WorldWideScience

Sample records for ozone monitoring experiment

  1. Evaluation of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ozone profiles from nine different algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Y.J.; Swart, D.P.J.; Baier, F.; Bhartia, P.K.; Bodeker, G.E.; Casadio, S.; Chance, K.; Frate, Del F.; Erbertseder, T.; Felder, M.D.; Flynn, L.E.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Hansen, G.; Hasekamp, O.P.; Kaifel, A.; Kelder, H.M.; Kerridge, B.J.; Lambert, J.-C.; Landgraf, J.; Latter, B.G.; Liu, X.; McDermid, I.S.; Pachepsky, Y.; Rozanov, V.; Siddans, R.; Tellmann, S.; A, van der R.J.; Oss, van R.F.; Weber, M.; Zehner, C.

    2006-01-01

    An evaluation is made of ozone profiles retrieved from measurements of the nadir-viewing Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) instrument. Currently, four different approaches are used to retrieve ozone profile information from GOME measurements, which differ in the use of external information

  2. Aerosol optical thickness retrieval over land and water using Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.; Leeuw, G. de

    2005-01-01

    An algorithm for the retrieval of the aerosol optical thickness over land and over water from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) data is presented. The cloud fraction in the GOME pixels is determined using the Fast Retrieval Scheme for Clouds From the Oxygen A Band (FRESCO) algorithm. Surface

  3. The ozone monitoring instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.R.; Mälkki, A.; Visser, H.; Vries, J. de; Stammes, P.; Lundell, J.O.V.; Saari, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flies on the National Aeronautics and Space Adminsitration's Earth Observing System Aura satellite launched in July 2004. OMI is a ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) nadir solar backscatter spectrometer, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with a spatial

  4. Studies on calibration and validation of data provided by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment GOME on ERS-2 (CAVEAT). Final report; Studie zur Kalibrierung und Validation von Daten des Global Ozone Monitoring Experiments GOME auf ERS-2 (CAVEAT). Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrows, J.P.; Kuenzi, K.; Ladstaetter-Weissenmayer, A.; Langer, J. [Bremen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Umweltphysik; Neuber, R.; Eisinger, M. [Alfred-Wegener-Institut fuer Polar- und Meeresforschung, Potsdam (Germany)

    2000-04-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) was launched on 21 April 1995 as one of six scientific instruments on board the second European remote sensing satellite (ERS-2) of the ESA. The investigations presented here aimed at assessing and improving the accuracy of the GOME measurements of sun-standardized and absolute radiation density and the derived data products. For this purpose, the GOME data were compared with measurements pf terrestrial, airborne and satellite-borne systems. For scientific reasons, the measurements will focus on the medium and high latitudes of both hemispheres, although equatorial regions were investigated as well. In the first stage, operational data products of GOME were validated, i.e. radiation measurements (spectra, level1 product) and trace gas column densities (level2 product). [German] Am 21. April 1995 wurde das Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) als eines von insgesamt sechs wissenschaftlichen Instrumenten an Bord des zweiten europaeischen Fernerkundungssatelliten (ERS-2) der ESA ins All gebracht. Das Ziel dieses Vorhabens ist es, die Genauigkeit der von GOME durchgefuehrten Messungen von sonnennormierter und absoluter Strahlungsdichte sowie der aus ihnen abgeleiteten Datenprodukte zu bewerten und zu verbessern. Dazu sollten die GOME-Daten mit Messungen von boden-, flugzeug- und satellitengestuetzten Systemen verglichen werden. Aus wissenschaftlichen Gruenden wird der Schwerpunkt auf Messungen bei mittleren und hohen Breitengraden in beiden Hemisphaeren liegen. Jedoch wurden im Laufe des Projektzeitraumes auch Regionen in Aequatornaehe untersucht. Im ersten Schritt sollen operationelle Datenprodukte von GOME validiert werden. Dieses sind Strahlungsmessungen (Spektren, Level1-Produkt) und Spurengas-Saeulendichten (Level2-Produkt). (orig.)

  5. Air Mass Factor Formulation for Spectroscopic Measurements from Satellites: Application to Formaldehyde Retrievals from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Paul I.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Chance, Kelly; Martin, Randall V.; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Bey, Isabelle; Yantosca, Robert; Fiore, Arlene; Li, Qinbin

    2004-01-01

    We present a new formulation for the air mass factor (AMF) to convert slant column measurements of optically thin atmospheric species from space into total vertical columns. Because of atmospheric scattering, the AMF depends on the vertical distribution of the species. We formulate the AMF as the integral of the relative vertical distribution (shape factor) of the species over the depth of the atmosphere, weighted by altitude-dependent coefficients (scattering weights) computed independently from a radiative transfer model. The scattering weights are readily tabulated, and one can then obtain the AMF for any observation scene by using shape factors from a three dimensional (3-D) atmospheric chemistry model for the period of observation. This approach subsequently allows objective evaluation of the 3-D model with the observed vertical columns, since the shape factor and the vertical column in the model represent two independent pieces of information. We demonstrate the AMF method by using slant column measurements of formaldehyde at 346 nm from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment satellite instrument over North America during July 1996. Shape factors are cumputed with the Global Earth Observing System CHEMistry (GEOS-CHEM) global 3-D model and are checked for consistency with the few available aircraft measurements. Scattering weights increase by an order of magnitude from the surface to the upper troposphere. The AMFs are typically 20-40% less over continents than over the oceans and are approximately half the values calculated in the absence of scattering. Model-induced errors in the AMF are estimated to be approximately 10%. The GEOS-CHEM model captures 50% and 60% of the variances in the observed slant and vertical columns, respectively. Comparison of the simulated and observed vertical columns allows assessment of model bias.

  6. In Brief: Monitoring ozone in Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-12-01

    Qatar is establishing an ozone and pollution monitoring ground station in West Asia, following discussions between the government, the Qatar Foundation, and the United Nations Environment Programme, according to a 19 November announcement. The station will assist in understanding whether the ozone layer is actually recovering after being damaged by ozone-depleting chemicals. Qatar also announced plans to establish a global center of excellence for research and development of ozone and climate-friendly technology, equipment, and appliances. UNEP executive director Achim Steiner said the announcements by Qatar ``will help plug key data gaps relating to information gathering in West Asia and the Gulf to the benefit of the region and the world.''

  7. Influence of stratospheric airmasses on tropospheric vertical O3 columns based on GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment measurements and backtrajectory calculation over the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ladstätter-Weißenmayer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite based GOME (Global Ozone Measuring experiment data are used to characterize the amount of tropospheric ozone over the tropical Pacific. Tropospheric ozone was determined from GOME data using the Tropospheric Excess Method (TEM. In the tropical Pacific a significant seasonal variation is detected. Tropospheric excess ozone is enhanced during the biomass burning season from September to November due to outflow from the continents. In September 1999 GOME data reveal an episode of increased excess ozone columns over Tahiti (18.0° S; 149.0° W (Eastern Pacific compared to Am. Samoa (14.23° S; 170.56° W and Fiji (18.13° S; 178.40° E, both situated in the Western Pacific. Backtrajectory calculations show that none of the airmasses arriving over the three locations experienced anthropogenic pollution (e. g. biomass burning. Consequently other sources of ozone have to be considered. One possible process leading to an increase of tropospheric ozone is stratosphere-troposphere-exchange. An analysis of the potential vorticity along trajectories arriving above each of the locations reveals that airmasses at Tahiti are subject to enhanced stratospheric influence, compared to Am. Samoa and Fiji. As a result this study shows clear incidents of transport of airmasses from the stratosphere into the troposphere.

  8. Towards the retrieval of tropospheric ozone with the ozone monitoring instrument (OMI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mielonen, T.; De Haan, J.F.; Van Peet, J.C.A.; Eremenko, M.; Veefkind, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    We have assessed the sensitivity of the operational Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) ozone profile retrieval algorithm to a number of a priori and radiative transfer assumptions. We studied the effect of stray light correction, surface albedo assumptions and a priori ozone profiles on the retrieved

  9. Monitoring the consequences of decreased ozone protection: The NSF ultraviolet radiation monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of decreased protection from ultraviolet radiation are as troubling as the continuing depletion of stratospheric ozone. Evidence exists to clearly link ozone depletion to changes in the antarctic marine environment. Results of two 1992 papers are summarized here. Enhanced exposure to mid-range UV radiation was found to be affecting marine ecosystems with a recorded 6-12 percent reduction in primary productivity directly related to the ozone layer depletion. In another experiment, a model was developed indicating that the ozone hole could reduce near-surface photosynthesis by as much as 12-15 percent. The NSF UV monitoring system in place for these and other experiments uses a spectroradiometer, making hourly, high-resolution measurements of the distribution of UV surface irradiance

  10. Ozone mass transfer and kinetics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollyky, L.J.; Beary, M.M.

    1981-12-01

    Experiments were conducted at the Hanford Site to determine the most efficient pH and temperature levels for the destruction of complexants in Hanford high-level defense waste. These complexants enhance migration of radionuclides in the soil and inhibit the growth of crystals in the evaporator-crystallizer. Ozone mass transfer and kinetics tests have been outlined for the determination of critical mass transfer and kinetics parameters of the ozone-complexant reaction

  11. Surface Monitoring Data for PM2.5 and Ozone

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — AIRNOW is an EPA program in collaboration with the States to gather and distribute hourly near-realtime data from several hundred continuous PM2.5 and ozone monitors.

  12. Thermoluminescence as a tool for monitoring ozone-stressed plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skotnica, J.; Gilbert, M.; Weingart, I.; Wilhelm, C

    2003-05-01

    Thermoluminescence parameters are more sensitive to ozone than fluorescence parameters (F{sub 0}, F{sub M}, F{sub v}/F{sub M}). - The effect of ozone (6 h, various concentrations from 0 to 350 ppb) on barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Bomi) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L., cv. Yellow Cherry) leaves was investigated in parallel by thermoluminescence (TL) and fluorescence (FL) methods. Several significant changes were found in TL glow curves measured after excitation by one single turnover flash at +2 deg. C in the temperature range from 2 to 170 deg. C immediately after ozone exposure. Contrary to TL, ozone induced only negligible changes in FL parameters F{sub 0}, F{sub M} and F{sub v}/F{sub M}. Measurements done 24 h after ozone exposure showed partial recovery of ozone-induced changes. The extent of recovery was not the same in different parts of TL curves. Fluorescence parameters were not significantly changed. The results demonstrate that TL parameters are more sensitive to ozone than conventially used FL parameters F{sub 0}, F{sub M} and F{sub v}/F{sub M}. Moreover, TL measurements seem to give information not only about the PSII electron transport, but also about the extent of oxidative damage and membrane lipid peroxidation. It is concluded, that TL can be a highly informative tool for monitoring the impact of ozone on plants.

  13. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument: overview of 14 years in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levelt, Pieternel F.; Joiner, Joanna; Tamminen, Johanna; Pepijn Veefkind, J.; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Stein Zweers, Deborah C.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Streets, David G.; Eskes, Henk; van der A, Ronald; McLinden, Chris; Fioletov, Vitali; Carn, Simon; de Laat, Jos; DeLand, Matthew; Marchenko, Sergey; McPeters, Richard; Ziemke, Jerald; Fu, Dejian; Liu, Xiong; Pickering, Kenneth; Apituley, Arnoud; González Abad, Gonzalo; Arola, Antti; Boersma, Folkert; Miller, Christopher Chan; Chance, Kelly; de Graaf, Martin; Hakkarainen, Janne; Hassinen, Seppo; Ialongo, Iolanda; Kleipool, Quintus; Krotkov, Nickolay; Li, Can; Lamsal, Lok; Newman, Paul; Nowlan, Caroline; Suleiman, Raid; Gijsbert Tilstra, Lieuwe; Torres, Omar; Wang, Huiqun; Wargan, Krzysztof

    2018-04-01

    This overview paper highlights the successes of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the Aura satellite spanning a period of nearly 14 years. Data from OMI has been used in a wide range of applications and research resulting in many new findings. Due to its unprecedented spatial resolution, in combination with daily global coverage, OMI plays a unique role in measuring trace gases important for the ozone layer, air quality, and climate change. With the operational very fast delivery (VFD; direct readout) and near real-time (NRT) availability of the data, OMI also plays an important role in the development of operational services in the atmospheric chemistry domain.

  14. Ozone Measurements Monitoring Using Data-Based Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi; Kadri, Farid; Khadraoui, Sofiane; Sun, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of ozone (O3) formation mechanisms in the troposphere make the fast and accurate modeling of ozone very challenging. In the absence of a process model, principal component analysis (PCA) has been extensively used as a data-based monitoring technique for highly correlated process variables; however conventional PCA-based detection indices often fail to detect small or moderate anomalies. In this work, we propose an innovative method for detecting small anomalies in highly correlated multivariate data. The developed method combine the multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) monitoring scheme with PCA modelling in order to enhance anomaly detection performance. Such a choice is mainly motivated by the greater ability of the MEWMA monitoring scheme to detect small changes in the process mean. The proposed PCA-based MEWMA monitoring scheme is successfully applied to ozone measurements data collected from Upper Normandy region, France, via the network of air quality monitoring stations. The detection results of the proposed method are compared to that declared by Air Normand air monitoring association.

  15. Ozone Measurements Monitoring Using Data-Based Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2016-02-01

    The complexity of ozone (O3) formation mechanisms in the troposphere make the fast and accurate modeling of ozone very challenging. In the absence of a process model, principal component analysis (PCA) has been extensively used as a data-based monitoring technique for highly correlated process variables; however conventional PCA-based detection indices often fail to detect small or moderate anomalies. In this work, we propose an innovative method for detecting small anomalies in highly correlated multivariate data. The developed method combine the multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) monitoring scheme with PCA modelling in order to enhance anomaly detection performance. Such a choice is mainly motivated by the greater ability of the MEWMA monitoring scheme to detect small changes in the process mean. The proposed PCA-based MEWMA monitoring scheme is successfully applied to ozone measurements data collected from Upper Normandy region, France, via the network of air quality monitoring stations. The detection results of the proposed method are compared to that declared by Air Normand air monitoring association.

  16. SUMO: Solar Ultraviolet Monitor and Ozone Nanosatellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damé, L.; Meftah, M.; Irbah, A.; Hauchecorne, A.; Keckhut, P.; Sarkissian, A.; Godin-Beekman, S.; Rogers, D. J.; Bove, P.; Lagage, P. O.; DeWitte, S.

    2014-12-01

    SUMO is an innovative proof-of-concept nanosatellite aiming to measure on the same platform the different components of the Earth radiation budget (ERB), the solar energy input and the energy reemitted at the top of the Earth atmosphere, with a particular focus on the far UV (FUV) part of the spectrum and on the ozone layer. The FUV is the only wavelength band with energy absorbed in the high atmosphere (stratosphere), in the ozone (Herzberg continuum, 200-220 nm) and oxygen bands, and its high variability is most probably at the origin of a climate influence (UV affects stratospheric dynamics and temperatures, altering interplanetary waves and weather patterns both poleward and downward to the lower stratosphere and tropopause). A simultaneous observation of incoming FUV and ozone production would bring an invaluable information on this process of solar-climate forcing. Space instruments have already measured the different components of the ERB but this is the first time that all instruments will operate on the same platform. This characteristic by itself guarantees original scientific results. SUMO is a 3.6 kg, 3W, 10x10x30 cm3 nanosatellite ("3U"), with a "1U" payload of definition has been completed (platform and payload AIT are possible in 24 months). SUMO is proposed for the nanosatellite program of Polytechnic School and CNES (following QB50) for a flight in 2018. Follow-up is 2 fold: on one part more complete measurements using SUMO miniaturized instruments on a larger satellite; on the other part, increase of the coverage in local time and latitude using a constellation of SUMO nanosatellites around the Earth to further geolocalize the Sun influence on our planet. Nanosatellites, with cost and risk limited, are also excellent platforms to evaluate technologies for future missions, e.g. nanotechnology ZnO protection barriers to limit contamination from solar panels in the UV and reduce reflection losses in the visible, or MgZnO solar blind detectors (R

  17. Comparison between assimilated and non-assimilated experiments of the MACCii global reanalysis near surface ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikerdekis, Athanasios; Katragou, Eleni; Zanis, Prodromos; Melas, Dimitrios; Eskes, Henk; Flemming, Johannes; Huijnen, Vincent; Inness, Antje; Kapsomenakis, Ioannis; Schultz, Martin; Stein, Olaf; Zerefos, Christos

    2014-05-01

    In this work we evaluate near surface ozone concentrations of the MACCii global reanalysis using measurements from the EMEP and AIRBASE database. The eight-year long reanalysis of atmospheric composition data covering the period 2003-2010 was constructed as part of the FP7-funded Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate project by assimilating satellite data into a global model and data assimilation system (Inness et al., 2013). The study mainly focuses in the differences between the assimilated and the non-assimilated experiments and aims to identify and quantify any improvements achieved by adding data assimilation to the system. Results are analyzed in eight European sub-regions and region-specific Taylor plots illustrate the evaluation and the overall predictive skill of each experiment. The diurnal and annual cycles of near surface ozone are evaluated for both experiments. Furthermore ozone exposure indices for crop growth (AOT40), human health (SOMO35) and the number of days that 8-hour ozone averages exceeded 60ppb and 90ppb have been calculated for each station based on both observed and simulated data. Results indicate mostly improvement of the assimilated experiment with respect to the high near surface ozone concentrations, the diurnal cycle and range and the bias in comparison to the non-assimilated experiment. The limitations of the comparison between assimilated and non-assimilated experiments for near surface ozone are also discussed.

  18. Monitoring of the atmospheric ozone layer and natural ultraviolet radiation: Annual report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svendby, T.M.; Myhre, C.L.; Stebel, K.; Edvardsen, K; Orsolini, Y.; Dahlback, A.

    2012-07-01

    This is an annual report describing the activities and main results of the monitoring programme: Monitoring of the atmospheric ozone layer and natural ultraviolet radiation for 2011. 2011 was a year with generally low ozone values above Norway. A clear decrease in the ozone layer above Norway during the period 1979-1997 stopped after 1998 and the ozone layer above Norway seems now to have stabilized.(Author)

  19. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument: overview of 14 years in space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Levelt

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This overview paper highlights the successes of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI on board the Aura satellite spanning a period of nearly 14 years. Data from OMI has been used in a wide range of applications and research resulting in many new findings. Due to its unprecedented spatial resolution, in combination with daily global coverage, OMI plays a unique role in measuring trace gases important for the ozone layer, air quality, and climate change. With the operational very fast delivery (VFD; direct readout and near real-time (NRT availability of the data, OMI also plays an important role in the development of operational services in the atmospheric chemistry domain.

  20. National Plan for Stratospheric Ozone Monitoring and Early Detection of Change, 1981-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    A transition from reliance on a ground-based, geographically-biased ozone observing network operated by cooperating nations to a combined satellite and ground-based monitoring program that will provide global coverage of the vertical distribution of stratospheric ozone, as well as total ozone overburden is discussed. The strategy, instrumentation, and monitoring products to be prepared during this transition period are also discussed. Global atmospheric monitoring for protection of the ultraviolet shielding properties of atmospheric ozone is considered. The operational satellite ozone vertical profile monitoring system to be flown on the NOAA Tiros N operational satellite series to carry on ozone measurements initiated on the NASA R D satellites is also considered

  1. Validation of ozone measurements from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dupuy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents extensive {bias determination} analyses of ozone observations from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE satellite instruments: the ACE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS and the Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (ACE-MAESTRO instrument. Here we compare the latest ozone data products from ACE-FTS and ACE-MAESTRO with coincident observations from nearly 20 satellite-borne, airborne, balloon-borne and ground-based instruments, by analysing volume mixing ratio profiles and partial column densities. The ACE-FTS version 2.2 Ozone Update product reports more ozone than most correlative measurements from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere. At altitude levels from 16 to 44 km, the average values of the mean relative differences are nearly all within +1 to +8%. At higher altitudes (45–60 km, the ACE-FTS ozone amounts are significantly larger than those of the comparison instruments, with mean relative differences of up to +40% (about +20% on average. For the ACE-MAESTRO version 1.2 ozone data product, mean relative differences are within ±10% (average values within ±6% between 18 and 40 km for both the sunrise and sunset measurements. At higher altitudes (~35–55 km, systematic biases of opposite sign are found between the ACE-MAESTRO sunrise and sunset observations. While ozone amounts derived from the ACE-MAESTRO sunrise occultation data are often smaller than the coincident observations (with mean relative differences down to −10%, the sunset occultation profiles for ACE-MAESTRO show results that are qualitatively similar to ACE-FTS, indicating a large positive bias (mean relative differences within +10 to +30% in the 45–55 km altitude range. In contrast, there is no significant systematic difference in bias found for the ACE-FTS sunrise and sunset measurements.

  2. Climate Prediction Center (CPC)Stratospheric Monitoring Ozone Blended Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 3-D global ozone mixing ratio (ppm) and total column ozone (DU) dataset analyzed from daily Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Instrument(SBUV/2) and TIROS Operational...

  3. Accuracy and practicality of a portable ozone monitor for personal exposure estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagona, Jessica A.; Weisel, Clifford P.; Meng, Qingyu

    2018-02-01

    Accurate measurements of personal exposure to atmospheric pollutants such as ozone are important for understanding health risks. We tested a new personal ozone monitor (POM; 2B Technologies) for accuracy, precision, and ease of use. The POM's measurements were compared to simultaneous ozone measurements from a 2B Model 205 monitor and a ThermoScientific 49i monitor, and multiple POMs were placed side-by-side to check precision. Tests were undertaken in a controlled environmental facility, outdoors, and in a private residence. Additionally, ten volunteers wore a POM for five days and answered a questionnaire about its ease of use. The POM measured ozone accurately compared to the 49i ozone monitor, with average relative differences of less than 8%. In the controlled environment tests, the POM's ozone measurements did not change in the presence of additional atmospheric constituents with similar absorption lines to ozone, though there may have been a small decrease in precision and accuracy. Precision between POMs varied by environment (r2 = 0.98 outdoors; r2 = 0.3 to 0.9 in controlled lab conditions). Volunteers reported that the POM was reasonably comfortable to wear, although all reported that they felt that it was too noisy. Overall, the POM is a viable option for personal ozone monitoring.

  4. Effective cloud fractions from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument: theoretical framework and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stammes, P.; Sneep, M.; Haan, de J.F.; Veefkind, J.P.; Wang, P.; Levelt, P.F.

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch-Finnish Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board NASA's EOS-Aura satellite is measuring ozone, NO2, and other trace gases with daily global coverage. To correct these trace gas retrievals for the presence of clouds, there are two OMI cloud products, based on different physical processes,

  5. Experimental monitoring of ozone production in a PET cyclotron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanibellato, L.; Cicoria, G.; Pancaldi, D.; Boschi, S.; Mostacci, D.; Marengo, M.

    2010-01-01

    Ozone produced from radiolytic processes was investigated as a possible health hazard in the working environment at the University Hospital 'S.Orsola-Malpighi' PET facility. Intense radiation fields can generate ozone, known to be the most toxic gas produced by ionizing radiation around a particle accelerator. To evaluate ozone concentration in air, two different measurement campaigns were conducted with passive diffusion detectors. Comparison of the results with the concentration limits recommended by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) demonstrated that ozone poses no health hazard to workers around a biomedical cyclotron.

  6. Improve observation-based ground-level ozone spatial distribution by compositing satellite and surface observations: A simulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhong; Wang, Yuhang; Crawford, James; Cheng, Ye; Li, Jianfeng

    2018-05-01

    Obtaining the full spatial coverage of daily surface ozone fields is challenging because of the sparsity of the surface monitoring network and the difficulty in direct satellite retrievals of surface ozone. We propose an indirect satellite retrieval framework to utilize the information from satellite-measured column densities of tropospheric NO2 and CH2O, which are sensitive to the lower troposphere, to derive surface ozone fields. The method is applicable to upcoming geostationary satellites with high-quality NO2 and CH2O measurements. To prove the concept, we conduct a simulation experiment using a 3-D chemical transport model for July 2011 over the eastern US. The results show that a second order regression using both NO2 and CH2O column densities can be an effective predictor for daily maximum 8-h average ozone. Furthermore, this indirect retrieval approach is shown to be complementary to spatial interpolation of surface observations, especially in regions where the surface sites are sparse. Combining column observations of NO2 and CH2O with surface site measurements leads to an improved representation of surface ozone over simple kriging, increasing the R2 value from 0.53 to 0.64 at a surface site distance of 252 km. The improvements are even more significant with larger surface site distances. The simulation experiment suggests that the indirect satellite retrieval technique can potentially be a useful tool to derive the full spatial coverage of daily surface ozone fields if satellite observation uncertainty is moderate.

  7. Monitoring of the ozone layer. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braathen, Geir O.; Svenoee, Trond; Hansen, Georg H.; Dahlback, Arne

    1998-10-01

    The three stations in Oslo, Tromsoe and at Ny-Aalesund at Svalbard measure the total ozone levels and these show low monthly averages in 1997 compared to the long-term monthly averages. In Oslo the averages for January to April were 3-13 % below those from 1979 to 1989. Detailed measurements are presented. Analyses based on model calculations and measurements both in Norway and at other places are presented and show the low spring ozone values largely to be a result of chemical oxone decomposition. Particularly in 1997 the polar whirl lasted longer than usual. This lead to reduced ozone transport from the equator to the poles which normally is strongest in spring. At the same time the ozone was decomposed through natural processes where NO x is involved. The report concludes that the extremely low values registered are caused by a combination of chemical decomposition due to chlorofluorocarbons and halon and the particularly dynamic meteorological situation. A trend analysis for the period of 1979 to 1997 was carried out. The trend has been declining unevenly. In Oslo, Tromsoe and Ny-Aalesund the UV radiation from the sun is continually measured using GUV instrumentation. The measurements confirm that the main factors influencing the UV level are the height of the sun, the amount of clouds, the thickness of the ozone layer and the reflection properties at the earth surface. Monthly radiation doses are presented as well. Both at the Oslo and Tromsoe universities two ozone layer measuring instruments of the Dobson and Brewer types, are used. Instrumental comparisons are made. From the Bjoernoeya and the Gardermoen there are regularly lifted balloons which may reach a 35 km altitude carrying ozone probes. The ozone altitude distribution is registered. Similar measurements in the Antarctic show that the yearly ozone decomposition from September to November occurs at the heights of 14 to 24 km. Studies show there is extensive ozone decomposition in the Arctic as well

  8. Fast Flow Cavity Enhanced Ozone Monitor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Naturally occurring in the stratosphere, ozone plays a significant role in many atmospheric reactions, cloud formation, and is the key player in shielding harmful UV...

  9. Ozone and atmospheric pollution at synoptic scale: the monitoring network Paes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheusi, F.; Chevalier, A.; Delmas, R.; Athier, G.; Bouchou, P.; Cousin, J.M.; Meyerfeld, Y.; Laj, P.; Sellegri, K.; Ancellet, G.

    2007-01-01

    Ozone as an environmental concern extends beyond the questions usually covered by media - stratospheric ozone depletion and urban pollution peaks. Strong expositions to this pollutant are frequent even far from pollution sources, and the background tropospheric content of ozone has been growing fivefold over the last century. In response to this concern at the French national scale, formerly independent monitoring stations have been coordinated since 2004 in a structured network: Paes (French acronym for atmospheric pollution at synoptic scale). The data are put in free access online. (authors)

  10. Tropospheric ozone lidar intercomparison experiment, TROLIX '91, field phase report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesenberg, J.; Ancellet, G.; Bergwerff, H.; Cossart, G. v.; Fiedler, J.; Jonge, C. de; Mellqvist, J.; Mitev, V.; Sonnemann, G.; Swart, D.; Wallinder, E.

    1993-01-01

    The Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Intercomparison Experiment TROLIX '91 has been initiated as part of the TESLAS subproject of the cooperative programme EUROTRAC. It has been performed in June 1991 at the Rijksinstitut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene (RIVM) in Bilthoven, The Netherlands. The experiment was based on the simultaneous operation of different types of differential absorption lidars (DIAL), a special version of a Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy Instrument (DOAS), helicopter borne in situ instruments, and many other supporting measurements. After a short introduction to the general methodology the instruments are described, the experimental operations are explained, and a selection of data are presented. Some examples are given for the results of the intercomparison, as far as they have been available at the present stage of evaluation. The main purpose of this report, however, is to provide an overview over the material collected during the experiment, on order to facilitate further detailed studies in cooperation between the different groups which have participated. (orig.)

  11. Tropospheric ozone column retrieval at northern mid-latitudes from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument by means of a neural network algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sellitto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring tropospheric ozone from space is of critical importance in order to gain more thorough knowledge on phenomena affecting air quality and the greenhouse effect. Deriving information on tropospheric ozone from UV/VIS nadir satellite spectrometers is difficult owing to the weak sensitivity of the measured radiance spectra to variations of ozone in the troposphere. Here we propose an alternative method of analysis to retrieve tropospheric ozone columns from Ozone Monitoring Instrument radiances by means of a neural network algorithm. An extended set of ozone sonde measurements at northern mid-latitudes for the years 2004–2008 has been considered as the training and test data set. The design of the algorithm is extensively discussed. Our retrievals are compared to both tropospheric ozone residuals and optimal estimation retrievals over a similar independent test data set. Results show that our algorithm has comparable accuracy with respect to both correlative methods and its performance is slightly better over a subset containing only European ozone sonde stations. Possible sources of errors are analyzed. Finally, the capabilities of our algorithm to derive information on boundary layer ozone are studied and the results critically discussed.

  12. Ozone and nitrogen oxides in surface air in Russia: TROICA experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratova, N.; Elansky, N.; Belikov, I.; Shumskiy, R.

    2009-04-01

    The results of measurements of surface ozone and nitrogen oxides concentrations over the continental regions of Russia are discussed. The measurements were done during 10 TROICA experiments (Transcontinental Observations Into the Chemistry of the Atmosphere). The TROICA experiment started in 1995. By the present moment ten expeditions along the Trans-Siberian railroad from Moscow to Vladivostok (around 9300 km) are carried out. We separate data sets into unpolluted and polluted areas to study temporal and spatial features. Moreover we analyzed cities (more then 100 cities). About 50% of all data corresponds to unpolluted conditions. The data collected are used in an analysis of the physical and chemical processes occurring over continental Russia. In this work the estimations of seasonal and daily ozone and NOx distribution were made. The seasonal distribution of ozone for TROICA experiments concentration considerably differs from ozone distribution at Mace Head (Ireland) and Hohenpeissenberg (Germany) stations and well agrees with the ozone distribution at Zotino (Russia, East Siberia). The same concerns also a daily variability. The ozone concentration gradient is presented. Ozone concentration gradually increases in the eastward direction. Its result of the air transport from polluted regions of Europe and ozone depletions, oxidations of CH4 in Siberia, forest fires in Siberia and around Baikal Lake, regional transport of burning products from Northern China. Significant factor of ozone increasing is stratospheric-tropospheric exchange. It appears in TROICA-3 experiment. During several hours ozone concentration was more then 60 ppbv. The areas of photochemical ozone generation in polluted air are also detected. We estimate anthropogenic and natural factors, which are responsible for sharp ozone concentration increasing. Acknowledgments. The work was supported by International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) under contract No. 2770 and by Russian Basic

  13. 50 years of monitoring of the ozone layer in the Czech Republic - results and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanicek, Karel; Skrivankova, Pavla; Metelka, Ladislav; Stanek, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Long-term observations of total ozone (TOZ) and vertical ozone profiles, the basic parameters of the ozone layer, have been performed at the Solar and Ozone Observatory (SOO) Hradec Kralove and at the Aerological Department (AD) Praha of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) since 1961 and 1992 respectively. The Dobson and Brewer spectrophotometers regularly calibrated towards the international references and electro-chemical ECC ozone sondes are used for the measurements. The observations contribute to the global GAW and NDACC ozone monitoring systems. Up to now analyses of the data give the basic findings given bellow and documented in the presentation. Some of them have important implication to the international ozone monitoring infrastructure, as well. - The decrease of TOZ by about 5-7 % in the winter-spring months towards the pre ozone-hole period have occurred since the mid eighties. This is in good agreement by the magnitude and time with depletion of the ozone layer due to chemical destruction of ozone in the NH mid-latitudes. - Significant depletion 3-5 % of TOZ has been identified also in the summer season since the early nineties. As this can not be attributed to the man-made chemical processes a change in the UT/LS dynamics over Central Europe is the most probable reason. - Aerological measurements taken at AD show that the summer reduction of TOZ very well coincides with a change of UT/LS temperature that persists for about two decades over the Czech territory. Therefore it has a long-term character that can be regarded as a climate shift in UT/LS and need to be further investigated. - 15 years of unique simultaneous Dobson/Brewer observations of TOZ performed at SOO show systematic seasonal deviations between both data sets that exceed instrumental accuracy of measurements. The differences are mostly caused by different wavelengths and their ozone absorption coefficients used by both instruments. As the Brewer observations are being

  14. Sulfur dioxide emissions from Peruvian copper smelters detected by the ozone monitoring instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carn, S.A.; Krueger, A.J.; Krotkov, N.A.; Yang, Kai; Levelt, P.F.

    2007-01-01

    We report the first daily observations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from copper smelters by a satellite-borne sensor - the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA's EOS/Aura spacecraft. Emissions from two Peruvian smelters (La Oroya and Ilo) were detected in up to 80% of OMI overpasses

  15. Passive monitoring techniques for evaluating atmospheric ozone and nitrogen exposure and deposition to California ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark E. Fenn; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Susan L. Schilling

    2018-01-01

    Measuring the exposure of ecosystems to ecologically relevant pollutants is needed for evaluating ecosystem effects and to identify regions and resources at risk. In California, ozone (O3) and nitrogen (N) pollutants are of greatest concern for ecological effects. "Passive" monitoring methods have been developed to obtain spatially...

  16. Aerosols and surface UV products form Ozone Monitoring Instrument observations: An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres, O.; Tanskanen, A.; Veihelmann, B.; Ahn, C.; Braak, R.; Bhartia, P.K.; Veefkind, J.P.; Levelt, P.F.

    2007-01-01

    We present an overview of the theoretical and algorithmic aspects of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol and surface UV algorithms. Aerosol properties are derived from two independent algorithms. The nearUV algorithm makes use of OMI observations in the 350-390 nm spectral region to

  17. Regional trend analysis of surface ozone observations from monitoring networks in eastern North America, Europe and East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, K. L.; Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; Cooper, O. R.; Schultz, M.; Wang, T.

    2017-12-01

    Surface ozone is a greenhouse gas and pollutant detrimental to human health and crop and ecosystem productivity. The Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR) is designed to provide the research community with an up-to-date observation-based overview of tropospheric ozone's global distribution and trends. The TOAR Surface Ozone Database contains ozone metrics at thousands of monitoring sites around the world, densely clustered across mid-latitude North America, western Europe and East Asia. Calculating regional ozone trends across these locations is challenging due to the uneven spacing of the monitoring sites across urban and rural areas. To meet this challenge we conducted a spatial and temporal trend analysis of several TOAR ozone metrics across these three regions for summertime (April-September) 2000-2014, using the generalized additive mixed model (GAMM). Our analysis indicates that East Asia has the greatest human and plant exposure to ozone pollution among investigating regions, with increasing ozone levels through 2014. The results also show that ozone mixing ratios continue to decline significantly over eastern North America and Europe, however, there is less evidence for decreases of daytime average ozone at urban sites. The present-day spatial coverage of ozone monitors in East Asia (South Korea and Japan) and eastern North America is adequate for estimating regional trends by simply taking the average of the individual trends at each site. However the European network is more sparsely populated across its northern and eastern regions and therefore a simple average of the individual trends at each site does not yield an accurate regional trend. This analysis demonstrates that the GAMM technique can be used to assess the regional representativeness of existing monitoring networks, indicating those networks for which a regional trend can be obtained by simply averaging the trends of all individual sites and those networks that require a more

  18. Vitamin D Synthesis by UV Radiation: the Importance of Ozone Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, W. J.; Moore, M. R.; Kimlin, M. G.

    2006-12-01

    The majority of humans rely on incidental sun exposure to maintain vitamin D sufficiency. Depending on where thresholds of vitamin D "sufficiency" are defined, it was recently stated that up to one billion people worldwide have suboptimal vitamin D levels (Bouillon, R., University of Leuven). Even in sunny southeast Queensland, the world's skin cancer capital, a 2006 study uncovered deficiency rates of up to 78% (at a threshold of 75 nmol/L of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D). Vitamin D regulates calcium absorption and inadequate levels are proven to result in osteomalacia, osteoporosis, rickets, bone pain and general skeletal weakness. Recent evidence also suggests vitamin D plays a preventative role in autoimmune diseases including numerous cancers, diabetes, schizophrenia, coronary heart disease, depression and other disorders. The most promising means of alleviating the worldwide burden of vitamin D deficiency seems to be by increased UV exposure. However, a much more mature understanding of UV exposures encountered in everyday life is required. This understanding is fundamentally founded in geophysics. UV exposures are strongly influenced by season/time of year, time of day, climate, location, pollution, aerosols and, importantly, ozone. In this work, we use computer simulations to obtain daily totals of vitamin D producing UV at numerous latitudes during one year. The ozone concentration is varied from 260 DU to 360 DU to determine the role of ozone variability on the ambient levels of vitamin D UV. Vitamin D synthesis is highly dependent on UVB. In our results, we demonstrate that this has important implications. Namely, vitamin D is strongly affected by ozone variability, since ozone filters UVB more strongly than UVA. Moreover, since erythema (sunburn) can occur at UVA wavelengths, ozone variation will more strongly affect vitamin D synthesis than erythema. Our results highlight that ozone monitoring is essential for understanding appropriate UV exposures

  19. Stack Monitor Operating Experience Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Bruyere, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Stack monitors are used to sense radioactive particulates and gases in effluent air being vented from rooms of nuclear facilities. These monitors record the levels and types of effluents to the environment. This paper presents the results of a stack monitor operating experience review of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) database records from the past 18 years. Regulations regarding these monitors are briefly described. Operating experiences reported by the U.S. DOE and in engineering literature sources were reviewed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of these monitors. Electrical faults, radiation instrumentation faults, and human errors are the three leading causes of failures. A representative 'all modes' failure rate is 1E-04/hr. Repair time estimates vary from an average repair time of 17.5 hours (with spare parts on hand) to 160 hours (without spare parts on hand). These data should support the use of stack monitors in any nuclear facility, including the National Ignition Facility and the international ITER project.

  20. Mass-dependent and non-mass-dependent isotope effects in ozone photolysis: Resolving theory and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, Amanda S.; Boering, Kristie A.

    2006-01-01

    In addition to the anomalous 17 O and 18 O isotope effects in the three-body ozone formation reaction O+O 2 +M, isotope effects in the destruction of ozone by photolysis may also play a role in determining the isotopic composition of ozone and other trace gases in the atmosphere. While previous experiments on ozone photolysis at 254 nm were interpreted as evidence for preferential loss of light ozone that is anomalous (or 'non-mass-dependent'), recent semiempirical theoretical calculations predicted a preferential loss of heavy ozone at that wavelength that is mass dependent. Through photochemical modeling results presented here, we resolve this apparent contradiction between experiment and theory. Specifically, we show that the formation of ozone during the UV photolysis experiments is not negligible, as had been assumed, and that the well-known non-mass-dependent isotope effects in ozone formation can account for the non-mass-dependent enrichment of the heavy isotopologs of ozone observed in the experiment. Thus, no unusual non-mass-dependent fractionation in ozone photolysis must be invoked to explain the experimental results. Furthermore, we show that theoretical predictions of a mass-dependent preferential loss of the heavy isotopologs of ozone during UV photolysis are not inconsistent with the experimental data, particularly if mass-dependent isotope effects in the chemical loss reactions of ozone during the photolysis experiments or experimental artifacts enrich the remaining ozone in 17 O and 18 O. Before the calculated fractionation factors can be quantitatively evaluated, however, further investigation of possible mass-dependent isotope effects in the reactions of ozone with O( 1 D), O( 3 P), O 2 ( 1 Δ), and O 2 ( 1 Σ) is needed through experiments we suggest here

  1. Research to connect the ozone monitor into irradiation system at Hanoi Irradiation Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Van Huy; Pham Duy Duong; Nguyen Dinh Hung; Vu Quoc Dat

    2013-01-01

    Since 2006, in order to develop radiation technology, Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute has supported Hanoi Irradiation Centre a Project titled: Upgrading the irradiation facility. According to the Project, equipment have been replaced by a new one so that the facility could be suitable for treatment of products. The facility was designed and produced by the former Russia experts. Under normal operating conditions, we are protected by shielding, detection systems, and safety procedures. A system of interlocks prevents unauthorized entry into the radiation chamber when the source is exposed. However, interlocks system have not been warning and preventing ozone gas that can affect human health. So we are having an upgrade as connecting the ozone monitor into irradiation system at Hanoi Irradiation Centre. (author)

  2. Ozone budgets from the Dynamics and Chemistry of Marine Stratocumulus experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, S. R.; Pearson, R., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements from the Dynamics and Chemistry of marine Stratocumulus experiment have been used to study components of the regional ozone budget. The surface destruction rate is determined by eddy correlation of ozone and vertical velocity measured by a low-flying aircraft. Significant variability is found in the measured surface resistance; it is partially correlated with friction velocity but appears to have other controlling influences as well. The mean resistance is 4190 s/m which is higher (slower destruction) than most previous estimates for seawater. Flux and mean measurements throughout the marine boundary layer are used to estimate the net rate of in situ photochemical production/destruction of ozone. Averaged over the flights, ozone concentration is found to be near steady state, and a net of photochemical destruction of 0.02-0.07 ng/cu m per sec is diagnosed. This is an important confirmation of photochemical model results for the remote marine boundary layer. Ozone vertical distributions above the boundary layer show a strongly layered structure with very sharp gradients. These distributions are possibly related to the stratospheric ozone source.

  3. Improving global detection of volcanic eruptions using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. J. B. Flower

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions pose an ever-present threat to human populations around the globe, but many active volcanoes remain poorly monitored. In regions where ground-based monitoring is present the effects of volcanic eruptions can be moderated through observational alerts to both local populations and service providers, such as air traffic control. However, in regions where volcano monitoring is limited satellite-based remote sensing provides a global data source that can be utilised to provide near-real-time identification of volcanic activity. This paper details a volcanic plume detection method capable of identifying smaller eruptions than is currently feasible, which could potentially be incorporated into automated volcanic alert systems. This method utilises daily, global observations of sulfur dioxide (SO2 by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI on NASA's Aura satellite. Following identification and classification of known volcanic eruptions in 2005–2009, the OMI SO2 data, analysed using a logistic regression analysis, permitted the correct classification of volcanic events with an overall accuracy of over 80 %. Accurate volcanic plume identification was possible when lower-tropospheric SO2 loading exceeded ∼ 400 t. The accuracy and minimal user input requirements of the developed procedure provide a basis for incorporation into automated SO2 alert systems.

  4. Tritium monitoring equipments for animal experiment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroo

    1980-01-01

    Animal experiment facilities using tritium are described with reference to laws and regulations concerning radiological safety. Usual breeding facilities and surrounding conditions at non-radioactive animal experiments are summarized on feasible and effective designs of tritium monitors. Characteristics and desirable arrangements of various kinds of tritium monitors such as ionization chambers, proportional counters and liquid scintillation detectors are discussed from the standpoint of monitoring for room, glove-box, stack, liquid waste and personnel. (J.P.N.)

  5. US remote monitoring operational experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupree, S.A.; Sonnier, C.S.

    1997-01-01

    Under international partnerships and bilateral agreements with the U.S. Department of Energy, Sandia National Laboratories, other national laboratories, and international partner organizations have emplaced remote monitoring systems in nuclear facilities and laboratories in various parts of the world for the purpose of conducting field trials of remote monitoring. The purpose of the present report is to review the results from these field trials and draw general conclusions regarding the trials. Many thousands of hours of sensor and system operation have been logged, and data have been retrieved from many locations. In virtually all cases the system components have functioned as intended and data have been successfully collected and transmitted for review. Comparisons between front-end-triggered video and time-lapse video have shown that the triggered record has captured all relevant monitored operations at the various nuclear facilities included in the field trials. We believe the utility and functional reliability of remote monitoring for international safeguards has been shown. However, it should be kept in mind that openness and transparency, including some form of short-notice inspections, are likely to be prerequisites to the safeguards implementation of remote monitoring in any State

  6. Estimates of Free-tropospheric NO2 Abundance from the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Using Cloud Slicing Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S.; Joiner, J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Choi, Y.; Duncan, B. N.; Celarier, E. A.; Bucsela, E. J.; Vasilkov, A. P.; Strahan, S. E.; Veefkind, J. P.; Cohen, R. C.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Pickering, K. E.

    2013-12-01

    Total column measurements of NO2 from space-based sensors are of interest to the atmospheric chemistry and air quality communities; the relatively short lifetime of near-surface NO2 produces satellite-observed hot-spots near pollution sources including power plants and urban areas. However, estimates of NO2 concentrations in the free-troposphere, where lifetimes are longer and the radiative impact through ozone formation is larger, are severely lacking. Such information is critical to evaluate chemistry-climate and air quality models that are used for prediction of the evolution of tropospheric ozone and its impact of climate and air quality. Here, we retrieve free-tropospheric NO2 volume mixing ratio (VMR) using the cloud slicing technique. We use cloud optical centroid pressures (OCPs) as well as collocated above-cloud vertical NO2 columns (defined as the NO2 column from top of the atmosphere to the cloud OCP) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The above-cloud NO2 vertical columns used in our study are retrieved independent of a priori NO2 profile information. In the cloud-slicing approach, the slope of the above-cloud NO2 column versus the cloud optical centroid pressure is proportional to the NO2 volume mixing ratio (VMR) for a given pressure (altitude) range. We retrieve NO2 volume mixing ratios and compare the obtained NO2 VMRs with in-situ aircraft profiles measured during the NASA Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B) campaign in 2006. The agreement is good when proper data screening is applied. In addition, the OMI cloud slicing reports a high NO2 VMR where the aircraft reported lightning NOx during the Deep Convection Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) campaign in 2012. We also provide a global seasonal climatology of free-tropospheric NO2 VMR in cloudy conditions. Enhanced NO2 in free troposphere commonly appears near polluted urban locations where NO2 produced in the boundary layer may be transported vertically out of the

  7. Variability in tropical tropospheric ozone: analysis with GOME observations and a global model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valks, P.J.M.; Koelemeijer, R.B.A.; Weele, van M.; Velthoven, van P.F.J.; Fortuin, J.P.F.; Kelder, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Tropical tropospheric ozone columns (TTOCs) have been determined with a convective-cloud-differential (CCD) method, using ozone column and cloud measurements from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) instrument. GOME cloud top pressures, derived with the Fast Retrieval Scheme for Clouds

  8. Field experience with remote monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desrosiers, A.E. [Bartlett Services, Inc., Plymouth, MA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The Remote Monitoring System (RMS) is a combination of Merlin Gerin detection hardware, digital data communications hardware, and computer software from Bartlett Services, Inc. (BSI) that can improve the conduct of reactor plant operations in several areas. Using the RMS can reduce radiation exposures to radiation protection technicians (RPTs), reduce radiation exposures to plant maintenance and operations personnel, and reduce the time required to complete maintenance and inspections during outages. The number of temporary RPTs required during refueling outages can also be reduced. Data from use of the RMS at a two power plants are presented to illustrate these points.

  9. Experiences on MIC monitoring by electrochemical techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristiani, P.; Perboni, G.; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2002-01-01

    Some results of practical experiences on the performances of electrochemical and electric MIC monitoring techniques, coming from the discussion in the Brite-Euram thematic network "MIC of industrial materials", are presented in this paper.......Some results of practical experiences on the performances of electrochemical and electric MIC monitoring techniques, coming from the discussion in the Brite-Euram thematic network "MIC of industrial materials", are presented in this paper....

  10. Ozone from fireworks: Chemical processes or measurement interference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Nie, Wei; Chi, Xuguang; Huang, Xin; Zheng, Longfei; Xu, Zhengning; Wang, Jiaping; Xie, Yuning; Qi, Ximeng; Wang, Xinfeng; Xue, Likun; Ding, Aijun

    2018-08-15

    Fireworks have been identified as one ozone source by photolyzing NO 2 or O 2 and are believed to potentially be important for the nighttime ozone during firework events. In this study, we conducted both lab and field experiments to test two types of fireworks with low and high energy with the goal to distinguish whether the visible ozone signal during firework displays is real. The results suggest that previous understanding of the ozone formation mechanism during fireworks is misunderstood. Ultraviolet ray (UV)-based ozone monitors are interfered by aerosols and some specific VOCs. High-energy fireworks emit high concentrations of particular matters and low VOCs that the artificial ozone can be easily removed by an aerosol filter. Low-energy fireworks emit large amounts of VOCs mostly from the combustion of the cardboard from fireworks that largely interferes with the ozone monitor. Benzene and phenol might be major contributors to the artificial ozone signal. We further checked the nighttime ozone concentration in Jinan and Beijing, China, during Chinese New Year, a period with intense fireworks. A signal of 3-8ppbv ozone was detected and positively correlated to NO and SO 2 , suggesting a considerable influence of these chemicals in interfering with ambient ozone monitoring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ozone Gardens for the Citizen Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, Margaret; Reilly, Gay; Rodjom, Abbey; Malick, Emily

    2016-01-01

    NASA Langley partnered with the Virginia Living Museum and two schools to create ozone bio-indicator gardens for citizen scientists of all ages. The garden at the Marshall Learning Center is part of a community vegetable garden designed to teach young children where food comes from and pollution in their area, since most of the children have asthma. The Mt. Carmel garden is located at a K-8 school. Different ozone sensitive and ozone tolerant species are growing and being monitored for leaf injury. In addition, CairClip ozone monitors were placed in the gardens and data are compared to ozone levels at the NASA Langley Chemistry and Physics Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (CAPABLE) site in Hampton, VA. Leaf observations and plant measurements are made two to three times a week throughout the growing season.

  12. Table - Impacts of the Proposed Transport Rule on Counties with Monitors Projected to have Ozone and/or Fine Particle Air Quality Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This table shows the impacts of the proposed Transport Rule on Counties with Monitors Projected to have Ozone and/or Fine Particle Air Quality Problems, both with and without the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule.

  13. The Russian experience of monitoring technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesnikov, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    The implementation of nuclear test monitoring, the observance of international nuclear weapon limitation and test ban agreements is assigned to the Special Monitoring Service at the Ministry of defence in Russian Federation. The system of collecting, processing, analysis and generalization of the data on nuclear tests has been created and is functioning in the Special Monitoring Service. This system is based on the application of the facilities of the seismic, infra sound, radionuclide and other monitoring methods. The Service has all the necessary scientific and technical basis, the perfect mechanism for solving the monitoring problems. Its activities cover data collecting and processing centres as well as special monitoring laboratory equipment, integrated in the unified computer aide system. Besides the experiences of the Russian Service, the possible ways of cooperation with CTBTO are described

  14. Application of validation data for assessing spatial interpolation methods for 8-h ozone or other sparsely monitored constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, John; Sharif, Hatim O.; Sunil, Thankam; Alamgir, Hasanat

    2013-01-01

    The adverse health effects of high concentrations of ground-level ozone are well-known, but estimating exposure is difficult due to the sparseness of urban monitoring networks. This sparseness discourages the reservation of a portion of the monitoring stations for validation of interpolation techniques precisely when the risk of overfitting is greatest. In this study, we test a variety of simple spatial interpolation techniques for 8-h ozone with thousands of randomly selected subsets of data from two urban areas with monitoring stations sufficiently numerous to allow for true validation. Results indicate that ordinary kriging with only the range parameter calibrated in an exponential variogram is the generally superior method, and yields reliable confidence intervals. Sparse data sets may contain sufficient information for calibration of the range parameter even if the Moran I p-value is close to unity. R script is made available to apply the methodology to other sparsely monitored constituents. -- Highlights: •Spatial interpolation methods were tested for thousands of sparse ozone data sets. •A particular single-parameter ordinary kriging was found to be generally superior. •A Moran I p-value in the training set is not helpful in selecting the method. •The sum of the squares of the residuals is helpful in selecting the method. •R script is available for application to other sites and constituents. -- Spatial interpolation methods were compared for thousands of subsets of data for 8-h ozone using R script applicable to other constituents as well, and available from the authors

  15. Monitoring ambient ozone with a passive measurement technique method, field results and strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, BA; Adema, EH

    1996-01-01

    A low-cost, accurate and sensitive passive measurement method for ozone has been developed and tested. The method is based on the reaction of ozone with indigo carmine which results in colourless reaction products which are detected spectrophotometrically after exposure. Coated glass filters are

  16. Validation of ozone monitoring instrument ultraviolet index against ground-based UV index in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyimbwa, Dennis; Dahlback, Arne; Ssenyonga, Taddeo; Chen, Yi-Chun; Stamnes, Jakob J; Frette, Øyvind; Hamre, Børge

    2015-10-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) overpass solar ultraviolet (UV) indices have been validated against the ground-based UV indices derived from Norwegian Institute for Air Research UV measurements in Kampala (0.31° N, 32.58° E, 1200 m), Uganda for the period between 2005 and 2014. An excessive use of old cars, which would imply a high loading of absorbing aerosols, could cause the OMI retrieval algorithm to overestimate the surface UV irradiances. The UV index values were found to follow a seasonal pattern with maximum values in March and October. Under all-sky conditions, the OMI retrieval algorithm was found to overestimate the UV index values with a mean bias of about 28%. When only days with radiation modification factor greater than or equal to 65%, 70%, 75%, and 80% were considered, the mean bias between ground-based and OMI overpass UV index values was reduced to 8%, 5%, 3%, and 1%, respectively. The overestimation of the UV index by the OMI retrieval algorithm was found to be mainly due to clouds and aerosols.

  17. The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J. M.; Gille, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere is used to obtain vertical profiles and maps of temperature and the concentration of ozone, water vapor, nitrogen dioxide, and nitric acid for the region of the stratosphere bounded by the upper troposphere and the lower mesosphere.

  18. Tritium Room Air Monitor Operating Experience Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Cadwallader; B. J. Denny

    2008-09-01

    Monitoring the breathing air in tritium facility rooms for airborne tritium is a radiological safety requirement and a best practice for personnel safety. Besides audible alarms for room evacuation, these monitors often send signals for process shutdown, ventilation isolation, and cleanup system actuation to mitigate releases and prevent tritium spread to the environment. Therefore, these monitors are important not only to personnel safety but also to public safety and environmental protection. This paper presents an operating experience review of tritium monitor performance on demand during small (1 mCi to 1 Ci) operational releases, and intentional airborne inroom tritium release tests. The tritium tests provide monitor operation data to allow calculation of a statistical estimate for the reliability of monitors annunciating in actual tritium gas airborne release situations. The data show a failure to operate rate of 3.5E-06/monitor-hr with an upper bound of 4.7E-06, a failure to alarm on demand rate of 1.4E-02/demand with an upper bound of 4.4E-02, and a spurious alarm rate of 0.1 to 0.2/monitor-yr.

  19. A global catalogue of large SO2 sources and emissions derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Fioletov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur dioxide (SO2 measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI satellite sensor processed with the new principal component analysis (PCA algorithm were used to detect large point emission sources or clusters of sources. The total of 491 continuously emitting point sources releasing from about 30 kt yr−1 to more than 4000 kt yr−1 of SO2 per year have been identified and grouped by country and by primary source origin: volcanoes (76 sources; power plants (297; smelters (53; and sources related to the oil and gas industry (65. The sources were identified using different methods, including through OMI measurements themselves applied to a new emission detection algorithm, and their evolution during the 2005–2014 period was traced by estimating annual emissions from each source. For volcanic sources, the study focused on continuous degassing, and emissions from explosive eruptions were excluded. Emissions from degassing volcanic sources were measured, many for the first time, and collectively they account for about 30 % of total SO2 emissions estimated from OMI measurements, but that fraction has increased in recent years given that cumulative global emissions from power plants and smelters are declining while emissions from oil and gas industry remained nearly constant. Anthropogenic emissions from the USA declined by 80 % over the 2005–2014 period as did emissions from western and central Europe, whereas emissions from India nearly doubled, and emissions from other large SO2-emitting regions (South Africa, Russia, Mexico, and the Middle East remained fairly constant. In total, OMI-based estimates account for about a half of total reported anthropogenic SO2 emissions; the remaining half is likely related to sources emitting less than 30 kt yr−1 and not detected by OMI.

  20. A Global Catalogue of Large SO2 Sources and Emissions Derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioletov, Vitali E.; McLinden, Chris A.; Krotkov, Nickolay; Li, Can; Joiner, Joanna; Theys, Nicolas; Carn, Simon; Moran, Mike D.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite sensor processed with the new principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm were used to detect large point emission sources or clusters of sources. The total of 491 continuously emitting point sources releasing from about 30 kt yr(exp -1) to more than 4000 kt yr(exp -1) of SO2 per year have been identified and grouped by country and by primary source origin: volcanoes (76 sources); power plants (297); smelters (53); and sources related to the oil and gas industry (65). The sources were identified using different methods, including through OMI measurements themselves applied to a new emission detection algorithm, and their evolution during the 2005- 2014 period was traced by estimating annual emissions from each source. For volcanic sources, the study focused on continuous degassing, and emissions from explosive eruptions were excluded. Emissions from degassing volcanic sources were measured, many for the first time, and collectively they account for about 30% of total SO2 emissions estimated from OMI measurements, but that fraction has increased in recent years given that cumulative global emissions from power plants and smelters are declining while emissions from oil and gas industry remained nearly constant. Anthropogenic emissions from the USA declined by 80% over the 2005-2014 period as did emissions from western and central Europe, whereas emissions from India nearly doubled, and emissions from other large SO2-emitting regions (South Africa, Russia, Mexico, and the Middle East) remained fairly constant. In total, OMI-based estimates account for about a half of total reported anthropogenic SO2 emissions; the remaining half is likely related to sources emitting less than 30 kt yr(exp -1) and not detected by OMI.

  1. Using widgets to monitor the LHC experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, I González; Sarkar, S

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of the LHC experiments requires monitoring systems to verify the correct functioning of different sub-systems and to allow operators to quickly spot problems and issues that may cause loss of information and data. Due to the distributed nature of the collaborations and the different technologies involved, the information data that need to be correlated is usually spread over several databases, web pages and monitoring systems. On the other hand, although the complete set of monitorable aspects is known and fixed, the subset that each person needs to monitor is often different for each individual. Therefore, building a unique monitoring tool that suits every single collaborator becomes close to impossible. A modular approach with a set of customizable widgets, small autonomous portions of HTML and JavaScript, that can be aggregated to form private or public monitoring web pages can be a scalable and robust solution, where the information can be provided by a simple and thin set of web services. Among the different widget development toolkits available today, we have chosen the open project UWA (Unified Widget API) because of its portability to the most popular widget platforms (including iGoogle, Netvibes and Apple Dashboard). As an example, we show how this technology is currently being used to monitor parts of the CMS Computing project.

  2. Ozone measurements 2010. [EMEP Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjellbrekke, Anne-Gunn; Solberg, Sverre; Fjaeraa, Ann Mari

    2012-07-01

    From the Introduction: Ozone is a natural constituent of the atmosphere and plays a vital role in many atmospheric processes. However, man-made emissions of volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides have increased the photochemical formation of ozone in the troposphere. Until the end of the 1960s the problem was basically believed to be one of the big cities and their immediate surroundings. In the 1970s, however, it was found that the problem of photochemical oxidant formation is much more widespread. The ongoing monitoring of ozone at rural sites throughout Europe shows that episodes of high concentrations of ground-level ozone occur over most parts of the continent every summer. During these episodes the ozone concentrations can reach values above ambient air quality standards over large regions and lead to adverse effects for human health and vegetation. Historical records of ozone measurements in Europe and North America indicate that in the last part of the nineteenth century the values were only about half of the average surface ozone concentrations measured in the same regions during the last 10-15 years (Bojkov, 1986; Volz and Kley, 1988).The formation of ozone is due to a large number of photochemical reactions taking place in the atmosphere and depends on the temperature, humidity and solar radiation as well as the primary emissions of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds. Together with the non-linear relationships between the primary emissions and the ozone formation, these effects complicates the abatement strategies for ground-level ozone and makes photochemical models crucial in addition to the monitoring data. The 1999 Gothenburg Protocol is designed for a joint abatement of acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone. It has been estimated that once the Protocol is implemented, the number of days with excessive ozone levels will be halved and that the exposure of vegetation to excessive ozone levels will be 44% down on 1990

  3. Application of validation data for assessing spatial interpolation methods for 8-h ozone or other sparsely monitored constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, John; Sharif, Hatim O; Sunil, Thankam; Alamgir, Hasanat

    2013-07-01

    The adverse health effects of high concentrations of ground-level ozone are well-known, but estimating exposure is difficult due to the sparseness of urban monitoring networks. This sparseness discourages the reservation of a portion of the monitoring stations for validation of interpolation techniques precisely when the risk of overfitting is greatest. In this study, we test a variety of simple spatial interpolation techniques for 8-h ozone with thousands of randomly selected subsets of data from two urban areas with monitoring stations sufficiently numerous to allow for true validation. Results indicate that ordinary kriging with only the range parameter calibrated in an exponential variogram is the generally superior method, and yields reliable confidence intervals. Sparse data sets may contain sufficient information for calibration of the range parameter even if the Moran I p-value is close to unity. R script is made available to apply the methodology to other sparsely monitored constituents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Using widgets to monitor the LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of the LHC experiments requires monitoring systems to verify the correct functioning of different sub-systems and to allow operators to quickly spot problems and issues that may cause loss of information and data. Due to the distributed nature of the collaborations and the different technologies involved, the information data that need to be correlated is usually spread over several databases, web pages and monitoring systems. On the other hand, although the complete set of monitorable aspects is known and fixed, the subset that each person needs to monitor is often different for each individual. Therefore, building a unique monitoring tool that suits every single collaborator becomes close to impossible. A modular approach with a set of customizable widgets, small autonomous portions of HTML and JavaScript, that can be aggregated to form private or public monitoring web pages can be a scalable and robust solution, where the information can be provided by a simple and thin set of web services. ...

  5. Antarctic ozone loss in 1989-2010: evidence for ozone recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttippurath, J.; Lefèvre, F.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Roscoe, H. K.; Goutail, F.; Pazmiño, A.; Shanklin, J. D.

