WorldWideScience

Sample records for ozone protection plan

  1. Ozone Layer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Research Centers Contact Us Share Ozone Layer Protection The stratospheric ozone layer is Earth’s “sunscreen” – protecting ... GreenChill Partnership Responsible Appliance Disposal (RAD) Program Ozone Protection vs. Ozone Pollution This website addresses stratospheric ozone ...

  2. Protecting the ozone layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, M; King, K

    1992-06-01

    Stratospheric ozone layer depletion has been recognized as a problem by the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the 1987 Montreal Protocol (MP). The ozone layer shields the earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation (UV-B), which is more pronounced at the poles and around the equator. Industrialized countries have contributed significantly to the problem by releasing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons into the atmosphere. The effect of these chemicals, which were known for their inertness, nonflammability, and nontoxicity, was discovered in 1874. Action to deal with the effects of CFCs and halons was initiated in 1985 in a 49-nation UN meeting. 21 nations signed a protocol limiting ozone depleting substances (ODS): CFCs and halons. Schedules were set based on each country's use in 1986; the target phaseout was set for the year 2000. The MP restricts trade in ODSs and weights the impact of substances to reflect the extent of damage; i.e., halons are 10 times more damaging than CFCs. ODS requirements for developing countries were eased to accommodate scarce resources and the small fraction of ODS emissions. An Interim Multilateral Fund under the Montreal Protocol (IMFMP) was established to provide loans to finance the costs to developing countries in meeting global environmental requirements. The IMFMP is administered by the World Bank, the UN Environmental Program, and the UN Development Program. Financing is available to eligible countries who use .3 kg of ODS/person/year. Rapid phaseout in developed countries has occurred due to strong support from industry and a lower than expected cost. Although there are clear advantages to rapid phaseout, there were no incentives included in the MP for rapid phaseout. Some of the difficulties occur because the schedules set minimum targets at the lowest possible cost. Also, costs cannot be minimized by a country-specific and ODS-specific process. The ways to improve implementation in scheduling and

  3. Environmental protection Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, R. C.

    1999-01-01

    This ''Environmental Protection Implementation Plan'' is intended to ensure that the environmental program objectives of Department of Energy Order 5400.1 are achieved at SNL/California. This document states SNL/California's commitment to conduct its operations in an environmentally safe and responsible manner. The ''Environmental Protection Implementation Plan'' helps management and staff comply with applicable environmental responsibilities

  4. 77 FR 74381 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Listing of Substitutes for Ozone Depleting Substances-Fire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Listing of Substitutes for Ozone Depleting Substances--Fire Suppression... a companion proposed rule issuing listings for three fire suppressants under EPA's Significant New... companion proposed rule issuing listings for three fire suppressants under EPA's Significant New...

  5. Ozone-depleting-substance control and phase-out plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.; Brown, M.J.

    1994-07-01

    Title VI of the Federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires regulation of the use and disposal of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) (e.g., Halon, Freon). Several important federal regulations have been promulgated that affect the use of such substances at the Hanford Site. On April 23, 1993, Executive Order (EO) 12843, Procurement Requirements and Policies for Federal Agencies for Ozone-Depleting Substances (EPA 1993) was issued for Federal facilities to conform to the new US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations implementing the Clean Air Act of 1963 (CAA), Section 613, as amended. To implement the requirements of Title VI the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL), issued a directive to the Hanford Site contractors on May 25, 1994 (Wisness 1994). The directive assigns Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) the lead in coordinating the development of a sitewide comprehensive implementation plan to be drafted by July 29, 1994 and completed by September 30, 1994. The implementation plan will address several areas where immediate compliance action is required. It will identify all current uses of ODSs and inventories, document the remaining useful life of equipment that contains ODS chemicals, provide a phase-out schedule, and provide a strategy that will be implemented consistently by all the Hanford Site contractors. This plan also addresses the critical and required elements of Federal regulations, the EO, and US Department of Energy (DOE) guidance. This plan is intended to establish a sitewide management system to address the clean air requirements

  6. 77 FR 24440 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Atlanta; Ozone 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R04-OAR-2010-0021(b); FRL-9661-9] Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Atlanta; Ozone 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY... 2002 base year emissions inventory portion of the state implementation plan (SIP) revision submitted by...

  7. Screening agrochemicals as potential protectants of plants against ozone phytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitanis, Costas J.; Lekkas, Dimitrios V.; Agathokleous, Evgenios; Flouri, Fotini

    2015-01-01

    We tested seven contemporary agrochemicals as potential plant protectants against ozone phytotoxicity. In nine experiments, Bel-W3 tobacco plants were experienced weekly exposures to a) 80 nmol mol −1 of ozone-enriched or ozone-free air in controlled environment chambers, b) an urban air polluted area, and c) an agricultural-remote area. Ozone caused severe leaf injury, reduced chlorophylls' and total carotenoids' content, and negatively affected photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. Penconazole, (35% ± 8) hexaconazole (28% ± 5) and kresoxim-methyl (28% ± 15) showed higher plants’ protection (expressed as percentage; mean ± s.e.) against ozone, although the latter exhibited a high variability. Azoxystrobin (21% ± 15) showed lower protection efficacy and Benomyl (15% ± 9) even lower. Trifloxystrobin (7% ± 11) did not protect the plants at all. Acibenzolar-S-methyl + metalaxyl-M (Bion MX) (−6% ± 17) exhibited the higher variability and contrasting results: in some experiments it showed some protection while in others it intensified the ozone injury by causing phytotoxic symptoms on leaves, even in control plants. - Highlights: • Penconazole and hexaconazole offered some protection to plants against ozone. • Bion MX fungicide caused phytotoxic symptoms to Bel-W3 tobacco plants. • Stomatal conductance was reduced in ozone-fumigated plants. - Seven agrochemicals were assessed as potential protectants against ozone phytotoxicity – triazoles fungicides were the most effective

  8. The protective effect of plasma antioxidants during ozone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... In this study we investigated the possible protective effects of the plasma antioxidant defense system during O3-AHT. Venous blood from six ..... immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and a rationale for ozone therapy and other ...

  9. Environmental protection implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, R.C.

    1998-03-01

    This Environmental Protection Implementation Plan is intended to ensure that the environmental program objectives of Department of Energy Order 5400.1 are achieved at SNL/California. This document states SNL/California's commitment to conduct its operations in an environmentally safe and responsible manner. The Environmental Protection Implementation Plan helps management and staff comply with applicable environmental responsibilities. SNL is committed to operating in full compliance with the letter and spirit of applicable environmental laws, regulations, and standards. Furthermore, SNL/California strives to go beyond compliance with legal requirements by making every effort practical to reduce impacts to the environment to levels as low as reasonably achievable

  10. Screening agrochemicals as potential protectants of plants against ozone phytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitanis, Costas J; Lekkas, Dimitrios V; Agathokleous, Evgenios; Flouri, Fotini

    2015-02-01

    We tested seven contemporary agrochemicals as potential plant protectants against ozone phytotoxicity. In nine experiments, Bel-W3 tobacco plants were experienced weekly exposures to a) 80 nmol mol(-1) of ozone-enriched or ozone-free air in controlled environment chambers, b) an urban air polluted area, and c) an agricultural-remote area. Ozone caused severe leaf injury, reduced chlorophylls' and total carotenoids' content, and negatively affected photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. Penconazole, (35% ± 8) hexaconazole (28% ± 5) and kresoxim-methyl (28% ± 15) showed higher plants' protection (expressed as percentage; mean ± s.e.) against ozone, although the latter exhibited a high variability. Azoxystrobin (21% ± 15) showed lower protection efficacy and Benomyl (15% ± 9) even lower. Trifloxystrobin (7% ± 11) did not protect the plants at all. Acibenzolar-S-methyl + metalaxyl-M (Bion MX) (-6% ± 17) exhibited the higher variability and contrasting results: in some experiments it showed some protection while in others it intensified the ozone injury by causing phytotoxic symptoms on leaves, even in control plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ozone autohaemotherapy protects against ketamine hydrochloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ozone is currently under scrutiny because of various claims of beneficial effect in disease. In order to shed some light on this we assessed the acute and chronic effect of O3 autohaemotherapy (AHT) on liver and muscle damage in baboons. Five percent of the total blood volume of a baboon was treated with O2 and O3.

  12. Climate change and ozone layer protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This conference is composed of 27 communications of which the following main themes are: general approach to the problems of climatic change, greenhouse effect and ozone layer; France, Cameroon and Switzerland examples of energy conservation and greenhouse gas reduction; energy conservation measures and policies for dwellings, transport, industry, agriculture and food industry with a global aspect of reducing greenhouse gas emissions; CFC utilization effects on environment and alternatives to CFC utilization

  13. The protective effect of plasma antioxidants during ozone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ozone (O3) therapy forms part of a group of complementary and alternative medical therapies and is gaining more and more interest worldwide. There is, however, some concern regarding O3-toxicity and uncertainty about the effectiveness of O3-therapy. In this study we investigated the possible protective effects of the ...

  14. 40 CFR 51.918 - Can any SIP planning requirements be suspended in 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas that have air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... suspended in 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas that have air quality data that meets the NAAQS? 51.918 Section 51.918 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.918 Can any SIP planning requirements be...

  15. Groundwater protection management program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 requires the establishment of a groundwater protection management program to ensure compliance with DOE requirements and applicable Federal, state, and local laws and regulations. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office has prepared a ''Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan'' (groundwater protection plan) of sufficient scope and detail to reflect the program's significance and address the seven activities required in DOE Order 5400.1, Chapter 3, for special program planning. The groundwater protection plan highlights the methods designed to preserve, protect, and monitor groundwater resources at UMTRA Project processing and disposal sites. The plan includes an overview of the remedial action status at the 24 designated processing sites and identifies project technical guidance documents and site-specific documents for the UMTRA groundwater protection management program. In addition, the groundwater protection plan addresses the general information required to develop a water resources protection strategy at the permanent disposal sites. Finally, the plan describes ongoing activities that are in various stages of development at UMTRA sites (long-term care at disposal sites and groundwater restoration at processing sites). This plan will be reviewed annually and updated every 3 years in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1

  16. Pollinator Protection Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developed by EPA, this ensures that pesticide risk assessments and risk management decisions use best available information and scientific methods, and full evaluation of pollinator protection when making registration decisions.

  17. CEBAF - environmental protection program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    An important objective in the successful operation of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) is to ensure protection of the public and the environment. To meet this objective, the Southeastern Universities Research Association, Inc., (SURA) is committed to working with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop, implement, and manage a sound and workable environmental protection program at CEBAF. This environmental protection plan includes information on environmental monitoring, long-range monitoring, groundwater protection, waste minimization, and pollution prevention awareness program plan

  18. Protective Role of Eosinophils and TNFa after Ozone Inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Allison D; Jacoby, David B; Wicher, Sarah A

    2017-03-01

    Exposure to ozone induces deleterious responses in the airways that include shortness of breath, inflammation, and bronchoconstriction. People with asthma have increased airway sensitivity to ozone and other irritants. Dr. Allison Fryer and colleagues addressed how exposure to ozone affects the immune and physiological responses in guinea pigs. Guinea pigs are considered a useful animal model for studies of respiratory and physiological responses in humans; their response to airborne allergens is similar to that in humans and shares some features of allergic asthma. Fryer and colleagues had previously observed that within 24 hours of exposure, ozone not only induced bronchoconstriction but also stimulated the production of new cells in the bone marrow, where all white blood cells develop. As a result of ozone exposure, increased numbers of newly synthesized white blood cells, particularly eosinophils, moved into the blood and lungs. The central hypothesis of the current study was that newly synthesized eosinophils recruited to the lungs 3 days after ozone exposure were beneficial to the animals because they reduced ozoneinduced bronchoconstriction. The investigators also hypothesized that the beneficial effect seen in normal (nonsensitized) animals was lost in animals that had been injected with an allergen, ovalbumin (sensitized). They also planned to explore the effects of inhibitors of certain cytokines (cellsignaling molecules). Immune responses in sensitized animals are dominated by a Th2 pattern, which is characterized by the synthesis of cytokines (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5, and IL-13) and the Th2 subset of CD4+ T lymphocytes and the cells they activate (predominantly eosinophils, and B lymphocytes that switch to making immunoglobulin E [IgE]). Thus, sensitized animals were used as a model of allergic humans, whose immune responses tend to be dominated by IgE. Fryer and colleagues exposed normal and sensitized (allergic) guinea pigs to 2 ppm ozone or filtered

  19. 77 FR 26441 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Charlotte; Ozone 2002 Base...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Charlotte; Ozone 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory... final action to approve the ozone 2002 base year emissions inventory portion of the state implementation... Air Act (CAA or Act). EPA will take action on the South Carolina submission for the ozone 2002 base...

  20. 77 FR 24399 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Atlanta; Ozone 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Atlanta; Ozone 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY... approve the ozone 2002 base year emissions inventory, portion of the state implementation plan (SIP... technology (RACT), contingency measures, a 2002 base- year emissions inventory and other planning SIP...

  1. Planning to Protect the Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China formulates a development plan for energy-saving and environmental protection industries U.S.-headquartered diversified power management company Eaton Corp.announced on August 12 that it would achieve sales revenue of $2 billion in China by the end of 2015,

  2. 76 FR 77178 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New York State Ozone Implementation Plan Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... individuals with a pre-existing respiratory disease, such as asthma. On April 30, 2004 (69 FR 23858), EPA... coatings as part of the effort to reduce ozone pollution in the State and reach attainment of the 8-hour... protection, Air pollution control, Hydrocarbons, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations...

  3. The second report of the German Government to the German Bundestag about measures to protect the ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The second report presented by the German Government to the Bundestag about measures for the protection of the ozone layer reveals germany's international leading role in the phaseout of CFCs and halogenated hydrocarbons. In no other country in the world has such an extensive plan for withdrawing from use of substances harmful to the ozone layer been implemented. Manufacturers and users have proved, by their impressive promises of undercutting the time limits set in the ordinance on a ban on CFCs, that the cooperation principle, always placed first in environmental policy, can be successfully practised. The Montreal Protocol establishes successful international measures, backed by international law, for an abandonment of substances that are harmful to the ozone layer. (orig.) [de

  4. Assessment of Protective Effect of Some Modern Agrochemicals against Ozone-Induced Stress in Sensitive Clover and Tobacco Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, Oleg; Didyk, Nataliya; Pavluchenko, Nataliya; Godzik, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Some modern agrochemicals with antioxidant potential were tested for their protective effect against ozone injury using clover and tobacco ozone-sensitive cultivars as model plants subjected to ambient ozone at two sites (Kyiv city in Ukraine and Szarów village in Poland). All used agrochemicals showed partial protective effects against ozone injury on clover and tobacco. Conducted studies confirmed the effectiveness of modern fungicides belonging to strobilurin group as protectants of sensit...

  5. Abscisic acid protects bean leaves from ozone-induced phytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, R.A.; Adedipe, N.O.; Ormrod, D.P.

    1972-01-01

    Abscisic acid treatment of primary bean leaves caused a partial closure of stomates and thus considerably reduced the phytotoxicity of ozone. The symptoms of ozone-induced phytotoxicity in the water-treated leaves are a marked decrease in chlorophyll and slight decreases in the levels of protein and RNA. The evidence indicates that ozone injury to leaves is not metabolically related to normal leaf senescence.

  6. National Plan for Stratospheric Ozone Monitoring and Early Detection of Change, 1981-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    A transition from reliance on a ground-based, geographically-biased ozone observing network operated by cooperating nations to a combined satellite and ground-based monitoring program that will provide global coverage of the vertical distribution of stratospheric ozone, as well as total ozone overburden is discussed. The strategy, instrumentation, and monitoring products to be prepared during this transition period are also discussed. Global atmospheric monitoring for protection of the ultraviolet shielding properties of atmospheric ozone is considered. The operational satellite ozone vertical profile monitoring system to be flown on the NOAA Tiros N operational satellite series to carry on ozone measurements initiated on the NASA R D satellites is also considered

  7. High-tension corona controlled ozone generator for environment protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, T; Patil, Jagadish G

    2010-01-01

    Engineering details of a high voltage driven corona-plasma ozone generator are described. The plasma diode of generator has coaxial cylindrical geometry with cathode located inside anode. Cathode is made of a large number of radial gas nozzles arranged on central tubular mast which admits oxygen gas. The sharp endings of the nozzles along with a set of corona rings create the high electric field at the cathode required for formation of dense corona plume responsible for O 3 evolution. A model of coronal plasma generation and ozone production is presented. The plasma formation is strongly dependent on the electric field and temperature in side diode where a high electron density in a low temperature negative corona is suited for high ozone yields. These are established by suitable regulation of A-K gap, voltage, oxygen pressure, and cathode-nozzle population.

  8. 76 FR 9987 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Amendments to the Section 608 Leak Repair Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... Stratospheric Ozone: Amendments to the Section 608 Leak Repair Requirements AGENCY: Environmental Protection... rule in the December 15, 2010, Federal Register proposing changes to the leak repair regulations...- mail address [email protected] . More information about EPA's leak repair requirements under Section...

  9. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certa, P.J.; Kirkbride, R.A.; Hohl, T.M.; Empey, P.A.; Wells, M.N.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 57 million gallons 1 of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure2 of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in May 2008. ORP has made a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. ORP has contracts in place to implement the strategy for completion of the mission and establish the capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategl involves a number of interrelated activities. ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by the following: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) and delivering the waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) fraction contained in the tank farms. About one-third of the low-activity waste (LAW) fraction separated from the HLW fraction in the WTP will be immobilized in the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility. (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability assumed to be a second LAW vitrification facility that can safely treat about two-thirds of the LAW contained in the tank farms. (4) Developing and deploying supplemental pretreatment capability currently assumed to be an Aluminum Removal Facility (ARF) using a lithium hydrotalcite process to mitigate sodium management issues. (5) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) tank waste for possible shipment to and disposal

  10. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CERTA PJ; KIRKBRIDE RA; HOHL TM; EMPEY PA; WELLS MN

    2009-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 57 million gallons 1 of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure2 of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in May 2008. ORP has made a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. ORP has contracts in place to implement the strategy for completion of the mission and establish the capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategl involves a number of interrelated activities. ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by the following: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) and delivering the waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) fraction contained in the tank farms. About one-third of the low-activity waste (LAW) fraction separated from the HLW fraction in the WTP will be immobilized in the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility. (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability assumed to be a second LAW vitrification facility that can safely treat about two-thirds of the LAW contained in the tank farms. (4) Developing and deploying supplemental pretreatment capability currently assumed to be an Aluminum Removal Facility (ARF) using a lithium hydrotalcite process to mitigate sodium management issues. (5) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) tank waste for possible shipment to and

  11. Assessment of Protective Effect of Some Modern Agrochemicals against Ozone-Induced Stress in Sensitive Clover and Tobacco Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Oleg; Didyk, Nataliya; Pavluchenko, Nataliya; Godzik, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Some modern agrochemicals with antioxidant potential were tested for their protective effect against ozone injury using clover and tobacco ozone-sensitive cultivars as model plants subjected to ambient ozone at two sites (Kyiv city in Ukraine and Szarów village in Poland). All used agrochemicals showed partial protective effects against ozone injury on clover and tobacco. Conducted studies confirmed the effectiveness of modern fungicides belonging to strobilurin group as protectants of sensitive crops against ozone damage. The effectiveness of new growth regulators "Emistym C" and "Agrostymulin" was showed for the first time. Out of the studied agrochemicals, fungicide "Strobi" and natural growth regulator "Emistym C" demonstrated the best protective effects. These agrochemicals present promise for further studies of their possible utilization for enhancement of ozone tolerance of sensitive crops.

  12. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CERTA PJ

    2008-07-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, the ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of the approximately 57 million gallons of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in September 2003. ORP has approved a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. The ORP has established contracts to implement this strategy to establish a basic capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategy for completion of the mission uses a number of interrelated activities. The ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) for treatment and disposal; (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) and about half of the low-activity waste (LAW) contained in the tank farms, and maximizing its capability and capacity; (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability or a second WTP LAW Facility that can safely treat about half of the LAW contained in the tank farms; (4) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for transuranic (TRU) tank waste for shipment to and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); (5) Deploying interim storage capacity for the immobilized HLW and shipping that waste to Yucca Mountain for disposal; (6) Operating the Integrated Disposal Facility for the disposal of immobilized LAW, along with the associated secondary waste, (7) Closing the SST and DST tank farms, ancillary facilities, and al1 waste

  13. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CERTA PJ

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, the ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of the approximately 57 million gallons of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in September 2003. ORP has approved a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. The ORP has established contracts to implement this strategy to establish a basic capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategy for completion of the mission uses a number of interrelated activities. The ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) for treatment and disposal; (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) and about half of the low-activity waste (LAW) contained in the tank farms, and maximizing its capability and capacity; (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability or a second WTP LAW Facility that can safely treat about half of the LAW contained in the tank farms; (4) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for transuranic (TRU) tank waste for shipment to and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); (5) Deploying interim storage capacity for the immobilized HLW and shipping that waste to Yucca Mountain for disposal; (6) Operating the Integrated Disposal Facility for the disposal of immobilized LAW, along with the associated secondary waste, (7) Closing the SST and DST tank farms, ancillary facilities, and al1 waste

  14. Toward a biologically significant and usable standard for ozone that will also protect plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paoletti, Elena; Manning, William J.

    2007-01-01

    Ozone remains an important phytotoxic air pollutant and is also recognized as a significant greenhouse gas. In North America, Europe, and Asia, incidence of high concentrations is decreasing, but background levels are steadily rising. There is a need to develop a biologically significant and usable standard for ozone. We compare the strengths and weaknesses of concentration-based, exposure-based and threshold-based indices, such as SUM60 and AOT40, and examine the O 3 flux concept. We also present major challenges to the development of an air quality standard for ozone that has both biological significance and practicality in usage. - Current standards do not protect vegetation from ozone, but progress is being made

  15. Monitoring the consequences of decreased ozone protection: The NSF ultraviolet radiation monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of decreased protection from ultraviolet radiation are as troubling as the continuing depletion of stratospheric ozone. Evidence exists to clearly link ozone depletion to changes in the antarctic marine environment. Results of two 1992 papers are summarized here. Enhanced exposure to mid-range UV radiation was found to be affecting marine ecosystems with a recorded 6-12 percent reduction in primary productivity directly related to the ozone layer depletion. In another experiment, a model was developed indicating that the ozone hole could reduce near-surface photosynthesis by as much as 12-15 percent. The NSF UV monitoring system in place for these and other experiments uses a spectroradiometer, making hourly, high-resolution measurements of the distribution of UV surface irradiance

  16. Coral Reef Protection Implementation Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lobel, Lisa

    2000-01-01

    This document identify policies and actions to implement the Department of Defense's responsibilities under Executive Order 13089 on Coral Reef Protection, and are a requirement of the interim Task...

  17. Compliance with the Clean Air Act Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program requirements at U.S. DOE Oak Ridge Reservation Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, M.P.; Atkins, E.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program of the Clean Air Act (CAA) requires promulgation of regulations to reduce and prevent damage to the earth's protective ozone layer. Regulations pursuant to Title VI of the CAA are promulgated in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) at Title 40 CFR, Part 822. The regulations include ambitious production phaseout schedules for ozone depleting substances (ODS) including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform under 40 CFR 82, Subpart A. The regulations also include requirements for recycling and emissions reduction during the servicing of refrigeration equipment and technician certification requirements under Subpart F; provisions for servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners under Subpart B; a ban on nonessential products containing Class 1 ODS under Subpart C; restrictions on Federal procurement of ODS under Subpart D; labeling of products using ODS under Subpart E; and the Significant New Alternatives Policy Program under Subpart G. This paper will provide details of initiatives undertaken at US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Facilities for implementation of requirements under the Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program. The Stratospheric Ozone Protection Plans include internal DOE requirements for: (1) maintenance of ODS inventories; (2) ODS procurement practices; (3) servicing of refrigeration and air conditioning equipment; (4) required equipment modifications or replacement; (5) technician certification training; (6) labeling of products containing ODS; (7) substitution of chlorinated solvents; and (8) replacement of halon fire protection systems. The plans also require establishment of administrative control systems which assure that compliance is achieved and maintained as the regulations continue to develop and become effective

  18. Evapotranspiration studies for protective barriers: Experimental plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, S.O.; Waugh, W.J.

    1989-11-01

    This document describes a general theory and experimental plans for predicting evapotranspiration in support of the Protective Barrier Program. Evapotranspiration is the combined loss of water from plants and soil surfaces to the atmosphere. 45 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  19. Toward an ozone standard to protect vegetation based on effective dose: a review of deposition resistances and a possible metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massman, W. J.

    Present air quality standards to protect vegetation from ozone are based on measured concentrations (i.e., exposure) rather than on plant uptake rates (or dose). Some familiar cumulative exposure-based indices include SUM06, AOT40, and W126. However, plant injury is more closely related to dose, or more appropriately to effective dose, than to exposure. This study develops and applies a simple model for estimating effective ozone dose that combines the plant canopy's rate of stomatal ozone uptake with the plant's defense to ozone uptake. Here the plant defense is explicitly parameterized as a function of gross photosynthesis and the model is applied using eddy covariance (ozone and CO 2) flux data obtained at a vineyard site in the San Joaquin Valley during the California Ozone Deposition Experiment (CODE91). With the ultimate intention of applying these concepts using prognostic models and remotely sensed data, the pathways for ozone deposition are parameterized (as much as possible) in terms of canopy LAI and the surface friction velocity. Results indicate that (1) the daily maximum potential for plant injury (based on effective dose) tends to coincide with the daily peak in ozone mixing ratio (ppbV), (2) potentially there are some significant differences between ozone metrics based on dose (no plant defense) and effective dose, and (3) nocturnal conductance can contribute significantly to the potential for plant ozone injury.

  20. 40 CFR 52.2088 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2088... strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the State Implementation Plan submitted by the Rhode Island Department of... revised text is set forth as follows: § 52.2088 Control strategy: Ozone. (c) Determination of Attainment...

  1. 40 CFR 52.377 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.377 Section 52.377 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.377 Control strategy: Ozone. (a...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1534 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1534 Section 52.1534 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the State Implementation Plan submitted by the New Hampshire Department...

  3. 40 CFR 52.66 - Control Strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Strategy: Ozone. 52.66 Section 52.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.66 Control Strategy: Ozone. (a) The...

  4. 40 CFR 52.582 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.582 Section 52.582 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Georgia> § 52.582 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) Approval...

  5. 40 CFR 52.930 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.930 Section 52.930 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.930 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) The VOC...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1129 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1129 Section 52.1129 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the State Implementation Plan submitted by the Massachusetts Department...

  7. 40 CFR 52.350 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.350 Section 52.350 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.350 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions...

  8. 40 CFR 52.476 - Control strategy: ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: ozone. 52.476 Section 52.476 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.476 Control strategy: ozone. (a...

  9. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities

  10. Surface stability test plan for protective barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    Natural-material protective barriers for long-term isolation of buried waste have been identified as integral components of a plan to isolate a number of Hanford defense waste sites. Standards currently being developed for internal and external barrier performance will mandate a barrier surface layer that is resistant to the eolian erosion processes of wind erosion (deflation) and windborne particle deposition (formation of sand dunes). Thus, experiments are needed to measure rates of eolian erosion processes impacting those surfaces under different surface and climatological conditions. Data from these studies will provide information for use in the evaluation of selected surface layers as a means of providing stable cover over waste sites throughout the design life span of protective barriers. The multi-year test plan described in this plan is directed at understanding processes of wind erosion and windborne particle deposition, providing measurements of erosion rates for models, and suggesting construction materials and methods for reducing the effect of long-term eolian erosion on the barrier. Specifically, this plan describes possible methods to measure rates of eolian erosion, including field and laboratory procedure. Advantages and disadvantages of laboratory (wind tunnel) tests are discussed, and continued wind tunnel tests are recommended for wind erosion studies. A comparison between field and wind tunnel erosive forces is discussed. Plans for testing surfaces are described. Guidance is also presented for studying the processes controlling sand dune and blowout formation. 24 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Drinking water protection plan; a discussion document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This draft document outlines the plan of action devised by the Government of British Columbia in an effort to safeguard the purity of the drinking water supply in the province, and invites British Columbians to participate in the elaboration of such a plan. This document concentrates on the assessment of the sources of the water supply (watersheds and aquifers) and on measures to ensure the integrity of the system of water treatment and distribution as the principal components of a comprehensive plan to protect drinking water. The proposed plan involves a multi-barrier approach that will use a combination of measures to ensure that water sources are properly managed and waterworks systems provide safe drinking water. New drinking water planning procedures, more effective local influence and authority, enforceable standards, better access to information and public education programs form the essence of the plan. A series of public meetings are scheduled to provide the public at large with opportunities to comment on the government's plan of action and to offer suggestions for additional measures

  12. Protection of plants from ambient ozone by applications of ethylenediurea (EDU): A meta-analytic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhaozhong; Wang Shuguang; Szantoi, Zoltan; Chen Shuai; Wang Xiaoke

    2010-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively assess the effects of ethylenediurea (EDU) on ozone (O 3 ) injury, growth, physiology and productivity of plants grown in ambient air conditions. Results indicated that EDU significantly reduced O 3 -caused visible injury by 76%, and increased photosynthetic rate by 8%, above-ground biomass by 7% and crop yield by 15% in comparison with non-EDU treated plants, suggesting that ozone reduces growth and yield under current ambient conditions. EDU significantly ameliorated the biomass and yield of crops and grasses, but had no significant effect on tree growth with an exception of stem diameter. EDU applied as a soil drench at a concentration of 200-400 mg/L has the highest positive effect on crops grown in the field. Long-term research on full-grown tree species is needed. In conclusion, EDU is a powerful tool for assessing effects of ambient [O 3 ] on vegetation. - EDU effectively protect plants against ambient ozone.

  13. The Sesquiterpenes(E-ß-Farnesene and (E-α-Bergamotene Quench Ozone but Fail to Protect the Wild Tobacco Nicotiana attenuata from Ozone, UVB, and Drought Stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan C Palmer-Young

    Full Text Available Among the terpenes, isoprene (C5 and monoterpene hydrocarbons (C10 have been shown to ameliorate abiotic stress in a number of plant species via two proposed mechanisms: membrane stabilization and direct antioxidant effects. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (C15 not only share the structural properties thought to lend protective qualities to isoprene and monoterpene hydrocarbons, but also react rapidly with ozone, suggesting that sesquiterpenes may similarly enhance tolerance of abiotic stresses. To test whether sesquiterpenes protect plants against ozone, UVB light, or drought, we used transgenic lines of the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata. The transgenic plants expressed a maize terpene synthase gene (ZmTPS10 which produced a blend of (E-ß-farnesene and (E-α-bergamotene, or a point mutant of the same gene (ZmTPS10M which produced (E-ß-farnesene alone,. (E-ß-farnesene exerted a local, external, and transient ozone-quenching effect in ozone-fumigated chambers, but we found no evidence that enhanced sesquiterpene production by the plant inhibited oxidative damage, or maintained photosynthetic function or plant fitness under acute or chronic stress. Although the sesquiterpenes (E-ß-farnesene and (E-α-bergamotene might confer benefits under intermittent heat stress, which was not tested, any roles in relieving abiotic stress may be secondary to their previously demonstrated functions in biotic interactions.

  14. 77 FR 13974 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New York State Ozone Implementation Plan Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ...-hour ozone standard, that they review the VOC content limits for wood adhesives. This category of adhesives is included in the CTG recommended VOC emission limits. Overall, Part 228: (1) Regulates the same.... EPA has evaluated New York's submittal for consistency with the Clean Air Act, EPA regulations, and...

  15. Radiological Protection Plan an ethic responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhn, Andrea; Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    The Radiological Protection Plan - PPR, quoted by the Regulatory Standard 32, requires to be maintained at the workplace and at the disposal of the worker's inspection the PPR, for it to be aware of their work environment and the damage that can be caused by misuse of ionizing radiation. Objective: to discuss the interface between PPR and ethical reflection. Method: this is a reflective study. Discussion and results: regulatory norm 32 points out that the worker who conducts activities in areas where there are sources of ionizing radiation should know the risks associated with their work. However, it is considered that the sectors of hospital radiology the multidisciplinary health team is exposed to ionizing radiation and has not always aware of the harm caused by it, so end up unprotected conduct their activities. Concomitantly, recent studies emphasize the radiological protection and concern for the dangers of radiation on humans, but rather refer to the legislation about the radiological protection. In this context an ethical reflection is necessary, seeking to combine work ethics liability to care in protecting themselves and the other with the institutional conditions for this protection becomes effective

  16. Environmental implementation plan: Chapter 7, Groundwater protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) uses large quantities of groundwater for drinking, processing, and non-contact cooling. Continued industrial and residential growth along with additional agricultural irrigation in areas adjacent to SRS will increase the demand for groundwater. This increasing demand will require a comprehensive management system to ensure the needed quality and quantity of groundwater is available for all users. The Groundwater Protection Program and the Waste Management Program establish the overall framework for protecting this resource. Ground water under SRS is monitored extensively for radiological, hazardous, and water quality constituents. Groundwater quality is known to have been affected at 33 onsite locations, but none of the contaminant plumes have migrated offsite. Onsite and offsite drinking water supplies are monitored to ensure they are not impacted. The site has more than 1800 monitoring wells from which groundwater samples are analyzed for radiological and non-radiological constituents. SRS is complying with all applicable regulations related to groundwater protection, waste treatment, and waste disposal. The existing waste storage facilities are permitted or are being permitted. Existing hazardous- and mixed-waste storage facilities are being included in the site Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit. Part B permitting has been initiated for many of the planned hazardous- and mixed-waste treatment and disposal facilities

  17. 77 FR 16988 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Amendment to HFO-1234yf SNAP Rule for Motor Vehicle Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... procedure, Air pollution control, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Stratospheric ozone layer. Dated... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Margaret Sheppard, Stratospheric Protection Division, Office of Atmospheric... Reduction Act, 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq. and has assigned OMB control numbers 2060-0226 (EPA ICR No. 1596.08...

  18. Toward an ozone standard to protect vegetation based on effective dose: A review of deposition resistances and a possible metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Massman

    2004-01-01

    Present air quality standards to protect vegetation from ozone are based on measured concentrations (i.e., exposure) rather than on plant uptake rates (or dose). Some familiar cumulative exposure-based indices include SUM06, AOT40, and W126. However, plant injury is more closely related to dose, or more appropriately to effective dose, than to exposure. This study...

  19. Evaluating the role of collaborative planning in BC's Parks and Protected Areas Management Planning process

    OpenAIRE

    Ronmark, Tracy

    2005-01-01

    BC's protected areas system has recently doubled in size as a result of land use planning across the province. Managing protected areas to meet many goals requires thoughtful planning that involves stakeholder participation and dispute resolution through the plan development and implementation stages. This research identifies the best practices for planning and evaluates protected areas management planning processes based on those criteria. Evaluative criteria were developed from a literature...

  20. Ozone Control Strategies | Ground-level Ozone | New ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The Air Quality Planning Unit's primary goal is to protect your right to breathe clean air. Guided by the Clean Air Act, we work collaboratively with states, communities, and businesses to develop and implement strategies to reduce air pollution from a variety of sources that contribute to the ground-level ozone or smog problem.

  1. 78 FR 69625 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New York State Ozone Implementation Plan Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... respiratory disease, such as asthma. On April 30, 2004 (69 FR 23858), EPA finalized its attainment... tribal law. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control...

  2. 15 CFR 923.24 - Shorefront access and protection planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... allowable under state law or constitutional provisions, and an identification of public areas meeting that... “beach” and a planning process for the protection of, and access to, public beaches and other public... access and protection that the State's planning process indicates is necessary. ...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart IIIi... - States With Approved State Implementation Plan Revisions Concerning CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... allocation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances to such units under § 97.388(b): Indiana Michigan North Carolina Ohio South Carolina Tennessee 2. The following States have State Implementation Plan revisions... Ozone Season allowances to such units under § 97.388(c): Indiana Michigan North Carolina Ohio South...

  4. Radiation protection planning and management during revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gewehr, K.

    1984-01-01

    During the operation of nuclear power plants it is normally possible for the in-house personnel to take care of arising radiation protection problems. However, in the comparatively short revision phases, the duties of radiation protection become much more varied. Additional trained radiation protection crews are needed at short notice. This is also the time in which the largest contributions are made to the annual cumulated doses of the personnel. Recent guidelines and rules trying to reduce the radiation exposure of personnel concentrate on this very point. The article outlines the radiation protection activities performed by the service personnel in the course of a steam generator check. (orig.) [de

  5. 75 FR 55711 - Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ...: (919) 541-0824; e-mail address: [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The proposed Transport... (i.e., section V.D.4.a (75 FR 45307-9)) that discusses in detail the proposed Transport Rule trading...-9201-6] RIN 2060-AP50 Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate...

  6. Protected areas system planning and monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, D.

    2003-01-01

    The Vth World Parks Congress to be held in Durban, South Africa, September 8-17, 2003 will evaluate progress in protected areas conservation and stipulate strategic policies for the coming decade. Most countries of the world have at least a collection of protected areas, and have signed the

  7. Implantation of inspection and radiation protection plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, J.L.R. da

    1988-01-01

    Methods, means and procedures adopted by Petrobras engineering service to survey safety radiation protection of the companies that carry out radiographic services of PETROBRAS are showed. The systematic used in certification of personel, procedures, audits and field survey concerning radiation protection, are described. (C.M.) [pt

  8. Planning for planetary protection : challenges beyond Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Andrea P.; Cutts, James A.

    2006-01-01

    This document summarizes the technical challenges to planetary protection for these targets of interest and outlines some of the considerations, particularly at the system level, in designing an appropriate technology investment strategy for targets beyond Mars.

  9. Ozone modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIllvaine, C M

    1994-07-01

    Exhaust gases from power plants that burn fossil fuels contain concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), particulate matter, hydrocarbon compounds and trace metals. Estimated emissions from the operation of a hypothetical 500 MW coal-fired power plant are given. Ozone is considered a secondary pollutant, since it is not emitted directly into the atmosphere but is formed from other air pollutants, specifically, nitrogen oxides (NO), and non-methane organic compounds (NMOQ) in the presence of sunlight. (NMOC are sometimes referred to as hydrocarbons, HC, or volatile organic compounds, VOC, and they may or may not include methane). Additionally, ozone formation Alternative is a function of the ratio of NMOC concentrations to NO{sub x} concentrations. A typical ozone isopleth is shown, generated with the Empirical Kinetic Modeling Approach (EKMA) option of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Ozone Isopleth Plotting Mechanism (OZIPM-4) model. Ozone isopleth diagrams, originally generated with smog chamber data, are more commonly generated with photochemical reaction mechanisms and tested against smog chamber data. The shape of the isopleth curves is a function of the region (i.e. background conditions) where ozone concentrations are simulated. The location of an ozone concentration on the isopleth diagram is defined by the ratio of NMOC and NO{sub x} coordinates of the point, known as the NMOC/NO{sub x} ratio. Results obtained by the described model are presented.

  10. Ozone modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIllvaine, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    Exhaust gases from power plants that burn fossil fuels contain concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), particulate matter, hydrocarbon compounds and trace metals. Estimated emissions from the operation of a hypothetical 500 MW coal-fired power plant are given. Ozone is considered a secondary pollutant, since it is not emitted directly into the atmosphere but is formed from other air pollutants, specifically, nitrogen oxides (NO), and non-methane organic compounds (NMOQ) in the presence of sunlight. (NMOC are sometimes referred to as hydrocarbons, HC, or volatile organic compounds, VOC, and they may or may not include methane). Additionally, ozone formation Alternative is a function of the ratio of NMOC concentrations to NO x concentrations. A typical ozone isopleth is shown, generated with the Empirical Kinetic Modeling Approach (EKMA) option of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Ozone Isopleth Plotting Mechanism (OZIPM-4) model. Ozone isopleth diagrams, originally generated with smog chamber data, are more commonly generated with photochemical reaction mechanisms and tested against smog chamber data. The shape of the isopleth curves is a function of the region (i.e. background conditions) where ozone concentrations are simulated. The location of an ozone concentration on the isopleth diagram is defined by the ratio of NMOC and NO x coordinates of the point, known as the NMOC/NO x ratio. Results obtained by the described model are presented

  11. 78 FR 42071 - Updates to Protective Action Guides Manual: Protective Action Guides (PAGs) and Planning Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... Guides Manual: Protective Action Guides (PAGs) and Planning Guidance for Radiological Incidents AGENCY... guidance ``PAG Manual: Protective Action Guides (PAGs) and Planning Guidance for Radiological Incidents... ``anonymous access'' system, which means the EPA will not know your identity or contact information unless you...

  12. Setting ozone critical levels for protecting horticultural Mediterranean crops: Case study of tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Fernández, I.; Calvo, E.; Gerosa, G.; Bermejo, V.; Marzuoli, R.; Calatayud, V.; Alonso, R.

    2014-01-01

    Seven experiments carried out in Italy and Spain have been used to parameterising a stomatal conductance model and establishing exposure– and dose–response relationships for yield and quality of tomato with the main goal of setting O 3 critical levels (CLe). CLe with confidence intervals, between brackets, were set at an accumulated hourly O 3 exposure over 40 nl l −1 , AOT40 = 8.4 (1.2, 15.6) ppm h and a phytotoxic ozone dose above a threshold of 6 nmol m −2 s −1 , POD6 = 2.7 (0.8, 4.6) mmol m −2 for yield and AOT40 = 18.7 (8.5, 28.8) ppm h and POD6 = 4.1 (2.0, 6.2) mmol m −2 for quality, both indices performing equally well. CLe confidence intervals provide information on the quality of the dataset and should be included in future calculations of O 3 CLe for improving current methodologies. These CLe, derived for sensitive tomato cultivars, should not be applied for quantifying O 3 -induced losses at the risk of making important overestimations of the economical losses associated with O 3 pollution. -- Highlights: • Seven independent experiments from Italy and Spain were analysed. • O 3 critical levels are proposed for the protection of summer horticultural crops. • Exposure- and flux-based O 3 indices performed equally well. • Confidence intervals of the new O 3 critical levels are calculated. • A new method to estimate the degree risk of O 3 damage is proposed. -- Critical levels for tomato yield were set at AOT40 = 8.4 ppm h and POD6 = 2.7 mmol m −2 and confidence intervals should be used for improving O 3 risk assessment

  13. Strategic planning in Brazilian protected areas: Uses and adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Cristiane Gomes; Drummond, José Augusto L

    2017-09-15

    Management plans for protected areas commonly use strategic planning tools in their drafting. It is proposed that the adequate use of the instruments of planning and management of protected areas can improve their strategic competitiveness, providing greater financial and administrative independence, enabling them to be economically sustainable organizations. This study evaluated the application of concepts and strategy formulation, strategy principles and competitiveness, organizational diagnosis, strategic maps, scenarios, and other strategic planning instruments used for conservation management in Brazil. 25 management plans of 25 different protected areas were selected and studied, with special attention to the indicators used in each plan. Results indicate that there is a high suitability for the application of SP tools to the universe of protected areas, although management plans did not take full advantage of these tools. We also found that the broader use of these tools did not guarantee greater managerial effectiveness. We suggest that other governance variables beyond planning strategies must be improved, to ensure a better performance of protected areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Antarctic ozone hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Anna E

    2008-01-01

    Since the mid 1970s, the ozone layer over Antarctica has experienced massive destruction during every spring. In this article, we will consider the atmosphere, and what ozone and the ozone layer actually are. We explore the chemistry responsible for the ozone destruction, and learn about why conditions favour ozone destruction over Antarctica. For the historical perspective, the events leading up to the discovery of the 'hole' are presented, as well as the response from the international community and the measures taken to protect the ozone layer now and into the future

  15. Environmental Protection Implementation Plan, November 9, 1991--November 9, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latham, A.R.; Evans, R.B.

    1991-11-01

    DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Program,'' established environmental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities to assure that the Department of Energy (DOE) operations are in compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental protection laws and regulations, executive orders, and internal department policies. Chapter 3 of DOE Order 5400.1 required that each field organization prepare a plan for implementing the requirements of this order by no later than November 9, 1989, and update the plan annually. Therefore, the Department of Energy/Field Office, Nevada (DOE/NV) has prepared this second annual update of its Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (EPIP). The Order and corresponding guidances also require estimated budgetary resources necessary for implementation of the Order be identified in the Environmental Protection Implementation Plan. To satisfy this requirement, the estimated costs to effectuate necessary changes in existing programs or processes and to institute new programs or processes for compliance with the Order are provided in the following sections of this plan. The DOE/NV Assistant Manager for Operations (AMO), in consultation with other organizations responsible for line management of plan implementation, is responsible for annual plan revisions. 7 figs

  16. PPR: a database for radiologic protection plan elaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, M.; Farias, J.T. de; Batista, D.V.

    2001-01-01

    The Plan of Radiation Protection is a document demanded for Licensing of the Radioactive Installations. It establishes the system of Radioprotection to be implemented by the Service of Radiation Protection. Its main objective is to achieve the requirements of Radiation Protection and Safety constants in the regulations CNEN-NE-3.01 - Basic Guidelines of Radiation Protection and CNEN-NE-3.06 - Requirements of Radiation Protection and Safety for Services of Radiotherapy. The proposal presented here has the aim to easy the development and the uniformity of the elaboration of the Plan of Radiation Protection. Considering the difficulties found by the physicists responsible for the services in developing a Plan of Radiation Protection that contemplate all the necessary requirements, as well as the final analysis accomplished by CNEN, the present project was elaborated. This consists of a software of easy use, developed according to the most modern patterns of programming, allowing to the user to elaborate the Plan of Radiation Protection in agreement with to basic needs of the Installation. Soon the software will be available in the page web of CNEN for download. (author)

  17. 40 CFR 52.2332 - Control Strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Strategy: Ozone. 52.2332 Section 52.2332 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2332 Control Strategy...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1885 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1885 Section 52.1885 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Ohio § 52.1885 Control strategy...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1023 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1023 Section 52.1023 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1023 Control strategy...

