WorldWideScience

Sample records for ozarks

  1. Ozark Aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — These digital maps contain information on the altitude of the base and top, the extent, and the potentiometric surface of the Ozark aquifer in Kansas. The Ozark...

  2. The Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethridge, Max

    2009-01-01

    The Ozark Highlands include diverse topographic, geologic, soil, and hydrologic conditions that support a broad range of habitat types. The landscape features rugged uplands - some peaks higher than 2,500 feet above sea level - with exposed rock and varying soil depths and includes extensive areas of karst terrain. The Highlands are characterized by extreme biological diversity and high endemism (uniqueness of species). Vegetation communities are dominated by open oak-hickory and shortleaf pine woodlands and forests. Included in this vegetation matrix is an assemblage of various types of fens, forests, wetlands, fluvial features, and carbonate and siliceous glades. An ever-growing human population in the Ozark Highlands has become very dependent on reservoirs constructed on major rivers in the region and, in some cases, groundwater for household and public water supply. Because of human population growth in the Highlands and increases in industrial and agricultural activities, not only is adequate water quantity an issue, but maintaining good water quality is also a challenge. Point and nonpoint sources of excessive nutrients are an issue. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) partnership programs to monitor water quality and develop simulation tools to help stakeholders better understand strategies to protect the quality of water and the environment are extremely important. The USGS collects relevant data, conducts interpretive studies, and develops simulation tools to help stakeholders understand resource availability and sustainability issues. Stakeholders dependent on these resources are interested in and benefit greatly from evolving these simulation tools (models) into decision support systems that can be used for adaptive management of water and ecological resources. The interaction of unique and high-quality biological and hydrologic resources and the effects of stresses from human activities can be evaluated best by using a multidisciplinary approach that the USGS

  3. Ozark-Ouachita Highlands Assessment: Aquatic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Service U.S. Department of Agriculture

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides citizens, private and public organizations, scientists, and others with information about the aquatic conditions in or near national forests in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests in Arkansas. This report includes water quality analyses,...

  4. Timber resource of Missouri's Northwest Ozarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith

    1990-01-01

    In 1989 the fourth forest inventory of the Norwest Ozarks found 2.2 million acres of timberland, an increase of nearly 13% since 1972. This bulletin presents highlights and statistics on area, volume, growth, removals, and mortality.

  5. Water levels of the Ozark aquifer in northern Arkansas, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Tony P.

    2015-07-13

    The Ozark aquifer is the largest aquifer, both in area of outcrop and thickness, and the most important source of freshwater in the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province, supplying water to northern Arkansas, southeastern Kansas, southern Missouri, and northeastern Oklahoma. The study area includes 16 Arkansas counties lying completely or partially within the Ozark Plateaus of the Interior Highlands major physiographic division. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Arkansas Natural Resources Commission and the Arkansas Geological Survey, conducted a study of water levels in the Ozark aquifer within Arkansas. This report presents a potentiometric-surface map of the Ozark aquifer within the Ozark Plateaus of northern Arkansas, representing water-level conditions for the early spring of 2013 and selected water-level hydrographs.

  6. Forest stand dynamics of shortleaf pine in the Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Larsen

    2007-01-01

    Much has been written on the management of shortleaf pine in the Ozarks (Brinkman et al. 1965, Brinkman 1967, Brinkman and Smith 1968, Seidel and Rogers 1965, Seidel and Rogers 1966). In large portions of the Ozarks, shortleaf pine does not grow in pure stands but rather in mixes with various oak species. These mixes present unique challenges in finding the set of...

  7. Overview of the Ozark Isoprene Experiment (OZIE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, T.; Koerber, M,; Guenther, A.; King, S.; Lingerich, S.; Turner, J.

    1999-07-01

    Ozone modeling studies, such as those performed for the Ozone Transport Advisory Group (OTAG), have raised concerns about extremely high isoprene concentrations ({gt} 50 ppbv) that have been predicted over the Ozark Plateau in southern Missouri. In response to these concerns, a collaborative study was undertaken involving participants from AMEREN, US Department of Army at Fort Leonard Wood, Lake Michigan Air Directors Consortium, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Purdue University, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington State University, Washington University (St. Louis), and the states of Illinois, Indiana, and Missouri. The Ozark Isoprene Experiment (OZIE) took place during July 1998 and included measurements of isoprene from the surface and aloft at several locations stretching from northeastern Oklahoma to southern Indiana. Measurements were made along a balloon tethered to nearly 1,000 m, surface footprint sites at five locations upwind of the balloon, surface sites in Illinois and Indiana, and from an aircraft flying at heights ranging from 300 to 1,000 m over southern Illinois, southern Indiana, and southern Missouri. Preliminary analysis of the data indicates that daytime surface isoprene concentrations ranged from 1 to 36 ppbv, and isoprene concentrations measured at 600 m ranged from 0.4 to 6 ppbv. Conditions were favorable for the emission of isoprene, with daytime maximum temperatures exceeding 32 C on at least four days during the two-week study period. This paper provides an overview of the study design and describes measurements taken during the experiment.

  8. Hydrogeology and hydrologic conditions of the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Phillip D.; Knierim, Katherine J.; Breaker, Brian K.; Westerman, Drew A.; Clark, Brian R.