    2012-04-01

    We present a detailed estimation of chemical ozone loss in the Antarctic polar vortex from 1989 to 2010. The analyses include ozone loss estimates for 12 Antarctic ground-based (GB) stations. All GB observations show minimum ozone in the late September-early October period. Among the stations, the lowest minimum ozone values are observed at South Pole and the highest at Dumont d'Urville. The ozone loss starts by mid-June at the vortex edge and then progresses towards the vortex core with time. The loss intensifies in August-September, peaks by the end of September-early October, and recovers thereafter. The average ozone loss in the Antarctic is revealed to be about 33-50% in 1989-1992 in agreement with the increase in halogens during this period, and then stayed at around 48% due to saturation of the loss. The ozone loss in the warmer winters (e.g. 2002, and 2004) is lower (37-46%) and in the colder winters (e.g. 2003, and 2006) is higher (52-55%). Because of small inter-annual variability, the correlation between ozone loss and the volume of polar stratospheric clouds yields ~0.51. The GB ozone and ozone loss values are in good agreement with those found from the space-based observations of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer/Ozone Monitoring Instrument (TOMS/OMI), the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME), the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY), and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), where the differences are within ±5% and are mostly within the error bars of the measurements. The piece-wise linear trends computed from the September-November vortex average GB and TOMS/OMI ozone show about -4 to -5.6 DU (Dobson Unit) yr-1 in 1989-1996 and about +1 DU yr-1 in 1997-2010. The trend during the former period is significant at 95% confidence intervals, but the trend in 1997-2010 is significant only at 85% confidence intervals. Our analyses suggest a period of about 9-10 yr to get the first detectable ozone

  6. N-16 monitors: Almaraz NPP experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrada, J.

    1997-01-01

    Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant has installed N-16 monitors - one per steam generator - to control the leakage rate through the steam generator tubes after the application of leak before break (LBB) criteria for the top tube sheet (TTS). After several years of operation with the N-16 monitors, Almaraz NPP experience may be summarized as follows: N-16 monitors are very useful to follow the steam generator leak rate trend and to detect an incipient tube rupture; but they do not provide an exact absolute leak rate value, mainly when there are small leaks. The evolution of the measured N-16 leak rates varies along the fuel cycle, with the same trend for the 3 steam generators. This behaviour is associated with the primary water chemistry evolution along the cycle

  7. Monitoring the biological activity of micropollutants during advanced wastewater treatment with ozonation and activated carbon filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macova, M; Escher, B I; Reungoat, J; Carswell, S; Chue, K Lee; Keller, J; Mueller, J F

    2010-01-01

    A bioanalytical test battery was used to monitor the removal efficiency of organic micropollutants during advanced wastewater treatment in the South Caboolture Water Reclamation Plant, Queensland, Australia. This plant treats effluent from a conventional sewage treatment plant for industrial water reuse. The aqueous samples were enriched using solid-phase extraction to separate some organic micropollutants of interest from metals, nutrients and matrix components. The bioassays were chosen to provide information on groups of chemicals with a common mode of toxic action. Therefore they can be considered as sum indicators to detect certain relevant groups of chemicals, not as the most ecologically or human health relevant endpoints. The baseline toxicity was quantified with the bioluminescence inhibition test using the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. The specific modes of toxic action that were targeted with five additional bioassays included aspects of estrogenicity, dioxin-like activity, genotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and phytotoxicity. While the accompanying publication discusses the treatment steps in more detail by drawing from the results of chemical analysis as well as the bioanalytical results, here we focus on the applicability and limitations of using bioassays for the purpose of determining the treatment efficacy of advanced water treatment and for water quality assessment in general. Results are reported in toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQ), that is, the concentration of a reference compound required to elicit the same response as the unknown and unidentified mixture of micropollutants actually present. TEQ proved to be useful and easily communicable despite some limitations and uncertainties in their derivation based on the mixture toxicity theory. The results obtained were reproducible, robust and sensitive. The TEQ in the influent ranged in the same order of magnitude as typically seen in effluents of conventional sewage treatment plants. In the

  8. Continuous Air Monitor Operating Experience Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Bruyere, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Continuous air monitors (CAMs) are used to sense radioactive particulates in room air of nuclear facilities. CAMs alert personnel of potential inhalation exposures to radionuclides and can also actuate room ventilation isolation for public and environmental protection. This paper presents the results of a CAM operating experience review of the DOE Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) database from the past 18 years. Regulations regarding these monitors are briefly reviewed. CAM location selection and operation are briefly discussed. Operating experiences reported by the U.S. Department of Energy and in other literature sources were reviewed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of these monitors. Power losses, human errors, and mechanical issues cause the majority of failures. The average 'all modes' failure rate is 2.65E-05/hr. Repair time estimates vary from an average repair time of 9 hours (with spare parts on hand) to 252 hours (without spare parts on hand). These data should support the use of CAMs in any nuclear facility, including the National Ignition Facility and the international ITER experiment

  9. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements of the quasi-biennial oscillations in ozone and nitrogen dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawodny, Joseph M.; Mccormick, M. P.

    1991-01-01

    The first measurements ever to show a quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in NO2 have been made by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II) (SAGE II) and are presented in this work along with observations of the well-known QBO in stratospheric ozone. The SAGE II instrument was launched aboard the Earth Radiation Budget satellite near the end of 1984. Measurements of ozone and nitrogen dioxide through early 1990 are analyzed for the presence of a quasi-biennial oscillation. The measurements show the global extent of both the O3 and NO2 QBO in the 25- to 40-km region of the stratosphere. The SAGE II QBO results for ozone compare favorably to theory and previous measurements. The QBO in NO2 is found to be consistent with the vertical and horizontal transport of NOy. Both species exhibit a QBO at extratropical latitudes consistent with strong meridional transport into the winter hemisphere.

  10. Ozone profiles from tethered balloon measurements in an urban plume experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngbluth, O., Jr.; Storey, R. W.; Clendenin, C. G.; Jones, S.; Leighty, B.

    1981-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center used two tethered balloon systems to measure ozone in the general area of Norfolk, Va. The large balloon system which has an altitude range of 1,500 meters was located at Wallops Island, Va., and the smaller balloon which has an altitude range of 900 meters was located at Chesapeake, Va. Each balloon system measured ozone, temperature, humidity, wind speed, and wind direction from ground to its maximum altitude. From these measurements and from the location of the balloon sites, areas of ozone generation and ozone transport may be inferred. The measurements which were taken during August 1979 are discussed as well as the measurement techniques.

  11. Validation of low-cost ozone measurement instruments suitable for use in an air-quality monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, David E; Henshaw, Geoff S; Bart, Mark; Laing, Greer; Wagner, John; Naisbitt, Simon; Salmond, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel low-cost instrument that uses a sensor based on conductivity changes of heated tungstic oxide, which is capable of accurately measuring ambient concentrations of ozone. A combination of temperature steps and air flow-rate steps is used to continually reset and re-zero the sensor. A two-stage calibration procedure is presented, in which a nonlinear transformation converts sensor resistance to a signal linear in ozone concentration, then a linear correlation is used to align the calibration with a reference instrument. The required calibration functions specific for the sensor, and control system for air flow rate and sensor temperature, are housed with the sensor in a compact, simple-to-exchange assembly. The instrument can be operated on solar power and uses cell phone technology to enable monitoring in remote locations. Data from field trials are presented here to demonstrate that both the accuracy and the stability of the instrument over periods of months are within a few parts-per-billion by volume. We show that common failure modes can be detected through measurement of signals available from the instrument. The combination of long-term stability, self-diagnosis, and simple, inexpensive repair means that the cost of operation and calibration of the instruments is significantly reduced in comparison with traditional reference instrumentation. These instruments enable the economical construction and operation of ozone monitoring networks of accuracy, time resolution and spatial density sufficient to resolve the local gradients that are characteristic of urban air pollution. (paper)

  12. Photochemical ozone production in tropical squall line convection during NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment/Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment 2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Kenneth E.; Thompson, Anne M.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, Joanne; Scala, John R.

    1991-01-01

    The role of convection was examined in trace gas transport and ozone production in a tropical dry season squall line sampled on August 3, 1985, during NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment/Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment 2A (NASA GTE/ABLE 2A) in Amazonia, Brazil. Two types of analyses were performed. Transient effects within the cloud are examined with a combination of two-dimensional cloud and one-dimensional photochemical modeling. Tracer analyses using the cloud model wind fields yield a series of cross sections of NO(x), CO, and O3 distribution during the lifetime of the cloud; these fields are used in the photochemical model to compute the net rate of O3 production. At noon, when the cloud was mature, the instantaneous ozone production potential in the cloud is between 50 and 60 percent less than in no-cloud conditions due to reduced photolysis and cloud scavenging of radicals. Analysis of cloud inflows and outflows is used to differentiate between air that is undisturbed and air that has been modified by the storm. These profiles are used in the photochemical model to examine the aftereffects of convective redistribution in the 24-hour period following the storm. Total tropospheric column O3 production changed little due to convection because so little NO(x) was available in the lower troposphere. However, the integrated O3 production potential in the 5- to 13-km layer changed from net destruction to net production as a result of the convection. The conditions of the August 3, 1985, event may be typical of the early part of the dry season in Amazonia, when only minimal amounts of pollution from biomass burning have been transported into the region.

  13. Experience of TLD personnel monitoring laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakhete, Prashant

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Renentech Laboratories is the first Private Enterprise in India to have been chosen to provide Personnel radiation monitoring services to radiation workers at different parts of the country. Since 1992 the Company has been manufacturing TLD phosphor powder of requisite quality and from 1995 commenced the production of TLD cards for radiation monitoring. After getting the necessary approval from the competent authorities in the country, the company undertook a rigorous quality assurance programme and received the accreditation in 1999 to carry out the personnel monitoring of radiation. Since then the trained staff of the Company is covering 1200 institutions in 16 states where radiation is being used. This translates to processing of 60,000 Till cards annually, the maximum limit permitted by BARC. Processing of exposure data is done strictly according well-laid guidelines. Any cases of overexposure are immediately referred to Calibration and Dose Record Section of BARC to meet the regulatory requirements. Necessary procedural guidelines are followed to handle such cases. In this lecture, learning, operation and implementation experience of a typical Private Company in a task, which, hitherto had been regarded as exclusive responsibility of state owned institution, is enumerated

  14. Xrootd monitoring for the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauerdick, L. A.T. [Fermilab; Bloom, K. [Nebraska U.; Bockelman, B. [Nebraska U.; Bradley, D. C. [Wisconsin U., Madison; Dasu, S. [Wisconsin U., Madison; Sfiligoi, I. [UC, San Diego; Tadel, A. [UC, San Diego; Tadel, M. [UC, San Diego; Wuerthwein, F. [UC, San Diego; Yagil, A. [UC, San Diego

    2012-01-01

    During spring and summer of 2011, CMS deployed Xrootd-based access for all US T1 and T2 sites. This allows for remote access to all experiment data on disk in the US. It is used for user analysis, visualization, running of jobs at computing sites when data is not available at local sites, and as a fail-over mechanism for data access in jobs. Monitoring of this Xrootd infrastructure is implemented on three levels. Basic service and data availability checks are performed by Nagios probes. The second level uses Xrootd's summary data stream, this data is aggregated from all sites and fed into a MonALISA service providing visualization and storage. The third level uses Xrootd's detailed monitoring stream, which includes detailed information about users, opened files and individual data transfers. A custom application was developed to process this information. It currently provides a real-time view of the system usage and can store data into ROOT files for detailed analysis. Detailed monitoring allows us to determine dataset popularity and to detect abuses of the system, including sub-optimal usage of the Xrootd protocol and the ROOT prefetching mechanism.

  15. Sensitivity studies and a simple ozone perturbation experiment with a truncated two-dimensional model of the stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stordal, Frode; Garcia, Rolando R.

    1987-01-01

    The 1-1/2-D model of Holton (1986), which is actually a highly truncated two-dimensional model, describes latitudinal variations of tracer mixing ratios in terms of their projections onto second-order Legendre polynomials. The present study extends the work of Holton by including tracers with photochemical production in the stratosphere (O3 and NOy). It also includes latitudinal variations in the photochemical sources and sinks, improving slightly the calculated global mean profiles for the long-lived tracers studied by Holton and improving substantially the latitudinal behavior of ozone. Sensitivity tests of the dynamical parameters in the model are performed, showing that the response of the model to changes in vertical residual meridional winds and horizontal diffusion coefficients is similar to that of a full two-dimensional model. A simple ozone perturbation experiment shows the model's ability to reproduce large-scale latitudinal variations in total ozone column depletions as well as ozone changes in the chemically controlled upper stratosphere.

  16. Operating Experience Review of Tritium-in-Water Monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. A. Bruyere; L. C. Cadwallader

    2011-09-01

    Monitoring tritium facility and fusion experiment effluent streams is an environmental safety requirement. This paper presents data on the operating experience of a solid scintillant monitor for tritium in effluent water. Operating experiences were used to calculate an average monitor failure rate of 4E-05/hour for failure to function. Maintenance experiences were examined to find the active repair time for this type of monitor, which varied from 22 minutes for filter replacement to 11 days of downtime while waiting for spare parts to arrive on site. These data support planning for monitor use; the number of monitors needed, allocating technician time for maintenance, inventories of spare parts, and other issues.

  17. The effect of ambient ozone and humidity on the performance of nylon and Teflon filters used in ambient air monitoring filter-pack systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    PE Padgett

    2010-01-01

    Nylon and Teflon filter media are frequently used for monitoring ambient air pollutants. These media are subject to many environmental factors that may influence adsorption and retention of particulate and gaseous nitrogenous pollutants. This study evaluated the effects of ozone and humidity on the efficacy of nylon and Teflon filters used in the US dry deposition...

  18. Nitrous oxide as a dynamical tracer in the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, M.; Podolske, J. R.; Chan, K. R.; Strahan, S. E.

    1989-01-01

    In situ N2O measurements were made using an airborne tunable laser absorption spectrometer (ATLAS) on 12 flights into the Antarctic vortex, as well as on five transit flights outside the vortex region in August and September 1987, as part of the Airborne Antartic Ozone Experiment. Vertical profiles of N2O were obtained within the vortex on most of these flights and were obtained outside the vortex on several occasions. Flights into the vortex region show N2O decreasing southward between 53 and 72 S latitude on constant potential temperature surfaces in the lower stratosphere. The data lead to two important conclusions about the vortex region: (1) the lower stratosphere in August/September 1987 was occupied by 'old' air, which had subsided several kilometers during polar winter; (2) the N2O profile in the vortex was in an approximately steady state in August/September 1987, which indicates that the spring upwelling, suggested by several theories, did not occur.

  19. Xrootd Monitoring for the CMS Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauerdick, L A T; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bradley, D C; Dasu, S; Sfiligoi, I; Tadel, A; Tadel, M; Wuerthwein, F; Yagil, A

    2012-01-01

    During spring and summer of 2011, CMS deployed Xrootd-based access for all US T1 and T2 sites. This allows for remote access to all experiment data on disk in the US. It is used for user analysis, visualization, running of jobs at computing sites when data is not available at local sites, and as a fail-over mechanism for data access in jobs. Monitoring of this Xrootd infrastructure is implemented on three levels. Basic service and data availability checks are performed by Nagios probes. The second level uses Xrootd's “summary data” stream; this data is aggregated from all sites and fed into a MonALISA service providing visualization and storage. The third level uses Xrootd's “detailed monitoring” stream, which includes detailed information about users, opened files and individual data transfers. A custom application was developed to process this information. It currently provides a real-time view of the system usage and can store data into ROOT files for detailed analysis. Detailed monitoring allows us to determine dataset popularity and to detect abuses of the system, including sub-optimal usage of the Xrootd protocol and the ROOT prefetching mechanism.

  20. Data Quality Monitoring Display for ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ilchenko, Y; The ATLAS collaboration; Corso-Radu, A; Hadavand, H; Kolos, S; Slagle, K; Taffard, A

    2009-01-01

    The start of collisions at the LHC brings with it much excitement and many unknowns. It’s essential at this point in the experiment to be prepared with user-friendly tools to quickly and efficiently determine the quality of the data. Easy visualization of data for the shift crew and experts is one of the key factors in the data quality assessment process. The Data Quality Monitoring Display (DQMD) is a visualization tool for the automatic data quality assessment of the ATLAS experiment. It is the interface through which the shift crew and experts can validate the quality of the data being recorded or processed, be warned of problems related to data quality, and identify the origin of such problems. This tool allows great flexibility for visualization of results from automatic histogram checking through custom algorithms, the configuration used to run the algorithms, and histograms used for the check, with an overlay of reference histograms when applicable. The display also supports visualization of the resu...

  1. Meteorologically-adjusted trend analysis of surface observed ozone at three monitoring sites in Delhi, India: 2007-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, J.; Farooqui, Z.; Guttikunda, S. K.

    2012-12-01

    It is well known that meteorological parameters have significant impact on surface ozone concentrations. Therefore it is important to remove the effects of meteorology on ozone concentrations to correctly estimate long-term trends in ozone levels due to the alterations in precursor emissions. This is important for the development of effectual control strategies. In this study surface observed ozone trends in New Delhi are analyzed using Komogorov-Zurbenko (KZ) filter, US EPA ozone adjustment due to weather approach and the classification and regression tree method. The statistical models are applied to the ozone data at three observational sites in New Delhi metropolitan areas, 1) Income Tax Office (ITO) 2) Sirifort and 3) Delhi College of Engineering (DCE). The ITO site is located adjacent to a traffic crossing, Sirifort is an urban site and the DCE site is located in a residential area. The ITO site is also influenced by local industrial emissions. DCE has higher ozone levels than the other two sites. It was found that ITO has lowest ozone concentrations amongst the three sites due to ozone titrating due to industrial and on-road mobile NOx emissions. The statistical methods employed can assess ozone trends at these sites with a high degree of confidence and the results can be used to gauge the effectiveness of control strategies on surface ozone levels in New Delhi.

  2. Individual monitoring and dosimetry: The Goiania experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipsztein, J.L.; Melo, D.R.; Oliveira, C.A.N.; Bertelli, L.

    2000-01-01

    Several people were contaminated with 137 Cs in an accident involving the stealing and breaching of a radiotherapy source in Goiania, Brazil. A drug known as Prussian Blue was administered to some contaminated individuals to enhance Cs elimination from the body. Individuals internally contaminated were monitored for the two first months, exclusively by in vitro bioassay, i.e., urine and faeces analysis. After that period of time a field whole-body counter was set up in Goiania and individuals started to be monitored in vivo, on a regular basis. The total internal committed doses and the effect of Prussian blue treatment have been evaluated. For adults, the biological half-time (T 2 ) under PB treatment was reduced to an average value around to 31% of the half-time after finished treatment. For adolescents (T 2 ) was reduced to an average value around to 54% and for children was reduced to an average value around to 57%. A weight dependent biokinetic study of 137 Cs retention in humans was conducted. Data from 10 girls and 7 boys, aged 1 to 10 y old, as well as from 10 adolescents: 4 females and 6 males, and from 30 adults: 15 females and 15 males, contaminated in the accident, were used in this study. A planned experiment with beagle dogs were carried out to furnish some further data for our study. Based on these data, a three terms exponential equation is suggested to describe the 137 Cs retention in the body, the first-term associated with a very short half-time, the second with a longer half-time and the third term with a very long half-time, of the order of 400 to 570 days and relating to a retention fraction of only 0.1%. A table of weight, age and sex specific half-times for the second term is suggested. (author)

  3. Constant volume balloons measurements in the urban Marseille and Fos-Berre industrial ozone plumes during ESCOMPTE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénech, Bruno; Ezcurra, Agustin; Lothon, Marie; Saïd, Frédérique; Campistron, Bernard; Lohou, Fabienne; Durand, Pierre

    ESCOMPTE programme aims at studying the emissions of primary pollutants in industrial and urban areas, their transport, diffusion and transformation in the atmosphere. This experiment, carried out in southeast France, can be used to validate and to improve meteorological and chemical mesoscale models. One major goal of this experiment was to follow the pollutant plumes, and to investigate its thermodynamic and physico-chemical time evolution. This was realized by means of constant volume balloons, located by global position satellite (GPS) and equipped with thermodynamic and ozone sensors, flying at constant density levels. During the two ESCOMPTE campaigns that took place in June and July 2000 and 2001, 40 balloons were launched, 17 of them equipped with ozone sensors during the day from 0800 to 1800 UTC. Balloons' altitudes flight levels ranged between 400 and 1200 m altitude with Mistral (northerly synoptic flow) and Sea Breeze (southerly breeze) conditions. The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) topography of the experimental domain is complex and varies strongly from day to day. Its depth presents a large gradient from the sea coast to the north part of the ESCOMPTE domain, and also more complex variability within the domain. The balloons' trajectories describe the evolution of the pollutant plume emitted from the industrial area of Fos-Berre or from the Marseille urban area. Constant volume balloons give a good description of the trajectories of these two plumes. The balloons, which fly at an isopicnic level, cross different atmospheric layers chiefly depending on the ABL height in relation with the constant volume balloons flight level. Thus, each balloon flight is decomposed into different segments that correspond to the same atmospheric layer. In each segment, the ozone content variation is analyzed in relation to other thermodynamical parameters measured by the balloon and mainly to the vapor mixing ratio content. During ESCOMPTE campaign, the mean linear

  4. Vertical ozone transport in the Alps (VOTALP): the valley experiment 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furger, M; Dommen, J; Graber, W K; Prevot, A; Poggio, L; Andreani, S; Keller, J; Portmann, W; Buerki, D; Erne, R; Richter, R; Tinguely, M [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The EU project VOTALP started its valley campaign in the summer of 1996 in the Mesolcina valley. The influence of thermal circulations on ozone concentrations and on the exchange of ozone and its photochemical precursors between the valley atmosphere and the free troposphere above was the main focus of the study. PSI has participated with various measurement systems (conventional meteorological surface stations, radiosondes, scidar/DOAS systems, chemical analysers). An overview of PSI`s activities in the field campaign is given, and some preliminary results are presented. (author) 1 fig., 2 tabs., 2 refs.

  5. Technical note: Evaluation of standard ultraviolet absorption ozone monitors in a polluted urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Dunlea

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the EPA Federal Equivalent Method (FEM technique for monitoring ambient concentrations of O3 via ultraviolet absorption (UV has been evaluated using data from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area field campaign (MCMA-2003. Comparisons of UV O3 monitors with open path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS and open path Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy instruments in two locations revealed average discrepancies in the measured concentrations between +13% to −18%. Good agreement of two separate open path DOAS measurements at one location indicated that spatial and temporal inhomogeneities were not substantially influencing comparisons of the point sampling and open path instruments. The poor agreement between the UV O3 monitors and the open path instruments was attributed to incorrect calibration factors for the UV monitors, although interferences could not be completely ruled out. Applying a linear correction to these calibration factors results in excellent agreement of the UV O3 monitors with the co-located open path measurements; regression slopes of 0.94 to 1.04 and associated R2 values of >0.89. A third UV O3 monitor suffered from large spurious interferences, which were attributed to extinction of UV radiation within the monitor by fine particles (3 monitors and recommendations for future testing are made.

  6. Global and Seasonal Distributions of CHOCHO and HCHO Observed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument on EOS Aura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosu, T. P.; Fu, T.; Volkamer, R.; Millet, D. B.; Chance, K.

    2006-12-01

    Over the two years since its launch in July 2004, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on EOS Aura has demonstrated the capability to routinely monitor the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) formaldehyde (HCHO) and glyoxal (CHOCHO). OMI's daily global coverage and spatial resolution as high as 13x24 km provides a unique data set of these molecules for the study of air quality from space. We present the first study of global seasonal distributions of CHOCHO from space, derived from a year of OMI observations. CHOCHO distributions are compared to simultaneous retrievals of HCHO from OMI, providing a first indication of seasonally resolved ratios of these VOCs on a global scale. Satellite retrievals are compared to global simulations of HCHO and CHOCHO, based on current knowledge of sources and sinks, using the GEOS-Chem global chemistry and transport model. Formaldehyde is both directly emitted and also produced from the oxidation of many VOCs, notably biogenic isoprene, and is removed by photolysis and oxidation. Precursors of glyoxal include isoprene, monoterpenes, and aromatics from anthropogenic, biogenic, and biomass burning emissions; it is removed by photolysis, oxidation by OH, dry/wet deposition, and aerosol uptake. As a case study, satellite observations will also be compared to ground-based measurements taken during the Pearl River Delta 2006 field campaign near Guangzhou, China, where high glyoxal concentrations are frequently observed from space.

  7. Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cazorla

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A new ambient air monitor, the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS, measures directly the rate of ozone production in the atmosphere. The sensor consists of two 11.3 L environmental chambers made of UV-transmitting Teflon film, a unit to convert NO2 to O3, and a modified ozone monitor. In the sample chamber, flowing ambient air is exposed to the sunlight so that ozone is produced just as it is in the atmosphere. In the second chamber, called the reference chamber, a UV-blocking film over the Teflon film prevents ozone formation but allows other processes to occur as they do in the sample chamber. The air flows that exit the two chambers are sampled by an ozone monitor operating in differential mode so that the difference between the two ozone signals, divided by the exposure time in the chambers, gives the ozone production rate. High-efficiency conversion of NO2 to O3 prior to detection in the ozone monitor accounts for differences in the NOx photostationary state that can occur in the two chambers. The MOPS measures the ozone production rate, but with the addition of NO to the sampled air flow, the MOPS can be used to study the sensitivity of ozone production to NO. Preliminary studies with the MOPS on the campus of the Pennsylvania State University show the potential of this new technique.

  8. Monitoring Intracellular Redox Changes in Ozone-exposed airway epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The toxicity of many compounds involves oxidative injury to cells. Direct assessment of mechanistic events involved in xenobiotic-induced oxidative stress is not easily achievable. Development of genetically-encoded probes designed for monitoring intracellular redox s...

  9. ER-2 #809 on the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE) with pilot Dee Porter prepari

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Lockheed Martin pilot Dee Porter climbs up the ladder wearing a heavy tan pressure suit, preparing to board NASA ER-2 #809 at Kiruna, Sweden, for the third flight in the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment. Assisting him is Jim Sokolik, a Lockheed Martin life support technician. Number 809, one of Dryden's two high-flying ER-2 Airborne Science aircraft, a civilian variant of Lockheed's U-2, and another NASA flying laboratory, Dryden's DC-8, were based north of the Arctic Circle in Kiruna, Sweden during the winter of 2000 to study ozone depletion as part of the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE). A large hangar built especially for research, 'Arena Arctica' housed the instrumented aircraft and the scientists. Scientists have observed unusually low levels of ozone over the Arctic during recent winters, raising concerns that ozone depletion there could become more widespread as in the Antarctic ozone hole. The NASA-sponsored international mission took place between November 1999 and March 2000 and was divided into three phases. The DC-8 was involved in all three phases returning to Dryden between each phase. The ER-2 flew sample collection flights between January and March, remaining in Sweden from Jan. 9 through March 16. 'The collaborative campaign will provide an immense new body of information about the Arctic stratosphere,' said program scientist Dr. Michael Kurylo, NASA Headquarters. 'Our understanding of the Earth's ozone will be greatly enhanced by this research.' ER-2s bearing tail numbers 806 and 809 are used as airborne science platforms by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main

  10. Two Years of Ozone Vertical Profiles Collected from Aircraft over California and the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austerberry, D.; Yates, E. L.; Roby, M.; Chatfield, R. B.; Iraci, L. T.; Pierce, B.; Fairlie, T. D.; Johnson, B. J.; Ives, M.

    2012-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone transported across the Pacific Ocean has been strongly suggested to contribute substantially to surface ozone levels at several sites within Northern California's Sacramento Valley. Because this contribution can affect a city's ability to meet regulatory ozone limits, the influence of Pacific ozone transport has implications for air quality control strategies in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). The Alpha Jet Atmospheric Experiment is designed to collect a multi-year data set of tropospheric ozone vertical profiles. Forty-four flights with ozone profiles were conducted between February 2nd, 2011 and August 9th, 2012, and approximately ten more flights are expected in the remainder of 2012. Twenty marine air profiles have been collected at sites including Trinidad Head and two locations tens of kilometers offshore at 37° N latitude. Good agreement is seen with ozonesondes launched from Trinidad Head. Additional profiles over Merced, California were obtained on many of these flight days. These in-situ measurements were conducted during spiral descents of H211's Alpha Jet at mid-day local times using a 2B Technologies Dual Beam Ozone Monitor. Hourly surface ambient ozone data were obtained from the California Air Resources Board's SJV monitoring sites. For each site, the Pearson linear correlation coefficient was calculated between ozone in a 300m vertical layer of an offshore profile and the surface site at varying time offsets from the time of the profile. Each site's local and regional ozone production component was estimated and removed. The resulting correlations suggest instances of Pacific ozone transport following some of the offshore observations. Real-Time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) products constrained by assimilated satellite data model the transport of ozone enhancements and guide flight planning. RAQMS hindcasts also suggest that ozone transport to the surface of the SJV basin occurred following some of these offshore profiles

  11. Neutrons individual monitoring: 18 years of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Sergio Alves; Mauricio, Claudia Lucia de Pinho; Moura Junior, Jose; Martins, Marcelo Marques; Meira, Nilton Ferreira; Diz, Ricardo; Seda, Rosangela Pinto Guimaraes

    2002-01-01

    The Thermoluminescent Dosimetry Laboratory of the Departamento de Monitoracao Individual of the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (LDT/DEMIN/IRD) is the only one in Brazil that operates routinely a whole body external individual monitoring service for neutrons. An albedo type monitor is used with thermoluminescent detectors pairs of 6 LiF:Mg,Ti and 7 LiF:Mg,Ti, made by Harshaw/Bicron and named, respectively, TLD-600 and TLD-700. In its 18 years of activities, the laboratory has ever made a great effort to be continuously updated. Equipment and procedures have been updated and optimized in order to guarantee the quality of all measurements. Nowadays, the neutron individual monitoring service evaluates doses of about 300 workers occupationally exposed to neutrons in several facilities of different areas of Brazil. The system history and the results obtained by the service in international intercomparisons and in its routine monitoring are presented in this work. (author)

  12. On-line monitoring of ozonation through estimation of Ct value and AOC formation with UV/Vis spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ross, P.S.; Van der Helm, A.W.C.; Van den Broeke, J.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    The application of ozone in water treatment serves many purposes, such as disinfection, degradation of organic micro-pollutants and oxidation of taste, odour and colour producing compounds. A commonly used method to determine the disinfection capacity of ozonation is calculating the exposure of

  13. Evaluation of broadband surface solar irradiance derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, P.; Sneep, M.; Veefkind, J.P.; Stammes, P.; Levelt, P.F.

    2014-01-01

    Surface solar irradiance (SSI) data are important for planning and estimating the production of solar power plants. Long-term high quality surface solar radiation data are needed for monitoring climate change. This paper presents a new surface solar irradiance dataset, the broadband (0.2–4 ?m)

  14. Tropospheric Ozone Research: Monitoring and modelling of photo-oxidants over Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck JP; Roemer MGM; Vosbeek MEJP; Builtjes PJH; RIVM-LLO; TNO-MEP; KEMA

    1996-01-01

    The Dutch activities contributing to the EUROTRAC-TOR programme were set up to study and quantify the underlying chemical and transport processes important to the occurrence of photochemical oxidants in Europe. The project involved establishing an advanced monitoring site at Kollumerwaard,

  15. Exploring the Liquefied Petroleum Gas - Ozone Relation in Guadalajara, Mexico, by Smog Chamber Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Jaimes-López, José Luis; Sandoval-Fernández, Julio; Zambrano-García, Angel

    2005-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) emissions can increase substantially the formation of ozone (O3) in the ambient air. We tested experimentally such hypothesis in Guadalajara's downtown by captive-air irradiation (CAI) techniques. During November 1997-January, 1998, morning ambient air samples were confined in outdoor smog chambers and subjected to the following treatments: 35% addition of commercial LPG or one out of two mixtures of major LPG compounds (propane/buta...

  16. Trigger Menu-aware Monitoring for the ATLAS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoad, Xanthe; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    We present a“trigger menu-aware” monitoring system designed for the Run-2 data-taking of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Unlike Run-1, where a change in the trigger menu had to be matched by the installation of a new software release at Tier-0, the new monitoring system aims to simplify the ATLAS operational workflows. This is achieved by integrating monitoring updates in a quick and flexible manner via an Oracle DB interface. We present the design and the implementation of the menu-aware monitoring, along with lessons from the operational experience of the new system with the 2016 collision data.

  17. Extremity individual monitoring: 30 years of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seda, Rosangela Pinto Guimaraes; Mauricio, Claudia Lucia de Pinho; Moura Junior, Jose; Martins, Marcelo Marques; Meira, Nilton Ferreira; Diz, Ricardo; Goncalves, Sergio Alves

    2002-01-01

    The Thermoluminescent Dosimetry Laboratory of the Departamento de Monitoracao Individual of the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (LDT/DEMIN/IRD) is one of the first extremity individual monitoring service in Brazil. In its 30 years of activities, the laboratory has ever made a great effort to be continuously updated. Equipment and procedures have been updated and optimized in order to guarantee the quality of all measurements. Nowadays, the extremity individual monitoring service evaluates monthly around 300 occupational doses in worker's hands of several Brazilian facilities in the fields of health, industry (including power reactor) and research. It is used a dosimetric ring with LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) from Harshaw/Bicron, named TLD-100. The Service helps the effective occupational control of the Brazilian works, which handle radioactive material or has their hands more exposed than the body. (author)

  18. Online data monitoring in the LHCb experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callot, O [LAL, Orsay (France); Cherukuwada, S; Frank, M; Gaspar, C; Herwijnen, E v; Jost, B; Neufeld, N; P-Altarelli, M; Somogyi, P; Stoica, R [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Graziani, G [INFN, Firenze (Italy)], E-mail: Markus.Frank@cern.ch

    2008-07-01

    The High Level Trigger and Data Acquisition system selects about 2 kHz of events out of the 40 MHz of beam crossings. The selected events are sent to permanent storage for subsequent analysis. In order to ensure the quality of the collected data, identify possible malfunctions of the detector and perform calibration and alignment checks, a small fraction of the accepted events is sent to a monitoring farm, which consists of a few tens of general purpose processors. This contribution introduces the architecture of the data stream splitting mechanism from the storage system to the monitoring farm, where the raw data are analyzed by dedicated tasks. It describes the collaborating software components that are all based on the Gaudi event processing framework.

  19. Ozone decomposition kinetics on alumina: effects of ozone partial pressure, relative humidity and repeated oxidation cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Sullivan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The room temperature kinetics of gas-phase ozone loss via heterogeneous interactions with thin alumina films has been studied in real-time using 254nm absorption spectroscopy to monitor ozone concentrations. The films were prepared from dispersions of fine alumina powder in methanol and their surface areas were determined by an in situ procedure using adsorption of krypton at 77K. The alumina was found to lose reactivity with increasing ozone exposure. However, some of the lost reactivity could be recovered over timescales of days in an environment free of water, ozone and carbon dioxide. From multiple exposures of ozone to the same film, it was found that the number of active sites is large, greater than 1.4x1014 active sites per cm2 of surface area or comparable to the total number of surface sites. The films maintain some reactivity at this point, which is consistent with there being some degree of active site regeneration during the experiment and with ozone loss being catalytic to some degree. The initial uptake coefficients on fresh films were found to be inversely dependent on the ozone concentration, varying from roughly 10-6 for ozone concentrations of 1014 molecules/cm3 to 10-5 at 1013 molecules/cm3. The initial uptake coefficients were not dependent on the relative humidity, up to 75%, within the precision of the experiment. The reaction mechanism is discussed, as well as the implications these results have for assessing the effect of mineral dust on atmospheric oxidant levels.

  20. Ozone-Depleting Gases in the Atmosphere: Results From 28 Years of Measurements by the NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, D. F.; Elkins, J. W.; Montzka, S. A.; Butler, J. H.; Dutton, G. S.; Hall, B. D.; Mondeel, D. J.; Moore, F. L.; Nance, J. D.; Romashkin, P. A.; Thompson, T. M.

    2005-12-01

    Back in 1978, NOAA/CMDL initiated the weekly filling of flasks at CMDL observatories in Alaska, Hawaii, American Samoa, and Antarctica for analyses of CFC-11, CFC-12 and N2O in the home laboratory. A decade later, each observatory was outfitted with an automated gas chromatograph to make routine, in situ measurements of these three source gases plus methyl chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. Both measurement programs are ongoing, having expanded over the years to include methyl halides and substitutes for regulated halocarbons, to presently account for 95% of the total burden of long-lived Cl and Br believed to enter the stratosphere. These long-term monitoring data have been assimilated into temporal records of the global tropospheric burdens of ozone-depleting chlorine and bromine which are critical input to models that predict future trends in stratospheric ozone. Other information pivotal to ozone projections, such as the atmospheric lifetimes of source gases, stratospheric entry values for total chlorine and total bromine, and identification of the stratospheric sink regions for long-lived source gases, has been gained from in situ measurements by NOAA/CMDL instruments aboard NASA high-altitude aircraft (ER-2 and WB-57) and balloons since 1991. Though CMDL's routine monitoring activities provide important historical records of halogenated source gases in the atmosphere, significant inaccuracies in ozone projections may propagate from the uncertain estimates of impending emissions of ozone-depleting gases. Scenarios of future halocarbon emissions require substantial assumptions about past and pending compliance with the Montreal Protocol, and the sizes and release rates of existing global reservoirs (banks) of halocarbons. Recent work by CMDL has focused on quantifying halocarbon bank emission rates in Russia, the USA, and Canada through geographically extensive measurements aboard trains and low-altitude aircraft. The USA and Canada results indicate that

  1. Operating Experiences of a Loss of Voltage Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun-Chan [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Loss of voltage (LOV) events continue to occur due to inadequate work management and random human errors. On February 26, 2015, regulators analyzed the root causes of LOV events and presented the results for the nuclear industry. Currently, KHNP uses a risk monitoring program, which is named 'LOV Monitor', for LOV prevention during pilot plant outages. This review introduces the operation experiences of LOV Monitor based on the evaluation results of a real event. The operation experiences of LOV Monitor in the pilot plants confirmed that this program could detect and reduce LOV possibilities from scheduling errors such as the simultaneous maintenance of energized trains and de-energized trains considering the physical conditions of the power circuit breakers. However, a maintenance culture that heeds the risk monitoring result must be strengthened in order to obtain substantial effects through applying LOV Monitor to the outage.

  2. Simulation of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument aerosol index using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System aerosol reanalysis products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarco, Peter R.; Gassó, Santiago; Ahn, Changwoo; Buchard, Virginie; da Silva, Arlindo M.; Torres, Omar

    2017-11-01

    We provide an analysis of the commonly used Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index (AI) product for qualitative detection of the presence and loading of absorbing aerosols. In our analysis, simulated top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances are produced at the OMI footprints from a model atmosphere and aerosol profile provided by the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications aerosol reanalysis (MERRAero). Having established the credibility of the MERRAero simulation of the OMI AI in a previous paper we describe updates in the approach and aerosol optical property assumptions. The OMI TOA radiances are computed in cloud-free conditions from the MERRAero atmospheric state, and the AI is calculated. The simulated TOA radiances are fed to the OMI near-UV aerosol retrieval algorithms (known as OMAERUV) is compared to the MERRAero calculated AI. Two main sources of discrepancy are discussed: one pertaining to the OMI algorithm assumptions of the surface pressure, which are generally different from what the actual surface pressure of an observation is, and the other related to simplifying assumptions in the molecular atmosphere radiative transfer used in the OMI algorithms. Surface pressure assumptions lead to systematic biases in the OMAERUV AI, particularly over the oceans. Simplifications in the molecular radiative transfer lead to biases particularly in regions of topography intermediate to surface pressures of 600 and 1013.25 hPa. Generally, the errors in the OMI AI due to these considerations are less than 0.2 in magnitude, though larger errors are possible, particularly over land. We recommend that future versions of the OMI algorithms use surface pressures from readily available atmospheric analyses combined with high-spatial-resolution topographic maps and include more surface pressure nodal points in their radiative transfer lookup tables.

  3. Reusing Joint Polar Satellite System (jpss) Ground System Components to Process AURA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (omi) Science Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, J. F.; Jain, P.; Johnson, J.; Doiron, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    New Earth observation instruments are planned to enable advancements in Earth science research over the next decade. Diversity of Earth observing instruments and their observing platforms will continue to increase as new instrument technologies emerge and are deployed as part of National programs such as Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS), Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite system (GOES), Landsat as well as the potential for many CubeSat and aircraft missions. The practical use and value of these observational data often extends well beyond their original purpose. The practicing community needs intuitive and standardized tools to enable quick unfettered development of tailored products for specific applications and decision support systems. However, the associated data processing system can take years to develop and requires inherent knowledge and the ability to integrate increasingly diverse data types from multiple sources. This paper describes the adaptation of a large-scale data processing system built for supporting JPSS algorithm calibration and validation (Cal/Val) node to a simplified science data system for rapid application. The new configurable data system reuses scalable JAVA technologies built for the JPSS Government Resource for Algorithm Verification, Independent Test, and Evaluation (GRAVITE) system to run within a laptop environment and support product generation and data processing of AURA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) science products. Of particular interest are the root requirements necessary for integrating experimental algorithms and Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) data access libraries into a science data production system. This study demonstrates the ability to reuse existing Ground System technologies to support future missions with minimal changes.

  4. Experiment Dashboard for Monitoring of the LHC Distributed Computing Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, J; Campos, M Devesas; Cros, J Tarragon; Gaidioz, B; Karavakis, E; Kokoszkiewicz, L; Lanciotti, E; Maier, G; Ollivier, W; Nowotka, M; Rocha, R; Sadykov, T; Saiz, P; Sargsyan, L; Sidorova, I; Tuckett, D

    2011-01-01

    LHC experiments are currently taking collisions data. A distributed computing model chosen by the four main LHC experiments allows physicists to benefit from resources spread all over the world. The distributed model and the scale of LHC computing activities increase the level of complexity of middleware, and also the chances of possible failures or inefficiencies in involved components. In order to ensure the required performance and functionality of the LHC computing system, monitoring the status of the distributed sites and services as well as monitoring LHC computing activities are among the key factors. Over the last years, the Experiment Dashboard team has been working on a number of applications that facilitate the monitoring of different activities: including following up jobs, transfers, and also site and service availabilities. This presentation describes Experiment Dashboard applications used by the LHC experiments and experience gained during the first months of data taking.

  5. Influence of turbidity and clouds on satellite total ozone data over Madrid (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, J.L. [Agencia Estatal de Meteorologia (AEMET), Madrid (Spain); Anton, M. [Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Aplicada; Loyola, D. [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Wessling (DE). Remote Sensing Technology Inst. (IMF); Hernandez, E. [Madrid Univ. Complutense (Spain). Dept. Fisica de la Tierra II

    2010-07-01

    This article focuses on the comparison of the total ozone column data from three satellite instruments; Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometers (TOMS) on board the Earth Probe (EP), Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board AURA and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) on board ERS/2, with ground-based measurement recorded by a well calibrated Brewer spectrophotometer located in Madrid during the period 1996-2008. A cluster classification based on solar radiation (global, direct and diffuse), cloudiness and aerosol index allow selecting hazy, cloudy, very cloudy and clear days. Thus, the differences between Brewer and satellite total ozone data for each cluster have been analyzed. The accuracy of EP-TOMS total ozone data is affected by moderate cloudiness, showing a mean absolute bias error (MABE) of 2.0%. In addition, the turbidity also has a significant influence on EP-TOMS total ozone data with a MABE {proportional_to}1.6%. Those data are in contrast with clear days with MABE {proportional_to}1.2%. The total ozone data derived from the OMI instrument show clear bias at clear and hazy days with small uncertainties ({proportional_to}0.8%). Finally, the total ozone observations obtained with the GOME instrument show a very smooth dependence with respect to clouds and turbidity, showing a robust retrieval algorithm over these conditions. (orig.)

  6. Practical experience of monitoring patient dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonnell, C.; Shrimpton, P. (National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)); O' Mahoney, M. (National Radiological Protection Board, Leeds (United Kingdom)); Foster, J. (Nuffield Hospitals, Surbiton (United Kingdom))

    1994-05-01

    NRPB recommends the use of reference dose levels for diagnostic medical exposures as an aid to patient dose reduction, but is this approach effective This article describes the broadly encouraging experiences of one large group of hospitals in carrying out measurements of entrance surface dose on patients undergoing some common types of x-ray examination. (author).

  7. Monitoring changes in the structure and properties of humic substances following ozonation using UV-Vis, FTIR and (1)H NMR techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Francisco J; Schlenger, Patrick; García-Valverde, María

    2016-01-15

    The main objective of this work is to conduct a comprehensive structural characterization of humic substances using the following experimental techniques: FTIR, 1H NMR and several UV–Vis parameters (Specific UV Absorbance at 254 nm or SUVA254, SUVA280, A400, the absorbance ratios A210/254, A250/365, A254/203, A254/436, A265/465, A270/400, A280/350, A465/665, the Absorbance Slope Index (ASI), the spectral slopes S275–295, S350–400 and the slope ratio SR). These UV–Vis parameters have also been correlated with key properties of humic substances such as aromaticity, molecular weight (MW) and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP). An additional objective of this work is also to evaluate the usefulness of these techniques to monitor structural changes in humic substances produced by the ozonation treatment. Four humic substances were studied in this work: three of them were provided by the International Humic Substances Society (Suwannee River Fulvic Acid Standard: SRFA, Suwannee River Humic Acid Standard: SRHA and Nordic Reservoir Fulvic Acid Reference: NLFA) and the other one was a terrestrial humic acid widely used as a surrogate for aquatic humic substances in various studies (Aldrich Humic Acid: AHA). The UV–Vis parameters showing the best correlations with aromaticity in this study were SUVA254, SUVA280, A280/A350 ratio and A250/A364 ratio. The best correlations with molecular weight were for SUVA254, SUVA280 and A280/A350 ratio. Finally, in the case of the THMFP it was STHMFP-per mol HS the parameter showing good correlations with most of the UV–Vis parameters studied (especially with A280/A350 ratio, A265/A465 ratio and A270/A400 ratio) whereas STHMFP-per mg C showed poor correlations in most cases. On the whole, the UV–Vis parameter showing the best results was A280/A350 ratio as it showed excellent correlations for the three properties studied (aromaticity, MW and THMFP). A decrease in aromaticity following ozonation of humic substances can

  8. Impacts on particles and ozone by transport processes recorded at urban and high-altitude monitoring stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolás, J.F., E-mail: j.nicolas@umh.es [Laboratory of Atmospheric Pollution (LCA), Miguel Hernández University, Av. de la Universidad s/n, Edif. Alcudia, 03202 Elche (Spain); Crespo, J.; Yubero, E.; Soler, R. [Laboratory of Atmospheric Pollution (LCA), Miguel Hernández University, Av. de la Universidad s/n, Edif. Alcudia, 03202 Elche (Spain); Carratalá, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alicante, P.O. Box 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Mantilla, E. [Instituto Universitario CEAM-UMH, Parque Tecnológico, C/Charles R. Darwin 14, E-46980 Paterna (Spain)

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of particle transport episodes on particle number concentration temporal trends at both urban and high-altitude (Aitana peak-1558 m a.s.l.) stations, a simultaneous sampling campaign from October 2011 to September 2012 was performed. The monitoring stations are located in southeastern Spain, close to the Mediterranean coast. The annual average value of particle concentration obtained in the larger accumulation mode (size range 0.25–1 μm) at the mountain site, 55.0 ± 3.0 cm{sup − 3}, was practically half that of the value obtained at the urban station (112.0 ± 4.0 cm{sup − 3}). The largest difference between both stations was recorded during December 2011 and January 2012, when particles at the mountain station registered the lowest values. It was observed that during urban stagnant episodes, particle transport from urban sites to the mountain station could take place under specific atmospheric conditions. During these transports, the major particle transfer is produced in the 0.5–2 μm size range. The minimum difference between stations was recorded in summer, particularly in July 2012, which is most likely due to several particle transport events that affected only the mountain station. The particle concentration in the coarse mode was very similar at both monitoring sites, with the biggest difference being recorded during the summer months, 0.4 ± 0.1 cm{sup − 3} at the urban site and 0.9 ± 0.1 cm{sup − 3} at the Aitana peak in August 2012. Saharan dust outbreaks were the main factor responsible for these values during summer time. The regional station was affected more by these outbreaks, recording values of > 4.0 cm{sup − 3}, than the urban site. This long-range particle transport from the Sahara desert also had an effect upon O{sub 3} levels measured at the mountain station. During periods affected by Saharan dust outbreaks, ozone levels underwent a significant decrease (3–17%) with respect to its mean

  9. Impacts on particles and ozone by transport processes recorded at urban and high-altitude monitoring stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolás, J.F.; Crespo, J.; Yubero, E.; Soler, R.; Carratalá, A.; Mantilla, E.

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of particle transport episodes on particle number concentration temporal trends at both urban and high-altitude (Aitana peak-1558 m a.s.l.) stations, a simultaneous sampling campaign from October 2011 to September 2012 was performed. The monitoring stations are located in southeastern Spain, close to the Mediterranean coast. The annual average value of particle concentration obtained in the larger accumulation mode (size range 0.25–1 μm) at the mountain site, 55.0 ± 3.0 cm − 3 , was practically half that of the value obtained at the urban station (112.0 ± 4.0 cm − 3 ). The largest difference between both stations was recorded during December 2011 and January 2012, when particles at the mountain station registered the lowest values. It was observed that during urban stagnant episodes, particle transport from urban sites to the mountain station could take place under specific atmospheric conditions. During these transports, the major particle transfer is produced in the 0.5–2 μm size range. The minimum difference between stations was recorded in summer, particularly in July 2012, which is most likely due to several particle transport events that affected only the mountain station. The particle concentration in the coarse mode was very similar at both monitoring sites, with the biggest difference being recorded during the summer months, 0.4 ± 0.1 cm − 3 at the urban site and 0.9 ± 0.1 cm − 3 at the Aitana peak in August 2012. Saharan dust outbreaks were the main factor responsible for these values during summer time. The regional station was affected more by these outbreaks, recording values of > 4.0 cm − 3 , than the urban site. This long-range particle transport from the Sahara desert also had an effect upon O 3 levels measured at the mountain station. During periods affected by Saharan dust outbreaks, ozone levels underwent a significant decrease (3–17%) with respect to its mean value. - Highlights:

  10. [Ozone concentration distribution of urban].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yong-quan; Li, Chang-mei; Ma, Gui-xia; Cui, Zhao-jie

    2004-11-01

    The increase of ozone concentration in urban is one of the most important research topics on environmental science. With the increase of nitrogen oxides and hydrogen-carbon compounds which are exhausted from cars, the ozone concentration in urban is obviously increased on sunlight, and threat of photochemistry smog will be possible. Therefore, it is very important to monitor and study the ozone concentration distribution in urban. The frequency-distribution, diurnal variation and monthly variation of ozone concentration were studied on the campus of Shandong University during six months monitoring. The influence of solar radiation and weather conditions on ozone concentration were discussed. The frequency of ozone concentration less than 200 microg/m3 is 96.88%. The ozone concentration has an obvious diurnal variation. The ozone concentration in the afternoon is higher than in the morning and in the evening. The maximum appears in June, when it is the strong solar radiation and high air-temperature. The weather conditions also influence the ozone concentration. The ozone concentration in clear day is higher than in rainy and cloudy day.

  11. Experience with digital acoustic monitoring systems for PWRs and BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olma, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    Substantial progress could be reached both in system technics and in application of digital acoustic monitoring systems for assessing mechanical integrity of reactor primary systems. For the surveillance of PWRs and BWRs during power operation of the plants, acoustic signals of Loose Parts Monitoring System sensors are continuously monitored for signal bursts associated with metallic impacts. ISTec/GRS experience with its digital systems MEDEA and RAMSES has shown that acoustic signature analysis is very successful for detecting component failures at an early stage. Methods for trending and classification of digital burst signals are shown, experience with their practical use will be presented. (author)

  12. Impacts of increasing ozone on Indian plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oksanen, E.; Pandey, V.; Pandey, A.K.; Keski-Saari, S.; Kontunen-Soppela, S.; Sharma, C.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing anthropogenic and biogenic emissions of precursor compounds have led to high tropospheric ozone concentrations in India particularly in Indo-Gangetic Plains, which is the most fertile and cultivated area of this rapidly developing country. Current ozone risk models, based on European and North American data, provide inaccurate estimations for crop losses in India. During the past decade, several ozone experiments have been conducted with the most important Indian crop species (e.g. wheat, rice, mustard, mung bean). Experimental work started in natural field conditions around Varanasi area in early 2000's, and the use of open top chambers and EDU (ethylene diurea) applications has now facilitated more advanced studies e.g. for intra-species sensitivity screening and mechanisms of tolerance. In this review, we identify and discuss the most important gaps of knowledge and future needs of action, e.g. more systematic nationwide monitoring for precursor and ozone formation over Indian region. -- Tropospheric ozone is an increasing threat to food production in India

  13. Ozonation of azo dyes (Orange II and Acid Red 27) in saline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Alessandra C.; Pic, Jean Stephane; Sant'Anna, Geraldo L.; Dezotti, Marcia

    2009-01-01

    Ozonation of two azo dyes was investigated in a monitored bench scale bubble column reactor (8.5-L), varying liquid media salt content (0, 1, 40 and 100 g L -1 , NaCl). In experiments with Orange II pH was varied (5, 7.5 and 9) but ozonation of Acid Red 27 was performed at pH 7.5. Ozone self-decomposition rate-constant increased with salt concentration. Color removal was very effective and fast achieved under all experimental conditions. For the two azo dyes tested, more than 98% of color intensity was removed in 30-min ozonation assays. However, only partial mineralization of azo dyes (45%-Orange II; 20%-Acid Red 27) was attained in such experiments. The degree of mineralization (TOC removal) was negatively affected by salt concentration. Biodegradation assays conducted by respirometry revealed the inhibitory effect of dye degradation products formed during ozonation.

  14. Ozone Laminae and Their Entrainment Into a Valley Boundary Layer, as Observed From a Mountaintop Monitoring Station, Ozonesondes, and Aircraft Over California's San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faloona, I. C.; Conley, S. A.; Caputi, D.; Trousdell, J.; Chiao, S.; Eiserloh, A. J., Jr.; Clark, J.; Iraci, L. T.; Yates, E. L.; Marrero, J. E.; Ryoo, J. M.; McNamara, M. E.

    2016-12-01

    The San Joaquin Valley of California is wide ( 75 km) and long ( 400 km), and is situated under strong atmospheric subsidence due, in part, to the proximity of the midlatitude anticyclone of the Pacific High. The capping effect of this subsidence is especially prominent during the warm season when ground level ozone is a serious air quality concern across the region. While relatively clean marine boundary layer air is primarily funneled into the valley below the strong subsidence inversion at significant gaps in the upwind Coast Range mountains, airflow aloft also spills over these barriers and mixes into the valley from above. Because this transmountain flow occurs under the influence of synoptic subsidence it tends to present discrete, laminar sheets of differing air composition above the valley boundary layer. Meanwhile, although the boundary layers tend to remain shallow due to the prevailing subsidence, orographic and anabatic venting of valley boundary layer air around the basin whips up a complex admixture of regional air masses into a "buffer layer" just above the boundary layer (zi) and below the lower free troposphere. We present scalar data of widely varying lifetimes including ozone, methane, NOx, and thermodynamic observations from upwind and within the San Joaquin Valley to better explain this layering and its subsequent erosion into the valley boundary layer via entrainment. Data collected at a mountaintop monitoring station on Chews Ridge in the Coast Range, by coastal ozonesondes, and aircraft are analyzed to document the dynamic layering processes around the complex terrain surrounding the valley. Particular emphasis will be made on observational methods whereby distal ozone can be distinguished from the regional ozone to better understand the influence of exogenous sources on air quality in the valley.

  15. Comparison of crop yield sensitivity to ozone between open-top chamber and free-air experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhaozhong; Uddling, Johan; Tang, Haoye; Zhu, Jianguo; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko

    2018-02-02

    Assessments of the impacts of ozone (O 3 ) on regional and global food production are currently based on results from experiments using open-top chambers (OTCs). However, there are concerns that these impact estimates might be biased due to the environmental artifacts imposed by this enclosure system. In this study, we collated O 3 exposure and yield data for three major crop species-wheat, rice, and soybean-for which O 3 experiments have been conducted with OTCs as well as the ecologically more realistic free-air O 3 elevation (O 3 -FACE) exposure system; both within the same cultivation region and country. For all three crops, we found that the sensitivity of crop yield to the O 3 metric AOT40 (accumulated hourly O 3 exposure above a cut-off threshold concentration of 40 ppb) significantly differed between OTC and O 3 -FACE experiments. In wheat and rice, O 3 sensitivity was higher in O 3 -FACE than OTC experiments, while the opposite was the case for soybean. In all three crops, these differences could be linked to factors influencing stomatal conductance (manipulation of water inputs, passive chamber warming, and cultivar differences in gas exchange). Our study thus highlights the importance of accounting for factors that control stomatal O 3 flux when applying experimental data to assess O 3 impacts on crops at large spatial scales. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Satellite-based evidence of wavelength-dependent aerosol absorption in biomass burning smoke inferred from Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jethva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We provide satellite-based evidence of the spectral dependence of absorption in biomass burning aerosols over South America using near-UV measurements made by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI during 2005–2007. In the current near-UV OMI aerosol algorithm (OMAERUV, it is implicitly assumed that the only absorbing component in carbonaceous aerosols is black carbon whose imaginary component of the refractive index is wavelength independent. With this assumption, OMI-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD is found to be significantly over-estimated compared to that of AERONET at several sites during intense biomass burning events (August-September. Other well-known sources of error affecting the near-UV method of aerosol retrieval do not explain the large observed AOD discrepancies between the satellite and the ground-based observations. A number of studies have revealed strong spectral dependence in carbonaceous aerosol absorption in the near-UV region suggesting the presence of organic carbon in biomass burning generated aerosols. A sensitivity analysis examining the importance of accounting for the presence of wavelength-dependent aerosol absorption in carbonaceous particles in satellite-based remote sensing was carried out in this work. The results convincingly show that the inclusion of spectrally-dependent aerosol absorption in the radiative transfer calculations leads to a more accurate characterization of the atmospheric load of carbonaceous aerosols. The use of a new set of aerosol models assuming wavelength-dependent aerosol absorption in the near-UV region (Absorption Angstrom Exponent λ−2.5 to −3.0 improved the OMAERUV retrieval results by significantly reducing the AOD bias observed when gray aerosols were assumed. In addition, the new retrieval of single-scattering albedo is in better agreement with those of AERONET within the uncertainties (ΔSSA = ±0.03. The new colored carbonaceous aerosol model was also found to

  17. Impact of the ozone monitoring instrument row anomaly on the long-term record of aerosol products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Omar; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Jethva, Hiren; Ahn, Changwoo

    2018-05-01

    Since about three years after the launch the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the EOS-Aura satellite, the sensor's viewing capability has been affected by what is believed to be an internal obstruction that has reduced OMI's spatial coverage. It currently affects about half of the instrument's 60 viewing positions. In this work we carry out an analysis to assess the effect of the reduced spatial coverage on the monthly average values of retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA) and the UV Aerosol Index (UVAI) using the 2005-2007 three-year period prior to the onset of the row anomaly. Regional monthly average values calculated using viewing positions 1 through 30 were compared to similarly obtained values using positions 31 through 60, with the expectation of finding close agreement between the two calculations. As expected, mean monthly values of AOD and SSA obtained with these two scattering-angle dependent subsets of OMI observations agreed over regions where carbonaceous or sulphate aerosol particles are the predominant aerosol type. However, over arid regions, where desert dust is the main aerosol type, significant differences between the two sets of calculated regional mean values of AOD were observed. As it turned out, the difference in retrieved desert dust AOD between the scattering-angle dependent observation subsets was due to the incorrect representation of desert dust scattering phase function. A sensitivity analysis using radiative transfer calculations demonstrated that the source of the observed AOD bias was the spherical shape assumption of desert dust particles. A similar analysis in terms of UVAI yielded large differences in the monthly mean values for the two sets of calculations over cloudy regions. On the contrary, in arid regions with minimum cloud presence, the resulting UVAI monthly average values for the two sets of observations were in very close agreement. The discrepancy under cloudy conditions was found

  18. Interpretation of ozone vertical profiles and their variations in the Northern hemisphere on the basis of GOME satellite data. Final report; Interpretation von Ozon-Vertikalprofilen und deren Variationen in der noerdlichen Hemisphaere unter Benutzung von GOME Satellitendaten. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichmann, K.U.; Bramstedt, K.; Weber, M.; Rozanov, V.; Debeek, R.; Hoogen, R.; Burrows, J.P.

    2000-07-04

    Semiglobal ozone vertical profiles based on GOME measurements were established and evaluated systematically. GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment), carried by the ERS-2 satellite, is the first European passive optical sensor for long-term monitoring of ozone, other trace elements, and aerosols. Especially the vertical distribution of ozone in the Arctic region was measured and interpreted with a view to enhanced ozone degradation in the Arctic winter and spring seasons. Apart from the regional variations, also the time variations of the profiles are to provide further information on the dynamics and chemical processes in the polar vortex. The retrieval algorithm used for assessing the ozone vertical profiles, FURM (FUll Retrieval Method), is based on the GOMETRAN radiation transport model developed at Bremen university especially for evaluation of the GOME data. The GOME ozone profiles were validated with ozone probes and other satellite experiments. [German] Ziel des Projektes war eine systematische Bestimmung und Auswertung von semiglobalen Ozonvertikalprofilen aus den Messdaten von GOME. Das auf dem Satelliten ERS-2 fliegende Spektrometer GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment) ist der erste europaeische, passive, optische Sensor, der fuer Langzeitmessungen von Ozon, anderen Spurenstoffen und Aerosolen konzipiert wurde. Im Projekt wurde insbesondere die vertikale Verteilung von Ozon in der Arktis bestimmt und interpretiert hinsichtlich des verstaerkten Ozonabbaus im arktischen Winter und Fruehjahr. Neben der raeumlichen Variation sollen auch die zeitlichen Ablaeufe und Veraenderungen der Profile weitere Erkenntnise hinsichtlich der Dynamik und der chemischen Prozesse im Polarwirbel liefern. Der Retrievalalgorithmus zur Bestimmung des Ozonhoehenprofils, FURM (Full Retrieval Method) genannt, basiert auf dem Strahlungstransportmodell GOMETRAN, das an der Universitaet Bremen speziell fuer die Auswertung der Daten des GOME Instrumentes entwickelt wurde

  19. Experience in developing countries in monitoring procurement and fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csik, B.J.

    1977-01-01

    Owner's responsibility in monitoring procurement and fabrication. Monitoring ectivity, tasks, knowledge and personnel requirements, scope and organization. Contractual arrangements, commitments, responsibilities, rights and obligations. Domestic and foreign supplies. Staff and consultants. Experience in developing countries. Problem areas: availability of qualified staff, organization, methodology standards, codes, specifications, availability and flow of information, language, technical knowledge, access to suppliers' facilities, delays, nuclear safety related components, modifications and additionals. (orig.) [de

  20. Trigger Menu-aware Monitoring for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00441925; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Changes in the trigger menu, the online algorithmic event-selection of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, are followed by adjustments to the ATLAS trigger monitoring systems. During Run 1, and so far in Run 2, ATLAS has deployed monitoring updates with the installation of new software releases at Tier-0, the first level of the ATLAS computing grid. Having to wait for a new software release to be installed at Tier-0, in order to update ATLAS offline trigger monitoring configurations, results in a lag with respect to the modification of the trigger menu. We present the design and implementation of a `trigger menu-aware' monitoring system that aims to simplify the ATLAS operational workflows by allowing monitoring configuration changes to be made at the Tier-0 site by utilising an Oracle SQL database.

