U.S. counties. Ambient ozone may be associated with an increased rate of death from CLRD in the contiguous United States. Although we adjusted for selected county-level covariates and unobserved influences through Bayesian hierarchical spatial modeling, the possibility of ecologic bias remains.

  6. Ozone response to emission reductions in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Charles L.; Hidy, George M.

    2018-06-01

    Ozone (O3) formation in the southeastern US is studied in relation to nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions using long-term (1990s-2015) surface measurements of the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) network, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) O3 measurements, and EPA Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET) nitrate deposition data. Annual fourth-highest daily peak 8 h O3 mixing ratios at EPA monitoring sites in Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi exhibit statistically significant (p total oxidized nitrogen (NOy) mixing ratios at SEARCH sites declined in proportion to NOx emission reductions. CASTNET data show declining wet and dry nitrate deposition since the late 1990s, with total (wet plus dry) nitrate deposition fluxes decreasing linearly in proportion to reductions of NOx emissions by ˜ 60 % in Alabama and Georgia. Annual nitrate deposition rates at Georgia and Alabama CASTNET sites correspond to 30 % of Georgia emission rates and 36 % of Alabama emission rates, respectively. The fraction of NOx emissions lost to deposition has not changed. SEARCH and CASTNET sites exhibit downward trends in mean annual nitric acid (HNO3) concentrations. Observed relationships of O3 to NOz (NOy-NOx) support past model predictions of increases in cycling of NO and increasing responsiveness of O3 to NOx. The study data provide a long-term record that can be used to examine the accuracy of process relationships embedded in modeling efforts. Quantifying observed O3 trends and relating them to reductions in ambient NOy species concentrations offers key insights into processes of general relevance to air quality management and provides important information supporting strategies for reducing O3 mixing ratios.

  7. 77 FR 21911 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ...EPA is proposing to approve the State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision submitted by the State of Arizona to address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in Clean Air Act (CAA or Act) section 110(a)(2)(G). Section 110(a)(2)(G) of the Act requires that each SIP provide for authority comparable to that in section 303 of the Act and adequate contingency plans to implement such authority. EPA is proposing to approve Arizona's SIP revision as meeting the authority and contingency plans for the 1997 8-hour ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS or standards).

  8. Directed Security Policies: A Stateful Network Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Diekmann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Large systems are commonly internetworked. A security policy describes the communication relationship between the networked entities. The security policy defines rules, for example that A can connect to B, which results in a directed graph. However, this policy is often implemented in the network, for example by firewalls, such that A can establish a connection to B and all packets belonging to established connections are allowed. This stateful implementation is usually required for the network's functionality, but it introduces the backflow from B to A, which might contradict the security policy. We derive compliance criteria for a policy and its stateful implementation. In particular, we provide a criterion to verify the lack of side effects in linear time. Algorithms to automatically construct a stateful implementation of security policy rules are presented, which narrows the gap between formalization and real-world implementation. The solution scales to large networks, which is confirmed by a large real-world case study. Its correctness is guaranteed by the Isabelle/HOL theorem prover.

  9. Variational data assimilation for the optimized ozone initial state and the short-time forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-Y. Park

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we apply the four-dimensional variational (4D-Var data assimilation to optimize initial ozone state and to improve the predictability of air quality. The numerical modeling systems used for simulations of atmospheric condition and chemical formation are the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model. The study area covers the capital region of South Korea, where the surface measurement sites are relatively evenly distributed. The 4D-Var code previously developed for the CMAQ model is modified to consider background error in matrix form, and various numerical tests are conducted. The results are evaluated with an idealized covariance function for the appropriateness of the modified codes. The background error is then constructed using the NMC method with long-term modeling results, and the characteristics of the spatial correlation scale related to local circulation are analyzed. The background error is applied in the 4D-Var research, and a surface observational assimilation is conducted to optimize the initial concentration of ozone. The statistical results for the 12 h assimilation periods and the 120 observatory sites show a 49.4 % decrease in the root mean squared error (RMSE, and a 59.9 % increase in the index of agreement (IOA. The temporal variation of spatial distribution of the analysis increments indicates that the optimized initial state of ozone concentration is transported to inland areas by the clockwise-rotating local circulation during the assimilation windows. To investigate the predictability of ozone concentration after the assimilation window, a short-time forecasting is carried out. The ratios of the RMSE (root mean squared error with assimilation versus that without assimilation are 8 and 13 % for the +24 and +12 h, respectively. Such a significant improvement in the forecast accuracy is obtained solely by using the optimized initial state. The potential

  10. 78 FR 27161 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Connecticut; Ozone Attainment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... CFR 51.908(a) and (c), 51.910, 51.912). In addition, moderate nonattainment areas were also required..., or June 15, 2010. See 40 CFR 51.903. In order to demonstrate attainment by June 2010, the area must... determination that the New York City area had attained the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS. Pursuant to 40 CFR 51.918...

  11. 78 FR 32135 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Atlanta, Georgia 1997 8-Hour Ozone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... are only accepted during the Regional Office's normal hours of operation. The Regional Office's... for the 1997 8-Hour Ozone NAAQS? IV. What are the 2008 NO X and VOC emissions inventories for the... was reclassified by operation of law to the next highest classification, or ``moderate'' nonattainment...

  12. California Baseline Ozone Transport Study (CABOTS): Ozonesonde Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiserloh, A. J., Jr.; Chiao, S.; Spitze, J.; Cauley, S.; Clark, J.; Roberts, M.

    2016-12-01

    Because the EPA recently lowered the ambient air quality standard for the 8-hr average of ozone (O3) to70 ppbv, California must continue to achieve significant reductions in ozone precursor emissions and prepare for new State Implementation Plans (SIP) to demonstrate how ground-level ambient ozone will be reduced below the new health-based standard. Prior studies suggest that background levels of ozone traveling across the Pacific Ocean can significantly influence surface ozone throughout California, particularly during the spring. Evidence has been presented indicating that background levels of ozone continue to increase in the western United States over the recent few decades, implying more ozone exceedances in the future. To better understand the contributions of the external natural and anthropogenic pollution sources as well as atmospheric processes for surface ozone concentrations in California during the spring and summer months, the California Baseline Ozone Transport Study (CABOTS) has been established. One major goal of CABOTS is to implement near daily ozonesonde measurements along the California Coast to quantify background ozone aloft before entering the State during high ozone season. CABOTS has been ongoing from May through August of 2016 launching ozonesondes from Bodega Bay and Half Moon Bay, California. The temporal progression of ozonesonde measurements and subsequent analysis of the data will be discussed with a focus on the contribution of background ozone to surface ozone sites inland as well as likely origins of layers aloft. Comparisons of current ozonesondes versus prior ozonesonde studies of California will also be performed. A few selected cases of high ozone layers moving onshore from different sources will be discussed as well.

  13. Ozone Control Strategies | Ground-level Ozone | New ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The Air Quality Planning Unit's primary goal is to protect your right to breathe clean air. Guided by the Clean Air Act, we work collaboratively with states, communities, and businesses to develop and implement strategies to reduce air pollution from a variety of sources that contribute to the ground-level ozone or smog problem.

  14. Sources of HO x and production of ozone in the upper troposphere over the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Jaeglé, L.; Jacob, Daniel James; Brune, W. H.; Tan, D.; Faloona, I. C.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Ridley, B. A.; Campos, T. L.; Sachse, G. W.

    1998-01-01

    The sources of HOx (OH+peroxy radicals) and the associated production of ozone at 8–12 km over the United States are examined by modeling observations of OH, HO2, NO, and other species during the SUCCESS aircraft campaign in April–May 1996. The HOx concentrations measured in SUCCESS are up to a factor of 3 higher than can be calculated from oxidation of water vapor and photolysis of acetone. The highest discrepancy was seen in the outflow of a convective storm. We show that convective injecti...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1534 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1534 Section 52.1534 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the State Implementation Plan submitted by the New Hampshire Department...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1129 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1129 Section 52.1129 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the State Implementation Plan submitted by the Massachusetts Department...

  17. Implementation of a module for risk of ozone impacts assessment to vegetation in the Integrated Assessment Modelling system for the Iberian Peninsula. Evaluation for wheat and Holm oak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrés, Juan Manuel de; Borge, Rafael; Paz, David de la; Lumbreras, Julio; Rodríguez, Encarnación

    2012-01-01

    A module to estimate risks of ozone damage to vegetation has been implemented in the Integrated Assessment Modelling system for the Iberian Peninsula. It was applied to compute three different indexes for wheat and Holm oak; daylight AOT40 (cumulative ozone concentration over 40 ppb), cumulative ozone exposure index according to the Directive 2008/50/EC (AOT40-D) and POD Y (Phytotoxic Ozone Dose over a given threshold of Y nmol m −2 s −1 ). The use of these indexes led to remarkable differences in spatial patterns of relative ozone risks on vegetation. Ozone critical levels were exceeded in most of the modelling domain and soil moisture content was found to have a significant impact on the results. According to the outputs of the model, daylight AOT40 constitutes a more conservative index than the AOT40-D. Additionally, flux-based estimations indicate high risk areas in Portugal for both wheat and Holm oak that are not identified by AOT-based methods. - Highlights: ► A modelling system to estimate the risk of ozone in the Iberian Peninsula is presented. ► Ozone exposure- and flux-based approaches lead to rather different conclusions. ► Available ozone critical levels were exceeded in most locations where wheat is present. ► Soil moisture content has a significant impact on the flux-based results in some areas. - Flux-based indexes are needed to provide an effective protection of the vegetation in the Iberian Peninsula; currently, available critical levels for wheat are widely exceeded.

  18. Understanding Long-Term Variations in Surface Ozone in United States (U.S. National Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah McGlynn

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term surface ozone observations at 25 National Park Service sites across the United States were analyzed for processes on varying time scales using a time scale decomposition technique, the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD. Time scales of interest include the seasonal cycle, large-scale climate oscillations, and long-term (>10 years trends. Emission reductions were found to have a greater impact on sites that are nearest major urban areas. Multidecadal trends in surface ozone were increasing at a rate of 0.07 to 0.37 ppbv year−1 before 2004 and decreasing at a rate of −0.08 to −0.60 ppbv year−1 after 2004 for sites in the East, Southern California, and Northwestern Washington. Sites in the Intermountain West did not experience a reversal of trends from positive to negative until the mid- to late 2000s. The magnitude of the annual amplitude (=annual maximum–minimum decreased at eight sites, two in the West, two in the Intermountain West, and four in the East, by 5–20 ppbv and significantly increased at three sites; one in Alaska, one in the West, and one in the Intermountain West, by 3–4 ppbv. Stronger decreases in the annual amplitude occurred at a greater proportion of sites in the East (4/6 sites than in the West/Intermountain West (4/19 sites. The date of annual maximums and/or minimums has changed at 12 sites, occurring 10–60 days earlier in the year. There appeared to be a link between the timing of the annual maximum and the decrease in the annual amplitude, which was hypothesized to be related to a decrease in ozone titration resulting from NOx emission reductions. Furthermore, it was found that a phase shift of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO, from positive to negative, in 1998–1999 resulted in increased occurrences of La Niña-like conditions. This shift had the effect of directing more polluted air masses from East Asia to higher latitudes over the North American continent. The change in the

  19. Effects of El Niño on Summertime Ozone Air Quality in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lu; Mickley, Loretta J.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the effect of El Niño on maximum daily 8 h average surface ozone over the eastern United States in summer during 1980-2016. El Niño can influence the extratropical climate through the propagation of stationary waves, leading to (1) reduced transport of moist, clean air into the middle and southern Atlantic states and greater subsidence, reduced precipitation, and increased surface solar radiation in this region, as well as (2) intensified southerly flow into the south central states, which here enhances flux of moist and clean air. As a result, each standard deviation increase in the Niño 1 + 2 index is associated with an increase of 1-2 ppbv ozone in the Atlantic states and a decrease of 0.5-2 ppbv ozone in the south central states. These influences can be predicted 4 months in advance. We show that U.S. summertime ozone responds differently to eastern-type El Niño events compared to central-type events.

  20. 78 FR 21302 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New York State Ozone Implementation Plan Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ...-ups will be required in order to increase the efficiency of the dryer burner. Plants will also be... application and permitting requirements, a change in emission limits for most boiler categories, a requirement... options. [[Page 21306

  1. 78 FR 44485 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... Headquarters Library, Room Number 3334 in the EPA West Building, located at 1301 Constitution Ave. NW... homepage at http://www.epa.gov/epahome/dockets.htm . For additional instructions on submitting comments, go... Library, Room Number 3334 in the EPA West Building, located at 1301 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC...

  2. 78 FR 69625 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New York State Ozone Implementation Plan Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... respiratory disease, such as asthma. On April 30, 2004 (69 FR 23858), EPA finalized its attainment... tribal law. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control...

  3. 78 FR 41846 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New York State Ozone Implementation Plan Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... Pavement and Asphalt Based Surface Coating,'' (see 77 FR 13974). It is important to note that EPA is... approved regulations'' in 40 CFR 52.1670 for the Part 241, ``Asphalt Pavement and Asphalt Based Surface..., this action: Is not a ``significant regulatory action'' subject to review by the Office of Management...

  4. Impacts of future climate change and effects of biogenic emissions on surface ozone and particulate matter concentrations in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. F. Lam

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of present and future average regional ozone and PM2.5 concentrations over the United States were performed to investigate the potential impacts of global climate change and emissions on regional air quality using CMAQ. Various emissions and climate conditions with different biogenic emissions and domain resolutions were implemented to study the sensitivity of future air quality trends from the impacts of changing biogenic emissions. A comparison of GEOS-Chem and CMAQ was performed to investigate the effect of downscaling on the prediction of future air quality trends. For ozone, the impacts of global climate change are relatively smaller when compared to the impacts of anticipated future emissions reduction, except for the Northeast area, where increasing biogenic emissions due to climate change have stronger positive effects (increases to the regional ozone air quality. The combination effect from both climate change and emission reductions leads to approximately a 10 % or 5 ppbv decrease of the maximum daily average eight-hour ozone (MDA8 over the Eastern United States. For PM2.5, the impacts of global climate change have shown insignificant effect, where as the impacts of anticipated future emissions reduction account for the majority of overall PM2.5 reductions. The annual average 24-h PM2.5 of the future-year condition was found to be about 40 % lower than the one from the present-year condition, of which 60 % of its overall reductions are contributed to by the decrease of SO4 and NO3 particulate matters. Changing the biogenic emissions model increases the MDA8 ozone by about 5–10 % or 3–5 ppbv in the Northeast area. Conversely, it reduces the annual average PM2.5 by 5 % or 1.0 μg m−3 in the Southeast region.

  5. Penn State Radar Systems: Implementation and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, J. V.; Seal, R.; Sorbello, R.; Kuyeng, K.; Dyrud, L. P.

    2014-12-01

    Software Defined Radio/Radar (SDR) platforms have become increasingly popular as researchers, hobbyists, and military seek more efficient and cost-effective means for radar construction and operation. SDR platforms, by definition, utilize a software-based interface for configuration in contrast to traditional, hard-wired platforms. In an effort to provide new and improved radar sensing capabilities, Penn State has been developing advanced instruments and technologies for future radars, with primary objectives of making such instruments more capable, portable, and more cost effective. This paper will describe the design and implementation of two low-cost radar systems and their deployment in ionospheric research at both low and mid-latitudes. One radar has been installed near Penn State campus, University Park, Pennsylvania (77.97°W, 40.70°N), to make continuous meteor observations and mid-latitude plasma irregularities. The second radar is being installed in Huancayo (12.05°S, -75.33°E), Peru, which is capable of detecting E and F region plasma irregularities as well as meteor reflections. In this paper, we examine and compare the diurnal and seasonal variability of specular, non- specular, and head-echoes collected with these two new radar systems and discuss sampling biases of each meteor observation technique. We report our current efforts to validate and calibrate these radar systems with other VHF radars such as Jicamarca and SOUSY. We also present the general characteristics of continuous measurements of E-region and F-region coherent echoes using these modern radar systems and compare them with coherent radar events observed at other geographic mid-latitude radar stations.

  6. Ozone time scale decomposition and trend assessment from surface observations in National Parks of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, H.; McGlynn, D. F.; Wu, Z.; Sive, B. C.

    2017-12-01

    A time scale decomposition technique, the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD), has been employed to decompose the time scales in long-term ozone measurement data at 24 US National Park Service sites. Time scales of interest include the annual cycle, variability by large scale climate oscillations, and the long-term trend. The implementation of policy regulations was found to have had a greater effect on sites nearest to urban regions. Ozone daily mean values increased until around the late 1990s followed by decreasing trends during the ensuing decades for sites in the East, southern California, and northwestern Washington. Sites in the Midwest did not experience a reversal of trends from positive to negative until the mid- to late 2000s. The magnitude of the annual amplitude decreased for nine sites and increased for three sites. Stronger decreases in the annual amplitude occurred in the East, with more sites in the East experiencing decreases in annual amplitude than in the West. The date of annual ozone peaks and minimums has changed for 12 sites in total, but those with a shift in peak date did not necessarily have a shift in the trough date. There appeared to be a link between peak dates occurring earlier and a decrease in the annual amplitude. This is likely related to a decrease in ozone titration due to NOx emission reductions. Furthermore, it was found that the shift in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) regime from positive to negative in 1998-1999 resulting in an increase in occurrences of La Niña-like conditions had the effect of directing more polluted air masses from East Asia to higher latitudes over North America. This change in PDO regime was likely one main factor causing the increase in ozone concentrations on all time scales at an Alaskan site DENA-HQ.

  7. The response of surface ozone to climate change over the Eastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Racherla

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the response of surface ozone (O3 to future climate change in the eastern United States by performing simulations corresponding to present (1990s and future (2050s climates using an integrated model of global climate, tropospheric gas-phase chemistry, and aerosols. A future climate has been imposed using ocean boundary conditions corresponding to the IPCC SRES A2 scenario for the 2050s decade. Present-day anthropogenic emissions and CO2/CH4 mixing ratios have been used in both simulations while climate-sensitive emissions were allowed to vary with the simulated climate. The severity and frequency of O3 episodes in the eastern U.S. increased due to future climate change, primarily as a result of increased O3 chemical production. The 95th percentile O3 mixing ratio increased by 5 ppbv and the largest frequency increase occured in the 80–90 ppbv range; the US EPA's current 8-h ozone primary standard is 80 ppbv. The increased O3 chemical production is due to increases in: 1 natural isoprene emissions; 2 hydroperoxy radical concentrations resulting from increased water vapor concentrations; and, 3 NOx concentrations resulting from reduced PAN. The most substantial and statistically significant (p<0.05 increases in episode frequency occurred over the southeast and midatlantic U.S., largely as a result of 20% higher annual-average natural isoprene emissions. These results suggest a lengthening of the O3 season over the eastern U.S. in a future climate to include late spring and early fall months. Increased chemical production and shorter average lifetime are two consistent features of the seasonal response of surface O3, with increased dry deposition loss rates contributing most to the reduced lifetime in all seasons except summer. Significant interannual variability is observed in the frequency of O3

  8. 75 FR 55711 - Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ...: (919) 541-0824; e-mail address: [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The proposed Transport... (i.e., section V.D.4.a (75 FR 45307-9)) that discusses in detail the proposed Transport Rule trading...-9201-6] RIN 2060-AP50 Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate...

  9. 78 FR 34903 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; 1997 8-Hour Ozone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... year inventories, and (2) the state can document that growth and control strategy assumptions for non... control strategies are necessary. OEPA also finds that growth and control strategy assumptions for non... run. The state has documented that growth and control strategy assumptions for non-motor vehicle...

  10. Solid State Transmitters for Water Vapor and Ozone DIAL Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The focus of this Select Phase II program is to build and deliver laser components both for airborne water vapor and ozone DIAL systems. Specifically, Fibertek...

  11. Solid State Transmitters for Water Vapor and Ozone DIAL Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have developed a common architecture for laser transmitters that address requirements for water vapor as well as ground and airborne ozone lidar systems. Our...

  12. Lead State Implementation Plan (SIP) Checklist Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance documents and examples to assist air quality agencies of non-attainment areas in developing plans to implement national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS), including the lead air emissions standard.

  13. 76 FR 9706 - Finding of Substantial Inadequacy of Implementation Plan; Call for Iowa State Implementation Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... advance and available for prompt implementation once triggered. Section 110(k)(5) of the CAA provides that... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Iowa, Particulate matter, State Implementation Plan. Dated...

  14. Unraveling the sources of ground level ozone in the Intermountain Western United States using Pb isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, John N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Weiss-Penzias, Peter [University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Fine, Rebekka [University of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); McDade, Charles E.; Trzepla, Krystyna [University of California at Davis, Crocker Nuclear Laboratory, Davis, CA (United States); Brown, Shaun T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gustin, Mae Sexauer [University of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Ozone as an atmospheric pollutant is largely produced by anthropogenic precursors and can significantly impact human and ecosystem health, and climate. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has recently proposed lowering the ozone standard from 75 ppbv (MDA8 = Maximum Daily 8-Hour Average) to between 65 and 70 ppbv. This will result in remote areas of the Intermountain West that includes many U.S. National Parks being out of compliance, despite a lack of significant local sources. We used Pb isotope fingerprinting and back-trajectory analysis to distinguish sources of imported ozone to Great Basin National Park in eastern Nevada. During discrete Chinese Pb events (> 1.1 ng/m{sup 3} & > 80% Asian Pb) trans-Pacific transported ozone was 5 ± 5.5 ppbv above 19 year averages for those dates. In contrast, concentrations during regional transport from the Los Angeles and Las Vegas areas were 15 ± 2 ppbv above the long-term averages, and those characterized by high-altitude transport 3 days prior to sampling were 19 ± 4 ppbv above. However, over the study period the contribution of trans-Pacific transported ozone increased at a rate of 0.8 ± 0.3 ppbv/year, suggesting that Asian inputs will exceed regional and high altitude sources by 2015–2020. All of these sources will impact regulatory compliance with a new ozone standard, given increasing global background. - Highlights: • Ozone can significantly impact human and ecosystem health and climate. • Pb isotopes and back-trajectory analysis were used to distinguish sources of O{sub 3}. • Baseline concentrations in the Western US are ~ 54 ppbv. • During discrete Asia events O{sub 3} increased by 5 ± 5.5 ppbv and during S CA events by 15 ± 2 ppbv. • Data indicate that Asian ozone inputs will exceed other sources by 2015–2020.

  15. Air Quality Guide for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    GO! Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Air Quality Guide for Ozone Ground-level ozone is one of our nation’s most common air pollutants. Use the chart below to help reduce ...

  16. The role of dissociation channels of excited electronic states in quantum optimal control of ozone isomerization: A three-state dynamical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosaki, Yuzuru, E-mail: kurosaki.yuzuru@jaea.go.jp [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Tokai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Ho, Tak-San, E-mail: tsho@Princeton.EDU [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Rabitz, Herschel, E-mail: hrabitz@Princeton.EDU [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The prospect of performing the open → cyclic ozone isomerization has attracted much research attention. Here we explore this consideration theoretically by performing quantum optimal control calculations to demonstrate the important role that excited-state dissociation channels could play in the isomerization transformation. In the calculations we use a three-state, one-dimensional dynamical model constructed from the lowest five {sup 1}A′ potential energy curves obtained with high-level ab initio calculations. Besides the laser field-dipole couplings between all three states, this model also includes the diabatic coupling between the two excited states at an avoided crossing leading to competing dissociation channels that can further hinder the isomerization process. The present three-state optimal control simulations examine two possible control pathways previously considered in a two-state model, and reveal that only one of the pathways is viable, achieving a robust ∼95% yield to the cyclic target in the three-state model. This work represents a step towards an ultimate model for the open → cyclic ozone transformation capable of giving adequate guidance about the necessary experimental control field resources as well as an estimate of the ro-vibronic spectral character of cyclic ozone as a basis for an appropriate probe of its formation.

  17. Quantification of Helicobacter pylori in the viable but nonculturable state by quantitative PCR in water disinfected with ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasola-Rodríguez, B; Orta de Velásquez, M T; Luqueño-Martínez, V G; Monje-Ramírez, I

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative spiral-shaped bacterium that colonizes the gastric mucosa and is associated with gastric diseases. It may present a morphological adaptation when it is out of its natural environment, such as in water. The morphological adaptation is a coccoid form, which is a viable but non-culturable state (VNC) in which the DNA remains active and therefore infective. Due to the impossibility of culture by traditional methods in the VNC state, we developed a methodology that includes a molecular technique, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which is capable of measuring the bacteria in both forms (helical and coccoidal) and therefore is able to measure a disinfection process and to estimate the resistance of the bacteria to ozone. The methodology developed measures the efficiency of the ozone disinfection when bacteria are in a VNC state only. Bacterial culture at 9 × 10(8)CFU/mL diluted in 40 mL reaction volumes were exposed to a wide range of CT values (0.11-15 mg min/L). The results show a 3.92-log reduction when treated with 15 mg min/L. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using qPCR for the quantification and detection of H. pylori, in coccoid form, in water systems treated with an ozone disinfection process.

  18. Polar boundary layer bromine explosion and ozone depletion events in the chemistry-climate model EMAC v2.52: implementation and evaluation of AirSnow algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Stefanie; Sinnhuber, Björn-Martin

    2018-03-01

    Ozone depletion events (ODEs) in the polar boundary layer have been observed frequently during springtime. They are related to events of boundary layer enhancement of bromine. Consequently, increased amounts of boundary layer volume mixing ratio (VMR) and vertical column densities (VCDs) of BrO have been observed by in situ observation, ground-based as well as airborne remote sensing, and from satellites. These so-called bromine explosion (BE) events have been discussed serving as a source of tropospheric BrO at high latitudes, which has been underestimated in global models so far. We have implemented a treatment of bromine release and recycling on sea-ice- and snow-covered surfaces in the global chemistry-climate model EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry) based on the scheme of Toyota et al. (2011). In this scheme, dry deposition fluxes of HBr, HOBr, and BrNO3 over ice- and snow-covered surfaces are recycled into Br2 fluxes. In addition, dry deposition of O3, dependent on temperature and sunlight, triggers a Br2 release from surfaces associated with first-year sea ice. Many aspects of observed bromine enhancements and associated episodes of near-complete depletion of boundary layer ozone, both in the Arctic and in the Antarctic, are reproduced by this relatively simple approach. We present first results from our global model studies extending over a full annual cycle, including comparisons with Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) satellite BrO VCDs and surface ozone observations.

  19. Development and Implementation of a Near-Real-Time Web Reporting System on Ground-Level Ozone in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normander, Bo; Haigh, Tim; Christiansen, Jesper S.

    2008-01-01

    in exchanging data and knowledge. Near-real-time information systems on the Web seem to be a valuable complement to future environmental reporting, and the European Environment Agency is currently investigating the requirements needed to extend the use of near-real-time data, including reporting on air......This article presents the development and results of Ozone Web-a near-real-time Web-based approach to communicate environmental information to policy makers, researchers, and the general public. In Ozone Web, ground-level ozone information from 750 air quality measurement stations across Europe...

  20. Why do models overestimate surface ozone in the Southeast United States?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Travis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ozone pollution in the Southeast US involves complex chemistry driven by emissions of anthropogenic nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx  ≡  NO + NO2 and biogenic isoprene. Model estimates of surface ozone concentrations tend to be biased high in the region and this is of concern for designing effective emission control strategies to meet air quality standards. We use detailed chemical observations from the SEAC4RS aircraft campaign in August and September 2013, interpreted with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model at 0.25°  ×  0.3125° horizontal resolution, to better understand the factors controlling surface ozone in the Southeast US. We find that the National Emission Inventory (NEI for NOx from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA is too high. This finding is based on SEAC4RS observations of NOx and its oxidation products, surface network observations of nitrate wet deposition fluxes, and OMI satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 columns. Our results indicate that NEI NOx emissions from mobile and industrial sources must be reduced by 30–60 %, dependent on the assumption of the contribution by soil NOx emissions. Upper-tropospheric NO2 from lightning makes a large contribution to satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 that must be accounted for when using these data to estimate surface NOx emissions. We find that only half of isoprene oxidation proceeds by the high-NOx pathway to produce ozone; this fraction is only moderately sensitive to changes in NOx emissions because isoprene and NOx emissions are spatially segregated. GEOS-Chem with reduced NOx emissions provides an unbiased simulation of ozone observations from the aircraft and reproduces the observed ozone production efficiency in the boundary layer as derived from a regression of ozone and NOx oxidation products. However, the model is still biased high by 6 ± 14 ppb relative to observed surface ozone in the Southeast US. Ozonesondes

  1. Why do Models Overestimate Surface Ozone in the Southeastern United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Katherine R.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Fisher, Jenny A.; Kim, Patrick S.; Marais, Eloise A.; Zhu, Lei; Yu, Karen; Miller, Christopher C.; Yantosca, Robert M.; Sulprizio, Melissa P.; Thompson, Anne M.; Wennberg, Paul O.; Crounse, John D.; St Clair, Jason M.; Cohen, Ronald C.; Laughner, Joshua L.; Dibb, Jack E.; Hall, Samuel R.; Ullmann, Kirk; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Pollack, Illana B.; Peischl, Jeff; Neuman, Jonathan A.; Zhou, Xianliang

    2018-01-01

    Ozone pollution in the Southeast US involves complex chemistry driven by emissions of anthropogenic nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx ≡ NO + NO2) and biogenic isoprene. Model estimates of surface ozone concentrations tend to be biased high in the region and this is of concern for designing effective emission control strategies to meet air quality standards. We use detailed chemical observations from the SEAC4RS aircraft campaign in August and September 2013, interpreted with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model at 0.25°×0.3125° horizontal resolution, to better understand the factors controlling surface ozone in the Southeast US. We find that the National Emission Inventory (NEI) for NOx from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is too high. This finding is based on SEAC4RS observations of NOx and its oxidation products, surface network observations of nitrate wet deposition fluxes, and OMI satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 columns. Our results indicate that NEI NOx emissions from mobile and industrial sources must be reduced by 30–60%, dependent on the assumption of the contribution by soil NOx emissions. Upper tropospheric NO2 from lightning makes a large contribution to satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 that must be accounted for when using these data to estimate surface NOx emissions. We find that only half of isoprene oxidation proceeds by the high-NOx pathway to produce ozone; this fraction is only moderately sensitive to changes in NOx emissions because isoprene and NOx emissions are spatially segregated. GEOS-Chem with reduced NOx emissions provides an unbiased simulation of ozone observations from the aircraft, and reproduces the observed ozone production efficiency in the boundary layer as derived from a regression of ozone and NOx oxidation products. However, the model is still biased high by 8±13 ppb relative to observed surface ozone in the Southeast US. Ozonesondes launched during midday hours show a 7 ppb ozone decrease

  2. Why do Models Overestimate Surface Ozone in the Southeastern United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Katherine R.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Fisher, Jenny A.; Kim, Patrick S.; Marais, Eloise A.; Zhu, Lei; Yu, Karen; Miller, Christopher C.; Yantosca, Robert M.; Sulprizio, Melissa P.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Ozone pollution in the Southeast US involves complex chemistry driven by emissions of anthropogenic nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx = NO + NO2) and biogenic isoprene. Model estimates of surface ozone concentrations tend to be biased high in the region and this is of concern for designing effective emission control strategies to meet air quality standards. We use detailed chemical observations from the SEAC4RS aircraft campaign in August and September 2013, interpreted with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model at 0.25 deg. x 0.3125 deg. horizontal resolution, to better understand the factors controlling surface ozone in the Southeast US. We find that the National Emission Inventory (NEI) for NOx from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is too high. This finding is based on SEAC4RS observations of NOx and its oxidation products, surface network observations of nitrate wet deposition fluxes, and OMI satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 columns. Our results indicate that NEI NOx emissions from mobile and industrial sources must be reduced by 30-60%, dependent on the assumption of the contribution by soil NOx emissions. Upper tropospheric NO2 from lightning makes a large contribution to satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 that must be accounted for when using these data to estimate surface NOx emissions. We find that only half of isoprene oxidation proceeds by the high-NOx pathway to produce ozone; this fraction is only moderately sensitive to changes in NOx emissions because isoprene and NOx emissions are spatially segregated. GEOS-Chem with reduced NOx emissions provides an unbiased simulation of ozone observations from the aircraft, and reproduces the observed ozone production efficiency in the boundary layer as derived from a 15 regression of ozone and NOx oxidation products. However, the model is still biased high by 8 +/- 13 ppb relative to observed surface ozone in the Southeast US. Ozonesondes launched during midday hours show a 7 ppb ozone

  3. 77 FR 58058 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Beaumont/Port Arthur Ozone Maintenance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... (2) the state can document that growth and control strategy assumptions for non-motor vehicle sources... emissions in these source categories using more recent growth and control strategy assumptions than the.... Because of this, EPA concludes that the growth and control strategy assumptions for non-mobile sources for...

  4. 75 FR 45209 - Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... Quality Modeling Approach and Results 1. What air quality modeling platform did EPA use? 2. How did EPA... that downwind states receive the relief from upwind emissions guaranteed under CAA section 110(a)(2)(D) For the 24-hour PM 2.5 standard, EPA's air quality modeling shows that in the areas with continuing...

  5. Observed and Model-Derived Ozone Production Efficiency over Urban and Rural New York State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Ninneman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the model-derived and observed ozone production efficiency (OPE = ∆Ox/∆NOz in one rural location, Pinnacle State Park (PSP in Addison, New York (NY, and one urban location, Queens College (QC in Flushing, NY, in New York State (NYS during photo-chemically productive hours (11 a.m.–4 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (EST in summer 2016. Measurement data and model predictions from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NOAA NAQFC—Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model versions 4.6 (v4.6 and 5.0.2 (v5.0.2 were used to assess the OPE at both sites. CMAQ-predicted and observed OPEs were often in poor agreement at PSP and in reasonable agreement at QC, with model-predicted and observed OPEs, ranging from approximately 5–11 and 10–13, respectively, at PSP; and 4–7 and 6–8, respectively, at QC. The observed relationship between OPE and oxides of nitrogen (NOx was studied at PSP to examine where the OPE downturn may have occurred. Summer 2016 observations at PSP did not reveal a distinct OPE downturn, but they did indicate that the OPE at PSP remained high (10 or greater regardless of the [NOx] level. The observed OPEs at QC were found by using species-specific reactive odd nitrogen (NOy instruments and an estimated value for nitrogen dioxide (NO2, since observed OPEs determined using non-specific NOx and NOy instruments yielded observed OPE results that (1 varied from approximately 11–25, (2 sometimes had negative [NOz] concentrations, and (3 were inconsistent with CMAQ-predicted OPE. This difference in observed OPEs at QC depending on the suite of instruments used suggests that species-specific NOx and NOy instruments may be needed to obtain reliable urban OPEs.

  6. 75 FR 64675 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ...'s Approval of the El Paso Section 110(a)(1) Maintenance Plan for the 1997 8-Hour Ozone Standard... BPA State Implementation Plan (SIP), a 1997 8-hour ozone maintenance plan that includes a 2021 Motor... the 1997 8-hour ozone standard for the El Paso 1997 8-hour attainment area. DATES: Effective Date...

  7. Temperature, ozone, and mortality in urban and non-urban counties in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigano, Jaime; Jack, Darby; Anderson, G Brooke; Bell, Michelle L; Kinney, Patrick L

    2015-01-07

    Most health effects studies of ozone and temperature have been performed in urban areas, due to the available monitoring data. We used observed and interpolated data to examine temperature, ozone, and mortality in 91 urban and non-urban counties. Ozone measurements were extracted from the Environmental Protection Agency's Air Quality System. Meteorological data were supplied by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Observed data were spatially interpolated to county centroids. Daily internal-cause mortality counts were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics (1988-1999). A two-stage Bayesian hierarchical model was used to estimate each county's increase in mortality risk from temperature and ozone. We examined county-level associations according to population density and compared urban (≥1,000 persons/mile(2)) to non-urban (PI: 0.08, 0.83) in urban counties, while this same increase in ozone was associated with a 0.73% increase (95% PI: 0.19, 1.26) in non-urban counties. An increase in temperature from 70°F to 90°F (21.2°C 32.2°C) was associated with a 8.88% increase in mortality (95% PI: 7.38, 10.41) in urban counties and a 8.08% increase (95% PI: 6.16, 10.05) in non-urban counties. County characteristics, such as population density, percentage of families living in poverty, and percentage of elderly residents, partially explained the variation in county-level associations. While most prior studies of ozone and temperature have been performed in urban areas, the impacts in non-urban areas are significant, and, for ozone, potentially greater. The health risks of increasing temperature and air pollution brought on by climate change are not limited to urban areas.

