WorldWideScience

Sample records for ozone isopleth diagrams

  1. Ozone modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIllvaine, C M

    1994-07-01

    Exhaust gases from power plants that burn fossil fuels contain concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), particulate matter, hydrocarbon compounds and trace metals. Estimated emissions from the operation of a hypothetical 500 MW coal-fired power plant are given. Ozone is considered a secondary pollutant, since it is not emitted directly into the atmosphere but is formed from other air pollutants, specifically, nitrogen oxides (NO), and non-methane organic compounds (NMOQ) in the presence of sunlight. (NMOC are sometimes referred to as hydrocarbons, HC, or volatile organic compounds, VOC, and they may or may not include methane). Additionally, ozone formation Alternative is a function of the ratio of NMOC concentrations to NO{sub x} concentrations. A typical ozone isopleth is shown, generated with the Empirical Kinetic Modeling Approach (EKMA) option of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Ozone Isopleth Plotting Mechanism (OZIPM-4) model. Ozone isopleth diagrams, originally generated with smog chamber data, are more commonly generated with photochemical reaction mechanisms and tested against smog chamber data. The shape of the isopleth curves is a function of the region (i.e. background conditions) where ozone concentrations are simulated. The location of an ozone concentration on the isopleth diagram is defined by the ratio of NMOC and NO{sub x} coordinates of the point, known as the NMOC/NO{sub x} ratio. Results obtained by the described model are presented.

  2. Ozone modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIllvaine, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    Exhaust gases from power plants that burn fossil fuels contain concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), particulate matter, hydrocarbon compounds and trace metals. Estimated emissions from the operation of a hypothetical 500 MW coal-fired power plant are given. Ozone is considered a secondary pollutant, since it is not emitted directly into the atmosphere but is formed from other air pollutants, specifically, nitrogen oxides (NO), and non-methane organic compounds (NMOQ) in the presence of sunlight. (NMOC are sometimes referred to as hydrocarbons, HC, or volatile organic compounds, VOC, and they may or may not include methane). Additionally, ozone formation Alternative is a function of the ratio of NMOC concentrations to NO x concentrations. A typical ozone isopleth is shown, generated with the Empirical Kinetic Modeling Approach (EKMA) option of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Ozone Isopleth Plotting Mechanism (OZIPM-4) model. Ozone isopleth diagrams, originally generated with smog chamber data, are more commonly generated with photochemical reaction mechanisms and tested against smog chamber data. The shape of the isopleth curves is a function of the region (i.e. background conditions) where ozone concentrations are simulated. The location of an ozone concentration on the isopleth diagram is defined by the ratio of NMOC and NO x coordinates of the point, known as the NMOC/NO x ratio. Results obtained by the described model are presented

  3. Study of slag-refractory system in iron desulfurization process by isopleths from Ca O-Si O{sub 2}-Al{sub 2} O{sub 3} equilibrium diagram; Analise da interacao escoria de dessulfuracao de gusa - refratario do carro-torpedo a partir de projecao vertical no diagrama de equilibrio CaO-SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Marco Antonio; Tenorio, Jorge Alberto Soares [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    1996-12-31

    The sulfur withdrawal from liquid iron to compatible levels in steels plant processes capability is an important task of high quality rolled products fabrication. Mixture of lime forms a family of desulfurization agent frequently used, mainly their lower cost if injected in iron to reach not so lower levels of desulfurization. The use of this desulfurization agents produces approximately 7.0 Kg/t of slag, that results between 10 to 30 Kg/t of total slag. This slag interacts with the refractory lining of torpedo car, normally high alumina. In the present case it was analyzed an interaction between a slag formed by the use of the agent plus a blast furnace slag with a high alumina tar bonded lining. Isopleths of Ca O-Si O{sub 2}-Al{sub 2} O{sub 3} equilibrium diagram were constructed to represent the slag-refractory interaction. The results show that the use of the agent formed by lime and aluminium by-product is more deleterious to studied lining, what confirm the observations carried out in industrial plant. (author) 11 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Precision of the eutectic points determination by the isopleths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutsyk, V I; Sumkina, O G; Savinov, V V; Zelenaya, A E, E-mail: vluts@pres.bscnet.ru [Physical Problems Department, Buryat Scientific Center of RAS (Siberian Branch), 8 Sakhyanova st., Ulan-Ude, 670047 (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-29

    An imitation of quaternary eutectic point searching techniques by means of two-dimensional sections set construction (tie-lines method) was made, using the model of T-x-y-z diagram of eutectic type without solid-phases solubility as an example. The errors, appearing in sections graphics of experimentally studied systems, are analyzed.

  5. Isopleths of surface air concentration and surface air kerma rate due to a radioactive cloud released from a stack (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Haruo; Kikuchi, Masamitsu; Sekita, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Takenori

    2004-06-01

    This report is a revised edition of 'Isopleths of Surface Air Concentration and Surface Air Absorbed Dose Rate due to a Radioactive Cloud Released from a Stack(II) '(JAERI-M 90-206) and based on the revised Nuclear Safety Guidelines reflected the ICRP1990 Recommendation. Characteristics of this report are the use of Air Karma Rate (Gy/h) instead of Air Absorbed Dose Rate (Gy/h), and the record of isopleths of surface air concentration and surface air karma rate on CD-ROM. These recorded data on CD-ROM can be printed out on paper and/or pasted on digital map by personal computer. (author)

  6. Assessment of the Temporal Evolution of Storm Surge via Land to Water Isopleths in Coastal Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siverd, C. G.; Hagen, S. C.; Bilskie, M. V.; Braud, D.; Gao, S.; Peele, H.; Twilley, R.

    2017-12-01

    The low-lying coastal Louisiana deltaic landscape features an intricate system of fragmented wetlands, natural ridges, man-made navigation canals and flood protection infrastructure. Since 1900 and prior to the landfall of Hurricane Katrina in 2005, Louisiana lost approximately 480,000 ha (1,850 sq mi) of coastal wetlands and an additional 20,000 ha (77 sq mi) due to Katrina. This resulted in a total wetland storm protection value loss of USD 28.3 billion and USD 1.1 billion, respectively (Costanza 2008). To investigate the response of hurricane storm surge (e.g. peak water levels, inundation time and extent) through time due to land loss, hydrodynamic models that represent historical eras of the Louisiana coastal landscape were developed. Land:Water (L:W) isopleths (Gagliano 1970, 1971, Twilley 2016) have been calculated along the coast from the Sabine River to the Pearl River. These isopleths were utilized to create a simplified coastal landscape (bathymetry, topography, bottom roughness) representing circa 2010. Similar methodologies are employed with the objective of developing storm surge models that represent the coastal landscape for past eras. The goal is to temporally examine the evolution of storm surge along coastal Louisiana. The isopleths determined to best represent the Louisiana coast as a result of the methodology devised to develop the simple storm surge model for c.2010 are applied in the development of surge models for historical eras c.1930 and c.1970. The ADvaced CIRCulation (ADCIRC) code (Luettich 2004) is used to perform storm surge simulations with a predetermined suite of hurricane wind and pressure forcings. Hydrologic Unit Code 12 (HUC12) sub-watersheds provide geographical bounds to quantify mean maximum water surface elevations (WSEs), volume of inundation, and area of inundation. HUC12 sub-watersheds also provide a means to compare/contrast these quantified surge parameters on a HUC12-by-HUC12 basis for the c.1930, c.1970 and c.2010

  7. Stereo 3D spatial phase diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jinwu, E-mail: kangjw@tsinghua.edu.cn; Liu, Baicheng, E-mail: liubc@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2016-07-15

    Phase diagrams serve as the fundamental guidance in materials science and engineering. Binary P-T-X (pressure–temperature–composition) and multi-component phase diagrams are of complex spatial geometry, which brings difficulty for understanding. The authors constructed 3D stereo binary P-T-X, typical ternary and some quaternary phase diagrams. A phase diagram construction algorithm based on the calculated phase reaction data in PandaT was developed. And the 3D stereo phase diagram of Al-Cu-Mg ternary system is presented. These phase diagrams can be illustrated by wireframe, surface, solid or their mixture, isotherms and isopleths can be generated. All of these can be displayed by the three typical display ways: electronic shutter, polarization and anaglyph (for example red-cyan glasses). Especially, they can be printed out with 3D stereo effect on paper, and watched by the aid of anaglyph glasses, which makes 3D stereo book of phase diagrams come to reality. Compared with the traditional illustration way, the front of phase diagrams protrude from the screen and the back stretches far behind of the screen under 3D stereo display, the spatial structure can be clearly and immediately perceived. These 3D stereo phase diagrams are useful in teaching and research. - Highlights: • Stereo 3D phase diagram database was constructed, including binary P-T-X, ternary, some quaternary and real ternary systems. • The phase diagrams can be watched by active shutter or polarized or anaglyph glasses. • The print phase diagrams retains 3D stereo effect which can be achieved by the aid of anaglyph glasses.

  8. Photochemical production of ozone and control strategy for Southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Chein-Jung; Liu, Shaw Chen; Chang, Chih-Chung; Chen, Jen-Ping; Chou, Charles C. K.; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Young, Chea-Yuan

    An observation-based method (OBM) is developed to evaluate the ozone (O 3) production efficiency (O 3 molecules produced per NO x molecule consumed) and O 3 production rate ( P(O 3)) during a field campaign in southern Taiwan. The method can also provide an estimate of the concentration of OH. A key step in the method is to use observed concentrations of two aromatic hydrocarbons, namely ethylbenzene and m, p-xylene, to estimate the degree of photochemical processing and amounts of photochemically consumed NO x and NMHCs by OH. In addition, total oxidant (O 3+NO 2) instead of O 3 itself turns out to be very useful for representing ozone production in the OBM approach. The average O 3 production efficiency during the field campaign in Fall (2003) is found to be about 10.2±3.9. The relationship of P(O 3) with NO x is examined and compared with a one-dimensional (1D) photochemical model. Values of P(O 3) derived from the OBM are slightly lower than those calculated in the 1D model. However, OH concentrations estimated by the OBM are about a factor of 2 lower than the 1D model. Fresh emissions, which affect the degree of photochemical processing appear to be a major cause of the underestimate. We have developed a three-dimensional (3D) OBM O 3 production diagram that resembles the EKMA ozone isopleth diagram to study the relationship of the total oxidant versus O 3 precursors. The 3D OBM O 3 production diagram suggests that reducing emissions of NMHCs are more effective in controlling O 3 than reducing NO x. However, significant uncertainties remain in the OBM, and considerable more work is required to minimize these uncertainties before a definitive control strategy can be reached. The observation-based approach provides a good alternative to measuring peroxy radicals for evaluating the production of O 3 and formulating O 3 control strategy in urban and suburban environments.

  9. Isopleths of surface concentration and surface exposure rate due to a radioactive cloud released from a stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hideo; Yabuta, Hajimu; Katagiri, Hiroshi; Obata, Kazuichi; Kokubu, Morinobu

    1982-03-01

    Various calculations are made to estimate the distributions of concentration and γ-exposure rate due to a radioactive cloud released from a point source to the atmosphere. In this report, the isopleths of concentration and γ-exposure rate which were calculated are given in graphs to enable rapid prediction of the influence of released radioactive material in the emergency situation. Recently there are facilities which are equipped with a system to display the calculation results on CRT; but such practice is rather rare. By placing the calculated isopleths of reduction scale 1/25000 or 1/50000 on the usual map, any facilities without the CRT system can readily estimate the influence of an accidental release. The graphs of isopleths are given with the release height (11 values of 0 to 200 m at about 20 m intervals) and the atmospheric stability (6 classes) as parameters. Calculations of γ-exposure rates were made using the computer code GAMPUL developed by T. Hayashi and T. Shiraishi. In the calculation of radioactive concentrations and γ-exposure rates, the vertical diffusion depths, σsub(z), exceeding 1000 m are taken to be 1000 m according to the Meteorological Guide for the Safety Analysis of Power Reactor (J.AEC). The comparison between with and without this limitation in σsub(z) is made in the case of downwind axial surface distributions. (author)

  10. Roundhouse Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Robin E.; Wandersee, James

    2000-01-01

    Students must understand key concepts through reasoning, searching out related concepts, and making connections within multiple systems to learn science. The Roundhouse diagram was developed to be a concise, holistic, graphic representation of a science topic, process, or activity. Includes sample Roundhouse diagrams, a diagram checklist, and…

  11. Analysis of observed surface ozone in the dry season over Eastern Thailand during 1997-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assareh, Nosha; Prabamroong, Thayukorn; Manomaiphiboon, Kasemsan; Theramongkol, Phunsak; Leungsakul, Sirakarn; Mitrjit, Nawarat; Rachiwong, Jintarat

    2016-09-01

    This study analyzed observed surface ozone (O3) in the dry season over a long-term period of 1997-2012 for the eastern region of Thailand and incorporated several technical tools or methods in investigating different aspects of O3. The focus was the urbanized and industrialized coastal areas recently recognized as most O3-polluted areas. It was found that O3 is intensified most in the dry-season months when meteorological conditions are favorable to O3 development. The diurnal variations of O3 and its precursors show the general patterns of urban background. From observational O3 isopleth diagrams and morning ratios of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), the chemical regime of O3 formation was identified as VOC-sensitive, and the degree of VOC sensitivity tends to increase over the years, suggesting emission control on VOC to be suitable for O3 management. Both total oxidant analysis and back-trajectory modeling (together with K-means clustering) indicate the potential role of regional transport or influence in enhancing surface O3 level over the study areas. A meteorological adjustment with generalized linear modeling was performed to statistically exclude meteorological effects on the variability of O3. Local air-mass recirculation factor was included in the modeling to support the coastal application. The derived trends in O3 based on the meteorological adjustment were found to be significantly positive using a Mann-Kendall test with block bootstrapping.

  12. Electronic diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Diagrams is a ready reference and general guide to systems and circuit planning and in the preparation of diagrams for both newcomers and the more experienced. This book presents guidelines and logical procedures that the reader can follow and then be equipped to tackle large complex diagrams by recognition of characteristic 'building blocks' or 'black boxes'. The goal is to break down many of the barriers that often seem to deter students and laymen in learning the art of electronics, especially when they take up electronics as a spare time occupation. This text is comprised of nin

  13. Delimiting diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostrom, V. van

    2004-01-01

    We introduce the unifying notion of delimiting diagram. Hitherto unrelated results such as: Minimality of the internal needed strategy for orthogonal first-order term rewriting systems, maximality of the limit strategy for orthogonal higher-order pattern rewrite systems (with maximality of the

  14. From State Diagram to Class Diagram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Ole; Madsen, Per Printz

    2009-01-01

    UML class diagram and Java source code are interrelated and Java code is a kind of interchange format. Working with UML state diagram in CASE tools, a corresponding xml file is maintained. Designing state diagrams is mostly performed manually using design patterns and coding templates - a time...... consuming process. This article demonstrates how to compile such a diagram into Java code and later, by reverse engineering, produce a class diagram. The process from state diagram via intermediate SAX parsed xml file to Apache Velocity generated Java code is described. The result is a fast reproducible...

  15. Viral pathogenesis in diagrams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tremblay, Michel; Berthiaume, Laurent; Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    .... The 268 diagrams in Viral Pathogenesis in Diagrams were selected from over 800 diagrams of English and French virological literature, including one derived from a famous drawing by Leonardo da Vinci...

  16. Safety- barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2008-01-01

    Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called 'bow-tie' diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation of safety-barrier diagrams to other methods such as fault...... trees and Bayesian networks is discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk analysis with operational safety management....

  17. Introduction to Feynman diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Bilenky, Samoil Mikhelevich

    1974-01-01

    Introduction to Feynman Diagrams provides Feynman diagram techniques and methods for calculating quantities measured experimentally. The book discusses topics Feynman diagrams intended for experimental physicists. Topics presented include methods for calculating the matrix elements (by perturbation theory) and the basic rules for constructing Feynman diagrams; techniques for calculating cross sections and polarizations; processes in which both leptons and hadrons take part; and the electromagnetic and weak form factors of nucleons. Experimental physicists and graduate students of physics will

  18. Safety-barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2007-01-01

    Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called "bow-tie" diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation with other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian networks...... are discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed, including situations where safety barriers depend on shared common elements. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk...... analysis with operational safety management....

  19. Lead-free soldering: Investigation of the Cu-Sn-Sb system along the Sn:Sb = 1:1 isopleth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Y. [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, University of Genoa, INSTM UdR Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 31, I-16146 Genoa (Italy); Borzone, G., E-mail: borzone@chimica.unige.it [Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, University of Genoa, INSTM UdR Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 31, I-16146 Genoa (Italy); Zanicchi, G.; Delsante, S. [Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, University of Genoa, INSTM UdR Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 31, I-16146 Genoa (Italy)

    2011-02-03

    Research highlights: > In the electronics industry, the solder alloys commonly used for assembly belong to the Sn-Pb system. Fulfilment of the EU RoHS (reduction of hazardous substances) requires the development of new lead-free alloys for applications in electronics, with the same or possibly better characteristics than the traditional Sn-Pb alloys. > This research concerns the investigation of the constitutional properties of the Cu-Sn-Sb system which is considered as lead-free replacement for high-temperature applications. - Abstract: The Cu-Sn-Sb system has been experimentally investigated by a combination of optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). DSC was used to identify a total number of five invariant ternary reactions and the Sn:Sb = 1:1 isopleth section up to 65 at.% Cu was constructed by combining the DSC data with the EPMA analyses of annealed alloys and literature information. The composition limits of the binary phases were detected.

  20. Optimizing UML Class Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergievskiy Maxim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of object-oriented development technologies rely on the use of the universal modeling language UML; class diagrams play a very important role in the design process play, used to build a software system model. Modern CASE tools, which are the basic tools for object-oriented development, can’t be used to optimize UML diagrams. In this manuscript we will explain how, based on the use of design patterns and anti-patterns, class diagrams could be verified and optimized. Certain transformations can be carried out automatically; in other cases, potential inefficiencies will be indicated and recommendations given. This study also discusses additional CASE tools for validating and optimizing of UML class diagrams. For this purpose, a plugin has been developed that analyzes an XMI file containing a description of class diagrams.

  1. Algorithmic phase diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockney, Roger

    1987-01-01

    Algorithmic phase diagrams are a neat and compact representation of the results of comparing the execution time of several algorithms for the solution of the same problem. As an example, the recent results are shown of Gannon and Van Rosendale on the solution of multiple tridiagonal systems of equations in the form of such diagrams. The act of preparing these diagrams has revealed an unexpectedly complex relationship between the best algorithm and the number and size of the tridiagonal systems, which was not evident from the algebraic formulae in the original paper. Even so, for a particular computer, one diagram suffices to predict the best algorithm for all problems that are likely to be encountered the prediction being read directly from the diagram without complex calculation.

  2. Ozone decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batakliev Todor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic ozone decomposition is of great significance because ozone is a toxic substance commonly found or generated in human environments (aircraft cabins, offices with photocopiers, laser printers, sterilizers. Considerable work has been done on ozone decomposition reported in the literature. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the literature, concentrating on analysis of the physico-chemical properties, synthesis and catalytic decomposition of ozone. This is supplemented by a review on kinetics and catalyst characterization which ties together the previously reported results. Noble metals and oxides of transition metals have been found to be the most active substances for ozone decomposition. The high price of precious metals stimulated the use of metal oxide catalysts and particularly the catalysts based on manganese oxide. It has been determined that the kinetics of ozone decomposition is of first order importance. A mechanism of the reaction of catalytic ozone decomposition is discussed, based on detailed spectroscopic investigations of the catalytic surface, showing the existence of peroxide and superoxide surface intermediates

  3. [Identification of meridian-acupoint diagrams and meridian diagrams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei-hong

    2008-08-01

    In acu-moxibustion literature, there are two kinds of diagrams, meridian-acupoint diagrams and meridian diagrams. Because they are very similar in outline, and people now have seldom seen the typical ancient meridian diagrams, meridian-acupoint diagrams have been being incorrectly considered to be the meridian diagrams for a long time. It results in confusion in acu-moxibustion academia. The present paper stresses its importance in academic research and introduces some methods for identifying them correctly. The key points for identification of meridian-acupoint diagrams and meridian diagrams are: the legend of diagrams and the drawing style of the ancient charts. In addition, the author makes a detailed explanation about some acu-moxibustion charts which are easily confused. In order to distinguish meridian-acupoint diagrams and meridian diagrams correctly, he or she shoulnd understand the diagrams' intrinsic information as much as possible and make a comprehensive analysis about them.

  4. Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Known as tropospheric or ground-level ozone, this gas is harmful to human heath and the environment. Since it forms from emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), these pollutants are regulated under air quality standards.

  5. Geostatistical analysis of disease data: accounting for spatial support and population density in the isopleth mapping of cancer mortality risk using area-to-point Poisson kriging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goovaerts Pierre

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geostatistical techniques that account for spatially varying population sizes and spatial patterns in the filtering of choropleth maps of cancer mortality were recently developed. Their implementation was facilitated by the initial assumption that all geographical units are the same size and shape, which allowed the use of geographic centroids in semivariogram estimation and kriging. Another implicit assumption was that the population at risk is uniformly distributed within each unit. This paper presents a generalization of Poisson kriging whereby the size and shape of administrative units, as well as the population density, is incorporated into the filtering of noisy mortality rates and the creation of isopleth risk maps. An innovative procedure to infer the point-support semivariogram of the risk from aggregated rates (i.e. areal data is also proposed. Results The novel methodology is applied to age-adjusted lung and cervix cancer mortality rates recorded for white females in two contrasted county geographies: 1 state of Indiana that consists of 92 counties of fairly similar size and shape, and 2 four states in the Western US (Arizona, California, Nevada and Utah forming a set of 118 counties that are vastly different geographical units. Area-to-point (ATP Poisson kriging produces risk surfaces that are less smooth than the maps created by a naïve point kriging of empirical Bayesian smoothed rates. The coherence constraint of ATP kriging also ensures that the population-weighted average of risk estimates within each geographical unit equals the areal data for this unit. Simulation studies showed that the new approach yields more accurate predictions and confidence intervals than point kriging of areal data where all counties are simply collapsed into their respective polygon centroids. Its benefit over point kriging increases as the county geography becomes more heterogeneous. Conclusion A major limitation of choropleth

  6. Geostatistical analysis of disease data: accounting for spatial support and population density in the isopleth mapping of cancer mortality risk using area-to-point Poisson kriging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goovaerts, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Background Geostatistical techniques that account for spatially varying population sizes and spatial patterns in the filtering of choropleth maps of cancer mortality were recently developed. Their implementation was facilitated by the initial assumption that all geographical units are the same size and shape, which allowed the use of geographic centroids in semivariogram estimation and kriging. Another implicit assumption was that the population at risk is uniformly distributed within each unit. This paper presents a generalization of Poisson kriging whereby the size and shape of administrative units, as well as the population density, is incorporated into the filtering of noisy mortality rates and the creation of isopleth risk maps. An innovative procedure to infer the point-support semivariogram of the risk from aggregated rates (i.e. areal data) is also proposed. Results The novel methodology is applied to age-adjusted lung and cervix cancer mortality rates recorded for white females in two contrasted county geographies: 1) state of Indiana that consists of 92 counties of fairly similar size and shape, and 2) four states in the Western US (Arizona, California, Nevada and Utah) forming a set of 118 counties that are vastly different geographical units. Area-to-point (ATP) Poisson kriging produces risk surfaces that are less smooth than the maps created by a naïve point kriging of empirical Bayesian smoothed rates. The coherence constraint of ATP kriging also ensures that the population-weighted average of risk estimates within each geographical unit equals the areal data for this unit. Simulation studies showed that the new approach yields more accurate predictions and confidence intervals than point kriging of areal data where all counties are simply collapsed into their respective polygon centroids. Its benefit over point kriging increases as the county geography becomes more heterogeneous. Conclusion A major limitation of choropleth maps is the common biased

  7. Diagrams of natural deductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, S V

    1982-01-01

    The concept of natural deductions was investigated by the author in his analysis of the complexity of deductions in propositional computations (1975). Here some natural deduction systems are considered, and an analytical procedure proposed which results in a deduction diagram for each system. Each diagram takes the form of an orientated, charge graph, features of which can be used to establish the equivalence of classes of deductions. For each of the natural deduction systems considered, a system of equivalent transformation schemes is derived, which is complete with respect to the given definition of equivalence. 2 references.

  8. Homotopy Diagrams of Algebras

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Markl, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 69, - (2002), s. 161-180 ISSN 0009-725X. [Winter School "Geometry and Physics" /21./. Srní, 13.01.2001-20.01.2001] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/99/0675 Keywords : colored operad%cofibrant model%homotopy diagram Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  9. Impulse-Momentum Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengrant, David

    2011-01-01

    Multiple representations are a valuable tool to help students learn and understand physics concepts. Furthermore, representations help students learn how to think and act like real scientists. These representations include: pictures, free-body diagrams, energy bar charts, electrical circuits, and, more recently, computer simulations and…

  10. Equational binary decision diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Groote (Jan Friso); J.C. van de Pol (Jaco)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and

  11. Limits of Voronoi Diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenbergh, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    The classic Voronoi diagram of a configuration of distinct points in the plane associates to each point that part of the plane that is closer to the point than to any other point in the configuration. In this thesis we no longer require all points to be distinct. After the introduction in

  12. Ozone Layer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Research Centers Contact Us Share Ozone Layer Protection The stratospheric ozone layer is Earth’s “sunscreen” – protecting ... GreenChill Partnership Responsible Appliance Disposal (RAD) Program Ozone Protection vs. Ozone Pollution This website addresses stratospheric ozone ...

  13. Peircean diagrams of time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Some very good arguments can be given in favor of the Augustinean wisdom, according to which it is impossible to provide a satisfactory definition of the concept of time. However, even in the absence of a proper definition, it is possible to deal with conceptual problems regarding time. It can...... be done in terms of analogies and metaphors. In particular, it is attractive to make use of Peirce's diagrams by means of which various kinds of conceptual experimentation can be carried out. This paper investigates how Peircean diagrams can be used within the study of time. In particular, we discuss 1......) the topological properties of time, 2) the implicative structure in tense logic, 3) the notions of open future and branching time models, and finally 4) tenselogical alternatives to branching time models....

  14. Control wiring diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, T.M.; Eskinazi, M.; Henson, L.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the changes in electrical document requirements that occur when construction is complete and a generating station starts commercial operation. The needs of operations and maintenance (O and M) personnel are analyzed and contrasted with those of construction to illustrate areas in which the construction documents (drawings, diagrams, and databases) are difficult to use for work at an operating station. The paper discusses the O and M electrical documents that the Arizona Nuclear Power Project (ANPP) believes are most beneficial for the three operating units at Palo Verde; these are control wiring diagrams and an associated document cross-reference list. The benefits offered by these new, station O and M-oriented documents are weighted against the cost of their creation and their impact on drawing maintenance

  15. TEP process flow diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilms, R Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carlson, Bryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Coons, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kubic, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is shown to meet specifications under the most-common and mostdemanding design values.

  16. Feynman diagram drawing made easy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillargeon, M.

    1997-01-01

    We present a drawing package optimised for Feynman diagrams. These can be constructed interactively with a mouse-driven graphical interface or from a script file, more suitable to work with a diagram generator. It provides most features encountered in Feynman diagrams and allows to modify every part of a diagram after its creation. Special attention has been paid to obtain a high quality printout as easily as possible. This package is written in Tcl/Tk and in C. (orig.)

  17. Ring diagrams and phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K.

    1986-01-01

    Ring diagrams at finite temperatures carry most infrared-singular parts among Feynman diagrams. Their effect to effective potentials are in general so significant that one must incorporate them as well as 1-loop diagrams. The author expresses these circumstances in some examples of supercooled phase transitions

  18. Automation of Feynman diagram evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tentyukov, M.N.

    1998-01-01

    A C-program DIANA (DIagram ANAlyser) for the automation of Feynman diagram evaluations is presented. It consists of two parts: the analyzer of diagrams and the interpreter of a special text manipulating language. This language can be used to create a source code for analytical or numerical evaluations and to keep the control of the process in general

  19. Development of pollution reduction strategies for Mexico City: Estimating cost and ozone reduction effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, G.R.; Hardie, R.W.; Barrera-Roldan, A.

    1993-01-01

    This reports on the collection and preparation of data (costs and air quality improvement) for the strategic evaluation portion of the Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative (MARI). Reports written for the Mexico City government by various international organizations were used to identify proposed options along with estimates of cost and emission reductions. Information from appropriate options identified by SCAQMD for Southem California were also used in the analysis. A linear optimization method was used to select a group of options or a strategy to be evaluated by decision analysis. However, the reduction of ozone levels is not a linear function of the reduction of hydrocarbon and NO x emissions. Therefore, a more detailed analysis was required for ozone. An equation for a plane on an isopleth calculated with a trajectory model was obtained using two endpoints that bracket the expected total ozone precursor reductions plus the starting concentrations for hydrocarbons and NO x . The relationship between ozone levels and the hydrocarbon and NO x concentrations was assumed to lie on this plane. This relationship was used in the linear optimization program to select the options comprising a strategy

  20. Quantum MHV Diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Brandhuber, Andreas; Travaglini, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    Over the past two years, the use of on-shell techniques has deepened our understanding of the S-matrix of gauge theories and led to the calculation of many new scattering amplitudes. In these notes we review a particular on-shell method developed recently, the quantum MHV diagrams, and discuss applications to one-loop amplitudes. Furthermore, we briefly discuss the application of D-dimensional generalised unitarity to the calculation of scattering amplitudes in non-supersymmetric Yang-Mills.

  1. Warped penguin diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csaki, Csaba; Grossman, Yuval; Tanedo, Philip; Tsai, Yuhsin

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the loop-induced magnetic dipole operator in the Randall-Sundrum model of a warped extra dimension with anarchic bulk fermions and an IR brane-localized Higgs. These operators are finite at one-loop order and we explicitly calculate the branching ratio for μ→eγ using the mixed position/momentum space formalism. The particular bound on the anarchic Yukawa and Kaluza-Klein (KK) scales can depend on the flavor structure of the anarchic matrices. It is possible for a generic model to either be ruled out or unaffected by these bounds without any fine-tuning. We quantify how these models realize this surprising behavior. We also review tree-level lepton flavor bounds in these models and show that these are on the verge of tension with the μ→eγ bounds from typical models with a 3 TeV Kaluza-Klein scale. Further, we illuminate the nature of the one-loop finiteness of these diagrams and show how to accurately determine the degree of divergence of a five-dimensional loop diagram using both the five-dimensional and KK formalism. This power counting can be obfuscated in the four-dimensional Kaluza-Klein formalism and we explicitly point out subtleties that ensure that the two formalisms agree. Finally, we remark on the existence of a perturbative regime in which these one-loop results give the dominant contribution.

  2. Pembuatan Kakas Bantu untuk Mendeteksi Ketidaksesuaian Diagram Urutan (Sequence Diagram dengan Diagram Kasus Penggunaan (Use Case Diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrias Meisyal Yuwantoko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sebuah diagram urutan dibuat  berdasarkan alur yang ada pada deskripsi kasus penggunaan. Alur tersebut dire- presentasikan dalam  bentuk  interaksi antara aktor  dan  sistem. Pemeriksaan rancangan diagram urutan perlu dilakukan untuk mengetahui ketidaksesuaian urutan alur  kasus penggunaan dengan urutan pesan yang dikirimkan oleh objek-objek pada diagram urutan. Rancangan diagram yang sesuai merupakan kunci ketepatan (correctness implementasi  perangkat lunak. Namun, pemeriksaan ketidaksesuaian masih dilakukan secara manual. Hal ini menjadi masalah apabila sebuah proyek perangkat lunak memiliki banyak  rancangan diagram dan sumber daya manusia tidak  mencukupi. Pemeriksaan membutuhkan waktu yang lama dan memiliki dampak pada waktu pengembangan perangkat lunak. Penelitian ini mengusulkan pembuatan kakas bantu  untuk mendeteksi ketidaksesuaian diagram urutan dengan diagram kasus penggunaan. Ketidaksesuaian dilihat dari kemiripan semantik kalimat antara alur pada deskripsi kasus penggunaan dan triplet. Dari hasil pembuatan kakas bantu, kakas bantu yang dibuat dapat mendeteksi ketidaksesuaian diagram urutan dengan diagram kasus penggunaan. Kakas  bantu ini diharapkan tidak hanya membantu pemeriksaan rancangan diagram akan tetapi mempercepat waktu pengembangan perangkat lunak.

  3. Secondary maxima in ozone profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lemoine

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone profiles from balloon soundings as well as SAGEII ozone profiles were used to detect anomalous large ozone concentrations of ozone in the lower stratosphere. These secondary ozone maxima are found to be the result of differential advection of ozone-poor and ozone-rich air associated with Rossby wave breaking events. The frequency and intensity of secondary ozone maxima and their geographical distribution is presented. The occurrence and amplitude of ozone secondary maxima is connected to ozone variability and trend at Uccle and account for a large part of the total ozone and lower stratospheric ozone variability.

  4. Sintering diagrams of UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, A.; Soni, N.C.; Moorthy, V.K.

    1979-01-01

    Ashby's method (see Acta Met., vol. 22, p. 275, 1974) of constructing sintering diagrams has been modified to obtain contribution diagrams directly from the computer. The interplay of sintering variables and mechanisms are studied and the factors that affect the participation of mechanisms in UO 2 are determined. By studying the physical properties, it emerges that the order of inaccuracies is small in most cases and do not affect the diagrams. On the other hand, even a 10% error in activation energies, which is quite plausible, would make a significant difference to the diagram. The main criticism of Ashby's approach is that the numerous properties and equations used, communicate their inaccuracies to the diagrams and make them unreliable. The present study has considerably reduced the number of factors that need to be refined to make the sintering diagrams more meaningful. (Auth.)

  5. Drawing Euler Diagrams with Circles

    OpenAIRE

    Stapleton, Gem; Zhang, Leishi; Howse, John; Rodgers, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Euler diagrams are a popular and intuitive visualization tool which are used in a wide variety of application areas, including biological and medical data analysis. As with other data visualization methods, such as graphs, bar charts, or pie charts, the automated generation of an Euler diagram from a suitable data set would be advantageous, removing the burden of manual data analysis and the subsequent task of drawing an appropriate diagram. Various methods have emerged that automatically dra...

  6. Feynman diagrams without Feynman parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendels, E.

    1978-01-01

    Dimensionally regularized Feynman diagrams are represented by means of products of k-functions. The infinite part of these diagrams is found very easily, also if they are overlapping, and the separation of the several kinds of divergences comes out quite naturally. Ward identities are proven in a transparent way. Series expansions in terms of the external momenta and their inner products are possible

  7. Diagram Techniques in Group Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman, Geoffrey E.

    2009-09-01

    Preface; 1. Elementary examples; 2. Angular momentum coupling diagram techniques; 3. Extension to compact simple phase groups; 4. Symmetric and unitary groups; 5. Lie groups and Lie algebras; 6. Polarisation dependence of multiphoton processes; 7. Quantum field theoretic diagram techniques for atomic systems; 8. Applications; Appendix; References; Indexes.

  8. Contingency diagrams as teaching tools

    OpenAIRE

    Mattaini, Mark A.

    1995-01-01

    Contingency diagrams are particularly effective teaching tools, because they provide a means for students to view the complexities of contingency networks present in natural and laboratory settings while displaying the elementary processes that constitute those networks. This paper sketches recent developments in this visualization technology and illustrates approaches for using contingency diagrams in teaching.

  9. Impact decision support diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslough, Mark

    2014-10-01

    One way to frame the job of planetary defense is to “find the optimal approach for finding the optimal approach” to NEO mitigation. This requires a framework for defining in advance what should be done under various circumstances. The two-dimensional action matrix from the recent NRC report “Defending Planet Earth” can be generalized to a notional “Impact Decision Support Diagram” by extending it into a third dimension. The NRC action matrix incorporated two important axes: size and time-to-impact, but probability of impact is also critical (it is part of the definitions of both the Torino and Palermo scales). Uncertainty has been neglected, but is also crucial. It can be incorporated by subsuming it into the NEO size axis by redefining size to be three standard deviations greater than the best estimate, thereby providing a built-in conservative margin. The independent variable is time-to-impact, which is known with high precision. The other two axes are both quantitative assessments of uncertainty and are both time dependent. Thus, the diagram is entirely an expression of uncertainty. The true impact probability is either one or zero, and the true size does not change. The domain contains information about the current uncertainty, which changes with time (as opposed to reality, which does not change).

  10. The Antarctic ozone hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Anna E

    2008-01-01

    Since the mid 1970s, the ozone layer over Antarctica has experienced massive destruction during every spring. In this article, we will consider the atmosphere, and what ozone and the ozone layer actually are. We explore the chemistry responsible for the ozone destruction, and learn about why conditions favour ozone destruction over Antarctica. For the historical perspective, the events leading up to the discovery of the 'hole' are presented, as well as the response from the international community and the measures taken to protect the ozone layer now and into the future

  11. Genus Ranges of Chord Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico

    2015-04-01

    A chord diagram consists of a circle, called the backbone, with line segments, called chords, whose endpoints are attached to distinct points on the circle. The genus of a chord diagram is the genus of the orientable surface obtained by thickening the backbone to an annulus and attaching bands to the inner boundary circle at the ends of each chord. Variations of this construction are considered here, where bands are possibly attached to the outer boundary circle of the annulus. The genus range of a chord diagram is the genus values over all such variations of surfaces thus obtained from a given chord diagram. Genus ranges of chord diagrams for a fixed number of chords are studied. Integer intervals that can be, and those that cannot be, realized as genus ranges are investigated. Computer calculations are presented, and play a key role in discovering and proving the properties of genus ranges.

  12. Evolution of stratospheric ozone during winter 2002/2003 as observed by a ground-based millimetre wave radiometer at Kiruna, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Raffalski

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present ozone measurements from the millimetre wave radiometer installed at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics (Institutet för rymdfysik, IRF in Kiruna (67.8° N, 20.4° E, 420 m asl. Nearly continuous operation in the winter of 2002/2003 allows us to give an overview of ozone evolution in the stratosphere between 15 and 55 km. In this study we present a detailed analysis of the Arctic winter 2002/2003. By means of a methodology using equivalent latitudes we investigate the meteorological processes in the stratosphere during the entire winter/spring period. During the course of the winter strong mixing into the vortex took place in the middle and upper stratosphere as a result of three minor and one major warming event, but no evidence was found for significant mixing in the lower stratosphere. Ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere during this winter was estimated by measurements on those days when Kiruna was well inside the Arctic polar vortex. The days were carefully chosen using a definition of the vortex edge based on equivalent latitudes. At the 475 K isentropic level a cumulative ozone loss of about 0.5 ppmv was found starting in January and lasting until mid-March. The early ozone loss is probably a result of the very cold temperatures in the lower stratosphere in December and the geographical extension of the vortex to lower latitudes where solar irradiation started photochemical ozone loss in the pre-processed air. In order to correct for dynamic effects of the ozone variation due to diabatic subsidence of air masses inside the vortex, we used N2O measurements from the Odin satellite for the same time period. The derived ozone loss in the lower stratosphere between mid-December and mid-March varies between 1.1±0.1 ppmv on the 150 ppbv N2O isopleth and 1.7±0.1 ppmv on the 50 ppbv N2O isopleth.

  13. Para-equilibrium phase diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelton, Arthur D.; Koukkari, Pertti; Pajarre, Risto; Eriksson, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A rapidly cooled system may attain a state of para-equilibrium. • In this state rapidly diffusing elements reach equilibrium but others are immobile. • Application of the Phase Rule to para-equilibrium phase diagrams is discussed. • A general algorithm to calculate para-equilibrium phase diagrams is described. - Abstract: If an initially homogeneous system at high temperature is rapidly cooled, a temporary para-equilibrium state may result in which rapidly diffusing elements have reached equilibrium but more slowly diffusing elements have remained essentially immobile. The best known example occurs when homogeneous austenite is quenched. A para-equilibrium phase assemblage may be calculated thermodynamically by Gibbs free energy minimization under the constraint that the ratios of the slowly diffusing elements are the same in all phases. Several examples of calculated para-equilibrium phase diagram sections are presented and the application of the Phase Rule is discussed. Although the rules governing the geometry of these diagrams may appear at first to be somewhat different from those for full equilibrium phase diagrams, it is shown that in fact they obey exactly the same rules with the following provision. Since the molar ratios of non-diffusing elements are the same in all phases at para-equilibrium, these ratios act, as far as the geometry of the diagram is concerned, like “potential” variables (such as T, pressure or chemical potentials) rather than like “normal” composition variables which need not be the same in all phases. A general algorithm to calculate para-equilibrium phase diagrams is presented. In the limit, if a para-equilibrium calculation is performed under the constraint that no elements diffuse, then the resultant phase diagram shows the single phase with the minimum Gibbs free energy at any point on the diagram; such calculations are of interest in physical vapor deposition when deposition is so rapid that phase

  14. Ozone Antimicrobial Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone is a potent germicide that has been used extensively for water purification. In Europe, 90 percent of the municipal water systems are treated with ozone, and in France, ozone has been used to treat drinking water since 1903. However, there is limited information on the bioc...

  15. Causal Diagrams for Empirical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Pearl, Judea

    1994-01-01

    The primary aim of this paper is to show how graphical models can be used as a mathematical language for integrating statistical and subject-matter information. In particular, the paper develops a principled, nonparametric framework for causal inference, in which diagrams are queried to determine if the assumptions available are sufficient for identifiying causal effects from non-experimental data. If so the diagrams can be queried to produce mathematical expressions for causal effects in ter...

  16. Wind Diagrams in Medieval Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedwards, Dale

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study of the sole wind diagram that survives from medieval Iceland, preserved in the encyclopaedic miscellany in Copenhagen's Arnamagnæan Institute with the shelf mark AM 732b 4to (c. 1300-25). It examines the wind diagram and its accompanying text, an excerpt on the winds...... from Isidore of Seville's Etymologies. It also examines the perimeter of winds on two medieval Icelandic world maps, and the visual traditions from which they draw....

  17. Phase diagrams of the elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of the pressure-temperature phase diagrams of the elements is presented, with graphs of the experimentally determined solid-solid phase boundaries and melting curves. Comments, including theoretical discussion, are provided for each diagram. The crystal structure of each solid phase is identified and discussed. This work is aimed at encouraging further experimental and theoretical research on phase transitions in the elements

  18. Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Uffe Bro; Madsen, Anders Læsø

     Probabilistic networks, also known as Bayesian networks and influence diagrams, have become one of the most promising technologies in the area of applied artificial intelligence, offering intuitive, efficient, and reliable methods for diagnosis, prediction, decision making, classification......, troubleshooting, and data mining under uncertainty. Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams: A Guide to Construction and Analysis provides a comprehensive guide for practitioners who wish to understand, construct, and analyze intelligent systems for decision support based on probabilistic networks. Intended...

  19. Earth's ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasa, J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper contain the actual results of investigations of the influence of the human activity on the Earth's ozone layer. History of the ozone measurements and of the changes in its concentrations within the last few years are given. The influence of the trace gases on both local and global ozone concentrations are discussed. The probable changes of the ozone concentrations are presented on the basis of the modelling investigations. The effect of a decrease in global ozone concentration on human health and on biosphere are also presented. (author). 33 refs, 36 figs, 5 tabs

  20. The stratospheric ozone and the ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zea Mazo, Jorge Anibal; Leon Aristizabal Gloria Esperanza; Eslava Ramirez Jesus Antonio

    2000-01-01

    An overview is presented of the principal characteristics of the stratospheric ozone in the Earth's atmosphere, with particular emphasis on the tropics and the ozone hole over the poles. Some effects produced in the atmosphere as a consequence of the different human activities will be described, and some data on stratospheric ozone will be shown. We point out the existence of a nucleus of least ozone in the tropics, stretching from South America to central Africa, with annual mean values less than 240 DU, a value lower than in the middle latitudes and close to the mean values at the South Pole. The existence of such a minimum is confirmed by mean values from measurements made on satellites or with earthbound instruments, for different sectors in Colombia, like Medellin, Bogota and Leticia

  1. New detectors for powders diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Convert, P.

    1975-01-01

    During the last few years, all the classical neutron diffractometers for powders have used one or maybe a few counters. So, it takes a long time to obtain a diagram which causes many disadvantages: 1) very long experiments: one or two days (or flux on the sample about 10 6 n/cm 2 /a); 2) necessity of big samples: many cm 3 ; 3) necessity of having the whole diagram before changing anything in the experiment: magnetic field, temperature, quality of the sample; 4) necessity of having collimators of a few times ten minutes to obtain correct statistics in the diagram. Because of these disadvantages, several attempts have been made to speed up the experimental procedure such as using more counters, the detection of neutrons on a resistive wire, etc. In Grenoble, new position-sensitive detectors have been constructed using a digital technique

  2. Ozone therapy in periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, G; Mansi, B

    2012-02-22

    Gingival and Periodontal diseases represent a major concern both in dentistry and medicine. The majority of the contributing factors and causes in the etiology of these diseases are reduced or treated with ozone in all its application forms (gas, water, oil). The beneficial biological effects of ozone, its anti-microbial activity, oxidation of bio-molecules precursors and microbial toxins implicated in periodontal diseases and its healing and tissue regeneration properties, make the use of ozone well indicated in all stages of gingival and periodontal diseases. The primary objective of this article is to provide a general review about the clinical applications of ozone in periodontics. The secondary objective is to summarize the available in vitro and in vivo studies in Periodontics in which ozone has been used. This objective would be of importance to future researchers in terms of what has been tried and what the potentials are for the clinical application of ozone in Periodontics.

  3. Multi-currency Influence Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Holbech; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn V.

    2007-01-01

    When using the influence diagrams framework for solving a decision problem with several different quantitative utilities, the traditional approach has been to convert the utilities into one common currency. This conversion is carried out using a tacit transformation, under the assumption...... that the converted problem is equivalent to the original one. In this paper we present an extension of the influence diagram framework. The extension allows for these decision problems to be modelled in their original form. We present an algorithm that, given a linear conversion function between the currencies...

  4. Diagrams for symmetric product orbifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakman, Ari; Rastelli, Leonardo; Razamat, Shlomo S.

    2009-01-01

    We develop a diagrammatic language for symmetric product orbifolds of two-dimensional conformal field theories. Correlation functions of twist operators are written as sums of diagrams: each diagram corresponds to a branched covering map from a surface where the fields are single-valued to the base sphere where twist operators are inserted. This diagrammatic language facilitates the study of the large N limit and makes more transparent the analogy between symmetric product orbifolds and free non-abelian gauge theories. We give a general algorithm to calculate the leading large N contribution to four-point correlators of twist fields.