  1. The CMS Data Quality Monitoring software experience and future improvements

    CERN Document Server

    Batinkov, Atanas Ivanov

    2013-01-01

    The Data Quality Monitoring Software proved to be a central tool in the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment. Its flexibility allowed its integration in several environments: online, for real-time detector monitoring; offline, for the final, fine-grained data certification. The usage of the Data Quality Monitoring software in the different environments and its integration in the Compact Muon Solenoid reconstruction software framework and in all production workflows are presented. The main technical challenges and the adopted solutions to them will be also discussed with emphasis on functionality, long-term robustness and performance.

  2. Operational experience with two tritium-effluent-monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynie, J.S.; Gutierrez, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Two new tritium stack monitoring systems were designed and built. The operational experience of a wide-range detector with a useful range of a few μCi/m 3 to 10 8 μCi/m 3 , and a second monitoring system using an improved Kanne chamber and a new electrometer, called a Model 39 Electrometer-Chargemeter are discussed. Both tritium chambers have been designed to have a reduced sensitivity to tritium contamination, a fast response, and an integrating chargemeter with digital readout for easy conversion to microcuries. The calibration of these monitors and advantages of using these chambers over conventional systems are discussed

  3. Trigger Menu-aware Monitoring for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Hoad, Xanthe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the trigger menu, the online algorithmic event-selection of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC in response to luminosity and detector changes are followed by adjustments in their monitoring system. This is done to ensure that the collected data is useful, and can be properly reconstructed at Tier-0, the first level of the computing grid. During Run 1, ATLAS deployed monitoring updates with the installation of new software releases at Tier-0. This created unnecessary overhead for developers and operators, and unavoidably led to different releases for the data-taking and the monitoring setup. We present a "trigger menu-aware" monitoring system designed for the ATLAS Run 2 data-taking. The new monitoring system aims to simplify the ATLAS operational workflows, and allows for easy and flexible monitoring configuration changes at the Tier-0 site via an Oracle DB interface. We present the design and the implementation of the menu-aware monitoring, along with lessons from the operational experience of the ne...

  4. Exposure-Relevant Ozone Chemistry in Occupied Spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Beverly Kaye [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Ozone, an ambient pollutant, is transformed into other airborne pollutants in the indoor environment. In this dissertation, the type and amount of byproducts that result from ozone reactions with common indoor surfaces, surface residues, and vapors were determined, pollutant concentrations were related to occupant exposure, and frameworks were developed to predict byproduct concentrations under various indoor conditions. In Chapter 2, an analysis is presented of secondary organic aerosol formation from the reaction of ozone with gas-phase, terpene-containing consumer products in small chamber experiments under conditions relevant for residential and commercial buildings. The full particle size distribution was continuously monitored, and ultrafine and fine particle concentrations were in the range of 10 to>300 mu g m-3. Particle nucleation and growth dynamics were characterized.Chapter 3 presents an investigation of ozone reactions with aircraft cabin surfaces including carpet, seat fabric, plastics, and laundered and worn clothing fabric. Small chamber experiments were used to determine ozone deposition velocities, ozone reaction probabilities, byproduct emission rates, and byproduct yields for each surface category. The most commonly detected byproducts included C1?C10 saturated aldehydes and skin oil oxidation products. For all materials, emission rates were higher with ozone than without. Experimental results were used to predict byproduct exposure in the cabin and compare to other environments. Byproduct levels are predicted to be similar to ozone levels in the cabin, which have been found to be tens to low hundreds of ppb in the absence of an ozone converter. In Chapter 4, a model is presented that predicts ozone uptake by and byproduct emission from residual chemicals on surfaces. The effects of input parameters (residue surface concentration, ozone concentration, reactivity of the residue and the surface, near-surface airflow conditions, and

  5. Godiva, a European Project for Ozone and Trace Gas Measurements from GOME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goede, A. P. H.; Tanzi, C. P.; Aben, I.; Burrows, J. P.; Weber, M.; Perner, D.; Monks, P. S.; Llewellyn-Jones, D.; Corlett, G. K.; Arlander, D. W.; Platt, U.; Wagner, T.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Taalas, P.; Kelder, H.; Piters, A.

    GODIVA (GOME Data Interpretation, Validation and Application) is a European Commission project aimed at the improvement of GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment) data products. Existing data products include global ozone, NO2 columns and (ir)radiances. Advanced data products include O3 profiles, BrO, HCHO and OCIO columns. These data are validated by ground-based and balloon borne instruments. Calibration issues are investigated by in-flight monitoring using several complementary calibration sources, as well as an on-ground replica of the GOME instrument. The results will lead to specification of operational processing of the EUMETSAT ozone Satellite Application Facility as well as implementation of the improved and new GOME data products in the NILU database for use in the European THESEO (Third European Stratospheric Experiment on Ozone) campaign of 1999

  6. AGC-3 Experiment Irradiation Monitoring Data Qualification Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, Laurence C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). VHTR Technology Development Office

    2014-08-01

    The Graphite Technology Development Program will run a series of six experiments to quantify the effects of irradiation on nuclear-grade graphite. The third experiment, Advanced Graphite Creep 3 (AGC-3), began with Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 152B on November 27, 2012, and ended with ATR Cycle 155B on April 23, 2014. This report documents qualification of AGC-3 experiment irradiation monitoring data for use by the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) Program for research and development activities required to design and license the first VHTR nuclear plant. Qualified data meet the requirements for data collection and use as described in the experiment planning and quality assurance documents. Failed data do not meet the requirements. Trend data may not meet the requirements, but may still provide some useable information. The report documents qualification of AGC-3 experiment irradiation monitoring data following MCP-2691. This report also documents whether AGC-3 experiment irradiation monitoring data meet the requirements for data collection as specified in technical and functional requirements documents and quality assurance (QA) plans. Data handling is described showing how data are passed from the data collection experiment to the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) team. The data structure is described, including data batches, components, attributes, and response variables. The description of the approach to data qualification includes the steps taken to qualify the data and the specific tests used to verify that the data meet requirements. Finally, the current status of the data received by NDMAS from the AGC-3 experiment is presented with summarized information on test results and resolutions. This report addresses all of the irradiation monitoring data collected during the AGC-3 experiment.

  7. Study: Ozone Layer's Future Linked Strongly to Changes in Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    balloon to measure of the vertical profile of the ozone layer. NOAA scientists launch an ozonesonde via balloon to measure of the vertical profile of the ozone layer. NOAA releases ozonesondes at eight sites to continuously monitor stratospheric ozone. Download here. (Credit: NOAA) The ozone layer - the thin

  8. Dashboard applications to monitor experiment activities at sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreeva, Julia; Gaidioz, Benjamin; Grigoras, Costin; Kokoszkiewicz, Lukasz; Lanciotti, Elisa; Rocha, Ricardo; Saiz, Pablo; Santinelli, Roberto; Sidorova, Irina; Sciaba, Andrea [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research (Switzerland); Belforte, Stefano [INFN Trieste (Italy); Boehm, Max [EDS, an HP Company, Plano, TX (United States); Casajus, Adrian [Universitat de Barcelona (Spain); Flix, Josep [PIC, Port d' Informacio CientIfica, Bellaterra (Spain); Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei, E-mail: Elisa.Lanciotti@cern.c, E-mail: Pablo.Saiz@cern.c [CPPM Marseille (France)

    2010-04-01

    In the framework of a distributed computing environment, such as WLCG, monitoring has a key role in order to keep under control activities going on in sites located in different countries and involving people based in many different sites. To be able to cope with such a large scale heterogeneous infrastructure, it is necessary to have monitoring tools providing a complete and reliable view of the overall performance of the sites. Moreover, the structure of a monitoring system critically depends on the object to monitor and on the users it is addressed to. In this article we will describe two different monitoring systems both aimed to monitor activities and services provided in the WLCG framework, but designed in order to meet the requirements of different users: Site Status Board has an overall view of the services available in all the sites supporting an experiment, whereas Siteview provides a complete view of all the activities going on at a site, for all the experiments supported by the site.

  9. Dashboard applications to monitor experiment activities at sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, Julia; Gaidioz, Benjamin; Grigoras, Costin; Kokoszkiewicz, Lukasz; Lanciotti, Elisa; Rocha, Ricardo; Saiz, Pablo; Santinelli, Roberto; Sidorova, Irina; Sciaba, Andrea; Belforte, Stefano; Boehm, Max; Casajus, Adrian; Flix, Josep; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of a distributed computing environment, such as WLCG, monitoring has a key role in order to keep under control activities going on in sites located in different countries and involving people based in many different sites. To be able to cope with such a large scale heterogeneous infrastructure, it is necessary to have monitoring tools providing a complete and reliable view of the overall performance of the sites. Moreover, the structure of a monitoring system critically depends on the object to monitor and on the users it is addressed to. In this article we will describe two different monitoring systems both aimed to monitor activities and services provided in the WLCG framework, but designed in order to meet the requirements of different users: Site Status Board has an overall view of the services available in all the sites supporting an experiment, whereas Siteview provides a complete view of all the activities going on at a site, for all the experiments supported by the site.

  10. First-year experience with the ATLAS online monitoring framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corso-Radu, A

    2010-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four experiments in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which has been put in operation this year. The challenging experimental environment and the extreme detector complexity required development of a highly scalable distributed monitoring framework, which is currently being used to monitor the quality of the data being taken as well as operational conditions of the hardware and software elements of the detector, trigger and data acquisition systems. At the moment the ATLAS Trigger/DAQ system is distributed over more than 1000 computers, which is about one third of the final ATLAS size. At every minute of an ATLAS data taking session the monitoring framework serves several thousands physics events to monitoring data analysis applications, handles more than 4 million histograms updates coming from more than 4 thousands applications, executes 10 thousands advanced data quality checks for a subset of those histograms, displays histograms and results of these checks on several dozens of monitors installed in main and satellite ATLAS control rooms. This note presents the overview of the online monitoring software framework, and describes the experience, which was gained during an extensive commissioning period as well as at the first phase of LHC beam in September 2008. Performance results, obtained on the current ATLAS DAQ system will also be presented, showing that the performance of the framework is adequate for the final ATLAS system.

  11. The use of ozone as microbiocide in cooling water treatment - experiences with an ''All-Organic'' program; Ozon als Mikrobizid bei der Kuehlwasserbehandlung - Praxiserfahrungen mit einem ''All-Organic'' Programm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noks, E.; Olkis, A. [Deutsche Nalco Chemie GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Kleinstueck, R. [Bayer AG, Leverkusen (Germany); Johnson, D.A. [Nalco Chemical Co., Naperville (United States)

    1999-10-01

    Since 1995, at the plant EZH Rotterdam, the practice of using ozone as microbiocide in the cooling circuit that uses a poor quality makeup water has proven to be successful. The strict limits for aqueous and emission protection from the plant can be maintained. Careful monitoring of the system is a key to the success of the cooling water treatment. The determining factor in judging the microbiological activity and effectiveness of the ozone addition was the regular determination of ATP values and total bacterial count in the system. Limiting ozone concentrations to the amount needed by the system helps to keep the degradation rate of the organic inhibitors under control and, by minimizing the treatment level, the treatment functions in an environmentally friendly and effective manner. Recovery rates of approximately 80% were measured for the phosphonate PBTC, the stabilizers and dispersants. The corrosion rates for steel and copper are low considering the makeup water quality. The combination of inhibitors controlled the tendency for deposits to form. Previous research in the laboratory and industry have shown that the basic components of the cooling water formulations, phosphonates, react very differently when placed in contact with ozone. In order of decreasing ozone stability they are: PBTC>HEDP>ATMP. A six-month trial was performed in a cooling circuit at Bayer AG in Dormagen using a PBTC-containing, stabilized phosphate treatment program. In spite of the high half-life of the cooling water in the system, it was found that the PBTC was stable with a recovery rate of 50-80%. (orig.) [German] Der seit 1995 praktizerte Einsatz von Ozon als Mikrobizid im Kuehlkreislauf des Kraftwerks EZH Rotterdam mit relativ stark vorbelastetem Zusatzwasser ist eine erfolgreiche Problemloesung. Die strengen Auflagen zum Gewaesser- und Immissionsschutz koennen vom Kraftwerk eingehalten werden. Sorgfaeltige Ueberwachung des Systems ist ein Kernstueck des Erfolgs der

  12. The radon monitoring system in Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, M.C.; Kwan, K.K.; Kwok, M.W.; Kwok, T.; Leung, J.K.C.; Leung, K.Y.; Lin, Y.C.; Luk, K.B.; Pun, C.S.J.

    2016-01-01

    We developed a highly sensitive, reliable and portable automatic system (H 3 ) to monitor the radon concentration of the underground experimental halls of the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment. H 3 is able to measure radon concentration with a statistical error less than 10% in a 1-h measurement of dehumidified air (R.H. 5% at 25 °C) with radon concentration as low as 50 Bq/m 3 . This is achieved by using a large radon progeny collection chamber, semiconductor α-particle detector with high energy resolution, improved electronics and software. The integrated radon monitoring system is highly customizable to operate in different run modes at scheduled times and can be controlled remotely to sample radon in ambient air or in water from the water pools where the antineutrino detectors are being housed. The radon monitoring system has been running in the three experimental halls of the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment since November 2013.

  13. Phonetic Accounts of Timed Responses in Syllable Monitoring Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, A.C.M.; Schiller, N.O.; Caspers, J.; Chen, Y.; Heeren, W.; Pacilly, J.; Schiller, N.O.; Zanten, E. van

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a syllable monitoring experiment that examines the role of segmental phonetic information in Dutch. Participants were presented with lists of spoken words and were required to detect auditorily specified targets that matched or did not match the initial syllable of the spoken

  14. Environmental indicators and bio monitoring: Costa Rica experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Hidalgo, K.

    2012-01-01

    An experience carried out on rice, watermelon and melon crops were applied in Costa Rica. In sediment and water samples using bio monitoring techniques were found pesticides and pollution levels.The water bodies, sediments and ecological quality was determined by the BMWP- CR Index technique.

  15. Experience with neutron flux monitoring systems qualified for post-accident monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shugars, H.G.; Miller, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the environmental requirements for excore neutron flux monitors that are qualified for use during and after postulated accidents in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). We emphasize PWRs designed in the United States, which are similar to those used also in parts of Western Europe and Eastern Asia. We then discuss design features of the flux monitoring systems necessary to address the environmental, functional, and regulatory requirements, and the experience with these systems. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs

  16. Experience of our new monitor for betatron therapy unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Takenori; Sato, Hisao; Abe, Shunsuke; Suyama, Sachio.

    1975-01-01

    The amount of high energy electron beams is instable owing to lots of factors. As a matter of course, we should be careful in controling the amount of beams and it is also necessary to improve the beam monitoring apparatuses to make them stable. We have improved a usual monitor and had experiments with it. Here is the report. (1) An ordinary monitor is influenced by humidity, air atmosphere induced noise from an apparatus and so on. We made a new monitor with due regard to these factors. When the count is set to 100 with a usual monitor, the standard dose meter (ionex) indicate is 280 R in 16 MeV and the lowest one is 198 R. Between standard dose meter (ionex) and usual monitor is 82 R. With the trial monitor, the highest integrated dose is 103 R and the lowest one is 89 R. The difference is only 14 R and we are satisfied with the result. We gain this value after 16 months' trial. (2) The chamber is made air tight and has a double structure with a collection electrode sandwiched between high tension charging electrodes. In this way, we can eliminate the influences of humidity and induced noise from an apparatus itself and we can putup ion collection efficiency without widening the distance between the electrodes. As for the indicator circuit, we can get an input signal with a big s/n ratio and so we need not use high impedance resistors in the input circuitry. There is little affect from humidity and induced noise, and the circuit is stable. The indicator circuit has a complete electronic system, therefore counting speed is greatly improved and we can measure a large amount of beams in a short time. The trial monitor has four measuring ranges and so measuring is easily done. Our monitor has a circuit tester, too, and we can test the measuring circuit on occasion. (auth.)

  17. Artificially ionized region as a source of ozone in the stratosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, Aleksandr V; Litvak, Aleksandr G; Vikharev, A L; Ivanov, O A; Borisov, Nikolai D; Sergeichev, Konstantin F

    2000-01-01

    A set of physical and chemical processes occurring in a microwave stratospheric discharge of nanosecond duration is discussed in connection with the effect they may have locally on the ozone layer in the artificially ionized region (AIR) in the stratosphere. The AIR, to be created at altitudes of 18 - 20 km by the microwave breakdown of air with ground-produced powerful electromagnetic wave beams, is planned for use in the natural physical experiment aimed at active monitoring of the ozone layer (its internal state and a set of plasma-chemical and photochemical processes) by controllably generating a considerable amount of ozone in the stratosphere. Results of relevant theoretical studies are presented, as are those of a large series of laboratory experiments performed under conditions similar to those prevailing in the stratosphere. Discharge regimes securing the efficient growth of ozone concentration are identified and studied in detail. It is demonstrated that such a stratospheric ozonizer is about as efficient as the best ground-based ozonizers used at present. For typical stratospheric conditions (low pressures and temperatures T ∼ 200 - 220 K), it is shown that the intense generation of ozone in a microwave breakdown effected by groups of short nanosecond pulses does not virtually increase the density of nitrogen oxides - gases that play a vital role in catalytic ozone-decomposing reactions. The possibility of effectively producing ozone in prebreakdown electric fields is established experimentally. It is demonstrated that due to its long lifetime, ozone produced locally at altitudes of 18 - 20 km may spread widely under the action of winds and turbulent diffusion, thus leading to an additional - artificial - ozonization of the stratosphere. (reviews of topical problems)

  18. Environmental monitors in the Midcourse Space Experiments (MSX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uy, O. M.

    1993-01-01

    The Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) is an SDIO sponsored space based sensor experiment with a full complement of optical sensors. Because of the possible deleterious effect of both molecular and particulate contamination on these sensors, a suite of environmental monitoring instruments are also being flown with the spacecraft. These instruments are the Total Pressure Sensor based on the cold-cathode gauge, a quadrupole mass spectrometer, a Bennett-type ion mass spectrometer, a cryogenic quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), four temperature-controlled QCM's, and a Xenon and Krypton Flash Lamp Experiment. These instruments have been fully space-qualified, are compact and low cost, and are possible candidate sensors for near-term planetary and atmospheric monitoring. The philosophy adopted during design and fabrication, calibration and ground testing, and modeling will be discussed .

  19. An investigation of high ozone episodes in the City of Johannesburg

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Padayachi, YR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A study of ozone monitoring data in Johannesburg highlighted that the city is frequently affected by high ozone episodes. There is limited knowledge about the chemical and meteorological drivers of these high ozone episodes in Johannesburg...

  20. Total column ozone retrieval using INSAT-3D sounder in the tropics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    important for ozone estimation and lower instrument noise results in better ozone ... the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) ... tivity of the sounder ozone band corresponding to .... NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Labo-.

  1. A high arctic experience of uniting research and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Niels Martin; Christensen, Torben R.; Roslin, Tomas

    2017-07-01

    Monitoring is science keeping our thumb on the pulse of the environment to detect any changes of concern for societies. Basic science is the question-driven search for fundamental processes and mechanisms. Given the firm root of monitoring in human interests and needs, basic sciences have often been regarded as scientifically "purer"—particularly within university-based research communities. We argue that the dichotomy between "research" and "monitoring" is an artificial one, and that this artificial split clouds the definition of scientific goals and leads to suboptimal use of resources. We claim that the synergy between the two scientific approaches is well distilled by science conducted under extreme logistic constraints, when scientists are forced to take full advantage of both the data and the infrastructure available. In evidence of this view, we present our experiences from two decades of uniting research and monitoring at the remote research facility Zackenberg in High Arctic Greenland. For this site, we show how the combination of insights from monitoring with the mechanistic understanding obtained from basic research has yielded the most complete understanding of the system—to the benefit of all, and as an example to follow. We therefore urge scientists from across the continuum from monitoring to research to come together, to disregard old division lines, and to work together to expose a comprehensive picture of ecosystem change and its consequences.

  2. The CMS Data Quality Monitoring software experience and future improvements

    CERN Document Server

    De Guio, Federico

    2013-01-01

    The Data Quality Monitoring (DQM) Software proved to be a central tool in the CMS experiment. Its flexibility allowed its integration in several environments Online, for real-time detector monitoring; Offline, for the final, fine-grained Data Certification; Release Validation, to constantly validate the functionality and the performance of the reconstruction software; in Monte Carlo productions. The central tool to deliver Data Quality information is a web site for browsing data quality histograms (DQM GUI). In this contribution the usage of the DQM Software in the different environments and its integration in the CMS Reconstruction Software Framework and in all production workflows are presented.

  3. A Fast and Sensitive New Satellite SO2 Retrieval Algorithm based on Principal Component Analysis: Application to the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Joiner, Joanna; Krotkov, A.; Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new algorithm to retrieve SO2 from satellite-measured hyperspectral radiances. We employ the principal component analysis technique in regions with no significant SO2 to capture radiance variability caused by both physical processes (e.g., Rayleigh and Raman scattering and ozone absorption) and measurement artifacts. We use the resulting principal components and SO2 Jacobians calculated with a radiative transfer model to directly estimate SO2 vertical column density in one step. Application to the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) radiance spectra in 310.5-340 nm demonstrates that this approach can greatly reduce biases in the operational OMI product and decrease the noise by a factor of 2, providing greater sensitivity to anthropogenic emissions. The new algorithm is fast, eliminates the need for instrument-specific radiance correction schemes, and can be easily adapted to other sensors. These attributes make it a promising technique for producing longterm, consistent SO2 records for air quality and climate research.

  4. New-Generation NASA Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Volcanic SO2 Dataset: Algorithm Description, Initial Results, and Continuation with the Suomi-NPP Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Carn, Simon; Zhang, Yan; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Joiner, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Since the fall of 2004, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) has been providing global monitoring of volcanic SO2 emissions, helping to understand their climate impacts and to mitigate aviation hazards. Here we introduce a new-generation OMI volcanic SO2 dataset based on a principal component analysis (PCA) retrieval technique. To reduce retrieval noise and artifacts as seen in the current operational linear fit (LF) algorithm, the new algorithm, OMSO2VOLCANO, uses characteristic features extracted directly from OMI radiances in the spectral fitting, thereby helping to minimize interferences from various geophysical processes (e.g., O3 absorption) and measurement details (e.g., wavelength shift). To solve the problem of low bias for large SO2 total columns in the LF product, the OMSO2VOLCANO algorithm employs a table lookup approach to estimate SO2 Jacobians (i.e., the instrument sensitivity to a perturbation in the SO2 column amount) and iteratively adjusts the spectral fitting window to exclude shorter wavelengths where the SO2 absorption signals are saturated. To first order, the effects of clouds and aerosols are accounted for using a simple Lambertian equivalent reflectivity approach. As with the LF algorithm, OMSO2VOLCANO provides total column retrievals based on a set of predefined SO2 profiles from the lower troposphere to the lower stratosphere, including a new profile peaked at 13 km for plumes in the upper troposphere. Examples given in this study indicate that the new dataset shows significant improvement over the LF product, with at least 50% reduction in retrieval noise over the remote Pacific. For large eruptions such as Kasatochi in 2008 (approximately 1700 kt total SO2/ and Sierra Negra in 2005 (greater than 1100DU maximum SO2), OMSO2VOLCANO generally agrees well with other algorithms that also utilize the full spectral content of satellite measurements, while the LF algorithm tends to underestimate SO2. We also demonstrate that, despite the

  5. Future heat waves and surface ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehl, Gerald A.; Tebaldi, Claudia; Tilmes, Simone; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Bates, Susan; Pendergrass, Angeline; Lombardozzi, Danica

    2018-06-01

    A global Earth system model is used to study the relationship between heat waves and surface ozone levels over land areas around the world that could experience either large decreases or little change in future ozone precursor emissions. The model is driven by emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone precursors from a medium-high emission scenario (Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0–RCP6.0) and is compared to an experiment with anthropogenic ozone precursor emissions fixed at 2005 levels. With ongoing increases in greenhouse gases and corresponding increases in average temperature in both experiments, heat waves are projected to become more intense over most global land areas (greater maximum temperatures during heat waves). However, surface ozone concentrations on future heat wave days decrease proportionately more than on non-heat wave days in areas where ozone precursors are prescribed to decrease in RCP6.0 (e.g. most of North America and Europe), while surface ozone concentrations in heat waves increase in areas where ozone precursors either increase or have little change (e.g. central Asia, the Mideast, northern Africa). In the stabilized ozone precursor experiment, surface ozone concentrations increase on future heat wave days compared to non-heat wave days in most regions except in areas where there is ozone suppression that contributes to decreases in ozone in future heat waves. This is likely associated with effects of changes in isoprene emissions at high temperatures (e.g. west coast and southeastern North America, eastern Europe).

  6. Trends in air concentration and deposition at background monitoring sites in Sweden - major inorganic compounds, heavy metals and ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindbom, K.; Svensson, Annika; Sjoeberg, K.; Pihl Karlsson, G.

    2001-09-01

    This report describes concentrations in air of sulphur compounds, soot, nitrogen compounds and ozone in Sweden between 1985-1998. Time trends of concentration in precipitation and deposition of sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, acidity, base cations and chloride in six different regions covering Sweden are evaluated during the period 1983-1998. Trends of heavy metals in precipitation have been analysed for the period 1983-1998 and the change in heavy metal concentration, 1975-1995, in mosses is described. Data used in the trend analyses originates from measurements performed at six Swedish EMEP stations and from approximately 25 stations within the national Precipitation Chemistry Network. Two different statistical methods, linear regression and the non-parametric Mann Kendall test, have been used to evaluate changes in annual mean values. Time trends of concentration of sulphur dioxide, particulate sulphate, soot, nitrogen dioxide, total nitrate and total ammonium in air show highly significant decreasing trends, except for soot at one station in northern Sweden. Concentrations of ozone have a strong seasonal variation with a peak occurring in spring every year. However, annual ozone concentrations show no obvious trends in spite of decreasing emissions of the precursors NOx and VOC. A slight indication of a decreasing trend in the number of ozone episodes might be seen from 1990 to 1998. Sulphate concentrations in precipitation and deposition show strongly significant decreasing trends in the whole country. Concentrations and deposition of nitrate and ammonium have been decreasing in all areas except for nitrate at stations in south-west and north-west Sweden and ammonium in south-west Sweden. Acidity has decreased in all areas since 1989, resulting in increasing pH values in Sweden. The interannual variations of concentration and deposition of base cations and chloride are large and few general trends can be seen during 1983-1997. Time trends of four heavy metals in

  7. ONKALO POSE experiment. Phase 1 and 2: execution and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, E. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Siren, T. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Hakala, M. [KMS-Hakala Oy, Nokia (Finland); Kantia, P. [Geofcon Oy, Rovaniemi (Finland)

    2014-02-15

    Posiva has conducted in the ONKALO rock characterisation facility during 2010 - 2011 an in situ experiment named POSE (Posiva's Olkiluoto Spalling Experiment). The POSE experiment had three objectives: to establish the in situ spalling/damage strength of Olkiluoto migmatitic gneiss, to establish the state of in situ stress at the -345 m depth level, and to act as a Prediction-Outcome (P-O) exercise. The POSE experiment consisted of drilling with full-face boring machine two near fullscale deposition holes, diameter 1.52 m (compared to 1.75 m for the actual deposition holes), to a depth of 7.2 m, leaving a 0.9 m pillar between the holes. The holes were planned to be located in such way that maximum excavation-induced stresses could act in the pillar and damage could then take place. Boring of the two holes in 2010 was called Phase 1 (Pillar test). This was followed in 2011 by Phase 2 (Pillar heating test) where four heaters with a length of 7.5 m heated the test area to increase the stresses around the experimental holes. In the heating phase the other hole was back-filled with sand. The test was extensively monitored during the execution using temperature monitoring, strain gauge monitoring, video monitoring, microseismic monitoring and pressure monitoring. In addition, the holes were after the test measured using ground penetration radar (GPR) and 3D photogrammetry for detailed modelling. The outcomes from the test showed that no damage, except for three opened/sheared fractures, was noticed during the boring of the holes (Phase 1). Surface damage was, though, induced by heating (Phase 2). The damage was well localized around the holes and controlled by the foliation (mica rich layers) and rock type contacts which were known to be relatively weak. Surface type failures were not observed in the gneiss, but it was noticed in limited areas in the pegmatite-granite. The depths of the damaged areas due to heating were less than 100 mm. The depths and sizes of the

  8. ONKALO POSE experiment. Phase 1 and 2: execution and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, E.; Siren, T.; Hakala, M.; Kantia, P.

    2014-02-01

    Posiva has conducted in the ONKALO rock characterisation facility during 2010 - 2011 an in situ experiment named POSE (Posiva's Olkiluoto Spalling Experiment). The POSE experiment had three objectives: to establish the in situ spalling/damage strength of Olkiluoto migmatitic gneiss, to establish the state of in situ stress at the -345 m depth level, and to act as a Prediction-Outcome (P-O) exercise. The POSE experiment consisted of drilling with full-face boring machine two near fullscale deposition holes, diameter 1.52 m (compared to 1.75 m for the actual deposition holes), to a depth of 7.2 m, leaving a 0.9 m pillar between the holes. The holes were planned to be located in such way that maximum excavation-induced stresses could act in the pillar and damage could then take place. Boring of the two holes in 2010 was called Phase 1 (Pillar test). This was followed in 2011 by Phase 2 (Pillar heating test) where four heaters with a length of 7.5 m heated the test area to increase the stresses around the experimental holes. In the heating phase the other hole was back-filled with sand. The test was extensively monitored during the execution using temperature monitoring, strain gauge monitoring, video monitoring, microseismic monitoring and pressure monitoring. In addition, the holes were after the test measured using ground penetration radar (GPR) and 3D photogrammetry for detailed modelling. The outcomes from the test showed that no damage, except for three opened/sheared fractures, was noticed during the boring of the holes (Phase 1). Surface damage was, though, induced by heating (Phase 2). The damage was well localized around the holes and controlled by the foliation (mica rich layers) and rock type contacts which were known to be relatively weak. Surface type failures were not observed in the gneiss, but it was noticed in limited areas in the pegmatite-granite. The depths of the damaged areas due to heating were less than 100 mm. The depths and sizes of the

  9. The luminosity monitor of the HERMES experiment at DESY

    CERN Document Server

    Benisch, T; Devitsin, E G; Kozlov, V; Potashov, S Yu; Rith, K; Terkulov, A R; Weiskopf, C

    2001-01-01

    A detector is described which measures the luminosity of the HERMES experiment at DESY. It is based on the coincident detection of electron-positron and photon pairs, or electron pairs, originating from the interaction of the beam positrons, or electrons, with the electrons of the atomic gas target. It consists of two calorimeters with radiation hard NaBi(WO sub 4) sub 2 crystals. Properties of the monitor, investigated in an electron test beam, and its performance in the experiment are presented.

  10. Online remote monitoring facilities for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kolos, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Feng, E; Hauser, R; Yakovlev, A; Zaytsev, A

    2011-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the 4 LHC experiments which started to be operated in the collisions mode in 2010. The ATLAS apparatus itself as well as the Trigger and the DAQ system are extremely complex facilities which have been built up by the collaboration including 144 institutes from 33 countries. The effective running of the experiment is supported by a large number of experts distributed all over the world. This paper describes the online remote monitoring system which has been developed in the ATLAS Trigger and DAQ(TDAQ) community in order to support efficient participation of the experts from remote institutes in the exploitation of the experiment. The facilities provided by the remote monitoring system are ranging from the WEB based access to the general status and data quality for the ongoing data taking session to the scalable service providing real-time mirroring of the detailed monitoring data from the experimental area to the dedicated computers in the CERN public network, where this data is made available ...

  11. Online remote monitoring facilities for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kolos, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Feng, E; Hauser, R; Yakovlev, A; Zaytsev, A

    2010-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the 4 LHC experiments which started to be operated in the collisions mode in 2010. The ATLAS apparatus itself as well as the Trigger and the DAQ system are extremely complex facilities which have been built up by the collaboration including 144 institutes from 33 countries. The effective running of the experiment is supported by a large number of experts distributed all over the world. This paper describes the online remote monitoring system which has been developed in the ATLAS TDAQ community in order to support efficient participation of the experts from remote institutes in the exploitation of the experiment. The facilities provided by the remote monitoring system are ranging from the WEB based access to the general status and data quality for the ongoing data taking session to the scalable service providing real-time mirroring of the detailed monitoring data from the experimental area to the dedicated computers in the CERN public network, where this data is made available to remote users t...

  12. Ozone decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batakliev Todor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic ozone decomposition is of great significance because ozone is a toxic substance commonly found or generated in human environments (aircraft cabins, offices with photocopiers, laser printers, sterilizers. Considerable work has been done on ozone decomposition reported in the literature. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the literature, concentrating on analysis of the physico-chemical properties, synthesis and catalytic decomposition of ozone. This is supplemented by a review on kinetics and catalyst characterization which ties together the previously reported results. Noble metals and oxides of transition metals have been found to be the most active substances for ozone decomposition. The high price of precious metals stimulated the use of metal oxide catalysts and particularly the catalysts based on manganese oxide. It has been determined that the kinetics of ozone decomposition is of first order importance. A mechanism of the reaction of catalytic ozone decomposition is discussed, based on detailed spectroscopic investigations of the catalytic surface, showing the existence of peroxide and superoxide surface intermediates

  13. Ozone modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIllvaine, C M

    1994-07-01

    Exhaust gases from power plants that burn fossil fuels contain concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), particulate matter, hydrocarbon compounds and trace metals. Estimated emissions from the operation of a hypothetical 500 MW coal-fired power plant are given. Ozone is considered a secondary pollutant, since it is not emitted directly into the atmosphere but is formed from other air pollutants, specifically, nitrogen oxides (NO), and non-methane organic compounds (NMOQ) in the presence of sunlight. (NMOC are sometimes referred to as hydrocarbons, HC, or volatile organic compounds, VOC, and they may or may not include methane). Additionally, ozone formation Alternative is a function of the ratio of NMOC concentrations to NO{sub x} concentrations. A typical ozone isopleth is shown, generated with the Empirical Kinetic Modeling Approach (EKMA) option of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Ozone Isopleth Plotting Mechanism (OZIPM-4) model. Ozone isopleth diagrams, originally generated with smog chamber data, are more commonly generated with photochemical reaction mechanisms and tested against smog chamber data. The shape of the isopleth curves is a function of the region (i.e. background conditions) where ozone concentrations are simulated. The location of an ozone concentration on the isopleth diagram is defined by the ratio of NMOC and NO{sub x} coordinates of the point, known as the NMOC/NO{sub x} ratio. Results obtained by the described model are presented.

  14. Ozone modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIllvaine, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    Exhaust gases from power plants that burn fossil fuels contain concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), particulate matter, hydrocarbon compounds and trace metals. Estimated emissions from the operation of a hypothetical 500 MW coal-fired power plant are given. Ozone is considered a secondary pollutant, since it is not emitted directly into the atmosphere but is formed from other air pollutants, specifically, nitrogen oxides (NO), and non-methane organic compounds (NMOQ) in the presence of sunlight. (NMOC are sometimes referred to as hydrocarbons, HC, or volatile organic compounds, VOC, and they may or may not include methane). Additionally, ozone formation Alternative is a function of the ratio of NMOC concentrations to NO x concentrations. A typical ozone isopleth is shown, generated with the Empirical Kinetic Modeling Approach (EKMA) option of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Ozone Isopleth Plotting Mechanism (OZIPM-4) model. Ozone isopleth diagrams, originally generated with smog chamber data, are more commonly generated with photochemical reaction mechanisms and tested against smog chamber data. The shape of the isopleth curves is a function of the region (i.e. background conditions) where ozone concentrations are simulated. The location of an ozone concentration on the isopleth diagram is defined by the ratio of NMOC and NO x coordinates of the point, known as the NMOC/NO x ratio. Results obtained by the described model are presented

  15. Pulling Results Out of Thin Air: Four Years of Ozone and Greenhouse Gas Measurements by the Alpha Jet Atmospheric Experiment (AJAX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Emma

    2015-01-01

    The Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) has been measuring atmospheric ozone, carbon dioxide, methane and meteorological parameters from near the surface to 8000 m since January 2011. The main goals are to study photochemical ozone production and the impacts of extreme events on western US air quality, provide data to support satellite observations and aid in the quantification of emission sources e.g. wildfires, urban outflow, diary and oil and gas. The aircraft is based at Moffett Field and flies multiple times a month to sample vertical profiles at selected sites in California and Nevada, providing long-term data records at these sites. AJAX is also uniquely positioned to launch with short notice sampling flights in rapid response to extreme events e.g. the 2013 Yosemite Rim fire. This talk will focus on the impacts of vertical transport on surface air quality, and investigation of emission sources from diaries and wildfires.

  16. Simultaneous assimilation of ozone profiles from multiple UV-VIS satellite instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Peet, Jacob C. A.; van der A, Ronald J.; Kelder, Hennie M.; Levelt, Pieternel F.

    2018-02-01

    A three-dimensional global ozone distribution has been derived from assimilation of ozone profiles that were observed by satellites. By simultaneous assimilation of ozone profiles retrieved from the nadir looking satellite instruments Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), which measure the atmosphere at different times of the day, the quality of the derived atmospheric ozone field has been improved. The assimilation is using an extended Kalman filter in which chemical transport model TM5 has been used for the forecast. The combined assimilation of both GOME-2 and OMI improves upon the assimilation results of a single sensor. The new assimilation system has been demonstrated by processing 4 years of data from 2008 to 2011. Validation of the assimilation output by comparison with sondes shows that biases vary between -5 and +10 % between the surface and 100 hPa. The biases for the combined assimilation vary between -3 and +3 % in the region between 100 and 10 hPa where GOME-2 and OMI are most sensitive. This is a strong improvement compared to direct retrievals of ozone profiles from satellite observations.

  17. Science Data Report for the Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, D. R.; Zwiener, J. M.; Carruth, Ralph (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This science data report describes the Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) experiment and the data gathered during its 9-mo exposure on the Mir space station. Three independent optical instruments made up OPM: an integrating sphere spectral reflectometer, vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer, and a total integrated scatter instrument. Selected materials were exposed to the low-Earth orbit, and their performance monitored in situ by the OPM instruments. Coinvestigators from four NASA Centers, five International Space Station contractors, one university, two Department of Defense organizations, and the Russian space company, Energia, contributed samples to this experiment. These materials included a number of thermal control coatings, optical materials, polymeric films, nanocomposites, and other state-of-the-art materials. Degradation of some materials, including aluminum conversion coatings and Beta cloth, was greater than expected. The OPM experiment was launched aboard the Space Shuttle on mission STS-81 in January 1997 and transferred to the Mir space station. An extravehicular activity (EVA) was performed in April 1997 to attach the OPM experiment to the outside of the Mir/Shuttle Docking Module for space environment exposure. OPM was retrieved during an EVA in January 1998 and was returned to Earth on board the Space Shuttle on mission STS-89.

  18. Ozonation control and effects of ozone on water quality in recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Rojas-Tirado, Paula Andrea; Chetri, Ravi K.

    2018-01-01

    To address the undesired effect of chemotherapeutants in aquaculture, ozone has been suggested as an alternative to improve water quality. To ensure safe and robust treatment, it is vital to define the ozone demand and ozone kinetics of the specific water matrix to avoid ozone overdose. Different...... ozone dosages were applied to water in freshwater recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Experiments were performed to investigate ozone kinetics and demand, and to evaluate the effects on the water quality, particularly in relation to fluorescent organic matter. This study aimed at predicting...... a suitable ozone dosage for water treatment based on daily ozone demand via laboratory studies. These ozone dosages will be eventually applied and maintained at these levels in pilot-scale RAS to verify predictions. Selected water quality parameters were measured, including natural fluorescence and organic...

  19. Monitoring of radioactivity in imported foodstuffs - experience gained and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Fattah, A.F.; Mamoon, A.M.; Abdul-Majid, S.

    1987-01-01

    Saudi Arabia has had a unique experience in radiation monitoring of imported foodstuffs for possible contamination due to the Chernobyl reactor accident. A considerable amount of various food items is imported by Saudi Arabia and much of it comes from European countries. The quantity of imported food items is greatly increased around the time of the Moslem pilgrimage to Holy Mecca. Furthermore, many additional thousands of live animals (mainly sheep and cows) are imported for sacrificing on a certain day for religious reasons. The radiation monitoring of food items at inlets to the county was not done before and a lot of preparatory work and planning had to be done to initiate the monitoring process. The experience gained in this respect might be of value to other developing countries in a similar position. King Abdulaziz Univ. (KAU) was directed by the government in about mid-June 1986 to carry out radiological inspection of food items reaching the Jeddah, Yanbu, and Jizan seaports as well as food arrivals at King Abdulaziz International Airport at Jeddah. The KAU team has met with some difficulties in carrying out its inspection responsibilities. These difficulties are of a general nature and might occur, in a similar inspection process, in other developing countries. The problems can be classified essentially into the two categories discussed: (1) problems of an administrative and management nature, and (2) problems of a technical nature

  20. Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Known as tropospheric or ground-level ozone, this gas is harmful to human heath and the environment. Since it forms from emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), these pollutants are regulated under air quality standards.

  1. Web Based Monitoring in the CMS Experiment at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badgett, William [Fermilab; Borrello, Laura [Wisconsin U., Madison; Chakaberia, Irakli [Kansas State U.; Gigi, Dominique [CERN; Jo, Young-Kwon [Korea U.; Lopez-Perez, Juan Antonio [Fermilab; Maeshima, Kaori [Fermilab; Maruyama, Sho [Fermilab; Patrick, James [Fermilab; Rapsevicius, Valdas [Florida U.; Soha, Aron [Fermilab; Sulmanas, Balys [Fermilab; Wan, Zongru [Korea U.

    2014-09-03

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a large and complex general purpose experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), built and maintained by many collaborators from around the world. Efficient operation of the detector requires widespread and timely access to a broad range of monitoring and status information. To this end the Web Based Monitoring (WBM) system was developed to present data to users located anywhere from many underlying heterogeneous sources, from real time messaging systems to relational databases. This system provides the power to combine and correlate data in both graphical and tabular formats of interest to the experimenters, including data such as beam conditions, luminosity, trigger rates, detector conditions, and many others, allowing for flexibility on the user side. This paper describes the WBM system architecture and describes how the system was used during the first major data taking run of the LHC.

  2. World-wide online monitoring interface of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kolos, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Mineev, M; Hauser, R; Salnikov, A

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration accounts for more than 3000 members located all over the world. The efficiency of the experiment can be improved allowing system experts not present on site to follow the ATLAS operations in real-time, spotting potential problems which otherwise may remain unattended for a non-negligible time. Taking into account the wide geographical spread of the ATLAS collaboration, the solution of this problem is to have all monitoring information with minimal access latency available world-wide. We have implemented a framework which defines a standard approach for retrieving arbitrary monitoring information from the ATLAS private network via HTTP. An information request is made by specifying one of the predefined URLs with some optional parameters refining data which has to be shipped back in XML format. The framework takes care of receiving, parsing and forwarding such requests to the appropriate plugins. The plugins retrieve the requested data and convert it to XML (or optionally to JSON) format...

  3. Web Based Monitoring in the CMS Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00139192; Borrello, Laura; Chakaberia, Irakli; Gigi, Dominique; Jo, Young-Kwon; Lopez-Perez, Juan Antonio; Maeshima, Kaori; Maruyama, Sho; Patrick, James; Rapsevicius, Valdas; Soha, Aron; Sulmanas, Balys; Wan, Zongru

    2014-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a large and complex general purpose experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), built and maintained by many collaborators from around the world. Efficient operation of the detector requires widespread and timely access to a broad range of monitoring and status information. To this end the Web Based Monitoring (WBM) system was developed to present data to users located anywhere from many underlying heterogeneous sources, from real time messaging systems to relational databases. This system provides the power to combine and correlate data in both graphical and tabular formats of interest to the experimenters, including data such as beam conditions, luminosity, trigger rates, detector conditions, and many others, allowing for flexibility on the user side. This paper describes the WBM system architecture and describes how the system was used during the first major data taking run of the LHC.

  4. The Web Based Monitoring project at the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Perez, Juan Antonio; Badgett, William; Behrens, Ulf; Chakaberia, Irakli; Jo, Youngkwon; Maruyama, Sho; Patrick, James; Rapsevicius, Valdas; Soha, Aron; Stankevicius, Mantas; Sulmanas, Balys; Toda, Sachiko; Wan, Zongru

    2017-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid is a large a complex general purpose experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), built and maintained by many collaborators from around the world. Efficient operation of the detector requires widespread and timely access to a broad range of monitoring and status information. To the end the Web Based Monitoring (WBM) system was developed to present data to users located anywhere from many underlying heterogeneous sources, from real time messaging systems to relational databases. This system provides the power to combine and correlate data in both graphical and tabular formats of interest to the experimenters, including data such as beam conditions, luminosity, trigger rates, detector conditions, and many others, allowing for flexibility on the user’s side. This paper describes the WBM system architecture and describes how the system has been used from the beginning of data taking until now (Run1 and Run 2).

  5. The LED monitoring system of the PHOENICS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, D.

    1991-07-01

    The PHOENICS experiment at ELSA uses a LED monitoring system to control pulse height and time measurement with scintillation counters. A green LED is mounted at the light guide of each of the 304 involved photomultiplier tubes. The LEDs are driven by fast voltage pulses of 5 ns FWHM width and about 20 V amplitude. Simulation of single events is possible by computer controlled switching of individual LEDs. In order to correct for the temperature dependence of the LED intensity an automatic temperature recording system was coupled to the computer. This monitor system allows to control the pulse height and time measurement with an accuracy of about 2% and 100 ps respectively. (orig.) [de

  6. AGC-3 Experiment Irradiation Monitoring Data Qualification Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurence Hull

    2014-10-01

    The Graphite Technology Development Program will run a series of six experiments to quantify the effects of irradiation on nuclear grade graphite. The third experiment, Advanced Graphite Creep 3 (AGC 3), began with Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 152B on November 27, 2012, and ended with ATR Cycle 155B on April 23, 2014. This report documents qualification of AGC 3 experiment irradiation monitoring data for use by the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) Program for research and development activities required to design and license the first VHTR nuclear plant. Qualified data meet the requirements for data collection and use as described in the experiment planning and quality assurance documents. Failed data do not meet the requirements. Trend data may not meet the requirements, but may still provide some useable information. All thermocouples (TCs) functioned throughout the AGC 3 experiment. There was one interval between December 18, 2012, and December 20, 2012, where 10 NULL values were reported for various TCs. These NULL values were deleted from the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System database. All temperature data are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program. Argon, helium, and total gas flow data were within expected ranges and are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program. Total gas flow was approximately 50 sccm through the AGC 3 experiment capsule. Helium gas flow was briefly increased to 100 sccm during ATR shutdowns. At the start of the AGC 3 experiment, moisture in the outflow gas line was stuck at a constant value of 335.6174 ppmv for the first cycle (Cycle 152B). When the AGC 3 experiment capsule was reinstalled in ATR for Cycle 154B, a new moisture filter was installed. Moisture data from Cycle 152B are Failed. All moisture data from the final three cycles (Cycles 154B, 155A, and 155B) are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program.

  7. Numerical modeling of NI-monitored 3D infiltration experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohnal, Michal; Dusek, Jaromir; Snehota, Michal; Sacha, Jan; Vogel, Tomas; Votrubova, Jana

    2014-05-01

    It is well known that the temporal changes of saturated hydraulic conductivity caused by the occurrence of air phase discontinuities often play an important role in water flow and solute transport experiments. In the present study, a series of infiltration-outflow experiments was conducted to test several working hypotheses about the mechanism of air phase trapping. The experiments were performed on a porous sample with artificial internal structure, using three sandy materials with contrasting hydraulic properties. The sample was axially symmetric with continuous preferential pathways and separate porous matrix blocks (the sample was 3.4 cm in diameter and 8.8 cm high). The infiltration experiments were monitored by neutron imaging (NI). The NI data were then used to quantify the water content of the selected sample regions. The flow regime in the sample was studied using a three-dimensional model based on Richards' equation. The equation was solved by the finite element method. The results of the numerical simulations of the infiltration experiments were compared with the measured outflow rates and with the spatial distribution of water content determined by NI. The research was supported by the Czech Science Foundation Project No. 14-03691S.

  8. Ozone Monitoring Instrument Observations of Interannual Increases in SO2 Emissions from Indian Coal-fired Power Plants During 2005-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David D.; de Foy, Benjamin; Krotkov, Nickolay A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the rapid growth of electricity demand and the absence of regulations, sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired power plants in India have increased notably in the past decade. In this study, we present the first interannual comparison of SO2 emissions and the satellite SO2 observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for Indian coal-fired power plants during the OMI era of 2005-2012. A detailed unit-based inventory is developed for the Indian coal-fired power sector, and results show that its SO2 emissions increased dramatically by 71 percent during 2005-2012. Using the oversampling technique, yearly high-resolution OMI maps for the whole domain of India are created, and they reveal a continuous increase in SO2 columns over India. Power plant regions with annual SO2 emissions greater than 50 Gg year-1 produce statistically significant OMI signals, and a high correlation (R equals 0.93) is found between SO2 emissions and OMI-observed SO2 burdens. Contrary to the decreasing trend of national mean SO2 concentrations reported by the Indian Government, both the total OMI-observed SO2 and average SO2 concentrations in coal-fired power plant regions increased by greater than 60 percent during 2005-2012, implying the air quality monitoring network needs to be optimized to reflect the true SO2 situation in India.

  9. Determination of the Optimum Ozone Product on the Plasma Ozonizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Purwadi; Widdi Usada; Suryadi; Isyuniarto; Sri Sukmajaya

    2002-01-01

    An experiment of the optimum ozone product determination on the cylindrical plasma ozonizer has been done. The experiment is carried out by using alternating high voltage power supply, oscilloscope CS-1577 A, flow meter and spectronik-20 instrument for the absorbance solution samples which produced by varying the physics parameter values of the discharge alternating high voltage and velocity of oxygen gas input. The plasma ozonizer is made of cylinder stainless steel as the electrode and cylinder glass as the dielectric with 1.00 mm of the discharge gap and 7.225 mm 3 of the discharge tube volume. The experiment results shows that the optimum ozone product is 0.360 mg/s obtained at the the discharge of alternating high voltage of 25.50 kV, the frequency of 1.00 kHz and the rate of oxygen gas input of 1.00 lpm. (author)

  10. OZONE CONCENTRATION ATTRIBUTABLE PREMATURE DEATH IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Skotak

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone in the lower part of the atmosphere (troposphere, strong photochemical oxidant, is not directly emitted to the atmosphere but formed through a series of complex reactions. Ozone concentrations depends on ozone precursors air contamination (mainly nitrogen dioxide and non-methane volatile organic compounds and meteorological conditions (temperature and solar radiation. The main sectors emitted ozone precursors are road transport, power and heat generation plants, household (heating, industry, and petrol storage and distribution. Ozone and some of its precursors are also transported long distances in the atmosphere and are therefore considered a transboundary problem. As a result, the ozone concentrations are often low in busy urban areas and higher in suburban and rural areas. Nowadays, instead of particulate matter, ozone is one of the most widespread global air pollution problems. In and around urban areas, relatively large gradients of ozone can be observed. Because of its high reactivity in elevated concentrations ozone causes serious health problems and damage to ecosystems, agricultural crops and materials. Main ill-health endpoints as a results of ozone concentrations can be characterised as an effect of pulmonary and cardiovascular system, time morbidity and mortality series, development of atherosclerosis and asthma and finally reduction in life expectancy. The associations with increased daily mortality due to ozone concentrations are confirmed by many researches and epidemiological studies. Estimation of the level selected ill-health endpoints (mortality in total and due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes as a result of the short-term ozone exposure in Poland was the main aim of the project. Final results have been done based on estimation method elaborated by WHO, ozone measurements from National Air Quality Monitoring System and statistical information such as mortality rate and populations. All analysis have been done in

  11. An ozone budget for the UK: using measurements from the national ozone monitoring network; measured and modelled meteorological data, and a 'big-leaf' resistance analogy model of dry deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, M.; Smith, R.; Fowler, D.

    2003-01-01

    A method of calculating a mass budget for O 3 in the UK boundary layer is presented which shows that the spatial scale of the UK is small relative to the footprint of the atmosphere influenced by UK emissions. - Data from the UK national air-quality monitoring network are used to calculate an annual mass budget for ozone (O 3 ) production and loss in the UK boundary layer during 1996. Monthly losses by dry deposition are quantified from 1 kmx1 km scale maps of O 3 concentration and O 3 deposition velocities based on a 'big-leaf' resistance analogy. The quantity of O 3 deposition varies from ∼50 Gg-O 3 month -1 in the winter to over 200 Gg-O 3 month -1 in the summer when vegetation is actively absorbing O 3 . The net O 3 production or loss in the UK boundary layer is found by selecting days when the UK is receiving 'clean' Atlantic air from the SW to NW. In these conditions, the difference in O 3 concentration observed at Mace Head and a rural site on the east coast of the UK indicates the net O 3 production or loss within the UK boundary layer. A simple box model is then used to convert the concentration difference into a mass. The final budget shows that for most of the year the UK is a net sink for O 3 (-25 to -800 Gg-O 3 month -1 ) with production only exceeding losses in the photochemically active summer months (+45 Gg-O 3 month -1 )

  12. An ozone budget for the UK: using measurements from the national ozone monitoring network; measured and modelled meteorological data, and a 'big-leaf' resistance analogy model of dry deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, M.; Smith, R.; Fowler, D

    2003-05-01

    A method of calculating a mass budget for O{sub 3} in the UK boundary layer is presented which shows that the spatial scale of the UK is small relative to the footprint of the atmosphere influenced by UK emissions. - Data from the UK national air-quality monitoring network are used to calculate an annual mass budget for ozone (O{sub 3}) production and loss in the UK boundary layer during 1996. Monthly losses by dry deposition are quantified from 1 kmx1 km scale maps of O{sub 3} concentration and O{sub 3} deposition velocities based on a 'big-leaf' resistance analogy. The quantity of O{sub 3} deposition varies from {approx}50 Gg-O{sub 3} month{sup -1} in the winter to over 200 Gg-O{sub 3} month{sup -1} in the summer when vegetation is actively absorbing O{sub 3}. The net O{sub 3} production or loss in the UK boundary layer is found by selecting days when the UK is receiving 'clean' Atlantic air from the SW to NW. In these conditions, the difference in O{sub 3} concentration observed at Mace Head and a rural site on the east coast of the UK indicates the net O{sub 3} production or loss within the UK boundary layer. A simple box model is then used to convert the concentration difference into a mass. The final budget shows that for most of the year the UK is a net sink for O{sub 3} (-25 to -800 Gg-O{sub 3} month{sup -1}) with production only exceeding losses in the photochemically active summer months (+45 Gg-O{sub 3} month{sup -1})

  13. Comparison of aerosol optical depths from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI on Aura with results from airborne sunphotometry, other space and ground measurements during MILAGRO/INTEX-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Livingston

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Airborne sunphotometer measurements are used to evaluate retrievals of extinction aerosol optical depth (AOD from spatially coincident and temporally near-coincident measurements by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI aboard the Aura satellite during the March 2006 Megacity Initiative-Local And Global Research Observations/Phase B of the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (MILAGRO/INTEX-B. The 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS flew on nine missions over the Gulf of Mexico and four in or near the Mexico City area. Retrievals of AOD from near-coincident AATS and OMI measurements are compared for three flights over the Gulf of Mexico for flight segments when the aircraft flew at altitudes 60–70 m above sea level, and for one flight over the Mexico City area where the aircraft was restricted to altitudes ~320–800 m above ground level over the rural area and ~550–750 m over the city. OMI-measured top of atmosphere (TOA reflectances are routinely inverted to yield aerosol products such as AOD and aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD using two different retrieval algorithms: a near-UV (OMAERUV and a multiwavelength (OMAERO technique. This study uses the archived Collection 3 data products from both algorithms. In particular, AATS and OMI AOD comparisons are presented for AATS data acquired in 20 OMAERUV retrieval pixels (15 over water and 19 OMAERO pixels (also 15 over water. At least four pixels for one of the over-water coincidences and all pixels for the over-land case were cloud-free. Coincident AOD retrievals from 17 pixels of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS aboard Aqua are available for two of the over-water flights and are shown to agree with AATS AODs to within root mean square (RMS differences of 0.00–0.06, depending on wavelength. Near-coincident ground-based AOD measurements from ground-based sun/sky radiometers operated as part of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET

  14. ONKALO POSE experiment. Phase 3: acoustic and ultrasonic monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Montes, J.; Flynn, W.; Huang, J.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the third phase of the POSE experiment are to determine the in situ state of stress at Olkiluoto and the spalling strength of Olkiluoto rock, by internal heating of the experimental hole (ONK-EH3) using 8 vertically installed heaters. This report presents the results from the Acoustic and ultrasonic monitoring carried out around the third experimental hole of the POSE niche between November 2012 and May 2013. The experiment was monitored using an array of 24 transducers installed along 4 monitoring drillholes and data was automatically acquired and processed using the system installed at the niche by Applied Seismology Consultants in May 2012. Daily ultrasonic surveys were carried out between 14 th November 2012 and 21 st May 2013, monitoring the changes in transmission velocities of P and S-waves with an estimated error of ±2 m x s -1 (ASC, 2013). Changes in transmission velocities closely follow the evolution of the temperature profile in the hole wall. An increase in both P-and S-wave transmission velocities is observed at all depth levels and surveyed raypaths during the heating phase, with the highest changes observed in raypaths skimming the hole surface and depths between 2.33 m and 3.7 m. This observation indicates the closure of in situ and excavation-induced microcracks due to thermal stress. After the heaters were switched off, P-wave velocities show a marked decrease, in all raypaths reaching values below those measured at the start of the monitoring approximately 4 weeks after the heaters were switched off. The highest decrease was observed along raypaths surveying the region skimming the hole wall. This decrease below original background values indicates the induction of rock degradation as microcracking induced through the heating-cooling cycle. Changes in P- and S-wave transmission velocity were used to calculate changes in Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio along the different raypaths and depth levels. An overall

  15. Volcanic Monitoring Techniques Applied to Controlled Fragmentation Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, U.; Alatorre-Ibarguengoitia, M. A.; Hort, M. K.; Kremers, S.; Meier, K.; Scharff, L.; Scheu, B.; Taddeucci, J.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are an inevitable natural threat. The range of eruptive styles is large and short term fluctuations of explosivity or vent position pose a large risk that is not necessarily confined to the immediate vicinity of a volcano. Explosive eruptions rather may also affect aviation, infrastructure and climate, regionally as well as globally. Multiparameter monitoring networks are deployed on many active volcanoes to record signs of magmatic processes and help elucidate the secrets of volcanic phenomena. However, our mechanistic understanding of many processes hiding in recorded signals is still poor. As a direct consequence, a solid interpretation of the state of a volcano is still a challenge. In an attempt to bridge this gap, we combined volcanic monitoring and experimental volcanology. We performed 15 well-monitored, field-based, experiments and fragmented natural rock samples from Colima volcano (Mexico) by rapid decompression. We used cylindrical samples of 60 mm height and 25 mm and 60 mm diameter, respectively, and 25 and 35 vol.% open porosity. The applied pressure range was from 4 to 18 MPa. Using different experimental set-ups, the pressurised volume above the samples ranged from 60 - 170 cm3. The experiments were performed at ambient conditions and at controlled sample porosity and size, confinement geometry, and applied pressure. The experiments have been thoroughly monitored with 1) Doppler Radar (DR), 2) high-speed and high-definition cameras, 3) acoustic and infrasound sensors, 4) pressure transducers, and 5) electrically conducting wires. Our aim was to check for common results achieved by the different approaches and, if so, calibrate state-of-the-art monitoring tools. We present how the velocity of the ejected pyroclasts was measured by and evaluated for the different approaches and how it was affected by the experimental conditions and sample characteristics. We show that all deployed instruments successfully measured the pyroclast

  16. New Developments in Web Based Monitoring at the CMS Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badgett, William; Lopez-Perez, Juan Antonio; Maeshima, Kaori; Maruyama, Sho; Soha, Aron; Sulmanas, Balys; Wan, Zongru; Chakaberia, Irakli

    2012-01-01

    The rate of performance improvements of the LHC at CERN has had a strong influence on the characteristics of the monitoring tools developed for the experiments. We present some of the latest additions to the suite of Web Based Monitoring services for the CMS experiment, and explore the aspects that address the roughly 20-fold increase in peak instantaneous luminosity over the course of 2011. One of these user-friendly tools allows collaborators to easily view, and make correlations among, accelerator configuration information such as bunch patterns, measured quantities such as intensities, vacuum pressures, and background conditions, as well as derived quantities such as luminosity and the number of simultaneous interactions per beam crossing. An additional tool summarizes the daily, weekly, and yearly luminosity and efficiency. Finally, we discuss a trigger cross section and rate fitting service that uses data from previous runs to validate current running conditions, as well as to serve as a predictive extrapolation tool for developing triggers for higher luminosity running.

  17. Monitoring of the energy scale in the KATRIN neutrino experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083282

    The question of the absolute mass scale of neutrinos is of particular interest for particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. The KATRIN experiment (KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment) aims to address the effective electron antineutrino mass from the shape of the tritium $\\beta$-spectrum with an unprecedented sensitivity of 0.2 eV/c$^2$. One of the major systematic effects concerns the experimental energy scale, which has to be stable at the level of only a few parts in a million. For its calibration and monitoring the monoenergetic electrons emitted in the internal conversion of $\\gamma$-transition of the metastable isotope $^{83\\mathrm{m}}$Kr will be extensively applied. The aim of this thesis is to address the problem of KATRIN energy scale distortions and its monitoring in detail. The source of electrons based on $^{83\\mathrm{m}}$Kr embedded in a solid as well as the source based on gaseous $^{83\\mathrm{m}}$Kr are studied. Based on the experimental results an approach for the continuous stability m...