  20. Planning a radar system for protection from the airborne threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greneker, E.F.; McGee, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    A planning methodology for developing a radar system to protect nuclear materials facilities from the airborne threat is presented. Planning for physical security to counter the airborne threat is becoming even more important because hostile acts by terrorists are increasing and airborne platforms that can be used to bypass physical barriers are readily available. The comprehensive system planning process includes threat and facility surveys, defense hardening, analysis of detection and early warning requirements, optimization of sensor mix and placement, and system implementation considerations

  1. Managing uncertainty in flood protection planning with climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittes, Beatrice; Špačková, Olga; Schoppa, Lukas; Straub, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    Technical flood protection is a necessary part of integrated strategies to protect riverine settlements from extreme floods. Many technical flood protection measures, such as dikes and protection walls, are costly to adapt after their initial construction. This poses a challenge to decision makers as there is large uncertainty in how the required protection level will change during the measure lifetime, which is typically many decades long. Flood protection requirements should account for multiple future uncertain factors: socioeconomic, e.g., whether the population and with it the damage potential grows or falls; technological, e.g., possible advancements in flood protection; and climatic, e.g., whether extreme discharge will become more frequent or not. This paper focuses on climatic uncertainty. Specifically, we devise methodology to account for uncertainty associated with the use of discharge projections, ultimately leading to planning implications. For planning purposes, we categorize uncertainties as either visible, if they can be quantified from available catchment data, or hidden, if they cannot be quantified from catchment data and must be estimated, e.g., from the literature. It is vital to consider the hidden uncertainty, since in practical applications only a limited amount of information (e.g., a finite projection ensemble) is available. We use a Bayesian approach to quantify the visible uncertainties and combine them with an estimate of the hidden uncertainties to learn a joint probability distribution of the parameters of extreme discharge. The methodology is integrated into an optimization framework and applied to a pre-alpine case study to give a quantitative, cost-optimal recommendation on the required amount of flood protection. The results show that hidden uncertainty ought to be considered in planning, but the larger the uncertainty already present, the smaller the impact of adding more. The recommended planning is robust to moderate changes in

  2. Large-scale projects between regional planning and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, G.

    1984-01-01

    The first part of the work discusses the current law of land-use planning, municipal and technical construction planning, and licensing under the atomic energy law and the federal law on immission protection. In the second part some theses suggesting modifications are submitted. In the sector of land-use planning substantial contributions to the protection of the environment can only be expected from programs and plans (aims). For the environmental conflicts likely to arise from large-scale projects (nuclear power plant, fossil-fuel power plant) this holds good for the most part of site selection plans. They have bearings on environmental protection in that they presuppose thorough examination of facts, help to recognize possible conflicts at an early date and provide a frame for solving those problems. Municipal construction planning is guided by the following principles: Environmental protection is an equivalent planning target. Environmental data and facts and their methodical processing play a fundamental part as they constitute the basis of evaluation. Under the rules and regulations of the federal law on immission protection, section 5, number 2 - prevention of nuisances - operators are obliged to take preventive care of risks. That section is not concerned with planning or distribution. Neither does the licensing of nuclear plants have planning character. So far as the legal preconditions of licensing are fulfilled, the scope for rejection of an application under section 7, subsection 2 of the atomic energy law in view of site selection and requirement of a plant hardly carries any practical weight. (orig./HP) [de

  3. EG and G Idaho Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (1990)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickham, L.E.

    1990-11-01

    This report describes the EG G Idaho strategy for implementation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 (a DOE-Headquarters directive establishing environmental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities). Preparation of this Environmental Protection Implementation Plan is a requirement of DOE Order 5400.1. Additionally, this report is intended to supplement the Department of Energy--Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) Environmental Protection Implementation Plan by detailing EG G Idaho Environmental Protection Program activities. This report describes the current status of the EG G Idaho program, and the strategies for enhancing, as necessary, the current program to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1. Aspects of the Environmental Protection Program included in this report are the assignment of responsibilities to specific EG G organizations, a schedule for completion of enhancements, if necessary, and requirements for documentation and reporting. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. EG and G Idaho Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (1991)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, J.F.

    1991-11-01

    This report describes the EG G Idaho, Inc. strategy for implementation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 (a DOE-Headquarters directive establishing environmental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities). Preparation of this Environmental Protection Implementation Plan is a requirement of DOE Order 5400.1. Additionally, this report is intended to supplement the Department of Energy -- Field Office Idaho (DOE-ID) Environmental Protection Implementation Plan by detailing EG G Idaho Environmental Protection Program activities. This report describes the current status of the EG G Idaho Program, and the strategies for enhancing, as necessary, the current program to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1. Aspects of the Environmental Protection Program included in this report are the assignment of responsibilities to specific EG G Idaho organizations, a schedule for completion of enhancements, if necessary, and requirements for documentation and reporting. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. EG and G Idaho Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, J.F.

    1991-11-01

    This report describes the EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. strategy for implementation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 (a DOE-Headquarters directive establishing environmental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities). Preparation of this Environmental Protection Implementation Plan is a requirement of DOE Order 5400.1. Additionally, this report is intended to supplement the Department of Energy -- Field Office Idaho (DOE-ID) Environmental Protection Implementation Plan by detailing EG ampersand G Idaho Environmental Protection Program activities. This report describes the current status of the EG ampersand G Idaho Program, and the strategies for enhancing, as necessary, the current program to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1. Aspects of the Environmental Protection Program included in this report are the assignment of responsibilities to specific EG ampersand G Idaho organizations, a schedule for completion of enhancements, if necessary, and requirements for documentation and reporting. 4 figs., 1 tab

  6. EG and G Idaho environmental protection implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stump, R.C.

    1989-11-01

    This report describes the EG ampersand G Idaho strategy for implementation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 (a DOE-Headquarters directive establishing environmental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities). Preparation of this Environmental Protection Implementation Plan is a requirement of DOE Order 5400.0 Additionally, this report is intended to supplement the Department of Energy -- Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) Environmental Protection Implementation Plan by detailing EG ampersand G Idaho Environmental Protection Program activities. This report describes the current status of the EG ampersand G Idaho Program, and the strategies for enhancing, as necessary, the current program to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1. Aspects of the Environmental Protection Program included in this report are the assignment of responsibilities to specific EG ampersand G organizations, a schedule for completion of enhancements, if necessary, and requirements for documentation and reporting. 3 figs., 1 tab

  7. SRP groundwater protection implementation plan. Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Maintaining the quality of the Savannah River Plant environment and protecting offsite areas from the impact of facility operations were recognized as important goals prior to site startup. Monitoring programs were initiated in the Savannah River and on the site to establish baseline conditions before facility operations began. These programs by plant personnel and other scientific groups have been significantly expanded during the 30 years of operation. Monitoring results cover airborne effluents and surface and subsurface waters. Analyses include both radioactive and nonradioactive species. These programs have established the Savannah River site as one of the most extensively monitored locations in the world. These activities are the foundation of a broad based environmental program which has consistently demonstrated the negligible environmental impact of the site's operations on the general public. In addition to the extensive monitoring program, many advances in effluent treatment technology have been incorporated in plant facilities. There is no immediate threat of any kind to the on- or offsite population

  8. Preliminary Validation and Verification Plan for CAREM Reactor Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fittipaldi, Ana; Maciel Felix

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper, is to present a preliminary validation and verification plan for a particular architecture proposed for the CAREM reactor protection system with software modules (computer based system).These software modules can be either own design systems or systems based in commercial modules such as programmable logic controllers (PLC) redundant of last generation.During this study, it was seen that this plan can also be used as a validation and verification plan of commercial products (COTS, commercial off the shelf) and/or smart transmitters.The software life cycle proposed and its features are presented, and also the advantages of the preliminary validation and verification plan

  9. Radiation protection planning for the international FAIR project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehrenbacher, G.; Belousov, A.; Conrad, I.

    2015-01-01

    FAIR (=Facility for AntiProton and Ion Research) is an international accelerator facility which will be built near the GSI site in Darmstadt, where protons and heavy ion beams can be accelerated in a synchrotron to energies up to 30 GeV/nucleon with intensities partially up to 1E13/sec. The accelerated particles will be used for experiments in atomic, nuclear and plasma physics as well as for radiation biology and medicine and materials research. The radiation protection planning focuses on the estimation of radiation fields produced by heavy ions and its shielding. As examples, the radiation protection planning for the heavy ion synchrotron SIS100 as well as for two experiment caves are presented. Moreover, further important topics in this radiation protection planning are the estimation of the distribution and production of radionuclides in media and the handling before disposal.

  10. Assessment of Evacuation Protective Action Strategies For Emergency Preparedness Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joomyung; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Kwangil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    This report which studies about evacuation formation suggests some considerable factors to reduce damage of radiological accidents. Additional details would be required to study in depth and more elements should be considered for updating emergency preparedness. However, this methodology with sensitivity analysis could adapt to specific plant which has total information such as geological data, weather data and population data. In this point of view the evacuation study could be contribute to set up emergency preparedness plan and propose the direction to enhance protective action strategies. In radiological emergency, residents nearby nuclear power plant should perform protective action that is suggested by emergency preparedness plan. The objective of emergency preparedness plan is that damages, such as casualties and environmental damages, due to radioactive accident should be minimized. The recent PAR study includes a number of subjects to improve the quality of protective action strategies. For enhancing protective action strategies, researches that evaluate many factors related with emergency response scenario are essential parts to update emergency preparedness plan. Evacuation is very important response action as protective action strategy.

  11. Assessment of Evacuation Protective Action Strategies For Emergency Preparedness Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joomyung; Jae, Moosung; Ahn, Kwangil

    2013-01-01

    This report which studies about evacuation formation suggests some considerable factors to reduce damage of radiological accidents. Additional details would be required to study in depth and more elements should be considered for updating emergency preparedness. However, this methodology with sensitivity analysis could adapt to specific plant which has total information such as geological data, weather data and population data. In this point of view the evacuation study could be contribute to set up emergency preparedness plan and propose the direction to enhance protective action strategies. In radiological emergency, residents nearby nuclear power plant should perform protective action that is suggested by emergency preparedness plan. The objective of emergency preparedness plan is that damages, such as casualties and environmental damages, due to radioactive accident should be minimized. The recent PAR study includes a number of subjects to improve the quality of protective action strategies. For enhancing protective action strategies, researches that evaluate many factors related with emergency response scenario are essential parts to update emergency preparedness plan. Evacuation is very important response action as protective action strategy

  12. Heuristic methods for shared backup path protection planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Stidsen, Thomas Riis; Zachariasen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    schemes are employed. In contrast to manual intervention, automatic protection schemes such as Shared Backup Path Protection (SBPP) can recover from failure quickly and efficiently. SBPP is a simple but efficient protection scheme that can be implemented in backbone networks with technology available...... present heuristic algorithms and lower bound methods for the SBPP planning problem. Experimental results show that the heuristic algorithms are able to find good quality solutions in minutes. A solution gap of less than 3.5% was achieved for more than half of the benchmark instances (and a gap of less...

  13. Context Related Curriculum Planning for Science Teaching: A Proposal To Teach Science around the Ozone Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioseco, Marilu

    This paper reports on the dilution effect of the ozone layer which jeopardizes a section of land in Chile from 53 degrees South latitude to 33 degrees South and the necessity of preparing the population for the possible ecological consequences of an increase in ultraviolet radiation. Scientists in Chile assume part of this task by studying the…

  14. 78 FR 27161 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Connecticut; Ozone Attainment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... CFR 51.908(a) and (c), 51.910, 51.912). In addition, moderate nonattainment areas were also required..., or June 15, 2010. See 40 CFR 51.903. In order to demonstrate attainment by June 2010, the area must... determination that the New York City area had attained the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS. Pursuant to 40 CFR 51.918...

  15. 78 FR 32135 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Atlanta, Georgia 1997 8-Hour Ozone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... are only accepted during the Regional Office's normal hours of operation. The Regional Office's... for the 1997 8-Hour Ozone NAAQS? IV. What are the 2008 NO X and VOC emissions inventories for the... was reclassified by operation of law to the next highest classification, or ``moderate'' nonattainment...

  16. Best management practices for creating a community wildfire protection plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Jakes; Christine Esposito; Sam Burns; Antony S. Cheng; Kristen C. Nelson; Victoria E. Sturtevant; Daniel R. Williams

    2012-01-01

    A community wildfire protection plan (CWPP) is a means of bringing local solutions to wildland fire management. In developing and implementing CWPPs, communities assume a leadership role in reducing wildfi re risk on federal and nonfederal land. In this publication, we identify best management practices for CWPP development and implementation based on the experiences...

  17. Managing uncertainty in flood protection planning with climate projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dittes

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Technical flood protection is a necessary part of integrated strategies to protect riverine settlements from extreme floods. Many technical flood protection measures, such as dikes and protection walls, are costly to adapt after their initial construction. This poses a challenge to decision makers as there is large uncertainty in how the required protection level will change during the measure lifetime, which is typically many decades long. Flood protection requirements should account for multiple future uncertain factors: socioeconomic, e.g., whether the population and with it the damage potential grows or falls; technological, e.g., possible advancements in flood protection; and climatic, e.g., whether extreme discharge will become more frequent or not. This paper focuses on climatic uncertainty. Specifically, we devise methodology to account for uncertainty associated with the use of discharge projections, ultimately leading to planning implications. For planning purposes, we categorize uncertainties as either visible, if they can be quantified from available catchment data, or hidden, if they cannot be quantified from catchment data and must be estimated, e.g., from the literature. It is vital to consider the hidden uncertainty, since in practical applications only a limited amount of information (e.g., a finite projection ensemble is available. We use a Bayesian approach to quantify the visible uncertainties and combine them with an estimate of the hidden uncertainties to learn a joint probability distribution of the parameters of extreme discharge. The methodology is integrated into an optimization framework and applied to a pre-alpine case study to give a quantitative, cost-optimal recommendation on the required amount of flood protection. The results show that hidden uncertainty ought to be considered in planning, but the larger the uncertainty already present, the smaller the impact of adding more. The recommended planning is

  18. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Environmental Protection Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollmer, A.T.

    1993-10-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (EPIP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1. The UMTRA EPIP covers the time period of November 9, 1993, through November 8, 1994. It will be updated annually. Its purpose is to provide management direction to ensure that the UMTRA Project is operated and managed in a manner that will protect, maintain, and where necessary, restore environmental quality, minimize potential threats to public health and the environment, and comply with environmental regulations and DOE policies. Contents of this report are: (1) general description of the UMTRA project environmental protection program; (2) notifications; (3) planning and reporting; (4) special programs; (5) environmental monitoring programs; (6) quality assurance and data verification; and (7) references

  19. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Environmental Protection Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollmer, A.T.

    1993-10-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (EPIP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1. The UMTRA EPIP covers the time period of November 9, 1993, through November 8, 1994. It will be updated annually. Its purpose is to provide management direction to ensure that the UMTRA Project is operated and managed in a manner that will protect, maintain, and where necessary, restore environmental quality, minimize potential threats to public health and the environment, and comply with environmental regulations and DOE policies. Contents of this report are: (1) general description of the UMTRA project environmental protection program; (2) notifications; (3) planning and reporting; (4) special programs; (5) environmental monitoring programs; (6) quality assurance and data verification; and (7) references.

  20. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2002-09-24

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to prepare a Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan. This document fulfills the requirement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This document was prepared by the Hydrology Section of the Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) Environmental Compliance Department, and it is the responsibility of this group to review the plan annually and update it every three years. This document is not, nor is it intended to be, an implementing document that sets forth specific details on carrying out field projects or operational policy. Rather, it is intended to give the reader insight to the groundwater protection philosophy at WIPP.

  1. Ozone-depleting Substances (ODS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This site includes all of the ozone-depleting substances (ODS) recognized by the Montreal Protocol. The data include ozone depletion potentials (ODP), global warming...

  2. Oxygen nitrogen and ozone: application in wastewater treatment and environment protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Julio A.G. [Oxigenio do Brasil, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    Oxygen`s versatility as an oxidant and as a combustion atmosphere provides clean solutions to different industries. Oxygen also finds excellent application for the regeneration of eutrophic surface waters where high biochemical oxygen demand loading demands extra available oxygen for life support. When even stronger oxidizing properties are needed, ozone may act as a supplement. Nitrogen, on the other hand, has excellent cooling capacity, resulting in practical application in solvent recapture, enabling processes to meet emission standards while allowing solvent recycle for reuse. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Oxygen nitrogen and ozone: application in wastewater treatment and environment protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Julio A.G. [Oxigenio do Brasil, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Oxygen`s versatility as an oxidant and as a combustion atmosphere provides clean solutions to different industries. Oxygen also finds excellent application for the regeneration of eutrophic surface waters where high biochemical oxygen demand loading demands extra available oxygen for life support. When even stronger oxidizing properties are needed, ozone may act as a supplement. Nitrogen, on the other hand, has excellent cooling capacity, resulting in practical application in solvent recapture, enabling processes to meet emission standards while allowing solvent recycle for reuse. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Drought stress does not protect Quercus ilex L. from ozone effects: results from a comparative study of two subspecies differing in ozone sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, R; Elvira, S; González-Fernández, I; Calvete, H; García-Gómez, H; Bermejo, V

    2014-03-01

    Long-term effects of ozone (O3) exposure and drought stress were assessed on two subspecies of Quercus ilex: ssp. ilex and ssp. ballota. Two-year-old seedlings were continuously exposed for 26 months in open-top chambers to three O3 treatments: charcoal filtered air, non-filtered air and non-filtered air supplemented with 40 nl · l(-1) O3. Additionally, two irrigation regimes were adopted: half of the plants were well-watered and the others received half of the water supplied to control plants. Growth, shoot water potential and gas exchange rates were assessed seasonally, and biomass accumulation was determined at the end of the experiment. Drought stress caused higher reductions of gas exchange, growth and biomass accumulation than O3 exposure in both subspecies. The combination of O3 and drought stress caused further decreases of accumulated aboveground biomass but no additive effects were observed on gas exchange rates or root biomass. Thus, drought stress did not protect Q. ilex from O3 effects on biomass when the response of the whole plant was considered. Q. ilex ssp. ballota was more sensitive to O3 and ssp. ilex was more affected by drought stress. The different O3 sensitivity was not only related to pollutant uptake but also to the ability of plants for resource acquisition and allocation. Based on biomass dose-response functions, Q. ilex is more resistant to O3 than other European evergreen tree species, however, O3 represents an additional stress factor that might be impairing plant ability to withstand current and future climate change. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  5. Protection planning and risk management at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.S.; Altman, W.D.; Hockert, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Effective safeguards and security management begins with comprehensive strategic planning that synthesizes protection objectives, threat information, existing protection capabilities, consequences of protection failure, and the costs and impacts of safeguards changes into cost effective protection strategies that adequately address credible threats. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed a structured risk management approach to safeguards and security planning that is designed to lead to protection strategies that are cost effective, meet the intent of Department of Energy (DOE) orders, balance protection needs with programmatic priorities, and acknowledge a level of residual risks that is not cost effective to eliminate. This risk management approach to safeguards decision making was used to develop the first DOE-approved Master Safeguards and Security Agreement (MSSA) that addresses all security interests at a major facility including: special nuclear material, classified information and materials, computer and communication security, and other DOE property. This risk management approach also provides the strategic basis for day-to-day management of the LLNL security program as well as the integration of safeguards program upgrades

  6. Radiation protection programme for planned medical exposure situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanciles, Milford

    2016-04-01

    Radiation protection programme for planned medical exposure situation which involved diagnostic and interventional radiology was discussed. The radiation protection programme (RPP) should reflect the management’s commitment to radiation protection and safety through the management structure, policies, procedures and organizational arrangement commensurate with the nature and extent of the risk. Registrants and licensees should use the RPP as a tool for the development of a safety culture in diagnostic and interventional radiology departments .Recommendations are provided which when implemented in the education and training of radiographers, referral physician and all those involved in the use of ionizing radiation for diagnosis purposes will improve protection and safety of the occupationally exposed worker, the patient, the public and the environment. (au)

  7. Y-12 Site environmental protection program implementation plan (EPPIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Y-12 Plant Environmental Protection Program is conducted to: (1) protect public health and the environment from chemical and radiological releases occurring from current plant operations and past waste management and operational practices; (2) ensure compliance with federal, state, and local environmental regulations and DOE directives; (3) identify potential environmental problems; (4) evaluate existing environmental contamination and determine the need for remedial actions and mitigative measures; (5) monitor the progress of ongoing remedial actions and cleanup measures; and (6) inform the public of environmental issues relating to DOE operations. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, defines the general requirements for environmental protection programs at DOE facilities. This Environmental Protection Program Implementation Plan (EPPIP) defines the methods by which the Y-12 Plant staff will comply with the order by: (1) referencing environmental protection goals and objectives and identifying strategies and timetables for attaining them; (2) providing the overall framework for the design and implementation of the Y-12 Environmental Protection Program; and (3) assigning responsibilities for complying with the requirements of the order. The EPPIP is revised and updated annually

  8. Y-12 Site environmental protection program implementation plan (EPPIP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Y-12 Plant Environmental Protection Program is conducted to: (1) protect public health and the environment from chemical and radiological releases occurring from current plant operations and past waste management and operational practices; (2) ensure compliance with federal, state, and local environmental regulations and DOE directives; (3) identify potential environmental problems; (4) evaluate existing environmental contamination and determine the need for remedial actions and mitigative measures; (5) monitor the progress of ongoing remedial actions and cleanup measures; and (6) inform the public of environmental issues relating to DOE operations. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, defines the general requirements for environmental protection programs at DOE facilities. This Environmental Protection Program Implementation Plan (EPPIP) defines the methods by which the Y-12 Plant staff will comply with the order by: (1) referencing environmental protection goals and objectives and identifying strategies and timetables for attaining them; (2) providing the overall framework for the design and implementation of the Y-12 Environmental Protection Program; and (3) assigning responsibilities for complying with the requirements of the order. The EPPIP is revised and updated annually.

  9. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project environmental protection implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (EPIP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1. The UMTRA EPIP is updated annually. This version covers the time period of 9 November 1994, through 8 November 1995. Its purpose is to provide management direction to ensure that the UMTRA Project is operated and managed in a manner that will protect, maintain, and where necessary, restore environmental quality, minimize potential threats to public health and the environment, and comply with environmental regulations and DOE policies

  10. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project environmental protection implementation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (EPIP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1. The UMTRA EPIP is updated annually. This version covers the time period of 9 November 1994, through 8 November 1995. Its purpose is to provide management direction to ensure that the UMTRA Project is operated and managed in a manner that will protect, maintain, and where necessary, restore environmental quality, minimize potential threats to public health and the environment, and comply with environmental regulations and DOE policies.

  11. Research plan for external radiation protection research 1994/95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A broad outline of the research financed by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute but performed outside the Institute. The fiscal year 94/95 is the last year of a three year research plan, and has a budget of about 21 MSEK (close to 3 MUSD). 9.5 MSEK is spent on research connected to nuclear power, 4.1 MSEK on other radiation protection and 3.3 MSEK on participation in the research program of the European Union. Short descriptions of the different areas are given in the report

  12. Climate change and protected area policy and planning in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D. [Canada Research Chairs, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Lemieux, C. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    2005-10-01

    Challenges concerning climate change for agencies involved the management of Canada's protected areas were reviewed. Most protected areas have been designed to represent specific natural features, species and ecological communities, and are the most common and most important strategy for biodiversity conservation. It remains undecided whether adaptation should be a matter of responding to climate change as it manifests, or whether initiatives should be taken in advance to anticipate the potential effects of climate change. There are growing concerns that emergency adaptation will be less effective and more costly than anticipatory or precautionary adaptation over the long-term. Species extinction could result. It was noted that the northward shift of species from the United States will meet Parks Canada's existing definition of alien species in need of management interventions. The conservation objectives of individual protected areas would also be affected by projected biome and species changes, particularly as each of Canada's national parks is responsible for protecting ecosystems representative of the natural region within which it is located. All 6 vegetation change scenarios examined in a recent study projected the eventual loss of boreal forest in the Prince Albert National Park, suggesting that the park's current mandate to protect the ecological integrity of the area would no longer be viable. An overview of the policy and planning implications of climate change for protected areas in Canada was presented using examples from national and provincial park systems. A portfolio of climate change adaptation options in conservation literature was reviewed. Recommended strategies included system planning and policy development; active, adaptive ecosystem management; research and monitoring; and capacity building and awareness. It was concluded that governments will need to make major new investments in protected area establishment, personnel

  13. The Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-03-12

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers are working on the Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies Project. This project is a U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management-funded initiative designed to develop new methods, strategies, and technologies for characterizing, modeling, remediating, and monitoring soils and groundwater contaminated with metals, radionuclides, and chlorinated organics. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Technologies Project staff.

  14. A Protection plan of wildlife in a danger of extinction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Don; Park, Yong Ha; Suh, Jung Soo [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    This report collected data on the present situation of mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, fishes, insects, invertebrates, and 43 kinds of plants, which is in a danger of extinction, and their habitat, by the article 2 of 1998 Natural Environmental Conservation Act, as a part of 'Establishment of Biological diversity strategy'. This will utilize as a basic data for protection management to establish the recovery plan for each species. 358 refs., 43 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Radiation protection challenges into the 21st century. Action planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandle, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Building on the work undertaken by the UK Health and Safety Executive in liaison with the wider health and safety community to examine emerging technological trends and their implications for occupational health and safety, a paper was produced for the Southport '99 International Symposium which looked at the likely impact on radiation protection. This paper reports on the next phase of the work which is designed to set the agenda for regulators, duty holders, qualified experts and other key stakeholders and intermediaries. Broad trends and themes determined by phase 1 of the work are translated into action plans aimed at anticipating the key challenges and exploiting the opportunities offered by technological developments for radiation protection purposes. These might equally be to achieve improved risk assessment and exposure characterisations of uncertain or novel practices (or interventions), to promote improved design of equipment and systems of work and adoption of inherently safer processes or procedures, to raise standards of competence in key workers and managers, or to encourage greater collaboration and joined up working between different groups of stakeholders and across national boundaries. The principle purpose of sharing this vision of the future is to encourage radiation protection professionals and others with an interest in radiation and nuclear technologies, to register an interest. It will only be by engagement that the priorities and activities proposed in the action plan can be refined and only by a team effort that the implementation plan can be fully realised. And then there is the next action plan to build and tackle....(author)

  16. Ozone: The secret greenhouse gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berntsen, Terje; Tjernshaugen, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    The atmospheric ozone not only protects against harmful ultraviolet radiation; it also contributes to the greenhouse effect. Ozone is one of the jokers to make it difficult to calculate the climatic effect of anthropogenic emissions. The greenhouse effect and the ozone layer should not be confused. The greenhouse effect creates problems when it becomes enhanced, so that the earth becomes warmer. The problem with the ozone layer, on the contrary, is that it becomes thinner and so more of the harmful ultraviolet radiation gets through to the earth. However, ozone is also a greenhouse gas and so the greenhouse effect and the ozone layer are connected

  17. Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland Strategic Plan 2011 to 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    The RPII's remit is very broad. It includes three main pillars; regulating all uses of ionising radiation; assessing people's exposure to ionising radiation; advising Government and the public on the prevention of unnecessary exposure. This plan builds on the previous Strategic Plan for 2008 to 2012 and sets out clearly the developments we expect over the planning period, the strategic priorities we are commiting to, along with a clear description of how we will address these priorities. Four key strategic priorities and associated objectives have been developed for this period. The key themes underpinning all four strategic priorities are public value, transparency, communication and sustainability. The priorities are; to provide the expertise, technical capability and information essential to the protection of the Irish population and the environment; to regulate the safe and secure use of ionising radiation in Ireland in a sustainable and transparent manner; to work in partnership with others to implement national radiological protection initiatives; to deliver value to the public in everything we do

  18. The Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies Quality Assurance Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, Anne

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has conducted interim groundwater remedial activities on the Hanford Site since the mid-1990s for several groundwater contamination plumes. DOE established the Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies Project (Technologies Project) in 2006 to evaluate alternative treatment technologies. The objectives for the technology project are as follows: develop a 300 Area polyphosphate treatability test to immobilize uranium, design and test infiltration of a phosphate/apatite technology for Sr-90 at 100-N, perform carbon tetrachloride and chloroform attenuation parameter studies, perform vadose zone chromium characterization and geochemistry studies, perform in situ biostimulation of chromium studies for a reducing barrier at 100-D, and perform a treatability test for phytoremediation for Sr-90 at 100-N. This document provides the quality assurance guidelines that will be followed by the Technologies Project. This Quality Assurance Project Plan is based on the quality assurance requirements of DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance, and 10 CFR 830, Subpart A--Quality Assurance Requirements as delineated in Pacific Northwest National Laboratory?s Standards-Based Management System. In addition, the technology project is subject to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Requirements for Quality Assurance Project Plans (EPA/240/B-01/003, QA/R-5). The Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (HASQARD, DOE/RL-96-68) apply to portions of this project and to the subcontractors. HASQARD requirements are discussed within applicable sections of this plan.

  19. Protective effects of ellagic acid and ozone on rat ovaries with an ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Ilyas; Bicer, Senol; Gursul, Cebrail; Gürbüzel, Mehmet; Peker, Kemal; Işik, Arda

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the antioxidant agents, ozone (O) and ellagic acid (EA), on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries developed from an ovarian torsion-detorsion model. Arteries in the left ovaries of rats were clamped for two hours to achieve torsion, and then the clamps were removed for a two-hour detorsion period. Thirty-five female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: control: administered only with anesthesia, rats were not subjected to torsion-detorsion; I/R: subjected to torsion and subsequent detorsion, without administering any treatment agent; and I/R + EA, I/R + O and I/R + O + EA: subjected to torsion and detorsion processes and administered with EA, O or EA + O at the 75th minute of torsion. The rats were then sacrificed under general anesthesia and the ovarian tissues were excised. The tissues were homogenized and levels of glutathione reductase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde (MDA) were analyzed. Tissue damage was evaluated in terms of histopathological parameters, such as hemorrhage, congestion, edema and inflammation. Antioxidant enzyme activity and MDA levels in the ovary tissue increased in the I/R group and decreased in the O, EA and O + EA groups (P < 0.05). Histopathological examination revealed that tissue damage in the O, EA and O + EA groups decreased in comparison with the I/R group (P < 0.05). These biochemical and histopathological findings suggest that EA and O are effective against ovarian I/R injury. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. The CHPRC Columbia River Protection Project Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-11-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers are working on the CHPRC Columbia River Protection Project (hereafter referred to as the Columbia River Project). This is a follow-on project, funded by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, LLC (CHPRC), to the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Columbia River Protection Project. The work scope consists of a number of CHPRC funded, related projects that are managed under a master project (project number 55109). All contract releases associated with the Fluor Hanford Columbia River Project (Fluor Hanford, Inc. Contract 27647) and the CHPRC Columbia River Project (Contract 36402) will be collected under this master project. Each project within the master project is authorized by a CHPRC contract release that contains the project-specific statement of work. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Columbia River Project staff.

  1. The CHPRC Columbia River Protection Project Quality Assurance Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, N.J.

    2008-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers are working on the CHPRC Columbia River Protection Project (hereafter referred to as the Columbia River Project). This is a follow-on project, funded by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, LLC (CHPRC), to the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Columbia River Protection Project. The work scope consists of a number of CHPRC funded, related projects that are managed under a master project (project number 55109). All contract releases associated with the Fluor Hanford Columbia River Project (Fluor Hanford, Inc. Contract 27647) and the CHPRC Columbia River Project (Contract 36402) will be collected under this master project. Each project within the master project is authorized by a CHPRC contract release that contains the project-specific statement of work. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Columbia River Project staff

  2. Increased Transparency and Consumer Protections for 2016 Marketplace Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-LaSure, Chiquita

    2015-12-01

    The open enrollment period that ends in December 2015 for coverage begin­ning January 2016 marks the third year of the health care exchanges or marketplaces and of coverage through new qualified health plans. This issue brief investigates several key changes to the qualified health plans, with a focus on increased transparency and consumer protections. A new out-of-pocket costs calculator, requirements regarding provider networks, and prescription drug cost-sharing requirements should serve to better inform and improve consumer selection. In addition, several policy changes will help individuals with more severe health needs. These include: improved prescription drug coverage for HIV/ AIDS and other conditions, allowing prescription drugs that are obtained through the "exceptions" process to count toward the out-of-pocket spending cap, more comprehensive and consistent habilitative coverage, and an individual out-of-pocket spending cap within the family out-of-pocket maximum.

  3. Groundwater protection plan for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, D.C.; Jaeger, G.K.; McMahon, W.J.; Ford, B.H.

    1996-01-01

    This document is the groundwater protection plan for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) Project. This plan is prepared based on the assumption that the ERDF will receive waste containing hazardous/dangerous constituents, radioactive constituents, and combinations of both. The purpose of this plan is to establish a groundwater monitoring program that (1) meets the intent of the applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements, (2) documents baseline groundwater conditions, (3) monitors those conditions for change, and (4) allows for modifications to groundwater sampling if required by the leachate management program. Groundwater samples indicate the occurrence of preexisting groundwater contamination in the uppermost unconfined aquifer below the ERDF Project site, as a result of past waste-water discharges in the 200 West Area. Therefore, it is necessary for the ERDF to establish baseline groundwater quality conditions and to monitor changes in the baseline over time. The groundwater monitoring program presented in this plan will provide the means to assess onsite and offsite impacts to the groundwater. In addition, a separate leachate management program will provide an indication of whether the liners are performing within design standards

  4. 24 CFR 203.203 - Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issuance and nature of insured 10... Underwriting Procedures Insured Ten-Year Protection Plans (plan) § 203.203 Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans. (a) Plans may be issued: (1) By a builder, warranty company, insurance company...

  5. 2001 Ozone Design Value

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ozone is generated by a complex atmoshperic chemical process. Industrial and automobile pollutants in the form of oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons react in the...

  6. River Protection Project (RPP) Dangerous Waste Training Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    POHTO, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    This supporting document contains the training plan for dangerous waste management at River Protection Project TSD Units. This document outlines the dangerous waste training program developed and implemented for all Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) Units operated by River Protection Project (RPP) in the Hanford 200 East, 200 West and 600 Areas and the <90 Day Accumulation Area at 209E. Operating TSD Units managed by RPP are: the Double-Shell Tank (DST) System, 204-AR Waste Unloading Facility, Grout, and the Single-Shell Tank (SST) System. The program is designed in compliance with the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-330 and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 265.16 for the development of a written dangerous waste training program and the Hanford Facility Permit. Training requirements were determined by an assessment of employee duties and responsibilities. The RPP training program is designed to prepare employees to operate and maintain the Tank Farms in a safe, effective, efficient, and environmentally sound manner. In addition to preparing employees to operate and maintain the Tank Farms under normal conditions, the training program ensures that employees are prepared to respond in a prompt and effective manner should abnormal or emergency conditions occur. Emergency response training is consistent with emergency responses outlined in the following Building Emergency Plans: HNF-IP-0263-TF and HNF-=IP-0263-209E

  7. River Protection Project (RPP) Dangerous Waste Training Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POHTO, R.E.

    2000-03-09

    This supporting document contains the training plan for dangerous waste management at River Protection Project TSD Units. This document outlines the dangerous waste training program developed and implemented for all Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) Units operated by River Protection Project (RPP) in the Hanford 200 East, 200 West and 600 Areas and the <90 Day Accumulation Area at 209E. Operating TSD Units managed by RPP are: the Double-Shell Tank (DST) System, 204-AR Waste Unloading Facility, Grout, and the Single-Shell Tank (SST) System. The program is designed in compliance with the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-330 and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 265.16 for the development of a written dangerous waste training program and the Hanford Facility Permit. Training requirements were determined by an assessment of employee duties and responsibilities. The RPP training program is designed to prepare employees to operate and maintain the Tank Farms in a safe, effective, efficient, and environmentally sound manner. In addition to preparing employees to operate and maintain the Tank Farms under normal conditions, the training program ensures that employees are prepared to respond in a prompt and effective manner should abnormal or emergency conditions occur. Emergency response training is consistent with emergency responses outlined in the following Building Emergency Plans: HNF-IP-0263-TF and HNF-=IP-0263-209E.

  8. Vienna Agreement law 15.986 it approve Vienna Agreement for Protection ozone layer and annex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Agreement of Vienna is approved with respect to the protection of the Layer of Ozono, definitions,general duties, research and observations systematics, co-operation in the Spheres Scientific Juridical, and information, Technological Conference, transmission from the protocols, amends, secretariat, adoption to the agreement or the protocols, adoption and amendment of controversy, signing, ratify, approve annexes, solution or vote, relation approving, adhesion, rights between the present agreement and its protocols, entrance in vigor, reserves, retirement, deposition, exchange of information [es

  9. Evaluation of the anti-oxidant ethylene diurea (EDU) as a protectant against ozone effects on crops (Growth chamber trials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archambault, D.J.; Li, X. [Alberta Research Council, Vegreville, AB (Canada). Environmental Technologies

    2003-02-01

    A field study conducted during the summer of 2000 showed that when the antioxidant ethylene diurea (EDU) was applied to crops there was an increase in several parameters. The authors designed a series of controlled-environment trials to test the following: were the effects of EDU the result of EDU-mediated protection against ozone (O{sub 3}) or were they from the plant growth promoting effects of EDU independent of O{sub 3}. The three major objectives were: (1) to modify an existing gas exposure system to expose plants to O{sub 3} and to test the stability and reliability of the system, (2) to perform O{sub 3} exposure trials using wheat, barley, field pea and canola to observe the effects of O{sub 3}, and (3) to test whether the effects of EDU could be attributed to protection against O{sub 3} injury or to the plant growth promoting effects independent of O{sub 3}. The modification to the gas exposure system involved the installation of an O{sub 3} delivery system and a monitoring system. Stability of the system was tested using radish plants. The symptoms of O{sub 3} injury on radish leaves began after two weeks of exposure. It appeared as mottled bleached areas which became red. Mottled chlorotic areas appeared on wheat and barley, which led to complete chlorosis, necrosis and eventually abscission. After two weeks of exposure, field pea developed tendril curl, and canola plants displayed no visible signs of injury from O{sub 3} exposure. The results of the study indicated that the effects of EDU can be species- and cultivar-specific. 15 refs., 11 tabs., 8 figs.

  10. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-07-01

    The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New MexicoAdministrative Code), "Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,"specifically 40 CFR §264.90 through §264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New Mexico Administrative Code), 'Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,'specifically 40 CFR 264.90 through 264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] 6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

  12. 40 CFR 52.1982 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1982... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Oregon § 52.1982 Control strategy... emission control equipment, selected from a specific list on file at DEQ, is in place and operating...

  13. Planning for fire control and protection of personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rule, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    Because nuclear installations are designed and built to high standards with segregation and fire barriers included, the risk from fires is not high. However, small fires can become large and nuclear sites present additional hazards to fire fighters because of radiation release and from metal fires (magnesium alloys and sodium) which require special techniques of firefighting. All sites have their own fire fighting force which would tackle a fire initially and these should train and work in close cooperation with the Local Authority fire service. The main points raised concern radiation protection for the fire fighters including the issuing of emergency dosemeters and potassium iodate tablets, decontamination of personnel, vehicles and equipment, communications, and the need for standardisation of plans at all installations throughout the country. (U.K.)

  14. 75 FR 45075 - Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ...) 541-5509, e- mail address: [email protected] (preferred method for registering), no later than 2..., and Monday, August 30, 2010, for the Atlanta, Georgia, hearing. If using e-mail, please provide the... Strategies Group, (C504-09), Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, telephone number (919) 541-4718, e-mail at...

  15. Ozone modeling for compliance planning: A synopsis of ''The Use of Photochemical Air Quality Models for Evaluating Emission Control Strategies: A Synthesis Report''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, C.L.

    1992-12-01

    The 1990 federal Clean Air Act Amendments require that many nonattainment areas use gridded, photochemical air quality models to develop compliance plans for meeting the ambient ozone standard. Both industry and regulatory agencies will need to consider explicitly the strengths and limitations of the models. Photochemical air quality models constitute the principal tool available for evaluating the relative effectiveness of alternative emission control strategies. Limitations in the utility of modeling results stem from the uncertainty and bias of predictions for modeled episodes, possible compensating errors, limitations in the number of modeled episodes, and incompatibility between deterministic model predictions and the statistical form of the air quality standard for ozone. If emissions estimates (including naturally produced ''biogenic'' emissions) are accurate, intensive aerometric data are available, and an evaluation of performance (including diagnostic evaluations) is successfully completed, gridded photochemical airquality models can determine (1) the types of emission controls - VOC, NO x , or both - that would be most effective for reducing ozone concentrations, and (2) the approximate magnitudes - to within about 20--40% - of the estimated ozone reductions

  16. Radiation protection planning for decommissioning of research reactor facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Roger; Harman, Neil; Craig, David; Fecitt, Lorna; Lobach, Yuri; Gorlinskij, Juri; Kolyadin, Vyacheslav; Pavlenko, Vytali

    2008-01-01

    The MR reactor at the Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (RRCKI), Moscow was a 50 MW multipurpose material testing and research reactor equipped with nine experimental loop facilities to test prototype fuel for various nuclear power reactors being developed. The reactor was shut down in 1993 and de-fuelled. The experimental loops are located in basement rooms around the reactor. The nature of the research into the characteristics of fuel design and coolant chemistry resulted in fission products and activation products in the test loop equipment. Decommissioning of the loops therefore presents a number of challenges. In addition the city of Moscow has expanded such that the RRC KI is now surrounded by housing which had to be taken into account in the radiological protection planning. This paper describes the techniques proposed to undertake the dismantling operations in order to minimise the radiation exposure to workers and members of the public. Estimates have been made of the worker doses which could be incurred during the dismantling process and the environmental impacts which could occur. These are demonstrated to be as low as reasonably achievable. The work was funded by the UK Department of Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (DBERR) (formerly the Department of Trade and Industry) under the Nuclear Safety Programme (NSP) set up to address nuclear safety issues in the Former Soviet Union. (author)

  17. Protection of ash (Fraxinus excelsior) trees from ozone injury by ethylenediurea (EDU): Roles of biochemical changes and decreased stomatal conductance in enhancement of growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paoletti, Elena; Contran, Nicla; Manning, William J.; Castagna, Antonella; Ranieri, Annamaria; Tagliaferro, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Treatments with ethylenediurea (EDU) protect plants from ozone foliar injury, but the processes underlying this protection are poorly understood. Adult ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior), with or without foliar ozone symptoms in previous years, were treated with EDU at 450 ppm by gravitational trunk infusion in May-September 2005 (32.5 ppm h AOT40). At 30-day intervals, shoot growth, gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, and water potential were determined. In September, several biochemical parameters were measured. The protective influence of EDU was supported by enhancement in the number of leaflets. EDU did not contribute its nitrogen to leaf tissue as a fertiliser, as determined from lack of difference in foliar N between treatments. Both biochemical (increase in ascorbate-peroxidase and ascorbic acid, and decrease in apoplastic hydrogen peroxide) and biophysical (decrease in stomatal conductance) processes regulated EDU action. As total ascorbic acid increased only in the asymptomatic trees, its role in alleviating O 3 effects on leaf growth and visible injury is controversial. - Both biochemical and biophysical processes may regulate EDU action

  18. Unequivocal detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic Ozone Hole through significant increases in atmospheric layers with minimum ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, Jos; van Weele, Michiel; van der A, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    significant change in the distribution of ozone. The occurrence of extremely low ozone (near 100% ozone depletion) has been declining significantly in favor of the occurrence of low ozone (80-90% ozone depletion). Finally the potential for continuation of this attribution method in the light of the currently available and future planned satellite remote sensing capacity will be shortly addressed.

  19. 77 FR 29218 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: The 2012 Critical Use Exemption From the Phaseout of Methyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... fluoride than contained in the technical analysis. This comment repeats a comment submitted by the same... toxicity and effect on the stratospheric ozone layer. EPA disagrees that all methyl bromide use should stop... to the Montreal Protocol. Concerns about the toxicity of methyl bromide are addressed through the...

  20. Savannah River Site Environmental Implementation Plan. Volume 2, Protection programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-01

    Formal sitewide environmental planning at the . Savannah River Site (SRS) began in 1986 with the development and adoption of the Strategic Environmental Plan. The Strategic Environmental Plan describes the philosophy, policy, and overall program direction of environmental programs for the operation of the SRS. The Strategic Environmental Plan (Volume 2) provided the basis for development of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP). The EIP is the detailed, comprehensive environmental master plan for operating contractor organizations at the SRS. The EIP provides a process to ensure that all environmental requirements and obligations are being met by setting specific measurable goals and objectives and strategies for implementation. The plan is the basis for justification of site manpower and funding requests for environmental projects and programs over a five-year planning period.

  1. Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act: Forestry contractors' model operating plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Bremer

    2007-01-01

    The Model Operating Plan for forestry contractors is a voluntary plan for compliance with the Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act (MSPA) of 1983, with amendments passed in 1996 and 1997. This plan is designed as a guide for forestry contractors who wish to comply with all federal, state, and local rules and regulations that govern their employer/...

  2. 76 FR 43237 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... have a choice of health plans to fit their needs. Exchanges will give individuals and small businesses... Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan (CO-OP) Program... implement the Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan (CO-OP) program, which provides loans to foster the...

  3. Protecting people in Ireland from the harmful effects of radiation 2014 to 2015 - The Strategic Plan of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, A.; McMahon, C.; Pollard, D.; Rafferty, B.; Ryan, T.

    2014-02-01

    This strategic plan has been written in the context of the merger with the Environmental Protection Agency. It addresses the delivery of radiological protection during the period spanning the transition from RPII to the Office of Radiological Protection in the EPA. The plan is focused on priorities for radiological protection and does not deal directly with corporate or support functions

  4. 40 CFR 52.2235 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2235 Section 52.2235 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination—EPA is determining that, as of August 8, 1995, the Nashville ozone...

  5. Modeled population exposures to ozone

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Population exposures to ozone from APEX modeling for combinations of potential future air quality and demographic change scenarios. This dataset is not publicly...