  8. Regional and global modeling estimates of policy relevant background ozone over the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Christopher; Jung, Jaegun; Downey, Nicole; Johnson, Jeremiah; Jimenez, Michele; Yarwood, Greg; Morris, Ralph

    2012-02-01

    Policy Relevant Background (PRB) ozone, as defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), refers to ozone concentrations that would occur in the absence of all North American anthropogenic emissions. PRB enters into the calculation of health risk benefits, and as the US ozone standard approaches background levels, PRB is increasingly important in determining the feasibility and cost of compliance. As PRB is a hypothetical construct, modeling is a necessary tool. Since 2006 EPA has relied on global modeling to establish PRB for their regulatory analyses. Recent assessments with higher resolution global models exhibit improved agreement with remote observations and modest upward shifts in PRB estimates. This paper shifts the paradigm to a regional model (CAMx) run at 12 km resolution, for which North American boundary conditions were provided by a low-resolution version of the GEOS-Chem global model. We conducted a comprehensive model inter-comparison, from which we elucidate differences in predictive performance against ozone observations and differences in temporal and spatial background variability over the US. In general, CAMx performed better in replicating observations at remote monitoring sites, and performance remained better at higher concentrations. While spring and summer mean PRB predicted by GEOS-Chem ranged 20-45 ppb, CAMx predicted PRB ranged 25-50 ppb and reached well over 60 ppb in the west due to event-oriented phenomena such as stratospheric intrusion and wildfires. CAMx showed a higher correlation between modeled PRB and total observed ozone, which is significant for health risk assessments. A case study during April 2006 suggests that stratospheric exchange of ozone is underestimated in both models on an event basis. We conclude that wildfires, lightning NO x and stratospheric intrusions contribute a significant level of uncertainty in estimating PRB, and that PRB will require careful consideration in the ozone standard setting process.

  9. Guidance for States Implementing Comprehensive Safeguards Agreements and Additional Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This publication is aimed at enhancing States' understanding of the safeguards obligations of both the State and the IAEA, and at improving the cooperation between States and the IAEA in safeguards implementation. It is principally intended for State or regional safeguards regulatory authorities and facility operators, and is a reference document that will be supported by detailed guidance and examples in 'Safeguards Implementation Practices' (SIPs) to be published separately.

  10. 76 FR 48207 - Federal Implementation Plans: Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ..., or disruptions in electricity supply from other units or from the transmission grid. As a consequence... ([micro]g/m\\3\\) and the greatest reduction at a single site is 3.60 [micro]g/m\\3\\. For 24-hour PM 2.5 , the average reduction across all monitoring sites in covered states in 2014 is 4.3 [micro]g/ m\\3\\ and...

  11. The effects of global changes upon regional ozone pollution in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Avise, J.; Lamb, B.; Salathé, E.; Mass, C.; Guenther, A.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Lamarque, J.-F.; O'Neill, S.; McKenzie, D.; Larkin, N.

    2009-02-01

    A comprehensive numerical modeling framework was developed to estimate the effects of collective global changes upon ozone pollution in the US in 2050. The framework consists of the global climate and chemistry models, PCM (Parallel Climate Model) and MOZART-2 (Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers v.2), coupled with regional meteorology and chemistry models, MM5 (Mesoscale Meteorological model) and CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality model). The modeling system was applied for two 10-year simulations: 1990-1999 as a present-day base case and 2045-2054 as a future case. For the current decade, the daily maximum 8-h moving average (DM8H) ozone mixing ratio distributions for spring, summer and fall showed good agreement with observations. The future case simulation followed the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) A2 scenario together with business-as-usual US emission projections and projected alterations in land use, land cover (LULC) due to urban expansion and changes in vegetation. For these projections, US anthropogenic NOx (NO+NO2) and VOC (volatile organic carbon) emissions increased by approximately 6% and 50%, respectively, while biogenic VOC emissions decreased, in spite of warmer temperatures, due to decreases in forested lands and expansion of croplands, grasslands and urban areas. A stochastic model for wildfire emissions was applied that projected 25% higher VOC emissions in the future. For the global and US emission projection used here, regional ozone pollution becomes worse in the 2045-2054 period for all months. Annually, the mean DM8H ozone was projected to increase by 9.6 ppbv (22%). The changes were higher in the spring and winter (25%) and smaller in the summer (17%). The area affected by elevated ozone within the US continent was projected to increase; areas with levels exceeding the 75 ppbv ozone standard at least once a year increased by 38%. In addition, the length of the ozone season was projected to increase with

  12. Quantifying the sources of ozone, fine particulate matter, and regional haze in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odman, M Talat; Hu, Yongtao; Russell, Armistead G; Hanedar, Asude; Boylan, James W; Brewer, Patricia F

    2009-07-01

    A detailed sensitivity analysis was conducted to quantify the contributions of various emission sources to ozone (O3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and regional haze in the Southeastern United States. O3 and particulate matter (PM) levels were estimated using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and light extinction values were calculated from modeled PM concentrations. First, the base case was established using the emission projections for the year 2009. Then, in each model run, SO2, primary carbon (PC), NH3, NO(x) or VOC emissions from a particular source category in a certain geographic area were reduced by 30% and the responses were determined by calculating the difference between the results of the reduced emission case and the base case. The sensitivity of summertime O3 to VOC emissions is small in the Southeast and ground-level NO(x) controls are generally more beneficial than elevated NO(x) controls (per unit mass of emissions reduced). SO2 emission reduction is the most beneficial control strategy in reducing summertime PM2.5 levels and improving visibility in the Southeast and electric generating utilities are the single largest source of SO2. Controlling PC emissions can be very effective locally, especially in winter. Reducing NH3 emissions is an effective strategy to reduce wintertime ammonium nitrate (NO3NH4) levels and improve visibility; NO(x) emissions reductions are not as effective. The results presented here will help the development of specific emission control strategies for future attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in the region.

  13. New ab initio potential surfaces and three-dimensional quantum dynamics for transition state spectroscopy in ozone photodissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Koichi; Morokuma, Keiji; Le Quéré, Frederic; Leforestier, Claude

    1992-04-01

    New ab initio potential energy surfaces (PESs) of the ground and B ( 1B 2) states of ozone have been calculated with the CASSCF-SECI/DZP method to describe the three-dimensional photodissociation process. The dissociation energy of the ground state and the vertical barrier height of the B PES are obtained to be 0.88 and 1.34 eV, respectively, in better agreement with the experimental values than the previous calculation. The photodissociation autocorrelation function, calculated on the new B PES, based on exact three-dimensional quantum dynamics, reproduces well the main recurrence feature extracted from the experimental spectra.

  14. Analyzer for measurement of nitrogen oxide concentration by ozone content reduction in gas using solid state chemiluminescent sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelibanov, V. P.; Ishanin, G. G.; Isaev, L. N.

    2014-05-01

    Role of nitrogen oxide in ambient air is described and analyzed. New method of nitrogen oxide concentration measurement in gas phase is suggested based on ozone concentration measurement with titration by nitrogen oxide. Research of chemiluminescent sensor composition is carried out on experimental stand. The sensor produced on the base of solid state non-activated chemiluminescent composition is applied as ozone sensor. Composition is put on the surface of polymer matrix with developed surface. Sensor compositions includes gallic acid with addition of rodamine-6G. Model of interaction process between sensor composition and ozone has been developed, main products appeared during reaction are identified. The product determining the speed of luminescense appearance is found. This product belongs to quinone class. Then new structure of chemiluminescent composition was suggested, with absence of activation period and with high stability of operation. Experimental model of gas analyzer was constructed and operation algorithm was developed. It was demonstrated that developed NO measuring instrument would be applied for monitoring purposes of ambient air. This work was partially financially supported by Government of Russian Federation, Grant 074-U01

  15. Effect of regional precursor emission controls on long-range ozone transport – Part 2: Steady-state changes in ozone air quality and impacts on human mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. West

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale changes in ozone precursor emissions affect ozone directly in the short term, and also affect methane, which in turn causes long-term changes in ozone that affect surface ozone air quality. Here we assess the effects of changes in ozone precursor emissions on the long-term change in surface ozone via methane, as a function of the emission region, by modeling 10% reductions in anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions from each of nine world regions. Reductions in NOx emissions from all world regions increase methane and long-term surface ozone. While this long-term increase is small compared to the intra-regional short-term ozone decrease, it is comparable to or larger than the short-term inter-continental ozone decrease for some source-receptor pairs. The increase in methane and long-term surface ozone per ton of NOx reduced is greatest in tropical and Southern Hemisphere regions, exceeding that from temperate Northern Hemisphere regions by roughly a factor of ten. We also assess changes in premature ozone-related human mortality associated with regional precursor reductions and long-range transport, showing that for 10% regional NOx reductions, the strongest inter-regional influence is for emissions from Europe affecting mortalities in Africa. Reductions of NOx in North America, Europe, the Former Soviet Union, and Australia are shown to reduce more mortalities outside of the source regions than within. Among world regions, NOx reductions in India cause the greatest number of avoided mortalities per ton, mainly in India itself. Finally, by increasing global methane, NOx reductions in one hemisphere tend to cause long-term increases in ozone concentration and mortalities in the opposite hemisphere. Reducing emissions of methane, and to a lesser extent carbon monoxide and non-methane volatile organic compounds, alongside NOx reductions would

  16. Guidance for States Implementing Comprehensive Safeguards Agreements and Additional Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication is aimed at enhancing States’ understanding of the safeguards obligations of both the State and the IAEA, and at improving the cooperation between States and the IAEA in safeguards implementation. It is principally intended for State or regional safeguards regulatory authorities and facility operators, and is a reference document that is supported by detailed guidance and examples in safeguards implementation practices presented in other publications in the series. (This version is the 2016 update.)

  17. Ozone bioindicator sampling and estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretchen C, Smith; William D. Smith; John W. Coulston

    2007-01-01

    Ozone is an important forest stressor that has been measured at known phytotoxic levels at forest locations across the United States. The percent forest exhibiting negative impacts from ozone air pollution is one of the Montreal Process indicators of forest health and vitality. The ozone bioindicator data of the U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Program...

  18. A Two-Timescale Response to Ozone Depletion: Importance of the Background State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seviour, W.; Waugh, D.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2015-12-01

    It has been recently suggested that the response of Southern Ocean sea-ice extent to stratospheric ozone depletion is time-dependent; that the ocean surface initially cools due to enhanced northward Ekman drift caused by a poleward shift in the eddy-driven jet, and then warms after some time due to upwelling of warm waters from below the mixed layer. It is therefore possible that ozone depletion could act to favor a short-term increase in sea-ice extent. However, many uncertainties remain in understanding this mechanism, with different models showing widely differing time-scales and magnitudes of the response. Here, we analyze an ensemble of coupled model simulations with a step-function ozone perturbation. The two-timescale response is present with an approximately 30 year initial cooling period. The response is further shown to be highly dependent upon the background ocean temperature and salinity stratification, which is influenced by both natural internal variability and the isopycnal eddy mixing parameterization. It is suggested that the majority of inter-model differences in the Southern Ocean response to ozone depletion is caused by differences in stratification.

  19. Seasonal profiles of leaf ascorbic acid content and redox state in ozone-sensitive wildflowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkey, Kent O.; Neufeld, Howard S.; Souza, Lara; Chappelka, Arthur H.; Davison, Alan W.

    2006-01-01

    Cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.), crown-beard (Verbesina occidentalis Walt.), and tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata L.) are wildflower species native to Great Smoky Mountains National Park (U.S.A.). Natural populations of each species were analyzed for leaf ascorbic acid (AA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) to assess the role of ascorbate in protecting the plants from ozone stress. Tall milkweed contained greater quantities of AA (7-10 μmol g -1 fresh weight) than crown-beard (2-4 μmol g -1 fresh weight) or cutleaf coneflower (0.5-2 μmol g -1 fresh weight). DHA was elevated in crown-beard and cutleaf coneflower relative to tall milkweed suggesting a diminished capacity for converting DHA into AA. Tall milkweed accumulated AA in the leaf apoplast (30-100 nmol g -1 fresh weight) with individuals expressing ozone foliar injury symptoms late in the season having less apoplast AA. In contrast, AA was not present in the leaf apoplast of either crown-beard or cutleaf coneflower. Unidentified antioxidant compounds were present in the leaf apoplast of all three species. Overall, distinct differences in antioxidant metabolism were found in the wildflower species that corresponded with differences in ozone sensitivity. - Wildflower species exhibit differences in ascorbic acid content and redox status that affect ozone sensitivity

  20. Seasonal profiles of leaf ascorbic acid content and redox state in ozone-sensitive wildflowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkey, Kent O. [Plant Science Research Unit, USDA-ARS and North Carolina State University, 3127 Ligon Street, Raleigh, NC 27607 (United States)]. E-mail: koburkey@unity.ncsu.edu; Neufeld, Howard S. [Appalachian State University, Boone, NC (United States); Souza, Lara [Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Chappelka, Arthur H. [Auburn University, Auburn, AL (United States); Davison, Alan W. [University of Newcastle, Newcastle, England (United Kingdom)

    2006-10-15

    Cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.), crown-beard (Verbesina occidentalis Walt.), and tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata L.) are wildflower species native to Great Smoky Mountains National Park (U.S.A.). Natural populations of each species were analyzed for leaf ascorbic acid (AA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) to assess the role of ascorbate in protecting the plants from ozone stress. Tall milkweed contained greater quantities of AA (7-10 {mu}mol g{sup -1} fresh weight) than crown-beard (2-4 {mu}mol g{sup -1} fresh weight) or cutleaf coneflower (0.5-2 {mu}mol g{sup -1} fresh weight). DHA was elevated in crown-beard and cutleaf coneflower relative to tall milkweed suggesting a diminished capacity for converting DHA into AA. Tall milkweed accumulated AA in the leaf apoplast (30-100 nmol g{sup -1} fresh weight) with individuals expressing ozone foliar injury symptoms late in the season having less apoplast AA. In contrast, AA was not present in the leaf apoplast of either crown-beard or cutleaf coneflower. Unidentified antioxidant compounds were present in the leaf apoplast of all three species. Overall, distinct differences in antioxidant metabolism were found in the wildflower species that corresponded with differences in ozone sensitivity. - Wildflower species exhibit differences in ascorbic acid content and redox status that affect ozone sensitivity.

  1. Decadal changes in summertime reactive oxidized nitrogen and surface ozone over the Southeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingyi; Mao, Jingqiu; Fiore, Arlene M.; Cohen, Ronald C.; Crounse, John D.; Teng, Alex P.; Wennberg, Paul O.; Lee, Ben H.; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Thornton, Joel A.; Peischl, Jeff; Pollack, Ilana B.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Veres, Patrick; Roberts, James M.; Neuman, J. Andrew; Nowak, John B.; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Hanisco, Thomas F.; Fried, Alan; Singh, Hanwant B.; Dibb, Jack; Paulot, Fabien; Horowitz, Larry W.

    2018-02-01

    Widespread efforts to abate ozone (O3) smog have significantly reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) over the past 2 decades in the Southeast US, a place heavily influenced by both anthropogenic and biogenic emissions. How reactive nitrogen speciation responds to the reduction in NOx emissions in this region remains to be elucidated. Here we exploit aircraft measurements from ICARTT (July-August 2004), SENEX (June-July 2013), and SEAC4RS (August-September 2013) and long-term ground measurement networks alongside a global chemistry-climate model to examine decadal changes in summertime reactive oxidized nitrogen (RON) and ozone over the Southeast US. We show that our model can reproduce the mean vertical profiles of major RON species and the total (NOy) in both 2004 and 2013. Among the major RON species, nitric acid (HNO3) is dominant (˜ 42-45 %), followed by NOx (31 %), total peroxy nitrates (ΣPNs; 14 %), and total alkyl nitrates (ΣANs; 9-12 %) on a regional scale. We find that most RON species, including NOx, ΣPNs, and HNO3, decline proportionally with decreasing NOx emissions in this region, leading to a similar decline in NOy. This linear response might be in part due to the nearly constant summertime supply of biogenic VOC emissions in this region. Our model captures the observed relative change in RON and surface ozone from 2004 to 2013. Model sensitivity tests indicate that further reductions of NOx emissions will lead to a continued decline in surface ozone and less frequent high-ozone events.

  2. Decadal changes in summertime reactive oxidized nitrogen and surface ozone over the Southeast United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Widespread efforts to abate ozone (O3 smog have significantly reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx over the past 2 decades in the Southeast US, a place heavily influenced by both anthropogenic and biogenic emissions. How reactive nitrogen speciation responds to the reduction in NOx emissions in this region remains to be elucidated. Here we exploit aircraft measurements from ICARTT (July–August 2004, SENEX (June–July 2013, and SEAC4RS (August–September 2013 and long-term ground measurement networks alongside a global chemistry–climate model to examine decadal changes in summertime reactive oxidized nitrogen (RON and ozone over the Southeast US. We show that our model can reproduce the mean vertical profiles of major RON species and the total (NOy in both 2004 and 2013. Among the major RON species, nitric acid (HNO3 is dominant (∼ 42–45 %, followed by NOx (31 %, total peroxy nitrates (ΣPNs; 14 %, and total alkyl nitrates (ΣANs; 9–12 % on a regional scale. We find that most RON species, including NOx, ΣPNs, and HNO3, decline proportionally with decreasing NOx emissions in this region, leading to a similar decline in NOy. This linear response might be in part due to the nearly constant summertime supply of biogenic VOC emissions in this region. Our model captures the observed relative change in RON and surface ozone from 2004 to 2013. Model sensitivity tests indicate that further reductions of NOx emissions will lead to a continued decline in surface ozone and less frequent high-ozone events.

  3. Development and Implementation of a Near-Real-Time Web Reporting System on Ground-Level Ozone in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normander, Bo; Haigh, Tim; Christiansen, Jesper S.

    2008-01-01

    in exchanging data and knowledge. Near-real-time information systems on the Web seem to be a valuable complement to future environmental reporting, and the European Environment Agency is currently investigating the requirements needed to extend the use of near-real-time data, including reporting on air......This article presents the development and results of Ozone Web-a near-real-time Web-based approach to communicate environmental information to policy makers, researchers, and the general public. In Ozone Web, ground-level ozone information from 750 air quality measurement stations across Europe...... is collected on an hourly basis, filtered, interpolated, and presented on zoomable maps and graphs. Compared with other environmental information initiatives, the main aspects of this Website is the allowance for user interactivity, free access to data, and high timeliness. Data are published 2 to 3 h after...

  4. Professional Learning: Trends in State Efforts. Benchmarking State Implementation of College- and Career-Readiness Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kimberly; Mire, Mary Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This report presents a multi-year study of how states are implementing their state college- and career-readiness standards. In this report, the Southern Regional Education Board's (SREB's) Benchmarking State Implementation of College- and Career-Readiness Standards project studied state efforts in 2014-15 and 2015-16 to foster effective…

  5. Accountability. State Implementation of Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kimberly; Mira, Mary Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    All of the 15 states in this study have recently been involved in school accountability system reform. Since 2011, the states have taken advantage of a federal program to give them flexibility around certain accountability requirements of the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001 (NCLB), the most recent reauthorization of the Elementary and…

  6. Springtime high surface ozone events over the western United States: Quantifying the role of stratospheric intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, A. M.; Lin, M.; Cooper, O. R.; Horowitz, L. W.; Naik, V.; Levy, H.; Langford, A. O.; Johnson, B. J.; Oltmans, S. J.; Senff, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    As the National Ambient Air Quality (NAAQS) standard for ozone (O_{3}) is lowered, it pushes closer to policy-relevant background levels (O_{3} concentrations that would exist in the absence of North American anthropogenic emissions), making attainment more difficult with local controls. We quantify the Asian and stratospheric components of this North American background, with a primary focus on the western United States. Prior work has identified this region as a hotspot for deep stratospheric intrusions in spring. We conduct global simulations at 200 km and 50 km horizontal resolution with the GFDL AM3 model, including a stratospheric O_{3} tracer and two sensitivity simulations with anthropogenic emissions from Asia and North America turned off. The model is evaluated with a suite of in situ and satellite measurements during the NOAA CalNex campaign (May-June 2010). The model reproduces the principle features in the observed surface to near tropopause distribution of O_{3} along the California coast, including its latitudinal variation and the development of regional high-O_{3} episodes. Four deep tropopause folds are diagnosed and we find that the remnants of these stratospheric intrusions are transported to the surface of Southern California and Western U.S. Rocky Mountains, contributing 10-30 ppbv positive anomalies relative to the simulated campaign mean stratospheric component in the model surface layer. We further examine the contribution of North American background, including its stratospheric and Asian components, to the entire distribution of observed MDA8 O_{3} at 12 high-elevation CASTNet sites in the Mountain West. We find that the stratospheric O_{3} tracer constitutes 50% of the North American background, and can enhance surface maximum daily 8-hour average (MDA8) O_{3} by 20 ppb when observed surface O_{3} is in the range of 60-80 ppbv. Our analysis highlights the potential for natural sources such as deep stratospheric intrusions to contribute

  7. Quantum optimal control pathways of ozone isomerization dynamics subject to competing dissociation: A two-state one-dimensional model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosaki, Yuzuru; Ho, Tak-San; Rabitz, Herschel

    2014-01-01

    We construct a two-state one-dimensional reaction-path model for ozone open → cyclic isomerization dynamics. The model is based on the intrinsic reaction coordinate connecting the cyclic and open isomers with the O 2 + O asymptote on the ground-state 1 A ′ potential energy surface obtained with the high-level ab initio method. Using this two-state model time-dependent wave packet optimal control simulations are carried out. Two possible pathways are identified along with their respective band-limited optimal control fields; for pathway 1 the wave packet initially associated with the open isomer is first pumped into a shallow well on the excited electronic state potential curve and then driven back to the ground electronic state to form the cyclic isomer, whereas for pathway 2 the corresponding wave packet is excited directly to the primary well of the excited state potential curve. The simulations reveal that the optimal field for pathway 1 produces a final yield of nearly 100% with substantially smaller intensity than that obtained in a previous study [Y. Kurosaki, M. Artamonov, T.-S. Ho, and H. Rabitz, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 044306 (2009)] using a single-state one-dimensional model. Pathway 2, due to its strong coupling to the dissociation channel, is less effective than pathway 1. The simulations also show that nonlinear field effects due to molecular polarizability and hyperpolarizability are small for pathway 1 but could become significant for pathway 2 because much higher field intensity is involved in the latter. The results suggest that a practical control may be feasible with the aid of a few lowly excited electronic states for ozone isomerization

  8. An Approach for Implementing State Machines with Online Testability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Lala

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, significant amount of research has been performed to simplify the detection of transient or soft errors in VLSI-based digital systems. This paper proposes an approach for implementing state machines that uses 2-hot code for state encoding. State machines designed using this approach allow online detection of soft errors in registers and output logic. The 2-hot code considerably reduces the number of required flip-flops and leads to relatively straightforward implementation of next state and output logic. A new way of designing output logic for online fault detection has also been presented.

  9. Polar boundary layer bromine explosion and ozone depletion events in the chemistry–climate model EMAC v2.52: implementation and evaluation of AirSnow algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Falk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone depletion events (ODEs in the polar boundary layer have been observed frequently during springtime. They are related to events of boundary layer enhancement of bromine. Consequently, increased amounts of boundary layer volume mixing ratio (VMR and vertical column densities (VCDs of BrO have been observed by in situ observation, ground-based as well as airborne remote sensing, and from satellites. These so-called bromine explosion (BE events have been discussed serving as a source of tropospheric BrO at high latitudes, which has been underestimated in global models so far. We have implemented a treatment of bromine release and recycling on sea-ice- and snow-covered surfaces in the global chemistry–climate model EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry based on the scheme of Toyota et al. (2011. In this scheme, dry deposition fluxes of HBr, HOBr, and BrNO3 over ice- and snow-covered surfaces are recycled into Br2 fluxes. In addition, dry deposition of O3, dependent on temperature and sunlight, triggers a Br2 release from surfaces associated with first-year sea ice. Many aspects of observed bromine enhancements and associated episodes of near-complete depletion of boundary layer ozone, both in the Arctic and in the Antarctic, are reproduced by this relatively simple approach. We present first results from our global model studies extending over a full annual cycle, including comparisons with Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME satellite BrO VCDs and surface ozone observations.

  10. Analysis of Member State RED implementation. Final Report (Task 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, D.; Alberici, S.; Toop, G. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kretschmer, B. [Institute for European Environmental Policy IEEP, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    This report describes the way EU Member States have transposed the sustainability and chain of custody requirements for biofuels as laid down in the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) and Fuel Quality Directive (FQD). In the assessment of Member States' implementation, the report mainly focuses on effectiveness and administrative burden. Have Member States transposed the Directives in such a way that compliance with the sustainability criteria can be ensured as effectively as possible? To what extent does the Member States' implementation lead to unnecessary administrative burden for economic operators in the (bio)fuel supply chain? The report focuses specifically on the transposition of the sustainability and chain of custody requirements, not on the target for renewables on transport. This means that for example the double counting provision is not included as part of the scope of this report. This report starts with an introduction covering the implementation of the Renewable Energy (and Fuel Quality) Directive into national legislation, the methodology by which Member States were assessed against effectiveness and administrative burden and the categorisation of Member State's national systems for RED-implementation (Chapter 1). The report continues with a high level description of each Member State system assessed (Chapter 2). Following this, the report includes analysis of the Member States on the effectiveness and administrative burden of a number of key ('major') measures (Chapter 3). The final chapter presents the conclusions and recommendations (Chapter 4)

  11. Effects of chronic elevated ozone concentration on the redox state and fruit yield of red pepper plant Capsicum baccatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; Caregnato, Fernanda Freitas; Divan, Armando Molina; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2014-02-01

    Ozone (O3) is one of the most harmful air pollutants to crops, contributing to high losses on crop yield. Tropospheric O3 background concentrations have increased since pre-industrial times reaching phytotoxic concentrations in many world regions. Capsicum peppers are the second most traded spice in the world, but few studies concerning the O3 effects in this genus are known. Thereby, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of chronic exposure to elevated O3 concentrations in red pepper plant Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum with especial considerations on the leaf redox state and fruit yield. Fifteen C. baccatum plants were exposed to O3 in open-top chambers during fruit ripening (62 days) at a mean concentration of 171.6 µg/m(3) from 10:00 am to 4:00 pm. We found that O3 treated plants significantly decreased the amount and the total weight of fruits, which were probably a consequence of the changes on leaf oxidative status induced by ozone exposure. Ozone exposed plants increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels on the leaves, which may be associated with the observed decrease on the activity of enzymatic antioxidant defense system, as well with lower levels of polyphenol and reduced thiol groups. Enhanced ROS production and the direct O3 reaction lead to biomacromolecules damages as seen in the diminished chlorophyll content and in the elevated lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation levels. Through a correlation analysis it was possible to observe that polyphenols content was more important to protect pepper plants against oxidative damages to lipids than to proteins. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cazorla

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A new ambient air monitor, the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS, measures directly the rate of ozone production in the atmosphere. The sensor consists of two 11.3 L environmental chambers made of UV-transmitting Teflon film, a unit to convert NO2 to O3, and a modified ozone monitor. In the sample chamber, flowing ambient air is exposed to the sunlight so that ozone is produced just as it is in the atmosphere. In the second chamber, called the reference chamber, a UV-blocking film over the Teflon film prevents ozone formation but allows other processes to occur as they do in the sample chamber. The air flows that exit the two chambers are sampled by an ozone monitor operating in differential mode so that the difference between the two ozone signals, divided by the exposure time in the chambers, gives the ozone production rate. High-efficiency conversion of NO2 to O3 prior to detection in the ozone monitor accounts for differences in the NOx photostationary state that can occur in the two chambers. The MOPS measures the ozone production rate, but with the addition of NO to the sampled air flow, the MOPS can be used to study the sensitivity of ozone production to NO. Preliminary studies with the MOPS on the campus of the Pennsylvania State University show the potential of this new technique.

  13. 77 FR 38191 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Mississippi; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... SIP submittal followed the VISTAS modeling protocol and considered the contribution of total PM 10 and... revisions to the Mississippi State Implementation Plan (SIP) submitted by the State of Mississippi through.... Mississippi's SIP revisions address regional haze for the first implementation period. Specifically, these SIP...

  14. 75 FR 72695 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Oklahoma; State Implementation Plan Revisions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... chemical reactions in the atmosphere. The level of impact a new source can have on ozone levels is... condensing outside the stack or through chemical reactions with pollutants already in the atmosphere...

  15. Safeguards Implementation Guide for States with Small Quantities Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) works to enhance the contribution of nuclear energy for peace and prosperity around the world, while helping to ensure that nuclear material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. In implementing safeguards, the IAEA plays an instrumental independent verification role, providing credible assurances that States' safeguards commitments are being respected. Most of the world's non-nuclear-weapon States (NNWSs) have concluded comprehensive safeguards agreements (CSAs) with the IAEA, pursuant to the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The IAEA and States are required to cooperate in the implementation of such agreements. Effective cooperation demonstrates a State's commitment to the peaceful use of nuclear energy and furthers the State's national interests by reducing the risk of unauthorized use of nuclear material. Over 100 NNWSs party to the NPT have very limited quantities of nuclear material and have concluded protocols to their CSAs which hold in abeyance many procedures in Part II of a CSA. These protocols are referred to as 'small quantities protocols' or 'SQPs' and remain in effect as long as the State meets certain eligibility criteria. The purpose of an SQP is to reduce the burden of safeguards implementation for States with little or no nuclear activities, while retaining the integrity of the safeguards system. States with SQPs have very important obligations they must fulfil under their CSAs. In 1997, as part of the IAEA's efforts to strengthen its safeguards system, the Model Additional Protocol to the Agreement(s) between State(s) and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards was developed to provide the IAEA with broader access to information and locations, thus significantly increasing the IAEA's ability to provide assurance of the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities in States. Many States with SQPs have

  16. 76 FR 41424 - Finding of Substantial Inadequacy of Implementation Plan; Call for Iowa State Implementation Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... modeling requirement for this SIP call should allow for the use of the modeling protocol developed by Iowa... is making a finding that the Iowa State Implementation Plan (SIP) is substantially inadequate to... ) in Muscatine County, Iowa. The specific SIP deficiencies needing revision are described below. EPA is...

  17. Contribution of Rostechnadzor in Implementing the State Nuclear Safety Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferapontov, A.

    2016-01-01

    The report considers major areas of Rostechnadzor activities on implementation of the state policy in the area of nuclear safety, including actions to be implemented. Ensuring nuclear and radiation safety in the use of atomic energy is one of the most important components of the national security of the Russian Federation. On March 1, 2012, the President of the Russian Federation approved the Basics of State Policy in the Area of Nuclear and Radiation Safety aimed at consistent reduction of risks associated with man-made impact on the public and the environment in using atomic energy, as well as at prevention of emergencies and accidents in nuclear and radiation hazardous facilities. Rostechnadzor is an authorized body for state safety regulation in the use of atomic energy, which implements functions of regulatory and legal control, licensing of various types of activity and federal state supervision of the atomic energy facilities. The activity in the area of regulatory and legal control is implemented in compliance with the Concept of Enhancement of Regulatory and Legal Control of Safety and Standardization in the Area of the Use of Atomic Energy and the Plan of Implementation of this Concept, which envisages the completion of reviewing the regulatory and legal documents by 2023. Corresponding to the Basics of State Policy in the Area of Nuclear and Radiation Safety of the Russian Federation for the Period of 2025, Rostechnadzor successfully implemented the actions of the Federal Target Programme of Nuclear and Radiation Safety up to 2015, creating all conditions for phased reduction of the amounts of nuclear legacy and ensuring radical increase in their level of nuclear and radiation safety. In 2016, Rostechnadzor embarked on implementation of the Federal Target Programme of Nuclear and Radiation Safety up to 2030, with creation of infrastructure facilities for spent fuel and radioactive waste management and definitive response to the challenges of nuclear

  18. 78 FR 32613 - Disapproval of State Implementation Plan; Infrastructure Requirements for the 1997 8-Hour Ozone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... 12866. I. National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act Section 12 of the National Technology... information claimed to be Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other information whose disclosure is... requirements of [section 128].'' \\2\\ We find that this legislative history indicates that Congress intended...

  19. Reynolds and Westvaco Plant Proposed Ozone (O3) State Implementation Plan (SIP) Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  20. Air quality impacts of distributed energy resources implemented in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Dabdub, Donald; Brouwer, Jacob; Knipping, Eladio; Kumar, Naresh; Darrow, Ken; Hampson, Anne; Hedman, Bruce

    2008-07-01

    Emissions from the potential installation of distributed energy resources (DER) in the place of current utility-scale power generators have been introduced into an emissions inventory of the northeastern United States. A methodology for predicting future market penetration of DER that considers economics and emission factors was used to estimate the most likely implementation of DER. The methodology results in spatially and temporally resolved emission profiles of criteria pollutants that are subsequently introduced into a detailed atmospheric chemistry and transport model of the region. The DER technology determined by the methodology includes 62% reciprocating engines, 34% gas turbines, and 4% fuel cells and other emerging technologies. The introduction of DER leads to retirement of 2625 MW of existing power plants for which emissions are removed from the inventory. The air quality model predicts maximum differences in air pollutant concentrations that are located downwind from the central power plants that were removed from the domain. Maximum decreases in hourly peak ozone concentrations due to DER use are 10 ppb and are located over the state of New Jersey. Maximum decreases in 24-hr average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations reach 3 microg/m3 and are located off the coast of New Jersey and New York. The main contribution to decreased PM2.5 is the reduction of sulfate levels due to significant reductions in direct emissions of sulfur oxides (SO(x)) from the DER compared with the central power plants removed. The scenario presented here represents an accelerated DER penetration case with aggressive emission reductions due to removal of highly emitting power plants. Such scenario provides an upper bound for air quality benefits of DER implementation scenarios.

  1. Complete permutation Gray code implemented by finite state machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Peng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An enumerating method of complete permutation array is proposed. The list of n! permutations based on Gray code defined over finite symbol set Z(n = {1, 2, …, n} is implemented by finite state machine, named as n-RPGCF. An RPGCF can be used to search permutation code and provide improved lower bounds on the maximum cardinality of a permutation code in some cases.

  2. The Texas Air Quality Study: State of the Science of Ozone and Particulate Matter formation in Texas and Implications for Air Quality Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D. T.

    2002-05-01

    The Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS) was performed during August and September of 2000; approximately 300 investigators from around the world made measurements of air pollutant concentrations and meteorological variables in southeast Texas. Five aircraft were deployed; five major ground chemistry sites were established and approximately 20 peripheral sites were established for collecting additional meteorological and chemical data. The scope, goals and preliminary results are available at the study web sites (www.utexas.edu/research/ceer/texaqs and www.utexas.edu/research/ceer/texaqsarchive). This presentation will provide an overview of the main findings from the study and will describe the role that ongoing data analysis activities are having on the development of air quality policy in the State of Texas. Some of the major findings are: Finding 1. Almost without exception, air parcels with very high ozone concentrations, observed by aircraft during the Texas Air Quality Study, had back trajectories that indicated a substantial contribution of emissions from industrial source regions. These air parcels also had chemical compositions that were representative of industrial sources, rather than typical urban sources. Finding 2: The rate of ozone production in and around the industrial source dominated areas in Houston can be very high, commonly exceeding 50 ppb/hr, and at times approaching instantaneous rates of 200 ppb/hr. Finding 3: The efficiency of ozone production in and around the industrial source dominated areas in Houston can be very high, ranging from 10-20 molecules of ozone per molecule of reacted NOx. Finding 4. Ozone production in the Houston urban plume was found to be slower and less efficient than in the composite industrial plume from the Ship Channel region and in plumes from isolated petrochemical facilities. Finding 5. The high rates and high efficiencies of ozone production in the industrial plumes are driven by high concentrations of reactive

  3. Monitoring the Implementation of State Regulation of National Economic Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubarieva Iryna O.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to improve the methodological tools for monitoring the implementation of state regulation of national economic security. The approaches to defining the essence of the concept of “national economic security” are generalized. Assessment of the level of national economic security is a key element in monitoring the implementation of state regulation in this area. Recommendations for improving the methodology for assessing national economic security, the calculation algorithm of which includes four interrelated components (economic, political, social, spiritual one, suggests using analysis methods (correlation and cluster analysis, and taxonomy, which allows to determine the level and disproportion of development, can serve as a basis for monitoring the implementation of state regulation of national economic security. Such an approach to assessing national economic security makes it possible to determine the place (rank that a country occupies in a totality of countries, the dynamics of changing ranks over a certain period of time, to identify problem components, and monitor the effectiveness of state regulation of the national economic security. It the course of the research it was determined that the economic sphere is the main problem component of ensuring the security of Ukraine’s economy. The analysis made it possible to identify the most problematic partial indicators in the economic sphere of Ukraine: economic globalization, uneven economic development, level of infrastructure, level of financial market development, level of economic instability, macroeconomic stability. These indicators have a stable negative dynamics and a downward trend, which requires an immediate intervention of state bodies to ensure the national economic security.