  18. Monitoring Building Deformation with InSAR: Experiments and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kui; Yan, Li; Huang, Guoman; Chen, Chu; Wu, Zhengpeng

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) techniques are increasingly applied for monitoring land subsidence. The advantages of InSAR include high accuracy and the ability to cover large areas; nevertheless, research validating the use of InSAR on building deformation is limited. In this paper, we test the monitoring capability of the InSAR in experiments using two landmark buildings; the Bohai Building and the China Theater, located in Tianjin, China. They were selected as real examples to compare InSAR and leveling approaches for building deformation. Ten TerraSAR-X images spanning half a year were used in Permanent Scatterer InSAR processing. These extracted InSAR results were processed considering the diversity in both direction and spatial distribution, and were compared with true leveling values in both Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression and measurement of error analyses. The detailed experimental results for the Bohai Building and the China Theater showed a high correlation between InSAR results and the leveling values. At the same time, the two Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) indexes had values of approximately 1 mm. These analyses show that a millimeter level of accuracy can be achieved by means of InSAR technique when measuring building deformation. We discuss the differences in accuracy between OLS regression and measurement of error analyses, and compare the accuracy index of leveling in order to propose InSAR accuracy levels appropriate for monitoring buildings deformation. After assessing the advantages and limitations of InSAR techniques in monitoring buildings, further applications are evaluated. PMID:27999403

  19. Monitoring Building Deformation with InSAR: Experiments and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR techniques are increasingly applied for monitoring land subsidence. The advantages of InSAR include high accuracy and the ability to cover large areas; nevertheless, research validating the use of InSAR on building deformation is limited. In this paper, we test the monitoring capability of the InSAR in experiments using two landmark buildings; the Bohai Building and the China Theater, located in Tianjin, China. They were selected as real examples to compare InSAR and leveling approaches for building deformation. Ten TerraSAR-X images spanning half a year were used in Permanent Scatterer InSAR processing. These extracted InSAR results were processed considering the diversity in both direction and spatial distribution, and were compared with true leveling values in both Ordinary Least Squares (OLS regression and measurement of error analyses. The detailed experimental results for the Bohai Building and the China Theater showed a high correlation between InSAR results and the leveling values. At the same time, the two Root Mean Square Error (RMSE indexes had values of approximately 1 mm. These analyses show that a millimeter level of accuracy can be achieved by means of InSAR technique when measuring building deformation. We discuss the differences in accuracy between OLS regression and measurement of error analyses, and compare the accuracy index of leveling in order to propose InSAR accuracy levels appropriate for monitoring buildings deformation. After assessing the advantages and limitations of InSAR techniques in monitoring buildings, further applications are evaluated.

  20. Internal monitoring of GBTx emulator using IPbus for CBM experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Swagata; Zabolotny, Wojciech; Sau, Suman; Chkrabarti, Amlan; Saini, Jogender; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Pal, Sushanta Kumar

    2015-09-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment is a part of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt at GSI. In CBM experiment a precisely time synchronized fault tolerant self-triggered electronics is required for Data Acquisition (DAQ) system in CBM experiments which can support high data rate (up to several TB/s). As a part of the implementation of the DAQ system of Muon Chamber (MUCH) which is one of the important detectors in CBM experiment, a FPGA based Gigabit Transceiver (GBTx) emulator is implemented. Readout chain for MUCH consists of XYTER chips (Front end electronics) which will be directly connected to detector, GBTx emulator, Data Processing Board (DPB) and First level event selector board (FLIB) with backend software interface. GBTx emulator will be connected with the XYTER emulator through LVDS (Low Voltage Differential Signalling) line in the front end and in the back end it is connected with DPB through 4.8 Gbps optical link. IPBus over Ethernet is used for internal monitoring of the registers within the GBTx. In IPbus implementation User Datagram Protocol (UDP) stack is used in transport layer of OSI model so that GBTx can be controlled remotely. A Python script is used at computer side to drive IPbus controller.

  1. Relationship between surface, free tropospheric and total column ozone in 2 contrasting areas in South-Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Combrink, J

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of surface ozone in two contrasting areas of South Africa are compared with free tropospheric and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) total column ozone data. Cape Point is representative of a background monitoring station which...

  2. NOAA JPSS Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) Nadir Profile Science Sensor Data Record (SDR) from IDPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) onboard the Suomi-NPP satellite monitors ozone from space. OMPS will collect total column and vertical profile ozone data...

  3. NOAA JPSS Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) Nadir Total Column Sensor Data Record (SDR) from IDPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) onboard the Suomi NPP satellite monitors ozone from space. OMPS will collect total column and vertical profile ozone data...

  4. Drought Monitoring and Forecasting: Experiences from the US and Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Justin; Chaney, Nate; Yuan, Xing; Wood, Eric

    2013-04-01

    Drought has important but very different consequences regionally due to differences in vulnerability. These differences derive from variations in exposure related to climate variability and change, sensitivity of local populations, and coping capacity at all levels. Managing the risk of drought impacts relies on a variety of measures to reduce vulnerability that includes forewarning of drought development through early-warning systems. Existing systems rely on a variety of observing systems from satellites to local observers, modeling tools, and data dissemination methods. They range from sophisticated state-of-the-art systems to simple ground reports. In some regions, systems are virtually non-existent due to limited national capacity. This talk describes our experiences in developing and implementing drought monitoring and seasonal forecast systems in the US and sub-Saharan Africa as contrasting examples of the scientific challenges and user needs in developing early warning systems. In particular, early warning can help improve livelihoods based on subsistence farming in sub-Saharan Africa; whist reduction of economic impacts is generally foremost in the US. For the US, our national drought monitoring and seasonal forecast system has been operational for over 8 years and provides near real-time updates on hydrological states at ~12km resolution and hydrological forecasts out to 9 months. Output from the system contributes to national assessments such as from the NOAA Climate Prediction Center (CPC) and the US National Drought Monitor (USDM). For sub-Saharan Africa, our experimental drought monitoring system was developed as a translation of the US system but presents generally greater challenges due to, for example, lack of ground data and unique user needs. The system provides near real-time updates based on hydrological modeling and satellite based precipitation estimates, and has recently been augmented by a seasonal forecast component. We discuss the

  5. Data Quality Monitoring : Automatic MOnitoRing Environment (AMORE ) Web Administration Tool in ALICE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Nagi, Imre

    2013-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the heavy-ion detector designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The quality of the acquired data evolves over time depending on the status of the detectors, its components and the operating environment. To get an excellent performance of detector, all detector configurations have to be set perfectly so that the data-taking can be done in an optimal way. This report describes a new implementation of the administration tools of the ALICE’s DQM framework called AMORE (Automatic MonitoRing Environment) with web technologies.

  6. A preliminary comparison between TOVS and GOME level 2 ozone data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathman, William; Monks, Paul S.; Llewellyn-Jones, David; Burrows, John P.

    1997-09-01

    A preliminary comparison between total column ozone concentration values derived from TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) has been carried out. Two comparisons of ozone datasets have been made: a) TOVS ozone analysis maps vs. GOME level 2 data; b) TOVS data located at Northern Hemisphere Ground Ozone Stations (NHGOS) vs. GOME data. Both analyses consistently showed an offset in the value of the total column ozone between the datasets [for analyses a) 35 Dobson Units (DU); and for analyses b) 10 DU], despite a good correlation between the spatial and temporal features of the datasets. A noticeably poor correlation in the latitudinal bands 10°/20° North and 10°/20° South was observed—the reasons for which are discussed. The smallest region which was statistically representative of the ozone value correlation dataset of TOVS data at NHGOS and GOME level-2 data was determined to be a region that was enclosed by effective radius of 0.75 arc-degrees (83.5km).

  7. Seasonal Changes in Tropospheric Ozone Concentrations over South Korea and Its Link to Ozone Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H. C.; Moon, B. K.; Wie, J.

    2017-12-01

    Concentration of tropospheric ozone over South Korea has steadily been on the rise in the last decades, mainly due to rapid industrializing and urbanizing in the Eastern Asia. To identify the characteristics of tropospheric ozone in South Korea, we fitted a sine function to the surface ozone concentration data from 2005 to 2014. Based on fitted sine curves, we analyzed the shifts in the dates on which ozone concentration reached its peak in the calendar year. Ozone monitoring sites can be classified into type types: where the highest annual ozone concentration kept occurring sooner (Esites) and those that kept occurring later (Lsites). The seasonal analysis shows that the surface ozone had increased more rapidly in Esites than in Lsites in the past decade during springtime and vice-versa during summertime. We tried to find the reason for the different seasonal trends with the relationship between ozone and ozone precursors. As a result, it was found that the changes in the ground-level ozone concentration in the spring and summer times are considerably influenced by changes in nitrogen dioxide concentration, and this is closely linked to the destruction (production) process of ozone by nitrogen dioxide in spring (summer). The link between tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide discussed in this study will have to be thoroughly examined through climate-chemistry modeling in the future. Acknowledgements This research was supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) as "Climate Change Correspondence Program."

  8. Ozone Damages to Mediterranean Crops: Physiological Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Maggio

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this brief review we analyzed some aspects of tropospheric ozone damages to crop plants. Specifically, we addressed this issue to Mediterranean environments, where plant response to multiple stresses may either exacerbate or counteract deleterious ozone effects. After discussing the adequacy of current models to predict ozone damages to Mediterranean crops, we present a few examples of physiological responses to drought and salinity stress that generally overlap with seasonal ozone peaks in Southern Italy. The co-existence of multiple stresses is then analyzed in terms of stomatal vs. non-stomatal control of ozone damages. Recent results on osmoprotectant feeding experiments, as a non-invasive strategy to uncouple stomatal vs. non stomatal contribution to ozone protection, are also presented. In the final section, we discuss critical needs in ozone research and the great potential of plant model systems to unravel multiple stress responses in agricultural crops.

  9. Ozone Damages to Mediterranean Crops: Physiological Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fagnano

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this brief review we analyzed some aspects of tropospheric ozone damages to crop plants. Specifically, we addressed this issue to Mediterranean environments, where plant response to multiple stresses may either exacerbate or counteract deleterious ozone effects. After discussing the adequacy of current models to predict ozone damages to Mediterranean crops, we present a few examples of physiological responses to drought and salinity stress that generally overlap with seasonal ozone peaks in Southern Italy. The co-existence of multiple stresses is then analyzed in terms of stomatal vs. non-stomatal control of ozone damages. Recent results on osmoprotectant feeding experiments, as a non-invasive strategy to uncouple stomatal vs. non stomatal contribution to ozone protection, are also presented. In the final section, we discuss critical needs in ozone research and the great potential of plant model systems to unravel multiple stress responses in agricultural crops.

  10. Monitoring of computing resource utilization of the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, David; Vukotic, Ilija; Schaffer, RD; Dimitrov, Gancho; Aidel, Osman; Albrand, Solveig

    2012-01-01

    Due to the good performance of the LHC accelerator, the ATLAS experiment has seen higher than anticipated levels for both the event rate and the average number of interactions per bunch crossing. In order to respond to these changing requirements, the current and future usage of CPU, memory and disk resources has to be monitored, understood and acted upon. This requires data collection at a fairly fine level of granularity: the performance of each object written and each algorithm run, as well as a dozen per-job variables, are gathered for the different processing steps of Monte Carlo generation and simulation and the reconstruction of both data and Monte Carlo. We present a system to collect and visualize the data from both the online Tier-0 system and distributed grid production jobs. Around 40 GB of performance data are expected from up to 200k jobs per day, thus making performance optimization of the underlying Oracle database of utmost importance.

  11. Reactor Emergency Action Level Monitor: Knowledge acquisition experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touchton, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the Knowledge Acquisition experiences in developing the Reactor Emergency Action Level Monitor (REALM) Expert System Prototype. REALM is an expert system which interprets plant sensor data and provides advice on the proper emergency classification. The REALM project is being funded by the Electric Power Research Institute, Consolidated Edison is serving as the host utility, and the effort is being conducted by Technology Applications, Inc. REALM is being designed to provide expert assistance in the identification of a nuclear power plant emergency situation and the determination of its severity, ultimately operating in a real-time, on-line processing environment. The paper discusses briefly the direct knowledge acquisition techniques used by the project team (who are themselves power industry engineers), to extract relevant knowledge from plant specifications and procedures

  12. Symmetric Moeller/Bhabha luminosity monitor for the OLYMPUS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capozza, Luigi; Maas, Frank; Perez Benito, Roberto; Rodriguez Pineiro, David [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); O' Connor, Colton [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Diefenbach, Juergen; Glaeser, Boris [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Khaneft, Dmitry [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Ma, Yue [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The OLYMPUS experiment is motivated by the discrepancy between the proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio measured using unpolarized and polarized electron scattering. This discrepancy can be explained by a two-photon exchange (TPE) contribution in lepton-hadron scattering. Measuring the ratio of electron-proton and positron-proton elastic scattering cross sections the contribution of the TPE can be determined. For this purpose, very precise measurements of the relative luminosity have to be performed. The symmetric Moeller/Bhabha luminosity monitor, made of calorimetric lead fluoride (PbF{sub 2}) Cherenkov detectors, provides precise data from counting coincidences Moeller and Bhabha events. High sensitivity to the geometrical acceptance and alignment requires accurate study of systematic uncertainties.

  13. Maintenance experiences with hand and foot monitor for monitoring alpha and beta radiation of personnel in NFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandra Rao, A.; Kulkarni, R.S.; Banerjee, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    NFC is producing natural uranium and enriched uranium fuels for various reactors including PHWR etc. Monitoring of α and β radiations in the active plants of NFC is very much essential in many aspects. The personnel who are handling radiation materials have to be monitored for α radiation of hands and cloths and β radiation of feet. So the Alpha and Beta Monitor became important monitoring equipment for monitoring α and β radiations of persons working in active plants of NFC. Many Alpha and Beta Monitors of make, ECIL, PLA, and Nucleonix etc. were being used in active plants in NFC. Basically α and β radiation monitors consists of four PMT (Photo Multiplier Tubes) for detection of radiation of hands and one PMT for monitoring clothes. The PMT use ZnS (Ag) as the scintillator for detection of α radiation. GM tubes are used to detect β radiation of feet. The latest Hand and Foot Monitors have been incorporated with PC based monitoring system along with software for making the monitoring process more efficient and user friendly. As an instrumentation maintenance team for these monitors, our experiences are varied. These monitors are to be periodically maintained and tested for its effective functioning in monitoring the nuclear radiation. The monitors procured from M/s. ECIL were being used since long time in these areas. The instrumentation maintenance had faced some problems with these monitors such as frequent failure of High Voltage cards, Amplifier and Counter PCB cards. Modifications were made in the circuits of High Voltage and Counter cards to minimize the failure rate and for loading of Display and Monitoring Software through Hard disk instead of from floppy disk. So the availability of monitors for monitoring radiation got improved. Later the introduction of more sophisticated α and β radiation monitors of M/s. PLA make in these areas further improved monitoring of radiation of personnel working in active areas. These monitors are more user

  14. Comparison of GOME-2/MetOp total ozone data with Brewer spectroradiometer data over the Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, M.; Serrano, A. [Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Loyola, D.; Zimmer, W. [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Wessling (DE). Remote Sensing Technology Inst. (IMF); Lopez, M.; Banon, M. [Agencia Estatal de Meteorologia (AEMet), Madrid (Spain); Vilaplana, J.M. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA), Huelva (Spain). Estacion de Sondeos Atmosferico ' ' El Arenosillo' '

    2009-07-01

    The main objective of this article is to compare the total ozone data from the new Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment instrument (GOME-2/MetOp) with reliable ground-based measurement recorded by five Brewer spectroradiometers in the Iberian Peninsula. In addition, a similar comparison for the predecessor instrument GOME/ERS-2 is described. The period of study is a whole year from May 2007 to April 2008. The results show that GOME-2/MetOp ozone data already has a very good quality, total ozone columns are on average 3.05% lower than Brewer measurements. This underestimation is higher than that obtained for GOME/ERS-2 (1.46%). However, the relative differences between GOME-2/MetOp and Brewer measurements show significantly lower variability than the differences between GOME/ERS-2 and Brewer data. Dependencies of these relative differences with respect to the satellite solar zenith angle (SZA), the satellite scan angle, the satellite cloud cover fraction (CF), and the ground-based total ozone measurements are analyzed. For both GOME instruments, differences show no significant dependence on SZA. However, GOME-2/MetOp data show a significant dependence on the satellite scan angle (+1.5%). In addition, GOME/ERS-2 differences present a clear dependence with respect to the CF and ground-based total ozone; such differences are minimized for GOME-2/MetOp. The comparison between the daily total ozone values provided by both GOME instruments shows that GOME-2/MetOp ozone data are on average 1.46% lower than GOME/ERS-2 data without any seasonal dependence. Finally, deviations of a priori climatological ozone profile used by the satellite retrieval algorithm from the true ozone profile are analyzed. Although excellent agreement between a priori climatological and measured partial ozone values is found for the middle and high stratosphere, relative differences greater than 15% are common for the troposphere and lower stratosphere. (orig.)

  15. Ozone pollution and ozone biomonitoring in European cities Part II. Ozone-induced plant injury and its relationship with descriptors of ozone pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, A.; Ansel, W.; Klumpp, G.

    2006-01-01

    within local networks were relatively small, but seasonal and inter-annual differences were strong due to the variability of meteorological conditions and related ozone concentrations. The 2001 data revealed a significant relationship between foliar injury degree and various descriptors of ozone...... pollution such as mean value, AOT20 and AOT40. Examining individual sites of the local monitoring networks separately, however, yielded noticeable differences. Some sites showed no association between ozone pollution and ozone-induced effects, whereas others featured almost linear relationships...

  16. Seismic monitoring experiment of raise boring in 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, J.; Malm, M.

    2015-01-01

    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of ONKALO. The possibility to excavate an illegal access to ONKALO has been concerned when the safeguards are discussed. Therefore all recorded explosions in the Olkiluoto area and in ONKALO are located. If a concentration of explosions is observed, the origin of that is found out. Also a concept of hidden illegal explosions, detonated at the same time as the real excavation blasts, has been examined. According to the experience gained in Olkiluoto, it can be concluded that, as long the seismic network is in operation and the results are analysed by a skilled person, it is practically impossible to do illegal undetected excavation by blasting within the Olkiluoto seismic network area. In this report a possibility of seismic monitoring of undeclared excavation done by tunnel boring machine (TBM) has been investigated. In the earlier investigations the instruments were at the ground surface and the sensors were triaxial short period (1 Hz) geophones or broadband geophones. The characteristics (frequency content, polarity and amplitude) of the continuous seismic vibration generated by TMB were studied. The onset time of the seismic signal were not distinguished. Altogether 16 new 10 kHz accelerometers were installed in boreholes inside ONKALO March 2012. The sensors comprised a new subnetwork that monitored the raise boring of two shafts done 2014, from the level -455 m to the level -290 m. The aim was to record the seismic signal generated when the drill bit hits the rock at the moment the tunnel boring begins. Altogether 113 seismic signals generated by the drill bit were located during the

  17. Seismic monitoring experiment of raise boring in 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, J.; Malm, M. [AaF-Consult Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2015-01-15

    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of ONKALO. The possibility to excavate an illegal access to ONKALO has been concerned when the safeguards are discussed. Therefore all recorded explosions in the Olkiluoto area and in ONKALO are located. If a concentration of explosions is observed, the origin of that is found out. Also a concept of hidden illegal explosions, detonated at the same time as the real excavation blasts, has been examined. According to the experience gained in Olkiluoto, it can be concluded that, as long the seismic network is in operation and the results are analysed by a skilled person, it is practically impossible to do illegal undetected excavation by blasting within the Olkiluoto seismic network area. In this report a possibility of seismic monitoring of undeclared excavation done by tunnel boring machine (TBM) has been investigated. In the earlier investigations the instruments were at the ground surface and the sensors were triaxial short period (1 Hz) geophones or broadband geophones. The characteristics (frequency content, polarity and amplitude) of the continuous seismic vibration generated by TMB were studied. The onset time of the seismic signal were not distinguished. Altogether 16 new 10 kHz accelerometers were installed in boreholes inside ONKALO March 2012. The sensors comprised a new subnetwork that monitored the raise boring of two shafts done 2014, from the level -455 m to the level -290 m. The aim was to record the seismic signal generated when the drill bit hits the rock at the moment the tunnel boring begins. Altogether 113 seismic signals generated by the drill bit were located during the

  18. Tropospheric Enhancement of Ozone over the UAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Naveed Ali; Majeed, Tariq; Iqbal, Mazhar; Kaminski, Jacek; Struzewska, Joanna; Durka, Pawel; Tarasick, David; Davies, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    We use the Global Environmental Multiscale - Air Quality (GEM-AQ) model to interpret the vertical profiles of ozone acquired with ozone sounding experiments at the meteorological site located at the Abu Dhabi airport. The purpose of this study is to gain insight into the chemical and dynamical structures in the atmosphere of this unique subtropical location (latitude 24.45N; longitude 54.22E). Ozone observations for years 2012 - 2013 reveal elevated ozone abundances in the range from 70 ppbv to 120 ppbv near 500-400 hPa during summer. The ozone abundances in other seasons are much lower than these values. The preliminary results indicate that summertime enhancement in ozone is associated with the Arabian anticyclones centered over the Zagros Mountains in Iran and the Asir and Hijaz Mountain ranges in Saudi Arabia, and is consistent with TES observations of deuterated water. The model also shows considerable seasonal variation in the tropospheric ozone which is transported from the stratosphere by dynamical processes. The domestic production of ozone in the middle troposphere is estimated and compared GEM-AQ model. It is estimated that about 40-50% of ozone in the UAE is transported from the neighbouring petrochemical industries in the Gulf region. We will present ozone sounding data and GEM-AQ results including a discussion on the high levels of the tropospheric ozone responsible for contaminating the air quality in the UAE. This work is supported by National Research Foundation, UAE.

  19. Development of Beam Conditions Monitor for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Dolenc Kittelmann, Irena; Mikuž, M

    2008-01-01

    If there is a failure in an element of the accelerator the resulting beam losses could cause damage to the inner tracking devices of the experiments. This thesis presents the work performed during the development phase of a protection system for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM) system is a stand-alone system designed to detect early signs of beam instabilities and trigger a beam abort in case of beam failures. It consists of two detector stations positioned at z=±1.84m from the interaction point. Each station comprises four BCM detector modules installed symmetrically around the beam pipe with sensors located at r=55 mm. This structure will allow distinguishing between anomalous events (beam gas and beam halo interactions, beam instabilities) and normal events due to proton-proton interaction by measuring the time-of-flight as well as the signal pulse amplitude from detector modules on the timescale of nanoseconds. Additionally, the BCM system aims to provide a coarse instan...

  20. A comparative analysis of UV nadir-backscatter and infrared limb-emission ozone data assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dragani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative assessment of ultraviolet nadir-backscatter and infrared limb-emission ozone profile assimilation. The Meteorological Operational Satellite A (MetOp-A Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2 nadir and the ENVISAT Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS limb profiles, generated by the ozone consortium of the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (ESA O3-CCI, were individually added to a reference set of ozone observations and assimilated in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF data assimilation system (DAS. The two sets of resulting analyses were compared with that from a control experiment, only constrained by the reference dataset, and independent, unassimilated observations. Comparisons with independent observations show that both datasets improve the stratospheric ozone distribution. The changes inferred by the limb-based observations are more localized and, in places, more important than those implied by the nadir profiles, albeit they have a much lower number of observations. A small degradation (up to 0.25 mg kg−1 for GOME-2 and 0.5 mg kg−1 for MIPAS in the mass mixing ratio is found in the tropics between 20 and 30 hPa. In the lowermost troposphere below its vertical coverage, the limb data are found to be able to modify the ozone distribution with changes as large as 60 %. Comparisons of the ozone analyses with sonde data show that at those levels the assimilation of GOME-2 leads to about 1 Dobson Unit (DU smaller root mean square error (RMSE than that of MIPAS. However, the assimilation of MIPAS can still improve the quality of the ozone analyses and – with a reduction in the RMSE of up to about 2 DU – outperform the control experiment thanks to its synergistic assimilation with total-column ozone data within the DAS. High vertical resolution ozone profile observations are essential to accurately monitor and

  1. Ozone Layer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Research Centers Contact Us Share Ozone Layer Protection The stratospheric ozone layer is Earth’s “sunscreen” – protecting ... GreenChill Partnership Responsible Appliance Disposal (RAD) Program Ozone Protection vs. Ozone Pollution This website addresses stratospheric ozone ...

  2. Comparison of UV irradiances from Aura/Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) with Brewer measurements at El Arenosillo (Spain) - Part 2: Analysis of site aerosol influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachorro, V. E.; Toledano, C.; Antón, M.; Berjón, A.; de Frutos, A.; Vilaplana, J. M.; Arola, A.; Krotkov, N. A.

    2010-12-01

    Several validation studies have shown a notable overestimation of the clear sky ultraviolet (UV) irradiance at the Earth's surface derived from satellite sensors such as the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) with respect to ground-based UV data at many locations. Most of this positive bias is attributed to boundary layer aerosol absorption that is not accounted for in the TOMS/OMI operational UV algorithm. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to analyse the aerosol effect on the bias between OMI erythemal UV irradiance (UVER) and spectral UV (305 nm, 310 nm and 324 nm) surface irradiances and ground-based Brewer spectroradiometer measurements from October 2004 to December 2008 at El Arenosillo station (37.1° N, 6.7° W, 20 m a.s.l.), with meteorological conditions representative of the South-West of Spain. The effects of other factors as clouds, ozone and the solar elevation over this intercomparison were analysed in detail in a companion paper (Antón et al., 2010). In that paper the aerosol effects were studied making only a rough evaluation based on aerosol optical depth (AOD) information at 440 nm wavelength (visible range) without applying any correction. We have used the precise information given by single scattering albedo (SSA) from AERONET for the determination of absorbing aerosols which has allowed the correction of the OMI UV data. An aerosol correction expression was applied to the OMI operational UV data using two approaches to estimate the UV absorption aerosol optical depth, AAOD. The first approach was based on an assumption of constant SSA value of 0.91. This approach reduces the OMI UVER bias against the reference Brewer data from 13.4% to 8.4%. Second approach uses daily AERONET SSA values reducing the bias only to 11.6%. Therefore we have obtained a 37% and 12% of improvement respectively. For the spectral irradiance at 324 nm, the OMI bias is reduced from 10.5% to 6.98% for constant

  3. Dobson spectrophotometer ozone measurements during international ozone rocketsonde intercomparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, C. L.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of the total ozone content of the atmosphere, made with seven ground based instruments at a site near Wallops Island, Virginia, are discussed in terms for serving as control values with which the rocketborne sensor data products can be compared. These products are profiles of O3 concentration with altitude. By integrating over the range of altitudes from the surface to the rocket apogee and by appropriately estimating the residual ozone amount from apogee to the top of the atmosphere, a total ozone amount can be computed from the profiles that can be directly compared with the ground based instrumentation results. Dobson spectrophotometers were used for two of the ground-based instruments. Preliminary data collected during the IORI from Dobson spectrophotometers 72 and 38 are presented. The agreement between the two and the variability of total ozone overburden through the experiment period are discussed.

  4. An overview of the Stratospheric-Tropospheric Experiment: Radiation, Aerosols, and Ozone (STERAO)-Deep Convection experiment with results for the July 10, 1996 storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, J. E.; Ridley, B. A.; Skamarock, W.; Barth, M.; Venticinque, M.; Defer, E.; Blanchet, P.; Thery, C.; Laroche, P.; Baumann, K.; Hubler, G.; Parrish, D. D.; Ryerson, T.; Trainer, M.; Frost, G.; Holloway, J. S.; Matejka, T.; Bartels, D.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Tuck, A.; Rutledge, S. A.; Lang, T.; Stith, J.; Zerr, R.

    2000-04-01

    The Stratospheric-Tropospheric Experiment: Radiation, Aerosols and Ozone (STERAO)-Deep Convection Field Project with closely coordinated chemical, dynamical, electrical, and microphysical observations was conducted in northeastern Colorado during June and July of 1996 to investigate the production of NOx by lightning, the transport and redistribution of chemical species in the troposphere by thunderstorms, and the temporal evolution of intracloud and cloud-to-ground lightning for evolving storms on the Colorado high plains. Major observations were airborne chemical measurements in the boundary layer, middle and upper troposphere, and thunderstorm anvils; airborne and ground-based Doppler radar measurements; measurement of both intracloud (IC) and cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flash rates and locations; and multiparameter radar and in situ observations of microphysical structure. Cloud and mesoscale models are being used to synthesize and extend the observations. Herein we present an overview of the project and selected results for an isolated, severe storm that occurred on July 10. Time histories of reflectivity structure, IC and CG lightning flash rates, and chemical measurements in the boundary layer and in the anvil are presented showing large spatial and temporal variations. The observations for one period of time suggest that limited mixing of environmental air into the updraft core occurred during transport from cloud base to the anvil adjacent to the storm core. We deduce that the most likely contribution of lightning to the total NOx observed in the anvil is 60-90% with a minimum of 45%. For the July 10 storm the NOx produced by lightning was almost exclusively from IC flashes with a ratio of IC to total flashes >0.95 throughout most of the storm's lifetime. It is argued that in this storm and probably others, IC flashes can be major contributors to NOx production. Superposition of VHF lightning source locations on Doppler retrieved air motion fields for

  5. Evaluation of low-cost electro-chemical sensors for environmental monitoring of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar-Mohajer, Nima; Zuidema, Christopher; Sousan, Sinan; Hallett, Laura; Tatum, Marcus; Rule, Ana M; Thomas, Geb; Peters, Thomas M; Koehler, Kirsten

    2018-02-01

    Development of an air quality monitoring network with high spatio-temporal resolution requires installation of a large number of air pollutant monitors. However, state-of-the-art monitors are costly and may not be compatible with wireless data logging systems. In this study, low-cost electro-chemical sensors manufactured by Alphasense Ltd. for detection of CO and oxidative gases (predominantly O 3 and NO 2 ) were evaluated. The voltages from three oxidative gas sensors and three CO sensors were recorded every 2.5 sec when exposed to controlled gas concentrations in a 0.125-m 3 acrylic glass chamber. Electro-chemical sensors for detection of oxidative gases demonstrated sensitivity to both NO 2 and O 3 with similar voltages recorded when exposed to equivalent environmental concentrations of NO 2 or O 3 gases, when evaluated separately. There was a strong linear relationship between the recorded voltages and target concentrations of oxidative gases (R 2 > 0.98) over a wide range of concentrations. Although a strong linear relationship was also observed for CO concentrations below 12 ppm, a saturation effect was observed wherein the voltage only changes minimally for higher CO concentrations (12-50 ppm). The nonlinear behavior of the CO sensors implied their unsuitability for environments where high CO concentrations are expected. Using a manufacturer-supplied shroud, sensors were tested at 2 different flow rates (0.25 and 0.5 Lpm) to mimic field calibration of the sensors with zero air and a span gas concentration (2 ppm NO2 or 15 ppm CO). As with all electrochemical sensors, the tested devices were subject to drift with a bias up to 20% after 9 months of continuous operation. Alphasense CO sensors were found to be a proper choice for occupational and environmental CO monitoring with maximum concentration of 12 ppm, especially due to the field-ready calibration capability. Alphasense oxidative gas sensors are usable only if it is valuable to know the sum of

  6. An Atlantic streamer in stratospheric ozone observations and SD-WACCM simulation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocke, Klemens; Schranz, Franziska; Maillard Barras, Eliane; Moreira, Lorena; Kämpfer, Niklaus

    2017-03-01

    Observation and simulation of individual ozone streamers are important for the description and understanding of non-linear transport processes in the middle atmosphere. A sudden increase in mid-stratospheric ozone occurred above central Europe on 4 December 2015. The GROund-based Millimeter-wave Ozone Spectrometer (GROMOS) and the Stratospheric Ozone MOnitoring RAdiometer (SOMORA) in Switzerland measured an ozone enhancement of about 30 % at 34 km altitude (8.3 hPa) from 1 to 4 December. A similar ozone increase is simulated by the Specified Dynamics Whole Atmosphere Community Climate (SD-WACCM) model. Further, the global ozone fields at 34 km altitude (8.3 hPa) from SD-WACCM and the satellite experiment Aura/MLS show a remarkable agreement for the location and timing of an ozone streamer (large-scale tongue-like structure) extending from the subtropics in northern America over the Atlantic to central Europe. This agreement indicates that SD-WACCM can inform us about the wind inside the Atlantic ozone streamer. SD-WACCM shows an eastward wind of about 100 m s-1 inside the Atlantic streamer in the mid-stratosphere. SD-WACCM shows that the Atlantic streamer flows along the edge of the polar vortex. The Atlantic streamer turns southward at an erosion region of the polar vortex located above the Caspian Sea. The spatial distribution of stratospheric water vapour indicates a filament outgoing from this erosion region. The Atlantic streamer, the polar vortex erosion region and the water vapour filament belong to the process of planetary wave breaking in the so-called surf zone of the northern midlatitude winter stratosphere.

  7. Program and performance characteristics of the environmental chambers during a long-term experiment with Norway spruce trees exposed to ozone, acid mist, and frost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payer, H D; Blank, L W; Eisenmann, T; Runkel, K H; Bosch, C

    1986-09-01

    This paper describes the climatic and pollutant conditions simulated in the new environmental chambers of the GSF (Payer et al. 1986) during the course of the first (five-month) experiment. This so-called 'pilot-project' was also used to assess the technical performance of this new research facility during realistic experimental conditions. The factorial design with 16 groups analyzed the effects of i) normal winter temperatures vs. an episode of severe frost, ii) low vs. raised ozone concentrations, iii) misting with water of pH 5.6 vs. water of pH 3.0, and iiii) fertilized vs. unfertilized soil. The climatic conditions and ozone levels applied were based on longterm field measurements from the higher regions of the Bavarian forest in order to simulate realistic diurnal and seasonal variations as observed at a site affected by severe forest decline. The main characteristics of this exposure program are outlined, and an assessment of the technical performance of the environmental chambers is given in this paper.

  8. AGC-4 Experiment Irradiation Monitoring Data Qualification Interim Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, Laurence Charles

    2016-01-01

    The Graphite Technology Development Program is running a series of six experiments to quantify the effects of irradiation on nuclear grade graphite. The fourth experiment, Advanced Graphite Creep 4 (AGC 4), began with Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) cycle 157D on May 30, 2015, and has been irradiated for two cycles. The capsule was removed from the reactor after ATR cycle 158A, which ended on January 2, 2016, due to interference with another experiment. Irradiation will resume when the interfering experiment is removed from the reactor. This report documents qualification of AGC 4 experiment irradiation monitoring data for use by the Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) Technology Development Office (TDO) Program for research and development activities required to design and license the first HTR nuclear plant. Qualified data meet the requirements for use as described in the experiment planning and quality assurance documents. Failed data do not meet the requirements and provide no useable information. Trend data may not meet all requirements, but still provide some useable information. Use of Trend data requires assessment of how any deficiencies affect a particular use of the data. All thermocouples (TCs) have functioned throughout the AGC-4 experiment. All temperature data are Qualified for use by the ART TDO Program. Argon, helium, and total gas flow data were within expected ranges and are Qualified for use by the ART TDO Program. Discharge gas line moisture values were consistently low during cycle 157D. At the start of cycle 158A, gas moisture briefly spiked to over 600 ppmv and then declined throughout the cycle. Moisture values are within the measurement range of the instrument and are Qualified for use by the ART TDO Program. Graphite creep specimens were subjected to one of three loads, 393, 491, or 589 lbf. For a brief period during cycle 157D between 12:19 on June 2, 2015 and 08:23 on June 11, 2015 the load cells were wired incorrectly resulting in missing

  9. AGC-4 Experiment Irradiation Monitoring Data Qualification Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, Laurence Charles [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The Graphite Technology Development Program is running a series of six experiments to quantify the effects of irradiation on nuclear grade graphite. The fourth experiment, Advanced Graphite Creep 4 (AGC 4), began with Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) cycle 157D on May 30, 2015, and has been irradiated for two cycles. The capsule was removed from the reactor after ATR cycle 158A, which ended on January 2, 2016, due to interference with another experiment. Irradiation will resume when the interfering experiment is removed from the reactor. This report documents qualification of AGC 4 experiment irradiation monitoring data for use by the Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) Technology Development Office (TDO) Program for research and development activities required to design and license the first HTR nuclear plant. Qualified data meet the requirements for use as described in the experiment planning and quality assurance documents. Failed data do not meet the requirements and provide no useable information. Trend data may not meet all requirements, but still provide some useable information. Use of Trend data requires assessment of how any deficiencies affect a particular use of the data. All thermocouples (TCs) have functioned throughout the AGC-4 experiment. All temperature data are Qualified for use by the ART TDO Program. Argon, helium, and total gas flow data were within expected ranges and are Qualified for use by the ART TDO Program. Discharge gas line moisture values were consistently low during cycle 157D. At the start of cycle 158A, gas moisture briefly spiked to over 600 ppmv and then declined throughout the cycle. Moisture values are within the measurement range of the instrument and are Qualified for use by the ART TDO Program. Graphite creep specimens were subjected to one of three loads, 393, 491, or 589 lbf. For a brief period during cycle 157D between 12:19 on June 2, 2015 and 08:23 on June 11, 2015 the load cells were wired incorrectly resulting in missing

  10. ONKALO POSE experiment. Phase 3: execution and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valli, J.; Hakala, M.; Wanne, T.; Kantia, P.; Siren, T.

    2014-01-01

    and the current maximum principal stress magnitude at the end of the experiment was estimated to exceed it. Upon emptying the hole, no clear damage was evident. No spalling had occurred. Strain gauge adhesions had failed and their results were disqualified. Acoustic emission and ultrasonic monitoring results pointed to events located in the immediate vicinity of a band of foliated gneiss, distributed in a N-S trend, although this could not be corroborated visually. Water loss measurements conducted in the hole indicated that the extent of damage was constrained to the first 100 - 200 mm of the hole wall. Based on these results, POSE Phase 3 was determined as inconclusive, although the heterogeneous and anisotropic nature of the Olkiluoto rock indicated that spalling type damage may not be a factor at Olkiluoto: failure in Olkiluoto conditions may be governed more by the relationship of the in situ stress state, the local geology and weakest component than by in situ stress, excavation geometry and mean strength. (orig.)

  11. Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment. Acoustic emission and ultrasonic monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haycox, Jon; Pettitt, Will; Young, R. Paul [Applied Seismology Consultants Ltd., Shrewsbury (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-15

    This report describes the results from acoustic emission (AE) and ultrasonic monitoring of the Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment (APSE) at SKB's Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), Sweden. The APSE is being undertaken to demonstrate the current capability to predict spalling in a fractured rock mass using numerical modelling techniques, and to demonstrate the effect of backfill and confining pressure on the propagation of micro-cracks in rock adjacent to deposition holes within a repository. An ultrasonic acquisition system has provided acoustic emission and ultrasonic survey monitoring throughout the various phases of the experiment. Results from the entire data set are provided with this document so that they can be effectively compared to several numerical modelling studies, and to mechanical and thermal measurements conducted around the pillar volume, in an 'integrated analysis' performed by SKB staff. This document provides an in-depth summary of the AE and ultrasonic survey results for future reference. The pillar has been produced by excavating two 1.8 m diameter deposition holes 1 m apart. These were bored in 0.8 m steps using a Tunnel Boring Machine specially adapted for vertical drilling. The first deposition hole was drilled in December 2003. Preceding this a period of background monitoring was performed so as to obtain a datum for the results. The hole was then confined to 0.7 MPa internal over pressure using a specially designed water-filled bladder. The second deposition hole was excavated in March 2004. Heating of the pillar was performed over a two month period between ending in July 2004, when the confined deposition hole was slowly depressurised. Immediately after depressurisation the pillar was allowed to cool with cessation of monitoring occurring a month later. A total of 36,676 AE triggers were recorded over the reporting period between 13th October 2003 and 14th July 2004. Of these 15,198 have produced AE locations. The AE data set

  12. Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment. Acoustic emission and ultrasonic monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haycox, Jon; Pettitt, Will; Young, R. Paul

    2005-11-01

    This report describes the results from acoustic emission (AE) and ultrasonic monitoring of the Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment (APSE) at SKB's Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), Sweden. The APSE is being undertaken to demonstrate the current capability to predict spalling in a fractured rock mass using numerical modelling techniques, and to demonstrate the effect of backfill and confining pressure on the propagation of micro-cracks in rock adjacent to deposition holes within a repository. An ultrasonic acquisition system has provided acoustic emission and ultrasonic survey monitoring throughout the various phases of the experiment. Results from the entire data set are provided with this document so that they can be effectively compared to several numerical modelling studies, and to mechanical and thermal measurements conducted around the pillar volume, in an 'integrated analysis' performed by SKB staff. This document provides an in-depth summary of the AE and ultrasonic survey results for future reference. The pillar has been produced by excavating two 1.8 m diameter deposition holes 1 m apart. These were bored in 0.8 m steps using a Tunnel Boring Machine specially adapted for vertical drilling. The first deposition hole was drilled in December 2003. Preceding this a period of background monitoring was performed so as to obtain a datum for the results. The hole was then confined to 0.7 MPa internal over pressure using a specially designed water-filled bladder. The second deposition hole was excavated in March 2004. Heating of the pillar was performed over a two month period between ending in July 2004, when the confined deposition hole was slowly depressurised. Immediately after depressurisation the pillar was allowed to cool with cessation of monitoring occurring a month later. A total of 36,676 AE triggers were recorded over the reporting period between 13th October 2003 and 14th July 2004. Of these 15,198 have produced AE locations. The AE data set shows an intense

  13. Effects of ozone on crops in north-west Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Muhammad Nauman; Büker, Patrick; Khalid, Sofia; Van Den Berg, Leon; Shah, Hamid Ullah; Wahid, Abdul; Emberson, Lisa; Power, Sally A.; Ashmore, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Although ozone is well-documented to reduce crop yields in the densely populated Indo-Gangetic Plain, there is little knowledge of its effects in other parts of south Asia. We surveyed crops close to the city of Peshawar, in north-west Pakistan, for visible injury, linking this to passive measurements of ozone concentrations. Foliar injury was found on potato, onion and cotton when mean monthly ozone concentrations exceeded 45 ppb. The symptoms on onion were reproduced in ozone fumigation experiments, which also showed that daytime ozone concentrations of 60 ppb significantly reduce the growth of a major Pakistani onion variety. Aphid infestation on spinach was also reduced at these elevated ozone concentrations. The ozone concentrations measured in April–May in Peshawar, and used in the fumigation experiment, are comparable to those that have been modelled to occur over many parts of south Asia, where ozone may be a significant threat to sensitive crops. -- Highlights: ► Visible ozone injury to onion, cotton and potato was identified in north-west Pakistan. ► The symptoms on onion were reproduced by exposure to elevated ozone. ► Elevated ozone levels also significantly reduced onion growth. ► Levels of aphid infestation on spinach were lower under elevated ozone. ► These effects were observed at ozone levels that have been modelled to occur widely across south Asia. -- Ozone concentrations in NW Pakistan have adverse effects on sensitive crop species

  14. Experiences in monitoring airborne radioactive contamination in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikezawa, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Yabe, A.

    1980-01-01

    The following results were obtained at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) from experience in air monitoring at the hot cells for handling highly radioactive materials, the glove box containing plutonium and the cell for producing 99 Mo. (1) The ratios of activities of airborne dust to those of whole dust were of the order of 10 -2 for the semi-volatile form of 125 Sb, and 10 -3 to 10 -4 for the particulate form of 137 Cs, 144 Ce and 144 Pr, when irradiated fuels were cut in the hot cells. (2) The activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of airborne particle size distributions varied from O.4 to 15 μm with changing geometric standard deviation (sigmasub(g)) 1.7 to 7, depending on types of metallurgical treatment of fuels and on kinds of work in the cells. (3) A resuspension factor (the ratio of the concentration of airborne contamination to the surface contamination) was found to be 4x10 -8 to approximately 2x10 -7 cm -1 for plutonium oxide deposited on the floor surface. (4) The collection efficiency of the charcoal-loaded filter paper for airborne radioiodine, consisting of 60% inorganic and 40% organic iodide, was over 95% under conditions of relative humidity 40 to approximately 80% and face velocity 50 cm/sec, during the production of 99 Mo. (H.K.)

  15. Audit experience in external individual monitoring services accreditation in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, M.M.; Fonseca, E.S.; Pereira, W.W.; Ramos, M.M.O.; Salati, I.P.A.

    1998-01-01

    Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) has been carrying out an accreditation program for the External Individual Monitoring Services (named SMIE) for about 45.000 workers involved with ionizing radiation. One of this steps of this accreditation program is the audit to each SMIE. The main audit objective is to verify and to check organizational documentation, system performance test, technical personnel ability and training, quality assurance system procedures and records, essential equipment and facilities and reliability of dose reports. In order to avoid a different audit for each SMIE, effort were made to obtain a standard process. Two aspects were considered the most relevant ones: human resources training and audit procedures. To achieve the first one, a practical and theoretical course taking into account auditing needs was elaborated. As well as experience in one of the technical related areas, an important condition to be member of an audit team is to obtain satisfactory approval in one of the offered courses. In order to accomplish the second point, a set of documents was implemented such as an audit checklist, audit report models, and procedures and recommendations to audit. Up to February 1998, 12 accreditation audits were performed. The main points of this program as well as an assessment of its difficulties and success are reported in this work

  16. Digital beam position monitor for the HAPPEX experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherlon Kauffman; John Musson; Hai Dong; Lisa Kaufman; Arne Freyberger

    2005-01-01

    The proposed HAPPEX experiment at CEBAF employs a three cavity monitor system for high precision (1um), high bandwidth (100 kHz) position measurements. This is performed using a cavity triplet consisting of two TM110-mode cavities (one each for X and Y planes) combined with a conventional TM010-mode cavity for a phase and magnitude reference. Traditional systems have used the TM010 cavity output to directly down convert the BPM cavity signals to base band. The multi-channel HAPPEX digital receiver simultaneously I/Q samples each cavity and extracts position using a CORDIC algorithm. The hardware design consists of a RF receiver daughter board and a digital processor motherboard that resides in a VXI crate. The daughter board down converts 1.497 GHz signals from the TM010 cavity and X and Y signals from the TM110 cavities to 3 MHz and extracts the quadrature digital signals. The motherboard processes this data and computes beam intensity and X-Y positions with resolution of 1um, 100 kHz output bandwidth, and overall latency of 1us. The results are available in both the analog and digital format

  17. Observing Tropospheric Ozone From Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Jack

    2000-01-01

    The importance of tropospheric ozone embraces a spectrum of relevant scientific issues ranging from local environmental concerns, such as damage to the biosphere and human health, to those that impact global change questions, Such is climate warming. From an observational perspective, the challenge is to determine the tropospheric ozone global distribution. Because its lifetime is short compared with other important greenhouse gases that have been monitored over the past several decades, the distribution of tropospheric ozone cannot be inferred from a relatively small set of monitoring stations. Therefore, the best way to obtain a true global picture is from the use of space-based instrumentation where important spatial gradients over vast ocean expanses and other uninhabited areas can be properly characterized. In this paper, the development of the capability to measure tropospheric ozone from space over the past 15 years is summarized. Research in the late 1980s successfully led to the determination of the climatology of tropospheric ozone as a function of season; more recently, the methodology has improved to the extent where regional air pollution episodes can be characterized. The most recent modifications now provide quasi-global (50 N) to 50 S) maps on a daily basis. Such a data set would allow for the study of long-range (intercontinental) transport of air pollution and the quantification of how regional emissions feed into the global tropospheric ozone budget. Future measurement capabilities within this decade promise to offer the ability to provide Concurrent maps of the precursors to the in situ formation of tropospheric ozone from which the scientific community will gain unprecedented insight into the processes that control global tropospheric chemistry

  18. Sterilization of Microorganisms by Ozone and Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnyj, V. V.; Klosovskij, A. V.; Panasko, T. A.; Shvets, O. M.; Semenova, O. T.; Taran, V. S.; Tereshin, V. I.

    2008-03-01

    The results of recent experimental methods of sterilization of microorganisms with the use of ozone and ultrasound are presented. The main aim was to optimize the process of sterilization in water solution taking into account the ozone concentration, the power of ultrasonic emitter and the temperature of water. In the present work, the ultrasonic cavitation with simultaneous ozone generation has been used. The high ozone concentration in water solution was achieved by two-barrier glow discharge generated at atmospheric pressure and a cooling thermo-electric module. Such a sterilizer consists of ozone generator in a shape of flat electrodes covered with dielectric material and a high-voltage pulsed power supply of 250 W. The sterilization camera was equipped with ultrasonic source operated at 100 W. The experiments on the inactivation of bacteria of the Bacillus Cereus type were carried out in the distilled water saturated by ozone. The ozone concentration in the aqueous solution was 10 mg/1, whereas the ozone concentration at the output of ozone generator was 30 mg/1. The complete inactivation of spores took 15 min. Selection of the temperature of water, the ozone concentrations and ultrasonic power allowed to determine the time necessary for destroying the row of microorganisms.

  19. A comparison of wet and dry season ozone and CO over Brazil using in situ and satellite measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, C.E.; Fishman, J.; Gregory, G.L.; Sachse, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    Several field experiments have measured the regional effects of biomass burning. Two such experiments, designed to understand the chemistry of the Amazon rainforest during both the wet season and dry season, were conducted in the Amazon Basin. The first experiment, ABLE-2A (Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment), took place from July to August 1985, the early dry season, when biomass burning was just beginning. The second experiment, ABLE-2B, took place during the wet season, from April to May 1987, when little biomass burning was occurring. Comparing ABLE ozone data with tropospheric ozone concentrations derived from satellite data, using the method described by Fishman et al., shows a strong correlation between the direct measurements and the derived ozone concentrations, as well as a direct correlation of both to biomass burning. This comparison gives credence to the use of space-based platforms to monitor global chemistry and, in this case, the regional effects of biomass burning

  20. Instrumentation on commercial aircraft for monitoring the atmospheric composition on a global scale: the IAGOS system, technical overview of ozone and carbon monoxide measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillipe Nédélec

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the In-service Aircraft of a Global Observing System (IAGOS developed for operations on commercial long-range Airbus aircraft (A330/A340 for monitoring the atmospheric composition. IAGOS is the continuation of the former Measurement of OZone and water vapour on Airbus In-service airCraft (MOZAIC programme (1994–2014 with five aircraft operated by European airlines over 20 yr. MOZAIC has provided unique scientific database used worldwide by the scientific community. In continuation of MOZAIC, IAGOS aims to equip a fleet up to 20 aircraft around the world and for operations over decades. IAGOS started in July 2011 with the first instruments installed aboard a Lufthansa A340-300, and a total of six aircraft are already in operation. We present the technical aircraft system concept, with basic instruments for O3, CO, water vapour and clouds; and optional instruments for measuring either NOy, NOx, aerosols or CO2/CH4. In this article, we focus on the O3 and CO instrumentation while other measurements are or will be described in specific papers. O3 and CO are measured by optimised but well-known methods such as UV absorption and IR correlation, respectively. We describe the data processing/validation and the data quality control for O3 and CO. Using the first two overlapping years of MOZAIC/IAGOS, we conclude that IAGOS can be considered as the continuation of MOZAIC with the same data quality of O3 and CO measurements.

  1. Vertical hydraulic generators experience with dynamic air gap monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, G.B.; Lyles, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Until recently, dynamic monitoring of the rotor to stator air gap of hydraulic generators was not practical. Cost effective and reliable dyamic air gap monitoring equipment has been developed in recent years. Dynamic air gap monitoring was originally justified because of the desire of the owner to minimize the effects of catastrophic air gap failure. However, monitoring air gaps on a time basis has been shown to be beneficial by assisting in the assessment of hydraulic generator condition. The air gap monitor provides useful information on rotor and stator condition and generator vibration. The data generated by air gap monitors will assist managers in the decision process with respect to the timing and extent of required maintenance for a particular generating unit

  2. Measurement of microenvironmental ozone concentrations in Durham, North Carolina, using a 2B Technologies 205 Federal Equivalent Method monitor and an interference-free 2B Technologies 211 monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ted; Capel, Jim; Ollison, Will

    2014-03-01

    improved by use of direct microenvironmental (ME) measurement comparisons to nearby fixed-site monitors used for determining regulatory compliance. Simultaneous measurements made by model 211 and model 205 ozone monitors in a variety of MEs indicated that Federal Equivalent Method photometers similar to the model 205 may read high in the presence of various interferences associated with indoor sources and motor vehicles, increasing modeled exposures in such environments by 20-100%.

  3. Accelerated Aging Experiments for Capacitor Health Monitoring and Prognostics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper discusses experimental setups for health monitoring and prognostics of electrolytic capacitors under nominal operation and accelerated aging conditions....

  4. External individual monitoring: experiments and simulations using Monte Carlo Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Carla da Costa

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we have evaluated the possibility of applying the Monte Carlo simulation technique in photon dosimetry of external individual monitoring. The GEANT4 toolkit was employed to simulate experiments with radiation monitors containing TLD-100 and CaF 2 :NaCl thermoluminescent detectors. As a first step, X ray spectra were generated impinging electrons on a tungsten target. Then, the produced photon beam was filtered in a beryllium window and additional filters to obtain the radiation with desired qualities. This procedure, used to simulate radiation fields produced by a X ray tube, was validated by comparing characteristics such as half value layer, which was also experimentally measured, mean photon energy and the spectral resolution of simulated spectra with that of reference spectra established by international standards. In the construction of thermoluminescent dosimeter, two approaches for improvements have. been introduced. The first one was the inclusion of 6% of air in the composition of the CaF 2 :NaCl detector due to the difference between measured and calculated values of its density. Also, comparison between simulated and experimental results showed that the self-attenuation of emitted light in the readout process of the fluorite dosimeter must be taken into account. Then, in the second approach, the light attenuation coefficient of CaF 2 :NaCl compound estimated by simulation to be 2,20(25) mm -1 was introduced. Conversion coefficients C p from air kerma to personal dose equivalent were calculated using a slab water phantom with polymethyl-metacrilate (PMMA) walls, for reference narrow and wide X ray spectrum series [ISO 4037-1], and also for the wide spectra implanted and used in routine at Laboratorio de Dosimetria. Simulations of backscattered radiations by PMMA slab water phantom and slab phantom of ICRU tissue-equivalent material produced very similar results. Therefore, the PMMA slab water phantom that can be easily constructed with low

  5. First Directly Retrieved Global Distribution of Tropospheric Column Ozone from GOME: Comparison with the GEOS-CHEM Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly; Sioris, Christopher E.; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Martin, Randall V.; Fu, Tzung-May; Logan, Jennifer A.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Palmer, Paul I.; hide

    2006-01-01

    We present the first directly retrieved global distribution of tropospheric column ozone from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ultraviolet measurements during December 1996 to November 1997. The retrievals clearly show signals due to convection, biomass burning, stratospheric influence, pollution, and transport. They are capable of capturing the spatiotemporal evolution of tropospheric column ozone in response to regional or short time-scale events such as the 1997-1998 El Nino event and a 10-20 DU change within a few days. The global distribution of tropospheric column ozone displays the well-known wave-1 pattern in the tropics, nearly zonal bands of enhanced tropospheric column ozone of 36-48 DU at 20degS-30degS during the austral spring and at 25degN-45degN during the boreal spring and summer, low tropospheric column ozone of 33 DU at some northern high-latitudes during the spring. Simulation from a chemical transport model corroborates most of the above structures, with small biases of <+/-5 DU and consistent seasonal cycles in most regions, especially in the southern hemisphere. However, significant positive biases of 5-20 DU occur in some northern tropical and subtropical regions such as the Middle East during summer. Comparison of GOME with monthly-averaged Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus in-service Aircraft (MOZAIC) tropospheric column ozone for these regions usually shows good consistency within 1 a standard deviations and retrieval uncertainties. Some biases can be accounted for by inadequate sensitivity to lower tropospheric ozone, the different spatiotemporal sampling and the spatiotemporal variations in tropospheric column ozone.

  6. Measurements of total and tropospheric ozone from IASI: comparison with correlative satellite, ground-based and ozonesonde observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Boynard

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present measurements of total and tropospheric ozone, retrieved from infrared radiance spectra recorded by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI, which was launched on board the MetOp-A European satellite in October 2006. We compare IASI total ozone columns to Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2 observations and ground-based measurements from the Dobson and Brewer network for one full year of observations (2008. The IASI total ozone columns are shown to be in good agreement with both GOME-2 and ground-based data, with correlation coefficients of about 0.9 and 0.85, respectively. On average, IASI ozone retrievals exhibit a positive bias of about 9 DU (3.3% compared to both GOME-2 and ground-based measurements. In addition to total ozone columns, the good spectral resolution of IASI enables the retrieval of tropospheric ozone concentrations. Comparisons of IASI tropospheric columns to 490 collocated ozone soundings available from several stations around the globe have been performed for the period of June 2007–August 2008. IASI tropospheric ozone columns compare well with sonde observations, with correlation coefficients of 0.95 and 0.77 for the [surface–6 km] and [surface–12 km] partial columns, respectively. IASI retrievals tend to overestimate the tropospheric ozone columns in comparison with ozonesonde measurements. Positive average biases of 0.15 DU (1.2% and 3 DU (11% are found for the [surface–6 km] and for the [surface–12 km] partial columns respectively.

  7. Ground-level ozone in China: Distribution and effects on crop yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoke; Manning, William; Feng Zongwei; Zhu Yongguan

    2007-01-01

    Rapid economic development and an increasing demand for food in China have drawn attention to the role of ozone at pollution levels on crop yields. Some assessments of ozone effects on crop yields have been carried out in China. Determination of ozone distribution by geographical location and resulting crop loss estimations have been made by Chinese investigators and others from abroad. It is evident that surface level ozone levels in China exceed critical levels for occurrence of crop losses. Current levels of information from ozone dose/response studies are limited. Given the size of China, existing ozone monitoring sites are too few to provide enough data to scale ozone distribution to a national level. There are large uncertainties in the database for ozone effects on crop loss and for ozone distribution. Considerable research needs to be done to allow accurate estimation of crop losses caused by ozone in China. - More research is needed to reliably estimate ozone caused crop losses in China

  8. Comparison of GOME total ozone data with ground data from the Spanish Brewer spectroradiometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Antón

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares total ozone measurements from five Brewer spectroradiometers located at the Iberian Peninsula with satellite observations given by the GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment sensor. The analyzed period covers simultaneous ozone values from July 1995 until December 2004. The regression analysis shows an excellent agreement between Brewer-GOME values in the five locations; the coefficient of correlation is always higher than 0.92 and the root mean square error is about 3%. Moreover, the comparison shows that the satellite retrieval accuracy is within the uncertainty of current ground-based instruments. In addition, the effects of several variables, such as cloudiness, solar zenith angle (SZA, effective temperature and total ozone values in Brewer-GOME differences are analyzed. The results indicate that clouds induce a minor dependence of GOME values on the SZA. For example, during heavy cloudy conditions in Madrid station, GOME observations overestimate ground-based Brewer data for low AMF (low SZA values by 2% while for high AMF (high SZA values the satellite underestimates ground-based ozone values by 1%. Moreover, the dependence of Brewer-GOME differences with respect to SZA for cloud-free conditions may be due to the variability of effective temperature. This fact could indicate that the effective temperature estimated by GOME does not fully reflect the actual atmospheric temperature variability. Finally, GOME ozone observations slightly underestimate the highest values measured by the Brewer spectrophotometers and overestimates the lowest ground-based measurements.

  9. Neural networks for the dimensionality reduction of GOME measurement vector in the estimation of ozone profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Frate, F.; Iapaolo, M.; Casadio, S.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Petitdidier, M.

    2005-01-01

    Dimensionality reduction can be of crucial importance in the application of inversion schemes to atmospheric remote sensing data. In this study the problem of dimensionality reduction in the retrieval of ozone concentration profiles from the radiance measurements provided by the instrument Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) on board of ESA satellite ERS-2 is considered. By means of radiative transfer modelling, neural networks and pruning algorithms, a complete procedure has been designed to extract the GOME spectral ranges most crucial for the inversion. The quality of the resulting retrieval algorithm has been evaluated by comparing its performance to that yielded by other schemes and co-located profiles obtained with lidar measurements

  10. Titration of Alanine Monitored by NMR Spectroscopy: A Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Francis J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The experiment described here involves simultaneous monitoring of pH and NMR chemical shifts during an aqueous titration of alpha- and beta-alanine. This experiment is designed for use in an undergraduate biochemistry course. (MR)

  11. Monitoring electronics during the experiments with the OSIRIS (HMI Berlin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebosz, J.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the software to perform the constant monitoring of the electronics dedicated to control the multidetector system. It supervises the correct status of the gamma spectroscopy measurements. (author). 3 figs

  12. LHCb: Online Data Monitoring in the LHCb experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Frank, M

    2007-01-01

    Data monitoring is an important concept to verify the detector performance with quick response in case of problems (hardware aspects) and to verify the performance of the software based event filtering and rejection (software aspects).

  13. Residential ozone and lung function in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braeuner, Elvira V.; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Frederiksen, Marie

    2016-01-01

    elderly non-smokers. Indoor ozone was measured passively in homes, while urban background outdoor ozone was monitored continuously at a fixed monitoring station located on the roof of the 20-m high university H.C. Ørsteds campus building in a park area. Lung function was measured at baseline as well...

  14. Solar dynamics influence on the atmospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogosheva, T.; Grigorieva, V.; Mendeva, B.; Krastev, D.; Petkov, B.

    2007-01-01

    A response of the atmospheric ozone to the solar dynamics has been studied using the total ozone content data, taken from the satellite experiments GOME on ERS-2 and TOMS-EP together with data obtained from the ground-based spectrophotometer Photon operating in Stara Zagora, Bulgaria during the period 1999-2005. We also use data from surface ozone observations performed in Sofia, Bulgaria. The solar activity was characterized by the sunspot daily numbers W, the solar radio flux at 10.7 cm (F10.7) and the MgII wing-to-core ratio solar index. The impact of the solar activity on the total ozone has been investigated analysing the ozone response to sharp changes of these parameters. Some of the examined cases showed a positive correlation between the ozone and the solar parameters, however, a negative correlation in other cases was found. There were some cases when the sharp increases of the solar activity did not provoke any ozone changes. The solar radiation changes during an eclipse can be considered a particular case of the solar dynamics as this event causes a sharp change of irradiance within a comparatively short time interval. The results of both - the total and surface ozone measurements carried out during the eclipses on 11 August 1999, 31 May 2003 and 29 March 2006 are presented. It was found that the atmospheric ozone behavior shows strong response to the fast solar radiation changes which take place during solar eclipse. (authors)

  15. Secondary maxima in ozone profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lemoine

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone profiles from balloon soundings as well as SAGEII ozone profiles were used to detect anomalous large ozone concentrations of ozone in the lower stratosphere. These secondary ozone maxima are found to be the result of differential advection of ozone-poor and ozone-rich air associated with Rossby wave breaking events. The frequency and intensity of secondary ozone maxima and their geographical distribution is presented. The occurrence and amplitude of ozone secondary maxima is connected to ozone variability and trend at Uccle and account for a large part of the total ozone and lower stratospheric ozone variability.