  6. Ozone Nonattainment Areas - 1 Hour

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Ozone - 1hour (Legacy...

  7. 78 FR 22257 - Updates to Protective Action Guides Manual: Protective Action Guides (PAGs) and Planning Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... Blocking Agent in Radiation Emergencies, FDA (66 FR 64046, Dec. 11, 2001). Provide basic planning guidance... decision making. Chapter 4--Late Phase: A brief planning guidance on the cleanup process is included... PAG Manual. Basic planning guidance on approaching radioactive waste disposal is included. Please...

  8. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The DOE has mandated in DOE Order 5400.1 that its operations will be conducted in an environmentally safe manner. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) will comply with DOE Order 5400.1 and will conduct its operations in a manner that ensures the safety of the environment and the public. This document outlines how the WIPP will protect and preserve groundwater within and surrounding the WIPP facility. Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. The WIPP groundwater surveillance program is designed to determine statistically if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will be determined and appropriate corrective action initiated

  9. River Protection Project FY 2000 Multi Year Work Plan Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LENSEIGNE, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    The River Protection Project (RPP), formerly the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), is a major part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP). The ORP was established as directed by Congress in Section 3139 of the Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year (FY) 1999. The ORP was established to elevate the reporting and accountability for the RPP to the DOE-Headquarters level. This was done to gain Congressional visibility and obtain support for a major $10 billion high-level liquid waste vitrification effort

  10. Project W-314 Polyurea Special Protective Coating (SPC) Test Plan Chemical Compatibility and Physical Characteristics Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAUSER, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    This Test Plan outlines the testing to be done on the Special Protective Coating (SPC) Polyurea which includes: Tank Waste Compatibility, Decontamination Factor Testing, and Adhesion Strength Testing after a sample has been exposed to Radiation

  11. 76 FR 58807 - An Assessment of Decision-Making Processes: Evaluation of Where Land Protection Planning Can...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ...: Evaluation of Where Land Protection Planning Can Incorporate Climate Change Information-- Release of Final... Protection Planning can Incorporate Climate Change Information, (EPA/600/R-09/142F). The document was... goal of this report is to evaluate where land protection planning can incorporate climate change...

  12. Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland Strategic Plan 2008 to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    The RPII recognises that Ireland is now entering a time of transition and change, with many uncertain variables in economic and environmental issues emerging. Against this background, this strategy document seeks to ensure that the high level of radiation protection that already exists in Ireland is sustained and built upon over the next three years

  13. Shark protection plan for the Dutch Caibbean EEZ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van I.J.M.; Debrot, A.O.; Walker, P.A.; Kingma, I.

    2014-01-01

    Shark populations have steeply declined worldwide due to unsustainable overexploitation and in this the Caribbean region is no exception. Since the 1990s many initiatives have been developed to protect the most threatened species. Sharks play an important ecological role in tropical marine

  14. A comparative analysis of protected area planning and management frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Per Nilsen; Grant Tayler

    1997-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the Recreation Opportunity Spectrum (ROS), Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC), a Process for Visitor Impact Management (VIM), Visitor Experience and Resource Protection (VERP), and the Management Process for Visitor Activities (known as VAMP) decision frameworks examines their origins; methodology; use of factors, indicators, and standards;...

  15. Protection of third parties by collateral clauses of plan approvals or licenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badura, P.

    1989-01-01

    This contribution discusses the regulatory functions of collateral clauses of plan approvals or licences, the legal protection of the constitutional and other rights of third parties in connection with the licensing of installations or similar projects, infringements of such rights and means of defence, and protection of neighbours under public law against noise. (RST) [de

  16. Protecting your business: from emergency planning to crisis management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, C.G.

    1999-01-01

    The forthcoming UK Control of Major Accident Hazards (COMAH) regulations under the European Community's Seveso II Directive will impose a new formal requirement to test emergency plans. This might be approached as an added burden on industry to demonstrate safe operation, or can be viewed alternatively as an opportunity to improve crisis management systems and thereby decrease the risks to the business. Crisis is by nature an ambiguous and complex environment, demanding endless initiative, inventiveness, communication, co-ordination and learning. Because large-scale crises threatening the entire business are not frequent, learning from experience must be replaced by competence-assurance based on systems thinking, on risk assessment, on wide scenario simulations and on rigorous training. This paper discusses the benefits from various types of testing of emergency plans and from a business approach to continuous improvement in crisis management capability. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  17. The administrative protection of local planning authorities against decisions on a higher level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, R.

    1982-01-01

    The author discusses governmental planning that influences local planning's scope of organization and limits local sovereinty which is established as a guarantee for local self-government. Those conflicts occurr in the case of country planning, various specific plans (such as road construction an tower and country planning, nature conservation and landscape planning), and planning permits (decisions to establish new plans according to civil air regulations and permits according to atomic law). Then the author describes the possibilities of legal protection in the case of an action for avoidance which he illustrates with some conflicting cases, laying special emphasis on the right of action of a community, and on the justification of the action for avoidance. (HSCH) [de

  18. Ontario's Clean Air Action Plan : protecting environmental and human health in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Ontario's Clean Air Action Plan was launched in June 2000 in an effort to improve air quality and comply with the Canada-Wide Standards for Particulate Matter and Ozone. This paper describes Ontario's approach to reducing smog. Smog-related air pollution is linked to health problems such as premature death, respiratory and heart problems. Smog also contributes to environmental problems such as damage to forests, agricultural crops and natural vegetation. The two main ingredients of smog are ground level ozone and particulate matter. In order to reduce the incidence of smog, the following four key smog-causing pollutants must be reduced: nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, sulphur dioxide and particular matter. This paper includes the 2001 estimates for Ontario's emissions inventory along with Ontario's smog reduction targets. It was noted that approximately half of all smog in Ontario comes from sources in the midwestern United States. The province of Ontario is committed to replacing coal-fired power plants with cleaner sources of energy. It is also considering emission caps for key industrial sectors. The key players in reducing smog include municipalities, industry, individuals, the federal government and programs that reduce emissions in the United States. 3 figs., 8 tabs., 1 appendix

  19. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant groundwater protection program management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The Oak Ridge Y- 1 2 Plant (Y-12 Plant) is owned by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) under contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400. The Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), which was initiated in 1975, provides for the protection of groundwater resources consistent with Federal, State, and local regulations, and in accordance with DOE orders and Energy Systems policies and procedures. The Y-12 Plant is located in Anderson County, Tennessee, and is within the corporate limits of the City of Oak Ridge. The Y-12 Plant is one of three major DOE complexes that comprise the 37,000-acre Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) located in Anderson and Roane counties. The Y-12 Plant is located in Bear Creek Valley at an elevation of about 950 feet (ft) above sea level. Bear Creek Valley is bounded on the northwest and southeast, and is isolated from populated areas of Oak Ridge, by parallel ridges that rise about 300 ft above the valley floor. The Y-12 Plant and its fenced buffer area are about 0.6 mile wide by 3.2 miles long and cover approximately 4,900 acres. The main industrialized section encompasses approximately 800 acres.

  20. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant groundwater protection program management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The Oak Ridge Y- 1 2 Plant (Y-12 Plant) is owned by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) under contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400. The Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), which was initiated in 1975, provides for the protection of groundwater resources consistent with Federal, State, and local regulations, and in accordance with DOE orders and Energy Systems policies and procedures. The Y-12 Plant is located in Anderson County, Tennessee, and is within the corporate limits of the City of Oak Ridge. The Y-12 Plant is one of three major DOE complexes that comprise the 37,000-acre Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) located in Anderson and Roane counties. The Y-12 Plant is located in Bear Creek Valley at an elevation of about 950 feet (ft) above sea level. Bear Creek Valley is bounded on the northwest and southeast, and is isolated from populated areas of Oak Ridge, by parallel ridges that rise about 300 ft above the valley floor. The Y-12 Plant and its fenced buffer area are about 0.6 mile wide by 3.2 miles long and cover approximately 4,900 acres. The main industrialized section encompasses approximately 800 acres

  1. Ozone decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batakliev Todor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic ozone decomposition is of great significance because ozone is a toxic substance commonly found or generated in human environments (aircraft cabins, offices with photocopiers, laser printers, sterilizers. Considerable work has been done on ozone decomposition reported in the literature. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the literature, concentrating on analysis of the physico-chemical properties, synthesis and catalytic decomposition of ozone. This is supplemented by a review on kinetics and catalyst characterization which ties together the previously reported results. Noble metals and oxides of transition metals have been found to be the most active substances for ozone decomposition. The high price of precious metals stimulated the use of metal oxide catalysts and particularly the catalysts based on manganese oxide. It has been determined that the kinetics of ozone decomposition is of first order importance. A mechanism of the reaction of catalytic ozone decomposition is discussed, based on detailed spectroscopic investigations of the catalytic surface, showing the existence of peroxide and superoxide surface intermediates

  2. Clean Water Action Plan: Restoring and protecting America`s waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    On October 18, 1997, the 25th anniversary of the enactment of the Clean Water Act, the Vice President called for a renewed effort to restore and protect water quality. The Vice President asked that the Secretary of Agriculture and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), working with other affected agencies, develop a Clean Water Action Plan that builds on clean water successes and addresses three major goals: (1) enhanced protection from public health threats posed by water pollution; (2) more effective control of polluted runoff; and (3) promotion of water quality protection on a watershed basis.

  3. The dental health of children subject to a child protection plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Emily J; Skelton, Ruth; Day, Peter F; Munyombwe, Theresa; Balmer, Richard C

    2015-11-01

    In the United Kingdom, child maltreatment is an area of increased awareness and concern. To compare the dental health of children subject to child protection plans with controls. Children had to be aged between two and 11 years, medically healthy, and subject either to a child protection plan or attending the paediatric outpatient orthopaedic or general surgery clinics (control group). All children had a standardized oral examination. Seventy-nine children were examined in each group. Children with child protection plans had statistically higher levels of primary tooth decay than controls (mean dmft 3.82 and 2.03, Mann-Whitney U test P = 0.002). After adjusting for socioeconomic status, the incidence rate ratios for the occurrence of dental caries in the primary dentition in children with a child protection plan was 1.76 (95% CI: 1.44-2.15) relative to the controls. There was no statistical difference in the levels of permanent tooth decay between the study and control groups (mean DMFT 0.71 and 0.30, respectively). The care index was significantly lower (P = 0.008, Mann-Whitney U test) in the study group (1.69%) compared to the control group (6.02%). Children subject to child protection plans had significantly higher levels of dental caries in the primary dentition. © 2014 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. SUM06 Index for Damage to Flora from Ozone

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In addition to health effects in humans, Ozone exposure also causes damage to plants. One index used in calculating the potential damage to plants from Ozone...

  5. Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Known as tropospheric or ground-level ozone, this gas is harmful to human heath and the environment. Since it forms from emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), these pollutants are regulated under air quality standards.

  6. The spatial planning, protection and management of world heritage in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobričić Milica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper indicates the importance of spatial planning as a specific instrument for the protection and management of World Heritage sites in Serbia. The paper analyses the obligations set forth in the international and national documents and legislation relevant for spatial planning, on the one hand, and World Heritage protection, on the other hand. The notion, criteria, method of zoning, systems and approaches to the management of sites inscribed on the World Heritage List are shown through the concept of World Heritage. The paper also emphasizes the importance of adopting management plans for all World Heritage sites and their incorporation into the national legislation and planning documents, primarily into the special purpose area spatial plans. It also gives examples of special purpose spatial plans in order to consider the treatment of World Heritage in these documents, and to make proposals for improving the spatial planning and the existing protection and management of the World Heritage sites in Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR36016: Sustainable spatial development of Danubian Serbia

  7. Standard format and content of a licensee physical protection plan for strategic special nuclear material in transit - April 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    A predetermined plan to respond to safeguards contingency events is required to be prepared, based on personnel and other physical protection resources described in the Physical Protection Plan for strategic special nuclear material (SSNM) in transit. Specific requirements for the contingency plan are provided in Appendix C. Licensee Safeguards Contingency Plans, to 10 CFR Part 73. Regulatory Guide 5.56, Standard Format and Content of Safeguards Contingency Plans for Transportation, provides guidance for the preparation of transportation contingency plans. Licensee is reminded that all three submissions - the Physical Protection Plan, the Physical Protection Arrangements for Specific Shipments, and the Safeguards Contingency Plan - together describe the system for physical protection of each particular shipment. They should be developed and maintained to be completely consistent with each other for each shipment

  8. The International radiation protection association (IRPA) 2010-2011 strategic plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kase, K.

    2010-01-01

    The membership of IRPA consists of 46 national or regional associate societies, 58 countries and about 17,000 individual members. The goals of IRPA strategic Plan 2008-2012 are: Promote excellence in the conduct of IRPA Promote excellence in national and regional associate societies Promote excellence in radiation protection professionals IRPA is recognized by its members and stakeholders as the international voice of the radiation protection profession. The role of IRPA is to: Provide a medium for communication and advancement of radiation protection throughout the world Encourage the establishment of radiation protection societies Support international meetings Encourage international publications dedicated to radiation protection Encourage the establishment and continuous review of universally acceptable radiation protection standards and recommendations Encourage professional enhancement

  9. Ozone Damages to Mediterranean Crops: Physiological Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Maggio

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this brief review we analyzed some aspects of tropospheric ozone damages to crop plants. Specifically, we addressed this issue to Mediterranean environments, where plant response to multiple stresses may either exacerbate or counteract deleterious ozone effects. After discussing the adequacy of current models to predict ozone damages to Mediterranean crops, we present a few examples of physiological responses to drought and salinity stress that generally overlap with seasonal ozone peaks in Southern Italy. The co-existence of multiple stresses is then analyzed in terms of stomatal vs. non-stomatal control of ozone damages. Recent results on osmoprotectant feeding experiments, as a non-invasive strategy to uncouple stomatal vs. non stomatal contribution to ozone protection, are also presented. In the final section, we discuss critical needs in ozone research and the great potential of plant model systems to unravel multiple stress responses in agricultural crops.

  10. Ozone Damages to Mediterranean Crops: Physiological Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fagnano

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this brief review we analyzed some aspects of tropospheric ozone damages to crop plants. Specifically, we addressed this issue to Mediterranean environments, where plant response to multiple stresses may either exacerbate or counteract deleterious ozone effects. After discussing the adequacy of current models to predict ozone damages to Mediterranean crops, we present a few examples of physiological responses to drought and salinity stress that generally overlap with seasonal ozone peaks in Southern Italy. The co-existence of multiple stresses is then analyzed in terms of stomatal vs. non-stomatal control of ozone damages. Recent results on osmoprotectant feeding experiments, as a non-invasive strategy to uncouple stomatal vs. non stomatal contribution to ozone protection, are also presented. In the final section, we discuss critical needs in ozone research and the great potential of plant model systems to unravel multiple stress responses in agricultural crops.

  11. [Occupational health protection in business economics--business plan for health intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydlewska-Liszkowska, Izabela

    2011-01-01

    One of the company's actions for strengthening human capital is the protection of health and safety of its employees. Its implementation needs financial resources, therefore, employers expect tangible effectiveness in terms of health and economics. Business plan as an element of company planning can be a helpful tool for new health interventions management. The aim of this work was to elaborate a business plan framework for occupational health interventions at the company level, combining occupational health practices with company management and economics. The business plan of occupational health interventions was based on the literature review, the author's own research projects and meta-analysis of research reports on economic relations between occupational health status and company productivity. The study resulted in the development of the business plan for occupational health interventions at the company level. It consists of summary and several sections that address such issues as the key elements of the intervention discussed against a background of the company economics and management, occupational health and safety status of the staff, employees' health care organization, organizational plan of providing the employees with health protection, marketing plan, including specificity of health interventions in the company marketing plan and financial plan, reflecting the economic effects of health care interventions on the overall financial management of the company. Business plan defines occupational health and safety interventions as a part of the company activities as a whole. Planning health care interventions without relating them to the statutory goals of the company may have the adverse impact on the financial balance and profitability of the company. Therefore, business plan by providing the opportunity of comparing different options of occupational health interventions to be implemented by employers is a key element of the management of employees

  12. An alternative format for Category I fuel cycle facility physical protection plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, P.A.

    1992-06-01

    This document provides an alternative format for physical protection plans designed to meet the requirements of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Sections 73.20, 73.45, and 73.46. These requirements apply to licensees who operate Category I fuel cycle facilities. Such licensees are authorized to use or possess a formula quantity of strategic special nuclear material. The format described is an alternative to that found under Regulatory Guide 5.52, Rev. 2 ''Standard Format and Content of a Licensee Physical Protection Plan for Strategic Special Nuclear Material at Fixed Sites (Other than Nuclear Power Plants).''

  13. Assessing climate change-robustness of protected area management plans-The case of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Juliane; Kreft, Stefan; Jeltsch, Florian; Ibisch, Pierre L

    2017-01-01

    Protected areas are arguably the most important instrument of biodiversity conservation. To keep them fit under climate change, their management needs to be adapted to address related direct and indirect changes. In our study we focus on the adaptation of conservation management planning, evaluating management plans of 60 protected areas throughout Germany with regard to their climate change-robustness. First, climate change-robust conservation management was defined using 11 principles and 44 criteria, which followed an approach similar to sustainability standards. We then evaluated the performance of individual management plans concerning the climate change-robustness framework. We found that climate change-robustness of protected areas hardly exceeded 50 percent of the potential performance, with most plans ranking in the lower quarter. Most Natura 2000 protected areas, established under conservation legislation of the European Union, belong to the sites with especially poor performance, with lower values in smaller areas. In general, the individual principles showed very different rates of accordance with our principles, but similarly low intensity. Principles with generally higher performance values included holistic knowledge management, public accountability and acceptance as well as systemic and strategic coherence. Deficiencies were connected to dealing with the future and uncertainty. Lastly, we recommended the presented principles and criteria as essential guideposts that can be used as a checklist for working towards more climate change-robust planning.

  14. Nitrogen oxides transport from La Cygne Station, KS: A study for assessing its influence on urban ozone. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenthal, D.L.

    1998-02-01

    As a result of the new ozone and PM 2.5 national ambient air quality standards, it appears that the Kansas City metropolitan area will be classified as nonattainment with respect to ozone. The Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) is planning to develop a new Kansas State Implementation Plan (SIP) to address this issue between 1997 and 2000 with implementation scheduled for 2004. Some Ozone Transport Assessment Group (OTAG) related air quality analyses have indicated that the Kansas City area is subject to surface and aloft windfields that could carry ozone or ozone precursors into Kansas City from outside the region, including from other parts of the state of Kansas. But questions have arisen whether or not local emission reductions would be more effective in achieving ozone standards. To better understand the causes of high ozone in the region and, specifically, to understand the role of emissions from certain power generating stations, the NO x Steering Committee was formed. The Committee includes representatives of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment and two local utility companies (Kansas City Power and Light (KCPL) and Western Resources). Input was also solicited from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This report presents the results of a scoping study commissioned by the Committee

  15. Innovation in Management Plans for Community Conserved Areas: Experiences from Australian Indigenous Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Davies

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention to formal recognition of indigenous and community conserved areas (ICCAs as part of national and/or global protected area systems is generating novel encounters between the customary institutions through which indigenous peoples and local communities manage these traditional estates and the bureaucratic institutions of protected area management planning. Although management plans are widely considered to be important to effective management of protected areas, little guidance has been available about how their form and content can effectively reflect the distinctive socio-cultural and political characteristics of ICCAs. This gap has been particularly apparent in Australia where a trend to rapidly increased formal engagement of indigenous people in environmental management resulted, by 2012, in 50 indigenous groups voluntarily declaring their intent to manage all or part of their estates for conservation in perpetuity, as an indigenous protected area (IPA. Development and adoption of a management plan is central to the process through which the Australian Government recognizes these voluntary declarations and invests resources in IPA management. We identified four types of innovations, apparent in some recent IPA plans, which reflect the distinctive socio-cultural and political characteristics of ICCAs and support indigenous people as the primary decision makers and drivers of knowledge integration in IPAs. These are (1 a focus on customary institutions in governance; (2 strategic planning approaches that respond to interlinkages of stewardship between people, place, plants, and animals; (3 planning frameworks that bridge scales by considering values and issues across the whole of an indigenous people's territory; and (4 varied communication modes appropriate to varied audiences, including an emphasis on visual and spatial modes. Further research is warranted into how governance and management of IPAs, and the plans that

  16. Children in planned lesbian families: Stigmatisation, psychological adjustment and protective factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; van Balen, F.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed the extent to which children between eight and 12 years old in planned lesbian families in the Netherlands experience stigmatization, as well as the influence of protective factors (relationship with parents, social acceptance by peers, contact with children from other families

  17. Community Wildfire Protection Planning: The Importance of Framing, Scale, and Building Sustainable Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams; Pamela J. Jakes; Sam Burns; Antony S. Cheng; Kristen C. Nelson; Victoria Sturtevant; Rachel F. Brummel; Emily Staychock; Stephanie G. Souter

    2012-01-01

    Community wildfire protection planning has become an important tool for engaging wildland-urban interface residents and other stakeholders in efforts to address their mutual concerns about wildland fire management, prioritize hazardous fuel reduction projects, and improve forest health. Drawing from 13 case studies from across the United States, this article describes...

  18. Worker protection, especially protection against radiation during repair work on nuclear power stations in the planning and licensing phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, D.; Kirsch, H.; Knape, H.

    1979-01-01

    The Strahlenschutzverordnung (Regulation for Protection against Radiation) requires that the designers of a nuclear power plant take every possible step in regard to preventive measures for the protection against radiation, in order to keep the radiation exposure to maintenance personnel as low as possible. The guideline concerning preventive measures for radiation protection of maintenance personnel during the design phase of the plant, which has been released by BMI (Federal Ministry of the Interior) requires evidence from the applicant, which describe these preventive measures. These evidences will be presented commonly by the manufacturer and the operator. The operators of nuclear plants have the greatest interest in planning the prevantive measures for the protection against radiation during maintenance work to an optimum, besides the fulfillment of these evidences, due to the fact that they bear the responsibility for the effectiveness of these measures, and that an increased exposure of the personnel to radiation- and/or operational restrictions cannot be excluded at insufficient preventive measures. In order to fulfill above mentioned viewpoints, RWE has developed a strategy, which will be presented in this lecture. All activities which have to be performed during the design and construction phase will be specified. The preventive measures to be performed during the design and construction of nuclear power plants will be persecuted in three parallel and independently from each other proceeded settlement levels: Settlement of the licensing procedure, general settlement of orders, model settlement. (orig./RW) [de

  19. Assessment of hazards and risks for landscape protection planning in Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Daniele; Martinico, Francesco

    2013-09-01

    Landscape protection planning is a complex task that requires an integrated assessment and involves heterogeneous issues. These issues include not only the management of a considerable amount of data to describe landscape features but also the choice of appropriate tools to evaluate the hazards and risks. The landscape assessment phase can provide fundamental information for the definition of a Landscape Protection Plan, in which the selection of norms for protection or rehabilitation is strictly related to hazards, values and risks that are found. This paper describes a landscape assessment methodology conducted by using GIS, concerning landscape hazards, values and risk. Four hazard categories are introduced and assessed concerning urban sprawl and erosion: landscape transformations by new planned developments, intensification of urban sprawl patterns, loss of agriculture land and erosion. Landscape value is evaluated by using different thematic layers overlaid with GIS geoprocessing. The risk of loss of landscape value is evaluated, with reference to the potential occurrence of the previously assessed hazards. The case study is the Province of Enna (Sicily), where landscape protection is a relevant issue because of the importance of cultural and natural heritage. Results show that high value landscape features have a low risk of loss of landscape value. For this reason, landscape protection policies assume a relevant role in landscapes with low-medium values and they should be addressed to control the urban sprawl processes that are beginning in the area. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. River Protection Project Integrated safety management system phase II verification review plan - 7/29/99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHOOP, D.S.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to verify the implementation status of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) for the River Protection Project (RPP) facilities managed by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) and operated by Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC). This review will also ascertain whether within RPP facilities and operations the work planning and execution processes are in place and functioning to effectively protect the health and safety of the workers, public, environment, and federal property over the RPP life cycle. The RPP ISMS should support the Hanford Strategic Plan (DOERL-96-92) to safely clean up and manage the site's legacy waste and deploy science and technology while incorporating the ISMS central theme to ''Do work safely'' and protect human health and the environment

  1. Source Water Protection Planning for Ontario First Nations Communities: Case Studies Identifying Challenges and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Collins

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available After the Walkerton tragedy in 2000, where drinking water contamination left seven people dead and many suffering from chronic illness, the Province of Ontario, Canada implemented policies to develop Source Water Protection (SWP plans. Under the Clean Water Act (2006, thirty-six regional Conservation Authorities were mandated to develop watershed-based SWP plans under 19 Source Protection Regions. Most First Nations in Ontario are outside of these Source Protection Regions and reserve lands are under Federal jurisdiction. This paper explores how First Nations in Ontario are attempting to address SWP to improve drinking water quality in their communities even though these communities are not part of the Ontario SWP framework. The case studies highlight the gap between the regulatory requirements of the Federal and Provincial governments and the challenges for First Nations in Ontario from lack of funding to implement solutions to address the threats identified in SWP planning. This analysis of different approaches taken by Ontario First Nations shows that the Ontario framework for SWP planning is not an option for the majority of First Nations communities, and does not adequately address threats originating on reserve lands. First Nations attempting to address on-reserve threats to drinking water are using a variety of resources and approaches to develop community SWP plans. However, a common theme of all the cases surveyed is a lack of funding to support implementing solutions for the threats identified by the SWP planning process. Federal government initiatives to address the chronic problem of boil water advisories within Indigenous communities do not recognize SWP planning as a cost-effective tool for improving drinking water quality.

  2. Factoring economic costs into conservation planning may not improve agreement over priorities for protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armsworth, Paul R; Jackson, Heather B; Cho, Seong-Hoon; Clark, Melissa; Fargione, Joseph E; Iacona, Gwenllian D; Kim, Taeyoung; Larson, Eric R; Minney, Thomas; Sutton, Nathan A

    2017-12-21

    Conservation organizations must redouble efforts to protect habitat given continuing biodiversity declines. Prioritization of future areas for protection is hampered by disagreements over what the ecological targets of conservation should be. Here we test the claim that such disagreements will become less important as conservation moves away from prioritizing areas for protection based only on ecological considerations and accounts for varying costs of protection using return-on-investment (ROI) methods. We combine a simulation approach with a case study of forests in the eastern United States, paying particular attention to how covariation between ecological benefits and economic costs influences agreement levels. For many conservation goals, agreement over spatial priorities improves with ROI methods. However, we also show that a reliance on ROI-based prioritization can sometimes exacerbate disagreements over priorities. As such, accounting for costs in conservation planning does not enable society to sidestep careful consideration of the ecological goals of conservation.

  3. Protected Areas’ Impacts on Brazilian Amazon Deforestation: Examining Conservation – Development Interactions to Inform Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Herrera, Diego; Sandoval, Catalina

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are the leading forest conservation policy for species and ecoservices goals and they may feature in climate policy if countries with tropical forest rely on familiar tools. For Brazil's Legal Amazon, we estimate the average impact of protection upon deforestation and show how protected areas’ forest impacts vary significantly with development pressure. We use matching, i.e., comparisons that are apples-to-apples in observed land characteristics, to address the fact that protected areas (PAs) tend to be located on lands facing less pressure. Correcting for that location bias lowers our estimates of PAs’ forest impacts by roughly half. Further, it reveals significant variation in PA impacts along development-related dimensions: for example, the PAs that are closer to roads and the PAs closer to cities have higher impact. Planners have multiple conservation and development goals, and are constrained by cost, yet still conservation planning should reflect what our results imply about future impacts of PAs. PMID:26225922

  4. Protected Areas' Impacts on Brazilian Amazon Deforestation: Examining Conservation-Development Interactions to Inform Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Herrera, Diego; Sandoval, Catalina

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are the leading forest conservation policy for species and ecoservices goals and they may feature in climate policy if countries with tropical forest rely on familiar tools. For Brazil's Legal Amazon, we estimate the average impact of protection upon deforestation and show how protected areas' forest impacts vary significantly with development pressure. We use matching, i.e., comparisons that are apples-to-apples in observed land characteristics, to address the fact that protected areas (PAs) tend to be located on lands facing less pressure. Correcting for that location bias lowers our estimates of PAs' forest impacts by roughly half. Further, it reveals significant variation in PA impacts along development-related dimensions: for example, the PAs that are closer to roads and the PAs closer to cities have higher impact. Planners have multiple conservation and development goals, and are constrained by cost, yet still conservation planning should reflect what our results imply about future impacts of PAs.

  5. Measures of safeguard and rehabilitation for landscape protection planning: a qualitative approach based on diversity indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Daniele; Privitera, Riccardo; Martinico, Francesco; La Greca, Paolo

    2013-09-01

    Maintaining existing levels of landscape diversity is becoming more and more important for planning considering the increasing pressures on agricultural ecosystems due to soil sealing, sprawl processes and intensive agriculture. Norms for land-use regulation and measures for landscape Safeguard and Rehabilitation have to take into consideration these threats in landscape planning. Evaluating the diversity of agricultural ecosystems is a fundamental step for proposing sound approaches to planning and managing both soil and landscape, as well as maintaining the related ecosystem services. The paper proposes a method aimed at the qualitative evaluation of spatial diversity of agricultural landscapes using a reduced set of ecological indicators based on land-use vector data. Indicators are calculated for defined landscape units characterized by landscape homogeneity. GIS geoprocessing and spatial analysis functions are employed. The study area is the Province of Enna in Sicily (Italy), which is characterized by cultivation mosaics in its southern region, cereal cultivation in the central region and prevailing natural environments in the northern region. Results from the indicator calculations are used to define measures to be included in a Landscape Protection Plan. Safeguard and Rehabilitation measures are introduced, which link indicator scores to planning protection aims. The results highlight the relevance of some agricultural mosaics in proximity to streams and seasonal fluvial environments, where some undamaged natural environments are still present. For these areas, specific landscape safeguard measures are proposed to preserve their diversity features together with their original agricultural functions. The work shows that even with a reduced number of indicators, a differentiated set of measures can be proposed for a Landscape Protection Plan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 76 FR 23755 - Release of Draft Risk and Exposure Assessments and Final Integrated Review Plan for the National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... titled, ``Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards: Scope and Methods Plan for Health Risk and... Standards: Scope and Methods Plan for Welfare Risk and Exposure Assessment'' (REA Plan for the secondary... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 50 and 58 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2008-0699; FRL-9300-4] RIN 2060...

  7. United States Department of Energy Richland Field Office Environmental Protection Implementation Plan, November 9, 1991--November 9, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a), General Environmental Protection Program, establishes environmental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities to ensure that DOE operations are in compliance with applicable Federal, State and local environmental protection laws and regulations, executive orders, and internal department policies. Chapter 3 of DOE Order 5400.1 requires that each DOE Field Office prepare a plan for implementing the requirements of this order and update the plan annually. Therefore, this update to the US Department of Energy -- Richland Operations Office Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE-RL 1989a), initially prepared November 9, 1989, is being issued

  8. United States Department of Energy Richland Field Office Environmental Protection Implementation Plan, November 9, 1992--November 9, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a), General Environmental Protection Program, establishes environmental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities to ensure that DOE operations are in compliance with applicable Federal, State and local environmental protection laws and regulations, executive orders, and internal department policies. Chapter 3 of DOE Order 5400.1 requires that each DOE Field Office prepare a plan for implementing the requirements of this order and update the plan annually. This update to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE-RL 1989a), initially prepared November 9, 1989, is being issued to comply with the order

  9. Planning required in the development of radiation protection guidance for underground engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neill, R H [U.S. Public Health Service, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The potential variety of engineering applications from the peaceful uses of underground nuclear explosives indicates an increased need for applicable radiation protection guidance to protect the public health of potentially exposed populations. To insure the orderly development of such uses, additional operational data as well as bioeffects data will be required to develop appropriate criteria and guidance to inform health officials and the public of the significance of possible exposures. The required planning includes an evaluation of the potential benefits and risks as well as the size and age of population, multiplicity of sources, likely and unlikely future uses, and the total environmental impact. (author)

  10. Planning required in the development of radiation protection guidance for underground engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, R.H.

    1969-01-01

    The potential variety of engineering applications from the peaceful uses of underground nuclear explosives indicates an increased need for applicable radiation protection guidance to protect the public health of potentially exposed populations. To insure the orderly development of such uses, additional operational data as well as bioeffects data will be required to develop appropriate criteria and guidance to inform health officials and the public of the significance of possible exposures. The required planning includes an evaluation of the potential benefits and risks as well as the size and age of population, multiplicity of sources, likely and unlikely future uses, and the total environmental impact. (author)

  11. Site planning and environmental protection - principles and practical examples. Standortplanung und Umweltschutz - Grundsaetze und Praxisbeispiele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, S.; Cisielski, G.; Hoehn, R.; Kaiser, T.; Klemm, W.; Kruschwitz, A.; Schuettauf, B.; Strobel, R. (Technische Univ. Chemnitz (Germany). Bereich Fabrikplanung und Fabrikautomatisierung) (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    In the present phase of fundamental change in the industrial and economic structure of the new federal States, questions of factory planning and ecology at factory level are acquiring topical imporance. The objective to present to the reader basic knowledge on and practical experience in site planning and environmental protection is also at the root of this publication. Besides the contribution of a more general or theoretic nature, short reports from practice also point out connections between industrial sites and their regional or municipal context under the infrastructural aspects population potential, transport system, system of education, and other components. (orig./HSCH).

  12. Conservation plan for protected species on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otten, M.R.M.; Cypher, B.L.

    1997-07-01

    Habitats in and around Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) support populations of various vertebrates and plants, including a number of threatened and endangered species. Adequate conservation of habitats and species, particularly protected species, can be facilitated through development and implementation of management plans. This document provides a comprehensive plan for the conservation of protected species on NPR-1, through compliance with terms and conditions expressed in Biological Opinions rendered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for NPR-1 activities. Six conservation strategies by which threatened and endangered species have been, and will be, protected are described: population monitoring, mitigation strategies, special studies, operating guidelines and policies, information transfer and outreach, and the endangered species conservation area. Population monitoring programs are essential for determining population densities and for assessing the effects of oil field developments and environmental factors on protected species. Mitigation strategies (preactivity surveys and habitat reclamation) are employed to minimize the loss of important habitats components and to restore previously disturbed lands to conditions more suitable for species` use. A number of special studies were undertaken between 1985 and 1995 to investigate the effectiveness of a variety of population and habitat management techniques with the goal of increasing the density of protected species. Operating guidelines and policies governing routine oil field activities continue to be implemented to minimize the potential for the incidental take of protected species and minimize damage to wildlife habitats. Information transfer and outreach activities are important means by which technical and nontechnical information concerning protected species conservation on NPR-1 is shared with both the scientific and non-scientific public.

  13. Information for consideration in reviewing groundwater protection plans for uranium mill tailings sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, P.D.

    1992-05-01

    Guidelines and acceptance criteria were developed for reviewing certain aspects of groundwater protection plans for uranium mill tailing sites. The aspects covered include: (1) leaching and long-term releases of hazardous and radioactive constituents from tailings and other contaminated materials, (2) attenuation of hazardous and radioactive constituents in groundwater under saturated and unsaturated conditions, (3) design and implementation of groundwater monitoring programs, (4) design and construction of groundwater protection barriers, and (5) efficiency and effectiveness of groundwater cleanup programs. The objective of these guidelines is to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff in reviewing Remedial Action Plans for inactive waste sites and licensing application documents for active commercial uranium and thorium mills

  14. Risk-based flood protection planning under climate change and modeling uncertainty: a pre-alpine case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittes, Beatrice; Kaiser, Maria; Špačková, Olga; Rieger, Wolfgang; Disse, Markus; Straub, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    Planning authorities are faced with a range of questions when planning flood protection measures: is the existing protection adequate for current and future demands or should it be extended? How will flood patterns change in the future? How should the uncertainty pertaining to this influence the planning decision, e.g., for delaying planning or including a safety margin? Is it sufficient to follow a protection criterion (e.g., to protect from the 100-year flood) or should the planning be conducted in a risk-based way? How important is it for flood protection planning to accurately estimate flood frequency (changes), costs and damage? These are questions that we address for a medium-sized pre-alpine catchment in southern Germany, using a sequential Bayesian decision making framework that quantitatively addresses the full spectrum of uncertainty. We evaluate different flood protection systems considered by local agencies in a test study catchment. Despite large uncertainties in damage, cost and climate, the recommendation is robust for the most conservative approach. This demonstrates the feasibility of making robust decisions under large uncertainty. Furthermore, by comparison to a previous study, it highlights the benefits of risk-based planning over the planning of flood protection to a prescribed return period.

  15. Risk-based flood protection planning under climate change and modeling uncertainty: a pre-alpine case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dittes

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Planning authorities are faced with a range of questions when planning flood protection measures: is the existing protection adequate for current and future demands or should it be extended? How will flood patterns change in the future? How should the uncertainty pertaining to this influence the planning decision, e.g., for delaying planning or including a safety margin? Is it sufficient to follow a protection criterion (e.g., to protect from the 100-year flood or should the planning be conducted in a risk-based way? How important is it for flood protection planning to accurately estimate flood frequency (changes, costs and damage? These are questions that we address for a medium-sized pre-alpine catchment in southern Germany, using a sequential Bayesian decision making framework that quantitatively addresses the full spectrum of uncertainty. We evaluate different flood protection systems considered by local agencies in a test study catchment. Despite large uncertainties in damage, cost and climate, the recommendation is robust for the most conservative approach. This demonstrates the feasibility of making robust decisions under large uncertainty. Furthermore, by comparison to a previous study, it highlights the benefits of risk-based planning over the planning of flood protection to a prescribed return period.

  16. Implementing the Bio-fuel Plan while considering water resource protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This report recalls the objectives of the 'Bio-fuel Plan', and analyses firstly their implications in terms of cultivated surfaces either by using land fallows, or by substitution to other crops, or by intensification, and secondly, the consequences of these different options for water resources. The authors finally discusses the agronomic issue related to the protection of colza, the content of the environmental charter for the cultivation of winter colza, and some financial and practical conditions for the development of energetic crops

  17. Assessment of Soil Protection to Support Forest Planning: an Experience in Southern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreti, F.; Cantiani, P.; Meo, I. de; Paletto, A.

    2014-06-01

    Aim of study: To support landscape planning when soil-erosion control and water cycle regulation represent relevant issues for forest management. A methodological approach -based on simplified index- is proposed in order to assess the protective efficacy of forests on soils (indirect protection). This method is aimed at supporting technicians who are requested to define the most suitable management guidelines and silviculture treatments. Area of study: Southern Apennines (Alto Agri district -Basilicata Region- Italy), where a landscape planning experimentation was implemented. Material and methods: The data to estimate the parameters used for the simplified index calculation are retrieved from a non aligned systematic forest inventory. The method considers: 1) the tendency towards instability, 2) the protective action of forest cover and 3) different silviculture options. Main results: For the analysed forest categories, the results indicate the situations in which hydrogeological hazard is high. The cross-reading of these data with the values based on years of partial and total uncovering of the ground according to different silviculture options (for each forest category in the reference period of 100 years) has supported the definition of silviculture treatments and management options suitable for the considered forest formations. Research highlights The proposed method can effectively support technicians in the field by highlighting situations of major hazard risk. Thanks to the joined assessment of different silviculture options for each forest category, a series of silviculture treatments, capable of better protecting the soil, can be already defined in the field survey phase. Key words: Alto Agri district (Italy); Forest Landscape Management Planning (FLMP); management; silviculture treatment; protective function e soil erosion. (Author)

  18. Assessment of Soil Protection to Support Forest Planning: an Experience in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Ferretti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: to support landscape planning when soil-erosion control and water cycle regulation represent relevant issues for forest management. A methodological approach - based on simplified index – is proposed in order to assess the protective efficacy of forests on soils (indirect protection. This method is aimed at supporting technicians who are requested to define the most suitable management guidelines and silvicultural treatments.Area of study: Southern Apennines (Alto Agri district – Basilicata Region - Italy, where a landscape planning experimentation was implemented. Material and Methods: The data to estimate the parameters used for the simplified index calculation are retrieved from a non aligned systematic forest inventory. The method considers: 1 the tendency towards instability, 2 the protective action of forest cover and 3 different silvicultural options.Main results: For the analysed forest categories, the results indicate the situations in which hydrogeological hazard is high. The cross-reading of these data with the values based on years of partial and total uncovering of the ground according to different silvicultural options (for each forest category in the reference period of 100 years has supported the definition of silviculture treatments and management options suitable for the considered forest formations.Research highlights: The proposed method can effectively support technicians in the field by highlighting situations of major hazard risk. Thanks to the joined assessment of different silvicultural options for each forest category, a series of silvicultural treatments, capable of better protecting the soil, can be already defined in the field survey phase.Key words: Alto Agri district (Italy; Forest Landscape Management Planning (FLMP; management; silvicultural treatment; protective function and soil erosion.

  19. The depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabogal Nelson

    2000-01-01

    The protection of the Earth's ozone layer is of the highest importance to mankind. The dangers of its destruction are by now well known. The depletion of that layer has reached record levels. The Antarctic ozone hole covered this year a record area. The ozone layer is predicted to begin recovery in the next one or two decades and should be restored to pre-1980 levels by 2050. This is the achievement of the regime established by the 1985 Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The regime established by these two agreements has been revised, and made more effective in London (1990), Copenhagen (1992), Vienna (1995), and Beijing (1999)

  20. A conservation planning approach to mitigate the impacts of leakage from protected area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Michael; Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Mills, Morena; Venter, Oscar; Ando, Amy W

    2015-06-01

    Protected area networks are designed to restrict anthropogenic pressures in areas of high biodiversity. Resource users respond by seeking to replace some or all of the lost resources from locations elsewhere in the landscape. Protected area networks thereby perturb the pattern of human pressures by displacing extractive effort from within protected areas into the broader landscape, a process known as leakage. The negative effects of leakage on conservation outcomes have been empirically documented and modeled using homogeneous descriptions of conservation landscapes. Human resource use and biodiversity vary greatly in space, however, and a theory of leakage must describe how this heterogeneity affects the magnitude, pattern, and biodiversity impacts of leakage. We combined models of household utility, adaptive human foraging, and biodiversity conservation to provide a bioeconomic model of leakage that accounts for spatial heterogeneity. Leakage had strong and divergent impacts on the performance of protected area networks, undermining biodiversity benefits but mitigating the negative impacts on local resource users. When leakage was present, our model showed that poorly designed protected area networks resulted in a substantial net loss of biodiversity. However, the effects of leakage can be mitigated if they are incorporated ex-ante into the conservation planning process. If protected areas are coupled with nonreserve policy instruments such as market subsidies, our model shows that the trade-offs between biodiversity and human well-being can be further and more directly reduced. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Approach to downstream planning for nearshore response and sensitive areas protection outside Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeCola, E.G.; Robertson, T.L.; Robertson, R.; Banta, J.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the need for an oil spill response plan for downstream coastal communities that could be affected by oil spilled from tankers travelling in Prince William Sound, Alaska. For the purpose of oil spill contingency planning, the State of Alaska has been divided into the Kodiak and Cook Inlet sub-areas that are at risk for downstream impacts from a Prince William Sound oil spill. The 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill provided an example of a worst-case scenario oil spill from a tanker in Prince William Sound, but the oil spill planning system that has evolved in Alaska does not adequately plan for on oil spill that originates in one sub-area of the state, but impacts other sub-areas in the downstream spill path. This study analyzed the gaps that exist in the current response planning system in the Prince William Sound, Cook Inlet and Kodiak sub-areas. A method was proposed to improve the existing response plans so that emergency response teams are better prepared to manage cross-boundary oil spills originating in Prince William Sound. The proposed method focuses on nearshore response and sensitive areas protection for coastlines and communities that are at risk for oil spills from a tanker travelling the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS). 11 refs., 3 figs

  2. Ozone Nonattainment Areas - 8 Hour (1997 Standard)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone over 8 hours and...

  3. Protective effect of Mn(III)-desferrioxamine B upon oxidative stress caused by ozone and acid rain in the Brazilian soybean cultivar Glycine max "Sambaiba".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Jéssica Bordotti Nobre; Esposito, Breno Pannia; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes; Cruz, Luciano Soares; da Silva, Luzimar Campos; de Souza, Silvia Ribeiro

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of the Mn complex (Mn(III)-desferrioxamine B (MnDFB)) on oxidative stress in the Brazilian soybean cultivar Glycine max "Sambaiba" following exposure to ozone and acid rain. We determined the suitable dose of MnDFB to apply to G. max seedlings using a dose-response curve. The highest superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and Mn content in leaves were found upon the application of 8 μM MnDFB. Thus, G. max seedlings pretreated with 8 μM MnDFB were individually exposed to ozone and acid rain simulated. Pretreatment with MnDFB reduced lipid peroxidation upon ozone exposure and increased SOD activity in leaves; it did not alter the metal content in any part of the plant. Conversely, following acid rain exposure, neither the metal content in leaves nor SOD enzyme activity were directly affected by MnDFB, unlike pH. Our findings demonstrated that exogenous MnDFB application before ozone exposure may modulate the MnSOD, Cu/ZnSOD, and FeSOD activities to combat the ROS excess in the cell. Here, we demonstrated that the applied dose of MnDFB enhances antioxidative defenses in soybean following exposure to acid rain and especially to ozone.