  5. SMM mesospheric ozone measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikin, A. C.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective was to understand the secular and seasonal behavior of ozone in the lower mesosphere, 50 to 70 km. This altitude region is important in understanding the factors which determine ozone behavior. A secondary objective is the study of stratospheric ozone in the polar regions. Use is made of results from the SBUV satellite borne instrument. In the Arctic the interaction between chlorine compounds and low molecular weight hydrocarbons is studied. More than 30,000 profiles were obtained using the UVSP instrument on the SMM spacecraft. Several orbits of ozone data per day were obtained allowing study of the current rise in solar activity from the minimum until the present. Analysis of Nimbus 7 SBUV data in Antarctic spring indicates that ozone is depleted within the polar vortex relative to ozone outside the vortex. This depletion confirms the picture of ozone loss at altitudes where polar stratospheric clouds exist. In addition, there is ozone loss above the cloud level indicating that there is another mechanism in addition to ozone loss initiated by heterogeneous chlorine reactions on cloud particles.

  6. Diagrams in the polaron model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smondyrev, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The perturbation theory for the polaron energy is systematically treated on the diagrammatic basis. Feynman diagrams being constructed allow to calculate the polaron energy up to the third order in powers of the coupling constant. Similar calculations are performed for the average number of virtual phonons

  7. Algorithmic approach to diagram techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponticopoulos, L.

    1980-10-01

    An algorithmic approach to diagram techniques of elementary particles is proposed. The definition and axiomatics of the theory of algorithms are presented, followed by the list of instructions of an algorithm formalizing the construction of graphs and the assignment of mathematical objects to them. (T.A.)

  8. Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Uffe Bro; Madsen, Anders Læsø

    Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams: A Guide to Construction and Analysis, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive guide for practitioners who wish to understand, construct, and analyze intelligent systems for decision support based on probabilistic networks. This new edition contains six new...

  9. Influence of isoprene chemical mechanism on modelled changes in tropospheric ozone due to climate and land use over the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, O. J.; Archibald, A. T.; Griffiths, P. T.; Jenkin, M. E.; Smith, D.; Pyle, J. A.

    2015-05-01

    Isoprene is a~precursor to tropospheric ozone, a key pollutant and greenhouse gas. Anthropogenic activity over the coming century is likely to cause large changes in atmospheric CO2 levels, climate and land use, all of which will alter the global vegetation distribution leading to changes in isoprene emissions. Previous studies have used global chemistry-climate models to assess how possible changes in climate and land use could affect isoprene emissions and hence tropospheric ozone. The chemistry of isoprene oxidation, which can alter the concentration of ozone, is highly complex, therefore it must be parameterised in these models. In this work, we compare the effect of four different reduced isoprene chemical mechanisms, all currently used in Earth system models, on tropospheric ozone. Using a box model we compare ozone in these reduced schemes to that in a more explicit scheme (the Master Chemical Mechanism) over a range of NOx and isoprene emissions, through the use of O3 isopleths. We find that there is some variability, especially at high isoprene emissions, caused by differences in isoprene-derived NOx reservoir species. A global model is then used to examine how the different reduced schemes respond to potential future changes in climate, isoprene emissions, anthropogenic emissions and land use change. We find that, particularly in isoprene-rich regions, the response of the schemes varies considerably. The wide-ranging response is due to differences in the model descriptions of the peroxy radical chemistry, particularly their relative rates of reaction towards NO, leading to ozone formation, or HO2, leading to termination. Also important is the yield of isoprene nitrates and peroxyacyl nitrate precursors from isoprene oxidation. Those schemes that produce less of these NOx reservoir species, tend to produce more ozone locally and less away from the source region. We also note changes in other key oxidants such as NO3 and OH (due to the inclusion of

  10. Pollution Control Using Ozone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for cleaning air comprising one or more pollutants, the method comprising contacting the air with thermal decompositions products of ozone.......This invention relates to a method for cleaning air comprising one or more pollutants, the method comprising contacting the air with thermal decompositions products of ozone....

  11. The pollution by ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    Air pollution by ozone is increasing in spite of several points to reduce it. If the process of ozone formation are complex, the sources of this pollution are well known: first, mobile sources with automobiles (49%), boats , trains and planes (13%), then are following paints and solvents(18%), thermal power plants(11%), and finally industry processing with 5%. (N.C.)

  12. Estonian total ozone climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ± 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987–1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April–May and summer (June–August total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; volcanic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  13. The Butterfly Diagram Internal Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ternullo, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    A time-latitude diagram, where the spotgroup area is taken into account, is presented for cycles 12 through 23. The results show that the spotted area is concentrated in few, small portions ( k nots ) of the Butterfly Diagram (BD). The BD may be described as a cluster of knots. Knots are distributed in the butterfly wings in a seemingly randomly way. A knot may appear at either lower or higher latitudes than previous ones, in spite of the prevalent tendency to appear at lower and lower latitudes. Accordingly, the spotted area centroid, far from continuously drifting equatorward, drifts poleward or remains stationary in any hemisphere for significant fractions (≈ 1/3) of the cycle total duration. In a relevant number of semicycles, knots seem to form two roughly parallel, oblique c hains , separated by an underspotted band. This picture suggests that two (or more) ''activity streams'' approach the equator at a rate higher than the spot zone as a whole.

  14. A Hubble Diagram for Quasars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Bisogni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The cosmological model is at present not tested between the redshift of the farthest observed supernovae (z ~ 1.4 and that of the Cosmic Microwave Background (z ~ 1,100. Here we introduce a new method to measure the cosmological parameters: we show that quasars can be used as “standard candles” by employing the non-linear relation between their intrinsic UV and X-ray emission as an absolute distance indicator. We built a sample of ~1,900 quasars with available UV and X-ray observations, and produced a Hubble Diagram up to z ~ 5. The analysis of the quasar Hubble Diagram, when used in combination with supernovae, provides robust constraints on the matter and energy content in the cosmos. The application of this method to forthcoming, larger quasar samples, will also provide tight constraints on the dark energy equation of state and its possible evolution with time.

  15. Ozone as an air pollutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    1996-01-01

    A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995.......A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995....

  16. Causal diagrams in systems epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joffe Michael

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the analysis of a single link: that between a disease outcome and its proximal determinant(s. Transmitted causes ("causes of causes" tend not to be systematically analysed. The infectious disease epidemiology modelling tradition models the human population in its environment, typically with the exposure-health relationship and the determinants of exposure being considered at individual and group/ecological levels, respectively. Some properties of the resulting systems are quite general, and are seen in unrelated contexts such as biochemical pathways. Confining analysis to a single link misses the opportunity to discover such properties. The structure of a causal diagram is derived from knowledge about how the world works, as well as from statistical evidence. A single diagram can be used to characterise a whole research area, not just a single analysis - although this depends on the degree of consistency of the causal relationships between different populations - and can therefore be used to integrate multiple datasets. Additional advantages of system-wide models include: the use of instrumental variables - now emerging as an important technique in epidemiology in the context of mendelian randomisation, but under-used in the exploitation of "natural experiments"; the explicit use of change models, which have advantages with respect to inferring causation; and in the detection and elucidation of feedback.

  17. Causal diagrams in systems epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Michael; Gambhir, Manoj; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Vineis, Paolo

    2012-03-19

    Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the analysis of a single link: that between a disease outcome and its proximal determinant(s). Transmitted causes ("causes of causes") tend not to be systematically analysed.The infectious disease epidemiology modelling tradition models the human population in its environment, typically with the exposure-health relationship and the determinants of exposure being considered at individual and group/ecological levels, respectively. Some properties of the resulting systems are quite general, and are seen in unrelated contexts such as biochemical pathways. Confining analysis to a single link misses the opportunity to discover such properties.The structure of a causal diagram is derived from knowledge about how the world works, as well as from statistical evidence. A single diagram can be used to characterise a whole research area, not just a single analysis - although this depends on the degree of consistency of the causal relationships between different populations - and can therefore be used to integrate multiple datasets.Additional advantages of system-wide models include: the use of instrumental variables - now emerging as an important technique in epidemiology in the context of mendelian randomisation, but under-used in the exploitation of "natural experiments"; the explicit use of change models, which have advantages with respect to inferring causation; and in the detection and elucidation of feedback.

  18. Scheil-Gulliver Constituent Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Arthur D.; Eriksson, Gunnar; Bale, Christopher W.

    2017-06-01

    During solidification of alloys, conditions often approach those of Scheil-Gulliver cooling in which it is assumed that solid phases, once precipitated, remain unchanged. That is, they no longer react with the liquid or with each other. In the case of equilibrium solidification, equilibrium phase diagrams provide a valuable means of visualizing the effects of composition changes upon the final microstructure. In the present study, we propose for the first time the concept of Scheil-Gulliver constituent diagrams which play the same role as that in the case of Scheil-Gulliver cooling. It is shown how these diagrams can be calculated and plotted by the currently available thermodynamic database computing systems that combine Gibbs energy minimization software with large databases of optimized thermodynamic properties of solutions and compounds. Examples calculated using the FactSage system are presented for the Al-Li and Al-Mg-Zn systems, and for the Au-Bi-Sb-Pb system and its binary and ternary subsystems.

  19. Using Affinity Diagrams to Evaluate Interactive Prototypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucero, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    our particular use of affinity diagramming in prototype evaluations. We reflect on a decade’s experience using affinity diagramming across a number of projects, both in industry and academia. Our affinity diagramming process in interaction design has been tailored and consists of four stages: creating...

  20. OZONE ABSORPTION IN RAW WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA TAKIĆ

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The ozone absorption in raw water entering the main ozonization step at the Belgrade drinking water supply plant was investigated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR. A slow chemical reaction rate of dissolved ozone and pollutants present in raw water have been experimentally determined. The modified Hatta number was defined and calculated as a criterion which determines whether and to which extent the reactions of ozone and pollutants influence the rate of the pure physical ozone absorption.

  1. Ozone, greenhouse effect. Ozone, effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aviam, A.M.; Arthaut, R.

    1992-12-01

    This file is made of eight general papers on environment (climates under observation, research on photo-oxidizing pollution, scientific aspects of stratospheric ozone layer, urban engineering and environment, glory of public gardens, earths not very natural, darwinism and society, economical data on environment). (A.B.). refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Thermodynamic Calculations of Ternary Polyalcohol and Amine Phase Diagrams for Thermal Energy Storage Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Renhai

    thermodynamic database incorporating the optimized binary interactive parameters can produce the six binary phase diagrams matching the available experimental results very well and results in the correct interpretation of various phase transitions in these six binary phase diagrams. Finally, the related four ternary systems of PG-TRIS-AMPL, PG-TRIS-NPG, PG-AMPL-NPG, and TRIS-AMPL-NPG are proposed based on present thermodynamic database by means of CALPHAD method. Also, thermal characteristics, isothermal sections at several temperatures, isopleth section with various constant composition, and liquidus projections are calculated and presented in this dissertation.

  3. Automatic programmable air ozonizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubarev, S.P.; Klosovsky, A.V.; Opaleva, G.P.; Taran, V.S.; Zolototrubova, M.I.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe a compact, economical, easy to manage auto air ozonator developed at the Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT. It is designed for sanitation, disinfection of premises and cleaning the air from foreign odors. A distinctive feature of the developed device is the generation of a given concentration of ozone, approximately 0.7 maximum allowable concentration (MAC), and automatic maintenance of a specified level. This allows people to be inside the processed premises during operation. The microprocessor controller to control the operation of the ozonator was developed

  4. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Maritza F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observed in both oils but they were higher in ozonized sunflower oil. Iodine value was zero in ozonized olive oil whereas in ozonized sunflower was 8.8 g Iodine per 100 g. The antimicrobial activity was similar for both ozonized oils except for Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations of Pseudomona aeruginosa. Composition of fatty acids in both ozonized oils showed gradual decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1, C18:2 with gradual increase in ozone doses.

  5. Diagram, a Learning Environment for Initiation to Object-Oriented Modeling with UML Class Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Py, Dominique; Auxepaules, Ludovic; Alonso, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents Diagram, a learning environment for object-oriented modelling (OOM) with UML class diagrams. Diagram an open environment, in which the teacher can add new exercises without constraints on the vocabulary or the size of the diagram. The interface includes methodological help, encourages self-correcting and self-monitoring, and…

  6. Diagram Size vs. Layout Flaws: Understanding Quality Factors of UML Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2016-01-01

    , though, is our third goal of extending our analysis aspects of diagram quality. Method: We improve our definition of diagram size and add a (provisional) definition of diagram quality as the number of topographic layout flaws. We apply these metrics on 60 diagrams of the five most commonly used types...... of UML diagram. We carefully analyze the structure of our diagram samples to ensure representativeness. We correlate diagram size and layout quality with modeler performance data obtained in previous experiments. The data set is the largest of its kind (n-156). Results: We replicate earlier findings......, and extend them to two new diagram types. We provide an improved definition of diagram size, and provide a definition of topographic layout quality, which is one more step towards a comprehensive definition of diagram quality as such. Both metrics are shown to be objectively applicable. We quantify...

  7. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  8. Ozone Therapy in Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domb, William C

    2014-01-01

    Summary The 21st century dental practice is quite dynamic. New treatment protocols and new materials are being developed at a rapid pace. Ozone dental therapy falls into the category of new treatment protocols in dentistry, yet ozone is not new at all. Ozone therapy is already a major treatment modality in Europe, South America and a number of other countries. What is provided here will not be an exhaustive scientific treatise so much as a brief general introduction into what dentists are now doing with ozone therapies and the numerous oral/systemic links that make this subject so important for physicians so that, ultimately, they may serve their patients more effectively and productively. PMID:25363268

  9. Ozone health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.

    1994-01-01

    Ozone is a principal component of photochemical air pollution endogenous to numerous metropolitan areas. It is primarily formed by the oxidation of NOx in the presence of sunlight and reactive organic compounds. Ozone is a highly active oxidizing agent capable of causing injury to the lung. Lung injury may take the form of irritant effects on the respiratory tract that impair pulmonary function and result in subjective symptoms of respiratory discomfort. These symptoms include, but are not limited to, cough and shortness of breath, and they can limit exercise performance. The effects of ozone observed in humans have been primarily limited to alterations in respiratory function, and a range of respiratory physiological parameters have been measured as a function of ozone exposure in adults and children. These affects have been observed under widely varying (clinical experimental and environmental settings) conditions

  10. 2001 Ozone Design Value

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ozone is generated by a complex atmoshperic chemical process. Industrial and automobile pollutants in the form of oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons react in the...

  11. Voronoi Diagrams Without Bounding Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, E. T. K.

    2015-10-01

    We present a technique for presenting geographic data in Voronoi diagrams without having to specify a bounding box. The method restricts Voronoi cells to points within a user-defined distance of the data points. The mathematical foundation of the approach is presented as well. The cell clipping method is particularly useful for presenting geographic data that is spread in an irregular way over a map, as for example the Dutch dialect data displayed in Figure 2. The automatic generation of reasonable cell boundaries also makes redundant a frequently used solution to this problem that requires data owners to specify region boundaries, as in Goebl (2010) and Nerbonne et al (2011).

  12. Multi-currency Influence Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Holbech; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn Verner

    2004-01-01

    Solution of decision problems, which involve utilities of several currencies, have traditionally required the problems to be converted into decision problems involving utilities of only one currency. This conversion are carried out using a tacit transformation, under the assumption...... that the converted problem is equivalent to the original one. In this paper we present an extension of the Influence Diagram framework, which allows for these decision problems to be modelled in their original form. We present an algorithm that, given a conversion function between the currencies, discovers...

  13. Phase diagrams for surface alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Asbjørn; Ruban, Andrei; Stoltze, Per

    1997-01-01

    We discuss surface alloy phases and their stability based on surface phase diagrams constructed from the surface energy as a function of the surface composition. We show that in the simplest cases of pseudomorphic overlayers there are four generic classes of systems, characterized by the sign...... is based on density-functional calculations using the coherent-potential approximation and on effective-medium theory. We give self-consistent density-functional results for the segregation energy and surface mixing energy for all combinations of the transition and noble metals. Finally we discuss...

  14. The ozone backlash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taubes, G.

    1993-01-01

    While evidence for the role of chlorofluorocarbons in ozone depletion grows stronger, researchers have recently been subjected to vocal public criticism of their theories-and their motives. Their understanding of the mechanisms of ozone destruction-especially the annual ozone hole that appears in the Antarctic-has grown stronger, yet everywhere they go these days, they seem to be confronted by critics attacking their theories as baseless. For instance, Rush Limbaugh, the conservative political talk-show host and now-best-selling author of The Way Things Ought to Be, regularly insists that the theory of ozone depletion by CFCs is a hoax: bladerdash and poppycock. Zoologist Dixy Lee Ray, former governor of the state of Washington and former head of the Atomic Energy Commission, makes the same argument in her book, Trashing the Planet. The Wall Street Journal and National Review have run commentaries by S. Fred Singer, a former chief scientists for the Department of Transportation, purporting to shoot holes in the theory of ozone depletion. Even the June issue of Omni, a magazine with a circulation of more than 1 million that publishes a mixture of science and science fiction, printed a feature article claiming to expose ozone research as a politically motivated scam

  15. Ozone depletion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, F.M.; Chang, J.S.; Wuebbles, D.J.; Penner, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Models of stratospheric chemistry have been primarily directed toward an understanding of the behavior of stratospheric ozone. Initially this interest reflected the diagnostic role of ozone in the understanding of atmospheric transport processes. More recently, interest in stratospheric ozone has arisen from concern that human activities might affect the amount of stratospheric ozone, thereby affecting the ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's surface and perhaps also affecting the climate with various potentially severe consequences for human welfare. This concern has inspired a substantial effort to develop both diagnostic and prognostic models of stratospheric ozone. During the past decade, several chemical agents have been determined to have potentially significant impacts on stratospheric ozone if they are released to the atmosphere in large quantities. These include oxides of nitrogen, oxides of hydrogen, chlorofluorocarbons, bromine compounds, fluorine compounds and carbon dioxide. In order to assess the potential impact of the perturbations caused by these chemicals, mathematical models have been developed to handle the complex coupling between chemical, radiative, and dynamical processes. Basic concepts in stratospheric modeling are reviewed

  16. Ozone: The secret greenhouse gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berntsen, Terje; Tjernshaugen, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    The atmospheric ozone not only protects against harmful ultraviolet radiation; it also contributes to the greenhouse effect. Ozone is one of the jokers to make it difficult to calculate the climatic effect of anthropogenic emissions. The greenhouse effect and the ozone layer should not be confused. The greenhouse effect creates problems when it becomes enhanced, so that the earth becomes warmer. The problem with the ozone layer, on the contrary, is that it becomes thinner and so more of the harmful ultraviolet radiation gets through to the earth. However, ozone is also a greenhouse gas and so the greenhouse effect and the ozone layer are connected

  17. Diagrams benefit symbolic problem-solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Junyi; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R

    2017-06-01

    The format of a mathematics problem often influences students' problem-solving performance. For example, providing diagrams in conjunction with story problems can benefit students' understanding, choice of strategy, and accuracy on story problems. However, it remains unclear whether providing diagrams in conjunction with symbolic equations can benefit problem-solving performance as well. We tested the impact of diagram presence on students' performance on algebra equation problems to determine whether diagrams increase problem-solving success. We also examined the influence of item- and student-level factors to test the robustness of the diagram effect. We worked with 61 seventh-grade students who had received 2 months of pre-algebra instruction. Students participated in an experimenter-led classroom session. Using a within-subjects design, students solved algebra problems in two matched formats (equation and equation-with-diagram). The presence of diagrams increased equation-solving accuracy and the use of informal strategies. This diagram benefit was independent of student ability and item complexity. The benefits of diagrams found previously for story problems generalized to symbolic problems. The findings are consistent with cognitive models of problem-solving and suggest that diagrams may be a useful additional representation of symbolic problems. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Disconnected Diagrams in Lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, Arjun Singh

    In this work, we present state-of-the-art numerical methods and their applications for computing a particular class of observables using lattice quantum chromodynamics (Lattice QCD), a discretized version of the fundamental theory of quarks and gluons. These observables require calculating so called "disconnected diagrams" and are important for understanding many aspects of hadron structure, such as the strange content of the proton. We begin by introducing the reader to the key concepts of Lattice QCD and rigorously define the meaning of disconnected diagrams through an example of the Wick contractions of the nucleon. Subsequently, the calculation of observables requiring disconnected diagrams is posed as the computationally challenging problem of finding the trace of the inverse of an incredibly large, sparse matrix. This is followed by a brief primer of numerical sparse matrix techniques that overviews broadly used methods in Lattice QCD and builds the background for the novel algorithm presented in this work. We then introduce singular value deflation as a method to improve convergence of trace estimation and analyze its effects on matrices from a variety of fields, including chemical transport modeling, magnetohydrodynamics, and QCD. Finally, we apply this method to compute observables such as the strange axial charge of the proton and strange sigma terms in light nuclei. The work in this thesis is innovative for four reasons. First, we analyze the effects of deflation with a model that makes qualitative predictions about its effectiveness, taking only the singular value spectrum as input, and compare deflated variance with different types of trace estimator noise. Second, the synergy between probing methods and deflation is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Third, we use the synergistic combination of deflation and a graph coloring algorithm known as hierarchical probing to conduct a lattice calculation of light disconnected matrix elements

  19. Disconnected Diagrams in Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambhir, Arjun [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we present state-of-the-art numerical methods and their applications for computing a particular class of observables using lattice quantum chromodynamics (Lattice QCD), a discretized version of the fundamental theory of quarks and gluons. These observables require calculating so called \\disconnected diagrams" and are important for understanding many aspects of hadron structure, such as the strange content of the proton. We begin by introducing the reader to the key concepts of Lattice QCD and rigorously define the meaning of disconnected diagrams through an example of the Wick contractions of the nucleon. Subsequently, the calculation of observables requiring disconnected diagrams is posed as the computationally challenging problem of finding the trace of the inverse of an incredibly large, sparse matrix. This is followed by a brief primer of numerical sparse matrix techniques that overviews broadly used methods in Lattice QCD and builds the background for the novel algorithm presented in this work. We then introduce singular value deflation as a method to improve convergence of trace estimation and analyze its effects on matrices from a variety of fields, including chemical transport modeling, magnetohydrodynamics, and QCD. Finally, we apply this method to compute observables such as the strange axial charge of the proton and strange sigma terms in light nuclei. The work in this thesis is innovative for four reasons. First, we analyze the effects of deflation with a model that makes qualitative predictions about its effectiveness, taking only the singular value spectrum as input, and compare deflated variance with different types of trace estimator noise. Second, the synergy between probing methods and deflation is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Third, we use the synergistic combination of deflation and a graph coloring algorithm known as hierarchical probing to conduct a lattice calculation of light disconnected matrix elements

  20. Ozone modeling within plasmas for ozone sensor applications

    OpenAIRE

    Arshak, Khalil; Forde, Edward; Guiney, Ivor

    2007-01-01

    peer-reviewed Ozone (03) is potentially hazardous to human health and accurate prediction and measurement of this gas is essential in addressing its associated health risks. This paper presents theory to predict the levels of ozone concentration emittedfrom a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma for ozone sensing applications. This is done by postulating the kinetic model for ozone generation, with a DBD plasma at atmospheric pressure in air, in the form of a set of rate equations....

  1. Gravity on-shell diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Enrico [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Trnka, Jaroslav [Center for Quantum Mathematics and Physics (QMAP),Department of Physics, University of California,Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2016-11-22

    We study on-shell diagrams for gravity theories with any number of supersymmetries and find a compact Grassmannian formula in terms of edge variables of the graphs. Unlike in gauge theory where the analogous form involves only dlog-factors, in gravity there is a non-trivial numerator as well as higher degree poles in the edge variables. Based on the structure of the Grassmannian formula for N=8 supergravity we conjecture that gravity loop amplitudes also possess similar properties. In particular, we find that there are only logarithmic singularities on cuts with finite loop momentum and that poles at infinity are present, in complete agreement with the conjecture presented in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP06(2015)202.

  2. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-01-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO–AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N 2 , N 2 O, and H 2 O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV ′ transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C

  3. VORONOI DIAGRAMS WITHOUT BOUNDING BOXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. K. Sang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a technique for presenting geographic data in Voronoi diagrams without having to specify a bounding box. The method restricts Voronoi cells to points within a user-defined distance of the data points. The mathematical foundation of the approach is presented as well. The cell clipping method is particularly useful for presenting geographic data that is spread in an irregular way over a map, as for example the Dutch dialect data displayed in Figure 2. The automatic generation of reasonable cell boundaries also makes redundant a frequently used solution to this problem that requires data owners to specify region boundaries, as in Goebl (2010 and Nerbonne et al (2011.

  4. Anatomy of geodesic Witten diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Heng-Yu; Kuo, En-Jui [Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Taiwan University,Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Kyono, Hideki [Department of Physics, Kyoto University,Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2017-05-12

    We revisit the so-called “Geodesic Witten Diagrams” (GWDs) https://www.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP01(2016)146, proposed to be the holographic dual configuration of scalar conformal partial waves, from the perspectives of CFT operator product expansions. To this end, we explicitly consider three point GWDs which are natural building blocks of all possible four point GWDs, discuss their gluing procedure through integration over spectral parameter, and this leads us to a direct identification with the integral representation of CFT conformal partial waves. As a main application of this general construction, we consider the holographic dual of the conformal partial waves for external primary operators with spins. Moreover, we consider the closely related “split representation” for the bulk to bulk spinning propagator, to demonstrate how ordinary scalar Witten diagram with arbitrary spin exchange, can be systematically decomposed into scalar GWDs. We also discuss how to generalize to spinning cases.

  5. CONTRIBUTION TO INDOOR OZONE LEVELS OF AN OZONE GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report gives results of a study of a commonly used commercially available ozone generator, undertaken to determine its impact on indoor ozone levels. xperiment were conducted in a typical mechanically ventilated office and in a test house. he generated ozone and the in-room ...

  6. Ozone-depleting Substances (ODS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This site includes all of the ozone-depleting substances (ODS) recognized by the Montreal Protocol. The data include ozone depletion potentials (ODP), global warming...

  7. Air Quality Guide for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    GO! Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Air Quality Guide for Ozone Ground-level ozone is one of our nation’s most common air pollutants. Use the chart below to help reduce ...

  8. Health Effects of Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhaling ozone can cause coughing, shortness of breath, worse asthma or bronchitis symptoms, and irritation and damage to airways.You can reduce your exposure to ozone pollution by checking air quality where you live.

  9. Selected topics on the nonrelativistic diagram technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhintsev, L.D.; Narodetskij, I.M.

    1983-01-01

    The construction of the diagrams describing various processes in the four-particle systems is considered. It is shown that these diagrams, in particular the diagrams corresponding to the simple mechanisms often used in nuclear and atomic reaction theory, are readily obtained from the Faddeev-Yakubovsky equations. The covariant four-dimensional formalism of nonrelativistic Feynman graphs and its connection to the three-dimensional graph technique are briefly discussed

  10. Thermochemical and phase diagram studies of the Sn-Zn-Ni system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandova, V.D.; Broz, P.; Bursik, J.; Vassilev, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Sn-Zn-Ni phase diagram in the vicinity of the Sn-Zn system. → Unidentified compositions (UX1-UX4) are repeatedly observed. → This indicates up to 6 ternary compounds in the system. → A ternary eutectic reaction at around 190 o C is found. - Abstract: The phase diagram Sn-Zn-Ni was studied by means of DSC and electron microprobe analysis. The samples were positioned in three isopleth sections with nickel contents of 0.04 (section 1), 0.08 (section 2) and 0.12 (section 3) mole fractions. The mole fractions of Sn corresponding to the particular sections were as follows: from 0.230 to 0.768 (section 1), from 0.230 to 0.736 (section 2); from 0.220 to 0.704 (section 3). Mixtures of pure metals were sealed under vacuum in quartz ampoules and annealed at 350 o C. The solid phases identified in the samples were: γ-(i.e. Ni 5 Zn 21 ), (Zn) and the ternary phase T1. Unidentified compositions were observed. One of them: UX1 (X Ni = 0.071 ± 0.005, X Sn = 0.439 ± 0.009 and X Zn = 0.490 ± 0.010) might indicate another (stable or metastable) ternary compound (T3) in the system Sn-Zn-Ni. Considering the data obtained by combining DSC with microstructure observations, the studied alloys could be divided in two groups (A and B). A ternary eutectic reaction at around 190 o C is common for the A-group alloys. The phases taking part in this reaction are, probably, Ni 5 Zn 21 , (Zn), (βSn) and liquid. B-group samples do not show ternary eutectic reaction and are also characterized by the presence of the ternary compound T1 (absent in the A-group alloys). Four other groups of thermal arrests were registered (TA 1 -TA 4 ). It was found that TA 2 peaks were characteristic for most of the A-group samples, while TA 1 peaks were registered with all B-group samples.

  11. Ozone bioindicator sampling and estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretchen C, Smith; William D. Smith; John W. Coulston

    2007-01-01

    Ozone is an important forest stressor that has been measured at known phytotoxic levels at forest locations across the United States. The percent forest exhibiting negative impacts from ozone air pollution is one of the Montreal Process indicators of forest health and vitality. The ozone bioindicator data of the U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Program...

  12. Ozonated Olive Oils and Troubles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Uysal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 49-50

  13. Disappearing threat to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribbin, J

    1979-02-15

    Concern that human activities might disturb the dynamic natural equilibrium of the ozone layer has stemmed from the fact that this layer plays a key part in the ecology of the earth by absorbing harmful ultraviolet radiation which would otherwise penetrate to the ground. Apparently, however, a decline of as much at 15% in total global ozone would have very little effect on climate. A 50% reduction would produce a marked cooling of the stratosphere at 40 km altitude over the tropics, but barely detectable changes in temperature and rainfall in the lower atmosphere. Therefore, biological effects of more uv light at ground level is the only hazard associated with ozone depletion on the scale which might take place.

  14. Ozonation for source treatment of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater - ozone lifetime and required ozone dose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Chhetri, Ravi Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Ozonation aimed at removing pharmaceuticals was studied in an effluent from an experimental pilot system using staged moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) tanks for the optimal biological treatment of wastewater from a medical care unit of Aarhus University Hospital. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC......) and pH in samples varied considerably, and the effect of these two parameters on ozone lifetime and the efficiency of ozone in removing pharmaceuticals were determined. The pH in the effluent varied from 5.0 to 9.0 resulting in approximately a doubling of the required ozone dose at the highest p......H for each pharmaceutical. DOC varied from 6 to 20 mg-DOC/L. The ozone required for removing each pharmaceutical, varied linearly with DOC and thus, ozone doses normalized to DOC (specific ozone dose) agreed between water samples (typically within 15%). At neutral pH the specific ozone dose required...

  15. Stage line diagram: An age-conditional reference diagram for tracking development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van; Ooms, J.C.L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method for calculating stage line diagrams, a novel type of reference diagram useful for tracking developmental processes over time. Potential fields of applications include: dentistry (tooth eruption), oncology (tumor grading, cancer staging), virology (HIV infection and

  16. Stage line diagram: an age-conditional reference diagram for tracking development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Buuren, S.; Ooms, J.C.L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method for calculating stage line diagrams, a novel type of reference diagram useful for tracking developmental processes over time. Potential fields of applications include: dentistry (tooth eruption), oncology (tumor grading, cancer staging), virology (HIV infection and

  17. Physicochemical patterns of ozone absorption by wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamleeva, N. A.; Lunin, V. V.

    2016-11-01

    Results from studying aspen and pine wood ozonation are presented. The effect the concentration of ozone, the reagent residence time, and the content of water in a sample of wood has on ozone consumption rate and ozone demand are analyzed. The residence time is shown to determine the degree of ozone conversion degree and the depth of substrate destruction. The main patterns of ozone absorption by wood with different moisture content are found. Ways of optimizing the ozonation of plant biomass are outlined.

  18. CERPHASE: Computer-generated phase diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruys, A.J.; Sorrell, C.C.; Scott, F.H.

    1990-01-01

    CERPHASE is a collection of computer programs written in the programming language basic and developed for the purpose of teaching the principles of phase diagram generation from the ideal solution model of thermodynamics. Two approaches are used in the generation of the phase diagrams: freezing point depression and minimization of the free energy of mixing. Binary and ternary phase diagrams can be generated as can diagrams containing the ideal solution parameters used to generate the actual phase diagrams. Since the diagrams generated utilize the ideal solution model, data input required from the operator is minimal: only the heat of fusion and melting point of each component. CERPHASE is menu-driven and user-friendly, containing simple instructions in the form of screen prompts as well as a HELP file to guide the operator. A second purpose of CERPHASE is in the prediction of phase diagrams in systems for which no experimentally determined phase diagrams are available, enabling the estimation of suitable firing or sintering temperatures for otherwise unknown systems. Since CERPHASE utilizes ideal solution theory, there are certain limitations imposed on the types of systems that can be predicted reliably. 6 refs., 13 refs

  19. How design guides learning from matrix diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, Jan; Amelsvoort, Marije; Anjewierden, Anjo

    2017-01-01

    Compared to text, diagrams are superior in their ability to structure and summarize information and to show relations between concepts and ideas. Perceptual cues, like arrows, are expected to improve the retention of diagrams by guiding the learner towards important elements or showing a preferred

  20. Diagram of state of stiff amphiphilic macromolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markov, Vladimir A.; Vasilevskaya, Valentina V.; Khalatur, Pavel G.; ten Brinke, Gerrit; Khokhlov, Alexei R.

    2007-01-01

    We studied coil-globule transitions in stiff-chain amphiphilic macromolecules via computer modeling and constructed phase diagrams for such molecules in terms of solvent quality and persistence length. We showed that the shape of the phase diagram essentially depends on the macromolecule degree of

  1. Compact flow diagrams for state sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, Kevin; Buchin, Maike; Gudmundsson, Joachim; Horton, Michael; Sijben, Stef

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the concept of using a flow diagram to compactly represent the segmentation of a large number of state sequences according to a set of criteria. We argue that this flow diagram representation gives an intuitive summary that allows the user to detect patterns within the segmentations. In

  2. Compact flow diagrams for state sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, K.A.; Buchin, M.E.; Gudmundsson, J.; Horton, M.J.; Sijben, S.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the concept of compactly representing a large number of state sequences, e.g., sequences of activities, as a flow diagram. We argue that the flow diagram representation gives an intuitive summary that allows the user to detect patterns among large sets of state sequences. Simplified,

  3. How Design Guides Learning from Matrix Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, Jan; van Amelsvoort, Marije; Anjewierden, Anjo

    2017-01-01

    Compared to text, diagrams are superior in their ability to structure and summarize information and to show relations between concepts and ideas. Perceptual cues, like arrows, are expected to improve the retention of diagrams by guiding the learner towards important elements or showing a preferred reading sequence. In our experiment, we analyzed…

  4. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik, E-mail: csyoo@wsu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Institute for Shock Physics, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States)

    2013-12-07

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO–AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and H{sub 2}O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV{sup ′} transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C.

  5. Towards the QCD phase diagram

    CERN Document Server

    De Forcrand, Philippe; Forcrand, Philippe de; Philipsen, Owe

    2006-01-01

    We summarize our recent results on the phase diagram of QCD with N_f=2+1 quark flavors, as a function of temperature T and quark chemical potential \\mu. Using staggered fermions, lattices with temporal extent N_t=4, and the exact RHMC algorithm, we first determine the critical line in the quark mass plane (m_{u,d},m_s) where the finite temperature transition at \\mu=0 is second order. We confirm that the physical point lies on the crossover side of this line. Our data are consistent with a tricritical point at (m_{u,d},m_s) = (0,\\sim 500) MeV. Then, using an imaginary chemical potential, we determine in which direction this second-order line moves as the chemical potential is turned on. Contrary to standard expectations, we find that the region of first-order transitions shrinks in the presence of a chemical potential, which is inconsistent with the presence of a QCD critical point at small chemical potential. The emphasis is put on clarifying the translation of our results from lattice to physical units, and ...

  6. Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cazorla

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A new ambient air monitor, the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS, measures directly the rate of ozone production in the atmosphere. The sensor consists of two 11.3 L environmental chambers made of UV-transmitting Teflon film, a unit to convert NO2 to O3, and a modified ozone monitor. In the sample chamber, flowing ambient air is exposed to the sunlight so that ozone is produced just as it is in the atmosphere. In the second chamber, called the reference chamber, a UV-blocking film over the Teflon film prevents ozone formation but allows other processes to occur as they do in the sample chamber. The air flows that exit the two chambers are sampled by an ozone monitor operating in differential mode so that the difference between the two ozone signals, divided by the exposure time in the chambers, gives the ozone production rate. High-efficiency conversion of NO2 to O3 prior to detection in the ozone monitor accounts for differences in the NOx photostationary state that can occur in the two chambers. The MOPS measures the ozone production rate, but with the addition of NO to the sampled air flow, the MOPS can be used to study the sensitivity of ozone production to NO. Preliminary studies with the MOPS on the campus of the Pennsylvania State University show the potential of this new technique.

  7. Operations space diagram for ECRH and ECCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindslev, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    A Clemmov-Mullaly-Allis (CMA) type diagram, the ECW-CMA diagram, for representing the operational possibilities of electron cyclotron heating and current drive (ECRH/ECCD) systems for fusion plasmas is presented. In this diagram, with normalized density and normalized magnetic field coordinates, the parameter range in which it is possible to achieve a given task (e.g. O-mode current drive for stabilizing a neoclassical tearing mode) appears as a region. With also the Greenwald density limit shown, this diagram condenses the information on operational possibilities, facilitating the overview required at the design phase. At the operations phase it may also prove useful in setting up experimental scenarios by showing operational possibilities, avoiding the need for survey type ray-tracing at the initial planning stages. The diagram may also serve the purpose of communicating operational possibilities to non-experts. JET and ITER like plasmas are used, but the method is generic. (author)

  8. Operations space diagram for ECRH and ECCD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev, H.

    2004-01-01

    at the design phase. At the operations phase it may also prove useful in setting up experimental scenarios by showing operational possibilities, avoiding the need for survey type ray-tracing at the initial planning stages. The diagram may also serve the purpose of communicating operational possibilities to non......A Clemmov-Mullaly-Allis (CMA) type diagram, the ECW-CMA diagram, for representing the operational possibilities of electron cyclotron heating and current drive (ECRH/ECCD) systems for fusion plasmas is presented. In this diagram, with normalized density and normalized magnetic field coordinates......, the parameter range in which it is possible to achieve a given task (e.g. O-mode current drive for stabilizing a neoclassical tearing mode) appears as a region. With also the Greenwald density limit shown, this diagram condenses the information on operational possibilities, facilitating the overview required...

  9. Our Shrinking Ozone Layer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Depletion of the ozone layer is therefore having significant effects on life on .... but there is always a net balance between the rate of formation and destruction ..... award of Commonwealth Fellowship during the present work and also being an ...

  10. Dobson ozone spectrophotometer modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komhyr, W. D.; Grass, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Description of a modified version of the Dobson ozone spectrophotometer in which several outdated electronic design features have been replaced by circuitry embodying more modern design concepts. The resulting improvement in performance characteristics has been obtained without changing the principle of operation of the original instrument.

  11. The ozone monitoring instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.R.; Mälkki, A.; Visser, H.; Vries, J. de; Stammes, P.; Lundell, J.O.V.; Saari, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flies on the National Aeronautics and Space Adminsitration's Earth Observing System Aura satellite launched in July 2004. OMI is a ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) nadir solar backscatter spectrometer, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with a spatial

  12. Ozone, greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aviam, A.M.; Arthaut, R.

    1992-01-01

    This file is made of eight general papers on environment (climates under observation, research on photo-oxidizing pollution, scientific aspects of stratospheric ozone layer, urban engineering and environment, glory of public gardens, earths not very natural, darwinism and society, economical data on environment). (A.B.). refs., 3 tabs

  13. Revisiting Antarctic Ozone Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Tritscher, Ines; Müller, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Antarctic ozone depletion is known for almost three decades and it has been well settled that it is caused by chlorine catalysed ozone depletion inside the polar vortex. However, there are still some details, which need to be clarified. In particular, there is a current debate on the relative importance of liquid aerosol and crystalline NAT and ice particles for chlorine activation. Particles have a threefold impact on polar chlorine chemistry, temporary removal of HNO3 from the gas-phase (uptake), permanent removal of HNO3 from the atmosphere (denitrification), and chlorine activation through heterogeneous reactions. We have performed simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) employing a recently developed algorithm for saturation-dependent NAT nucleation for the Antarctic winters 2011 and 2012. The simulation results are compared with different satellite observations. With the help of these simulations, we investigate the role of the different processes responsible for chlorine activation and ozone depletion. Especially the sensitivity with respect to the particle type has been investigated. If temperatures are artificially forced to only allow cold binary liquid aerosol, the simulation still shows significant chlorine activation and ozone depletion. The results of the 3-D Chemical Transport Model CLaMS simulations differ from purely Lagrangian longtime trajectory box model simulations which indicates the importance of mixing processes.

  14. [Ozone concentration distribution of urban].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yong-quan; Li, Chang-mei; Ma, Gui-xia; Cui, Zhao-jie

    2004-11-01

    The increase of ozone concentration in urban is one of the most important research topics on environmental science. With the increase of nitrogen oxides and hydrogen-carbon compounds which are exhausted from cars, the ozone concentration in urban is obviously increased on sunlight, and threat of photochemistry smog will be possible. Therefore, it is very important to monitor and study the ozone concentration distribution in urban. The frequency-distribution, diurnal variation and monthly variation of ozone concentration were studied on the campus of Shandong University during six months monitoring. The influence of solar radiation and weather conditions on ozone concentration were discussed. The frequency of ozone concentration less than 200 microg/m3 is 96.88%. The ozone concentration has an obvious diurnal variation. The ozone concentration in the afternoon is higher than in the morning and in the evening. The maximum appears in June, when it is the strong solar radiation and high air-temperature. The weather conditions also influence the ozone concentration. The ozone concentration in clear day is higher than in rainy and cloudy day.

  15. Near threshold expansion of Feynman diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendels, E.

    2005-01-01

    The near threshold expansion of Feynman diagrams is derived from their configuration space representation, by performing all x integrations. The general scalar Feynman diagram is considered, with an arbitrary number of external momenta, an arbitrary number of internal lines and an arbitrary number of loops, in n dimensions and all masses may be different. The expansions are considered both below and above threshold. Rules, giving real and imaginary part, are derived. Unitarity of a sunset diagram with I internal lines is checked in a direct way by showing that its imaginary part is equal to the phase space integral of I particles

  16. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz,Maritza F.; Hernández,Rebeca; Martínez,Goitybell; Vidal,Genny; Gómez,Magali; Fernández,Harold; Garcés,Rafael

    2006-01-01

    In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observ...

  17. Between Analogue and Digital Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Bun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay is about the interstitial. About how the diagram, as a method of design, has lead fromthe analogue deconstruction of the eighties to the digital processes of the turn of the millennium.Specifically, the main topic of the text is the interpretation and the critique of folding (as a diagramin the beginning of the nineties. It is necessary then to unfold its relationship with immediatelypreceding and following architectural trends, that is to say we have to look both backwards andforwards by about a decade. The question is the context of folding, the exchange of the analogueworld for the digital. To understand the process it is easier to investigate from the fields of artand culture, rather than from the intentionally perplicated1 thoughts of Gilles Deleuze. Both fieldsare relevant here because they can similarly be used as the yardstick against which the era itselfit measured. The cultural scene of the eighties and nineties, including performing arts, movies,literature and philosophy, is a wide milieu of architecture. Architecture responds parallel to itsera; it reacts to it, and changes with it and within it. Architecture is a medium, it has always beena medium, yet the relations are transformed. That’s not to say that technical progress, for exampleusing CAD-software and CNC-s, has led to the digital thinking of certain movements ofarchitecture, (it is at most an indirect tool. But the ‘up-to-dateness’ of the discipline, however,a kind of non-servile reading of an ‘applied culture’ or ‘used philosophy’2 could be the key.(We might recall here, parenthetically, the fortunes of the artistic in contemporary mass society.The proliferation of museums, the magnification of the figure of the artist, the existence of amassive consumption of printed and televised artistic images, the widespread appetite for informationabout the arts, all reflect, of course, an increasingly leisured society, but also relateprecisely to the fact

  18. Voronoi diagram and microstructure of weldment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jung Ho [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Voronoi diagram, one of the well-known space decomposition algorithms has been applied to express the microstructure of a weldment for the first time due to the superficial analogy between a Voronoi cell and a metal's grain. The area of the Voronoi cells can be controlled by location and the number of the seed points. This can be correlated to the grain size in the microstructure and the number of nuclei formed. The feasibility of representing coarse and fine grain structures were tested through Voronoi diagrams and it is applied to expression of cross-sectional bead shape of a typical laser welding. As result, it successfully described coarsened grain size of heat affected zone and columnar crystals in fusion zone. Although Voronoi diagram showed potential as a microstructure prediction tool through this feasible trial but direct correlation control variable of Voronoi diagram to solidification process parameter is still remained as further works.

  19. Covariant diagrams for one-loop matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhengkang

    2016-10-01

    We present a diagrammatic formulation of recently-revived covariant functional approaches to one-loop matching from an ultraviolet (UV) theory to a low-energy effective field theory. Various terms following from a covariant derivative expansion (CDE) are represented by diagrams which, unlike conventional Feynman diagrams, involve gaugecovariant quantities and are thus dubbed ''covariant diagrams.'' The use of covariant diagrams helps organize and simplify one-loop matching calculations, which we illustrate with examples. Of particular interest is the derivation of UV model-independent universal results, which reduce matching calculations of specific UV models to applications of master formulas. We show how such derivation can be done in a more concise manner than the previous literature, and discuss how additional structures that are not directly captured by existing universal results, including mixed heavy-light loops, open covariant derivatives, and mixed statistics, can be easily accounted for.