  16. Comparison of UV irradiances from Aura/Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI with Brewer measurements at El Arenosillo (Spain – Part 1: Analysis of parameter influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Antón

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to compare the erythemal UV irradiance (UVER and spectral UV irradiances (at 305, 310 and 324 nm from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI onboard NASA EOS/Aura polar sun-synchronous satellite (launched in July 2004, local equator crossing time 01:45 p.m. with ground-based measurements from the Brewer spectrophotometer #150 located at El Arenosillo (South of Spain. The analyzed period comprises more than four years, from October 2004 to December 2008. The effects of several factors (clouds, aerosols and the solar elevation on OMI-Brewer comparisons were analyzed. The proxies used for each factor were: OMI Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (LER at 360 nm (clouds, the aerosol optical depth (AOD at 440 nm measured from the ground-based Cimel sun-photometer (http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov, and solar zenith angle (SZA at OMI overpass time. The comparison for all sky conditions reveals positive biases (OMI higher than Brewer 12.3% for UVER, 14.2% for UV irradiance at 305 nm, 10.6% for 310 nm and 8.7% for 324 nm. The OMI-Brewer root mean square error (RMSE is reduced when cloudy cases are removed from the analysis, (e.g., RMSE~20% for all sky conditions and RMSE smaller than 10% for cloud-free conditions. However, the biases remain and even become more significant for the cloud-free cases with respect to all sky conditions. The mentioned overestimation is partially due to aerosol extinction influence. In addition, the differences OMI-Brewer typically decrease with SZA except days with high aerosol loading, when the bias is near constant. The seasonal dependence of the OMI-Brewer difference for cloud-free conditions is driven by aerosol climatology.

    To account for the aerosol effect, a first evaluation in order to compare with previous TOMS results (Antón et al., 2007 was performed. This comparison shows that the OMI bias is between +14% and +19% for

  17. Ozone adsorption on carbon nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassard, Guillaume; Gosselin, Sylvie; Visez, Nicolas; Petitprez, Denis

    2014-05-01

    Carbonaceous particles produced by incomplete combustion or thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. On these particles are adsorbed hundreds of chemical species. Those of great concern to health are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). During atmospheric transport, particulate PAHs react with gaseous oxidants. The induced chemical transformations may change toxicity and hygroscopicity of these potentially inhalable particles. The interaction between ozone and carbon particles has been extensively investigated in literature. However ozone adsorption and surface reaction mechanisms are still ambiguous. Some studies described a fast catalytic decomposition of ozone initiated by an atomic oxygen chemisorption followed by a molecular oxygen release [1-3]. Others suggested a reversible ozone adsorption according to Langmuir-type behaviour [4,5]. The aim of this present study is a better understanding of ozone interaction with carbon surfaces. An aerosol of carbon nanoparticles was generated by flowing synthetic air in a glass tube containing pure carbon (primary particles studied. Accordingly to literature, it has been observed that the number of gas-phase ozone molecules lost per unit particle surface area tends towards a plateau for high ozone concentration suggesting a reversible ozone adsorption according to a Langmuir mechanism. We calculated the initial reaction probability between O3 and carbon particles.An initial uptake coefficient of 1.10-4 was obtained. Similar experiments were realized by selecting the particles size with a differential mobility analyser. We observed a strong size-dependent increase in reactivity with the decrease of particles size. This result is relevant for the health issues. Indeed the smallest particles are most likely to penetrate deep into the lungs. Competitive reactions between ozone and other species like H2O or atomic oxygen were also considered. Oxygen atoms were generated by photolysis of O3

  18. Compact, Rugged and Low-Cost Atmospheric Ozone DIAL Transmitter, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Real-time, high-frequency measurements of atmospheric ozone are becoming increasingly important to understand the impact of ozone towards climate change, to monitor...

  19. Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment. Final experiment design, monitoring results and observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Christer [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Eng, Anders [Acuo Engineering AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2005-12-15

    The field part of the Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) was finished in 2004. The experiment was designed to induce and monitor the process of brittle failure, spalling, in a fractured rock mass under controlled conditions. The field part was successfully conducted and a large data set was obtained. This report presents the final design of the experiment, the results of the monitoring, and the observations made during the spalling process and when the spalled rock was removed. When heating of the rock was initiated the rock responded quickly. After only a few days the spalling process was activated in the notch, as indicated by the acoustic emission system, and shortly thereafter displacement readings were recorded. Contraction (radial expansion) of the rock was recorded by several instruments before the notch reached the instrument levels. This contraction is probably the result of a 3D re-distribution of the stresses. The temperature increase in the system was both slower and reached a steady state much earlier than predicted by the numerical models. The propagation of the notch was therefore halted after approximately one month of heating. The power to the electrical heaters was therefore doubled. Spalling then started up again, and in one month's time it had propagated to a depth of approximately five metres in the hole. A second steady state was now reached, but this time the heater power was kept constant for a while to let the rock settle before the confinement pressure was reduced from 700 kPa to 0 in decrements of 50 kPa. The rock mass response to the pressure drop was very limited until the pressure was lowered to approximately 200 kPa (the atmospheric pressure is not included in the given pressure values). Large displacements and a high acoustic emission hit frequency were then measured in the open hole. After the de-pressurization of the confined hole, the heaters were left on for approximately one week

  20. Wide Area Network Monitoring System for HEP Experiments at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, M.

    2004-11-23

    Large, distributed High Energy Physics (HEP) collaborations, such as D0, CDF and US-CMS, depend on stable and robust network paths between major world research centres. The evolving emphasis on data and compute Grids increases the reliance on network performance. Fermilab's experimental groups and network support personnel identified a critical need for WAN monitoring to ensure the quality and efficient utilization of such network paths. This has led to the development of the Network Monitoring system we will present in this paper. The system evolved from the IEPM-BW project, started at SLAC three years ago. At Fermilab this system has developed into a fully functional infrastructure with bi-directional active network probes and path characterizations. It is based on the Iperf achievable throughput tool, Ping and Synack to test ICMP/TCP connectivity. It uses Pipechar and Traceroute to test, compare and report hop-by-hop network path characterization. It also measures real file transfer performance by BBFTP and GridFTP. The Monitoring system has an extensive web-interface and all the data is available through standalone SOAP web services or by a MonaLISA client. Also in this paper we will present a case study of network path asymmetry and abnormal performance between FNAL and SDSC, which was discovered and resolved by utilizing the Network Monitoring system.

  1. Environmental monitoring of the Kozloduy NPP: 20 year experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksiev, A; Tsochev, S; Dimitrov, M; Avramov, V [Kombinat Atomna Energetika, Kozloduj (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    The radiation monitoring system of the Kozloduy NPP is described and the assessment of the environmental impact of the power plant is presented. Measurements are carried out in 36 control points distributed in 3 areas: radiation protected area (3 km diameter), radiation controlled area (12 km) and surveillance area (100 km). Comparison of radiation monitoring data for 1993 with data recorded in the pre-operational period (1972-74) show that no significant changes can be detected in the activity of {sup 90} Sr and gross beta activity. An increase in Cs-137 activity (38 Bq/kg d.w. versus 7 Bq/kg d.w.) is found in the soil and bottom sediments in the Danube river, which is attributed to Chernobyl accident. The Kozloduy NPP operation is continuously monitored for release of artificial radionuclides by gaseous and liquid effluents. It is reported that the average population exposure in the 30 km area due to liquid effluents is 3-4.10{sup -4} man Sv/a. A system for automated continuous radiation monitoring in 10 control stations is available in case of radiation accidents. It is supplemented by a mobile laboratory. Meteorological measurements are carried out by automatic station MC-10 and a second station is under construction. 21 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Flow Monitoring Experiences at the Ethernet-Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, Rick; Hofstede, R.J.; Drago, Idilio; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko; Lehnert, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Flow monitoring is a scalable technology for providing summaries of network activity. Being deployed at the IP-layer, it uses fixed flow definitions, based on fields of the IP-layer and higher layers. Since several backbone network operators are considering the deployment of (Carrier) Ethernet in

  3. Wide area network monitoring system for HEP experiments at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, Maxim; Fermilab; Cottrell, Les; Logg, Connie; SLAC

    2004-01-01

    Large, distributed High Energy Physics (HEP) collaborations, such as D0, CDF and US-CMS, depend on stable and robust network paths between major world research centres. The evolving emphasis on data and compute Grids increases the reliance on network performance. Fermilab's experimental groups and network support personnel identified a critical need for WAN monitoring to ensure the quality and efficient utilization of such network paths. This has led to the development of the Network Monitoring system we will present in this paper. The system evolved from the IEPM-BW project, started at SLAC three years ago. At Fermilab this system has developed into a fully functional infrastructure with bi-directional active network probes and path characterizations. It is based on the Iperf achievable throughput tool, Ping and Synack to test ICMP/TCP connectivity. It uses Pipechar and Traceroute to test, compare and report hop-by-hop network path characterization. It also measures real file transfer performance by BBFTP and GridFTP. The Monitoring system has an extensive web-interface and all the data is available through standalone SOAP web services or by a MonaLISA client. Also in this paper we will present a case study of network path asymmetry and abnormal performance between FNAL and SDSC, which was discovered and resolved by utilizing the Network Monitoring system

  4. Wide Area Network Monitoring System for HEP Experiments at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, M.

    2004-01-01

    Large, distributed High Energy Physics (HEP) collaborations, such as D0, CDF and US-CMS, depend on stable and robust network paths between major world research centres. The evolving emphasis on data and compute Grids increases the reliance on network performance. Fermilab's experimental groups and network support personnel identified a critical need for WAN monitoring to ensure the quality and efficient utilization of such network paths. This has led to the development of the Network Monitoring system we will present in this paper. The system evolved from the IEPM-BW project, started at SLAC three years ago. At Fermilab this system has developed into a fully functional infrastructure with bi-directional active network probes and path characterizations. It is based on the Iperf achievable throughput tool, Ping and Synack to test ICMP/TCP connectivity. It uses Pipechar and Traceroute to test, compare and report hop-by-hop network path characterization. It also measures real file transfer performance by BBFTP and GridFTP. The Monitoring system has an extensive web-interface and all the data is available through standalone SOAP web services or by a MonaLISA client. Also in this paper we will present a case study of network path asymmetry and abnormal performance between FNAL and SDSC, which was discovered and resolved by utilizing the Network Monitoring system

  5. The first experience with LHC beam gas ionization monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Sapinski, M; Dehning, B; Guerrero, A; Patecki, M; Versteegen, R

    2012-01-01

    The Beam Gas Ionization Monitors (BGI) are used to measure beam emittance on LHC. This paper describes the detectors and their operation and discusses the issues met during the commissioning. It also discusses the various calibration procedures used to correct for non-uniformity of Multi-Channel plates and to correct the beam size for effects affecting the electron trajectory after ionization.

  6. Environmental monitoring of the Kozloduy NPP: 20 year experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksiev, A.; Tsochev, S.; Dimitrov, M.; Avramov, V.

    1995-01-01

    The radiation monitoring system of the Kozloduy NPP is described and the assessment of the environmental impact of the power plant is presented. Measurements are carried out in 36 control points distributed in 3 areas: radiation protected area (3 km diameter), radiation controlled area (12 km) and surveillance area (100 km). Comparison of radiation monitoring data for 1993 with data recorded in the pre-operational period (1972-74) show that no significant changes can be detected in the activity of 90 Sr and gross beta activity. An increase in Cs-137 activity (38 Bq/kg d.w. versus 7 Bq/kg d.w.) is found in the soil and bottom sediments in the Danube river, which is attributed to Chernobyl accident. The Kozloduy NPP operation is continuously monitored for release of artificial radionuclides by gaseous and liquid effluents. It is reported that the average population exposure in the 30 km area due to liquid effluents is 3-4.10 -4 man Sv/a. A system for automated continuous radiation monitoring in 10 control stations is available in case of radiation accidents. It is supplemented by a mobile laboratory. Meteorological measurements are carried out by automatic station MC-10 and a second station is under construction. 21 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  7. Ozone kinetics in low-pressure discharges: vibrationally excited ozone and molecule formation on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, Daniil; Guerra, Vasco; Guaitella, Olivier; Booth, Jean-Paul; Rousseau, Antoine

    2013-10-01

    A combined experimental and modeling investigation of the ozone kinetics in the afterglow of pulsed direct current discharges in oxygen is carried out. The discharge is generated in a cylindrical silica tube of radius 1 cm, with short pulse durations between 0.5 and 2 ms, pressures in the range 1-5 Torr and discharge currents ˜40-120 mA. Time-resolved absolute concentrations of ground-state atoms and ozone molecules were measured simultaneously in situ, by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence and ultraviolet absorption, respectively. The experiments were complemented by a self-consistent model developed to interpret the results and, in particular, to evaluate the roles of vibrationally excited ozone and of ozone formation on surfaces. It is found that vibrationally excited ozone, O_3^{*} , plays an important role in the ozone kinetics, leading to a decrease in the ozone concentration and an increase in its formation time. In turn, the kinetics of O_3^{*} is strongly coupled with those of atomic oxygen and O2(a 1Δg) metastables. Ozone formation at the wall does not contribute significantly to the total ozone production under the present conditions. Upper limits for the effective heterogeneous recombination probability of O atoms into ozone are established.

  8. Ozone kinetics in low-pressure discharges: vibrationally excited ozone and molecule formation on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinov, Daniil; Guaitella, Olivier; Booth, Jean-Paul; Rousseau, Antoine; Guerra, Vasco

    2013-01-01

    A combined experimental and modeling investigation of the ozone kinetics in the afterglow of pulsed direct current discharges in oxygen is carried out. The discharge is generated in a cylindrical silica tube of radius 1 cm, with short pulse durations between 0.5 and 2 ms, pressures in the range 1–5 Torr and discharge currents ∼40–120 mA. Time-resolved absolute concentrations of ground-state atoms and ozone molecules were measured simultaneously in situ, by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence and ultraviolet absorption, respectively. The experiments were complemented by a self-consistent model developed to interpret the results and, in particular, to evaluate the roles of vibrationally excited ozone and of ozone formation on surfaces. It is found that vibrationally excited ozone, O 3 * , plays an important role in the ozone kinetics, leading to a decrease in the ozone concentration and an increase in its formation time. In turn, the kinetics of O 3 * is strongly coupled with those of atomic oxygen and O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) metastables. Ozone formation at the wall does not contribute significantly to the total ozone production under the present conditions. Upper limits for the effective heterogeneous recombination probability of O atoms into ozone are established. (paper)

  9. Tunable Diode Laser Heterodyne Spectrophotometry of Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogal, P. F.; McElroy, C. T.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, D. G.

    1988-01-01

    Tunable diode laser heterodyne spectrophotometry (TDLHS) has been used to make extremely high resolution (less than 0.0005/ cm) solar spectra in the 9.6 micron ozone band. Observations have shown that a signal-to-noise ratio of 95 : 1 (35% of theoretical) for an integration time of 1/8 second can be achieved at a resolution of 0.0005 wavenumbers. The spectral data have been inverted to yield a total column amount of ozone, in good agreement with that. measured at the nearby National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ozone monitoring facility in Boulder, Colorado.

  10. The Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR): A community-wide effort to quantify tropospheric ozone in a rapidly changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, O. R.; Schultz, M.; Paoletti, E.; Galbally, I. E.; Naja, M. K.; Tarasick, D. W.; Evans, M. J.; Thompson, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a greenhouse gas and pollutant detrimental to human health and crop and ecosystem productivity. Since 1990 a large portion of the anthropogenic emissions that react in the atmosphere to produce ozone has shifted from North America and Europe to Asia. This rapid shift, coupled with limited ozone monitoring in developing nations, left scientists unable to answer the most basic questions: Which regions of the world have the greatest human and plant exposure to ozone pollution? Is ozone continuing to decline in nations with strong emissions controls? To what extent is ozone increasing in the developing world? How can the atmospheric sciences community facilitate access to the ozone metrics necessary for quantifying ozone's impact on human health and crop/ecosystem productivity? To answer these questions the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project (IGAC) initiated the Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR). With over 220 member scientists and air quality specialists from 36 nations, TOAR's mission is to provide the research community with an up-to-date scientific assessment of tropospheric ozone's global distribution and trends from the surface to the tropopause. TOAR has also built the world's largest database of surface ozone observations and generated ozone exposure and dose metrics at thousands of measurement sites around the world, freely accessible for research on the global-scale impact of ozone on climate, human health and crop/ecosystem productivity. Plots of these metrics show the regions of the world with the greatest ozone exposure for humans and crops/ecosystems, at least in areas where observations are available. The results also highlight regions where air quality is improving and where it has degraded. TOAR has also conducted the first intercomparison of tropospheric column ozone from ozonesondes and multiple satellite instruments, which provide similar estimates of the present-day tropospheric ozone burden.

  11. Lightning-produced NOx in an explicit electrical scheme tested in a Stratosphere-Troposphere Experiment: Radiation, Aerosols, and Ozone case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthe, Christelle; Pinty, Jean-Pierre; Mari, CéLine

    2007-02-01

    An explicit lightning-produced nitrogen oxide (LNOx) scheme has been implemented in a 3-D mesoscale model. The scheme is based on the simulation of the electrical state of the cloud and provides a prediction of the temporal and spatial distribution of the lightning flashes. The frequency and the 3-D morphology of the lightning flashes are captured realistically so fresh nitrogen oxide molecules can be added along the complex flash path as a function of the pressure, as suggested by results from laboratory experiments. The scheme is tested on the 10 July 1996 Stratosphere-Troposphere Experiment: Radiation, Aerosols, and Ozone (STERAO) storm. The model reproduces many features of the observed increase of electrical activity and LNOx flux density between the multicell and supercell stages. LNOx dominates the NOx budget in the upper part of the cells with instantaneous peak concentrations exceeding 4 ppbv, as observed. The computed flux of NOx across the anvil shows a mean value of 6 mol m-2 s-1 during the last 90 min of the simulation. This value is remarkably stable and compares favorably with the observations.

  12. U.S. NO2 trends (2005-2013): EPA Air Quality System (AQS) data versus improved observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, Lok N.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Streets, David G.; Lu, Zifeng

    2015-06-01

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and, subsequently, atmospheric levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have decreased over the U.S. due to a combination of environmental policies and technological change. Consequently, NO2 levels have decreased by 30-40% in the last decade. We quantify NO2 trends (2005-2013) over the U.S. using surface measurements from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Air Quality System (AQS) and an improved tropospheric NO2 vertical column density (VCD) data product from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite. We demonstrate that the current OMI NO2 algorithm is of sufficient maturity to allow a favorable correspondence of trends and variations in OMI and AQS data. Our trend model accounts for the non-linear dependence of NO2 concentration on emissions associated with the seasonal variation of the chemical lifetime, including the change in the amplitude of the seasonal cycle associated with the significant change in NOx emissions that occurred over the last decade. The direct relationship between observations and emissions becomes more robust when one accounts for these non-linear dependencies. We improve the OMI NO2 standard retrieval algorithm and, subsequently, the data product by using monthly vertical concentration profiles, a required algorithm input, from a high-resolution chemistry and transport model (CTM) simulation with varying emissions (2005-2013). The impact of neglecting the time-dependence of the profiles leads to errors in trend estimation, particularly in regions where emissions have changed substantially. For example, trends calculated from retrievals based on time-dependent profiles offer 18% more instances of significant trends and up to 15% larger total NO2 reduction versus the results based on profiles for 2005. Using a CTM, we explore the theoretical relation of the trends estimated from NO2 VCDs to those estimated from ground-level concentrations. The model-simulated trends in VCDs strongly

  13. Ozone killing action against bacterial and fungal species; microbiological testing of a domestic ozone generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyas, A; Boughton, B J; Das, B C

    1983-10-01

    The action of ozone generated from a small domestic device was examined with a view to using it in clinical isolation units accommodating immunosuppressed patients. Over a six-hour period in an average size room the device did not generate sufficient ozone to suppress bacterial and fungal growth. A useful bactericidal action, against a variety of human pathogens was achieved with ozone concentrations between 0.3 to 0.9 ppm. Bactericidal ozone concentrations are close to the limit permitted for human exposure however and further experiments are indicated.

  14. Laboratory measurement of secondary pollutant yields from ozone reaction with HVAC filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destaillats, Hugo; Chen, Wenhao; Apte, Michael; Li, Nuan; Spears, Michael; Almosni, Jeremie; Zhang, Jianshun Jensen; Fisk, William J.

    2009-01-01

    We used Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and conventional sampling methods to monitor and identify trace level organic pollutants formed in heterogeneous reactions between ozone and HVAC filters in real time. Experiments were carried out using a bench-scale flow tube reactor operating with dry air and humidified air (50% RH), at realistically high ozone concentrations (150 ppbv). We explored different filter media (i.e., fiberglass and cotton/polyester blends) and different particle loadings (i.e., clean filter and filters loaded with particles for 3 months at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Port of Oakland, CA). Detailed emission dynamics of very low levels of certain organic pollutants from filter media upon ozone exposure in the presence of moisture have been obtained and analyzed.

  15. Attention Discrimination: Theory and Field Experiments with Monitoring Information Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Bartoš, Vojtěch; Bauer, Michal; Chytilová, Julie; Matějka, Filip

    2014-01-01

    We link two important ideas: attention is scarce and lack of information about an individual drives discrimination in selection decisions. Our model of allocation of costly attention implies that applicants from negatively stereotyped groups face "attention discrimination": less attention in highly selective cherry-picking markets, where more attention helps applicants, and more attention in lemon-dropping markets, where it harms them. To test the prediction, we integrate tools to monitor inf...

  16. Experiments of Nanometer Spot Size Monitor at FETB Using Laser Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Walz, D

    2003-01-01

    The nanometer spot size monitor based on the laser interferometry has been developed and installed in the final focus test beam (FFTB) line at SLAC. The beam experiments started in September 1993, the first fringe pattern from the monitor was observed in the beginning of April 1994, then the small vertical spot around 70 nm was observed in May 1994. The spot size monitor has been routinely used for tuning the beam optics in FFTB. Basic principle of this monitor has been well proved, and its high performance as a precise beam monitor in nanometer range has been demonstrated.

  17. Memorandum on the effect of ozone on germinating seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micheels, H; De Heen, P

    1906-01-01

    Two experiments are described the purpose of which was to ascertain the effect of ozone on germinating plants. In both experiments the plants which were not exposed to ozone had considerably longer roots and greater average weight. The number of germinations was not affected in one experiment, but was down 10% in the other. A final comment suggests that although the toxicity of ozone is well known, its use as a stimulant should not be ruled out. 2 figures.

  18. Issues in Stratospheric Ozone Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Steven Andrew

    Following the announcement of the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole in 1985 there have arisen a multitude of questions pertaining to the nature and consequences of polar ozone depletion. This thesis addresses several of these specific questions, using both computer models of chemical kinetics and the Earth's radiation field as well as laboratory kinetic experiments. A coupled chemical kinetic-radiative numerical model was developed to assist in the analysis of in situ field measurements of several radical and neutral species in the polar and mid-latitude lower stratosphere. Modeling was used in the analysis of enhanced polar ClO, mid-latitude diurnal variation of ClO, and simultaneous measurements of OH, HO_2, H_2 O and O_3. Most importantly, such modeling was instrumental in establishing the link between the observed ClO and BrO concentrations in the Antarctic polar vortex and the observed rate of ozone depletion. The principal medical concern of stratospheric ozone depletion is that ozone loss will lead to the enhancement of ground-level UV-B radiation. Global ozone climatology (40^circS to 50^ circN latitude) was incorporated into a radiation field model to calculate the biologically accumulated dosage (BAD) of UV-B radiation, integrated over days, months, and years. The slope of the annual BAD as a function of latitude was found to correspond to epidemiological data for non-melanoma skin cancers for 30^circ -50^circN. Various ozone loss scenarios were investigated. It was found that a small ozone loss in the tropics can provide as much additional biologically effective UV-B as a much larger ozone loss at higher latitudes. Also, for ozone depletions of > 5%, the BAD of UV-B increases exponentially with decreasing ozone levels. An important key player in determining whether polar ozone depletion can propagate into the populated mid-latitudes is chlorine nitrate, ClONO_2 . As yet this molecule is only indirectly accounted for in computer models and field

  19. Does interspecific competition alter effects of early season ozone exposure on plants from wet grasslands? Results of a three-year experiment in open-top chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonneijck, A E G; Franzaring, J; Brouwer, G; Metselaar, K; Dueck, Th A

    2004-09-01

    Chronic effects of ozone on wet grassland species early in the growing season might be altered by interspecific competition. Individual plants of Holcus lanatus, Lychnis flos-cuculi, Molinia caerulea and Plantago lanceolata were grown in monocultures and in mixed cultures with Agrostis capillaris. Mesocosms were exposed to charcoal-filtered air plus 25 nl l(-1) ozone (CF+25), non-filtered air (NF), non-filtered air plus 25 nl l(-1) ozone (NF+25) and non-filtered air plus 50 nl l(-1) ozone (NF+50) early in the growing seasons of 2000 through 2002. Ozone-enhanced senescence and visible foliar injury were recorded on some of the target plants in the first year only. Ozone effects on biomass production were minimal and plant response to ozone did not differ between monocultures and mixed cultures. After three years, above-ground biomass of the plants in mixed culture compared to monocultures was three times greater for H. lanatus and two to four times smaller for the other species.

  20. Does interspecific competition alter effects of early season ozone exposure on plants from wet grasslands? Results of a three-year experiment in open-top chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonneijck, A.E.G.; Franzaring, J.; Brouwer, G.; Metselaar, K.; Dueck, Th.A

    2004-09-01

    Chronic effects of ozone on wet grassland species early in the growing season might be altered by interspecific competition. Individual plants of Holcus lanatus, Lychnis flos-cuculi, Molinia caerulea and Plantago lanceolata were grown in monocultures and in mixed cultures with Agrostis capillaris. Mesocosms were exposed to charcoal-filtered air plus 25 nl l{sup -1} ozone (CF + 25), non-filtered air (NF), non-filtered air plus 25 nl l{sup -1} ozone (NF + 25) and non-filtered air plus 50 nl l{sup -1} ozone (NF + 50) early in the growing seasons of 2000 through 2002. Ozone-enhanced senescence and visible foliar injury were recorded on some of the target plants in the first year only. Ozone effects on biomass production were minimal and plant response to ozone did not differ between monocultures and mixed cultures. After three years, above-ground biomass of the plants in mixed culture compared to monocultures was three times greater for H. lanatus and two to four times smaller for the other species.

  1. Does interspecific competition alter effects of early season ozone exposure on plants from wet grasslands? Results of a three-year experiment in open-top chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonneijck, A.E.G.; Franzaring, J.; Brouwer, G.; Metselaar, K.; Dueck, Th.A.

    2004-01-01

    Chronic effects of ozone on wet grassland species early in the growing season might be altered by interspecific competition. Individual plants of Holcus lanatus, Lychnis flos-cuculi, Molinia caerulea and Plantago lanceolata were grown in monocultures and in mixed cultures with Agrostis capillaris. Mesocosms were exposed to charcoal-filtered air plus 25 nl l -1 ozone (CF + 25), non-filtered air (NF), non-filtered air plus 25 nl l -1 ozone (NF + 25) and non-filtered air plus 50 nl l -1 ozone (NF + 50) early in the growing seasons of 2000 through 2002. Ozone-enhanced senescence and visible foliar injury were recorded on some of the target plants in the first year only. Ozone effects on biomass production were minimal and plant response to ozone did not differ between monocultures and mixed cultures. After three years, above-ground biomass of the plants in mixed culture compared to monocultures was three times greater for H. lanatus and two to four times smaller for the other species

  2. Attention discrimination: theory and field experiments with monitoring information acquisition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartoš, Vojtěch; Bauer, Michal; Chytilová, Julie; Matějka, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 6 (2016), s. 1437-1475 ISSN 0002-8282 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : inattention * discrimination * field experiment Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 4.026, year: 2016

  3. The Antarctic ozone hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Anna E

    2008-01-01

    Since the mid 1970s, the ozone layer over Antarctica has experienced massive destruction during every spring. In this article, we will consider the atmosphere, and what ozone and the ozone layer actually are. We explore the chemistry responsible for the ozone destruction, and learn about why conditions favour ozone destruction over Antarctica. For the historical perspective, the events leading up to the discovery of the 'hole' are presented, as well as the response from the international community and the measures taken to protect the ozone layer now and into the future

  4. Ozone zonal asymmetry and planetary wave characterization during Antarctic spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ialongo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A large zonal asymmetry of ozone has been observed over Antarctica during winter-spring, when the ozone hole develops. It is caused by a planetary wave-driven displacement of the polar vortex. The total ozone data by OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument and the ozone profiles by MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder and GOMOS (Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars were analysed to characterize the ozone zonal asymmetry and the wave activity during Antarctic spring. Both total ozone and profile data have shown a persistent zonal asymmetry over the last years, which is usually observed from September to mid-December. The largest amplitudes of planetary waves at 65° S (the perturbations can achieve up to 50% of zonal mean values is observed in October. The wave activity is dominated by the quasi-stationary wave 1 component, while the wave 2 is mainly an eastward travelling wave. Wave numbers 1 and 2 generally explain more than the 90% of the ozone longitudinal variations. Both GOMOS and MLS ozone profile data show that ozone zonal asymmetry covers the whole stratosphere and extends up to the altitudes of 60–65 km. The wave amplitudes in ozone mixing ratio decay with altitude, with maxima (up to 50% below 30 km.

    The characterization of the ozone zonal asymmetry has become important in the climate research. The inclusion of the polar zonal asymmetry in the climate models is essential for an accurate estimation of the future temperature trends. This information might also be important for retrieval algorithms that rely on ozone a priori information.

  5. Practical experience with the fuel monitoring at Dukovany NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kment, J.; Svoboda, R.; Valach, M.

    1994-01-01

    A brief description of the following activities of Dukovany NPP is given: fuel state monitoring during cycles; fuel state inspection during outages; fuel damage predictions and reality; prevention against fuel damage caused by PCI. The fuel state monitoring during cycles is conducted by on-line gamma spectrometer located under the by-pass pipelines of the water cleaning system. The system enables to carry out determination of the equilibrium activities of practically all significant gaseous fission products for energies from 80 KeV to 2 MeV. On-line activity measurements give reliable indication of a defect origin with the 133 Xe activity level of the order of tens k Bk/l. The gamma spectroscopy data are processed by KGO and PEPA software packages installed into the chemistry information system. KGO estimates the number of the damaged fuel elements and the extent of their damage. The activities of 133 Xe, 135 Xe, 137 Xe, 138 Xe, 87 Kr, 88 Kr and 89 Kr are used for evaluation of the number of 'leakers'. PEPA code predicts radiation set-up development, i.e. the activity levels of cca 20 radiologically significant nuclides in the primary coolant for the assumed reactor power mode. The fuel damage predictions during cycles are illustrated on two examples from the operational history of the Dukovany NPP. The utilization of the KGO-PEPA software contributes to a more high exploitation culture of the core from the point of view of fuel integrity maintenance. 3 refs

  6. Instrumentation of Lysimeter Experiments and Monitoring of Soil Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, T.; Tallos, A.; Millan, R.; Vera, R.; Recreo, F.

    2004-01-01

    This study forms part of the project Mercurio and Recuperation de Terrenos Afectados por Mercurio Ambiental (RETAMA) , which determines the behaviour of mercury in the soil-plant system within the area of Almaden. The objective of this work is to instrument lysimeters with a set of electronic sensors to monitor physical and chemical soil parameters (moisture content, soil temperature, soil water matrix potential, Eh and pH) over a period of a complete vegetation cycle for selected crops. Physical and chemical soil analyses have been carried out on samples two soil profiles marking the extreme perimeter where the lysimeters were extracted. The monitoring data obtained every half hour show that the physicochemical conditions of the soils in the lysimeter can be correlated with the type of cultivation in the lysimeters. The results for parameters such as soil water matrix potential and the soil temperature reflect the diurnal changes; and fluctuations of the Eh can be related to the biological activities in the soils and are within oxid and sub oxid conditions. Slight fluctuations have been observed for the pH and constant volumetric moisture content is maintained during the period of no hydric stress. (Author) 16 refs

  7. Monitoring for bioremediation efficacy: The marrow marsh experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeau, R.; Singhvi, R.; Ryabik, J.; Lin, Yihua; Syslo, J.

    1993-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Response Team analyzed samples taken from Marrow Marsh, Galveston Bay, Texas, to assess the efficacy of a bioremediation effort in the marsh following the Apex barges spill on July 28, 1990. Samples from the marsh had been collected over a 96-hour period following the first application of the bioremediation agent and then 25 days after the second application, which occurred 8 days after the first. Results of sample analyses to evaluate changes in the chemical characteristics of spilled oil failed to show evidence of oil degradation during the 96 hours after the initial treatment, but did show evidence of degradation 25 days after the second treatment-although differences between samples from treated and untreated sites were not evident. Because control areas had not been maintained after the second application, contamination by the bioremediation agent of previously untreated (control) areas may have occurred, perhaps negating the possibility of detecting differences between treated and control areas. Better preparedness to implement bioremediation and conduct monitoring might have increased the effectiveness of the monitoring effort

  8. Practical experience with second law power plant monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, F.D.; Horn, K.F.

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses the use of an ultimate performance monitoring technique derived from Second Law concepts. Other techniques and their methods have been reported. If electricity is to be produced with the minimum of unproductive consumption of fuel - then fundamental thermodynamic losses must be understood on a system bases. Such understanding cuts across vendor curves, plant design, fuels, etc. Thermal losses in a nuclear unit are comparable at a prime facia level to losses at any other thermal system. They are what we must minimize in the production of electricity, no manner the method of that production. The Second Law offers the only foundation for the study of such losses, and thus affords the bases for a true and ultimate indicator of system performance. From such a foundation, a parameter is needed to tell us specifically what components are thermodynamically responsible for fuel consumption given either their direct creation of electricity or their contribution to thermodynamic losses. The Fuel Consumption Index, discussed in this article, is this parameter. It can be used for thermodynamic system design, monitoring, diagnosing problems, and economic dispatching. It tells us why fuel is being consumed; consumed by a nuclear plant, trash burner, a 40 year-old fossil plant, etc

  9. Instrumentation of Lysimeter Experiments and Monitoring of Soil Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, T.; Tallos, A.; Millan, R.; Vera, R.; Recreo, F.

    2004-07-01

    This study forms part of the project Mercurio and Recuperation de Terrenos Afectados por Mercurio Ambiental (RETAMA), which determines the behaviour of mercury in the soil-plant system within the area of Almaden. The objective of this work is to instrument lysimeters with a set of electronic sensors to monitor physical and chemical soil parameters (moisture content, soil temperature, soil water matrix potential. Eh and pH) over a period of a complete vegetation cycle for selected crops. Physical and chemical soil analyses have been carried out on samples two soil profiles marking the extreme perimeter where the lysimeters were extracted. The monitoring data obtained every half hour show that the physicochemical conditions of the soils in the lysimeter can be correlated with the type of cultivation in the lysimeters. The results for parameters such as soil water matrix potential and the soil temperature reflect the diurnal changes; and fluctuations of the Eh can be related to the biological activities in the soils and are within oxid and suboxic conditions. Slight fluctuations have been observed for the pH and constant volumetric moisture content is maintained during the period of no hydric stress. (Author) 16 refs.

  10. Beam Extinction Monitoring in the Mu2e Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prebys, Eric [Fermilab; Bartoszek, Larry [Technicare; Gaponenko, Andrei [Fermilab; Kasper, Peter [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    The Mu2e Experiment at Fermilab will search for the conversion of a muon to an electron in the field of an atomic nucleus with unprecedented sensitivity. The experiment requires a beam consisting of proton bunches approximately 200ns FW long, separated by 1.7 microseconds, with no out-of-time protons at the 10⁻¹⁰ fractional level. The verification of this level of extinction is very challenging. The proposed technique uses a special purpose spectrometer which will observe particles scattered from the production target of the experiment. The acceptance will be limited such that there will be no saturation effects from the in-time beam. The precise level and profile of the out-of-time beam can then be built up statistically, by integrating over many bunches.

  11. Why count trees? Volunteer motivations and experiences with tree monitoring in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle L. Johnson; Lindsay K. Campbell; Erika S. Svendsen; Philip. Silva

    2018-01-01

    Volunteer programs can benefit from a deeper understanding of the motivations and experiences of people engaged in citizen science. Research to date has studied motivations of citizen scientists and tree-planting volunteers. Less work has focused on tree-monitoring volunteers, a role that is rapidly increasing as more cities involve the public in monitoring the urban...

  12. Paper on operation and maintenance experiences on radiation monitoring instrumentation at NAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, J.P.; Vinod Kumar; Sen, S.K.; Malhotra, S.

    2005-01-01

    Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) is the first standardized Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor in India commissioned in the year 1989. Many new Radiation Monitoring Systems like Portal Monitors and Ventilation Exhaust Activity Monitors were first time introduced at NAPS. All the Personnel Contamination Monitors and Area Radiation Monitors used at NAPS were designed and developed by Electronics Division, BARC. Only the Portal Monitor was supplied by M/S Herfurth, Germany. The paper highlights the operation and maintenance experiences on Radiation Monitoring Instrumentation at NAPS in the last 15 years of operation. The paper also highlights the different problems faced in Radiation Instruments and our suggestions for improvement in their design for their better availability and long term reliability. (author)

  13. Attention discrimination: theory and field experiments with monitoring information acquisition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartoš, Vojtěch; Bauer, M.; Chytilová, J.; Matějka, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 6 (2016), s. 1437-1475 ISSN 0002-8282 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-30724S Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : inattention * discrimination * field experiment Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 4.026, year: 2016

  14. Comparison of ozone uptake and sensitivity between a phytotron study with young beech and a field experiment with adult beech (Fagus sylvatica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunn, Angela J.; Kozovits, A.R.; Reiter, I.M.; Heerdt, C.; Leuchner, M.; Luetz, C.; Liu, X.; Low, M.; Winkler, J.B.; Grams, T.E.E.; Haeberle, K.-H.; Werner, H.; Fabian, P.; Rennenberg, H.; Matyssek, R.

    2005-01-01

    Chamber experiments on juvenile trees have resulted in severe injury and accelerated loss of leaves along with reduced biomass production under chronically enhanced O 3 levels. In contrast, the few studies conducted on adult forest trees in the field have reported low O 3 sensitivity. In the present study, young beech in phytotrons was more sensitive to O 3 than adult beech in the field, although employed O 3 regimes were similar. The hypotheses tested were that: (1) differences in O 3 uptake were caused by the ontogenetically higher stomatal conductance of young compared to adult trees (2) the experimental settings in the phytotrons enhanced O 3 uptake compared to field conditions, and (3) a low detoxification capacity contributes to the higher O 3 sensitivity of the young trees. The higher O 3 sensitivity of juvenile beech in the phytotrons is demonstrated to relate to both the experimental conditions and the physiological responsiveness inherent to tree age. - Juvenile beech trees in phytotrons are more sensitive to ozone than adult forest trees due to lower defence capacity and growth conditions

  15. WRF-Chem simulated surface ozone over south Asia during the pre-monsoon: effects of emission inventories and chemical mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sharma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate numerical simulations of surface ozone mixing ratios over the south Asian region during the pre-monsoon season, employing three different emission inventories in the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem with the second-generation Regional Acid Deposition Model (RADM2 chemical mechanism: the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research – Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (EDGAR-HTAP, the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment phase B (INTEX-B and the Southeast Asia Composition, Cloud, Climate Coupling Regional Study (SEAC4RS. Evaluation of diurnal variability in modelled ozone compared to observational data from 15 monitoring stations across south Asia shows the model ability to reproduce the clean, rural and polluted urban conditions over this region. In contrast to the diurnal average, the modelled ozone mixing ratios during noontime, i.e. hours of intense photochemistry (11:30–16:30 IST – Indian Standard Time – UTC +5:30, are found to differ among the three inventories. This suggests that evaluations of the modelled ozone limited to 24 h average are insufficient to assess uncertainties associated with ozone buildup. HTAP generally shows 10–30 ppbv higher noontime ozone mixing ratios than SEAC4RS and INTEX-B, especially over the north-west Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP, central India and southern India. The HTAP simulation repeated with the alternative Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers (MOZART chemical mechanism showed even more strongly enhanced surface ozone mixing ratios due to vertical mixing of enhanced ozone that has been produced aloft. Our study indicates the need to also evaluate the O3 precursors across a network of stations and the development of high-resolution regional inventories for the anthropogenic emissions over south Asia accounting for year-to-year changes to further reduce uncertainties in modelled ozone over this region.

  16. WRF-Chem simulated surface ozone over south Asia during the pre-monsoon: effects of emission inventories and chemical mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit; Ojha, Narendra; Pozzer, Andrea; Mar, Kathleen A.; Beig, Gufran; Lelieveld, Jos; Gunthe, Sachin S.

    2017-12-01

    We evaluate numerical simulations of surface ozone mixing ratios over the south Asian region during the pre-monsoon season, employing three different emission inventories in the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) with the second-generation Regional Acid Deposition Model (RADM2) chemical mechanism: the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research - Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (EDGAR-HTAP), the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment phase B (INTEX-B) and the Southeast Asia Composition, Cloud, Climate Coupling Regional Study (SEAC4RS). Evaluation of diurnal variability in modelled ozone compared to observational data from 15 monitoring stations across south Asia shows the model ability to reproduce the clean, rural and polluted urban conditions over this region. In contrast to the diurnal average, the modelled ozone mixing ratios during noontime, i.e. hours of intense photochemistry (11:30-16:30 IST - Indian Standard Time - UTC +5:30), are found to differ among the three inventories. This suggests that evaluations of the modelled ozone limited to 24 h average are insufficient to assess uncertainties associated with ozone buildup. HTAP generally shows 10-30 ppbv higher noontime ozone mixing ratios than SEAC4RS and INTEX-B, especially over the north-west Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), central India and southern India. The HTAP simulation repeated with the alternative Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers (MOZART) chemical mechanism showed even more strongly enhanced surface ozone mixing ratios due to vertical mixing of enhanced ozone that has been produced aloft. Our study indicates the need to also evaluate the O3 precursors across a network of stations and the development of high-resolution regional inventories for the anthropogenic emissions over south Asia accounting for year-to-year changes to further reduce uncertainties in modelled ozone over this region.

  17. Specific radiological monitoring experiences and the challenges at offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mod Omar Hassan

    2005-01-01

    Lately, EASELAB / PROJEK KHAS has performed Specific Radiological Monitoring job at offshore rigs off Terengganu for Syarikat Petronas Carigali [M] Sdn Bhd. In order to perform the job, every worker must attend a Basic Offshore Safety and Emergency Training Course and pass the theory and practical test. Before a license or safety passport is issued, the worker must undergo Medical Checkup and certified physically and mentally fit. The passport is recognized by most of international oil companies. During performing the jobs, MINT staff has faced some difficulties such as weather conditions, to suit with the working environment and life at the oil platform. There were a few staff has withdrew (resigned) from performing the jobs. (Author)

  18. Status of Wakefield Monitor Experiments at the CLIC Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Lillestøl, Reidar; Aftab, Namra; Corsini, Roberto; Döbert, Steffen; Farabolini, Wilfrid; Grudiev, Alexej; Javeed, Sumera; Pfingstner, Juergen; Wuensch, Walter

    2016-01-01

    For the very low emittance beams in CLIC, it is vital to mitigate emittance growth which leads to reduced luminosity in the detectors. One factor that leads to emittance growth is transverse wakefields in the accelerating structures. In order to combat this the structures must be aligned with a precision of a few um. For achieving this tolerance, accelerating structures are equipped with wakefield monitors that measure higher-order dipole modes excited by the beam when offset from the structure axis. We report on such measurements, performed using prototype CLIC accelerating structures which are part of the module installed in the CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) at CERN. Measurements with and without the drive beam that feeds rf power to the structures are compared. Improvements to the experimental setup are discussed, and finally remaining measurements that should be performed before the completion of the program are summarized.

  19. Remote Control and Monitoring of VLBI Experiments by Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruztort, C. H.; Hase, H.; Zapata, O.; Pedreros, F.

    2012-12-01

    For the remote control and monitoring of VLBI operations, we developed a software optimized for smartphones. This is a new tool based on a client-server architecture with a Web interface optimized for smartphone screens and cellphone networks. The server uses variables of the Field System and its station specific parameters stored in the shared memory. The client running on the smartphone by a Web interface analyzes and visualizes the current status of the radio telescope, receiver, schedule, and recorder. In addition, it allows commands to be sent remotely to the Field System computer and displays the log entries. The user has full access to the entire operation process, which is important in emergency cases. The software also integrates a webcam interface.

  20. Practical experience with the fuel monitoring at Dukovany NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kment, J [Jaderna Elektrarna, Dukovany (Czech Republic); Svoboda, R; Valach, M [Ustav Jaderneho Vyzkumu a.s., Rez (Czech Republic)

    1994-12-31

    A brief description of the following activities of Dukovany NPP is given: fuel state monitoring during cycles; fuel state inspection during outages; fuel damage predictions and reality; prevention against fuel damage caused by PCI. The fuel state monitoring during cycles is conducted by on-line gamma spectrometer located under the by-pass pipelines of the water cleaning system. The system enables to carry out determination of the equilibrium activities of practically all significant gaseous fission products for energies from 80 KeV to 2 MeV. On-line activity measurements give reliable indication of a defect origin with the {sup 133}Xe activity level of the order of tens k Bk/l. The gamma spectroscopy data are processed by KGO and PEPA software packages installed into the chemistry information system. KGO estimates the number of the damaged fuel elements and the extent of their damage. The activities of {sup 133}Xe, {sup 135}Xe, {sup 137}Xe, {sup 138}Xe, {sup 87}Kr, {sup 88}Kr and {sup 89}Kr are used for evaluation of the number of `leakers`. PEPA code predicts radiation set-up development, i.e. the activity levels of cca 20 radiologically significant nuclides in the primary coolant for the assumed reactor power mode. The fuel damage predictions during cycles are illustrated on two examples from the operational history of the Dukovany NPP. The utilization of the KGO-PEPA software contributes to a more high exploitation culture of the core from the point of view of fuel integrity maintenance. 3 refs.

  1. When will the Antarctic Ozone Hole Recover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Montzka, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early Spring. Antarctic ozone values have been monitored since 1979 using satellite observations from the .TOMS instrument. The severity of the hole has been assessed from TOMS using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole) and by calculating the average size during the September-October period. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations in the collar of the polar lower stratospheric vortex. In this presentation, we show the relationships of halogens and temperature to, both the size and depth of the hole. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international agreements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. Using projections of halogen levels combined with age-of-air estimates, we find that the ozone hole is recovering at an extremely slow rate and that large ozone holes will regularly recur over the next 2 decades. The ozone hole will begin to show first signs of recovery in about 2023, and the hole will fully recover to pre-1980 levels in approximately 2070. This 2070 recovery is 20 years later than recent projections.

  2. Experience with instrumentational monitoring of steam turbine foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnemann, H.; Hagemann, M.

    1989-01-01

    Many factors can lead to the deformation of foundations and consequently to variations in the state of alignment of a turbine shaft line. Various measurement programmes, measurement procedures and instrumentation have been developed and proven in power plant practice. Experience accumulated hitherto with automatic measurement systems shows that these procedures are superior to conventional methods in respect of accuracy, availability and information content. (orig.) [de

  3. Satellite Ozone Analysis Center (SOAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovill, J.E.; Sullivan, T.J.; Knox, J.B.; Korver, J.A.

    1976-08-01

    Many questions have been raised during the 1970's regarding the possible modification of the ozonosphere by aircraft operating in the stratosphere. Concern also has been expressed over the manner in which the ozonosphere may change in the future as a result of fluorocarbon releases. There are also other ways by which the ozonosphere may be significantly altered, both anthropogenic and natural. Very basic questions have been raised, bearing upon the amount of ozone which would be destroyed by the NO/sub x/ produced in atmospheric nuclear explosions. Studies of the available satellite data have suggested that the worldwide increase of ozone during the past decade, which was observed over land stations, may have been biased by a poor distribution of stations and/or a shift of the planetary wave. Additional satellite data will be required to resolve this issue. Proposals are presented for monitoring of the Earth's ozone variability from the present time into the 1980's to establish a baseline upon which regional, as well as global, ozone trends can be measured

  4. The total ozone and UV solar radiation over Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendeva, B. D.; Gogosheva, Ts. N.; Petkov, B. H.; Krastev, D. G.

    The results from direct ground-based solar UV irradiance measurements and the total ozone content (TOC) over Stara Zagora (42° 25'N, 25° 37'E), Bulgaria are presented. During the period 1999-2003 the TOC data show seasonal variations, typical for the middle latitudes - maximum in the spring and minimum in the autumn. The comparison between TOC ground-based data and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) satellite-borne ones shows a seasonal dependence of the differences between them. A strong negative relationship between the total ozone and the 305 nm wavelength irradiance was found. The dependence between the two variables is significant ( r = -0.62 ± 0.18) at 98% confidence level. The direct sun UV doses for some specific biological effects (erythema and eyes) are obtained. The estimation of the radiation amplification factor RAF shows that the ozone reduction by 1% increases the erythemal dose by 2.3%. The eye-damaging doses are more influenced by the TOC changes and in this case RAF = -2.7%. The amount of these biological doses depended on the solar altitude over the horizon. This dependence was not so strong when the total ozone content in the atmosphere was lower.

  5. Ozone Antimicrobial Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone is a potent germicide that has been used extensively for water purification. In Europe, 90 percent of the municipal water systems are treated with ozone, and in France, ozone has been used to treat drinking water since 1903. However, there is limited information on the bioc...

  6. The experiences of diabetics on self-monitoring of blood glucose: a qualitative metasynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Mei; Chang Yeh, Mei

    2015-03-01

    To interpret, describe and analyse the results of various qualitative studies and comprehensively elucidate the self-monitoring of blood glucose experiences of diabetic patients, and to make recommendations based on these findings for clinical practices. Patients exhibited both positive and negative perceptions towards the self-monitoring of blood glucose. Numerous recent qualitative studies have explored the self-monitoring of blood glucose experiences of diabetic patients; however, no integrated results have been provided. Qualitative metasynthesis. A systematic literature search of English and Chinese databases was undertaken, covering the period between January 2004 and April 2014. The following databases were searched: CINAHL, PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Airiti library and PsycInfo. Seven studies were assessed in the final analysis; the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument was used to evaluate these studies. The self-monitoring experiences of patients with diabetes were divided into five themes: perceived disease severity, effects on daily life, lifestyle adjustments after becoming aware of blood glucose levels, determining the meaning of self-monitoring, and the differences between diabetic patients who use and do not use insulin. Individual differences in blood glucose self-monitoring vary widely among diabetic patients. These differences result from personal cognition and feelings concerning blood glucose monitoring. Insights into and discussions regarding the self-monitoring of blood glucose experiences of diabetic patients enable health care professionals to understand the factors that influence the intentions of patients to perform self-monitoring of blood glucose and facilitate establishing customised self-monitoring of blood glucose treatment plans. Health care professionals must adopt flexible and individualised criteria to determine patient cognitive misconceptions, understand negative emotional reactions and

  7. Granular activated carbon assisted ozonation of cephalexin antibiotic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, J.; Amin, N.S.; Imran, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates removal of cephalexin using ozonation in the presence of granular activated carbon. Initial experiments were carried out about adsorption of cephalexin onto granular activated carbon, effect of catalytic ozonation, and biodegradability of cephalexin solution. The effect of ozonation on pH, ozone utilization efficiency and decomposition byproducts, was observed. Response surface methodology was adopted to optimize three operating parameters pH of solution, ozone supply and cephalexin concentration. GAC assisted ozonation, was found to be effective in decomposing COD (chemical oxygen demand) and cephalexin from solution. Optimum values of variables were pH from 7-8, ozone supply 30 mg/L and 100 mg/L of cephalexin solution. The complete removal of cephalexin and 60% COD removal was achieved at these optimum input values. (author)

  8. Ozone fumigation under dark/light conditions of Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaval, Eva; Jud, Werner; Hansel, Armin

    2015-04-01

    Norway Spruce (Picea abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) represent dominating tree species in the northern hemisphere. Thus, the understanding of their ozone sensitivity in the light of the expected increasing ozone levels in the future is of great importance. In our experiments we investigated the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of 3-4 year old Norway Spruce and Scots Pine seedlings under ozone fumigation (50-150 ppbv) and dark/light conditions. For the experiments the plants were placed in a setup with inert materials including a glass cuvette equipped with a turbulent air inlet and sensors for monitoring a large range of meteorological parameters. Typical conditions were 20-25°C and a relative humidity of 70-90 % for both plant species. A fast gas exchange rate was used to minimize reactions of ozone in the gas phase. A Switchable-Reagent-Ion-Time-of-Flight-MS (SRI-ToF-MS) was used to analyze the VOCs at the cuvette outlet in real-time during changing ozone and light levels. The use of H3O+ and NO+ as reagent ions allows the separation of certain isomers (e.g. aldehydes and ketones) due to different reaction pathways depending on the functional groups of the molecules. Within the Picea abies experiments the ozone loss, defined as the difference of the ozone concentration between cuvette inlet and outlet, remained nearly constant at the transition from dark to light. This indicates that a major part of the supplied ozone is depleted non-stomatally. In contrast the ozone loss increased by 50 % at the transition from dark to light conditions within Pinus sylvestris experiments. In this case the stomata represent the dominant loss channel. Since maximally 0.1% of the ozone loss could be explained by gas phase reactions with monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, we suggest that ozone reactions on the surface of Picea abies represent the major sink in this case and lead to an light-independent ozone loss. This is supported by the fact that we detected

  9. Validation of SAGE II ozone measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnold, D. M.; Chu, W. P.; Mccormick, M. P.; Veiga, R. E.; Barnes, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    Five ozone profiles from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II are compared with coincident ozonesonde measurements obtained at Natal, Brazil, and Wallops Island, Virginia. It is shown that the mean difference between all of the measurements is about 1 percent and that the agreement is within 7 percent at altitudes between 20 and 53 km. Good agreement is also found for ozone mixing ratios on pressure surfaces. It is concluded that the SAGE II profiles provide useful ozone information up to about 60 km altitude.

  10. Ozone disintegration kinetics in the reactor for tyres decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golota, V.I.; Manujlenko, O.V.; Taran, G.V.; Pis'menetskij, A.S.; Zamuriev, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental research of ozone disintegration kinetics in the chemical reactor which is developed for decomposition of tyres in the ozone-air environment are presented. Analytical expression for dependence of ozone concentration in the reactor from time and from parameters of the task, such as volume speed of ozone-air mixture feed on a reactor input, concentration of ozone on the input to the reactor, volume speed of output of the used mixture, reactor size, and square of its internal surface is obtained. It is shown that at the same speed of ozone-air mixture pro rolling through the reactor, with growth of ozone concentration on the input, value of stationary concentration in the reactor grows, remaining always less than concentration on the input. It is also shown that at the same ozone concentration on the input, with growth of speed of ozone-air mixture pro rolling through the reactor, value of stationary ozone concentration in the reactor also grows, remaining always less than ozone concentration on the input. The ozone disintegration kinetics in the reactor in a wide range of speed of ozone-air mixture pro rolling through the reactor (0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 0.60 m3/hour) and various ozone concentration on the input (5, 10, 15, 20 g/m3) is experimentally studied. It is shown that experimental results with good accuracy coincide with the theoretical. Direct experiment showed the essential influence of the internal surface of the reactor on the ozone disintegration kinetics.

  11. Earth's ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasa, J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper contain the actual results of investigations of the influence of the human activity on the Earth's ozone layer. History of the ozone measurements and of the changes in its concentrations within the last few years are given. The influence of the trace gases on both local and global ozone concentrations are discussed. The probable changes of the ozone concentrations are presented on the basis of the modelling investigations. The effect of a decrease in global ozone concentration on human health and on biosphere are also presented. (author). 33 refs, 36 figs, 5 tabs

  12. Assimilated ozone from EOS-Aura: Evaluation of the tropopause region and tropospheric columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stajner, I.; Wargan, K.; Pawson, S.; Hayashi, H.; Chang, L.-P.; Hudman, R.C.; Froidevaux, L.; Livesey, N.J.; Levelt, P.F.; Thompson, A.M.; Tarasick, D.W.; Stübi, R.; Andersen, S.B.; Yela, M.; König-Langlo, G.; Schmidlin, F.J.; Witte, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Retrievals from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on EOS-Aura were included in the Goddard Earth Observing System version 4 (GEOS-4) ozone data assimilation system. The distribution and daily to seasonal evolution of ozone in the stratosphere and troposphere

  13. Ozone air pollution in the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains and Kiev region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleg Blum; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; William Manning; Ludmila Popovicheva

    1998-01-01

    Ambient concentrations of ozone (O3) were measured at five highland forest locations in the Ukrainian Carpathians and in two lowland locations in the Kiev region during August to September 1995 by using O3 passive samplers. The ozone passive samplers were calibrated against a Thermo Environmental Model 49 ozone monitor...

  14. Sensitivity analysis of ground level ozone in India using WRF-CMAQ models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, Sumit; Chatani, Satoru; Mahtta, Richa; Goel, Anju; Kumar, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Ground level ozone is emerging as a pollutant of concern in India. Limited surface monitoring data reveals that ozone concentrations are well above the prescribed national standards. This study aims to simulate the regional and urban scale ozone concentrations in India using WRF-CMAQ models.

  15. Tropospheric Ozone and Photochemical Smog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillman, S.

    2003-12-01

    emitted species, in a process that is driven by sunlight and is accelerated by warm temperatures. This smog is largely the product of gasoline-powered engines (especially automobiles), although coal-fired industry can also generate photochemical smog. The process of photochemical smog formation was first identified by Haagen-Smit and Fox (1954) in association with Los Angeles, a city whose geography makes it particularly susceptible to this type of smog formation. Sulfate aerosols and organic particulates are often produced concurrently with ozone, giving rise to a characteristic milky-white haze associated with this type of air pollution.Today ozone and particulates are recognized as the air pollutants that are most likely to affect human health adversely. In the United States, most major metropolitan areas have periodic air pollution events with ozone in excess of government health standards. Violations of local health standards also occur in major cities in Canada and in much of Europe. Other cities around the world (especially Mexico City) also experience very high ozone levels. In addition to urban-scale events, elevated ozone occurs in region-wide events in the eastern USA and in Western Europe, with excess ozone extending over areas of 1,000 km2 or more. Ozone plumes of similar extent are found in the tropics (especially in Central Africa) at times of high biomass burning (e.g., Jenkins et al., 1997; Chatfield et al., 1998). In some cases ozone associated with biomass burning has been identified at distances up to 104 km from its sources (Schultz et al., 1999).Ozone also has a significant impact on the global troposphere, and ozone chemistry is a major component of global tropospheric chemistry. Global background ozone concentrations are much lower than urban or regional concentrations during pollution events, but there is evidence that the global background has increased as a result of human activities (e.g., Wang and Jacob, 1998; Volz and Kley, 1988). A rise in

  16. Global Ozone Distribution relevant to Human Health: Metrics and present day levels from the Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Z. L.; Doherty, R. M.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Cooper, O. R.; Malley, C.; Colette, A.; Xu, X.; Pinto, J. P.; Simpson, D.; Schultz, M. G.; Hamad, S.; Moola, R.; Solberg, S.; Feng, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Using stations from the TOAR surface ozone database, this study quantifies present-day global and regional distributions of five ozone metrics relevant for both short-term and long-term human exposure. These metrics were explored at ozone monitoring sites globally, and re-classified for this project as urban or non-urban using population densities and night-time lights. National surface ozone limit values are usually related to an annual number of exceedances of daily maximum 8-hour running mean (MDA8), with many countries not even having any ozone limit values. A discussion and comparison of exceedances in the different ozone metrics, their locations and the seasonality of exceedances provides clues as to the regions that potentially have more serious ozone health implications. Present day ozone levels (2010-2014) have been compared globally and show definite geographical differences (see Figure showing the annual 4th highest MDA8 for present day ozone for all non-urban stations). Higher ozone levels are seen in western compared to eastern US, and between southern and northern Europe, and generally higher levels in east Asia. The metrics reflective of peak concentrations show highest values in western North America, southern Europe and East Asia. A number of the metrics show similar distributions of North-South gradients, most prominent across Europe and Japan. The interquartile range of the regional ozone metrics was largest in East Asia, higher for urban stations in Asia but higher for non-urban stations in Europe and North America. With over 3000 monitoring stations included in this analysis and despite the higher densities of monitoring stations in Europe, north America and East Asia, this study provides the most comprehensive global picture to date of surface ozone levels in terms of health-relevant metrics.

  17. Geophysical validation and long-term consistency between GOME-2/MetOp-A total ozone column and measurements from the sensors GOME/ERS-2, SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT and OMI/Aura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Koukouli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to assess the consistency of five years of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2/Metop-A [GOME-2] total ozone columns and the long-term total ozone satellite monitoring database already in existence through an extensive inter-comparison and validation exercise using as reference Brewer and Dobson ground-based measurements. The behaviour of the GOME-2 measurements is being weighed against that of GOME (1995–2011, Ozone Monitoring Experiment [OMI] (since 2004 and the Scanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY [SCIAMACHY] (since 2002 total ozone column products. Over the background truth of the ground-based measurements, the total ozone columns are inter-evaluated using a suite of established validation techniques; the GOME-2 time series follow the same patterns as those observed by the other satellite sensors. In particular, on average, GOME-2 data underestimate GOME data by about 0.80%, and underestimate SCIAMACHY data by 0.37% with no seasonal dependence of the differences between GOME-2, GOME and SCIAMACHY. The latter is expected since the three datasets are based on similar DOAS algorithms. This underestimation of GOME-2 is within the uncertainty of the reference data used in the comparisons. Compared to the OMI sensor, on average GOME-2 data underestimate OMI_DOAS (collection 3 data by 1.28%, without any significant seasonal dependence of the differences between them. The lack of seasonality might be expected since both the GOME data processor [GDP] 4.4 and OMI_DOAS are DOAS-type algorithms and both consider the variability of the stratospheric temperatures in their retrievals. Compared to the OMI_TOMS (collection 3 data, no bias was found. We hence conclude that the GOME-2 total ozone columns are well suitable to continue the long-term global total ozone record with the accuracy needed for climate monitoring studies.