  4. Protecting drinkable water: an analysis of action plans and stakeholders' networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Menard, Marjorie

    2015-04-01

    Since WFD the policy for protecting drinkable water has been enhanced in France. This policy establish the main components and the different steps for protecting drinkable water, and ask for defining and implementing an action plan for each contributing catchment. Despite ambitious objectives, the local implementation is difficult. Firstly there is a high diversity of stakeholders involved with local authorities, which are mainly: water agencies, agricultural chambers and consultants, authorities at regional and departmental levels. Most of the local authorities do not feel qualified enough for carrying out such a policy, as they are not really used to deal with technical and political issues related to agricultural diffuse pollutions. As a consequence assessed action plans are based on regulation and/or agri-environmental measures. More ambitious and complementary measures can be included, but without any support measure nor accurate objectives for their implementation. In the end, action plans reflect more a formal implementation of protection approaches than a search for efficiency by defining ambitious measures and the setting-up a consistent support scheme. The way stakeholders' networks mobilize knowledge have been analyzed based on ten case studies located in three different regions. Three local authorities profiles are defined: (1) the "passive" ones, not really convinced of the necessity to undertake actions against diffuse pollutions and/or having low level of knowledge to support local reflexion, that delegate project management; (2) the local authorities that support local protection approach but that, for different reasons, do not search for an effective action plan, and that only consider an improvement approach; (3) the local authorities that more rarely, aim at efficient actions, motivated by the urgent need of action for preserving threatened resources. According to these profiles, local authorities and their project coordinators will be looking

  5. Implementation of physical protection of nuclear material in Yugoslavia and Slovenia - recent and planned activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.; Nikolic, A.; Nikoli, D.; Stegnar, P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In more than ten last years region of South-Europe, especially countries originated from previous the Socialistic Federal Republics of Yugoslavia, are involved or surrounded, at least, by various conflicts including wars of different intensities. These unfavorable environment conditions have put additional focus at nuclear material kept in various institutions in the region. Following the IAEA recommendation on straighten the physical protection of nuclear material various actions are done or planned in the Yugoslavia and Slovenia to increase level of physical protection of nuclear material during its different usage and storage. Especial attention is drawn to update the administration rules, education of the involved personnel and redundancy of different physical protection modes of protection to prevent thieves and smuggling of nuclear material in the country or at country borders. The financial and experts help were offered by the IAEA at low level scale to Yugoslavia in 1996/97 to increase the physical protection of the fresh high-enriched uranium fuel stored and controlled regularly by the inspectors of the safeguard department of the IAEA. The further help and financial support is expected from the IAEA and relevant EU organization in aim to tighter the country borders to prevent the illegal traffic of nuclear material through the Europe. (author)

  6. Radiological Protection Plan an ethic responsibility; Plano de protecao radiologica e responsabilidade etica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huhn, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.huhn@ifsc.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina (IFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira, E-mail: mara@ccs.ufs.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The Radiological Protection Plan - PPR, quoted by the Regulatory Standard 32, requires to be maintained at the workplace and at the disposal of the worker's inspection the PPR, for it to be aware of their work environment and the damage that can be caused by misuse of ionizing radiation. Objective: to discuss the interface between PPR and ethical reflection. Method: this is a reflective study. Discussion and results: regulatory norm 32 points out that the worker who conducts activities in areas where there are sources of ionizing radiation should know the risks associated with their work. However, it is considered that the sectors of hospital radiology the multidisciplinary health team is exposed to ionizing radiation and has not always aware of the harm caused by it, so end up unprotected conduct their activities. Concomitantly, recent studies emphasize the radiological protection and concern for the dangers of radiation on humans, but rather refer to the legislation about the radiological protection. In this context an ethical reflection is necessary, seeking to combine work ethics liability to care in protecting themselves and the other with the institutional conditions for this protection becomes effective.

  7. 76 FR 75845 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Tennessee: Prevention of Significant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... of air quality planning and air pollution control technology requirements. The CAA NSR program is... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Ozone, Nitrogen oxides... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R04-OAR-2010-0483-201155; FRL-9498-8] Approval...

  8. 77 FR 62200 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina Portion of the Charlotte...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R04-OAR-2010-0019(b); FRL-9741-1] Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina Portion of the Charlotte-Gastonia-Rock Hill, North Carolina-South Carolina 1997 8-Hour Ozone Nonattainment Area; Reasonable Further Progress Plan AGENCY...

  9. 78 FR 28550 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lake and Porter Counties...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R05-OAR-2013-0021;EPA-R05-OAR-2013-0022; FRL-9812-3] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lake and Porter... Porter State Implementation Plans (SIPs) for the 1997 8-hour ozone standard, and the 1997 annual fine...

  10. Climate change and protection: Recent experiences within planning of the area of cultural and natural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crnčević Tijana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to provide an insight into the current legal and other regulatory frameworks that introduces problems of climate change into planning practice of natural and cultural heritage, with special emphasis on the situation in the Republic of Serbia. Further, an overview of the selected case studies of natural and cultural heritage from the UNESCO World Heritage List for which were done studies of the impacts of climate change is included. The results indicate that the legal frameworks as well as actual practice are promoting the development of the ecological networks (the network of areas NATURA 2000 and landscape protection. This applies also to the planning practice in Serbia, where the planning of ecological corridors, habitat networking and other measures, provide responses to climate change. One of the conclusions of this paper is pointing out the necessity of increasing the level of protection of natural and cultural heritage within preserving the authenticity and improving flexibility or adaptability to climate change.

  11. Spatial and sectoral planning support to sustainable territorial and tourism development of protected mountain areas in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksin Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The starting point for easier resolution of conflicts between conservation and development should be the application of the concept of protected areas of natural heritage as social-ecological systems. This is also the precondition for attainment of strategic planning coordination for protected mountain areas (PMA. The objective of the paper is to provide the insight into the effectiveness of strategic planning support - spatial and sectoral planning - to sustainable territorial and tourism development of PMA in Serbia. The study area comprises Kopaonik and Đerdap National Parks, and Stara Planina Nature Park. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of strategic planning for PMA by means of analysis and evaluation of spatial plans, Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA and sector plans in tourism for the study area. The effectiveness of spatial planning is checked based on the analysis and evaluation of sustainability of zoning and land-use regimes, and of tourism development proposed by spatial plans for the study area. The conclusion is that it is necessary to apply holistic approach to sector planning for nature conservation and tourism development, and to apply SEA for tourism planning as well. Reduction of the spatial coverage of PMA and spatial differentiation of protected zones from the ones planned for intensive development is recommended.

  12. United States Department of Energy Field Office, Richland, Environmental Protection Implementation Plan, November 9, 1990--November 9, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paasch, R.A.

    1991-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a), General Environmental Protection Program, establishes environmental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities to ensure that DOE operations are in compliance with applicable federal, state and local environmental protection laws and regulations, executive orders, and internal department policies. Chapter 3 of DOE Order 5400.1 requires that each field organization prepare a plan for implementing the requirements of this order and update this plan annually. Therefore, this update to the US Department of Energy -- Richland Operations Office Environmental Protection Implementation Plan for the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, initially prepared November 9, 1989, is being issued. Responsibility for coordinating preparation of the annual update of this plan is assigned to the US Department of Energy Field Office, Richland, Safety and Environment Division's Environmental Oversight Branch

  13. Theater Security Cooperation Planning with Article 98: How the 2002 Servicemembers' Protection Act Fosters China's Quest for Global Influence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hernandez, Jaime A

    2005-01-01

    The Combatant Commander is hindered in constructing Theater Security Cooperation plans due to the restrictions placed upon foreign military aid dispersal as a result of the 2002 American Servicemembers' Protection Act...

  14. Evolving protected-area impacts in Panama: impact shifts show that plans require anticipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruna, Akiko; Pfaff, Alexander; Van den Ende, Sander; Joppa, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are the leading forest conservation policy, so accurate evaluation of future PA impact is critical in conservation planning. Yet by necessity impact evaluations use past data. Here we argue that forward-looking plans should blend such evaluations with anticipation of shifts in threats. Applying improved methods to evaluate past impact, we provide rigorous support for that conceptual approach by showing that PAs’ impacts on deforestation shifted with land use. We study the Republic of Panama, where species-dense tropical forest faces real pressure. Facing variation in deforestation pressure, the PAs’ impacts varied across space and time. Thus, if shifts in pressure levels and patterns could be anticipated, that could raise impact. (paper)

  15. Deviant Peer Behavior and Adolescent Delinquency: Protective Effects of Inhibitory Control, Planning, or Decision Making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant, J Benjamin; Forman-Alberti, Alissa B

    2018-05-09

    We examined relations between adolescent perceptions of deviant peer behavior and delinquency as moderated by inhibitory control, planning, and decision making in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development at age 15 (N = 991). Adolescents reported perceptions of deviant peer behavior. Inhibitory control, planning, and decision making were assessed behaviorally. Delinquency was evaluated with a latent variable comprised of parent-guardian perceptions of adolescent delinquency and adolescent self-reports. Only inhibitory control moderated the relationship between deviant peer behavior and delinquency, showing that better inhibition protected against delinquency in contexts of high levels of adolescent perceptions of deviant peer behavior. Findings are discussed in the context of theories of adolescent delinquency and risk taking. © 2018 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  16. Implementation of physical protection of nuclear material in Yugoslavia and Slovenia - recent and planned activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.; Nikolic, A.; Nikolic, D.; Stegnar, P.

    2002-09-01

    In more than ten last years region of South-East Europe (especially countries originated from previous the Socialistic Federal Republics of Yugoslavia) was involved (or surrounded, at least) by various conflicts, including wars of different intensities. These unfavourable conditions have put additional focus at nuclear material stored in various institutions in the region. Following the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on straighten the physical protection of nuclear material, various actions were done or are planned in the Yugoslavia and Slovenia in aim to increase level of physical protection of nuclear material during its different usage and storage. Especial attention is drawn to update the administration rules, education of the involved personnel and redundancy of different physical protection modes to prevent stealing and smuggling of nuclear material in both the countries or at country borders. The financial and expert help at low-level scale were offered by the IAEA and US government to Yugoslavia in 1996/97. It was used to increase the physical protection of fresh high-enriched uranium fuel stored and controlled regularly by the inspectors of the Safeguard Department of the IAEA. The further help and financial support is expected from the IAEA, USA and relevant European Union (EU) organisations in aim to tighter the borders of both the countries to prevent the illegal traffic of nuclear materials through the Europe. (author)

  17. Protected Areas' Impacts on Brazilian Amazon Deforestation: Examining Conservation-Development Interactions to Inform Planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Pfaff

    Full Text Available Protected areas are the leading forest conservation policy for species and ecoservices goals and they may feature in climate policy if countries with tropical forest rely on familiar tools. For Brazil's Legal Amazon, we estimate the average impact of protection upon deforestation and show how protected areas' forest impacts vary significantly with development pressure. We use matching, i.e., comparisons that are apples-to-apples in observed land characteristics, to address the fact that protected areas (PAs tend to be located on lands facing less pressure. Correcting for that location bias lowers our estimates of PAs' forest impacts by roughly half. Further, it reveals significant variation in PA impacts along development-related dimensions: for example, the PAs that are closer to roads and the PAs closer to cities have higher impact. Planners have multiple conservation and development goals, and are constrained by cost, yet still conservation planning should reflect what our results imply about future impacts of PAs.

  18. Well-planned due diligence can protect buyers of healthcare entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, L W; Campbell, A T

    2000-10-01

    Conducting a thorough due diligence is essential for any buyer that plans to acquire a healthcare entity, including a hospital or a group practice, because it provides an opportunity for the buyer to uncover billing or other fraud-and-abuse problems within the selling organization. These problems can be significant, because the buyer can be held liable for undiscovered billing problems that result in investigation, prosecution, and penalties. It is important for the buyer to ascertain who bears the liability of fraud-and-abuse violations and attempt to protect itself from assuming such liability.

  19. Corporate Plan (for the National Radiological Protection Board) 1988/89 to 1992/93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    The Cabinet Office (Management and Personnel Office), when setting down guidelines, recommended that all Non-Departmental Public Bodies such as the Board should prepare Corporate Plans against which the performance of the organisation and the relevance of the activities to contemporary requirements could be better measured. To that end, the Board now prepares a Corporate Plan annually. This year's plan is for the financial period 1988/89 through to 1992/93, both years inclusive. The document indicates the broad programme areas in which the Board intends to concentrate its efforts, and the trends it expects over the planning period. The Board's overall strategy is to cover a wide range of relevant radiological protection matters, but with most emphasis on those likely to become major points of public or governmental concern in the near future. Major issues are expected to be: new estimates of the risks associated with radiation exposure and subsequent international and national recommendations on dose limitation; public exposures and aspects of radiation in the environment; and increasing awareness of non-ionising radiation. The Board is partly dependent upon receipts from its commercial activities and must, therefore, also look at the provision of services and prepare to meet the demands likely to arise in the 1990s. (author)

  20. Effect of family planning interventions on couple years of protection in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemani, Clara; Kamtuwanje, Nenani; Phiri, Billy; Speizer, Ilene S; Singh, Kavita; Mtema, Olive; Chisanu, Ndidza; Tang, Jennifer H

    2018-04-01

    The primary objective was to assess the effect of family planning interventions at two health facilities in Malawi on couple years of protection (CYP). A prospective quasi-experimental design was used to compare CYP and uptake of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) between two intervention facilities (Area 25 Health Center and Kasungu District Hospital) and two nonintervention facilities (Mkanda Health Center and Dowa District Hospital). The interventions included community mobilization and demand generation for family planning, and training and mentoring of providers in LARC insertion. Monthly data were collected from 1 year prior to intervention implementation until 2 years thereafter. From the pre-intervention year to the second post-intervention year, CYP increased by 175.1% at Area 25, whereas it decreased by 33.8% at Mkanda. At Kasungu and Dowa, CYP increased by 90.7% and 64.4%, respectively. Uptake of LARC increased by 12.2% at Area 25 r, 6.2% at Kasungu, and 2.9% at Dowa, but decreased by 3.8% at Mkanda. The interventions led to an increase in CYP and LARC uptake. Future family planning programs should sensitize communities about family planning and train providers to provide all contraceptives so that women can make informed decisions and use the contraceptive of their choice. © 2018 The Authors. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  1. Quantification of uncertainty in flood risk assessment for flood protection planning: a Bayesian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittes, Beatrice; Špačková, Olga; Ebrahimian, Negin; Kaiser, Maria; Rieger, Wolfgang; Disse, Markus; Straub, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Flood risk estimates are subject to significant uncertainties, e.g. due to limited records of historic flood events, uncertainty in flood modeling, uncertain impact of climate change or uncertainty in the exposure and loss estimates. In traditional design of flood protection systems, these uncertainties are typically just accounted for implicitly, based on engineering judgment. In the AdaptRisk project, we develop a fully quantitative framework for planning of flood protection systems under current and future uncertainties using quantitative pre-posterior Bayesian decision analysis. In this contribution, we focus on the quantification of the uncertainties and study their relative influence on the flood risk estimate and on the planning of flood protection systems. The following uncertainty components are included using a Bayesian approach: 1) inherent and statistical (i.e. limited record length) uncertainty; 2) climate uncertainty that can be learned from an ensemble of GCM-RCM models; 3) estimates of climate uncertainty components not covered in 2), such as bias correction, incomplete ensemble, local specifics not captured by the GCM-RCM models; 4) uncertainty in the inundation modelling; 5) uncertainty in damage estimation. We also investigate how these uncertainties are possibly reduced in the future when new evidence - such as new climate models, observed extreme events, and socio-economic data - becomes available. Finally, we look into how this new evidence influences the risk assessment and effectivity of flood protection systems. We demonstrate our methodology for a pre-alpine catchment in southern Germany: the Mangfall catchment in Bavaria that includes the city of Rosenheim, which suffered significant losses during the 2013 flood event.

  2. Evidence for a continuous decline in lower stratospheric ozone offsetting ozone layer recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, William T.; Alsing, Justin; Mortlock, Daniel J.; Staehelin, Johannes; Haigh, Joanna D.; Peter, Thomas; Tummon, Fiona; Stübi, Rene; Stenke, Andrea; Anderson, John; Bourassa, Adam; Davis, Sean M.; Degenstein, Doug; Frith, Stacey; Froidevaux, Lucien; Roth, Chris; Sofieva, Viktoria; Wang, Ray; Wild, Jeannette; Yu, Pengfei; Ziemke, Jerald R.; Rozanov, Eugene V.

    2018-02-01

    Ozone forms in the Earth's atmosphere from the photodissociation of molecular oxygen, primarily in the tropical stratosphere. It is then transported to the extratropics by the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC), forming a protective ozone layer around the globe. Human emissions of halogen-containing ozone-depleting substances (hODSs) led to a decline in stratospheric ozone until they were banned by the Montreal Protocol, and since 1998 ozone in the upper stratosphere is rising again, likely the recovery from halogen-induced losses. Total column measurements of ozone between the Earth's surface and the top of the atmosphere indicate that the ozone layer has stopped declining across the globe, but no clear increase has been observed at latitudes between 60° S and 60° N outside the polar regions (60-90°). Here we report evidence from multiple satellite measurements that ozone in the lower stratosphere between 60° S and 60° N has indeed continued to decline since 1998. We find that, even though upper stratospheric ozone is recovering, the continuing downward trend in the lower stratosphere prevails, resulting in a downward trend in stratospheric column ozone between 60° S and 60° N. We find that total column ozone between 60° S and 60° N appears not to have decreased only because of increases in tropospheric column ozone that compensate for the stratospheric decreases. The reasons for the continued reduction of lower stratospheric ozone are not clear; models do not reproduce these trends, and thus the causes now urgently need to be established.

  3. Evidence for a Continuous Decline in Lower Stratospheric Ozone Offsetting Ozone Layer Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, William T.; Alsing, Justin; Mortlock, Daniel J.; Staehelin, Johannes; Haigh, Joanna D.; Peter, Thomas; Tummon, Fiona; Stuebi, Rene; Stenke, Andrea; Anderson, John; hide

    2018-01-01

    Ozone forms in the Earth's atmosphere from the photodissociation of molecular oxygen, primarily in the tropical stratosphere. It is then transported to the extratropics by the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC), forming a protective "ozone layer" around the globe. Human emissions of halogen-containing ozone-depleting substances (hODSs) led to a decline in stratospheric ozone until they were banned by the Montreal Protocol, and since 1998 ozone in the upper stratosphere is rising again, likely the recovery from halogen-induced losses. Total column measurements of ozone between the Earth's surface and the top of the atmosphere indicate that the ozone layer has stopped declining across the globe, but no clear increase has been observed at latitudes between 60degS and 60degN outside the polar regions (60-90deg). Here we report evidence from multiple satellite measurements that ozone in the lower stratosphere between 60degS and 60degN has indeed continued to decline since 1998. We find that, even though upper stratospheric ozone is recovering, the continuing downward trend in the lower stratosphere prevails, resulting in a downward trend in stratospheric column ozone between 60degS and 60degN. We find that total column ozone between 60degS and 60degN appears not to have decreased only because of increases in tropospheric column ozone that compensate for the stratospheric decreases. The reasons for the continued reduction of lower stratospheric ozone are not clear; models do not reproduce these trends, and thus the causes now urgently need to be established.

  4. Preliminary Validation and Verification Plan for CAREM Reactor Protection System; Modelo de Plan Preliminar de Validacion y Verificacion para el Sistema de Proteccion del Reactor CAREM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fittipaldi, Ana; Felix, Maciel [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche (Argentina)

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this paper, is to present a preliminary validation and verification plan for a particular architecture proposed for the CAREM reactor protection system with software modules (computer based system).These software modules can be either own design systems or systems based in commercial modules such as programmable logic controllers (PLC) redundant of last generation.During this study, it was seen that this plan can also be used as a validation and verification plan of commercial products (COTS, commercial off the shelf) and/or smart transmitters.The software life cycle proposed and its features are presented, and also the advantages of the preliminary validation and verification plan.

  5. Chronic drought stress reduced but not protected Shantung maple (Acer truncatum Bunge) from adverse effects of ozone (O3) on growth and physiology in the suburb of Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Li; Manning, William J.; Tong, Lei; Wang, Xiaoke

    2015-01-01

    A two-year experiment exposing Acer truncatum Bunge seedlings to elevated ozone (O 3 ) concentrations above ambient air (AO) and drought stress (DS) was carried out using open-top chambers (OTCs) in a suburb of Beijing in north China in 2012–2013. The results suggested that AO and DS had both significantly reduced leaf mass area (LMA), stomatal conductance (Gs), light saturated photosynthetic rate (A sat ) as well as above and below ground biomass at the end of the experiment. It appeared that while drought stress mitigated the expression of foliar injury, LMA, leaf photosynthetic pigments, height growth and basal diameter, due to limited carbon fixation, the O 3 – induced reductions in A sat , Gs and total biomass were enhanced 23.7%. 15.5% and 8.1% respectively. These data suggest that when the whole plant was considered that drought under the conditions of this experiment did not protect the Shantung maple seedlings from the effects of O 3 . - Highlights: • The response of Acer truncatum Bunge to drought and ozone was investigated. • Drought could mitigate the foliage injury and leaf photosynthetic pigments. • The O 3 -induced reductions in Asat, Gs and total biomass were enhanced by drought. - Drought didn't protect Shantung maple from O 3 effects but rather cause more reductions in biomass

  6. 75 FR 37242 - Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Under the Patient Protection and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Under the Patient Protection and Affordable... Labor and the Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health... guidance to employers, group health plans, and health insurance issuers providing group health insurance...

  7. Secondary maxima in ozone profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lemoine

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone profiles from balloon soundings as well as SAGEII ozone profiles were used to detect anomalous large ozone concentrations of ozone in the lower stratosphere. These secondary ozone maxima are found to be the result of differential advection of ozone-poor and ozone-rich air associated with Rossby wave breaking events. The frequency and intensity of secondary ozone maxima and their geographical distribution is presented. The occurrence and amplitude of ozone secondary maxima is connected to ozone variability and trend at Uccle and account for a large part of the total ozone and lower stratospheric ozone variability.

  8. Wildlife Protection, Mitigation and Enhancement Planning for Grand Coulee Dam, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creveling, Jennifer

    1986-08-01

    The development and operation of Grand Coulee Dam inundated approximately 70,000 acres of wildlife habitat under the jurisdictions of the Colville Confederated Tribes, the Spokane Tribe, and the State of Washington. Under the provisions of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980, this study reviews losses to wildlife and habitat, and proposes mitigation for those losses. Wildlife loss estimates were developed from information available in the literature. Habitat losses and potential habitat gains through mitigation were estimated by a modified Habitat Evaluation Procedure. The mitigation plan proposes (1) acquisition of sufficient land or management rights to land to protect Habitat Units equivalent to those lost (approximately 73,000 acres of land would be required), (2) improvement and management of those lands to obtain and perpetuate target Habitat Units, and (3) protection and enhancement of suitable habitat for bald eagles. Mitigation is presented as four actions to be implemented over a 10-year period. A monitoring program is proposed to monitor mitigation success in terms of Habitat Units and wildlife population trends.

  9. Tools and methods for integrated resource planning. Improving energy efficiency and protecting the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swisher, J.N.; Martino Jannuzzi, G. de; Redlinger, R.Y.

    1997-01-01

    This book resulted from our recognition of the need to have systematic teaching and training materials on energy efficiency, end-use analysis, demand-side management (DSM) and integrated resource planning (IRP). This book addresses energy efficiency programs and IRP, exploring their application in the electricity sector. We believe that these methods will provide powerful and practical tools for designing efficient and environmentally-sustainable energy supply and demand-side programs to minimize the economic, environmental and other social costs of electricity conversion and use. Moreover, the principles of IRP can be and already are being applied in other areas such as natural gas, water supply, and even transportation and health services. Public authorities can use IRP principles to design programs to encourage end-use efficiency and environmental protection through environmental charges and incentives, non-utility programs, and utility programs applied to the functions remaining in monopoly concessions such as the distribution wires. Competitive supply firms can use IRP principles to satisfy customer needs for efficiency and low prices, to comply with present and future environmental restrictions, and to optimize supply and demand-side investments and returns, particularly at the distribution level, where local-area IRP is now being actively practiced. Finally, in those countries where a strong planning function remains in place, IRP provides a way to integrate end-use efficiency and environmental protection into energy development. (EG) 181 refs

  10. Tools and methods for integrated resource planning. Improving energy efficiency and protecting the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swisher, J N; Martino Jannuzzi, G de; Redlinger, R Y

    1997-11-01

    This book resulted from our recognition of the need to have systematic teaching and training materials on energy efficiency, end-use analysis, demand-side management (DSM) and integrated resource planning (IRP). This book addresses energy efficiency programs and IRP, exploring their application in the electricity sector. We believe that these methods will provide powerful and practical tools for designing efficient and environmentally-sustainable energy supply and demand-side programs to minimize the economic, environmental and other social costs of electricity conversion and use. Moreover, the principles of IRP can be and already are being applied in other areas such as natural gas, water supply, and even transportation and health services. Public authorities can use IRP principles to design programs to encourage end-use efficiency and environmental protection through environmental charges and incentives, non-utility programs, and utility programs applied to the functions remaining in monopoly concessions such as the distribution wires. Competitive supply firms can use IRP principles to satisfy customer needs for efficiency and low prices, to comply with present and future environmental restrictions, and to optimize supply and demand-side investments and returns, particularly at the distribution level, where local-area IRP is now being actively practiced. Finally, in those countries where a strong planning function remains in place, IRP provides a way to integrate end-use efficiency and environmental protection into energy development. (EG) 181 refs.

  11. Socioeconomic issues for the Bear River Watershed Conservation Land Area Protection Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Catherine Cullinane; Huber, Christopher; Gascoigne, William; Koontz, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    The Bear River Watershed Conservation Area is located in the Bear River Watershed, a vast basin covering fourteen counties across three states. Located in Wyoming, Utah, and Idaho, the watershed spans roughly 7,500 squares miles: 1,500 squares miles in Wyoming; 2,700 squares miles in Idaho; and 3,300 squares miles in Utah (Utah Division of Water Resources, 2004). Three National Wildlife Refuges are currently contained within the boundary of the BRWCA: the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge in Utah, the Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Idaho, and the Cokeville Meadows National Wildlife Refuge in Wyoming. In 2010, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted a Preliminary Project Proposal and identified the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area as having high-value wildlife habitat. This finding initiated the Land Protection Planning process, which is used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to study land conservation opportunities including adding lands to the National Wildlife Refuge System. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to include part of the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area in the Refuge System by acquiring up to 920,000 acres of conservation easements from willing landowners to maintain landscape integrity and habitat connectivity in the region. The analysis described in this report provides a profile of the social and economic conditions in the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area and addresses social and economic questions and concerns raised during public involvement in the Land Protection Planning process.

  12. Particular intervention plan of the Civaux Nuclear Power Plant. Public version. Special provision of the organisation plan for civil protection response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    The Particular intervention plan (PPI in French) is an emergency plan which foresees the measures and means to be implemented to address the potential risks of the presence and operation of a nuclear facility. This plan is implemented and developed by the Prefect in case of nuclear accident (or incident leading to a potential accident), the impact of which extending beyond the facility perimeter. It represents a special section of the organisation plan for civil protection response (ORSEC plan). The PPI foresees the necessary measures and means for crisis management during the first hours following the accident and is triggered by the Department Prefect according to the information provided by the facility operator. Its aim is to protect the populations leaving within 10 km of the facility against a potential radiological hazard. The PPI describes: the facility, the intervention area, the protection measures for the population, the conditions of emergency plan triggering, the crisis organisation, the action forms of the different services, and the post-accident stage. This document is the public version of the Particular intervention plan of the Civaux nuclear power plant (Vienne, France)

  13. Preliminary assessment of risk of ozone impacts to maize (Zea mays) in Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Tienhoven, AM

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface ozone concentrations in southern Africa exceed air quality guidelines set to protect agricultural crops. This paper addresses a knowledge gap by performing a preliminary assessment of potential ozone impacts on vegetation in southern African...

  14. US EPA Nonattainment Areas and Designations-8 Hour Ozone (2008 NAAQS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web service contains the following layers: Ozone 2008 NAAQS NAA State Level and Ozone 2008 NAAQS NAA National Level. Full FGDC metadata records for each layer...

  15. US EPA Nonattainment Areas and Designations-8 Hour Ozone (1997 NAAQS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web service contains the following layers: Ozone 1997 NAAQS NAA State Level and Ozone 1997 NAAQS NAA National Level. Full FGDC metadata records for each layer...

  16. 40 CFR 51.902 - Which classification and nonattainment area planning provisions of the CAA shall apply to areas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... area planning provisions of the CAA shall apply to areas designated nonattainment for the 8-hour NAAQS? 51.902 Section 51.902 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.902 Which classification and...

  17. California State Implementation Plan; Final Approval of Revision; Yolo-Solano Air Quality Management District; Reasonably Available Control Technology Requirements for 1997 8-hour Ozone NAAQS

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is taking final action to approve a revision to the Yolo-Solano Air Quality Management District (YSAQMD) portion of the California SIP concerning YSAQMD regarding RACT)requirements the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS and approve negative declarations into SIP.

  18. Action planning as predictor of health protective and health risk behavior: an investigation of fruit and snack consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candel Math

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large discrepancies between people's intention to eat a healthy diet and actual dietary behavior indicate that motivation is not a sufficient instigator for healthy behavior. Research efforts to decrease this 'intention - behavior gap' have centered on aspects of self-regulation, most importantly self-regulatory planning. Most studies on the impact of self-regulatory planning in health and dietary behavior focus on the promotion of health protective behaviors. This study investigates and compares the predictive value of action planning in health protective behavior and the restriction of health risk behavior. Methods Two longitudinal observational studies were performed simultaneously, one focusing on fruit consumption (N = 572 and one on high-caloric snack consumption (N = 585 in Dutch adults. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate and compare the predictive value of action planning in both behaviors, correcting for demographics and the influence of motivational factors and past behavior. The nature of the influence of action planning was investigated by testing mediating and moderating effects. Results Action planning was a significant predictor of fruit consumption and restricted snack consumption beyond the influence of motivational factors and past behavior. The strength of the predictive value of action planning did not differ between the two behaviors. Evidence for mediation of the intention - behavior relationship was found for both behaviors. Positive moderating effects of action planning were demonstrated for fruit consumption, indicating that individuals who report high levels of action planning are significantly more likely to translate their intentions into actual behavior. Conclusion The results indicate that the planning of specific preparatory actions predicts the performance of healthy dietary behavior and support the application of self-regulatory planning in both health protective and health

  19. Action planning as predictor of health protective and health risk behavior: an investigation of fruit and snack consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Osch, Liesbeth; Beenackers, Mariëlle; Reubsaet, Astrid; Lechner, Lilian; Candel, Math; de Vries, Hein

    2009-10-13

    Large discrepancies between people's intention to eat a healthy diet and actual dietary behavior indicate that motivation is not a sufficient instigator for healthy behavior. Research efforts to decrease this 'intention - behavior gap' have centered on aspects of self-regulation, most importantly self-regulatory planning. Most studies on the impact of self-regulatory planning in health and dietary behavior focus on the promotion of health protective behaviors. This study investigates and compares the predictive value of action planning in health protective behavior and the restriction of health risk behavior. Two longitudinal observational studies were performed simultaneously, one focusing on fruit consumption (N = 572) and one on high-caloric snack consumption (N = 585) in Dutch adults. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate and compare the predictive value of action planning in both behaviors, correcting for demographics and the influence of motivational factors and past behavior. The nature of the influence of action planning was investigated by testing mediating and moderating effects. Action planning was a significant predictor of fruit consumption and restricted snack consumption beyond the influence of motivational factors and past behavior. The strength of the predictive value of action planning did not differ between the two behaviors. Evidence for mediation of the intention - behavior relationship was found for both behaviors. Positive moderating effects of action planning were demonstrated for fruit consumption, indicating that individuals who report high levels of action planning are significantly more likely to translate their intentions into actual behavior. The results indicate that the planning of specific preparatory actions predicts the performance of healthy dietary behavior and support the application of self-regulatory planning in both health protective and health risk behaviors. Future interventions in dietary modification may

  20. International aspects of restrictions of ozone-depleting substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, S.C.

    1989-10-01

    This report summarizes international efforts to protect stratospheric ozone. Also included in this report is a discussion of activities in other countries to meet restrictions in the production and use of ozone-depleting substances. Finally, there is a brief presentation of trade and international competitiveness issues relating to the transition to alternatives for the regulated chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons. The stratosphere knows no international borders. Just as the impact of reduced stratospheric ozone will be felt internationally, so protection of the ozone layer is properly an international effort. Unilateral action, even by a country that produces and used large quantities of ozone-depleting substances, will not remedy the problem of ozone depletion if other countries do not follow suit. 32 refs., 7 tabs.

  1. Making parks make a difference: poor alignment of policy, planning and management with protected-area impact, and ways forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressey, Robert L; Visconti, Piero; Ferraro, Paul J

    2015-11-05

    Policy and practice around protected areas are poorly aligned with the basic purpose of protection, which is to make a difference. The difference made by protected areas is their impact, defined in program evaluation as the outcomes arising from protection relative to the counterfactual of no protection or a different form of protection. Although impact evaluation of programs is well established in fields such as medicine, education and development aid, it is rare in nature conservation. We show that the present weak alignment with impact of policy targets and operational objectives for protected areas involves a great risk: targets and objectives can be achieved while making little difference to the conservation of biodiversity. We also review potential ways of increasing the difference made by protected areas, finding a poor evidence base for the use of planning and management 'levers' to better achieve impact. We propose a dual strategy for making protected areas more effective in their basic role of saving nature, outlining ways of developing targets and objectives focused on impact while also improving the evidence for effective planning and management. © 2015 The Authors.

  2. Roadkill hotspots in a protected area of Cerrado in Brazil: planning actions to conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno H Saranholi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Here we aimed to identify the main points of animal death by roadkill in the view of helping mitigation plans and reducing the impact over the local fauna of a protected area. Materials and methods. We surveyed the roads around a protected area of Cerrado (São Paulo, Brazil from May 2012 to August 2013. We recorded the local of roadkills, biometric and morphologic data of the animals, and collected samples of tissue for molecular species confirmation. Results. Thirty-one roadkilled animals were registered, including threatened species: Leopardus pardalis; Cuniculus paca and Chrysocyon brachyurus. Most roadkills were represented by mammals (54.8% and reptiles (38.7%, and the mortality rate was 1.46 animals/km/year. Three roadkill hotspots were detected, suggesting that they were important points of animal crossing, probably because of the existence of natural remnant vegetation and intersection of roads by riparian vegetation. Conclusions. This work provided strong evidence of the most critical points where mitigation strategies should be immediately implemented and highlighted the importance of detecting roadkill hotspots and the species or taxonomic groups more affected, helping to elaborate effective actions that can improve fauna conservation.

  3. Quality of governance and effectiveness of protected areas: crucial concepts for conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Johanna; Cabeza, Mar

    2017-07-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are a key tool for biodiversity conservation and play a central role in the Convention on Biological Diversity. Recently, the effectiveness of PAs has been questioned, and assessing how effective they are in enabling the future persistence of biodiversity is not trivial. Here, we focus on terrestrial PAs and clarify the terminology related to PA effectiveness, distinguishing between management and ecological aspects. We suggest that the quality of governance affects both aspects of effectiveness but recognize a lack of synthetic understanding of the topic. We present a conceptual framework linking the underlying mechanisms by which the quality of governance affects conservation outcomes in PAs and how this relates to conservation planning. We show that it is crucial to separate pressure and response and how these together will lead to the observed conservation outcomes. We urge for more focused attention on governance factors and in particular more empirical research on how to address causality and how to account for the quality of governance when prioritizing actions. Our framework is linked to the classic concepts of systematic conservation planning and clarifies the strategies available to achieve a comprehensive and effective network of PAs. © 2016 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Enamel and dentin bond strength following gaseous ozone application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenaro, Milena; Delise, Chiara; Antoniollo, Francesca; Navarra, Ottavia Chiara; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Breschi, Lorenzo

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of gaseous ozone application on enamel and dentin bond strength produced by two self-etching adhesive systems. The shear bond strength test was conducted to assess adhesion on enamel (protocol 1), while the microtensile bond strength test was performed on dentin (protocol 2). Protocol 1: 96 bovine incisors were randomly divided into 4 groups, and enamel surfaces were bonded in accordance with the following treatments: (1E) ozone + Clearfil Protect Bond; (2E) Clearfil Protect Bond (control); (3E) ozone + Xeno III; (4E) Xeno III (control). Ozone gas was applied for 80 s. Shear bond strength was measured with a universal testing machine. Protocol 2: 40 noncarious human molars were selected. Middle/deep dentin was exposed and bonded in accordance with the following treatments: (1D) ozone+Clearfil Protect Bond; (2D) Clearfil Protect Bond (control); (3D) ozone+Xeno III (4D) Xeno III (control). Four-mm-thick buildups were built on the adhesives, then specimens were sectioned in accordance with the nontrimming technique. Specimens were stressed until failure occurred, and failure modes were analyzed. Shear bond and microtensile bond strength data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test. No statistical differences were found between ozone treated specimens and controls, neither on enamel nor on dentin irrespective of the tested adhesive. Clearfil Protect Bond showed higher bond strength to enamel than Xeno III, irrespective of the ozone treatment (p enamel and dentin bond strength.

  5. Climate protection in the spatial planning. Strategic options of the regional planning and land-use planning. Short documentation of the case studies; Klimaschutz in der raeumlichen Planung. Gestaltungsmoeglichkeiten der Raumordnung und Bauleitplanung. Kurzdokumentation der Fallstudien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlhelm, Inge; Bula, Andreas; Frerichs, Stefan; Hinzen, Ajo [BKR Aachen Castro und Hinzen, Aachen (Germany); Madry, Thomas; Schuele, Ralf [Wuppertal Institut fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany); Groth, Klaus-Martin; Kerstan, Susann [Kanzlei Gassner, Groth, Siederer und Collegen, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    As the basis for the practical help 'Climate protection in the spatial planning', the Federal Environment Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) investigated a lot of plans, concepts and programs at regional level and provincial level. The essential principles and extracts from case studies are summarized in brief dossiers which are presented in the contribution under consideration. This contribution shall present an overview on the state of the art of the application of instruments at the geospatial climate protection at different planning levels.

  6. Ozone depleting substances management inventory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Ivan Romero Rodríguez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: The care of the ozone layer is an activity that contributes to the planet's environmental stability. For this reason, the Montreal Protocol is created to control the emission of substances that deplete the ozone layer and reduce its production from an organizational point of view. However, it is also necessary to have control of those that are already circulating and those present in the equipment that cannot be replaced yet because of the context of the companies that keep it. Generally, the control mechanisms for classifying the type of substances, equipment and companies that own them, are carried in physical files, spreadsheets and text documents, which makes it difficult to control and manage the data stored in them. Method: The objective of this research is to computerize the process of control of substances that deplete the ozone layer. An evaluation and description of all process to manage Ozone-Depleting Substances (ODS, and its alternatives, is done. For computerization, the agile development methodology SCRUM is used, and for the technological solution tools and free open source technologies are used. Result: As a result of the research, a computer tool was developed that automates the process of control and management of substances that exhaust the ozone layer and its alternatives. Conclusions: The developed computer tool allows to control and manage the ozone-depleting substances and the equipment that use them. It also manages the substances that arise as alternatives to be used for the protection of the ozone layer.

  7. Ozone Antimicrobial Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone is a potent germicide that has been used extensively for water purification. In Europe, 90 percent of the municipal water systems are treated with ozone, and in France, ozone has been used to treat drinking water since 1903. However, there is limited information on the bioc...

  8. Water management, environmental protection and spatial planning reconciliation: "Accommodating" the Danube and the Tisa river in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pihler Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water management in Serbia has been mostly operating in a framework of public companies and institutions focused on strictly sectorial and technical expertise on hydraulic engineering, environmental protection and navigable traffic engineering within the highly autonomous legislative framework. On the cross-point of spatial planning and water management there is a growing debate on the important discourses of the policy domains. Seeing rivers as an “accommodated” generator of opportunities is a statement which is opposing the traditional consideration of strict separation of water from the land. Spatial planning as a framework for regulating the land use has an important function in integrating the water management and landscape more closely. In Serbian spatial planning practice there is growing practice of area-specific development planning (reflected through the Spatial plans for the special-purpose areas which are considered to accommodate new ideas on spatiality better than the traditional, sectorial planning documents. The question is placed as to how these practices could direct new spatial arrangements of integrative collaborative spatial planning and not just merely reflect the framework of the existing planning order. This paper seeks the potential and actual role of spatial planning in addressing challenges related to particular river environments on the Tisa and the Danube rivers. The research is based on the analysis of two Spatial plans for the special-purpose areas which are still in conceptual phase - The Cultural landscape of Bač and Multifunctional ecological corridor of the Tisa river.

  9. In Brief: Monitoring ozone in Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-12-01

    Qatar is establishing an ozone and pollution monitoring ground station in West Asia, following discussions between the government, the Qatar Foundation, and the United Nations Environment Programme, according to a 19 November announcement. The station will assist in understanding whether the ozone layer is actually recovering after being damaged by ozone-depleting chemicals. Qatar also announced plans to establish a global center of excellence for research and development of ozone and climate-friendly technology, equipment, and appliances. UNEP executive director Achim Steiner said the announcements by Qatar ``will help plug key data gaps relating to information gathering in West Asia and the Gulf to the benefit of the region and the world.''

  10. California Baseline Ozone Transport Study (CABOTS): Ozonesonde Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiserloh, A. J., Jr.; Chiao, S.; Spitze, J.; Cauley, S.; Clark, J.; Roberts, M.

    2016-12-01

    Because the EPA recently lowered the ambient air quality standard for the 8-hr average of ozone (O3) to70 ppbv, California must continue to achieve significant reductions in ozone precursor emissions and prepare for new State Implementation Plans (SIP) to demonstrate how ground-level ambient ozone will be reduced below the new health-based standard. Prior studies suggest that background levels of ozone traveling across the Pacific Ocean can significantly influence surface ozone throughout California, particularly during the spring. Evidence has been presented indicating that background levels of ozone continue to increase in the western United States over the recent few decades, implying more ozone exceedances in the future. To better understand the contributions of the external natural and anthropogenic pollution sources as well as atmospheric processes for surface ozone concentrations in California during the spring and summer months, the California Baseline Ozone Transport Study (CABOTS) has been established. One major goal of CABOTS is to implement near daily ozonesonde measurements along the California Coast to quantify background ozone aloft before entering the State during high ozone season. CABOTS has been ongoing from May through August of 2016 launching ozonesondes from Bodega Bay and Half Moon Bay, California. The temporal progression of ozonesonde measurements and subsequent analysis of the data will be discussed with a focus on the contribution of background ozone to surface ozone sites inland as well as likely origins of layers aloft. Comparisons of current ozonesondes versus prior ozonesonde studies of California will also be performed. A few selected cases of high ozone layers moving onshore from different sources will be discussed as well.

  11. Earth's ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasa, J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper contain the actual results of investigations of the influence of the human activity on the Earth's ozone layer. History of the ozone measurements and of the changes in its concentrations within the last few years are given. The influence of the trace gases on both local and global ozone concentrations are discussed. The probable changes of the ozone concentrations are presented on the basis of the modelling investigations. The effect of a decrease in global ozone concentration on human health and on biosphere are also presented. (author). 33 refs, 36 figs, 5 tabs

  12. Office of River Protection Advanced Low-Activity Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, David K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kim, Dong-Sang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has initiated and leads an integrated Advanced Waste Glass (AWG) program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product performance requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation for making key decisions regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities in the context of an optimized River Protection Project (RPP) flowsheet. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key product performance and process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste vitrification facilities. These activities will be conducted with the objective of improving the overall RPP mission by enhancing flexibility and reducing cost and schedule. The purpose of this advanced LAW glass research and development plan is to identify the near-term, mid-term, and longer-term research and development activities required to develop and validate advanced LAW glasses, property-composition models and their uncertainties, and an advanced glass algorithm to support WTP facility operations, including both Direct Feed LAW and full pretreatment flowsheets. Data are needed to develop, validate, and implement 1) new glass property-composition models and 2) a new glass formulation algorithm. Hence, this plan integrates specific studies associated with increasing the Na2O and SO3/halide concentrations in glass, because these components will ultimately dictate waste loadings for LAW vitrification. Of equal importance is the development of an efficient and economic strategy for 99Tc management. Specific and detailed studies are being implemented to understand the fate of Tc throughout

  13. Hanford River Protection Project Life cycle Cost Modeling Tool to Enhance Mission Planning - 13396

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, Gary; Williams, David; Smith, Rick

    2013-01-01

    The Life cycle Cost Model (LCM) Tool is an overall systems model that incorporates budget, and schedule impacts for the entire life cycle of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, and is replacing the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model as the foundation of the RPP system planning process. Currently, the DOE frequently requests HTWOS simulations of alternative technical and programmatic strategies for completing the RPP mission. Analysis of technical and programmatic changes can be performed with HTWOS; however, life cycle costs and schedules were previously generated by manual transfer of time-based data from HTWOS to Primavera P6. The LCM Tool automates the preparation of life cycle costs and schedules and is needed to provide timely turnaround capability for RPP mission alternative analyses. LCM is the simulation component of the LCM Tool. The simulation component is a replacement of the HTWOS model with new capability to support life cycle cost modeling. It is currently deployed in G22, but has been designed to work in any full object-oriented language with an extensive feature set focused on networking and cross-platform compatibility. The LCM retains existing HTWOS functionality needed to support system planning and alternatives studies going forward. In addition, it incorporates new functionality, coding improvements that streamline programming and model maintenance, and capability to input/export data to/from the LCM using the LCM Database (LCMDB). The LCM Cost/Schedule (LCMCS) contains cost and schedule data and logic. The LCMCS is used to generate life cycle costs and schedules for waste retrieval and processing scenarios. It uses time-based output data from the LCM to produce the logic ties in Primavera P6 necessary for shifting activities. The LCM Tool is evolving to address the needs of decision makers who want to understand the broad spectrum of risks facing complex organizations like DOE-RPP to understand how near

  14. Hanford River Protection Project Life cycle Cost Modeling Tool to Enhance Mission Planning - 13396

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunford, Gary [AEM Consulting, LLC, 1201 Jadwin Avenue, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Williams, David [WIT, Inc., 11173 Oak Fern Court, San Diego, CA 92131 (United States); Smith, Rick [Knowledge Systems Design, Inc., 13595 Quaker Hill Cross Rd, Nevada City, CA 95959 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Life cycle Cost Model (LCM) Tool is an overall systems model that incorporates budget, and schedule impacts for the entire life cycle of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, and is replacing the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model as the foundation of the RPP system planning process. Currently, the DOE frequently requests HTWOS simulations of alternative technical and programmatic strategies for completing the RPP mission. Analysis of technical and programmatic changes can be performed with HTWOS; however, life cycle costs and schedules were previously generated by manual transfer of time-based data from HTWOS to Primavera P6. The LCM Tool automates the preparation of life cycle costs and schedules and is needed to provide timely turnaround capability for RPP mission alternative analyses. LCM is the simulation component of the LCM Tool. The simulation component is a replacement of the HTWOS model with new capability to support life cycle cost modeling. It is currently deployed in G22, but has been designed to work in any full object-oriented language with an extensive feature set focused on networking and cross-platform compatibility. The LCM retains existing HTWOS functionality needed to support system planning and alternatives studies going forward. In addition, it incorporates new functionality, coding improvements that streamline programming and model maintenance, and capability to input/export data to/from the LCM using the LCM Database (LCMDB). The LCM Cost/Schedule (LCMCS) contains cost and schedule data and logic. The LCMCS is used to generate life cycle costs and schedules for waste retrieval and processing scenarios. It uses time-based output data from the LCM to produce the logic ties in Primavera P6 necessary for shifting activities. The LCM Tool is evolving to address the needs of decision makers who want to understand the broad spectrum of risks facing complex organizations like DOE-RPP to understand how near

  15. Ozone Layer Depletion: A Review | Eze | Nigerian Journal of Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the future behaviour of Ozone will also be affected by the changing atmospheric abundances of methane, nitrous oxide, water vapour, sulphate aerosol, and changing climate. KEY WORDS: Ozone Layer Depletion, Bioeffects, Protection. Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences Vol.4(1) 2005: 67-71 ...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1582 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... Control strategy and regulations: Ozone. (a) Subchapter 16 of the New Jersey Administrative Code, entitled... demonstration that emissions from growth in vehicle miles traveled will not increase motor vehicle emissions and...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2585 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2585... strategy: Ozone. (a) Disapproval—On November 6, 1986, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources... would not be necessary to offset growth in emissions. (h) Approval—On November 15, 1993, the Wisconsin...