  20. A novel decision diagrams extension method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shumin; Si, Shubin; Dui, Hongyan; Cai, Zhiqiang; Sun, Shudong

    2014-01-01

    Binary decision diagram (BDD) is a graph-based representation of Boolean functions. It is a directed acyclic graph (DAG) based on Shannon's decomposition. Multi-state multi-valued decision diagram (MMDD) is a natural extension of BDD for the symbolic representation and manipulation of the multi-valued logic functions. This paper proposes a decision diagram extension method based on original BDD/MMDD while the scale of a reliability system is extended. Following a discussion of decomposition and physical meaning of BDD and MMDD, the modeling method of BDD/MMDD based on original BDD/MMDD is introduced. Three case studies are implemented to demonstrate the presented methods. Compared with traditional BDD and MMDD generation methods, the decision diagrams extension method is more computationally efficient as shown through the running time

  1. Covariant diagrams for one-loop matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhengkang [Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics (MCTP), University of Michigan,450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY),Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-05-30

    We present a diagrammatic formulation of recently-revived covariant functional approaches to one-loop matching from an ultraviolet (UV) theory to a low-energy effective field theory. Various terms following from a covariant derivative expansion (CDE) are represented by diagrams which, unlike conventional Feynman diagrams, involve gauge-covariant quantities and are thus dubbed “covariant diagrams.” The use of covariant diagrams helps organize and simplify one-loop matching calculations, which we illustrate with examples. Of particular interest is the derivation of UV model-independent universal results, which reduce matching calculations of specific UV models to applications of master formulas. We show how such derivation can be done in a more concise manner than the previous literature, and discuss how additional structures that are not directly captured by existing universal results, including mixed heavy-light loops, open covariant derivatives, and mixed statistics, can be easily accounted for.

  2. Covariant diagrams for one-loop matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhengkang [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    We present a diagrammatic formulation of recently-revived covariant functional approaches to one-loop matching from an ultraviolet (UV) theory to a low-energy effective field theory. Various terms following from a covariant derivative expansion (CDE) are represented by diagrams which, unlike conventional Feynman diagrams, involve gaugecovariant quantities and are thus dubbed ''covariant diagrams.'' The use of covariant diagrams helps organize and simplify one-loop matching calculations, which we illustrate with examples. Of particular interest is the derivation of UV model-independent universal results, which reduce matching calculations of specific UV models to applications of master formulas. We show how such derivation can be done in a more concise manner than the previous literature, and discuss how additional structures that are not directly captured by existing universal results, including mixed heavy-light loops, open covariant derivatives, and mixed statistics, can be easily accounted for.

  3. Covariant diagrams for one-loop matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhengkang

    2017-01-01

    We present a diagrammatic formulation of recently-revived covariant functional approaches to one-loop matching from an ultraviolet (UV) theory to a low-energy effective field theory. Various terms following from a covariant derivative expansion (CDE) are represented by diagrams which, unlike conventional Feynman diagrams, involve gauge-covariant quantities and are thus dubbed “covariant diagrams.” The use of covariant diagrams helps organize and simplify one-loop matching calculations, which we illustrate with examples. Of particular interest is the derivation of UV model-independent universal results, which reduce matching calculations of specific UV models to applications of master formulas. We show how such derivation can be done in a more concise manner than the previous literature, and discuss how additional structures that are not directly captured by existing universal results, including mixed heavy-light loops, open covariant derivatives, and mixed statistics, can be easily accounted for.

  4. Compatible growth models and stand density diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, N.J.; Brand, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses a stand average growth model based on the self-thinning rule developed and used to generate stand density diagrams. Procedures involved in testing are described and results are included

  5. Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution Two types of air pollution dominate in the ... So what are ozone and particle pollution? Ozone Pollution It may be hard to imagine that pollution ...

  6. Protecting the ozone layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, M; King, K

    1992-06-01

    Stratospheric ozone layer depletion has been recognized as a problem by the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the 1987 Montreal Protocol (MP). The ozone layer shields the earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation (UV-B), which is more pronounced at the poles and around the equator. Industrialized countries have contributed significantly to the problem by releasing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons into the atmosphere. The effect of these chemicals, which were known for their inertness, nonflammability, and nontoxicity, was discovered in 1874. Action to deal with the effects of CFCs and halons was initiated in 1985 in a 49-nation UN meeting. 21 nations signed a protocol limiting ozone depleting substances (ODS): CFCs and halons. Schedules were set based on each country's use in 1986; the target phaseout was set for the year 2000. The MP restricts trade in ODSs and weights the impact of substances to reflect the extent of damage; i.e., halons are 10 times more damaging than CFCs. ODS requirements for developing countries were eased to accommodate scarce resources and the small fraction of ODS emissions. An Interim Multilateral Fund under the Montreal Protocol (IMFMP) was established to provide loans to finance the costs to developing countries in meeting global environmental requirements. The IMFMP is administered by the World Bank, the UN Environmental Program, and the UN Development Program. Financing is available to eligible countries who use .3 kg of ODS/person/year. Rapid phaseout in developed countries has occurred due to strong support from industry and a lower than expected cost. Although there are clear advantages to rapid phaseout, there were no incentives included in the MP for rapid phaseout. Some of the difficulties occur because the schedules set minimum targets at the lowest possible cost. Also, costs cannot be minimized by a country-specific and ODS-specific process. The ways to improve implementation in scheduling and

  7. Lattice and Phase Diagram in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardo, Maria Paola

    2008-01-01

    Model calculations have produced a number of very interesting expectations for the QCD Phase Diagram, and the task of a lattice calculations is to put these studies on a quantitative grounds. I will give an overview of the current status of the lattice analysis of the QCD phase diagram, from the quantitative results of mature calculations at zero and small baryochemical potential, to the exploratory studies of the colder, denser phase.

  8. Finding and Accessing Diagrams in Biomedical Publications

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, Tobias; Luong, ThaiBinh; Krauthammer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Complex relationships in biomedical publications are often communicated by diagrams such as bar and line charts, which are a very effective way of summarizing and communicating multi-faceted data sets. Given the ever-increasing amount of published data, we argue that the precise retrieval of such diagrams is of great value for answering specific and otherwise hard-to-meet information needs. To this end, we demonstrate the use of advanced image processing and classification for identifying bar...

  9. Ferroelectric Phase Diagram of PVDF:PMMA

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Mengyuan; Stingelin, Natalie; Michels, Jasper J.; Spijkman, Mark-Jan; Asadi, Kamal; Feldman, Kirill; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the ferroelectric phase diagram of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The binary nonequilibrium temperature composition diagram was determined and melting of alpha- and beta-phase PVDF was identified. Ferroelectric beta-PVDF:PMMA blend films were made by melting, ice quenching, and subsequent annealing above the glass transition temperature of PMMA, close to the melting temperature of PVDF. Addition of PMMA suppresses the crystallizatio...

  10. Beyond Feynman Diagrams (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    For decades the central theoretical tool for computing scattering amplitudes has been the Feynman diagram. However, Feynman diagrams are just too slow, even on fast computers, to be able to go beyond the leading order in QCD, for complicated events with many jets of hadrons in the final state. Such events are produced copiously at the LHC, and constitute formidable backgrounds to many searches for new physics. Over the past few years, alternative methods that go beyond ...

  11. The application of diagrams in architectural design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulić Olivera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagrams in architecture represent the visualization of the thinking process, or selective abstraction of concepts or ideas translated into the form of drawings. In addition, they provide insight into the way of thinking about and in architecture, thus creating a balance between the visual and the conceptual. The subject of research presented in this paper are diagrams as a specific kind of architectural representation, and possibilities and importance of their application in the design process. Diagrams are almost old as architecture itself, and they are an element of some of the most important studies of architecture during all periods of history - which results in a large number of different definitions of diagrams, but also very different conceptualizations of their features, functions and applications. The diagrams become part of contemporary architectural discourse during the eighties and nineties of the twentieth century, especially through the work of architects like Bernard Tschumi, Peter Eisenman, Rem Koolhaas, SANAA and others. The use of diagrams in the design process allows unification of some of the essential aspects of the profession: architectural representation and design process, as well as the question of the concept of architectural and urban design at a time of rapid changes at all levels of contemporary society. The aim of the research is the analysis of the diagram as a specific medium for processing large amounts of information that the architect should consider and incorporate into the architectural work. On that basis, it is assumed that an architectural diagram allows the creator the identification and analysis of specific elements or ideas of physical form, thereby constantly maintaining concept of the integrity of the architectural work.

  12. Atomic energy levels and Grotrian diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Bashkin, Stanley

    1975-01-01

    Atomic Energy Levels and Grotrian Diagrams, Volume I: Hydrogen I - Phosphorus XV presents diagrams of various elements that show their energy level and electronic transitions. The book covers the first 15 elements according to their atomic number. The text will be of great use to researchers and practitioners of fields such as astrophysics that requires pictorial representation of the energy levels and electronic transitions of elements.

  13. An Introduction to Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif

    1996-01-01

    This note is a short introduction to Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs). It provides some background knowledge and describes the core algorithms. It is used in the course "C4340 Advanced Algorithms" at the Technical University of Denmark, autumn 1996.......This note is a short introduction to Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs). It provides some background knowledge and describes the core algorithms. It is used in the course "C4340 Advanced Algorithms" at the Technical University of Denmark, autumn 1996....

  14. Gluing Ladder Feynman Diagrams into Fishnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basso, Benjamin; Dixon, Lance J.; Stanford University, CA; University of California, Santa Barbara, CA

    2017-01-01

    We use integrability at weak coupling to compute fishnet diagrams for four-point correlation functions in planar Φ "4 theory. Our results are always multilinear combinations of ladder integrals, which are in turn built out of classical polylogarithms. The Steinmann relations provide a powerful constraint on such linear combinations, which leads to a natural conjecture for any fishnet diagram as the determinant of a matrix of ladder integrals.

  15. Random Young diagrams in a Rectangular Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Dan; Boutillier, Cédric; Enriquez, Nathanaël

    We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape.......We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape....

  16. Reading fitness landscape diagrams through HSAB concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigneresse, Jean-Louis, E-mail: jean-louis.vigneresse@univ-lorraine.fr

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • Qualitative information from HSAB descriptors. • 2D–3D diagrams using chemical descriptors (χ, η, ω, α) and principles (MHP, mEP, mPP). • Estimate of the energy exchange during reaction paths. • Examples from complex systems (geochemistry). - Abstract: Fitness landscapes are conceived as range of mountains, with local peaks and valleys. In terms of potential, such topographic variations indicate places of local instability or stability. The chemical potential, or electronegativity, its value changed of sign, carries similar information. In addition to chemical descriptors defined through hard-soft acid-base (HSAB) concepts and computed through density functional theory (DFT), the principles that rule chemical reactions allow the design of such landscape diagrams. The simplest diagram uses electrophilicity and hardness as coordinates. It allows examining the influence of maximum hardness or minimum electrophilicity principles. A third dimension is introduced within such a diagram by mapping the topography of electronegativity, polarizability or charge exchange. Introducing charge exchange during chemical reactions, or mapping a third parameter (f.i. polarizability) reinforces the information carried by a simple binary diagram. Examples of such diagrams are provided, using data from Earth Sciences, simple oxides or ligands.

  17. The amplituhedron from momentum twistor diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yuntao; He, Song

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new diagrammatic formulation of the all-loop scattering amplitudes/Wilson loops in planar N=4 SYM, dubbed the “momentum-twistor diagrams”. These are on-shell-diagrams obtained by gluing trivalent black and white vertices in momentum twistor space, which, in the reduced diagram case, are known to be related to diagrams in the original twistor space. The new diagrams are manifestly Yangian invariant, and they naturally represent factorization and forward-limit contributions in the all-loop BCFW recursion relations in momentum twistor space, in a fashion that is completely different from those in momentum space. We show how to construct and evaluate momentum-twistor diagrams, and how to use them to obtain tree-level amplitudes and loop-level integrands; in particular the latter involve isolated bubble-structures for loop variables arising from forward limits, or the entangled removal of particles. From each diagram, the generalized “boundary measurement” directly gives the C, D matrices, thus a cell in the amplituhedron associated with the amplitude, and we expect that our diagrammatic representations of the amplitude provide triangulations of the amplituhedron. To demonstrate the computational power of the formalism, we give explicit results for general two-loop integrands, and the cells of the amplituhedron for two-loop MHV amplitudes.

  18. Asymptotic laws for random knot diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Harrison

    2017-06-01

    We study random knotting by considering knot and link diagrams as decorated, (rooted) topological maps on spheres and pulling them uniformly from among sets of a given number of vertices n, as first established in recent work with Cantarella and Mastin. The knot diagram model is an exciting new model which captures both the random geometry of space curve models of knotting as well as the ease of computing invariants from diagrams. We prove that unknot diagrams are asymptotically exponentially rare, an analogue of Sumners and Whittington’s landmark result for self-avoiding polygons. Our proof uses the same key idea: we first show that knot diagrams obey a pattern theorem, which describes their fractal structure. We examine how quickly this behavior occurs in practice. As a consequence, almost all diagrams are asymmetric, simplifying sampling from this model. We conclude with experimental data on knotting in this model. This model of random knotting is similar to those studied by Diao et al, and Dunfield et al.

  19. Unequivocal detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic Ozone Hole through significant increases in atmospheric layers with minimum ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, Jos; van Weele, Michiel; van der A, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    An important new landmark in present day ozone research is presented through MLS satellite observations of significant ozone increases during the ozone hole season that are attributed unequivocally to declining ozone depleting substances. For many decades the Antarctic ozone hole has been the prime example of both the detrimental effects of human activities on our environment as well as how to construct effective and successful environmental policies. Nowadays atmospheric concentrations of ozone depleting substances are on the decline and first signs of recovery of stratospheric ozone and ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole have been observed. The claimed detection of significant recovery, however, is still subject of debate. In this talk we will discuss first current uncertainties in the assessment of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole by using multi-variate regression methods, and, secondly present an alternative approach to identify ozone hole recovery unequivocally. Even though multi-variate regression methods help to reduce uncertainties in estimates of ozone recovery, great care has to be taken in their application due to the existence of uncertainties and degrees of freedom in the choice of independent variables. We show that taking all uncertainties into account in the regressions the formal recovery of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole cannot be established yet, though is likely before the end of the decade (before 2020). Rather than focusing on time and area averages of total ozone columns or ozone profiles, we argue that the time evolution of the probability distribution of vertically resolved ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole contains a better fingerprint for the detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole. The advantages of this method over more tradition methods of trend analyses based on spatio-temporal average ozone are discussed. The 10-year record of MLS satellite measurements of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole shows a

  20. Experimental study of ozone synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garamoon, A A; Elakshar, F F; Nossair, A M; Kotp, E F

    2002-01-01

    A silent discharge ozonizer has been constructed with a design that enables the study of ozone concentration behaviour as a function of different parameters when oxygen used as a working gas. The behaviour of ozone concentration as a function of discharge current density has four characteristic regions. The concentration is enhanced by more than threefold whenever gas pressure is reduced by a factor of two. The flow rate of the working gas is a more effective parameter on ozone concentration than the gas pressure. When the flow rate is kept constant, and the pressure is decreased by 100%, the ozone concentration increases by only 10%. On the other hand, when the flow rate is decreased by 13%, the ozone concentration increases by 200%, whenever the gas pressure is kept constant. The concentration is nearly doubled when the gap space is increased by four times under the same conditions. The length of the discharge region, the thickness and the dielectric constant of the insulating materials are found to have a considerable effect on the generated ozone concentration. Also, the ozone concentration is ten times less when air is used instead of oxygen as a working gas. A maximum efficiency of 185 g/kWh, is obtained for the present system

  1. Source attribution of tropospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a harmful pollutant with adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. As well as these effects, tropospheric ozone is also a powerful greenhouse gas, with an anthropogenic radiative forcing one quarter of that of CO2. Along with methane and atmospheric aerosol, tropospheric ozone belongs to the so-called Short Lived Climate forcing Pollutants, or SLCP. Recent work has shown that efforts to reduce concentrations of SLCP in the atmosphere have the potential to slow the rate of near-term climate change, while simultaneously improving public health and reducing crop losses. Unlike many other SLCP, tropospehric ozone is not directly emitted, but is instead influenced by two distinct sources: transport of air from the ozone-rich stratosphere; and photochemical production in the troposphere from the emitted precursors NOx (oxides of nitrogen), CO (Carbon Monoxide), and VOC (volatile organic compounds, including methane). Better understanding of the relationship between ozone production and the emissions of its precursors is essential for the development of targeted emission reduction strategies. Several modeling methods have been employed to relate the production of tropospheric ozone to emissions of its precursors; emissions perturbation, tagging, and adjoint sensitivity methods all deliver complementary information about modelled ozone production. Most studies using tagging methods have focused on attribution of tropospheric ozone production to emissions of NOx, even though perturbation methods have suggested that tropospheric ozone is also sensitive to VOC, particularly methane. In this study we describe the implementation into a global chemistry-climate model of a scheme for tagging emissions of NOx and VOC with an arbitrary number of labels, which are followed through the chemical reactions of tropospheric ozone production in order to perform attribution of tropospehric ozone to its emitted precursors. Attribution is performed to both

  2. Ozone's impact on public health: Contributions from indoor exposures to ozone and products of ozone-initiated chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The associations between ozone concentrations measured outdoors and both morbidity and mortality may be partially due to indoor exposures to ozone and ozone-initiated oxidation products. In this article I examine the contributions of such indoor exposures to overall ozone-related heal...

  3. The Semiotic Structure of Geometry Diagrams: How Textbook Diagrams Convey Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmel, Justin K.; Herbst, Patricio G.

    2015-01-01

    Geometry diagrams use the visual features of specific drawn objects to convey meaning about generic mathematical entities. We examine the semiotic structure of these visual features in two parts. One, we conduct a semiotic inquiry to conceptualize geometry diagrams as mathematical texts that comprise choices from different semiotic systems. Two,…

  4. Fishbone Diagrams: Organize Reading Content with a "Bare Bones" Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    Fishbone diagrams, also known as Ishikawa diagrams or cause-and-effect diagrams, are one of the many problem-solving tools created by Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa, a University of Tokyo professor. Part of the brilliance of Ishikawa's idea resides in the simplicity and practicality of the diagram's basic model--a fish's skeleton. This article describes how…

  5. Visualizing Metrics on Areas of Interest in Software Architecture Diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Byelas, Heorhiy; Telea, Alexandru; Eades, P; Ertl, T; Shen, HW

    2009-01-01

    We present a new method for the combined visualization of software architecture diagrams, Such as UML class diagrams or component diagrams, and software metrics defined on groups of diagram elements. Our method extends an existing rendering technique for the so-called areas of interest in system

  6. Phase diagram of classical electronic bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, S; Johnson, R E

    2006-01-01

    Extensive molecular dynamics calculations have been performed on classical, symmetric electronic bilayers at various values of the coupling strength Γ and interlayer separation d to delineate its phase diagram in the Γ-d plane. We studied the diffusion, the amplitude of the main peak of the intralayer static structure factor and the peak positions of the intralayer pair correlation function with the aim of defining equivalent signatures of freezing and constructing the resulting phase diagram. It is found that for Γ greater than 75, crystalline structures exist for a certain range of interlayer separations, while liquid phases are favoured at smaller and larger d. It is seen that there is good agreement between our phase diagram and previously published ones

  7. Phase diagram of classical electronic bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, S [Department of Physics, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario K7K 7B4 (Canada); Johnson, R E [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario K7K 7B4 (Canada)

    2006-04-28

    Extensive molecular dynamics calculations have been performed on classical, symmetric electronic bilayers at various values of the coupling strength {gamma} and interlayer separation d to delineate its phase diagram in the {gamma}-d plane. We studied the diffusion, the amplitude of the main peak of the intralayer static structure factor and the peak positions of the intralayer pair correlation function with the aim of defining equivalent signatures of freezing and constructing the resulting phase diagram. It is found that for {gamma} greater than 75, crystalline structures exist for a certain range of interlayer separations, while liquid phases are favoured at smaller and larger d. It is seen that there is good agreement between our phase diagram and previously published ones.

  8. The Butterfly diagram leopard skin pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternullo, Maurizio

    2011-08-01

    A time-latitude diagram where spotgroups are given proportional relevance to their area is presented. The diagram reveals that the spotted area distribution is higly dishomogeneous, most of it being concentrated in few, small portions (``knots'') of the Butterfly Diagram; because of this structure, the BD may be properly described as a cluster of knots. The description, assuming that spots scatter around the ``spot mean latitude'' steadily drifting equatorward, is challenged. Indeed, spots cluster around at as many latitudes as knots; a knot may appear at either lower or higher latitudes than previous ones, in a seemingly random way; accordingly, the spot mean latitude abruptly drifts equatorward or even poleward at any knot activation, in spite of any smoothing procedure. Preliminary analyses suggest that the activity splits, in any hemisphere, into two or more distinct ``activity waves'', drifting equatorward at a rate higher than the spot zone as a whole.

  9. Phase diagrams of diluted transverse Ising nanowire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhou, S.; Essaoudi, I. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et Modélisation, des Systèmes, (LP2MS), Unité Associée au CNRST-URAC 08, University of Moulay Ismail, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, B.P. 11201 Meknes (Morocco); Ainane, A., E-mail: ainane@pks.mpg.de [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et Modélisation, des Systèmes, (LP2MS), Unité Associée au CNRST-URAC 08, University of Moulay Ismail, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, B.P. 11201 Meknes (Morocco); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik Complexer Systeme, Nöthnitzer Str. 38 D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Saber, M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et Modélisation, des Systèmes, (LP2MS), Unité Associée au CNRST-URAC 08, University of Moulay Ismail, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, B.P. 11201 Meknes (Morocco); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik Complexer Systeme, Nöthnitzer Str. 38 D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Ahuja, R. [Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Dujardin, F. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Physique des Milieux Complexes (LCPMC), Institut de Chimie, Physique et Matériaux (ICPM), 1 Bd. Arago, 57070 Metz (France)

    2013-06-15

    In this paper, the phase diagrams of diluted Ising nanowire consisting of core and surface shell coupling by J{sub cs} exchange interaction are studied using the effective field theory with a probability distribution technique, in the presence of transverse fields in the core and in the surface shell. We find a number of characteristic phenomena. In particular, the effect of concentration c of magnetic atoms, the exchange interaction core/shell, the exchange in surface and the transverse fields in core and in surface shell of phase diagrams are investigated. - Highlights: ► We use the EFT to investigate the phase diagrams of Ising transverse nanowire. ► Ferrimagnetic and ferromagnetic cases are investigated. ► The effects of the dilution and the transverse fields in core and shell are studied. ► Behavior of the transition temperature with the exchange interaction is given.

  10. Phase diagrams of diluted transverse Ising nanowire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouhou, S.; Essaoudi, I.; Ainane, A.; Saber, M.; Ahuja, R.; Dujardin, F.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the phase diagrams of diluted Ising nanowire consisting of core and surface shell coupling by J cs exchange interaction are studied using the effective field theory with a probability distribution technique, in the presence of transverse fields in the core and in the surface shell. We find a number of characteristic phenomena. In particular, the effect of concentration c of magnetic atoms, the exchange interaction core/shell, the exchange in surface and the transverse fields in core and in surface shell of phase diagrams are investigated. - Highlights: ► We use the EFT to investigate the phase diagrams of Ising transverse nanowire. ► Ferrimagnetic and ferromagnetic cases are investigated. ► The effects of the dilution and the transverse fields in core and shell are studied. ► Behavior of the transition temperature with the exchange interaction is given

  11. Repair of Partly Misspecified Causal Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Chris J; Kasza, Jessica; Simpson, Julie A; Forbes, Andrew B

    2017-07-01

    Errors in causal diagrams elicited from experts can lead to the omission of important confounding variables from adjustment sets and render causal inferences invalid. In this report, a novel method is presented that repairs a misspecified causal diagram through the addition of edges. These edges are determined using a data-driven approach designed to provide improved statistical efficiency relative to de novo structure learning methods. Our main assumption is that the expert is "directionally informed," meaning that "false" edges provided by the expert would not create cycles if added to the "true" causal diagram. The overall procedure is cast as a preprocessing technique that is agnostic to subsequent causal inferences. Results based on simulated data and data derived from an observational cohort illustrate the potential for data-assisted elicitation in epidemiologic applications. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B208.

  12. A Critical Appraisal of the "Day" Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew P.; Tauxe, Lisa; Heslop, David; Zhao, Xiang; Jiang, Zhaoxia

    2018-04-01

    The "Day" diagram (Day et al., 1977, https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9201(77)90108-X) is used widely to make inferences about the domain state of magnetic mineral assemblages. Based on theoretical and empirical arguments, the Day diagram is demarcated into stable "single domain" (SD), "pseudo single domain" ("PSD"), and "multidomain" (MD) zones. It is straightforward to make the necessary measurements for a sample and to plot results within the "domain state" framework based on the boundaries defined by Day et al. (1977, https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9201(77)90108-X). We discuss 10 issues that limit Day diagram interpretation, including (1) magnetic mineralogy, (2) the associated magnetocrystalline anisotropy type, (3) mineral stoichiometry, (4) stress state, (5) surface oxidation, (6) magnetostatic interactions, (7) particle shape, (8) thermal relaxation, (9) magnetic particle mixtures, and (10) definitional/measurement issues. In most studies, these variables are unknowns and cannot be controlled for, so that hysteresis parameters for single bulk samples are nonunique and any data point in a Day diagram could result from infinite combinations of relevant variables. From this critical appraisal, we argue that the Day diagram is fundamentally ambiguous for domain state diagnosis. Widespread use of the Day diagram has also contributed significantly to prevalent but questionable views, including underrecognition of the importance of stable SD particles in the geological record and reinforcement of the unhelpful PSD concept and of its geological importance. Adoption of approaches that enable correct domain state diagnosis should be an urgent priority for component-specific understanding of magnetic mineral assemblages and for quantitative rock magnetic interpretation.

  13. Total ozone changes in the 1987 Antarctic ozone hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Doiron, Scott D.; Sechrist, Frank; Galimore, Reginald

    1988-01-01

    The development of the Antarctic ozone minimum was observed in 1987 with the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument. In the first half of August the near-polar (60 and 70 deg S) ozone levels were similar to those of recent years. By September, however, the ozone at 70 and 80 deg S was clearly lower than any previous year including 1985, the prior record low year. The levels continued to decrease throughout September until October 5 when a new record low of 109 DU was established at a point near the South Pole. This value is 29 DU less than the lowest observed in 1985 and 48 DU less than the 1986 low. The zonal mean total ozone at 60 deg S remained constant throughout the time of ozone hole formation. The ozone decline was punctuated by local minima formed away from the polar night boundary at about 75 deg S. The first of these, on August 15 to 17, formed just east of the Palmer Peninsula and appears to be a mountain wave. The second major minimum formed on September 5 to 7 again downwind of the Palmer Peninsula. This event was larger in scale than the August minimum and initiated the decline of ozone across the polar region. The 1987 ozone hole was nearly circular and pole centered for its entire life. In previous years the hole was perturbed by intrusions of the circumpolar maximum into the polar regions, thus causing the hole to be elliptical. The 1987 hole also remained in place until the end of November, a few days longer than in 1985, and this persistence resulted in the latest time for recovery to normal values yet observed.

  14. Formal Analysis Of Use Case Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Klimek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Use case diagrams play an important role in modeling with UML. Careful modeling is crucialin obtaining a correct and efficient system architecture. The paper refers to the formalanalysis of the use case diagrams. A formal model of use cases is proposed and its constructionfor typical relationships between use cases is described. Two methods of formal analysis andverification are presented. The first one based on a states’ exploration represents a modelchecking approach. The second one refers to the symbolic reasoning using formal methodsof temporal logic. Simple but representative example of the use case scenario verification isdiscussed.

  15. State diagram of Pr-Bi system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abulkhaev, V.L.; Ganiev, I.N.

    1994-01-01

    By means of thermal differential analysis, X-ray and microstructural analysis the state diagram of Pr-Bi system was studied. Following intermetallic compounds were defined in the system: Pr 2 Bi, Pr 5 Bi 3 , Pr 4 Bi 3 , Pr Bi, PrBi 2 , Pr 2 Bi, Pr 5 Bi 3 , Pr 4 Bi 3 and PrBi 2 . The data analysis on Ln-Bi diagram allowed to determine the regularity of change of properties of intermetallic compounds in the line of rare earth elements of cerium subgroup.

  16. Fusion Diagrams in the - and - Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadov, M. M.; Akhmedova, N. A.

    2014-10-01

    A calculation model of the Gibbs energy of ternary oxide compounds from the binary components was used. Thermodynamic properties of -- ternary systems in the condensed state were calculated. Thermodynamic data of binary and ternary compounds were used to determine the stable sections. The probability of reactions between the corresponding components in the -- system was estimated. Fusibility diagrams of systems - and - were studied by physical-chemical analysis. The isothermal section of the phase diagram of -- at 298 K is built, as well as the projection of the liquid surface of --.

  17. Correlative studies of satellite ozone sensor measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovill, J.E.; Ellis, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Comparisons are made between total ozone measurements made by four satellite ozone sensors (TOMS, SBUV, TOVS and MFR). The comparisons were made during July 1979 when all sensors were operating simultaneously. The TOMS and SBUV sensors were observed to measure less total ozone than the MFR sensor, 10 and 15 Dobson units (DU) respectively. The MFR and TOMS sensors measured less ozone than the TOVS sensor, 19 an 28 DU, respectively. Latitudinal variability of the total ozone comparisons is discussed

  18. Enumeration of diagonally colored Young diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Gyenge, Ádám

    2015-01-01

    In this note we give a new proof of a closed formula for the multivariable generating series of diagonally colored Young diagrams. This series also describes the Euler characteristics of certain Nakajima quiver varieties. Our proof is a direct combinatorial argument, based on Andrews' work on generalized Frobenius partitions. We also obtain representations of these series in some particular cases as infinite products.

  19. Partial chord diagrams and matrix models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Fuji, Hiroyuki; Manabe, Masahide

    In this article, the enumeration of partial chord diagrams is discussed via matrix model techniques. In addition to the basic data such as the number of backbones and chords, we also consider the Euler characteristic, the backbone spectrum, the boundary point spectrum, and the boundary length spe...

  20. Characteristic Dynkin diagrams and W algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragoucy, E.

    1993-01-01

    We present a classification of characteristic Dynkin diagrams for the A N , B N , C N and D N algebras. This classification is related to the classification of W(G, K) algebras arising from non-abelian Toda models, and we argue that it can give new insight on the structure of W algebras. (orig.)

  1. Diagram of a LEP superconducting cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    This diagram gives a schematic representation of the superconducting radio-frequency cavities at LEP. Liquid helium is used to cool the cavity to 4.5 degrees above absolute zero so that very high electric fields can be produced, increasing the operating energy of the accelerator. Superconducting cavities were used only in the LEP-2 phase of the accelerator, from 1996 to 2000.

  2. Extended sequence diagram for human system interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jong Rok; Choi, Sun Woo; Ko, Hee Ran; Kim, Jong Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a modeling language in the field of object oriented software engineering. The sequence diagram is a kind of interaction diagram that shows how processes operate with one another and in what order. It is a construct of a message sequence chart. It depicts the objects and classes involved in the scenario and the sequence of messages exchanged between the objects needed to carry out the functionality of the scenario. This paper proposes the Extended Sequence Diagram (ESD), which is capable of depicting human system interaction for nuclear power plants, as well as cognitive process of operators analysis. In the conventional sequence diagram, there is a limit to only identify the activities of human and systems interactions. The ESD is extended to describe operators' cognitive process in more detail. The ESD is expected to be used as a task analysis method for describing human system interaction. The ESD can also present key steps causing abnormal operations or failures and diverse human errors based on cognitive condition

  3. Kelp diagrams : Point set membership visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinkla, K.; Kreveld, van M.J.; Speckmann, B.; Westenberg, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    We present Kelp Diagrams, a novel method to depict set relations over points, i.e., elements with predefined positions. Our method creates schematic drawings and has been designed to take aesthetic quality, efficiency, and effectiveness into account. This is achieved by a routing algorithm, which

  4. Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S.; O'Brien, M.; Rudin, M.; Ferguson, J.; McFee, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development's Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR)

  5. Phase Diagrams of Strongly Interacting Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We summarize the phase diagrams of SU, SO and Sp gauge theories as function of the number of flavors, colors, and matter representation as well as the ones of phenomenologically relevant chiral gauge theories such as the Bars-Yankielowicz and the generalized Georgi-Glashow models. We finally report...

  6. Spin wave Feynman diagram vertex computation package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Alexander; Javernick, Philip; Datta, Trinanjan

    Spin wave theory is a well-established theoretical technique that can correctly predict the physical behavior of ordered magnetic states. However, computing the effects of an interacting spin wave theory incorporating magnons involve a laborious by hand derivation of Feynman diagram vertices. The process is tedious and time consuming. Hence, to improve productivity and have another means to check the analytical calculations, we have devised a Feynman Diagram Vertex Computation package. In this talk, we will describe our research group's effort to implement a Mathematica based symbolic Feynman diagram vertex computation package that computes spin wave vertices. Utilizing the non-commutative algebra package NCAlgebra as an add-on to Mathematica, symbolic expressions for the Feynman diagram vertices of a Heisenberg quantum antiferromagnet are obtained. Our existing code reproduces the well-known expressions of a nearest neighbor square lattice Heisenberg model. We also discuss the case of a triangular lattice Heisenberg model where non collinear terms contribute to the vertex interactions.

  7. Phase diagram distortion from traffic parameter averaging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stipdonk, H. Toorenburg, J. van & Postema, M.

    2010-01-01

    Motorway traffic congestion is a major bottleneck for economic growth. Therefore, research of traffic behaviour is carried out in many countries. Although well describing the undersaturated free flow phase as an almost straight line in a (k,q)-phase diagram, congested traffic observations and

  8. A Generalized Wave Diagram for Moving Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Robert; Wiley, Sam

    2004-12-01

    Many introductory physics texts1-5 accompany the discussion of the Doppler effect and the formation of shock waves with diagrams illustrating the effect of a source moving through an elastic medium. Typically these diagrams consist of a series of equally spaced dots, representing the location of the source at different times. These are surrounded by a series of successively smaller circles representing wave fronts (see Fig. 1). While such a diagram provides a clear illustration of the shock wave produced by a source moving at a speed greater than the wave speed, and also the resultant pattern when the source speed is less than the wave speed (the Doppler effect), the texts do not often show the details of the construction. As a result, the key connection between the relative distance traveled by the source and the distance traveled by the wave is not explicitly made. In this paper we describe an approach emphasizing this connection that we have found to be a useful classroom supplement to the usual text presentation. As shown in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3, the Doppler effect and the shock wave can be illustrated by diagrams generated by the construction that follows.

  9. Planar quark diagrams and binary spin processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryan, A.A.; Ivanov, N.Ya.

    1986-01-01

    Contributions of planar diagrams to the binary scattering processes are analyzed. The analysis is based on the predictions of quark-gluon picture of strong interactions for the coupling of reggeons with quarks as well as on the SU(6)-classification of hadrons. The dependence of contributions of nonplanar corrections on spins and quark composition of interacting particles is discussed

  10. Phase diagram of spiking neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed-Allaei, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    In computer simulations of spiking neural networks, often it is assumed that every two neurons of the network are connected by a probability of 2%, 20% of neurons are inhibitory and 80% are excitatory. These common values are based on experiments, observations, and trials and errors, but here, I take a different perspective, inspired by evolution, I systematically simulate many networks, each with a different set of parameters, and then I try to figure out what makes the common values desirable. I stimulate networks with pulses and then measure their: dynamic range, dominant frequency of population activities, total duration of activities, maximum rate of population and the occurrence time of maximum rate. The results are organized in phase diagram. This phase diagram gives an insight into the space of parameters - excitatory to inhibitory ratio, sparseness of connections and synaptic weights. This phase diagram can be used to decide the parameters of a model. The phase diagrams show that networks which are configured according to the common values, have a good dynamic range in response to an impulse and their dynamic range is robust in respect to synaptic weights, and for some synaptic weights they oscillates in α or β frequencies, independent of external stimuli.

  11. Muonium and the Breit-Rabi diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, S.F.J.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter introduces the study of muonium, as opposed to that of unbound muons. The properties and behaviour of muonium are compared and contrasted with those of hydrogen and of positronium. The special significance of muonium in atomic and molecular physics is explained, and its utility as a lightweight or radioactive isotope of hydrogen in solid state physics and chemistry illustrated. The identification of atomic muonium by means of its ground state magnetic properties is described with reference to the Breit-Rabi diagram. This diagram is invaluable for interpreting or predicting MuSR observations, both in transverse and longitudinal magnetic fields, so its construction and properties are explained in some detail. The precession signals observed in transverse-field MuSR correspond to transitions allowed between the energy levels in this diagram; particular attention is paid to the spectra characteristic of the high and low field regimes. The different states of muonium observed in dielectric, semiconducting and metallic materials are introduced. The influence of the host medium on the spectral parameters, hyperfine interaction and linewidth, is considered both for atomic muonium and for muonium which is chemically bound in paramagnetic molecules, for which the Breit-Rabi diagram also applies. (orig.)

  12. The classification of diagrams in perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.R.; Afnan, I.R.

    1995-01-01

    The derivation of scattering equations connecting the amplitudes obtained from diagrammatic expansions is of interest in many branches of physics. One method for deriving such equations is the classification-of-diagrams technique of Taylor. However, as we shall explain in this paper, there are certain points of Taylor's method which require clarification. First, it is not clear whether Taylor's original method is equivlant to the simpler classification-of-diagrams scheme used by Thomas, Rinat, Afnan, and Blankleider (TRAB). Second, when the Taylor method is applied to certain problems in a time-dependent perturbation theory it leads to the over-counting of some diagrams. This paper first restates Taylor's method, in the process uncovering reasons why certain diagrams might be double-counted in the Taylor method. In then explores how far Taylor's method is equivalent to the simpler TRAB method. Finally, it examines precisely why the double-counting occurs in Taylor's method and derives corrections which compensate for this double-counting. copyright 1995 Academic Press, Inc

  13. Influence diagram in evaluating the subjective judgment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The author developed the idea of the subjective influence diagrams to evaluate subjective judgment. The subjective judgment of a stake holder is a primary decision making proposition. It involves a basic decision process an the individual attitude of the stake holder for his decision purpose. The subjective judgment dominates the some final decisions. A complex decision process may include the subjective judgment. An influence diagram framework is a simplest tool for analyzing subjective judgment process. In the framework, the characters of influence diagrams generate the describing the analyzing, and the evaluating of the subjective judgment. The relationship between the information and the decision, such as independent character between them, is the main issue. Then utility function is the calculating tool to evaluation, the stake holder can make optimal decision. Through the analysis about the decision process and relationship, the building process of the influence diagram identically describes the subjective judgment. Some examples are given to explain the property of subjective judgment and the analysis process

  14. Journeys on the H-R diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaler, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    The evolution of various types of stars along the H-R diagram is discussed. Star birth and youth is addressed, and the events that occur due to core contraction, shell burning, and double-shell burning are described. The evolutionary courses of planetary nebulae, white dwarfs, and supernovas are examined

  15. The Keynesian Diagram: A Cross to Bear?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Juergen

    In elementary economics courses students are often introduced to the basic concepts of macroeconomics through very simplified static models, and the concept of a macroeconomic equilibrium is generally explained with the help of an aggregate demand/aggregate supply (AD/AS) model and an income/expenditure model (via the Keynesian cross diagram).…

  16. Magnetic phase diagram of a nanocone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, O; Vargas, P; Escrig, J; Landeros, P; Albir, D; Laroze, D

    2008-01-01

    In this work we analyze the magnetic properties of truncated conical nanoparticles. Based on the continuous magnetic model we find expressions for the total energy in three different magnetic configurations. Finally, we calculate the magnetic phase diagram as function of the geometrical parameters.

  17. Magnetic phase diagram of a nanocone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, O; Vargas, P [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa MarIa, P. O. Box 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Escrig, J; Landeros, P; Albir, D [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Depatamento de Fisica, Casilla 307, Correo 2, Santiago (Chile); Laroze, D [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, P. O. Box 4059, Valparaiso (Chile)], E-mail: omar.suarez@postgrado.usm.cl

    2008-11-01

    In this work we analyze the magnetic properties of truncated conical nanoparticles. Based on the continuous magnetic model we find expressions for the total energy in three different magnetic configurations. Finally, we calculate the magnetic phase diagram as function of the geometrical parameters.

  18. Solution space diagram in conflict detection scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, S.M.A.; Borst, C.; Mulder, M.; Van Paassen, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates the use of Solution Space Diagram (SSD) as a measure of sector complexity and also as a predictor of performance and workload, focusing on the scenarios regarding Air Traffic Controller (ATCO)’s ability to detect future conflicts. A human-in-the-loop experiment with

  19. Dobson spectrophotometer ozone measurements during international ozone rocketsonde intercomparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, C. L.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of the total ozone content of the atmosphere, made with seven ground based instruments at a site near Wallops Island, Virginia, are discussed in terms for serving as control values with which the rocketborne sensor data products can be compared. These products are profiles of O3 concentration with altitude. By integrating over the range of altitudes from the surface to the rocket apogee and by appropriately estimating the residual ozone amount from apogee to the top of the atmosphere, a total ozone amount can be computed from the profiles that can be directly compared with the ground based instrumentation results. Dobson spectrophotometers were used for two of the ground-based instruments. Preliminary data collected during the IORI from Dobson spectrophotometers 72 and 38 are presented. The agreement between the two and the variability of total ozone overburden through the experiment period are discussed.

  20. Determination of the Optimum Ozone Product on the Plasma Ozonizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Purwadi; Widdi Usada; Suryadi; Isyuniarto; Sri Sukmajaya

    2002-01-01

    An experiment of the optimum ozone product determination on the cylindrical plasma ozonizer has been done. The experiment is carried out by using alternating high voltage power supply, oscilloscope CS-1577 A, flow meter and spectronik-20 instrument for the absorbance solution samples which produced by varying the physics parameter values of the discharge alternating high voltage and velocity of oxygen gas input. The plasma ozonizer is made of cylinder stainless steel as the electrode and cylinder glass as the dielectric with 1.00 mm of the discharge gap and 7.225 mm 3 of the discharge tube volume. The experiment results shows that the optimum ozone product is 0.360 mg/s obtained at the the discharge of alternating high voltage of 25.50 kV, the frequency of 1.00 kHz and the rate of oxygen gas input of 1.00 lpm. (author)

  1. Phase diagram of an extended Agassi model

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, J. E.; Dukelsky, J.; Pérez-Fernández, P.; Arias, J. M.

    2018-05-01

    Background: The Agassi model [D. Agassi, Nucl. Phys. A 116, 49 (1968), 10.1016/0375-9474(68)90482-X] is an extension of the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) model [H. J. Lipkin, N. Meshkov, and A. J. Glick, Nucl. Phys. 62, 188 (1965), 10.1016/0029-5582(65)90862-X] that incorporates the pairing interaction. It is a schematic model that describes the interplay between particle-hole and pair correlations. It was proposed in the 1960s by D. Agassi as a model to simulate the properties of the quadrupole plus pairing model. Purpose: The aim of this work is to extend a previous study by Davis and Heiss [J. Phys. G: Nucl. Phys. 12, 805 (1986), 10.1088/0305-4616/12/9/006] generalizing the Agassi model and analyze in detail the phase diagram of the model as well as the different regions with coexistence of several phases. Method: We solve the model Hamiltonian through the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) approximation, introducing two variational parameters that play the role of order parameters. We also compare the HFB calculations with the exact ones. Results: We obtain the phase diagram of the model and classify the order of the different quantum phase transitions appearing in the diagram. The phase diagram presents broad regions where several phases, up to three, coexist. Moreover, there is also a line and a point where four and five phases are degenerated, respectively. Conclusions: The phase diagram of the extended Agassi model presents a rich variety of phases. Phase coexistence is present in extended areas of the parameter space. The model could be an important tool for benchmarking novel many-body approximations.

  2. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and their contribution to ozone formation potential in a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chenhui; Mao, Xiaoxuan; Huang, Tao; Liang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Yanan; Shen, Yanjie; Jiang, Wanyanhan; Wang, Huiqin; Bai, Zhilin; Ma, Minquan; Yu, Zhousuo; Ma, Jianmin; Gao, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Hourly air concentrations of fifty-three non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were measured at downtown and suburb of Lanzhou, a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China in 2013. The measured data were used to investigate the seasonal characteristics of NMHCs air pollution and their contributions to the ozone formation in Lanzhou. Annually averaged NMHCs concentration was 38.29 ppbv in downtown Lanzhou. Among 53 NMHCs, alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics accounted for 57%, 23% and 20% of the total NMHCs air concentration, respectively. The atmospheric levels of toluene and propane with mean values of 4.62 and 4.56 ppbv were higher than other NMHCs, respectively. The ambient levels of NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou were compared with measured NMHCs data collected at a suburban site of Lanzhou, located near a large-scale petrochemical industry. Results show that the levels of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics in downtown Lanzhou were lower by factors of 3-11 than that in west suburb of the city. O3-isopleth plots show that ozone was formed in VOCs control area in downtown Lanzhou and NOx control area at the west suburban site during the summertime. Propylene-equivalent (Prop-Equiv) concentration and the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) in downtown Lanzhou indicate that cis-2-butene, propylene, and m/p-xylene were the first three compounds contributing to ozone formation potentials whereas in the petrochemical industrialized west suburb, ethane, propene, and trans-2-Butene played more important role in the summertime ozone formation. Principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were further applied to identify the dominant emission sources and examine their fractions in total NMHCs. Results suggest that vehicle emission, solvent usage, and industrial activities were major sources of NMHCs in the city, accounting for 58.34%, 22.19%, and 19.47% of the total monitored NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou, respectively. In the west suburb of the city

  3. Modeled population exposures to ozone

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Population exposures to ozone from APEX modeling for combinations of potential future air quality and demographic change scenarios. This dataset is not publicly...

  4. Ecosystem Effects of Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground level ozone is absorbed by the leaves of plants, where it can reduce photosynthesis, damage leaves and slow growth. It can also make sensitive plants more susceptible to certain diseases, insects, harsh weather and other pollutants.

  5. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    GO! Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Current AQI Forecast AQI Loop More Maps AQI: Good (0 - 50) ... resources for Hawaii residents and visitors more announcements Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke ...