  18. Monitoring of radioactivity in foodstuffs: experience gained and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamoon, A.M.; Abdulfattah, A.F.; Abulfaraj, W.H.; Abdul-Majid, S.; Al-Johani, M.; Abubakar, K.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Chernobyl reactor accident released large amounts of radioactivity that was carried by winds across international boundaries. Soils and surface waters as well as vegetation and grazing animals in neighbouring countries to the Soviet Union were subject to radioactive contamination in various degrees. Saudi Arabia imports much of its foodstuffs from European countries and about 75% of the imported foodstuffs come through western ports of the country. Hence the Government of Saudi Arabia took appropriate measures to ensure safety of imported foodstuffs. King Abdulaziz University (KAU) was directed by the government at about mid-June 1986, to carry out radioactivity inspections of food items reaching Jeddah, Yanbu and Jizan seaports as well as food arrivals at King Abdulaziz International Airport at Jeddah. Parallel responsibilities were assigned to other universities and King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, for radioactivity inspections of imported foodstuffs reaching ports or inlets in their respective areas. In applying the measures and controls enacted by the government against importation of radioactively contaminated foodstuffs, much management experience was acquired and some of it is rather unique to Saudi Arabia

  19. Experience during the monitoring of inactive scrap for the detection of inadvertent presence of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Ranjit; Anoj Kumar; Vikas; Singh, Rajvir; Patra, R.P.; Vikas Kumar; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes about the experience gained during the radiation monitoring of inactive scrap generated at various nuclear facilities. This type surveillance is carried out to prevent the spread of radioactivity in public domain and also as requirement by regulatory authorities. The inspection and certification of scrap material from nuclear facilities is a regulatory requirement to ensure that no radioactive material reaches public domain. This paper describes the methodology and experience in detection of radioactivity at inactive Scrap monitoring facility. Inactive scraps (metallic and non metallic) generated from various nuclear facilities of BARC, Trombay is dispatched to Trombay Village Store (TVS) for temporary storage before auction to the public. The monitoring at the facility includes visual inspection and radiation measurement before loading the scrap in the truck. An online PC based monitoring system and portable monitoring instruments in the range (nSv/h-µSv/h) are used to carry out radiation monitoring of inactive scrap loaded in a vehicle. Radioactive source of high activity with potential for serious environmental hazard has not been detected, but few cases of presence of radioactive/contaminated material (MS plate/equipments with low level of 137 Cs contamination) have been detected and identified using portable gamma spectrometer. Implementation of strict regulatory measures and radiation monitoring at nuclear facilities can minimize the probability of radioactive material reaching the public domain. The methodology followed for monitoring of inactive scrap is found to be effective even for detection of presence of radioactivity in scrap if any. (author)

  20. Advanced treatment of biotreated textile industry wastewater with ozone, virgin/ozonated granular activated carbon and their combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan-Alaton, Idil; Seremet, Ozden

    2004-01-01

    Biotreated textile wastewater (CODo = 248 mg L(-1); TOCo = 58 mg L(-1); A620 = 0.007 cm(-1); A525 = 0.181 cm(-1); A436 = 0.198 cm(-1)) was subjected to advanced treatment with ozonation, granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption in serial and simultaneous applications. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of applied ozone dose, ozone absorption rate, specific ozone absorption efficiency, GAC dose, and reaction pH on the treatment performance of the selected tertiary treatment scheme. In separate experiments, the impact of virgin GAC ozonation on its adsorptive capacity for biotreated and biotreated + ozonated textile effluent was also investigated. Ozonation appeared to be more effective for decolorization (kd = 0.15 min(-1) at pH = 3), whereas GAC adsorption yielded higher COD removal rates (54% at pH = 3). It was also found that GAC addition (4 g/L) at pH = 7 and 9 enhanced the COD abatement rate of the ozonation process significantly and that the sequential application of ozonation (at pH = 3-11, 675 mg L(-1) O3) followed by GAC adsorption (at pH = 3-7, 10 g L(-1) GAC) resulted in the highest treatment performances both in terms of color and COD reduction. Simultaneous application of GAC and ozone at acidic and alkaline pH seriously inhibited COD abatement rates as a consequence of competitive adsorption and partial oxidation of textile components and GAC. It could also be established that ozone absorption efficiency decreased after color removal was complete. Ozonation of biotreated textile wastewater with 113 mg L(-1) ozone resulted in an appreciable enhancement of GAC adsorptive capacity in terms of residual color removal. Ozonation of GAC at relatively low doses (= 10.8 mg/g GAC) did not improve its overall adsorption capacity.

  1. Generation and Reduction of NOx on Air-Fed Ozonizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehara, Yoshiyasu; Amemiya, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Toshiaki

    A generation and reduction of NOx on air-fed ozonizers using a ferroelectric packed bed reactor have been experimentally investigated. The reactors packed with CaTiO3, SrTiO3 and BaTiO3 pellets are examined for ozone generation. An ac voltage is applied to the reactor to generate partial discharge. Ozone concentration and the different nitrogen oxides at downstream of the packed bed reactor were measured with UV absorption ozone monitor and a Fourier transform infrared spectroscope respectively. The dielectric constant of packed ferroelectric pellets influences the discharge characteristic, ozone and NOx generations are varied by the dielectric constant value. Focusing on a discharge pulse current and maximum discharge magnitude, the ferroelectric packed bed plasma reactors have been evaluated on nitrogen oxide and ozone generated concentrations.

  2. Geophysical validation of SCIAMACHY Limb Ozone Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Brinksma

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the quality of the two available SCIAMACHY limb ozone profile products. They were retrieved with the University of Bremen IFE's algorithm version 1.61 (hereafter IFE, and the official ESA offline algorithm (hereafter OL versions 2.4 and 2.5. The ozone profiles were compared to a suite of correlative measurements from ground-based lidar and microwave, sondes, SAGE II and SAGE III (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment. To correct for the expected Envisat pointing errors, which have not been corrected implicitly in either of the algorithms, we applied a constant altitude shift of -1.5 km to the SCIAMACHY ozone profiles. The IFE ozone profile data between 16 and 40 km are biased low by 3-6%. The average difference profiles have a typical standard deviation of 10% between 20 and 35 km. We show that more than 20% of the SCIAMACHY official ESA offline (OL ozone profiles version 2.4 and 2.5 have unrealistic ozone values, most of these are north of 15° S. The remaining OL profiles compare well to correlative instruments above 24 km. Between 20 and 24 km, they underestimate ozone by 15±5%.

  3. OMI/Aura Ozone (O3) Total Column 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003 NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI/Aura Level-2 Total Column Ozone Data Product OMTO3 Near Real Time data is made available from the OMI SIPS NASA for the public access. The Ozone Monitoring...

  4. MRI-guided percutaneous cervical discectomy and discolysis with oxygen-ozone mixture for treatment of cervical disc herniation: an initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ming; Li Chengli; Lu Yubo; Huang Jie; Song Jiqing; Li Lei; Bao Shougang; Cao Qianqian; Wu Lebin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of MR imaging-guided percutaneous cervical discectomy and discolysis with oxygen-ozone mixture for treatment of cervical disc herniation. Methods: Eight herniated cervical discs in 7 patients were diagnosed by MRI, inclluding 5 discs of lateral protruding type, 2 discs of paramedian protruding type and one disc of central protruding type. All patients underwent MR imaging-guided percutaneous cervical discectomy and discolysis with oxygen-ozone mixture. The procedures were guided by a set of 0.23 T open MR system mounted with iPath 200 optical tracking system. The herniated portion of the disc was punctured with a 14 G MR-comparible needle in the healthy side via anterolateral oblique route. The interventional steps were as follows: firstly, cut herniated part with percutaneous discectomy probe and inject 2ml oxygen-ozone mixture of 60 μg/ml; secondly, retreat the needle to the disc center, resect nucleus pulposus, and inject 2 ml oxygen-ozone mixture of 60 μg/ml; secondly, retreat the needle to the disc center, resect nucleus pulposus, and inject 2 ml oxygen-ozone mixture of 60 μg/ml. All patients were followed up for 6 months, with 4 patients by telephone and 3 patients in outpatient clinic. The effect of treatment was evaluated according to Williams postoperative assessment standard. Results: All procedures were performed successfully. The clinical outcome was evaluated as excellent in 5 cases, good in 1 cases and fair in 1 case. The total ratio of excellent and good was 85.7%. No serious complication occurred expect 1 case with intraoperative paroxysmal pain. Conclusion: MR imaging-guided percutaneous cervical discectomy and discolysis with oxygen-ozone mixture was a safe, effective and minimally invasive method for the treatment of cervical disc herniation. (authors)

  5. Experiences in the monitoring of radiation workers in industry and hospitals in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateo, A.J.

    1976-08-01

    The task of monitoring of radiation doses among radiation workers employed either in industry and hospitals in the Philippines is presently being undertaken by the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission. These radiation monitoring devices cover not only radioactive materials or sources but also x-ray machines. The most common dosimetry used is the film badge. This paper presents some of the experiences gained in the use of the film badge and other dosimeters

  6. Experience with the custom-developed ATLAS Offline Trigger Monitoring Framework and Reprocessing Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Bartsch, V

    2012-01-01

    After about two years of data taking with the ATLAS detector manifold experience with the custom-developed trigger monitoring and reprocessing infrastructure could be collected. The trigger monitoring can be roughly divided into online and offline monitoring. The online monitoring calculates and displays all rates at every level of the trigger and evaluates up to 3000 data quality histograms. The physics analysis relevant data quality information is being checked and recorded automatically. The offline trigger monitoring provides information depending of the physics motivated different trigger streams after a run has finished. Experts are checking the information being guided by the assessment of algorithms checking the current histograms with a reference. The experts are recording their assessment in a so-called data quality defects which are used to select data for physics analysis. In the first half of 2011 about three percent of all data had an intolerable defect resulting from the ATLAS trigger system. T...

  7. Estimation of surface UV levels based on Meteor-3/TOMS ozone data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, Y A [Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow (Russian Federation); Geogdzhaev, I V [Moscow Inst. of Physics and Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khattatov, V U [Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    The major consequence of ozone layer depletion for the environment is an increase of harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the Earth surface and in the upper ocean. This implies the importance of environmental UV monitoring. Since the direct global monitoring is not currently possible, indirect estimations of surface UV levels may be used based on satellite ozone data (Madronich, S. 1992). Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on board the METEOR-3 satellite provided regular set of data for such estimates. During the time of its operation (August, 1991 - December, 1994) the instrument registered several ozone hole events over Antarctica, when ozone levels dropped by as much as 60 % from their unperturbed values. Probably even more alarming ozone depletions were observed over highly populated regions of middle latitudes of northern hemisphere. Radiative transfer modeling was used to convert METEOR-3/TOMS daily ozone values into regional and global maps of biologically active UV. Calculations demonstrate the effect on surface UV levels produced by ozone hole over Antarctica and ozone depletions over the territory of Russia (March, 1994). UV contour lines deviate from the normal appearance which is determined by growing southward solar elevation. UV contour lines are almost perpendicular to the ozone ones in the ozone depletions areas. The 30 % ozone depletion, over Siberia caused more than 30 % increase in noontime erythemal UV levels, which is equivalent to 10-15 degrees southward latitude displacement. Higher UV radiation increases were found in ozone hole over South America (October 1992) equivalent to about 20 degrees southward displacement

  8. Estimation of surface UV levels based on Meteor-3/TOMS ozone data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, Y.A. [Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow (Russian Federation); Geogdzhaev, I.V. [Moscow Inst. of Physics and Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khattatov, V.U. [Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The major consequence of ozone layer depletion for the environment is an increase of harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the Earth surface and in the upper ocean. This implies the importance of environmental UV monitoring. Since the direct global monitoring is not currently possible, indirect estimations of surface UV levels may be used based on satellite ozone data (Madronich, S. 1992). Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on board the METEOR-3 satellite provided regular set of data for such estimates. During the time of its operation (August, 1991 - December, 1994) the instrument registered several ozone hole events over Antarctica, when ozone levels dropped by as much as 60 % from their unperturbed values. Probably even more alarming ozone depletions were observed over highly populated regions of middle latitudes of northern hemisphere. Radiative transfer modeling was used to convert METEOR-3/TOMS daily ozone values into regional and global maps of biologically active UV. Calculations demonstrate the effect on surface UV levels produced by ozone hole over Antarctica and ozone depletions over the territory of Russia (March, 1994). UV contour lines deviate from the normal appearance which is determined by growing southward solar elevation. UV contour lines are almost perpendicular to the ozone ones in the ozone depletions areas. The 30 % ozone depletion, over Siberia caused more than 30 % increase in noontime erythemal UV levels, which is equivalent to 10-15 degrees southward latitude displacement. Higher UV radiation increases were found in ozone hole over South America (October 1992) equivalent to about 20 degrees southward displacement

  9. DQM4HEP - A Generic Online Monitor for Particle Physics Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Coates, Tom; Salvatore, Fabrizio; Cussans, David; Ete, Remi; Irles, Adrian; Mirabito, Lauren; Pingault, Antoine; Wing, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Currently there is a lot of activity in R&D for future colliders. Multiple detector prototypes are being tested, each with different requirements for data acquisition and monitoring, which has generated different ad-hoc software solutions. We present DQM4HEP, a generic C++11 framework for online monitoring for particle physics experiments, and results obtained at several testbeams with detector prototypes using the framework as it was developed. We also present the currently ongoing work to integrate DQM4HEP and EUDAQ, which will allow these to work together as a complete and generic DAQ and monitoring system for any detector test, as part of AIDA-2020.

  10. The stratospheric ozone and the ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zea Mazo, Jorge Anibal; Leon Aristizabal Gloria Esperanza; Eslava Ramirez Jesus Antonio

    2000-01-01

    An overview is presented of the principal characteristics of the stratospheric ozone in the Earth's atmosphere, with particular emphasis on the tropics and the ozone hole over the poles. Some effects produced in the atmosphere as a consequence of the different human activities will be described, and some data on stratospheric ozone will be shown. We point out the existence of a nucleus of least ozone in the tropics, stretching from South America to central Africa, with annual mean values less than 240 DU, a value lower than in the middle latitudes and close to the mean values at the South Pole. The existence of such a minimum is confirmed by mean values from measurements made on satellites or with earthbound instruments, for different sectors in Colombia, like Medellin, Bogota and Leticia

  11. Evaluation of The Surface Ozone Concentrations In Greater Cairo Area With Emphasis On Helwan, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.; Kandil, A.T.; Abd Elmaged, S.M.; Mubarak, I.

    2011-01-01

    Various biogenic and anthropogenic sources emit huge quantities of surface ozone. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the surface ozone levels present at Helwan area in order to improve the knowledge and understanding troposphere processes. Surface Ozone has been measured at 2 sites at Helwan; these sites cover the most populated area in Helwan. Ozone concentration is continuously monitored by UV absorption photometry using the equipment O 3 41 M UV Photometric Ozone Analyzer. The daily maximum values of the ozone concentration in the greater Cairo area have approached but did not exceeded the critical levels during the year 2008. Higher ozone concentrations at Helwan are mainly due to the transport of ozone from regions further to the north of greater Cairo and to a lesser extent of ozone locally generated by photochemical smog process. The summer season has the largest diurnal variation, with the tendency of the daily ozone maxima occur in the late afternoon. The night time concentration of ozone was significantly higher at Helwan because there are no fast acting sinks, destroying ozone since the average night time concentration of ozone is maintained at 40 ppb at the site. No correlation between the diurnal total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and the diurnal cumulative ozone concentration was observed during the Khamasin period

  12. R & D of a Gas-Filled RF Beam Profile Monitor for Intense Neutrino Beam Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonehara, K. [Fermilab; Backfish, M. [Fermilab; Moretti, A. [Fermilab; Tollestrup, A. V. [Fermilab; Watts, A. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. M. [Fermilab; Abrams, R. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Cummings, M. A.; Dudas, A. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Johnson, R. P. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Kazakevich, G. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Neubauer, M. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Liu, Q. [Case Western Reserve U.

    2017-05-01

    We report the R&D of a novel radiation-robust hadron beam profile monitor based on a gas-filled RF cavity for intense neutrino beam experiments. An equivalent RF circuit model was made and simulated to optimize the RF parameter in a wide beam intensity range. As a result, the maximum acceptable beam intensity in the monitor is significantly increased by using a low-quality factor RF cavity. The plan for the demonstration test is set up to prepare for future neutrino beam experiments.

  13. Monitoring conformational dynamics with solid-state R1ρ experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, Caitlin M.; McDermott, Ann E.

    2009-01-01

    A new application of solid-state rotating frame (R 1ρ ) relaxation experiments to observe conformational dynamics is presented. Studies on a model compound, dimethyl sulfone (DMS), show that R 1ρ relaxation due to reorientation of a chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) tensor undergoing chemical exchange can be used to monitor slow-to-intermediate timescale conformational exchange processes. Control experiments used d 6 -DMS and alanine to confirm that the technique is monitoring reorientation of the CSA tensor rather than dipolar interactions or methyl group rotation. The application of this method to proteins could represent a new site-specific probe of conformational dynamics

  14. Chemical Explosion Experiments to Improve Nuclear Test Monitoring - Developing a New Paradigm for Nuclear Test Monitoring with the Source Physics Experiments (SPE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snelson, Catherine M.; Abbott, Robert E.; Broome, Scott T.; Mellors, Robert J.; Patton, Howard J.; Sussman, Aviva J.; Townsend, Margaret J.; Walter, William R.

    2013-01-01

    A series of chemical explosions, called the Source Physics Experiments (SPE), is being conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to develop a new more physics-based paradigm for nuclear test monitoring. Currently, monitoring relies on semi-empirical models to discriminate explosions from earthquakes and to estimate key parameters such as yield. While these models have been highly successful monitoring established test sites, there is concern that future tests could occur in media and at scale depths of burial outside of our empirical experience. This is highlighted by North Korean tests, which exhibit poor performance of a reliable discriminant, mb:Ms (Selby et al., 2012), possibly due to source emplacement and differences in seismic responses for nascent and established test sites. The goal of SPE is to replace these semi-empirical relationships with numerical techniques grounded in a physical basis and thus applicable to any geologic setting or depth

  15. Ozone therapy in periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, G; Mansi, B

    2012-02-22

    Gingival and Periodontal diseases represent a major concern both in dentistry and medicine. The majority of the contributing factors and causes in the etiology of these diseases are reduced or treated with ozone in all its application forms (gas, water, oil). The beneficial biological effects of ozone, its anti-microbial activity, oxidation of bio-molecules precursors and microbial toxins implicated in periodontal diseases and its healing and tissue regeneration properties, make the use of ozone well indicated in all stages of gingival and periodontal diseases. The primary objective of this article is to provide a general review about the clinical applications of ozone in periodontics. The secondary objective is to summarize the available in vitro and in vivo studies in Periodontics in which ozone has been used. This objective would be of importance to future researchers in terms of what has been tried and what the potentials are for the clinical application of ozone in Periodontics.

  16. Total ozone column derived from GOME and SCIAMACHY using KNMI retrieval algorithms: Validation against Brewer measurements at the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, M.; Kroon, M.; López, M.; Vilaplana, J. M.; Bañón, M.; van der A, R.; Veefkind, J. P.; Stammes, P.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2011-11-01

    This article focuses on the validation of the total ozone column (TOC) data set acquired by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) satellite remote sensing instruments using the Total Ozone Retrieval Scheme for the GOME Instrument Based on the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (TOGOMI) and Total Ozone Retrieval Scheme for the SCIAMACHY Instrument Based on the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (TOSOMI) retrieval algorithms developed by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute. In this analysis, spatially colocated, daily averaged ground-based observations performed by five well-calibrated Brewer spectrophotometers at the Iberian Peninsula are used. The period of study runs from January 2004 to December 2009. The agreement between satellite and ground-based TOC data is excellent (R2 higher than 0.94). Nevertheless, the TOC data derived from both satellite instruments underestimate the ground-based data. On average, this underestimation is 1.1% for GOME and 1.3% for SCIAMACHY. The SCIAMACHY-Brewer TOC differences show a significant solar zenith angle (SZA) dependence which causes a systematic seasonal dependence. By contrast, GOME-Brewer TOC differences show no significant SZA dependence and hence no seasonality although processed with exactly the same algorithm. The satellite-Brewer TOC differences for the two satellite instruments show a clear and similar dependence on the viewing zenith angle under cloudy conditions. In addition, both the GOME-Brewer and SCIAMACHY-Brewer TOC differences reveal a very similar behavior with respect to the satellite cloud properties, being cloud fraction and cloud top pressure, which originate from the same cloud algorithm (Fast Retrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A-Band (FRESCO+)) in both the TOSOMI and TOGOMI retrieval algorithms.

  17. Does interspecific competition alter effects of early season ozone exposure on plants from wet grasslands? Results of a three-year experiment in open-top chambers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonneijck, A.E.G.; Franzaring, J.; Brouwer, G.; Metselaar, K.; Dueck, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    Chronic effects of ozone on wet grassland species early in the growing season might be altered by interspecific competition. Individual plants of Holcus lanatus, Lychnis flos-cuculi, Molinia caerulea and Plantago lanceolata were grown in monocultures and in mixed cultures with Agrostis capillaris.

  18. Quantifying the contributions to stratospheric ozone changes from ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Plummer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A state-of-the-art chemistry climate model coupled to a three-dimensional ocean model is used to produce three experiments, all seamlessly covering the period 1950–2100, forced by different combinations of long-lived Greenhouse Gases (GHGs and Ozone Depleting Substances (ODSs. The experiments are designed to quantify the separate effects of GHGs and ODSs on the evolution of ozone, as well as the extent to which these effects are independent of each other, by alternately holding one set of these two forcings constant in combination with a third experiment where both ODSs and GHGs vary. We estimate that up to the year 2000 the net decrease in the column amount of ozone above 20 hPa is approximately 75% of the decrease that can be attributed to ODSs due to the offsetting effects of cooling by increased CO2. Over the 21st century, as ODSs decrease, continued cooling from CO2 is projected to account for more than 50% of the projected increase in ozone above 20 hPa. Changes in ozone below 20 hPa show a redistribution of ozone from tropical to extra-tropical latitudes with an increase in the Brewer-Dobson circulation. In addition to a latitudinal redistribution of ozone, we find that the globally averaged column amount of ozone below 20 hPa decreases over the 21st century, which significantly mitigates the effect of upper stratospheric cooling on total column ozone. Analysis by linear regression shows that the recovery of ozone from the effects of ODSs generally follows the decline in reactive chlorine and bromine levels, with the exception of the lower polar stratosphere where recovery of ozone in the second half of the 21st century is slower than would be indicated by the decline in reactive chlorine and bromine concentrations. These results also reveal the degree to which GHG-related effects mute the chemical effects of N2O on ozone in the standard future scenario used for the WMO Ozone Assessment. Increases in the

  19. SMM mesospheric ozone measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikin, A. C.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective was to understand the secular and seasonal behavior of ozone in the lower mesosphere, 50 to 70 km. This altitude region is important in understanding the factors which determine ozone behavior. A secondary objective is the study of stratospheric ozone in the polar regions. Use is made of results from the SBUV satellite borne instrument. In the Arctic the interaction between chlorine compounds and low molecular weight hydrocarbons is studied. More than 30,000 profiles were obtained using the UVSP instrument on the SMM spacecraft. Several orbits of ozone data per day were obtained allowing study of the current rise in solar activity from the minimum until the present. Analysis of Nimbus 7 SBUV data in Antarctic spring indicates that ozone is depleted within the polar vortex relative to ozone outside the vortex. This depletion confirms the picture of ozone loss at altitudes where polar stratospheric clouds exist. In addition, there is ozone loss above the cloud level indicating that there is another mechanism in addition to ozone loss initiated by heterogeneous chlorine reactions on cloud particles.

  20. A Global Ozone Climatology from Ozone Soundings via Trajectory Mapping: A Stratospheric Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J. J.; Tarasick, D. W.; Fioletov, V. E.; McLinden, C.; Zhao, T.; Gong, S.; Sioris, G.; Jin, J. J.; Liu, G.; Moeini, O.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores a domain-filling trajectory approach to generate a global ozone climatology from sparse ozonesonde data. Global ozone soundings of 51,898 profiles at 116 stations over 44 years (1965-2008) are used, from which forward and backward trajectories are performed for 4 days, driven by a set of meteorological reanalysis data. Ozone mixing ratios of each sounding from the surface to 26 km altitude are assigned to the entire path along the trajectory. The resulting global ozone climatology is archived monthly for five decades from the 1960s to the 2000s with grids of 5 degree 5 degree 1 km (latitude, longitude, and altitude). It is also archived yearly from 1965 to 2008. This climatology is validated at 20 ozonesonde stations by comparing the actual ozone sounding profile with that found through the trajectories, using the ozone soundings at all the stations except one being tested. The two sets of profiles are in good agreement, both individually with correlation coefficients between 0.975 and 0.998 and root mean square (RMS) differences of 87 to 482 ppbv, and overall with a correlation coefficient of 0.991 and an RMS of 224 ppbv. The ozone climatology is also compared with two sets of satellite data, from the Satellite Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) and the Optical Spectrography and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS). Overall, the ozone climatology compares well with SAGE and OSIRIS data by both seasonal and zonal means. The mean difference is generally under 20 above 15 km. The comparison is better in the northern hemisphere, where there are more ozonesonde stations, than in the southern hemisphere; it is also better in the middle and high latitudes than in the tropics, where assimilated winds are imperfect in some regions. This ozone climatology can capture known features in the stratosphere, as well as seasonal and decadal variations of these features. Furthermore, it provides a wealth of detail about longitudinal variations in the stratosphere such

  1. A Wireless Sensor Network for Structural Health Monitoring: Performance and Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Paek, Jeongyeup; Chintalapudi, Krishna; Caffrey, John; Govindan, Ramesh; Masri, Sami

    2005-01-01

    While sensor network research has made significant strides in the past few years, the literature has relatively few examples of papers that have evaluated and validated a complete experimental system. In this paper we discuss our deployment experiences and evaluate the performance of a multi-hop wireless data acquisition system (called Wisden) for structural health monitoring (SHM) on a large seismic test structure used by civil engineers. Our experiments indicate that, with the latest sensor...

  2. CREAM - a Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor for space experiments: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mapper, D.; Stephen, J.H.; Farren, J.; Stimpson, B.P.; Bolus, D.J.; Ellaway, A.M.

    1987-12-01

    A detailed account is given of the design and construction of the experimental CREAM packages, intended for flight in the mid-deck area of the Space Transport System (Shuttle) Mission in 1986. The complete experiment involved; 1) a self-contained and battery powered activation monitor for measuring energy losses of charged particles; 2) CR-39 and Kapton polymer solid state nuclear track detectors for the detection of ionising particles; 3) metal foils of nickel, titanium and gold for neutron monitoring; and 4) thermoluminescent detectors for dosimetry measurements of the radiation background. The circuit design and detailed functioning of the active monitor is fully described, together with a complete discussion of the principles and operation of the passive monitors. (author)

  3. L2TTMON Monitoring Program for L2 Topological Trigger in H1 Experiment - User's Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banas, E.; Ducorps, A.

    1999-01-01

    Monitoring software for the L2 Topological Trigger in H1 experiment consists of two parts working on two different computers. The hardware read-out and data processing is done on a fast FIC 8234 computer working with the OS9 real time operating system. The Macintosh Quadra is used as a Graphic User Interface for accessing the OS9 trigger monitoring software. The communication between both computers is based on the parallel connection between the Macintosh and the VME crate, where the FIC computer is placed. The special designed protocol (client-server) is used to communicate between both nodes. The general scheme of monitoring for the L2 Topological Trigger and detailed description of using of the monitoring software in both nodes are given in this guide. (author)

  4. Experience of monitoring the recurrent laryngeal nerve in thyroid surgery with endotracheal intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:To analysis clinical experience of applying recurrent laryngeal monitoring endotracheal tube (NIM EMG Endotracheal Tube in the surgery of thyroid. Method: A retrospective analysis of 84 patients who underwent endotracheal intubation laryngeal nerve monitoring by thyroid surgery in the Chinese-Japanese Friendship Hospital of Jilin University from March to December in 2015. To summarize the experience of intubation with NIM EMG Endotracheal Tube. Result 77 (91.7%had initial intubation achievement in the 84 patients.FROM the 77 cases we had gotten s atisfactory nerve monitoring signal.Whereas there are 7 cases (8.3% appear abnormal EMG or signal missing, in the 7 cases there is one which being intubated too deep, 3 cases which being intubated too shallow and 3 cases with malrotation intubation.Conclusion: We got the satisfactory signals after adjust1ing the tube by using the visual laryngoscope.

  5. Ovulation monitoring and fertility knowledge: Their relationship to fertility experience in a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righarts, Antoinette; Dickson, Nigel P; Parkin, Lianne; Gillett, Wayne R

    2017-08-01

    Various aspects of fertility knowledge, including the timing of the fertile window, have consistently been found to be poor. Limited evidence also suggests ovulation monitoring to time intercourse could be common. However, there have been no studies that compare these two aspects of fertility and women's fertility/infertility experiences. To examine the frequency of ovulation monitoring and its relationship with fertility knowledge and experience. A cross-sectional study of women aged 25-50 years resident in southern New Zealand was undertaken in 2011. Randomly selected women were asked to complete a fertility questionnaire. Outcome prevalence measures were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and associations investigated using χ 2 tests and Poisson regression. Ovulation monitoring was common, having ever been undertaken by 31.4% (95% CI: 28.5-34.3%) of the 1034 participants. However, knowledge was poor, particularly regarding the fertile window. More women who had ever monitored ovulation correctly identified the fertile window, although the proportion was still very low (18.4 vs 13.1% in those who had not, P = 0.027). Regression modelling showed ovulation monitoring was independently associated with seeking medical help to conceive, education and fertility experience, but not with knowledge. This study confirms ovulation monitoring was commonly undertaken. However, many women, including those who had monitored their ovulation, had poor fertility knowledge and failed to identify the fertile window. Poor fertility knowledge needs to be addressed, especially among women intending to conceive. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  6. The high-voltage monitor system for the calorimeter of the OBELIX experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertin, A.; Bruschi, M.; Capponi, M.; Cereda, B.; D'Antone, I.; De Castro, S.; Galli, D.; Giacobbe, B.; Marconi, U.; Massa, I.; Piccinini, M.; Poli, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Spighi, R.; Vecchi, S.; Vezzani, A.; Villa, M.; Vitale, A.; Zoccoli, A.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the monitor system developed to manage the high voltage power supply for the electromagnetic calorimeter of the OBELIX experiment, installed on the LEAR facility at CERN. The hardware and software characteristics of the system are discussed, as well as the performance of the same. (orig.)

  7. Nicotiana tabacum as model for ozone - plant surface reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jud, Werner; Fischer, Lukas; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Tissier, Alain; Canaval, Eva; Hansel, Armin

    2015-04-01

    Elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations are considered a toxic threat to plants, responsible for global crop losses with associated economic costs of several billion dollars per year. The ensuing injuries have been related to the uptake of ozone through the stomatal pores and oxidative effects damaging the internal leaf tissue. A striking question of current research is the environment and plant specific partitioning of ozone loss between gas phase, stomatal or plant surface sink terms. Here we show results from ozone fumigation experiments using various Nicotiana Tabacum varieties, whose surfaces are covered with different amounts of unsaturated diterpenoids exuded by their glandular trichomes. Exposure to elevated ozone levels (50 to 150 ppbv) for 5 to 15 hours in an exceptionally clean cuvette system did neither result in a reduction of photosynthesis nor caused any visible leaf damage. Both these ozone induced stress effects have been observed previously in ozone fumigation experiments with the ozone sensitive tobacco line Bel-W3. In our case ozone fumigation was accompanied by a continuous release of oxygenated volatile organic compounds, which could be clearly associated to their condensed phase precursors for the first time. Gas phase reactions of ozone were avoided by choosing a high enough gas exchange rate of the plant cuvette system. In the case of the Ambalema variety, that is known to exude only the diterpenoid cis-abienol, ozone fumigation experiments yield the volatiles formaldehyde and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK). The latter could be unequivocally separated from isomeric methacrolein (MACR) by the aid of a Selective Reagent Ion Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (SRI-ToF-MS), which was switched every six minutes from H3O+ to NO+ primary ion mode and vice versa. Consistent with the picture of an ozone protection mechanism caused by reactive diterpenoids at the leaf surface are the results from dark-light experiments. The ozone loss obtained from the

  8. Spatio-temporal observations of the tertiary ozone maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Sofieva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We present spatio-temporal distributions of the tertiary ozone maximum (TOM, based on GOMOS (Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars ozone measurements in 2002–2006. The tertiary ozone maximum is typically observed in the high-latitude winter mesosphere at an altitude of ~72 km. Although the explanation for this phenomenon has been found recently – low concentrations of odd-hydrogen cause the subsequent decrease in odd-oxygen losses – models have had significant deviations from existing observations until recently. Good coverage of polar night regions by GOMOS data has allowed for the first time to obtain spatial and temporal observational distributions of night-time ozone mixing ratio in the mesosphere.

    The distributions obtained from GOMOS data have specific features, which are variable from year to year. In particular, due to a long lifetime of ozone in polar night conditions, the downward transport of polar air by the meridional circulation is clearly observed in the tertiary ozone maximum time series. Although the maximum tertiary ozone mixing ratio is achieved close to the polar night terminator (as predicted by the theory, TOM can be observed also at very high latitudes, not only in the beginning and at the end, but also in the middle of winter. We have compared the observational spatio-temporal distributions of the tertiary ozone maximum with that obtained using WACCM (Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model and found that the specific features are reproduced satisfactorily by the model.

    Since ozone in the mesosphere is very sensitive to HOx concentrations, energetic particle precipitation can significantly modify the shape of the ozone profiles. In particular, GOMOS observations have shown that the tertiary ozone maximum was temporarily destroyed during the January 2005 and December 2006 solar proton events as a result of the HOx enhancement from the increased ionization.

  9. Pollution Control Using Ozone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for cleaning air comprising one or more pollutants, the method comprising contacting the air with thermal decompositions products of ozone.......This invention relates to a method for cleaning air comprising one or more pollutants, the method comprising contacting the air with thermal decompositions products of ozone....

  10. The pollution by ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    Air pollution by ozone is increasing in spite of several points to reduce it. If the process of ozone formation are complex, the sources of this pollution are well known: first, mobile sources with automobiles (49%), boats , trains and planes (13%), then are following paints and solvents(18%), thermal power plants(11%), and finally industry processing with 5%. (N.C.)

  11. Westinghouse power distribution monitoring experience at Duke Power's McGuire Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grobmyer, L.R.; Cash, M.T.; Kitlan, M.S.; Impink, A.J. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    In the evolution of the Westinghouse methodology of assuring safe core power distributions, emphasis was placed on analysis and not on continuous detailed core monitoring. Power distribution monitoring is currently achieved by periodic surveillances using the movable in-core detector system (MIDS) and by continuous observations of the two-section excore power range detectors. Control of the power distribution is regulated by limits on the indications from these systems, by limits on control rod insertion, and by operational constraints on the position indication systems. As more plants come on line and as more utilities take over the fuel design function for themselves, the desire for better core monitoring becomes evident. Also, the need and desire by the utilities to have more control over their operating margin has motivated the industry to offer and/or upgrade core monitoring systems. Westinghouse and Duke Power are participants in a joint development program to finalize the development of the core on-line surveillance monitoring and operations system (COSMOS). This final stage of development consists of prototype field trials at the McGuire Nuclear Plant. The purpose of the prototype program is to determine how well the design objectives are met and how to improve the system based on the operating experience at McGuire. Another purpose of this prototype program is to generate the necessary experience and information to develop a topical report for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to obtain a licensing basis for technical specification relaxation

  12. Ecosystem-scale trade-offs between impacts of ozone and reactive nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Ed; Hayes, Felicity; Sawicka, Kasia; Mills, Gina; Jones, Laurence; Moldan, Filip; Sereina, Bassin; van Dijk, Netty; Evans, Chris

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition stimulates plant productivity in many terrestrial ecosystems. This is clearly beneficial for production agriculture and forestry, but increased litterfall and decreased ground-level light availability reduce the suitability of habitats for many biota (Jones et al., 2014). This mechanism (Hautier et al., 2009), together with the acidifying effects of N (Stevens et al., 2010), has caused considerable biodiversity loss at global scale. Ozone, by contrast, has the effect of reducing plant production, and a simple assessment would suggest that this might mitigate the effects of N pollution. We explored the interactions between ozone and nitrogen at mechanistic level using a version of the MADOC model (Rowe et al., 2014) modified to include effects of ozone. The model was tested against data from long-term monitoring and experimental sites with a focus on nitrogen and/or ozone effects. Effects on biodiversity were assessed by coupling the MADOC model to the MultiMOVE plant species model. We used this model-chain to explore trade-offs and synergies between the impacts of nitrogen and ozone on biodiversity and ecosystem biogeochemistry. In a review of the effects of ozone on ecosystem processes, two consistent effects were found: decreased net primary production due to damage to photosynthetic mechanisms; and an increase in litter nitrogen apparently caused by interference of ozone with the retranslocation process (Mills, in prep.). Insufficient evidence was found to justify inclusion of posited interactive mechanisms such as increased ozone susceptibility with greater nitrogen supply. However, the MADOC model illustrated emergent ozone-nitrogen interactions at ecosystem scale, for example an increase in N leaching due to decreased plant demand and greater litter N content. Empirical evidence for interactive effects of nitrogen and ozone at ecosystem scale is severely lacking, but simulated results were consistent with soil and soil solution

  13. French experience in transient data collection and fatigue monitoring of PWR's nuclear steam supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabaton, M.; Morilhat, P.; Savoldelli, D.; Genette, P.

    1995-10-01

    Electricite de France (EDF), the french national electricity company, is operating 54 standardized pressurizer water reactors. This about 500 reactor-years experience in nuclear stations operation and maintenance area has allowed EDF to develop its own strategy for monitoring of age-related degradations of NPP systems and components relevant for plant safety and reliability. After more than fifteen years of experience in regulatory transient data collection and seven years of successful fatigue monitoring prototypes experimentation, EDF decided to design a new system called SYSFAC (acronym for SYsteme de Surveillance en FAtigue de la Chaudiere) devoted to transient logging and thermal fatigue monitoring of the reactor coolant pressure boundary. The system is fully automatic and directly connected to the on-site data acquisition network without any complementary instrumentation. A functional transient detection module and a mechanical transient detection module are in charge of the general transient data collection. A fatigue monitoring module is aimed towards a precise surveillance of five specific zones particularly sensible to thermal fatigue. After the first step of preliminary studies, the industrial phase of the SYSFAC project is currently going on, with hardware and software tests and implementation. The first SYSFAC system will be delivered to the pilot power plant by the beginning of 1996. The extension to all EDF's nuclear 900 MW is planned after one more year of feedback experience. (authors). 12 refs., 3 figs

  14. Experience in organizing and operating of local centers of radiation monitoring in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterenko, V.B.; Devojno, A.N.

    1993-01-01

    The paper analyzes the experience in the arrangement and activity of local centres for the radiation monitoring of foods and of articles of daily use established under the control of the rural and urban area administrations at the contaminated territories. The measurement results obtained by the local centres show the deep contamination of food from the local farms and from the local fields and forests, in particular, milk, ferries and mushrooms. RAPIT information system was established automate the processing and analyse of data from the local centres of the radiation monitoring

  15. Experience and evaluation of advanced on-line core monitoring system 'BEACON' at IKATA site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujitsuka, Nobumichi; Tanouchi, Hideyuki; Imamura, Yasuhiro; Mizobuchil, Daisuke

    1997-01-01

    Shikoku Electric Power Company installed BEACON core monitoring system into IKATA unit 3 in May 1994. During its first cycle of core operation, various operational data were obtained including data of some anomalous reactor conditions introduced for the test objective of the plant start-up. This paper presents the evaluation of the BEACON system capability based on this experience. The system functions such as core monitoring and anomaly detection, prediction of future reactor conditions and increased efficiency of core management activities are discussed. Our future plan to utilize the system is also presented. (authors)

  16. Experience gained from the operation of two α-monitors in ''PUTE''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groll, P.; Persohn, M.; Roeder, L.; Roemer, J.; Schuler, B.

    1983-04-01

    The operation of two α-monitors of the ''drum-cell''-type in the plutonium facility ''PUTE'' is described. The instruments were installed in the AW- and the BW-stream. After a short description of the monitor, the different operating modes and of installation details, the experience gained from two weeks of continuous operation is described. The advantages of the use of in-line-instruments compared with laboratory analyses of samples are discussed. The instruments were available for 97 or 94% of the time. (orig.) [de

  17. A data quality monitoring software framework for the BES Ⅲ experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jifeng; Zheng Yangheng; Sun Xiaodong; Ji Xiaobin

    2012-01-01

    Data quality monitoring (DQM) plays an important role in data taking at the BES Ⅲ experiments. DQM is used to monitor detector status and data quality. A DQM framework (DQMF) has been developed to make it possible to reuse the BES Ⅲ offline reconstruction system in the online environment. In this framework, the DQMF can also simulate a virtual data taking environment, transfer events to the event display, publish histograms to a histogram presenter in a fixed interval, and dump histograms into a ROOT file. The DQMF has been stably running throughout BES Ⅲ data taking. (authors)

  18. First Results from the Online Radiation Dose Monitoring System in ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Mandić, I; The ATLAS collaboration; Deliyergiyev, M; Gorišek, A; Kramberger, G; Mikuž, M; Franz, S; Hartert, J; Dawson, I; Miyagawa, P S; Nicolas, L

    2011-01-01

    High radiation doses which will accumulate in components of ATLAS experiment during data taking will cause damage to detectors and readout electronics. It is therefore important to continuously monitor the doses to estimate the level of degradation caused by radiation. Online radiation monitoring system measures ionizing dose in SiO2 and fluences of 1-MeV(Si) equivalent neutrons and thermal neutrons at several locations in ATLAS detector. In this paper measurements collected during two years of ATLAS data taking are presented and compared to predictions from radiation background simulations.

  19. First Results from the Online Radiation Dose Monitoring System in ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Mandić, I; The ATLAS collaboration; Deliyergiyev, M; Gorišek, A; Kramberger, G; Mikuž, M; Franz, S; Hartert, J; Dawson, I; Miyagawa, P; Nicolas, L

    2011-01-01

    High radiation doses which will accumulate in components of ATLAS experiment during data taking will causes damage to detectors and readout electronics. It is therefore important to continuously monitor the doses to estimate the level of degradation caused by radiation. Online radiation monitoring system measures ionizing dose in SiO2 , displacement damage in silicon in terms of 1-MeV(Si) equivalent neutron fluence and fluence of thermal neutrons at several locations in ATLAS detector. In this paper design of the system, results of measurements and comparison of measured integrated doses and fluences with predictions from FLUKA simulation will be shown.

  20. Proceedings of recent innovations and experience with plant monitoring and utility operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchtman, I.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains proceedings of Recent Innovations and Experience with Plant Monitoring and Utility Operations. Topics covered include: a number of innovative actions recently applied at plants in the United States, Australia, and the People's Republic of China. A preview of forthcoming instrumentation and monitoring techniques, enhanced boiler and turbine operations and maintenance, determining root causes of boiler related problems, welding technique that eliminates high temperature, post weld heat treatment, successful application of a portable oil filtration skid, and a method of evaluation for high pressure turbine life assessment using the EPRI rotor life assessment software

  1. Estonian total ozone climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ± 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987–1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April–May and summer (June–August total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; volcanic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  2. Degradation of p-nitrotoluene in aqueous solution by ozonation combined with sonolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Shuang; Xia Min; He Zhiqiao; Ying Haiping; Lue Bosheng; Chen Jianmeng

    2007-01-01

    p-Nitrotoluene (PNT) is a nitroaromatic compound that is hazardous to humans and is a suspected hormone disrupter. The degradation of PNT in aqueous solution by ozonation (O 3 ) combined with sonolysis (US) was investigated in laboratory-scale experiments in which pH, initial concentration of PNT, O 3 dose and temperature were varied. The degradation of PNT followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, and degradation products were monitored during the process. The maximum degradation was observed at pH 10.0. As the initial concentration of PNT decreased, the degradation rate increased. Both temperature and ozone dose had a positive effect on the degradation of PNT. Of the total organic carbon (TOC) reduction, 8, 68, and 85% were observed with US, O 3 , and a combination of US and O 3 after reaction for 90 min, respectively, proving that ozonation combined with sonolysis for removal of TOC is more efficient than ozonation alone or ultrasonic irradiation alone. Major by-products, including p-cresol, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4-(oxomethylene) cyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-one, but-2-enedioic acid, and acetic acid were detected by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry

  3. Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report: Database and Metrics Data of Global Surface Ozone Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin G. Schultz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In support of the first Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR a relational database of global surface ozone observations has been developed and populated with hourly measurement data and enhanced metadata. A comprehensive suite of ozone data products including standard statistics, health and vegetation impact metrics, and trend information, are made available through a common data portal and a web interface. These data form the basis of the TOAR analyses focusing on human health, vegetation, and climate relevant ozone issues, which are part of this special feature. Cooperation among many data centers and individual researchers worldwide made it possible to build the world's largest collection of 'in-situ' hourly surface ozone data covering the period from 1970 to 2015. By combining the data from almost 10,000 measurement sites around the world with global metadata information, new analyses of surface ozone have become possible, such as the first globally consistent characterisations of measurement sites as either urban or rural/remote. Exploitation of these global metadata allows for new insights into the global distribution, and seasonal and long-term changes of tropospheric ozone and they enable TOAR to perform the first, globally consistent analysis of present-day ozone concentrations and recent ozone changes with relevance to health, agriculture, and climate. Considerable effort was made to harmonize and synthesize data formats and metadata information from various networks and individual data submissions. Extensive quality control was applied to identify questionable and erroneous data, including changes in apparent instrument offsets or calibrations. Such data were excluded from TOAR data products. Limitations of 'a posteriori' data quality assurance are discussed. As a result of the work presented here, global coverage of surface ozone data for scientific analysis has been significantly extended. Yet, large gaps remain in the surface

  4. Trends of Ozone in Switzerland since 1992 (TROZOS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez, C.; Mathis, H.; Furger, M.; Prevot, A.S.H

    2004-07-01

    This work reports on the trends of the daily afternoon (noon to midnight) maximum ozone concentrations at 15 of the 16 stations of the Swiss air quality monitoring network (NABEL) during the period 1992-2002. The use of numerous meteorological parameters and additional data allowed a detailed seasonal analysis of the influence of the weather on the ozone maxima at the different stations. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed separately for each station and season in order to detect the parameters which best explain the variability of the daily ozone maximum concentrations. During the warm seasons (summer and spring) the most explanatory parameters are those related to the ozone production, in particular the afternoon temperature. In winter, the most explanatory variables are the ones influencing the vertical mixing and thus the ozone destruction by titration with NO and dry deposition, like the afternoon global radiation. The trends of both the measured and meteorologically corrected ozone maxima were calculated. The year-to-year variability in the ozone maxima was lowered by a factor of 3 by the meteorological correction. Significantly positive trends of corrected ozone maxima of 0.3 - 1.1 ppb/year were found at the low altitude stations in winter and autumn as well as at Lausanne - urban station - in all the seasons, mainly due to the lower loss of ozone by reaction with NO as a consequence of the decreased emissions of primary pollutants during the 90s. This could be partially confirmed by the lower trends of O{sub X} (sum O{sub 3} of and NO{sub 2}) maxima compared to the trends in ozone maxima. The absence of negative trends of the median or mean ozone maxima north of the Alps in summer suggests that the decrease in the emissions of ozone precursors did not have a strong impact on the afternoon maximum ozone concentrations during the last decade. In contrast to the project TOSS (Trends of Ozone in Southern Switzerland), no significantly negative

  5. Trends of Ozone in Switzerland since 1992 (TROZOS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez, C.; Mathis, H.; Furger, M.; Prevot, A.S.H.

    2004-07-01

    This work reports on the trends of the daily afternoon (noon to midnight) maximum ozone concentrations at 15 of the 16 stations of the Swiss air quality monitoring network (NABEL) during the period 1992-2002. The use of numerous meteorological parameters and additional data allowed a detailed seasonal analysis of the influence of the weather on the ozone maxima at the different stations. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed separately for each station and season in order to detect the parameters which best explain the variability of the daily ozone maximum concentrations. During the warm seasons (summer and spring) the most explanatory parameters are those related to the ozone production, in particular the afternoon temperature. In winter, the most explanatory variables are the ones influencing the vertical mixing and thus the ozone destruction by titration with NO and dry deposition, like the afternoon global radiation. The trends of both the measured and meteorologically corrected ozone maxima were calculated. The year-to-year variability in the ozone maxima was lowered by a factor of 3 by the meteorological correction. Significantly positive trends of corrected ozone maxima of 0.3 - 1.1 ppb/year were found at the low altitude stations in winter and autumn as well as at Lausanne - urban station - in all the seasons, mainly due to the lower loss of ozone by reaction with NO as a consequence of the decreased emissions of primary pollutants during the 90s. This could be partially confirmed by the lower trends of O X (sum O 3 of and NO 2 ) maxima compared to the trends in ozone maxima. The absence of negative trends of the median or mean ozone maxima north of the Alps in summer suggests that the decrease in the emissions of ozone precursors did not have a strong impact on the afternoon maximum ozone concentrations during the last decade. In contrast to the project TOSS (Trends of Ozone in Southern Switzerland), no significantly negative trends of ozone

  6. Ozone as an air pollutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    1996-01-01

    A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995.......A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995....

  7. The Data Quality Monitoring Software for the CMS experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2071602

    2016-01-01

    The Data Quality Monitoring (DQM) Software is a central tool in the CMS experiment. Its flexibility allows for integration in several key environments Online, for real-time detector monitoring; Offline, for the final, fine-grained Data Certification; Release-Validation, to constantly validate the functionalities and the performance of the reconstruction software; in Monte Carlo productions.Since the end of data taking at a center of mass energy of 8 TeV, the environment in which the DQM lives has undergone fundamental changes. In turn, the DQM system has made significant upgrades in many areas to respond to not only the changes in infrastructure, but also the growing specialized needs of the collaboration with an emphasis on more sophisticated methods for evaluating dataquality, as well as advancing the DQM system to provide quality assessments of various Monte Carlo simulations versus data distributions, monitoring changes in physical effects due to modifications of algorithms or framework, and enabling reg...

  8. Experiences with an expert system technology for real-time monitoring and diagnosis of industrial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Q B [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada); Mylopoulos, J [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada); Opala, J [CAE Electronics, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The complexity of modern industrial processes and the large amount of data available to their operators make it difficult to monitor their status and diagnose potential failures. Although there have been many attempts to apply knowledge-based technologies to this problem, there have not been any convincing success. This paper describes recent experiences with a technology that combines artificial intelligence and simulation techniques for building real-time monitoring and diagnosis systems. A prototype system for monitoring and diagnosing the feedwater system of a nuclear power plant built using this technology is described. The paper then describes several interesting classes of failures that the prototype is capable of diagnosing. (author). 19 refs, 6 figs.

  9. Health physics experience in commissioning and operation of radiation and air activity monitoring system at FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, V.M.; Meenakshisundaram, V.; Viswanathan, S.; Bala Sundar, S.; Jose, M.T.; Suriyamurthy, N.; Ravi, T.; Subramanian, V.

    2001-01-01

    The Radiation and Air Activity Monitoring System (RAAMS) at Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) is meant to monitor and record the radiation and air activity levels at various potentially active areas in FBTR complex. Health Physics Group, FBTR was associated during commissioning of RAAMS in fixing the alarm settings for the monitors, their relocation and in formulating the surveillance procedures. The areas were surveyed to check for any release of activity for confirming the observed readings during operation of the reactor. In such cases, augmentation of shielding was recommended and was promptly implemented by the station management. The details of the long and fruitful experience gained by the Health Physics Group, FBTR are described in this paper. (author)

  10. Community-monitoring program surrounding the Nevada Test Site: one year of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, G.S.

    1983-05-01

    Since 1954, the US Public Health Service and later the US Environmental Protection Agency Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, have been responsible for conducting a program of environmental radiation monitoring and public radiation safety associated with nuclear weapons tests conducted by the United States. A recent major innovation in this long-term program has been the establishment of a network of Community Monitoring Stations in 15 offsite communities. The new network supplements existing networks operated for nearly three decades in these and other offsite communities. It differs from other networks in the continuing offsite radiation monitoring and public safety program in that it incorporates Federal, State, and local Government participation. This report reviews the history of offsite radiation surveillance leading to institution of the new network and describes the first year of experience with its equipment, methodology, and management as well as its impact on citizens of the communities involved

  11. Experiences with an expert system technology for real-time monitoring and diagnosis of industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Q.B.; Mylopoulos, J.; Opala, J.

    1996-01-01

    The complexity of modern industrial processes and the large amount of data available to their operators make it difficult to monitor their status and diagnose potential failures. Although there have been many attempts to apply knowledge-based technologies to this problem, there have not been any convincing success. This paper describes recent experiences with a technology that combines artificial intelligence and simulation techniques for building real-time monitoring and diagnosis systems. A prototype system for monitoring and diagnosing the feedwater system of a nuclear power plant built using this technology is described. The paper then describes several interesting classes of failures that the prototype is capable of diagnosing. (author). 19 refs, 6 figs

  12. Web-based monitoring tools for Resistive Plate Chambers in the CMS experiment at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.S.; Ban, Y.; Cai, J.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Qian, S.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Zhang, F.; Choi, Y.; Kim, D.; Goh, J.; Choi, S.; Hong, B.; Kang, J.W.; Kang, M.; Kwon, J.H.; Lee, K.S.; Lee, S.K.; Park, S.K.

    2014-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) are used in the CMS experiment at the trigger level and also in the standard offline muon reconstruction. In order to guarantee the quality of the data collected and to monitor online the detector performance, a set of tools has been developed in CMS which is heavily used in the RPC system. The Web-based monitoring (WBM) is a set of java servlets that allows users to check the performance of the hardware during data taking, providing distributions and history plots of all the parameters. The functionalities of the RPC WBM monitoring tools are presented along with studies of the detector performance as a function of growing luminosity and environmental conditions that are tracked over time

  13. New Directions: Ozone-initiated reaction products indoors may be more harmful than ozone itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weschler, Charles J.

    2004-10-01

    Epidemiological studies have found associations between ozone concentrations measured at outdoor monitoring stations and certain adverse health outcomes. As a recent example, Gent et al. (2003, Journal of the American Medical Association 290, 1859-1867) have observed an association between ozone levels and respiratory symptoms as well as the use of maintenance medication by 271 asthmatic children living in Connecticut and the Springfield area of Massachusetts. In another example, Gilliland et al. (2001, Epidemiology 12, 43-54) detected an association between short-term increases in ozone levels and increased absences among 4th grade students from 12 southern California communities during the period from January to June 1996. Although children may spend a significant amount of time outdoors, especially during periods when ozone levels are elevated, they spend a much larger fraction of their time indoors. I hypothesize that exposure to the products of ozone-initiated indoor chemistry is more directly responsible for the health effects observed in the cited epidemiological studies than is exposure to outdoor ozone itself.

  14. Monitoring of debris flows and landslides by wired and wireless systems. Experiences from the Catalan Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hürlimann, Marcel; Abancó, Clàudia; Moya, José; Vilajosana, Ignasi; Llosa, Jordi

    2013-04-01

    Sophisticated monitoring of landslides for research purpose has started in the 1990thies in the Catalan Pyrenees. Since then several types of mass movements (large landslides, debris flows, shallow landslides and rock falls) and multiples techniques have been applied. In this contribution, special attention will be given to the debris-flow monitoring system installed since summer 2009 in the Rebaixader catchment, Central Pyrenees. The monitoring system has continuously been improved during the last years and nowadays includes devices studying the three major aspects: 1) initiation, 2) flow dynamics, and 3) accumulation. While some parts of the monitoring network include a traditional wired system, the newer parts were installed using low-power wireless devices. Two major aspects will be discussed. First, results of the Rebaixader monitoring site will be presented. Second, experience regarding the monitoring will be evaluated focussing on technical aspects and the comparison between wired and wireless techniques. In the Rebaixader catchment, 6 debris flows and 11 debris floods were observed between August 2009 and October 2012. Surprisingly, also 4 major rock falls were recorded. The rainfall analysis shows that the debris flows were triggered by short, high-intensity rainstorms with a preliminary threshold of about 15 mm during 1 hour. In addition, there was observed a positive trend between event volume and rainfall amount or intensity. The analysis of the ground vibration signals shows significant differences between the time series recorded at the different geophones. These differences are associated with the geophone location in the channel (distance and material), the mounting or the data acquisition system. For instance, the most downstream geophone, installed in bedrock, shows the clearest debris-flows vibration time series, while the uppermost is the most reliable regarding the detection of rockfalls. An evaluation of wired versus wireless monitoring

  15. Study on the Ozonation of Organic Wastes (1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Hong; Kang, Il Sik; Hong, Dae Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Ozone is often used in combination with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, UV, peroxides, and the catalyst. These combined processes have the purpose to increase OH radicals, so this combination process is called the advanced oxidation process (AOP, Advanced Oxidation Process). In this study, the possibility of the oxidation treatment of LSC Cocktail solution by using a combination of ozone and hydrogen peroxide was investigated. The addition of a suitable amount of hydrogen peroxide increases the efficiency of the oxidation process during ozonation of the organic materials. But on the contrary, the excess addition of hydrogen they can play a role as a scavenger consuming the hydroxyl radicals generated during the ozonation process. So it is very important to find the amount of volume of hydrogen peroxide. The efficiency of oxidation treatment of organic materials is greatly depended on the properties of liquid waste (pH, concentration and chemical type of organics), the process temperature, the flow rate (waste and ozone gas), the ozone concentration, the hydrogen peroxide concentration and the presence or absence of scavengers. In this study, by using an ozone contactor (hydrophobic hollow fiber membrane type), the basic experiments were carried out to evaluate the applicability of ozonation to the organic wastes. First of all, the oxidation treatment was evaluated by ozone alone, and secondly was evaluated according to the changes of the amount of hydrogen peroxide and a pH of wastes.

  16. Study on the Ozonation of Organic Wastes (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Hong; Kang, Il Sik; Hong, Dae Seok

    2014-01-01

    Ozone is often used in combination with H 2 O 2 , UV, peroxides, and the catalyst. These combined processes have the purpose to increase OH radicals, so this combination process is called the advanced oxidation process (AOP, Advanced Oxidation Process). In this study, the possibility of the oxidation treatment of LSC Cocktail solution by using a combination of ozone and hydrogen peroxide was investigated. The addition of a suitable amount of hydrogen peroxide increases the efficiency of the oxidation process during ozonation of the organic materials. But on the contrary, the excess addition of hydrogen they can play a role as a scavenger consuming the hydroxyl radicals generated during the ozonation process. So it is very important to find the amount of volume of hydrogen peroxide. The efficiency of oxidation treatment of organic materials is greatly depended on the properties of liquid waste (pH, concentration and chemical type of organics), the process temperature, the flow rate (waste and ozone gas), the ozone concentration, the hydrogen peroxide concentration and the presence or absence of scavengers. In this study, by using an ozone contactor (hydrophobic hollow fiber membrane type), the basic experiments were carried out to evaluate the applicability of ozonation to the organic wastes. First of all, the oxidation treatment was evaluated by ozone alone, and secondly was evaluated according to the changes of the amount of hydrogen peroxide and a pH of wastes

  17. Diclofenac removal from water with ozone and activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Fernando J; Pocostales, Pablo; Alvarez, Pedro; Oropesa, Ana

    2009-04-30

    Diclofenac (DCF) has been treated in water with ozone in the presence of various activated carbons. Activated carbon-free ozonation or single ozonation leads to a complete degradation of DCF in less than 15 min while in the presence of activated carbons higher degradation rates of TOC and DCF are noticeably achieved. Among the activated carbons used, P110 Hydraffin was found the most suitable for the catalytic ozonation of DCF. The influence of pH was also investigated. In the case of the single ozonation the increasing pH slightly increases the TOC removal rate. This effect, however, was not so clear in the presence of activated carbons where the influence of the adsorption process must be considered. Ecotoxicity experiments were performed, pointing out that single ozonation reduces the toxicity of the contaminated water but catalytic ozonation improved those results. As far as kinetics is concerned, DCF is removed with ozone in a fast kinetic regime and activated carbon merely acts as a simple adsorbent. However, for TOC removal the ozonation kinetic regime becomes slow. In the absence of the adsorbent, the apparent rate constant of the mineralization process was determined at different pH values. On the other hand, determination of the rate constant of the catalytic reaction over the activated carbon was not possible due to the effect of mass transfer resistances that controlled the process rate at the conditions investigated.

  18. Magnetic Field Monitoring in the SNS and LANL Neutron EDM Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, Alina; SNS nEDM Collaboration; LANL nEDM Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The SNS neutron EDM experiment requires the ability to precisely control and monitor the magnetic field inside of the fiducial volume. However, it is not always practical (or even possible) to measure the field within the region of interest directly. To remedy this issue, we have designed a field monitoring system that will allow us to reconstruct the field inside of the fiducial volume using noninvasive measurements of the field components at discrete locations external to this volume. A prototype probe array (consisting of 12 single-axis fluxgate magnetometer sensors) was used to monitor the magnetic field within the fiducial volume of an in-house magnetic testing apparatus. In this talk, the design and results of this test will be presented, and the possible implementation of this field monitoring method may have in the room temperature LANL neutron EDM experiment will be discussed. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Award Number DE-SC-0014622.

  19. Integrated experiment activity monitoring for wLCG sites based on GWT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feijóo, Alejandro Guinó; Espinal, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this work is to develop a High Level Monitoring (HLM) where to merge the distributed computing activities of an LHC experiment (ATLAS). ATLAS distributed computing is organized in clouds, where the Tier-Is (primary centers) provide services to the associated Tier-2s centers (secondaries) so they are all seen as a cloud by the experiment. Computing activities and sites stability monitoring services are numerous and delocalized. It would be very useful for a cloud manager to have a single place where to aggregate available monitoring information. The idea presented in this paper is to develop a set of collectors to gather information regarding site status and performance on data distribution, data processing and Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) tests (Service Availability Monitoring), store them in specific databases, process the results and show it in a single HLM page. Once having it, one can investigate further by interacting with the front-end, which is fed by the stats stored on databases.

  20. Integrated monitoring of multi-domain backbone connections Operational experience in the LHC optical private network

    CERN Document Server

    Marcu, Patricia; Fritz, Wolfgang; Yampolskiy, Mark; Hommel, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Novel large scale research projects often require cooperation between various different project partners that are spread among the entire world. They do not only need huge computing resources, but also a reliable network to operate on. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is a representative example for such a project. Its experiments result in a vast amount of data, which is interesting for researchers around the world. For transporting the data from CERN to 11 data processing and storage sites, an optical private network (OPN) has been constructed. As the experiment data is highly valuable, LHC defines very high requirements to the underlying network infrastructure. In order to fulfil those requirements, the connections have to be managed and monitored permanently. In this paper, we present the integrated monitoring solution developed for the LHCOPN. We first outline the requirements and show how they are met on the single network layers. After that, we describe, how those single measurements can be comb...

  1. The radiation monitoring system for the LHC experiments and experimental areas

    CERN Document Server

    Ilgner, C

    2004-01-01

    With the high energies stored in the beams of the LHC, special attention needs to be paid to accident scenarios involving beam losses which may have an impact on the installed experiments. Among others, an unsynchronized beam abort and a D1 magnet failure are considered serious cases. According to simulations, the CMS inner tracker in such accident scenarios can be damaged by instantaneous rates which are many orders of magnitude above normal conditions. Investigations of synthetic diamond as a beam condition monitor sensor, capable of generating a fast beam dump signal, will be presented. Furthermore, a system to monitor the radiation fields in the experimental areas is being developed. It must function in the radiation fields inside and around the experiments, over a large dynamic range. Several new active and passive sensors, such as RadFET, OSL (Optically Stimulated Luminescence) sensors, p-i-n diodes, Polymer-Alanine Dosimeters and TLDs (Thermoluminescent Dosimeters) are under investigation. Recent resul...