  18. Wanaket Wildlife Area Management Plan : Five-Year Plan for Protecting, Enhancing, and Mitigating Wildlife Habitat Losses for the McNary Hydroelectric Facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation Wildlife Program

    2001-09-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) propose to continue to protect, enhance, and mitigate wildlife and wildlife habitat at the Wanaket Wildlife Area. The Wanaket Wildlife Area was approved as a Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) in 1993. This management plan will provide an update of the original management plan approved by BPA in 1995. Wanaket will contribute towards meeting BPA's obligation to compensate for wildlife habitat losses resulting from the construction of the McNary Hydroelectric facility on the Columbia River. By funding the enhancement and operation and maintenance of the Wanaket Wildlife Area, BPA will receive credit towards their mitigation debt. The purpose of the Wanaket Wildlife Area management plan update is to provide programmatic and site-specific standards and guidelines on how the Wanaket Wildlife Area will be managed over the next five years. This plan provides overall guidance on both short and long term activities that will move the area towards the goals, objectives, and desired future conditions for the planning area. The plan will incorporate managed and protected wildlife and wildlife habitat, including operations and maintenance, enhancements, and access and travel management. Specific project objectives are related to protection and enhancement of wildlife habitats and are expressed in terms of habitat units (HU's). Habitat units were developed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP), and are designed to track habitat gains and/or losses associated with mitigation and/or development projects. Habitat Units for a given species are a product of habitat quantity (expressed in acres) and habitat quality estimates. Habitat quality estimates are developed using Habitat Suitability Indices (HSI). These indices are based on quantifiable habitat features such

  19. Iskuulpa Watershed Management Plan : A Five-Year Plan for Protecting and Enhancing Fish and Wildlife Habitats in the Iskuulpa Watershed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation Wildlife Program

    2003-01-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) propose to protect, enhance, and mitigate wildlife and wildlife habitat and watershed resources in the Iskuulpa Watershed. The Iskuulpa Watershed Project was approved as a Columbia River Basin Wildlife Fish and Mitigation Project by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) in 1998. Iskuulpa will contribute towards meeting BPA's obligation to compensate for wildlife habitat losses resulting from the construction of the John Day and McNary Hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River. By funding the enhancement and operation and maintenance of the Iskuulpa Watershed, BPA will receive credit towards their mitigation debt. The purpose of the Iskuulpa Watershed management plan update is to provide programmatic and site-specific standards and guidelines on how the Iskuulpa Watershed will be managed over the next three years. This plan provides overall guidance on both short and long term activities that will move the area towards the goals, objectives, and desired future conditions for the planning area. The plan will incorporate managed and protected wildlife and wildlife habitat, including operations and maintenance, enhancements, and access and travel management.

  20. Video-documentation: 'The Pannonic ozon project'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loibl, W.; Cabela, E.; Mayer, H. F.; Schmidt, M.

    1998-07-01

    Goal of the project was the production of a video film as documentation of the Pannonian Ozone Project- POP. The main part of the video describes the POP-model consisting of the modules meteorology, emissions and chemistry, developed during the POP-project. The model considers the European emission patterns of ozone precursors and the actual wind fields. It calculates ozone build up and depletion within air parcels due to emission and weather situation along trajectory routes. Actual ozone concentrations are calculated during model runs simulating the photochemical processes within air parcels moving along 4 day trajectories before reaching the Vienna region. The model computations were validated during extensive ground and aircraft-based measurements of ozone precursors and ozone concentration within the POP study area. Scenario computations were used to determine how much ozone can be reduced in north-eastern Austria by emissions control measures. The video lasts 12:20 minutes and consists of computer animations and life video scenes, presenting the ozone problem in general, the POP model and the model results. The video was produced in co-operation by the Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf - Department of Environmental Planning (ARCS) and Joanneum Research - Institute of Informationsystems (JR). ARCS was responsible for idea, concept, storyboard and text while JR was responsible for computer animation and general video production. The speaker text was written with scientific advice by the POP - project partners: Institute of Meteorology and Physics, University of Agricultural Sciences- Vienna, Environment Agency Austria - Air Quality Department, Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf- Environmental Planning Department/System Research Division. The film was produced as German and English version. (author)

  1. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) of Ozone and Related ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants. This document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision regarding the adequacy of the current national ambient air quality standards for ozone to protect human health, public welfare, and the environment. Critical evaluation and integration of the evidence on health and environmental effects of ozone to provide scientific support for the review of the NAAQS for ozone.

  2. Implementation of an action plan in radiological protection of the patient in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelin, S.; Perez, M.R.; Dubner, D.

    2006-01-01

    The medical irradiations constitute the main contribution to the human exposure to ionizing radiations of artificial character. The growing quantity of practices, facilities and human resources dedicated to such ends, it has increased the concern of regulator organisms and scientific societies by the radiological protection of the patient (PRP). Besides completing it regulatory function in the domains of the medical practices that its concern it, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of Argentina, decided to install an active discussion in order to promoting an action plan in PRP in the national environment. To such end, the ARN organized the First National Day on PRP in December, 2004, with the attendance of professionals of the fields of the Radiodiagnostic, the Nuclear Medicine and the Radiotherapy as well as of representatives of professional associations and authorities of health. In this day the conclusions of the International Conference on PRP (Malaga, 2001) and the approaches of the Directive 97/43/EURATOM adopted in European countries were presented. It was discussed about: practices justification, responsibility of the prescriber doctor, quality systems, dose optimization, reference levels, dosimetry, training of human resources, especially for certain practices (pregnant woman, pediatric radiology and interventionist, PR/118 tomography for the correct application of diagnostic practices and an expert presented in teleconference form the experience of France for the adoption of these guides. During the Second National Day on PRP organized by the ARN (June 2005), received opinions were debated in the different environments in relation to the PR/118 guide and it potential adaptation to the national conditions. Also it was presented the state of advance of the activities developed in relation to the proposed tasks. As a result of this meeting, it was conformed a national net of PRP to which intended to incorporate academic institutions, in order to

  3. Defense Industrial Base: Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources Sector-Specific Plan as Input to the National Infrastructure Protection Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    This Defense Industrial Base (DIB) Sector-Specific Plan (SSP), developed in collaboration with industry and government security partners, provides sector-level critical infrastructure and key resources (CI/KR...

  4. 78 FR 15559 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... for an MSP because OPM can treat a church plan as equivalent to an issuer under the Church Parity and Entanglement Protections Act, Public Law 106-244 (``Parity Act''). The commenter recommended that OPM could..., national origin, disability, age, sex, gender identity, or sexual orientation. We sought comment on any...

  5. Planning for risk-informed/performance-based fire protection at nuclear power plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafi, B.; Parkinson, W.J.; Lee, J.A.

    1997-12-01

    This document presents a framework for discussing issues and building consensus towards use of fire modeling and risk technology in nuclear power plant fire protection program implementation. The plan describes a three-phase approach: development of core technologies, implementation of methods, and finally, case studies and pilot applications to verify viability of such methods. The core technologies are defined as fire modeling, fire and system tests, use of operational data, and system and risk techniques. The implementation phase addresses the programmatic issues involved in implementing a risk-informed/performance-based approach in an integrated approach with risk/performance measures. The programmatic elements include: (1) a relationship with fire codes and standards development as defined by the ongoing effort of NFPA for development of performance-based standards; (2) the ability for NRC to undertake inspection and enforcement; and (3) the benefit to utilities in terms of cost versus safety. The case studies are intended to demonstrate applicability of single issue resolution while pilot applications are intended to check the applicability of the integrated program as a whole

  6. Predicting Facebook users' online privacy protection: risk, trust, norm focus theory, and the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeri, Alexander K; Ogilvie, Claudette; La Macchia, Stephen T; Smith, Joanne R; Louis, Winnifred R

    2014-01-01

    The present research adopts an extended theory of the planned behavior model that included descriptive norms, risk, and trust to investigate online privacy protection in Facebook users. Facebook users (N = 119) completed a questionnaire assessing their attitude, subjective injunctive norm, subjective descriptive norm, perceived behavioral control, implicit perceived risk, trust of other Facebook users, and intentions toward protecting their privacy online. Behavior was measured indirectly 2 weeks after the study. The data show partial support for the theory of planned behavior and strong support for the independence of subjective injunctive and descriptive norms. Risk also uniquely predicted intentions over and above the theory of planned behavior, but there were no unique effects of trust on intentions, nor of risk or trust on behavior. Implications are discussed.

  7. 76 FR 80760 - Federal Implementation Plans for Iowa, Michigan, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... Determination for Kansas Regarding Interstate Transport of Ozone AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Transport Rule (Federal Implementation Plans to Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and... in final rule: CFR Code of Federal Regulations EGU Electric Generating Unit FIP Federal...

  8. 76 FR 34021 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Control of Nitrogen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions From Glass... Pennsylvania. This revision pertains to the control of nitrogen oxide (NO X ) emissions from glass melting... protection, Air pollution control, Nitrogen dioxide, Ozone, Particulate matter, Reporting and recordkeeping...

  9. 77 FR 20582 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Florida: New Source Review Prevention...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... quality planning and air pollution control technology requirements. The CAA NSR program is comprised of... protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Ozone, Oxides of nitrogen, Recordkeeping and... preconstruction review program for the construction and modification of any stationary source of air pollution to...

  10. 76 FR 13962 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; South Carolina: Prevention of Significant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... combination of air quality planning and air pollution control technology requirements. The CAA NSR program is... protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Nitrogen oxides, Ozone, Particulate matter... of any stationary source of air pollution to assure the maintenance of the NAAQS. The December 2...

  11. [The study on behaviour of protective equipment utilization of workers exposed to benzene and factors based on Planned Behavior Theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J Y; Liu, C D; Zhang, W M; Fu, Y K; Ma, H Y

    2018-02-20

    Objective: To investigate and predict the behavioral intention and mode of the protective equipment utilization selection of the workers who used Benzene, the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was applied to establish the behavioral model to enhance the theoretical foundation for long-term intervention. Methods: Questionnaires were used to survey the 707 workers, and all the behaviors of using protective equipment were investigated. Evaluate the relationships between each variable and obtain the influence affects by structural equation model. Results: The investigation showed that 38.47% of the total workers (272 cases) used whole body protection, 13.58% used partially, and 16.69% didn't use any body protection. There were significant difference between the varying degrees in the four dimensions (behavioral attitude, perceived behavior control, subjective norm, and behavioral intention) (Pbehavior control was the most important influencing factor, subjective norm, positive attitude, negative attitude were the other three respects in sequence. The path co-efficient were 0.600、0.215、0.141 and 0.046 respectively. Conclusion: The study show that the theory of planned behavior can effectively explain the behavioral intention and behavior of protective equipment utilization. Therefore, combining the subjective initiative of individuals with the supervision of enterprises, In order to effectively enhance the protective equipment utilization of benzene workers.

  12. 40 CFR 51.241 - Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Intergovernmental Consultation Agency Designation § 51.241 Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. (a... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. 51.241 Section 51.241 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  13. 40 CFR 52.136 - Control strategy for ozone: Oxides of nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy for ozone: Oxides of nitrogen. 52.136 Section 52.136 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... for ozone: Oxides of nitrogen. EPA is approving an exemption request submitted by the State of Arizona...

  14. The stratospheric ozone and the ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zea Mazo, Jorge Anibal; Leon Aristizabal Gloria Esperanza; Eslava Ramirez Jesus Antonio

    2000-01-01

    An overview is presented of the principal characteristics of the stratospheric ozone in the Earth's atmosphere, with particular emphasis on the tropics and the ozone hole over the poles. Some effects produced in the atmosphere as a consequence of the different human activities will be described, and some data on stratospheric ozone will be shown. We point out the existence of a nucleus of least ozone in the tropics, stretching from South America to central Africa, with annual mean values less than 240 DU, a value lower than in the middle latitudes and close to the mean values at the South Pole. The existence of such a minimum is confirmed by mean values from measurements made on satellites or with earthbound instruments, for different sectors in Colombia, like Medellin, Bogota and Leticia

  15. Classifications for Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act site-specific projects: 2008 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William R.; Garber, Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    The Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) funds over 100 wetland restoration projects across Louisiana. Integral to the success of CWPPRA is its long-term monitoring program, which enables State and Federal agencies to determine the effectiveness of each restoration effort. One component of this monitoring program is the analysis of high-resolution, color-infrared aerial photography at the U.S. Geological Survey's National Wetlands Research Center in Lafayette, Louisiana. Color-infrared aerial photography (9- by 9-inch) is obtained before project construction and several times after construction. Each frame is scanned on a photogrametric scanner that produces a high-resolution image in Tagged Image File Format (TIFF). By using image-processing software, these TIFF files are then orthorectified and mosaicked to produce a seamless image of a project area and its associated reference area (a control site near the project that has common environmental features, such as marsh type, soil types, and water salinities.) The project and reference areas are then classified according to pixel value into two distinct classes, land and water. After initial land and water ratios have been established by using photography obtained before and after project construction, subsequent comparisons can be made over time to determine land-water change. Several challenges are associated with the land-water interpretation process. Primarily, land-water classifications are often complicated by the presence of floating aquatic vegetation that occurs throughout the freshwater systems of coastal Louisiana and that is sometimes difficult to differentiate from emergent marsh. Other challenges include tidal fluctuations and water movement from strong winds, which may result in flooding and inundation of emergent marsh during certain conditions. Compensating for these events is difficult but possible by using other sources of imagery to verify marsh conditions for other

  16. Ozone therapy in periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, G; Mansi, B

    2012-02-22

    Gingival and Periodontal diseases represent a major concern both in dentistry and medicine. The majority of the contributing factors and causes in the etiology of these diseases are reduced or treated with ozone in all its application forms (gas, water, oil). The beneficial biological effects of ozone, its anti-microbial activity, oxidation of bio-molecules precursors and microbial toxins implicated in periodontal diseases and its healing and tissue regeneration properties, make the use of ozone well indicated in all stages of gingival and periodontal diseases. The primary objective of this article is to provide a general review about the clinical applications of ozone in periodontics. The secondary objective is to summarize the available in vitro and in vivo studies in Periodontics in which ozone has been used. This objective would be of importance to future researchers in terms of what has been tried and what the potentials are for the clinical application of ozone in Periodontics.

  17. US EPA 2014 Ozone Season Review by City

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web service contains the following layer: OzoneReview35Cities_with2000to2014data. Full FGDC metadata records for each layer may be found by clicking the layer...

  18. Stomatal uptake and stomatal deposition of ozone in isoprene and monoterpene emitting plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, S; Loreto, F; Kleist, E; Wildt, J

    2008-01-01

    Volatile isoprenoids were reported to protect plants against ozone. To understand whether this could be the result of a direct scavenging of ozone by these molecules, the stomatal and non-stomatal uptake of ozone was estimated in plants emitting isoprene or monoterpenes. Ozone uptake by holm oak (Quercus ilex, a monoterpene emitter) and black poplar (Populus nigra, an isoprene emitter) was studied in whole plant enclosures (continuously stirred tank reactors, CSTR). The ozone uptake by plants was estimated measuring ozone concentration at the inlet and outlet of the reactors, after correcting for the uptake of the enclosure materials. Destruction of ozone at the cuticle or at the plant stems was found to be negligible compared to the ozone uptake through the stomata. For both plant species, a relationship between stomatal conductance and ozone uptake was found. For the poplar, the measured ozone losses were explained by the uptake of ozone through the stomata only, and ozone destruction by gas phase reactions with isoprene was negligible. For the oak, gas phase reactions of ozone with the monoterpenes emitted by the plants contributed significantly to ozone destruction. This was confirmed by two different experiments showing a) that in cases of high stomatal conductance but under low CO(2) concentration, a reduction of monoterpene emission was still associated with reduced O(3) uptake; and b) that ozone losses due to the gas phase reactions only can be measured when using the exhaust from a plant chamber to determine the gas phase reactivity in an empty reaction chamber. Monoterpenes can therefore relevantly scavenge ozone at leaf level contributing to protection against ozone.

  19. Transportation Systems: Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources Sector-Specific Plan as Input to the National Infrastructure Protection Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    partners will be encouraged to use the assessment methodologies referenced above, or ISO 27001 and ISO 17799, which are intended to be used together...the Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA), the International Organization for Standardization ( ISO ), and a number of other...programs are aligned with NCSD’s goals for the IT sector and follow best practices developed by NIST and the ISO . The cyber protective programs

  20. Water: Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources Sector-Specific Plan as Input to the National Infrastructure Protection Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    National Association of Clean Water Agencies Shelly Foston Meridian Institute Michael Gritzuk Pima County (AZ) Wastewater Management Department Genevieve...agencies to assist small and medium systems, and it has helped fund and develop a variety of Web casts and security trainings. Although drinking water...warning systems and consequence man - agement planning. • Water Laboratory Alliance (WLA). EPA will fulfill its requirement under HSPD-9 to enhance the

  1. SMM mesospheric ozone measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikin, A. C.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective was to understand the secular and seasonal behavior of ozone in the lower mesosphere, 50 to 70 km. This altitude region is important in understanding the factors which determine ozone behavior. A secondary objective is the study of stratospheric ozone in the polar regions. Use is made of results from the SBUV satellite borne instrument. In the Arctic the interaction between chlorine compounds and low molecular weight hydrocarbons is studied. More than 30,000 profiles were obtained using the UVSP instrument on the SMM spacecraft. Several orbits of ozone data per day were obtained allowing study of the current rise in solar activity from the minimum until the present. Analysis of Nimbus 7 SBUV data in Antarctic spring indicates that ozone is depleted within the polar vortex relative to ozone outside the vortex. This depletion confirms the picture of ozone loss at altitudes where polar stratospheric clouds exist. In addition, there is ozone loss above the cloud level indicating that there is another mechanism in addition to ozone loss initiated by heterogeneous chlorine reactions on cloud particles.

  2. United States Department of Energy Richland Operations Office Environmental Protection Implementation Plan: November 9, 1993, to November 9, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The hub of today's programs at the Hanford Site are activities dedicated to managing stored and new wastes and cleanup of waste sites. To ensure focused planning and implementing efforts for these programs, management of the site is assigned to DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. This report describes policies and procedures in the following areas: Compliance activities; Environmental restoration; Waste management; and Technology development. Procedures for notification of environmental occurrences, long-range environmental protection planning and reporting, waste management programs; environmental monitoring programs, and quality assurance and data verification are also described and discussed

  3. Legal protection against outline operating plans under mining law; Rechtsschutz gegen Rahmenbetriebsplaene im Bergrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Holger; Mausch, Marlen [Rechtsanwaltskanzlei Noerr LLP, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    In the outline planning for a mining project the question of to what extent the interests of potentially affected surface owners must be taken into account at this early stage of project planning regularly arises. In this contribution the authors explain after a brief introduction to the subject the current jurisdiction of the Federal Administrative Court in respect of the corresponding legal requirements on the outline operating plants, the legal effects of the approval of an outline operating plan and the right of the surface owners to contest the operating plan approval. In addition the permissibility of the initial treatment of owner interests in subsequent special operating plans is described. It is evident that the binding effect of the outline operating plans on the one hand and the transfer of owner interests to special operating plans on the other conflict to a certain extent. (orig.)

  4. The decree 2910 and a plan for atmosphere protection; L`arrete 2910 et plan de protection de l`atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouton, J.Ph. [Ministere de l`Amenagement du Territoire et de l`Environnement, 75 - Paris (France). Direction de la Prevention des Pollutions et des Risques

    1997-12-31

    The French decree 2910 (March 11, 1996) is introducing a new classification, in order to simplify and harmonize the administrative procedures, for commercial-type fuels. For the conventional ones, the accentuation of environmental protection and risk prevention dispositions led to the modification of the classification thresholds for all commercial fuels (2 MW for a declaration, 20 MW for an authorization): for non conventional fuels, the utilization of fuels requires an authorization above 0.1 MW. The classification is concerning boilers, and also every equipment (dryer, turbine, oven or engine) where combustion is operating. The French and international laws and protocols on air pollution are then reviewed, followed by the European Commission actions on air quality and industrial pollution

  5. PUBLIC CONSULTATIONS AS A PART OF THE PLANNING PROTECTION OF NATURA 2000 SITES – THE PUCK BAY CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Agnieszka Michałek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Natura 2000 network was implemented in Poland in 2004. Under current legislation, it is required to preserve or restore „favourable conservation status” of species and habitats within Natura 2000 sites by introducing appropriate "protection measures". Such measures for marine areas are protection and management plans. Elaboration of that documents for two sites of the Puck Bay area: PLB220005 and PLH220032 started in 2011 and was carried out for 38 months. Public consultations were one of its crucial element. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of public consultations as a part of the conservation planning process in the Puck Bay area and conflicts analysis. Surprisingly, wide public participation, even though it was a difficult process, undoubtedly brought benefits, on both social and environmental fields.

  6. Greater Vancouver's water supply receives ozone treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, J.; Singh, I.; Reil, D. D.; Neden, G.

    2000-10-01

    To improve the overall quality of the treated water delivered to the member municipalities of the Greater Vancouver Water District (GVWD), the GVWD implemented a phased drinking water quality improvement program. The phased treatment program is directed at attaining effective disinfection while minimizing the formation of chlorinated disinfection by-products. Accordingly, the current primary disinfection method of chlorination was reevaluated and an ozone primary disinfection without filtration was authorized. Ozonization provides increased protection against Giardia and Cryptosporidium and a decrease in the formation potential for disinfection by-products (DPBs). This paper describes the design for the ozonation facility at Coquitlam, construction of which began in 1998 and completed during the summer of 2000. The facility houses the liquid oxygen supply, ozone generation, cooling water, ozone injection, primary off-gas ozone destruct system, and provides a home for various office, electrical maintenance and diesel generating functions. The second site at Capilano is expected to start construction in the fall of 2000 and be completed late in 2002. Wit its kilometre long stainless steel ozone contactor and sidestream injector tower, the Coquitlam Ozonation Facility is the first ozone pressure injection system of its kind in North America. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  7. Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore Environmental Protection Implementation Plan for the period November 9, 1991--November 9, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, as part of the DOE complex, is committed to full compliance with all applicable environmental laws and regulations. This Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (EPIP) is intended to ensure that the environmental program objectives of DOE Order 5400.1 are achieved at SNL, Livermore. The EPIP will serve as an aid to management and staff to implement these new programs in a timely manner. 23 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. A Business Plan for Anhui Xiongfeng Protection Facilities Co.,Ltd.

    OpenAIRE

    Bi, Taimiao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The success of a business relies on a lot of factors such as the business nature, market change, place, financing ability and the business plan. There are both opportunities and risks in current complex business environment. Faced with the huge market demand, the enterprise has to have a good plan to set up objectives and to arrange its activities. A good business plan is a good roadmap and it can provide solutions in advance by analysing internal and external environment. ...

  9. Foreign and Domestic Contributions to Springtime Ozone Pollution over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, R.; Lin, J.; Yan, Y.; Lin, W.; Chen, H.

    2017-12-01

    Ozone is a critical air pollutant that damages human health and vegetation. Previous studies for the United States and Europe have shown large influences of foreign emissions on domestic ozone levels, whereas the relative contributions of foreign versus domestic emissions are much less clear for China. Here, we use a global-regional two-way coupled model system based on GEOS-Chem to quantify the contributions to springtime ozone over China from anthropogenic emissions in major source regions across the globe. Our results indicate considerable influences of foreign anthropogenic pollution on China's ozone pollution. Together, foreign anthropogenic emissions enhance springtime surface ozone over China by 3 12 ppb. Of all ozone over China produced by global anthropogenic emissions, foreign emissions contribute 40% near the surface, and the contribution increases with altitude until a value of 80% in the upper troposphere. Impact from Japan and Korea is 1 2 ppb over east coastal regions, and negligible in inland. Anthropogenic emissions of South and South-East Asia increase ozone over Tibet and the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau by up to 5 ppb, and their contribution increases with height due to strong vertical transport. Pollution from North America and Europe mainly accompanies strong westerly winds and frequent cyclonic activities that are favorable to long-range transport. European anthropogenic pollution enhances surface ozone by 1 3 ppb over West and North China. Despite a much longer transport distance, the contribution from North America is greater than European contribution due to the nearly doubled amount of anthropogenic NMVOC emissions. The high percentage contribution of foreign anthropogenic emissions to China's ozone pollution can be partly explained by excessive domestic NOx emissions that suppress ozone production efficiency and even destroy ozone. Our study is relevant to Chinese ozone pollution control and global environmental protection collaboration.

  10. Integrated protecting plan for beach erosion. A case study in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Kozyrakis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Coastal zones are among the most active areas on Earth, being subjected to extreme wind / wave conditions, thus vulnerable to erosion. In Greece and Crete in particular, beach zones are extremely important for the welfare of the inhabitants, since, apart for the important biological and archaeological value of the beach zones, the socio-economic value is critical since a great number of human activities are concentrated in such areas (touristic facilities, fishing harbors etc.). The present study investigates the erosional procedures observed in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece, a highly touristic developed area with great archaeological interest and proposes a cost-effective solution. The factors taken into consideration for the proposed solution in reducing the erosion of the beach were the study of the climatological, geological and geomorphological regime of the area, the recent (~70 years) shifting of the coastline through the study of topographic maps, aerial photographs and satellite images, the creation of detailed bathymetric and seabed classification maps of the area and finally, a risk analysis in terms of erosional phenomena. On the basis of the above, it is concluded that the area under investigation is subjected to an erosional rate of about 1 m/10 years and the total land-loss for the past 70 years is about 4600 m2. Through the simulation of the wave regime we studied 3 possible scenarios, the "do-nothing" scenario, the construction of a detached submerged breakwater at the depth of 3 meters and, finally, the armoring of the existing beach-wall through the placement of appropriate size and material boulders, forming an artificial slope for the reducing of the wave breaking energy and a small scale nourishment plan. As a result, through the modeling of the above, the most appropriate and cost-effective solution was found to be the third, armoring of the existing coastal wall and nourishment of the beach periodically, thus the further undermining of the

  11. Incorporation of Socio-Economic Features' Ranking in Multicriteria Analysis Based on Ecosystem Services for Marine Protected Area Planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle E Portman

    Full Text Available Developed decades ago for spatial choice problems related to zoning in the urban planning field, multicriteria analysis (MCA has more recently been applied to environmental conflicts and presented in several documented cases for the creation of protected area management plans. Its application is considered here for the development of zoning as part of a proposed marine protected area management plan. The case study incorporates specially-explicit conservation features while considering stakeholder preferences, expert opinion and characteristics of data quality. It involves the weighting of criteria using a modified analytical hierarchy process. Experts ranked physical attributes which include socio-economically valued physical features. The parameters used for the ranking of (physical attributes important for socio-economic reasons are derived from the field of ecosystem services assessment. Inclusion of these feature values results in protection that emphasizes those areas closest to shore, most likely because of accessibility and familiarity parameters and because of data biases. Therefore, other spatial conservation prioritization methods should be considered to supplement the MCA and efforts should be made to improve data about ecosystem service values farther from shore. Otherwise, the MCA method allows incorporation of expert and stakeholder preferences and ecosystem services values while maintaining the advantages of simplicity and clarity.

  12. Efficient and equitable design of marine protected areas in Fiji through inclusion of stakeholder-specific objectives in conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Ban, Natalie C; Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G; Jupiter, Stacy; Adams, Vanessa M

    2015-10-01

    The efficacy of protected areas varies, partly because socioeconomic factors are not sufficiently considered in planning and management. Although integrating socioeconomic factors into systematic conservation planning is increasingly advocated, research is needed to progress from recognition of these factors to incorporating them effectively in spatial prioritization of protected areas. We evaluated 2 key aspects of incorporating socioeconomic factors into spatial prioritization: treatment of socioeconomic factors as costs or objectives and treatment of stakeholders as a single group or multiple groups. Using as a case study the design of a system of no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) in Kubulau, Fiji, we assessed how these aspects affected the configuration of no-take MPAs in terms of trade-offs between biodiversity objectives, fisheries objectives, and equity in catch losses among fisher stakeholder groups. The achievement of fisheries objectives and equity tended to trade-off concavely with increasing biodiversity objectives, indicating that it is possible to achieve low to mid-range biodiversity objectives with relatively small losses to fisheries and equity. Importantly, the extent of trade-offs depended on the method used to incorporate socioeconomic data and was least severe when objectives were set for each fisher stakeholder group explicitly. We found that using different methods to incorporate socioeconomic factors that require similar data and expertise can result in plans with very different impacts on local stakeholders. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Pollution Control Using Ozone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for cleaning air comprising one or more pollutants, the method comprising contacting the air with thermal decompositions products of ozone.......This invention relates to a method for cleaning air comprising one or more pollutants, the method comprising contacting the air with thermal decompositions products of ozone....

  14. The pollution by ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    Air pollution by ozone is increasing in spite of several points to reduce it. If the process of ozone formation are complex, the sources of this pollution are well known: first, mobile sources with automobiles (49%), boats , trains and planes (13%), then are following paints and solvents(18%), thermal power plants(11%), and finally industry processing with 5%. (N.C.)

  15. Community based wildlife management planning in protected areas: The case of Altai argali in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan L. Maroney

    2006-01-01

    The number of protected areas in Mongolia has increased fourfold since the country’s transition to a market-based economy over a decade ago; however, many of these protected areas have yet to realize their intended role as protectorates of biodiversity. Given the prevalence of (semi-) nomadic pastoralists in rural areas, effective conservation initiatives in Mongolia...

  16. Designing a protected area network for conservation planning in Jhum landscapes of Garo Hills, Meghalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Kumar; Bruce Marcot; G. Talukdar

    2010-01-01

    We studied vegetation and land cover characteristics within the existing array of protected areas (PAs) in South Garo Hills of Meghalaya, northeast India and introduce the concept of protected area network (PAN) and methods to determine linkages of forests among existing PAs. We describe and analyze potential elements of a PAN, including PAs, reserved forests,...

  17. River Protection Double-Shell Tank Waste Retrieval Authorization Basis Amendment Task Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HARRIS, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    This task plan is a documented agreement between Nuclear Safety and Licensing and Retrieval Engineering. The purpose of this task plan is to identify the scope of work, tasks and deliverables, responsibilities, manpower, and schedules associated with an authorization basis amendment as a result of the Waste Feed Delivery Program, Project W-211, Project W-521, and Project W-522

  18. Conservation planning and accomplishments for protection of Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea) nonbreeding habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Skolnik; David Wiedenfeld; Randy Dettmers; Constantino Aucca; Lina Daza; Heidy Valle; Francisco Sornoza; Javier Robayo; David Diaz; Jane Fitzgerald; Daniel Lebbin; Paul B. Hamel

    2012-01-01

    Vital to the work of the Cerulean Warbler Technical Group has been the collaboration among members to evaluate population status and coordinate planning for future activities, principally in conservation implementation. Two plans have been produced, one a general strategy for the conservation and management of the species over its entire range, and a more restricted...

  19. 75 FR 24692 - Meeting of the Ozone Transport Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ...) 508-3840; e-mail: [email protected] ; Web site: http://www.otcair.org . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The...: Copies of the final agenda will be available from the OTC office (202) 508-3840; by e-mail: [email protected] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9145-1] Meeting of the Ozone Transport Commission AGENCY...

  20. Success in the protection of the ozone layer is at risk. An interview concerning the German view on CFC- and H-CFC-phaseout all over the world; Bisherige Erfolge zum Schutz der Ozonschicht sind gefaehrdet. Ein Fachgespraech ueber die deutsche Meinung zum FCKW- und H-FCKW-Phaseout ueberall in der Welt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, H.W.; Weissenborn, P.

    1995-11-01

    This article repeats an interview with the commissioner of international measures for the protection of the ozone layer of the Federal Ministry of the Environment which took place in the run-up to the 7th conference of the signatory states of the Montreal Protocol. (BWI) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Beitrag gibt ein Interview wieder, das mit dem Beauftragten fuer internationale Massnahmen zum Schutz der Ozonschicht beim Bundesumweltministerium im Vorfeld der 7. Konferenz der Vertragsstaaten zum Montrealer Protokoll gefuehrt wurde. (BWI)

  1. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 2724-W Protective Equipment Decontamination Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.; Lavey, G.H.

    1992-12-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1* for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during Calendar Year 1991 and the evaluation requires the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438**. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements

  2. Chronic drought stress reduced but not protected Shantung maple (Acer truncatum Bunge) from adverse effects of ozone (O3) on growth and physiology in the suburb of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Manning, William J; Tong, Lei; Wang, Xiaoke

    2015-06-01

    A two-year experiment exposing Acer truncatum Bunge seedlings to elevated ozone (O3) concentrations above ambient air (AO) and drought stress (DS) was carried out using open-top chambers (OTCs) in a suburb of Beijing in north China in 2012-2013. The results suggested that AO and DS had both significantly reduced leaf mass area (LMA), stomatal conductance (Gs), light saturated photosynthetic rate (Asat) as well as above and below ground biomass at the end of the experiment. It appeared that while drought stress mitigated the expression of foliar injury, LMA, leaf photosynthetic pigments, height growth and basal diameter, due to limited carbon fixation, the O3 - induced reductions in Asat, Gs and total biomass were enhanced 23.7%. 15.5% and 8.1% respectively. These data suggest that when the whole plant was considered that drought under the conditions of this experiment did not protect the Shantung maple seedlings from the effects of O3. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Estonian total ozone climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ± 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987–1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April–May and summer (June–August total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; volcanic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  4. Nicotiana tabacum as model for ozone - plant surface reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jud, Werner; Fischer, Lukas; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Tissier, Alain; Canaval, Eva; Hansel, Armin

    2015-04-01

    Elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations are considered a toxic threat to plants, responsible for global crop losses with associated economic costs of several billion dollars per year. The ensuing injuries have been related to the uptake of ozone through the stomatal pores and oxidative effects damaging the internal leaf tissue. A striking question of current research is the environment and plant specific partitioning of ozone loss between gas phase, stomatal or plant surface sink terms. Here we show results from ozone fumigation experiments using various Nicotiana Tabacum varieties, whose surfaces are covered with different amounts of unsaturated diterpenoids exuded by their glandular trichomes. Exposure to elevated ozone levels (50 to 150 ppbv) for 5 to 15 hours in an exceptionally clean cuvette system did neither result in a reduction of photosynthesis nor caused any visible leaf damage. Both these ozone induced stress effects have been observed previously in ozone fumigation experiments with the ozone sensitive tobacco line Bel-W3. In our case ozone fumigation was accompanied by a continuous release of oxygenated volatile organic compounds, which could be clearly associated to their condensed phase precursors for the first time. Gas phase reactions of ozone were avoided by choosing a high enough gas exchange rate of the plant cuvette system. In the case of the Ambalema variety, that is known to exude only the diterpenoid cis-abienol, ozone fumigation experiments yield the volatiles formaldehyde and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK). The latter could be unequivocally separated from isomeric methacrolein (MACR) by the aid of a Selective Reagent Ion Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (SRI-ToF-MS), which was switched every six minutes from H3O+ to NO+ primary ion mode and vice versa. Consistent with the picture of an ozone protection mechanism caused by reactive diterpenoids at the leaf surface are the results from dark-light experiments. The ozone loss obtained from the

  5. Ozone as an air pollutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    1996-01-01

    A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995.......A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995....

  6. 77 FR 15368 - 2012 Annual Meeting of the Ozone Transport Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9647-5] 2012 Annual Meeting of the Ozone Transport Commission... Environmental Protection Agency is announcing the 2012 Annual Meeting of the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC... such as performance standards for electric generating units (EGUs) on high electric demand days, oil...

  7. 78 FR 25265 - 2013 Annual Meeting of the Ozone Transport Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9806-5] 2013 Annual Meeting of the Ozone Transport Commission... Environmental Protection Agency is announcing the 2013 Annual Meeting of the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC... such as performance standards for electric generating units (EGUs) on high electric demand days, oil...

  8. 40 CFR 97.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Trading Program. 97.386 Section 97.386 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program...

  9. 78 FR 69418 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans, Quality Rating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ...) to ensure reliable data, reduce QHP burden and facilitate consumer use and comprehension. \\3\\ In... stakeholders and in a field test using available health plan data. Listening sessions were also conducted for...

  10. 76 FR 77392 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ...,'' ``Exchange Functions in the Individual Market: Eligibility Determinations; Exchange Standards for Employers... plans,'' ``health insurance coverage,'' ``small employer,'' ``qualified employer,'' and ``qualified... shares common leadership with a pre-existing issuer be barred from sponsoring a CO- OP; another suggested...

  11. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 2724-W Protective Equipment Decontamination Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.J.

    1991-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1* for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the first annual report. It shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updates as a minimum every three years

  12. 40 CFR 51.914 - What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas? 51.914 Section 51.914 Protection of Environment... Standard § 51.914 What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas? The requirements for new source review for the 8-hour ozone standard are located in § 51.165 of this part. [70 FR...

  13. THE PROBLEM OF PROTECTING THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT IN SPATIAL PLANNING IN RURAL AREAS IN SOUTH-EASTERN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusława Baran-Zgłobicka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Local planning in Poland encompasses spatial development conditions and directions study for a district (“study” and a local spatial development plan (“local plan”. The study is the only planning document that is required for the entire area of a district. It outlines directions of spatial policy and spatial development. Detailed investigations encompassed nine functionally diverse rural districts in SE Poland. The objective was to assess the description of environmental determinants and the problems of natural resources protection presented in the studies. The adequacy of the adopted approach to the subject matter and its correlation with spatial development directions were analysed. The analysed studies usually provide an exhaustive description of (a natural resources and the nature conservation system along with restrictions in environment use, and (b the problem of raw materials. Not all studies, however, highlight the local, very often unique characteristics of the natural environment. Natural hazards are marginalized in some studies. There is also a lack of concrete solutions for the protection of space and improvement of spatial order.

  14. OZONE ABSORPTION IN RAW WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA TAKIĆ

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The ozone absorption in raw water entering the main ozonization step at the Belgrade drinking water supply plant was investigated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR. A slow chemical reaction rate of dissolved ozone and pollutants present in raw water have been experimentally determined. The modified Hatta number was defined and calculated as a criterion which determines whether and to which extent the reactions of ozone and pollutants influence the rate of the pure physical ozone absorption.

  15. Ozone, greenhouse effect. Ozone, effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aviam, A.M.; Arthaut, R.

    1992-12-01

    This file is made of eight general papers on environment (climates under observation, research on photo-oxidizing pollution, scientific aspects of stratospheric ozone layer, urban engineering and environment, glory of public gardens, earths not very natural, darwinism and society, economical data on environment). (A.B.). refs., 3 tabs.

  16. Automatic programmable air ozonizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubarev, S.P.; Klosovsky, A.V.; Opaleva, G.P.; Taran, V.S.; Zolototrubova, M.I.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe a compact, economical, easy to manage auto air ozonator developed at the Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT. It is designed for sanitation, disinfection of premises and cleaning the air from foreign odors. A distinctive feature of the developed device is the generation of a given concentration of ozone, approximately 0.7 maximum allowable concentration (MAC), and automatic maintenance of a specified level. This allows people to be inside the processed premises during operation. The microprocessor controller to control the operation of the ozonator was developed

  17. Ozone pollution: rising concentrations despite French and EU efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ba, M.; Elichegaray, Ch.

    2003-11-01

    Ozone is the main indicator of photochemical pollution which is caused by a complex combination of primary pollutants formed by chemical reactions in the troposphere, in the presence of sunlight. These primary pollutants, otherwise known as precursors of ozone (nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds and carbon monoxide), are emitted both by natural sources and human activities. In urban areas, during the summer months, ozone is often the main cause of deterioration in air quality. Directive 2002/3/EC relating to ozone in ambient air entered into force on 9 September 2003, superseding the first ozone Directive (92/72/CE) of 21 September 1992. In the last 10 years, monitoring of ozone pollution has considerably progressed in France (the number of analysers has increased tenfold). Emissions of the ozone precursors fell significantly (-27%) between 1990 and 2000 in France as a result of combined efforts in all sectors of activity. However, between 1994 and 2002, ozone levels remained above the information threshold for the protection of human health and vegetation on average more than 100 days a year in rural areas and over 40 days a year in urban and peri-urban areas. Efforts undertaken both in France and other European countries aim to improve the situation and ensure compliance with the requirements of Directive 2002/3/EC. (author)

  18. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Maritza F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observed in both oils but they were higher in ozonized sunflower oil. Iodine value was zero in ozonized olive oil whereas in ozonized sunflower was 8.8 g Iodine per 100 g. The antimicrobial activity was similar for both ozonized oils except for Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations of Pseudomona aeruginosa. Composition of fatty acids in both ozonized oils showed gradual decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1, C18:2 with gradual increase in ozone doses.

  19. Business continuity, emergency planning and special needs: How to protect the vulnerable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Emergencies and disasters affect all segments of the population. Some segments are more at risk during the emergency response and recovery efforts owing to vulnerabilities that increase the risk of harm. These vulnerabilities are due to individuals' disabilities, which must be incorporated into emergency and business continuity planning. Some disabilities are obvious, such as impaired vision, hearing or mobility, while other are less evident, but equally disabling, such as cognitive disorders, geographical or language isolation, and numerous age-related factors. Taken together when creating emergency or business continuity plans, the issues identified as disabilities can be grouped by functionality and termed as special needs. This paper will detail the identification of special needs populations, explain how these persons are vulnerable during the emergency or disaster response and recovery process, and provide examples of how to partner with individuals within identified special needs populations to improve the planning process.

  20. Stratospheric ozone measurements at Arosa (Switzerland): history and scientific relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staehelin, Johannes; Viatte, Pierre; Stübi, Rene; Tummon, Fiona; Peter, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Climatic Observatory (LKO) in Arosa (Switzerland), marking the beginning of the world's longest series of total (or column) ozone measurements. They were driven by the recognition that atmospheric ozone is important for human health, as well as by scientific curiosity about what was, at the time, an ill characterised atmospheric trace gas. From around the mid-1950s to the beginning of the 1970s studies of high atmosphere circulation patterns that could improve weather forecasting was justification for studying stratospheric ozone. In the mid-1970s, a paradigm shift occurred when it became clear that the damaging effects of anthropogenic ozone-depleting substances (ODSs), such as long-lived chlorofluorocarbons, needed to be documented. This justified continuing the ground-based measurements of stratospheric ozone. Levels of ODSs peaked around the mid-1990s as a result of a global environmental policy to protect the ozone layer, implemented through the 1987 Montreal Protocol and its subsequent amendments and adjustments. Consequently, chemical destruction of stratospheric ozone started to slow around the mid-1990s. To some extent, this raises the question as to whether continued ozone observation is indeed necessary. In the last decade there has been a tendency to reduce the costs associated with making ozone measurements globally including at Arosa. However, the large natural variability in ozone on diurnal, seasonal, and interannual scales complicates the capacity for demonstrating the success of the Montreal Protocol. Chemistry-climate models also predict a super-recovery of the ozone layer at mid-latitudes in the second half of this century, i.e. an increase of ozone concentrations beyond pre-1970 levels, as a consequence of ongoing climate change. These factors, and identifying potentially unexpected stratospheric responses to climate change, support the continued need to document stratospheric ozone changes. This is particularly valuable at the Arosa site, due

  1. Predicting sun-protective intentions and behaviours using the theory of planned behaviour: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starfelt Sutton, Louise C; White, Katherine M

    2016-11-01

    To synthesise theory of planned behaviour (TPB) relationships, using meta-analysis, and test the predictive utility of the model for sun protection behaviour. Thirty-eight samples were identified via database/manual searches and academic society posts based on the criteria: measuring sun-protective intentions and/or prospective behaviour; using the TPB/theory of reasoned action as a basis of measurement; and providing bivariate correlations for at least one relevant TPB association. Sun-protective intentions and behaviours. The sample-weighted average effects were moderate-to-strong with attitudes showing the strongest association with intention (r+ = 0.494), followed by perceived behavioural control (PBC; r+ = 0.451), and subjective norm (r+ = 0.419). Intentions showed a stronger association with prospective behaviour (r+ = 0.486) compared to PBC (r+ = 0.314). A total of 39% of variance in intentions and 25% of variance in behaviour were explained. Publication bias was not evident. Moderator analyses showed that TPB associations were stronger when measures specified the Target, Action, Context and Time; in non-student samples; and when follow-up exceeded two weeks. Despite recent criticism, this review shows that the TPB explains a large amount of variance in sun protection and that TPB associations are robust across different populations.