  6. Ozone modelling in Eastern Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stohl, A.; Wotawa, G.; Kromp-Kolb, H. [Univ. of Agriculture, Vienna (Austria). Inst. of Meteorology and Physics; Winiwater, W. [Austrian Research Centre, Seibersdorf (Austria); Baumann, R.; Spangl, W. [Federal Environmental Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    High ozone concentrations are frequently observed in Eastern Austria, often exceeding local as well as international health standards, both for short-term as well as for long-term exposures. The maximum concentrations are produced in urban plumes, e.g. of the city of Vienna, whereas regional-scale transport and production of ozone is more important for the long-term concentrations. The Pannonian Ozone Project (POP) is an Austrian research initiative to model photochemical processes on a regional as well as on a local scale with a Lagrangian model to better understand the mechanisms leading to the high ozone concentrations and to develop abatement strategies. Up to now, focus has been on the regional scale. Aircraft, tethered balloon, tetroon and intensified ground measurements are carried out to validate the model. Although the major measurement campaign will be held in summer 1995, first results from a measurement campaign in summer 1994 are already available

  7. Ozone Nonattainment Areas - 1 Hour

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Ozone - 1hour (Legacy...

  8. Ozone as an ecotoxicological problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, L. [National Environmental Research Inst., Dept. of Atmospheric Environment, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-11-01

    Ozone is quantitatively the dominating oxidant in photochemical air pollution. Other compounds like hydrogen peroxide, aldehydes, formate, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and nitrogen dioxide are present too, and several of these are known to be phytotoxic, but under Danish conditions the concentration of these gases are without significance for direct effects on vegetation. Therefore, it is the effects of ozone on plant growth that will be described below. (EG) 65 refs.

  9. A Critical Appraisal of the `Day' Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A. P.; Tauxe, L.; Heslop, D.

    2017-12-01

    The `Day' diagram [Day et al., 1977; doi:10.1016/0031-9201(77)90108-X] is used widely to infer the mean domain state of magnetic mineral assemblages. The Day plot coordinates are the ratios of the saturation remanent magnetization to saturation magnetization (Mrs/Ms) and the coercivity of remanence to coercivity (Bcr/Bc), as determined from a major hysteresis loop and a backfield demagnetization curve. Based on theoretical and empirical arguments, Day plots are typically demarcated into stable single domain (SD), `pseudosingle domain' (`PSD'), and multidomain (MD) zones. It is a simple task to determine Mrs/Ms and Bcr/Bc for a sample and to assign a mean domain state based on the boundaries defined by Day et al. [1977]. Many other parameters contribute to variability in a Day diagram, including surface oxidation, mineral stoichiometry, stress state, magnetostatic interactions, and mixtures of magnetic particles with different sizes and shapes. Bulk magnetic measurements usually lack detailed independent evidence to constrain each free parameter, which makes the Day diagram fundamentally ambiguous. This raises questions about its usefulness for diagnosing magnetic particle size variations. The Day diagram is also used to make inferences about binary mixing of magnetic particles, where, for example, mixtures of SD and MD particles give rise to a bulk `PSD' response even though the concentration of `PSD' grains could be zero. In our assessment of thousands of hysteresis measurements of geological samples, binary mixing occurs in a tiny number of cases. Ternary, quaternary, and higher order mixing are usually observed. Also, uniaxial SD and MD end-members are nearly always inappropriate for considering mixing because uniaxial SD particles are virtually non-existent in igneous rocks. Thus, use of mixing lines in Day diagrams routinely provides unsatisfactory representations of particle size variations. We critically appraise the Day diagram and argue that its many

  10. The 2002 Antarctic Ozone Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, P. A.; Nash, E. R.; Douglass, A. R.; Kawa, S. R.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1979, the ozone hole has grown from near zero size to over 24 Million km2. This area is most strongly controlled by levels of inorganic chlorine and bromine oncentrations. In addition, dynamical variations modulate the size of the ozone hole by either cooling or warming the polar vortex collar region. We will review the size observations, the size trends, and the interannual variability of the size. Using a simple trajectory model, we will demonstrate the sensitivity of the ozone hole to dynamical forcing, and we will use these observations to discuss the size of the ozone hole during the 2002 Austral spring. We will further show how the Cly decreases in the stratosphere will cause the ozone hole to decrease by 1-1.5% per year. We will also show results from a 3-D chemical transport model (CTM) that has been continuously run since 1999. These CTM results directly show how strong dynamics acts to reduce the size of the ozone hole.

  11. New dynamic NNORSY ozone profile climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaifel, A. K.; Felder, M.; Declercq, C.; Lambert, J.-C.

    2012-01-01

    Climatological ozone profile data are widely used as a-priori information for total ozone using DOAS type retrievals as well as for ozone profile retrieval using optimal estimation, for data assimilation or evaluation of 3-D chemistry-transport models and a lot of other applications in atmospheric sciences and remote sensing. For most applications it is important that the climatology represents not only long term mean values but also the links between ozone and dynamic input parameters. These dynamic input parameters should be easily accessible from auxiliary datasets or easily measureable, and obviously should have a high correlation with ozone. For ozone profile these parameters are mainly total ozone column and temperature profile data. This was the outcome of a user consultation carried out in the framework of developing a new, dynamic ozone profile climatology. The new ozone profile climatology is based on the Neural Network Ozone Retrieval System (NNORSY) widely used for ozone profile retrieval from UV and IR satellite sounder data. NNORSY allows implicit modelling of any non-linear correspondence between input parameters (predictors) and ozone profile target vector. This paper presents the approach, setup and validation of a new family of ozone profile climatologies with static as well as dynamic input parameters (total ozone and temperature profile). The neural network training relies on ozone profile measurement data of well known quality provided by ground based (ozonesondes) and satellite based (SAGE II, HALOE, and POAM-III) measurements over the years 1995-2007. In total, four different combinations (modes) for input parameters (date, geolocation, total ozone column and temperature profile) are available. The geophysical validation spans from pole to pole using independent ozonesonde, lidar and satellite data (ACE-FTS, AURA-MLS) for individual and time series comparisons as well as for analysing the vertical and meridian structure of different modes of

  12. Ozone adsorption on carbon nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassard, Guillaume; Gosselin, Sylvie; Visez, Nicolas; Petitprez, Denis

    2014-05-01

    Carbonaceous particles produced by incomplete combustion or thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. On these particles are adsorbed hundreds of chemical species. Those of great concern to health are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). During atmospheric transport, particulate PAHs react with gaseous oxidants. The induced chemical transformations may change toxicity and hygroscopicity of these potentially inhalable particles. The interaction between ozone and carbon particles has been extensively investigated in literature. However ozone adsorption and surface reaction mechanisms are still ambiguous. Some studies described a fast catalytic decomposition of ozone initiated by an atomic oxygen chemisorption followed by a molecular oxygen release [1-3]. Others suggested a reversible ozone adsorption according to Langmuir-type behaviour [4,5]. The aim of this present study is a better understanding of ozone interaction with carbon surfaces. An aerosol of carbon nanoparticles was generated by flowing synthetic air in a glass tube containing pure carbon (primary particles studied. Accordingly to literature, it has been observed that the number of gas-phase ozone molecules lost per unit particle surface area tends towards a plateau for high ozone concentration suggesting a reversible ozone adsorption according to a Langmuir mechanism. We calculated the initial reaction probability between O3 and carbon particles.An initial uptake coefficient of 1.10-4 was obtained. Similar experiments were realized by selecting the particles size with a differential mobility analyser. We observed a strong size-dependent increase in reactivity with the decrease of particles size. This result is relevant for the health issues. Indeed the smallest particles are most likely to penetrate deep into the lungs. Competitive reactions between ozone and other species like H2O or atomic oxygen were also considered. Oxygen atoms were generated by photolysis of O3

  13. The mean squared writhe of alternating random knot diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diao, Y; Hinson, K [Department of Mathematics and Statistics University of North Carolina at Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Ernst, C; Ziegler, U, E-mail: ydiao@uncc.ed [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States)

    2010-12-10

    The writhe of a knot diagram is a simple geometric measure of the complexity of the knot diagram. It plays an important role not only in knot theory itself, but also in various applications of knot theory to fields such as molecular biology and polymer physics. The mean squared writhe of any sample of knot diagrams with n crossings is n when for each diagram at each crossing one of the two strands is chosen as the overpass at random with probability one-half. However, such a diagram is usually not minimal. If we restrict ourselves to a minimal knot diagram, then the choice of which strand is the over- or under-strand at each crossing is no longer independent of the neighboring crossings and a larger mean squared writhe is expected for minimal diagrams. This paper explores the effect on the correlation between the mean squared writhe and the diagrams imposed by the condition that diagrams are minimal by studying the writhe of classes of reduced, alternating knot diagrams. We demonstrate that the behavior of the mean squared writhe heavily depends on the underlying space of diagram templates. In particular this is true when the sample space contains only diagrams of a special structure. When the sample space is large enough to contain not only diagrams of a special type, then the mean squared writhe for n crossing diagrams tends to grow linearly with n, but at a faster rate than n, indicating an intrinsic property of alternating knot diagrams. Studying the mean squared writhe of alternating random knot diagrams also provides some insight into the properties of the diagram generating methods used, which is an important area of study in the applications of random knot theory.

  14. ROLE OF UML SEQUENCE DIAGRAM CONSTRUCTS IN OBJECT LIFECYCLE CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Grgec

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available When modeling systems and using UML concepts, a real system can be viewed in several ways. The RUP (Rational Unified Process defines the "4 + 1 view": 1. Logical view (class diagram (CD, object diagram (OD, sequence diagram (SD, collaboration diagram (COD, state chart diagram (SCD, activity diagram (AD, 2.Process view (use case diagram, CD, OD, SD, COD, SCD, AD, 3. Development view (package diagram, component diagram, 4. Physical view (deployment diagram, and 5. Use case view (use case diagram, OD, SD, COD, SCD, AD which combines the four mentioned above. With sequence diagram constructs we are describing object behavior in scope of one use case and their interaction. Each object in system goes through a so called lifecycle (create, supplement object with data, use object, decommission object. The concept of the object lifecycle is used to understand and formalize the behavior of objects from creation to deletion. With help of sequence diagram concepts our paper will describe the way of interaction modeling between objects through lifeline of each of them, and their importance in software development.

  15. Finding and accessing diagrams in biomedical publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Tobias; Luong, ThaiBinh; Krauthammer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Complex relationships in biomedical publications are often communicated by diagrams such as bar and line charts, which are a very effective way of summarizing and communicating multi-faceted data sets. Given the ever-increasing amount of published data, we argue that the precise retrieval of such diagrams is of great value for answering specific and otherwise hard-to-meet information needs. To this end, we demonstrate the use of advanced image processing and classification for identifying bar and line charts by the shape and relative location of the different image elements that make up the charts. With recall and precisions of close to 90% for the detection of relevant figures, we discuss the use of this technology in an existing biomedical image search engine, and outline how it enables new forms of literature queries over biomedical relationships that are represented in these charts.

  16. Interactive Cost Configuration Over Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Hadzic, Tarik; Pisinger, David

    2010-01-01

    interaction online. In particular,binary decision diagrams (BDDs) have been successfully used as a compilation target for product and service configuration. In this paper we discuss how to extend BDD-based configuration to scenarios involving cost functions which express user preferences. We first show...... that an efficient, robust and easy to implement extension is possible if the cost function is additive, and feasible solutions are represented using multi-valued decision diagrams (MDDs). We also discuss the effect on MDD size if the cost function is non-additive or if it is encoded explicitly into MDD. We...... then discuss interactive configuration in the presence of multiple cost functions. We prove that even in its simplest form, multiple-cost configuration is NP-hard in the input MDD. However, for solving two-cost configuration we develop a pseudo-polynomial scheme and a fully polynomial approximation scheme...

  17. Phase diagram for interacting Bose gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morawetz, K.; Maennel, M.; Schreiber, M.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a modified form of the inversion method in terms of a self-energy expansion to access the phase diagram of the Bose-Einstein transition. The dependence of the critical temperature on the interaction parameter is calculated. This is discussed with the help of a condition for Bose-Einstein condensation in interacting systems which follows from the pole of the T matrix in the same way as from the divergence of the medium-dependent scattering length. A many-body approximation consisting of screened ladder diagrams is proposed, which describes the Monte Carlo data more appropriately. The specific results are that a non-self-consistent T matrix leads to a linear coefficient in leading order of 4.7, the screened ladder approximation to 2.3, and the self-consistent T matrix due to the effective mass to a coefficient of 1.3 close to the Monte Carlo data

  18. Geometry Helps to Compare Persistence Diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerber, Michael; Morozov, Dmitriy; Nigmetov, Arnur

    2015-11-16

    Exploiting geometric structure to improve the asymptotic complexity of discrete assignment problems is a well-studied subject. In contrast, the practical advantages of using geometry for such problems have not been explored. We implement geometric variants of the Hopcroft--Karp algorithm for bottleneck matching (based on previous work by Efrat el al.), and of the auction algorithm by Bertsekas for Wasserstein distance computation. Both implementations use k-d trees to replace a linear scan with a geometric proximity query. Our interest in this problem stems from the desire to compute distances between persistence diagrams, a problem that comes up frequently in topological data analysis. We show that our geometric matching algorithms lead to a substantial performance gain, both in running time and in memory consumption, over their purely combinatorial counterparts. Moreover, our implementation significantly outperforms the only other implementation available for comparing persistence diagrams.

  19. The geometry of on-shell diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Sebastián; Galloni, Daniele; Mariotti, Alberto

    2014-08-01

    The fundamental role of on-shell diagrams in quantum field theory has been recently recognized. On-shell diagrams, or equivalently bipartite graphs, provide a natural bridge connecting gauge theory to powerful mathematical structures such as the Grassmannian. We perform a detailed investigation of the combinatorial and geometric objects associated to these graphs. We mainly focus on their relation to polytopes and toric geometry, the Grassmannian and its stratification. Our work extends the current understanding of these connections along several important fronts, most notably eliminating restrictions imposed by planarity, positivity, reducibility and edge removability. We illustrate our ideas with several explicit examples and introduce concrete methods that considerably simplify computations. We consider it highly likely that the structures unveiled in this article will arise in the on-shell study of scattering amplitudes beyond the planar limit. Our results can be conversely regarded as an expansion in the understanding of the Grassmannian in terms of bipartite graphs.

  20. A dynamical mechanism for the hairpin diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Chaohsi; Guo Xinheng; Li Xueqian.

    1989-09-01

    Based on the non-valence quark-antiquark and gluon constituent structure of mesons we give a reasonable dynamical mechanism which can induce the hairpin diagram without violating the well-observed OZI rule. We calculate the hairpin amplitudes of D deg. → K-bar deg.η and K-bar deg.η' normalized by D deg. → K-bar deg.π deg. and have found that the hairpin diagram can give rise to substantial contribution to the decays where a meson with a SU(3) flavor singlet component is involved in the final state. In this scenario, we also obtain the branching ratio of D deg. → K-bar deg. φ as 0.55% in comparison with the experimental data of 0.83%. (autor). 33 refs, 3 figs

  1. Worldline Green functions for multiloop diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.G.; Heidelberg Univ.; Schubert, C.

    1994-03-01

    We propose a multiloop generalization of the Bern-Kosower formalism, based on Strassler's approach of evaluating worldline path integrals by worldline Green functions. Those Green functions are explicitly constructed for the basic two-loop graph, and for a loop with an arbitrary number of propagator insertions. For scalar and abelian gauge theories, the resulting integral representations allow to combine whole classes of Feynman diagrams into compact expressions. (orig.)

  2. Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); O`Brien, M. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Rudin, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ferguson, J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McFee, J. [I.T. Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-11-30

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR).

  3. Diagram of the uranium prospection perforation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, J.

    1982-01-01

    We call diagrams to the drawn up one continuous of parameters physicists of the formation trimmed by a perforation based on the depth. The method is interesting not only for the putting in evidence of the mineralized levels but also it stops to determine the variations of lithology had by one part to the intrinsic properties of minerals (quartz, clays, carbonates) and to their variation of tenor and by another one, to variations of porosity and permeability of the formation

  4. Simple Lie algebras and Dynkin diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buccella, F.

    1983-01-01

    The following theorem is studied: in a simple Lie algebra of rank p there are p positive roots such that all the other n-3p/2 positive roots are linear combinations of them with integer non negative coefficients. Dykin diagrams are built by representing the simple roots with circles and drawing a junction between the roots. Five exceptional algebras are studied, focusing on triple junction algebra, angular momentum algebra, weights of the representation, antisymmetric tensors, and subalgebras

  5. Turbine flow diagram of Paks-1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vancso, Tamas

    1983-01-01

    Computer calculations and programs are presented which inform the operators on the effect projected on the turbine and thermal efficiency of the modification in the flow diagram and in the starting parameters of the power cycle. In the program the expansion line of steam turbine type K-220-44 and the thermo-technical parameters of the elements of the feed-water heater system are determined. Detailed degree calculations for turbine unit of high pressure can be made. (author)

  6. Specialization in i* strategic rationale diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    López Cuesta, Lidia; Franch Gutiérrez, Javier; Marco Gómez, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    ER 2012 Best Student Paper Award The specialization relationship is offered by the i* modeling language through the is-a construct defined over actors (a subactor is-a superactor). Although the overall meaning of this construct is highly intuitive, its semantics when it comes to the fine-grained level of strategic rationale (SR) diagrams is not defined, hampering seriously its appropriate use. In this paper we provide a formal definition of the specialization relationship at the lev...

  7. Refined phase diagram of boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solozhenko, V.; Turkevich, V.Z.

    1999-01-01

    The equilibrium phase diagram of boron nitride thermodynamically calculated by Solozhenko in 1988 has been now refined on the basis of new experimental data on BN melting and extrapolation of heat capacities of BN polymorphs into high-temperature region using the adapted pseudo-Debye model. As compared with the above diagram, the hBN left-reversible cBN equilibrium line is displaced by 60 K toward higher temperatures. The hBN-cBN-L triple point has been calculated to be at 3480 ± 10 K and 5.9 ± 0.1 GPa, while the hBN-L-V triple point is at T = 3400 ± 20 K and p = 400 ± 20 Pa, which indicates that the region of thermodynamic stability of vapor in the BN phase diagram is extremely small. It has been found that the slope of the cBN melting curve is positive whereas the slope of hBN melting curve varies from positive between ambient pressure and 3.4 GPa to negative at higher pressures

  8. The Critical Importance of Russell's Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, O.

    2013-04-01

    The idea of dwarf and giants stars, but not the nomenclature, was first established by Eijnar Hertzsprung in 1905; his first diagrams in support appeared in 1911. In 1913 Henry Norris Russell could demonstrate the effect far more strikingly because he measured the parallaxes of many stars at Cambridge, and could plot absolute magnitude against spectral type for many points. The general concept of dwarf and giant stars was essential in the galactic structure work of Harlow Shapley, Russell's first graduate student. In order to calibrate the period-luminosity relation of Cepheid variables, he was obliged to fall back on statistical parallax using only 11 Cepheids, a very sparse sample. Here the insight provided by the Russell diagram became critical. The presence of yellow K giant stars in globular clusters credentialed his calibration of the period-luminosity relation by showing that the calibrated luminosity of the Cepheids was comparable to the luminosity of the K giants. It is well known that in 1920 Shapley did not believe in the cosmological distances of Heber Curtis' spiral nebulae. It is not so well known that in 1920 Curtis' plot of the period-luminosity relation suggests that he didn't believe it was a physical relation and also he failed to appreciate the significance of the Russell diagram for understanding the large size of the Milky Way.

  9. Asteroseismic Diagram for Subgiants and Red Giants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gai, Ning; Tang, Yanke [College of Physics and Electronic information, Dezhou University, Dezhou 253023 (China); Yu, Peng [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Dou, Xianghua, E-mail: ning_gai@163.com, E-mail: tyk450@163.com [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Biophysics, Dezhou University, Dezhou 253023 (China)

    2017-02-10

    Asteroseismology is a powerful tool for constraining stellar parameters. NASA’s Kepler mission is providing individual eigenfrequencies for a huge number of stars, including thousands of red giants. Besides the frequencies of acoustic modes, an important breakthrough of the Kepler mission is the detection of nonradial gravity-dominated mixed-mode oscillations in red giants. Unlike pure acoustic modes, mixed modes probe deeply into the interior of stars, allowing the stellar core properties and evolution of stars to be derived. In this work, using the gravity-mode period spacing and the large frequency separation, we construct the ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν asteroseismic diagram from models of subgiants and red giants with various masses and metallicities. The relationship ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν is able to constrain the ages and masses of the subgiants. Meanwhile, for red giants with masses above 1.5 M {sub ⊙}, the ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν asteroseismic diagram can also work well to constrain the stellar age and mass. Additionally, we calculate the relative “isochrones” τ , which indicate similar evolution states especially for similar mass stars, on the ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν diagram.

  10. Colour-magnitude diagram of NGC 5053

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, M F; Pike, C D [California Univ., Santa Cruz (USA). Lick Observatory; McGee, J D

    1976-06-01

    The colour-magnitude diagram of NGC 5053 has been derived to V = 21.1 from photographic and electronographic observations. The electronographic observations were obtained with an experimental Spectracon image-converter, having photocathode and exit window dimensions of 20 x 30 mm, mounted at the prime-focus of the 120-in. Lick reflector. The photographic observations were obtained with the 20-in. Carnegie astrograph and the 36-in. Crossley reflector. The colour-magnitude diagram resembles that of M92, with the difference that a red horizontal branch is more pronounced than the asymptotic branch in NGC 5053. The topology of the horizontal branch is that of clusters with an intermediate metal content and is thus at variance with the mean period of the RR Lyr stars and the unreddened colour of the subgiant branch read at the magnitude level of the horizontal branch, both of which would indicate an extremely low metal content. If comparison of the colour-magnitude diagrams of NGC 5053 and M92 is valid, then the reddening of NGC 5053 is Esub(B-V) = 0.02 and the apparent distance modulus is m-M = 16.08 +- 0.08.

  11. Random matrix models for phase diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderheyden, B; Jackson, A D

    2011-01-01

    We describe a random matrix approach that can provide generic and readily soluble mean-field descriptions of the phase diagram for a variety of systems ranging from quantum chromodynamics to high-T c materials. Instead of working from specific models, phase diagrams are constructed by averaging over the ensemble of theories that possesses the relevant symmetries of the problem. Although approximate in nature, this approach has a number of advantages. First, it can be useful in distinguishing generic features from model-dependent details. Second, it can help in understanding the 'minimal' number of symmetry constraints required to reproduce specific phase structures. Third, the robustness of predictions can be checked with respect to variations in the detailed description of the interactions. Finally, near critical points, random matrix models bear strong similarities to Ginsburg-Landau theories with the advantage of additional constraints inherited from the symmetries of the underlying interaction. These constraints can be helpful in ruling out certain topologies in the phase diagram. In this Key Issues Review, we illustrate the basic structure of random matrix models, discuss their strengths and weaknesses, and consider the kinds of system to which they can be applied.

  12. On-shell diagrams for N=8 supergravity amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heslop, Paul; Lipstein, Arthur E. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,Lower Mountjoy, Stockton Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-10

    We define recursion relations for N=8 supergravity amplitudes using a generalization of the on-shell diagrams developed for planar N=4 super-Yang-Mills. Although the recursion relations generically give rise to non-planar on-shell diagrams, we show that at tree-level the recursion can be chosen to yield only planar diagrams, the same diagrams occurring in the planar N=4 theory. This implies non-trivial identities for non-planar diagrams as well as interesting relations between the N=4 and N=8 theories. We show that the on-shell diagrams of N=8 supergravity obey equivalence relations analogous to those of N=4 super-Yang-Mills, and we develop a systematic algorithm for reading off Grassmannian integral formulae directly from the on-shell diagrams. We also show that the 1-loop 4-point amplitude of N=8 supergravity can be obtained from on-shell diagrams.

  13. Impact of Diagrams on Recalling Sequential Elements in Expository Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri-Rozenblit, Sarah

    1988-01-01

    Examines the instructional effectiveness of abstract diagrams on recall of sequential relations in social science textbooks. Concludes that diagrams assist significantly the recall of sequential relations in a text and decrease significantly the rate of order mistakes. (RS)

  14. Proof test diagrams for Zerodur glass-ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, D. S.

    1991-01-01

    Proof test diagrams for Zerodur glass-ceramics are calculated from available fracture mechanics data. It is shown that the environment has a large effect on minimum time-to-failure as predicted by proof test diagrams.

  15. Issues in Stratospheric Ozone Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Steven Andrew

    Following the announcement of the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole in 1985 there have arisen a multitude of questions pertaining to the nature and consequences of polar ozone depletion. This thesis addresses several of these specific questions, using both computer models of chemical kinetics and the Earth's radiation field as well as laboratory kinetic experiments. A coupled chemical kinetic-radiative numerical model was developed to assist in the analysis of in situ field measurements of several radical and neutral species in the polar and mid-latitude lower stratosphere. Modeling was used in the analysis of enhanced polar ClO, mid-latitude diurnal variation of ClO, and simultaneous measurements of OH, HO_2, H_2 O and O_3. Most importantly, such modeling was instrumental in establishing the link between the observed ClO and BrO concentrations in the Antarctic polar vortex and the observed rate of ozone depletion. The principal medical concern of stratospheric ozone depletion is that ozone loss will lead to the enhancement of ground-level UV-B radiation. Global ozone climatology (40^circS to 50^ circN latitude) was incorporated into a radiation field model to calculate the biologically accumulated dosage (BAD) of UV-B radiation, integrated over days, months, and years. The slope of the annual BAD as a function of latitude was found to correspond to epidemiological data for non-melanoma skin cancers for 30^circ -50^circN. Various ozone loss scenarios were investigated. It was found that a small ozone loss in the tropics can provide as much additional biologically effective UV-B as a much larger ozone loss at higher latitudes. Also, for ozone depletions of > 5%, the BAD of UV-B increases exponentially with decreasing ozone levels. An important key player in determining whether polar ozone depletion can propagate into the populated mid-latitudes is chlorine nitrate, ClONO_2 . As yet this molecule is only indirectly accounted for in computer models and field

  16. Observing Tropospheric Ozone From Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Jack

    2000-01-01

    The importance of tropospheric ozone embraces a spectrum of relevant scientific issues ranging from local environmental concerns, such as damage to the biosphere and human health, to those that impact global change questions, Such is climate warming. From an observational perspective, the challenge is to determine the tropospheric ozone global distribution. Because its lifetime is short compared with other important greenhouse gases that have been monitored over the past several decades, the distribution of tropospheric ozone cannot be inferred from a relatively small set of monitoring stations. Therefore, the best way to obtain a true global picture is from the use of space-based instrumentation where important spatial gradients over vast ocean expanses and other uninhabited areas can be properly characterized. In this paper, the development of the capability to measure tropospheric ozone from space over the past 15 years is summarized. Research in the late 1980s successfully led to the determination of the climatology of tropospheric ozone as a function of season; more recently, the methodology has improved to the extent where regional air pollution episodes can be characterized. The most recent modifications now provide quasi-global (50 N) to 50 S) maps on a daily basis. Such a data set would allow for the study of long-range (intercontinental) transport of air pollution and the quantification of how regional emissions feed into the global tropospheric ozone budget. Future measurement capabilities within this decade promise to offer the ability to provide Concurrent maps of the precursors to the in situ formation of tropospheric ozone from which the scientific community will gain unprecedented insight into the processes that control global tropospheric chemistry

  17. Triangular Diagrams Teach Steady and Dynamic Behaviour of Catalytic Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klusacek, K.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates how triangular diagrams can aid in presenting some of the rather complex transient interactions that occur among gas and surface species during heterogeneous catalytic reactions. The basic equations and numerical examples are described. Classroom use of the triangular diagram is discussed. Several diagrams and graphs are provided. (YP)

  18. Atlas of hot isostatic beryllium powder pressing diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoev, P.I.; Papirov, I.I.; Tikhinskij, G.F.; Vasil'ev, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Diagrams of hot isotopic pressing (HIP) of beryllium powder with different grain size in a wide range of pressing parameters are built by mathematical modeling methods. The HIP diagrams presented are divided into 3 groups: parametric dependencies D=f(P,T); technological HIP diagrams; compacting mechanisms. The created data bank permits to optimise beryllium powder HIP with changing parameters. 4 refs., 23 figs

  19. Safety-barrier diagrams as a safety management tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2009-01-01

    Safety-barrier diagrams and “bow-tie” diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis and safety management. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The latter's relation to other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian...

  20. Developing Tool Support for Problem Diagrams with CPN and VDM++

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjell, Simon; Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe ongoing work on the development of tool support for formal description of domains found in Problem Diagrams. The purpose of the tool is to handle the generation of a CPN model based on a collection of Problem Diagrams. The Problem Diagrams are used for representing the ...

  1. A geometric proof of confluence by decreasing diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, J.W.; Oostrom, V. van; Vrijer, R. de

    The criterion for confluence using decreasing diagrams is a generalization of several well-known confluence criteria in abstract rewriting, such as the strong confluence lemma. We give a new proof of the decreasing diagram theorem based on a geometric study of in finite reduction diagrams, arising

  2. Students’ learning activities while studying biological process diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragten, M.; Admiraal, W.; Rijlaarsdam, G.

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students’ learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each

  3. The role of perceptual cues in matrix diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, Jan; van Amelsvoort, Marije; Anjewierden, A.

    An experiment was conducted to assess whether the design of a matrix diagram influences how people study the diagram and whether this has an effect on recall of the presented information. We compared four versions of a matrix diagram on antisocial personality disorder. It consisted of four header

  4. The role of perceptual cues in matrix diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, Jan; Amelsvoort, Marije; Anjewierden, Anjo Allert

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess whether the design of a matrix diagram influences how people study the diagram and whether this has an effect on recall of the presented information. We compared four versions of a matrix diagram on antisocial personality disorder. It consisted of four header

  5. Stage line diagram: an age-conditional reference diagram for tracking development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buuren, Stef; Ooms, Jeroen C L

    2009-05-15

    This paper presents a method for calculating stage line diagrams, a novel type of reference diagram useful for tracking developmental processes over time. Potential fields of applications include: dentistry (tooth eruption), oncology (tumor grading, cancer staging), virology (HIV infection and disease staging), psychology (stages of cognitive development), human development (pubertal stages) and chronic diseases (stages of dementia). Transition probabilities between successive stages are modeled as smoothly varying functions of age. Age-conditional references are calculated from the modeled probabilities by the mid-P value. It is possible to eliminate the influence of age by calculating standard deviation scores (SDS). The method is applied to the empirical data to produce reference charts on secondary sexual maturation. The mean of the empirical SDS in the reference population is close to zero, whereas the variance depends on age. The stage line diagram provides quick insight into both status (in SDS) and tempo (in SDS/year) of development of an individual child. Other measures (e.g. height SDS, body mass index SDS) from the same child can be added to the chart. Diagrams for sexual maturation are available as a web application at http://vps.stefvanbuuren.nl/puberty. The stage line diagram expresses status and tempo of discrete changes on a continuous scale. Wider application of these measures scores opens up new analytic possibilities. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. OZONE GENERATORS IN INDOOR AIR SETTINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives information on home/office ozone generators. It discusses their current uses as amelioratives for environmental tobacco smoke, biocontaminants, volatile organic compounds, and odors and details the advantages and disadvantages of each. Ozone appears to work well ...

  7. Cryptosporidiosis associated with ozonated apple cider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Brian G; Mazurek, Jacek M; Hlavsa, Michele; Park, Jean; Tillapaw, Matt; Parrish, MaryKay; Salehi, Ellen; Franks, William; Koch, Elizabeth; Smith, Forrest; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael; Hill, Vince; da Silva, Alex; Johnston, Stephanie; Jones, Jeffrey L

    2006-04-01

    We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned.

  8. Cryptosporidiosis Associated with Ozonated Apple Cider

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, Brian G.; Mazurek, Jacek M.; Hlavsa, Michele; Park, Jean; Tillapaw, Matt; Parrish, MaryKay; Salehi, Ellen; Franks, William; Koch, Elizabeth; Smith, Forrest; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael; Hill, Vince; da Silva, Alex; Johnston, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned.

  9. Tropospheric Ozone from the TOMS TDOT (TOMS-Direct-Ozone-in-Troposphere) Technique During SAFARI-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J. B.; Thompson, A. M.; Frolov, A. D.; Hudson, R. D.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    There are a number of published residual-type methods for deriving tropospheric ozone from TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer). The basic concept of these methods is that within a zone of constant stratospheric ozone, the tropospheric ozone column can be computed by subtracting stratospheric ozone from the TOMS Level 2 total ozone column, We used the modified-residual method for retrieving tropospheric ozone during SAFARI-2000 and found disagreements with in-situ ozone data over Africa in September 2000. Using the newly developed TDOT (TOMS-Direct-Ozone-in-Troposphere) method that uses TOMS radiances and a modified lookup table based on actual profiles during high ozone pollution periods, new maps were prepared and found to compare better to soundings over Lusaka, Zambia (15.5 S, 28 E), Nairobi and several African cities where MOZAIC aircraft operated in September 2000. The TDOT technique and comparisons are described in detail.

  10. The holes in the ozone scare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maduro, R.; Schauerhamer, R.

    1992-05-01

    For the authors, the ozone hole is more politic than scientific, and is caused by anthropogenic CFC, the ozone concentration reduction measured in the antarctic stratosphere is a natural phenomena: ozone destruction by chlorides and bromides coming from volcanos and oceans. The ozone hole was discovered in 1956 and not in 1985. For the greenhouse effect, the CO[sub 2] part is very small in comparison with the atmospheric water vapour part. (A.B.). refs., figs., tabs.

  11. A Review of Atmospheric Ozone and Current Thinking on the Antarctic Ozone Hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 0 A Review of Atmospheric ozone and Current Thinking on the Antartic Ozone Hole A thesis submitted in partial satisfaction of the...4. TI TLE (Pit 5,1tlfie) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PFRIOO COVERED A Review of Atmospheric Ozone and Current THESIS/DA/;J.At1AAU00 Thinking on the Antartic ...THESIS A Review of Atmospheric Ozone and Current Thinking on the Antartic Ozone Hole by Randolph Antoine Fix Master of Science in Atmospheric Science

  12. Tropospheric Ozone and Photochemical Smog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillman, S.

    2003-12-01

    The question of air quality in polluted regions represents one of the issues of geochemistry with direct implications for human well-being. Human health and well-being, along with the well-being of plants, animals, and agricultural crops, are dependent on the quality of air we breathe. Since the start of the industrial era, air quality has become a matter of major importance, especially in large cities or urbanized regions with heavy automobile traffic and industrial activity.Concern over air quality existed as far back as the 1600s. Originally, polluted air in cities resulted from the burning of wood or coal, largely as a source of heat. The industrial revolution in England saw a great increase in the use of coal in rapidly growing cities, both for industrial use and domestic heating. London suffered from devastating pollution events during the late 1800s and early 1900s, with thousands of excess deaths attributed to air pollution (Brimblecombe, 1987). With increasing use of coal, other instances also occurred in continental Europe and the USA. These events were caused by directly emitted pollutants (primary pollutants), including sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulates. They were especially acute in cities with northerly locations during fall and winter when sunlight is at a minimum. These original pollution events gave rise to the term "smog" (a combination of smoke and fog). Events of this type have become much less severe since the 1950s in Western Europe and the US, as natural gas replaced coal as the primary source of home heating, industrial smokestacks were designed to emit at higher altitudes (where dispersion is more rapid), and industries were required to install pollution control equipment.Beginning in the 1950s, a new type of pollution, photochemical smog, became a major concern. Photochemical smog consists of ozone (O3) and other closely related species ("secondary pollutants") that are produced photochemically from directly

  13. Ozone, Climate, and Global Atmospheric Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an overview of global atmospheric problems relating to ozone depletion and global warming. Provides background information on the composition of the earth's atmosphere and origin of atmospheric ozone. Describes causes, effects, and evidence of ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect. A vignette provides a summary of a 1991 assessment of…

  14. Future heat waves and surface ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehl, Gerald A.; Tebaldi, Claudia; Tilmes, Simone; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Bates, Susan; Pendergrass, Angeline; Lombardozzi, Danica

    2018-06-01

    A global Earth system model is used to study the relationship between heat waves and surface ozone levels over land areas around the world that could experience either large decreases or little change in future ozone precursor emissions. The model is driven by emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone precursors from a medium-high emission scenario (Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0–RCP6.0) and is compared to an experiment with anthropogenic ozone precursor emissions fixed at 2005 levels. With ongoing increases in greenhouse gases and corresponding increases in average temperature in both experiments, heat waves are projected to become more intense over most global land areas (greater maximum temperatures during heat waves). However, surface ozone concentrations on future heat wave days decrease proportionately more than on non-heat wave days in areas where ozone precursors are prescribed to decrease in RCP6.0 (e.g. most of North America and Europe), while surface ozone concentrations in heat waves increase in areas where ozone precursors either increase or have little change (e.g. central Asia, the Mideast, northern Africa). In the stabilized ozone precursor experiment, surface ozone concentrations increase on future heat wave days compared to non-heat wave days in most regions except in areas where there is ozone suppression that contributes to decreases in ozone in future heat waves. This is likely associated with effects of changes in isoprene emissions at high temperatures (e.g. west coast and southeastern North America, eastern Europe).

  15. Comprehending 3D Diagrams: Sketching to Support Spatial Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnier, Kristin M; Atit, Kinnari; Ormand, Carol J; Shipley, Thomas F

    2017-10-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines commonly illustrate 3D relationships in diagrams, yet these are often challenging for students. Failing to understand diagrams can hinder success in STEM because scientific practice requires understanding and creating diagrammatic representations. We explore a new approach to improving student understanding of diagrams that convey 3D relations that is based on students generating their own predictive diagrams. Participants' comprehension of 3D spatial diagrams was measured in a pre- and post-design where students selected the correct 2D slice through 3D geologic block diagrams. Generating sketches that predicated the internal structure of a model led to greater improvement in diagram understanding than visualizing the interior of the model without sketching, or sketching the model without attempting to predict unseen spatial relations. In addition, we found a positive correlation between sketched diagram accuracy and improvement on the diagram comprehension measure. Results suggest that generating a predictive diagram facilitates students' abilities to make inferences about spatial relationships in diagrams. Implications for use of sketching in supporting STEM learning are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  16. Phase diagram of strongly correlated Fermi systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zverev, M.V.; Khodel', V.A.; Baldo, M.

    2000-01-01

    Phase transitions in uniform Fermi systems with repulsive forces between the particles caused by restructuring of quasiparticle filling n(p) are analyzed. It is found that in terms of variables, i.e. density ρ, nondimensional binding constant η, phase diagram of a strongly correlated Fermi system for rather a wide class of interactions reminds of a puff-pastry pie. Its upper part is filled with fermion condensate, the lower one - with normal Fermi-liquid. They are separated by a narrow interlayer - the Lifshits phase, characterized by the Fermi multibound surface [ru

  17. More on boundary holographic Witten diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yoshiki

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we discuss geodesic Witten diagrams in general holographic conformal field theories with boundary or defect. In boundary or defect conformal field theory, two-point functions are nontrivial and can be decomposed into conformal blocks in two distinct ways; ambient channel decomposition and boundary channel decomposition. In our previous work [A. Karch and Y. Sato, J. High Energy Phys. 09 (2017) 121., 10.1007/JHEP09(2017)121] we only consider two-point functions of same operators. We generalize our previous work to a situation where operators in two-point functions are different. We obtain two distinct decomposition for two-point functions of different operators.

  18. Influence Diagrams for Optimal Maintenance Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Hansen, Andreas

    2000-01-01

    Over the last two decades Bayesian networks and influence diagrams have received notable attention within the field of artificial intelligence and expert systems. During the last few years the technology has been further developed for problem solving within other engineering fields. The objective...... of this study is to present a conceptual bayesian network model for probabilistic prediction of fatigue crack growth in welded steel tubes. It is shown that despite discretization of the variable domain, the prediction is in good agreement with results obtained by the well-established structural reliability...

  19. Topological phase diagram of superconducting carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milz, Lars; Marganska-Lyzniak, Magdalena; Grifoni, Milena [Institut I - Theoretische Physik Universitaet Regensburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The topological superconducting phase diagram of superconducting carbon nanotubes is discussed. Under the assumption of a short-ranged pairing potential, there are two spin-singlet states: an s-wave and an exotic p + ip-wave that are possible because of the special structure of the honeycomb lattice. The consequences for the possible presence of Majorana edge states in carbon nanotubes are addressed. In particular, regions in the magnetic field-chemical potential plane possibly hosting localized Majorana modes are discussed.

  20. Algorithms for Disconnected Diagrams in Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambhir, Arjun Singh [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Stathopoulos, Andreas [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Orginos, Konstantinos [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Yoon, Boram [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gupta, Rajan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Syritsyn, Sergey [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Computing disconnected diagrams in Lattice QCD (operator insertion in a quark loop) entails the computationally demanding problem of taking the trace of the all to all quark propagator. We first outline the basic algorithm used to compute a quark loop as well as improvements to this method. Then, we motivate and introduce an algorithm based on the synergy between hierarchical probing and singular value deflation. We present results for the chiral condensate using a 2+1-flavor clover ensemble and compare estimates of the nucleon charges with the basic algorithm.

  1. Phase diagram of Pr-P system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    An area of the Pr-P system, adjoining to the Pr ordinate, is plotted up by the DTA method. Presence of P solid solution in Pr is established. Data on thermal stability of PrP, PrP 2 , PrP 5 and PrP 7 are generalized. The diagram of phase transformations in Pr-P system is plotted up proceeding from the whole complex of the data, presented. A supposition is made on a possible formation of solid solutions between the highest polyphosphide and phosphorus [ru

  2. High temperature phase equilibria and phase diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Chu-Kun; Yan, Dong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    High temperature phase equilibria studies play an increasingly important role in materials science and engineering. It is especially significant in the research into the properties of the material and the ways in which they can be improved. This is achieved by observing equilibrium and by examining the phase relationships at high temperature. The study of high temperature phase diagrams of nonmetallic systems began in the early 1900s when silica and mineral systems containing silica were focussed upon. Since then technical ceramics emerged and more emphasis has been placed on high temperature

  3. Applications of zero-suppressed decision diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Sasao, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    A zero-suppressed decision diagram (ZDD) is a data structure to represent objects that typically contain many zeros. Applications include combinatorial problems, such as graphs, circuits, faults, and data mining. This book consists of four chapters on the applications of ZDDs. The first chapter by Alan Mishchenko introduces the ZDD. It compares ZDDs to BDDs, showing why a more compact representation is usually achieved in a ZDD. The focus is on sets of subsets and on sum-of-products (SOP) expressions. Methods to generate all the prime implicants (PIs), and to generate irredundant SOPs are show

  4. Influence diagrams for speed profile optimization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvíl, Václav; Vomlel, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 1 (2017), s. 567-586 ISSN 0888-613X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-12010S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Influence diagrams * Optimal control * Vehicle control Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 2.845, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/MTR/kratochvil-0476597.pdf

  5. Twistor diagrams and massless Moeller scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodges, A.P.

    1983-01-01

    The theory of twistor diagrams, as devised by Penrose, is intended to lead to a manifestly finite account of scattering amplitudes in quantum field theory. The theory is here extended to a more general type of interaction between massless fields than has hitherto been described. It is applied to the example of first-order massless Moeller scattering in quantum electrodynamics. It is shown that earlier studies of this example have failed to render a correct account, in particular by overlooking an infrared divergency, but that the scattering data can nevertheless be represented within the twistor formalism. (author)

  6. Diagram of Saturn V Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    This is a good cutaway diagram of the Saturn V launch vehicle showing the three stages, the instrument unit, and the Apollo spacecraft. The chart on the right presents the basic technical data in clear detail. The Saturn V is the largest and most powerful launch vehicle in the United States. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multistage, multiengine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams. Development of the Saturn V was the responsibility of the Marshall Space Flight Center at Huntsville, Alabama, directed by Dr. Wernher von Braun.

  7. On the Impact of Layout Quality to Understanding UML Diagrams: Diagram Type and Expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Practical experience suggests that the use and understanding of UML diagrams is greatly affected by the quality of their layout. In previous work, we have presented evidence supporting this intuition. This contrasts with earlier experiments that yielded weak or inconclusive evidence only. In the ......Practical experience suggests that the use and understanding of UML diagrams is greatly affected by the quality of their layout. In previous work, we have presented evidence supporting this intuition. This contrasts with earlier experiments that yielded weak or inconclusive evidence only...