  4. Using air quality modeling to study source-receptor relationships between nitrogen oxides emissions and ozone exposures over the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Daniel Q; Muller, Nicholas Z; Kan, Haidong; Mendelsohn, Robert O

    2009-11-01

    Human exposure to ambient ozone (O(3)) has been linked to a variety of adverse health effects. The ozone level at a location is contributed by local production, regional transport, and background ozone. This study combines detailed emission inventory, air quality modeling, and census data to investigate the source-receptor relationships between nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) emissions and population exposure to ambient O(3) in 48 states over the continental United States. By removing NO(x) emissions from each state one at a time, we calculate the change in O(3) exposures by examining the difference between the base and the sensitivity simulations. Based on the 49 simulations, we construct state-level and census region-level source-receptor matrices describing the relationships among these states/regions. We find that, for 43 receptor states, cumulative NO(x) emissions from upwind states contribute more to O(3) exposures than the state's own emissions. In-state emissions are responsible for less than 15% of O(3) exposures in 90% of U.S. states. A state's NO(x) emissions can influence 2 to 40 downwind states by at least a 0.1 ppbv change in population-averaged O(3) exposure. The results suggest that the U.S. generally needs a regional strategy to effectively reduce O(3) exposures. But the current regional emission control program in the U.S. is a cap-and-trade program that assumes the marginal damage of every ton of NO(x) is equal. In this study, the average O(3) exposures caused by one ton of NO(x) emissions ranges from -2.0 to 2.3 ppm-people-hours depending on the state. The actual damage caused by one ton of NO(x) emissions varies considerably over space.

  5. The ozone backlash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taubes, G.

    1993-01-01

    While evidence for the role of chlorofluorocarbons in ozone depletion grows stronger, researchers have recently been subjected to vocal public criticism of their theories-and their motives. Their understanding of the mechanisms of ozone destruction-especially the annual ozone hole that appears in the Antarctic-has grown stronger, yet everywhere they go these days, they seem to be confronted by critics attacking their theories as baseless. For instance, Rush Limbaugh, the conservative political talk-show host and now-best-selling author of The Way Things Ought to Be, regularly insists that the theory of ozone depletion by CFCs is a hoax: bladerdash and poppycock. Zoologist Dixy Lee Ray, former governor of the state of Washington and former head of the Atomic Energy Commission, makes the same argument in her book, Trashing the Planet. The Wall Street Journal and National Review have run commentaries by S. Fred Singer, a former chief scientists for the Department of Transportation, purporting to shoot holes in the theory of ozone depletion. Even the June issue of Omni, a magazine with a circulation of more than 1 million that publishes a mixture of science and science fiction, printed a feature article claiming to expose ozone research as a politically motivated scam

  6. Understanding the effectiveness of precursor reductions in lowering 8-hr ozone concentrations--Part II. The eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Steven D; Blanchard, Charles L; Ziman, Stephen D

    2004-11-01

    Analyses of ozone (O3) measurements in conjunction with photochemical modeling were used to assess the feasibility of attaining the federal 8-hr O3 standard in the eastern United States. Various combinations of volatile organic compound (VOC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission reductions were effective in lowering modeled peak 1-hr O3 concentrations. VOC emissions reductions alone had only a modest impact on modeled peak 8-hr O3 concentrations. Anthropogenic NOx emissions reductions of 46-86% of 1996 base case values were needed to reach the level of the 8-hr standard in some areas. As NOx emissions are reduced, O3 production efficiency increases, which accounts for the less than proportional response of calculated 8-hr O3 levels. Such increases in O3 production efficiency also were noted in previous modeling work for central California. O3 production in some urban core areas, such as New York City and Chicago, IL, was found to be VOC-limited. In these areas, moderate NOx emissions reductions may be accompanied by increases in peak 8-hr O3 levels. The findings help to explain differences in historical trends in 1- and 8-hr O3 levels and have serious implications for the feasibility of attaining the 8-hr O3 standard in several areas of the eastern United States.

  7. Practitioner Perceptions of Adaptive Management Implementation in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Harm. Benson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive management is a growing trend within environment and natural resource management efforts in the United States. While many proponents of adaptive management emphasize the need for collaborative, iterative governance processes to facilitate adaptive management, legal scholars note that current legal requirements and processes in the United States often make it difficult to provide the necessary institutional support and flexibility for successful adaptive management implementation. Our research explores this potential disconnect between adaptive management theory and practice by interviewing practitioners in the field. We conducted a survey of individuals associated with the Collaborative Adaptive Management Network (CAMNet, a nongovernmental organization that promotes adaptive management and facilitates in its implementation. The survey was sent via email to the 144 participants who attended CAMNet Rendezvous during 2007-2011 and yielded 48 responses. We found that practitioners do feel hampered by legal and institutional constraints: > 70% of respondents not only believed that constraints exist, they could specifically name one or more examples of a legal constraint on their work implementing adaptive management. At the same time, we found that practitioners are generally optimistic about the potential for institutional reform.

  8. Source contributions to United States ozone and particulate matter over five decades from 1970 to 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopmongcol, Uarporn; Alvarez, Yesica; Jung, Jaegun; Grant, John; Kumar, Naresh; Yarwood, Greg

    2017-10-01

    Evaluating long-term air quality trends can demonstrate effectiveness of control strategies and guide future air quality management planning. Observations have shown that ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the US have declined since as early as 1980 in some areas. But observation trends alone cannot separate effects of changes in local and global emissions to US air quality which are important to air quality planners. This study uses a regional model (CAMx) nested within a global model (GEOS-Chem) to characterize regional changes in O3 and PM2.5 due to the intercontinental transport and local/regional emissions representing six modeling years within five decades (1970-2020). We use the CAMx Source Apportionment Technology (OSAT/PSAT) to estimate contributions from 6 source sectors in 7 source regions plus 6 other groups for a total of 48 tagged contributions. On-road mobile sources consistently make the largest U.S. anthropogenic emissions contribution to O3 in all cities examined even though they decline substantially from 1970 to 2005 and also from 2005 to 2020. Off-road mobile source contributions increase from 1970 to 2005 and then decrease after 2005 in all of the cities. The boundary conditions, mostly from intercontinental transport, contribute more than 20 ppb to high maximum daily 8-h average (MDA8) O3 for all six years. We found that lowering NOx emissions raises O3 formation efficiency (OFE) across all emission categories which will limit potential O3 benefits of local NOx strategies in the near future. PM2.5 benefited from adoption of control devices between 1970 and 1980 and has continued to decline through 2005 and expected to decline further by 2020. Area sources such as residential, commercial and fugitive dust emissions stand out as making large contributions to PM2.5 that are not declining. Inter-regional transport is less important in 2020 than 1990 for both pollutants.

  9. Implementation of cargo MagLev in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Chris R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Peterson, Dean E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leung, Eddie M [MAGTEC ENGINEERING

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have been completed in the United States, but no commercial MagLev systems have been deployed. Outside the U.S., MagLev continues to attract funding for research, development and implementation. A brief review of recent global developments in MagLev technology is given followed by the status of MagLev in the U.S. The paper compares the cost of existing MagLev systems with other modes of transport, notes that the near-term focus of MagLev development in the U.S. should be for cargo, and suggests that future MagLev systems should be for very high speed cargo. The Los Angeles to Port of Los Angeles corridor is suggested as a first site for implementation. The benefits of MagLev are described along with suggestions on how to obtain funding.

  10. Ozone decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batakliev Todor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic ozone decomposition is of great significance because ozone is a toxic substance commonly found or generated in human environments (aircraft cabins, offices with photocopiers, laser printers, sterilizers. Considerable work has been done on ozone decomposition reported in the literature. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the literature, concentrating on analysis of the physico-chemical properties, synthesis and catalytic decomposition of ozone. This is supplemented by a review on kinetics and catalyst characterization which ties together the previously reported results. Noble metals and oxides of transition metals have been found to be the most active substances for ozone decomposition. The high price of precious metals stimulated the use of metal oxide catalysts and particularly the catalysts based on manganese oxide. It has been determined that the kinetics of ozone decomposition is of first order importance. A mechanism of the reaction of catalytic ozone decomposition is discussed, based on detailed spectroscopic investigations of the catalytic surface, showing the existence of peroxide and superoxide surface intermediates

  11. Ozone modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIllvaine, C M

    1994-07-01

    Exhaust gases from power plants that burn fossil fuels contain concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), particulate matter, hydrocarbon compounds and trace metals. Estimated emissions from the operation of a hypothetical 500 MW coal-fired power plant are given. Ozone is considered a secondary pollutant, since it is not emitted directly into the atmosphere but is formed from other air pollutants, specifically, nitrogen oxides (NO), and non-methane organic compounds (NMOQ) in the presence of sunlight. (NMOC are sometimes referred to as hydrocarbons, HC, or volatile organic compounds, VOC, and they may or may not include methane). Additionally, ozone formation Alternative is a function of the ratio of NMOC concentrations to NO{sub x} concentrations. A typical ozone isopleth is shown, generated with the Empirical Kinetic Modeling Approach (EKMA) option of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Ozone Isopleth Plotting Mechanism (OZIPM-4) model. Ozone isopleth diagrams, originally generated with smog chamber data, are more commonly generated with photochemical reaction mechanisms and tested against smog chamber data. The shape of the isopleth curves is a function of the region (i.e. background conditions) where ozone concentrations are simulated. The location of an ozone concentration on the isopleth diagram is defined by the ratio of NMOC and NO{sub x} coordinates of the point, known as the NMOC/NO{sub x} ratio. Results obtained by the described model are presented.

  12. Ozone modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIllvaine, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    Exhaust gases from power plants that burn fossil fuels contain concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), particulate matter, hydrocarbon compounds and trace metals. Estimated emissions from the operation of a hypothetical 500 MW coal-fired power plant are given. Ozone is considered a secondary pollutant, since it is not emitted directly into the atmosphere but is formed from other air pollutants, specifically, nitrogen oxides (NO), and non-methane organic compounds (NMOQ) in the presence of sunlight. (NMOC are sometimes referred to as hydrocarbons, HC, or volatile organic compounds, VOC, and they may or may not include methane). Additionally, ozone formation Alternative is a function of the ratio of NMOC concentrations to NO x concentrations. A typical ozone isopleth is shown, generated with the Empirical Kinetic Modeling Approach (EKMA) option of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Ozone Isopleth Plotting Mechanism (OZIPM-4) model. Ozone isopleth diagrams, originally generated with smog chamber data, are more commonly generated with photochemical reaction mechanisms and tested against smog chamber data. The shape of the isopleth curves is a function of the region (i.e. background conditions) where ozone concentrations are simulated. The location of an ozone concentration on the isopleth diagram is defined by the ratio of NMOC and NO x coordinates of the point, known as the NMOC/NO x ratio. Results obtained by the described model are presented

  13. Impacts of different characterizations of large-scale background on simulated regional-scale ozone over the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogrefe, Christian; Liu, Peng; Pouliot, George; Mathur, Rohit; Roselle, Shawn; Flemming, Johannes; Lin, Meiyun; Park, Rokjin J.

    2018-03-01

    This study analyzes simulated regional-scale ozone burdens both near the surface and aloft, estimates process contributions to these burdens, and calculates the sensitivity of the simulated regional-scale ozone burden to several key model inputs with a particular emphasis on boundary conditions derived from hemispheric or global-scale models. The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations supporting this analysis were performed over the continental US for the year 2010 within the context of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) and Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF-HTAP) activities. CMAQ process analysis (PA) results highlight the dominant role of horizontal and vertical advection on the ozone burden in the mid-to-upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Vertical mixing, including mixing by convective clouds, couples fluctuations in free-tropospheric ozone to ozone in lower layers. Hypothetical bounding scenarios were performed to quantify the effects of emissions, boundary conditions, and ozone dry deposition on the simulated ozone burden. Analysis of these simulations confirms that the characterization of ozone outside the regional-scale modeling domain can have a profound impact on simulated regional-scale ozone. This was further investigated by using data from four hemispheric or global modeling systems (Chemistry - Integrated Forecasting Model (C-IFS), CMAQ extended for hemispheric applications (H-CMAQ), the Goddard Earth Observing System model coupled to chemistry (GEOS-Chem), and AM3) to derive alternate boundary conditions for the regional-scale CMAQ simulations. The regional-scale CMAQ simulations using these four different boundary conditions showed that the largest ozone abundance in the upper layers was simulated when using boundary conditions from GEOS-Chem, followed by the simulations using C-IFS, AM3, and H-CMAQ boundary conditions, consistent with the analysis of the ozone fields

  14. Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Known as tropospheric or ground-level ozone, this gas is harmful to human heath and the environment. Since it forms from emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), these pollutants are regulated under air quality standards.

  15. Disinfection technology with ozone for cryptosporidium; Cryptosporidium taisaku to shite no ozone shodoku gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Y.; Takahashi, K. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Motoyama, N. [Fuji Electric Corporate Research and Development, Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    1998-06-10

    Measures against Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) in the waterworks are discussed. C. parvum is a pathogenic protozoan, and exists in the form of oocyst protected by a hard shell. It does not multiply in water or food, but does in human intestines and causes violent diarrhea and bellyache. A grave concern was created when many people were infected with the protozoan via tap water in Japan and the United States. Under such circumstances, ozone is used in an experiment to inactivate C. parvum. It is found that the C. parvum oocyst inactivation effect is evaluated by using a Ct value (disinfectant concentration Cmg/Ltimescontact time in minute) and that ozone treatment inactivates 90-99% of the protozoan. When various advanced water treatment technologies are being introduced for the purpose of serving safe and tasty water, the outcome of this study conveniently offers an ozone treatment method that will additionally inactivate pathogenic protozoa. Studies will be continued to elucidate the effects of factors of ozone treatment and water quality for the completion of an ideal disinfection process. Reference is made to an example of disinfection work implemented at a water purification plant of Milwaukie City, United States. 9 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Contribution of biogenic emissions to the formation of ozone and particulate matter in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Betty K; Wu, Shiang-Yuh; Seigneur, Christian

    2002-08-15

    As anthropogenic emissions of ozone (O3) precursors, fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and PM2.5 precursors continue to decrease in the United States, the fraction of O3 and PM2.5 attributable to natural sources may become significant in some locations, reducing the efficacy that can be expected from future controls of anthropogenic sources. Modeling studies were conducted to estimate the contribution of biogenic emissions to the formation of O3 and PM2.5 in Nashville/TN and the northeastern United States. Two approaches were used to bound the estimates. In an anthropogenic simulation, biogenic emissions and their influence at the domain boundaries were eliminated. Contributions of biogenic compounds to the simulated concentrations of O3 and PM2.5 were determined by the deviation of the concentrations in the anthropogenic case from those in the base case. A biogenic simulation was used to assess the amounts of O3 and PM2.5 produced in an environment free from anthropogenic influences in emissions and boundary conditions. In both locations, the contribution of biogenic emissions to O3 was small (production of O3 was much more sensitive to biogenic emissions in urban areas (22-34%). Therefore, the effects of biogenic emissions on O3 manifested mostly via their interaction with anthropogenic emissions of NOx. In the anthropogenic simulations, the average contribution of biogenic and natural sources to PM2.5 was estimated at 9% in Nashville/TN and 12% in the northeast domain. Because of the long atmospheric lifetimes of PM2.5, the contribution of biogenic/natural PM2.5 from the boundary conditions was higher than the contribution of biogenic aerosols produced within the domain. The elimination of biogenic emissions also affected the chemistry of other secondary PM2.5 components. Very little PM2.5 was formed in the biogenic simulations.

  17. Mapping critical levels of ozone, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide for crops, forests and natural vegetation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbaum, B.J.; Strickland, T.C.; McDowell, M.K.

    1994-01-01

    Air pollution abatement strategies for controlling nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone emissions in the United States focus on a 'standards-based' approach. This approach places limits on air pollution by maintaining a baseline value for air quality, no matter what the ecosystem can or cannot withstand. This paper, presents example critical levels maps for the conterminous U.S. developed using the 'effects-based' mapping approach as defined by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe's Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, Task Force on Mapping. This approach emphasizes the pollution level or load capacity an ecosystem can accommodate before degradation occurs, and allows for analysis of cumulative effects. Presents the first stage of an analysis that reports the distribution of exceedances of critical levels for NO 2 , SO 2 , and O 3 in sensitive forest, crop, and natural vegetation ecosystems in the contiguous United States. It is concluded that extrapolation to surrounding geographic areas requires the analysis of diverse and compounding factors that preclude simple extrapolation methods. Pollutant data depicted in this analysis are limited to locationally specific data, and would be enhanced by utilizing spatial statistics, along with converging associated anthropogenic and climatological factors. Values used for critical levels were derived from current scientific knowledge. While not intended to be a definitive value, adjustments will occur as the scientific community gains new insight to pollutant/receptor relationships. We recommend future analysis to include a refinement of sensitive receptor data coverages and to report relative proportions of exceedances at varying grid scales. 27 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. 78 FR 34906 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Lima 1997 8-Hour Ozone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... year inventories, and (2) the state can document that growth and control strategy assumptions for non... growth and control strategy assumptions for non-mobile sources (i.e., area, non-road, and point) have not... state has documented that growth and control strategy assumptions for non-motor vehicle sources (i.e...

  19. THE EFFICIENCY OF IMPLEMENTING PRIVATE MANAGEMENT IN STATE COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mungiu-Pupăzan Mariana Claudia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, nine state-owned companies are expected to have private management giving up the statemanagement. Therefore, a full debate of this issue is required, taking into consideration the fact that, in ouropinion, this process involves more than just the replacement of a manager with another. The implementationof private management in companies of national strategy, currently in state ownership, is desired to be aprofound and also very complex process, aiming to change organizational culture in depth, both verticallyand horizontally, so as to increase efficiency in these companies.Implementation of private management could be a good opportunity for an efficient development ofthese companies, for an increasing level of competitiveness on the international market, but only in terms ofa leadership team chosen on performance criteria, with a coherent set of objectives and a high independencelevel of decision.There are some opinions from people with experience in managing both private and statecompanies. They believe that the idea of establishing a private management in state companies, is, in themain, good, but it is essential to take into consideration the idea of a team trained to lead the company,instead of one person as a general manager.Another element to be taken into account, so that this idea of private management may have thedesired effect, is to precisely determine companies where private management teams should be installed. Notall companies are suitable for the same private management strategy. This type of leadership is better forcompanies with a real international perspective, such as Tarom, while strategic companies should be ratherreformed, including management privatization, and kept as state strategic areas. However, strict criteria ofstate intervention in decision-making process should be established, a striking question concerning thecircumstances under which such a management team could be successful, given that state firms are

  20. 77 FR 11022 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Alaska; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... protocol was developed. See Figure III.K.5-2 of the SIP submittal. Included Sources--Emission sources... Implementation Plan (SIP) revision, submitted by the State of Alaska on April 4, 2011, as meeting the.... Requirements for Regional Haze SIPs A. The CAA and the Regional Haze Rule B. Baseline, Natural Conditions, and...

  1. A regional scale model for ozone in the United States with subgrid representation of urban and power plant plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sillman, S.; Logan, J.A.; Wofsy, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    A new approach to modeling regional air chemistry is presented for application to industrialized regions such as the continental US. Rural chemistry and transport are simulated using a coarse grid, while chemistry and transport in urban and power plant plumes are represented by detailed subgrid models. Emissions from urban and power plant sources are processed in generalized plumes where chemistry and dilution proceed for 8-12 hours before mixing with air in a large resolution element. A realistic fraction of pollutants reacts under high-NO x conditions, and NO x is removed significantly before dispersal. Results from this model are compared with results from grid odels that do not distinguish plumes and with observational data defining regional ozone distributions. Grid models with coarse resolution are found to artificially disperse NO x over rural areas, therefore overestimating rural levels of both NO x and O 3 . Regional net ozone production is too high in coarse grid models, because production of O 3 is more efficient per molecule of NO x in the low-concentration regime of rural areas than in heavily polluted plumes from major emission sources. Ozone levels simulated by this model are shown to agree with observations in urban plumes and in rural regions. The model reproduces accurately average regional and peak ozone concentrations observed during a 4-day ozone episode. Computational costs for the model are reduced 25-to 100-fold as compared to fine-mesh models

  2. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    GO! Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Current AQI Forecast AQI Loop More Maps AQI: Good (0 - 50) ... resources for Hawaii residents and visitors more announcements Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke ...

  3. Implemented state automorphisms within the logico-algebraic approach to deterministic mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barone, F [Naples Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Matematica della Facolta di Scienze

    1981-01-31

    The new notion of S/sub 1/-implemented state automorphism is introduced and characterized in quantum logic. Implemented pure state automorphisms are then characterized in deterministic mechanics as automorphisms of the Borel structure on the phase space.

  4. 78 FR 48326 - Partial Disapproval of State Implementation Plan; Arizona; Regional Haze Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Disapproval of State Implementation Plan; Arizona; Regional Haze Requirements AGENCY: Environmental Protection... behalf of National Parks Conservation Association, Sierra Club, Physicians for Social Responsibility... Haze State Implementation Plan Revision submitted by the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality on...

  5. Source attribution of tropospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a harmful pollutant with adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. As well as these effects, tropospheric ozone is also a powerful greenhouse gas, with an anthropogenic radiative forcing one quarter of that of CO2. Along with methane and atmospheric aerosol, tropospheric ozone belongs to the so-called Short Lived Climate forcing Pollutants, or SLCP. Recent work has shown that efforts to reduce concentrations of SLCP in the atmosphere have the potential to slow the rate of near-term climate change, while simultaneously improving public health and reducing crop losses. Unlike many other SLCP, tropospehric ozone is not directly emitted, but is instead influenced by two distinct sources: transport of air from the ozone-rich stratosphere; and photochemical production in the troposphere from the emitted precursors NOx (oxides of nitrogen), CO (Carbon Monoxide), and VOC (volatile organic compounds, including methane). Better understanding of the relationship between ozone production and the emissions of its precursors is essential for the development of targeted emission reduction strategies. Several modeling methods have been employed to relate the production of tropospheric ozone to emissions of its precursors; emissions perturbation, tagging, and adjoint sensitivity methods all deliver complementary information about modelled ozone production. Most studies using tagging methods have focused on attribution of tropospheric ozone production to emissions of NOx, even though perturbation methods have suggested that tropospheric ozone is also sensitive to VOC, particularly methane. In this study we describe the implementation into a global chemistry-climate model of a scheme for tagging emissions of NOx and VOC with an arbitrary number of labels, which are followed through the chemical reactions of tropospheric ozone production in order to perform attribution of tropospehric ozone to its emitted precursors. Attribution is performed to both

  6. Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy Programs in State Implementation Plans - Guidance Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    final document that provides guidance to States and local areas on quantifying and including emission reductions from energy efficiency and renewable energy measures in State Implementation Plans (SIPS).

  7. Sources of ozone and sulfate in northeastern United States. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, L.

    1981-01-01

    Daily measurements of 7 Be, 32 P, 33 P, O 3 , SO 4 2- and certain trace elements were made at Whiteface Mountain, NY during summer 1977 and June 1978-December 1979. The results were used to delineate the sources of O 3 . It is shown that when 7 Be concentration is combined with 7 Be/ 32 P ratio they are reliable tracers of stratospheric O 3 , whereas SO 4 2- is a promising tracer of transported anthropogenic O 3 . On days of high 7 Be concentrations, 7 Be, O 3 and 7 Be/ 32 P ratios peaked together, whereas the sulfate concentrations were very low. A day later, the SO 4 2- concentration increased to unusually high level, while 7 Be, 7 Be/ 32 P ratio and to a much lesser degree O 3 decreased. From these results it is inferred that the subsidence of stratospheric air enhances surface O 3 concentrations. Furthermore, the backside of the weather system responsible for this subsidence also favors the advection of polluted air containing anthropogenic O 3 to this site. Therefore, a stratospheric intrusion may intensify a surface photochemical O 3 episode. However, based on approx. 500 days of 7 Be and O 3 data, the stratosphere does not appear to be directly responsible for the episodic high O 3 (approx. 100 ppbv). To study surface transport of pollutant, concentrations of SO 4 2- and trace elements were compared with backward surface air trajectories. This analysis showed that episodic high concentrations were associated with air transported from midwestern states

  8. A Two-Timescale Response of the Southern Ocean to Ozone Depletion: Importance of the Background State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seviour, W.; Waugh, D.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2016-02-01

    It has been recently suggested that the response of Southern Ocean sea-ice extent to stratospheric ozone depletion is time-dependent; that the ocean surface initially cools due to enhanced northward Ekman drift caused by a poleward shift in the eddy-driven jet, and then warms after some time due to upwelling of warm waters from below the mixed layer. It is therefore possible that ozone depletion could act to favor a short-term increase in sea-ice extent. However, many uncertainties remain in understanding this mechanism, with different models showing widely differing time-scales and magnitudes of the response. Here, we analyze an ensemble of coupled model simulations with a step-function ozone perturbation. The two-timescale response is present with an approximately 30 year initial cooling period. The response is further shown to be highly dependent upon the background ocean temperature and salinity stratification, which is influenced by both natural internal variability and the isopycnal eddy mixing parameterization. It is suggested that the majority of inter-model differences in the Southern Ocean response to ozone depletion are caused by differences in stratification.

  9. Implementation of ozonation process in degradation of the phenols present in petrochemistry effluents; Aplicacao do processo de ozonizacao na degradacao de fenois presentes em efluentes petroquimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Fernanda Batista de; Souza, Antonio Augusto Ulson de; Souza, Selene Maria Arruda Guelli Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The water contamination by the petrochemical pollutants with high toxicity, such as phenols, is a subject of interest of several researchers. The ozone is an alternative for the effluents treatment, being effective in environmental decontamination, reducing the COD and degrading the phenols. The ozone stability depends on the water pH, the type and content of organic matter. This study aimed to investigate in the phenol ozonation, evaluating the phenol and COD removal at different pHs. Ozone as injected in 5 L of phenol solution of 50 mg L-1 at pH = 2, 7 and 10, from 1 to 25 minutes, and then was measured the quantity of COD and phenol. It was found that in acid pH the ozone has increased the stability, because 82.19% of the ozone that enters in the column remains in solution. The phenol degradation was faster in alkaline solution (pH=10), where in 15 minutes of treatment, 99.7% of phenol was consumed. The COD removal increased from 7.3% in 6 minutes to 87.8% in 30 minutes, but the COD removal increases more slowly than that of phenol which was 53, 8% in 6 min, increasing to 99.2% at 25 min for pH=7. (author)

  10. Nitrogen oxides transport from La Cygne Station, KS: A study for assessing its influence on urban ozone. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenthal, D.L.

    1998-02-01

    As a result of the new ozone and PM 2.5 national ambient air quality standards, it appears that the Kansas City metropolitan area will be classified as nonattainment with respect to ozone. The Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) is planning to develop a new Kansas State Implementation Plan (SIP) to address this issue between 1997 and 2000 with implementation scheduled for 2004. Some Ozone Transport Assessment Group (OTAG) related air quality analyses have indicated that the Kansas City area is subject to surface and aloft windfields that could carry ozone or ozone precursors into Kansas City from outside the region, including from other parts of the state of Kansas. But questions have arisen whether or not local emission reductions would be more effective in achieving ozone standards. To better understand the causes of high ozone in the region and, specifically, to understand the role of emissions from certain power generating stations, the NO x Steering Committee was formed. The Committee includes representatives of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment and two local utility companies (Kansas City Power and Light (KCPL) and Western Resources). Input was also solicited from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This report presents the results of a scoping study commissioned by the Committee

  11. 75 FR 31306 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Interstate Transport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... courts.\\7\\ \\7\\ Michigan v. U.S. EPA, 213 F.3d 663, 674-681 (D.C. Cir. 2000); North Carolina v. EPA, 531 F.3d 896, 913-916 (D.C. Cir. 2008) (upholding EPA approach to determining threshold despite remanding... projected 4th max ozone reading for the year 2018, and as indicating that ``* * * air quality * * * will...

  12. 77 FR 66929 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Idaho; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... for the 1997 8-hour ozone and 1997 PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). \\2\\ Upon EPA....R. Simplot Don Plant, Nu West/Agrium, and P4 Production LLC (formerly Monsanto) and that EPA [[Page... additional five years (i.e., two years for modeling and 3 years to install emission controls) was needed for...

  13. Maternal exposure to ozone and PM{sub 2.5} and the prevalence of orofacial clefts in four U.S. states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ying, E-mail: yzhou2@cdc.gov [Environmental Health Tracking Branch, Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Gilboa, Suzanne M. [Birth Defects Branch, Division of Congenital and Developmental Disorders, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Herdt, Michele L. [New York State Department of Health, Center for Environmental Health, Albany, NY (United States); State University of New York at Albany, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Rensselaer, NY (United States); Lupo, Philip J. [Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Hematology-Oncology, Houston, TX (United States); Flanders, W. Dana [Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Liu, Yang [Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Shin, Mikyong [Environmental Health Tracking Branch, Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Canfield, Mark A. [Birth Defects Epidemiology and Surveillance Branch, Texas Department of State Health Services, Austin, TX (United States); Kirby, Russell S. [Department of Community and Family Health, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Background: While there is some evidence that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with orofacial clefts in offspring, the epidemiologic studies have been largely equivocal. We evaluated whether maternal exposure to elevated county-level ambient fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM{sub 2.5}) and ozone during early gestation was associated with a higher prevalence of orofacial clefts. Methods: Birth data consisting of 4.7 million births from 2001 to 2007 were obtained from National Birth Defects Prevention Network for four states — Arizona, Florida, New York (excluding New York City), and Texas. The air pollution exposure assessment for gestational weeks 5–10 was based on county-level average concentrations of PM{sub 2.5} and ozone data generated using a Bayesian fusion model available through CDC's Environmental Public Health Tracking Network. Two outcomes were analyzed separately: cleft lip with or without cleft palate, cleft palate alone. In logistic regression analyses, we adjusted for factors that were suspected confounders or modifiers of the association between the prevalence of orofacial clefts and air pollution, i.e., infant sex, race-ethnicity, maternal education, smoking status during pregnancy, whether this was mother's first baby, maternal age. Results: Each 10 µg/m{sup 3} increase in PM{sub 2.5} concentration was significantly associated with cleft palate alone (OR =1.43, 95% CI: 1.11–1.86). There was no significant association between PM{sub 2.5} concentration and cleft lip with or without cleft palate. No associations were observed between ozone exposure and the two outcomes of orofacial clefts. Conclusions: Our study suggests that PM{sub 2.5} significantly increased the risk of cleft palate alone, but did not change the incidence of cleft lip with or without palate. Ozone levels did not correlate with incidence of orofacial clefts. - Highlights: • This is a large study with about 4

  14. Maternal exposure to ozone and PM2.5 and the prevalence of orofacial clefts in four U.S. states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Ying; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Herdt, Michele L.; Lupo, Philip J.; Flanders, W. Dana; Liu, Yang; Shin, Mikyong; Canfield, Mark A.; Kirby, Russell S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: While there is some evidence that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with orofacial clefts in offspring, the epidemiologic studies have been largely equivocal. We evaluated whether maternal exposure to elevated county-level ambient fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ) and ozone during early gestation was associated with a higher prevalence of orofacial clefts. Methods: Birth data consisting of 4.7 million births from 2001 to 2007 were obtained from National Birth Defects Prevention Network for four states — Arizona, Florida, New York (excluding New York City), and Texas. The air pollution exposure assessment for gestational weeks 5–10 was based on county-level average concentrations of PM 2.5 and ozone data generated using a Bayesian fusion model available through CDC's Environmental Public Health Tracking Network. Two outcomes were analyzed separately: cleft lip with or without cleft palate, cleft palate alone. In logistic regression analyses, we adjusted for factors that were suspected confounders or modifiers of the association between the prevalence of orofacial clefts and air pollution, i.e., infant sex, race-ethnicity, maternal education, smoking status during pregnancy, whether this was mother's first baby, maternal age. Results: Each 10 µg/m 3 increase in PM 2.5 concentration was significantly associated with cleft palate alone (OR =1.43, 95% CI: 1.11–1.86). There was no significant association between PM 2.5 concentration and cleft lip with or without cleft palate. No associations were observed between ozone exposure and the two outcomes of orofacial clefts. Conclusions: Our study suggests that PM 2.5 significantly increased the risk of cleft palate alone, but did not change the incidence of cleft lip with or without palate. Ozone levels did not correlate with incidence of orofacial clefts. - Highlights: • This is a large study with about 4.7 million births and 7000

  15. Impact of the 2008 Global Recession on Air Quality over the United States: Implications for Surface Ozone Levels from Changes in NOx Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Daniel; Pan, Li; Chen, Weiwei; Lamsal, Lok; Lee, Pius; Tang, Youhua; Kim, Hyuncheol; Kondragunta, Shobha; Stajner, Ivanka

    2016-01-01

    Satellite and ground observations detected large variability in nitrogen oxides (NOx) during the 2008 economic recession, but the impact of the recession on air quality has not been quantified. This study combines observed NOx trends and a regional chemical transport model to quantify the impact of the recession on surface ozone (O3) levels over the continental United States. The impact is quantified by simulating O3 concentrations under two emission scenarios: business-as-usual (BAU) and recession. In the BAU case, the emission projection from the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule is used to estimate the would-be NOx emission level in 2011. In the recession case, the actual NO2 trends observed from Air Quality System ground monitors and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument on the Aura satellite are used to obtain realistic changes in NOx emissions. The model prediction with the recession effect agrees better with ground O3 observations over time and space than the prediction with the BAU emission. The results show that the recession caused a 12ppbv decrease in surface O3 concentration over the eastern United States, a slight increase (0.51ppbv) over the Rocky Mountain region, and mixed changes in the Pacific West. The gain in air quality benefits during the recession, however, could be quickly offset by the much slower emission reduction rate during the post-recession period.

  16. Ozone Layer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Research Centers Contact Us Share Ozone Layer Protection The stratospheric ozone layer is Earth’s “sunscreen” – protecting ... GreenChill Partnership Responsible Appliance Disposal (RAD) Program Ozone Protection vs. Ozone Pollution This website addresses stratospheric ozone ...

  17. 76 FR 47074 - Revision to the California State Implementation Plan; South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... California State Implementation Plan; South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District portion of the California State Implementation... Submittal A. What rule did the State submit? We are approving South Coast Air Quality Management District...

  18. Did States Use Implementation Discretion to Reduce the Stringency of NCLB? Evidence from a Database of State Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Vivian C.; Wing, Coady; Martin, David; Krishnamachari, Anandita

    2018-01-01

    When No Child Left Behind (NCLB) became law in 2002, it was viewed as an effort to create uniform standards for students and schools across the country. More than a decade later, we know surprisingly little about how states actually implemented NCLB and the extent to which state implementation decisions managed to undo the centralizing objectives…

  19. State Waste Discharge Permit ST-4502 Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN, M.J.; LECLAIR, M.D.

    2000-09-27

    Plan has been developed to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements set forth in Permit ST-3502 and as a line management tool for use in maintaining configuration control of permit as well as documentation used to implement permit requirements.

  20. State Waste Discharge Permit ST-4502 Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BROWN, M.J.; LECLAIR, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    Plan has been developed to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements set forth in Permit ST-3502 and as a line management tool for use in maintaining configuration control of permit as well as documentation used to implement permit requirements

  1. Implementation of a Simplified State Estimator for Wind Turbine Monitoring on an Embedded System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Theis Bo; Yang, Guangya; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2017-01-01

    system, including individual DER, is time consuming and numerically challenging. This paper presents the approach and results of implementing a simplified state estimator onto an embedded system for improving DER monitoring. The implemented state estimator is based on numerically robust orthogonal......The transition towards a cyber-physical energy system (CPES) entails an increased dependency on valid data. Simultaneously, an increasing implementation of renewable generation leads to possible control actions at individual distributed energy resources (DERs). A state estimation covering the whole...