  2. U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office Environmental Protection Implementation Plan, November 9, 1994 to November 9, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The defence production mission at the Hanford Sites has ceased, and treatment, storage, and disposal of existing waste and cleanup of the waste sites is now the major effort. Hanford Site's current mission is focused on three mission elements: site cleanup; technology development; economic diversification. The goal of US DOE is to clean up waste sites at the Hanford Reservation and bring the facilities into compliance with federal, state, and local environmental laws by 2028. This document provides information about the environmental protection implementation plan

  3. Marine Spatial Planning in a Transboundary Context: Linking Baja California with California's Network of Marine Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Arafeh-Dalmau

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged that an effective path to globally protect marine ecosystems is through the establishment of eco-regional scale networks of MPAs spanning across national frontiers. In this work we aimed to plan for regionally feasible networks of MPAs that can be ecologically linked with an existing one in a transboundary context. We illustrate our exercise in the Ensenadian eco-region, a shared marine ecosystem between the south of California, United States of America (USA, and the north of Baja California, Mexico; where conservation actions differ across the border. In the USA, California recently established a network of MPAs through the Marine Life Protection Act (MLPA, while in Mexico: Baja California lacks a network of MPAs or a marine spatial planning effort to establish it. We generated four different scenarios with Marxan by integrating different ecological, social, and management considerations (habitat representation, opportunity costs, habitat condition, and enforcement costs. To do so, we characterized and collected biophysical and socio-economic information for Baja California and developed novel approaches to quantify and incorporate some of these considerations. We were able to design feasible networks of MPAs in Baja California that are ecologically linked with California's network (met between 78.5 and 84.4% of the MLPA guidelines and that would represent a low cost for fishers and aquaculture investors. We found that when multiple considerations are integrated more priority areas for conservation emerge. For our region, human distribution presents a strong gradient from north to south and resulted to be an important factor for the spatial arrangement of the priority areas. This work shows how, despite the constraints of a data-poor area, the available conservation principles, mapping, and planning tools can still be used to generate spatial conservation plans in a transboundary context.

  4. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  5. Ozone Therapy in Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domb, William C

    2014-01-01

    Summary The 21st century dental practice is quite dynamic. New treatment protocols and new materials are being developed at a rapid pace. Ozone dental therapy falls into the category of new treatment protocols in dentistry, yet ozone is not new at all. Ozone therapy is already a major treatment modality in Europe, South America and a number of other countries. What is provided here will not be an exhaustive scientific treatise so much as a brief general introduction into what dentists are now doing with ozone therapies and the numerous oral/systemic links that make this subject so important for physicians so that, ultimately, they may serve their patients more effectively and productively. PMID:25363268

  6. Ozone health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.

    1994-01-01

    Ozone is a principal component of photochemical air pollution endogenous to numerous metropolitan areas. It is primarily formed by the oxidation of NOx in the presence of sunlight and reactive organic compounds. Ozone is a highly active oxidizing agent capable of causing injury to the lung. Lung injury may take the form of irritant effects on the respiratory tract that impair pulmonary function and result in subjective symptoms of respiratory discomfort. These symptoms include, but are not limited to, cough and shortness of breath, and they can limit exercise performance. The effects of ozone observed in humans have been primarily limited to alterations in respiratory function, and a range of respiratory physiological parameters have been measured as a function of ozone exposure in adults and children. These affects have been observed under widely varying (clinical experimental and environmental settings) conditions

  7. 78 FR 15553 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... & Medicaid Services, Department of Health and Human Services, Attention: CMS-9964-P2, P.O. Box 8016..., Attention: CMS-9964-P2, Mail Stop C4-26-05, 7500 Security Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21244-1850. 4. By hand or... procedure, Advertising, Advisory Committees, Brokers, Conflict of interest, Consumer protection, Grant...

  8. CFES--California Fire Economics Simulator: A Computerized System for Wildland Fire Protection Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy S. Fried; J. Keith Gilless; Robert E. Martin

    1987-01-01

    The University of California's Department of Forestry and Resource Management, under contract with the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection, has developed and released the first version of the California Fire Economics Simulator (CFES). The current release is adapted from the Initial Action Assessment component of the USFS's National Fire...

  9. SYNOPTIC ASSESSMENT OF WETLAND FUNCTION: A PLANNING TOOL FOR PROTECTION OF WETLAND SPECIES DIVERSITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present a synoptic assessment intended to maximize the benefits to wetland species biodiversity gained through Clean Water Act regulatory efforts within 225 sub-basins in Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 7), USA. Our assessment...

  10. Stochastic representation of fire behavior in a wildland fire protection planning model for California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Keith Gilless; Jeremy S. Fried

    1998-01-01

    A fire behavior module was developed for the California Fire Economics Simulator version 2 (CFES2), a stochastic simulation model of initial attack on wildland fire used by the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection. Fire rate of spread (ROS) and fire dispatch level (FDL) for simulated fires "occurring" on the same day are determined by making...

  11. The Effectiveness of Public Participation in Developing and Implementing Tourism Plans for Two Peruvian Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Cruz-Novey, H. Alicia

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades protected area management approaches have experienced a shift from top-down management models to more diverse governance approaches that involve various forms and degrees of participation from local populations. These new participatory approaches seek to reaffirm cultural values, maintain cultural landscapes, recognize the…

  12. Using regional bird density distribution models to evaluate protected area networks and inform conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Alexander; Jaime L. Stephens; Sam Veloz; Leo Salas; Josée S. Rousseau; C. John Ralph; Daniel A. Sarr

    2017-01-01

    As data about populations of indicator species become available, proactive strategies that improve representation of biological diversity within protected area networks should consider finer-scaled evaluations, especially in regions identified as important through course-scale analyses. We use density distribution models derived from a robust regional bird...

  13. 77 FR 15121 - Final Land Protection Plan and Final Environmental Assessment for Everglades Headwaters National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... State, Federal, and municipal ownership and management. We would not pursue new opportunities for refuge... provide quality habitats for native wildlife diversity and at-risk species; to enhance water quality... conservation area would be created. Habitat protection and management would continue by existing organizations...

  14. 76 FR 2700 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Goal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... Programs Directorate (NPPD)/Office of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C)/Office of Emergency Communications (OEC) will submit the following Information Collection Request to the Office of Management and... Directorate; National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Goal 2 Performance Report AGENCY: National...

  15. Office of River Protection Integrated Safety Management System Phase 1 Verification Corrective Action Plan; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CLARK, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan is to demonstrate the OW planned and/or completed actions to implement ISMS as well as prepare for the RPP ISMS Phase II Verification scheduled for August, 1999. This Plan collates implied or explicit ORP actions identified in several key ISMS documents and aligns those actions and responsibilities perceived necessary to appropriately disposition all ISM Phase II preparation activities specific to the ORP. The objective will be to complete or disposition the corrective actions prior to the commencement of the ISMS Phase II Verification. Improvement products/tasks not slated for completion prior to the RPP Phase II verification will be incorporated as corrective actions into the Strategic System Execution Plan (SSEP) Gap Analysis. Many of the business and management systems that were reviewed in the ISMS Phase I verification are being modified to support the ORP transition and are being assessed through the SSEP. The actions and processes identified in the SSEP will support the development of the ORP and continued ISMS implementation as committed to be complete by end of FY-2000

  16. Office of River Protection Integrated Safety Management System Phase 1 Verification Corrective Action Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CLARK, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan is to demonstrate the OW planned and/or completed actions to implement ISMS as well as prepare for the RPP ISMS Phase II Verification scheduled for August, 1999. This Plan collates implied or explicit ORP actions identified in several key ISMS documents and aligns those actions and responsibilities perceived necessary to appropriately disposition all ISM Phase II preparation activities specific to the ORP. The objective will be to complete or disposition the corrective actions prior to the commencement of the ISMS Phase II Verification. Improvement products/tasks not slated for completion prior to the RPP Phase II verification will be incorporated as corrective actions into the Strategic System Execution Plan (SSEP) Gap Analysis. Many of the business and management systems that were reviewed in the ISMS Phase I verification are being modified to support the ORP transition and are being assessed through the SSEP. The actions and processes identified in the SSEP will support the development of the ORP and continued ISMS implementation as committed to be complete by end of FY-2000

  17. River Protection Project waste feed delivery program technical performance measurement assessment plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'TOOLE, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    This plan establishes a formal technical performance-monitoring program. Technical performance is assessed by establishing requirements based performance goals at the beginning of a program and routinely evaluating progress in meeting these goals at predetermined milestones throughout the project life cycle

  18. Riparian area protection and outdoor recreation: lessons from the Northwest Forest Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick Impero Wilson; Troy E. Hall; Linda E. Kruger

    2012-01-01

    The Northwest Forest Plan required the US Forest Service (USFS) to shift its management focus to ecological values rather than the utilitarian ones that had dominated forest policy in the region. This article examines the effects of this shift on the USFS's historic mission to provide recreational access to the region's forests. Focusing on six national...

  19. The ozone backlash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taubes, G.

    1993-01-01

    While evidence for the role of chlorofluorocarbons in ozone depletion grows stronger, researchers have recently been subjected to vocal public criticism of their theories-and their motives. Their understanding of the mechanisms of ozone destruction-especially the annual ozone hole that appears in the Antarctic-has grown stronger, yet everywhere they go these days, they seem to be confronted by critics attacking their theories as baseless. For instance, Rush Limbaugh, the conservative political talk-show host and now-best-selling author of The Way Things Ought to Be, regularly insists that the theory of ozone depletion by CFCs is a hoax: bladerdash and poppycock. Zoologist Dixy Lee Ray, former governor of the state of Washington and former head of the Atomic Energy Commission, makes the same argument in her book, Trashing the Planet. The Wall Street Journal and National Review have run commentaries by S. Fred Singer, a former chief scientists for the Department of Transportation, purporting to shoot holes in the theory of ozone depletion. Even the June issue of Omni, a magazine with a circulation of more than 1 million that publishes a mixture of science and science fiction, printed a feature article claiming to expose ozone research as a politically motivated scam

  20. Ozone depletion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, F.M.; Chang, J.S.; Wuebbles, D.J.; Penner, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Models of stratospheric chemistry have been primarily directed toward an understanding of the behavior of stratospheric ozone. Initially this interest reflected the diagnostic role of ozone in the understanding of atmospheric transport processes. More recently, interest in stratospheric ozone has arisen from concern that human activities might affect the amount of stratospheric ozone, thereby affecting the ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's surface and perhaps also affecting the climate with various potentially severe consequences for human welfare. This concern has inspired a substantial effort to develop both diagnostic and prognostic models of stratospheric ozone. During the past decade, several chemical agents have been determined to have potentially significant impacts on stratospheric ozone if they are released to the atmosphere in large quantities. These include oxides of nitrogen, oxides of hydrogen, chlorofluorocarbons, bromine compounds, fluorine compounds and carbon dioxide. In order to assess the potential impact of the perturbations caused by these chemicals, mathematical models have been developed to handle the complex coupling between chemical, radiative, and dynamical processes. Basic concepts in stratospheric modeling are reviewed

  1. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  2. Chloroplastic and stomatal aspects of ozone-induced reduction of net photosynthesis in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsethaugen, Gro

    1998-09-01

    The present thesis relates to ozone-induced reduction of photosynthesis in plants. As a photochemical oxidant O{sub 3} is formed by the interaction of hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and oxygen in sunlight. Ozone (O{sub 3}) is the most phytotoxic of all the air pollutants and is known to reduce plant growth and net photosynthesis, cause stomatal closure, induce visible injury, accelerate senescence and induce or inhibit transcription of a variety of genes with a corresponding increase/decrease in protein products. The underlying cellular mechanisms for many of these changes are unknown. Following fields are investigated: Ozone-induced reduction of net photosynthesis; ozone and the photosynthetic apparatus in the chloroplasts; ozone and stomata; ozone effects on plant membranes; protection against ozone injury in plants. 249 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Office of River Protection Advanced Low-Activity Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A. A.; Peeler, D. K.; Kim, D. S.; Vienna, J. D.; Piepel, G. F.; Schweiger, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has initiated and leads an integrated Advanced Waste Glass (AWG) program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product performance requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation for making key decisions regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities in the context of an optimized River Protection Project (RPP) flowsheet. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key product performance and process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste vitrification facilities. These activities will be conducted with the objective of improving the overall RPP mission by enhancing flexibility and reducing cost and schedule.

  4. Office of River Protection Advanced Low-Activity Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, A. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peeler, D. K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kim, D. S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vienna, J. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Piepel, G. F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schweiger, M. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has initiated and leads an integrated Advanced Waste Glass (AWG) program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product performance requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation for making key decisions regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities in the context of an optimized River Protection Project (RPP) flowsheet. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key product performance and process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste vitrification facilities. These activities will be conducted with the objective of improving the overall RPP mission by enhancing flexibility and reducing cost and schedule.

  5. Planning for the next generation : ten principles for climate protection and innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boston, A.

    2004-05-01

    This paper proposed 10 principles upon which Canada can base its action plan to achieve the Kyoto target. The following 10 principles were discussed in detail: (1) take advantage of smart regulation, (2) establish a central implementation agency, (3) design a transparent, fair and effective system for large emitters, (4) renew the principle of equitable burden sharing, (5) contain Canada's major drivers of climate change, (6) develop an innovative sustainable energy agenda, (7) implement Kyoto with a long-term vision, (8) start planning from an energy end-use perspective, (9) consult fairly, with focus and timeliness, and (10) take leadership. The key criteria for Kyoto implementation were listed as: efficacy, cost, co-benefits, broader sustainability, industrial vision, precedent, leverage, synergy, public engagement, just transition, and prevention of climate change. 34 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  6. Application of protective distances in vicinity of dangerous facilities in urban and spatial plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Božidar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental risk management in production, use and transportation of dangerous materials having been actual theme in the world and in Serbia. Although environmental risk is mostly connected with technical issues, since chemical catastrophe in Bophal-lndia (1986 in the world was recognized that this is complex issue that besides of technical-technological, includes also social-economic, organizational and spatial factors. Spatial component of risk management which is regulated by Seveso II Directive in EU is important for planners. This paper considers basic elements of environmental risk assessment, procedures and methods used in Europe, particularly in the process of land use planning, and characteristics of method for application of separation distances used in General plan of Belgrade.

  7. Community involvement in planning and management for outdoor recreation in New Zealand protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Sutton; Gordon Cessford

    2007-01-01

    Managing New Zealand’s protected natural and historic heritage falls largely on the Department of Conservation (DOC), which manages close to a third of the country’s land area and increasing proportions of the coastal/marine setting. Providing public access to this shared heritage through a range of recreation opportunities is a key management outcome for DOC. This...

  8. ALARA radiation protection applications at NPP A1 decommissioning using VISPLAN planning tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavik, O.; Kucharova, D.; Listjak, M.

    2005-01-01

    The SCK.CEN developed during the BR3 reactor decommissioning a graphical interfaced 3D dose assessment tool aimed at the above mentioned dose optimization problems. The tool was improved further and commercialized under the name VISIPLAN 3D ALARA planning tool. The use of VISIPLAN tool at NPP A1 decommissioning was advised by EDF within the IAEA TCP SLR/4008 project missions as a component of a 3D technological chain ensuring acquisition and evaluation of digitized information leading to ALARA optimisation of the developed decommissioning working procedures (see Fig. 1). VISIPLAN license was purchased by IAEA and granted to VUJE and NPP A1 within the IAEA TCP project SLR/4008, covering also the necessary basic and advanced training (at NPP A1 real decommissioning environment), and is currently used by VUJE analysts at NPP A1 decommissioning as an ALARA tool for intervention planning and optimisation. The VISIPLAN allows a fast dose assessment for work planned in a radioactive environment. The calculations are based on a 3D model of the work place. This PC-based tool is user friendly and calculates a detailed dose account for different work scenarios defined by the ALARA analyst, taking into account worker position, work duration and subsequent geometry and source distribution changes. The VISIPLAN methodology is described. The VISIPLAN tool was applied to several ALARA studies carried out by the VUJE within development and analysis of various Work Programs for NPP Al decommissioning tasks. The applications ranged from simpler to complex ALARA planning tasks covering simple shielding applications to selection of the most suitable order of complex working procedures. Removal of inner liners from underground reservoirs 6/1 and 6/2 as well as Dismantling of pipes and components from a (hostile) 60 m corridor are described. (authors)

  9. Provincial-level Land Consolidation and Ecological Environment Protection Based on the Perspective of Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chen; Liu, Xin-feng; Peng, Zhe; Si, Tao; Yang, Lin-li

    2012-01-01

    Based on the understanding of current land ecological environment in Anhui Province, we mainly analyze the relationship between land consolidation planning and ecological environment, and point out the problems concerning ecological environment, such as great soil erosion, serious soil pollution, frequent geological disasters in local areas, and forest vegetation destruction. We divide the key ecological function conservation areas into the following areas: River Source Area, River and Flood ...

  10. River Protection Project (RPP) Immobilized High-Level Waste (HLW) Interim Storage Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRIGGS, M.G.

    2000-01-01

    This document replaces HNF-1751, Revision 1. It incorporates updates to reflect changes in programmatic direction associated with the vitrification plant contract and associated DOE-ORP guidance. In addition it includes planning associated with failed/used melter and sample handling and disposition work scope. The document also includes format modifications and section numbering update consistent with CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. procedures

  11. Treatment plan for protection of cultural resources for the 100-KR-4 pump-and-treat project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The 100-K Reactor Area is located on the southern shore of the Columbia River at the northern edge of the Hanford Site. The K-East and K-West reactors operated from 1955 to 1971 as part of the US efforts to produce weapons grade nuclear materials. Reactor operations required the use of water from the Columbia River to cool the reactors. Occasionally, reactor equipment would malfunction causing radioactive contamination in the cooling water. On these occasions, rather than being discharged to the Columbia River, the water was discharged to a trench, approximately 1.61 km (1 mi) long, located to the east of the reactor area. This discharged cooling water, in addition to being radioactively contaminated, also contained significant quantities of chromium that had been used to prevent corrosion within the reactors, After the cooling water had been discharged into the trench, it percolated into the ground and traveled toward the Columbia River via the groundwater flow. Current interim remediation activities planned for this part of the 100-K Area are focused on protecting the Columbia River by pumping the chromium contaminated groundwater to a treatment system. The treated water will then be pumped back into the ground upstream of the trench. This document describes how the planned construction activities have been modified to protect the extremely sensitive cultural resources in the area.

  12. Treatment plan for protection of cultural resources for the 100-KR-4 pump-and-treat project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The 100-K Reactor Area is located on the southern shore of the Columbia River at the northern edge of the Hanford Site. The K-East and K-West reactors operated from 1955 to 1971 as part of the US efforts to produce weapons grade nuclear materials. Reactor operations required the use of water from the Columbia River to cool the reactors. Occasionally, reactor equipment would malfunction causing radioactive contamination in the cooling water. On these occasions, rather than being discharged to the Columbia River, the water was discharged to a trench, approximately 1.61 km (1 mi) long, located to the east of the reactor area. This discharged cooling water, in addition to being radioactively contaminated, also contained significant quantities of chromium that had been used to prevent corrosion within the reactors, After the cooling water had been discharged into the trench, it percolated into the ground and traveled toward the Columbia River via the groundwater flow. Current interim remediation activities planned for this part of the 100-K Area are focused on protecting the Columbia River by pumping the chromium contaminated groundwater to a treatment system. The treated water will then be pumped back into the ground upstream of the trench. This document describes how the planned construction activities have been modified to protect the extremely sensitive cultural resources in the area

  13. Sequential planning of flood protection infrastructure under limited historic flood record and climate change uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittes, Beatrice; Špačková, Olga; Straub, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Flood protection is often designed to safeguard people and property following regulations and standards, which specify a target design flood protection level, such as the 100-year flood level prescribed in Germany (DWA, 2011). In practice, the magnitude of such an event is only known within a range of uncertainty, which is caused by limited historic records and uncertain climate change impacts, among other factors (Hall & Solomatine, 2008). As more observations and improved climate projections become available in the future, the design flood estimate changes and the capacity of the flood protection may be deemed insufficient at a future point in time. This problem can be mitigated by the implementation of flexible flood protection systems (that can easily be adjusted in the future) and/or by adding an additional reserve to the flood protection, i.e. by applying a safety factor to the design. But how high should such a safety factor be? And how much should the decision maker be willing to pay to make the system flexible, i.e. what is the Value of Flexibility (Špačková & Straub, 2017)? We propose a decision model that identifies cost-optimal decisions on flood protection capacity in the face of uncertainty (Dittes et al. 2017). It considers sequential adjustments of the protection system during its lifetime, taking into account its flexibility. The proposed framework is based on pre-posterior Bayesian decision analysis, using Decision Trees and Markov Decision Processes, and is fully quantitative. It can include a wide range of uncertainty components such as uncertainty associated with limited historic record or uncertain climate or socio-economic change. It is shown that since flexible systems are less costly to adjust when flood estimates are changing, they justify initially lower safety factors. Investigation on the Value of Flexibility (VoF) demonstrates that VoF depends on the type and degree of uncertainty, on the learning effect (i.e. kind and quality of

  14. Ground-level ozone: Our new environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiff, H.

    1991-01-01

    The environmental problem of ground level ozone is discussed, and the Canadian strategy for dealing with it is explained. Ozone in the troposphere can cause serious health problems in susceptible persons, and is estimated to cause up to $70 million in crop damage per year. The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) Plan calls for less than 82 ppB by volume of ozone in any one-hour period in all areas of Canada by 2005. Three areas of Canada regularly exceed this value: the Lower Frazer valley in British Columbia, Saint John in New Brunswick, and the Windsor-Quebec corridor along the lower Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River. Ozone is formed by a photochemical reaction of ammonia gases, nitrogen oxides, hydrogen sulfide or sulfur dioxide. Historically, ozone control has concentrated on controlling hydrocarbon emissions, but to little effect. In most locations close to large cities, ozone production is nitrogen oxide-limited, and the most recent models predict that the best strategy for ozone reduction requires the simultaneous reduction of both hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides. The CCME Management Plan suggests that the 82 ppB ozone target will require a reduction of 40-50% in nitrogen oxide emissions. The Windsor end of the Windsor-Quebec corridor is dominated by transport of ozone and precursors from the USA, particularly Detroit and Cleveland, so Canadian controls alone are unlikely to solve the problem. For the rest of the corridor, nitrogen oxide control is likely to be most effective in urban areas. 1 fig

  15. On the ecological relevance of landscape mapping and its application in the spatial planning of very large marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Oliver T; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Griffiths, Huw J; Linse, Katrin

    2018-06-01

    In recent years very large marine protected areas (VLMPAs) have become the dominant form of spatial protection in the marine environment. Whilst seen as a holistic and geopolitically achievable approach to conservation, there is currently a mismatch between the size of VLMPAs, and the data available to underpin their establishment and inform on their management. Habitat mapping has increasingly been adopted as a means of addressing paucity in biological data, through use of environmental proxies to estimate species and community distribution. Small-scale studies have demonstrated environmental-biological links in marine systems. Such links, however, are rarely demonstrated across larger spatial scales in the benthic environment. As such, the utility of habitat mapping as an effective approach to the ecosystem-based management of VLMPAs remains, thus far, largely undetermined. The aim of this study was to assess the ecological relevance of broadscale landscape mapping. Specifically we test the relationship between broad-scale marine landscapes and the structure of their benthic faunal communities. We focussed our work at the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia, site of one of the largest MPAs in the world. We demonstrate a statistically significant relationship between environmentally derived landscape mapping clusters, and the composition of presence-only species data from the region. To demonstrate this relationship required specific re-sampling of historical species occurrence data to balance biological rarity, biological cosmopolitism, range-restricted sampling and fine-scale heterogeneity between sampling stations. The relationship reveals a distinct biological signature in the faunal composition of individual landscapes, attributing ecological relevance to South Georgia's environmentally derived marine landscape map. We argue therefore, that landscape mapping represents an effective framework for ensuring representative protection of habitats in management

  16. Understanding Factors Associated with Singaporean Adolescents' Intention to Adopt Privacy Protection Behavior Using an Extended Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shirley S; Lwin, May O; Yee, Andrew Z H; Lee, Edmund W J

    2017-09-01

    Using an extended theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study explores how the original TPB variables (attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control), personality traits, privacy concern, past privacy protection behaviors (PPBs), as well as parental mediation strategies relate to adolescents' intention to engage in privacy protection measures. We administered a cross-sectional survey to a nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 4,920) in Singapore. The sample comprised 50.5 percent females and 49.5 percent males with age ranging from 13 to 21 years (M = 14.73). Results from the hierarchical regression analysis showed that the proposed extended TPB model received partial support. Subjective norms, among the TPB and other factors, have the strongest relationship with adolescents' intention to engage in PPBs on social network sites. Adolescents' privacy concern and their past PPBs are more important in influencing their future PPB compared with personality traits such as neuroticism and extraversion. Adolescents whose parents have engaged in regulated parental mediation are more likely to protect their privacy on SNSs compared with adolescents whose parents have adopted active mediation style.

  17. Lessons from the Ozone Hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedick, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    On September 16, 1987, a treaty was signed that was unique in that annals of international diplomacy. The Montreal Protocol on substrates that Deplete the Ozone Layer mandated significant reductions in the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons. Perhaps the most extraordinary aspect of the Montreal Protocol was that it imposed substantial short-term economic costs in order to protect human health and the environment against speculative future dangers - dangers which rested on scientific theories rather than on proven facts. Unlike environmental agreements of the past, it was not a response to harmful events, but rather preventive action on a global scale. In the realm of international relations, there will always be resistance to change and there will always be uncertainties - political, economic, scientific, psychological. The ozone negotiations demonstrated that the international community, even in the real world of ambiguity and imperfect knowledge, can be capable of undertaking difficult cooperative actions for the benefit of future generation. The Montreal Protocol may well be a paradigm for international cooperation on the challenge of global warming

  18. Ozone modeling within plasmas for ozone sensor applications

    OpenAIRE

    Arshak, Khalil; Forde, Edward; Guiney, Ivor

    2007-01-01

    peer-reviewed Ozone (03) is potentially hazardous to human health and accurate prediction and measurement of this gas is essential in addressing its associated health risks. This paper presents theory to predict the levels of ozone concentration emittedfrom a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma for ozone sensing applications. This is done by postulating the kinetic model for ozone generation, with a DBD plasma at atmospheric pressure in air, in the form of a set of rate equations....

  19. Table-top trainings in radiation protection. Educational element or emergency planning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolar, A.

    2009-01-01

    Education plays an important role in emergency management to prepare members of all levels of management for the worst case scenario. The mission that organizations have to deal with, is based on the application of fundamental knowledge, accumulated know-how and knowledge of the intersections and abilities of the participating organizations. An effective, safe and resource-saving way to get effective help in preparing disasters are table-top trainings. What great warlords helped to win centuries ago, is now increasingly anchored on a statutory basis and introduced in the emergency planning. (orig.)

  20. Ozone as a possible radiomimetic gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, R; Lamberts, H B

    1958-01-01

    Decrease in cutaneous oxygen consumption after partial inactivation of relevant enzymes by hyperoxia, UV irradiation, and, in these experiments, ozone (0.1 to 1.0 ppM) was observed. Cysteamine, protective in moderate x irradiation and in hyperoxia affect on cutaneous O/sub 2/ consumption, also negated the effect of O/sub 3/. This suggests radiomimetic properties for O/sub 3/.

  1. CONTRIBUTION TO INDOOR OZONE LEVELS OF AN OZONE GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report gives results of a study of a commonly used commercially available ozone generator, undertaken to determine its impact on indoor ozone levels. xperiment were conducted in a typical mechanically ventilated office and in a test house. he generated ozone and the in-room ...

  2. Multiobjective planning of distribution networks incorporating switches and protective devices using a memetic optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pombo, A. Vieira; Murta-Pina, João; Pires, V. Fernão

    2015-01-01

    A multi-objective planning approach for the reliability of electric distribution networks using a memetic optimization is presented. In this reliability optimization, the type of the equipment (switches or reclosers) and their location are optimized. The multiple objectives considered to find the optimal values for these planning variables are the minimization of the total equipment cost and at the same time the minimization of two distribution network reliability indexes. The reliability indexes are the system average interruption frequency index (SAIFI) and system average interruption duration index (SAIDI). To solve this problem a memetic evolutionary algorithm is proposed, which combines the Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II) with a local search algorithm. The obtained Pareto-optimal front contains solutions of different trade-offs with respect to the three objectives. A real distribution network is used to test the proposed algorithm. The obtained results show that this approach allows the utility to obtain the optimal type and location of the equipments to achieve the best reliability with the lower cost. - Highlights: • Reliability indexes SAIFI and SAIDI and Equipment Cost are optimized. • Optimization of equipment type, number and location on a MV network. • Memetic evolutionary algorithm with a local search algorithm is proposed. • Pareto optimal front solutions with respect to the three objective functions

  3. Ozone pollution affects flower numbers and timing in a simulated BAP priority calcareous grassland community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, Felicity; Williamson, Jennifer; Mills, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Mesocosms representing the BAP Priority habitat ‘Calcareous Grassland’ were exposed to eight ozone profiles for twelve-weeks in two consecutive years. Half of the mesocosms received a reduced watering regime during the exposure periods. Numbers and timing of flowering in the second exposure period were related to ozone concentration and phytotoxic ozone dose (accumulated stomatal flux). For Lotus corniculatus, ozone accelerated the timing of the maximum number of flowers. An increase in mean ozone concentration from 30 ppb to 70 ppb corresponded with an advance in the timing of maximum flowering by six days. A significant reduction in flower numbers with increasing ozone was found for Campanula rotundifolia and Scabiosa columbaria and the relationship with ozone was stronger for those that were well-watered than for those with reduced watering. These changes in flowering timing and numbers could have large ecological impacts, affecting plant pollination and the food supply of nectar feeding insects. - Highlights: ► An increase in ozone accelerated timing of maximum flowering in Lotus corniculatus. ► Ozone reduced flower numbers in Campanula rotundifolia and Scabiosa columbaria. ► Reduced water availability did not protect most species from the effects of ozone. - Increased tropospheric ozone affected timing of flowering and maximum flower numbers in calcareous grassland mesocosms.

  4. Air Quality Guide for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    GO! Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Air Quality Guide for Ozone Ground-level ozone is one of our nation’s most common air pollutants. Use the chart below to help reduce ...

  5. Health Effects of Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhaling ozone can cause coughing, shortness of breath, worse asthma or bronchitis symptoms, and irritation and damage to airways.You can reduce your exposure to ozone pollution by checking air quality where you live.

  6. Modelling of stomatal conductance and ozone deposition flux of Norway Spruce using deposition model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletal, M.; Chroust, P.; Večeřa, Zbyněk; Mikuška, Pavel; Cudlín, Pavel; Urban, Otmar; Pokorný, Radek; Czerný, Radek; Janouš, Dalibor; Taufarová, Klára

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 12, 2-3 (2009), s. 75-81 ISSN 1335-339X R&D Projects: GA MŽP SP/1B7/189/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : ozone concentration * ozone deposition * stomatal conductance * deposition velocity * resistance model * tropo-spheric ozone Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  7. The influence of climate change on stomatal ozone flux to a mountain Norway spruce forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletal, M.; Pretel, J.; Chroust, P.; Cudlín, Pavel; Edwards-Jonášová, Magda; Urban, Otmar; Pokorný, Radek; Czerný, Radek; Hůnová, I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 169, OCT 2012 (2012), s. 267-273 ISSN 0269-7491 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk OC10022; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Stomatal ozone flux * AOT40 * Phytotoxic Ozone Dose * Norway spruce * Net ecosystem production * Ozone * Climate change Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  8. Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program: Groundwater and surface water sampling and analysis plan for Calendar Year 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 1998 at the Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant. These monitoring activities are managed by the Y-12 Plant Environmental Compliance Organization through the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 1998 will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located within Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of the Y-12 Plant. Groundwater and surface water monitoring will be performed during CY 1998 to comply with: (1) requirements specified in Resource Conservation and Recover Act (RCRA) post-closure permits regarding RCRA corrective action monitoring and RCRA detection monitoring; (2) Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation regulations governing detection monitoring at nonhazardous solid waste management facilities; and (3) DOE Order 5400.1 surveillance monitoring and exit pathway monitoring. Data from some of the sampling locations in each regime will be used to meet the requirements of more than one of the monitoring drivers listed above. Modifications to the CY 1998 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. For example, changes in regulatory requirements may alter the parameters specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 Plant GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  9. Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2000 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant that will be managed by tie Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2000 will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of the Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant GWPP during CY 2000 will comply with: Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation regulations governing detection monitoring at nonhazardous Solid Waste Disposal Facilities (SWDF); and DOE Order 5400.1 surveillance monitoring and exit pathway/perimeter monitoring. Some of the data collected for these monitoring drivers also will be used to meet monitoring requirements of the Integrated Water Quality Program, which is managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC. Data from five wells that are monitored for SWDF purposes in the Chestnut Ridge Regime will be used to comply with requirements specified in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act post closure permit regarding corrective action monitoring. Modifications to the CY 2000 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in regulatory or programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be added or removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 Plant GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  10. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental, LLC

    2011-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2012 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2012 is in accordance with the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2012 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. Each modification to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as an addendum to this sampling and analysis plan. The following sections of this report provide details regarding

  11. State planning policy 2/07: protection of extractive resources results in certainty of materials supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    Extractive resources are primary source materials used for building infrastructure such as roads, ports, airports, bridges, railways, factories, hospitals, schools and homes. The Policy seeks to protect those essential and finite construction materials for future and existing extraction purposes. Population increases in south-east Queensland the upgrading of rail and port facilities to export coal and other minerals will form a major part in the expansion of extractive industry. Over $4 billion has been committed by the Government and industry to coal infrastructure developments such as upgrades at RG Tanna, Barney Point and the proposed Wiggins Island coal terminals at Gladstone, the Dalryample Bay and Hay Point terminals near Mackay and the Abbot Point coal terminal near Bower. The new Bauhinia regional railway will service the Rolleston coal mines.

  12. Activities and future plans of the international commission on non-ionizing radiation protection (ICNIRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    ICNIRP is an independent scientific organisation chartered by IRPA in May 1992. At that time ICNIRP took over the responsibility for Non-Ionizing Radiation (NIR) protection from its predecessor, the International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee (INIRC) of IRPA, that commenced its work in 1977. ICNIRP was established for the purpose of advancing non-ionizing radiation protection for the benefit of people and the environment and in particular to provide guidance and recommendations on protection from non-ionising radiation exposure. Membership of ICNIRP comprises a Chairman, Vice-Chairman and up to twelve additional members. In addition, ICNIRP is served by four standing committees on Epidemiology, Biology, Physics and Optics. Members are selected on the basis of their independence, specialist expertise and geographical distribution. More information and a list of publications are available through ICNIRP's web page (http://www.icnirp.de). A revision of the Laser Guidelines were published in Health Physics in October 96, a confirmation of the UV-Guidelines in 12/96; guidelines on visible and infrared radiation in 9/97 and Guidelines on limiting exposure to electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields in 4/98. A revision of the Laser Guidelines is under consideration. Statements on health issues on radiotelephones and base transmitters were published in 4/96; about the Global Solar UV Index in 1/95 and on Laser pointers in 8/99. Statements on Light Emitting Diodes and on Pulsed Magnetic Fields are under consideration. A document on a General Approach to Protection against NIR will be finalized in 4/2000. Cooperation with International Organisations. The national societies of IRPA are involved in the review process of the draft ICNIRP guidelines. WHO is one of the most important INCIRP partners. Main issues are the WHO EMF Project and INTERSUN project and the collaboration in health risk assessment of exposure to NIR: Symposia on static, low and high frequency EMF

  13. Inter-Enterprise Planning of Manufacturing Systems Applying Simulation with IPR Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertins, Kai; Rabe, Markus

    Discrete Event Simulation is a well-proved method to analyse the dynamic behaviour of manufacturing systems. However, simulation application is still poor for external supply chains or virtual enterprises, encompassing several legal entities. Most conventional simulation systems provide no means to protect intellectual property rights (IPR), nor methods to support cross-enterprise teamwork. This paper describes a solution to keep enterprise models private, but still provide their functionality for cross-enterprise evaluation purposes. Applying the new modelling system, the inter-enterprise business process is specified by the user, including a specification of the objects exchanged between the local models. The required environment for a distributed simulation is generated automatically. The mechanisms have been tested with a large supply chain model.

  14. Protection of Landscape Values of Historical Post Military Objects - Complexes in Spatial, Urban and Architectural Planning of Polish Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawryluk, Dorota; Zagroba, Marek

    2017-12-01

    should result in appropriate records at all levels of planning documents to protect the fortified landscape of the historic barracks. The article points to the use of greenery as a means to correct barracks exposures and to improve the standard of using historic complexes for new, contemporary functions.

  15. The Problems of Planning a Timetable for Transport by Road in Terms of Theft Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnap Jozef

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In each transport, it is necessary to take into account the risks that may occur during transport. Most of these risks are associated with criminal activity, whether on a shipment, the driver himself or the vehicles used in potentially hazardous segments. The aim is to design a planning and verification process on a selected route or routes within Europe. The proposed transport route starts with load in the Kechnec Industrial Park and continues with two unloadings in Teplička nad Váhom in the Kia Motors Slovakia and in the town of Wolfsburg in the Volkswagen The transport route was designed in three alternatives by internet application Map&Guide.

  16. Fire protection program fiscal year 1995 site support program plan, Hanford Fire Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good, D.E.

    1994-09-01

    The mission of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating emergency situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. This includes response to surrounding fire departments/districts under a mutual aid agreement and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System). The fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing and maintenance, self-contained breathing apparatus maintenance, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention education. This report describes the specific responsibilities and programs that the HFD must support and the estimated cost of this support for FY1995

  17. Fire Protection Program fiscal year 1996, site support program plan Hanford Fire Department. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good, D.E.

    1995-09-01

    The mission of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating emergency situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. This includes response to surrounding fire departments/districts under a mutual aid agreement and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System). The fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing and maintenance, self-contained breathing apparatus maintenance, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention education. This report gives a program overview, technical program baselines, and cost and schedule baseline

  18. Cooling tower water ozonation at Southern University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.C.; Knecht, A.T.; Trahan, D.B.; Yaghi, H.M.; Jackson, G.H.; Coppenger, G.D.

    1990-01-01

    Cooling-tower water is a critical utility for many industries. In the past, inexpensive water coupled with moderate regulation of discharge water led to the neglect of the cooling tower as an energy resource. Now, with the increased cost of chemical treatment and tough EPA rules and regulations, this situation is rapidly changing. The operator of the DOE Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge as well as many other industries are forced to develop an alternate method of water treatment. The cooling tower is one of the major elements in large energy systems. The savings accrued from a well engineered cooling tower can be a significant part of the overall energy conservation plan. During a short-term ozonation study between 1987-1988, the Y-12 Plant has been successful in eliminating the need for cooling tower treatment chemicals. However, the long-term impact was not available. Since April 1988, the ozone cooling water treatment study at the Y-12 Plant has been moved to the site at Southern University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. The purpose of this continued study is to determine whether the use of ozonation on cooling towers is practical from an economic, technical and environmental standpoint. This paper discusses system design, operating parameter and performance testing of the ozonation system at Southern University

  19. 75 FR 64675 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ...'s Approval of the El Paso Section 110(a)(1) Maintenance Plan for the 1997 8-Hour Ozone Standard... BPA State Implementation Plan (SIP), a 1997 8-hour ozone maintenance plan that includes a 2021 Motor... the 1997 8-hour ozone standard for the El Paso 1997 8-hour attainment area. DATES: Effective Date...

  20. Effect of ozone oxidative preconditioning in preventing early radiation-induced lung injury in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakkal, B.H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Gultekin, F.A. [Department of General Surgery, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Guven, B. [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Turkcu, U.O. [Mugla School of Health Sciences, Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Mugla (Turkey); Bektas, S. [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Can, M. [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2013-09-27

    Ionizing radiation causes its biological effects mainly through oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species. Previous studies showed that ozone oxidative preconditioning attenuated pathophysiological events mediated by reactive oxygen species. As inhalation of ozone induces lung injury, the aim of this study was to examine whether ozone oxidative preconditioning potentiates or attenuates the effects of irradiation on the lung. Rats were subjected to total body irradiation, with or without treatment with ozone oxidative preconditioning (0.72 mg/kg). Serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, oxidative damage markers, and histopathological analysis were compared at 6 and 72 h after total body irradiation. Irradiation significantly increased lung malondialdehyde levels as an end-product of lipoperoxidation. Irradiation also significantly decreased lung superoxide dismutase activity, which is an indicator of the generation of oxidative stress and an early protective response to oxidative damage. Ozone oxidative preconditioning plus irradiation significantly decreased malondialdehyde levels and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, which might indicate protection of the lung from radiation-induced lung injury. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta levels, which increased significantly following total body irradiation, were decreased with ozone oxidative preconditioning. Moreover, ozone oxidative preconditioning was able to ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury assessed by histopathological evaluation. In conclusion, ozone oxidative preconditioning, repeated low-dose intraperitoneal administration of ozone, did not exacerbate radiation-induced lung injury, and, on the contrary, it provided protection against radiation-induced lung damage.

  1. Effect of ozone oxidative preconditioning in preventing early radiation-induced lung injury in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakkal, B.H.; Gultekin, F.A.; Guven, B.; Turkcu, U.O.; Bektas, S.; Can, M.

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation causes its biological effects mainly through oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species. Previous studies showed that ozone oxidative preconditioning attenuated pathophysiological events mediated by reactive oxygen species. As inhalation of ozone induces lung injury, the aim of this study was to examine whether ozone oxidative preconditioning potentiates or attenuates the effects of irradiation on the lung. Rats were subjected to total body irradiation, with or without treatment with ozone oxidative preconditioning (0.72 mg/kg). Serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, oxidative damage markers, and histopathological analysis were compared at 6 and 72 h after total body irradiation. Irradiation significantly increased lung malondialdehyde levels as an end-product of lipoperoxidation. Irradiation also significantly decreased lung superoxide dismutase activity, which is an indicator of the generation of oxidative stress and an early protective response to oxidative damage. Ozone oxidative preconditioning plus irradiation significantly decreased malondialdehyde levels and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, which might indicate protection of the lung from radiation-induced lung injury. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta levels, which increased significantly following total body irradiation, were decreased with ozone oxidative preconditioning. Moreover, ozone oxidative preconditioning was able to ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury assessed by histopathological evaluation. In conclusion, ozone oxidative preconditioning, repeated low-dose intraperitoneal administration of ozone, did not exacerbate radiation-induced lung injury, and, on the contrary, it provided protection against radiation-induced lung damage

  2. Ozone bioindicator sampling and estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretchen C, Smith; William D. Smith; John W. Coulston

    2007-01-01

    Ozone is an important forest stressor that has been measured at known phytotoxic levels at forest locations across the United States. The percent forest exhibiting negative impacts from ozone air pollution is one of the Montreal Process indicators of forest health and vitality. The ozone bioindicator data of the U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Program...

  3. Ozonated Olive Oils and Troubles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Uysal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 49-50

  4. Disappearing threat to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribbin, J

    1979-02-15

    Concern that human activities might disturb the dynamic natural equilibrium of the ozone layer has stemmed from the fact that this layer plays a key part in the ecology of the earth by absorbing harmful ultraviolet radiation which would otherwise penetrate to the ground. Apparently, however, a decline of as much at 15% in total global ozone would have very little effect on climate. A 50% reduction would produce a marked cooling of the stratosphere at 40 km altitude over the tropics, but barely detectable changes in temperature and rainfall in the lower atmosphere. Therefore, biological effects of more uv light at ground level is the only hazard associated with ozone depletion on the scale which might take place.

  5. Ozonation for source treatment of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater - ozone lifetime and required ozone dose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Chhetri, Ravi Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Ozonation aimed at removing pharmaceuticals was studied in an effluent from an experimental pilot system using staged moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) tanks for the optimal biological treatment of wastewater from a medical care unit of Aarhus University Hospital. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC......) and pH in samples varied considerably, and the effect of these two parameters on ozone lifetime and the efficiency of ozone in removing pharmaceuticals were determined. The pH in the effluent varied from 5.0 to 9.0 resulting in approximately a doubling of the required ozone dose at the highest p......H for each pharmaceutical. DOC varied from 6 to 20 mg-DOC/L. The ozone required for removing each pharmaceutical, varied linearly with DOC and thus, ozone doses normalized to DOC (specific ozone dose) agreed between water samples (typically within 15%). At neutral pH the specific ozone dose required...