  2. Experiment study on four button electrode used to monitor position of high current electron-beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Tiezheng; Wang Huacen; Xie Yutong; Zhang Wenwei

    2004-01-01

    The button electrode is one that widely used in high energy accelerators, such as storage ring, and the button electrode has many merit like high accuracy, high resolution, resisting magnetic field, simple machinery, without magnetic core and low cost, etc. It's helpful that the button electrode is used as the beam position monitor in the linear induction accelerator. The experimental facilities have been designed and set up and it can simulate the beam of linear induction accelerator. The button electrode beam position monitor experiment have been done on the experimental facilities. The result of the experiment prove that the button electrode has an accuracy of 0.5 mm, and can reflect the wave of electron-beam accurately

  3. Thermal and orbital analysis of Earth monitoring Sun-synchronous space experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killough, Brian D.

    1990-01-01

    The fundamentals of an Earth monitoring Sun-synchronous orbit are presented. A Sun-synchronous Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) was developed to calculate orbital parameters for an entire year. The output from this program provides the required input data for the TRASYS thermal radiation computer code, which in turn computes the infrared, solar and Earth albedo heat fluxes incident on a space experiment. Direct incident heat fluxes can be used as input to a generalized thermal analyzer program to size radiators and predict instrument operating temperatures. The SOAP computer code and its application to the thermal analysis methodology presented, should prove useful to the thermal engineer during the design phases of Earth monitoring Sun-synchronous space experiments.

  4. Automated Grid Monitoring for the LHCb Experiment Through HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Dice, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    The HammerCloud system is used by CERN IT to monitor the status of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG). HammerCloud automatically submits jobs to WLCG computing resources, closely replicating the workflow of Grid users (e.g. physicists analyzing data). This allows computation nodes and storage resources to be monitored, software to be tested (somewhat like continuous integration), and new sites to be stress tested with a heavy job load before commissioning. The HammerCloud system has been in use for ATLAS and CMS experiments for about five years. This summer's work involved porting the HammerCloud suite of tools to the LHCb experiment. The HammerCloud software runs functional tests and provides data visualizations. HammerCloud's LHCb variant is written in Python, using the Django web framework and Ganga/DIRAC for job management.

  5. OZONE ABSORPTION IN RAW WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA TAKIĆ

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The ozone absorption in raw water entering the main ozonization step at the Belgrade drinking water supply plant was investigated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR. A slow chemical reaction rate of dissolved ozone and pollutants present in raw water have been experimentally determined. The modified Hatta number was defined and calculated as a criterion which determines whether and to which extent the reactions of ozone and pollutants influence the rate of the pure physical ozone absorption.

  6. Ozone, greenhouse effect. Ozone, effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aviam, A.M.; Arthaut, R.

    1992-12-01

    This file is made of eight general papers on environment (climates under observation, research on photo-oxidizing pollution, scientific aspects of stratospheric ozone layer, urban engineering and environment, glory of public gardens, earths not very natural, darwinism and society, economical data on environment). (A.B.). refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Feasibility of Autonomous Monitoring of CO2 Leakage in Aquifers: Results From Controlled Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteeg, R.; Leger, E.; Dafflon, B.

    2016-12-01

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 is one of the primary proposed approaches for reducing total atmospheric CO2 concentrations. MVAA (Monitoring, Verification, Accounting and Assessment) of CO2 sequestration is an essential part of the geologic CO2 sequestration cycle. MVAA activities need to meet multiple operational, regulatory and environmental objectives, including ensuring the protection of underground sources of drinking water. Anticipated negative consequences of CO2 leakage into groundwater, besides possible brine contamination and release of gaseous CO2, include a significant increase of dissolved CO2 into shallow groundwater systems, which will decrease groundwater pH and can potentially mobilize naturally occurring trace metals and ions that are commonly absorbed to or contained in sediments. Autonomous electrical geophysical monitoring in aquifers has the potential of allowing for rapid and automated detection of CO2 leakage. However, while the feasibility of such monitoring has been demonstrated by a number of different field experiments, automated interpretation of complex electrical resistivity data requires the development of quantitative relationships between complex electrical resistivity signatures and dissolved CO2 in the aquifer resulting from leakage Under a DOE SBIR funded effort we performed multiple tank scale experiments in which we investigated complex electrical resistivity signatures associated with dissolved CO2 plumes in saturated sediments. We also investigated the feasibility of distinguishing CO2 leakage signatures from signatures associated with other processes such as salt water movement, temperature variations and other variations in chemical or physical conditions. In addition to these experiments we also numerically modeled the tank experiments. These experiments showed that (a) we can distinguish CO2 leakage signatures from other signatures, (b) CO2 leakage signatures have a consistent characteristic, (c) laboratory experiments

  8. Development of wall conditioning and impurity monitoring systems in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.Y., E-mail: brbbebbero@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, J.; Kim, Y.G.; Yang, S.M.; Kim, Y.S.; Lee, K.H. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); An, Y.H. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, K.J.; Na, Y.S. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Y.S., E-mail: yhwang@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The baking for partial wall heating and H{sub 2}/He GDC systems are developed in VEST. • The RGA and OES systems for monitoring impurities are constructed in VEST. • The partial baking and He GDC show limited effects on plasma characteristics. • H{sub 2} GDC above 4 h enables the longer plasma current duration up to ∼15 ms. • After H{sub 2} GDC, the discharge should be conducted within 3 h from treatment. - Abstract: Wall conditioning and impurity monitoring systems are developed in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST). As a wall conditioning system, a baking system covering the vacuum vessel wall partially and a glow discharge cleaning (GDC) system using two electrodes with dc and 50 kHz power supplies are installed. The GDC system operates with hydrogen and helium gases for both chemical and physical desorption. The impurity monitoring system with residual gas analyzer (RGA), operating at <10{sup −5} Torr with a differential pumping system, is installed along with the optical emission spectroscopy (OES) system to monitor the hydrogen and impurity radiation lines. Effects of these wall conditioning techniques are investigated with the impurity monitoring system for ohmic discharges of VEST. The partial baking and He GDC show limited effects on plasma characteristics but sufficient H{sub 2} GDC above 4 h enables the longer plasma current duration up to ∼15 ms within 3 h from the end of treatment.

  9. Development of wall conditioning and impurity monitoring systems in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.Y.; Yang, J.; Kim, Y.G.; Yang, S.M.; Kim, Y.S.; Lee, K.H.; An, Y.H.; Chung, K.J.; Na, Y.S.; Hwang, Y.S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The baking for partial wall heating and H_2/He GDC systems are developed in VEST. • The RGA and OES systems for monitoring impurities are constructed in VEST. • The partial baking and He GDC show limited effects on plasma characteristics. • H_2 GDC above 4 h enables the longer plasma current duration up to ∼15 ms. • After H_2 GDC, the discharge should be conducted within 3 h from treatment. - Abstract: Wall conditioning and impurity monitoring systems are developed in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST). As a wall conditioning system, a baking system covering the vacuum vessel wall partially and a glow discharge cleaning (GDC) system using two electrodes with dc and 50 kHz power supplies are installed. The GDC system operates with hydrogen and helium gases for both chemical and physical desorption. The impurity monitoring system with residual gas analyzer (RGA), operating at <10"−"5 Torr with a differential pumping system, is installed along with the optical emission spectroscopy (OES) system to monitor the hydrogen and impurity radiation lines. Effects of these wall conditioning techniques are investigated with the impurity monitoring system for ohmic discharges of VEST. The partial baking and He GDC show limited effects on plasma characteristics but sufficient H_2 GDC above 4 h enables the longer plasma current duration up to ∼15 ms within 3 h from the end of treatment.

  10. [Immunological monitoring in kidney transplantation: 13 years experience of a Moroccan histocompatibility laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, C; Atouf, O; Essakalli, M

    2016-05-01

    The quality of the immunological monitoring is crucial because it determines the success of the kidney transplantation. The scope of this work is to describe the experience of the department of immunological unity of the Ibn Sina university hospital in Rabat regarding the immunological monitoring of patients transplanted between 2001 and 2014. Patient samples were collected from nephrology services of different public and private hospitals of Morocco. The tests conducted in the context of immunological monitoring are ABO typing, HLA-A, B, DR, DQ typing, anti-HLA antibodies detection and identification and cross-match. One hundred and fourteen benefited from a pre- and post-transplant immunological monitoring in our laboratory. The percentage of recipients having between 2 and 5 stored sera is 60.5 before transplantation and 56.1 after transplantation. Immunized patients account for 22.8% before the transplant and 17.6% after transplantation. Ninety-seven patients still have a functional graft, while 4 of them had DSA of low intensity before transplantation. Five immunological rejections were reported while the cross-match were negative and no DSA was identified before transplantation. Patient survival and graft at 1 year was 98.2% and 92.7% respectively. Conducting regular immunological monitoring is sometimes difficult in our context, however, the results are satisfactory in terms of graft and patients survival. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Integrating a project monitoring system into a public health network: experiences from Alive & Thrive Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Nguyen Thanh; Alayon, Silvia; Do, Tran Thanh; Ngan, Tran Thi; Hajeebhoy, Nemat

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available about how to build a monitoring system to measure the output of preventive nutrition interventions, such as counselling on infant and young child feeding. This paper describes the Alive & Thrive Vietnam (A&T) project experience in nesting a large-scale project monitoring system into the existing public health information system (e.g. using the system and resources), and in using monitoring data to strengthen service delivery in 15 provinces with A&T franchises. From January 2012 to April 2014, the 780 A&T franchises provided 1,700,000 counselling contacts (~3/4 by commune franchises). In commune franchises in April 2014, 80% of mothers who were pregnant or with children under two years old had been to the counselling service at least one time, and 87% of clients had been to the service earlier. Monitoring data are used to track the progress of the project, make decisions, provide background for a costing study and advocate for the integration of nutrition counselling indicators into the health information system nationwide. With careful attention to the needs of stakeholders at multiple levels, clear data quality assurance measures and strategic feedback mechanisms, it is feasible to monitor the scale-up of nutrition programmes through the existing routine health information system.

  12. A computerised recording and monitoring system for extensive air shower experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naranan, S.; Rao, M.V.S.; Sivaprasad, K.; Subramaniam, P.B.

    1975-01-01

    A digital computer, TDC-12, with a memory capacity of 8 K 12-bit words and memory cycle time of 2 μs has been installed at the Cosmic Ray Laboratory at Kolar Gold Fields, India for real time operation with the KGF Air Shower Experiment. The computer system records the selected events and monitors and calibrates all the 90 detectors of various types in real time. (orig./WL) [de

  13. Fission product monitoring of TRISO coated fuel for the advanced gas reactor-1 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scates, Dawn M.; Hartwell, John K.; Walter, John B.; Drigert, Mark W.; Harp, Jason M.

    2010-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has embarked on a series of tests of TRISO coated particle reactor fuel intended for use in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) as part of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program. The AGR-1 TRISO fuel experiment, currently underway, is the first in a series of eight fuel tests planned for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The AGR-1 experiment reached a peak compact averaged burnup of 9% FIMA with no known TRISO fuel particle failures in March 2008. The burnup goal for the majority of the fuel compacts is to have a compact averaged burnup greater than 18% FIMA and a minimum compact averaged burnup of 14% FIMA. At the INL the TRISO fuel in the AGR-1 experiment is closely monitored while it is being irradiated in the ATR. The effluent monitoring system used for the AGR-1 fuel is the Fission Product Monitoring System (FPMS). The FPMS is a valuable tool that provides near real-time data indicative of the AGR-1 test fuel performance and incorporates both high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometers and sodium iodide [NaI(Tl)] scintillation detector-based gross radiation monitors. To quantify the fuel performance, release-to-birth ratios (R/B's) of radioactive fission gases are computed. The gamma-ray spectra acquired by the AGR-1 FPMS are analyzed and used to determine the released activities of specific fission gases, while a dedicated detector provides near-real time count rate information. Isotopic build up and depletion calculations provide the associated isotopic birth rates. This paper highlights the features of the FPMS, encompassing the equipment, methods and measures that enable the calculation of the release-to-birth ratios. Some preliminary results from the AGR-1 experiment are also presented.

  14. Ten years experience with a large computerized TLD-personnel monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.

    1986-01-01

    It is now ten years since our Institute for Radiation Protection has fully replaced its filmdosimetry service by a computerized automated TLD system. Presently more than 13000 radiation workers are monthly monitored by three automated TLD readers linked to the computer center. The paper describes system hardware and software and experience gained in long-term routine operation. In particular the introduction of the new ICRU quantities for personnel dosimetry in the existing TLD system is discussed. (Author)

  15. Experiment monitoring system of a new electromagnet drive for nuclear reactor control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jige; Wang Xiaoguang; Wu Yuanqiang; Zhang Zhengming

    2003-01-01

    In order to deal with some unsolved problems in the engineering prototype design of a new electromagnet drive device for nuclear reactor control rod, the property experiment in view of principle prototype is carried out. Actual displacement of nuclear reactor control rod is measured by means of raster ruler and the test data is obtained by means of computer. The computer communicates with PLC using RS232 serial port. The experimental results show that the monitoring system have the properties of high reliability and high precision, and ensures the experiment to accomplish successfully

  16. Partitioning,Automation and Error Recovery in the Control and Monitoring System of an LHC Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.Gaspar

    2001-01-01

    The Joint Controls Project(JCOP)is a collaboration between CERN and the four LHC experiments to find and implement common solutions for their control and monitoring systems.As part of this project and Architecture Working Group was set up in order to study the requirements and devise an architectural model that would suit the four experiments.Many issues were studied by this working group:Alarm handling,Access Control,Hierarchical Control,etc.This paper will report on the specific issue of hierarchical control and in particular partitioning,automation and error recovery.

  17. Automatic programmable air ozonizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubarev, S.P.; Klosovsky, A.V.; Opaleva, G.P.; Taran, V.S.; Zolototrubova, M.I.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe a compact, economical, easy to manage auto air ozonator developed at the Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT. It is designed for sanitation, disinfection of premises and cleaning the air from foreign odors. A distinctive feature of the developed device is the generation of a given concentration of ozone, approximately 0.7 maximum allowable concentration (MAC), and automatic maintenance of a specified level. This allows people to be inside the processed premises during operation. The microprocessor controller to control the operation of the ozonator was developed

  18. DQM4HEP - A Generic Online Monitor for Particle Physics Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Irles, Adrián; Coates, Tom; Salvatore, Fabrizio; Cussans, David; Éte, Remi; Mirabito, Laurent; Pingault, Antoine; Wing, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    There is currently a lot of activity in R&D for future collider experiments. Multiple detector prototypes are being tested, each one with slightly different requirements regarding the format of the data to be analysed. This has generated a variety of ad-hoc solutions for data acquisition and online data monitoring. We present a generic C++11 online monitoring framework called DQM4HEP, which is designed for use as a generic online monitor for particle physics experiments, ranging from small tabletop experiments to large multi-detector testbeams, such as those currently ongoing/planned at the DESY2 or CERN SPS beamlines. We present results obtained using DQM4HEP at several testbeams where the CALICE AHCAL, SDHCAL and SiWECAL detector prototypes have been tested. During these testbeams, online analysis using DQM4HEP's framework has been developed and used. We also present the currently ongoing work to integrate DQM4HEP within the EUDAQ tool. EUDAQ is a tool for common and generic data acquisition within the ...

  19. Study of Anti-Neutrino Beam with Muon Monitor in the T2K experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Takahiro

    The T2K experiment is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. In 2013, the T2K collaboration observed electron neutrino appearance in a muon neutrino beam at 7.3 sigma significance. One of the next main goals of the T2K experiment is to measure electron anti-neutrino appearance. In June 2014 we took anti-neutrino beam data for the first time. The anti-neutrino beam was obtained by reversing the polarity of horn focusing magnets. To monitor the direction and intensity of the neutrino beam which is produced from the decay of pions and kaons, the muon beam is continuously measured by Muon Monitor (MUMON). To reconstruct the profile of the muon beam, MUMON is equipped with 49 sensors distributed on a plane behind the beam dump. In this report, we show some results of the anti-neutrino beam data taken by monitors including MUMON. In particular, dependence of the muon beam intensity on electric current of the horns, correlation between the proton beam position and the MUMON profile, and beam stability are presented. Comparison between the data and Monte Carlo simulation is also discussed.

  20. Study of anti-neutrino beam with Muon Monitor in the T2K experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraki, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    The T2K experiment is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. In 2013, the T2K collaboration observed electron neutrino appearance in a muon neutrino beam at 7.3 sigma significance. One of the next main goals of the T2K experiment is to measure electron anti-neutrino appearance. In June 2014 we took anti-neutrino beam data for the first time. The anti-neutrino beam was obtained by reversing the polarity of horn focusing magnets. To monitor the direction and intensity of the neutrino beam which is produced from the decay of pions and kaons, the muon beam is continuously measured by Muon Monitor (MUMON). To reconstruct the profile of the muon beam, MUMON is equipped with 49 sensors distributed on a plane behind the beam dump. In this report, we show some results of the anti-neutrino beam data taken by monitors including MUMON. In particular, dependence of the muon beam intensity on electric current of the horns, correlation between the proton beam position and the MUMON profile, and beam stability are presented. Comparison between the data and Monte Carlo simulation is also discussed. (author)

  1. Effects of ozone and ozone/peroxide on trace organic contaminants and NDMA in drinking water and water reuse applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarenko, Aleksey N; Stanford, Benjamin D; Yan, Dongxu; Gerrity, Daniel; Snyder, Shane A

    2012-02-01

    An ozone and ozone/peroxide oxidation process was evaluated at pilot scale for trace organic contaminant (TOrC) mitigation and NDMA formation in both drinking water and water reuse applications. A reverse osmosis (RO) pilot was also evaluated as part of the water reuse treatment train. Ozone/peroxide showed lower electrical energy per order of removal (EEO) values for TOrCs in surface water treatment, but the addition of hydrogen peroxide increased EEO values during wastewater treatment. TOrC oxidation was correlated to changes in UV(254) absorbance and fluorescence offering a surrogate model for predicting contaminant removal. A decrease in N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation potential (after chloramination) was observed after treatment with ozone and ozone/peroxide. However, during spiking experiments with surface water, ozone/peroxide achieved limited destruction of NDMA, while in wastewaters net direct formation of NDMA of 6-33 ng/L was observed after either ozone or ozone/peroxide treatment. Once formed during ozonation, NDMA passed through the subsequent RO membranes, which highlights the significance of the potential for direct NDMA formation during oxidation in reuse applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. OMI/Aura Ozone(O3) Total Column 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003 (OMTO3) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Level-2 Total Column Ozone Data Product OMTO3 (Version 003) is available from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and...

  3. Ozone pollution: rising concentrations despite French and EU efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ba, M.; Elichegaray, Ch.

    2003-11-01

    Ozone is the main indicator of photochemical pollution which is caused by a complex combination of primary pollutants formed by chemical reactions in the troposphere, in the presence of sunlight. These primary pollutants, otherwise known as precursors of ozone (nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds and carbon monoxide), are emitted both by natural sources and human activities. In urban areas, during the summer months, ozone is often the main cause of deterioration in air quality. Directive 2002/3/EC relating to ozone in ambient air entered into force on 9 September 2003, superseding the first ozone Directive (92/72/CE) of 21 September 1992. In the last 10 years, monitoring of ozone pollution has considerably progressed in France (the number of analysers has increased tenfold). Emissions of the ozone precursors fell significantly (-27%) between 1990 and 2000 in France as a result of combined efforts in all sectors of activity. However, between 1994 and 2002, ozone levels remained above the information threshold for the protection of human health and vegetation on average more than 100 days a year in rural areas and over 40 days a year in urban and peri-urban areas. Efforts undertaken both in France and other European countries aim to improve the situation and ensure compliance with the requirements of Directive 2002/3/EC. (author)

  4. Application of ozone micro-nano-bubbles to groundwater remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liming; Xia, Zhiran

    2018-01-15

    Ozone is widely used for water treatment because of its strong oxidation ability. However, the efficiency of ozone in groundwater remediation is limited because of its relatively low solubility and rapid decomposition in the aqueous phase. Methods for increasing the stability of ozone within the subsurface are drawing increasing attention. Micro-nano-bubbles (MNBs), with diameters ranging from tens of nanometres to tens of micrometres, present rapid mass transfer rates, persist for a relatively long time in water, and transport with groundwater flow, which significantly improve gas concentration and provide a continuous gas supply. Therefore, MNBs show a considerable potential for application in groundwater remediation. In this study, the characteristics of ozone MNBs were examined, including their size distribution, bubble quantity, and zeta potential. The mass transfer rate of ozone MNBs was experimentally investigated. Ozone MNBs were then used to treat organics-contaminated water, and they showed remarkable cleanup efficiency. Column tests were also conducted to study the efficiency of ozone MNBs for organics-contaminated groundwater remediation. Based on the laboratory tests, field monitoring was conducted on a trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated site. The results showed that ozone MNBs can greatly improve remediation efficiency and represent an innovative technology for in situ remediation of organics-contaminated groundwater. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Maritza F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observed in both oils but they were higher in ozonized sunflower oil. Iodine value was zero in ozonized olive oil whereas in ozonized sunflower was 8.8 g Iodine per 100 g. The antimicrobial activity was similar for both ozonized oils except for Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations of Pseudomona aeruginosa. Composition of fatty acids in both ozonized oils showed gradual decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1, C18:2 with gradual increase in ozone doses.

  6. Prediction of required ozone dosage for pilot recirculating aquaculture systems based on laboratory studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Rojas-Tirado, Paula Andrea; Kaarsholm, Kamilla Marie Speht

    2017-01-01

    In recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), the water quality changes continuously. Organic and inorganic compounds accumulates creating toxic conditions for the farmed organisms. Ozone improves water quality diminishing significantly both bacteria load and dissolved organic matter. However......, in a non-meticulously designed system, residual ozone might reach the culture tanks causing significant harm to cultured species or excess costs. The aim of the study was to predict the suitable ozone dosage in pilot RAS, for water treatment purposes, based on laboratory studies. The ozone effect on water...... quality of freshwater RAS and system’s ozone demand was investigated. Bench-scale ozonation experiments revealed the ozone demand of the system to be 180 mg O3/h. Three different ozone dosages were applied to four replicated systems with fixed feed loading (1.56 kg feed/m3 make up water). Results...

  7. Secondary organic aerosol formation from ozone-initiated reactions with nicotine and secondhand tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleiman, Mohamad; Destaillats, Hugo; Smith, Jared D.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Ahmed, Musahid; Wilson, Kevin R.; Gundel, Lara A.

    2010-11-01

    We used controlled laboratory experiments to evaluate the aerosol-forming potential of ozone reactions with nicotine and secondhand smoke. Special attention was devoted to real-time monitoring of the particle size distribution and chemical composition of SOA as they are believed to be key factors determining the toxicity of SOA. The experimental approach was based on using a vacuum ultraviolet photon ionization time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (VUV-AMS), a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and off-line thermal desorption coupled to mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) for gas-phase byproducts analysis. Results showed that exposure of SHS to ozone induced the formation of ultrafine particles (smoke that is associated with the formation of ultrafine particles (UFP) through oxidative aging of secondhand smoke. The significance of this chemistry for indoor exposure and health effects is highlighted.

  8. Total ozone trends from 1979 to 2016 derived from five merged observational datasets - the emergence into ozone recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Mark; Coldewey-Egbers, Melanie; Fioletov, Vitali E.; Frith, Stacey M.; Wild, Jeannette D.; Burrows, John P.; Long, Craig S.; Loyola, Diego

    2018-02-01

    We report on updated trends using different merged datasets from satellite and ground-based observations for the period from 1979 to 2016. Trends were determined by applying a multiple linear regression (MLR) to annual mean zonal mean data. Merged datasets used here include NASA MOD v8.6 and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) merge v8.6, both based on data from the series of Solar Backscatter UltraViolet (SBUV) and SBUV-2 satellite instruments (1978-present) as well as the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME)-type Total Ozone (GTO) and GOME-SCIAMACHY-GOME-2 (GSG) merged datasets (1995-present), mainly comprising satellite data from GOME, the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY), and GOME-2A. The fifth dataset consists of the monthly mean zonal mean data from ground-based measurements collected at World Ozone and UV Data Center (WOUDC). The addition of four more years of data since the last World Meteorological Organization (WMO) ozone assessment (2013-2016) shows that for most datasets and regions the trends since the stratospheric halogen reached its maximum (˜ 1996 globally and ˜ 2000 in polar regions) are mostly not significantly different from zero. However, for some latitudes, in particular the Southern Hemisphere extratropics and Northern Hemisphere subtropics, several datasets show small positive trends of slightly below +1 % decade-1 that are barely statistically significant at the 2σ uncertainty level. In the tropics, only two datasets show significant trends of +0.5 to +0.8 % decade-1, while the others show near-zero trends. Positive trends since 2000 have been observed over Antarctica in September, but near-zero trends are found in October as well as in March over the Arctic. Uncertainties due to possible drifts between the datasets, from the merging procedure used to combine satellite datasets and related to the low sampling of ground-based data, are not accounted for in the trend

  9. Ozone in the atmosphere. Basic principles, natural and human impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabian, Peter [Technical Univ. Munich (Germany). Immission Research; Dameris, Martin [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen-Wessling (Germany). Inst. of Atmospheric Physics

    2014-09-01

    climate changes. For many years he has been an active contributor to the WMO scientific ozone depletion assessments, which have been used to monitor the depletion and recovery of the ozone layer in accordance with the Montreal Protocol.

  10. Ozone in the atmosphere. Basic principles, natural and human impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabian, Peter; Dameris, Martin

    2014-01-01

    climate changes. For many years he has been an active contributor to the WMO scientific ozone depletion assessments, which have been used to monitor the depletion and recovery of the ozone layer in accordance with the Montreal Protocol.

  11. Stomatal uptake and stomatal deposition of ozone in isoprene and monoterpene emitting plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, S; Loreto, F; Kleist, E; Wildt, J

    2008-01-01

    Volatile isoprenoids were reported to protect plants against ozone. To understand whether this could be the result of a direct scavenging of ozone by these molecules, the stomatal and non-stomatal uptake of ozone was estimated in plants emitting isoprene or monoterpenes. Ozone uptake by holm oak (Quercus ilex, a monoterpene emitter) and black poplar (Populus nigra, an isoprene emitter) was studied in whole plant enclosures (continuously stirred tank reactors, CSTR). The ozone uptake by plants was estimated measuring ozone concentration at the inlet and outlet of the reactors, after correcting for the uptake of the enclosure materials. Destruction of ozone at the cuticle or at the plant stems was found to be negligible compared to the ozone uptake through the stomata. For both plant species, a relationship between stomatal conductance and ozone uptake was found. For the poplar, the measured ozone losses were explained by the uptake of ozone through the stomata only, and ozone destruction by gas phase reactions with isoprene was negligible. For the oak, gas phase reactions of ozone with the monoterpenes emitted by the plants contributed significantly to ozone destruction. This was confirmed by two different experiments showing a) that in cases of high stomatal conductance but under low CO(2) concentration, a reduction of monoterpene emission was still associated with reduced O(3) uptake; and b) that ozone losses due to the gas phase reactions only can be measured when using the exhaust from a plant chamber to determine the gas phase reactivity in an empty reaction chamber. Monoterpenes can therefore relevantly scavenge ozone at leaf level contributing to protection against ozone.

  12. Evaluation of ozone profile and tropospheric ozone retrievals from GEMS and OMI spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bak

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available South Korea is planning to launch the GEMS (Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer instrument into the GeoKOMPSAT (Geostationary Korea Multi-Purpose SATellite platform in 2018 to monitor tropospheric air pollutants on an hourly basis over East Asia. GEMS will measure backscattered UV radiances covering the 300–500 nm wavelength range with a spectral resolution of 0.6 nm. The main objective of this study is to evaluate ozone profiles and stratospheric column ozone amounts retrieved from simulated GEMS measurements. Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI Level 1B radiances, which have the spectral range 270–500 nm at spectral resolution of 0.42–0.63 nm, are used to simulate the GEMS radiances. An optimal estimation-based ozone profile algorithm is used to retrieve ozone profiles from simulated GEMS radiances. Firstly, we compare the retrieval characteristics (including averaging kernels, degrees of freedom for signal, and retrieval error derived from the 270–330 nm (OMI and 300–330 nm (GEMS wavelength ranges. This comparison shows that the effect of not using measurements below 300 nm on retrieval characteristics in the troposphere is insignificant. However, the stratospheric ozone information in terms of DFS decreases greatly from OMI to GEMS, by a factor of ∼2. The number of the independent pieces of information available from GEMS measurements is estimated to 3 on average in the stratosphere, with associated retrieval errors of ~1% in stratospheric column ozone. The difference between OMI and GEMS retrieval characteristics is apparent for retrieving ozone layers above ~20 km, with a reduction in the sensitivity and an increase in the retrieval errors for GEMS. We further investigate whether GEMS can resolve the stratospheric ozone variation observed from high vertical resolution Earth Observing System (EOS Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS. The differences in stratospheric ozone profiles between GEMS and MLS are comparable to those

  13. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  14. Ozone Therapy in Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domb, William C

    2014-01-01

    Summary The 21st century dental practice is quite dynamic. New treatment protocols and new materials are being developed at a rapid pace. Ozone dental therapy falls into the category of new treatment protocols in dentistry, yet ozone is not new at all. Ozone therapy is already a major treatment modality in Europe, South America and a number of other countries. What is provided here will not be an exhaustive scientific treatise so much as a brief general introduction into what dentists are now doing with ozone therapies and the numerous oral/systemic links that make this subject so important for physicians so that, ultimately, they may serve their patients more effectively and productively. PMID:25363268

  15. Ozone health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.

    1994-01-01

    Ozone is a principal component of photochemical air pollution endogenous to numerous metropolitan areas. It is primarily formed by the oxidation of NOx in the presence of sunlight and reactive organic compounds. Ozone is a highly active oxidizing agent capable of causing injury to the lung. Lung injury may take the form of irritant effects on the respiratory tract that impair pulmonary function and result in subjective symptoms of respiratory discomfort. These symptoms include, but are not limited to, cough and shortness of breath, and they can limit exercise performance. The effects of ozone observed in humans have been primarily limited to alterations in respiratory function, and a range of respiratory physiological parameters have been measured as a function of ozone exposure in adults and children. These affects have been observed under widely varying (clinical experimental and environmental settings) conditions

  16. 2001 Ozone Design Value

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ozone is generated by a complex atmoshperic chemical process. Industrial and automobile pollutants in the form of oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons react in the...

  17. Monitoring system for the GRID Monte Carlo mass production in the H1 experiment at DESY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystritskaya, Elena; Fomenko, Alexander; Gogitidze, Nelly; Lobodzinski, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    The H1 Virtual Organization (VO), as one of the small VOs, employs most components of the EMI or gLite Middleware. In this framework, a monitoring system is designed for the H1 Experiment to identify and recognize within the GRID the best suitable resources for execution of CPU-time consuming Monte Carlo (MC) simulation tasks (jobs). Monitored resources are Computer Elements (CEs), Storage Elements (SEs), WMS-servers (WMSs), CernVM File System (CVMFS) available to the VO HONE and local GRID User Interfaces (UIs). The general principle of monitoring GRID elements is based on the execution of short test jobs on different CE queues using submission through various WMSs and directly to the CREAM-CEs as well. Real H1 MC Production jobs with a small number of events are used to perform the tests. Test jobs are periodically submitted into GRID queues, the status of these jobs is checked, output files of completed jobs are retrieved, the result of each job is analyzed and the waiting time and run time are derived. Using this information, the status of the GRID elements is estimated and the most suitable ones are included in the automatically generated configuration files for use in the H1 MC production. The monitoring system allows for identification of problems in the GRID sites and promptly reacts on it (for example by sending GGUS (Global Grid User Support) trouble tickets). The system can easily be adapted to identify the optimal resources for tasks other than MC production, simply by changing to the relevant test jobs. The monitoring system is written mostly in Python and Perl with insertion of a few shell scripts. In addition to the test monitoring system we use information from real production jobs to monitor the availability and quality of the GRID resources. The monitoring tools register the number of job resubmissions, the percentage of failed and finished jobs relative to all jobs on the CEs and determine the average values of waiting and running time for the

  18. International experience feedback on fatigue monitoring systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morilhat, P.

    1997-01-01

    From the very beginning of electro-nuclear programmes the need has become internationally obvious to develop systems aiming at automation and improvement of monitoring of the transients stressing the main mechanical components of nuclear units, by checking the conservativeness of the design no longer from a comparison of causes (temperature and pressure variations) but by directly assessing the results (stresses and linked damage). Prototypes of such systems have appeared since the middle of the 1980's mainly in France, the USA and Germany, and manufacturing them has since continued. Several years of development and on site testing of prototypes of fatigue measuring devices designed by the R and D Direction have enabled contacts with the developers of similar systems to be established and, in some cases, comparisons to be made. The experience accumulated in the use of such systems, both in France and abroad from now on makes a first experience feedback possible. The fatigue measuring device concept is based on a succession of elementary modules which enable the information received from the unit to be processed, first in the form of transient counting (transient meters), then in the form of mechanical diagnosis (fatigue monitoring systems). Among the systems in operation some provide actually only the transient meter part while others link transient meters and fatigue meters (EDF, EPRI and MITSUBISHI systems and some versions of the SIEMENS system). Moreover, numerous systems require, in addition to unit operation instrumentation, specific instrumentation located in monitored areas. The number of devices in operation has not stopped growing since the middle of the 80's to reach 53 systems working in 1996. The biggest developers are EPRI and its consultant Structural Integrity Associates (FatiguePro system), SIEMENS (FAMOS system) and EDF whose gradual implementation of SYSFAC from '96 is going to make its share particularly increase. Technical experience feedback

  19. Experience during the monitoring of inactive scrap for the detection of inadvertent presence of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Ranjit; Kumar, Anoj; Vikas; Patra, R.P.; Kumar, Vikas; Singh, Rajvir; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2012-01-01

    The inspection and certification of scrap material from nuclear facilities is a regulatory requirement to ensure that radioactive material will not reach public domain. Around the world, cases involving radioactive contamination of metallic components have occurred due to radioactive sources/contaminated metal scrap reaching the public domain. Radiological monitoring of inactive scrap material is essential as it may get into various usages in public domain where controls cannot be implemented. The method of detection is measurement of gamma dose rates due to any loose/fixed radioactive contamination in the scrap or presence of any radioactive material/source. In addition prevention of any inadvertent/malicious act leading to radioactive material reaching the public domain through scrap being essential, this monitoring gains further importance. This paper describes the methodology and experience in detection of presence of radioactivity at inactive Scrap monitoring facility. Even though radioactive sources of high strength with potential for serious environmental hazard have not been detected, few cases of contaminated material (MS plate/equipments etc with extremely low level of 137 Cs and Uranium contamination) have been detected and identified using portable gamma spectrometer. If proper monitoring is not carried out the dispersal of radioactivity to the environment can be a matter of concern due to metal scrap reaching recycling industry resulting in huge cost of decontamination and waste disposal. These events may also have negative impact on the export from the country resulting in economic losses. The impact of such events can be ruled out by effective scrap monitoring techniques which ensure that even small quantity of radioactivity escaping into public domain can be prevented. The methodology followed for monitoring of inactive scrap is found to be effective even for detection of presence of very low level of radioactivity

  20. Participatory Air Monitoring in the Midst of Uncertainty: Residents’ Experiences with the Speck Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Robert Matz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available How do participants engage in at-home air monitoring in the midst of uncertain exposures to airborne emissions associated with unconventional natural gas development (UNGD activities? We investigate residents’ experiences with the “Speck” particulate matter sensor with an emerging environmental health resource center called the Southwest Pennsylvania Environmental Health Project (EHP. In response to the gaps in knowledge about the health impacts of UNGD and the growth citizen science tools, participatory environmental monitoring (PEM projects have taken off in shale gas communities. Using interview and survey data from residents, advocates, and activists we show that residents use the Speck as: 1 “environmental health thermometers” to make real time decisions based on readings; 2 real-time tools of exposure-validation to immediately validate or invalidate suspicions of exposure; 3 “epistemic objects” or tools manipulated in exploratory ways to understand their efficacy in monitoring UNGD; and 4 passively by those who chose to rarely interact with the monitors and rather waited for overall analysis of results. While PEM’s have been critiqued for potentially passing the burden of monitoring onto communities, our research shows PEM, when connected with research and public health organizations like EHP, can both empower individuals by increasing their perceived and actual agency and build collective knowledge by producing novel scientific findings. The modes of participation identified here each imply individual and community-level outcomes. When connected with an organization like EHP, Speck monitoring enabled participating individual the latitude to develop their own research and make immediate use of the data, while also creating data useful for aggregated scientific analyses that provoke new questions about the health risks associated with UNGD.

  1. Distribution and urban-suburban differences in ground-level ozone and its precursors over Shenyang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ningwei; Ren, Wanhui; Li, Xiaolan; Ma, Xiaogang; Zhang, Yunhai; Li, Bingkun

    2018-03-01

    Hourly mixing ratio data of ground-level ozone and its main precursors at ambient air quality monitoring sites in Shenyang during 2013-2015 were used to survey spatiotemporal variations in ozone. Then, the transport of ozone and its precursors among urban, suburban, and rural sites was examined. The correlations between ozone and some key meteorological factors were also investigated. Ozone and O x mixing ratios in Shenyang were higher during warm seasons and lower during cold ones, while ozone precursors followed the opposite cycle. Ozone mixing ratios reached maximum and minimum values in the afternoon and morning, respectively, reflecting the significant influence of photochemical production during daytime and depletion via titration during nighttime. Compared to those in downtown Shenyang, ozone mixing ratios were higher and the occurrence of peak values were later in suburban and rural areas downwind of the prevailing wind. The differences were most significant in summer, when the ozone mixing ratios at one suburban downwind site reached a maximum value of 35.6 ppb higher than those at the downtown site. This suggests that photochemical production processes were significant during the transport of ozone precursors, particularly in warm seasons with sufficient sunlight. Temperature, total radiation, and wind speed all displayed positive correlations with ozone concentration, reflecting their important role in accelerating ozone formation. Generally, the correlations between ozone and meteorological factors were slightly stronger at suburban sites than in urban areas, indicating that ozone levels in suburban areas were more sensitive to these meteorological factors.

  2. On the role of visible radiation in ozone profile retrieval from nadir UV/VIS satellite measurements: An experiment with neural network algorithms inverting SCIAMACHY data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellitto, P.; Di Noia, A.; Del Frate, F.; Burini, A.; Casadio, S.; Solimini, D.

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical evidence has been given on the role of visible (VIS) radiation in enhancing the accuracy of ozone retrievals from satellite data, especially in the troposphere. However, at present, VIS is not being systematically used together with ultraviolet (UV) measurements, even when possible with one single instrument, e.g., the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY (SCIAMACHY). Reasons mainly reside in the defective performance of optimal estimation and regularization algorithms caused by inaccurate modeling of VIS interaction with aerosols or clouds, as well as in inconsistent intercalibration between UV and VIS measurements. Here we intend to discuss the role of VIS radiation when it feeds a retrieval algorithm based on Neural Networks (NNs) that does not need a forward radiative transfer model and is robust with respect to calibration errors. The NN we designed was trained with a set of ozonesondes (OSs) data and tested over an independent set of OS measurements. We compared the ozone concentration profiles retrieved from UV-only with those retrieved from UV plus VIS nadir data taken by SCIAMACHY. We found that VIS radiation was able to yield more than 10% increase of accuracy and to substantially reduce biases of retrieved profiles at tropospheric levels.

  3. Evaluating a New Homogeneous Total Ozone Climate Data Record from GOME/ERS-2, SCIAMACHY/Envisat, and GOME-2/MetOp-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukouli, M.E.; Lerot, C.; Granville, J.; Goutail, F.; Lambert, J.-C.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Balis, D.; Zyrichidou, I.; Van Roozendael, M.; Coldewey-Egbers, M.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The European Space Agency's Ozone Climate Change Initiative (O3-CCI) project aims at producing and validating a number of high-quality ozone data products generated from different satellite sensors. For total ozone, the O3-CCI approach consists of minimizing sources of bias and systematic uncertainties by applying a common retrieval algorithm to all level 1 data sets, in order to enhance the consistency between the level 2 data sets from individual sensors. Here we present the evaluation of the total ozone products from the European sensors Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME)/ERS-2, SCIAMACHY/Envisat, and GOME-2/MetOp-A produced with the GOME-type Direct FITting (GODFIT) algorithm v3. Measurements from the three sensors span more than 16 years, from 1996 to 2012. In this work, we present the latest O3-CCI total ozone validation results using as reference ground-based measurements from Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers archived at the World Ozone and UV Data Centre of the World Meteorological Organization as well as from UV-visible differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS)/Système D'Analyse par Observations Zénithales (SAOZ) instruments from the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change. In particular, we investigate possible dependencies in these new GODFIT v3 total ozone data sets with respect to latitude, season, solar zenith angle, and different cloud parameters, using the most adequate type of ground-based instrument. We show that these three O3-CCI total ozone data products behave very similarly and are less sensitive to instrumental degradation, mainly as a result of the new reflectance soft-calibration scheme. The mean bias to the ground-based observations is found to be within the 1 plus or minus 1 percent level for all three sensors while the near-zero decadal stability of the total ozone columns (TOCs) provided by the three European instruments falls well within the 1-3 percent requirement of the European Space

  4. The ozone backlash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taubes, G.

    1993-01-01

    While evidence for the role of chlorofluorocarbons in ozone depletion grows stronger, researchers have recently been subjected to vocal public criticism of their theories-and their motives. Their understanding of the mechanisms of ozone destruction-especially the annual ozone hole that appears in the Antarctic-has grown stronger, yet everywhere they go these days, they seem to be confronted by critics attacking their theories as baseless. For instance, Rush Limbaugh, the conservative political talk-show host and now-best-selling author of The Way Things Ought to Be, regularly insists that the theory of ozone depletion by CFCs is a hoax: bladerdash and poppycock. Zoologist Dixy Lee Ray, former governor of the state of Washington and former head of the Atomic Energy Commission, makes the same argument in her book, Trashing the Planet. The Wall Street Journal and National Review have run commentaries by S. Fred Singer, a former chief scientists for the Department of Transportation, purporting to shoot holes in the theory of ozone depletion. Even the June issue of Omni, a magazine with a circulation of more than 1 million that publishes a mixture of science and science fiction, printed a feature article claiming to expose ozone research as a politically motivated scam

  5. Ozone depletion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, F.M.; Chang, J.S.; Wuebbles, D.J.; Penner, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Models of stratospheric chemistry have been primarily directed toward an understanding of the behavior of stratospheric ozone. Initially this interest reflected the diagnostic role of ozone in the understanding of atmospheric transport processes. More recently, interest in stratospheric ozone has arisen from concern that human activities might affect the amount of stratospheric ozone, thereby affecting the ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's surface and perhaps also affecting the climate with various potentially severe consequences for human welfare. This concern has inspired a substantial effort to develop both diagnostic and prognostic models of stratospheric ozone. During the past decade, several chemical agents have been determined to have potentially significant impacts on stratospheric ozone if they are released to the atmosphere in large quantities. These include oxides of nitrogen, oxides of hydrogen, chlorofluorocarbons, bromine compounds, fluorine compounds and carbon dioxide. In order to assess the potential impact of the perturbations caused by these chemicals, mathematical models have been developed to handle the complex coupling between chemical, radiative, and dynamical processes. Basic concepts in stratospheric modeling are reviewed

  6. Calibration of ITER Instant Power Neutron Monitors: Recommended Scenario of Experiments at the Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, A. A.; Deryabina, N. A.; Markovskij, D. V.

    2017-12-01

    Instant power is a key parameter of the ITER. Its monitoring with an accuracy of a few percent is an urgent and challenging aspect of neutron diagnostics. In a series of works published in Problems of Atomic Science and Technology, Series: Thermonuclear Fusion under a common title, the step-by-step neutronics analysis was given to substantiate a calibration technique for the DT and DD modes of the ITER. A Gauss quadrature scheme, optimal for processing "expensive" experiments, is used for numerical integration of 235U and 238U detector responses to the point sources of 14-MeV neutrons. This approach allows controlling the integration accuracy in relation to the number of coordinate mesh points and thus minimizing the number of irradiations at the given uncertainty of the full monitor response. In the previous works, responses of the divertor and blanket monitors to the isotropic point sources of DT and DD neutrons in the plasma profile and to the models of real sources were calculated within the ITER model using the MCNP code. The neutronics analyses have allowed formulating the basic principles of calibration that are optimal for having the maximum accuracy at the minimum duration of in situ experiments at the reactor. In this work, scenarios of the preliminary and basic experimental ITER runs are suggested on the basis of those principles. It is proposed to calibrate the monitors only with DT neutrons and use correction factors to the DT mode calibration for the DD mode. It is reasonable to perform full calibration only with 235U chambers and calibrate 238U chambers by responses of the 235U chambers during reactor operation (cross-calibration). The divertor monitor can be calibrated using both direct measurement of responses at the Gauss positions of a point source and simplified techniques based on the concepts of equivalent ring sources and inverse response distributions, which will considerably reduce the amount of measurements. It is shown that the monitor

  7. 1979-1999 satellite total ozone column measurements over West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Di Carlo

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS instruments have been flown on NASA/GSFC satellites for over 20 years. They provide near real-time ozone data for Atmospheric Science Research. As part of preliminary efforts aimed to develop a Lidar station in Nigeria for monitoring the atmospheric ozone and aerosol levels, the monthly mean TOMS total column ozone measurements between 1979 to 1999 have been analysed. The trends of the total column ozone showed a spatial and temporal variation with signs of the Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO during the 20-year study period. The values of the TOMS total ozone column, over Nigeria (4-14°N is within the range of 230-280 Dobson Units, this is consistent with total ozone column data, measured since April 1993 with a Dobson Spectrophotometer at Lagos (3°21¢E, 6°33¢N, Nigeria.

  8. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Adolfo Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH). This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH.

  9. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Martinez Valle

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring and evaluation (M&E have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH. This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH.

  10. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Adolfo Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH). This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH. PMID:26928215

  11. Self-monitoring of blood glucose experiences of adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugasch, Lucie B; Ugarriza, Doris N

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the experiences of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) usage of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who are not using insulin. Nineteen adults were asked to describe their experiences with self-monitoring. Data were analyzed using the grounded theory method. The theory of "SMBG as a Cue in T2DM Self-Care" emerged from the data and is composed of four categories: (a) Engaging, (b) Checking, (c) Responding, and (d) Establishing a Pattern. Engaging marks the beginning. Frequent monitoring characterizes this stage. Checking involves evaluating and validating the blood glucose level. The most common item evaluated or validated was the effect of foods. Responding involves taking action or experiencing emotion. Actions taken centered on dietary changes. Emotions felt were dependent on the level and ranged from blame to happiness. Participants established a pattern and used SMBG regularly or sporadically. Frequency was based on obtaining "normal" patterns, the absence of symptoms, provider disinterest, and fingertip pain. Participants described many benefits and struggles when incorporating SMBG into their self-care. Information from this study could be used to develop effective guidelines for the use of SMBG in T2DM. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  12. US monitoring and verification technology: on-site inspection experience and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullickson, R.L.; Carlson, D.; Ingraham, J.; Laird, B.

    2013-01-01

    The United States has a long and successful history of cooperation with treaty partners in monitoring and verification. For strategic arms reduction treaties, our collaboration has resulted in the development and application of systems with limited complexity and intrusiveness. As we progress beyond New START (NST) along the 'road to zero', the reduced number of nuclear weapons is likely to require increased confidence in monitoring and verification techniques. This may place increased demands on the technology to verify the presence of a nuclear weapon and even confirm the presence of a certain type. Simultaneously, this technology must include the ability to protect each treaty partner's sensitive nuclear weapons information. Mutual development of this technology by treaty partners offers the best approach for acceptance in treaty negotiations. This same approach of mutual cooperation and development is essential for developing nuclear test monitoring technology in support of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Our ability to detect low yield and evasive testing will be enhanced through mutually developed techniques and experiments using laboratory laser experiments and high explosives tests in a variety of locations and geologies. (authors)

  13. Trend prognosis of regional ozone maxima in 1994 using various meteorologic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loibl, W.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a statistical method for the short-term forecast of ozone concentrations. Austrian ozone monitoring data from April to September 1994 are used to develop the forecast model. It builds upon a multiple linear regression model developed earlier which uses the temperature of the forecast day, and the ozone maxima of the previous day as variables. In this study temperature difference between previous and forecast day, and wind velocity of the forecast day were additionally taken into account. Furthermore wind direction dependent regression models were developed using subsamples of the data set devided into 8 wind direction classes. Different regression function parameters have to be applied for each of the 40 selected ozone monitoring sites to allow forecasting of regional ozone maxima throughout Austria. It was found that regression models with temperature difference and wind velocity as additional variables did not improve the results. Wind direction dependent regression models only slightly improved the results for some wind directions at several monitoring sites. Best forecast results in general were achieved by using the base regression model with the temperature of the forecast day and the ozone maxima of the previous day as variables. Ozone forecast maps were calculated by spatial interpolation of the forecasted ozone maxima of the monitoring sites. Forecast accuracy is within ± 10 ppb on 70-80 % of the observed days. Errors higher than ± 10 ppb occur mainly on days with ozone maxima of 80 ppb and more. (author)

  14. Trend prognosis of regional ozone maxima in 1994 using various meteorologic data: appendix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loibl, W.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a statistical method for the short-term forecast of ozone concentrations. Austrian ozone monitoring data from April to September 1994 are used to develop the forecast model. It builds upon a multiple linear regression model developed earlier which uses the temperature of the forecast day, and the ozone maxima of the previous day as variables. In this study temperature difference between previous and forecast day, and wind velocity of the forecast day were additionally taken into account. Furthermore wind direction dependent regression models were developed using subsamples of the data set devided into 8 wind direction classes. Different regression function parameters have to be applied for each of the 40 selected ozone monitoring sites to allow forecasting of regional ozone maxima throughout Austria. It was found that regression models with temperature difference and wind velocity as additional variables did not improve the results. Wind direction dependent regression models only slightly improved the results for some wind directions at several monitoring sites. Best forecast results in general were achieved by using the base regression model with the temperature of the forecast day and the ozone maxima of the previous day as variables. Ozone forecast maps were calculated by spatial interpolation of the forecasted ozone maxima of the monitoring sites. Forecast accuracy is within ± 10 ppb on 70-80 % of the observed days. Errors higher than ± 10 ppb occur mainly on days with ozone maxima of 80 ppb and more. (author)

  15. Ozone: The secret greenhouse gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berntsen, Terje; Tjernshaugen, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    The atmospheric ozone not only protects against harmful ultraviolet radiation; it also contributes to the greenhouse effect. Ozone is one of the jokers to make it difficult to calculate the climatic effect of anthropogenic emissions. The greenhouse effect and the ozone layer should not be confused. The greenhouse effect creates problems when it becomes enhanced, so that the earth becomes warmer. The problem with the ozone layer, on the contrary, is that it becomes thinner and so more of the harmful ultraviolet radiation gets through to the earth. However, ozone is also a greenhouse gas and so the greenhouse effect and the ozone layer are connected

  16. Nitrous Oxides Ozone Destructiveness Under Different Climate Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, David R.; McDermid, Sonali P.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas and ozone depleting substance as well as a key component of the nitrogen cascade. While emissions scenarios indicating the range of N2O's potential future contributions to radiative forcing are widely available, the impact of these emissions scenarios on future stratospheric ozone depletion is less clear. This is because N2O's ozone destructiveness is partially dependent on tropospheric warming, which affects ozone depletion rates in the stratosphere. Consequently, in order to understand the possible range of stratospheric ozone depletion that N2O could cause over the 21st century, it is important to decouple the greenhouse gas emissions scenarios and compare different emissions trajectories for individual substances (e.g. business-as-usual carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions versus low emissions of N2O). This study is the first to follow such an approach, running a series of experiments using the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Sciences ModelE2 atmospheric sub-model. We anticipate our results to show that stratospheric ozone depletion will be highest in a scenario where CO2 emissions reductions are prioritized over N2O reductions, as this would constrain ozone recovery while doing little to limit stratospheric NOx levels (the breakdown product of N2O that destroys stratospheric ozone). This could not only delay the recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer, but might also prevent a return to pre-1980 global average ozone concentrations, a key goal of the international ozone regime. Accordingly, we think this will highlight the importance of reducing emissions of all major greenhouse gas emissions, including N2O, and not just a singular policy focus on CO2.

  17. Challenges and Opportunities for Developing Capacity in Earth Observations for Agricultural Monitoring: The GEOGLAM Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcraft, A. K.; Di Bella, C. M.; Becker Reshef, I.; Deshayes, M.; Justice, C. O.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2011, the Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) Initiative has been working to strengthen the international community's capacity to use Earth observation (EO) data to derive timely, accurate, and transparent information on agriculture, with the goals of reducing market volatility and promoting food security. GEOGLAM aims to develop capacity for EO-based agricultural monitoring at multiple scales, from national to regional to global. This is accomplished through training workshops, developing and transferring of best-practices, establishing networks of broad and sustainable institutional support, and designing or adapting tools and methodologies to fit localized contexts. Over the past four years, capacity development activities in the context of GEOGLAM have spanned all agriculture-containing continents, with much more work to be done, particularly in the domains of promoting access to large, computationally-costly datasets. This talk will detail GEOGLAM's experiences, challenges, and opportunities surrounding building international collaboration, ensuring institutional buy-in, and developing sustainable programs.

  18. Monitoring complex detectors: the uSOP approach in the Belle II experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capua, F. Di; Aloisio, A.; Giordano, R.; Ameli, F.; Anastasio, A.; Izzo, V.; Tortone, G.; Branchini, P.

    2017-01-01

    uSOP is a general purpose single board computer designed for deep embedded applications in control and monitoring of detectors, sensors and complex laboratory equipments. It is based on the AM3358 (1 GHz ARM Cortex A8 processor), equipped with USB and Ethernet interfaces. On-board RAM and solid state storage allows hosting a full LINUX distribution. In this paper we discuss the main aspects of the hardware and software design and the expandable peripheral architecture built around field busses. We report on several applications of uSOP system in the Belle II experiment, presently under construction at KEK (Tsukuba, Japan). In particular we will report the deployment of uSOP in the monitoring system framework of the endcap electromagnetic calorimeter.

  19. Monitoring complex detectors: the uSOP approach in the Belle II experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Capua, F.; Aloisio, A.; Ameli, F.; Anastasio, A.; Branchini, P.; Giordano, R.; Izzo, V.; Tortone, G.

    2017-08-01

    uSOP is a general purpose single board computer designed for deep embedded applications in control and monitoring of detectors, sensors and complex laboratory equipments. It is based on the AM3358 (1 GHz ARM Cortex A8 processor), equipped with USB and Ethernet interfaces. On-board RAM and solid state storage allows hosting a full LINUX distribution. In this paper we discuss the main aspects of the hardware and software design and the expandable peripheral architecture built around field busses. We report on several applications of uSOP system in the Belle II experiment, presently under construction at KEK (Tsukuba, Japan). In particular we will report the deployment of uSOP in the monitoring system framework of the endcap electromagnetic calorimeter.

  20. Results and discussion of laboratory experiences with different automated TLD readers for personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulla, D.F.; Drexeler, G.

    Although the film seems to continue serving as the main personnel dosemeter in Germany for the time in sight, the evolution of particularly solid state techniques and their properties are thoroughly considered with respect to a possible generalized application in personnel monitoring. For this reason different automated TLD systems that are commercially available have been investigated in the laboratory in order to find out their usefulness for a largescale or also decentralized service. Along with studying the dosimetrical and apparative parameters, the question has been discussed to which monitoring philosophy these TLD systems seem to fit. It is reported both on experimental experiences achieved as well as on the results of basic discussions that in return influence the discussion about the necessary outfit of personnel TL dosemeters

  1. Ozone pollution and ozone biomonitoring in European cities. Part I: Ozone concentrations and cumulative exposure indices at urban and suburban sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, A.; Ansel, W.; Klumpp, G.

    2006-01-01

    In the frame of a European research project on air quality in urban agglomerations, data on ozone concentrations from 23 automated urban and suburban monitoring stations in 11 cities from seven countries were analysed and evaluated. Daily and summer mean and maximum concentrations were computed...... based on hourly mean values, and cumulative ozone exposure indices (Accumulated exposure Over a Threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40), AOT20) were calculated. The diurnal profiles showed a characteristic pattern in most city centres, with minimum values in the early morning hours, a strong rise during the morning......, by contrast, maximum values were lower and diurnal variation was much smaller. Based on ozone concentrations as well as on cumulative exposure indices, a clear north-south gradient in ozone pollution, with increasing levels from northern and northwestern sites to central and southern European sites...

  2. Tropical behavior of mesospheric ozone as observed by SMM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikin, A. C.; Kendig, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    The seasonal behavior of low latitude mesospheric ozone, as observed by the SMM satellite solar occultation experiment, is detailed for the 1985-1989 period. Annual as well as semi-annual waves are observed in the 50-70 km altitude region. In the latitude range of +/- 30 deg the ozone phase and amplitude are functions of temperature and seasonal changes in solar flux. Temperature is the controlling factor for the equatorial region and seasonal changes in solar flux become more dominant at latitudes outside the equatorial zone (greater than +/- 15 deg). There is a hemispheric asymmetry in the ozone annual wave in the 20-30 deg region, with Northern Hemispheric ozone having a larger amplitude than Southern Hemispheric ozone.

  3. Minireview: the health implications of water treatment with ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, N G; Winder, C; Borges, S H; Backhouse, B L; Lewis, P D

    1982-01-11

    Ozone is a highly efficient disinfectant which may have significant advantages in water treatment compared to chlorine. It has, however, been shown that mutagenic and possibly carcinogenic byproducts may be produced under certain conditions of ozonation. Light chlorination following ozonization may meet the highest standards of disinfection. In addition the destruction of much of the organic matter by prior ozone treatment may well result in less harmful chlorinated and brominated products in the finished water. In many cases ozone treatment alone may suffice. It would be desirable to test with long term in vivo experiments which of the alternatives produces the best combination of microbiologically clean and pleasant water with minimum mutagenic and carcinogenic effect.

  4. Evaluation of the Ozone Fields in NASA's MERRA-2 Reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargan, Krzysztof; Labow, Gordon; Frith, Stacey; Pawson, Steven; Livesey, Nathaniel; Partyka, Gary

    2017-01-01

    We describe and assess the quality of the assimilated ozone product from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2) produced at NASAs Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) spanning the time period from 1980 to present. MERRA-2 assimilates partial column ozone retrievals from a series of Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) radiometers on NASA and NOAA spacecraft between January 1980 and September 2004; starting in October 2004 retrieved ozone profiles from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and total column ozone from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument on NASAs EOS Aura satellite are assimilated. We compare the MERRA-2 ozone with independent satellite and ozonesonde data focusing on the representation of the spatial and temporal variability of stratospheric and upper tropospheric ozone and on implications of the change in the observing system from SBUV to EOS Aura. The comparisons show agreement within 10 (standard deviation of the difference) between MERRA-2 profiles and independent satellite data in most of the stratosphere. The agreement improves after 2004 when EOS Aura data are assimilated. The standard deviation of the differences between the lower stratospheric and upper tropospheric MERRA-2 ozone and ozonesondes is 11.2 and 24.5, respectively, with correlations of 0.8 and above, indicative of a realistic representation of the near-tropopause ozone variability in MERRA-2. The agreement improves significantly in the EOS Aura period, however MERRA-2 is biased low in the upper troposphere with respect to the ozonesondes. Caution is recommended when using MERRA-2 ozone for decadal changes and trend studies.

  5. Relations Between Self-Reported and Linguistic Monitoring Assessments of Affective Experience in an Extreme Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan

    2018-03-01

    Approaches for monitoring psychosocial health in challenging environments are needed to maintain the performance and safety of personnel. The purpose of the present research was to examine the relationship between 2 candidate methods (self-reported and linguistics) for monitoring affective experience during extreme environment activities. A single-subject repeated-measures design was used in the present work. The participant was a 46-year-old individual scheduled to complete a self-supported ski expedition across Arctic Greenland. The expedition lasted 28 days, and conditions included severe cold, low stimulation, whiteouts, limited habitability, and threats to life and limb. During the expedition, the participant completed a daily self-report log including assessment of psychological health (perceptions of control and affect) and a video diary (emotion). Video diary entries were subjected to linguistic inquiry and word count analyses before the links between self-report and linguistic data across the expedition period were tested. Similarities in the pattern of self-reported and linguistic assessments emerged across the expedition period. A number of predictable correlations were identified between self-reported and linguistic assessments of affective/emotional experience. Overall, there was better agreement between self-reports and linguistic analytics for indicators of negative affect/emotion. Future research should build on this initial study to further test the links between self-reported affect and emotional states monitored via linguistics. This could help develop methods for monitoring psychological health in extreme environments and support organizational decision making. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Research on simulation and experiment of noninvasive intracranial pressure monitoring based on acoustoelasticity effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu J

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Jun Wu1, Wei He2, Wei-min Chen1, Lian Zhu21Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and Systems, 2State Key Laboratory of Power Transmission Equipment and System Security and New Technology, Chongqing University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: The real-time monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP is very important for craniocerebrally critically ill patients, but it is very difficult to realize long-time monitoring for the traditional invasive method, which very easily infects patients. Many noninvasive methods have emerged, but these have not been able to monitor ICP for long periods in real time, and they are not ready for clinical application. In order to realize long-time, online, real-time, noninvasive monitoring for ICP, a new method based on acoustoelasticity of ultrasound is herein proposed. Experimental models were devised to research the new method for experiment and simulation. Polymethyl methacrylate and hydrogel were adopted for the experiment, and their mechanical properties were very close to the real brain. A numerical solution for acoustoelasticity theory was acquired by simulating calculation based on a finite-element method. This was compared to the experimental value. The results showed a consistent match between theoretical solution and experimental value, with maximum error at most 5%. Thus, the effectiveness of the new method was verified. Theoretical and practical foundation is provided for this new method, and it could be used for animal experimentation or clinical testing in further research.Keywords: medical instruments, noninvasive, intracranial pressure, ultrasonic, acoustoelasticity, biomechanics

  7. In-flight spectral performance monitoring of the Airborne Prism Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, Petra; Alberti, Edoardo; Schaepman, Michael E

    2010-06-01

    Spectral performance of an airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer cannot be assumed to be stable over a whole flight season given the environmental stresses present during flight. Spectral performance monitoring during flight is commonly accomplished by looking at selected absorption features present in the Sun, atmosphere, or ground, and their stability. The assessment of instrument performance in two different environments, e.g., laboratory and airborne, using precisely the same calibration reference, has not been possible so far. The Airborne Prism Experiment (APEX), an airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer, uses an onboard in-flight characterization (IFC) facility, which makes it possible to monitor the sensor's performance in terms of spectral, radiometric, and geometric stability in flight and in the laboratory. We discuss in detail a new method for the monitoring of spectral instrument performance. The method relies on the monitoring of spectral shifts by comparing instrument-induced movements of absorption features on ground and in flight. Absorption lines originate from spectral filters, which intercept the full field of view (FOV) illuminated using an internal light source. A feature-fitting algorithm is used for the shift estimation based on Pearson's correlation coefficient. Environmental parameter monitoring, coregistered on board with the image and calibration data, revealed that differential pressure and temperature in the baffle compartment are the main driving parameters explaining the trend in spectral performance deviations in the time and the space (across-track) domains, respectively. The results presented in this paper show that the system in its current setup needs further improvements to reach a stable performance. Findings provided useful guidelines for the instrument revision currently under way. The main aim of the revision is the stabilization of the instrument for a range of temperature and pressure conditions

  8. Factors affecting ozone removal rates in a simulated aircraft cabin environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas, Gyöngyi; Weschler, Charles J.; Bako-Biro, Zsolt

    2006-01-01

    of people, soiled T-shirts, aircraft seats and a used HEPA filter, we have been able in the course of 24 experiments to isolate the contributions of these and other factors to the removal of ozone from the cabin air. In the case of this simulated aircraft, people were responsible for almost 60% of the ozone...... present, the measured ratio of ozone's concentration in the cabin versus that outside the cabin was 0.15-0.21, smaller than levels reported in the literature. The results reinforce the conclusion that the optimal way to reduce people's exposure to both ozone and ozone oxidation products is to efficiently...