  8. On the question of calculation methods of phase diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, M.V.

    1983-01-01

    The technique of determining interaction parameters of components of binary alloys is suggested. U-Mo and Cu-Al systems are used as example with the aid of experimental state diagrams. It is shown that the search for new regularities is necessary with the aim of analytical description of state diagrams and forecast of the shape of phase equilibria curves in real systems. Optimum combinations of experimental investigations with the aim of reliable determination of supporting points and forecasting possibilities of typical equations can considerably decrease the volume of experimental work when preparing state diagrams, in cases of repeated state diagrams of more reliable state diagrams with the application of more advanced methods of investigation. The translation of state diagrams from geometric to analytical language with the use of typical equations opens up new possibilities for establishing a compact information bank for state diagrams

  9. Effect of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides on ozone formation in smog chambers exposed to solar irradiance of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval F, J; Marroquin de la R, O; Jaimes L, J. L; Zuniga L, V. A; Gonzalez O, E; Guzman Lopez-Figueroa, F [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-01-01

    Outdoor smog chambers experiments were performed on air to determine the answer of maximum ozone levels, to changes in the initial hydrocarbons, HC, and nitrogen oxide NO{sub x}. These captive-air experiments under natural irradiation were carried out. Typically, eight chambers were filled with Mexico city air in the morning. In some of those chambers, the initial HC and/or Nox concentrations were varied by {+-}25% to {+-}50% by adding various combinations of a mixture of HC, clean air, or NO{sub x} (perturbed chambers). The O{sub 3} and NO{sub x} concentration in each chamber was monitored throughout the day to determine O{sub 3} (max). The initial HC and NO{sub x} concentration effects were determined by comparing the maximum ozone concentrations measured in the perturbed and unperturbed chambers. Ozone isopleths were constructed from the empirical model obtained of measurements of the eight chambers and plotted in a graph whose axe were the initial HC and NO{sub x} values. For the average initial conditions that were measured in Mexico City, it was found that the most efficient strategy to reduce the maximum concentration of O{sub 3} is the one that reduces NO{sub x}. [Spanish] Se realizaron experimentos de camaras de esmog con el aire de la ciudad de Mexico para determinar las respuestas de los niveles maximos de ozono a los cambios en las concentraciones iniciales de hidrocarburos, HC y oxido de nitrogeno, NO{sub x}. Por lo general, se llenaron 8 bolsas con aire matutino de la Ciudad de Mexico. En algunas camaras, las concentraciones iniciales fueron cambiadas de 25% a 50%, anadiendo varias concentraciones de una mezcla de HC, aire limpio y/o NO{sub x}. La concentracion de O{sub 3} y NO{sub x}, en cada camara, fueron monitoreadas a lo largo del dia para determinar el maximo de O{sub 3}. El efecto de los HC y el NO{sub x} fue determinado por comparacion del maximo de ozono formado en las camaras, que fueron perturbadas por adicion o reduccion de HC y/o Nox

  10. Slow electrons kill the ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerk, T.

    2001-01-01

    A new method and apparatus (Trochoidal electron monochromator) to study the interactions of electrons with atoms, molecules and clusters was developed. Two applications are briefly reported: a) the ozone destruction in the atmosphere is caused by different reasons, a new mechanism is proposed, that slow thermal electrons are self added to the ozone molecule (O 3 ) with a high frequency, then O 3 is destroyed ( O 3 + e - → O - + O 2 ); b) another application is the study of the binding energy of the football molecule C60. (nevyjel)

  11. OZONE CONCENTRATION ATTRIBUTABLE PREMATURE DEATH IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Skotak

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone in the lower part of the atmosphere (troposphere, strong photochemical oxidant, is not directly emitted to the atmosphere but formed through a series of complex reactions. Ozone concentrations depends on ozone precursors air contamination (mainly nitrogen dioxide and non-methane volatile organic compounds and meteorological conditions (temperature and solar radiation. The main sectors emitted ozone precursors are road transport, power and heat generation plants, household (heating, industry, and petrol storage and distribution. Ozone and some of its precursors are also transported long distances in the atmosphere and are therefore considered a transboundary problem. As a result, the ozone concentrations are often low in busy urban areas and higher in suburban and rural areas. Nowadays, instead of particulate matter, ozone is one of the most widespread global air pollution problems. In and around urban areas, relatively large gradients of ozone can be observed. Because of its high reactivity in elevated concentrations ozone causes serious health problems and damage to ecosystems, agricultural crops and materials. Main ill-health endpoints as a results of ozone concentrations can be characterised as an effect of pulmonary and cardiovascular system, time morbidity and mortality series, development of atherosclerosis and asthma and finally reduction in life expectancy. The associations with increased daily mortality due to ozone concentrations are confirmed by many researches and epidemiological studies. Estimation of the level selected ill-health endpoints (mortality in total and due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes as a result of the short-term ozone exposure in Poland was the main aim of the project. Final results have been done based on estimation method elaborated by WHO, ozone measurements from National Air Quality Monitoring System and statistical information such as mortality rate and populations. All analysis have been done in

  12. Options to Accelerate Ozone Recovery: Ozone and Climate Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, E. L.; Daniel, J. S.; Portmann, R. W.; Velders, G. J. M.; Jackman, C. H.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    2010-01-01

    The humankind or anthropogenic influence on ozone primarily originated from the chlorofluorocarbons and halons (chlorine and bromine). Representatives from governments have met periodically over the years to establish international regulations starting with the Montreal Protocol in 1987, which greatly limited the release of these ozone-depleting substances (DDSs). Two global models have been used to investigate the impact of hypothetical reductions in future emissions of ODSs on total column ozone. The investigations primarily focused on chlorine- and bromine-containing gases, but some computations also included nitrous oxide (N2O). The Montreal Protocol with ODS controls have been so successful that further regulations of chlorine- and bromine-containing gases could have only a fraction of the impact that regulations already in force have had. if all anthropogenic ODS emissions were halted beginning in 2011, ozone is calculated to be higher by about 1-2% during the period 2030-2100 compared to a case of no additional ODS restrictions. Chlorine- and bromine-containing gases and nitrous oxide are also greenhouse gases and lead to warming of the troposphere. Elimination of N 20 emissions would result in a reduction of radiative forcing of 0.23 W/sq m in 2100 than presently computed and destruction of the CFC bank would produce a reduction in radiative forcing of 0.005 W/sq m in 2100. This paper provides a quantitative way to consider future regulations of the CFC bank and N 20 emissions

  13. Ozone Control Strategies | Ground-level Ozone | New ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The Air Quality Planning Unit's primary goal is to protect your right to breathe clean air. Guided by the Clean Air Act, we work collaboratively with states, communities, and businesses to develop and implement strategies to reduce air pollution from a variety of sources that contribute to the ground-level ozone or smog problem.

  14. Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soetikno, Darmadi; Siagian, Ucok W. R. [Department of Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Kusdiantara, Rudy, E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Puspita, Dila, E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Sidarto, Kuntjoro A., E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y. [Department of Mathematics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab.

  15. Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soetikno, Darmadi; Siagian, Ucok W. R.; Kusdiantara, Rudy; Puspita, Dila; Sidarto, Kuntjoro A.; Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y.

    2014-01-01

    Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab

  16. Using influence diagrams for data worth analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif Heger, A.; White, Janis E.

    1997-01-01

    Decision-making under uncertainty describes most environmental remediation and waste management problems. Inherent limitations in knowledge concerning contaminants, environmental fate and transport, remedies, and risks force decision-makers to select a course of action based on uncertain and incomplete information. Because uncertainties can be reduced by collecting additional data., uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques have received considerable attention. When costs associated with reducing uncertainty are considered in a decision problem, the objective changes; rather than determine what data to collect to reduce overall uncertainty, the goal is to determine what data to collect to best differentiate between possible courses of action or decision alternatives. Environmental restoration and waste management requires cost-effective methods for characterization and monitoring, and these methods must also satisfy regulatory requirements. Characterization and monitoring activities imply that, sooner or later, a decision must be made about collecting new field data. Limited fiscal resources for data collection should be committed only to those data that have the most impact on the decision at lowest possible cost. Applying influence diagrams in combination with data worth analysis produces a method which not only satisfies these requirements but also gives rise to an intuitive representation of complex structures not possible in the more traditional decision tree representation. This paper demonstrates the use of influence diagrams in data worth analysis by applying to a monitor-and-treat problem often encountered in environmental decision problems

  17. Phase Diagram of Spiking Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed eSeyed-Allaei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In computer simulations of spiking neural networks, often it is assumed that every two neurons of the network are connected by a probablilty of 2%, 20% of neurons are inhibitory and 80% are excitatory. These common values are based on experiments, observations. but here, I take a different perspective, inspired by evolution. I simulate many networks, each with a different set of parameters, and then I try to figure out what makes the common values desirable by nature. Networks which are configured according to the common values, have the best dynamic range in response to an impulse and their dynamic range is more robust in respect to synaptic weights. In fact, evolution has favored networks of best dynamic range. I present a phase diagram that shows the dynamic ranges of different networks of different parameteres. This phase diagram gives an insight into the space of parameters -- excitatory to inhibitory ratio, sparseness of connections and synaptic weights. It may serve as a guideline to decide about the values of parameters in a simulation of spiking neural network.

  18. Magnetic phase diagrams of UNiGe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakotte, H.; Hagmusa, I.H.; Klaasse, J.C.P.; Hagmusa, I.H.; Klaasse, J.C.P.

    1997-01-01

    UNiGe undergoes two magnetic transitions in zero field. Here, the magnetic diagrams of UNiGe for B parallel b and B parallel c are reported. We performed temperatures scans of the magnetization in static magnetic fields up to 19.5T applied along the b and c axes. For both orientations 3 magnetic phases have been identified in the B-T diagrams. We confirmed the previously reported phase boundaries for B parallel c, and in addition we determined the location of the phase boundaries for B parallel b. We discuss a possible relationship of the two zero-field antiferromagnetic phases (commensurate: T<42K; incommensurate: 42K< T<50K) and the field-induced phase, which, at low temperatures, occurs between 18 and 25T or 4 and 10T for B parallel b or B parallel c, respectively. Finally, we discuss the field dependence of the electronic contribution γ to the specific heat for B parallel c up to 17.5T, and we find that its field dependence is similar to the one found in more itinerant uranium compounds

  19. Impacts of ozone on trees and crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felzer, B.S.; Cronina, T.; Melillo, J.M.; Reilly, J.M.; Xiaodong, Wang

    2007-01-01

    In this review article, we explore how surface-level ozone affects trees and crops with special emphasis on consequences for productivity and carbon sequestration. Vegetation exposure to ozone reduces photosynthesis, growth, and other plant functions. Ozone formation in the atmosphere is a product of NO x , which are also a source of nitrogen deposition. Reduced carbon sequestration of temperate forests resulting from ozone is likely offset by increased carbon sequestration from nitrogen fertilization. However, since fertilized crop-lands are generally not nitrogen-limited, capping ozone-polluting substances in the USA, Europe, and China can reduce future crop yield loss substantially. (authors)

  20. Defense meteorological satellite measurements of total ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovill, J.E.; Ellis, J.S.; Luther, F.M.; Sullivan, R.J.; Weichel, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    A multichannel filter radiometer (MFR) on Defense Meteorological Satellites (DMS) that measured total ozone on a global-scale from March 1977 - February 1980 is described. The total ozone data measured by the MFR were compared with total ozone data taken by surfaced-based Dobson spectrophotometers. When comparisons were made for five months, the Dobson spectrophotometer measured 2-5% more total ozone than the MFR. Comparisons between the Dobson spectrophotometer and the MFR showed a reduced RMS difference as the comparisons were made at closer proximity. A Northern Hemisphere total ozone distribution obtained from MFR data is presented

  1. VennDiagram: a package for the generation of highly-customizable Venn and Euler diagrams in R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hanbo; Boutros, Paul C

    2011-01-26

    Visualization of orthogonal (disjoint) or overlapping datasets is a common task in bioinformatics. Few tools exist to automate the generation of extensively-customizable, high-resolution Venn and Euler diagrams in the R statistical environment. To fill this gap we introduce VennDiagram, an R package that enables the automated generation of highly-customizable, high-resolution Venn diagrams with up to four sets and Euler diagrams with up to three sets. The VennDiagram package offers the user the ability to customize essentially all aspects of the generated diagrams, including font sizes, label styles and locations, and the overall rotation of the diagram. We have implemented scaled Venn and Euler diagrams, which increase graphical accuracy and visual appeal. Diagrams are generated as high-definition TIFF files, simplifying the process of creating publication-quality figures and easing integration with established analysis pipelines. The VennDiagram package allows the creation of high quality Venn and Euler diagrams in the R statistical environment.

  2. VennDiagram: a package for the generation of highly-customizable Venn and Euler diagrams in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutros Paul C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visualization of orthogonal (disjoint or overlapping datasets is a common task in bioinformatics. Few tools exist to automate the generation of extensively-customizable, high-resolution Venn and Euler diagrams in the R statistical environment. To fill this gap we introduce VennDiagram, an R package that enables the automated generation of highly-customizable, high-resolution Venn diagrams with up to four sets and Euler diagrams with up to three sets. Results The VennDiagram package offers the user the ability to customize essentially all aspects of the generated diagrams, including font sizes, label styles and locations, and the overall rotation of the diagram. We have implemented scaled Venn and Euler diagrams, which increase graphical accuracy and visual appeal. Diagrams are generated as high-definition TIFF files, simplifying the process of creating publication-quality figures and easing integration with established analysis pipelines. Conclusions The VennDiagram package allows the creation of high quality Venn and Euler diagrams in the R statistical environment.

  3. Diagrams: A Visual Survey of Graphs, Maps, Charts and Diagrams for the Graphic Designer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Arthur

    Since the ultimate success of any diagram rests in its clarity, it is important that the designer select a method of presentation which will achieve this aim. He should be aware of the various ways in which statistics can be shown diagrammatically, how information can be incorporated in maps, and how events can be plotted in chart or graph form.…

  4. The Diagram as Story: Unfolding the Event-Structure of the Mathematical Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the role of narrative in decoding diagrams. I focus on two fundamental facets of narrative: (1) the recounting of causally related sequences of events, and (2) the positioning of the narrator through point-of-view and voice. In the first two sections of the paper I discuss philosophical and semiotic frameworks for making sense…

  5. "OZONE SOURCE APPORTIONMENT IN CMAQ' | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone source attribution has been used to support various policy purposes including interstate transport (Cross State Air Pollution Rule) by U.S. EPA and ozone nonattainment area designations by State agencies. Common scientific applications include tracking intercontinental transport of ozone and ozone precursors and delineating anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic contribution to ozone in North America. As in the public release due in September 2013, CMAQ’s Integrated Source Apportionment Method (ISAM) attributes PM EC/OC, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, ozone and its precursors NOx and VOC, to sectors/regions of users’ interest. Although the peroxide-to-nitric acid productions ratio has been the most common indicator to distinguish NOx-limited ozone production from VOC-limited one, other indicators are implemented in addition to allowing for an ensemble decision based on a total of 9 available indicator ratios. Moreover, an alternative approach of ozone attribution based on the idea of chemical sensitivity in a linearized system that has formed the basis of chemical treatment in forward DDM/backward adjoint tools has been implemented in CMAQ. This method does not require categorization into either ozone regime. In this study, ISAM will simulate the 2010 North America ozone using all of the above gas-phase attribution methods. The results are to be compared with zero-out difference out of those sectors in the host model runs. In addition, ozone contribution wil

  6. Tropospheric Enhancement of Ozone over the UAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Naveed Ali; Majeed, Tariq; Iqbal, Mazhar; Kaminski, Jacek; Struzewska, Joanna; Durka, Pawel; Tarasick, David; Davies, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    We use the Global Environmental Multiscale - Air Quality (GEM-AQ) model to interpret the vertical profiles of ozone acquired with ozone sounding experiments at the meteorological site located at the Abu Dhabi airport. The purpose of this study is to gain insight into the chemical and dynamical structures in the atmosphere of this unique subtropical location (latitude 24.45N; longitude 54.22E). Ozone observations for years 2012 - 2013 reveal elevated ozone abundances in the range from 70 ppbv to 120 ppbv near 500-400 hPa during summer. The ozone abundances in other seasons are much lower than these values. The preliminary results indicate that summertime enhancement in ozone is associated with the Arabian anticyclones centered over the Zagros Mountains in Iran and the Asir and Hijaz Mountain ranges in Saudi Arabia, and is consistent with TES observations of deuterated water. The model also shows considerable seasonal variation in the tropospheric ozone which is transported from the stratosphere by dynamical processes. The domestic production of ozone in the middle troposphere is estimated and compared GEM-AQ model. It is estimated that about 40-50% of ozone in the UAE is transported from the neighbouring petrochemical industries in the Gulf region. We will present ozone sounding data and GEM-AQ results including a discussion on the high levels of the tropospheric ozone responsible for contaminating the air quality in the UAE. This work is supported by National Research Foundation, UAE.

  7. Ozonation control and effects of ozone on water quality in recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Rojas-Tirado, Paula Andrea; Chetri, Ravi K.

    2018-01-01

    To address the undesired effect of chemotherapeutants in aquaculture, ozone has been suggested as an alternative to improve water quality. To ensure safe and robust treatment, it is vital to define the ozone demand and ozone kinetics of the specific water matrix to avoid ozone overdose. Different...... ozone dosages were applied to water in freshwater recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Experiments were performed to investigate ozone kinetics and demand, and to evaluate the effects on the water quality, particularly in relation to fluorescent organic matter. This study aimed at predicting...... a suitable ozone dosage for water treatment based on daily ozone demand via laboratory studies. These ozone dosages will be eventually applied and maintained at these levels in pilot-scale RAS to verify predictions. Selected water quality parameters were measured, including natural fluorescence and organic...

  8. Ozone depletion following future volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Klobas, J.; Wilmouth, David M.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Anderson, James G.; Salawitch, Ross J.

    2017-07-01

    While explosive volcanic eruptions cause ozone loss in the current atmosphere due to an enhancement in the availability of reactive chlorine following the stratospheric injection of sulfur, future eruptions are expected to increase total column ozone as halogen loading approaches preindustrial levels. The timing of this shift in the impact of major volcanic eruptions on the thickness of the ozone layer is poorly known. Modeling four possible climate futures, we show that scenarios with the smallest increase in greenhouse gas concentrations lead to the greatest risk to ozone from heterogeneous chemical processing following future eruptions. We also show that the presence in the stratosphere of bromine from natural, very short-lived biogenic compounds is critically important for determining whether future eruptions will lead to ozone depletion. If volcanic eruptions inject hydrogen halides into the stratosphere, an effect not considered in current ozone assessments, potentially profound reductions in column ozone would result.

  9. Ozone Damages to Mediterranean Crops: Physiological Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Maggio

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this brief review we analyzed some aspects of tropospheric ozone damages to crop plants. Specifically, we addressed this issue to Mediterranean environments, where plant response to multiple stresses may either exacerbate or counteract deleterious ozone effects. After discussing the adequacy of current models to predict ozone damages to Mediterranean crops, we present a few examples of physiological responses to drought and salinity stress that generally overlap with seasonal ozone peaks in Southern Italy. The co-existence of multiple stresses is then analyzed in terms of stomatal vs. non-stomatal control of ozone damages. Recent results on osmoprotectant feeding experiments, as a non-invasive strategy to uncouple stomatal vs. non stomatal contribution to ozone protection, are also presented. In the final section, we discuss critical needs in ozone research and the great potential of plant model systems to unravel multiple stress responses in agricultural crops.

  10. Ozone Damages to Mediterranean Crops: Physiological Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fagnano

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this brief review we analyzed some aspects of tropospheric ozone damages to crop plants. Specifically, we addressed this issue to Mediterranean environments, where plant response to multiple stresses may either exacerbate or counteract deleterious ozone effects. After discussing the adequacy of current models to predict ozone damages to Mediterranean crops, we present a few examples of physiological responses to drought and salinity stress that generally overlap with seasonal ozone peaks in Southern Italy. The co-existence of multiple stresses is then analyzed in terms of stomatal vs. non-stomatal control of ozone damages. Recent results on osmoprotectant feeding experiments, as a non-invasive strategy to uncouple stomatal vs. non stomatal contribution to ozone protection, are also presented. In the final section, we discuss critical needs in ozone research and the great potential of plant model systems to unravel multiple stress responses in agricultural crops.

  11. Satellite Ozone Analysis Center (SOAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovill, J.E.; Sullivan, T.J.; Knox, J.B.; Korver, J.A.

    1976-08-01

    Many questions have been raised during the 1970's regarding the possible modification of the ozonosphere by aircraft operating in the stratosphere. Concern also has been expressed over the manner in which the ozonosphere may change in the future as a result of fluorocarbon releases. There are also other ways by which the ozonosphere may be significantly altered, both anthropogenic and natural. Very basic questions have been raised, bearing upon the amount of ozone which would be destroyed by the NO/sub x/ produced in atmospheric nuclear explosions. Studies of the available satellite data have suggested that the worldwide increase of ozone during the past decade, which was observed over land stations, may have been biased by a poor distribution of stations and/or a shift of the planetary wave. Additional satellite data will be required to resolve this issue. Proposals are presented for monitoring of the Earth's ozone variability from the present time into the 1980's to establish a baseline upon which regional, as well as global, ozone trends can be measured

  12. Energy level diagrams for black hole orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Janna

    2009-12-01

    A spinning black hole with a much smaller black hole companion forms a fundamental gravitational system, like a colossal classical analog to an atom. In an appealing if imperfect analogy with atomic physics, this gravitational atom can be understood through a discrete spectrum of periodic orbits. Exploiting a correspondence between the set of periodic orbits and the set of rational numbers, we are able to construct periodic tables of orbits and energy level diagrams of the accessible states around black holes. We also present a closed-form expression for the rational q, thereby quantifying zoom-whirl behavior in terms of spin, energy and angular momentum. The black hole atom is not just a theoretical construct, but corresponds to extant astrophysical systems detectable by future gravitational wave observatories.

  13. Energy level diagrams for black hole orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Janna

    2009-01-01

    A spinning black hole with a much smaller black hole companion forms a fundamental gravitational system, like a colossal classical analog to an atom. In an appealing if imperfect analogy with atomic physics, this gravitational atom can be understood through a discrete spectrum of periodic orbits. Exploiting a correspondence between the set of periodic orbits and the set of rational numbers, we are able to construct periodic tables of orbits and energy level diagrams of the accessible states around black holes. We also present a closed-form expression for the rational q, thereby quantifying zoom-whirl behavior in terms of spin, energy and angular momentum. The black hole atom is not just a theoretical construct, but corresponds to extant astrophysical systems detectable by future gravitational wave observatories.

  14. Database design using entity-relationship diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Bagui, Sikha

    2011-01-01

    Data, Databases, and the Software Engineering ProcessDataBuilding a DatabaseWhat is the Software Engineering Process?Entity Relationship Diagrams and the Software Engineering Life Cycle          Phase 1: Get the Requirements for the Database          Phase 2: Specify the Database          Phase 3: Design the DatabaseData and Data ModelsFiles, Records, and Data ItemsMoving from 3 × 5 Cards to ComputersDatabase Models     The Hierarchical ModelThe Network ModelThe Relational ModelThe Relational Model and Functional DependenciesFundamental Relational DatabaseRelational Database and SetsFunctional

  15. Visualizing Mortality Dynamics in the Lexis Diagram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rau, Roland; Bohk-Ewald, Christina; Muszynska, Magdalena M

    This book visualizes mortality dynamics in the Lexis diagram. While the standard approach of plotting death rates is also covered, the focus in this book is on the depiction of rates of mortality improvement over age and time. This rather novel approach offers a more intuitive understanding...... of the underlying dynamics, enabling readers to better understand whether period- or cohort-effects were instrumental for the development of mortality in a particular country. Besides maps for single countries, the book includes maps on the dynamics of selected causes of death in the United States...... Software to produce these types of surface maps. Readers are encouraged to use the presented tools to visualize other demographic data or any event that can be measured by age and calendar time, allowing them to adapt the methods to their respective research interests. The intended audience is anyone who...

  16. Calculation of superalloy phase diagrams. IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, L.; Nesor, H.

    1975-01-01

    Explicit descriptions of the Fe--Mo, Fe--W, Fe--Nb, W--Cr and Ti--W binary systems have been developed in line with lattice stability, thermochemical and phase diagram data. These descriptions, along with similar results derived previously, have been employed to calculate isothermal sections in the Cr--Al--Fe, Fe--Mo--Cr, Fe--W--Cr, Ni--Al--Co, Nb--Ti--W, Ti--W--Mo, Cr--W--Mo, Ni--Mo--W, and Ni--W--Ti systems for comparison with experimental results. The effects of carbon impurities on miscibility gap formation in the Ti--W, Nb--Ti--W, Ti--W--Mo and Cr--W--Mo systems are discussed

  17. Logic verification system for power plant sequence diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Mitsuko; Yamada, Naoyuki; Teshima, Toshiaki; Kan, Ken-ichi; Utsunomiya, Mitsugu.

    1994-01-01

    A logic verification system for sequence diagrams of power plants has been developed. The system's main function is to verify correctness of the logic realized by sequence diagrams for power plant control systems. The verification is based on a symbolic comparison of the logic of the sequence diagrams with the logic of the corresponding IBDs (interlock Block Diagrams) in combination with reference to design knowledge. The developed system points out the sub-circuit which is responsible for any existing mismatches between the IBD logic and the logic realized by the sequence diagrams. Applications to the verification of actual sequence diagrams of power plants confirmed that the developed system is practical and effective. (author)

  18. Graphical matching rules for cardinality based service feature diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiza Kanwal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To provide efficient services to end-users, variability and commonality among the features of the product line is a challenge for industrialist and researchers. Feature modeling provides great services to deal with variability and commonality among the features of product line. Cardinality based service feature diagrams changed the basic framework of service feature diagrams by putting constraints to them, which make service specifications more flexible, but apart from their variation in selection third party services may have to be customizable. Although to control variability, cardinality based service feature diagrams provide high level visual notations. For specifying variability, the use of cardinality based service feature diagrams raises the problem of matching a required feature diagram against the set of provided diagrams.

  19. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1, Technology Evaluation; Vol. 2, Technology Logic Diagram and Vol. 3, Technology EvaLuation Data Sheets. Part A of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on RA. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the D ampersand D of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TM, an explanation of the problems facing the volume-specific program, a review of identified technologies, and rankings of technologies applicable to the site. Volume 2 (Pts. A. B. and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A. B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. This volume provides the technology evaluation data sheets (TEDS) for ER/WM activities (D ampersand D, RA and WM) that are referenced by a TEDS code number in Vol. 2 of the TLD. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than is given for the technologies in Vol. 2

  20. Leak before break piping evaluation diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabi, R.J.; Peck, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Traditionally Leak Before Break (LBB) has been applied to the evaluation of piping in existing nuclear plants. This paper presents a simple method for evaluating piping systems for LBB during the design process. This method produces a piping evaluation diagram (PED) which defines the LBB requirements to the piping designer for use during the design process. Several sets of LBB analyses are performed for each different pipe size and material considered in the LBB application. The results of this method are independent of the actual pipe routing. Two complete LBB evaluations are performed to determine the maximum allowable stability load, one evaluation for a low normal operating load, and the other evaluation for a high normal operating load. These normal operating loads span the typical loads for the particular system being evaluated. In developing the allowable loads, the appropriate LBB margins are included in the PED preparation. The resulting LBB solutions are plotted as a set of allowable curves for the maximum design basis load, such is the seismic load versus the normal operating load. Since the required margins are already accounted for in the LBB PED, the piping designer can use the diagram directly with the results of the piping analysis and determine immediately if the current piping arrangement passes LBB. Since the LBB PED is independent of pipe routing, changes to the piping system can be evaluated using the existing PED. For a particular application, all that remains is to confirm that the actual materials and pipe sizes assumed in creating the particular design are built into the plant

  1. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Part A of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on D ampersand D. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on RA of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the ranking os remedial technologies. Volume 2 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. The focus of Vol. 1, Pt. B, is RA, and it has been divided into six chapters. The first chapter is an introduction, which defines problems specific to the ER Program for ORNL. Chapter 2 provides a general overview of the TLD. Chapters 3 through 5 are organized into necessary subelement categories: RA, characterization, and robotics and automation. The final chapter contains regulatory compliance information concerning RA

  2. Common phase diagram for low-dimensional superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalak, Rudi

    2003-01-01

    A phenomenological phase diagram which has been derived for high-temperature superconductors from NMR Knight-shift measurements of the pseudogap is compared to the phase diagram that is obtained for organic superconductors and spin-ladder superconductors, both low-dimensional systems. This is contrasted to the phase diagram of some Heavy Fermion superconductors, i.e. superconductors not constrained to a low dimensionality

  3. Updating the Nomographical Diagrams for Dimensioning the Beams

    OpenAIRE

    Pop Maria T.

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce the time period needed for structures design it is strongly recommended to use nomographical diagrams. The base for formation and updating the nomographical diagrams, stands on the charts presented by different technical publications. The updated charts use the same algorithm and calculation elements as the former diagrams in accordance to the latest prescriptions and European standards. The result consists in a chart, having the same properties, similar with the nomogragra...

  4. XLOOPS - a package calculating one- and two-loop diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruecher, L.

    1997-01-01

    A program package for calculating massive one- and two-loop diagrams is introduced. It consists of five parts: - a graphical user interface, - routines for generating diagrams from particle input, - procedures for calculating one-loop integrals both analytically and numerically, - routines for massive two-loop integrals, - programs for numerical integration of two-loop diagrams. Here the graphical user interface and the text interface to Maple are presented. (orig.)

  5. Sterilization of Microorganisms by Ozone and Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnyj, V. V.; Klosovskij, A. V.; Panasko, T. A.; Shvets, O. M.; Semenova, O. T.; Taran, V. S.; Tereshin, V. I.

    2008-03-01

    The results of recent experimental methods of sterilization of microorganisms with the use of ozone and ultrasound are presented. The main aim was to optimize the process of sterilization in water solution taking into account the ozone concentration, the power of ultrasonic emitter and the temperature of water. In the present work, the ultrasonic cavitation with simultaneous ozone generation has been used. The high ozone concentration in water solution was achieved by two-barrier glow discharge generated at atmospheric pressure and a cooling thermo-electric module. Such a sterilizer consists of ozone generator in a shape of flat electrodes covered with dielectric material and a high-voltage pulsed power supply of 250 W. The sterilization camera was equipped with ultrasonic source operated at 100 W. The experiments on the inactivation of bacteria of the Bacillus Cereus type were carried out in the distilled water saturated by ozone. The ozone concentration in the aqueous solution was 10 mg/1, whereas the ozone concentration at the output of ozone generator was 30 mg/1. The complete inactivation of spores took 15 min. Selection of the temperature of water, the ozone concentrations and ultrasonic power allowed to determine the time necessary for destroying the row of microorganisms.

  6. Ozone kinetics in low-pressure discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Vasco; Marinov, Daniil; Guaitella, Olivier; Rousseau, Antoine

    2012-10-01

    Ozone kinetics is quite well established at atmospheric pressure, due to the importance of ozone in atmospheric chemistry and to the development of industrial ozone reactors. However, as the pressure is decreased and the dominant three-body reactions lose importance, the main mechanisms involved in the creation and destruction of ozone are still surrounded by important uncertainties. In this work we develop a self-consistent model for a pulsed discharge and its afterglow operating in a Pyrex reactor with inner radius 1 cm, at pressures in the range 1-5 Torr and discharge currents of 40-120 mA. The model couples the electron Boltzmann equation with a system of equations for the time evolution of the heavy particles. The calculations are compared with time-dependent measurements of ozone and atomic oxygen. Parametric studies are performed in order to clarify the role of vibrationally excited ozone in the overall kinetics and to establish the conditions where ozone production on the surface may become important. It is shown that vibrationally excited ozone does play a significant role, by increasing the time constants of ozone formation. Moreover, an upper limit for the ozone formation at the wall in these conditions is set at 10(-4).

  7. Satake diagrams of affine Kac-Moody algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, L K [S B R Government Womens' College, Berhampur, Orissa 760 001 (India); Pati, K C [Department of Physics, Khallikote College, Berhampur, Orissa 760 001 (India)

    2006-02-10

    Satake diagrams of affine Kac-Moody algebras (untwisted and twisted) are obtained from their Dynkin diagrams. These diagrams give a classification of restricted root systems associated with these algebras. In the case of simple Lie algebras, these root systems and Satake diagrams correspond to symmetric spaces which have recently found many physical applications in quantum integrable systems, quantum transport problems, random matrix theories etc. We hope these types of root systems may have similar applications in theoretical physics in future and may correspond to symmetric spaces analogue of affine Kac-Moody algebras if they exist.

  8. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2, Technology Logic Diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, R.L. [ed.

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates envirorunental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. This volume, Volume 2, contains logic diagrams with an index. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use.

  9. Effect of ozone on leaf cell membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, E S; Thomson, W W; Mudd, J B

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of ozone on membrane lipids and on the electron-density patterns of cell membranes in electron micrographs. Analysis of fatty acids from tobacco leaves fumigated with ozone indicated that there was no significant difference between the ozone-treated and the control plants in the relative amounts of the fatty acids. This suggests that if the primary site of ozone action is unsaturated lipids in membranes then the amounts of affected unsaturated fatty acids are too small to be detected by gas chromatography. In support of this, characteristic electron-microscopic images of membranes are observed in cells of fumigated leaves. However, measurements of the length and width of the chloroplasts and the determination of axial ratios indicated that the ozone treatment resulted in a shrinkage of the chloroplasts. In contrast, mitochondrial changes are apparently explained in terms of ozone-induced swelling. 33 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  10. LANDFILL LEACHATES PRETREATMENT BY OZONATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Leszczyński

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the application of ozonation processes for stabilized landfill leachate treatment was investigated. The leachate came from a municipal sanitary landfill located nearby Bielsk Podlaski. The average values of its main parameters were: pH 8.23; COD 870 mgO2/dm3; BOD 90 mgO2/dm3; NH4+ 136.2 mgN/dm3; UV254 absorbance 0.312 and turbidity 14 NTU. The ozone dosages used were in the range of 115.5 to 808.5 mgO3/dm3 of the leachate. The maximum COD, color and UV254 absorbance removal wa.5 mgO3/dm3. After oxidation, the ratio of BOD/COD was increased from 0.1 up to 0.23.

  11. Two-phase ozonation of chlorinated organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Freshour, A.; West, D.

    1995-01-01

    In the last few years the amount of research being conducted in the field of single-phase ozonation has grown extensively. However, traditional aqueous-phase ozonation systems are limited by a lack of selective oxidation potential, low ozone solubility in water, and slow intermediate decomposition rates. Furthermore, ozone may decompose before it can be utilized for pollutant destruction since ozone can be highly unstable in aqueous solutions. Naturally occurring compounds such as NaHCO 3 also affect ozone reactions by inhibiting the formation of OH-free radicals. To compensate for these factors, excess ozone is typically supplied to a reactor. Since ozone generation requires considerable electric power consumption (16 - 24 kWh/kg of O 3 ), attempts to enhance the ozone utilization rate and stability should lead to more efficient application of this process to hazardous waste treatment. To improve the process, ozonation may be more efficiently carried out in a two-phase system consisting of an inert solvent (saturated with O 3 ) contacted with an aqueous phase containing pollutants. The non-aqueous phase must meet the following criteria: (1) non-toxic, (2) very low vapor pressure, (3) high density (for ease of separation), (4) complete insolubility in water, (5) reusability, (6) selective pollutant extractability, (7) high oxidant solubility, and (8) extended O 3 stability. Previously published studies (1) have indicated that a number of fluorinated hydrocarbon compounds fit these criteria. For this project, FC40 (a product of 3M Co.) was chosen due to its low vapor pressure (3 mm Hg) and high specific gravity (1.9). The primary advantages of the FC40 solvent are that it is non-toxic, reusable, has an ozone solubility 10 times that of water, and that 85 % of the ozone remains in the solvent even after 2 hours. This novel two-phase process has been utilized to study the rapid destruction of organic chlorine compounds and organic mixtures

  12. Ozone decay in chemical reactor for ozone-dynamical disintegration of used tyres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golota, V.I.; Manuilenko, O.V.; Taran, G.V.; Dotsenko, Yu.V.; Pismenetskii, A.S.; Zamuriev, A.A.; Benitskaja, V.A.

    2011-01-01

    The ozone decay kinetics in the chemical reactor intended for used tyres disintegration is investigated experimentally and theoretically. Ozone was synthesized in barrierless ozonizers based on the streamer discharge. The chemical reactor for tyres disintegration in the ozone-air environment represents the cylindrical chamber, which feeds from the ozonizer by ozone-air mixture with the specified rate of volume flow, and with known ozone concentration. The output of the used mixture, which rate of volume flow is also known, is carried out through the ozone destructor. As a result of ozone decay in the volume and on the reactor walls, and output of the used mixture from the reactor, the ozone concentration in the reactor depends from time. In the paper, the analytical expression for dependence of ozone concentration in the reactor from time and from the parameters of a problem such as the volumetric feed rate, ozone concentration on the input in the reactor, volume flow rate of the used mixture, the volume of the reactor and the area of its internal surface is obtained. It is shown that experimental results coincide with good accuracy with analytical ones.

  13. Seasonal Changes in Tropospheric Ozone Concentrations over South Korea and Its Link to Ozone Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H. C.; Moon, B. K.; Wie, J.

    2017-12-01

    Concentration of tropospheric ozone over South Korea has steadily been on the rise in the last decades, mainly due to rapid industrializing and urbanizing in the Eastern Asia. To identify the characteristics of tropospheric ozone in South Korea, we fitted a sine function to the surface ozone concentration data from 2005 to 2014. Based on fitted sine curves, we analyzed the shifts in the dates on which ozone concentration reached its peak in the calendar year. Ozone monitoring sites can be classified into type types: where the highest annual ozone concentration kept occurring sooner (Esites) and those that kept occurring later (Lsites). The seasonal analysis shows that the surface ozone had increased more rapidly in Esites than in Lsites in the past decade during springtime and vice-versa during summertime. We tried to find the reason for the different seasonal trends with the relationship between ozone and ozone precursors. As a result, it was found that the changes in the ground-level ozone concentration in the spring and summer times are considerably influenced by changes in nitrogen dioxide concentration, and this is closely linked to the destruction (production) process of ozone by nitrogen dioxide in spring (summer). The link between tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide discussed in this study will have to be thoroughly examined through climate-chemistry modeling in the future. Acknowledgements This research was supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) as "Climate Change Correspondence Program."

  14. Evaluation of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ozone profiles from nine different algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Y.J.; Swart, D.P.J.; Baier, F.; Bhartia, P.K.; Bodeker, G.E.; Casadio, S.; Chance, K.; Frate, Del F.; Erbertseder, T.; Felder, M.D.; Flynn, L.E.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Hansen, G.; Hasekamp, O.P.; Kaifel, A.; Kelder, H.M.; Kerridge, B.J.; Lambert, J.-C.; Landgraf, J.; Latter, B.G.; Liu, X.; McDermid, I.S.; Pachepsky, Y.; Rozanov, V.; Siddans, R.; Tellmann, S.; A, van der R.J.; Oss, van R.F.; Weber, M.; Zehner, C.

    2006-01-01

    An evaluation is made of ozone profiles retrieved from measurements of the nadir-viewing Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) instrument. Currently, four different approaches are used to retrieve ozone profile information from GOME measurements, which differ in the use of external information

  15. Towards the retrieval of tropospheric ozone with the ozone monitoring instrument (OMI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mielonen, T.; De Haan, J.F.; Van Peet, J.C.A.; Eremenko, M.; Veefkind, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    We have assessed the sensitivity of the operational Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) ozone profile retrieval algorithm to a number of a priori and radiative transfer assumptions. We studied the effect of stray light correction, surface albedo assumptions and a priori ozone profiles on the retrieved

  16. Ozone depletion potentials of halocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karol, I.L.; Kiselev, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of ozone depletion potential (ODP) is widely used in the evaluation of numerous halocarbons and of their replacements for effects on ozone, but the methods, model assumptions and conditions of ODP calculation have not been analyzed adequately. In this paper, a model study of effects on ozone after the instantaneous releases of various amounts of CH 3 CCl 3 and of CHF 2 Cl(HCFC-22) in the several conditions of the background atmosphere are presented, aimed to understand the main connections of ODP values with the methods of their calculations. To facilitate the ODP computation in numerous versions for long after the releases, the above rather short-lived gases have been used. The variation of released gas global mass from 1 Mt to 1 Gt leads to ODP value increase atmosphere. The same variations are analyzed for the CFC-free atmosphere of 1960s conditions for the anthropogenically loaded atmosphere in the 21st century according to the known IPCC- A scenario (business as usual). Recommendations of proper ways of ODP calculations are proposed for practically important cases

  17. Synthesis of pure ozone by nanosecond discharge at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirov, R.H.; Asinovsky, E.I.; Samoilov, I.S.

    1996-01-01

    Synthesis of pure ozone by nanosecond discharge at cryogenic temperatures was experimentally examined. The average ozone concentration in the volume of the discharge tube was less at cryogenic temperatures than at room temperatures. The production of condensed ozone have been determined by measuring the ozone concentration when the walls was heated and ozone evaporated. The energy yield of ozone generation at cryogenic temperatures has been calculated. The maximum value was 200 g/kWh

  18. Chromosome breakage in Vicia faba by ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetner, R H

    1958-02-15

    Meristem cells of Vicia faba roots were exposed to an atmosphere of ozone and the fraction of cells showing chromosome aberrations were recorded. Chromosome aberrations were observed on a dose-response basis after exposing the seeds to 0.4 wt. percent ozone for 15, 30, and 60 minutes. The results of ozone, x-rays, and ozone and x-ray treatments are presented. A small number of root tips from each group was treated with colchicine and an analysis made of metaphase aberrations. These observations confirmed that the aberrations were all of the chromosome-type.

  19. Solar dynamics influence on the atmospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogosheva, T.; Grigorieva, V.; Mendeva, B.; Krastev, D.; Petkov, B.

    2007-01-01

    A response of the atmospheric ozone to the solar dynamics has been studied using the total ozone content data, taken from the satellite experiments GOME on ERS-2 and TOMS-EP together with data obtained from the ground-based spectrophotometer Photon operating in Stara Zagora, Bulgaria during the period 1999-2005. We also use data from surface ozone observations performed in Sofia, Bulgaria. The solar activity was characterized by the sunspot daily numbers W, the solar radio flux at 10.7 cm (F10.7) and the MgII wing-to-core ratio solar index. The impact of the solar activity on the total ozone has been investigated analysing the ozone response to sharp changes of these parameters. Some of the examined cases showed a positive correlation between the ozone and the solar parameters, however, a negative correlation in other cases was found. There were some cases when the sharp increases of the solar activity did not provoke any ozone changes. The solar radiation changes during an eclipse can be considered a particular case of the solar dynamics as this event causes a sharp change of irradiance within a comparatively short time interval. The results of both - the total and surface ozone measurements carried out during the eclipses on 11 August 1999, 31 May 2003 and 29 March 2006 are presented. It was found that the atmospheric ozone behavior shows strong response to the fast solar radiation changes which take place during solar eclipse. (authors)

  20. Ozone pollution and ozone biomonitoring in European cities Part II. Ozone-induced plant injury and its relationship with descriptors of ozone pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, A.; Ansel, W.; Klumpp, G.

    2006-01-01

    within local networks were relatively small, but seasonal and inter-annual differences were strong due to the variability of meteorological conditions and related ozone concentrations. The 2001 data revealed a significant relationship between foliar injury degree and various descriptors of ozone...... pollution such as mean value, AOT20 and AOT40. Examining individual sites of the local monitoring networks separately, however, yielded noticeable differences. Some sites showed no association between ozone pollution and ozone-induced effects, whereas others featured almost linear relationships...

  1. RNA secondary structure diagrams for very large molecules: RNAfdl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecker, Nikolai; Wiegels, Tim; Torda, Andrew E.

    2013-01-01

    There are many programs that can read the secondary structure of an RNA molecule and draw a diagram, but hardly any that can cope with 10 3 bases. RNAfdl is slow but capable of producing intersection-free diagrams for ribosome-sized structures, has a graphical user interface for adjustments...

  2. Exploring the QCD phase diagram through relativistic heavy ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanty Bedangadas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of the studies related to establishing the QCD phase diagram through high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. We particularly focus on the experimental results related to the formation of a quark-gluon phase, crossover transition and search for a critical point in the QCD phase diagram.

  3. Modeling cancer registration processes with an enhanced activity diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyalin, D; Williams, W

    2005-01-01

    Adequate instruments are needed to reflect the complexity of routine cancer registry operations properly in a business model. The activity diagram is a key instrument of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) for the modeling of business processes. The authors aim to improve descriptions of processes in cancer registration, as well as in other public health domains, through the enhancements of an activity diagram notation within the standard semantics of UML. The authors introduced the practical approach to enhance a conventional UML activity diagram, complementing it with the following business process concepts: timeline, duration for individual activities, responsibilities for individual activities within swimlanes, and descriptive text. The authors used an enhanced activity diagram for modeling surveillance processes in the cancer registration domain. Specific example illustrates the use of an enhanced activity diagram to visualize a process of linking cancer registry records with external mortality files. Enhanced activity diagram allows for the addition of more business concepts to a single diagram and can improve descriptions of processes in cancer registration, as well as in other domains. Additional features of an enhanced activity diagram allow to advance the visualization of cancer registration processes. That, in turn, promotes the clarification of issues related to the process timeline, responsibilities for particular operations, and collaborations among process participants. Our first experiences in a cancer registry best practices development workshop setting support the usefulness of such an approach.

  4. Spacelike penguin diagram effects in B implies PP decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, D.; Yang, M.; Zhang, D.

    1996-01-01

    The spacelike penguin diagram contributions to branching ratios and CP asymmetries in charmless decays of B to two pseudoscalar mesons are studied using the next-to-leading order low energy effective Hamiltonian. Both the gluonic penguin and the electroweak penguin diagrams are considered. We find that the effects are significant. copyright 1995 The American Physical Society

  5. Diagram, Gesture, Agency: Theorizing Embodiment in the Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Elizabeth; Sinclair, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we use the work of philosopher Gilles Chatelet to rethink the gesture/diagram relationship and to explore the ways mathematical agency is constituted through it. We argue for a fundamental philosophical shift to better conceptualize the relationship between gesture and diagram, and suggest that such an approach might open up new…

  6. Drawing Euler Diagrams with Circles: The Theory of Piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Gem; Leishi Zhang; Howse, John; Rodgers, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Euler diagrams are effective tools for visualizing set intersections. They have a large number of application areas ranging from statistical data analysis to software engineering. However, the automated generation of Euler diagrams has never been easy: given an abstract description of a required Euler diagram, it is computationally expensive to generate the diagram. Moreover, the generated diagrams represent sets by polygons, sometimes with quite irregular shapes that make the diagrams less comprehensible. In this paper, we address these two issues by developing the theory of piercings, where we define single piercing curves and double piercing curves. We prove that if a diagram can be built inductively by successively adding piercing curves under certain constraints, then it can be drawn with circles, which are more esthetically pleasing than arbitrary polygons. The theory of piercings is developed at the abstract level. In addition, we present a Java implementation that, given an inductively pierced abstract description, generates an Euler diagram consisting only of circles within polynomial time.

  7. A comparison of two approaches for solving unconstrained influence diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlmann-Ohlsen, Kristian S.; Jensen, Finn V.; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    2009-01-01

    Influence diagrams and decision trees represent the two most common frameworks for specifying and solving decision problems. As modeling languages, both of these frameworks require that the decision analyst specifies all possible sequences of observations and decisions (in influence diagrams, thi...

  8. Heuristic Diagrams as a Tool to Teach History of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamizo, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    The graphic organizer called here heuristic diagram as an improvement of Gowin's Vee heuristic is proposed as a tool to teach history of science. Heuristic diagrams have the purpose of helping students (or teachers, or researchers) to understand their own research considering that asks and problem-solving are central to scientific activity. The…

  9. Stability diagram for the forced Kuramoto model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Lauren M; Strogatz, Steven H

    2008-12-01

    We analyze the periodically forced Kuramoto model. This system consists of an infinite population of phase oscillators with random intrinsic frequencies, global sinusoidal coupling, and external sinusoidal forcing. It represents an idealization of many phenomena in physics, chemistry, and biology in which mutual synchronization competes with forced synchronization. In other words, the oscillators in the population try to synchronize with one another while also trying to lock onto an external drive. Previous work on the forced Kuramoto model uncovered two main types of attractors, called forced entrainment and mutual entrainment, but the details of the bifurcations between them were unclear. Here we present a complete bifurcation analysis of the model for a special case in which the infinite-dimensional dynamics collapse to a two-dimensional system. Exact results are obtained for the locations of Hopf, saddle-node, and Takens-Bogdanov bifurcations. The resulting stability diagram bears a striking resemblance to that for the weakly nonlinear forced van der Pol oscillator.