  6. Evaluation of ozone profile and tropospheric ozone retrievals from GEMS and OMI spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bak

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available South Korea is planning to launch the GEMS (Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer instrument into the GeoKOMPSAT (Geostationary Korea Multi-Purpose SATellite platform in 2018 to monitor tropospheric air pollutants on an hourly basis over East Asia. GEMS will measure backscattered UV radiances covering the 300–500 nm wavelength range with a spectral resolution of 0.6 nm. The main objective of this study is to evaluate ozone profiles and stratospheric column ozone amounts retrieved from simulated GEMS measurements. Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI Level 1B radiances, which have the spectral range 270–500 nm at spectral resolution of 0.42–0.63 nm, are used to simulate the GEMS radiances. An optimal estimation-based ozone profile algorithm is used to retrieve ozone profiles from simulated GEMS radiances. Firstly, we compare the retrieval characteristics (including averaging kernels, degrees of freedom for signal, and retrieval error derived from the 270–330 nm (OMI and 300–330 nm (GEMS wavelength ranges. This comparison shows that the effect of not using measurements below 300 nm on retrieval characteristics in the troposphere is insignificant. However, the stratospheric ozone information in terms of DFS decreases greatly from OMI to GEMS, by a factor of ∼2. The number of the independent pieces of information available from GEMS measurements is estimated to 3 on average in the stratosphere, with associated retrieval errors of ~1% in stratospheric column ozone. The difference between OMI and GEMS retrieval characteristics is apparent for retrieving ozone layers above ~20 km, with a reduction in the sensitivity and an increase in the retrieval errors for GEMS. We further investigate whether GEMS can resolve the stratospheric ozone variation observed from high vertical resolution Earth Observing System (EOS Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS. The differences in stratospheric ozone profiles between GEMS and MLS are comparable to those

  7. Gbm.auto: A software tool to simplify spatial modelling and Marine Protected Area planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Officer, Rick; Clarke, Maurice; Reid, David G.; Brophy, Deirdre

    2017-01-01

    Boosted Regression Trees. Excellent for data-poor spatial management but hard to use Marine resource managers and scientists often advocate spatial approaches to manage data-poor species. Existing spatial prediction and management techniques are either insufficiently robust, struggle with sparse input data, or make suboptimal use of multiple explanatory variables. Boosted Regression Trees feature excellent performance and are well suited to modelling the distribution of data-limited species, but are extremely complicated and time-consuming to learn and use, hindering access for a wide potential user base and therefore limiting uptake and usage. BRTs automated and simplified for accessible general use with rich feature set We have built a software suite in R which integrates pre-existing functions with new tailor-made functions to automate the processing and predictive mapping of species abundance data: by automating and greatly simplifying Boosted Regression Tree spatial modelling, the gbm.auto R package suite makes this powerful statistical modelling technique more accessible to potential users in the ecological and modelling communities. The package and its documentation allow the user to generate maps of predicted abundance, visualise the representativeness of those abundance maps and to plot the relative influence of explanatory variables and their relationship to the response variables. Databases of the processed model objects and a report explaining all the steps taken within the model are also generated. The package includes a previously unavailable Decision Support Tool which combines estimated escapement biomass (the percentage of an exploited population which must be retained each year to conserve it) with the predicted abundance maps to generate maps showing the location and size of habitat that should be protected to conserve the target stocks (candidate MPAs), based on stakeholder priorities, such as the minimisation of fishing effort displacement. Gbm

  8. Gbm.auto: A software tool to simplify spatial modelling and Marine Protected Area planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Dedman

    Full Text Available Marine resource managers and scientists often advocate spatial approaches to manage data-poor species. Existing spatial prediction and management techniques are either insufficiently robust, struggle with sparse input data, or make suboptimal use of multiple explanatory variables. Boosted Regression Trees feature excellent performance and are well suited to modelling the distribution of data-limited species, but are extremely complicated and time-consuming to learn and use, hindering access for a wide potential user base and therefore limiting uptake and usage.We have built a software suite in R which integrates pre-existing functions with new tailor-made functions to automate the processing and predictive mapping of species abundance data: by automating and greatly simplifying Boosted Regression Tree spatial modelling, the gbm.auto R package suite makes this powerful statistical modelling technique more accessible to potential users in the ecological and modelling communities. The package and its documentation allow the user to generate maps of predicted abundance, visualise the representativeness of those abundance maps and to plot the relative influence of explanatory variables and their relationship to the response variables. Databases of the processed model objects and a report explaining all the steps taken within the model are also generated. The package includes a previously unavailable Decision Support Tool which combines estimated escapement biomass (the percentage of an exploited population which must be retained each year to conserve it with the predicted abundance maps to generate maps showing the location and size of habitat that should be protected to conserve the target stocks (candidate MPAs, based on stakeholder priorities, such as the minimisation of fishing effort displacement.By bridging the gap between advanced statistical methods for species distribution modelling and conservation science, management and policy, these

  9. Ozone impact minimization through coordinated scheduling of turnaround operations from multiple olefin plants in an ozone nonattainment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Sijie; Wang, Sujing; Xu, Qiang; Ho, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Turnaround operations (start-up and shutdown) are critical operations in olefin plants, which emit large quantities of VOCs, NOx and CO. The emission has great potentials to impact the ozone level in ozone nonattainment areas. This study demonstrates a novel practice to minimize the ozone impact through coordinated scheduling of turnaround operations from multiple olefin plants located in Houston, Texas, an ozone nonattainment area. The study considered two olefin plants scheduled to conduct turnaround operations: one start-up and one shutdown, simultaneously on the same day within a five-hour window. Through dynamic simulations of the turnaround operations using ASPEN Plus Dynamics and air quality simulations using CAMx, the study predicts the ozone impact from the combined effect of the two turnaround operations under different starting-time scenarios. The simulations predict that the ozone impact from planned turnaround operations ranges from a maximum of 11.4 ppb to a minimum of 1.4 ppb. Hence, a reduction of up to 10.0 ppb can be achieved on a single day based on the selected two simulation days. This study demonstrates a cost-effective and environmentally benign ozone control practice for relevant stakeholders, including environmental agencies, regional plant operators, and local communities.

  10. A suggested approach for deriving risk criteria in radiation protection and land use planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.F.; Corran, E.R.

    1994-01-01

    In radiation protection, tolerability has been determined by setting a limit on the dose received recognizing that there is an unavoidable background level of radiation to which we are all exposed. This dose is sometimes associated with a cancer fatality coefficient to convert the dose to a probability of fatality, but it is recognised that fatality is not immediate but arises (if at all) many years after the exposure. In other hazardous industry, tolerability is based on satisfying annual fatality risk limits for the number of immediate fatalities. These limits vary with the type of land use proposed. This raises the questions of how such risks should be compared and, in particular, whether there is a basis for common risk measures to be derived. Unless this can be done, inappropriate comparisons will continue to be made. In this paper, a method is suggested for deriving measures of risk to individuals and to communities, both for activities involving radiation exposure and for accidents with other hazardous materials. The method is based on taking account of the difference between continuing releases and accidental transient releases. It is argued that the continuous releases, the lifetime risk is the most appropriate parameter both for radiation and hazardous material exposure. For accident situations both individual and societal risk curves can be drawn which take account of the difference between acute and latent fatalities. Some problems associated with societal risk curves are discussed and suggestions for their use given. 11 refs., 3 figs

  11. Presentation of the 2003 activity situation and radiation protection action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    The mission of I.R.S.N. concerns the metrology of ionizing radiation, the characterisation of exposure and the biological radiation effects, epidemiology, the management of data base, the means in emergency situation, the scientific networks for collaboration. The three directions of effort are: to improve the understanding of effects on man and ecosystems of chronic exposure of low level irradiation, prevention of risks linked to spiteful action, and the ability to answer in the case of radiological emergency, to contribute to evolution of practices in order to give the best possible expertise to workers at their occupational post or to patients in a medical frame. Three stakes emerge, the first one concerns the workers exposed to internal risks (inhalation of alpha emitters) and heterogenous external irradiation (doses at extremities), the second stake is the training of radiation protection actors, the third one is the knowledge of the history of doses received by workers and public because of ionizing radiations. (N.C.)

  12. Understanding safety and production risks in rail engineering planning and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John R; Ryan, Brendan; Schock, Alex; Ferreira, Pedro; Smith, Stuart; Pitsopoulos, Julia

    2009-07-01

    Much of the published human factors work on risk is to do with safety and within this is concerned with prediction and analysis of human error and with human reliability assessment. Less has been published on human factors contributions to understanding and managing project, business, engineering and other forms of risk and still less jointly assessing risk to do with broad issues of 'safety' and broad issues of 'production' or 'performance'. This paper contains a general commentary on human factors and assessment of risk of various kinds, in the context of the aims of ergonomics and concerns about being too risk averse. The paper then describes a specific project, in rail engineering, where the notion of a human factors case has been employed to analyse engineering functions and related human factors issues. A human factors issues register for potential system disturbances has been developed, prior to a human factors risk assessment, which jointly covers safety and production (engineering delivery) concerns. The paper concludes with a commentary on the potential relevance of a resilience engineering perspective to understanding rail engineering systems risk. Design, planning and management of complex systems will increasingly have to address the issue of making trade-offs between safety and production, and ergonomics should be central to this. The paper addresses the relevant issues and does so in an under-published domain - rail systems engineering work.

  13. Planning cultural heritage protection is easier than managing an actual disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdena Rosická

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient preparedness is easier to carry out comparing to dealing with consequences of disasters, anthropogenic incidents and other emergencies. Most disasters are water related, i.e. the result of flooding due to high water, water used to extinguish the fire, etc. Cultural heritage as a whole is exposed to attack from natural weathering processes, pollutants as well as water-origin disasters, fires, arson, theft, landslides or extreme weather events. In case of a disaster or any other emergency, unfortunately, no one can afford to wait for all the data and information to be entirely completed in order to make conclusions and survive a disastrous attack. When a disaster occurs and a historical object is affected, decisions must me made fast about rescue priorities, which items to save and which to sacrifice; there must be available priority lists, working guides for salvage teams as well as a disaster plan, updated lists of human resources, suppliers and service providers, lists of types and number of vehicles including passable roads available in case the movable cultural heritage evacuation becomes urgent. Emergency-response officials must be trained in measures to ensure relevant handling, conservation and care.

  14. Implementation of an action plan in radiological protection of the patient in Argentina; Implementacion de un plan de accion en proteccion radiologica del paciente en la Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelin, S; Perez, M R; Dubner, D [Laboratorio de Radiopatologia, Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250 CP 1429, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2006-07-01

    The medical irradiations constitute the main contribution to the human exposure to ionizing radiations of artificial character. The growing quantity of practices, facilities and human resources dedicated to such ends, it has increased the concern of regulator organisms and scientific societies by the radiological protection of the patient (PRP). Besides completing it regulatory function in the domains of the medical practices that its concern it, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of Argentina, decided to install an active discussion in order to promoting an action plan in PRP in the national environment. To such end, the ARN organized the First National Day on PRP in December, 2004, with the attendance of professionals of the fields of the Radiodiagnostic, the Nuclear Medicine and the Radiotherapy as well as of representatives of professional associations and authorities of health. In this day the conclusions of the International Conference on PRP (Malaga, 2001) and the approaches of the Directive 97/43/EURATOM adopted in European countries were presented. It was discussed about: practices justification, responsibility of the prescriber doctor, quality systems, dose optimization, reference levels, dosimetry, training of human resources, especially for certain practices (pregnant woman, pediatric radiology and interventionist, PR/118 tomography for the correct application of diagnostic practices and an expert presented in teleconference form the experience of France for the adoption of these guides. During the Second National Day on PRP organized by the ARN (June 2005), received opinions were debated in the different environments in relation to the PR/118 guide and it potential adaptation to the national conditions. Also it was presented the state of advance of the activities developed in relation to the proposed tasks. As a result of this meeting, it was conformed a national net of PRP to which intended to incorporate academic institutions, in order to

  15. Concepts of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This seventh chapter presents the concepts and principles of safety and radiation protection, emergency situations; NORM and TENORM; radiation protection care; radiation protection plan; activities of the radiation protection service; practical rules of radiation protection and the radiation symbol

  16. Ozone autohaemotherapy protects against ketamine hydrochloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-06

    Mar 6, 2009 ... multiple biochemical reactions that follow after treatment with O3 (Bocci, 2005). There are ... removed and the blood reinfused into the donor. Sham studies .... will inevitably decrease possible adverse effects of the high dose.

  17. Two Years of Ozone Vertical Profiles Collected from Aircraft over California and the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austerberry, D.; Yates, E. L.; Roby, M.; Chatfield, R. B.; Iraci, L. T.; Pierce, B.; Fairlie, T. D.; Johnson, B. J.; Ives, M.

    2012-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone transported across the Pacific Ocean has been strongly suggested to contribute substantially to surface ozone levels at several sites within Northern California's Sacramento Valley. Because this contribution can affect a city's ability to meet regulatory ozone limits, the influence of Pacific ozone transport has implications for air quality control strategies in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). The Alpha Jet Atmospheric Experiment is designed to collect a multi-year data set of tropospheric ozone vertical profiles. Forty-four flights with ozone profiles were conducted between February 2nd, 2011 and August 9th, 2012, and approximately ten more flights are expected in the remainder of 2012. Twenty marine air profiles have been collected at sites including Trinidad Head and two locations tens of kilometers offshore at 37° N latitude. Good agreement is seen with ozonesondes launched from Trinidad Head. Additional profiles over Merced, California were obtained on many of these flight days. These in-situ measurements were conducted during spiral descents of H211's Alpha Jet at mid-day local times using a 2B Technologies Dual Beam Ozone Monitor. Hourly surface ambient ozone data were obtained from the California Air Resources Board's SJV monitoring sites. For each site, the Pearson linear correlation coefficient was calculated between ozone in a 300m vertical layer of an offshore profile and the surface site at varying time offsets from the time of the profile. Each site's local and regional ozone production component was estimated and removed. The resulting correlations suggest instances of Pacific ozone transport following some of the offshore observations. Real-Time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) products constrained by assimilated satellite data model the transport of ozone enhancements and guide flight planning. RAQMS hindcasts also suggest that ozone transport to the surface of the SJV basin occurred following some of these offshore profiles

  18. Integrated approach to fire safety at the Krsko nuclear power plant - fire protection action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambright, J.A.; Cerjak, J.; Spiler, J.; Ioannidi, J.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (NPP Krsko) is a Westinghouse design, single-unit, 1882 Megawatt thermal (MWt), two-loop, pressurized water nuclear power plant. The fire protection program at NPP Krsko has been reviewed and reports issued recommending changes and modifications to the program, plant systems and structures. Three reports were issued, the NPP Krsko Fire Hazard Analysis (Safe Shout down Separation Analysis Report), the ICISA Analysis of Core Damage Frequency Due to Fire at the NPP Krsko and IPEEE (Individual Plant External Event Examination) related to fire risk. The Fire Hazard Analysis Report utilizes a compliance - based deterministic approach to identification of fire area hazards. This report focuses on strict compliance from the perspective of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), standards, guidelines and acceptance criteria and does not consider variations to comply with the intent of the regulations. The probabilistic analysis methide used in the ICISA and IPEEE report utilizes a risk based nad intent based approach in determining critical at-risk fire areas. NPP Krsko has already completed the following suggestions/recommendations from the above and OSART reports in order to comply with Appendix R: Installation of smoke detectors in the Control Room; Installation of Emergency Lighting in some plant areas and of Remote Shout down panels; Extension of Sound Power Communication System; Installation of Fire Annunciator Panel at the On-site Fire Brigade Station; Installation of Smoke Detection System in the (a) Main Control Room Panels, (b) Essential Service Water Building. (c) Component Cooling Building pump area, chiller area and HVAC area, (d) Auxiliary Building Safety pump rooms, (e) Fuel Handling room, (f) Intermediate Building AFFW area and compressor room, and (g) Tadwaste building; inclusion of Auxiliary operators in the Fire Brigade; training of Fire Brigade Members in Plant Operation (9 week course); Development of Fire Door Inspection and

  19. Physicochemical patterns of ozone absorption by wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamleeva, N. A.; Lunin, V. V.

    2016-11-01

    Results from studying aspen and pine wood ozonation are presented. The effect the concentration of ozone, the reagent residence time, and the content of water in a sample of wood has on ozone consumption rate and ozone demand are analyzed. The residence time is shown to determine the degree of ozone conversion degree and the depth of substrate destruction. The main patterns of ozone absorption by wood with different moisture content are found. Ways of optimizing the ozonation of plant biomass are outlined.

  20. Ozone layer - climate change interactions. Influence on UV levels and UV related effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelfkens G; Bregman A; de Gruijl FR; van der Leun JC; Piquet A; van Oijen T; Gieskes WWC; van Loveren H; Velders GJM; Martens P; Slaper H; NOP; LPI; LLO

    2002-01-01

    Ozone in the atmosphere serves as a partially protective filter against the most harmful part of the solar UV-spectrum. Decreases in ozone lead to increases in ambient UV with a wide variety of adverse effects on human health, aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and food chains. Human health

  1. 77 FR 65380 - 2012 Fall Joint Meeting of the Ozone Transport Commission and the Mid-Atlantic Northeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9745-9] 2012 Fall Joint Meeting of the Ozone Transport Commission and the Mid-Atlantic Northeast Visibility Union AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Fall Meeting of the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) and the Mid-Atlantic Northeast Visibility Union...

  2. Canada's green plan: Summary. Le plan vert du Canada: Resume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    A summary is presented of Canada's Green Plan, a comprehensive action plan to ensure a healthy environment for the future. The plan defines targets and schedules which will drive federal environmental initiatives, and incorporates concepts of sustainable development. Elements of the plan include initiatives to combat and prevent water pollution; control ocean dumping; control smog-causing emissions; provide tighter air pollution standards; provide for sound waste management according to the principles of reduce, reuse, recycle, and recover; assess and control chemical wastes; sustain Canadian forests and maintain their diversity while shifting forest management from sustained yield to sustainable development; maintain and enhance environmental sustainability in the agro-food sector and the fishery sector; preserve and protect national parks and wildlife; and preserve and enhance the integrity, health, biodiversity and productivity of Arctic ecosystems. With respect to global-scale problems, measures will be taken to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions, limit acid rain-related emissions, and phase out the use of ozone-depleting substances. The plan also intends to improve Canada's capability to respond to environmental emergencies, improve environmental decision-making by strengthening and building of partnerships, promote environmental science research and development, and make effective and balanced use of enviromental laws, with market-based approaches for environmental protection.

  3. 40 CFR 51.917 - What is the effective date of designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? 51.917 Section 51.917 Protection of... Air Quality Standard § 51.917 What is the effective date of designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? The Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area (designated on September 17...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data.... Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone. 2.1 Data Reporting and Handling Conventions... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of...

  5. Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cazorla

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A new ambient air monitor, the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS, measures directly the rate of ozone production in the atmosphere. The sensor consists of two 11.3 L environmental chambers made of UV-transmitting Teflon film, a unit to convert NO2 to O3, and a modified ozone monitor. In the sample chamber, flowing ambient air is exposed to the sunlight so that ozone is produced just as it is in the atmosphere. In the second chamber, called the reference chamber, a UV-blocking film over the Teflon film prevents ozone formation but allows other processes to occur as they do in the sample chamber. The air flows that exit the two chambers are sampled by an ozone monitor operating in differential mode so that the difference between the two ozone signals, divided by the exposure time in the chambers, gives the ozone production rate. High-efficiency conversion of NO2 to O3 prior to detection in the ozone monitor accounts for differences in the NOx photostationary state that can occur in the two chambers. The MOPS measures the ozone production rate, but with the addition of NO to the sampled air flow, the MOPS can be used to study the sensitivity of ozone production to NO. Preliminary studies with the MOPS on the campus of the Pennsylvania State University show the potential of this new technique.

  6. Our Shrinking Ozone Layer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Depletion of the ozone layer is therefore having significant effects on life on .... but there is always a net balance between the rate of formation and destruction ..... award of Commonwealth Fellowship during the present work and also being an ...

  7. Dobson ozone spectrophotometer modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komhyr, W. D.; Grass, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Description of a modified version of the Dobson ozone spectrophotometer in which several outdated electronic design features have been replaced by circuitry embodying more modern design concepts. The resulting improvement in performance characteristics has been obtained without changing the principle of operation of the original instrument.

  8. The ozone monitoring instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.R.; Mälkki, A.; Visser, H.; Vries, J. de; Stammes, P.; Lundell, J.O.V.; Saari, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flies on the National Aeronautics and Space Adminsitration's Earth Observing System Aura satellite launched in July 2004. OMI is a ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) nadir solar backscatter spectrometer, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with a spatial

  9. Ozone, greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aviam, A.M.; Arthaut, R.

    1992-01-01

    This file is made of eight general papers on environment (climates under observation, research on photo-oxidizing pollution, scientific aspects of stratospheric ozone layer, urban engineering and environment, glory of public gardens, earths not very natural, darwinism and society, economical data on environment). (A.B.). refs., 3 tabs

  10. Revisiting Antarctic Ozone Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Tritscher, Ines; Müller, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Antarctic ozone depletion is known for almost three decades and it has been well settled that it is caused by chlorine catalysed ozone depletion inside the polar vortex. However, there are still some details, which need to be clarified. In particular, there is a current debate on the relative importance of liquid aerosol and crystalline NAT and ice particles for chlorine activation. Particles have a threefold impact on polar chlorine chemistry, temporary removal of HNO3 from the gas-phase (uptake), permanent removal of HNO3 from the atmosphere (denitrification), and chlorine activation through heterogeneous reactions. We have performed simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) employing a recently developed algorithm for saturation-dependent NAT nucleation for the Antarctic winters 2011 and 2012. The simulation results are compared with different satellite observations. With the help of these simulations, we investigate the role of the different processes responsible for chlorine activation and ozone depletion. Especially the sensitivity with respect to the particle type has been investigated. If temperatures are artificially forced to only allow cold binary liquid aerosol, the simulation still shows significant chlorine activation and ozone depletion. The results of the 3-D Chemical Transport Model CLaMS simulations differ from purely Lagrangian longtime trajectory box model simulations which indicates the importance of mixing processes.

  11. Contributing to environmental protection and regional balance - Asia. Action Plan 2013-2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Asia now represents an essential engine of the world economy: more than half the world population lives in Asia and the region's international trade share is rapidly growing. At the same time, Asia's development is also critical to the future of the planet, as the region faces important challenges with local, national and global implications. Asia's rapid development is causing an exponential demand for energy, mostly met by fossil fuels. It is also putting more and more pressure on the environment, natural resources and biodiversity that are paying a heavy price for the region's booming economy. The continent produces more than a third of global greenhouse gas emissions, and 12 of the 20 most polluted cities on earth are in Asia. The social issues at stake are huge, from the challenges resulting from the exponential growth of urbanisation, to the poverty which still affects much of its population. While economic growth has resulted in a fall in extreme poverty and the rise of the middle class, more than two thirds of the world's poor live in Asia. More than six out of every ten Asians are at risk of food insecurity and almost a billion people still do not have access to electricity. In addition, conflicts and tensions, both internal and between states, represent an important threat to regional and global stability. Over the last ten years, AFD has significantly expanded its activities and financial commitments in Asia. Given the considerable contextual variety in Asian countries, AFD has adapted its positioning according to the diversity of its intervention countries. In emerging and middle-income countries, AFD has been involved in promoting green and inclusive growth, with the aim of supporting environmental protection and reducing social inequality. Between 2009 and 2011, AFD approved more than 1.5 billion euros to fund projects addressing climate change. In failed or fragile states and least developed countries, AFD has supported initiatives strengthening

  12. Investigating the Use of a Protective Coating Material as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petroleum wax is known to provide ozone protection to natural rubber under static deformation while a combination of chemical antiozonant and wax is normally used for ozone protection under dynamic conditions. The work described in this paper, aims at investigating the effectiveness of a coating material in protecting a ...

  13. PART I: Bioventing Pilot Test Work Plan for Fire Protection Training Area Site FY-03, Charleston AFB, South Carolina. PART II: Draft Interim Pilot Test Results Report for Fire Protection Training Area Site FT-03, Charleston AFB, South Carolina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    This site-specific work plan presents the scope of a bioventing pilot test for in situ treatment of fuel contaminated soils at the Fire Protection Training Area designated as Site FT-O3, Charleston Air Force Base (AFB), South Carolina...

  14. [Ozone concentration distribution of urban].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yong-quan; Li, Chang-mei; Ma, Gui-xia; Cui, Zhao-jie

    2004-11-01

    The increase of ozone concentration in urban is one of the most important research topics on environmental science. With the increase of nitrogen oxides and hydrogen-carbon compounds which are exhausted from cars, the ozone concentration in urban is obviously increased on sunlight, and threat of photochemistry smog will be possible. Therefore, it is very important to monitor and study the ozone concentration distribution in urban. The frequency-distribution, diurnal variation and monthly variation of ozone concentration were studied on the campus of Shandong University during six months monitoring. The influence of solar radiation and weather conditions on ozone concentration were discussed. The frequency of ozone concentration less than 200 microg/m3 is 96.88%. The ozone concentration has an obvious diurnal variation. The ozone concentration in the afternoon is higher than in the morning and in the evening. The maximum appears in June, when it is the strong solar radiation and high air-temperature. The weather conditions also influence the ozone concentration. The ozone concentration in clear day is higher than in rainy and cloudy day.

  15. Acute Peritonitis and Nonspecific Resistance Factors in the Administration of Ozonized Perfluorane (Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Golubev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the effect of ozonized perfluorane on the natural course of acute of fecal peritonitis and congenital (nonspecific immunity factors during its intraperitoneal administration. Materials and methods. Perfluorane and saline solution were ozonized bubbling with a mixture of ozone and oxygen at a rate of 0.5 l/min and at a preset ozone concentration of 3000 flg/l on a Medozons — BM AOT — H-01-Arz-91 ozonator (OAO «Arzamasskiy Priborostroitelnyi Zavod» for 15 minutes. The concentration of ozone was measured in the solutions on a NF 254/1 spectrophotometer. Experiments were carried out on 200 non-inbred albino male rats in 4 series of experiments. After simulating fecal peritonitis by the procedure developed by S. S. Remennik, the animals were intraperitoneally injected ozonized perfluorane (Series 1, ozonized saline solution (Series 2, perfluorane (Series 3, and saline solution (Series 4 on the basis of 1.5 ml per 100 g of weight. Nine intact rats were used as a control. Results. The congenital immunity parameters (phagocytic block, intracellular and serum bactericidal activities were studied. An association was found between the clinical course and the degree of nonspecific immunity suppression. The ozonized perfluorane was ascertained to have a more significant protective action on nonspecific immunity factors than perfluorane or the ozonized saline solution. The factors under study were significantly decreased when saline solution was administered, and with this there was a mass mortality of Series 4 rats on days 2—14 of the experiment. Conclusion. The therapeutic effect of the ozonized perfluorane is due to the activation of phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes and their increased count, to the antibacterial activity of ozone and the protective action on the nonspecific link of the body’s immunological resistance.

  16. Stakeholder perceptions of Environmental Management Plans as an environmental protection tool for major developments in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Sophie; Kemp, Simon [Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Hudson, Malcolm D., E-mail: mdh@soton.ac.uk [Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Institute for Life Sciences, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    Insufficient implementation and the lack of legislative requirements for follow-up measures following the approval of projects are consistently highlighted as major shortcomings of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Although adopted over 15 years ago by the World Bank, Environmental Management Plans (EMPs) were only semi-formalised in the UK in 2008 and arguably provide a continuous link or ‘bridge’ between the EIA process pre-consent and an Environmental Management System (EMS) post-consent. Drawing on twenty-one semi-structured interviews with stakeholders and thematic analysis of their responses, and a broad-scale practitioner survey, this study aimed to assess the effectiveness of EMPs as an environmental protection tool across the project lifecycle for major developments. The findings revealed a mixed picture of EMP effectiveness in practice, with EMPs only partially fulfilling a bridging role between EIA and EMS. There is no ‘gold standard’ terminology for EMPs, all having slightly different uses, thus presenting different focuses to different stakeholders and further enhancing variation in practice. For many stakeholders, the effectiveness was simply not known, due to the lack of communication and follow-up that still exists. EMP–EMS linkages were shown to be effective from the developer's perspective when a single organisation has involvement across all project phases, though weaknesses occur when multiple parties are involved. Among other stakeholders, knowledge varied significantly; whilst some were in agreement that the linkages worked, many were unaware of the connections and thought of them as two quite separate tools. Stakeholders advocated for the need to make EMPs a legal requirement; for improved communication between stakeholders during EMP implementation and increased documentation of project outcomes; and for EMPs to be consistently written by environmental professionals. Furthermore, weak links in the current process may be

  17. Stakeholder perceptions of Environmental Management Plans as an environmental protection tool for major developments in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Sophie; Kemp, Simon; Hudson, Malcolm D.

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient implementation and the lack of legislative requirements for follow-up measures following the approval of projects are consistently highlighted as major shortcomings of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Although adopted over 15 years ago by the World Bank, Environmental Management Plans (EMPs) were only semi-formalised in the UK in 2008 and arguably provide a continuous link or ‘bridge’ between the EIA process pre-consent and an Environmental Management System (EMS) post-consent. Drawing on twenty-one semi-structured interviews with stakeholders and thematic analysis of their responses, and a broad-scale practitioner survey, this study aimed to assess the effectiveness of EMPs as an environmental protection tool across the project lifecycle for major developments. The findings revealed a mixed picture of EMP effectiveness in practice, with EMPs only partially fulfilling a bridging role between EIA and EMS. There is no ‘gold standard’ terminology for EMPs, all having slightly different uses, thus presenting different focuses to different stakeholders and further enhancing variation in practice. For many stakeholders, the effectiveness was simply not known, due to the lack of communication and follow-up that still exists. EMP–EMS linkages were shown to be effective from the developer's perspective when a single organisation has involvement across all project phases, though weaknesses occur when multiple parties are involved. Among other stakeholders, knowledge varied significantly; whilst some were in agreement that the linkages worked, many were unaware of the connections and thought of them as two quite separate tools. Stakeholders advocated for the need to make EMPs a legal requirement; for improved communication between stakeholders during EMP implementation and increased documentation of project outcomes; and for EMPs to be consistently written by environmental professionals. Furthermore, weak links in the current process may be

  18. Adverse impacts of pasture abandonment in Himalayan protected areas: Testing the efficiency of a Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nautiyal, Sunil; Kaechele, Harald

    2007-01-01

    The high elevational areas in the Himalayas of India are dominated by forests and alpine pastures. There are many protected areas in the region, including Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR) and Valley of Flowers (VOF) where natural resource management plan (NRMP) has been implemented for the conservation of biodiversity. This has affected the traditional animal husbandry system, as well as the vegetation dynamics of alpine pastures. An integrated approach to studying the impact of NRMP in the region has been applied by us. First, a survey was conducted regarding livestock management, data pertaining the livestock husbandry, the role of animal husbandry in economics of rural household, and socioeconomics. Second, field based study on phytosociology of some important alpine herbs was done to enumerate the density and species richness in different land mark of the region. Thereafter, satellite data and Geographic Information System (GIS) were used to develop a land cover map of the area and to note changes in the landscape over time after implementation of NRMP. From an economic point of view the implementation of such plan is a setback to the rural economy. However, the ecological perspective of such models is a threat to the diversity of alpine pastures. The invasion of bushes/thorny bushes/shrubs and weeds with their luxuriant growth is changing the vegetation index and dynamics. Consequently, the diversity of herbs in alpine pastures of the Himalayan Mountains is in jeopardy. Overall, the situation is leading to landscape change in the region. This study is helpful for generating useful outcomes and strategies considering the question or debate 'is grazing good or bad for pasture ecosystems in the Himalayas?'

  19. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz,Maritza F.; Hernández,Rebeca; Martínez,Goitybell; Vidal,Genny; Gómez,Magali; Fernández,Harold; Garcés,Rafael

    2006-01-01

    In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observ...

  20. Planning protected areas network that are relevant today and under future climate change is possible: the case of Atlantic Forest endemic birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana M. Vale

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background A key strategy in biodiversity conservation is the establishment of protected areas. In the future, however, the redistribution of species in response to ongoing climate change is likely to affect species’ representativeness in those areas. Here we quantify the effectiveness of planning protected areas network to represent 151 birds endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest hotspot, under current and future climate change conditions for 2050. Methods We combined environmental niche modeling and systematic conservation planning using both a county and a regional level planning strategy. We recognized the conflict between biodiversity conservation and economic development, including socio-economic targets (as opposed to biological only and using planning units that are meaningful for policy-makers. Results We estimated an average contraction of 29,500 km2 in environmentally suitable areas for birds, representing 52% of currently suitable areas. Still, the most cost-effective solution represented almost all target species, requiring only ca. 10% of the Atlantic Forest counties to achieve that representativeness, independent of strategy. More than 50% of these counties were selected both in the current and future planned networks, representing >83% of the species. Discussion Our results indicate that: (i planning protected areas network currently can be useful to represent species under climate change; (ii the overlapped planning units in the best solution for both current and future conditions can be considered as “no regret” areas; (iii priority counties are spread throughout the biome, providing specific guidance wherever the possibility of creating protected area arises; and (iv decisions can occur at different administrative spheres (Federal, State or County as we found quite similar numerical solutions using either county or regional level strategies.

  1. Production and Transport of Ozone From Boreal Forest Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasick, David; Liu, Jane; Osman, Mohammed; Sioris, Christopher; Liu, Xiong; Najafabadi, Omid; Parrington, Mark; Palmer, Paul; Strawbridge, Kevin; Duck, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    In the summer of 2010, the BORTAS (Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites) mission was planned by several universities and government agencies in the United Kingdom, Canada, and USA. Nearly 100 ozone soundings were made at 13 stations through the BORTAS Intensive Sounding Network, although aircraft measurements were unfortunately cancelled due to the volcanic eruption in Iceland. 2010 was actually an exceptional year for Canadian boreal fires. MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) fire count data shows large fire events in Saskatchewan on several days in July. High amounts of NO2 close to the large fires are observed from OMI satellite data, indicating that not all NO2 is converted to PAN. Also associated with the fires, large amounts of CO, another precursor of ozone, are observed in MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere), AIRS and TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) satellite data in the middle to upper troposphere. These chemical conditions combined with sunny weather all favour ozone production. Following days with large fire activity, layers of elevated ozone mixing ratio (over 100 ppbv) are observed downwind at several sites. Back-trajectories suggest the elevated ozone in the profile is traceable to the fires in Saskatchewan. Lidar profiles also detect layers of aerosol at the same heights. However, the layers of high ozone are also associated with low humidity, which is not expected from a combustion source, and suggests the possibility of entrainment of stratospheric air.

  2. Protecting rare, old-growth, forest-associated species under the Survey and Manage program guidelines of the northwest forest plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy Molina; Bruce G. Marcot; Robin. Lesher

    2006-01-01

    The Survey and Manage Program of the Northwest Forest Plan (MFP) represents an unparalleled attempt to protect rare, little-known species associated with late-successional and old-growth forests on more than 7.7 million ha of federal lands. Approximately 400 species of amphibians, bryophytes, fungi, lichens, mollusks, vascular plants, arthropod functional groups, and...

  3. US EPA 2014 Ozone Season Review by Core Based Statistical Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web service contains the following layer: CBSA35_2014OzoneAQI_data. Full FGDC metadata record for this layer may be found by clicking the layer name at the web...

  4. Adrenal-derived stress hormones modulate ozone-induced lung injury and inflammation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set shows high throughput gene expression assessment using RNAseq to examine how ozone-induced transcriptional changes in the lung are influenced by...

  5. Pulmonary sensitivity to ozone exposure in sedentary versus chronically trained, female rats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Pulmonary effects to ozone with rats that have chronically exercised or have been continuously sedentary. Also includes body composition of both groups throughout...

  6. Estimating mortality risk reduction and economic benefits from controlling ozone air pollution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Estimating Mortality Risk Reduction Benefits from Decreasing Tropospheric Ozone Exposure, National Research Council

    2008-01-01

    In light of recent evidence on the relationship of ozone to mortality and questions about its implications for benefit analysis, the Environmental Protection Agency asked the National Research Council...

  7. Ozone-induced systemic and pulmonary effects are diminished in adrenalectomized rats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set is an excel file pertaining to the study that examined ozone-induced systemic and pulmonary effects in rats that underwent SHAM surgery (control),...

  8. Does the acute pulmonary response to ozone depend on the cumulative exposure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    In experimental conditions, repeated ozone exposure induces adaptive phenomena that attenuate lung function and inflammatory responses. But this study did not find that lifetime cumulative exposure had a protective effect; indeed, it found the contrary. (author)

  9. Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution Two types of air pollution dominate in the ... So what are ozone and particle pollution? Ozone Pollution It may be hard to imagine that pollution ...

  10. Upgrading Planning and Executive Strategy for Reactor Protection System and Relative Equipment in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zuyue

    2010-01-01

    Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant (QNPP) is the first nuclear power plant in China which completed the reactor protection system (RPS) upgrading with new digital safety instrumentation and control (I and C) platform instead of original analog system. At the same time,the nuclear instrumentation system (NIS) was upgraded with the same digital I and C platform. For adapting QNPP's actual engineering situation,the upgrading planning was taken by comprehensively investigating current development and application of digital safety I and C platform in the worldwide scope and by reviewing plant's original systems operation history. The project executive strategy-QNPP's leading role with necessary overseas cooperation and internal technical supports as great as possible, was determined. Some significant factors might influence and restrict the RPS and relative equipment upgrading executive actions in an operating NPP were analyzed.Finally, the engineering feasibility was briefly assessed to recognize the anticipated issues and difficulties and to prepare the relative solutions in advance for the purpose of ensuring the RPS upgrading objectives completely realized. (authors)

  11. Disinfection technology with ozone for cryptosporidium; Cryptosporidium taisaku to shite no ozone shodoku gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Y.; Takahashi, K. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Motoyama, N. [Fuji Electric Corporate Research and Development, Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    1998-06-10

    Measures against Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) in the waterworks are discussed. C. parvum is a pathogenic protozoan, and exists in the form of oocyst protected by a hard shell. It does not multiply in water or food, but does in human intestines and causes violent diarrhea and bellyache. A grave concern was created when many people were infected with the protozoan via tap water in Japan and the United States. Under such circumstances, ozone is used in an experiment to inactivate C. parvum. It is found that the C. parvum oocyst inactivation effect is evaluated by using a Ct value (disinfectant concentration Cmg/Ltimescontact time in minute) and that ozone treatment inactivates 90-99% of the protozoan. When various advanced water treatment technologies are being introduced for the purpose of serving safe and tasty water, the outcome of this study conveniently offers an ozone treatment method that will additionally inactivate pathogenic protozoa. Studies will be continued to elucidate the effects of factors of ozone treatment and water quality for the completion of an ideal disinfection process. Reference is made to an example of disinfection work implemented at a water purification plant of Milwaukie City, United States. 9 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Land use planning in the Netherlands; finding a balance between rural development and protection of the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlist, van der M.J.

    1998-01-01

    In the Netherlands rural development is subjected to several forms of planning. Three planning systems exist: spatial planning, environmental planning and water management. However, the origins of these systems cannot be found in problems of rural development, but in the problems of urbanization and

  13. National Infrastructure Protection Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    .... Attacks on CI/KR could significantly disrupt the functioning of government and business alike and produce cascading effects far beyond the targeted sector and physical location of the incident...

  14. On the impact of temperature on tropospheric ozone concentration ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    can affect climate via the “atmospheric greenhouse effect” and the challenging task for scientists is to find out the factors that influence the presence of these trace gases. Ozone has a major significance, as in stratosphere in the protection of the earth from the sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation so in tro- posphere in climate ...

  15. 8 Hour Ozone Design Value for 1998-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Ozone design value is based on the average of the annual 4th highest daily 8-hour maximum over a 3-year period (1998-2000) in this case. This is a human health...

  16. Sensitivity of antibiotic resistant and antibiotic susceptible Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and Staphylococcus strains against ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heß, Stefanie; Gallert, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    Tolerance of antibiotic susceptible and antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and Staphylococcus strains from clinical and wastewater samples against ozone was tested to investigate if ozone, a strong oxidant applied for advanced wastewater treatment, will affect the release of antibiotic resistant bacteria into the aquatic environment. For this purpose, the resistance pattern against antibiotics of the mentioned isolates and their survival after exposure to 4 mg/L ozone was determined. Antibiotic resistance (AR) of the isolates was not correlating with higher tolerance against ozone. Except for ampicillin resistant E. coli strains, which showed a trend towards increased resistance, E. coli strains that were also resistant against cotrimoxazol, ciprofloxacin or a combination of the three antibiotics were similarly or less resistant against ozone than antibiotic sensitive strains. Pigment-producing Enterococcus casseliflavus and Staphylococcus aureus seemed to be more resistant against ozone than non-pigmented species of these genera. Furthermore, aggregation or biofilm formation apparently protected bacteria in subsurface layers from inactivation by ozone. The relatively large variance of tolerance against ozone may indicate that resistance to ozone inactivation most probably depends on several factors, where AR, if at all, does not play a major role.

  17. An assessment of ground-level ozone concentrations in the Athabasca oil sands region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Syncrude and Suncor have plans to develop new oil sands leases and to increase crude oil and bitumen recovery in the Athabasca oil sands region. A first air quality assessment was prepared as part of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board application, in order to evaluate the emissions and potential impacts associated with the development. The Pembina Institute raised several issues with respect to potential future changes in ambient ozone levels as a result of the Aurora Mine operations. In response to these concerns, another more rigorous assessment was conducted to predict future ground-level ozone concentrations in the Fort McMurray area. This report includes: (1) ambient air quality guidelines for ozone, (2) emissions inventory for dispersion modelling, (3) dispersion modelling methodology, and (4) predicted ambient ozone concentrations. Ground level ozone (O 3 ) concentrations result from anthropogenically produced ozone, and from naturally occurring ozone. Ozone is not directly emitted to the atmosphere from industrial sources, but is formed as a result of chemical reactions between NO x and VOCs, which are emitted from industrial sources within the Athabasca oil sands region. NO x and VOC emissions associated with the Aurora Mine operation are predicted to increase hourly average ozone concentrations in the Fort McMurray area by only 0.001 ppm. 17 refs., 18 tabs., 5 figs

  18. Newly divided eosinophils limit ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity in nonsensitized guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicher, Sarah A; Jacoby, David B; Fryer, Allison D

    2017-06-01

    Ozone causes vagally mediated airway hyperreactivity and recruits inflammatory cells, including eosinophils, to lungs, where they mediate ozone-induced hyperreactivity 1 day after exposure but are paradoxically protective 3 days later. We aimed to test the role of newly divided eosinophils in ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity in sensitized and nonsensitized guinea pigs. Nonsensitized and sensitized guinea pigs were treated with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label newly divided cells and were exposed to air or ozone for 4 h. Later (1 or 3 days later), vagally induced bronchoconstriction was measured, and inflammatory cells were harvested from bone marrow, blood, and bronchoalveolar lavage. Ozone induced eosinophil hematopoiesis. One day after ozone, mature eosinophils dominate the inflammatory response and potentiate vagally induced bronchoconstriction. However, by 3 days, newly divided eosinophils have reached the lungs, where they inhibit ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity because depleting them with antibody to IL-5 or a TNF-α antagonist worsened vagally induced bronchoconstriction. In sensitized guinea pigs, both ozone-induced eosinophil hematopoiesis and subsequent recruitment of newly divided eosinophils to lungs 3 days later failed to occur. Thus mature eosinophils dominated the ozone-induced inflammatory response in sensitized guinea pigs. Depleting these mature eosinophils prevented ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity in sensitized animals. Ozone induces eosinophil hematopoiesis and recruitment to lungs, where 3 days later, newly divided eosinophils attenuate vagally mediated hyperreactivity. Ozone-induced hematopoiesis of beneficial eosinophils is blocked by a TNF-α antagonist or by prior sensitization. In these animals, mature eosinophils are associated with hyperreactivity. Thus interventions targeting eosinophils, although beneficial in atopic individuals, may delay resolution of airway hyperreactivity in nonatopic individuals. Copyright

  19. Experimental study of ozone synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garamoon, A A; Elakshar, F F; Nossair, A M; Kotp, E F

    2002-01-01

    A silent discharge ozonizer has been constructed with a design that enables the study of ozone concentration behaviour as a function of different parameters when oxygen used as a working gas. The behaviour of ozone concentration as a function of discharge current density has four characteristic regions. The concentration is enhanced by more than threefold whenever gas pressure is reduced by a factor of two. The flow rate of the working gas is a more effective parameter on ozone concentration than the gas pressure. When the flow rate is kept constant, and the pressure is decreased by 100%, the ozone concentration increases by only 10%. On the other hand, when the flow rate is decreased by 13%, the ozone concentration increases by 200%, whenever the gas pressure is kept constant. The concentration is nearly doubled when the gap space is increased by four times under the same conditions. The length of the discharge region, the thickness and the dielectric constant of the insulating materials are found to have a considerable effect on the generated ozone concentration. Also, the ozone concentration is ten times less when air is used instead of oxygen as a working gas. A maximum efficiency of 185 g/kWh, is obtained for the present system

  20. Source attribution of tropospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a harmful pollutant with adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. As well as these effects, tropospheric ozone is also a powerful greenhouse gas, with an anthropogenic radiative forcing one quarter of that of CO2. Along with methane and atmospheric aerosol, tropospheric ozone belongs to the so-called Short Lived Climate forcing Pollutants, or SLCP. Recent work has shown that efforts to reduce concentrations of SLCP in the atmosphere have the potential to slow the rate of near-term climate change, while simultaneously improving public health and reducing crop losses. Unlike many other SLCP, tropospehric ozone is not directly emitted, but is instead influenced by two distinct sources: transport of air from the ozone-rich stratosphere; and photochemical production in the troposphere from the emitted precursors NOx (oxides of nitrogen), CO (Carbon Monoxide), and VOC (volatile organic compounds, including methane). Better understanding of the relationship between ozone production and the emissions of its precursors is essential for the development of targeted emission reduction strategies. Several modeling methods have been employed to relate the production of tropospheric ozone to emissions of its precursors; emissions perturbation, tagging, and adjoint sensitivity methods all deliver complementary information about modelled ozone production. Most studies using tagging methods have focused on attribution of tropospheric ozone production to emissions of NOx, even though perturbation methods have suggested that tropospheric ozone is also sensitive to VOC, particularly methane. In this study we describe the implementation into a global chemistry-climate model of a scheme for tagging emissions of NOx and VOC with an arbitrary number of labels, which are followed through the chemical reactions of tropospheric ozone production in order to perform attribution of tropospehric ozone to its emitted precursors. Attribution is performed to both

  1. 76 FR 26720 - 2011 Annual Meeting of the Ozone Transport Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ..., Washington, DC 20001; (202) 508-3840; e-mail: [email protected] ; Web site: http://www.otcair.org...) 508-3840; by e-mail: [email protected] or via the OTC Web site at http://www.otcair.org . Dated: April... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9303-2] 2011 Annual Meeting of the Ozone Transport Commission...