  2. Assessing Early Implementation of State Autism Insurance Mandates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baller, Julia Berlin; Barry, Colleen L.; Shea, Kathleen; Walker, Megan M.; Ouellette, Rachel; Mandell, David S.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, health insurance coverage for autism spectrum disorder treatments has been historically limited. In response, as of 2015, 40 states and Washington, DC, have passed state autism insurance mandates requiring many health plans in the private insurance market to cover autism diagnostic and treatment services. This study examined…

  3. Effects of ozone-vegetation coupling on surface ozone air quality via biogeochemical and meteorological feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Mehliyar; Tai, Amos P. K.; Lombardozzi, Danica; Martin, Maria Val

    2017-02-01

    Tropospheric ozone is one of the most hazardous air pollutants as it harms both human health and plant productivity. Foliage uptake of ozone via dry deposition damages photosynthesis and causes stomatal closure. These foliage changes could lead to a cascade of biogeochemical and biogeophysical effects that not only modulate the carbon cycle, regional hydrometeorology and climate, but also cause feedbacks onto surface ozone concentration itself. In this study, we implement a semi-empirical parameterization of ozone damage on vegetation in the Community Earth System Model to enable online ozone-vegetation coupling, so that for the first time ecosystem structure and ozone concentration can coevolve in fully coupled land-atmosphere simulations. With ozone-vegetation coupling, present-day surface ozone is simulated to be higher by up to 4-6 ppbv over Europe, North America and China. Reduced dry deposition velocity following ozone damage contributes to ˜ 40-100 % of those increases, constituting a significant positive biogeochemical feedback on ozone air quality. Enhanced biogenic isoprene emission is found to contribute to most of the remaining increases, and is driven mainly by higher vegetation temperature that results from lower transpiration rate. This isoprene-driven pathway represents an indirect, positive meteorological feedback. The reduction in both dry deposition and transpiration is mostly associated with reduced stomatal conductance following ozone damage, whereas the modification of photosynthesis and further changes in ecosystem productivity are found to play a smaller role in contributing to the ozone-vegetation feedbacks. Our results highlight the need to consider two-way ozone-vegetation coupling in Earth system models to derive a more complete understanding and yield more reliable future predictions of ozone air quality.

  4. 75 FR 61367 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... Measure for Architectural Coatings,'' CARB, October 2007. 4. ``Improving Air Quality with Economic...

  5. 76 FR 70888 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... Quality Management District--SCAQMD) (1) Rule 1143, ``Consumer Paint Thinners & Multi-purpose Solvents...

  6. 77 FR 66780 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... Control Measure for Architectural Coatings,'' CARB, October 2007. 4. ``Improving Air Quality with Economic...

  7. 78 FR 45114 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) portion of the California State... for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). The Antelope Valley Air Pollution...

  8. 75 FR 27975 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan; Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... the environment, including premature mortality, aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular disease... the California State Implementation Plan; Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY... the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion of the California State...

  9. 77 FR 6016 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Tennessee: Prevention of Significant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... permitting requirements promulgated in the 1997 8-Hour Ozone national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS... thresholds for sources in certain classes of nonattainment areas for 8-hour ozone, carbon monoxide and...) addressing changes to offset ratios for marginal, moderate, serious, severe, and extreme ozone nonattainment...

  10. Protecting the ozone layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, M; King, K

    1992-06-01

    Stratospheric ozone layer depletion has been recognized as a problem by the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the 1987 Montreal Protocol (MP). The ozone layer shields the earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation (UV-B), which is more pronounced at the poles and around the equator. Industrialized countries have contributed significantly to the problem by releasing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons into the atmosphere. The effect of these chemicals, which were known for their inertness, nonflammability, and nontoxicity, was discovered in 1874. Action to deal with the effects of CFCs and halons was initiated in 1985 in a 49-nation UN meeting. 21 nations signed a protocol limiting ozone depleting substances (ODS): CFCs and halons. Schedules were set based on each country's use in 1986; the target phaseout was set for the year 2000. The MP restricts trade in ODSs and weights the impact of substances to reflect the extent of damage; i.e., halons are 10 times more damaging than CFCs. ODS requirements for developing countries were eased to accommodate scarce resources and the small fraction of ODS emissions. An Interim Multilateral Fund under the Montreal Protocol (IMFMP) was established to provide loans to finance the costs to developing countries in meeting global environmental requirements. The IMFMP is administered by the World Bank, the UN Environmental Program, and the UN Development Program. Financing is available to eligible countries who use .3 kg of ODS/person/year. Rapid phaseout in developed countries has occurred due to strong support from industry and a lower than expected cost. Although there are clear advantages to rapid phaseout, there were no incentives included in the MP for rapid phaseout. Some of the difficulties occur because the schedules set minimum targets at the lowest possible cost. Also, costs cannot be minimized by a country-specific and ODS-specific process. The ways to improve implementation in scheduling and

  11. Regional Assessment of Ozone Sensitive Tree Species Using Bioindicator Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston; Gretchen C. Smith; William D. Smith

    2003-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone occurs at phytotoxic levels in the northeastern and mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. Quantifying possible regional-scale impacts of ambient ozone on forest tree species is difficult and is confounded by other factors, such as moisture and light, which influence the uptake of ozone by plants. Biomonitoring provides an approach to document...

  12. State Prices and Implementation of the Recovery Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Backwell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is generally held that derivative prices do not contain useful predictive information, that is, information relating to the distribution of future financial variables under the real-world measure. This is because the market’s implicit forecast of the future becomes entangled with market risk preferences during derivative price formation. A result derived by Ross [1], however, recovers the real-world distribution of an equity index, requiring only current prices and mild restrictions on risk preferences. In addition to being of great interest to the theorist, the potential practical value of the result is considerable. This paper addresses implementation of the Ross Recovery Theorem. The theorem is formalised, extended, proved and discussed. Obstacles to application are identified and a workable implementation methodology is developed.

  13. 76 FR 47094 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan; South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... the California State Implementation Plan; South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District portion of the California State Implementation Plan... following local rule: South Coast Air Quality Management District Rule 1175, Control of Emissions from the...

  14. 75 FR 32353 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2010-0276; FRL-9139-8] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District portion of the California State Implementation Plan...

  15. 77 FR 32483 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2012-0236; FRL-9670-9] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District portion of the California State Implementation Plan...

  16. 76 FR 72142 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District portion of the California State Implementation Plan... Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not...

  17. 75 FR 25775 - Disapproval of State Implementation Plan Revisions, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2009-0573; FRL-9146-5] Disapproval of State Implementation Plan Revisions, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan...

  18. 77 FR 24148 - Revision to the Hawaii State Implementation Plan, Minor New Source Review Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2012-0213; FRL-9661-6] Revision to the Hawaii State Implementation Plan, Minor New Source Review Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... final action to approve revisions to the Hawaii State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions would...

  19. Secondary maxima in ozone profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lemoine

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone profiles from balloon soundings as well as SAGEII ozone profiles were used to detect anomalous large ozone concentrations of ozone in the lower stratosphere. These secondary ozone maxima are found to be the result of differential advection of ozone-poor and ozone-rich air associated with Rossby wave breaking events. The frequency and intensity of secondary ozone maxima and their geographical distribution is presented. The occurrence and amplitude of ozone secondary maxima is connected to ozone variability and trend at Uccle and account for a large part of the total ozone and lower stratospheric ozone variability.

  20. Implementation of California State School Competitive Food and Beverage Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Sarah E.; Hutchinson, Krista S.; Craypo, Lisa; Barry, Jason; Bullock, Sally L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Competitive foods and beverages are available on most US school campuses. States and school districts are adopting nutrition standards to regulate these products, but few studies have reported on the extent to which schools are able to adhere to competitive regulations. The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which…

  1. Guidance for States Implementing Comprehensive Safeguards Agreements and Additional Protocols (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This publication is aimed at enhancing States’ understanding of the safeguards obligations of both the State and the IAEA, and at improving the cooperation between States and the IAEA in safeguards implementation. It is principally intended for State or regional safeguards regulatory authorities and facility operators, and is a reference document that will be supported by detailed guidance and examples in ‘Safeguards Implementation Practices’ (SIPs) to be published separately

  2. Guidance for States Implementing Comprehensive Safeguards Agreements and Additional Protocols (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication is aimed at enhancing States’ understanding of the safeguards obligations of both the State and the IAEA, and at improving the cooperation between States and the IAEA in safeguards implementation. It is principally intended for State or regional safeguards regulatory authorities and facility operators, and is a reference document that will be supported by detailed guidance and examples in ‘Safeguards Implementation Practices’ (SIPs) to be published separately.

  3. Fostering member state implementation of the IAEA's transport regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brittinger, M.T.M.; Wangler, M.E.

    2004-01-01

    Based on a 1959 mandate from the United Nations Economic and Social Council, international safety requirements are embodied in the ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'' that were first published by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1961 and revised in 1967, 1973, 1985 and 1996 to keep them abreast of scientific and technical developments. The requirements are incorporated into the regulatory documents of the International Civil Aviation Organization for air transport, and the International Maritime Organization for marine transport. As the requirements of the latter documents are legally-binding for the member states of the corresponding organizations, the IAEA safety requirements thus also become mandatory in those countries. The same situation applies for the surface modes in Europe, by means of the regulatory documents of the European Community for rail, road and inland waterways. Nevertheless, the IAEA has not relaxed its efforts to ensure that its Transport Regulations stay abreast of scientific and technical developments; on the contrary, it has been undertaking a regular and vigorous review of its safety requirements, and continues to do so with the assistance of Member States and relevant international organizations. Beyond providing the regulatory basis for the safe transport of radioactive material, however, the IAEA also offers a work programme under which it assists Member States in complying with the regulatory requirements. This assistance comes in the form of providing training on the safety requirements, and publishing documents that facilitate the exchange of information

  4. 76 FR 16167 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Oklahoma; Regional Haze State Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... greatest distance, in kilometers or miles, at which a dark object can be viewed against the sky. In section... distinguished against the sky. The deciview is a useful measure for tracking progress in improving visibility...) the remaining useful life of any potentially affected sources. States must demonstrate in their SIPs...

  5. 76 FR 64185 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Arkansas; Regional Haze State Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... or miles, at which a dark object can be viewed against the sky. In section 169A of the 1977... greatest distance, in kilometers or miles, at which a dark object can just be distinguished against the sky... useful life of any potentially affected sources. States must demonstrate in their SIPs how these factors...

  6. 77 FR 11839 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Louisiana; Regional Haze State Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... sky. \\4\\ Areas designated as mandatory Class I Federal areas consist of national parks exceeding 6,000... which a dark object can just be distinguished against the sky. The deciview is a useful measure for...; and (4) the remaining useful life of any potentially affected sources. States must demonstrate in...

  7. 77 FR 39425 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Louisiana; Regional Haze State Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... the LA RH SIP submittal will trigger the ``two year sanction clock'' imposed by the CAA. The State... remainder of LA's RH SIP triggers a two-year FIP clock,\\7\\ but does not start a sanctions clock for... progress calculation, LTS, or RPGs, the EPA has no rational basis to determine that the Transport Rule...

  8. 75 FR 45483 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Implementation Plan Revision; State of New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... nitrogen (NO x ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from stationary... Truchan ( [email protected] ) concerning Subchapters 16 and 21, Anthony (Ted) Gardella ( gardella...), which will result in additional emission reductions of NO x and VOCs. New Jersey's State-adopted...

  9. 77 FR 24392 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Tennessee; Regional Haze State Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... ), and in some cases, ammonia and volatile organic compounds. Fine particle precursors react in the... compliance associated with wet scrubbers in evaluating possible BART controls. The State determined that the capital costs and control costs for the wet scrubbers were approximately $200,000,000 and $39,000,000...

  10. Ozone kinetics in low-pressure discharges: vibrationally excited ozone and molecule formation on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, Daniil; Guerra, Vasco; Guaitella, Olivier; Booth, Jean-Paul; Rousseau, Antoine

    2013-10-01

    A combined experimental and modeling investigation of the ozone kinetics in the afterglow of pulsed direct current discharges in oxygen is carried out. The discharge is generated in a cylindrical silica tube of radius 1 cm, with short pulse durations between 0.5 and 2 ms, pressures in the range 1-5 Torr and discharge currents ˜40-120 mA. Time-resolved absolute concentrations of ground-state atoms and ozone molecules were measured simultaneously in situ, by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence and ultraviolet absorption, respectively. The experiments were complemented by a self-consistent model developed to interpret the results and, in particular, to evaluate the roles of vibrationally excited ozone and of ozone formation on surfaces. It is found that vibrationally excited ozone, O_3^{*} , plays an important role in the ozone kinetics, leading to a decrease in the ozone concentration and an increase in its formation time. In turn, the kinetics of O_3^{*} is strongly coupled with those of atomic oxygen and O2(a 1Δg) metastables. Ozone formation at the wall does not contribute significantly to the total ozone production under the present conditions. Upper limits for the effective heterogeneous recombination probability of O atoms into ozone are established.

  11. Ozone kinetics in low-pressure discharges: vibrationally excited ozone and molecule formation on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinov, Daniil; Guaitella, Olivier; Booth, Jean-Paul; Rousseau, Antoine; Guerra, Vasco

    2013-01-01

    A combined experimental and modeling investigation of the ozone kinetics in the afterglow of pulsed direct current discharges in oxygen is carried out. The discharge is generated in a cylindrical silica tube of radius 1 cm, with short pulse durations between 0.5 and 2 ms, pressures in the range 1–5 Torr and discharge currents ∼40–120 mA. Time-resolved absolute concentrations of ground-state atoms and ozone molecules were measured simultaneously in situ, by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence and ultraviolet absorption, respectively. The experiments were complemented by a self-consistent model developed to interpret the results and, in particular, to evaluate the roles of vibrationally excited ozone and of ozone formation on surfaces. It is found that vibrationally excited ozone, O 3 * , plays an important role in the ozone kinetics, leading to a decrease in the ozone concentration and an increase in its formation time. In turn, the kinetics of O 3 * is strongly coupled with those of atomic oxygen and O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) metastables. Ozone formation at the wall does not contribute significantly to the total ozone production under the present conditions. Upper limits for the effective heterogeneous recombination probability of O atoms into ozone are established. (paper)

  12. Safeguards Implementation Practices Guide on Establishing and Maintaining State Safeguards Infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The IAEA implements safeguards pursuant to agreements concluded with States. It is in the interests of both States and the IAEA to cooperate to facilitate the practical implementation of safeguards. Such cooperation is explicitly required under all types of safeguards agreements. Effective cooperation depends upon States and the IAEA sharing a common understanding of their respective rights and obligations. To address this, in 2012 the IAEA published Services Series 21, Guidance for States Implementing Comprehensive Safeguards Agreements and Additional Protocols, which aimed at enhancing understanding of the safeguards obligations of both States and the IAEA and at improving their cooperation in safeguards implementation. States may establish different processes and procedures at the national level, and set up different systems as required to meet their safeguards obligations. Indeed, a variety of approaches are to be expected, owing to such differences as the size and complexity of States’ nuclear programmes and their regulatory framework. The purpose of this Safeguards Implementation Practices (SIP) Guide is to share the experiences and good practices as well as the lessons learned by both States and the IAEA, acquired over the many decades of safeguards implementation. The information contained in the SIP Guides is provided for explanatory purposes and use of the Guides is not mandatory. The descriptions in the SIP Guides have no legal status and are not intended to add to, subtract from, amend or derogate from, in any way, the rights and obligations of the IAEA and the States set forth in The Structure and Content of Agreements between the Agency and States Required in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (issued as INFCIRC/153 (Corrected)) and Model Protocol Additional to the Agreement(s) between State(s) and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards (issued as INFCIRC/540 (Corrected)). This

  13. 78 FR 59249 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ...] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State...'s Designee. (i) Incorporation by Reference. (A) South Coast Air Quality Management District. (1...

  14. Highlights of TOMS Version 9 Total Ozone Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartia, Pawan; Haffner, David

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental basis of TOMS total ozone algorithm was developed some 45 years ago by Dave and Mateer. It was designed to estimate total ozone from satellite measurements of the backscattered UV radiances at few discrete wavelengths in the Huggins ozone absorption band (310-340 nm). Over the years, as the need for higher accuracy in measuring total ozone from space has increased, several improvements to the basic algorithms have been made. They include: better correction for the effects of aerosols and clouds, an improved method to account for the variation in shape of ozone profiles with season, latitude, and total ozone, and a multi-wavelength correction for remaining profile shape errors. These improvements have made it possible to retrieve total ozone with just 3 spectral channels of moderate spectral resolution (approx. 1 nm) with accuracy comparable to state-of-the-art spectral fitting algorithms like DOAS that require high spectral resolution measurements at large number of wavelengths. One of the deficiencies of the TOMS algorithm has been that it doesn't provide an error estimate. This is a particular problem in high latitudes when the profile shape errors become significant and vary with latitude, season, total ozone, and instrument viewing geometry. The primary objective of the TOMS V9 algorithm is to account for these effects in estimating the error bars. This is done by a straightforward implementation of the Rodgers optimum estimation method using a priori ozone profiles and their error covariances matrices constructed using Aura MLS and ozonesonde data. The algorithm produces a vertical ozone profile that contains 1-2.5 pieces of information (degrees of freedom of signal) depending upon solar zenith angle (SZA). The profile is integrated to obtain the total column. We provide information that shows the altitude range in which the profile is best determined by the measurements. One can use this information in data assimilation and analysis. A side

  15. State of implementation of directive 2013/59/Euratom regarding radon protection in selected member states of the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Directive 2013/59/Euratom came 6th February 2014 into force. The member states have to implement the directive into national legislation until 6th of February 2018. According to different legal structures in the member states legislation will be comparable with regards to content, but may be implemented in different legal areas. Additionally the different current experience regarding radon regulation as well as different expertise with all aspects of radon protection will affect the implementation. Activities for implementation started in many member states, but at present it is not possible to make a mandatory statement for any member state, which modifications will come until 2018. On the other hand it is assumed that member states who have engaged themselves with radon protection issues since many years will not change their plans basically until 2018. The member states mentioned in the following text are chosen exemplary. A comprehensive compilation of the situation in all member states of the European Union was not possible. The inclusion of Switzerland resulted from the fact, that this European country is basically orientating its radon regulations on the international state of the art and international (also European) legislation.

  16. 77 FR 38246 - Revisions to the Arizona State Implementation Plan, Arizona Department of Environmental Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... premature mortality, aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular disease, decreased lung function... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Nitrogen dioxide, Ozone...

  17. 75 FR 38745 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... that no person shall cause, allow, or permit fugitive dust material to become airborne in such..., Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations, Lead, Nitrogen dioxide, Ozone, Particulate matter...

  18. The Antarctic ozone hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Anna E

    2008-01-01

    Since the mid 1970s, the ozone layer over Antarctica has experienced massive destruction during every spring. In this article, we will consider the atmosphere, and what ozone and the ozone layer actually are. We explore the chemistry responsible for the ozone destruction, and learn about why conditions favour ozone destruction over Antarctica. For the historical perspective, the events leading up to the discovery of the 'hole' are presented, as well as the response from the international community and the measures taken to protect the ozone layer now and into the future

  19. State and Federal project development procedures for bus rapid transit : managing differences and reducing implementation delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This report documents an investigation into the transportation project development process in the : context of the implementation of bus rapid transit systems on the State Highway System as well as such : systems being part of the Federal New Starts ...

  20. 76 FR 44535 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  1. 77 FR 12495 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District and Mojave Desert Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final... Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District (MDAQMD) portion of...

  2. 77 FR 2469 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District and Imperial... Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portions... Technology (RACT),'' adopted on February 23, 2010. * * * * * (G) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

  3. 76 FR 44493 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve revisions to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan...

  4. 77 FR 65133 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District AGENCY... limited disapproval of revisions to the Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District (MDAQMD) portion of.... * * * * * (c) * * * (379) * * * (i) * * * (E) Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 1159...

  5. 78 FR 21540 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management District and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct... Quality Management District (BCAQMD) and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD...

  6. 78 FR 21582 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management District and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Butte County Air Quality Management...

  7. 78 FR 59840 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ...] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District... of plan. * * * * * (c) * * * (428) * * * (i) * * * (B) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...) * * * (i) * * * (B) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 431.1, ``Sulfur Content of...

  8. 77 FR 12526 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District and Mojave Desert Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District...

  9. 76 FR 5276 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the... protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations, Nitrogen dioxide...

  10. SO2 NAAQS Implementation Training and Assistance for State and Local Air Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentations and training help air agencies understand the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for sulfur dioxide, how to engage the public in local emissions reduction programs, successful state implementation plan (SIP) development, and more.

  11. 76 FR 29783 - Agency Information Collection: Comment Request; The State of Ecosystem Services Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... services projects and the state-of-the-art processes through which projects are implemented. The survey will gather information concerning: Methods used in ecosystem services projects, motivations for...

  12. 75 FR 40726 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD...

  13. 75 FR 40762 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  14. 76 FR 52623 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... respiratory and cardiovascular disease, decreased lung function, visibility impairment, and damage to... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of...

  15. 75 FR 28509 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ..., aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular disease, decreased lung function, visibility impairment, and... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of...

  16. 76 FR 37044 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... premature mortality, aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular disease, decreased lung function... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of...

  17. 76 FR 38340 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... also harm human health and the environment by causing, among other things, premature mortality, aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular disease, visibility impairment, and damage to vegetation and... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District...

  18. Ozone: Good Up High, Bad Nearby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are already under stress from UV radiation. This stress could have adverse consequences for human food supplies from the oceans. What is Being Done About the Depletion of “Good” Ozone? The United States, along with over 180 ...

  19. Steps for Implementing a State-Level Professional Development Plan for Secondary Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotti, Valerie L.; Rowe, Dawn A.; Simonsen, Monica; Boaz, Bonnie; VanAvery, Cynthia

    2018-01-01

    To scale up and sustain the use of evidence-based practices, it is imperative that state education agencies systematically implement professional development that represents best practice. By delivering quality professional development to local districts, it is more likely that transition personnel will implement transition programs and practices…

  20. Adapting to Change: Teacher Perceptions of Implementing the Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Brooke A.; Beziat, Tara L. R.; Danley, Sheree; Davis, Kashara; Lowery, Holly; Lucas, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The current research study looked at secondary teachers' (grades 6-12) perceptions of their preparedness to implement the Common Core State Standards as well as their feelings about the training they have or have not received related to implementing the standards. The problem: Many conflicting views exist among teachers, parents, and others…

  1. 76 FR 54384 - California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District; Withdrawal of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2011-0537; FRL-9457-6] California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District; Withdrawal of Direct Final Rule... Implementation Plan (SIP). This revision concerned South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Rule 1143...

  2. 78 FR 7703 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Proposed Rule... approve a revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California... digesters. Rule 1127 was designed to implement the 2003 Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) control measure...

  3. 78 FR 889 - Finding of Substantial Inadequacy of Implementation Plan; Call for California State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... Resources Defense Council; and Physicians for Social Responsibility--Los Angeles, (``environmental and... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2012-0721; FRL-9767-3] Finding of Substantial Inadequacy of Implementation Plan; Call for California State Implementation Plan Revision; South...

  4. 78 FR 4804 - Revision to the Washington State Implementation Plan; Tacoma-Pierce County Nonattainment Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... Washington State Implementation Plan; Tacoma- Pierce County Nonattainment Area AGENCY: Environmental... Tacoma-Pierce County nonattainment area for the 2006 fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) National Ambient... Rules.'' The updated PSCAA rules help implement the recommendations of the Tacoma-Pierce County Clean...

  5. Energy summit Hessen. Implementation concept of the state government Hessen; Hessischer Energiegipfel. Umsetzungskonzept der Hessischen Landesregierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    By means of the concept under consideration, the state government of Hessen (Federal Republic of Germany) has pursued the possible and realistic course for the implementation of the targets of the energy summit. The main aspects of this contribution are the implementation of the energy policy of Hessen into the European and national framework; Status quo of the energy consumption in Hessen; Areas of action and measures of the state government of Hessen; Actors of the energy policy turnaround; Monitoring.

  6. 77 FR 50021 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... the required notice and comment procedures rendered the guidance invalid. NRDC v. EPA, 643 F.3d 311..., such as owners of mobile sources that also contribute to ozone formation. EPA also believes that... percent of ozone formation in SJVUAPCD.\\3\\ Our proposed action contains our analysis of how the District's...

  7. USDA Snack Policy Implementation: Best Practices From the Front Lines, United States, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Yuka; Chriqui, Jamie; Chavez, Noel; Odoms-Young, Angela; Handler, Arden

    2016-06-16

    The Smart Snacks in Schools interim final rule was promulgated by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) as authorized by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (PL 111-296) and implementation commenced beginning July 1, 2014; however, in the years leading up to this deadline, national studies suggested that most schools were far from meeting the USDA standards. Evidence to guide successful implementation of the standards is needed. This study examined snack policy implementation in exemplary high schools to learn best practices for implementation. Guided by a multiple case study approach, school professionals (n = 37) from 9 high schools across 8 states were recruited to be interviewed about perceptions of school snack implementation; schools were selected using criterion sampling on the basis of the HealthierUS Schools Challenge: Smarter Lunchrooms (HUSSC: SL) database. Interview transcripts and internal documents were organized and coded in ATLAS.Ti v7; 2 researchers coded and analyzed data using a constant comparative analysis method to identify best practice themes. Best practices for snack policy implementation included incorporating the HUSSC: SL award's comprehensive wellness approach; leveraging state laws or district policies to reinforce snack reform initiatives; creating strong internal and external partnerships; and crafting positive and strategic communications. Implementation of snack policies requires evidence of successful experiences from those on the front lines. As federal, state, and local technical assistance entities work to ensure implementation of the Smart Snacks standards, these best practices provide strategies to facilitate the process.

  8. Ozone Antimicrobial Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone is a potent germicide that has been used extensively for water purification. In Europe, 90 percent of the municipal water systems are treated with ozone, and in France, ozone has been used to treat drinking water since 1903. However, there is limited information on the bioc...

  9. IAEA's Implementation of the State-Level Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimble, D.; Ballenger, J.; Levis, G.

    2015-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has taken several steps over the years to strengthen its safeguards program, including successfully encouraging more countries to bring an Additional Protocol into force, increasing the number of countries that are subject to a broader range of safeguards measures, and upgrading its safeguards analytical laboratories. IAEA's latest strategy to further improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the safeguards programme is to expand implementation of the 'state-level concept' to all countries with safeguards agreements. The state-level concept is an approach in which IAEA considers a broad range of information about a country's nuclear capabilities and tailors its safeguards activities in each country accordingly. IAEA officials have stated that broader implementation of this approach will allow the agency to better allocate resources by reducing safeguards activities where there is no indication of undeclared nuclear activities and to focus its efforts on any issues of safeguards concern. Several member countries, including the United States, support IAEA's plans to broaden implementation of the state- level concept, but other member countries - including some countries with significant nuclear activities - have raised concerns that the agency has not clearly defined and communicated how the state-level concept will be implemented or how it will stay within bounds of the agency's existing legal authorities. In September 2012, the General Conference passed a resolution that included a request for IAEA's Secretariat to report to the Board of Governors on the conceptualization and development of the state-level concept. In August 2013, IAEA released that report to the Board of Governors and started briefing member states on its content. Our paper will discuss (1) IAEA's efforts to clearly define and communicate how IAEA will implement the state-level concept and (2) the status of its

  10. 77 FR 22676 - Revisions to the Arizona State Implementation Plan, Pinal County Air Quality Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... the Arizona State Implementation Plan, Pinal County Air Quality Control District AGENCY: Environmental... disapproval of a revision to the Pinal County Air Quality Control District portion of the Arizona State... the Control Officer to determine whether the manner of control of fugitive emissions is satisfactory...

  11. 77 FR 27671 - State of Hawaii; Regional Haze Federal Implementation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... High School in the Cafeteria, 155 W. Kawili St., Hilo, Hawaii 96720. To provide opportunities for... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2012-0345; FRL-9671-2] State of Hawaii... and June 1, 2012 for the proposed rule, ``State of Hawaii; Regional Haze Federal Implementation Plan...

  12. 76 FR 56132 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of... did the State submit? B. Are there other versions of this rule? C. What is the purpose of the...

  13. 78 FR 30768 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... ``significant regulatory action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order...

  14. 76 FR 41744 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2011-0537; FRL-9432-1] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State...

  15. 76 FR 29182 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2011-0030; FRL-9308-4] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District (MDAQMD) portion of the California State...

  16. 75 FR 46880 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2010-0503; FRL-9183-5] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State...

  17. 76 FR 78871 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2011-0897; FRL-9499-8] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State...

  18. 78 FR 56639 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ...] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); does...

  19. 76 FR 38589 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2011-0383; FRL-9428-1] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) portion of the California State...

  20. 78 FR 18853 - Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State...) * * * (411) * * * (i) * * * (F) South Coast Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 463, ``Organic Liquid...

  1. 76 FR 30896 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... overwhelmingly formed as a secondary pollutant. (South Coast 2007 Air Quality Management Plan, page ES-9...

  2. 75 FR 25798 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Yolo Solano Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2010-0286; FRL-9138-7] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Yolo Solano Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the Yolo-Solano Air Quality Management District (YSAQMD) portion of the California State...

  3. 77 FR 13495 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not...

  4. 76 FR 50128 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... not a ``significant regulatory action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under...

  5. 78 FR 18244 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State...'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October...

  6. 78 FR 5305 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... ``significant regulatory action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order...

  7. 77 FR 11992 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District AGENCY... limited disapproval of revisions to the Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District (MDAQMD) portion of...,'' Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management, December 2000. B. Does the rule meet the evaluation...

  8. 77 FR 58076 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... Quality Standards (NAAQS). The revisions to the primary and secondary Lead NAAQS were to provide increased...

  9. 76 FR 78805 - Regulatory Changes To Implement the United States/Australian Agreement for Peaceful Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... Implement the United States/Australian Agreement for Peaceful Nuclear Cooperation; Corrections AGENCY... the Government of Australia and the Government of the United States of America Concerning Peaceful... action is unnecessary. List of Subjects in 10 CFR Part 40 Criminal penalties, Government contracts...

  10. The Essence Of Government Shares Subscription A Review The Implementation Of State-Owned Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbanisasi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine and explain the mechanisms and the implementation of government share subscription in the implementation of SOEs legal standing of the government shares subscription in the implementation of the state budget that separated in the implementation of SOEs and its legal implications of state loss or not and also legal accountability for losses arising out of shares subscription of SOE. In this study the authors use normative legal research. The data obtained in this study will be analyzed using qualitative normative method with inductive logic. Results from the study indicate that state shares subscription in the establishment of SOE or limited company with funds derived from State Budget are separated. Thus the government no longer has any authority in the field of civil law as a business entity. A clear separation of the status of country as business and as government organizer carries consequences. With the separation then there is clarity about the concept of the state financial losses. SOE as one form of business entity that aim to make a profit is a separate legal entity and has responsibilities that are separately anyway though formed and capital originating from the state finances and the loss of one transaction or in legal entity cannot be categorized as a state finance loss because the state has functioned as a private legal entity.

  11. 77 FR 62452 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes AGENCY... (SIP) revision submitted by the State of Arizona to address the requirements regarding air pollution... air pollution emergency episodes in CAA section 110(a)(2)(G). Section 110(a)(2)(G) requires that each...

  12. Including Alternative Resources in State Renewable Portfolio Standards: Current Design and Implementation Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Bird, L.

    2012-11-01

    Currently, 29 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have instituted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). An RPS sets a minimum threshold for how much renewable energy must be generated in a given year. Each state policy is unique, varying in percentage targets, timetables, and eligible resources. This paper examines state experience with implementing renewable portfolio standards that include energy efficiency, thermal resources, and non-renewable energy and explores compliance experience, costs, and how states evaluate, measure, and verify energy efficiency and convert thermal energy. It aims to gain insights from the experience of states for possible federal clean energy policy as well as to share experience and lessons for state RPS implementation.

  13. Formation of Ozonic Compound and Used as Therapeutic Agent in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Ye, Chunyong; Min, Xinmin

    2018-03-01

    It has some encouraging results to use ozone in medicine. However, as ozone is usually in gas state, unstable and strong oxidability, it is difficult to be stored and used commonly. Ozone, ethylene, acrylic acid and the ozonic compounds were calculated to study the interaction between ozone and carrier material to form ozonide. The stability of the ozonide, or the bond strength between ozone and ions of carrier are controlled felicitously to release ozone from the ozonide with proper velocity. Ozone antimicrobial has been composed on the above principle. It can be used conveniently, especially for common families. There are some characteristics of ozone antimicrobial or ozone, such as universal applicability, efficiency and rapidity, security, strong penetrability, no drug resistance and sterilization and treatment simultaneity.

  14. How the redox state of tobacco 'Bel-W3' is modified in response to ozone and other environmental factors in a sub-tropical area?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Ana P.L.; Dafre, Marcelle; Rinaldi, Mirian C.S. [Instituto de Botanica, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingos, Marisa, E-mail: mmingos@superig.com.b [Instituto de Botanica, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    This study intended to determine whether the redox state in plants of Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel-W3' fluctuates in response to the environmental factors in a sub-tropical area contaminated by ozone (Sao Paulo, SE - Brazil) and which environmental factors are related to this fluctuation, discussing their biomonitoring efficiency. We comparatively evaluated the indicators of redox state (ascorbic acid, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) and leaf injury in 17 field experiments performed in 2008. The redox state was explained by the combined effects of chronic levels of O{sub 3} and meteorological variables 4-6 days prior to the plant sampling. Moderate leaf injury was observed in most cases. The redox state of tobacco decreases few days after their placement in the sub-tropical environment, causing them to become susceptible to oxidative stress imposed by chronic doses of O{sub 3}. Its bioindicator efficiency would not be diminished in such levels of atmospheric contamination. - Research highlights: Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel-W3' is potentially a bioindicator of O{sub 3} in the sub-tropics. However, it is unknown if its redox state would affect its bioindicator performance under sub-tropical environmental conditions. This study revealed that the redox state of tobacco decreases few days after their placement in the sub-tropical environment, causing them to become susceptible to oxidative stress imposed by chronic doses of O{sub 3}. Therefore, its bioindicator efficiency would not be diminished in such levels of atmospheric contamination. However, the bioindicator efficiency N. tabacum 'Bel-W3' for biomonitoring O{sub 3} should be regionally modeled in the sub-tropics, based on both its redox state and on the flux of O{sub 3} through stomata, in response to the varying micro-meteorological conditions that govern both physiological processes. - The bioindicator efficiency of tobacco plants is not

  15. How the redox state of tobacco 'Bel-W3' is modified in response to ozone and other environmental factors in a sub-tropical area?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Ana P.L.; Dafre, Marcelle; Rinaldi, Mirian C.S.; Domingos, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    This study intended to determine whether the redox state in plants of Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel-W3' fluctuates in response to the environmental factors in a sub-tropical area contaminated by ozone (Sao Paulo, SE - Brazil) and which environmental factors are related to this fluctuation, discussing their biomonitoring efficiency. We comparatively evaluated the indicators of redox state (ascorbic acid, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) and leaf injury in 17 field experiments performed in 2008. The redox state was explained by the combined effects of chronic levels of O 3 and meteorological variables 4-6 days prior to the plant sampling. Moderate leaf injury was observed in most cases. The redox state of tobacco decreases few days after their placement in the sub-tropical environment, causing them to become susceptible to oxidative stress imposed by chronic doses of O 3 . Its bioindicator efficiency would not be diminished in such levels of atmospheric contamination. - Research highlights: → Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel-W3' is potentially a bioindicator of O 3 in the sub-tropics. → However, it is unknown if its redox state would affect its bioindicator performance under sub-tropical environmental conditions. → This study revealed that the redox state of tobacco decreases few days after their placement in the sub-tropical environment, causing them to become susceptible to oxidative stress imposed by chronic doses of O 3 . → Therefore, its bioindicator efficiency would not be diminished in such levels of atmospheric contamination. → However, the bioindicator efficiency N. tabacum 'Bel-W3' for biomonitoring O 3 should be regionally modeled in the sub-tropics, based on both its redox state and on the flux of O 3 through stomata, in response to the varying micro-meteorological conditions that govern both physiological processes. - The bioindicator efficiency of tobacco plants is not restrained under chronic doses of O 3 in

  16. 76 FR 36875 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; South Carolina: Prevention of Significant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... requirements pertaining to NO X as an ozone precursor into the South Carolina SIP. b. NSR PM2.5 Rule With...-0958-201119; FRL-9322- 6] Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; South Carolina: Prevention.... SUMMARY: EPA is taking final action to approve three revisions to the South Carolina State Implementation...