  10. The phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellappa, Raja S.; Dattelbaum, Dana M.; Velisavljevic, Nenad; Sheffield, Stephen

    2012-08-01

    The pressure-temperature (P-T) phase diagram of ammonium nitrate (AN) [NH4NO3] has been determined using synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy measurements. Phase boundaries were established by characterizing phase transitions to the high temperature polymorphs during multiple P-T measurements using both XRD and Raman spectroscopy measurements. At room temperature, the ambient pressure orthorhombic (Pmmn) AN-IV phase was stable up to 45 GPa and no phase transitions were observed. AN-IV phase was also observed to be stable in a large P-T phase space. The phase boundaries are steep with a small phase stability regime for high temperature phases. A P-V-T equation of state based on a high temperature Birch-Murnaghan formalism was obtained by simultaneously fitting the P-V isotherms at 298, 325, 446, and 467 K, thermal expansion data at 1 bar, and volumes from P-T ramping experiments. Anomalous thermal expansion behavior of AN was observed at high pressure with a modest negative thermal expansion in the 3-11 GPa range for temperatures up to 467 K. The role of vibrational anharmonicity in this anomalous thermal expansion behavior has been established using high P-T Raman spectroscopy.

  11. Lattice investigations of the QCD phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, Jana

    2016-01-01

    To understand the physics in the early universe as well as in heavy ion collisions a throughout understanding of the theory of strong interaction, quantum chromodynamics (QCD), is important. Lattice QCD provides a tool to study it from first principles. However due to the sign problem direct simulations with physical conditions are at the moment limited to zero chemical potential. In this thesis I present a circumvention of this problem. We can gain information on the QCD phase diagram and the equation of state from analytical continuation of results extracted from simulations at imaginary chemical potential. The topological susceptibility is very expensive to compute in Lattice QCD. However it provides an important ingredient for the estimation of the axion mass. The axion is a possible candidate for a dark matter, which plays in important role in the understanding of our universe. In this thesis I discuss two techniques that make it possible to determine the topological susceptibility and allow for an estimation of the axion mass. I then use this mass restrain to analyze the idea of an experiment to detect axions with a dielectric mirror.

  12. Lattice investigations of the QCD phase diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, Jana

    2016-12-15

    To understand the physics in the early universe as well as in heavy ion collisions a throughout understanding of the theory of strong interaction, quantum chromodynamics (QCD), is important. Lattice QCD provides a tool to study it from first principles. However due to the sign problem direct simulations with physical conditions are at the moment limited to zero chemical potential. In this thesis I present a circumvention of this problem. We can gain information on the QCD phase diagram and the equation of state from analytical continuation of results extracted from simulations at imaginary chemical potential. The topological susceptibility is very expensive to compute in Lattice QCD. However it provides an important ingredient for the estimation of the axion mass. The axion is a possible candidate for a dark matter, which plays in important role in the understanding of our universe. In this thesis I discuss two techniques that make it possible to determine the topological susceptibility and allow for an estimation of the axion mass. I then use this mass restrain to analyze the idea of an experiment to detect axions with a dielectric mirror.

  13. Cost-effectiveness Analysis with Influence Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, M; Díez, F J

    2015-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is used increasingly in medicine to determine whether the health benefit of an intervention is worth the economic cost. Decision trees, the standard decision modeling technique for non-temporal domains, can only perform CEA for very small problems. To develop a method for CEA in problems involving several dozen variables. We explain how to build influence diagrams (IDs) that explicitly represent cost and effectiveness. We propose an algorithm for evaluating cost-effectiveness IDs directly, i.e., without expanding an equivalent decision tree. The evaluation of an ID returns a set of intervals for the willingness to pay - separated by cost-effectiveness thresholds - and, for each interval, the cost, the effectiveness, and the optimal intervention. The algorithm that evaluates the ID directly is in general much more efficient than the brute-force method, which is in turn more efficient than the expansion of an equivalent decision tree. Using OpenMarkov, an open-source software tool that implements this algorithm, we have been able to perform CEAs on several IDs whose equivalent decision trees contain millions of branches. IDs can perform CEA on large problems that cannot be analyzed with decision trees.

  14. Community detection by graph Voronoi diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deritei, Dávid; Lázár, Zsolt I.; Papp, István; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Sumi, Róbert; Varga, Levente; Ravasz Regan, Erzsébet; Ercsey-Ravasz, Mária

    2014-06-01

    Accurate and efficient community detection in networks is a key challenge for complex network theory and its applications. The problem is analogous to cluster analysis in data mining, a field rich in metric space-based methods. Common to these methods is a geometric, distance-based definition of clusters or communities. Here we propose a new geometric approach to graph community detection based on graph Voronoi diagrams. Our method serves as proof of principle that the definition of appropriate distance metrics on graphs can bring a rich set of metric space-based clustering methods to network science. We employ a simple edge metric that reflects the intra- or inter-community character of edges, and a graph density-based rule to identify seed nodes of Voronoi cells. Our algorithm outperforms most network community detection methods applicable to large networks on benchmark as well as real-world networks. In addition to offering a computationally efficient alternative for community detection, our method opens new avenues for adapting a wide range of data mining algorithms to complex networks from the class of centroid- and density-based clustering methods.

  15. Updating the Nomographical Diagrams for Dimensioning the Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Maria T.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the time period needed for structures design it is strongly recommended to use nomographical diagrams. The base for formation and updating the nomographical diagrams, stands on the charts presented by different technical publications. The updated charts use the same algorithm and calculation elements as the former diagrams in accordance to the latest prescriptions and European standards. The result consists in a chart, having the same properties, similar with the nomogragraphical diagrams already in us. As a general conclusion, even in our days, the nomographical diagrams are very easy to use. Taking into consideration the value of the moment it’s easy to find out the necessary reinforcement area and vice-verse, having the reinforcement area you can find out the capable moment. It still remains a useful opportunity for pre-sizing and designs the reinforced concrete sections.

  16. Analysis of Sequence Diagram Layout in Advanced UML Modelling Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ņikiforova Oksana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available System modelling using Unified Modelling Language (UML is the task that should be solved for software development. The more complex software becomes the higher requirements are stated to demonstrate the system to be developed, especially in its dynamic aspect, which in UML is offered by a sequence diagram. To solve this task, the main attention is devoted to the graphical presentation of the system, where diagram layout plays the central role in information perception. The UML sequence diagram due to its specific structure is selected for a deeper analysis on the elements’ layout. The authors research represents the abilities of modern UML modelling tools to offer automatic layout of the UML sequence diagram and analyse them according to criteria required for the diagram perception.

  17. Efficient computation of clipped Voronoi diagram for mesh generation

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming

    2013-04-01

    The Voronoi diagram is a fundamental geometric structure widely used in various fields, especially in computer graphics and geometry computing. For a set of points in a compact domain (i.e. a bounded and closed 2D region or a 3D volume), some Voronoi cells of their Voronoi diagram are infinite or partially outside of the domain, but in practice only the parts of the cells inside the domain are needed, as when computing the centroidal Voronoi tessellation. Such a Voronoi diagram confined to a compact domain is called a clipped Voronoi diagram. We present an efficient algorithm to compute the clipped Voronoi diagram for a set of sites with respect to a compact 2D region or a 3D volume. We also apply the proposed method to optimal mesh generation based on the centroidal Voronoi tessellation. Crown Copyright © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficient computation of clipped Voronoi diagram for mesh generation

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming; Wang, Wen Ping; Lé vy, Bruno L.; Liu, Yang

    2013-01-01

    The Voronoi diagram is a fundamental geometric structure widely used in various fields, especially in computer graphics and geometry computing. For a set of points in a compact domain (i.e. a bounded and closed 2D region or a 3D volume), some Voronoi cells of their Voronoi diagram are infinite or partially outside of the domain, but in practice only the parts of the cells inside the domain are needed, as when computing the centroidal Voronoi tessellation. Such a Voronoi diagram confined to a compact domain is called a clipped Voronoi diagram. We present an efficient algorithm to compute the clipped Voronoi diagram for a set of sites with respect to a compact 2D region or a 3D volume. We also apply the proposed method to optimal mesh generation based on the centroidal Voronoi tessellation. Crown Copyright © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reconciliation of Halogen-Induced Ozone Loss with the Total-Column Ozone Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, T. G.; Plummer, D. A.; Scinocca, J. F.; Hegglin, M. I.; Fioletov, V. E.; Reader, M. C.; Remsberg, E.; von Clarmann, T.; Wang, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    The observed depletion of the ozone layer from the 1980s onwards is attributed to halogen source gases emitted by human activities. However, the precision of this attribution is complicated by year-to-year variations in meteorology, that is, dynamical variability, and by changes in tropospheric ozone concentrations. As such, key aspects of the total-column ozone record, which combines changes in both tropospheric and stratospheric ozone, remain unexplained, such as the apparent absence of a decline in total-column ozone levels before 1980, and of any long-term decline in total-column ozone levels in the tropics. Here we use a chemistry-climate model to estimate changes in halogen-induced ozone loss between 1960 and 2010; the model is constrained by observed meteorology to remove the eects of dynamical variability, and driven by emissions of tropospheric ozone precursors to separate out changes in tropospheric ozone. We show that halogen-induced ozone loss closely followed stratospheric halogen loading over the studied period. Pronounced enhancements in ozone loss were apparent in both hemispheres following the volcanic eruptions of El Chichon and, in particular, Mount Pinatubo, which significantly enhanced stratospheric aerosol loads. We further show that approximately 40% of the long-term non-volcanic ozone loss occurred before 1980, and that long-term ozone loss also occurred in the tropical stratosphere. Finally, we show that halogeninduced ozone loss has declined by over 10% since stratospheric halogen loading peaked in the late 1990s, indicating that the recovery of the ozone layer is well underway.

  20. VennDiagramWeb: a web application for the generation of highly customizable Venn and Euler diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Felix; Lalansingh, Christopher M; Babaran, Holly E; Wang, Zhiyuan; Prokopec, Stephenie D; Fox, Natalie S; Boutros, Paul C

    2016-10-03

    Visualization of data generated by high-throughput, high-dimensionality experiments is rapidly becoming a rate-limiting step in computational biology. There is an ongoing need to quickly develop high-quality visualizations that can be easily customized or incorporated into automated pipelines. This often requires an interface for manual plot modification, rapid cycles of tweaking visualization parameters, and the generation of graphics code. To facilitate this process for the generation of highly-customizable, high-resolution Venn and Euler diagrams, we introduce VennDiagramWeb: a web application for the widely used VennDiagram R package. VennDiagramWeb is hosted at http://venndiagram.res.oicr.on.ca/ . VennDiagramWeb allows real-time modification of Venn and Euler diagrams, with parameter setting through a web interface and immediate visualization of results. It allows customization of essentially all aspects of figures, but also supports integration into computational pipelines via download of R code. Users can upload data and download figures in a range of formats, and there is exhaustive support documentation. VennDiagramWeb allows the easy creation of Venn and Euler diagrams for computational biologists, and indeed many other fields. Its ability to support real-time graphics changes that are linked to downloadable code that can be integrated into automated pipelines will greatly facilitate the improved visualization of complex datasets. For application support please contact Paul.Boutros@oicr.on.ca.

  1. Effects of Three Diagram Instruction Methods on Transfer of Diagram Comprehension Skills: The Critical Role of Inference While Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromley, Jennifer G.; Bergey, Bradley W.; Fitzhugh, Shannon; Newcombe, Nora; Wills, Theodore W.; Shipley, Thomas F.; Tanaka, Jacqueline C.

    2013-01-01

    Can students be taught to better comprehend the diagrams in their textbooks? Can such teaching transfer to uninstructed diagrams in the same domain or even in a new domain? What methods work best for these goals? Building on previous research showing positive results compared to control groups in both laboratory studies and short-term…

  2. Collaborative diagramming during problem based learning in medical education: Do computerized diagrams support basic science knowledge construction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leng, Bas; Gijlers, Hannie

    2015-05-01

    To examine how collaborative diagramming affects discussion and knowledge construction when learning complex basic science topics in medical education, including its effectiveness in the reformulation phase of problem-based learning. Opinions and perceptions of students (n = 70) and tutors (n = 4) who used collaborative diagramming in tutorial groups were collected with a questionnaire and focus group discussions. A framework derived from the analysis of discourse in computer-supported collaborative leaning was used to construct the questionnaire. Video observations were used during the focus group discussions. Both students and tutors felt that collaborative diagramming positively affected discussion and knowledge construction. Students particularly appreciated that diagrams helped them to structure knowledge, to develop an overview of topics, and stimulated them to find relationships between topics. Tutors emphasized that diagramming increased interaction and enhanced the focus and detail of the discussion. Favourable conditions were the following: working with a shared whiteboard, using a diagram format that facilitated distribution, and applying half filled-in diagrams for non-content expert tutors and\\or for heterogeneous groups with low achieving students. The empirical findings in this study support the findings of earlier more descriptive studies that diagramming in a collaborative setting is valuable for learning complex knowledge in medicine.

  3. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2, Technology Logic Diagram: Part B, Remedial Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Part A of Vols. 1. and 2 focuses on D&D. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the RA of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. Remedial action is the focus of Vol. 2, Pt. B, which has been divided into the three necessary subelements of the RA: characterization, RA, and robotics and automation. Each of these sections address general ORNL problems, which are then broken down by problem area/constituents and linked to potential remedial technologies. The diagrams also contain summary information about a technology`s status, its science and technology needs, and its implementation needs.

  4. The Eh-pH Diagram and Its Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hsiung Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Pourbaix presented Eh versus pH diagrams in his “Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solution”, diagrams have become extremely popular and are now used in almost every scientific area related to aqueous chemistry. Due to advances in personal computers, such diagrams can now show effects not only of Eh and pH, but also of variables, including ligand(s, temperature and pressure. Examples from various fields are illustrated in this paper. Examples include geochemical formation, corrosion and passivation, precipitation and adsorption for water treatment and leaching and metal recovery for hydrometallurgy. Two basic methods were developed to construct an Eh-pH diagram concerning the ligand component(s. The first method calculates and draws a line between two adjacent species based on their given activities. The second method performs equilibrium calculations over an array of points (500 × 800 or higher are preferred, each representing one Eh and one pH value for the whole system, then combines areas of each dominant species for the diagram. These two methods may produce different diagrams. The fundamental theories, illustrated results, comparison and required conditions behind these two methods are presented and discussed in this paper. The Gibbs phase rule equation for an Eh-pH diagram was derived and verified from actual plots. Besides indicating the stability area of water, an Eh-pH diagram normally shows only half of an overall reaction. However, merging two or more related diagrams together reveals more clearly the possibility of the reactions involved. For instance, leaching of Au with cyanide followed by cementing Au with Zn (Merrill-Crowe process can be illustrated by combining Au-CN and Zn-CN diagrams together. A second example of the galvanic conversion of chalcopyrite can be explained by merging S, Fe–S and Cu–Fe–S diagrams. The calculation of an Eh-pH diagram can be extended easily into another dimension, such

  5. Phase diagrams of Pr-C system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremenko, V.N.; Velikanova, T.Ya.; Gordijchuk, O.V.

    1988-01-01

    Results of the X-ray phase, metallographic and high-temperature differential thermal analysis are used for the first time to plot a diagram of the Pr-C system state. Carbides are formed in the system: Pr 2 C 3 with the bcc-structure of the Pu 2 C 3 type and with the period a 0 = 0.85722+-0.00026 within the phase region + 2 C 3 >, a 0 0.86078+-0.00016 nm - within the region 2 C 3 >+α-PrC 2 ; dimorphous PrC 2 : α-PrC 2 with the bct-structure of the CaC 2 type and periods a 0.38517+-0.00011, c 0 = 0.64337+-0.00019 nm; β-PrC 2 with the fcc-structure, probably, of KCN type. Dicarbide melts congruently at 2320 grad. C, forming eutectics with graphite at 2254+-6 grad. C and composition of 71.5% (at.)C. It is polymorphously transformed in the phase region 2 C 3 > + 2 > at 1145+-4 grad. C, and in the region 2 >+C at 1134+-4 grad. C. Sesquicarbide melts incongruently at 1545+-4 grad. C. The eutectic reaction L ↔ + 2 C 3 > occurs at 800+-4 grad. C, the eutectic composition ∼ 15% (at.)C. The temperature of the eutectoid reaction ↔ + 2 C 3 > is 675+-6 grad C. The limiting carbon solubility in β-Pr is about 8 and in α-Pr it is about 5% (at.)

  6. Development of Compact Ozonizer with High Ozone Output by Pulsed Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Fumiaki; Ueda, Satoru; Kouno, Kanako; Sakugawa, Takashi; Akiyama, Hidenori; Kinoshita, Youhei

    Conventional ozonizer with a high ozone output using silent or surface discharges needs a cooling system and a dielectric barrier, and therefore becomes a large machine. A compact ozonizer without the cooling system and the dielectric barrier has been developed by using a pulsed power generated discharge. The wire to plane electrodes made of metal have been used. However, the ozone output was low. Here, a compact and high repetition rate pulsed power generator is used as an electric source of a compact ozonizer. The ozone output of 6.1 g/h and the ozone yield of 86 g/kWh are achieved at 500 pulses per second, input average power of 280 W and an air flow rate of 20 L/min.

  7. Classical Process diagrams and Service oriented Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mišovič

    2013-01-01

    services communicate with each other. The communication can involve either simple data or it could two or more services coordinating some activity. From the above mentioned we can pronounce a brief description of SOA. “SOA is an architectural style for consistency of business process logic and service architecture of the target software.”It is a complex of means for solution of special analysis, design, and integration of enterprise applications based on the use of enterprise services. The service solutions of the classic business process logic are, of course, based on the application of at least seven key principles of SOA (free relations, service contract, autonomy, abstraction, reusing, composition, no states. Key attributes of SOA are verbally described in (Erl, 2006. They are so important that a separate article should be devoted to their nature and formalization. On the other hand, there is also clear that each service solution of business logic should respect the principles published in SOA Manifesto, 2009, which are essentially derived from the key principles of SOA.In many publications there are given the SOA reference models usually composed of several layers (presentation layer, business process layer, composite services layer, application layer giving a meta idea of SOA implementation. Perfect knowledge of the business process logic is a necessary condition for the development of a proper service solution. The different types of business processes should be described in the necessary details and contexts.Interestingly, the SOA paradigm does not provide its own method of finding and describing business processes by giving a layered transparent business process diagram. On the other hand, the methodology provides deep understanding of not only the characteristics of services, but also their functionality and implementation of the key principles of SOA (Erl, 2006.Let us assume that the required process diagrams can be achieved by using some of the advanced

  8. Effects of ozone-vegetation coupling on surface ozone air quality via biogeochemical and meteorological feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Mehliyar; Tai, Amos P. K.; Lombardozzi, Danica; Martin, Maria Val

    2017-02-01

    Tropospheric ozone is one of the most hazardous air pollutants as it harms both human health and plant productivity. Foliage uptake of ozone via dry deposition damages photosynthesis and causes stomatal closure. These foliage changes could lead to a cascade of biogeochemical and biogeophysical effects that not only modulate the carbon cycle, regional hydrometeorology and climate, but also cause feedbacks onto surface ozone concentration itself. In this study, we implement a semi-empirical parameterization of ozone damage on vegetation in the Community Earth System Model to enable online ozone-vegetation coupling, so that for the first time ecosystem structure and ozone concentration can coevolve in fully coupled land-atmosphere simulations. With ozone-vegetation coupling, present-day surface ozone is simulated to be higher by up to 4-6 ppbv over Europe, North America and China. Reduced dry deposition velocity following ozone damage contributes to ˜ 40-100 % of those increases, constituting a significant positive biogeochemical feedback on ozone air quality. Enhanced biogenic isoprene emission is found to contribute to most of the remaining increases, and is driven mainly by higher vegetation temperature that results from lower transpiration rate. This isoprene-driven pathway represents an indirect, positive meteorological feedback. The reduction in both dry deposition and transpiration is mostly associated with reduced stomatal conductance following ozone damage, whereas the modification of photosynthesis and further changes in ecosystem productivity are found to play a smaller role in contributing to the ozone-vegetation feedbacks. Our results highlight the need to consider two-way ozone-vegetation coupling in Earth system models to derive a more complete understanding and yield more reliable future predictions of ozone air quality.

  9. Homotopy theory of modules over diagrams of rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. C. Greenlees

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Given a diagram of rings, one may consider the category of modules over them. We are interested in the homotopy theory of categories of this type: given a suitable diagram of model categories ℳ( (as runs through the diagram, we consider the category of diagrams where the object ( at comes from ℳ(. We develop model structures on such categories of diagrams and Quillen adjunctions that relate categories based on different diagram shapes. Under certain conditions, cellularizations (or right Bousfield localizations of these adjunctions induce Quillen equivalences. As an application we show that a cellularization of a category of modules over a diagram of ring spectra (or differential graded rings is Quillen equivalent to modules over the associated inverse limit of the rings. Another application of the general machinery here is given in work by the authors on algebraic models of rational equivariant spectra. Some of this material originally appeared in the preprint “An algebraic model for rational torus-equivariant stable homotopy theory”, arXiv:1101.2511, but has been generalized here.

  10. Penguin-like diagrams from the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping, Chia Swee

    2015-01-01

    The Standard Model is highly successful in describing the interactions of leptons and quarks. There are, however, rare processes that involve higher order effects in electroweak interactions. One specific class of processes is the penguin-like diagram. Such class of diagrams involves the neutral change of quark flavours accompanied by the emission of a gluon (gluon penguin), a photon (photon penguin), a gluon and a photon (gluon-photon penguin), a Z-boson (Z penguin), or a Higgs-boson (Higgs penguin). Such diagrams do not arise at the tree level in the Standard Model. They are, however, induced by one-loop effects. In this paper, we present an exact calculation of the penguin diagram vertices in the ‘tHooft-Feynman gauge. Renormalization of the vertex is effected by a prescription by Chia and Chong which gives an expression for the counter term identical to that obtained by employing Ward-Takahashi identity. The on-shell vertex functions for the penguin diagram vertices are obtained. The various penguin diagram vertex functions are related to one another via Ward-Takahashi identity. From these, a set of relations is obtained connecting the vertex form factors of various penguin diagrams. Explicit expressions for the gluon-photon penguin vertex form factors are obtained, and their contributions to the flavor changing processes estimated

  11. Penguin-like diagrams from the standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ping, Chia Swee [High Impact Research, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    The Standard Model is highly successful in describing the interactions of leptons and quarks. There are, however, rare processes that involve higher order effects in electroweak interactions. One specific class of processes is the penguin-like diagram. Such class of diagrams involves the neutral change of quark flavours accompanied by the emission of a gluon (gluon penguin), a photon (photon penguin), a gluon and a photon (gluon-photon penguin), a Z-boson (Z penguin), or a Higgs-boson (Higgs penguin). Such diagrams do not arise at the tree level in the Standard Model. They are, however, induced by one-loop effects. In this paper, we present an exact calculation of the penguin diagram vertices in the ‘tHooft-Feynman gauge. Renormalization of the vertex is effected by a prescription by Chia and Chong which gives an expression for the counter term identical to that obtained by employing Ward-Takahashi identity. The on-shell vertex functions for the penguin diagram vertices are obtained. The various penguin diagram vertex functions are related to one another via Ward-Takahashi identity. From these, a set of relations is obtained connecting the vertex form factors of various penguin diagrams. Explicit expressions for the gluon-photon penguin vertex form factors are obtained, and their contributions to the flavor changing processes estimated.

  12. Plotting and Analyzing Data Trends in Ternary Diagrams Made Easy

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Cédric M.

    2004-04-01

    Ternary plots are used in many fields of science to characterize a system based on three components. Triangular plotting is thus useful to a broad audience in the Earth sciences and beyond. Unfortunately, it is typically the most expensive commercial software packages that offer the option to plot data in ternary diagrams, and they lack features that are paramount to the geosciences, such as the ability to plot data directly into a standardized diagram and the possibility to analyze temporal and stratigraphic trends within this diagram. To address these issues, δPlot was developed with a strong emphasis on ease of use, community orientation, and availability free of charges. This ``freeware'' supports a fully graphical user interface where data can be imported as text files, or by copying and pasting. A plot is automatically generated, and any standard diagram can be selected for plotting in the background using a simple pull-down menu. Standard diagrams are stored in an external database of PDF files that currently holds some 30 diagrams that deal with different fields of the Earth sciences. Using any drawing software supporting PDF, one can easily produce new standard diagrams to be used with δPlot by simply adding them to the library folder. An independent column of values, commonly stratigraphic depths or ages, can be used to sort the data sets.

  13. 21 CFR 173.368 - Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.368 Ozone. Ozone (CAS Reg. No. 10028-15-6) may be safely used in the treatment, storage, and processing of foods, including meat and poultry (unless such use is precluded by standards of identity in 9...

  14. Tropospheric ozone. Formation, properties, effects. Expert opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elstner, E.F.

    1996-01-01

    The formation and dispersion of tropospheric ozone are discussed only marginally in this expert opinion; the key interest is in the effects of ground level ozone on plants, animals, and humans. The expert opinion is based on an analysis of the available scientific publications. (orig./MG) [de

  15. Global Warming: Lessons from Ozone Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Art

    2010-01-01

    My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global warming. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of…

  16. 21 CFR 184.1563 - Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: Category of food Maximum treatment level in food Functional use Bottled water that prior to ozonation meets... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ozone. 184.1563 Section 184.1563 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  17. Ozone and its potential control strategy for Chon Buri city, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabamroong, Thayukorn; Manomaiphiboon, Kasemsan; Limpaseni, Wongpun; Sukhapan, Jariya; Bonnet, Sebastien

    2012-12-01

    This work studies O3 pollution for Chon Buri city in the eastern region of Thailand, where O3 has become an increased and serious concern in the last decade. It includes emission estimation and photochemical box modeling in support of investigating the underlying nature of O3 formation over the city and the roles of precursors emitted from sources. The year 2006 was considered and two single-day episodes (January 29 and February 14) were chosen for simulations. It was found that, in the city, the industrial sector is the largest emissions contributor for every O3 precursor (i.e., NO(x), non-methane volatile organic compounds or NMVOC, and CO), followed by on-road mobile group. Fugitive NMVOC is relatively large, emitted mainly from oil refineries and tank farms. Simulated results acceptably agree with observations for daily maximum O3 level in both episodes and evidently indicate the VOC-sensitive regime for O3 formation. This regime is also substantiated by morning NMVOC/NO(x) ratios observed in the city. The corresponding O3 isopleth diagrams suggest NMVOC control alone to lower elevated O3. In seeking a potential O3 control strategy for the city, a combination of brute-force sensitivity tests, an experimental design, statistical modeling, and cost optimization was employed. A number of emission subgroups were found to significantly contribute to O3 formation, based on the February 14 episode, for example, oil refinery (fugitive), tank farm (fugitive), passenger car (gasoline), and motorcycle (gasoline). But the cost-effective strategy suggests control only on the first two subgroups to meet the standard. The cost of implementing the strategy was estimated and found to be small (only 0.2%) compared to the gross provincial product generated by the entire province where the city is located within. These findings could be useful as a needed guideline to support O3 management for the city. Elevated O3 in the urban and industrial city of Chon Buri needs better

  18. Improvement of ozone yield by a multi-discharge type ozonizer using superposition of silent discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hyun-Jig; Chun, Byung-Joon; Lee, Kwang-Sik

    2004-01-01

    In order to improve ozone generation, we experimentally investigated the silent discharge plasma and ozone generation characteristics of a multi-discharge type ozonizer. Ozone in a multi-discharge type ozonizer is generated by superposition of a silent discharge plasma, which is simultaneously generated in separated discharge spaces. A multi-discharge type ozonizer is composed of three different kinds of superposed silent discharge type ozonizers, depending on the method of applying power to each electrode. We observed that the discharge period of the current pulse for a multi discharge type ozonizer can be longer than that of silent discharge type ozonizer with two electrodes and one gap. Hence, ozone generation is improved up to 17185 ppm and 783 g/kwh in the case of the superposed silent discharge type ozonizer for which an AC high voltages with a 180 .deg. phase difference were applied to the internal electrode and the external electrode, respectively, with the central electrode being grounded.

  19. Information content of ozone retrieval algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, C.; Bhartia, P. K.; Chu, W. P.; Curran, R.; Deluisi, J.; Gille, J. C.; Hudson, R.; Mateer, C.; Rusch, D.; Thomas, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    The algorithms are characterized that were used for production processing by the major suppliers of ozone data to show quantitatively: how the retrieved profile is related to the actual profile (This characterizes the altitude range and vertical resolution of the data); the nature of systematic errors in the retrieved profiles, including their vertical structure and relation to uncertain instrumental parameters; how trends in the real ozone are reflected in trends in the retrieved ozone profile; and how trends in other quantities (both instrumental and atmospheric) might appear as trends in the ozone profile. No serious deficiencies were found in the algorithms used in generating the major available ozone data sets. As the measurements are all indirect in someway, and the retrieved profiles have different characteristics, data from different instruments are not directly comparable.

  20. Ozone Gardens for the Citizen Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, Margaret; Reilly, Gay; Rodjom, Abbey; Malick, Emily

    2016-01-01

    NASA Langley partnered with the Virginia Living Museum and two schools to create ozone bio-indicator gardens for citizen scientists of all ages. The garden at the Marshall Learning Center is part of a community vegetable garden designed to teach young children where food comes from and pollution in their area, since most of the children have asthma. The Mt. Carmel garden is located at a K-8 school. Different ozone sensitive and ozone tolerant species are growing and being monitored for leaf injury. In addition, CairClip ozone monitors were placed in the gardens and data are compared to ozone levels at the NASA Langley Chemistry and Physics Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (CAPABLE) site in Hampton, VA. Leaf observations and plant measurements are made two to three times a week throughout the growing season.

  1. Computational analysis of ozonation in bubble columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinones-Bolanos, E.; Zhou, H.; Otten, L.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new computational ozonation model based on the principle of computational fluid dynamics along with the kinetics of ozone decay and microbial inactivation to predict the performance of ozone disinfection in fine bubble columns. The model can be represented using a mixture two-phase flow model to simulate the hydrodynamics of the water flow and using two transport equations to track the concentration profiles of ozone and microorganisms along the height of the column, respectively. The applicability of this model was then demonstrated by comparing the simulated ozone concentrations with experimental measurements obtained from a pilot scale fine bubble column. One distinct advantage of this approach is that it does not require the prerequisite assumptions such as plug flow condition, perfect mixing, tanks-in-series, uniform radial or longitudinal dispersion in predicting the performance of disinfection contactors without carrying out expensive and tedious tracer studies. (author)

  2. Ozone reaction on slime mold. [Physarum polycephalum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanoh, F.

    1972-01-01

    To determine the effect of ozone, the motive force responsible for protoplasmic streaming in the slime mold, Physarum polycephalum was measured by the Double chamber method which was developed by Kamiya. The effects of ozone on the motive force were investigated by comparison of the Dynamoplasmogram of controls with that of ozone exposure. In the case of high concentration exposure, thickening of plasmagel, inversion of the period of flow and reduction of the extreme point were observed. Succinoxidase of exposed homogenates showed stronger activity than that of controls. It is certain that the Pasteur reaction takes place when plasmodium is kept under high ozone exposure condition. It appears that ozone inhibited a part of the process of glycolysis. 32 references, 8 figures.

  3. The depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabogal Nelson

    2000-01-01

    The protection of the Earth's ozone layer is of the highest importance to mankind. The dangers of its destruction are by now well known. The depletion of that layer has reached record levels. The Antarctic ozone hole covered this year a record area. The ozone layer is predicted to begin recovery in the next one or two decades and should be restored to pre-1980 levels by 2050. This is the achievement of the regime established by the 1985 Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The regime established by these two agreements has been revised, and made more effective in London (1990), Copenhagen (1992), Vienna (1995), and Beijing (1999)

  4. Ozone sensitivity of plants in natural communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treshow, M; Stewart, D

    1973-07-01

    Field fumigation studies conducted in grassland, oak, aspen, and conifer, communities established the injury threshold of prevalent plant species to ozone. Several important species, including Bromus tectorum, Quercus gambelii, and Populus tremuloides, were injured by a single 2-hours exposure to 15 pphM ozone. Over half the perennial forbs and woody species studied were visibly injured at concentrations of 30 pphM ozone or less. It is postulated that lower concentrations at prolonged or repeated exposures to ozone may impair growth and affect community vigor and stability. Continued exposure of natural plant communities to ozone is expected to initiate major shifts in the plant composition of communities. 10 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  5. Mollier-h,x diagram for moist flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H; Hultsch, T; Suder, M

    1984-07-01

    Diagrams and formulae are presented for calculation of enthalpy and moisture content of flue gas from brown coal, heating oil, black coal and brown coal briquet combustion. The enthalpy (in kJ/kg) and moisture (g/kg) diagrams were established by computer graphics for pressure 0.1 MPa. A further diagram is provided for enthalpy and flue gas moisture, varying the combustion air supply according to coal dust and to grate firing. These thermodynamic calculations are regarded as significant for assessing methods of flue gas cooling below the moisture dew point and for waste heat recovery. 3 references.

  6. A Three-dimensional Topological Model of Ternary Phase Diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Yingxue; Bao, Hong

    2017-01-01

    In order to obtain a visualization of the complex internal structure of ternary phase diagram, the paper realized a three-dimensional topology model of ternary phase diagram with the designed data structure and improved algorithm, under the guidance of relevant theories of computer graphics. The purpose of the model is mainly to analyze the relationship between each phase region of a ternary phase diagram. The model not only obtain isothermal section graph at any temperature, but also extract a particular phase region in which users are interested. (paper)

  7. Research principles and the construction of mnemonic diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venda, V. F.; Mitkin, A. A.

    1973-01-01

    Mnemonic diagrams are defined as a variety of information display devices, the essential element of which is conventional graphical presentation of technological or functional-operational links in a controlled system or object. Graphically displaying the operational structure of an object, the interd dependence between different parameters, and the interdependence between indicators and control organs, the mneomonic diagram reduces the load on the operator's memory and facilitates perception and reprocessing of information and decision making, while at the same time playing the role of visual support to the information activity of the operator. The types of mnemonic diagrams are listed.

  8. Ferrian Ilmenites: Investigating the Magnetic Phase Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagroix, F.

    2007-12-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the magnetic phase changes within the hematite-ilmenite solid solution, yFeTiO3·(1-y)·Fe2O3. Two sets of synthetic ferrian ilmenites of y-values equal to 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, and 1.0 were available for this study. As currently drawn, the magnetic phase diagram, proposed by Ishikawa et al. [1985, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. v.54, 312-325], predicts for increasing y values (0.5

  9. An updated Type II supernova Hubble diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, E. E. E.; Kotak, R.; Leibundgut, B.; Taubenberger, S.; Hillebrandt, W.; Kromer, M.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K.; Flewelling, H.; Huber, M. E.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Smith, K.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.

    2018-03-01

    We present photometry and spectroscopy of nine Type II-P/L supernovae (SNe) with redshifts in the 0.045 ≲ z ≲ 0.335 range, with a view to re-examining their utility as distance indicators. Specifically, we apply the expanding photosphere method (EPM) and the standardized candle method (SCM) to each target, and find that both methods yield distances that are in reasonable agreement with each other. The current record-holder for the highest-redshift spectroscopically confirmed supernova (SN) II-P is PS1-13bni (z = 0.335-0.012+0.009), and illustrates the promise of Type II SNe as cosmological tools. We updated existing EPM and SCM Hubble diagrams by adding our sample to those previously published. Within the context of Type II SN distance measuring techniques, we investigated two related questions. First, we explored the possibility of utilising spectral lines other than the traditionally used Fe IIλ5169 to infer the photospheric velocity of SN ejecta. Using local well-observed objects, we derive an epoch-dependent relation between the strong Balmer line and Fe IIλ5169 velocities that is applicable 30 to 40 days post-explosion. Motivated in part by the continuum of key observables such as rise time and decline rates exhibited from II-P to II-L SNe, we assessed the possibility of using Hubble-flow Type II-L SNe as distance indicators. These yield similar distances as the Type II-P SNe. Although these initial results are encouraging, a significantly larger sample of SNe II-L would be required to draw definitive conclusions. Tables A.1, A.3, A.5, A.7, A.9, A.11, A.13, A.15 and A.17 are also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/611/A25

  10. Ozone kinetics in low-pressure discharges: vibrationally excited ozone and molecule formation on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, Daniil; Guerra, Vasco; Guaitella, Olivier; Booth, Jean-Paul; Rousseau, Antoine

    2013-10-01

    A combined experimental and modeling investigation of the ozone kinetics in the afterglow of pulsed direct current discharges in oxygen is carried out. The discharge is generated in a cylindrical silica tube of radius 1 cm, with short pulse durations between 0.5 and 2 ms, pressures in the range 1-5 Torr and discharge currents ˜40-120 mA. Time-resolved absolute concentrations of ground-state atoms and ozone molecules were measured simultaneously in situ, by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence and ultraviolet absorption, respectively. The experiments were complemented by a self-consistent model developed to interpret the results and, in particular, to evaluate the roles of vibrationally excited ozone and of ozone formation on surfaces. It is found that vibrationally excited ozone, O_3^{*} , plays an important role in the ozone kinetics, leading to a decrease in the ozone concentration and an increase in its formation time. In turn, the kinetics of O_3^{*} is strongly coupled with those of atomic oxygen and O2(a 1Δg) metastables. Ozone formation at the wall does not contribute significantly to the total ozone production under the present conditions. Upper limits for the effective heterogeneous recombination probability of O atoms into ozone are established.

  11. Ozone kinetics in low-pressure discharges: vibrationally excited ozone and molecule formation on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinov, Daniil; Guaitella, Olivier; Booth, Jean-Paul; Rousseau, Antoine; Guerra, Vasco

    2013-01-01

    A combined experimental and modeling investigation of the ozone kinetics in the afterglow of pulsed direct current discharges in oxygen is carried out. The discharge is generated in a cylindrical silica tube of radius 1 cm, with short pulse durations between 0.5 and 2 ms, pressures in the range 1–5 Torr and discharge currents ∼40–120 mA. Time-resolved absolute concentrations of ground-state atoms and ozone molecules were measured simultaneously in situ, by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence and ultraviolet absorption, respectively. The experiments were complemented by a self-consistent model developed to interpret the results and, in particular, to evaluate the roles of vibrationally excited ozone and of ozone formation on surfaces. It is found that vibrationally excited ozone, O 3 * , plays an important role in the ozone kinetics, leading to a decrease in the ozone concentration and an increase in its formation time. In turn, the kinetics of O 3 * is strongly coupled with those of atomic oxygen and O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) metastables. Ozone formation at the wall does not contribute significantly to the total ozone production under the present conditions. Upper limits for the effective heterogeneous recombination probability of O atoms into ozone are established. (paper)

  12. Stratospheric ozone chemistry in the Antarctic: what determines the lowest ozone values reached and their recovery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-U. Grooß

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Balloon-borne observations of ozone from the South Pole Station have been reported to reach ozone mixing ratios below the detection limit of about 10 ppbv at the 70 hPa level by late September. After reaching a minimum, ozone mixing ratios increase to above 1 ppmv on the 70 hPa level by late December. While the basic mechanisms causing the ozone hole have been known for more than 20 yr, the detailed chemical processes determining how low the local concentration can fall, and how it recovers from the minimum have not been explored so far. Both of these aspects are investigated here by analysing results from the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS. As ozone falls below about 0.5 ppmv, a balance is maintained by gas phase production of both HCl and HOCl followed by heterogeneous reaction between these two compounds in these simulations. Thereafter, a very rapid, irreversible chlorine deactivation into HCl can occur, either when ozone drops to values low enough for gas phase HCl production to exceed chlorine activation processes or when temperatures increase above the polar stratospheric cloud (PSC threshold. As a consequence, the timing and mixing ratio of the minimum ozone depends sensitively on model parameters, including the ozone initialisation. The subsequent ozone increase between October and December is linked mainly to photochemical ozone production, caused by oxygen photolysis and by the oxidation of carbon monoxide and methane.

  13. Ozone therapy and restorative dentistry: a literature review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This approach is being further reinforced with the emergence of ozone therapy in the management of tooth decay. Ozone therapy is the treatment of the tooth with a mixture of oxygen and ozone. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive literature on ozone therapy and on the different areas of restorative dental ...

  14. Study: Ozone Layer's Future Linked Strongly to Changes in Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    balloon to measure of the vertical profile of the ozone layer. NOAA scientists launch an ozonesonde via balloon to measure of the vertical profile of the ozone layer. NOAA releases ozonesondes at eight sites to continuously monitor stratospheric ozone. Download here. (Credit: NOAA) The ozone layer - the thin

  15. Influence of the ozone profile above Madrid (Spain) on Brewer estimation of ozone air mass factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, M. [Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Evora Univ. (PT). Goephysics Centre of Evora (CGE); Lopez, M.; Banon, M. [Agenica Estatal de Meteorologia (AEMET), Madrid (Spain); Costa, M.J.; Silva, A.M. [Evora Univ. (PT). Goephysics Centre of Evora (CGE); Evora Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Physics; Serrano, A. [Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Bortoli, D. [Evora Univ. (PT). Goephysics Centre of Evora (CGE); Vilaplana, J.M. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA), Huelva (Spain). Estacion de Sondeos Atmosferico ' ' El Arenosillo' '

    2009-07-01

    The methodology used by Brewer spectroradiometers to estimate the ozone column is based on differential absorption spectroscopy. This methodology employs the ozone air mass factor (AMF) to derive the total ozone column from the slant path ozone amount. For the calculating the ozone AMF, the Brewer algorithm assumes that the ozone layer is located at a fixed height of 22 km. However, for a real specific site the ozone presents a certain profile, which varies spatially and temporally depending on the latitude, altitude and dynamical conditions of the atmosphere above the site of measurements. In this sense, this work address the reliability of the mentioned assumption and analyses the influence of the ozone profiles measured above Madrid (Spain) in the ozone AMF calculations. The approximated ozone AMF used by the Brewer algorithm is compared with simulations obtained using the libRadtran radiative transfer model code. The results show an excellent agreement between the simulated and the approximated AMF values for solar zenith angle lower than 75 . In addition, the relative differences remain lower than 2% at 85 . These good results are mainly due to the fact that the altitude of the ozone layer assumed constant by the Brewer algorithm for all latitudes notably can be considered representative of the real profile of ozone above Madrid (average value of 21.7{+-}1.8 km). The operational ozone AMF calculations for Brewer instruments are limited, in general, to SZA below 80 . Extending the usable SZA range is especially relevant for Brewer instruments located at high mid-latitudes. (orig.)

  16. Evidence for a continuous decline in lower stratospheric ozone offsetting ozone layer recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, William T.; Alsing, Justin; Mortlock, Daniel J.; Staehelin, Johannes; Haigh, Joanna D.; Peter, Thomas; Tummon, Fiona; Stübi, Rene; Stenke, Andrea; Anderson, John; Bourassa, Adam; Davis, Sean M.; Degenstein, Doug; Frith, Stacey; Froidevaux, Lucien; Roth, Chris; Sofieva, Viktoria; Wang, Ray; Wild, Jeannette; Yu, Pengfei; Ziemke, Jerald R.; Rozanov, Eugene V.

    2018-02-01

    Ozone forms in the Earth's atmosphere from the photodissociation of molecular oxygen, primarily in the tropical stratosphere. It is then transported to the extratropics by the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC), forming a protective ozone layer around the globe. Human emissions of halogen-containing ozone-depleting substances (hODSs) led to a decline in stratospheric ozone until they were banned by the Montreal Protocol, and since 1998 ozone in the upper stratosphere is rising again, likely the recovery from halogen-induced losses. Total column measurements of ozone between the Earth's surface and the top of the atmosphere indicate that the ozone layer has stopped declining across the globe, but no clear increase has been observed at latitudes between 60° S and 60° N outside the polar regions (60-90°). Here we report evidence from multiple satellite measurements that ozone in the lower stratosphere between 60° S and 60° N has indeed continued to decline since 1998. We find that, even though upper stratospheric ozone is recovering, the continuing downward trend in the lower stratosphere prevails, resulting in a downward trend in stratospheric column ozone between 60° S and 60° N. We find that total column ozone between 60° S and 60° N appears not to have decreased only because of increases in tropospheric column ozone that compensate for the stratospheric decreases. The reasons for the continued reduction of lower stratospheric ozone are not clear; models do not reproduce these trends, and thus the causes now urgently need to be established.

  17. Evidence for a Continuous Decline in Lower Stratospheric Ozone Offsetting Ozone Layer Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, William T.; Alsing, Justin; Mortlock, Daniel J.; Staehelin, Johannes; Haigh, Joanna D.; Peter, Thomas; Tummon, Fiona; Stuebi, Rene; Stenke, Andrea; Anderson, John; hide

    2018-01-01

    Ozone forms in the Earth's atmosphere from the photodissociation of molecular oxygen, primarily in the tropical stratosphere. It is then transported to the extratropics by the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC), forming a protective "ozone layer" around the globe. Human emissions of halogen-containing ozone-depleting substances (hODSs) led to a decline in stratospheric ozone until they were banned by the Montreal Protocol, and since 1998 ozone in the upper stratosphere is rising again, likely the recovery from halogen-induced losses. Total column measurements of ozone between the Earth's surface and the top of the atmosphere indicate that the ozone layer has stopped declining across the globe, but no clear increase has been observed at latitudes between 60degS and 60degN outside the polar regions (60-90deg). Here we report evidence from multiple satellite measurements that ozone in the lower stratosphere between 60degS and 60degN has indeed continued to decline since 1998. We find that, even though upper stratospheric ozone is recovering, the continuing downward trend in the lower stratosphere prevails, resulting in a downward trend in stratospheric column ozone between 60degS and 60degN. We find that total column ozone between 60degS and 60degN appears not to have decreased only because of increases in tropospheric column ozone that compensate for the stratospheric decreases. The reasons for the continued reduction of lower stratospheric ozone are not clear; models do not reproduce these trends, and thus the causes now urgently need to be established.