  2. 76 FR 59125 - 2011 Fall Meeting of the Ozone Transport Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ..., Washington, DC 20001; (202) 508-3840; e-mail: [email protected] ; Web site: http://www.otcair.org...) 508-3840; by e-mail: [email protected] or via the OTC Web site at http://www.otcair.org . Dated... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9470-8] 2011 Fall Meeting of the Ozone Transport Commission...

  3. 75 FR 58378 - 2010 Fall Meeting of the Ozone Transport Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ..., Washington, DC 20001; (202) 508-3840; e-mail: [email protected] ; Web site: http://www.otcair.org...) 508-3840; by e-mail: [email protected] or via the OTC Web site at http://www.otcair.org . Dated... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9206-6] 2010 Fall Meeting of the Ozone Transport Commission...

  4. Ozone's impact on public health: Contributions from indoor exposures to ozone and products of ozone-initiated chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The associations between ozone concentrations measured outdoors and both morbidity and mortality may be partially due to indoor exposures to ozone and ozone-initiated oxidation products. In this article I examine the contributions of such indoor exposures to overall ozone-related heal...

  5. Total ozone changes in the 1987 Antarctic ozone hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Doiron, Scott D.; Sechrist, Frank; Galimore, Reginald

    1988-01-01

    The development of the Antarctic ozone minimum was observed in 1987 with the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument. In the first half of August the near-polar (60 and 70 deg S) ozone levels were similar to those of recent years. By September, however, the ozone at 70 and 80 deg S was clearly lower than any previous year including 1985, the prior record low year. The levels continued to decrease throughout September until October 5 when a new record low of 109 DU was established at a point near the South Pole. This value is 29 DU less than the lowest observed in 1985 and 48 DU less than the 1986 low. The zonal mean total ozone at 60 deg S remained constant throughout the time of ozone hole formation. The ozone decline was punctuated by local minima formed away from the polar night boundary at about 75 deg S. The first of these, on August 15 to 17, formed just east of the Palmer Peninsula and appears to be a mountain wave. The second major minimum formed on September 5 to 7 again downwind of the Palmer Peninsula. This event was larger in scale than the August minimum and initiated the decline of ozone across the polar region. The 1987 ozone hole was nearly circular and pole centered for its entire life. In previous years the hole was perturbed by intrusions of the circumpolar maximum into the polar regions, thus causing the hole to be elliptical. The 1987 hole also remained in place until the end of November, a few days longer than in 1985, and this persistence resulted in the latest time for recovery to normal values yet observed.

  6. How is ozone pollution reducing our food supply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Sally; Mills, Gina; Illidge, Rosemary; Davies, William J

    2012-01-01

    Ground-level ozone pollution is already decreasing global crop yields (from ∼2.2-5.5% for maize to 3.9-15% and 8.5-14% for wheat and soybean, respectively), to differing extents depending on genotype and environmental conditions, and this problem is predicted to escalate given climate change and increasing ozone precursor emissions in many areas. Here a summary is provided of how ozone pollution affects yield in a variety of crops, thus impacting global food security. Ozone causes visible injury symptoms to foliage; it induces early senescence and abscission of leaves; it can reduce stomatal aperture and thereby carbon uptake, and/or directly reduce photosynthetic carbon fixation; it can moderate biomass growth via carbon availability or more directly; it can decrease translocation of fixed carbon to edible plant parts (grains, fruits, pods, roots) due either to reduced availability at source, redirection to synthesis of chemical protectants, or reduced transport capabilities via phloem; decreased carbon transport to roots reduces nutrient and water uptake and affects anchorage; ozone can moderate or bring forward flowering and induce pollen sterility; it induces ovule and/or grain abortion; and finally it reduces the ability of some genotypes to withstand other stresses such as drought, high vapour pressure deficit, and high photon flux density via effects on stomatal control. This latter point is emphasized here, given predictions that atmospheric conditions conducive to drought formation that also give rise to intense precursor emission events will become more severe over the coming decades.

  7. Modeling Stomatal Conductance to Estimate Seasonal Uptake in the Ozone-Sensitive Bioindicator Plant Common Milkweed (A. syriaca L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergweiler, C.

    2008-12-01

    The US EPA National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) was not conceived to nor does it provide an accurate definition of the absorbed ozone dose or baseline exposure level to protect vegetation. This research presents a multiplicative modeling approach based not only on atmospheric, but on equally important physiological, phenological, and environmental parameters. Physiological constraints on ozone uptake demonstrate that actual absorption is substantially lower than that assumed by a simple interpretation of hourly atmospheric ozone concentrations. Coupled with development of foliar injury expression this provides evidence that tropospheric ozone is more toxic to vegetation than is currently understood.

  8. Correlative studies of satellite ozone sensor measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovill, J.E.; Ellis, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Comparisons are made between total ozone measurements made by four satellite ozone sensors (TOMS, SBUV, TOVS and MFR). The comparisons were made during July 1979 when all sensors were operating simultaneously. The TOMS and SBUV sensors were observed to measure less total ozone than the MFR sensor, 10 and 15 Dobson units (DU) respectively. The MFR and TOMS sensors measured less ozone than the TOVS sensor, 19 an 28 DU, respectively. Latitudinal variability of the total ozone comparisons is discussed

  9. Retrieval of Surface Ozone from UV-MFRSR Irradiances using Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Sun, Z.; Davis, J.; Zempila, M.; Liu, C.; Gao, W.

    2017-12-01

    High concentration of surface ozone is harmful to humans and plants. USDA UV-B Monitoring and Research Program (UVMRP) uses Ultraviolet (UV) version of Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (UV-MFRSR) to measure direct, diffuse, and total irradiances every three minutes at seven UV channels (i.e. 300, 305, 311, 317, 325, 332, and 368 nm channels with 2 nm full width at half maximum). Based on the wavelength dependency of aerosol optical depths, there have been plenty of literatures exploring retrieval methods of total column ozone from UV-MFRSR measurements. However, few has explored the retrieval of surface ozone. The total column ozone is the integral of the multiplication of ozone concentration (varying by height and time) and cross section (varying by wavelength and temperature) over height. Because of the distinctive values of ozone cross section in the UV region, the irradiances at seven UV channels have the potential to resolve the ozone concentration at multiple vertical layers. If the UV irradiances at multiple time points are considered together, the uncertainty or the vertical resolution of ozone concentrations can be further improved. In this study, the surface ozone amounts at the UVMRP station located at Billings, Oklahoma are estimated from the adjacent (i.e. within 200 miles) US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) surface ozone observations using the spatial analysis technique. Then, the (direct normal) irradiances of UVMRP at one or more time points as inputs and the corresponding estimated surface ozone from EPA as outputs are fed into a pre-trained (dense) deep neural network (DNN) to explore the hidden non-linear relationship between them. This process could improve our understanding of their physical/mathematical relationship. Finally, the optimized DNN is tested with the preserved 5% of the dataset, which are not used during training, to verify the relationship.

  10. Artificially ionized region as a source of ozone in the stratosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, Aleksandr V; Litvak, Aleksandr G; Vikharev, A L; Ivanov, O A; Borisov, Nikolai D; Sergeichev, Konstantin F

    2000-01-01

    A set of physical and chemical processes occurring in a microwave stratospheric discharge of nanosecond duration is discussed in connection with the effect they may have locally on the ozone layer in the artificially ionized region (AIR) in the stratosphere. The AIR, to be created at altitudes of 18 - 20 km by the microwave breakdown of air with ground-produced powerful electromagnetic wave beams, is planned for use in the natural physical experiment aimed at active monitoring of the ozone layer (its internal state and a set of plasma-chemical and photochemical processes) by controllably generating a considerable amount of ozone in the stratosphere. Results of relevant theoretical studies are presented, as are those of a large series of laboratory experiments performed under conditions similar to those prevailing in the stratosphere. Discharge regimes securing the efficient growth of ozone concentration are identified and studied in detail. It is demonstrated that such a stratospheric ozonizer is about as efficient as the best ground-based ozonizers used at present. For typical stratospheric conditions (low pressures and temperatures T ∼ 200 - 220 K), it is shown that the intense generation of ozone in a microwave breakdown effected by groups of short nanosecond pulses does not virtually increase the density of nitrogen oxides - gases that play a vital role in catalytic ozone-decomposing reactions. The possibility of effectively producing ozone in prebreakdown electric fields is established experimentally. It is demonstrated that due to its long lifetime, ozone produced locally at altitudes of 18 - 20 km may spread widely under the action of winds and turbulent diffusion, thus leading to an additional - artificial - ozonization of the stratosphere. (reviews of topical problems)

  11. Dobson spectrophotometer ozone measurements during international ozone rocketsonde intercomparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, C. L.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of the total ozone content of the atmosphere, made with seven ground based instruments at a site near Wallops Island, Virginia, are discussed in terms for serving as control values with which the rocketborne sensor data products can be compared. These products are profiles of O3 concentration with altitude. By integrating over the range of altitudes from the surface to the rocket apogee and by appropriately estimating the residual ozone amount from apogee to the top of the atmosphere, a total ozone amount can be computed from the profiles that can be directly compared with the ground based instrumentation results. Dobson spectrophotometers were used for two of the ground-based instruments. Preliminary data collected during the IORI from Dobson spectrophotometers 72 and 38 are presented. The agreement between the two and the variability of total ozone overburden through the experiment period are discussed.

  12. Determination of the Optimum Ozone Product on the Plasma Ozonizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Purwadi; Widdi Usada; Suryadi; Isyuniarto; Sri Sukmajaya

    2002-01-01

    An experiment of the optimum ozone product determination on the cylindrical plasma ozonizer has been done. The experiment is carried out by using alternating high voltage power supply, oscilloscope CS-1577 A, flow meter and spectronik-20 instrument for the absorbance solution samples which produced by varying the physics parameter values of the discharge alternating high voltage and velocity of oxygen gas input. The plasma ozonizer is made of cylinder stainless steel as the electrode and cylinder glass as the dielectric with 1.00 mm of the discharge gap and 7.225 mm 3 of the discharge tube volume. The experiment results shows that the optimum ozone product is 0.360 mg/s obtained at the the discharge of alternating high voltage of 25.50 kV, the frequency of 1.00 kHz and the rate of oxygen gas input of 1.00 lpm. (author)

  13. What Is the Best Strategy for Enhancing the Effects of Topically Applied Ozonated Oils in Cutaneous Infections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Zanardi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to diabetes, atherosclerosis, and ageing, there are several million patients undergoing skin lesions degenerated into infected ulcers with very little tendency to heal and implying a huge socioeconomical cost. Previous medical experience has shown that the daily application of ozonated oil eliminates the infection and promotes a rapid healing. The purpose of the study is the optimization of the antimicrobial effect of ozonated oils by testing in vitro four bacterial species and one yeast without or in the presence of different amounts of human serum. The results obtained suggest that a gentle and continuous removal of debris and exudate is an essential condition for the potent bactericidal effect of ozonated oils. In fact, even small amounts of human serum inactivate ozone derivatives and protect bacteria. The application of ozonated oil preparations is very promising in a variety of skin and mucosal infections. Moreover, ozonated oils are far less expensive than antibiotic preparations.

  14. Interactions involving ozone, Botrytis cinerea, and B. squamosa on onion leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rist, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Interactions involving Botrytis cinerea Pers., B. squamosa Walker, and ozone on onion (alium cepae L.) were investigated. Initially, threshold dosages of ozone required to predispose onion leaves to greater infection by B. cinerea and B. squamosa were determined under controlled conditions in an ozone-exposure chamber. Subsequent experiments supported the hypothesis that nutrients leaking out of ozone-injured cells stimulated lesion production by B. cinerea. The electrical conductivity of, and carbohydrate concentration in, dew collected from leaves of onion plants which had been exposed to ozone were greater than the electrical conductivity of, and carbohydrate concentration in, dew collected from leaves of other, non-exposed onion plants. When conidia of B. cinerea were suspended in dew collected from leaves of plants which had been exposed to ozone and the resulting suspension atomized onto leaves of non-exposed plants, more lesions were induced than on leaves of other non-exposed plants inoculated with conidia suspended in dew collected from plants which had not been exposed to ozone. EDU protected onion leaves from ozone-induced predisposition to these fungi under controlled conditions. Experiments designed to detect interaction between B. cinerea and B. squamosa in onion leaf blighting indicated that such interaction did not occur. Leaves were blighted rapidly when inoculated with B. squamosa whether B. cinerea was present or absent.

  15. Fourth report by the Federal German Government to the Bundestag on measures for the protection of the ozone layer; 4. Bericht der Bundesregierung an den Deutschen Bundestag ueber Massnahmen zum Schutz der Ozonschicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This report, which relates the situation as of July 1997, again confirms the internationally leading role of the Federal German Republic in the phase-out of CFCs. No country has realised a more comprehensive concept for the phase-out of substances that deplete the ozone layer. Combining statutory and voluntary measures has proved a path-breaking approach. One of the most important driving forces in the CFC phase-out were the restrictions of use imposed by the Ordinance on the Prohibition of CFCs and Halon. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Dieser Bericht - mit Stand vom Juli 1997 - bestaetigt erneut die internationale Fuehrungsrolle der Bundesrepublik Deutschland beim FCKW-Ausstieg. In keinem anderen Staaat wurde ein umfassenderes Konzept zum Ausstieg aus den ozonabbauenden Stoffen realisiert. Als wegweisend hat sich dabei die Verknuepfung ordnungsrechtlicher und freiwilliger Massnahem erwiesen. Insbesondere von den Verwendungsbeschraenkungen der FCKW-Halon-Verbots-Verordnung gingen wichtige Impulse beim FCKW-Ausstieg aus. (orig./SR)

  16. Ozone depletion, related UVB changes and increased skin cancer incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R. P.

    1998-03-01

    plant life also. However, because the increased cancer incidence observed so far may not be (entirely) due to ozone depletion, other causes need to be investigated urgently and, if possible, remedied. Otherwise, deaths due to skin cancer will continue even after CFC production is controlled and ozone levels are recovered. There is no room for complacency. If nothing else is possible, use of protective screens and creams and avoiding exposure to sunlight during peak hours (10:00-15:00 h) should be strongly recommended.

  17. Ecosystem Effects of Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground level ozone is absorbed by the leaves of plants, where it can reduce photosynthesis, damage leaves and slow growth. It can also make sensitive plants more susceptible to certain diseases, insects, harsh weather and other pollutants.

  18. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    GO! Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Current AQI Forecast AQI Loop More Maps AQI: Good (0 - 50) ... resources for Hawaii residents and visitors more announcements Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke ...

  19. Ozone modelling in Eastern Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stohl, A.; Wotawa, G.; Kromp-Kolb, H. [Univ. of Agriculture, Vienna (Austria). Inst. of Meteorology and Physics; Winiwater, W. [Austrian Research Centre, Seibersdorf (Austria); Baumann, R.; Spangl, W. [Federal Environmental Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    High ozone concentrations are frequently observed in Eastern Austria, often exceeding local as well as international health standards, both for short-term as well as for long-term exposures. The maximum concentrations are produced in urban plumes, e.g. of the city of Vienna, whereas regional-scale transport and production of ozone is more important for the long-term concentrations. The Pannonian Ozone Project (POP) is an Austrian research initiative to model photochemical processes on a regional as well as on a local scale with a Lagrangian model to better understand the mechanisms leading to the high ozone concentrations and to develop abatement strategies. Up to now, focus has been on the regional scale. Aircraft, tethered balloon, tetroon and intensified ground measurements are carried out to validate the model. Although the major measurement campaign will be held in summer 1995, first results from a measurement campaign in summer 1994 are already available

  20. Ozone and ultraviolet radiation. Observations and research in the Netherlands and Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    An overview of recent scientific research in Belgium and the Netherlands on the title subject is given. After an overall introduction on ozone and ultraviolet radiation in chapter 1 attention is paid to observations and monitoring of ozone and UV-radiation in chapter 2 and recent research projects in the Netherlands and Belgium with respect to those quantities in chapter 3. In chapter 4 the biological effects of UV-radiation are described, while in chapter 5 the international policy to protect the ozone layer is discussed as well as the effects of such policy on the UV burden and public health. 10 refs

  1. Main aspects of the planned reform of the Act on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy and Protection against its Hazards (Atomic Energy Act)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukes, R.

    1991-01-01

    There is no specific reason for planning a reform of the atomic energy law just now; the main idea is to keep the atomic energy law abreast with the developments made in the regime of protective laws pertaining to the sector of science and technology. A further aspect not to be neglected, however, is the nuclear power phase-out currently under debate, and a decision against the abandonment of nuclear power should be taken as an occasion to think about a nuclear law reform. The judiciary has been contributing to the development of nuclear law in the last years, and the decisions of the Federal Constitutional Court and of the Federal Administrative Court have not only set the corner flags for the future development of the nuclear law, but have given concrete shape by final settlement of cases of divergence of judicial decisions, to the protective intents of the law and to the subject-related purposes. Thus the judiciary has been taking into account the idea prevailing today, namely that the scope of duties of the Federal Government certainly includes the task of protecting the citizens against the hazards of technology in general, and of novel technologies in particular, and the task of avoiding hazards. So the main line of orientation to be pursued is to draw level with protective regulations established in other fields of law, and to make the Atomic Energy Act a modern instrument of protection by the law. (orig./HSCH) [de

  2. Ozone as an ecotoxicological problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, L. [National Environmental Research Inst., Dept. of Atmospheric Environment, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-11-01

    Ozone is quantitatively the dominating oxidant in photochemical air pollution. Other compounds like hydrogen peroxide, aldehydes, formate, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and nitrogen dioxide are present too, and several of these are known to be phytotoxic, but under Danish conditions the concentration of these gases are without significance for direct effects on vegetation. Therefore, it is the effects of ozone on plant growth that will be described below. (EG) 65 refs.

  3. Scale-based freshwater conservation planning: towards protecting freshwater biodiversity in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rivers-Moore, NA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available River systems have strong linear linkages and require innovative solutions to capture these linkages from aquatic conservation planners. The authors applied an approach to freshwater conservation planning to freshwater ecosystems of Kwa...

  4. Aspects of spatial policy planning and fundamentals of protection of the environment in the context of sustainable rural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Zaremba

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The formulated theme of the article was considered, in the context of the legal recourse to spatial planning in accordance with the countryside balanced development. In the work selected environmental aspects are discussed in the context of the legal instruments governing the spatial policy. The purpose of the article is not so much the presentation of spatial planning instruments as their verification from an environmental point of view.

  5. The 2002 Antarctic Ozone Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, P. A.; Nash, E. R.; Douglass, A. R.; Kawa, S. R.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1979, the ozone hole has grown from near zero size to over 24 Million km2. This area is most strongly controlled by levels of inorganic chlorine and bromine oncentrations. In addition, dynamical variations modulate the size of the ozone hole by either cooling or warming the polar vortex collar region. We will review the size observations, the size trends, and the interannual variability of the size. Using a simple trajectory model, we will demonstrate the sensitivity of the ozone hole to dynamical forcing, and we will use these observations to discuss the size of the ozone hole during the 2002 Austral spring. We will further show how the Cly decreases in the stratosphere will cause the ozone hole to decrease by 1-1.5% per year. We will also show results from a 3-D chemical transport model (CTM) that has been continuously run since 1999. These CTM results directly show how strong dynamics acts to reduce the size of the ozone hole.

  6. Groundwater Protection Program Management Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC; Environmental Compliance Department Environment, Safety, and Health Division Y-12 National Security Complex

    2004-03-31

    This document presents the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) management plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12). The Y-12 GWPP functions as the primary point-of-contact for groundwater-related issues at Y-12, provides stewardship of the extensive network of groundwater monitoring wells at Y-12, and serves as a resource for technical expertise, support, and historical data for groundwater-related activities at Y-12. These organizational functions each serve the primary programmatic purpose of the GWPP, which is to ensure that groundwater monitoring activities within areas under Y-12 administrative control provide representative data in compliance with the multiple purposes of applicable state and federal regulations, DOE orders, and the corporate policies of BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. (hereafter referenced as BWXT), the Y-12 management and operations (M&O) contractor for DOE. This GWPP management plan addresses the requirements of DOE Order 450.1 (BWXT Y12 S/RID) regarding the implementation of a site-wide approach for groundwater protection at each DOE facility. Additionally, this plan is a ''living'' document that is reviewed annually, revised and reissued every three years, and is formatted to provide for updating individual sections independent of the rest of the document. Section 2 includes a short description of the groundwater system at Y-12, the history of groundwater monitoring at Y-12 and the corresponding evolution of the GWPP, and an overview of ongoing Y-12 groundwater monitoring activities. Section 3 describes the key elements of the GWPP management strategy. Organizational roles and responsibilities of GWPP personnel are outlined in Section 4. Section 5 presents an overview of the GWPP project plans for applicable programmatic elements. Section 6 lists the reports, plans, and documents that are referenced for technical and administrative details.

  7. The Cost of Crop Damage Caused by Ozone Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Delucchi, Mark A.; Murphy, James; Kim, Jin; McCubbin, Donald R.

    1996-01-01

    The detrimental effects of ambient ozone on crops, even at relatively low concentrations, are well-established (Thompson et al., 1976; Heck and Brandt, 1977; Heck et al., 1982; Environmental Protection Agency, 1984; California Air Resources Board, 1987; Olszyk et al., 1988a, 1988b; Heagle et al., 1986; McCool et al., 1986, Ashmore, 1991). Ozone enters plant leaves through the stomatal openings in the leaf surface and then produces byproducts that reduce the efficiency of photosynthesis (CARB...

  8. Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, M.

    2002-01-01

    Major achievements of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection Department in 2001 are described. The main areas for R and D of the department are enviromnental remediation, emergency planning, radiation protection research, low-level radioactvity measurements, safeguards and physics measurements, decision strategy research and policy support and social sciences in nuclear research. Main achievements for 2001 in these areas are reported

  9. New dynamic NNORSY ozone profile climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaifel, A. K.; Felder, M.; Declercq, C.; Lambert, J.-C.

    2012-01-01

    Climatological ozone profile data are widely used as a-priori information for total ozone using DOAS type retrievals as well as for ozone profile retrieval using optimal estimation, for data assimilation or evaluation of 3-D chemistry-transport models and a lot of other applications in atmospheric sciences and remote sensing. For most applications it is important that the climatology represents not only long term mean values but also the links between ozone and dynamic input parameters. These dynamic input parameters should be easily accessible from auxiliary datasets or easily measureable, and obviously should have a high correlation with ozone. For ozone profile these parameters are mainly total ozone column and temperature profile data. This was the outcome of a user consultation carried out in the framework of developing a new, dynamic ozone profile climatology. The new ozone profile climatology is based on the Neural Network Ozone Retrieval System (NNORSY) widely used for ozone profile retrieval from UV and IR satellite sounder data. NNORSY allows implicit modelling of any non-linear correspondence between input parameters (predictors) and ozone profile target vector. This paper presents the approach, setup and validation of a new family of ozone profile climatologies with static as well as dynamic input parameters (total ozone and temperature profile). The neural network training relies on ozone profile measurement data of well known quality provided by ground based (ozonesondes) and satellite based (SAGE II, HALOE, and POAM-III) measurements over the years 1995-2007. In total, four different combinations (modes) for input parameters (date, geolocation, total ozone column and temperature profile) are available. The geophysical validation spans from pole to pole using independent ozonesonde, lidar and satellite data (ACE-FTS, AURA-MLS) for individual and time series comparisons as well as for analysing the vertical and meridian structure of different modes of

  10. Ozone flux over a Norway spruce forest and correlation with net ecosystem production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletal, M.; Cudlín, Pavel; Chroust, P.; Urban, Otmar; Pokorný, Radek; Edwards, Magda; Czerný, Radek; Janouš, Dalibor; Taufarová, Klára; Večeřa, Zbyněk; Mikuška, Pavel; Paoletti, E.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 5 (2011), s. 1024-1034 ISSN 0269-7491 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SP/1B7/189/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : ozone deposition * stomatal conductance * deposition velocity * friction velocity * gradient method * tropospheric ozone * net ecosystem production Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.746, year: 2011

  11. Ozone adsorption on carbon nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassard, Guillaume; Gosselin, Sylvie; Visez, Nicolas; Petitprez, Denis

    2014-05-01

    Carbonaceous particles produced by incomplete combustion or thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. On these particles are adsorbed hundreds of chemical species. Those of great concern to health are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). During atmospheric transport, particulate PAHs react with gaseous oxidants. The induced chemical transformations may change toxicity and hygroscopicity of these potentially inhalable particles. The interaction between ozone and carbon particles has been extensively investigated in literature. However ozone adsorption and surface reaction mechanisms are still ambiguous. Some studies described a fast catalytic decomposition of ozone initiated by an atomic oxygen chemisorption followed by a molecular oxygen release [1-3]. Others suggested a reversible ozone adsorption according to Langmuir-type behaviour [4,5]. The aim of this present study is a better understanding of ozone interaction with carbon surfaces. An aerosol of carbon nanoparticles was generated by flowing synthetic air in a glass tube containing pure carbon (primary particles studied. Accordingly to literature, it has been observed that the number of gas-phase ozone molecules lost per unit particle surface area tends towards a plateau for high ozone concentration suggesting a reversible ozone adsorption according to a Langmuir mechanism. We calculated the initial reaction probability between O3 and carbon particles.An initial uptake coefficient of 1.10-4 was obtained. Similar experiments were realized by selecting the particles size with a differential mobility analyser. We observed a strong size-dependent increase in reactivity with the decrease of particles size. This result is relevant for the health issues. Indeed the smallest particles are most likely to penetrate deep into the lungs. Competitive reactions between ozone and other species like H2O or atomic oxygen were also considered. Oxygen atoms were generated by photolysis of O3

  12. Groundwater Protection Program Management Plan For The U.S. Department Of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental, LLC

    2009-09-01

    This document presents the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) management plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12). The Y-12 GWPP functions as the primary point-of-contact for groundwater-related issues at Y-12, provides stewardship of the extensive network of groundwater monitoring wells at Y-12, and serves as a resource for technical expertise, support, and historical data for groundwater-related activities at Y-12. These organizational functions each serve the primary programmatic purpose of the GWPP, which is to ensure that groundwater monitoring activities within areas under Y-12 administrative control provide representative data in compliance with the multiple purposes of applicable state and federal regulations, DOE orders, and the corporate policies of Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12 LLC (hereafter referenced as B&W Y-12), the Y-12 management and operations (M&O) contractor for DOE. B&W Y-12 is a new corporate name, assumed in January 2007, for the company formerly known as BWXT Y-12, L.L.C., hereafter referenced as BWXT. This GWPP management plan addresses the requirements of DOE Order 450.1A Environmental Protection Program (hereafter referenced as DOE O 450.1A), which emphasize a site-wide approach for groundwater protection at each DOE facility through implementation of groundwater surveillance monitoring. Additionally, this plan addresses the relevant and applicable GWPP elements and goals described in the DOE O 450.1A technical guidance documents issued in June 2004 (DOE 2004) and May 2005 (DOE 2005). This GWPP management plan is a 'living' document that is reviewed annually, revised and reissued every three years, and is formatted to provide for updating individual sections independent of the rest of the document. Section 2 includes a short description of the groundwater system at Y-12, the history of groundwater monitoring at Y-12 and the corresponding evolution of the GWPP

  13. 76 FR 16358 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Connecticut, Maine, New Hampshire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... enforceable emission limits on ozone precursors; any judgment about whether those emission limits discharge... attainment demonstration modeling efforts conducted by the Ozone Transport Commission. Connecticut, Maine... Implementation Plans; Connecticut, Maine, New Hampshire and Rhode Island; Infrastructure SIPs for the 1997 Ozone...

  14. Issues in Stratospheric Ozone Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Steven Andrew

    Following the announcement of the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole in 1985 there have arisen a multitude of questions pertaining to the nature and consequences of polar ozone depletion. This thesis addresses several of these specific questions, using both computer models of chemical kinetics and the Earth's radiation field as well as laboratory kinetic experiments. A coupled chemical kinetic-radiative numerical model was developed to assist in the analysis of in situ field measurements of several radical and neutral species in the polar and mid-latitude lower stratosphere. Modeling was used in the analysis of enhanced polar ClO, mid-latitude diurnal variation of ClO, and simultaneous measurements of OH, HO_2, H_2 O and O_3. Most importantly, such modeling was instrumental in establishing the link between the observed ClO and BrO concentrations in the Antarctic polar vortex and the observed rate of ozone depletion. The principal medical concern of stratospheric ozone depletion is that ozone loss will lead to the enhancement of ground-level UV-B radiation. Global ozone climatology (40^circS to 50^ circN latitude) was incorporated into a radiation field model to calculate the biologically accumulated dosage (BAD) of UV-B radiation, integrated over days, months, and years. The slope of the annual BAD as a function of latitude was found to correspond to epidemiological data for non-melanoma skin cancers for 30^circ -50^circN. Various ozone loss scenarios were investigated. It was found that a small ozone loss in the tropics can provide as much additional biologically effective UV-B as a much larger ozone loss at higher latitudes. Also, for ozone depletions of > 5%, the BAD of UV-B increases exponentially with decreasing ozone levels. An important key player in determining whether polar ozone depletion can propagate into the populated mid-latitudes is chlorine nitrate, ClONO_2 . As yet this molecule is only indirectly accounted for in computer models and field

  15. A methodology to assist in contingency planning for protection of nuclear power plants against land vehicle bombs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, J.W.; Goldman, L.A.; Lobner, P.R.; Finn, S.P.; Koch, T.H.; Veatch, J.D.

    1989-04-01

    This report provides a methodology which could be used by operators of licensed nuclear power reactors to address issues related to contingency planning for a land vehicle bomb, should such a threat arise. The methodology presented in this report provides a structured framework for understanding factors to be considered in contingency planning for a land vehicle bomb including: (1) system options available to maintain a safe condition, (2) associated components and equipment, (3) preferred system options for establishing and maintaining a safe shutdown condition, and (4) contingency measures to preserve the preferred system options. Example applications of the methodology for a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) are provided along with an example of contingency plan changes necessary for implementation of this methodology, a discussion of some contingency measures that can be used to limit land vehicle access, and a bibliography. 2 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Office of River Protection, plan for Developing Hanford Tank Waste Processing Alternatives, Revision 1, December 15, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WODRICH, D.D.

    2000-01-01

    In August 2000, The Department of Energy (DOE) must decide whether to authorize BNFL Inc. (BNFL) to construct and operate tank waste processing facilities as proposed or to take another path. This will be a multi-billion dollar commitment, requiring that the best path forward be chosen. The plan for reaching this decision is described in reference 1. The alternative evaluations in this plan are directed toward acquiring information needed for the August 2000 decision and for preparing an alternate path plan, should an acceptable agreement with BNFL not be reached. Many of the alternatives considered may still be applicable for failures that could occur after the year 2000, however, depending on the cause of later failures, others alternatives may need to be developed

  17. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Optimization Plan for Groundwater Monitoring Wells at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document is the monitoring optimization plan for groundwater monitoring wells associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure A.1). The plan describes the technical approach that will be implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) to focus available resources on the monitoring wells at Y-12 that provide the most useful hydrologic and water-quality monitoring data. The technical approach is based on the GWPP status designation for each well (Section 2.0). Under this approach, wells granted ''active'' status are used by the GWPP for hydrologic monitoring and/or groundwater quality sampling (Section 3.0), whereas wells granted ''inactive'' status are not used for either purpose. The status designation also defines the frequency at which the GWPP will inspect applicable wells, the scope of these well inspections, and extent of any maintenance actions initiated by the GWPP (Section 3.0). Details regarding the ancillary activities associated with implementation of this plan (e.g., well inspection) are deferred to the referenced GWPP plans and procedures (Section 4.0). This plan applies to groundwater wells associated with Y-12 and related waste management areas and facilities located within three hydrogeologic regimes (Figure A.1): the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek Regime encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) immediately west of Y-12. The East Fork Regime encompasses most of the Y-12 process, operations, and support facilities in BCV and, for the purposes of this plan, includes a section of Union Valley east of the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundary along Scarboro Road. The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12 that is bound on the

  18. Observing Tropospheric Ozone From Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Jack

    2000-01-01

    The importance of tropospheric ozone embraces a spectrum of relevant scientific issues ranging from local environmental concerns, such as damage to the biosphere and human health, to those that impact global change questions, Such is climate warming. From an observational perspective, the challenge is to determine the tropospheric ozone global distribution. Because its lifetime is short compared with other important greenhouse gases that have been monitored over the past several decades, the distribution of tropospheric ozone cannot be inferred from a relatively small set of monitoring stations. Therefore, the best way to obtain a true global picture is from the use of space-based instrumentation where important spatial gradients over vast ocean expanses and other uninhabited areas can be properly characterized. In this paper, the development of the capability to measure tropospheric ozone from space over the past 15 years is summarized. Research in the late 1980s successfully led to the determination of the climatology of tropospheric ozone as a function of season; more recently, the methodology has improved to the extent where regional air pollution episodes can be characterized. The most recent modifications now provide quasi-global (50 N) to 50 S) maps on a daily basis. Such a data set would allow for the study of long-range (intercontinental) transport of air pollution and the quantification of how regional emissions feed into the global tropospheric ozone budget. Future measurement capabilities within this decade promise to offer the ability to provide Concurrent maps of the precursors to the in situ formation of tropospheric ozone from which the scientific community will gain unprecedented insight into the processes that control global tropospheric chemistry

  19. Standard format and content for a licensee physical security plan for the protection of special nuclear material of moderate or low strategic significance - January 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This guide describes the information required in the physical security plan submitted as part of an application for a license to possess, use, or transport special nuclear material (SNM) of moderate strategic significance or 10 kg or more of SNM of low strategic significance and recommends a standard format for presenting the information in an orderly arrangement. This standards format will thus serve as an aid to uniformity and completeness in the preparation and review of the physical protection plan of the license application. This document can also be used as guidance by licensees possessing or transporting less than 10 kg of SNM of low strategic significance in understanding the intent and implementing the requirements of paragraphs 73.67(a), 73.67(f), and 73.67(g) of 10 CRF Part 73

  20. 40 CFR 52.235 - Control strategy for ozone: Oxides of nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... nitrogen. 52.235 Section 52.235 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Unified Air Pollution Control District on April 26, 1994 for the Monterey Bay ozone nonattainment area... technology (RACT), new source review (NSR), the related requirements of general and transportation conformity...

  1. 40 CFR 96.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Trading Program. 96.386 Section 96.386 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR... Season Trading Program. Except as provided under paragraph (g) of this section, a CAIR NOX Ozone Season...

  2. Depletion of ozone layer and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kripke, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    A decrease in food supply, rather than an increase in cancers, could turn out to be the greatest danger from the loss of the Earth's ozone shield says the author. This could result from alterations in plants and animals that are more sensitive than humans to increased levels of ultraviolet radiation. Increasing ambient ultraviolet radiation within a short time would exert dramatic selective pressure on all living organisms, but the global consequences of such an occurrence cannot be predicted. Common skin cancer is the best understood link with ultraviolet radiation. In fact, the link is so straightforward that precise calculations are possible: a 1% decrease in ozone equals a 2% increase in ultraviolet radiation, which translates into a 3 to 6% increase in common skin cancers in the US. If the immune system is damaged, the body cannot survive the continual onslaught of infectious agents present in the environment. People's willingness to protect themselves against sunlight exposure has been dictated by fashion. The fashionability of hats and sunglasses is beneficial for reducing the risk of cataracts; on the other hand, the fashionability of sun-tans has probably contributed to the rising incidence of skin cancer among Caucasians. The best remedy she advises is to avoid overexposure to sunlight

  3. UMTRA Project remedial action planning and disposal cell design to comply with the proposed EPA [Environmental Protection Agency] standards (40 CFR Part 192)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project involves stabilizing 24 inactive uranium mill tailings piles in 10 states. Remedial work must meet standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Remedial action must be designed and constructed to prevent dispersion of the tailings and other contaminated materials, and must prevent the inadvertent use of the tailings by man. This report is prepared primarily for distribution to parties involved in the UMTRA Project, including the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and states and tribes. It is intended to record the work done by the DOE since publication of the proposed EPA groundwater protection standards, and to show how the DOE has attempted to respond and react in a positive way to the new requirements that result from the proposed standards. This report discusses the groundwater compliance strategies now being defined and implemented by the DOE, and details the changes in disposal cell designs that result from studies to evaluate ways to facilitate compliance with the proposed EPA groundwater protection standards. This report also serves to record the technical advances, planning, and progress made on the UMTRA Project since the appearance of the proposed EPA groundwater protection standards. The report serves to establish, document, and disseminate technical approaches and engineering and groundwater information to people who may be interested or involved in similar or related projects. 24 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs

  4. Social learning in a policy-mandated collaboration: Community wildfire protection planning in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel F. Brummel; Kristen C. Nelson; Pamela J. Jakes; Daniel R. Williams

    2010-01-01

    Policies such as the US Healthy Forests Restoration Act (HFRA) mandate collaboration in planning to create benefits such as social learning and shared understanding among partners. However, some question the ability of top-down policy to foster successful local collaboration. Through in-depth interviews and document analysis, this paper investigates social learning and...

  5. 77 FR 8892 - Detailed Planning To Consider Additional Land Protection on the Missouri River From Fort Randall...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... 25486, DFC, Denver, CO 80225. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Nick Kaczor, Planning Team Leader... old, wider river valley contains important habitat for at least 60 native and 26 sport fish. In... historical characteristics witnessed by Lewis and Clark during their explorations in the early 1800s. The FWS...

  6. An evaluation model of protective function in forest management planning: slope stability in regard to shallow landslide events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of forest protective function has been divided into four main branches according to the different types of instability phenomena (landslide events, erosion, floods, avalanches. This paper presents the first module related to landslide events and will be followed by others. Two opposing factors have been considered: instability tendency of a selected land unit and protective function of the vegetation. While the first factor tends to promote landslide events, the second one opposes their occurrence. An expert evaluation of these aspects allows us to derive some qualitative indexes. For each territorial unit, these indexes express the protection value of vegetation, the degree of management restrictions and suitable improvements to the forest cover. Both propension and protective functional character are influenced by many and different parameters which require multidisciplinary competences to correctly evaluate them. Such skills are not easily found in technicians in charge of forest management. The present paper aims to provide a decision making support tool; based on neural network models, it should be able to interpret and simulate the expert knowledge, extending to the "standard" forest technician the opportunity to perform such a kind of evaluation. The neural network training required the identification and characterization of explanatory variables related to both aspects, and the subsequent expert definition of the respective datasets of real classification examples. The descriptive variables were chosen considering the information availability and its compatibility with GIS techniques as well. Model performances have been validated by testing the whole procedure in two sites situated in Antrona valley (Piemonte and Acqualagna (Marche. The results are discussed in detail and put in evidence a good accordance with both field survey and general conceptual assumptions. Future developments will involve similar analysis and

  7. Association between ambient ozone and health outcomes in Prague

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hůnová, I.; Malý, Marek; Řezáčová, J.; Braniš, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 1 (2013), s. 89-97 ISSN 0340-0131 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 2B08077; GA AV ČR(CZ) M100300904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : ambient ozone * cardiovascular diseases * hospital admissions * mortality * respiratory diseases Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.198, year: 2013

  8. OZONE GENERATORS IN INDOOR AIR SETTINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives information on home/office ozone generators. It discusses their current uses as amelioratives for environmental tobacco smoke, biocontaminants, volatile organic compounds, and odors and details the advantages and disadvantages of each. Ozone appears to work well ...

  9. Cryptosporidiosis associated with ozonated apple cider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Brian G; Mazurek, Jacek M; Hlavsa, Michele; Park, Jean; Tillapaw, Matt; Parrish, MaryKay; Salehi, Ellen; Franks, William; Koch, Elizabeth; Smith, Forrest; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael; Hill, Vince; da Silva, Alex; Johnston, Stephanie; Jones, Jeffrey L

    2006-04-01

    We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned.

  10. Cryptosporidiosis Associated with Ozonated Apple Cider

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, Brian G.; Mazurek, Jacek M.; Hlavsa, Michele; Park, Jean; Tillapaw, Matt; Parrish, MaryKay; Salehi, Ellen; Franks, William; Koch, Elizabeth; Smith, Forrest; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael; Hill, Vince; da Silva, Alex; Johnston, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned.

  11. Ozone Standard Reference Photometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Standard Reference Photometer (SRP) Program began in the early 1980s as collaboration between NIST and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to design,...

  12. A direct sensitivity approach to predict hourly ozone resulting from compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Heather; Baker, Kirk R; Akhtar, Farhan; Napelenok, Sergey L; Possiel, Norm; Wells, Benjamin; Timin, Brian

    2013-03-05

    In setting primary ambient air quality standards, the EPA's responsibility under the law is to establish standards that protect public health. As part of the current review of the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), the US EPA evaluated the health exposure and risks associated with ambient ozone pollution using a statistical approach to adjust recent air quality to simulate just meeting the current standard level, without specifying emission control strategies. One drawback of this purely statistical concentration rollback approach is that it does not take into account spatial and temporal heterogeneity of ozone response to emissions changes. The application of the higher-order decoupled direct method (HDDM) in the community multiscale air quality (CMAQ) model is discussed here to provide an example of a methodology that could incorporate this variability into the risk assessment analyses. Because this approach includes a full representation of the chemical production and physical transport of ozone in the atmosphere, it does not require assumed background concentrations, which have been applied to constrain estimates from past statistical techniques. The CMAQ-HDDM adjustment approach is extended to measured ozone concentrations by determining typical sensitivities at each monitor location and hour of the day based on a linear relationship between first-order sensitivities and hourly ozone values. This approach is demonstrated by modeling ozone responses for monitor locations in Detroit and Charlotte to domain-wide reductions in anthropogenic NOx and VOCs emissions. As seen in previous studies, ozone response calculated using HDDM compared well to brute-force emissions changes up to approximately a 50% reduction in emissions. A new stepwise approach is developed here to apply this method to emissions reductions beyond 50% allowing for the simulation of more stringent reductions in ozone concentrations. Compared to previous rollback methods, this

  13. Tropospheric Ozone from the TOMS TDOT (TOMS-Direct-Ozone-in-Troposphere) Technique During SAFARI-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J. B.; Thompson, A. M.; Frolov, A. D.; Hudson, R. D.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    There are a number of published residual-type methods for deriving tropospheric ozone from TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer). The basic concept of these methods is that within a zone of constant stratospheric ozone, the tropospheric ozone column can be computed by subtracting stratospheric ozone from the TOMS Level 2 total ozone column, We used the modified-residual method for retrieving tropospheric ozone during SAFARI-2000 and found disagreements with in-situ ozone data over Africa in September 2000. Using the newly developed TDOT (TOMS-Direct-Ozone-in-Troposphere) method that uses TOMS radiances and a modified lookup table based on actual profiles during high ozone pollution periods, new maps were prepared and found to compare better to soundings over Lusaka, Zambia (15.5 S, 28 E), Nairobi and several African cities where MOZAIC aircraft operated in September 2000. The TDOT technique and comparisons are described in detail.

  14. The holes in the ozone scare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maduro, R.; Schauerhamer, R.

    1992-05-01

    For the authors, the ozone hole is more politic than scientific, and is caused by anthropogenic CFC, the ozone concentration reduction measured in the antarctic stratosphere is a natural phenomena: ozone destruction by chlorides and bromides coming from volcanos and oceans. The ozone hole was discovered in 1956 and not in 1985. For the greenhouse effect, the CO[sub 2] part is very small in comparison with the atmospheric water vapour part. (A.B.). refs., figs., tabs.

  15. 76 FR 41444 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Commonwealth of Virginia; Section...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... discloses such violations to the Commonwealth and takes prompt and appropriate measures to remedy the... protection, Air pollution control, Nitrogen dioxide, Ozone, Particulate matter, Reporting and recordkeeping...

  16. 78 FR 39651 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Section 110(a)(2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... such violations to the Commonwealth and takes prompt and appropriate measures to remedy the violations... protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Ozone, Volatile organic compounds, Nitrogen...

  17. 76 FR 8298 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revision to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... voluntarily discloses such violations to the Commonwealth and takes prompt and appropriate measures to remedy... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Ozone...

  18. 76 FR 30600 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revisions to Clean Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... and takes prompt and appropriate measures to remedy the violations. Virginia's Voluntary Environmental... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Nitrogen dioxide, Ozone, Particulate matter, Reporting and...

  19. 77 FR 38246 - Revisions to the Arizona State Implementation Plan, Arizona Department of Environmental Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... premature mortality, aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular disease, decreased lung function... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Nitrogen dioxide, Ozone...

  20. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Optimization Plan for Groundwater Monitoring Wells at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-09-30

    This document is the monitoring optimization plan for groundwater monitoring wells associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure 1). The plan describes the technical approach that will be implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) to focus available resources on the monitoring wells at Y-12 which provide the most useful hydrologic and water-quality monitoring data. The technical approach is based on the GWPP status designation for each well (Section 2.0). Under this approach, wells granted ''active'' status are used by the GWPP for hydrologic monitoring and/or groundwater sampling (Section 3.0), whereas well granted ''inactive'' status are not used for either purpose. The status designation also determines the frequency at which the GWPP will inspect applicable wells, the scope of these well inspections, and extent of any maintenance actions initiated by the GWPP (Section 4.0). Details regarding the ancillary activities associated with implementation of this plan (e.g., well inspection) are deferred to the referenced GWPP plans and procedures (Section 5.0). This plan applies to groundwater monitoring wells associated with Y-12 and related waste management facilities located within three hydrogeologic regimes (Figure 1): the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek Regime encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) immediately west of Y-12. The East Fork Regime encompasses most of the Y-12 process, operations, and support facilities in BCV and, for the purposes of this plan, includes a section of Union Valley east of the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundary along Scarboro Road. The Chestnut Ridge Regime is directly south of Y-12 and encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge that is bound to the