  17. 78 FR 28550 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lake and Porter Counties...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R05-OAR-2013-0021;EPA-R05-OAR-2013-0022; FRL-9812-3] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lake and Porter... Porter State Implementation Plans (SIPs) for the 1997 8-hour ozone standard, and the 1997 annual fine...

  18. Earth's ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasa, J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper contain the actual results of investigations of the influence of the human activity on the Earth's ozone layer. History of the ozone measurements and of the changes in its concentrations within the last few years are given. The influence of the trace gases on both local and global ozone concentrations are discussed. The probable changes of the ozone concentrations are presented on the basis of the modelling investigations. The effect of a decrease in global ozone concentration on human health and on biosphere are also presented. (author). 33 refs, 36 figs, 5 tabs

  19. Data used in the analysis presented in the manuscript "Dynamic Evaluation of Two Decades of WRF-CMAQ Ozone Simulations over the Contiguous United States"

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Files containing daily maximum 8-hr ozone mixing ratio observations and WRF/CMAQ simulations used in the analysis presented in the manuscript “Dynamic Evaluation of...

  20. Analyzing the United States Department of Transportation's Implementation Strategy for High Speed Rail: Three Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ryan

    High-speed rail (HSR) has become a major contributor to the transportation sector with a strong push by the Obama Administration and the Department of Transportation to implement high-speed rail in the United States. High-speed rail is a costly transportation alternative that has the potential displace some car and airport travel while increase energy security and environmental sustainability. This thesis will examine the United States high-speed rail implementation strategy by comparing it to the implementation strategies of France, Japan, and Germany in a multiple case study under four main criteria of success: economic profitability, reliability, safety, and ridership. Analysis will conclude with lessons to be taken away from the case studies and applied to the United States strategy. It is important to understand that this project has not been established to create a comprehensive implementation plan for high-speed rail in the United States; rather, this project is intended to observe the depth and quality of the current United States implementation strategy and make additional recommendations by comparing it with France, Japan, and Germany.

  1. Tropospheric Ozone and Photochemical Smog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillman, S.

    2003-12-01

    emitted species, in a process that is driven by sunlight and is accelerated by warm temperatures. This smog is largely the product of gasoline-powered engines (especially automobiles), although coal-fired industry can also generate photochemical smog. The process of photochemical smog formation was first identified by Haagen-Smit and Fox (1954) in association with Los Angeles, a city whose geography makes it particularly susceptible to this type of smog formation. Sulfate aerosols and organic particulates are often produced concurrently with ozone, giving rise to a characteristic milky-white haze associated with this type of air pollution.Today ozone and particulates are recognized as the air pollutants that are most likely to affect human health adversely. In the United States, most major metropolitan areas have periodic air pollution events with ozone in excess of government health standards. Violations of local health standards also occur in major cities in Canada and in much of Europe. Other cities around the world (especially Mexico City) also experience very high ozone levels. In addition to urban-scale events, elevated ozone occurs in region-wide events in the eastern USA and in Western Europe, with excess ozone extending over areas of 1,000 km2 or more. Ozone plumes of similar extent are found in the tropics (especially in Central Africa) at times of high biomass burning (e.g., Jenkins et al., 1997; Chatfield et al., 1998). In some cases ozone associated with biomass burning has been identified at distances up to 104 km from its sources (Schultz et al., 1999).Ozone also has a significant impact on the global troposphere, and ozone chemistry is a major component of global tropospheric chemistry. Global background ozone concentrations are much lower than urban or regional concentrations during pollution events, but there is evidence that the global background has increased as a result of human activities (e.g., Wang and Jacob, 1998; Volz and Kley, 1988). A rise in

  2. Attribution of ozone changes to dynamical and chemical processes in CCMs and CTMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Garny

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemistry-climate models (CCMs are commonly used to simulate the past and future development of Earth's ozone layer. The fully coupled chemistry schemes calculate the chemical production and destruction of ozone interactively and ozone is transported by the simulated atmospheric flow. Due to the complexity of the processes acting on ozone it is not straightforward to disentangle the influence of individual processes on the temporal development of ozone concentrations. A method is introduced here that quantifies the influence of chemistry and transport on ozone concentration changes and that is easily implemented in CCMs and chemistry-transport models (CTMs. In this method, ozone tendencies (i.e. the time rate of change of ozone are partitioned into a contribution from ozone production and destruction (chemistry and a contribution from transport of ozone (dynamics. The influence of transport on ozone in a specific region is further divided into export of ozone out of that region and import of ozone from elsewhere into that region. For this purpose, a diagnostic is used that disaggregates the ozone mixing ratio field into 9 separate fields according to in which of 9 predefined regions of the atmosphere the ozone originated. With this diagnostic the ozone mass fluxes between these regions are obtained. Furthermore, this method is used here to attribute long-term changes in ozone to chemistry and transport. The relative change in ozone from one period to another that is due to changes in production or destruction rates, or due to changes in import or export of ozone, are quantified. As such, the diagnostics introduced here can be used to attribute changes in ozone on monthly, interannual and long-term time-scales to the responsible mechanisms. Results from a CCM simulation are shown here as examples, with the main focus of the paper being on introducing the method.

  3. Solid-state Ceramic Laser Material for Remote Sensing of Ozone Using Nd:Yttria, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tunable solid state lasers have played an important role in providing the technology necessary for active remote sensing of the atmosphere. Recently, polycrystalline...

  4. 76 FR 26224 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) and Mendocino County Air Quality Management District (MCAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). Both districts are required under Part C of title I of the Clean Air Act (CAA) to adopt and implement SIP- approved Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permit programs. These proposed revisions update the definitions used in the districts' PSD permit programs.

  5. 76 FR 26192 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) and Mendocino County Air Quality Management District (MCAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). Both districts are required under Part C of title I of the Clean Air Act (CAA) to adopt and implement SIP-approved Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permit programs. These revisions update the definitions used in the districts' PSD permit programs.

  6. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentrations on stratospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boughner, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    During the past several years, much attention has been focused on the destruction of ozone by anthropogenic pollutants such as the nitrogen oxides and chlorofluoromethane. Little or no attention has been given to the influence on ozone of an increased carbon dioxide concentration for which a measurable growth has been observed. Increased carbon dioxide can directly affect ozone by perturbing atmospheric temperatures, which will alter ozone production, whose rate displays a fairly strong temperature dependence. This paper presents one-dimensional model results for the steady state ozone behavior when the CO 2 concentration is twice its ambient level which account for coupling between chemistry and temperature. When the CO 2 level doubled, the total ozone burden increased in relation to the ambient burden by 1.2--2.5%, depending on the vertical diffusion coefficient used. Above 30 km. In this region the relation variations were insensitive to the choice of diffusion coefficient. Below 30 km, ozone concentrations were smaller than the unperturbed values and were sensitive to the vertical diffusion profile in this region (10--30 km). Ozone decreases in the lower stratosphere because of a reduction in ozone-producing solar radiation, which results in smaller downward ozone fluxes from the region at 25--30 km relative to the flux values for the ambient atmosphere. These offsetting changes occurring in the upper and lower stratosphere act to minimize the variation in total ozone

  7. Implementing nonprojective measurements via linear optics: An approach based on optimal quantum-state discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loock, Peter van; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J.; Raynal, Philippe; Luetkenhaus, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the problem of implementing generalized measurements [positive operator-valued measures (POVMs)] with linear optics, either based upon a static linear array or including conditional dynamics. In our approach, a given POVM shall be identified as a solution to an optimization problem for a chosen cost function. We formulate a general principle: the implementation is only possible if a linear-optics circuit exists for which the quantum mechanical optimum (minimum) is still attainable after dephasing the corresponding quantum states. The general principle enables us, for instance, to derive a set of necessary conditions for the linear-optics implementation of the POVM that realizes the quantum mechanically optimal unambiguous discrimination of two pure nonorthogonal states. This extends our previous results on projection measurements and the exact discrimination of orthogonal states

  8. 76 FR 21835 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Interstate Transport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ...) held a public hearing in December 2009 for the Interstate Transport SIP revision: ``State of Colorado... evaluated in the Transport Rule Proposal may be evaluated using a weight-of-evidence approach that takes... States Design Values Memo takes the same approach as the Transport Rule Proposal (5 year weighted average...

  9. 78 FR 29314 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Utah; Interstate Transport of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ...: Direct your comments to Docket ID No. EPA-R08-OAR- 2012-0350. EPA's policy is that all comments received... reiterated the recommendations for western states made by EPA in previous guidance addressing the 110(a)(2)(D... stated that EPA was working on a new rule to replace CAIR that would address issues raised by the court...

  10. Ozone and NOx chemistry in the eastern US: evaluation of CMAQ/CB05 with satellite (OMI data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Canty

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory air quality models, such as the Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ, are used by federal and state agencies to guide policy decisions that determine how to best achieve adherence with National Ambient Air Quality Standards for surface ozone. We use observations of ozone and its important precursor NO2 to test the representation of the photochemistry and emission of ozone precursors within CMAQ. Observations of tropospheric column NO2 from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI, retrieved by two independent groups, show that the model overestimates urban NO2 and underestimates rural NO2 under all conditions examined for July and August 2011 in the US Northeast. The overestimate of the urban to rural ratio of tropospheric column NO2 for this baseline run of CMAQ (CB05 mechanism, mobile NOx emissions from the National Emissions Inventory; isoprene emissions from MEGAN v2.04 suggests this model may underestimate the importance of interstate transport of NOx. This CMAQ simulation leads to a considerable overestimate of the 2-month average of 8 h daily maximum surface ozone in the US Northeast, as well as an overestimate of 8 h ozone at AQS sites during days when the state of Maryland experienced NAAQS exceedances. We have implemented three changes within CMAQ motivated by OMI NO2 as well as aircraft observations obtained in July 2011 during the NASA DISCOVER-AQ campaign: (a the modeled lifetime of organic nitrates within CB05 has been reduced by a factor of 10, (b emissions of NOx from mobile sources has been reduced by a factor of 2, and (c isoprene emissions have been reduced by using MEGAN v2.10 rather than v2.04. Compared to the baseline simulation, the CMAQ run using all three of these changes leads to considerably better simulation of column NO2 in both urban and rural areas, better agreement with the 2-month average of daily 8 h maximum ozone in the US Northeast, fewer number of false positives of an ozone exceedance

  11. 40 CFR 52.377 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.377 Section 52.377 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.377 Control strategy: Ozone. (a...

  12. 40 CFR 52.66 - Control Strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Strategy: Ozone. 52.66 Section 52.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.66 Control Strategy: Ozone. (a) The...

  13. 40 CFR 52.582 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.582 Section 52.582 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Georgia> § 52.582 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) Approval...

  14. 40 CFR 52.930 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.930 Section 52.930 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.930 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) The VOC...

  15. 40 CFR 52.350 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.350 Section 52.350 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.350 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions...

  16. 40 CFR 52.476 - Control strategy: ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: ozone. 52.476 Section 52.476 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.476 Control strategy: ozone. (a...

  17. Ozone injury to celery. [Apium graveolens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, S.

    1966-10-01

    Ozone is the principal air pollutant damaging crops in Connecticut. Ozone injury in Connecticut has been found on a number of crops including tobacco, tomatoes, potatoes, spinach, alfalfa, and cereals. This is the first report of ozone damage to celery (Apium graveolens var. dulce) in Connecticut, and perhaps in the United States. On July 7, 1966, celery plants with badly damaged older leaves were found in a commercial garden near Shelton, Connecticut. The injured leaves showed chlorotic and necrotic interveinal areas on their upper surfaces. These areas were slightly depressed. Cross sections of the lesions revealed that the palisade cells were most severely injured. Spinach and carrots growing near the celery showed typical symptoms of ozone damage. To substantiate the diagnosis, young celery plants were exposed to 0.2 ppm of ozone in a well-lighted plastic chamber for 1 to 3 hours. Five days later, these plants developed symptoms indentical to those found on celery in the field. Ozone damage appeared on many crops in southern Connecticut early in July. This injury probably occurred on June 27, when a high concentration of ozone (0.1 ppm) was present in the New Haven area.

  18. 77 FR 30087 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... and 81 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards; Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: Nonattainment Area Classifications...-9668-2] RIN 2060-AP37 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality...

  19. 40 CFR 96.340 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.340 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.340 State trading budgets. (a) Except as provided in...

  20. 77 FR 11827 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Maryland; Regional Haze...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... geographic area and emit PM 2.5 (e.g., sulfates, nitrates, organic carbon, elemental carbon, and soil dust... Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) version 4.5.1 is a photochemical grid model capable of addressing ozone, PM...

  1. Sensitivity of Ambient Atmospheric Formaldehyde and Ozone to Precursor Species and Source Types Across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is an important air pollutant from both an atmospheric chemistry and human health standpoint. This study uses an instrumented photochemical Air Quality Model, CMAQ-DDM, to identify the sensitivity of HCHO concentrations across the United States (U.S.) to major...

  2. 77 FR 76871 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... or rational explanation for how it considered the five factors within the context of this threshold... not better than BART. According to commenters, given that 40 CFR 51.308(e)(2)(C) requires states to...

  3. US EPA Nonattainment Areas and Designations-8 Hour Ozone (2008 NAAQS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web service contains the following layers: Ozone 2008 NAAQS NAA State Level and Ozone 2008 NAAQS NAA National Level. Full FGDC metadata records for each layer...

  4. US EPA Nonattainment Areas and Designations-8 Hour Ozone (1997 NAAQS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web service contains the following layers: Ozone 1997 NAAQS NAA State Level and Ozone 1997 NAAQS NAA National Level. Full FGDC metadata records for each layer...

  5. Poverty Reduction Programme in Nigeria: An Assessment of its Implementation in Enugu State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilichukwu A. Omemma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study has as its main thrust the evaluation of the implementation of the national poverty reduction programme in Enugu State of Nigeria. Using cross-sectional and exploratory methods of data collection and analysis, the study discovered that, compared to most states in other parts of the country, Enugu State has a low poverty profile owing to the relative positive impact of the implementation of poverty alleviation programme. Nevertheless, policy inconsistency and mismanagement deny the programme from becoming a total success; hence the existence of a larger number of citizens that are in absolute poverty. It is therefore suggested that the way out of the ineffective poverty reduction programme in Enugu State is the effective monitoring mechanism and the creation of an enabling environment for wealth creation and employment generation.

  6. The stratospheric ozone and the ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zea Mazo, Jorge Anibal; Leon Aristizabal Gloria Esperanza; Eslava Ramirez Jesus Antonio

    2000-01-01

    An overview is presented of the principal characteristics of the stratospheric ozone in the Earth's atmosphere, with particular emphasis on the tropics and the ozone hole over the poles. Some effects produced in the atmosphere as a consequence of the different human activities will be described, and some data on stratospheric ozone will be shown. We point out the existence of a nucleus of least ozone in the tropics, stretching from South America to central Africa, with annual mean values less than 240 DU, a value lower than in the middle latitudes and close to the mean values at the South Pole. The existence of such a minimum is confirmed by mean values from measurements made on satellites or with earthbound instruments, for different sectors in Colombia, like Medellin, Bogota and Leticia

  7. Fock-state view of weak-value measurements and implementation with photons and atomic ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Christoph; Polzik, Eugene S.

    2011-01-01

    Weak measurements in combination with postselection can give rise to a striking amplification effect (related to a large ''weak value''). We show that this effect can be understood by viewing the initial state of the pointer as the ground state of a fictional harmonic oscillator. This perspective clarifies the relationship between the weak-value regime and other measurement techniques and inspires a proposal to implement fully quantum weak-value measurements combining photons and atomic ensembles.

  8. Safeguards Implementation Guide for States with Small Quantities Protocols (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) works to enhance the contribution of nuclear energy for peace and prosperity around the world, while helping to ensure that nuclear material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. In implementing safeguards, the IAEA plays an instrumental independent verification role, providing credible assurances that States' safeguards commitments are being respected. Most of the world's non-nuclear-weapon States (NNWSs) have concluded comprehensive safeguards agreements (CSAs) with the IAEA, pursuant to the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The IAEA and States are required to cooperate in the implementation of such agreements. Effective cooperation demonstrates a State's commitment to the peaceful use of nuclear energy and furthers the State's national interests by reducing the risk of unauthorized use of nuclear material. Over 100 NNWSs party to the NPT have very limited quantities of nuclear material and have concluded protocols to their CSAs which hold in abeyance many procedures in Part II of a CSA. These protocols are referred to as 'small quantities protocols' or 'SQPs' and remain in effect as long as the State meets certain eligibility criteria. The purpose of an SQP is to reduce the burden of safeguards implementation for States with little or no nuclear activities, while retaining the integrity of the safeguards system. States with SQPs have very important obligations they must fulfil under their CSAs. In 1997, as part of the IAEA's efforts to strengthen its safeguards system, the Model Additional Protocol to the Agreement(s) between State(s) and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards was developed to provide the IAEA with broader access to information and locations, thus significantly increasing the IAEA's ability to provide assurance of the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities in States. Many States with SQPs have

  9. Safeguards Implementation Guide for States with Small Quantities Protocols (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) works to enhance the contribution of nuclear energy for peace and prosperity around the world, while helping to ensure that nuclear material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. In implementing safeguards, the IAEA plays an instrumental independent verification role, providing credible assurances that States' safeguards commitments are being respected. Most of the world's non-nuclear-weapon States (NNWSs) have concluded comprehensive safeguards agreements (CSAs) with the IAEA, pursuant to the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The IAEA and States are required to cooperate in the implementation of such agreements. Effective cooperation demonstrates a State's commitment to the peaceful use of nuclear energy and furthers the State's national interests by reducing the risk of unauthorized use of nuclear material. Over 100 NNWSs party to the NPT have very limited quantities of nuclear material and have concluded protocols to their CSAs which hold in abeyance many procedures in Part II of a CSA. These protocols are referred to as 'small quantities protocols' or 'SQPs' and remain in effect as long as the State meets certain eligibility criteria. The purpose of an SQP is to reduce the burden of safeguards implementation for States with little or no nuclear activities, while retaining the integrity of the safeguards system. States with SQPs have very important obligations they must fulfil under their CSAs. In 1997, as part of the IAEA's efforts to strengthen its safeguards system, the Model Additional Protocol to the Agreement(s) between State(s) and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards was developed to provide the IAEA with broader access to information and locations, thus significantly increasing the IAEA's ability to provide assurance of the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities in States. Many States with SQPs have

  10. Exploring Factors Affecting Implementation of Public Private Partnership Housing Projects in Bauchi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Sani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Public Private Partnership (PPP Housing scheme in Nigeria is intended to complement government effort toward increasing housing stock and providing affordable housing in the country. However, Bauchi state government adopted the construction of 5,000 phases PPP Housing. But 6 years after the commencement of the scheme, only a few numbers of housing units were completed and commissioned. Therefore, it becomes imperative to carry out research on the impact level of those factors affecting the implementation of the scheme. The aim of the study is to investigate impact level of factors affecting the implementation of PPP housing projects in Bauchi state with a view to find out possible ways that will improve the implementation of the scheme. The descriptive and explorative research design was adopted for this study. 54 structured Questionnaires were administered to construction professional’s staff under private housing developers and relevant government agencies in Bauchi state. 42 valid Questionnaires were retrieved and analysed with SPSS software. The result of the quantitative data analysis shows that creation of favourable investment environment and government support have very high Impact on the implementation of Bauchi PPP housing projects. Therefore, this study recommends that government and other stakeholders should give more attention to the creation of favourable investment environment, support in policy formulation and managerial strategies in the future for improving the implementation of PPP housing projects.

  11. Ozone therapy in periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, G; Mansi, B

    2012-02-22

    Gingival and Periodontal diseases represent a major concern both in dentistry and medicine. The majority of the contributing factors and causes in the etiology of these diseases are reduced or treated with ozone in all its application forms (gas, water, oil). The beneficial biological effects of ozone, its anti-microbial activity, oxidation of bio-molecules precursors and microbial toxins implicated in periodontal diseases and its healing and tissue regeneration properties, make the use of ozone well indicated in all stages of gingival and periodontal diseases. The primary objective of this article is to provide a general review about the clinical applications of ozone in periodontics. The secondary objective is to summarize the available in vitro and in vivo studies in Periodontics in which ozone has been used. This objective would be of importance to future researchers in terms of what has been tried and what the potentials are for the clinical application of ozone in Periodontics.

  12. 75 FR 1715 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD) portion of the...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control...

  13. 77 FR 14265 - To Implement the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... threat thereof to a domestic industry producing certain textile or apparel articles. 9. Executive Order... apparel goods. 8. Subtitle C of title III of the Implementation Act authorizes the President to take... exclusion of certain textile and apparel goods from the customs territory of the United States and to direct...

  14. An effective, robust and parallel implementation of an interior point algorithm for limit state optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dollerup, Niels; Jepsen, Michael S.; Frier, Christian

    2014-01-01

    A robust and effective finite element based implementation of lower bound limit state analysis applying an interior point formulation is presented in this paper. The lower bound formulation results in a convex optimization problem consisting of a number of linear constraints from the equilibrium...

  15. 75 FR 8008 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY... limited disapproval of revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion of... soils in open and agricultural areas. We are proposing action on local rules that regulate these...

  16. Implementation of Unified English Braille by Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sunggye; Rosenblum, L. Penny; Campbell, Amy Frank

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study analyzed survey responses from 141 teachers of students with visual impairments who shared their experiences about the implementation of Unified English Braille (UEB). Methods: Teachers of students with visual impairments in the United States completed an online survey during spring 2016. Results: Although most respondents…

  17. Fidelity of Implementation of a State Antibullying Policy with a Focus on Protected Social Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, William J.; Chapman, Mimi V.

    2018-01-01

    Bullying threatens the mental and educational well-being of students. All states have enacted antibullying laws. This study surveyed 634 educators about the implementation of the North Carolina School Violence Prevention Act, which enumerated social classes protected from bullying: race, national origin, gender, socioeconomic status, sexual…

  18. The Design and Implementation of a Peer Mentoring Program for International Students at Morehead State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Donell Cochran

    2017-01-01

    Peer mentoring is a way to help guide and form valuable relationships between two or more students and plays an important role in the success, both academically and socially, of students. At Morehead State University (MSU), the International Peer Mentoring Program (IPMP) was designed and implemented in the Fall of 2016 to assist in the academic…

  19. 78 FR 57267 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Missouri; Conformity of General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... improves the process entities use to demonstrate their actions will not contribute to a NAAQS violation... the process for implementation of these measures should include any necessary funding and tracking of..., petitions for judicial review of this action must be filed in the United States Court of Appeals for the...

  20. 78 FR 63394 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Idaho: State Board Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R10-OAR-2013-0548, FRL-9901-76-Region 10] Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Idaho: State Board Requirements AGENCY: Environmental..., dated June 26, 2013, and Idaho Code Sec. Sec. 59-701 through 705, Ethics in Government Act, and...

  1. 75 FR 69910 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, California Air Resources Board-Consumer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ...'s national Consumer Products rule. The TSD has more information on our evaluation. C. Public Comment... the California State Implementation Plan, California Air Resources Board--Consumer Products AGENCY... revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from consumer products. We are approving a local...

  2. 76 FR 62004 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, California Air Resources Board-Consumer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products. B. Does the rule meet the evaluation criteria... the California State Implementation Plan, California Air Resources Board--Consumer Products AGENCY... revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from consumer products. We are approving a local...

  3. 76 FR 28934 - Approval and Disapproval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plan Revisions; Infrastructure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... for sample collection, handling, and analysis. Ambient air monitoring data is subject to strict... recorded. The provisions in state law for the collection and analysis of ambient air quality data are... implementation of any provision of the Montana SIP. Montana devotes adequate resources to SIP development and...

  4. 78 FR 18936 - Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2012-0920; FRL-9779-1] Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management Plan AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve a revision to the South...

  5. 76 FR 29153 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve revisions to the Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District (MDAQMD) portion of the California... approving with the dates that they were adopted by the Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District (MDAQMD...

  6. 78 FR 58459 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District, South Coast Air Quality Management District and Ventura.... SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District...

  7. 77 FR 2496 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2011-0987; FRL-9617-5] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District and Imperial... rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

  8. 76 FR 40303 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... limited disapproval of revisions to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of... designated nonattainment for the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  9. 75 FR 32293 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve revisions to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California... submit regulations that control the primary and secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS...

  10. 76 FR 78829 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve a revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California... Reference (A) South Coast Air Quality Management District (1) Rule 2005, ``New Source Review for RECLAIM...

  11. 77 FR 39181 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District (MDAQMD) and Yolo-Solano Air Quality Management District (YSAQMD) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 1165, ``Glass Melting Furnaces,'' amended on August 25, 2008...

  12. 77 FR 74372 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... of South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Rule 317, ``Clean Air Act Non- Attainment Fee... of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. South Coast Air Quality Management District v. EPA...

  13. 78 FR 49992 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2013-0394; FRL-9845-4] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District and Ventura... rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

  14. 76 FR 50891 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) AGENCY... sources, to achieve emissions reductions milestones, to attain and maintain ambient air quality standards... ``significant regulatory action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order...

  15. 77 FR 11990 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District and Yolo-Solano Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Mojave Desert Air Quality Management...

  16. 76 FR 38572 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) portion of the... approving with the dates that they were adopted by the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District...

  17. 78 FR 49925 - Revisions to California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District and Ventura County Air...: EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Air Management District (AVAQMD) and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) portions of the...

  18. 77 FR 12493 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Feather River Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Feather River Air Quality Management District AGENCY... limited disapproval of revisions to the Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD) portion of.... * * * * * (c) * * * (378) * * * (i) * * * (E) Feather River Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 3.22...

  19. 76 FR 41717 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve revisions to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California... Governor's Designee. (i) Incorporation by reference. (A) South Coast Air Quality Management District. (1...

  20. 77 FR 32398 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve a revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California... action: Is not a ``significant regulatory action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and...

  1. 75 FR 46845 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve revisions to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California..., this action: Is not a ``significant regulatory action'' subject to review by the Office of Management...

  2. 77 FR 53773 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2012-0236; FRL-9711-2] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) AGENCY... ``significant regulatory action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order...

  3. 76 FR 76115 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Feather River Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Feather River Air Quality Management District AGENCY... limited disapproval of revisions to the Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD) portion of..., Regulatory Planning and Review The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has exempted this regulatory action...

  4. 78 FR 25011 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District, South Coast Air Quality Management District and Ventura... rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

  5. 77 FR 214 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the... used by the California Air Resources Board and air districts for evaluating air pollution control...

  6. 76 FR 47076 - Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY... the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the California...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control...

  7. 78 FR 54602 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; Utah: Prevention of Significant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... you send an email comment directly to EPA, without going through www.regulations.gov your email... Provisions Concerning Greenhouse Gas Emitting-Sources in State Implementation Plans Final Rule,'' 75 FR 82536... rules: R307-405-3 (Permits: Major Sources in Attainment or Unclassified Areas (PSD), Definitions); and...

  8. 78 FR 37176 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ...EPA is proposing to approve a revision to the San Diego Air Pollution Control District (SDAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This revision concerns volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from architectural coatings. We are proposing to approve a local rule to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act).

  9. 78 FR 37130 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve a revision to the San Diego Air Pollution Control District (SDAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This revision concerns volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from architectural coatings. We are approving a local rule that regulates this emission source under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act).

  10. 75 FR 56889 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the San Diego County Air Pollution Control District (SDCAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This revision concerns the definition of volatile organic compound (VOC). We are approving a local rule that regulates these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  11. 75 FR 56942 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Diego Air Pollution Control District (SDCAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This revision concerns the definition of volatile organic compounds (VOC). We are proposing to approve a local rule to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  12. 78 FR 6784 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), and particulate matter (PM) emissions from open burning. We are proposing to approve local rules to regulate this emission source under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act).

  13. 78 FR 6736 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern Volatile Organic Compound (VOC), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), and particulate matter (PM) emissions from open burning. We are approving local rules that regulate this emission source under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act).

  14. 77 FR 745 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2011-0547; FRL-9480-1] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) Correction In rule document 2011-33660 appearing on pages 214-217 in the issue of Wednesday, January 4, 2012, make the following corrections...

  15. 76 FR 67396 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY... the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Sacramento Metro Air Quality Management... internal combustion engines and water heaters. We are proposing to approve local rules to regulate these...

  16. 76 FR 31242 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY... limited disapproval of revisions to the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD... BTU/hr and internal combustion engines with a rated brake horse power of 50 or greater. Under...

  17. Leading Change for the Implementation of Common Core State Standards in Rural School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Paul; Wise, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Rural school districts across the nation, with their limited resources, face daunting challenges posed by the implementation of the Common Core State Standards. This article presents a recent study of 13 rural school districts in the Central Valley of California and how these districts are responding to those challenges. A total of 352 teachers…

  18. 76 FR 80754 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Kansas: Regional Haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... requirements.'' Some limits for sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) were recorded as limits for nitrogen oxides (NO X ), and..., Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation, ``State Implementation Plans (SIPs): Policy Regarding Excess... Jeffrey units, or meet a 0.100 lbs/MMBtu plant-wide 12-month rolling average emission rate for NO X . If...

  19. State of Georgia AIP implementation report. Progress report, January--March 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeman, J.

    1996-01-01

    To ensure the citizens of the State of Georgia that health, safety and the environment are being protected through existing DOE programs at the Savannah River Site (SRS), through a vigorous program of independent monitoring and oversight by Georgia officials. This report summarizes implementation of this program from January to March 1996

  20. Problems of Implementation of Strategic Plans for Secondary Schools' Improvement in Anambra State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwumah, Fides Okwukweka; Ezeugbor, Carol Obiageli

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the extent of problems of strategic plans implementation for secondary schools' improvement in Anambra State, Nigeria for quality education provision. The study used a descriptive survey design paradigm. Respondents comprised 217 principals. There was no sampling. All the principals were used. Data were collected using…

  1. Implementation Issues in Federal Reform Efforts in Education: The United States and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Paige

    Multiple data sources are used in this study of educational change in the United States and Australia. The author considers political issues that may affect the implementation of educational reform efforts at the federal level, such as homogeneity versus heterogeneity, centralization versus decentralization, constitutional responsibility for…

  2. 76 FR 45212 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... proposing to approve San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) Rule 3170... the environment. San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District SJVUAPCD is an extreme...

  3. 76 FR 56134 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of... preempt Tribal law. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control...

  4. 75 FR 60623 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... approval and limited disapproval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... 30, 2008) \\2\\; and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) Rule 74.15 (as amended...

  5. 75 FR 57862 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the... section 307(b)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control...

  6. 76 FR 69135 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  7. 76 FR 56706 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

  8. 76 FR 35167 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2011-0312; FRL-9319-8] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations...

  9. 77 FR 35862 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Florida: New Source; Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ...: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is taking final action to approve changes to the Florida State Implementation... taking final action to approve changes to the Florida SIP such that it is consistent with federal.... EPA notes that Florida's October 19, 2007, SIP submission makes clarifying changes to rule 62-212.400...

  10. 77 FR 30953 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Wyoming; Regional Haze Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... the 2018 Milestone 7. Special Penalty Provision for 2018 D. ``Better-than-BART'' Demonstration 1. List... Action VII. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews I. General Information A. What should I consider as I... information to better understand how their states and tribes impact Class I areas across the country, and then...

  11. 77 FR 28825 - Approval, Disapproval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Utah; Regional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... Program 6. Provisions for the 2018 Milestone 7. Special Penalty Provision for 2018 D. ``Better-Than-BART... Action VII. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews I. General Information A. What should I consider as I... their states and tribes impact Class I areas across the country, and then pursued the development of...

  12. 77 FR 38185 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of North Carolina; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... the differences in averaging time under BART, the Transport Rule, and in measuring visibility impacts..., Group Leader, Geographic Strategies Group, OAQPS, to Kay Prince, Branch Chief, EPA Region 4, July 19... in response to the Federal Land Managers' (FLMs') request that the State describe a plan to consult...

  13. 76 FR 69217 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Utah; Smoke Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... evaluation. States must include in their section 309 plan a statewide process for gathering the essential... the criteria of efficiency, economics, law, emission reduction opportunities, land management... data that is essential for determining the dispersion of smoke from a fire and what areas it may...

  14. 77 FR 30248 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Idaho; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... processing plants; (4) pulp and paper processing; (5) cement manufacturing; (6) sugar beet processing; and (7... additional detail regarding the State's analysis of this source category. Cement manufacturing emits NO X... generate steam or hot water in manufacturing, material processing, mining, refining, and/or electricity...

  15. 78 FR 27883 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Montana; Interstate Transport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ...-OAR- 2012-0347. EPA's policy is that all comments received will be included in the public docket..., the 2006 PM 2.5 NAAQS Infrastructure Guidance essentially reiterated the recommendations for western... . \\6\\ The 2006 PM 2.5 NAAQS Infrastructure Guidance stated that EPA was working on a new rule to...

  16. Effective implementation of the UNCRPD by Thailand State Party: challenges and potential remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuppaphon, Donruedee; Sriboonroj, Arnon; Riewpaiboon, Wachara; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2017-05-25

    The Thai government ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) in 2008, and the first progress report by the State Party was issued in 2012. This study assesses and identifies gaps in the Government's implementation of the Convention. Using the Deming Plan-Do-Check-Act Cycle as an analytical framework for continuous quality improvement, we reviewed five documents which are: the 2012 State Party report; the list of issues by the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; the 2015 replies to the list of issues by the Thai government; an alternative report produced by Civil Society Organizations (CSOs); and an alternative report produced by the National Human Rights Commission of Thailand. Content analysis is applied to generate the emerging gaps in implementation. Thailand's main advantage is the evolving legal frameworks operating in compliance with the convention, although further amendment is still needed, including effective law enforcement. Conflicting information between the Government's and alternative reports reflects the shortcomings in the information system that intends to support rigorous monitoring and evaluation. Lacking of concrete measures and outcome indicators on certain articles reflects the State Party's limited understanding of the concept of human rights and participatory approaches and insufficient institutional capacities for effective implementation. To rectify these implementation gaps, a few actions are suggested. This includes amending the laws which violate the rights of persons with psychosocial disability; reforming governance where the monitoring bodies are truly independent from implementing agencies; strengthening cross-sectoral actions; and improving information systems which facilitate monitoring and evaluation where Disabled People's Organizations and Civil Society Organizations are recognized as true equal partners. Implementation research can provide evidence for further

  17. SMM mesospheric ozone measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikin, A. C.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective was to understand the secular and seasonal behavior of ozone in the lower mesosphere, 50 to 70 km. This altitude region is important in understanding the factors which determine ozone behavior. A secondary objective is the study of stratospheric ozone in the polar regions. Use is made of results from the SBUV satellite borne instrument. In the Arctic the interaction between chlorine compounds and low molecular weight hydrocarbons is studied. More than 30,000 profiles were obtained using the UVSP instrument on the SMM spacecraft. Several orbits of ozone data per day were obtained allowing study of the current rise in solar activity from the minimum until the present. Analysis of Nimbus 7 SBUV data in Antarctic spring indicates that ozone is depleted within the polar vortex relative to ozone outside the vortex. This depletion confirms the picture of ozone loss at altitudes where polar stratospheric clouds exist. In addition, there is ozone loss above the cloud level indicating that there is another mechanism in addition to ozone loss initiated by heterogeneous chlorine reactions on cloud particles.

  18. Multi sensor reanalysis of total ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. van der A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A single coherent total ozone dataset, called the Multi Sensor Reanalysis (MSR, has been created from all available ozone column data measured by polar orbiting satellites in the near-ultraviolet Huggins band in the last thirty years. Fourteen total ozone satellite retrieval datasets from the instruments TOMS (on the satellites Nimbus-7 and Earth Probe, SBUV (Nimbus-7, NOAA-9, NOAA-11 and NOAA-16, GOME (ERS-2, SCIAMACHY (Envisat, OMI (EOS-Aura, and GOME-2 (Metop-A have been used in the MSR. As first step a bias correction scheme is applied to all satellite observations, based on independent ground-based total ozone data from the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Data Center. The correction is a function of solar zenith angle, viewing angle, time (trend, and effective ozone temperature. As second step data assimilation was applied to create a global dataset of total ozone analyses. The data assimilation method is a sub-optimal implementation of the Kalman filter technique, and is based on a chemical transport model driven by ECMWF meteorological fields. The chemical transport model provides a detailed description of (stratospheric transport and uses parameterisations for gas-phase and ozone hole chemistry. The MSR dataset results from a 30-year data assimilation run with the 14 corrected satellite datasets as input, and is available on a grid of 1× 1 1/2° with a sample frequency of 6 h for the complete time period (1978–2008. The Observation-minus-Analysis (OmA statistics show that the bias of the MSR analyses is less than 1% with an RMS standard deviation of about 2% as compared to the corrected satellite observations used.