  18. Adding Value to Force Diagrams: Representing Relative Force Magnitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Paul

    2011-05-01

    Nearly all physics instructors recognize the instructional value of force diagrams, and this journal has published several collections of exercises to improve student skill in this area.1-4 Yet some instructors worry that too few students perceive the conceptual and problem-solving utility of force diagrams,4-6 and over recent years a rich variety of approaches has been proposed to add value to force diagrams. Suggestions include strategies for identifying candidate forces,6,7 emphasizing the distinction between "contact" and "noncontact" forces,5,8 and the use of computer-based tutorials.9,10 Instructors have suggested a variety of conventions for constructing force diagrams, including approaches to arrow placement and orientation2,11-13 and proposed notations for locating forces or marking action-reaction force pairs.8,11,14,15

  19. Heuristic Diagrams as a Tool to Teach History of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamizo, José A.

    2012-05-01

    The graphic organizer called here heuristic diagram as an improvement of Gowin's Vee heuristic is proposed as a tool to teach history of science. Heuristic diagrams have the purpose of helping students (or teachers, or researchers) to understand their own research considering that asks and problem-solving are central to scientific activity. The left side originally related in Gowin's Vee with philosophies, theories, models, laws or regularities now agrees with Toulmin's concepts (language, models as representation techniques and application procedures). Mexican science teachers without experience in science education research used the heuristic diagram to learn about the history of chemistry considering also in the left side two different historical times: past and present. Through a semantic differential scale teachers' attitude to the heuristic diagram was evaluated and its usefulness was demonstrated.

  20. Feynman diagrams coupled to three-dimensional quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, John W

    2006-01-01

    A framework for quantum field theory coupled to three-dimensional quantum gravity is proposed. The coupling with quantum gravity regulates the Feynman diagrams. One recovers the usual Feynman amplitudes in the limit as the cosmological constant tends to zero

  1. Cu–Ni nanoalloy phase diagram – Prediction and experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sopoušek, J.; Vřešťál, J.; Pinkas, J.; Brož, P.; Buršík, Jiří; Stýskalík, A.; Škoda, D.; Zobač, O.; Lee, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 45, June (2014), s. 33-39 ISSN 0364-5916 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : nanoalloy * phase diagram * thermodynamic modeling Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.370, year: 2014

  2. Revised Pourbaix diagrams for Copper at 5-150 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beverskog, B.; Puigdomenech, I.

    1995-10-01

    Pourbaix diagrams have been revised. Predominance diagrams for dissolved copper species have also been calculated. Five different total concentrations for dissolved copper have been used in the calculations (from 10 -3 to 10 -9 ). The complete hydrolysis series of copper(I) and (II) have not been included in earlier published Pourbaix diagrams, and these species are covered for the first time in this work. At acidic pH, increasing temperature decreases the immunity area, and therefore, it increases the corrosion of the copper. At alkaline pH-values corrosion also increases with the temperature due to the decrease of both passivity and immunity areas. The calculated diagrams are used as a base for the discussion of the corrosion behaviour of the copper canisters in the Swedish radioactive waste management program. 62 refs, 37 figs, 3 tabs

  3. Solid gas reaction phase diagram under high gas pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that to evaluate which are the stable phases under high gas pressure conditions, a solid-gas reaction phase diagram under high gas pressure (HIP phase diagram) has been proposed by the author. The variables of the diagram are temperature, reactant gas partial pressure and total gas pressure. Up to the present time the diagrams have been constructed using isobaric conditions. In this work, the stable phases for a real HIP process were evaluated assuming an isochoric condition. To understand the effect of the total gas pressure on stability is of primary importance. Two possibilities were considered and evaluated, those are: the total gas pressure acts as an independent variable, or it only affects the fugacity values. The results of this work indicate that the total gas pressure acts as an independent variable, and in turn also affects the fugacity values

  4. The chemistry of stratospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurylo, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Compelling observational evidence shows that the chemical composition of the atmosphere is changing on a global scale at a rapid rate. The atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), and chloroflourocarbons (CFCs) 11 (CFCl 3 ) and 12 (CF 2 Cl 2 ) are currently increasing at rate ranging from 0.2 to 5% per year. The concentrations of other cases, including CFC 113 (C 2 F 3 Cl 3 ) and halons 121 (CF 2 ClBr) and 1301 (CF 3 Br), important in the ozone depletion and global warming issues, are also increasing (at even faster rates). These changes in atmospheric composition reflect, on one part, the metabolism of the biosphere and, on another, the broad range of influencing human activities, including industrial, agricultural, and combustion practices. The only known sources of the CFCs and halons are industrial production prior to their use as aerosol propellants, refrigerants, foam blowing agents, solvents, and fire retardants. One of our greatest difficulties in accurately predicting future changes in ozone or global warming is our inability to predict the future atmospheric concentrations of these gases. This paper discusses the role of the biosphere in regulating the emissions of gases such as CH 4 , CO 2 , N 2 O, and methyl chloride (CH 3 Cl) to the atmosphere as well as the most probable future industrial release rates of the CFCs, halons, N 2 O, carbon monoxide (CO), and CO 2 , which depend upon a variety of economic, social, and political factors

  5. Lessons from the Ozone Hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedick, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    On September 16, 1987, a treaty was signed that was unique in that annals of international diplomacy. The Montreal Protocol on substrates that Deplete the Ozone Layer mandated significant reductions in the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons. Perhaps the most extraordinary aspect of the Montreal Protocol was that it imposed substantial short-term economic costs in order to protect human health and the environment against speculative future dangers - dangers which rested on scientific theories rather than on proven facts. Unlike environmental agreements of the past, it was not a response to harmful events, but rather preventive action on a global scale. In the realm of international relations, there will always be resistance to change and there will always be uncertainties - political, economic, scientific, psychological. The ozone negotiations demonstrated that the international community, even in the real world of ambiguity and imperfect knowledge, can be capable of undertaking difficult cooperative actions for the benefit of future generation. The Montreal Protocol may well be a paradigm for international cooperation on the challenge of global warming

  6. Multi-model assessment of stratospheric ozone return dates and ozone recovery in CCMVal-2 models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Eyring

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Projections of stratospheric ozone from a suite of chemistry-climate models (CCMs have been analyzed. In addition to a reference simulation where anthropogenic halogenated ozone depleting substances (ODSs and greenhouse gases (GHGs vary with time, sensitivity simulations with either ODS or GHG concentrations fixed at 1960 levels were performed to disaggregate the drivers of projected ozone changes. These simulations were also used to assess the two distinct milestones of ozone returning to historical values (ozone return dates and ozone no longer being influenced by ODSs (full ozone recovery. The date of ozone returning to historical values does not indicate complete recovery from ODSs in most cases, because GHG-induced changes accelerate or decelerate ozone changes in many regions. In the upper stratosphere where CO2-induced stratospheric cooling increases ozone, full ozone recovery is projected to not likely have occurred by 2100 even though ozone returns to its 1980 or even 1960 levels well before (~2025 and 2040, respectively. In contrast, in the tropical lower stratosphere ozone decreases continuously from 1960 to 2100 due to projected increases in tropical upwelling, while by around 2040 it is already very likely that full recovery from the effects of ODSs has occurred, although ODS concentrations are still elevated by this date. In the midlatitude lower stratosphere the evolution differs from that in the tropics, and rather than a steady decrease in ozone, first a decrease in ozone is simulated from 1960 to 2000, which is then followed by a steady increase through the 21st century. Ozone in the midlatitude lower stratosphere returns to 1980 levels by ~2045 in the Northern Hemisphere (NH and by ~2055 in the Southern Hemisphere (SH, and full ozone recovery is likely reached by 2100 in both hemispheres. Overall, in all regions except the tropical lower stratosphere, full ozone recovery from ODSs occurs significantly later than the

  7. Approximation of hadron interactions by Regge diagrams with multipomeron exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    A good agreement of hadron diffraction interaction total cross section and their elastic scattering at small angles calculated by summarizing Regge multipomeron exchange diagrams with experiment mentioned by a number of authors results from the fitting of a great variety of the parameters contained in the formulas. The agreement of the other hadron characteristcs with experiment is worse. Distribution of hadron interactions over the number of fragmenting quark-gluon strings calculated by utilizing Regge diagrams is discussed

  8. Algorithms and programs for consequence diagram and fault tree construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollo, E.; Taylor, J.R.

    1976-12-01

    A presentation of algorithms and programs for consequence diagram and sequential fault tree construction that are intended for reliability and disturbance analysis of large systems. The system to be analyzed must be given as a block diagram formed by mini fault trees of individual system components. The programs were written in LISP programming language and run on a PDP8 computer with 8k words of storage. A description is given of the methods used and of the program construction and working. (author)

  9. Irradiation distribution diagrams and their use for estimating collectable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronnelid, M.; Karlsson, B.

    1997-01-01

    A method for summarising annual or seasonal solar irradiation data in irradiation distribution diagrams, including both direct and diffuse irradiation, is outlined. The practical use of irradiation distribution diagrams is discussed in the paper. Examples are given for the calculation of collectable irradiation on flat plate collectors or trough-like concentrators like the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC), and for the calculation of overhang geometries for windows to prevent overheating of buildings. (author)

  10. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 230 - Diagrams and Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diagrams and Drawings B Appendix B to Part 230 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... to Part 230—Diagrams and Drawings ER17No99.015 ER17No99.016 ER17No99.017 ER17No99.018 ER17No99.019...

  11. On Hardy's paradox, weak measurements, and multitasking diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meglicki, Zdzislaw

    2011-01-01

    We discuss Hardy's paradox and weak measurements by using multitasking diagrams, which are introduced to illustrate the progress of quantum probabilities through the double interferometer system. We explain how Hardy's paradox is avoided and elaborate on the outcome of weak measurements in this context. -- Highlights: → Hardy's paradox explained and eliminated. → Weak measurements: what is really measured? → Multitasking diagrams: introduced and used to discuss quantum mechanical processes.

  12. Creating Royal Australian Navy Standard Operating Procedures using Flow Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    departments and check the naming and number conventions have been adhered to. They will also coordinate the review process and check that the definitive ...possible. If the performer is a team the composition of the team should be described in the SOP, either as a definition or in the description of a...diagram a video could be used. A hyperlink to a video of the process to follow could be added to the flow diagram or the description section of the

  13. Diagrams of ion stability in radio-frequency mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudakov, M.Yu.

    1994-01-01

    For solving radio-frequency mass spectrometry problems and dynamic ion containment are studied and systematized different ways for constructing the ion stability diagrams. A new universal set of parameters is proposed for diagram construction-angular variables, which are the phase raid of ion oscillational motion during positive and negative values of the supplying voltage. An effective analytical method is proposed for optimization of the parameters of the pulsed supplying voltage, in particular its repetition rate

  14. On the phase diagram of non-spherical nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Wautelet, M; Hecq, M

    2003-01-01

    The phase diagram of nanoparticles is known to be a function of their size. In the literature, this is generally demonstrated for cases where their shape is spherical. Here, it is shown theoretically that the phase diagram of non-spherical particles may be calculated from the spherical case, at the same surface area/volume ratio, both with and without surface segregation, provided the surface tension is considered to be isotropic.

  15. The Fishbone diagram to identify, systematize and analyze the sources of general purpose technologies

    OpenAIRE

    COCCIA, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. This study suggests the fishbone diagram for technological analysis. Fishbone diagram (also called Ishikawa diagrams or cause-and-effect diagrams) is a graphical technique to show the several causes of a specific event or phenomenon. In particular, a fishbone diagram (the shape is similar to a fish skeleton) is a common tool used for a cause and effect analysis to identify a complex interplay of causes for a specific problem or event. The fishbone diagram can be a comprehensive theo...

  16. Analysis of Ozone in Cloudy Versus Clear Sky Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strode, Sarah; Douglass, Anne; Ziemke, Jerald

    2016-01-01

    Convection impacts ozone concentrations by transporting ozone vertically and by lofting ozone precursors from the surface, while the clouds and lighting associated with convection affect ozone chemistry. Observations of the above-cloud ozone column (Ziemke et al., 2009) derived from the OMI instrument show geographic variability, and comparison of the above-cloud ozone with all-sky tropospheric ozone columns from OMI indicates important regional differences. We use two global models of atmospheric chemistry, the GMI chemical transport model (CTM) and the GEOS-5 chemistry climate model, to diagnose the contributions of transport and chemistry to observed differences in ozone between areas with and without deep convection, as well as differences in clean versus polluted convective regions. We also investigate how the above-cloud tropospheric ozone from OMI can provide constraints on the relationship between ozone and convection in a free-running climate simulation as well as a CTM.

  17. Construction of UML class diagram with Model-Driven Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Górski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Model transformations play a key role in software development projects based on Model--Driven Development (MDD principles. Transformations allow for automation of repetitive and well-defined steps, thus shortening design time and reducing a number of errors. In the object-oriented approach, the key elements are use cases. They are described, modelled and later designed until executable application code is obtained. The aim of the paper is to present transformation of a model-to-model type, Communication-2-Class, which automates construction of Unified Modelling Language (UML class diagram in the context of the analysis/design model. An UML class diagram is created based on UML communication diagram within use case realization. As a result, a class diagram shows all of the classes involved in the use case realization and the relationships among them. The plug-in which implements Communication-2-Class transformation was implemented in the IBM Rational Software Architect. The article presents the tests results of developed plug-in, which realizes Communication-2-Class transformation, showing capabilities of shortening use case realization’s design time.[b]Keywords[/b]: Model-Driven Development, transformations, Unified Modelling Language, analysis/design model, UML class diagram, UML communication diagram

  18. Vesicle computers: Approximating a Voronoi diagram using Voronoi automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamatzky, Andrew; De Lacy Costello, Ben; Holley, Julian; Gorecki, Jerzy; Bull, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We model irregular arrangements of vesicles filled with chemical systems. → We examine influence of precipitation threshold on the system's computational potential. → We demonstrate computation of Voronoi diagram and skeleton. - Abstract: Irregular arrangements of vesicles filled with excitable and precipitating chemical systems are imitated by Voronoi automata - finite-state machines defined on a planar Voronoi diagram. Every Voronoi cell takes four states: resting, excited, refractory and precipitate. A resting cell excites if it has at least one neighbour in an excited state. The cell precipitates if the ratio of excited cells in its neighbourhood versus the number of neighbours exceeds a certain threshold. To approximate a Voronoi diagram on Voronoi automata we project a planar set onto the automaton lattice, thus cells corresponding to data-points are excited. Excitation waves propagate across the Voronoi automaton, interact with each other and form precipitate at the points of interaction. The configuration of the precipitate represents the edges of an approximated Voronoi diagram. We discover the relationship between the quality of the Voronoi diagram approximation and the precipitation threshold, and demonstrate the feasibility of our model in approximating Voronoi diagrams of arbitrary-shaped objects and in constructing a skeleton of a planar shape.

  19. Antarctic ozone loss in 1989-2010: evidence for ozone recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttippurath, J.; Lefèvre, F.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Roscoe, H. K.; Goutail, F.; Pazmiño, A.; Shanklin, J. D.

    2012-04-01

    We present a detailed estimation of chemical ozone loss in the Antarctic polar vortex from 1989 to 2010. The analyses include ozone loss estimates for 12 Antarctic ground-based (GB) stations. All GB observations show minimum ozone in the late September-early October period. Among the stations, the lowest minimum ozone values are observed at South Pole and the highest at Dumont d'Urville. The ozone loss starts by mid-June at the vortex edge and then progresses towards the vortex core with time. The loss intensifies in August-September, peaks by the end of September-early October, and recovers thereafter. The average ozone loss in the Antarctic is revealed to be about 33-50% in 1989-1992 in agreement with the increase in halogens during this period, and then stayed at around 48% due to saturation of the loss. The ozone loss in the warmer winters (e.g. 2002, and 2004) is lower (37-46%) and in the colder winters (e.g. 2003, and 2006) is higher (52-55%). Because of small inter-annual variability, the correlation between ozone loss and the volume of polar stratospheric clouds yields ~0.51. The GB ozone and ozone loss values are in good agreement with those found from the space-based observations of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer/Ozone Monitoring Instrument (TOMS/OMI), the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME), the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY), and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), where the differences are within ±5% and are mostly within the error bars of the measurements. The piece-wise linear trends computed from the September-November vortex average GB and TOMS/OMI ozone show about -4 to -5.6 DU (Dobson Unit) yr-1 in 1989-1996 and about +1 DU yr-1 in 1997-2010. The trend during the former period is significant at 95% confidence intervals, but the trend in 1997-2010 is significant only at 85% confidence intervals. Our analyses suggest a period of about 9-10 yr to get the first detectable ozone

  20. Ozone injury to celery. [Apium graveolens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, S.

    1966-10-01

    Ozone is the principal air pollutant damaging crops in Connecticut. Ozone injury in Connecticut has been found on a number of crops including tobacco, tomatoes, potatoes, spinach, alfalfa, and cereals. This is the first report of ozone damage to celery (Apium graveolens var. dulce) in Connecticut, and perhaps in the United States. On July 7, 1966, celery plants with badly damaged older leaves were found in a commercial garden near Shelton, Connecticut. The injured leaves showed chlorotic and necrotic interveinal areas on their upper surfaces. These areas were slightly depressed. Cross sections of the lesions revealed that the palisade cells were most severely injured. Spinach and carrots growing near the celery showed typical symptoms of ozone damage. To substantiate the diagnosis, young celery plants were exposed to 0.2 ppm of ozone in a well-lighted plastic chamber for 1 to 3 hours. Five days later, these plants developed symptoms indentical to those found on celery in the field. Ozone damage appeared on many crops in southern Connecticut early in July. This injury probably occurred on June 27, when a high concentration of ozone (0.1 ppm) was present in the New Haven area.

  1. Geophysical validation of SCIAMACHY Limb Ozone Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Brinksma

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the quality of the two available SCIAMACHY limb ozone profile products. They were retrieved with the University of Bremen IFE's algorithm version 1.61 (hereafter IFE, and the official ESA offline algorithm (hereafter OL versions 2.4 and 2.5. The ozone profiles were compared to a suite of correlative measurements from ground-based lidar and microwave, sondes, SAGE II and SAGE III (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment. To correct for the expected Envisat pointing errors, which have not been corrected implicitly in either of the algorithms, we applied a constant altitude shift of -1.5 km to the SCIAMACHY ozone profiles. The IFE ozone profile data between 16 and 40 km are biased low by 3-6%. The average difference profiles have a typical standard deviation of 10% between 20 and 35 km. We show that more than 20% of the SCIAMACHY official ESA offline (OL ozone profiles version 2.4 and 2.5 have unrealistic ozone values, most of these are north of 15° S. The remaining OL profiles compare well to correlative instruments above 24 km. Between 20 and 24 km, they underestimate ozone by 15±5%.

  2. Power consumption analysis DBD plasma ozone generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur, M.; Restiwijaya, M.; Muchlisin, Z.; Arianto, F.; Susan, I. A.; Widyanto, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the consumption of energy by an ozone generator with various constructions electrodes of dielectric barrier discharge plasma (DBDP) reactor has been carried out. This research was done to get the configuration of the reactor, that is capable to produce high ozone concentrations with low energy consumption. BDBP reactors were constructed by spiral- cylindrical configuration, plasma ozone was generated by high voltage AC voltage up to 25 kV and maximum frequency of 23 kHz. The reactor consists of an active electrode in the form of a spiral-shaped with variation diameter Dc, and it was made by using copper wire with diameter Dw. In this research, we variated number of loops coil windings N as well as Dc and Dw. Ozone concentrations greater when the wire's diameter Dw and the diameter of the coil windings applied was greater. We found that impedance greater will minimize the concentration of ozone, in contrary to the greater capacitance will increase the concentration of ozone. The ozone concentrations increase with augmenting of power. Maximum power is effective at DBD reactor spiral-cylinder is on the Dc = 20 mm, Dw = 1.2 mm, and the number of coil windings N = 10 loops with the resulting concentration is greater than 20 ppm and it consumes energy of 177.60 watts (paper)

  3. When will the Antarctic Ozone Hole Recover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Montzka, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early Spring. Antarctic ozone values have been monitored since 1979 using satellite observations from the .TOMS instrument. The severity of the hole has been assessed from TOMS using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole) and by calculating the average size during the September-October period. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations in the collar of the polar lower stratospheric vortex. In this presentation, we show the relationships of halogens and temperature to, both the size and depth of the hole. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international agreements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. Using projections of halogen levels combined with age-of-air estimates, we find that the ozone hole is recovering at an extremely slow rate and that large ozone holes will regularly recur over the next 2 decades. The ozone hole will begin to show first signs of recovery in about 2023, and the hole will fully recover to pre-1980 levels in approximately 2070. This 2070 recovery is 20 years later than recent projections.

  4. Ozone depleting substances management inventory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Ivan Romero Rodríguez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: The care of the ozone layer is an activity that contributes to the planet's environmental stability. For this reason, the Montreal Protocol is created to control the emission of substances that deplete the ozone layer and reduce its production from an organizational point of view. However, it is also necessary to have control of those that are already circulating and those present in the equipment that cannot be replaced yet because of the context of the companies that keep it. Generally, the control mechanisms for classifying the type of substances, equipment and companies that own them, are carried in physical files, spreadsheets and text documents, which makes it difficult to control and manage the data stored in them. Method: The objective of this research is to computerize the process of control of substances that deplete the ozone layer. An evaluation and description of all process to manage Ozone-Depleting Substances (ODS, and its alternatives, is done. For computerization, the agile development methodology SCRUM is used, and for the technological solution tools and free open source technologies are used. Result: As a result of the research, a computer tool was developed that automates the process of control and management of substances that exhaust the ozone layer and its alternatives. Conclusions: The developed computer tool allows to control and manage the ozone-depleting substances and the equipment that use them. It also manages the substances that arise as alternatives to be used for the protection of the ozone layer.

  5. Simple method for evaluating Goldstone diagrams in an angular momentum coupled representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, T.T.S.; Shurpin, J.; Tam, K.C.; Osnes, E.; Ellis, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    A simple and convenient method is derived for evaluating linked Goldstone diagrams in an angular momentum coupled representation. Our method is general, and can be used to evaluate any effective interaction and/or effective operator diagrams for both closed-shell nuclei (vacuum to vacuum linked diagrams) and open-shell nuclei (valence linked diagrams). The techniques of decomposing diagrams into ladder diagrams, cutting open internal lines and cutting off one-body insertions are introduced. These enable us to determine angular momentum factors associated with diagrams in the coupled representation directly, without the need for carrying out complicated angular momentum algebra. A summary of diagram rules is given

  6. Reduction of date microbial load with ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Davood; Qorbanpoor, Ali; Rafati, Hasan; Isfeedvajani, Mohsen Saberi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Date is one of the foodstuffs that are produced in tropical areas and used worldwide. Conventionally, methyl bromide and phosphine are used for date disinfection. The toxic side effects of these usual disinfectants have led food scientists to consider safer agents such as ozone for disinfection, because food safety is a top priority. The present study was performed to investigate the possibility of replacing common conventional disinfectants with ozone for date disinfection and microbial load reduction. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, date samples were ozonized for 3 and 5 hours with 5 and 10 g/h concentrations and packed. Ozonized samples were divided into two groups and kept in an incubator which was maintained at 25°C and 40°C for 9 months. During this period, every 3 month, microbial load (bacteria, mold, and yeast) were examined in ozonized and non-ozonized samples. Results: This study showed that ozonization with 5 g/h for 3 hours, 5 g/h for 5 hours, 10 g/h for 3 hours, and 10 g/h for 5 hours leads to about 25%, 25%, 53%, and 46% reduction in date mold and yeast load and about 6%, 9%, 76%, and 74.7% reduction in date bacterial load at baseline phase, respectively. Appropriate concentration and duration of ozonization for microbial load reduction were 10 g/h and 3 hours. Conclusion: Date ozonization is an appropriate method for microbial load reduction and leads to an increase in the shelf life of dates. PMID:24124432

  7. Rocket Ozone Data Recovery for Digital Archival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, S. H.; Krueger, A. J.; Hilsenrath, E.; Haffner, D. P.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    Ozone distributions in the photochemically-controlled upper stratosphere and mesosphere were first measured using spectrometers on V-2 rockets after WWII. The IGY(1957-1958) spurred development of new optical and chemical instruments for flight on meteorological and sounding rockets. In the early 1960's, the US Navy developed an Arcas rocket-borne optical ozonesonde and NASA GSFC developed chemiluminescent ozonesonde onboard Nike_Cajun and Arcas rocket. The Navy optical ozone program was moved in 1969 to GSFC where rocket ozone research was expanded and continued until 1994 using Super Loki-Dart rocket at 11 sites in the range of 0-65N and 35W-160W. Over 300 optical ozone soundings and 40 chemiluminescent soundings were made. The data have been used to produce the US Standard Ozone Atmosphere, determine seasonal and diurnal variations, and validate early photochemical models. The current effort includes soundings conducted by Australia, Japan, and Korea using optical techniques. New satellite ozone sounding techniques were initially calibrated and later validated using the rocket ozone data. As satellite techniques superseded the rocket methods, the sponsoring agencies lost interest in the data and many of those records have been discarded. The current task intends to recover as much of the data as possible from the private records of the experimenters and their publications, and to archive those records in the WOUDC (World Ozone and Ultraviolet Data Centre). The original data records are handwritten tabulations, computer printouts that are scanned with OCR techniques, and plots digitized from publications. This newly recovered digital rocket ozone profile data from 1965 to 2002 could make significant contributions to the Earth science community in atmospheric research including long-term trend analysis.

  8. Optical remote measurement of ozone in cirrus clouds; Optische Fernmessung von Ozon in Zirruswolken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichardt, J. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische und Chemische Analytik

    1998-12-31

    The subject of this thesis is theoretical and experimental investigations into the simultaneous optical remote measurement of atmospheric ozone concentration and particle properties. A lidar system was developed that combines the Raman-lidar and the polarization-lidar with the Raman-DIAL technique. An error analysis is given for ozone measurements in clouds. It turns out that the wavelength dependencies of photon multiple scattering and of the particle extinction coefficient necessitate a correction of the measured ozone concentration. To quantify the cloud influence, model calculations based on particle size distributions of spheres are carried out. The most important experimental result of this thesis is the measured evidence of pronounced minima in the ozone distribution in a humid upper troposphere shortly before and during cirrus observation. Good correlation between ozone-depleted altitude ranges and ice clouds is found. This finding is in contrast to ozone profiles measured in a dry and cloud-free troposphere. (orig.) 151 refs.

  9. Variability of the stratospheric ozone in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aristizabal, Gloria Leon

    2002-01-01

    In this study has been examined the causes of ozone variations and the sign that represent in the short-term, seasonal, interannual, decadal and long-term variability. The analysis of NASA satellite data sets, obtained with the total ozone mapping spectrometer toms, for the period 1979-1999, they permit to deduce to the total column ozone that in Colombia, varies among 255 and 267 U.D., and presents synchronous variations with the quasi biennial oscillation (QBO) and in the series not any tendency with the time is recognized

  10. Tunable Diode Laser Heterodyne Spectrophotometry of Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogal, P. F.; McElroy, C. T.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, D. G.

    1988-01-01

    Tunable diode laser heterodyne spectrophotometry (TDLHS) has been used to make extremely high resolution (less than 0.0005/ cm) solar spectra in the 9.6 micron ozone band. Observations have shown that a signal-to-noise ratio of 95 : 1 (35% of theoretical) for an integration time of 1/8 second can be achieved at a resolution of 0.0005 wavenumbers. The spectral data have been inverted to yield a total column amount of ozone, in good agreement with that. measured at the nearby National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ozone monitoring facility in Boulder, Colorado.

  11. Validation of SAGE II ozone measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnold, D. M.; Chu, W. P.; Mccormick, M. P.; Veiga, R. E.; Barnes, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    Five ozone profiles from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II are compared with coincident ozonesonde measurements obtained at Natal, Brazil, and Wallops Island, Virginia. It is shown that the mean difference between all of the measurements is about 1 percent and that the agreement is within 7 percent at altitudes between 20 and 53 km. Good agreement is also found for ozone mixing ratios on pressure surfaces. It is concluded that the SAGE II profiles provide useful ozone information up to about 60 km altitude.

  12. Lightweight ozonizer for field and airborne use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, E. J.; Caldwell, J. R.; de Waal, C.; Horvath, J. J.; Pearson, R., Jr.; Stedman, D. H.

    1982-12-01

    An efficient, lightweight apparatus for the production of ozone in flowing oxygen or air has been constructed and tested. The exciter is an automotive electronic ignition running from a 28-V dc power source. The discharge tube consists of coaxial conductive-coated flint glass tubing fitting into Teflon end pieces. A single such unit will produce 4% ozone in oxygen flowing at 0.2 l/min, or a maximum of 0.020 l of ozone per minute in a total flow of 1.0 l/min.

  13. Are we approaching an Arctic ozone hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braathen, Geir

    1999-01-01

    Observations during the last decade in the Arctic areas mainly made by satellite, on the ground and by probes and sensors in the stratosphere are presented. Future perspectives are deducted from the results. Factors that may influence the ozone layer negatively are: Emission rate of ozone destroying compounds, the rapidly increasing use of some substitutes, increased concentrations of steam from aeroplanes and increased amount of methane, decreasing temperature in the stratosphere due to increasing amounts of climatic gases, large volcanic eruptions and altered timing for the polar whirl dissolution. It is concluded that the ozone reduction will be larger than observed at present in the next 10 to 20 years

  14. Ozone mitigation tests at the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzay, T.M.; Collins, J.T.; Pisharody, M.; Job, P.K.; Wang Zhibi.

    1996-09-01

    Ozone is generated in the APS experimental stations whenever the x-ray beam has a chance to interact with air. Ozone concentrations in an experimental station have to be below a certain defined limit (current OSHA regulations specify 0.08 ppm as the maximum limit) before an experimenter can reenter the hutch. This limit is said to be currently under study for a downward adjustment. One method of depleting the ozone generated in an experimental station is mitigation through either adsorption or direct destruction. In recent tests, both methods were tried using commercially available units. Test results and some analytical predictions are presented

  15. Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Scientists Press Events & Ceremonies Science & Training Videos Scientific Seminars News & Events Find out about the exciting discoveries being made by NIEHS and NIEHS-supported researchers ...

  16. Tropospheric ozone. Formation, properties, effects. Expert opinion; Ozon in der Troposphaere. Bildung, Eigenschaften, Wirkungen. Gutachten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elstner, E.F. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Phytopathologie

    1996-06-01

    The formation and dispersion of tropospheric ozone are discussed only marginally in this expert opinion; the key interest is in the effects of ground level ozone on plants, animals, and humans. The expert opinion is based on an analysis of the available scientific publications. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Das Gutachten nimmt nur am Rande die Problematik der Bildung und Ausbreitung von troposphaerischen Ozon auf; Im Mittelpunkt steht die Auseinandersetzung mit den Wirkungen des bodennahen Ozons auf Pflanze, Tier und Mensch. Das Gutachten basiert auf einer Analyse der zugaenglichen wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten. (orig./MG)

  17. Ozone killing action against bacterial and fungal species; microbiological testing of a domestic ozone generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyas, A; Boughton, B J; Das, B C

    1983-10-01

    The action of ozone generated from a small domestic device was examined with a view to using it in clinical isolation units accommodating immunosuppressed patients. Over a six-hour period in an average size room the device did not generate sufficient ozone to suppress bacterial and fungal growth. A useful bactericidal action, against a variety of human pathogens was achieved with ozone concentrations between 0.3 to 0.9 ppm. Bactericidal ozone concentrations are close to the limit permitted for human exposure however and further experiments are indicated.

  18. Merged SAGE II, Ozone_cci and OMPS ozone profile dataset and evaluation of ozone trends in the stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Sofieva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a merged dataset of ozone profiles from several satellite instruments: SAGE II on ERBS, GOMOS, SCIAMACHY and MIPAS on Envisat, OSIRIS on Odin, ACE-FTS on SCISAT, and OMPS on Suomi-NPP. The merged dataset is created in the framework of the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (Ozone_cci with the aim of analyzing stratospheric ozone trends. For the merged dataset, we used the latest versions of the original ozone datasets. The datasets from the individual instruments have been extensively validated and intercompared; only those datasets which are in good agreement, and do not exhibit significant drifts with respect to collocated ground-based observations and with respect to each other, are used for merging. The long-term SAGE–CCI–OMPS dataset is created by computation and merging of deseasonalized anomalies from individual instruments. The merged SAGE–CCI–OMPS dataset consists of deseasonalized anomalies of ozone in 10° latitude bands from 90° S to 90° N and from 10 to 50 km in steps of 1 km covering the period from October 1984 to July 2016. This newly created dataset is used for evaluating ozone trends in the stratosphere through multiple linear regression. Negative ozone trends in the upper stratosphere are observed before 1997 and positive trends are found after 1997. The upper stratospheric trends are statistically significant at midlatitudes and indicate ozone recovery, as expected from the decrease of stratospheric halogens that started in the middle of the 1990s and stratospheric cooling.

  19. Infrared thermography method for fast estimation of phase diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo Del Barrio, Elena [Université de Bordeaux, Institut de Mécanique et d’Ingénierie, Esplanade des Arts et Métiers, 33405 Talence (France); Cadoret, Régis [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Mécanique et d’Ingénierie, Esplanade des Arts et Métiers, 33405 Talence (France); Daranlot, Julien [Solvay, Laboratoire du Futur, 178 Av du Dr Schweitzer, 33608 Pessac (France); Achchaq, Fouzia, E-mail: fouzia.achchaq@u-bordeaux.fr [Université de Bordeaux, Institut de Mécanique et d’Ingénierie, Esplanade des Arts et Métiers, 33405 Talence (France)

    2016-02-10

    Highlights: • Infrared thermography is proposed to determine phase diagrams in record time. • Phase boundaries are detected by means of emissivity changes during heating. • Transition lines are identified by using Singular Value Decomposition techniques. • Different binary systems have been used for validation purposes. - Abstract: Phase change materials (PCM) are widely used today in thermal energy storage applications. Pure PCMs are rarely used because of non adapted melting points. Instead of them, mixtures are preferred. The search of suitable mixtures, preferably eutectics, is often a tedious and time consuming task which requires the determination of phase diagrams. In order to accelerate this screening step, a new method for estimating phase diagrams in record time (1–3 h) has been established and validated. A sample composed by small droplets of mixtures with different compositions (as many as necessary to have a good coverage of the phase diagram) deposited on a flat substrate is first prepared and cooled down to ambient temperature so that all droplets crystallize. The plate is then heated at constant heating rate up to a sufficiently high temperature for melting all the small crystals. The heating process is imaged by using an infrared camera. An appropriate method based on singular values decomposition technique has been developed to analyze the recorded images and to determine the transition lines of the phase diagram. The method has been applied to determine several simple eutectic phase diagrams and the reached results have been validated by comparison with the phase diagrams obtained by Differential Scanning Calorimeter measurements and by thermodynamic modelling.

  20. Reactome diagram viewer: data structures and strategies to boost performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabregat, Antonio; Sidiropoulos, Konstantinos; Viteri, Guilherme; Marin-Garcia, Pablo; Ping, Peipei; Stein, Lincoln; D'Eustachio, Peter; Hermjakob, Henning

    2018-04-01

    Reactome is a free, open-source, open-data, curated and peer-reviewed knowledgebase of biomolecular pathways. For web-based pathway visualization, Reactome uses a custom pathway diagram viewer that has been evolved over the past years. Here, we present comprehensive enhancements in usability and performance based on extensive usability testing sessions and technology developments, aiming to optimize the viewer towards the needs of the community. The pathway diagram viewer version 3 achieves consistently better performance, loading and rendering of 97% of the diagrams in Reactome in less than 1 s. Combining the multi-layer html5 canvas strategy with a space partitioning data structure minimizes CPU workload, enabling the introduction of new features that further enhance user experience. Through the use of highly optimized data structures and algorithms, Reactome has boosted the performance and usability of the new pathway diagram viewer, providing a robust, scalable and easy-to-integrate solution to pathway visualization. As graph-based visualization of complex data is a frequent challenge in bioinformatics, many of the individual strategies presented here are applicable to a wide range of web-based bioinformatics resources. Reactome is available online at: https://reactome.org. The diagram viewer is part of the Reactome pathway browser (https://reactome.org/PathwayBrowser/) and also available as a stand-alone widget at: https://reactome.org/dev/diagram/. The source code is freely available at: https://github.com/reactome-pwp/diagram. fabregat@ebi.ac.uk or hhe@ebi.ac.uk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  1. Ozone-forming potential of reformulated gasoline

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Ozone-Forming Potential of Reformulated Gasoline, National Research Council

    ... and comparison of the emissions from motor vehicles using different reformulated gasolines based on their ozone-forming potentials and to assess the concomitant impact of that approach on air-quality benefits...

  2. Ozone climatology over western Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pibiri, G.; Randaccio, P.; Serra, A.; Sollai, A.

    1984-01-01

    A preliminary climatology of atmospheric ozone over Western Mediterranean Sea is given by analysis of the upper observations of O 3 carried out at Cagliari-Elmas station from 1968 to 1976. Some peculiarities are here illustrated and discussed

  3. Ozone-forming potential of reformulated gasoline

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Ozone-Forming Potential of Reformulated Gasoline, National Research Council

    ...) technical aspects of various air-quality issues related to RFG assessment, and (3) the sensitivity of evaluations of the relative ozone-forming potentials to factors related to fuel properties and the variability of vehicle technologies and driving patterns.

  4. Biologically resistant contaminants, primary treatment with ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echegaray, Diego F. [White Martins Gases Industriais do Nordeste S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil); Olivieri, Nadja F. [White Martins Gases Industriais S.A., Cordovil, RJ (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    Organic effluent oxidation tests were conducted in petrochemical companies, in Camacari Petrochemical Complex (Northeast Brazil), to reduce treatment costs and improve the primary treatment efficiency in each industrial process. Ozone achieved 99.96 percent benzene reduction and 100 percent ethyl benzene and toluene reduction. Process efficiency is strongly dependent on the wastewater chemical composition and concentration. For this reason it is necessary to run pilot trials for each specific case. Ozone was obtained feeding commercial oxygen through a corona discharge generator and dissolved in the effluent with a bubble column. Commercial oxygen was used instead of air to increase 250 percent the ozone production, using the same ozone generator. (author). 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Ozone Nonattainment Areas - 8 Hour (1997 Standard)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone over 8 hours and...

  6. In Brief: Monitoring ozone in Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-12-01

    Qatar is establishing an ozone and pollution monitoring ground station in West Asia, following discussions between the government, the Qatar Foundation, and the United Nations Environment Programme, according to a 19 November announcement. The station will assist in understanding whether the ozone layer is actually recovering after being damaged by ozone-depleting chemicals. Qatar also announced plans to establish a global center of excellence for research and development of ozone and climate-friendly technology, equipment, and appliances. UNEP executive director Achim Steiner said the announcements by Qatar ``will help plug key data gaps relating to information gathering in West Asia and the Gulf to the benefit of the region and the world.''

  7. Cooling tower water conditioning study. [using ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, M. F.; French, K. R.

    1979-01-01

    Successful elimination of cooling tower treatment chemicals was demonstrated. Three towers functioned for long periods of time with ozone as the only treatment for the water. The water in the systems was reused as much as 30 times (cycles of concentration) without deleterious effects to the heat exchangers. Actual system blow-down was eliminated and the only makeup water added was that required to replace the evaporation and mist entrainment losses. Minimum water savings alone are approximately 75.1 1/kg/year. Cost estimates indicate that a savings of 55 percent was obtained on the systems using ozone. A major problem experienced in the use of ozone for cooling tower applications was the difficulty of accurate concentration measurements. The ability to control the operational characteristics relies on easily and accurately determined concentration levels. Present methods of detection are subject to inaccuracies because of interfering materials and the rapid destruction of the ozone.

  8. Biologically resistant contaminants, primary treatment with ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echegaray, Diego F [White Martins Gases Industriais do Nordeste S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil); Olivieri, Nadja F [White Martins Gases Industriais S.A., Cordovil, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Organic effluent oxidation tests were conducted in petrochemical companies, in Camacari Petrochemical Complex (Northeast Brazil), to reduce treatment costs and improve the primary treatment efficiency in each industrial process. Ozone achieved 99.96 percent benzene reduction and 100 percent ethyl benzene and toluene reduction. Process efficiency is strongly dependent on the wastewater chemical composition and concentration. For this reason it is necessary to run pilot trials for each specific case. Ozone was obtained feeding commercial oxygen through a corona discharge generator and dissolved in the effluent with a bubble column. Commercial oxygen was used instead of air to increase 250 percent the ozone production, using the same ozone generator. (author). 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. A passive sampler for atmospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosjean, D.; Hisham, M.W.M.

    1992-01-01

    A simple, cost-effective passive sampler has been developed for the determination of atmospheric ozone. This passive sampler is based on a colorant which fades upon reaction with ozone, whose concentration can be determined by reflectance measurement of the color change. Direct, on-site measurements are possible, and no chemical analyses are needed. Sampler design and validation studies have been carried out and included quantitative determination of color change vs exposure time (1-8 days), color change vs. ozone concentration (30-350 ppb), and response to changes in sampler configuration that modify the passive sampling rate. With indigo carmine as the colorant, the detection limits are 30 ppb. day and 120 ppb. day using a plastic grid and Teflon filter, respectively, as diffusion barriers. Interferences from nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and peroxyacetyl nitrate are 15, 4 and 16%, respectively, thus resulting in a negligible bias when measuring ozone in ambient air

  10. Reactions of GD and VX with Ozone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bartram, Philip

    1998-01-01

    .... The identified products reveal that the reaction is strictly analogous to the well-known ozonation of tertiary amines, with oxidation occurring predominately at carbons adjacent to the nitrogen...

  11. Ozone: Good Up High, Bad Nearby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are already under stress from UV radiation. This stress could have adverse consequences for human food supplies from the oceans. What is Being Done About the Depletion of “Good” Ozone? The United States, along with over 180 ...

  12. Merging of OMI and AIRS Ozone Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labow, Gordon J.; Fisher, Bradford; Susskind, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The OMI Instrument measures ozone using the backscattered light in the UV part of the spectrum. In polar night there are no OMI measurements so we hope to incorporate the AIRS ozone data to fill in these missing regions. AIRS is on the Aqua platform and has been operating since May 2002. AIRS is a multi-detector array grating spectrometer containing 2378 IR channels between 650 per centimeter and 2760 per centimeter which measures atmospheric temperature, precipitable water, water vapor, CO, CH4, CO2 and ozone profiles and column amount. It can also measure effective cloud fraction and cloud top pressure for up to two cloud layers and sea-land skin temperature. Since 2008, OMI has had part of its aperture occulted with a piece of the thermal blanket resulting in several scan positions being unusable. We hope to use the AIRS data to fill in the missing ozone values for those missing scan positions.

  13. Ozone Layer Research and Technical Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access information on research and technical resources related to ozone layer science. This page provides links to research efforts led by organizations such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the United Nations Environment Program, an

  14. Impact of climate variability on tropospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grewe, Volker

    2007-01-01

    A simulation with the climate-chemistry model (CCM) E39/C is presented, which covers both the troposphere and stratosphere dynamics and chemistry during the period 1960 to 1999. Although the CCM, by its nature, is not exactly representing observed day-by-day meteorology, there is an overall model's tendency to correctly reproduce the variability pattern due to an inclusion of realistic external forcings, like observed sea surface temperatures (e.g. El Nino), major volcanic eruption, solar cycle, concentrations of greenhouse gases, and Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. Additionally, climate-chemistry interactions are included, like the impact of ozone, methane, and other species on radiation and dynamics, and the impact of dynamics on emissions (lightning). However, a number of important feedbacks are not yet included (e.g. feedbacks related to biogenic emissions and emissions due to biomass burning). The results show a good representation of the evolution of the stratospheric ozone layer, including the ozone hole, which plays an important role for the simulation of natural variability of tropospheric ozone. Anthropogenic NO x emissions are included with a step-wise linear trend for each sector, but no interannual variability is included. The application of a number of diagnostics (e.g. marked ozone tracers) allows the separation of the impact of various processes/emissions on tropospheric ozone and shows that the simulated Northern Hemisphere tropospheric ozone budget is not only dominated by nitrogen oxide emissions and other ozone pre-cursors, but also by changes of the stratospheric ozone budget and its flux into the troposphere, which tends to reduce the simulated positive trend in tropospheric ozone due to emissions from industry and traffic during the late 80s and early 90s. For tropical regions the variability in ozone is dominated by variability in lightning (related to ENSO) and stratosphere-troposphere exchange (related to Northern Hemisphere Stratospheric

  15. Pyrolytic citrate synthesis and ozone annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celani, F.; Saggese, A.; Giovannella, C.; Messi, R.; Merlo, V.

    1988-01-01

    A pyrolytic procedure is described that via a citrate synthesis allowed us to obtain very fine grained YBCO powders that, after a first furnace thermal treatment in ozone, results already to contain a large amount of superconducting microcrystals. A second identical thermal treatment gives a final product strongly textured, as shown by magnetic torque measurements. Complementary structural and diamagnetic measurement show the high quality of these sintered pellets. The role covered by both the pyrolytic preparation and the ozone annealing are discussed

  16. From ozone depletion to biological UV damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamm, E; Thomalla, E; Koepke, P [Munich Univ. (Germany). Meteorological Inst.

    1996-12-31

    Based on the ozone data from the Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeissenberg (MOHP: 47.8 deg N, 11.01 deg E) and corresponding mean atmospheric conditions, high resolution UV spectra are calculated with a complex radiation transfer model STAR. Biologically weighted UV spectra are investigated as integrated irradiances (dose rates) for maximum zenith angles and as daily integrals for selected days of the year. Ozone variation and uncertainty of action spectra are investigated

  17. Video-documentation: 'The Pannonic ozon project'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loibl, W.; Cabela, E.; Mayer, H. F.; Schmidt, M.