  9. A cloud-ozone data product from Aura OMI and MLS satellite measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Ziemke

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ozone within deep convective clouds is controlled by several factors involving photochemical reactions and transport. Gas-phase photochemical reactions and heterogeneous surface chemical reactions involving ice, water particles, and aerosols inside the clouds all contribute to the distribution and net production and loss of ozone. Ozone in clouds is also dependent on convective transport that carries low-troposphere/boundary-layer ozone and ozone precursors upward into the clouds. Characterizing ozone in thick clouds is an important step for quantifying relationships of ozone with tropospheric H2O, OH production, and cloud microphysics/transport properties. Although measuring ozone in deep convective clouds from either aircraft or balloon ozonesondes is largely impossible due to extreme meteorological conditions associated with these clouds, it is possible to estimate ozone in thick clouds using backscattered solar UV radiation measured by satellite instruments. Our study combines Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS satellite measurements to generate a new research product of monthly-mean ozone concentrations in deep convective clouds between 30° S and 30° N for October 2004–April 2016. These measurements represent mean ozone concentration primarily in the upper levels of thick clouds and reveal key features of cloud ozone including: persistent low ozone concentrations in the tropical Pacific of  ∼ 10 ppbv or less; concentrations of up to 60 pphv or greater over landmass regions of South America, southern Africa, Australia, and India/east Asia; connections with tropical ENSO events; and intraseasonal/Madden–Julian oscillation variability. Analysis of OMI aerosol measurements suggests a cause and effect relation between boundary-layer pollution and elevated ozone inside thick clouds over landmass regions including southern Africa and India/east Asia.

  10. 4D ERT Monitoring of Subsurface Water Pipe Leakage During a Controlled Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inauen, C.; Chambers, J. E.; Wilkinson, P. B.; Meldrum, P.; Swift, R. T.; Uhlemann, S.; Gunn, D.; Dashwood, B.; Taxil, J.; Curioni, G.

    2016-12-01

    Locating and delineating leakage from subsurface pipelines is an important task for civil engineers. 4D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) allows changes in subsurface resistivity to be imaged at a high spatial and temporal resolution in a minimally invasive manner. It is therefore a promising tool to supplement conventional point-sensing techniques to monitor subsurface flow processes. To assess the efficacy of ERT for pipe leakage monitoring several controlled leak experiments were carried out at a test site in Blagdon, Bristol, UK. To simulate the leak, a plastic pipe with a hole was buried below a flat, grassed area at a depth of 0.7 m, representing a standard UK mains water pipe installation. The water table at the site lies well below the surface meaning that the experiment took entirely place in the vadose zone, where changes in resistivity are primarily sensitive to water content variations. The ERT array covered an area of 6.5m x 6.5m around the leak location. Data acquisition was carried out with the BGS PRIME (Proactive Infrastructure Monitoring and Evaluation) system, which facilitates remote scheduling and autonomous ERT data collection and transmission. To obtain the resistivity changes of the subsurface a 4D inversion was carried out using a Gauss-Newton approach with spatial and temporal smoothness constraints. We were able to reliably observe the onset, spread and cessation of the leakage. Measurements from in-situ soil sensors at several depths above and below the leak complemented the ERT data and allowed us to assess their reliability and directly relate them to hydrogeological processes. Moreover, through experimental tests with soil samples from the test area, a Waxman-Smits relation was obtained to directly convert the changes in electrical resistivity to gravimetric soil moisture content. With future experiments on the test site more work is planned towards survey optimization, automated processing and tracking of leakage plumes.

  11. Ozone modeling within plasmas for ozone sensor applications

    OpenAIRE

    Arshak, Khalil; Forde, Edward; Guiney, Ivor

    2007-01-01

    peer-reviewed Ozone (03) is potentially hazardous to human health and accurate prediction and measurement of this gas is essential in addressing its associated health risks. This paper presents theory to predict the levels of ozone concentration emittedfrom a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma for ozone sensing applications. This is done by postulating the kinetic model for ozone generation, with a DBD plasma at atmospheric pressure in air, in the form of a set of rate equations....

  12. Comparison of SAGE 2 ozone measurements and ozone soundings at Uccle (Belgium) during the period February 1985 to January 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debacker, Hugo; Demuer, Dirk; Veiga, R. E.; Zawodny, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The ozone profiles obtained from 24 balloon soundings, at 50 deg 48 min N, 4 deg 21 min E, carried out with the electro-chemical ozonesondes are discussed. The data were used as correlative data to the ozone profiles acquired by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE 2). Good agreement was obtained between the two data sets. The difference of percentage between the ozone column density of the mean balloon and SAGE profile is 4.4% in the altitude region between 10 to 26 km. From the statistical analysis it seems that there is a difference between the mean profiles at the level of the ozone maximum and around the 30 km level. Similar results are obtained with an error analysis of both data. The differences between the mean profiles in the lower stratosphere are probably real, and are due to the presence of ozone.

  13. Experiences and recommendations in deploying a real-time, water quality monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flynn, B.; Regan, F.; Lawlor, A.; Wallace, J.; Torres, J.; O'Mathuna, C.

    2010-12-01

    Monitoring of water quality at a river basin level to meet the requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) using conventional sampling and laboratory-based techniques poses a significant financial burden. Wireless sensing systems offer the potential to reduce these costs considerably, as well as provide more useful, continuous monitoring capabilities by giving an accurate idea of the changing environmental and water quality in real time. It is unlikely that the traditional spot/grab sampling will provide a reasonable estimate of the true maximum and/or mean concentration for a particular physicochemical variable in a water body with marked temporal variability. When persistent fluctuations occur, it is likely only to be detected through continuous measurements, which have the capability of detecting sporadic peaks of concentration. Thus, in situ sensors capable of continuous sampling of parameters required under the WFD would therefore provide more up-to-date information, cut monitoring costs and provide better coverage representing long-term trends in fluctuations of pollutant concentrations. DEPLOY is a technology demonstration project, which began planning and station selection and design in August 2008 aiming to show how state-of-the-art technology could be implemented for cost-effective, continuous and real-time monitoring of a river catchment. The DEPLOY project is seen as an important building block in the realization of a wide area autonomous network of sensors capable of monitoring the spatial and temporal distribution of important water quality and environmental target parameters. The demonstration sites chosen are based in the River Lee, which flows through Ireland's second largest city, Cork, and were designed to include monitoring stations in five zones considered typical of significant river systems--these monitor water quality parameters such as pH, temperature, depth, conductivity, turbidity and dissolved oxygen. Over one million data points

  14. Experiences and recommendations in deploying a real-time, water quality monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Flynn, B; O'Mathuna, C; Regan, F; Lawlor, A; Wallace, J; Torres, J

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring of water quality at a river basin level to meet the requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) using conventional sampling and laboratory-based techniques poses a significant financial burden. Wireless sensing systems offer the potential to reduce these costs considerably, as well as provide more useful, continuous monitoring capabilities by giving an accurate idea of the changing environmental and water quality in real time. It is unlikely that the traditional spot/grab sampling will provide a reasonable estimate of the true maximum and/or mean concentration for a particular physicochemical variable in a water body with marked temporal variability. When persistent fluctuations occur, it is likely only to be detected through continuous measurements, which have the capability of detecting sporadic peaks of concentration. Thus, in situ sensors capable of continuous sampling of parameters required under the WFD would therefore provide more up-to-date information, cut monitoring costs and provide better coverage representing long-term trends in fluctuations of pollutant concentrations. DEPLOY is a technology demonstration project, which began planning and station selection and design in August 2008 aiming to show how state-of-the-art technology could be implemented for cost-effective, continuous and real-time monitoring of a river catchment. The DEPLOY project is seen as an important building block in the realization of a wide area autonomous network of sensors capable of monitoring the spatial and temporal distribution of important water quality and environmental target parameters. The demonstration sites chosen are based in the River Lee, which flows through Ireland's second largest city, Cork, and were designed to include monitoring stations in five zones considered typical of significant river systems-–these monitor water quality parameters such as pH, temperature, depth, conductivity, turbidity and dissolved oxygen. Over one million data

  15. Practical experience with the leaky-fuel monitoring at Bohunice NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacmar, M.; Cizek, J.

    2001-01-01

    The first part of this paper describes practical experience with the fuel monitoring in operating reactors from point of view possible leakages. Summarized in the paper are numbers leaky fuel assemblies both for NPP and for particular units. Some failure causes are discussed for operational conditions of Bohunice NPP. In the second part of paper critical power ramps on hot fuel rod of leaky fuel assemblies are analysed to eliminate failures from PCI. The main aim of the paper is the need to understand the mechanism and causes of failures (Authors)

  16. Sleep-monitoring, experiment M133. [electronic recording system for automatic analysis of human sleep patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.; Salamy, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    The Skylab sleep-monitoring experiment simulated the timelines and environment expected during a 56-day Skylab mission. Two crewmembers utilized the data acquisition and analysis hardware, and their sleep characteristics were studied in an online fashion during a number of all night recording sessions. Comparison of the results of online automatic analysis with those of postmission visual data analysis was favorable, confirming the feasibility of obtaining reliable objective information concerning sleep characteristics during the Skylab missions. One crewmember exhibited definite changes in certain sleep characteristics (e.g., increased sleep latency, increased time Awake during first third of night, and decreased total sleep time) during the mission.

  17. Monitoring and enforcement of environmental regulations. Lessons from a natural field experiment in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telle, Kjetil

    2012-07-01

    Relying on a small natural field experiment with random assignment of treatments, I estimate effects of three core elements of most monitoring and enforcement practices: self-reporting, audit frequency and specific deterrence. I find evidence of evasive reporting of violations in self-audits, as more violations are detected in on-site audits than in self-audits. Announcing the increased audit frequency has no effect on compliance, but an audit raises the firm's subsequent compliance substantially.(Author)

  18. Biogenic nitrogen oxide emissions from soils ─ impact on NOx and ozone over West Africa during AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Experiment: modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Chaboureau

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen oxide biogenic emissions from soils are driven by soil and environmental parameters. The relationship between these parameters and NO fluxes is highly non linear. A new algorithm, based on a neural network calculation, is used to reproduce the NO biogenic emissions linked to precipitations in the Sahel on the 6 August 2006 during the AMMA campaign. This algorithm has been coupled in the surface scheme of a coupled chemistry dynamics model (MesoNH Chemistry to estimate the impact of the NO emissions on NOx and O3 formation in the lower troposphere for this particular episode. Four different simulations on the same domain and at the same period are compared: one with anthropogenic emissions only, one with soil NO emissions from a static inventory, at low time and space resolution, one with NO emissions from neural network, and one with NO from neural network plus lightning NOx. The influence of NOx from lightning is limited to the upper troposphere. The NO emission from soils calculated with neural network responds to changes in soil moisture giving enhanced emissions over the wetted soil, as observed by aircraft measurements after the passing of a convective system. The subsequent enhancement of NOx and ozone is limited to the lowest layers of the atmosphere in modelling, whereas measurements show higher concentrations above 1000 m. The neural network algorithm, applied in the Sahel region for one particular day of the wet season, allows an immediate response of fluxes to environmental parameters, unlike static emission inventories. Stewart et al (2008 is a companion paper to this one which looks at NOx and ozone concentrations in the boundary layer as measured on a research aircraft, examines how they vary with respect to the soil moisture, as indicated by surface temperature anomalies, and deduces NOx fluxes. In this current paper the model-derived results are compared to the observations and calculated fluxes presented by Stewart et

  19. The study of international and interstate transport of ozone in Yuma, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Sonenberg, M.; Wood, J. L.; Pearson, C. R.; Colson, H.; Malloy, J. W.; Pace, M.; Mao, F.; Paul, J.; Busby, B. R.; Parkey, B.; Drago, L.; Franquist, T. S.

    2017-12-01

    In October 2015, EPA reduced the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone from 75 parts per billion (ppb) to 70 ppb. Meeting the new standard may be extremely challenging for some areas, including rural Yuma County in the State of Arizona. Yuma County faces unique air quality challenges, since it borders the Mexican states of Baja California and Sonora, and the State of California. The present study investigates the contribution of international and interstate transport of ozone and ozone precursors to episodes of elevated ozone concentrations in Yuma. The Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ) merged HYSPLIT modeling outputs with two years of hourly ground ozone monitor data to investigate the potential area contributions to ozone concentrations in Yuma County. This analysis found that elevated ozone concentrations in Yuma in 2014 and 2015 frequently coincided with back-trajectories over both California and Mexico, typically favoring Mexico during the spring. In May 2017, ADEQ installed a new ozone monitor in San Luis Rio Colorado, Sonora, Mexico (Latitude: 32.4665, Longitude: -114.7688), which is 29 km south of ozone site in Yuma County. We will present the first simultaneous observations of ozone seasons in Sonora, Mexico, eastern California, and Yuma.

  20. CONTRIBUTION TO INDOOR OZONE LEVELS OF AN OZONE GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report gives results of a study of a commonly used commercially available ozone generator, undertaken to determine its impact on indoor ozone levels. xperiment were conducted in a typical mechanically ventilated office and in a test house. he generated ozone and the in-room ...

  1. Ozone-depleting Substances (ODS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This site includes all of the ozone-depleting substances (ODS) recognized by the Montreal Protocol. The data include ozone depletion potentials (ODP), global warming...

  2. Air Quality Guide for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    GO! Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Air Quality Guide for Ozone Ground-level ozone is one of our nation’s most common air pollutants. Use the chart below to help reduce ...

  3. Health Effects of Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhaling ozone can cause coughing, shortness of breath, worse asthma or bronchitis symptoms, and irritation and damage to airways.You can reduce your exposure to ozone pollution by checking air quality where you live.

  4. Ozone sonde cell current measurements and implications for observations of near-zero ozone concentrations in the tropical upper troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vömel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory measurements of the Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC ozone sonde cell current using ozone free air as well as defined amounts of ozone reveal that background current measurements during sonde preparation are neither constant as a function of time, nor constant as a function of ozone concentration. Using a background current, measured at a defined timed after exposure to high ozone may often overestimate the real background, leading to artificially low ozone concentrations in the upper tropical troposphere, and may frequently lead to operator dependent uncertainties. Based on these laboratory measurements an improved cell current to partial pressure conversion is proposed, which removes operator dependent variability in the background reading and possible artifacts in this measurement. Data from the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX have been reprocessed using the improved background treatment based on these laboratory measurements. In the reprocessed data set near-zero ozone events no longer occur. At Samoa, Fiji, Tahiti, and San Cristóbal, nearly all near-zero ozone concentrations occur in soundings with larger background currents. To a large extent, these events are no longer observed in the reprocessed data set using the improved background treatment.

  5. Methodology for calculating perception of the user experience of the quality of monitored integrated telecommunications operator services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for calculating perception of the user experience of the quality of monitored integrated telecommunications operator services. For this purpose, data from the monitoring of user services is used, along with questionnaires previously completed by a representative

  6. Manageable and Extensible Video Streaming Systems for On-Line Monitoring of Remote Laboratory Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Wei Lin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available To enable clients to view real-time video of the involved instruments during a remote experiment, two real-time video streaming systems are devised. One is for the remote experiments which instruments locate in one geographic spot and the other is for those which instruments scatter over different places. By means of running concurrent streaming processes at a server, multiple instruments can be monitored simultaneously by different clients. The proposed systems possess excellent extensibility, that is, the systems can easily add new digital cameras for instruments without modifying any software. Also they are well-manageable, meaning that an administrator can conveniently adjust the quality of the real-time video depending on system load and visual requirements. Finally, some evaluation concerning CPU utilization and bandwidth consumption of the systems have been evaluated to verify the effectiveness of the proposed solutions.

  7. HappyFace as a monitoring tool for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00367045; Yahyapour, Ramin

    The importance of monitoring on HEP grid computing systems is growing due to a significant increase in their complexity. Computer scientists and administrators have been studying and building effective ways to gather information on and clarify a status of each local grid infrastructure. The HappyFace project aims at making the above-mentioned workflow possible. It aggregates, processes and stores the informa- tion and the status of different HEP monitoring resources into the common database of HappyFace. The system displays the information and the status through a single interface. However, this model of HappyFace relied on the monitoring resources which are al- ways under development in the HEP experiments. Consequently, HappyFace needed to have direct access methods to the grid application and grid service layers in the dif- ferent HEP grid systems. To cope with this issue, we use a reliable HEP software repos- itory, the CernVM File System. We propose a new implementation and an architecture of HappyFace, ...

  8. Monitoring of small laboratory animal experiments by a designated web-based database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, T; Grohmann, C; Schumacher, U; Krüll, A

    2015-10-01

    Multiple-parametric small animal experiments require, by their very nature, a sufficient number of animals which may need to be large to obtain statistically significant results.(1) For this reason database-related systems are required to collect the experimental data as well as to support the later (re-) analysis of the information gained during the experiments. In particular, the monitoring of animal welfare is simplified by the inclusion of warning signals (for instance, loss in body weight >20%). Digital patient charts have been developed for human patients but are usually not able to fulfill the specific needs of animal experimentation. To address this problem a unique web-based monitoring system using standard MySQL, PHP, and nginx has been created. PHP was used to create the HTML-based user interface and outputs in a variety of proprietary file formats, namely portable document format (PDF) or spreadsheet files. This article demonstrates its fundamental features and the easy and secure access it offers to the data from any place using a web browser. This information will help other researchers create their own individual databases in a similar way. The use of QR-codes plays an important role for stress-free use of the database. We demonstrate a way to easily identify all animals and samples and data collected during the experiments. Specific ways to record animal irradiations and chemotherapy applications are shown. This new analysis tool allows the effective and detailed analysis of huge amounts of data collected through small animal experiments. It supports proper statistical evaluation of the data and provides excellent retrievable data storage. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Detecting the Recovery of the Antarctic Ozone Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Montzka, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early Spring. Antarctic ozone values have been monitored since 1979 using satellite observations from the TOMS instrument. The severity of the hole has been assessed from TOMS using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole) and by calculating the average size during the September-October period. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations in the collar of the polar lower stratospheric vortex. In this presentation, we show the relationships of halogens and temperature to both the size and depth of the hole. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international agreements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. Using projections of halogen levels combined with age-of-air estimates, we find that the ozone hole is recovering at an extremely slow rate and that large ozone holes will regularly recur over the next 2 decades. We will show estimates of both when the ozone hole will begin to show first signs of recovery, and when the hole will fully recover to pre-1980 levels.

  10. Experiment Dashboard - a generic, scalable solution for monitoring of the LHC computing activities, distributed sites and services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, J; Cinquilli, M; Dieguez, D; Dzhunov, I; Karavakis, E; Karhula, P; Kenyon, M; Kokoszkiewicz, L; Nowotka, M; Ro, G; Saiz, P; Tuckett, D; Sargsyan, L; Schovancova, J

    2012-01-01

    The Experiment Dashboard system provides common solutions for monitoring job processing, data transfers and site/service usability. Over the last seven years, it proved to play a crucial role in the monitoring of the LHC computing activities, distributed sites and services. It has been one of the key elements during the commissioning of the distributed computing systems of the LHC experiments. The first years of data taking represented a serious test for Experiment Dashboard in terms of functionality, scalability and performance. And given that the usage of the Experiment Dashboard applications has been steadily increasing over time, it can be asserted that all the objectives were fully accomplished.

  11. Remote device control and monitor system for the LHD deuterium experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Hideya, E-mail: nakanisi@nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Dept. Fusion Science, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Ohsuna, Masaki; Ito, Tatsuki; Nonomura, Miki; Imazu, Setsuo; Emoto, Masahiko; Iwata, Chie; Yoshida, Masanobu; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Maeno, Hiroya; Aoyagi, Miwa; Ogawa, Hideki; Nakamura, Osamu; Morita, Yoshitaka; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Watanabe, Kiyomasa [National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Ida, Katsumi; Ishiguro, Seiji; Kaneko, Osamu [National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Dept. Fusion Science, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Device remote control will be significant for the LHD deuterium experiments. • A central management GUI to control the power distribution for devices. • For safety, power management is separated from operational commanding. • Wi-Fi was tested and found to be not reliable with fusion plasmas. - Abstract: Upon beginning the LHD deuterium experiment, the opportunity for maintenance work in the torus hall will be conspicuously reduced such that all instruments must be controlled remotely. The LHD data acquisition (DAQ) and archiving system have been using about 110 DAQ front-end, and the DAQ central control and monitor system has been implemented for their remote management. This system is based on the “multi-agent” model whose communication protocol has been unified. Since DAQ front-end electronics would suffer from the “single-event effect” (SEE) of D-D neutrons, software-based remote operation might become ineffective, and then securely intercepting or recycling the electrical power of the device would be indispensable for recovering from a non-responding fault condition. In this study, a centralized control and monitor system has been developed for a number of power distribution units (PDUs). This system adopts the plug-in structure in which the plug-in modules can absorb the differences among the commercial products of numerous vendors. The combination of the above-mentioned functionalities has led to realizing the flexible and highly reliable remote control infrastructure for the plasma diagnostics and the device management in LHD.

  12. Centralized Monitoring of the Microsoft Windows-based computers of the LHC Experiment Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela Rodriguez, F

    2011-01-01

    The control system of each of the four major Experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is distributed over up to 160 computers running either Linux or Microsoft Windows. A quick response to abnormal situations of the computer infrastructure is crucial to maximize the physics usage. For this reason, a tool was developed to supervise, identify errors and troubleshoot such a large system. Although the monitoring of the performance of the Linux computers and their processes was available since the first versions of the tool, it is only recently that the software package has been extended to provide similar functionality for the nodes running Microsoft Windows as this platform is the most commonly used in the LHC detector control systems. In this paper, the architecture and the functionality of the Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) client developed to provide centralized monitoring of the nodes running different flavour of the Microsoft platform, as well as the interface to the SCADA software of the control systems are presented. The tool is currently being commissioned by the Experiments and it has already proven to be very efficient optimize the running systems and to detect misbehaving processes or nodes.

  13. The Navruz experiment. Cooperative monitoring for radionuclides and metals in Central Asia transboundary rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.S.; Betsill, J.D.; Mohagheghi, A.H.; Passell, H.D.; Yuldashev, B.; Salikhbaev, U.; Djuraev, A.; Vasiliev, I.; Solodukhin, V.

    2005-01-01

    In March of 2000, scientists from four nuclear physics research institutes in the Central Asia Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and the U.S. Sandia National Laboratories embarked on a three-year cooperative transboundary river monitoring experiment. The experiment, named Navruz (meaning 'new beginning'), uses standardized methods to monitor basic water quality parameters, radionuclides, and metals in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: (1) to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; (2) to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and (3) to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources. Contamination of these rivers is a result of growing population, urbanization, agricultural uses, and radioactive and metals contamination from a legacy of uranium mining, industry, and other activities of the former Soviet Union. The project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of the importance of these contaminants to public health and political stability in Central Asia. Moreover, the method of enabling scientists from bordering countries to study a transboundary problem, can lead to a greater scientific understanding, consensus on necessary mitigation steps, and ultimately the political resolution of the issue. The project scope, approach, and preliminary results are presented. (author)

  14. Centralized Monitoring of the Microsoft Windows-based computers of the LHC Experiment Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela Rodriguez, F.

    2011-12-01

    The control system of each of the four major Experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is distributed over up to 160 computers running either Linux or Microsoft Windows. A quick response to abnormal situations of the computer infrastructure is crucial to maximize the physics usage. For this reason, a tool was developed to supervise, identify errors and troubleshoot such a large system. Although the monitoring of the performance of the Linux computers and their processes was available since the first versions of the tool, it is only recently that the software package has been extended to provide similar functionality for the nodes running Microsoft Windows as this platform is the most commonly used in the LHC detector control systems. In this paper, the architecture and the functionality of the Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) client developed to provide centralized monitoring of the nodes running different flavour of the Microsoft platform, as well as the interface to the SCADA software of the control systems are presented. The tool is currently being commissioned by the Experiments and it has already proven to be very efficient optimize the running systems and to detect misbehaving processes or nodes.

  15. The data quality monitoring challenge at CMS experience from first collisions and future plans

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069172

    2015-01-01

    The Data Quality Monitoring (DQM) Software is a central tool in the CMS experiment. Its robustness and flexibility is critical for monitoring detector performance and providing fast and comprehensive feedback centrally for the experiment in real-time (Online DQM), after a full event processing with fine-grained analysis (Offline DQM), and as a validation tool to validate both the CMS software (CMSSW), calibration and alignment scenarios and extensive simulations. The entire DQM framework has undergone fundamental changes, and the first performance results of this newly updated system will be presented in the context of the first proton-proton collisions for CERNs Large Hadron Collider at a center of mass energy of 13 TeV. These results will encapsulate the performance of the CMS detector in the context of the upgraded DQM system that makes available more sophisticated methods for evaluating data quality, as well as a dedicated review of the technical challenges and improvements specific to the DQM framework i...

  16. The source of monoenergetic electrons for the monitoring of spectrometer in the KATRIN neutrino experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Slezák, Martin

    The international project KATRIN (KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment) is a next-generation tritium $\\beta$-decay experiment. It is designed to measure the electron anti-neutrino mass by means of a unique electron spectrometer with sensitivity of 0.2 eV/c$^2$. This is an improvement of one order of magnitude over the last results. Important part of the measurement will rest in continuous precise monitoring of high voltage of the KATRIN main spectrometer. The monitoring will be done by means of conversion electrons emitted from a solid source based on $^{83}$Rb decay. Properties of several of these sources are studied in this thesis by means of the semiconductor $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy. Firstly, measurement of precise energy of the 9.4 keV nuclear transition observed in $^{83}$Rb decay, from which the energy of conversion electrons is derived, is reported. Secondly, measurement of activity distribution of the solid sources by means of the Timepix detector is described. Finally, a report on measurement of r...

  17. Ozone bioindicator sampling and estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretchen C, Smith; William D. Smith; John W. Coulston

    2007-01-01

    Ozone is an important forest stressor that has been measured at known phytotoxic levels at forest locations across the United States. The percent forest exhibiting negative impacts from ozone air pollution is one of the Montreal Process indicators of forest health and vitality. The ozone bioindicator data of the U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Program...

  18. Ozonated Olive Oils and Troubles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Uysal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 49-50

  19. Radiographic x-ray flux monitoring during explosive experiments by copper activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goosman, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    During radiographic experiments involving explosives, it is valuable to have a method of monitoring the X-ray flux ratio between the dynamic experiment and an X-ray taken of a static object for comparison. The standard method of monitoring with thermoluminescent detectors suffers the disadvantages of being sensitive to temperature, shock, UV radiation, cleanliness and saturation. We are studying an additional flux monitoring system which is not subject to any of the above disadvantages and is based upon the 63 Cu(photon,n) 62 Cu reaction. The 62 Cu has a 10 min. half-life and is counted by a nuclear pulse-counting system within a few minutes of an explosive test. 170 MicroCoulomb of 19.3 MeV electrons hitting 1.18mm of Ta produces X-rays which illuminate a 0.8mm thick by 1.6cm diameter Cu disk placed 46cm from the Ta. The activated Cu is placed in a counting system with a window between 400-600 keV and produces about 42500 counts in the first 100 sec counting period. Less than 0.2% of the initial activity is due to other reactions. Photo-induced neutrons in Be parts of the system are shown to produce a negligible effect in the Cu. The main disadvantage of the Cu activation is its sensitivity to electron energy. Monte-Carlo calculations of the excitation function for our accelerator are shown, along with excitation functions for three other configurations

  20. Radiographic x-ray flux monitoring during explosive experiments by copper activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goosman, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    During radiographic experiments involving explosives, it is valuable to have a method of monitoring the x-ray flux ratio between the dynamic experiment and an x-ray taken of a static object for comparison. The standard method of monitoring with thermoluminescent detectors suffers the disadvantages of being sensitive to temperature, shock, uv radiation, cleanliness and saturation. A flux monitoring system is being studied which is not subject to any of the above disadvantages and is based upon the 63Cu(photon,n)62Cu reaction. The 62Cu has a 10 min half life and is counted by a nuclear pulse counting system within a few minutes of an explosive test. 170 microcoulomb of 19.3 MeV electrons hitting 1.18 mm of Ta produces x-rays which illuminate a 0.8mm thick by 1.6 cm diameter Cu disk placed 46 cm from the Ta. The activated Cu is placed in a counting system with a window between 400 to 600 keV and produces about 42,500 counts in the first 100 sec. counting period. Less than 0.2% of the initial activity is due to other reactions. Photo-induced neutrons in Be parts of the system are shown to produce a negligible effect in the Cu. The main disadvantage of the Cu activation is its sensitivity to electron energy. Monte-Carlo calculations of the excitation function for our accelerator are shown, along with excitation functions for three other configurations

  1. Disappearing threat to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribbin, J

    1979-02-15

    Concern that human activities might disturb the dynamic natural equilibrium of the ozone layer has stemmed from the fact that this layer plays a key part in the ecology of the earth by absorbing harmful ultraviolet radiation which would otherwise penetrate to the ground. Apparently, however, a decline of as much at 15% in total global ozone would have very little effect on climate. A 50% reduction would produce a marked cooling of the stratosphere at 40 km altitude over the tropics, but barely detectable changes in temperature and rainfall in the lower atmosphere. Therefore, biological effects of more uv light at ground level is the only hazard associated with ozone depletion on the scale which might take place.

  2. Ozonation for source treatment of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater - ozone lifetime and required ozone dose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Chhetri, Ravi Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Ozonation aimed at removing pharmaceuticals was studied in an effluent from an experimental pilot system using staged moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) tanks for the optimal biological treatment of wastewater from a medical care unit of Aarhus University Hospital. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC......) and pH in samples varied considerably, and the effect of these two parameters on ozone lifetime and the efficiency of ozone in removing pharmaceuticals were determined. The pH in the effluent varied from 5.0 to 9.0 resulting in approximately a doubling of the required ozone dose at the highest p......H for each pharmaceutical. DOC varied from 6 to 20 mg-DOC/L. The ozone required for removing each pharmaceutical, varied linearly with DOC and thus, ozone doses normalized to DOC (specific ozone dose) agreed between water samples (typically within 15%). At neutral pH the specific ozone dose required...

  3. Investigating Dry Deposition of Ozone to Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sam J.; Heald, Colette L.

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric ozone loss through dry deposition to vegetation is a critically important process for both air quality and ecosystem health. The majority of atmospheric chemistry models calculate dry deposition using a resistance-in-series parameterization by Wesely (1989), which is dependent on many environmental variables and lookup table values. The uncertainties contained within this parameterization have not been fully explored, ultimately challenging our ability to understand global scale biosphere-atmosphere interactions. In this work, we evaluate the GEOS-Chem model simulation of ozone dry deposition using a globally distributed suite of observations. We find that simulated daytime deposition velocities generally reproduce the magnitude of observations to within a factor of 1.4. When correctly accounting for differences in land class between the observations and model, these biases improve, most substantially over the grasses and shrubs land class. These biases do not impact the global ozone burden substantially; however, they do lead to local absolute changes of up to 4 ppbv and relative changes of 15% in summer surface concentrations. We use MERRA meteorology from 1979 to 2008 to assess that the interannual variability in simulated annual mean ozone dry deposition due to model input meteorology is small (generally less than 5% over vegetated surfaces). Sensitivity experiments indicate that the simulation is most sensitive to the stomatal and ground surface resistances, as well as leaf area index. To improve ozone dry deposition models, more measurements are necessary over rainforests and various crop types, alongside constraints on individual depositional pathways and other in-canopy ozone loss processes.

  4. Destruction of enzymatic activities of corn and soybean leaves exposed to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leffler, H R; Cherry, J H

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of a single ozone exposure on selected enzymatic activities and chlorophyll contents of corn and soybean seedlings. Both nitrite reductase activity and chlorophyll content of the seedlings were found to be quite sensitive to ozonation and were seen to decrease as much as 50% after exposure to 80 parts per hundred million (pphm) ozone. After exposure to lower levels of ozone, less-pronounced decreases were observed. Nitrate reductase activity was reduced only after exposure to seedling leaf tissues to high concentrations of ozone. These results are discussed in relation to the concept of a two-phase response to oxidant exposure. The first phase is at the chloroplast level and is quite sensitive to the low as well as the high concentrations of ozone; the second is at the cellular level and is relatively resistant to all but the highest ozone concentrations. 27 references, 2 tables.

  5. Pericellular oxygen monitoring with integrated sensor chips for reproducible cell culture experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieninger, J; Aravindalochanan, K; Sandvik, J A; Pettersen, E O; Urban, G A

    2014-04-01

    Here we present an application, in two tumour cell lines, based on the Sensing Cell Culture Flask system as a cell culture monitoring tool for pericellular oxygen sensing. T-47D (human breast cancer) and T98G (human brain cancer) cells were cultured either in atmospheric air or in a glove-box set at 4% oxygen, in both cases with 5% CO2 in the gas phase. Pericellular oxygen tension was measured with the help of an integrated sensor chip comprising oxygen sensor arrays. Obtained results illustrate variation of pericellular oxygen tension in attached cells covered by stagnant medium. Independent of incubation conditions, low pericellular oxygen concentration levels, usually associated with hypoxia, were found in dense cell cultures. Respiration alone brought pericellular oxygen concentration down to levels which could activate hypoxia-sensing regulatory processes in cultures believed to be aerobic. Cells in culture believed to experience conditions of mild hypoxia may, in reality, experience severe hypoxia. This would lead to incorrect assumptions and suggests that pericellular oxygen concentration readings are of great importance to obtain reproducible results when dealing with hypoxic and normoxic (aerobic) incubation conditions. The Sensing Cell Culture Flask system allows continuous monitoring of pericellular oxygen concentration with outstanding long-term stability and no need for recalibration during cell culture experiments. The sensor is integrated into the flask bottom, thus in direct contact with attached cells. No additional equipment needs to be inserted into the flask during culturing. Transparency of the electrochemical sensor chip allows optical inspection of cells attached on top of the sensor. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Inactivation of human and simian rotaviruses by ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughn, J.M.; Chen, Y.S.; Lindburg, K.; Morales, D.

    1987-09-01

    The inactivation of simian rotavirus Sa-11 and human rotavirus type 2 (Wa) by ozone was compared at 4/sup 0/C by using single-particle virus stocks. Although the human strain was clearly more sensitive, both virus types were rapidly inactivated by ozone concentrations of 0.25 mg/liter or greater at all pH levels tested. Comparison of the virucidal activity of ozone with that of chlorine in identical experiments indicated little significant difference in rotavirus-inactivating efficiencies when the disinfectants were used at concentrations of 0.25 mg/liter or greater.

  7. Ozone distribution in remote ecologically vulnerable terrain of the southern Sierra Nevada, CA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panek, Jeanne; Saah, David; Esperanza, Annie; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Fraczek, Witold; Cisneros, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Ozone concentration spatial patterns remain largely uncharacterized across the extensive wilderness areas of the Sierra Nevada, CA, despite being downwind of major pollution sources. These natural areas, including four national parks and four national forests, contain forest species that are susceptible to ozone injury. Forests stressed by ozone are also more vulnerable to other agents of mortality, including insects, pathogens, climate change, and ultimately fire. Here we analyze three years of passive ozone monitor data from the southern Sierra Nevada and interpolate landscape-scale spatial and temporal patterns during the summer-through-fall high ozone concentration period. Segmentation analysis revealed three types of ozone exposure sub-regions: high, low, and variable. Consistently high ozone exposure regions are expected to be most vulnerable to forest mortality. One high exposure sub-region has been documented elsewhere as being further vulnerable to increased drought and fire potential. Identifying such hot-spots of forest vulnerability has utility for prioritizing management. -- Highlights: •Three years of passive ozone sampler data over 49,000 km 2 were analyzed spatially. •Spatial and temporal ozone patterns were mapped across the Sierra Nevada, CA. •Sub-regions of consistently high, low and variable ozone exposure were identified. •The 1700–2400 m elevation band delineated a distinct break in ozone concentration. •This approach has utility for prioritizing management across vulnerable landscapes. -- A passive ozone sampler network in combination with spatial analysis techniques was used to characterize landscape-scale ozone patterns and dynamics, identifying regions of consistently high and low ozone exposure for forest management prioritization

  8. Solar photo-ozonation: A novel treatment method for the degradation of water pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chávez, Ana M.; Rey, Ana; Beltrán, Fernando J.; Álvarez, Pedro M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Aqueous ozone decomposition is accelerated by solar radiation. • Hydrogen peroxide is identifies as a main intermediate of decomposition of aqueous ozone under solar irradiation. • Solar photo-ozonation leads to higher Rct ratios than single ozonation. • Solar photo-ozonation is a promising AOP for the degradation of water pollutants. - Abstract: The decomposition of aqueous ozone by UV–vis radiation has been investigated with focus on the impact of ozone photolysis on the degradation of water pollutants during solar ozonation processes. The apparent first-order rate constants of the decomposition of ozone (k_o_b_s) have been determined at various pHs in the 4–9 range using radiation of different wavelengths in the UV–vis range. It was found that UVA–visible radiation (λ > 320 nm) highly enhanced ozone decomposition, especially at pH 4, for which k_o_b_s was three-folded with respect to the process in the absence of radiation. Hydrogen peroxide was identified as a main intermediate of ozone photo-decomposition at pH 4. Experiments of degradation of oxalic acid by ozone showed that solar irradiation brings about an increase in the hydroxyl radical to ozone exposures ratio (R_c_t). Finally, photo-ozonation (λ > 300 nm) was shown advantageous over single ozonation in the mineralization of a selection of emerging contaminants (metoprolol, ibuprofen, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide and clofibric acid) in both ultrapure water and a synthetic secondary effluent. Thus, TOC removal in 2-h treatments increased from 10 to 25% in the absence of radiation to about 50% in the presence of radiation.

  9. Solar photo-ozonation: A novel treatment method for the degradation of water pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chávez, Ana M.; Rey, Ana; Beltrán, Fernando J.; Álvarez, Pedro M., E-mail: pmalvare@unex.es

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Aqueous ozone decomposition is accelerated by solar radiation. • Hydrogen peroxide is identifies as a main intermediate of decomposition of aqueous ozone under solar irradiation. • Solar photo-ozonation leads to higher Rct ratios than single ozonation. • Solar photo-ozonation is a promising AOP for the degradation of water pollutants. - Abstract: The decomposition of aqueous ozone by UV–vis radiation has been investigated with focus on the impact of ozone photolysis on the degradation of water pollutants during solar ozonation processes. The apparent first-order rate constants of the decomposition of ozone (k{sub obs}) have been determined at various pHs in the 4–9 range using radiation of different wavelengths in the UV–vis range. It was found that UVA–visible radiation (λ > 320 nm) highly enhanced ozone decomposition, especially at pH 4, for which k{sub obs} was three-folded with respect to the process in the absence of radiation. Hydrogen peroxide was identified as a main intermediate of ozone photo-decomposition at pH 4. Experiments of degradation of oxalic acid by ozone showed that solar irradiation brings about an increase in the hydroxyl radical to ozone exposures ratio (R{sub ct}). Finally, photo-ozonation (λ > 300 nm) was shown advantageous over single ozonation in the mineralization of a selection of emerging contaminants (metoprolol, ibuprofen, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide and clofibric acid) in both ultrapure water and a synthetic secondary effluent. Thus, TOC removal in 2-h treatments increased from 10 to 25% in the absence of radiation to about 50% in the presence of radiation.

  10. Physicochemical patterns of ozone absorption by wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamleeva, N. A.; Lunin, V. V.

    2016-11-01

    Results from studying aspen and pine wood ozonation are presented. The effect the concentration of ozone, the reagent residence time, and the content of water in a sample of wood has on ozone consumption rate and ozone demand are analyzed. The residence time is shown to determine the degree of ozone conversion degree and the depth of substrate destruction. The main patterns of ozone absorption by wood with different moisture content are found. Ways of optimizing the ozonation of plant biomass are outlined.

  11. Merged ozone profiles from four MIPAS processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laeng, Alexandra; von Clarmann, Thomas; Stiller, Gabriele; Dinelli, Bianca Maria; Dudhia, Anu; Raspollini, Piera; Glatthor, Norbert; Grabowski, Udo; Sofieva, Viktoria; Froidevaux, Lucien; Walker, Kaley A.; Zehner, Claus

    2017-04-01

    The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) was an infrared (IR) limb emission spectrometer on the Envisat platform. Currently, there are four MIPAS ozone data products, including the operational Level-2 ozone product processed at ESA, with the scientific prototype processor being operated at IFAC Florence, and three independent research products developed by the Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara (ISAC-CNR)/University of Bologna, Oxford University, and the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology-Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research/Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (KIT-IMK/IAA). Here we present a dataset of ozone vertical profiles obtained by merging ozone retrievals from four independent Level-2 MIPAS processors. We also discuss the advantages and the shortcomings of this merged product. As the four processors retrieve ozone in different parts of the spectra (microwindows), the source measurements can be considered as nearly independent with respect to measurement noise. Hence, the information content of the merged product is greater and the precision is better than those of any parent (source) dataset. The merging is performed on a profile per profile basis. Parent ozone profiles are weighted based on the corresponding error covariance matrices; the error correlations between different profile levels are taken into account. The intercorrelations between the processors' errors are evaluated statistically and are used in the merging. The height range of the merged product is 20-55 km, and error covariance matrices are provided as diagnostics. Validation of the merged dataset is performed by comparison with ozone profiles from ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer) and MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder). Even though the merging is not supposed to remove the biases of the parent datasets, around the ozone volume mixing ratio peak the merged product is found to have a smaller (up to 0.1 ppmv

  12. Ozone-induced changes in the chloroplast structure of conifer needles, and their use in ozone diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivimaeenpaeae, M.; Sellden, G.; Sutinen, S.

    2005-01-01

    Ozone induces characteristic symptoms in the chloroplasts of the needles of several coniferous species. Chloroplasts are (1) reduced in size and (2) the stroma is electron dense. Moreover (3) these chloroplast alterations are more pronounced in the outer mesophyll cell layers and in the upper side of the needle compared to the inner layers and lower side. The syndrome, including the three symptoms (1)-(3), is found in the green needles of Scots pine and Norway spruce not only in the experimental fumigations, but also in mature trees in the field, and has potential for diagnosis of ozone stress. For sound ozone diagnostics all three symptoms must be present in the samples studied. The symptoms in relation to needle anatomy and physiology is discussed, and recommendations for sampling and analysis are given. - Ozone-induced alterations in chloroplast structure of conifer needles are reviewed, and recommendations for field monitoring given

  13. New experience in atmospheric monitoring in Moscow city on the base of WSN technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asavin, Alex; Litvinov, Artur; Baskakov, Sergey; Chesalova, Elena

    2016-04-01

    on the each calibration graphics with different H2 concentration in standard gas mixtures. The graphics represent the power functions. The accuracy of the approximating functions is 3-18 %. At low concentrations (H2 Communication between router and IT server used two methods: cable RS486 and GPRS modem. GPRS connection is unstable and influence on operating stability. There are some problems in using of directional antenna because of the high level of city's radio noises and radio interferences. Nevertheless, a number of experiments with use of different technical solutions allowed us to perform continuous monitoring during 2 months. As a result about 3 million data records were obtained during experimental works. This information provided an opportunity to develop the structure of database management systems to store data and the technology of online data collection from remote sensors. Using the abilities of program software a periodical (12h) automatic export/import was realized. Access to file on remote computers is opened using FTP protocol. Database forms derived tables for each sensors. We use triggers to modify data, for example, to modify signal from gas sensors to gas concentration, in depend of unique sensor name. Additional table gives geographical coordinates of each node. We use GIS project for visualization and data analysis. Experiences revealed the inverse relationship between H2 concentration and temperature and pressure. Also we revealed periodicity of gas concentration with different harmonics. We could not find in literatures the similar works of H2 monitoring in cites. Exclusion is the work of (Necki et al., 2014) to organize continue monitoring in Krakow and it neighborhood. Authors also note periodicity in gas concentration affected by the seasons (increase in wintertime), day time (auto traffic). The received data we consider as first experiments in organization of long time monitoring of cites atmosphere, using new technologies (WSN). This

  14. User Centric Job Monitoring – a redesign and novel approach in the STAR experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipkin, D; Lauret, J; Zulkarneeva, Y

    2014-01-01

    User Centric Monitoring (or UCM) has been a long awaited feature in STAR, whereas programs, workflows and system 'events' could be logged, broadcast and later analyzed. UCM allows to collect and filter available job monitoring information from various resources and present it to users in a user-centric view rather than an administrative-centric point of view. The first attempt and implementation of 'a' UCM approach was made in STAR 2004 using a log4cxx plug-in back-end and then further evolved with an attempt to push toward a scalable database back-end (2006) and finally using a Web-Service approach (2010, CSW4DB SBIR). The latest showed to be incomplete and not addressing the evolving needs of the experiment where streamlined messages for online (data acquisition) purposes as well as the continuous support for the data mining needs and event analysis need to coexists and unified in a seamless approach. The code also revealed to be hardly maintainable. This paper presents the next evolutionary step of the UCM toolkit, a redesign and redirection of our latest attempt acknowledging and integrating recent technologies and a simpler, maintainable and yet scalable manner. The extended version of the job logging package is built upon three-tier approach based on Task, Job and Event, and features a Web-Service based logging API, a responsive AJAX-powered user interface, and a database back-end relying on MongoDB, which is uniquely suited for STAR needs. In addition, we present details of integration of this logging package with the STAR offline and online software frameworks. Leveraging on the reported experience and work from the ATLAS and CMS experience on using the ESPER engine, we discuss and show how such approach has been implemented in STAR for meta-data event triggering stream processing and filtering. An ESPER based solution seems to fit well into the online data acquisition system where many systems are monitored.

  15. Screening agrochemicals as potential protectants of plants against ozone phytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitanis, Costas J.; Lekkas, Dimitrios V.; Agathokleous, Evgenios; Flouri, Fotini

    2015-01-01

    We tested seven contemporary agrochemicals as potential plant protectants against ozone phytotoxicity. In nine experiments, Bel-W3 tobacco plants were experienced weekly exposures to a) 80 nmol mol −1 of ozone-enriched or ozone-free air in controlled environment chambers, b) an urban air polluted area, and c) an agricultural-remote area. Ozone caused severe leaf injury, reduced chlorophylls' and total carotenoids' content, and negatively affected photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. Penconazole, (35% ± 8) hexaconazole (28% ± 5) and kresoxim-methyl (28% ± 15) showed higher plants’ protection (expressed as percentage; mean ± s.e.) against ozone, although the latter exhibited a high variability. Azoxystrobin (21% ± 15) showed lower protection efficacy and Benomyl (15% ± 9) even lower. Trifloxystrobin (7% ± 11) did not protect the plants at all. Acibenzolar-S-methyl + metalaxyl-M (Bion MX) (−6% ± 17) exhibited the higher variability and contrasting results: in some experiments it showed some protection while in others it intensified the ozone injury by causing phytotoxic symptoms on leaves, even in control plants. - Highlights: • Penconazole and hexaconazole offered some protection to plants against ozone. • Bion MX fungicide caused phytotoxic symptoms to Bel-W3 tobacco plants. • Stomatal conductance was reduced in ozone-fumigated plants. - Seven agrochemicals were assessed as potential protectants against ozone phytotoxicity – triazoles fungicides were the most effective

  16. Measurements of the potential ozone production rate in a forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crilley, L.; Sklaveniti, S.; Kramer, L.; Bloss, W.; Flynn, J. H., III; Alvarez, S. L.; Erickson, M.; Dusanter, S.; Locoge, N.; Stevens, P. S.; Millet, D. B.; Alwe, H. D.

    2017-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) are a significant source of organic compounds globally and alongside NOx play a key role in the formation of ozone in the troposphere. Understanding how changes in NOx concentrations feed through to altered ozone production in BVOC dominated environments will aid our understanding of future atmospheric composition, notably as developing nations transition from NOx dominated to NOx limited chemistry as a result of mitigation strategies. Here we empirically investigate this ambient ozone formation potential. We report deployment of a custom built instrument to measure in near real time the potential for in situ chemical ozone production, using an artificial light source. Our results are thus indicative of the ozone formation potential for a sampled ambient air mixture, including full VOC complexity, i.e. independent of characterization of individual organic compounds. Ground level measurements were performed as part of the PROPHET-AMOS 2016 field campaign, at a site located within a Northern Michigan forest that has typically low NOx abundance, but high isoprene and terpenoid loadings. As the ambient NOx concentrations were low during the campaign, experiments were performed in which NO was artificially added to the sampled ambient air mixture, to quantify changes in the potential ozone production rate as a function of NOx, and hence the ozone forming characteristics of the ambient air. Preliminarily results from these experiments are presented, and indicate that while ozone production increases with added NO, significant variation was observed for a given NO addition, reflecting differences in the ambient VOC chemical reactivity and ozone formation tendency.

  17. Using particle counters for pretreatment optimization, iron transport monitoring, condenser leak detection, and carryover monitoring - a synopsis of experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    Steam generating systems all require clean water. The effects of particulate material in the steam/water cycle on metal corrosion, erosion, cracking, and deposition are frequently observed. However, the physical/chemical mechanisms are often difficult to correlate with a specific plant event, since the periodic ''grab'' samples from various areas of the water/steam process which are generally conducted do not allow real time continuous on-line particulate monitoring and data collection. This paper introduces the concept of using particulate measuring instruments to monitor the steam generation cycle, and presents case histories of real world plant situations where on-line particulate measurement using particle counters and particle monitors has defined the source of a problem, quantified the severity of a problem, and provided a solution to a problem. (orig.)

  18. Our Shrinking Ozone Layer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Depletion of the ozone layer is therefore having significant effects on life on .... but there is always a net balance between the rate of formation and destruction ..... award of Commonwealth Fellowship during the present work and also being an ...

  19. Dobson ozone spectrophotometer modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komhyr, W. D.; Grass, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Description of a modified version of the Dobson ozone spectrophotometer in which several outdated electronic design features have been replaced by circuitry embodying more modern design concepts. The resulting improvement in performance characteristics has been obtained without changing the principle of operation of the original instrument.

  20. Ozone, greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aviam, A.M.; Arthaut, R.

    1992-01-01

    This file is made of eight general papers on environment (climates under observation, research on photo-oxidizing pollution, scientific aspects of stratospheric ozone layer, urban engineering and environment, glory of public gardens, earths not very natural, darwinism and society, economical data on environment). (A.B.). refs., 3 tabs

  1. Revisiting Antarctic Ozone Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Tritscher, Ines; Müller, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Antarctic ozone depletion is known for almost three decades and it has been well settled that it is caused by chlorine catalysed ozone depletion inside the polar vortex. However, there are still some details, which need to be clarified. In particular, there is a current debate on the relative importance of liquid aerosol and crystalline NAT and ice particles for chlorine activation. Particles have a threefold impact on polar chlorine chemistry, temporary removal of HNO3 from the gas-phase (uptake), permanent removal of HNO3 from the atmosphere (denitrification), and chlorine activation through heterogeneous reactions. We have performed simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) employing a recently developed algorithm for saturation-dependent NAT nucleation for the Antarctic winters 2011 and 2012. The simulation results are compared with different satellite observations. With the help of these simulations, we investigate the role of the different processes responsible for chlorine activation and ozone depletion. Especially the sensitivity with respect to the particle type has been investigated. If temperatures are artificially forced to only allow cold binary liquid aerosol, the simulation still shows significant chlorine activation and ozone depletion. The results of the 3-D Chemical Transport Model CLaMS simulations differ from purely Lagrangian longtime trajectory box model simulations which indicates the importance of mixing processes.

  2. Implementation of a patient dose monitoring system in conventional digital X-ray imaging: initial experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilmaier, Christina; Zuber, Niklaus; Weishaupt, Dominik [Stadtspital Triemli Zurich, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose was to report on the initial experience after implementation of a patient dose-monitoring system in conventional X-ray imaging. A dose-monitoring system collected dose data relating to different radiographs (one projection) and studies (two or more projections). Images were acquired on digital X-ray systems equipped with flat-panel detectors. During period 1, examinations were performed in a routine fashion in 12,614 patients. After period 1, technical modifications were performed and radiographers underwent training in radiation protection. During period 2, examinations were performed in 14,514 patients, and the radiographers were advised to read dose data after each radiograph/study. Dose data were compared by means of kerma area product (KAP, gray x centimetre squared) and entrance surface air kerma (ESAK, milligray). During period 1, 13,955 radiographs and 8,466 studies were performed, and in period 2 16,090 radiographs and 10,389 studies. In period 2, KAP values for radiographs were an average of 25 % lower and for studies 7 % lower, and ESAK values for radiographs were 24 % lower and for studies 5 % lower. The reduction in KAP was significant in 8/13 radiographs and in 6/14 studies, and the reduction in ESAK was significant in 6/13 radiographs and 5/14 studies. Implementation of a patient dose-monitoring system in conventional X-ray imaging allows easy data collection, supports dose reduction efforts, and may increase radiographers' dose awareness. (orig.)

  3. Non-Destructive Testing for Building Diagnostics and Monitoring: Experience Achieved with Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavukçuoğlu Ayşe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Building inspection on site, in other words in-situ examinations of buildings is a troublesome work that necessitates the use of non-destructive investigation (NDT techniques. One of the main concerns of non-destructive testing studies is to improve in-situ use of NDT techniques for diagnostic and monitoring studies. The quantitative infrared thermography (QIRT and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV measurements have distinct importance in that regard. The joint use of QIRT and ultrasonic testing allows in-situ evaluation and monitoring of historical structures and contemporary ones in relation to moisture, thermal, materials and structural failures while the buildings themselves remain intact. For instances, those methods are useful for detection of visible and invisible cracks, thermal bridges and damp zones in building materials, components and functional systems as well as for soundness assessment of materials and thermal performance assessment of building components. In addition, those methods are promising for moisture content analyses in materials and monitoring the success of conservation treatments or interventions in structures. The in-situ NDT studies for diagnostic purposes should start with the mapping of decay forms and scanning of building surfaces with infrared images. Quantitative analyses are shaped for data acquisition on site and at laboratory from representative sound and problem areas in structures or laboratory samples. Laboratory analyses are needed to support in-situ examinations and to establish the reference data for better interpretation of in situ data. Advances in laboratory tests using IRT and ultrasonic testing are guiding for in-situ materials investigations based on measurable parameters. The knowledge and experience on QIRT and ultrasonic testing are promising for the innovative studies on today’s materials technologies, building science and conservation/maintenance practices. Such studies demand a multi

  4. Growth of soybean at future tropospheric ozone concentrations decreases canopy evapotranspiration and soil water depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernacchi, Carl J., E-mail: bernacch@illinois.edu [Global Change and Photosynthesis Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Institute for Genomic Biology and Department of Plant Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Leakey, Andrew D.B. [Institute for Genomic Biology and Department of Plant Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Kimball, Bruce A. [USDA-ARS US Arid-Land Agricultural Research Center, 21881 N. Cardon Lane, Maricopa, AZ 85238 (United States); Ort, Donald R. [Global Change and Photosynthesis Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Institute for Genomic Biology and Department of Plant Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Tropospheric ozone is increasing in many agricultural regions resulting in decreased stomatal conductance and overall biomass of sensitive crop species. These physiological effects of ozone forecast changes in evapotranspiration and thus in the terrestrial hydrological cycle, particularly in intercontinental interiors. Soybean plots were fumigated with ozone to achieve concentrations above ambient levels over five growing seasons in open-air field conditions. Mean season increases in ozone concentrations ([O{sub 3}]) varied between growing seasons from 22 to 37% above background concentrations. The objective of this experiment was to examine the effects of future [O{sub 3}] on crop ecosystem energy fluxes and water use. Elevated [O{sub 3}] caused decreases in canopy evapotranspiration resulting in decreased water use by as much as 15% in high ozone years and decreased soil water removal. In addition, ozone treatment resulted in increased sensible heat flux in all years indicative of day-time increase in canopy temperature of up to 0.7 deg. C. - Highlights: > Globally, tropospheric ozone is currently and will likely continue to increase into the future. > We examine the impact of elevated ozone on water use by soybean at the SoyFACE research facility. > High ozone grown soybean had reduced rates of evapotranspiration and higher soil moisture. > Increases in ozone have the potential to impact the hydrologic cycle where these crops are grown. - Soybean grown in elevated concentrations of ozone is shown to evapotranspire less water compared with soybean canopies grown under current atmospheric conditions.

  5. Growth of soybean at future tropospheric ozone concentrations decreases canopy evapotranspiration and soil water depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernacchi, Carl J.; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Kimball, Bruce A.; Ort, Donald R.

    2011-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone is increasing in many agricultural regions resulting in decreased stomatal conductance and overall biomass of sensitive crop species. These physiological effects of ozone forecast changes in evapotranspiration and thus in the terrestrial hydrological cycle, particularly in intercontinental interiors. Soybean plots were fumigated with ozone to achieve concentrations above ambient levels over five growing seasons in open-air field conditions. Mean season increases in ozone concentrations ([O 3 ]) varied between growing seasons from 22 to 37% above background concentrations. The objective of this experiment was to examine the effects of future [O 3 ] on crop ecosystem energy fluxes and water use. Elevated [O 3 ] caused decreases in canopy evapotranspiration resulting in decreased water use by as much as 15% in high ozone years and decreased soil water removal. In addition, ozone treatment resulted in increased sensible heat flux in all years indicative of day-time increase in canopy temperature of up to 0.7 deg. C. - Highlights: → Globally, tropospheric ozone is currently and will likely continue to increase into the future. → We examine the impact of elevated ozone on water use by soybean at the SoyFACE research facility. → High ozone grown soybean had reduced rates of evapotranspiration and higher soil moisture. → Increases in ozone have the potential to impact the hydrologic cycle where these crops are grown. - Soybean grown in elevated concentrations of ozone is shown to evapotranspire less water compared with soybean canopies grown under current atmospheric conditions.

  6. Ozone carcinogenesis in vitro and its co-carcinogenesis with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borek, C.

    1988-01-01

    Ozone (O/sub 3/), a reactive species of oxygen, is an important natural constituent of the atmosphere. Background levels of ozone in the lower atmosphere may range up to 0.1 ppm and are modified by geographic elevation, solar radiation and climatic conditions. Since some ozone effects are radiomimetic, its actions may be enhanced in the presence of ionizing radiation from background and/or manmade sources. While stratospheric ozone spares the earth from excess solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, high levels of ozone in the environment are toxic and present a health hazard to man. Excess environmental exposure to ozone can result from a variety of sources. Ozone is a key component in oxidant smog and in the vicinity of high electric voltage equipment when in operation. Ozone is widely used as a disinfectant for air and water, in bleaches, waxes, textiles, oils. and inorganic synthesis. Enhanced levels of ozone are found in planes flying at high altitudes. Because of the toxic nature of ozone and its potential hazard to man, its levels in the environment are subject to government regulation. The current standard is set at an hourly average of 235 μg/m/sup 3/ (0.12 ppm) not to be exceeded more than once per year. Urban areas with high levels of photochemical smog (e.g. Southern California) may experience high ambient ozone levels which can reach 0.5 ppm

  7. Surface ozone in China: present-day distribution and long-term changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.; Lin, W.; Xu, W.

    2017-12-01

    Reliable knowledge of spatio-temporal variations of surface ozone is highly needed to assess the impacts of ozone on human health, ecosystem and climate. Although regional distributions and trends of surface ozone in European and North American countries have been well characterized, little is known about the variability of surface ozone in many other countries, including China, where emissions of ozone precursors have been changing rapidly in recent decades. Here we present the first comprehensive description of present-day (2013-2017) distribution and long-term changes of surface ozone in mainland China. Recent ozone measurements from China's air quality monitoring network (AQMN) are analyzed to show present-day distributions of a few ozone exposure metrics for urban environment. Long-term measurements of ozone at six background sites, a rural site and an urban are used to study the trends of ozone in background, rural and urban air, respectively. The average levels of ozone at the AQMN sites (mainly urban) are close to those found at many European and North American sites. However, ozone at most of the sites shows very large diurnal and seasonal variations so that ozone nonattainment can occur in many cities, particularly those in the North China Plain (NCP), the south of Northeast China (NEC), the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), the Pearl River Delta (PRD), and the Sichuan Basin-Chongqing region (SCB). In all these regions, particularly in the NCP, the maximum daily 8-h average (MDA8) ozone concentration can significantly exceed the national limit (75 ppb). High annual sum of ozone means over 35 ppb (SOMO35) exist mainly in the NCP, NEC and YRD, with regional averages over 4000 ppb·d. Surface ozone has significantly increased at Waliguan (a baseline site in western China) and Shangdianzi (a background site in the NCP), and decreased in winter and spring at Longfengshan (a background site in Northeast China). No clear trend can be derived from long-term measurements

  8. The Lyman Alpha Imaging-Monitor Experiment (LAIME) for TESIS/CORONAS-PHOTON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damé, L.; Koutchmy, S.; Kuzin, S.; Lamy, P.; Malherbe, J.-M.; Noëns, J.-C.

    LAIME the Lyman Alpha Imaging-Monitor Experiment is a remarkably simple no mechanisms and compact 100x100x400 mm full Sun imager to be flown with TESIS on the CORONAS-PHOTON mission launch expected before mid-2008 As such it will be the only true chromospheric imager to be flown in the next years supporting TESIS EUV-XUV imaging SDO and the Belgian LYRA Lyman Alpha flux monitor on the ESA PROBA-2 microsatellite launch expected in September 2007 We will give a short description of this unique O60 mm aperture imaging telescope dedicated to the investigating of the magnetic sources of solar variability in the UV and chromospheric and coronal disruptive events rapid waves Moreton waves disparitions brusques of prominences filaments eruptions and CMEs onset The resolution pixel is 2 7 arcsec the field of view 1 4 solar radius and the acquisition cadence could be as high as 1 image minute The back thinned E2V CCD in the focal plane is using frame transfer to avoid shutter and mechanisms Further more the double Lyman Alpha filtering allows a 40 AA FWHM bandwidth and excellent rejection yet providing a vacuum seal design of the telescope MgF2 entrance window Structural stability of the telescope focal length 1 m is preserved by a 4-INVAR bars design with Aluminium compensation in a large pm 10 o around 20 o