  19. Asthma Management in Educational Settings: Implementing Guideline-Based Care in Washington State Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Agnew, Robin A; Klein, Nicole; Lecce, Sally

    2015-11-01

    Managing asthma in the schools is complex and requires careful planning. This article highlights key steps in implementing guideline-based care for children with asthma in Washington State schools: assessing students, establishing acuity, communicating with parents, and training staff. Advance planning can improve outcomes for students, parents, and school staff in managing this complex and prevalent disease. NASN recently developed asthma management guidelines. Developing state-specific guidelines provides an opportunity to speak specifically to state laws and nurse practice acts while also reinforcing the importance of specialized practice to school nurses, school administrators and teachers, parents, and students. © 2015 The Author(s).

  20. Renewable Portfolio Standards in the States: Balancing Goals and Implementation Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cory, K. S.; Swezey, B. G.

    2007-12-01

    This paper reports on renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and how the RPS rules vary from state to state. This variation presents important challenges to successful implementation. Key issues are discussed in terms of resource availability, solar-specific provisions, and political and regulatory consistency, and their impacts on the ability to finance new renewable energy projects. This report emphasizes the fact that a successful RPS policy must balance a state's goals for fuel diversity, economic development, price effects, and environmental benefits.

  1. Planning and Implementing Immunization Billing Programs at State and Local Health Departments: Barriers and Possible Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corriero, Rosemary; Redmon, Ginger

    Before participating in a project funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, most state and local health departments (LHDs) were not seeking reimbursement or being fully reimbursed by insurance plans for the cost of immunization services (including vaccine costs and administration fees) they provided to insured patients. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Billables Project was designed to enable state and LHDs to bill public and private insurance plans for immunization services provided to insured patients. Identify and describe key barriers state and LHDs may encounter while planning and implementing a billing program, as well as possible solutions for overcoming those barriers. This study used reports from Billables Project participants to explore barriers they encountered when planning and implementing a billing program and steps taken to address those barriers. Thirty-eight state immunization programs. Based on project participants' reports, barriers were noted in 7 categories: (1) funding and costs, (2) staff, (3) health department characteristics, (4) third-party payers and insurance plans, (5) software, (6) patient insurance status, and (7) other barriers. Possible solutions for overcoming those barriers included hiring or seeking external help, creating billing guides and training modules, streamlining workflows, and modifying existing software systems. Overcoming barriers during planning and implementation of a billing program can be challenging for state and LHDs, but the experiences and suggestions of past Billables Project participants can help guide future billing program efforts.

  2. Over-expression of ascorbate oxidase in the apoplast of transgenic tobacco results in altered ascorbate and glutathione redox states and increased sensitivity to ozone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanmartin, Maite; Drogoudi, Pavlina D.; Lyons, Tom

    2003-01-01

    overexpressing plants exposed to 100 nmol mol-1 ozone for 7 h day-1 exhibited a substantial increase in foliar injury, and a greater pollutant-induced reduction in both the light-saturated rate of CO2 assimilation and the maximum in vivo rate of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase carboxylation......Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi) plants expressing cucumber ascorbate oxidase (EC.1.10.3.3) were used to examine the role of extracellular ascorbic acid in mediating tolerance to the ubiquitous air pollutant, ozone (O3). Three homozygous transgenic lines, chosen on the basis...

  3. Including alternative resources in state renewable portfolio standards: Current design and implementation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeter, Jenny; Bird, Lori

    2013-01-01

    As of October 2012, 29 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have instituted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). Each state policy is unique, varying in percentage targets, timetables, and eligible resources. Increasingly, new RPS polices have included alternative resources. Alternative resources have included energy efficiency, thermal resources, and, to a lesser extent, non-renewables. This paper examines state experience with implementing renewable portfolio standards that include energy efficiency, thermal resources, and non-renewable energy and explores compliance experience, costs, and how states evaluate, measure, and verify energy efficiency and convert thermal energy. It aims to gain insights from the experience of states for possible federal clean energy policy as well as to share experience and lessons for state RPS implementation. - Highlights: • Increasingly, new RPS policies have included alternative resources. • Nearly all states provide a separate tier or cap on the quantity of eligible alternative resources. • Where allowed, non-renewables and energy efficiency are being heavily utilized

  4. IMPROVING THE PROVISION OF STATE GUARANTEES UNDER CREDITS OR BONDED LOANS RAISED FOR INVESTMENT PROJECTS IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola D. Sanginova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance: Under current conditions, the Russian economy needs investment resources to ensure sustainable social and economic development. One of instruments of state-financing backing that can be used to support capital intensive, economically viable, financially and socially efficient investment projects that create "growing points" are state guarantees of theRussian Federation.Objective: The objective of this study is to identify possible ways to improve the requirements and procedures of providing state guarantees of theRussian Federationwhich contribute to the increase in the quantity and quality of investment projects of high social importance. Methods: Through the use of general scientific methods, analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction the possibility of creating a more attractive environment for principals is analyzed, measures to reduce the risk for public legal entities in providing state guarantees of theRussian Federationunder credits or bonded loans raised for investment projects implementation.Results: Principles of state guarantee support that ensure the interests of both the principals and the guarantor are defined. The basic directions for improving the mechanism how state guarantees of theRussian Federationsupport investment projects are justified. These directions include increasing availability of obtaining state guarantee support by lowering the cost of investment projects for which the state guarantees may be provided; reducing time of decision making on granting a state guarantee; increasing the creditors’ responsibility for a qualitative assessment of the creditworthiness of principals and investment projects; changing the methodology for assessing the social efficiency of investment projects; increasing the information transparency of provided state guarantees of the Russian Federation.Conclusions: The main result of this study is that under current conditions of economic turbulence state guarantees of the

  5. Regulatory policy issues and the Clean Air Act: Issues and papers from the state implementation workshops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K. [ed.; Burns, R.E.

    1993-07-01

    The National Regulatory Research Institute (NRRI), with funding from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), conducted four regional workshops` on state public utility commission implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). The workshops had four objectives: (1) to discuss key issues and concerns on CAAA implementation, (2) to encourage a discussion among states on issues of common interests, (3) to attempt to reach consensus, where possible, on key issues, and (4) to provide the workshop participants with information and materials to assist in developing state rules, orders, and procedures. From the federal perspective, a primary goal was to ensure that workshop participants return to their states with a comprehensive background and understanding of how state commission actions may affect implementation of the CAAA and to be able to provide guidance to their jurisdictional utilities. It was hoped that this would reduce some of the uncertainty utilities face and assist in the development of an efficient allowance market. This report is divided into two main sections. In Section II, eleven principal issues are identified and discussed. These issues were chosen because they were either the most frequently discussed or they were related to the questions asked in response to the speakers` presentations. This section does not cover all the issues relevant to state implementation nor all the issues discussed at the workshops; rather, Section II is intended to provide an overview of the,planning, ratemaking, and multistate issues. Part III is a series of workshop papers presented by some of the speakers. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  6. United States-Mexico Border Diabetes Prevalence Survey: lessons learned from implementation of the project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cosío, Federico G; Díaz-Apodaca, Beatriz A; Ruiz-Holguín, Rosalba; Lara, Agustín; Castillo-Salgado, Carlos

    2010-09-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the main procedures and policies that need to be followed when designing and implementing a binational survey such as the United States of America (U.S.)-Mexico Border Diabetes Prevalence Study that took place between 2001 and 2002. The main objective of the survey was to determine the prevalence of diabetes in the population 18 years of age or older along U.S.-Mexico border counties and municipalities. Several political, administrative, financial, legal, and cultural issues were identified as critical factors that need to be considered when developing and implementing similar binational projects. The lack of understanding of public health practices, implementation of existing policies, legislation, and management procedures in Mexico and the United States may delay or cancel binational research, affecting the working relation of both countries. Many challenges were identified: multiagency/multifunding, ethical/budget clearances, project management, administrative procedures, laboratory procedures, cultural issues, and project communications. Binational projects are complex; they require coordination between agencies and institutions at federal, state, and local levels and between countries and need a political, administrative, bureaucratic, cultural, and language balance. Binational agencies and staff should coordinate these projects for successful implementation.

  7. Implementation - More than Monitoring and Enforcement: Evidence from the Implementation of the 1989 Municipal Waste Incineration Directive (89/429/EEC) in Four Member States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schucht, Simone; Bültman, Alexandra; Eames, Malcolm; Lulofs, Kristiaan R.D.

    2000-01-01

    Researchers and policy-makers accept that implementation decisively influences the effectiveness of European (EU) environmental policy. Some Member States lead the development of EU policy and implement Directives with little problem. Others follow a variety of compliance (or non-compliance) paths.

  8. The current state of Lean implementation in health care: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poksinska, Bozena

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the current state of implementation of Lean production in health care. The study focuses on the definition of Lean in health care and implementation process, barriers, challenges, enablers, and outcomes of implementing Lean production methods in health care. A comprehensive search of the literature concerning the implementation of Lean production in health care was used to generate a synthesis of the literature around the chosen research questions. Lean production in health care is mostly used as a process improvement approach and focuses on 3 main areas: (1) defining value from the patient point of view, (2) mapping value streams, and (3) eliminating waste in an attempt to create continuous flow. Value stream mapping is the most frequently applied Lean tool in health care. The usual implementation steps include conducting Lean training, initiating pilot projects, and implementing improvements using interdisciplinary teams. One of the barriers is lack of educators and consultants who have their roots in the health care sector and can provide support by sharing experience and giving examples from real-life applications of Lean in health care. The enablers of Lean in health care seem not to be different from the enablers of any other change initiative. The outcomes can be divided into 2 broad areas: the performance of the health care system and the development of employees and work environment.

  9. The Canadian experience in implementing the State-level integrated safeguards concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, M.A.; Ellacott, T.

    2013-01-01

    After receiving the Broad Safeguards Conclusion in 2005 that all nuclear material remained in peaceful activities, Canada began implementing the State-level Integrated Safeguards Approach for Canada (SLISAC) on a Sector-by-Sector basis, culminating in the full State-wide implementation of Integrated Safeguards in January 2010. The Approach has resulted in a significant reduction in IAEA person days of inspection, a shift from scheduled routine inspections to randomized, short-notice and unannounced inspections, increased information streams on operational activities and inventory flows to the IAEA, and closer collaboration between the Agency and the SSAC (State System of Accounting and Control). This paper will describe the implementation of this new approach, touching on: the main features of the Canadian SLA (State-level Approach); the agreed order of priority in the transition to the approach within the various sectors of the Canadian fuel cycle; the work plan established for moving forward in a logical and orderly manner, thereby allowing all parties to put in place the necessary protocols and procedures; and some initial thoughts on the lessons learned throughout this process. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  10. Greater Vancouver's water supply receives ozone treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, J.; Singh, I.; Reil, D. D.; Neden, G.

    2000-10-01

    To improve the overall quality of the treated water delivered to the member municipalities of the Greater Vancouver Water District (GVWD), the GVWD implemented a phased drinking water quality improvement program. The phased treatment program is directed at attaining effective disinfection while minimizing the formation of chlorinated disinfection by-products. Accordingly, the current primary disinfection method of chlorination was reevaluated and an ozone primary disinfection without filtration was authorized. Ozonization provides increased protection against Giardia and Cryptosporidium and a decrease in the formation potential for disinfection by-products (DPBs). This paper describes the design for the ozonation facility at Coquitlam, construction of which began in 1998 and completed during the summer of 2000. The facility houses the liquid oxygen supply, ozone generation, cooling water, ozone injection, primary off-gas ozone destruct system, and provides a home for various office, electrical maintenance and diesel generating functions. The second site at Capilano is expected to start construction in the fall of 2000 and be completed late in 2002. Wit its kilometre long stainless steel ozone contactor and sidestream injector tower, the Coquitlam Ozonation Facility is the first ozone pressure injection system of its kind in North America. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  11. Ultraviolet and solar photocatalytic ozonation of municipal wastewater: Catalyst reuse, energy requirements and toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecha, Achisa C; Onyango, Maurice S; Ochieng, Aoyi; Momba, Maggy N B

    2017-11-01

    The present study evaluated the treatment of municipal wastewater containing phenol using solar and ultraviolet (UV) light photocatalytic ozonation processes to explore comparative performance. Important aspects such as catalyst reuse, mineralization of pollutants, energy requirements, and toxicity of treated wastewater which are crucial for practical implementation of the processes were explored. The activity of the photocatalysts did not change significantly even after three consecutive uses despite approximately 2% of the initial quantity of catalyst being lost in each run. Analysis of the change in average oxidation state (AOS) demonstrated the formation of more oxidized degradation products (ΔAOS values of 1.0-1.7) due to mineralization. The energy requirements were determined in terms of electrical energy per order (E EO ) and the collector area per order (A CO ). The E EO (kWh m -3  Order -1 ) values were 26.2 for ozonation, 38-47 for UV photocatalysis and 7-22 for UV photocatalytic ozonation processes. On the other hand, A CO (m 2  m -3  order -1 ) values were 31-69 for solar photocatalysis and 8-13 for solar photocatalytic ozonation. Thus photocatalytic ozonation processes required less energy input compared to the individual processes. The cytotoxicity of the wastewater was analysed using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay with Vero cells. The cell viability increased from 28.7% in untreated wastewater to 80% in treated wastewater; thus showing that the treated wastewater was less toxic. The effectiveness of photocatalytic ozonation, recovery and reusability of the photocatalysts, as well as detoxification of the wastewater make this low energy consumption process attractive for wastewater remediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Load of Lightning-induced Nitrogen Oxides and Its Impact on the Ground-level Ozone during Summertime over the Mountain West States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightning-induced nitrogen oxides (LNOX), in the presence of sunlight, volatile organic compounds and water, can be a relatively large but uncertain source for ozone (O3) and hydroxyl radical (OH) in the atmosphere. Using lightning flash data from the National Lightning Detection...

  13. Pollution Control Using Ozone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for cleaning air comprising one or more pollutants, the method comprising contacting the air with thermal decompositions products of ozone.......This invention relates to a method for cleaning air comprising one or more pollutants, the method comprising contacting the air with thermal decompositions products of ozone....

  14. The pollution by ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    Air pollution by ozone is increasing in spite of several points to reduce it. If the process of ozone formation are complex, the sources of this pollution are well known: first, mobile sources with automobiles (49%), boats , trains and planes (13%), then are following paints and solvents(18%), thermal power plants(11%), and finally industry processing with 5%. (N.C.)

  15. Barriers to the implementation of green chemistry in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, Kira J M; Clark, William C; Anastas, Paul T; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2012-10-16

    This paper investigates the conditions under which firms are able to develop and implement innovations with sustainable development benefits. In particular, we examine "green chemistry" innovations in the United States. Via interviews with green chemistry leaders from industry, academia, nongovernmental institutions (NGOs), and government, we identified six major categories of challenges commonly confronted by innovators: (1) economic and financial, (2) regulatory, (3) technical, (4) organizational, (5) cultural, and (6) definition and metrics. Further analysis of these barriers shows that in the United States, two elements of these that are particular to the implementation of green chemistry innovations are the absence of clear definitions and metrics for use by researchers and decision makers, as well as the interdisciplinary demands of these innovations on researchers and management. Finally, we conclude with some of the strategies that have been successful thus far in overcoming these barriers, and the types of policies which could have positive impacts moving forward.

  16. Solid-state tap-changer of transformers: Design, control and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faiz, Jawad; Siahkolah, Behzad [Center of Excellence on Applied Electromagnetic Systems, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 1439957131 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents the implementation of a prototype electronic tap-changer of transformer. Mechanical tap-changer has many problems such as low operating speed, short lifetime and heavy size. In order to solve these problems a fully solid-state tap-changer with a new control strategy and optimal configuration is proposed. The design of tap-changer is discussed and bi-directional solid-state power electronics switches are implemented. Following the realization of the tap-changer controller, developed software for such precise control is introduced. To verify the design procedure and optimal configuration and apply the developed software, a prototype low-power tap-changer has been built and tested. (author)

  17. Estonian total ozone climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ± 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987–1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April–May and summer (June–August total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; volcanic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  18. Implementing finite state machines in a computer-based teaching system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Charles H.; Sitte, Renate

    1999-09-01

    Finite State Machines (FSM) are models for functions commonly implemented in digital circuits such as timers, remote controls, and vending machines. Teaching FSM is core in the curriculum of many university digital electronic or discrete mathematics subjects. Students often have difficulties grasping the theoretical concepts in the design and analysis of FSM. This has prompted the author to develop an MS-WindowsTM compatible software, WinState, that provides a tutorial style teaching aid for understanding the mechanisms of FSM. The animated computer screen is ideal for visually conveying the required design and analysis procedures. WinState complements other software for combinatorial logic previously developed by the author, and enhances the existing teaching package by adding sequential logic circuits. WinState enables the construction of a students own FSM, which can be simulated, to test the design for functionality and possible errors.

  19. Quantifying the contributions to stratospheric ozone changes from ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Plummer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A state-of-the-art chemistry climate model coupled to a three-dimensional ocean model is used to produce three experiments, all seamlessly covering the period 1950–2100, forced by different combinations of long-lived Greenhouse Gases (GHGs and Ozone Depleting Substances (ODSs. The experiments are designed to quantify the separate effects of GHGs and ODSs on the evolution of ozone, as well as the extent to which these effects are independent of each other, by alternately holding one set of these two forcings constant in combination with a third experiment where both ODSs and GHGs vary. We estimate that up to the year 2000 the net decrease in the column amount of ozone above 20 hPa is approximately 75% of the decrease that can be attributed to ODSs due to the offsetting effects of cooling by increased CO2. Over the 21st century, as ODSs decrease, continued cooling from CO2 is projected to account for more than 50% of the projected increase in ozone above 20 hPa. Changes in ozone below 20 hPa show a redistribution of ozone from tropical to extra-tropical latitudes with an increase in the Brewer-Dobson circulation. In addition to a latitudinal redistribution of ozone, we find that the globally averaged column amount of ozone below 20 hPa decreases over the 21st century, which significantly mitigates the effect of upper stratospheric cooling on total column ozone. Analysis by linear regression shows that the recovery of ozone from the effects of ODSs generally follows the decline in reactive chlorine and bromine levels, with the exception of the lower polar stratosphere where recovery of ozone in the second half of the 21st century is slower than would be indicated by the decline in reactive chlorine and bromine concentrations. These results also reveal the degree to which GHG-related effects mute the chemical effects of N2O on ozone in the standard future scenario used for the WMO Ozone Assessment. Increases in the

  20. Modeling ozone bioindicator injury with microscale and landscape-scale explanatory variables: A logistic regression approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston

    2011-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone occurs at phytotoxic levels in the United States (Lefohn and Pinkerton 1988). Several plant species, including commercially important timber species, are sensitive to elevated ozone levels. Exposure to elevated ozone can cause growth reduction and foliar injury and make trees more susceptible to secondary stressors such as insects and pathogens (...

  1. Fast implementation of the 1\\rightarrow3 orbital state quantum cloning machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Zhong

    2018-05-01

    We present a scheme to implement a 1→3 orbital state quantum cloning machine assisted by quantum Zeno dynamics. By constructing shortcuts to adiabatic passage with transitionless quantum driving, we can complete this scheme effectively and quickly in one step. The effects of decoherence, including spontaneous emission and the decay of the cavity, are also discussed. The numerical simulation results show that high fidelity can be obtained and the feasibility analysis indicates that this can also be realized in experiments.

  2. 78 FR 21581 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD), Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBUAPCD) and Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SCAPCD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). We are proposing to approve revisions local rules that address emission statements for AVAQMD, rule rescissions that address public records for MBUAPCD, and define terms for SBCAPCD, under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  3. 77 FR 12491 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern negative declarations for volatile organic compound (VOC) and oxides of sulfur source categories for the AVAQMD and SJVUAPCD. We are approving these negative declarations under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  4. 77 FR 12527 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern negative declarations for volatile organic compound (VOC) and oxides of sulfur source categories. We are proposing to approve these negative declarations under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  5. 76 FR 67366 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Sacramento Metro Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions from industrial, institutional and commercial boilers, stationary internal combustion engines and water heaters. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  6. 76 FR 39357 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Kern County Air Pollution Control District (KCAPCD), and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from architectural coating operations. We are proposing to approve local rules to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  7. 76 FR 17347 - Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control District CFR Correction In Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 52 (Sec. Sec. 52.01 to 52.1018), revised as of July 1, 2010, on page 252, in Sec. 52.220, paragraph (c)(345)(i)(D) is added to...

  8. 76 FR 30080 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from surface coatings of metal parts and products. We are proposing to approve local rules to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  9. 75 FR 24408 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ...EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions were proposed in the Federal Register on January 22, 2010 and concern oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions from residential water heaters. We are approving a local rule that regulates this emission source under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  10. 77 FR 35327 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from the manufacture of polystyrene, polyethylene, and polypropylene products. We are approving a local rule that regulates these emission sources under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act). We are taking comments on this proposal and plan to follow with a final action.

  11. 76 FR 71886 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from coatings and strippers used on wood products, wood paneling, and miscellaneous metal parts and products. We are approving these local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  12. 77 FR 66548 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ...EPA is approving revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This action was proposed in the Federal Register on April 26, 2012 and concerns oxides of nitrogen (NOX) from solid fuel fired boilers. We are approving a local rule that regulates these emission sources under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act).

  13. 76 FR 71922 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from coatings and strippers used on wood products, wood paneling, and miscellaneous metal parts and products. We are proposing to approve three local rules to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  14. 77 FR 73322 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBUAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern opacity standards related to multiple pollutants, including particulate matter (PM) emissions from several different types of sources, ranging from fugitive dust to gas turbines. We are approving a local rule that regulates these emission sources under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act).

  15. 77 FR 71129 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley United Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ...EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the SJVUAPCD and SCAQMD portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This action was proposed in the Federal Register on June 21, 2012 and concerns volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from chipping and grinding activities, and composting operations. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act).

  16. 75 FR 10690 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ...EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions were proposed in the Federal Register on December 18, 2009 and concern reduction of animal matter and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from crude oil production, cutback asphalt, and petroleum solvent dry cleaning. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  17. 77 FR 24883 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern oxides of nitrogen (NOX) from solid fuel fired boilers, steam generators and process heaters. We are approving a local rule that regulates these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act). We are taking comments on this proposal and plan to follow with a final action.

  18. 77 FR 35329 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from crude oil production sumps and refinery wastewater separators. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act). We are taking comments on this proposal and plan to follow with a final action.

  19. 77 FR 73392 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBUAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This revision concerns opacity standards related to multiple pollutants, including particulate matter (PM) emissions from several different types of sources, ranging from fugitive dust to gas turbines. We are proposing to approve a local rule to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act).

  20. 76 FR 30025 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from surface coating of metal parts and products. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  1. 76 FR 39303 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Kern County Air Pollution Control District (KCAPCD), and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from architectural coating operations. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  2. Implementation of a Microcode-controlled State Machine and Simulator in AVR Microcontrollers (MICoSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Korbel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of a microcode-controlled state machine and its software implementation in Atmel AVR microcontrollers. In particular, ATmega103 and ATmega128 microcontrollers are used. This design is closely related to the software implementation of a simulator in AVR microcontrollers. This simulator communicates with the designed state machine and presents a complete design environment for microcode development and debugging. These two devices can be interconnected by a flat cable and linked to a computer through a serial or USB interface.Both devices share the control software that allows us to create and edit microprograms and to control the whole state machine. It is possible to start, cancel or step through the execution of the microprograms. The operator can also observe the current state of the state machine. The second part of the control software enables the operator to create and compile simulating programs. The control software communicates with both devices using commands. All the results of this communication are well arranged in dialog boxes and windows. 

  3. Ozone as an air pollutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    1996-01-01

    A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995.......A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995....

  4. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart III... - States With Approved State Implementation Plan Revisions Concerning CAIR SO2 Opt-In Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Implementation Plan Revisions Concerning CAIR SO2 Opt-In Units A Appendix A to Subpart III of Part 97 Protection... BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR SO2 Opt-in Units Pt. 97, Subpt. III... Concerning CAIR SO2 Opt-In Units 1. The following States have State Implementation Plan revisions under § 51...

  5. 76 FR 75845 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Tennessee: Prevention of Significant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... of air quality planning and air pollution control technology requirements. The CAA NSR program is... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Ozone, Nitrogen oxides... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R04-OAR-2010-0483-201155; FRL-9498-8] Approval...

  6. 75 FR 2079 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... proposal: (1) Rule 4570 fails to require controls for all major poultry operations; (2) SJVAPCD failed to... additional controls would advance the attainment date of the ozone standard belongs in the context of SJVAPCD... industries can afford controls costing 10% of profits or more without impacting economic viability. EJ...

  7. 77 FR 20582 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Florida: New Source Review Prevention...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... quality planning and air pollution control technology requirements. The CAA NSR program is comprised of... protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Ozone, Oxides of nitrogen, Recordkeeping and... preconstruction review program for the construction and modification of any stationary source of air pollution to...

  8. 76 FR 55581 - Revision to the California State Implementation Plan; Yolo-Solano Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... California State Implementation Plan; Yolo-Solano Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... revision to the Yolo-Solano Air Quality Management District portion of the California State Implementation...-Solano Air Quality Management District (YSAQMD) Rule 2.41, adopted on September 10, 2008, and submitted...

  9. 77 FR 23193 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Yolo-Solano Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2012-0180; FRL-9652-3] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Yolo- Solano Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the Yolo-Solano Air Quality Management District portion of the California State Implementation Plan...

  10. 76 FR 55621 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Yolo-Solano Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... California State Implementation Plan, Yolo- Solano Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental...-Solano Air Quality Management District portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This... the following local rule: Yolo-Solano Air Quality Management District Rule 2.41, Expandable...

  11. 40 CFR 109.5 - Development and implementation criteria for State, local and regional oil removal contingency plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regional oil removal contingency plans. Criteria for the development and implementation of State, local and... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Development and implementation criteria for State, local and regional oil removal contingency plans. 109.5 Section 109.5 Protection of...

  12. Level of implementation of best practice policies for creating healthy food environments: assessment by state and non-state actors in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phulkerd, Sirinya; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Lawrence, Mark; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Sacks, Gary

    2017-02-01

    To determine and compare the level of implementation of policies for healthy food environments in Thailand with reference to international best practice by state and non-state actors. Data on the current level of implementation of food environment policies were assessed independently using the adapted Healthy Food Environment Policy Index (Food-EPI) by two groups of actors. Concrete actions were proposed for Thai Government. A joint meeting between both groups was subsequently held to reach consensus on priority actions. Thailand. Thirty state actors and twenty-seven non-state actors. Level of policy implementation varied across different domains and actor groups. State actors rated implementation levels higher than non-state actors. Both state and non-state actors rated level of implementation of monitoring of BMI highest. Level of implementation of policies promoting in-store availability of healthy foods and policies increasing tax on unhealthy foods were rated lowest by state and non-state actors, respectively. Both groups reached consensus on eleven priority actions for implementation, focusing on food provision in public-sector settings, food composition, food promotion, leadership, monitoring and intelligence, and food trade. Although the implementation gaps identified and priority actions proposed varied between state and non-state actors, both groups achieved consensus on a comprehensive food policy package to be implemented by the Thai Government to improve the healthiness of food environments. This consensus is a platform for continued policy dialogue towards cross-sectoral policy coherence and effective actions to address the growing burden of non-communicable diseases and obesity in Thailand.

  13. Implementation of state - federal agreements: observations and suggestions from New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canepa, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    State - federal agreements have been authorized by Congress under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (the Act). The process for reaching such agreements as well as their content have been modeled after the State of New Mexico's experience with its lawsuit and resulting Agreement for Consultation and Cooperation with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) over the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP). New Mexico has been through the entire process, beginning with litigation and ending with a formal, written agreement with the federal government which addresses all aspects of a major nuclear waste repository within its borders. The process for reaching and implementing such agreements is not unlike the process for negotiating a treaty between countries. States entering into negotiations for such agreements should be aware of several important considerations which New Mexico learned the hard way. Avoiding the pitfalls inherent in this process is the key to producing a meaningful, working and enforceable document that protects the state's interests and affords a state continuing control over a long-term nuclear waste project within the state

  14. Foreign and Domestic Contributions to Springtime Ozone Pollution over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, R.; Lin, J.; Yan, Y.; Lin, W.; Chen, H.

    2017-12-01

    Ozone is a critical air pollutant that damages human health and vegetation. Previous studies for the United States and Europe have shown large influences of foreign emissions on domestic ozone levels, whereas the relative contributions of foreign versus domestic emissions are much less clear for China. Here, we use a global-regional two-way coupled model system based on GEOS-Chem to quantify the contributions to springtime ozone over China from anthropogenic emissions in major source regions across the globe. Our results indicate considerable influences of foreign anthropogenic pollution on China's ozone pollution. Together, foreign anthropogenic emissions enhance springtime surface ozone over China by 3 12 ppb. Of all ozone over China produced by global anthropogenic emissions, foreign emissions contribute 40% near the surface, and the contribution increases with altitude until a value of 80% in the upper troposphere. Impact from Japan and Korea is 1 2 ppb over east coastal regions, and negligible in inland. Anthropogenic emissions of South and South-East Asia increase ozone over Tibet and the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau by up to 5 ppb, and their contribution increases with height due to strong vertical transport. Pollution from North America and Europe mainly accompanies strong westerly winds and frequent cyclonic activities that are favorable to long-range transport. European anthropogenic pollution enhances surface ozone by 1 3 ppb over West and North China. Despite a much longer transport distance, the contribution from North America is greater than European contribution due to the nearly doubled amount of anthropogenic NMVOC emissions. The high percentage contribution of foreign anthropogenic emissions to China's ozone pollution can be partly explained by excessive domestic NOx emissions that suppress ozone production efficiency and even destroy ozone. Our study is relevant to Chinese ozone pollution control and global environmental protection collaboration.

  15. OZONE ABSORPTION IN RAW WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA TAKIĆ

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The ozone absorption in raw water entering the main ozonization step at the Belgrade drinking water supply plant was investigated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR. A slow chemical reaction rate of dissolved ozone and pollutants present in raw water have been experimentally determined. The modified Hatta number was defined and calculated as a criterion which determines whether and to which extent the reactions of ozone and pollutants influence the rate of the pure physical ozone absorption.

  16. Ozone, greenhouse effect. Ozone, effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aviam, A.M.; Arthaut, R.

    1992-12-01

    This file is made of eight general papers on environment (climates under observation, research on photo-oxidizing pollution, scientific aspects of stratospheric ozone layer, urban engineering and environment, glory of public gardens, earths not very natural, darwinism and society, economical data on environment). (A.B.). refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Health system capacity: maternal health policy implementation in the state of Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Sanneving

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Government of Gujarat has for the past couple of decades continuously initiated several interventions to improve access to care for pregnant and delivering women within the state. Data from the last District Family Heath survey in Gujarat in 2007–2008 show that 56.4% of women had institutional deliveries and 71.5% had at least one antenatal check-up, indicating that challenges remain in increasing use of and access to maternal health care services. Objective: To explore the perceptions of high-level stakeholders on the process of implementing maternal health interventions in Gujarat. Method: Using the policy triangle framework developed by Walt and Gilson, the process of implementation was approached using in-depth interviews and qualitative content analysis. Result: Based on the analysis, three themes were developed: lack of continuity; the complexity of coordination; and lack of confidence and underutilization of the monitoring system. The findings suggest that decisions made and actions advocated and taken are more dependent on individual actors than on sustainable structures. The findings also indicate that the context in which interventions are implemented is challenged in terms of weak coordination and monitoring systems that are not used to evaluate and develop interventions on maternal health. Conclusions: The implementation of interventions on maternal health is dependent on the capacity of the health system to implement evidence-based policies. The capacity of the health system in Gujarat to facilitate implementation of maternal health interventions needs to be improved, both in terms of the role of actors and in terms of structures and processes.

  18. Implementation of quantum logic gates using polar molecules in pendular states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing; Kais, Sabre; Wei, Qi; Herschbach, Dudley; Friedrich, Bretislav

    2013-01-14

    We present a systematic approach to implementation of basic quantum logic gates operating on polar molecules in pendular states as qubits for a quantum computer. A static electric field prevents quenching of the dipole moments by rotation, thereby creating the pendular states; also, the field gradient enables distinguishing among qubit sites. Multi-target optimal control theory is used as a means of optimizing the initial-to-target transition probability via a laser field. We give detailed calculations for the SrO molecule, a favorite candidate for proposed quantum computers. Our simulation results indicate that NOT, Hadamard and CNOT gates can be realized with high fidelity, as high as 0.985, for such pendular qubit states.

  19. Automatic programmable air ozonizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubarev, S.P.; Klosovsky, A.V.; Opaleva, G.P.; Taran, V.S.; Zolototrubova, M.I.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe a compact, economical, easy to manage auto air ozonator developed at the Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT. It is designed for sanitation, disinfection of premises and cleaning the air from foreign odors. A distinctive feature of the developed device is the generation of a given concentration of ozone, approximately 0.7 maximum allowable concentration (MAC), and automatic maintenance of a specified level. This allows people to be inside the processed premises during operation. The microprocessor controller to control the operation of the ozonator was developed

  20. Amending the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 for state implementation of program elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, L. [Alaska Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Juneau, AK (United States)

    1997-10-01

    A legal argument was made in favour of amending the Oil Pollution Act (OPA) of 1990 to allow state implementation of a portion or portions of the law. As it now stands the OPA does not have language for delegating program elements to the states. A review of the legislation indicated that a number of program elements may be more effectively carried out by the State of Alaska, while others should continue to be administered by both the federal and state governments. The review and approval of industry contingency plans for manned and unmanned vessels/barges carrying oil as a primary cargo is one example where efficiencies may be gained. Such plans are currently submitted to Coast Guard headquarters in Washington and retained there. In effect, there is no `local` federal knowledge of the vessel response plans approved for operation in the State of Alaska, nor do Alaskans have the opportunity to review or comment on the adequacy of these plans. Components where efficiencies would be gained include: local review of industry contingency/ response plans, inventory of existing rural above-ground tank farms, coordination of vessel and facility inspections, area contingency plan development and access to federal clean up funds. Past experience clearly indicates that delegation to the states is a workable proposition. There is no apparent justification for not extending this provision to the OPA, not as a mandate, but as an option for reducing cost and improving efficiency. 28 refs.

  1. Amending the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 for state implementation of program elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, L.

    1997-01-01

    A legal argument was made in favour of amending the Oil Pollution Act (OPA) of 1990 to allow state implementation of a portion or portions of the law. As it now stands the OPA does not have language for delegating program elements to the states. A review of the legislation indicated that a number of program elements may be more effectively carried out by the State of Alaska, while others should continue to be administered by both the federal and state governments. The review and approval of industry contingency plans for manned and unmanned vessels/barges carrying oil as a primary cargo is one example where efficiencies may be gained. Such plans are currently submitted to Coast Guard headquarters in Washington and retained there. In effect, there is no 'local' federal knowledge of the vessel response plans approved for operation in the State of Alaska, nor do Alaskans have the opportunity to review or comment on the adequacy of these plans. Components where efficiencies would be gained include: local review of industry contingency/ response plans, inventory of existing rural above-ground tank farms, coordination of vessel and facility inspections, area contingency plan development and access to federal clean up funds. Past experience clearly indicates that delegation to the states is a workable proposition. There is no apparent justification for not extending this provision to the OPA, not as a mandate, but as an option for reducing cost and improving efficiency. 28 refs

  2. Transparency and other State-specific factors: exploration of Ideas for evolving the system of State-evaluations and safeguards implementation of IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everton, C.; Leslie, R.; Bayer, S.; East, M. [Craig Everton, Russell Leslie, Stephan Bayer, Michael East, Australia (Australia)

    2011-12-15

    In November 2010 the IAEA Department of Safeguards launched its Long Term Strategic Plan at the IAEA Symposium on International Safeguards: 'Preparing for Future Verification Challenges'. A key element of the Long Term Strategic Plan is the further evolution of the State-level approach for safeguards implementation away from criteria driven safeguards approaches focussed at the facility level, to a safeguards system that is objectives-based and fully information-driven. The State-level approach is a holistic approach to safeguards implementation, applicable to all States, incorporating comprehensive State evaluations and safeguards implementation approaches that make use of all information available to the IAEA. In further evolving the State-level concept State-specific factors and acquisition path analysis will become increasingly important in State evaluations and in the determination of safeguards approaches for each State. It will be important to determine objective modalities for incorporating these factors. Consideration of State-specific factors in determining safeguards approaches is not new - in fact, paragraph 81 of INFCIRC/153 (concluded June 1972) enumerates several such factors that can be considered. This paper will explore some ideas for State-specific factors that could be used in State-evaluations, and how these factors could be used for determining State-by-State safeguards approaches. Ideas for State-specific factors will include effectiveness of State Systems of Accountancy and Control (SSAC), transparency of States in their dealings with the IAEA, and characteristics of a nuclear fuel cycle of a State.