    1998-07-01

    Goal of the project was the production of a video film as documentation of the Pannonian Ozone Project- POP. The main part of the video describes the POP-model consisting of the modules meteorology, emissions and chemistry, developed during the POP-project. The model considers the European emission patterns of ozone precursors and the actual wind fields. It calculates ozone build up and depletion within air parcels due to emission and weather situation along trajectory routes. Actual ozone concentrations are calculated during model runs simulating the photochemical processes within air parcels moving along 4 day trajectories before reaching the Vienna region. The model computations were validated during extensive ground and aircraft-based measurements of ozone precursors and ozone concentration within the POP study area. Scenario computations were used to determine how much ozone can be reduced in north-eastern Austria by emissions control measures. The video lasts 12:20 minutes and consists of computer animations and life video scenes, presenting the ozone problem in general, the POP model and the model results. The video was produced in co-operation by the Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf - Department of Environmental Planning (ARCS) and Joanneum Research - Institute of Informationsystems (JR). ARCS was responsible for idea, concept, storyboard and text while JR was responsible for computer animation and general video production. The speaker text was written with scientific advice by the POP - project partners: Institute of Meteorology and Physics, University of Agricultural Sciences- Vienna, Environment Agency Austria - Air Quality Department, Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf- Environmental Planning Department/System Research Division. The film was produced as German and English version. (author)

  18. Ozone mass transfer and kinetics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollyky, L.J.; Beary, M.M.

    1981-12-01

    Experiments were conducted at the Hanford Site to determine the most efficient pH and temperature levels for the destruction of complexants in Hanford high-level defense waste. These complexants enhance migration of radionuclides in the soil and inhibit the growth of crystals in the evaporator-crystallizer. Ozone mass transfer and kinetics tests have been outlined for the determination of critical mass transfer and kinetics parameters of the ozone-complexant reaction

  19. Multi sensor reanalysis of total ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. van der A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A single coherent total ozone dataset, called the Multi Sensor Reanalysis (MSR, has been created from all available ozone column data measured by polar orbiting satellites in the near-ultraviolet Huggins band in the last thirty years. Fourteen total ozone satellite retrieval datasets from the instruments TOMS (on the satellites Nimbus-7 and Earth Probe, SBUV (Nimbus-7, NOAA-9, NOAA-11 and NOAA-16, GOME (ERS-2, SCIAMACHY (Envisat, OMI (EOS-Aura, and GOME-2 (Metop-A have been used in the MSR. As first step a bias correction scheme is applied to all satellite observations, based on independent ground-based total ozone data from the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Data Center. The correction is a function of solar zenith angle, viewing angle, time (trend, and effective ozone temperature. As second step data assimilation was applied to create a global dataset of total ozone analyses. The data assimilation method is a sub-optimal implementation of the Kalman filter technique, and is based on a chemical transport model driven by ECMWF meteorological fields. The chemical transport model provides a detailed description of (stratospheric transport and uses parameterisations for gas-phase and ozone hole chemistry. The MSR dataset results from a 30-year data assimilation run with the 14 corrected satellite datasets as input, and is available on a grid of 1× 1 1/2° with a sample frequency of 6 h for the complete time period (1978–2008. The Observation-minus-Analysis (OmA statistics show that the bias of the MSR analyses is less than 1% with an RMS standard deviation of about 2% as compared to the corrected satellite observations used.

  20. From ozone depletion to biological UV damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamm, E.; Thomalla, E.; Koepke, P. [Munich Univ. (Germany). Meteorological Inst.

    1995-12-31

    Based on the ozone data from the Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeissenberg (MOHP: 47.8 deg N, 11.01 deg E) and corresponding mean atmospheric conditions, high resolution UV spectra are calculated with a complex radiation transfer model STAR. Biologically weighted UV spectra are investigated as integrated irradiances (dose rates) for maximum zenith angles and as daily integrals for selected days of the year. Ozone variation and uncertainty of action spectra are investigated

  1. A Community Based Systems Diagram of Obesity Causes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Allender

    Full Text Available Application of system thinking to the development, implementation and evaluation of childhood obesity prevention efforts represents the cutting edge of community-based prevention. We report on an approach to developing a system oriented community perspective on the causes of obesity.Group model building sessions were conducted in a rural Australian community to address increasing childhood obesity. Stakeholders (n = 12 built a community model that progressed from connection circles to causal loop diagrams using scripts from the system dynamics literature. Participants began this work in identifying change over time in causes and effects of childhood obesity within their community. The initial causal loop diagram was then reviewed and elaborated by 50 community leaders over a full day session.The process created a causal loop diagram representing community perceptions of determinants and causes of obesity. The causal loop diagram can be broken down into four separate domains; social influences; fast food and junk food; participation in sport; and general physical activity.This causal loop diagram can provide the basis for community led planning of a prevention response that engages with multiple levels of existing settings and systems.

  2. Merit exponents and control area diagrams in materials selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zander, Johan; Sandstroem, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Merit exponents are introduced to generalise the merit indices commonly used in materials selection. → The merit exponents can rank materials in general design situations. → To allow identification of the active merit exponent(s), control area diagrams are used. → Principles for generating the control area diagrams are presented. -- Abstract: Merit indices play a fundamental role in materials selection, since they enable ranking of materials. However, the conventional formulation of merit indices is associated with severe limitations. They are dependent on the explicit solution of the variables in the equations for the constraints from the design criteria. Furthermore, it is not always easy to determine which the controlling merit index is. To enable the ranking of materials in more general design cases, merit exponents are introduced as generalisations of the merit indices. Procedures are presented for how to compute the merit exponents numerically without having to solve equations algebraically. Merit exponents (and indices) are only valid in a certain range of property values. To simplify the identification of the controlling merit exponent, it is suggested that so called control area diagrams are used. These diagrams consist of a number of domains, each showing the active constraints and the controlling merit exponent. It is shown that the merit exponents play a crucial role when the control area diagram (CAD) is set up. The principles in the paper are developed for mechanically loaded components and are illustrated for engineering beams with two or three geometric variables.

  3. Tropospheric Ozone Pollution from Space: New Views from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Hudson, Robert D.; Frolov, Alexander D.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Kucsera, Tom L.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    New products from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) >satellite instrument can resolve pollution events in tropical and mid-latitudes, Over the past several years, we have developed tropospheric ozone data sets by two methods. The modified-residual technique [Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999] uses v. 7 TOMS total ozone and is applicable to tropical regimes in which the wave-one pattern in total ozone is observed. The TOMSdirect method [Hudson et at., 2000] represents a new algorithm that uses TOMS radiances to extract tropospheric ozone in regions of constant stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone displaying high mixing ratios and variability characteristic of pollution, Absorbing aerosols (dust and smoke; Herman et at., 1997 Hsu et al., 1999), a standard TOMS product, provide transport and/or source marker information to interpret tropospheric ozone. For the Nimbus 7/TOMS observing period (1979-1992), modified-residual TTO (tropical tropospheric ozone) appears as two maps/month at I-degree latitude 2-degree longitude resolution at a homepage and digital data are available (20S to 20N) by ftp at http://metosrv2. umd.edu/tropo/ 14y_data.d. Preliminary modified-residual TTO data from the operational Earth-Probe/TOMS (1996- present) are posted in near-real-time at the same website. Analyses with the new tropospheric ozone and aerosol data are illustrated by the following (I)Signals in tropical tropospheric ozone column and smoke amount during ENSO (El Nino-Southern Oscillation) events, e.g. 1982-1983 and the intense ENSO induced biomass fires of 1997-1998 over the Indonesian region [Thompson et a[, 2000a, Thompson and Hudson, 1999]. (2) Trends in tropospheric ozone and smoke aerosols in various tropical regions (Atlantic, Pacific, Africa, Brazil). No significant trends were found for ozone from1980-1990 [Thompson and Hudson, 19991 although smoke aerosols increased during the period [Hsu et al.,1999]. (3) Temporal and spatial offsets

  4. Effects of ozone on crops in north-west Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Muhammad Nauman; Büker, Patrick; Khalid, Sofia; Van Den Berg, Leon; Shah, Hamid Ullah; Wahid, Abdul; Emberson, Lisa; Power, Sally A.; Ashmore, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Although ozone is well-documented to reduce crop yields in the densely populated Indo-Gangetic Plain, there is little knowledge of its effects in other parts of south Asia. We surveyed crops close to the city of Peshawar, in north-west Pakistan, for visible injury, linking this to passive measurements of ozone concentrations. Foliar injury was found on potato, onion and cotton when mean monthly ozone concentrations exceeded 45 ppb. The symptoms on onion were reproduced in ozone fumigation experiments, which also showed that daytime ozone concentrations of 60 ppb significantly reduce the growth of a major Pakistani onion variety. Aphid infestation on spinach was also reduced at these elevated ozone concentrations. The ozone concentrations measured in April–May in Peshawar, and used in the fumigation experiment, are comparable to those that have been modelled to occur over many parts of south Asia, where ozone may be a significant threat to sensitive crops. -- Highlights: ► Visible ozone injury to onion, cotton and potato was identified in north-west Pakistan. ► The symptoms on onion were reproduced by exposure to elevated ozone. ► Elevated ozone levels also significantly reduced onion growth. ► Levels of aphid infestation on spinach were lower under elevated ozone. ► These effects were observed at ozone levels that have been modelled to occur widely across south Asia. -- Ozone concentrations in NW Pakistan have adverse effects on sensitive crop species

  5. Modulations of stratospheric ozone by volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchette, Christian; Mcconnell, John C.

    1994-01-01

    We have used a time series of aerosol surface based on the measurements of Hofmann to investigate the modulation of total column ozone caused by the perturbation to gas phase chemistry by the reaction N2O5(gas) + H2O(aero) yields 2HNO3(gas) on the surface of stratospheric aerosols. We have tested a range of values for its reaction probability, gamma = 0.02, 0.13, and 0.26 which we compared to unperturbed homogeneous chemistry. Our analysis spans a period from Jan. 1974 to Oct. 1994. The results suggest that if lower values of gamma are the norm then we would expect larger ozone losses for highly enhanced aerosol content that for larger values of gamma. The ozone layer is more sensitive to the magnitude of the reaction probability under background conditions than during volcanically active periods. For most conditions, the conversion of NO2 to HNO3 is saturated for reaction probability in the range of laboratory measurements, but is only absolutely saturated following major volcanic eruptions when the heterogeneous loss dominates the losses of N2O5. The ozone loss due to this heterogeneous reaction increases with the increasing chlorine load. Total ozone losses calculated are comparable to ozone losses reported from TOMS and Dobson data.

  6. Generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) using Feynman-like diagrams

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, M. A. H.

    2014-05-19

    Single scattering events recorded in surface seismic data do not fully illuminate the subsurface structure, especially if it is complicated. In such cases, multiple internal scatterings (internal multiples) can help improve the illumination. We devise a generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) procedure that maps internal multiple energy to their true location with a relatively mild addition to the computational cost. GIMI theory relies heavily on seismic interferometry, which often involves cumbersome algebra, especially when one is dealing with high-order terms in the perturbation series. To make the derivations, and inference of the results easier, we introduce Feynman-like diagrams to represent different terms of the perturbation series (solution to the Lippman–Schwinger equation). The rules we define for the diagrams allow operations like convolution and cross-correlation in the series to be compressed in diagram form. The application of the theory to a double scattering example demonstrates the power of the method.

  7. The limit shape problem for ensembles of Young diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Hora, Akihito

    2016-01-01

    This book treats ensembles of Young diagrams originating from group-theoretical contexts and investigates what statistical properties are observed there in a large-scale limit. The focus is mainly on analyzing the interesting phenomenon that specific curves appear in the appropriate scaling limit for the profiles of Young diagrams. This problem is regarded as an important origin of recent vital studies on harmonic analysis of huge symmetry structures. As mathematics, an asymptotic theory of representations is developed of the symmetric groups of degree n as n goes to infinity. The framework of rigorous limit theorems (especially the law of large numbers) in probability theory is employed as well as combinatorial analysis of group characters of symmetric groups and applications of Voiculescu's free probability. The central destination here is a clear description of the asymptotic behavior of rescaled profiles of Young diagrams in the Plancherel ensemble from both static and dynamic points of view.

  8. Project Management Plan for the INEL technology logic diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudin, M.J.

    1992-10-01

    This Project Management Plan (PjMP) describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to activities outlined in Technical Task Plan (TTP) ID-121117, ''Technology Logic Diagrams For The INEL.'' The work on this project will be conducted by personnel in EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc.'s Waste Technology Development Program. Technology logic diagrams represent a formal methodology to identify technology gaps or needs within Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Operations, which will focus on Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM-50) research and development, demonstration, test, and evaluation efforts throughout the US Department of Energy complex. This PjMP describes the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, workscope and processes for implementing and managing the technology logic diagram for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory project

  9. Unified Phase Diagram for Iron-Based Superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yanhong; Liu, Zhaoyu; Xie, Tao; Zhang, Wenliang; Gong, Dongliang; Hu, Ding; Ma, Xiaoyan; Li, Chunhong; Zhao, Lingxiao; Lin, Lifang; Xu, Zhuang; Tan, Guotai; Chen, Genfu; Meng, Zi Yang; Yang, Yi-Feng; Luo, Huiqian; Li, Shiliang

    2017-10-13

    High-temperature superconductivity is closely adjacent to a long-range antiferromagnet, which is called a parent compound. In cuprates, all parent compounds are alike and carrier doping leads to superconductivity, so a unified phase diagram can be drawn. However, the properties of parent compounds for iron-based superconductors show significant diversity and both carrier and isovalent dopings can cause superconductivity, which casts doubt on the idea that there exists a unified phase diagram for them. Here we show that the ordered moments in a variety of iron pnictides are inversely proportional to the effective Curie constants of their nematic susceptibility. This unexpected scaling behavior suggests that the magnetic ground states of iron pnictides can be achieved by tuning the strength of nematic fluctuations. Therefore, a unified phase diagram can be established where superconductivity emerges from a hypothetical parent compound with a large ordered moment but weak nematic fluctuations, which suggests that iron-based superconductors are strongly correlated electron systems.

  10. Unified Phase Diagram for Iron-Based Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yanhong; Liu, Zhaoyu; Xie, Tao; Zhang, Wenliang; Gong, Dongliang; Hu, Ding; Ma, Xiaoyan; Li, Chunhong; Zhao, Lingxiao; Lin, Lifang; Xu, Zhuang; Tan, Guotai; Chen, Genfu; Meng, Zi Yang; Yang, Yi-feng; Luo, Huiqian; Li, Shiliang

    2017-10-01

    High-temperature superconductivity is closely adjacent to a long-range antiferromagnet, which is called a parent compound. In cuprates, all parent compounds are alike and carrier doping leads to superconductivity, so a unified phase diagram can be drawn. However, the properties of parent compounds for iron-based superconductors show significant diversity and both carrier and isovalent dopings can cause superconductivity, which casts doubt on the idea that there exists a unified phase diagram for them. Here we show that the ordered moments in a variety of iron pnictides are inversely proportional to the effective Curie constants of their nematic susceptibility. This unexpected scaling behavior suggests that the magnetic ground states of iron pnictides can be achieved by tuning the strength of nematic fluctuations. Therefore, a unified phase diagram can be established where superconductivity emerges from a hypothetical parent compound with a large ordered moment but weak nematic fluctuations, which suggests that iron-based superconductors are strongly correlated electron systems.

  11. Generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) using Feynman-like diagrams

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, M. A. H.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Single scattering events recorded in surface seismic data do not fully illuminate the subsurface structure, especially if it is complicated. In such cases, multiple internal scatterings (internal multiples) can help improve the illumination. We devise a generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) procedure that maps internal multiple energy to their true location with a relatively mild addition to the computational cost. GIMI theory relies heavily on seismic interferometry, which often involves cumbersome algebra, especially when one is dealing with high-order terms in the perturbation series. To make the derivations, and inference of the results easier, we introduce Feynman-like diagrams to represent different terms of the perturbation series (solution to the Lippman–Schwinger equation). The rules we define for the diagrams allow operations like convolution and cross-correlation in the series to be compressed in diagram form. The application of the theory to a double scattering example demonstrates the power of the method.

  12. Electroweak penguin diagrams and two-body B decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronau, M.; Hernandez, O.F.; London, D.; Rosner, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the role of electroweak penguin diagrams in B decays to two light pseudoscalar mesons. We confirm that the extraction of the weak phase α through the isospin analysis involving B→ππ decays is largely unaffected by such operators. However, the methods proposed to obtain weak and strong phases by relating B→ππ, B→πK, and B→K bar K decays through flavor SU(3) will be invalidated if eletroweak penguin diagrams are large. We show that, although the introduction of electroweak penguin contributions introduces no new amplitudes of flavor SU(3), there are a number of ways to experimentally measure the size of such effects. Finally, using SU(3) amplitude relations we present a new way of measuring the weak angle γ which holds even in the presence of electroweak penguin diagrams

  13. Sequence Algebra, Sequence Decision Diagrams and Dynamic Fault Trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauzy, Antoine B.

    2011-01-01

    A large attention has been focused on the Dynamic Fault Trees in the past few years. By adding new gates to static (regular) Fault Trees, Dynamic Fault Trees aim to take into account dependencies among events. Merle et al. proposed recently an algebraic framework to give a formal interpretation to these gates. In this article, we extend Merle et al.'s work by adopting a slightly different perspective. We introduce Sequence Algebras that can be seen as Algebras of Basic Events, representing failures of non-repairable components. We show how to interpret Dynamic Fault Trees within this framework. Finally, we propose a new data structure to encode sets of sequences of Basic Events: Sequence Decision Diagrams. Sequence Decision Diagrams are very much inspired from Minato's Zero-Suppressed Binary Decision Diagrams. We show that all operations of Sequence Algebras can be performed on this data structure.

  14. How to Draw Energy Level Diagrams in Excitonic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X-Y

    2014-07-03

    Emerging photovoltaic devices based on molecular and nanomaterials are mostly excitonic in nature. The initial absorption of a photon in these materials creates an exciton that can subsequently dissociate in each material or at their interfaces to give charge carriers. Any attempt at mechanistic understanding of excitonic solar cells must start with drawing energy level diagrams. This seemingly elementary exercise, which is described in textbooks for inorganic solar cells, has turned out to be a difficult subject in the literature. The problem stems from conceptual confusion of single-particle energy with quasi-particle energy and the misleading practice of mixing the two on the same energy level diagram. Here, I discuss how to draw physically accurate energy diagrams in excitonic solar cells using only single-particle energies (ionization potentials and electron affinities) of both ground and optically excited states. I will briefly discuss current understanding on the electronic energy landscape responsible for efficient charge separation in excitonic solar cells.

  15. Basics of introduction to Feynman diagrams and electroweak interactions physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilenky, S.M.; Mikhov, S.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Feynman diagrams are the main computational method for the evaluation of the matrix elements of different processes. Although it is a perturbative method, its significance is not restricted to perturbation theory only. In this book, the elements of quantum field theory, the Feynman diagram method, the theory of electroweak interactions and other topics are discussed. A number of classical weak and electroweak processes are considered in details. This involves, first of all, the construction of the matrix elements of the process using both the Feynman diagram method (when perturbation theory can be applied) and the invariance principles (when perturbation theory fails). Then the cross sections and the decay probabilities are computed. The text is providing widely used computational techniques and some experimental data. (A.B.). 32 refs., 7 appendix

  16. Re-determination of succinonitrile (SCN) camphor phase diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Jing; Liu, Shan

    2006-04-01

    Low-melting temperature transparent organic materials have been extensively used to study the pattern formation and microstructure evolution. It proves to be very challenging to accurately determine the phase diagram since there is no viable way to measure the composition microscopically. In this paper, we presented the detailed experimental characterization of the phase diagram of succinonitrile (SCN)-camphor binary system. Differential scanning calorimetry, a ring-heater, and the directional solidification technique have been combined to determine the details of the phase diagram by using the purified materials. The advantages and disadvantages have been discussed for the different experimental techniques. SCN and camphor constitute a simple binary eutectic system with the eutectic composition at 23.6 wt% camphor and eutectic temperature at 37.65 °C. The solidus and the solubility of the SCN base solid solution have been precisely determined for the first time in this binary system.

  17. Phase diagram of supercooled water confined to hydrophilic nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David T.; Chandler, David

    2012-07-01

    We present a phase diagram for water confined to cylindrical silica nanopores in terms of pressure, temperature, and pore radius. The confining cylindrical wall is hydrophilic and disordered, which has a destabilizing effect on ordered water structure. The phase diagram for this class of systems is derived from general arguments, with parameters taken from experimental observations and computer simulations and with assumptions tested by computer simulation. Phase space divides into three regions: a single liquid, a crystal-like solid, and glass. For large pores, radii exceeding 1 nm, water exhibits liquid and crystal-like behaviors, with abrupt crossovers between these regimes. For small pore radii, crystal-like behavior is unstable and water remains amorphous for all non-zero temperatures. At low enough temperatures, these states are glasses. Several experimental results for supercooled water can be understood in terms of the phase diagram we present.

  18. Decorated-box-diagram contributions to Bhabha scattering. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faeldt, G.; Osland, P.

    1994-01-01

    We evaluate, in the light-energy limit, s>>vertical stroke tvertical stroke >>m 2 >>λ 2 , the sum of amplitudes corresponding to a class of Feynman diagrams describing two-loop virtual photonic corrections to Bhabha scattering. The diagrams considered are box and crossed-box diagrams with an extra photon decorating one of the fermion lines. The mathematical method employed is that of Mellin transforms. In the eikonal approximation, this sum of two-loop amplitudes has previously been evaluated, and found to be equal to the sum of the box and crossed-box amplitudes, multiplied by the electric form factor of the electron. We obtain a similar factorization, but with the form factor replaced by another expression involving the logarithms log(λ 2 /m 2 ) and log(λ 2 /vertical stroke tvertical stroke ). (orig.)

  19. Anytime decision making based on unconstrained influence diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luque, Manuel; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn Verner

    2016-01-01

    . This paper addresses this problem by proposing an anytime algorithm that at any time provides a qualified recommendation for the first decisions of the problem. The algorithm performs a heuristic-based search in a decision tree representation of the problem. We provide a framework for analyzing......Unconstrained influence diagrams extend the language of influence diagrams to cope with decision problems in which the order of the decisions is unspecified. Thus, when solving an unconstrained influence diagram we not only look for an optimal policy for each decision, but also for a so-called step......-policy specifying the next decision given the observations made so far. However, due to the complexity of the problem, temporal constraints can force the decision maker to act before the solution algorithm has finished, and, in particular, before an optimal policy for the first decision has been computed...

  20. Effect of Pulse Width on Oxygen-fed Ozonizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Sho; Wang, Douyan; Namihira, Takao; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori

    Though general ozonizers based on silent discharge (barrier discharge) have been used to supply ozone at many industrial situations, there is still some problem, such as improvements of ozone yield. In this work, ozone was generated by pulsed discharge in order to improve the characteristics of ozone generation. It is known that a pulse width gives strong effect to the improvement of energy efficiency in exhaust gas processing. In this paper, the effect of pulse duration on ozone generation by pulsed discharge in oxygen would be reported.

  1. Urban Summertime Ozone of China: Peak Ozone Hour and Nighttime Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, H.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, R.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the observed diurnal cycle of summertime ozone in the cities of China using a regional chemical transport model. The simulated daytime ozone is in general agreement with the observations. Model simulations suggest that the ozone peak time and peak concentration are a function of NOx (NO + NO2) and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. The differences between simulated and observed ozone peak time and peak concentration in some regions can be applied to understand biases in the emission inventories. For example, the VOCs emissions are underestimated over the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, and either NOx emissions are underestimated or VOC emissions are overestimated over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) regions. In contrast to the general good daytime ozone simulations, the simulated nighttime ozone has a large low bias of up to 40 ppbv. Nighttime ozone in urban areas is sensitive to the nocturnal boundary-layer mixing, and enhanced nighttime mixing (from the surface to 200-500 m) is necessary for the model to reproduce the observed level of ozone.

  2. 77 FR 74381 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Listing of Substitutes for Ozone Depleting Substances-Fire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Listing of Substitutes for Ozone Depleting Substances--Fire Suppression... a companion proposed rule issuing listings for three fire suppressants under EPA's Significant New... companion proposed rule issuing listings for three fire suppressants under EPA's Significant New...

  3. Impact of enhanced ozone deposition and halogen chemistry on tropospheric ozone over the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fate of ozone in marine environments has been receiving increased attention due to the tightening of ambient air quality standards. The role of deposition and halogen chemistry is examined through incorporation of an enhanced ozone deposition algorithm and inclusion of halogen ch...

  4. Influence Diagram Use With Respect to Technology Planning and Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.; DeHoff, Bryan; Rhodes, Russel E.

    2009-01-01

    Influence diagrams are relatively simple, but powerful, tools for assessing the impact of choices or resource allocations on goals or requirements. They are very general and can be used on a wide range of problems. They can be used for any problem that has defined goals, a set of factors that influence the goals or the other factors, and a set of inputs. Influence diagrams show the relationship among a set of results and the attributes that influence them and the inputs that influence the attributes. If the results are goals or requirements of a program, then the influence diagram can be used to examine how the requirements are affected by changes to technology investment. This paper uses an example to show how to construct and interpret influence diagrams, how to assign weights to the inputs and attributes, how to assign weights to the transfer functions (influences), and how to calculate the resulting influences of the inputs on the results. A study is also presented as an example of how using influence diagrams can help in technology planning and investment. The Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) used this technique to examine the impact of R&D spending on the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) of a space transportation system. The question addressed was the effect on the recurring and the non-recurring portions of LCC of the proportion of R&D resources spent to impact technology objectives versus the proportion spent to impact operational dependability objectives. The goals, attributes, and the inputs were established. All of the linkages (influences) were determined. The weighting of each of the attributes and each of the linkages was determined. Finally the inputs were varied and the impacts on the LCC determined and are presented. The paper discusses how each of these was accomplished both for credibility and as an example for future studies using influence diagrams for technology planning and investment planning.

  5. A Global Ozone Climatology from Ozone Soundings via Trajectory Mapping: A Stratospheric Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J. J.; Tarasick, D. W.; Fioletov, V. E.; McLinden, C.; Zhao, T.; Gong, S.; Sioris, G.; Jin, J. J.; Liu, G.; Moeini, O.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores a domain-filling trajectory approach to generate a global ozone climatology from sparse ozonesonde data. Global ozone soundings of 51,898 profiles at 116 stations over 44 years (1965-2008) are used, from which forward and backward trajectories are performed for 4 days, driven by a set of meteorological reanalysis data. Ozone mixing ratios of each sounding from the surface to 26 km altitude are assigned to the entire path along the trajectory. The resulting global ozone climatology is archived monthly for five decades from the 1960s to the 2000s with grids of 5 degree 5 degree 1 km (latitude, longitude, and altitude). It is also archived yearly from 1965 to 2008. This climatology is validated at 20 ozonesonde stations by comparing the actual ozone sounding profile with that found through the trajectories, using the ozone soundings at all the stations except one being tested. The two sets of profiles are in good agreement, both individually with correlation coefficients between 0.975 and 0.998 and root mean square (RMS) differences of 87 to 482 ppbv, and overall with a correlation coefficient of 0.991 and an RMS of 224 ppbv. The ozone climatology is also compared with two sets of satellite data, from the Satellite Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) and the Optical Spectrography and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS). Overall, the ozone climatology compares well with SAGE and OSIRIS data by both seasonal and zonal means. The mean difference is generally under 20 above 15 km. The comparison is better in the northern hemisphere, where there are more ozonesonde stations, than in the southern hemisphere; it is also better in the middle and high latitudes than in the tropics, where assimilated winds are imperfect in some regions. This ozone climatology can capture known features in the stratosphere, as well as seasonal and decadal variations of these features. Furthermore, it provides a wealth of detail about longitudinal variations in the stratosphere such

  6. CALPHAD calculation of phase diagrams : a comprehensive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Saunders, N; Miodownik, A P

    1998-01-01

    This monograph acts as a benchmark to current achievements in the field of Computer Coupling of Phase Diagrams and Thermochemistry, often called CALPHAD which is an acronym for Computer CALculation of PHAse Diagrams. It also acts as a guide to both the basic background of the subject area and the cutting edge of the topic, combining comprehensive discussions of the underlying physical principles of the CALPHAD method with detailed descriptions of their application to real complex multi-component materials. Approaches which combine both thermodynamic and kinetic models to interpret non-equilibrium phase transformations are also reviewed.

  7. INFRARED COLOR-COLOR DIAGRAMS FOR AGB STARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Won Suh

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We present infrared color-color diagrams of AGB stars from the observations at near and mid infrared bands. We compile the observations for hundreds of OH/IR stars and carbon stars using the data from the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX, the two micron sky survey (2MASS, and the IRAS point source catalog (PSC. We compare the observations with the theoretical evolutionary tracks of AGB stars. From the new observational data base and the theoretical evolution tracks, we discuss the meaning of the infrared color-color diagrams at different wavelengths.

  8. Basic principles of Hasse diagram technique in chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Rainer; Voigt, Kristina

    2008-11-01

    Principles of partial order applied to ranking are explained. The Hasse diagram technique (HDT) is the application of partial order theory based on a data matrix. In this paper, HDT is introduced in a stepwise procedure, and some elementary theorems are exemplified. The focus is to show how the multivariate character of a data matrix is realized by HDT and in which cases one should apply other mathematical or statistical methods. Many simple examples illustrate the basic theoretical ideas. Finally, it is shown that HDT is a useful alternative for the evaluation of antifouling agents, which was originally performed by amoeba diagrams.

  9. Phase diagram of the ternary Zr-Ti-Sn system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, D.; Gonzalez Camus, M.

    1987-01-01

    It is well known that Ti stabilizes the high temperature cubic phase of Zr and that Sn stabilizes the low temperature hexagonal phase of Zr. The effect of Sn on the Zr-Ti diagram has been studied in the present paper. Using high purity metals, nine different alloys have been prepared, with 4-32 at % Ti, 0.7-2.2 at % Sn and Zr till 100%. Resistivity and optical and SEM metallography techniques have been employed. Effect of some impurities have been analyzed. The results are discussed and different isothermic sections of the ternary Zr-Ti-Sn diagram are presented. (Author) [es

  10. Microsoft Visio 2013 business process diagramming and validation

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, David

    2013-01-01

    Microsoft Visio 2013 Business Process Diagramming and Validation provides a comprehensive and practical tutorial including example code and demonstrations for creating validation rules, writing ShapeSheet formulae, and much more.If you are a Microsoft Visio 2013 Professional Edition power user or developer who wants to get to grips with both the essential features of Visio 2013 and the validation rules in this edition, then this book is for you. A working knowledge of Microsoft Visio and optionally .NET for the add-on code is required, though previous knowledge of business process diagramming

  11. Ozone Transport Aloft Drives Surface Ozone Maxima Across the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanCuren, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    A persistent layer of polluted air in the lower free troposphere over the Mojave Desert (California and Nevada) drives spring and summer surface ozone maxima as deep afternoon mixing delivers ozone and ozone precursors to surface measurement sites 200 km or more downwind of the mountains that separate the deserts from the heavily populated coastal areas of California. Pollutants in this elevated layer derive from California source regions (the Los Angeles megacity region and the intensive agricultural region of the San Joaquin Valley), and from long-range transport from Asia. Recognition of this poorly studied persistent layer explains and expands the significance of previously published reports of ozone and other pollutants observed in and over the Mojave Desert, resolves an apparent paradox in the timing of ozone peaks due to transport from the upwind basins, and provides a new perspective on the long-range downwind impacts of megacity pollution plumes.

  12. DIAGRAM SOLVE THE USE OF SIMULINK BLOCK DIAGRAM TO SOLVE MATHEMA THEMATICAL CONTROL EQU MATHEMATICAL MODELS AND CONTROL EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Ghasem

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the simulink block diagram is used to solve a model consists of a set of ordinary differential and algebraic equations to control the temperature inside a simple stirred tank heater. The flexibility of simulink block diagram gives students a better understanding of the control systems. The simulink also allows solution of mathematical models and easy visualization of the system variables. A polyethylene fluidized bed reactor is considered as an industrial example and the effect of the Proportional, Integral and Derivative control policy is presented for comparison.

  13. The Observed Relationship Between Water Vapor and Ozone in the Tropical Tropopause Saturation Layer and the Influence of Meridional Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkirk, Henry B.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Olsen, M. A.; Douglass, A. R.

    2011-01-01

    We examine balloonsonde observations of water vapor and ozone from three Ticosonde campaigns over San Jose, Costa Rica [10 N, 84 W] during northern summer and a fourth during northern winter. The data from the summer campaigns show that the uppermost portion of the tropical tropopause layer between 360 and 380 K, which we term the tropopause saturation layer or TSL, is characterized by water vapor mixing ratios from proximately 3 to 15 ppmv and ozone from approximately 50 ppbv to 250 ppbv. In contrast, the atmospheric water vapor tape recorder at 380 K and above displays a more restricted 4-7 ppmv range in water vapor mixing ratio. From this perspective, most of the parcels in the TSL fall into two classes - those that need only additional radiative heating to rise into the tape recorder and those requiring some combination of additional dehydration and mixing with drier air. A substantial fraction of the latter class have ozone mixing ratios greater than 150 ppbv, and with water vapor greater than 7 ppmv this air may well have been transported into the tropics from the middle latitudes in conjunction with high-amplitude equatorial waves. We examine this possibility with both trajectory analysis and transport diagnostics based on HIRDLS ozone data. We apply the same approach to study the winter season. Here a very different regime obtains as the ozone-water vapor scatter diagram of the sonde data shows the stratosphere and troposphere to be clearly demarcated with little evidence of mixing in of middle latitude air parcels.

  14. Quantifying the contributions to stratospheric ozone changes from ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Plummer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A state-of-the-art chemistry climate model coupled to a three-dimensional ocean model is used to produce three experiments, all seamlessly covering the period 1950–2100, forced by different combinations of long-lived Greenhouse Gases (GHGs and Ozone Depleting Substances (ODSs. The experiments are designed to quantify the separate effects of GHGs and ODSs on the evolution of ozone, as well as the extent to which these effects are independent of each other, by alternately holding one set of these two forcings constant in combination with a third experiment where both ODSs and GHGs vary. We estimate that up to the year 2000 the net decrease in the column amount of ozone above 20 hPa is approximately 75% of the decrease that can be attributed to ODSs due to the offsetting effects of cooling by increased CO2. Over the 21st century, as ODSs decrease, continued cooling from CO2 is projected to account for more than 50% of the projected increase in ozone above 20 hPa. Changes in ozone below 20 hPa show a redistribution of ozone from tropical to extra-tropical latitudes with an increase in the Brewer-Dobson circulation. In addition to a latitudinal redistribution of ozone, we find that the globally averaged column amount of ozone below 20 hPa decreases over the 21st century, which significantly mitigates the effect of upper stratospheric cooling on total column ozone. Analysis by linear regression shows that the recovery of ozone from the effects of ODSs generally follows the decline in reactive chlorine and bromine levels, with the exception of the lower polar stratosphere where recovery of ozone in the second half of the 21st century is slower than would be indicated by the decline in reactive chlorine and bromine concentrations. These results also reveal the degree to which GHG-related effects mute the chemical effects of N2O on ozone in the standard future scenario used for the WMO Ozone Assessment. Increases in the

  15. Phase diagram of the disordered Bose-Hubbard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurarie, V.; Pollet, L.; Prokof'ev, N. V.; Svistunov, B. V.; Troyer, M.

    2009-01-01

    We establish the phase diagram of the disordered three-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model at unity filling which has been controversial for many years. The theorem of inclusions, proven by Pollet et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 140402 (2009)] states that the Bose-glass phase always intervenes between the Mott insulating and superfluid phases. Here, we note that assumptions on which the theorem is based exclude phase transitions between gapped (Mott insulator) and gapless phases (Bose glass). The apparent paradox is resolved through a unique mechanism: such transitions have to be of the Griffiths type when the vanishing of the gap at the critical point is due to a zero concentration of rare regions where extreme fluctuations of disorder mimic a regular gapless system. An exactly solvable random transverse field Ising model in one dimension is used to illustrate the point. A highly nontrivial overall shape of the phase diagram is revealed with the worm algorithm. The phase diagram features a long superfluid finger at strong disorder and on-site interaction. Moreover, bosonic superfluidity is extremely robust against disorder in a broad range of interaction parameters; it persists in random potentials nearly 50 (!) times larger than the particle half-bandwidth. Finally, we comment on the feasibility of obtaining this phase diagram in cold-atom experiments, which work with trapped systems at finite temperature.

  16. Interpreting Evolutionary Diagrams: When Topology and Process Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catley, Kefyn M.; Novick, Laura R.; Shade, Courtney K.

    2010-01-01

    The authors argue that some diagrams in biology textbooks and the popular press presented as depicting evolutionary relationships suggest an inappropriate (anagenic) conception of evolutionary history. The goal of this research was to provide baseline data that begin to document how college students conceptualize the evolutionary relationships…

  17. The Use of Kruskal-Newton Diagrams for Differential Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishaleck, T.; White, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    The method of Kruskal-Newton diagrams for the solution of differential equations with boundary layers is shown to provide rapid intuitive understanding of layer scaling and can result in the conceptual simplification of some problems. The method is illustrated using equations arising in the theory of pattern formation and in plasma physics.

  18. ARBUS: A FORTRAN tool for generating tree structure diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrero, C.; Zanger, M.

    1992-02-01

    The FORTRAN77 stand-alone code ARBUS has been designed to aid the user by providing a tree structure diagram generating utility for computer programs written in FORTRAN language. This report is intended to describe the main purpose and features of ARBUS and to highlight some additional applications of the code by means of practical test cases. (orig.) [de

  19. Using Photographs and Diagrams to Test Young Children's Mass Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeseman, Jill; McDonough, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a pencil-and-paper test developed to assess young children's understanding of mass measurement. The innovative element of the test was its use of photographs. We found many children of the 295 6-8 year-old children tested could "read" the photographs and diagrams and recognise the images as…

  20. Phase Stability Diagrams for High Temperature Corrosion Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Ramos-Hernandez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion phenomena of metals by fused salts depend on chemical composition of the melt and environmental conditions of the system. Detail knowledge of chemistry and thermodynamic of aggressive species formed during the corrosion process is essential for a better understanding of materials degradation exposed to high temperature. When there is a lack of kinetic data for the corrosion processes, an alternative to understand the thermodynamic behavior of chemical species is to utilize phase stability diagrams. Nowadays, there are several specialized software programs to calculate phase stability diagrams. These programs are based on thermodynamics of chemical reactions. Using a thermodynamic data base allows the calculation of different types of phase diagrams. However, sometimes it is difficult to have access to such data bases. In this work, an alternative way to calculate phase stability diagrams is presented. The work is exemplified in the Na-V-S-O and Al-Na-V-S-O systems. This system was chosen because vanadium salts is one of the more aggressive system for all engineering alloys, especially in those processes where fossil fuels are used.

  1. Approximate Solutions of Interactive Dynamic Influence Diagrams Using Model Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Doshi, Prashant; Qiongyu, Cheng

    2007-01-01

    Interactive dynamic influence diagrams (I-DIDs) offer a transparent and semantically clear representation for the sequential decision-making problem over multiple time steps in the presence of other interacting agents. Solving I-DIDs exactly involves knowing the solutions of possible models...

  2. Generalized balanced power diagrams for 3D representations of polycrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alpers, Andreas; Brieden, Andreas; Gritzmann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the grain structure of polycrystalline material is an important task in material science. The present paper introduces the concept of generalized balanced power diagrams as a concise alternative to voxelated mappings. Here, each grain is represented by (measured approximations of...

  3. Introducing the Circular Flow Diagram to Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daraban, Bogdan

    2010-01-01

    The circular flow of income diagram is a simplified representation of the functioning of a free-market economic system. It illustrates how businesses interact with the other economic participants within the key macroeconomic markets that coordinate the flow of income through the national economy. Therefore, it can provide students of business with…

  4. An automatic system for elaboration of chip breaking diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    1998-01-01

    A laboratory system for fully automatic elaboration of chip breaking diagrams has been developed and tested. The system is based on automatic chip breaking detection by frequency analysis of cutting forces in connection with programming of a CNC-lathe to scan different feeds, speeds and cutting...

  5. Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram for pedestrian networks : Theory and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Daamen, W.; Knoop, V.L.; Steenbakkers, Jeroen; Sarvi, Majid

    2017-01-01

    The Macroscopic Fundamental diagram (MFD) has proven to be a powerful concept in understanding and managing vehicular network dynamics, both from a theoretical angle and from a more application-oriented perspective. In this contribution, we explore the existence and the characteristics of the

  6. Learning about Posterior Probability: Do Diagrams and Elaborative Interrogation Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Virginia; Alibali, Martha W.; Nathan, Mitchell J.

    2016-01-01

    To learn from a text, students must make meaningful connections among related ideas in that text. This study examined the effectiveness of two methods of improving connections--elaborative interrogation and diagrams--in written lessons about posterior probability. Undergraduate students (N = 198) read a lesson in one of three questioning…

  7. Continuous cooling transformation diagrams for 6XXX aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryantsev, P Yu

    2009-01-01

    Continuous cooling transformation diagrams of aluminum solid solution decomposition in range of cooling rates 100-1900 deg. C/h were built for some alloys of Al-Mg-Si-Fe system. Influence of cooling rate and chemical composition on temperatures of start and finish of solution decomposition was determined.

  8. Integrating Mathematics and Science: Ecology and Venn Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczynski, Eliza; Munakata, Mika; Evans, Jessica M.; Pizzigoni, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to integrate mathematics and science have been widely recognized by mathematics and science educators. However, successful integration of these two important school disciplines remains a challenge. In this article, a mathematics and science activity extends the use of Venn diagrams to a life science context and then circles back to a…

  9. Emergence of an urban traffic macroscopic fundamental diagram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjan, Abhishek; Fosgerau, Mogens; Jenelius, Erik

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines mild conditions under which a macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD) emerges, relating space-averaged speed to occupancy in some area. These conditions are validated against empirical data. We allow local speedoccupancy relationships and, in particular, require no equilibrating...

  10. Resonant count diagram and solar g mode oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, D.B.; Demarque, P.

    1984-01-01

    Evidence is provided to support the hypothesis that, because of the particular frequency separations of the solar g modes, resonant three-wave interactions stimulate only a selected few g modes. A resonant count diagram was obtained by plotting the total number of possible resonant three-wave interactions or a given beat frequency against the inverse of the beat frequency (the beat period), within a given frequency tolerance. The 1 = 1, 2, 3, 4 g modes calculated by Christensen-Dalsgaard, Gough and Morgan (1979) for a standard model of the Sun were used. The diagram has a significant peak at 160 minutes as well as other peaks at longer periods. The g modes that Delache and Scherrer (1983) tentatively identified from the Crimea-Stanford data were also plotted. These modes were found to correspond with the other peaks in the diagram. This coincidence between the observed g modes and the peaks in the resonant count diagram suggest that the observed g modes do owe their observability to resonant three-wave interactions

  11. Quark-diagram analysis of charmed-baryon decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohara, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The Cabibbo-allowed two-body nonleptonic decays of charmed baryons to a SU(3)-octet (or -decuplet) baryon and a pseudoscalar meson are examined on the basis of the quark-diagram scheme. Some relations among the decay amplitudes or rates of various decay modes are derived. The decays of Ξ c + to a decuplet baryon are forbidden

  12. FF. A package to evaluate one-loop Feynman diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldenborgh, G.J. van

    1990-09-01

    A short description and a user's guide of the FF package are given. This package contains routines to evaluate numerically the scalar one-loop integrals occurring in the evaluation in one-loop Feynman diagrams. The algorithms chosen are numerically stable over most parameter space. (author). 5 refs.; 1 tab

  13. Equations of State and Phase Diagrams of Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    We present equations of state relating the phases and a three-dimensional phase diagram for ammonia with its solid, liquid, and vapor phases, based on fitted authentic experimental data and including recent information on the high-pressure solid phases. This presentation follows similar articles on carbon dioxide and water published in this…

  14. Perturbation theory via Feynman diagrams in classical mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Penco, R.; Mauro, D.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we show how Feynman diagrams, which are used as a tool to implement perturbation theory in quantum field theory, can be very useful also in classical mechanics, provided we introduce also at the classical level concepts like path integrals and generating functionals.

  15. Approximate Compilation of Constraints into Multivalued Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadzic, Tarik; Hooker, John N.; O’Sullivan, Barry

    2008-01-01

    We present an incremental refinement algorithm for approximate compilation of constraint satisfaction models into multivalued decision diagrams (MDDs). The algorithm uses a vertex splitting operation that relies on the detection of equivalent paths in the MDD. Although the algorithm is quite gene...

  16. Phase shifts of the paired wings of butterfly diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kejun; Liang Hongfei; Feng Wen

    2010-01-01

    Sunspot groups observed by the Royal Greenwich Observatory/US Air Force/NOAA from 1874 May to 2008 November and the Carte Synoptique solar filaments from 1919 March to 1989 December are used to investigate the relative phase shift of the paired wings of butterfly diagrams of sunspot and filament activities. Latitudinal migration of sunspot groups (or filaments) does asynchronously occur in the northern and southern hemispheres, and there is a relative phase shift between the paired wings of their butterfly diagrams in a cycle, making the paired wings spatially asymmetrical on the solar equator. It is inferred that hemispherical solar activity strength should evolve in a similar way within the paired wings of a butterfly diagram in a cycle, demonstrating the paired wings phenomenon and showing the phase relationship between the northern and southern hemispherical solar activity strengths, as well as a relative phase shift between the paired wings of a butterfly diagram, which should bring about almost the same relative phase shift of hemispheric solar activity strength. (research papers)

  17. Energy Diagram for the Catalytic Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuoka, Tomoyuki; Koga, Nobuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Drawing a schematic energy diagram for the decomposition of H[subscript 2]O[subscript 2] catalyzed by MnO[subscript 2] through a simple thermometric measurement outlined in this study is intended to integrate students' understanding of thermochemistry and kinetics of chemical reactions. The reaction enthalpy, delta[subscript r]H, is…

  18. Ground state phase diagram of extended attractive Hubbard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robaszkiewicz, S.; Chao, K.A.; Micnas, R.

    1980-08-01

    The ground state phase diagram of the extended Hubbard model with intraatomic attraction has been derived in the Hartree-Fock approximation formulated in terms of the Bogoliubov variational approach. For a given value of electron density, the nature of the ordered ground state depends essentially on the sign and the strength of the nearest neighbor coupling. (author)

  19. Riparian Sediment Delivery Ratio: Stiff Diagrams and Artifical Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various methods are used to estimate sediment transport through riparian buffers and grass jilters with the sediment delivery ratio having been the most widely applied. The U.S. Forest Service developed a sediment delivery ratio using the stiff diagram and a logistic curve to int...

  20. The Effect of Diagrams on Online Reading Processes and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrudden, Matthew T.; Magliano, Joseph P.; Schraw, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    This work examined how adjunct displays influence college readers' moment-by-moment processing of text and the products of reading, using reading time (Experiments 1 & 2), and think-aloud methodologies (Experiment 3). Participants did or did not study a diagram before reading a text. Overall, the reading time data, think-aloud data, and recall…