  3. Transparency and other State-specific factors: exploration of Ideas for evolving the system of State-evaluations and safeguards implementation of IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everton, C.; Leslie, R.; Bayer, S.; East, M.

    2011-01-01

    In November 2010 the IAEA Department of Safeguards launched its Long Term Strategic Plan at the IAEA Symposium on International Safeguards: 'Preparing for Future Verification Challenges'. A key element of the Long Term Strategic Plan is the further evolution of the State-level approach for safeguards implementation away from criteria driven safeguards approaches focussed at the facility level, to a safeguards system that is objectives-based and fully information-driven. The State-level approach is a holistic approach to safeguards implementation, applicable to all States, incorporating comprehensive State evaluations and safeguards implementation approaches that make use of all information available to the IAEA. In further evolving the State-level concept State-specific factors and acquisition path analysis will become increasingly important in State evaluations and in the determination of safeguards approaches for each State. It will be important to determine objective modalities for incorporating these factors. Consideration of State-specific factors in determining safeguards approaches is not new - in fact, paragraph 81 of INFCIRC/153 (concluded June 1972) enumerates several such factors that can be considered. This paper will explore some ideas for State-specific factors that could be used in State-evaluations, and how these factors could be used for determining State-by-State safeguards approaches. Ideas for State-specific factors will include effectiveness of State Systems of Accountancy and Control (SSAC), transparency of States in their dealings with the IAEA, and characteristics of a nuclear fuel cycle of a State.

  4. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Maritza F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observed in both oils but they were higher in ozonized sunflower oil. Iodine value was zero in ozonized olive oil whereas in ozonized sunflower was 8.8 g Iodine per 100 g. The antimicrobial activity was similar for both ozonized oils except for Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations of Pseudomona aeruginosa. Composition of fatty acids in both ozonized oils showed gradual decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1, C18:2 with gradual increase in ozone doses.

  5. Relative impacts of worldwide tropospheric ozone changes and regional emission modifications on European surface-ozone levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szopa, S.; Hauglustaine, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Multi-scale models were applied to assess the surface ozone changes in 2030. Several emission scenarios are considered, ranging from (a) a pessimistic anthropogenic emission increase to (b) an optimistic decrease of emissions, and including (c) a realistic scenario that assumes the implementation of control legislations [CLE]. The two extreme scenarios lead respectively to homogeneous global increase and decrease of surface ozone, whereas low and inhomogeneous changes associated with a slight global increase of ozone are found for the CLE scenario. Over western Europe, for the CLE scenario, the benefit of European emission reduction is significantly counterbalanced by increasing global ozone levels. Considering warmer conditions over Europe and future emission modifications, the human health exposure to surface ozone is found to be significantly worsened. (authors)

  6. IMPLEMENTING BUSINESS SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN UKRAINE: COMPANIES’ CASES AND STATE ASSISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Krykun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea of socialization of economic state and corporate policy has become commonplace worldwide. Within the framework of these processes, research and evaluation of the effectiveness of the steps implemented by Ukraine in this area are relevant. In Ukraine, the idea of social responsibility established only little more than 10 years ago and fulfils the function of company’s promotion more than the responsibility of entrepreneurs for their business activities. Big amount of Ukrainian companies fulfil some activities in the sphere of social responsibility irregularly and in more cases with one aim to improve reputation. Thus, the purpose of the article is to determine the modern state of business social responsibility institution in Ukraine, its implementation in the business sphere, explore social element in a comprehensive government system of Ukraine. The subject of the study is the issue of assessing the preconditions, calculating the effectiveness, describing the features and practices of the implementation of business social responsibility in Ukraine under the condition of state assistance. Methodology. The paper is based on statistical information from public sources, reports of different international and Ukrainian companies, organizations, and institutions, which are used to stress and underline the main crucial points of research. In the article, the authors propose a regression model of the correlation between the net profit of Ukrainian companies and various forms of internal social activity of business entities. Conclusions. On the basis of regression model and analysis of financial, non-financial reports and official press releases of Ukrainian companies, it is investigated that internal social activity of the enterprise positively affects the net financial profit, and on the contrary, the general approach of companies to the external business social responsibility indicates the disparity between net profit and the expenses for

  7. 76 FR 28944 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ...EPA is proposing a limited approval and limited disapproval of permitting rules submitted for the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). The districts are required under Part D of title I of the Clean Air Act (CAA) to adopt and implement a SIP-approved New Source Review (NSR) permit program. These rules update and revise the District's NSR permitting program for new and modified sources of air pollution. If EPA finalizes the limited approval and limited disapproval action, as proposed, then a sanctions clock would be triggered. We are taking comments on this proposal and plan to follow with a final action.

  8. State obligations to implement African abortion laws: employing human rights in a changing legal landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwena, Charles G

    2012-11-01

    Women in the African region are overburdened with unsafe abortion. Abortion regimes that fail to translate any given abortion rights into tangible access are partly to blame. Historically, African abortion laws have been highly restrictive. However, the post-independence era has witnessed a change toward liberalizing abortion law, even if incremental for many jurisdictions. Furthermore, Article 14 of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa has significantly augmented the regional trend toward liberalization by recognizing abortion as a human right in given circumstances. However, states are failing to implement abortion laws. The jurisprudence that is emerging from the European Court of Human Rights and United Nations treaty bodies is a tool that can be used to render African governments accountable for failure to implement domestic abortion laws. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Strategy and field implementation for determining a dangerous waste mixture in Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, Steve; Foster, Rick; Wright, Jamie

    1992-01-01

    Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), states rather than the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maybe authorized to implement RCRA regulations. Under RCRA, environmental regulations implemented by an authorized state must be at least as stringent as those contained in RCRA. Compared to RCRA, the corresponding regulations of the State of Washington regarding the determination of characteristic wastes are more stringent and complex. This paper discusses the complexities of the regulations and presents a strategy for successfully managing diverse waste streams. This strategy was used during the cleanup of contaminated areas and equipment at the Albany Research Center (ARC) in Albany, Oregon, which processed uranium and thorium for the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission during the early days of the nation's atomic energy program. Wastes from the cleanup of ARC were shipped to the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Reservation. Because the DOE Hanford Reservation is located in Washington, this paper should be of interest to DOE waste generators. (author)

  10. Implementation of the United States-Russian Highly Enriched Uranium Agreement: Current Status and Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.rutkowski, E; Armantrout, G; Mastal, E; Glaser, J; Benton, J

    2004-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Implementation Program (TIP) monitors and provides assurance that Russian weapons-grade HEU is processed into low enriched uranium (LEU) under the transparency provisions of the 1993 United States (U.S.)-Russian HEU Purchase Agreement. Meeting the Agreement's transparency provisions is not just a program requirement; it is a legal requirement. The HEU Purchase Agreement requires transparency measures to be established to provide assurance that the nonproliferation objectives of the Agreement are met. The Transparency concept has evolved into a viable program that consists of complimentary elements that provide necessary assurances. The key elements include: (1) monitoring by technical experts; (2) independent measurements of enrichment and flow; (3) nuclear material accountability documents from Russian plants; and (4) comparison of transparency data with declared processing data. In the interest of protecting sensitive information, the monitoring is neither full time nor invasive. Thus, an element of trust is required regarding declared operations that are not observed. U.S. transparency monitoring data and independent instrument measurements are compared with plant accountability records and other declared processing data to provide assurance that the nonproliferation objectives of the 1993 Agreement are being met. Similarly, Russian monitoring of U. S. storage and fuel fabrication operations provides assurance to the Russians that the derived LEU is being used in accordance with the Agreement. The successful implementation of the Transparency program enables the receipt of Russian origin LEU into the United States. Implementation of the 1993 Agreement is proceeding on schedule, with the permanent elimination of over 8,700 warhead equivalents of HEU. The successful implementation of the Transparency program has taken place over the last 10 years and has provided the

  11. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  12. Ozone Therapy in Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domb, William C

    2014-01-01

    Summary The 21st century dental practice is quite dynamic. New treatment protocols and new materials are being developed at a rapid pace. Ozone dental therapy falls into the category of new treatment protocols in dentistry, yet ozone is not new at all. Ozone therapy is already a major treatment modality in Europe, South America and a number of other countries. What is provided here will not be an exhaustive scientific treatise so much as a brief general introduction into what dentists are now doing with ozone therapies and the numerous oral/systemic links that make this subject so important for physicians so that, ultimately, they may serve their patients more effectively and productively. PMID:25363268

  13. Ozone health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.

    1994-01-01

    Ozone is a principal component of photochemical air pollution endogenous to numerous metropolitan areas. It is primarily formed by the oxidation of NOx in the presence of sunlight and reactive organic compounds. Ozone is a highly active oxidizing agent capable of causing injury to the lung. Lung injury may take the form of irritant effects on the respiratory tract that impair pulmonary function and result in subjective symptoms of respiratory discomfort. These symptoms include, but are not limited to, cough and shortness of breath, and they can limit exercise performance. The effects of ozone observed in humans have been primarily limited to alterations in respiratory function, and a range of respiratory physiological parameters have been measured as a function of ozone exposure in adults and children. These affects have been observed under widely varying (clinical experimental and environmental settings) conditions

  14. 2001 Ozone Design Value

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ozone is generated by a complex atmoshperic chemical process. Industrial and automobile pollutants in the form of oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons react in the...

  15. Impact of parameterization choices on the restitution of ozone deposition over vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Morvan-Quéméner, Aurélie; Coll, Isabelle; Kammer, Julien; Lamaud, Eric; Loubet, Benjamin; Personne, Erwan; Stella, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    Ozone is a potentially phyto-toxic air pollutant, which can cause leaf damage and drastically alter crop yields, causing serious economic losses around the world. The VULNOZ (VULNerability to OZone in Anthropised Ecosystems) project is a biology and modeling project that aims to understand how plants respond to the stress of high ozone concentrations, then use a set of models to (i) predict the impact of ozone on plant growth, (ii) represent ozone deposition fluxes to vegetation, and finally (iii) estimate the economic consequences of an increasing ozone background the future. In this work, as part of the VULNOZ project, an innovative representation of ozone deposition to vegetation was developed and implemented in the CHIMERE regional chemistry-transport model. This type of model calculates the average amount of ozone deposited on a parcel each hour, as well as the integrated amount of ozone deposited to the surface at the regional or country level. Our new approach was based on a refinement of the representation of crop types in the model and the use of empirical parameters specific to each crop category. The results obtained were compared with a conventional ozone deposition modeling approach, and evaluated against observations from several agricultural areas in France. They showed that a better representation of the distribution between stomatal and non-stomatal ozone fluxes was obtained in the empirical approach, and they allowed us to produce a new estimate of the total amount of ozone deposited on the subtypes of vegetation at the national level.

  16. 77 FR 74421 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans for PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... PM 2.5 Implementation Rule acknowledged that there were issues and concerns related to availability..., with a high-resolution grid covering the states in the northeast ozone transport region, including New... Architectural Coatings 2005 Portable Fuel Containers 2005 (Area Source Only) Mobile Equipment Repair and...

  17. Stratospheric ozone measurements at Arosa (Switzerland): history and scientific relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staehelin, Johannes; Viatte, Pierre; Stübi, Rene; Tummon, Fiona; Peter, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Climatic Observatory (LKO) in Arosa (Switzerland), marking the beginning of the world's longest series of total (or column) ozone measurements. They were driven by the recognition that atmospheric ozone is important for human health, as well as by scientific curiosity about what was, at the time, an ill characterised atmospheric trace gas. From around the mid-1950s to the beginning of the 1970s studies of high atmosphere circulation patterns that could improve weather forecasting was justification for studying stratospheric ozone. In the mid-1970s, a paradigm shift occurred when it became clear that the damaging effects of anthropogenic ozone-depleting substances (ODSs), such as long-lived chlorofluorocarbons, needed to be documented. This justified continuing the ground-based measurements of stratospheric ozone. Levels of ODSs peaked around the mid-1990s as a result of a global environmental policy to protect the ozone layer, implemented through the 1987 Montreal Protocol and its subsequent amendments and adjustments. Consequently, chemical destruction of stratospheric ozone started to slow around the mid-1990s. To some extent, this raises the question as to whether continued ozone observation is indeed necessary. In the last decade there has been a tendency to reduce the costs associated with making ozone measurements globally including at Arosa. However, the large natural variability in ozone on diurnal, seasonal, and interannual scales complicates the capacity for demonstrating the success of the Montreal Protocol. Chemistry-climate models also predict a super-recovery of the ozone layer at mid-latitudes in the second half of this century, i.e. an increase of ozone concentrations beyond pre-1970 levels, as a consequence of ongoing climate change. These factors, and identifying potentially unexpected stratospheric responses to climate change, support the continued need to document stratospheric ozone changes. This is particularly valuable at the Arosa site, due

  18. ONLINE MODEL OF EDUCATION QUALITY ASSURANCE EQUASP IMPLEMENTATION: EXPERIENCE OF VYATKA STATE UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Pugach

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of assessing the quality of higher education. In the Russian Federation recently quality assessment of educational services provided by state-accredited universities is carried out by the state represented by the Ministry of education and science. State universities have simulated internal systemseducation quality assessment in accordance with the methodology proposed by the Ministry of education and science. Currently more attention is paid to the independent assessment of education quality which is the basis of professional public accreditation. The project "EQUASP" financed within the framework of the TEMPUS programme is directed to the problem of implementing the methodology of the online model of independent higher education quality assessment in the practice of Russian universities. The proposed model for assessing the quality of education is based on usage of 5 standards. The authors have done a comparative analysis of the model of higher education quality assessment existing in Vyatka State University and the model of education quality assessing offered by European universities-participants of the project EQUASP. The authors have presented the main results of investigation of this problem and some suggestions for improving the model of education quality assessment used by Vyatka State University.

  19. 77 FR 37359 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) and the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from chipping and grinding activities, and composting operations. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act). We are taking comments on this proposal and plan to follow with a final action.

  20. 77 FR 26448 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD), Eastern Kern Air Pollution Control District (EKAPCD), and Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). Under authority of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act), we are approving local rules that define terms used in other air pollution regulation in these areas and approving a rule rescission that addresses Petroleum Coke Calcining Operations--Oxides of Sulfur.

  1. 77 FR 26475 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD), Eastern Kern Air Pollution Control District (EKAPCD), and Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). We are proposing to approve revisions to local rules that define terms used in other air pollution regulations in these areas and a rule rescission that address Petroleum Coke Calcining Operations--Oxides of Sulfur, under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  2. 75 FR 24406 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD), San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD), and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from petroleum facilities, chemical plants, and facilities which use organic solvents. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  3. 75 FR 2796 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ...EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions were proposed in the Federal Register on June 16, 2009 and concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from coating of metal parts, large appliances, metal furniture, motor vehicles, mobile equipment, cans, coils, organic solvent cleaning, and storage and disposal related to such operations. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  4. 76 FR 60376 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District (SBAPCD), Sacramento Municipal Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from solvent cleaning machines and solvent cleaning operations and oil and gas production wells. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  5. 78 FR 21581 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD) and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions from gas-fired fan-type central furnaces, small water heaters, and the transfer and dispensing of gasoline. We are proposing to approve local rules to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act).

  6. 77 FR 66429 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), oxides of sulfur (SOX), and particulate matter (PM) emissions from glass melting furnaces. We are approving a local rule that regulates these emission sources under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act). We are taking comments on this proposal and plan to follow with a final action.

  7. 76 FR 60405 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District (SBAPCD), Sacramento Municipal Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from solvent cleaning machines and solvent cleaning operations and oil and gas production wells. We are proposing to approve local rules to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  8. 76 FR 44809 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ...EPA is finalizing a limited approval and limited disapproval of permitting rules submitted for the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions were proposed in the Federal Register on May 19, 2011 and concern New Source Review (NSR) permit programs for new and modified major stationary sources of air pollution. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  9. 75 FR 13468 - Disapproval of California State Implementation Plan Revisions, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ...EPA is proposing to disapprove a revision to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This revision concerns opacity standards related to multiple pollutants, including particulate matter (PM) emissions from several different types of sources, ranging from fugitive dust to gas turbine generators. We are proposing action on a local rule that regulates these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act). We are taking comments on this proposal and plan to follow with a final action.

  10. 75 FR 37727 - Disapproval of California State Implementation Plan Revisions, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ...EPA is finalizing disapproval of a revision to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBUAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This action was proposed in the Federal Register on March 22, 2010. This revision concerns opacity standards related to multiple pollutants, including particulate matter (PM) emissions, from a wide variety of sources. Under authority of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act), this action identifies a deficiency that precludes approval of this SIP revision.

  11. 78 FR 21542 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD) and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions from gas-fired fan-type central furnaces, small water heaters, and the transfer and dispensing of gasoline. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act).

  12. 76 FR 5277 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District (SBAPCD), Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD), Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) and Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from gasoline bulk plants, terminals and vehicle dispensing facilities. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  13. 76 FR 16696 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ...EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions were proposed in the Federal Register on November 5, 2010 and concern oxides of nitrogen (NOX), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of sulfur (SO2) and particulate matter emissions from boilers, steam generators and process heaters greater than 5.0 MMbtu/hour. We are approving a local rule that regulates these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  14. 75 FR 24544 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD), San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD), and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from petroleum facilities, chemical plants, and facilities which use organic solvents. We are proposing to approve local rules to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  15. 78 FR 23677 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ...EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This action was proposed in the Federal Register on January 7, 2013 and concerns local rules that regulate inhalable particulate matter (PM) emissions from sources of fugitive dust such as unpaved roads and disturbed soils in open and agricultural areas in Imperial County. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act).

  16. 77 FR 2643 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ...EPA is finalizing a limited approval and limited disapproval of revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This action was proposed in the Federal Register on September 6, 2011 and concerns oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions from biomass fuel-fired boilers. Under authority of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act), this action simultaneously approves a local rule that regulates these emission sources and directs California to correct rule deficiencies.

  17. 76 FR 5319 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District (SBAPCD), Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD), Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD), and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from gasoline bulk plants, terminals and vehicle dispensing facilities. We are proposing to approve local rules to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  18. Ozone depletion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, F.M.; Chang, J.S.; Wuebbles, D.J.; Penner, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Models of stratospheric chemistry have been primarily directed toward an understanding of the behavior of stratospheric ozone. Initially this interest reflected the diagnostic role of ozone in the understanding of atmospheric transport processes. More recently, interest in stratospheric ozone has arisen from concern that human activities might affect the amount of stratospheric ozone, thereby affecting the ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's surface and perhaps also affecting the climate with various potentially severe consequences for human welfare. This concern has inspired a substantial effort to develop both diagnostic and prognostic models of stratospheric ozone. During the past decade, several chemical agents have been determined to have potentially significant impacts on stratospheric ozone if they are released to the atmosphere in large quantities. These include oxides of nitrogen, oxides of hydrogen, chlorofluorocarbons, bromine compounds, fluorine compounds and carbon dioxide. In order to assess the potential impact of the perturbations caused by these chemicals, mathematical models have been developed to handle the complex coupling between chemical, radiative, and dynamical processes. Basic concepts in stratospheric modeling are reviewed

  19. A quantum logic network for implementing optimal symmetric universal and phase-covariant telecloning of a bipartite entangled state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Fanyu; Zhu Aidong

    2008-01-01

    A quantum logic network to implement quantum telecloning is presented in this paper. The network includes two parts: the first part is used to create the telecloning channel and the second part to teleport the state. It can be used not only to implement universal telecloning for a bipartite entangled state which is completely unknown, but also to implement the phase-covariant telecloning for one that is partially known. Furthermore, the network can also be used to construct a tele-triplicator. It can easily be implemented in experiment because only single- and two-qubit operations are used in the network.

  20. Implementation of IAEA Code of Conduct and Guidance – Exporting State Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, T.

    2010-01-01

    Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is a federal agency reporting to Parliament through Natural Resources Minister It Regulates all nuclear facilities and activities to protect the health, safety and security of persons and the environment, assure that Canada meets its international commitments and obligations on the peaceful use of nuclear energy by Implementation of the IAEA Code and Guidance. There were 99 States committed to the IAEA Code of Conduct (as of July 2010) while 59 States committed to the IAEA Guidance on Import and Export (as of July 2010) Use of risk-informed regulatory processes to optimize resource allocation and decision-making. Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission Control of Radioactive Sources. As such, the Canadian Government is a strong proponent of the establishment and maintenance of an effective, efficient and harmonized international regime for ensuring the safety and security of such sources

  1. Integrated State Estimation and Contingency Analysis Software Implementation using High Performance Computing Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yousu; Glaesemann, Kurt R.; Rice, Mark J.; Huang, Zhenyu

    2015-12-31

    Power system simulation tools are traditionally developed in sequential mode and codes are optimized for single core computing only. However, the increasing complexity in the power grid models requires more intensive computation. The traditional simulation tools will soon not be able to meet the grid operation requirements. Therefore, power system simulation tools need to evolve accordingly to provide faster and better results for grid operations. This paper presents an integrated state estimation and contingency analysis software implementation using high performance computing techniques. The software is able to solve large size state estimation problems within one second and achieve a near-linear speedup of 9,800 with 10,000 cores for contingency analysis application. The performance evaluation is presented to show its effectiveness.

  2. Implementation - more than monitoring and enforcement: evidence from the implementation of the 1989 municipal waste incineration directive (89/429/EEC) in four member states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schucht, S. [CERNA, Centre d' Economie Industrielle, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Paris, 75 - Paris (France); Bultmann, A. [UFZ-Center for Environmental Research (Germany); Eames, M. [Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom). Science Policy Research Unit; Lulofs, K. [Twente Univ.-CSTM, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2000-12-01

    Researchers and policy-makers accept that implementation decisively influences the effectiveness of European (EU) environmental policy. Some Member States lead the development of EU policy and implement Directives with little problem. Others follow a variety of compliance (or non-compliance) paths. Implementation gaps and policy failures are prevalent. Policy outcomes often differ radically between even neighbouring Member States. What are the reasons for these differences? Why do Member States follow different compliance paths? Why do implementation gaps and policy failures occur? What factors can explain the different policy outcomes achieved? Is it only 'classical' implementation variables i.e. the monitoring and enforcement actions of public authorities that count? What lessons can we draw for the future? This paper addresses these questions through a comparative analysis of the implementation of the European Directive on the reduction of air pollution from existing municipal waste incineration plants (89/429/EEC) in Germany, the Netherlands, France and the United Kingdom: four neighbouring Member States that exhibit quite divergent compliance paths and policy outcomes. Monitoring and enforcement are found to have only limited explanatory power. In practice national contextual variables, such as: public and political environmental awareness; interactions both with environmental and non-environmental policies; regulatory anticipation and uncertainty; the degree of autonomy and scope of regulatory agencies; and, industrial and market structure of the regulated industry, must also be considered. The article is structured as follows. Section two presents the emission standards imposed by the Directive, briefly summarises the transposition of the Directive into national legislation and presents the compliance paths of the four countries. In sections three to six the specific implementation processes in the four countries are described, focusing on factors

  3. Ozone: The secret greenhouse gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berntsen, Terje; Tjernshaugen, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    The atmospheric ozone not only protects against harmful ultraviolet radiation; it also contributes to the greenhouse effect. Ozone is one of the jokers to make it difficult to calculate the climatic effect of anthropogenic emissions. The greenhouse effect and the ozone layer should not be confused. The greenhouse effect creates problems when it becomes enhanced, so that the earth becomes warmer. The problem with the ozone layer, on the contrary, is that it becomes thinner and so more of the harmful ultraviolet radiation gets through to the earth. However, ozone is also a greenhouse gas and so the greenhouse effect and the ozone layer are connected

  4. 28 CFR 0.109 - Implementation of the Treaty of Friendship and General Relations Between the United States and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Friendship and General Relations Between the United States and Spain. 0.109 Section 0.109 Judicial... Service § 0.109 Implementation of the Treaty of Friendship and General Relations Between the United States... States within the meaning of Article XXIV of the Treaty of Friendship and General Relations Between the...

  5. The Role of District Office Leaders in the Adoption and Implementation of the Common Core State Standards in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Francesca T.; Lawson, Hal A.; Wilcox, Kristen Campbell; Schiller, Kathryn S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This multiple case study investigated district leaders' orientations and strategies as their elementary schools proceeded with state-mandated implementation of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). We identified differences between schools achieving above-predicted outcomes on state CCSS assessments ("odds-beaters") and…

  6. 75 FR 51619 - Privacy Act of 1974: Implementation of Exemptions; Department of Homeland Security/United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... regulations to exempt portions of a Department of Homeland Security/United States Citizenship and Immigration system of records entitled the ``United States Citizenship and Immigration Services--009 Compliance... of 1974: Implementation of Exemptions; Department of Homeland Security/United States Citizenship and...

  7. ACCOUNTING AND ANALYTICAL PROCUREMENT OF STATE FINANCIAL CONTROL AND DIRECTIONS OF ITS IMPLEMENTATION IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Maksymenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the constructive role of public financial control in management is a logical consequence of the modernization of the established system of state financial control and necessitates an update of the ideology and paradigmatic principles of state financial control. A retrospective review of the theoretical and practical aspects of the methodology and organization in the state financial control of Ukraine suggests that in the scientific environment these issues are studied extensively. However, despite the scientific and practical value of these works, the question of the possible modernization of the modern system of state financial control in the conditions of Ukraine’s integration into the world economic system remains unresolved for the time being and is still the subject of lively discussions. The subject of the study is theoretical and methodological principles and methods for the implementation of state financial control, as well as the results of the activities of the State Audit Office of Ukraine for 2017. The purpose of the study is to substantiate the theoretical positions of the system of state financial control in Ukraine, to analyse the activity of the State Audit Service of Ukraine for 2017, and to suggest ways to improve it. To achieve the research goal, the following questions are addressed and solved: the analysis of the activity of the State Audit Service of Ukraine was carried out, based on the results of which the financial impropriety and state of its elimination for 2017 were described; the analysis revealed an increased attention to the organization of an effective system of financial control of budgetary institutions, the continuous improvement of mechanisms of management and control over budgetary funds. Method. To achieve the defined goal, a complex of general scientific and special methods was used: the method of system analysis and complex structures formalization; generalization and scientific abstraction

  8. The cost benefit analysis of implementing photovoltaic solar system in the state of Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadhan, Mohammad; Naseeb, Adel

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the high financial cost of energy resources required to meet the rising demand for electricity consumption in Kuwait, the negative environmental impact of fossil fuel is increasing. Hence, the objective of this paper is to determine the economic feasibility and viability of implementing PV solar energy in the State of Kuwait. It was found that the positive characteristics of solar radiation in Kuwait play a critical role in enhancing the feasibility of implementing solar systems. Under the present price of 5$/W and 15% efficiency, the LCOE of a 1 MW station is estimated to be around $0.20/kWh. This LCOE can be feasible only when the cost of oil is around 100$/barrel. The Cost Benefit Analysis showed that when the value of saved energy resources used in producing traditional electricity, and the cost of lowering CO 2 emissions are accounted for, the true economic cost of LCOE of a PV system will decline significantly. The preliminary economic analysis recommends the implementation of PV technology in Kuwait. (author)

  9. Preservation and Implementation of Decommissioning Lessons Learned in the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Rafael L.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past several years, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has actively worked to capture and preserve lessons learned from the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. More recently, NRC has involved industry groups, the Organization of Agreement States (OAS), and the Department of Energy (DOE) in the effort to develop approaches to capture, preserve and disseminate decommissioning lessons learned. This paper discusses the accomplishments of the working group, some lessons learned by the NRC in the recent past, and how NRC will incorporate these lessons learned into its regulatory framework. This should help ensure that the design and operation of current and future nuclear facilities will result in less environmental impact and more efficient decommissioning. In summary, the NRC will continue capturing today's experience in decommissioning so that future facilities can take advantage of lessons learned from today's decommissioning projects. NRC, both individually and collectively with industry groups, OAS, and DOE, is aggressively working on the preservation and implementation of decommissioning lessons learned. The joint effort has helped to ensure the lessons from the whole spectrum of decommissioning facilities (i.e., reactor, fuel cycle, and material facilities) are better understood, thus maximizing the amount of knowledge and best practices obtained from decommissioning activities. Anticipated regulatory activities at the NRC will make sure that the knowledge gained from today's decommissioning projects is preserved and implemented to benefit the nuclear facilities that will decommission in the future

  10. Surface Monitoring Data for PM2.5 and Ozone

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — AIRNOW is an EPA program in collaboration with the States to gather and distribute hourly near-realtime data from several hundred continuous PM2.5 and ozone monitors.

  11. Ozone modeling within plasmas for ozone sensor applications

    OpenAIRE

    Arshak, Khalil; Forde, Edward; Guiney, Ivor

    2007-01-01

    peer-reviewed Ozone (03) is potentially hazardous to human health and accurate prediction and measurement of this gas is essential in addressing its associated health risks. This paper presents theory to predict the levels of ozone concentration emittedfrom a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma for ozone sensing applications. This is done by postulating the kinetic model for ozone generation, with a DBD plasma at atmospheric pressure in air, in the form of a set of rate equations....

  12. California Air Quality State Implementation Plans; Final Approval; Butte County Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is taking final action to approve a revision to the Butte County Air Quality Management District (BCAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This revision concerns the District's New Source Review (NSR) permitting program.

  13. Implementing SDG 15.3 on Land Degradation Neutrality in the EU and EU Member States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunder, Stephanie; Starke, Sue Martina; Frelih-Larsen, Ana; Kaphengst, Timo

    2017-04-01

    The continuing degradation of land and soils is a severe threat to the provision of ecosystem services and economic development. Sustainable use of land and soils are therefore an integral part of the "Agenda 2030" with its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and 169 targets adopted by the UNGeneral Assembly in September 2015. The SDGs provide new opportunities for an ambitious and integrated environmental policy worldwide and in the EU. Among the many relevant targets that directly or indirectly address soils (such as goals on zero hunger, well being, clean energy, climate change, water and sustainable cities), target 15.3 that aims to achieve "a land degradation-neutral world" by 2030 is the most relevant. The concept of "Land Degradation Neutrality" (LDN) is not only about halting the loss of healthy and fertile land, but also actively reversing degradation by restoring land in order to counterbal-ance losses that cannot be avoided. It is a very ambitious target but due to a lack of balancing mechanisms for degradation and restoration in most countries also a new concept. Land Degra-dation Neutrality therefore both needs a scientific conceptual framework as well as a political debate about its implementation and development of instruments. In the EU and its Member States, this debate can also serve as a catalyst to revive the discussion on a common soil policy in Europe after the withdrawal of the proposal for a soil framework directive in 2014. To analyze options for the implementation of target 15.3 in Germany and Europe the research project "Implementing the Sustainable Development Goals on Soils in Germany" (http://ecologic.eu/12876) is currently carried out by the Ecologic Institute on behalf of the Ger-man Environment Agency (UBA) and the German Federal Environment Ministry (BMUB). The project will run until spring 2017 and the session "European Environmental Policies and Sustainability" at the EGU will be an ideal opportunity to present the final

  14. CONTRIBUTION TO INDOOR OZONE LEVELS OF AN OZONE GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report gives results of a study of a commonly used commercially available ozone generator, undertaken to determine its impact on indoor ozone levels. xperiment were conducted in a typical mechanically ventilated office and in a test house. he generated ozone and the in-room ...

  15. 75 FR 68153 - To Adjust the Rules of Origin Under the United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement, Implement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ...-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement, Implement Modifications to the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act, and... Adjust the Rules of Origin Under the United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement, Implement Modifications to the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act, and for Other Purposes By the President of the United...

  16. Teachers' Perceptions on Preparedness and Supports to Implement the English Language Arts Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Maria Clara

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) describe elementary teachers' perceptions on their preparedness to implement the English Language Arts Common Core State Standards (ELA-CCSS); (2) determine how perceptions influenced changes in instructional practices; and (3) to explore ELA-CCSS implementation challenges and/or barriers in supporting teacher…

  17. Examining Elementary Literacy Teachers' Perceptions of Their Preparedness to Implement the English Language Arts Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams-Budde, Melissa; Miller, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine elementary literacy teachers' perceptions of their preparedness to implement the ELA CCSS [English Language Arts Common Core State Standards]. We defined preparedness across three dimensions: teachers' perceived levels of knowledge of the standards and its components; efficacy to implement changes; and…

  18. An efficient implementation of maximum likelihood identification of LTI state-space models by local gradient search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergboer, N.H.; Verdult, V.; Verhaegen, M.H.G.

    2002-01-01

    We present a numerically efficient implementation of the nonlinear least squares and maximum likelihood identification of multivariable linear time-invariant (LTI) state-space models. This implementation is based on a local parameterization of the system and a gradient search in the resulting

  19. Ozone-depleting Substances (ODS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This site includes all of the ozone-depleting substances (ODS) recognized by the Montreal Protocol. The data include ozone depletion potentials (ODP), global warming...

  20. Health Effects of Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhaling ozone can cause coughing, shortness of breath, worse asthma or bronchitis symptoms, and irritation and damage to airways.You can reduce your exposure to ozone pollution by checking air quality where you live.

  1. The increasing efficiency of financial resources management at implementation of goods’ purchase, works, services for the state and municipal needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proskurnja Dar'ja Vladimirovna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the review of the existing problems in the field of financial resources management at implementation of goods’ purchase, works, services for the state and municipal needs. Determination of the limit prices of purchases is revealed as the most important problem of the increasing efficiency of financial resources management at implementation of goods’ purchase, works, services for the state and municipal needs. The range of problems of determination of the limit prices of purchases is systematized.

  2. The status of the safeguards implementation under the State-Level Approach at the HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. S.; Lee, B. D.; Kim, I. C.; Kim, H. J.; Jung, J. A.; Lee, S. H.

    2016-01-01

    The IAEA developed the SLA(State-Level Approach) for the States in order to maximize effectiveness of safeguards in an environment of constrained resources. The SLA has been implemented at KAERI-Daejeon site in the ROK since 2015. The ten nuclear facilities and one LOF(Location Outsides Facility) of the KAERI-Daejeon site are grouped into three categories under the SLA. The HANARO(High flux Advanced Neutron Application ReactOr) and PIEF(Post Irradiation Examination Facility) are involved in the category I “self-contained capability” facilities that have at least one significant quantity of suitable nuclear material and which could support undeclared plutonium production/separation activities without other supporting infrastructures. This paper described the status of the safeguards implementation at the HANARO involved in the category I under the SLA. The status of a model inventory management system for a research reactor developed in 2013 was also investigated. In this paper, the features and status of the safeguards implementation of the HANARO under the SLA were analyzed. Under the SLA, the monthly, quarterly and annual advanced facility operational information for the HANARO has been submitted to the IAEA in a timely manner. The IAEA inspection at HANARO has been successfully performed under the SLA. It is expected that the safeguards implementation work at HANARO under the SLA has the similar level with that under IS. Under the SLA, the data occurred from the surveillance cameras and other equipment installed at HANARO enables to transmit remotely to the IAEA. The IAEA is targeting 2017~2018 to upgrade them. In addition, the development status of a model inventory management system for a research reactor was investigated. It aims at controlling the material inventory for the nuclear material accounting work and the convenient facility operation. The major functions of it are to trace the transfer history of the nuclear materials and non-nuclear materials

  3. The status of the safeguards implementation under the State-Level Approach at the HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. S.; Lee, B. D.; Kim, I. C.; Kim, H. J.; Jung, J. A.; Lee, S. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The IAEA developed the SLA(State-Level Approach) for the States in order to maximize effectiveness of safeguards in an environment of constrained resources. The SLA has been implemented at KAERI-Daejeon site in the ROK since 2015. The ten nuclear facilities and one LOF(Location Outsides Facility) of the KAERI-Daejeon site are grouped into three categories under the SLA. The HANARO(High flux Advanced Neutron Application ReactOr) and PIEF(Post Irradiation Examination Facility) are involved in the category I “self-contained capability” facilities that have at least one significant quantity of suitable nuclear material and which could support undeclared plutonium production/separation activities without other supporting infrastructures. This paper described the status of the safeguards implementation at the HANARO involved in the category I under the SLA. The status of a model inventory management system for a research reactor developed in 2013 was also investigated. In this paper, the features and status of the safeguards implementation of the HANARO under the SLA were analyzed. Under the SLA, the monthly, quarterly and annual advanced facility operational information for the HANARO has been submitted to the IAEA in a timely manner. The IAEA inspection at HANARO has been successfully performed under the SLA. It is expected that the safeguards implementation work at HANARO under the SLA has the similar level with that under IS. Under the SLA, the data occurred from the surveillance cameras and other equipment installed at HANARO enables to transmit remotely to the IAEA. The IAEA is targeting 2017~2018 to upgrade them. In addition, the development status of a model inventory management system for a research reactor was investigated. It aims at controlling the material inventory for the nuclear material accounting work and the convenient facility operation. The major functions of it are to trace the transfer history of the nuclear materials and non-nuclear materials

  4. State-Level Renewable Energy Policy Implementation: How and Why Do Stakeholders Participate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Rountree

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available For most of the twentieth century, large-scale, utility-owned power plants dominated electricity generation in the United States. Today, however, a growing share of electricity comes from renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy, which are often small-scale and distributed. In the absence of significant national policies, the Renewable Portfolio Standard has emerged as the key state-level policy governing the deployment and use of renewable energy sources. While renewable energy offers new possibilities for clean energy generation, it also poses new regulatory and governance challenges as a wide range of stakeholders, such as the utilities, regulatory agencies, environmental and consumer advocacy groups, electricity generators, and private citizens, increasingly seek to influence how Renewable Portfolio Standards are implemented. In this study, we ask how and why do stakeholders participate in decision-making about how these policies are implemented? Given the unique context of renewable energy policy, the long-term and iterative nature of renewable energy policy implementation, and the wide range of actors involved, we look at the suite of participatory opportunities available to stakeholders. We interview stakeholders in two states—Colorado and Nevada—to identify the mechanisms through which stakeholders participate and the incentives (or disincentives that influence their willingness to do so. We find that while decision makers in both the states use a variety of mechanisms to engage stakeholders in decision-making, meaningful participation may be limited to stakeholder groups that are knowledgeable about the issues, have the resources to engage in long-term and sustained participation, and have long-standing relationships with decision makers and other stakeholders. Although many stakeholders participate in multiple types of processes to achieve a broader range of benefits, they often perceive their participation as

  5. Implementation of State Obligations and Responsibility Ensuring the Availability of Clean Water in Karimunjawa Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu; Soeprobowati, Tri Retnaningsih

    2018-02-01

    This article aims to analyze the implementation of state obligations and responsibility ensuring the availability of clean water as part of human rights in Karimunjawa islands. The analysis based on principle of the State obligations and responsibility to fulfill their citizen right. Water sources in Karimunjawa Islands is very limited. It depend on forest conservation. Around 9.600 peoples live in Karimunjawa Islands, but Karimunjawa is non groundwater basin region. It means, Karimunjawa doesn't have groundwater potential. The quantity of water depends on the season. The solution to maintain the sustainability of clean water is piping from water reservoir to residential areas. The problem is there are so many hotels in Karimunjawa islands, it disrupted the fulfillment of clean water. Besides utilizing water from reservoir, many hotels drilled the ground to get water. It had impact to the availibity of water in dry season and affected to fulfillment of water supply for Karimunjawa people. There is no specific regulation and policy to solve this problem. Clean water management is doing by Karimunjawa's people. Meanwhile, based on Mahkamah Konstitusi Decree number 85/PUU-XI/2013, state is a rights holder to dominate the water in accordance with the Articles 33 paragraph (2) and (3) UUD NRI 1945, so the government has an obligation to make a policy, regulations, management, and supervision.

  6. What Would Have Happened to the Ozone Layer if Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) had not been Regulated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul A.; Oman, L. D.; Douglass, A. R.; Fleming, E. L.; Frith, S. M.; Hurwitz, M. M.; Kawa, S. R.; Jackman, C. H.; Krotkov, N. A.; Nash, E. R.; hide

    2008-01-01

    Ozone depletion by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) was first proposed by Molina and Rowland in their 1974 Nature paper. Since that time, the sci entific connection between ozone losses and CFCs and other ozone depl eting substances (ODSs) has been firmly established with laboratory m easurements, atmospheric observations, and modeling research. This science research led to the implementation of international agreements t hat largely stopped the production of ODSs. In this study we use a fu lly-coupled radiation-chemical-dynamical model to simulate a future world where ODSs were never regulated and ODS production grew at an ann ual rate of 3%. In this "world avoided" simulation 1.7 % of the globa lly-average column ozone is destroyed by 2020, and 67% is destroyed b y 2065 in comparison to 1980. Large ozone depletions in the polar region become year-round rather than just seasonal as is currently observ ed in the Antarctic ozone hole. Very large temperature decreases are observed in response to circulation changes and decreased shortwave radiation absorption by ozone. Ozone levels in the tropical lower strat osphere remain constant until about 2053 and then collapse to near ze ro by 2058 as a result of heterogeneous chemical processes (as curren tly observed in the Antarctic ozone hole). The tropical cooling that triggers the ozone collapse is caused by an increase of the tropical upwelling. In response to ozone changes, ultraviolet radiation increa ses, more than doubling the erythemal radiation in the northern summer midlatitudes by 2060.

  7. What would have happened to the ozone layer if chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs had not been regulated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Newman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone depletion by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs was first proposed by Molina and Rowland in their 1974 Nature paper. Since that time, the scientific connection between ozone losses and CFCs and other ozone depleting substances (ODSs has been firmly established with laboratory measurements, atmospheric observations, and modeling studies. This science research led to the implementation of international agreements that largely stopped the production of ODSs. In this study we use a fully-coupled radiation-chemical-dynamical model to simulate a future world where ODSs were never regulated and ODS production grew at an annual rate of 3%. In this "world avoided" simulation, 17% of the globally-averaged column ozone is destroyed by 2020, and 67% is destroyed by 2065 in comparison to 1980. Large ozone depletions in the polar region become year-round rather than just seasonal as is currently observed in the Antarctic ozone hole. Very large temperature decreases are observed in response to circulation changes and decreased shortwave radiation absorption by ozone. Ozone levels in the tropical lower stratosphere remain constant until about 2053 and then collapse to near zero by 2058 as a result of heterogeneous chemical processes (as currently observed in the Antarctic ozone hole. The tropical cooling that triggers the ozone collapse is caused by an increase of the tropical upwelling. In response to ozone changes, ultraviolet radiation increases, more than doubling the erythemal radiation in the northern summer midlatitudes by 2060.

  8. Ozonated Olive Oils and Troubles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Uysal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 49-50

  9. Disappearing threat to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribbin, J

    1979-02-15

    Concern that human activities might disturb the dynamic natural equilibrium of the ozone layer has stemmed from the fact that this layer plays a key part in the ecology of the earth by absorbing harmful ultraviolet radiation which would otherwise penetrate to the ground. Apparently, however, a decline of as much at 15% in total global ozone would have very little effect on climate. A 50% reduction would produce a marked cooling of the stratosphere at 40 km altitude over the tropics, but barely detectable changes in temperature and rainfall in the lower atmosphere. Therefore, biological effects of more uv light at ground level is the only hazard associated with ozone depletion on the scale which might take place.

  10. Search of molecular ground state via genetic algorithm: Implementation on a hybrid SIMD-MIMD platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucello, N.; D'Agostino, G.; Pisacane, F.

    1997-01-01

    A genetic algorithm for the optimization of the ground-state structure of a metallic cluster has been developed and ported on a SIMD-MIMD parallel platform. The SIMD part of the parallel platform is represented by a Quadrics/APE100 consisting of 512 floating point units, while the MIMD part is formed by a cluster of workstations. The proposed algorithm is composed by a part where the genetic operators are applied to the elements of the population and a part which performs a further local relaxation and the fitness calculation via Molecular Dynamics. These parts have been implemented on the MIMD and on the SIMD part, respectively. Results have been compared to those generated by using Simulated Annealing

  11. Successful implementation of controlled aerobic bioremediation technology at hydrocarbon contaminated sites in the state of Delaware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, C.D.; Hiller, A.V.; Carberry, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    WIK Associates, Inc. of New Castle, Delaware, has been working over the last two years to improve and advance a cost effective method of treating hydrocarbon contaminated soils. The first section of this paper describes treatment methods and associated benefits such as increased control over environmental parameters. The second part of this paper describes work performed in attempting to predict degradation rates for varying types of hydrocarbon contamination under varying conditions. This research is based on data gathered in performing on-site bioremediation as described. A third section included in this paper describes the unique perspective of a State regulator responsible for overseeing remediation efforts evolving from leaking underground storage tanks. This section describes regulatory issues and procedures in Delaware and how the Department handles the submission and implementation of corrective action work plans, through project closure with thorough documentation of the remediation

  12. Groundwater governance in Asia: present state and barriers to implementation of good governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, T.

    2014-09-01

    The present state of groundwater governance in Asia was reviewed. The main problem regarding groundwater resources in each Asian country is overexploitation, causing water level decline, land subsidence and salt water intrusion. For those groundwater hazards, many countries have established regulations such as laws and regulations as countermeasures. However, those laws and regulations are not the basic laws on groundwater resources, but only for countermeasures to prevent groundwater hazards. Common problems and barriers for implementing groundwater governance in Asian countries are that there is more than one institute with different and sometimes overlapping responsibilities in groundwater management. To overcome those conflicts among institutions and establishment of good governance, it is necessary to establish an agency in the government as one coordinate function reinforcing the direct coordination and facilitation of groundwater policy-making and management. As one such framework, the conceptual law called the Water Cycle Basic Law, which is under planning in Japan, is examined in this paper.

  13. Ozonation for source treatment of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater - ozone lifetime and required ozone dose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Chhetri, Ravi Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Ozonation aimed at removing pharmaceuticals was studied in an effluent from an experimental pilot system using staged moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) tanks for the optimal biological treatment of wastewater from a medical care unit of Aarhus University Hospital. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC......) and pH in samples varied considerably, and the effect of these two parameters on ozone lifetime and the efficiency of ozone in removing pharmaceuticals were determined. The pH in the effluent varied from 5.0 to 9.0 resulting in approximately a doubling of the required ozone dose at the highest p......H for each pharmaceutical. DOC varied from 6 to 20 mg-DOC/L. The ozone required for removing each pharmaceutical, varied linearly with DOC and thus, ozone doses normalized to DOC (specific ozone dose) agreed between water samples (typically within 15%). At neutral pH the specific ozone dose required...

  14. Q-PYTHIA: a medium-modified implementation of final state radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armesto, Néstor; Cunqueiro, Leticia; Salgado, Carlos A.

    2009-10-01

    We present a Monte Carlo implementation, within PYTHIA, of medium-induced gluon radiation in the final state branching process. Medium effects are introduced through an additive term in the splitting functions computed in the multiple-soft scattering approximation. The observable effects of this modification are studied for different quantities as fragmentation functions and the hump-backed plateau, and transverse momentum and angular distributions. The anticipated increase of intra-jet multiplicities, energy loss of the leading particle and jet broadening are observed as well as modifications of naive expectations based solely on analytical calculations. This shows the adequacy of a Monte Carlo simulator for jet analyses. Effects of hadronization are found to wash out medium effects in the soft region, while the main features remain. To show the performance of the implementation and the feasibility of our approach in realistic experimental situations we provide some examples: fragmentation functions, nuclear suppression factors, jet shapes and jet multiplicities. The package containing the modified routines is available for public use. This code, which is not an official PYTHIA release, is called Q-PYTHIA. We also include a short manual to perform the simulations of jet quenching.

  15. Advanced musculoskeletal physiotherapists in post arthroplasty review clinics: a state wide implementation program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Paula; Burge, Angela; Walter, Kerrie; Shaw, Bridget; Page, Carolyn; Phan, Uyen; Terrill, Desiree; Liew, Susan

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate outcomes following a state-wide implementation of post arthroplasty review (PAR) clinics for patients following total hip and knee arthroplasty, led by advanced musculoskeletal physiotherapists in collaboration with orthopaedic specialists. A prospective observational study analysed data collected by 10 implementation sites (five metropolitan and five regional/rural centres) between September 2014 and June 2015. The Victorian Innovation and Reform Impact Assessment Framework was used to assess efficiency, effectiveness (access to care, safety and quality, workforce capacity, utilisation of skill sets, patient and workforce satisfaction) and sustainability (stakeholder engagement, succession planning and availability of ongoing funding). 2362 planned occasions of service (OOS) were provided for 2057 patients. Reduced patient wait times from referral to appointment were recorded and no adverse events occurred. Average cost savings across 10 sites was AUD$38 per OOS (Baseline $63, PAR clinic $35), representing a reduced pathway cost of 44%. Average annual predicted total value of increased orthopaedic specialist capacity was $11,950 per PAR clinic (range $6149 to $23,400). The Australian Orthopaedic Association review guidelines were met (8/10 sites, 80%) and patient-reported outcome measures were introduced as routine clinical care. High workforce and patient satisfaction were expressed. Eighteen physiotherapists were trained creating a sustainable workforce. Eight sites secured ongoing funding. The PAR clinics delivered a safe, cost-efficient model of care that improved patient access and quality of care compared to traditional specialist-led workforce models. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Extent of Implementation of Post-Basic Economics Curriculum in Senior Secondary Schools in Edo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Oleabhiele

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the extent of implementation of post-economics curriculum in senior secondary schools in Edo state. Two research questions and two research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The research designed used for the study was the descriptive survey. The population for the study were one hundred and twenty-five (125 economics teachers. A structured questionnaire was used for the collection of data for the study while the research questions were answered using the mean and standard deviation and the research hypotheses were tested using the t-test statistics at an alpha level of 0.05. The results of the study revealed that the curriculum content of economics are adequate and in line the objective of the nation on vision 20:2020. And that the instructional strategies employed by economics teachers to implement the curriculum content are appropriate as specified by the curriculum. Based on the findings, it is recommended that economics teachers should trained to select a use instructional strategies that are learners centred and that economics teachers should be encouraged to attend seminars, workshops in order to improve their teaching skills

  17. Evaluation of the implementation of radiation protection measures for aircrew in EU member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierfeldt, S.; Haider, C.; Hans, P.; Kaleve, M.; Neuenfeldt, F.

    2009-01-01

    An evaluation of the implementation of radiation protection measures for aircrew in EU Member States has recently been performed in a study sponsored by the European Commission. A comprehensive database has been gathered using questionnaires for civil aviation authorities, aircraft operators and radiation protection authorities in each country. The study has revealed the following results: all countries within the scope of this study where aircrew might receive annual doses >1 mSv have implemented appropriate legislation. The treatment of limits or constraints (action levels) for annual doses of 1, 6, 20 mSv could be an area where clear guidance by the European Commission might be needed. The way in which doses are determined might also be treated in a more harmonised way in the EU, including the transfer of dose data of freelancers or crew members working for other airlines. The establishment of the European Aviation Safety Agency leads to a gradual shift in responsibilities from the national civil aviation authorities towards this centralised European agency. Currently, however, tracking of doses for aircrew still lies with national bodies. (authors)

  18. What would have happened to the ozone layer if chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) had not been regulated?

    OpenAIRE

    P. A. Newman; L. D. Oman; A. R. Douglass; E. L. Fleming; S. M. Frith; M. M. Hurwitz; S. R. Kawa; C. H. Jackman; N. A. Krotkov; E. R. Nash; J. E. Nielsen; S. Pawson; R. S. Stolarski; G. J. M. Velders

    2009-01-01

    Ozone depletion by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) was first proposed by Molina and Rowland in their 1974 Nature paper. Since that time, the scientific connection between ozone losses and CFCs and other ozone depleting substances (ODSs) has been firmly established with laboratory measurements, atmospheric observations, and modeling research. This science research led to the implementation of international agreements that largely stopped the production of ODSs. In this study we use a fully-c...

  19. Development and Implementation of a Novel Prehospital Care System in the State of Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Heather A; Douglass, Katherine A; Ejas, Shafi; Poovathumparambil, Venugopalan

    2016-12-01

    Most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have struggled to find a system for prehospital care that can provide adequate patient care and geographical coverage while maintaining a feasible price tag. The emergency medical systems of the Western world are not necessarily relevant in developing economic systems, given the lack of strict legislation, the scarcity of resources, and the limited number of trained personnel. Meanwhile, most efforts to provide prehospital care in India have taken the form of adapting Western models to the Indian context with limited success. Described here is a novel approach to prehospital care designed for and implemented in the State of Kerala, India. The Active Network Group of Emergency Life Savers (ANGELS) was launched in 2011 in Calicut City, the third largest city in the Indian State of Kerala. The ANGELS integrated an existing fleet of private and state-owned ambulances into a single network utilizing Global Positioning System (GPS) technology and a single statewide call number. A total of 85 volunteer emergency medical certified technicians (EMCTs) were trained in basic first aid and trauma care principles. Public awareness campaigns accompanied all activities to raise awareness amongst community members. Funding was provided via public-private partnership, aimed to minimize costs to patients for service utilization. Over a two-year period from March 2011 to April 2013, 8,336 calls were recorded, of which 54.8% (4,569) were converted into actual ambulance run sheets. The majority of calls were for medical emergencies and most patients were transported to Medical College Hospital in Calicut. This unique public-private partnership has been responsive to the needs of the population while sustaining low operational costs. This system may provide a relevant template for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) development in other resource-limited settings. Brown HA , Douglass KA , Ejas S , Poovathumparambil V . Development and

  20. Inquiry Based Projects Using Student Ozone Measurements and the Status of Using Plants as Bio-Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, I. H.; Fishman, J.; Pippin, M.; Sachs, S.; Skelly, J.; Chappelka, A.; Neufeld, H.; Burkey, K.

    2006-05-01

    Students around the world work cooperatively with their teachers and the scientific research community measuring local surface ozone levels using a hand-held optical scanner and ozone sensitive chemical strips. Through the GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) Program, students measuring local ozone levels are connected with the chemistry of the air they breathe and how human activity impacts air quality. Educational tools have been developed and correlated with the National Science and Mathematics Standards to facilitate integrating the study of surface ozone with core curriculum. Ozone air pollution has been identified as the major pollutant causing foliar injury to plants when they are exposed to concentrations of surface ozone. The inclusion of native and agricultural plants with measuring surface ozone provides an Earth system approach to understanding surface ozone. An implementation guide for investigating ozone induced foliar injury has been developed and field tested. The guide, Using Sensitive Plants as Bio-Indicators of Ozone Pollution, provides: the background information and protocol for implementing an "Ozone Garden" with native and agricultural plants; and, a unique opportunity to involve students in a project that will develop and increase their awareness of surface ozone air pollution and its impact on plants.

  1. Synoptic and meteorological drivers of extreme ozone concentrations over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Noelia Felipe; Sillmann, Jana; Schnell, Jordan L.; Rust, Henning W.; Butler, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The present work assesses the relationship between local and synoptic meteorological conditions and surface ozone concentration over Europe in spring and summer months, during the period 1998-2012 using a new interpolated data set of observed surface ozone concentrations over the European domain. Along with local meteorological conditions, the influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation on surface ozone is addressed through a set of airflow indices computed with a novel implementation of a grid-by-grid weather type classification across Europe. Drivers of surface ozone over the full distribution of maximum daily 8-hour average values are investigated, along with drivers of the extreme high percentiles and exceedances or air quality guideline thresholds. Three different regression techniques are applied: multiple linear regression to assess the drivers of maximum daily ozone, logistic regression to assess the probability of threshold exceedances and quantile regression to estimate the meteorological influence on extreme values, as represented by the 95th percentile. The relative importance of the input parameters (predictors) is assessed by a backward stepwise regression procedure that allows the identification of the most important predictors in each model. Spatial patterns of model performance exhibit distinct variations between regions. The inclusion of the ozone persistence is particularly relevant over Southern Europe. In general, the best model performance is found over Central Europe, where the maximum temperature plays an important role as a driver of maximum daily ozone as well as its extreme values, especially during warmer months.

  2. Massive global ozone loss predicted following regional nuclear conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Michael J.; Toon, Owen B.; Turco, Richard P.; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Garcia, Rolando R.

    2008-01-01

    We use a chemistry-climate model and new estimates of smoke produced by fires in contemporary cities to calculate the impact on stratospheric ozone of a regional nuclear war between developing nuclear states involving 100 Hiroshima-size bombs exploded in cities in the northern subtropics. We find column ozone losses in excess of 20% globally, 25–45% at midlatitudes, and 50–70% at northern high latitudes persisting for 5 years, with substantial losses continuing for 5 additional years. Column ozone amounts remain near or <220 Dobson units at all latitudes even after three years, constituting an extratropical “ozone hole.” The resulting increases in UV radiation could impact the biota significantly, including serious consequences for human health. The primary cause for the dramatic and persistent ozone depletion is heating of the stratosphere by smoke, which strongly absorbs solar radiation. The smoke-laden air rises to the upper stratosphere, where removal mechanisms are slow, so that much of the stratosphere is ultimately heated by the localized smoke injections. Higher stratospheric temperatures accelerate catalytic reaction cycles, particularly those of odd-nitrogen, which destroy ozone. In addition, the strong convection created by rising smoke plumes alters the stratospheric circulation, redistributing ozone and the sources of ozone-depleting gases, including N2O and chlorofluorocarbons. The ozone losses predicted here are significantly greater than previous “nuclear winter/UV spring” calculations, which did not adequately represent stratospheric plume rise. Our results point to previously unrecognized mechanisms for stratospheric ozone depletion. PMID:18391218

  3. 78 FR 65590 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Indiana PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... Indiana's state implementation plan as requested by the Indiana Department of Environmental Management....5 ) by establishing definitions related to PM 2.5 , defining PM 2.5 increment levels, and setting PM... changes define ``direct PM 2.5 ,'' addresses precursors to ozone and PM 2.5 , and revises existing...

  4. 34 CFR 403.201 - What are the State's responsibilities for developing and implementing a statewide system of core...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION... Technology Education Program? § 403.201 What are the State's responsibilities for developing and implementing... differing types of standards and measures including— (1) The advantages and disadvantages of each type of...

  5. 75 FR 19923 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Yolo-Solano Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Yolo- Solano Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the Yolo-Solano Air Quality Management District (YSAQMD) portion of the California State.... ``Improving Air Quality with Economic Incentive Programs,'' EPA- 452/R-01-001, January 2001. B. Does the rule...

  6. 75 FR 37308 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Yolo-Solano Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Yolo- Solano Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the Yolo-Solano Air Quality Management District (YSAQMD) portion of the California State...) * * * (i) * * * (C) Yolo Solano Air Quality Management District (1) Rule 3.21, ``Rice Straw Emission...

  7. Development and implementation of theoretical methods for the description of electronically core-excited states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Jan

    2016-03-23

    My PhD project mainly consists of two important parts. One was to enhance and develop variants of the core-valence-separation-algebraic-diagrammatic-construction (CVS-ADC) method and implement all approaches efficiently in the adcman program, which is part of the Q-chem program package. Secondly, I benchmarked these implementations and simulated X-ray absorption spectra of small- and medium-sized molecules from different fields. In this thesis, I present my implementations, as well as the results and applications obtained with the CVS-ADC methods and give a general introduction into quantum chemical methods. At first, I implemented the CVS-ADC approach up to the extended second in an efficient way. The program is able to deal with systems up to 500 basis functions in an adequate computational time, which allows for accurate calculations of medium-sized closed-shell molecules, e.g. acenaphthenequinone (ANQ). Afterwards, the CVS-ADC implementation was extended for the first time to deal with open-shell systems, i.e. ions and radicals, which implies a treatment of unrestricted wave functions and spin-orbitals. The resulting method is denoted as CVS-UADC(2)-x. For the first time, I applied the CVS approximation to the the third order ADC scheme, derived the working equations, and implemented the CVS-ADC(3) method in adcman. As the last step, I applied the CVS formalism for the first time to the ISR approach to enable calculations of core-excited state properties and densities. To benchmark all restricted and unrestricted CVS-ADC/CVS-ISR methods up to third order in perturbation theory, I chose a set of small molecules, e.g. carbon monoxide (CO). The calculated values of core-excitation energies, transition moments and static dipole moments are compared with experimental data or other approaches, thereby estimating complete basis set (CBS) limits. Furthermore, a comprehensive study of different basis sets is performed. In combination with the CBS limit of the aug

  8. Progress along developmental tracks for electronic health records implementation in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollar David W

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development and implementation of electronic health records (EHR have occurred slowly in the United States. To date, these approaches have, for the most part, followed four developmental tracks: (a Enhancement of immunization registries and linkage with other health records to produce Child Health Profiles (CHP, (b Regional Health Information Organization (RHIO demonstration projects to link together patient medical records, (c Insurance company projects linked to ICD-9 codes and patient records for cost-benefit assessments, and (d Consortia of EHR developers collaborating to model systems requirements and standards for data linkage. Until recently, these separate efforts have been conducted in the very silos that they had intended to eliminate, and there is still considerable debate concerning health professionals access to as well as commitment to using EHR if these systems are provided. This paper will describe these four developmental tracks, patient rights and the legal environment for EHR, international comparisons, and future projections for EHR expansion across health networks in the United States.

  9. LEDs for the Implementation of Advanced Hydrogenation Using Hydrogen Charge-State Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Mun Chong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Light-induced degradation (LID of p-type Cz solar cells has plagued the industry for many decades. However, in recent years, new techniques for solving this LID have been developed, with hydrogen passivation of the boron-oxygen defects appearing to be an important contributor to the solution. Advanced hydrogenation approaches involving the control of the charge state for the hydrogen atoms in silicon to enhance their diffusivity and reactivity are developed and evaluated in this work for commercial application using a prototype industrial tool in conjunction with solar cells manufactured on commercial production lines. This prototype tool, unlike the previous successful laser-based laboratory approaches, is based on the use of LEDs for controlling the charge state of the hydrogen atoms. The illumination from the LEDs is also used in this work to passivate process-induced defects and contamination from the respective production lines with significant improvements in both efficiency and stability. The results indicate that the low-cost LED-based industrial tool performs as well as the laser-based laboratory tool for implementing these advanced hydrogen passivation approaches.

  10. Sector activities and lessons learned around initial implementation of the United States national physical activity plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Kelly R; Satinsky, Sara B

    2014-08-01

    National plans are increasingly common but infrequently evaluated. The 2010 United States National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP) provided strategies to increase population levels of physical activity. This paper describes (i) the initial accomplishments of the NPAP sector teams, and (ii) results from a process evaluation to determine how the sectors operated, their cross-sector collaboration, challenges encountered, and positive experiences. During 2011, a quarterly reporting system was developed to capture sector-level activities. A year-end interview derived more detailed information. Interviews with 12 sector leads were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed for common themes. The 6 sectors worked on goals from the implementation plan that focused broadly on education, promotion, intervention, policy, collaboration, and evaluation. Through year-end interviews, themes were generated around operations, goal setting, and cross-sector collaboration. Challenges to the NPAP work included lack of funding and time, the need for marketing and promotion, and organizational support. Positive experiences included collaboration, efficiency of work, enhanced community dynamic, and accomplishments toward NPAP goals. These initial results on the NPAP sector teams can be used as a baseline assessment for future monitoring. The lessons learned may be useful to other practitioners developing evaluations around state- or national-level plans.

  11. Physicochemical patterns of ozone absorption by wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamleeva, N. A.; Lunin, V. V.

    2016-11-01

    Results from studying aspen and pine wood ozonation are presented. The effect the concentration of ozone, the reagent residence time, and the content of water in a sample of wood has on ozone consumption rate and ozone demand are analyzed. The residence time is shown to determine the degree of ozone conversion degree and the depth of substrate destruction. The main patterns of ozone absorption by wood with different moisture content are found. Ways of optimizing the ozonation of plant biomass are outlined.

  12. The study of international and interstate transport of ozone in Yuma, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Sonenberg, M.; Wood, J. L.; Pearson, C. R.; Colson, H.; Malloy, J. W.; Pace, M.; Mao, F.; Paul, J.; Busby, B. R.; Parkey, B.; Drago, L.; Franquist, T. S.

    2017-12-01

    In October 2015, EPA reduced the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone from 75 parts per billion (ppb) to 70 ppb. Meeting the new standard may be extremely challenging for some areas, including rural Yuma County in the State of Arizona. Yuma County faces unique air quality challenges, since it borders the Mexican states of Baja California and Sonora, and the State of California. The present study investigates the contribution of international and interstate transport of ozone and ozone precursors to episodes of elevated ozone concentrations in Yuma. The Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ) merged HYSPLIT modeling outputs with two years of hourly ground ozone monitor data to investigate the potential area contributions to ozone concentrations in Yuma County. This analysis found that elevated ozone concentrations in Yuma in 2014 and 2015 frequently coincided with back-trajectories over both California and Mexico, typically favoring Mexico during the spring. In May 2017, ADEQ installed a new ozone monitor in San Luis Rio Colorado, Sonora, Mexico (Latitude: 32.4665, Longitude: -114.7688), which is 29 km south of ozone site in Yuma County. We will present the first simultaneous observations of ozone seasons in Sonora, Mexico, eastern California, and Yuma.

  13. Successful long-term maintenance following Nutrition Care Process Terminology implementation across a state-wide health-care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanti, Angela; O'Sullivan, Therese A; Porter, Jane; Hogg, Marion

    2017-09-01

    Three years following a state-wide Nutrition Care Process Terminology (NCPT) implementation project, the present study aimed to (i) assess changes in NCPT knowledge and attitudes, (ii) identify implementation barriers and enablers and (iii) seek managers' opinions post-implementation. Pre-implementation and three years post-implementation, all Queensland Government hospitals state-wide were invited to repeat a validated NCPT survey. Additionally, a separate survey sought dietetic managers' opinions regarding NCPT's use and acceptance, usefulness for patient care, role in service planning and continued use. A total of 238 dietitians completed the survey in 2011 and 82 dietitians in 2014. Use of diagnostic statement in the previous six months improved (P  0.05). Key elements in sustaining NCPT implementation over three years included ongoing management support, workshops/tutorials, discussion and mentor and peer support. The most valued resources were pocket guides, ongoing workshops/tutorials and mentor support. Dietetic managers held many positive NCPT views, however, opinions differed around the usefulness of service planning, safer practice, improving patient care and facilitating communication. Some managers would not support NCPT unless it was recommended for practice. Immediate improvements following the NCPT implementation project were sustained over three years. Moving forward, a professional focus on continuing to incorporate NCPT into standard practice will provide structure for process and outcomes assessment. © 2017 State of Queensland. Nutrition and Dietetics © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  14. Our Shrinking Ozone Layer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Depletion of the ozone layer is therefore having significant effects on life on .... but there is always a net balance between the rate of formation and destruction ..... award of Commonwealth Fellowship during the present work and also being an ...

  15. Dobson ozone spectrophotometer modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komhyr, W. D.; Grass, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Description of a modified version of the Dobson ozone spectrophotometer in which several outdated electronic design features have been replaced by circuitry embodying more modern design concepts. The resulting improvement in performance characteristics has been obtained without changing the principle of operation of the original instrument.

  16. The ozone monitoring instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.R.; Mälkki, A.; Visser, H.; Vries, J. de; Stammes, P.; Lundell, J.O.V.; Saari, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flies on the National Aeronautics and Space Adminsitration's Earth Observing System Aura satellite launched in July 2004. OMI is a ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) nadir solar backscatter spectrometer, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with a spatial

  17. Ozone, greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aviam, A.M.; Arthaut, R.

    1992-01-01

    This file is made of eight general papers on environment (climates under observation, research on photo-oxidizing pollution, scientific aspects of stratospheric ozone layer, urban engineering and environment, glory of public gardens, earths not very natural, darwinism and society, economical data on environment). (A.B.). refs., 3 tabs

  18. Revisiting Antarctic Ozone Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Tritscher, Ines; Müller, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Antarctic ozone depletion is known for almost three decades and it has been well settled that it is caused by chlorine catalysed ozone depletion inside the polar vortex. However, there are still some details, which need to be clarified. In particular, there is a current debate on the relative importance of liquid aerosol and crystalline NAT and ice particles for chlorine activation. Particles have a threefold impact on polar chlorine chemistry, temporary removal of HNO3 from the gas-phase (uptake), permanent removal of HNO3 from the atmosphere (denitrification), and chlorine activation through heterogeneous reactions. We have performed simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) employing a recently developed algorithm for saturation-dependent NAT nucleation for the Antarctic winters 2011 and 2012. The simulation results are compared with different satellite observations. With the help of these simulations, we investigate the role of the different processes responsible for chlorine activation and ozone depletion. Especially the sensitivity with respect to the particle type has been investigated. If temperatures are artificially forced to only allow cold binary liquid aerosol, the simulation still shows significant chlorine activation and ozone depletion. The results of the 3-D Chemical Transport Model CLaMS simulations differ from purely Lagrangian longtime trajectory box model simulations which indicates the importance of mixing processes.

  19. Using a multi-state Learning Community as an implementation strategy for immediate postpartum long-acting reversible contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSisto, Carla L; Estrich, Cameron; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Goodman, David A; Pliska, Ellen; Mackie, Christine N; Waddell, Lisa F; Rankin, Kristin M

    2017-11-21

    Implementation strategies are imperative for the successful adoption and sustainability of complex evidence-based public health practices. Creating a learning collaborative is one strategy that was part of a recently published compilation of implementation strategy terms and definitions. In partnership with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other partner agencies, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials recently convened a multi-state Learning Community to support cross-state collaboration and provide technical assistance for improving state capacity to increase access to long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) in the immediate postpartum period, an evidence-based practice with the potential for reducing unintended pregnancy and improving maternal and child health outcomes. During 2015-2016, the Learning Community included multi-disciplinary, multi-agency teams of state health officials, payers, clinicians, and health department staff from 13 states. This qualitative study was conducted to better understand the successes, challenges, and strategies that the 13 US states in the Learning Community used for increasing access to immediate postpartum LARC. We conducted telephone interviews with each team in the Learning Community. Interviews were semi-structured and organized by the eight domains of the Learning Community. We coded transcribed interviews for facilitators, barriers, and implementation strategies, using a recent compilation of expert-defined implementation strategies as a foundation for coding the latter. Data analysis showed three ways that the activities of the Learning Community helped in policy implementation work: structure and accountability, validity, and preparing for potential challenges and opportunities. Further, the qualitative data demonstrated that the Learning Community integrated six other implementation strategies from the literature: organize clinician implementation team meetings, conduct

  20. Human Health and Economic Impacts of Ozone Reductions by Income Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, Rebecca K; Thompson, Tammy M; Selin, Noelle E

    2017-02-21

    Low-income households may be disproportionately affected by ozone pollution and ozone policy. We quantify how three factors affect the relative benefits of ozone policies with household income: (1) unequal ozone reductions; (2) policy delay; and (3) economic valuation methods. We model ozone concentrations under baseline and policy conditions across the full continental United States to estimate the distribution of ozone-related health impacts across nine income groups. We enhance an economic model to include these impacts across household income categories, and present its first application to evaluate the benefits of ozone reductions for low-income households. We find that mortality incidence rates decrease with increasing income. Modeled ozone levels yield a median of 11 deaths per 100 000 people in 2005. Proposed policy reduces these rates by 13%. Ozone reductions are highest among low-income households, which increases their relative welfare gains by up to 4% and decreases them for the rich by up to 8%. The median value of reductions in 2015 is either $30 billion (in 2006 U.S. dollars) or $1 billion if reduced mortality risks are valued with willingness-to-pay or as income from increased life expectancy. Ozone reductions were relatively twice as beneficial for the lowest- compared to the highest-income households. The valuation approach affected benefits more than a policy delay or differential ozone reductions with income.