    2016-11-23

    The hydrogeology and hydrologic characteristics of the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system were characterized as part of ongoing U.S. Geological Survey efforts to assess groundwater availability across the Nation. The need for such a study in the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province (Ozark Plateaus) is highlighted by increasing demand on groundwater resources by the 5.3 million people of the Ozark Plateaus, water-level declines in some areas, and potential impacts of climate change on groundwater availability. The subject study integrates knowledge gained through local investigation within a regional perspective to develop a regional conceptual model of groundwater flow in the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system (Ozark system), a key phase of groundwater availability assessment. The Ozark system extends across much of southern Missouri and northwestern and north-central Arkansas and smaller areas of southeastern Kansas and northeastern Oklahoma. The region is one of the major karst landscapes in the United States, and karst aquifers are predominant in the Ozark system. Groundwater flow is ultimately controlled by aquifer and confining unit lithologies and stratigraphic relations, geologic structure, karst development, and the character of surficial lithologies and regolith mantle. The regolith mantle is a defining element of Ozark Plateaus karst, affecting recharge, karst development, and vulnerability to surface-derived contaminants. Karst development is more advanced—as evidenced by larger springs, hydraulic characteristics, and higher well yields—in the Salem Plateau and in the northern part of the Springfield Plateau (generally north of the Arkansas-Missouri border) as compared with the southern part of the Springfield Plateau in Arkansas, largely due to thinner, less extensive regolith and purer carbonate lithology.Precipitation is the ultimate source of all water to the Ozark system, and the hydrologic budget for the Ozark system includes inputs from recharge

  9. Analysis of riparian afforestation methods in the Missouri Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle L. Steele; John M. Kabrick; Randy G. Jensen; Michael J. Wallendorf; Daniel C. Dey

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the first-year survival and growth of 13 bottomland species in several different management treatments replicated at three sites in the Missouri Ozarks. Treatments were: 1) Roundup® site preparation only; and Roundup® site preparation plus a: 2) growing season application of Poast Plus® (a grass-selective herbicide); 3) redtop...

  10. The experimental design of the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven L. Sheriff; Shuoqiong. He

    1997-01-01

    The Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) is an experiment that examines the effects of three forest management practices on the forest community. MOFEP is designed as a randomized complete block design using nine sites divided into three blocks. Treatments of uneven-aged, even-aged, and no-harvest management were randomly assigned to sites within each block...

  11. Densification and state transition across the Missouri Ozarks landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice B. Hanberry; John M. Kabrick; Hong S. He

    2014-01-01

    World-wide, some biomes are densifying, or increasing in dense woody vegetation, and shifting to alternative stable states. We quantified densification and state transition between forests ecosystems in historical (ca. 1815-1850) and current (2004-2008) surveys of the Missouri Ozark Highlands, a 5-million ha landscape in southern Missouri, USA. To estimate density of...

  12. How to assess oak regeneration potential in the Missouri Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan L. Sander

    1989-01-01

    The values in tables 1 and 2 apply specifically to oak stands in the Missouri Ozarks and may or may not apply outside this area. Unfortunately, similar values for oak do not exist for other geographic areas. Use the procedures and values cautiously in other areas. Consider them as approximations and compare them to values based on local experience and guidelines.

  13. Upland forest vegetation of the Ozark Mountains in Northwestern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven L. Stephenson; Harold S. Adams; Cynthia D. Huebner

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative data on structure and composition of all strata of vegetation were collected from 20 study sites in the Boston Mountains Subsection of the Ozark Mountains of northwestern Arkansas in June 2004. All study sites were located at upper slope or ridgetop positions and occurred at elevations > 457 m. Oaks (Quercus spp.) were dominants in...

  14. Shortleaf pine restoration and ecology in the Ozarks: proceedings of a symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Kabrick; Daniel C. Dey; David Gwaze

    2007-01-01

    Contains 27 papers and 14 extended abstracts from the symposium "Shortleaf pine restoration and ecology in the Ozarks" held November 7-9, 2006, at the University Plaza Hotel and Convention Center in Springfield, MO.

  15. Spatial patterns of modern period human-caused fire occurrence in the Missouri Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian Yang; Hong S. Healy; Stephen R. Shifley; Eric J. Gustafson

    2007-01-01

    The spatial pattern of forest fire locations is important in the study of the dynamics of fire disturbance. In this article we used a spatial point process modeling approach to quantitatively study the effects of land cover, topography, roads, municipalities, ownership, and population density on fire occurrence reported between 1970 and 2002 in the Missouri Ozark...

  16. Oak mortality associated with crown dieback and oak borer attack in the Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaofei Fan; John M. Kabrick; Martin A. Spetich; Stephen R. Shifley; Randy G. Jensen

    2008-01-01

    Oak decline and related mortality have periodically plagued upland oak–hickory forests, particularly oak species in the red oak group, across the Ozark Highlands of Missouri, Arkansas and Oklahoma since the late 1970s. Advanced tree age and periodic drought, as well as Armillaria root fungi and oak borer attack are believed to contribute to oak decline and mortality....

  17. Determination of the Ecological and Geographic Distributions of Armillaria Species in Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johann N. Bruhn; James J. Wetteroff; Jeanne D. Mihail; Susan. Burks

    1997-01-01

    Armillaria root rot contributes to oak decline in the Ozarks. Three Armillaria species were detected in Ecological Landtypes (ELT's) representing south- to west-facing side slopes (ELT 17), north- to east-facing side slopes (ELT 18), and ridge tops (ELT 11). Armillaria mellea was detected in 91 percent...

  18. Relating past land-use, topography, and forest dynamics in the Illinois Ozark hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saskia van de Gevel; Trevor B. Ozier; Charles M. Ruffner; John W. Groninger

    2003-01-01

    Trail of Tears State Forest is a 5,200 acre tract in the Illinois Ozark Hills and represents one of the largest blocks of contiguous forest in the lower Midwest. A highly dissected terrain with long, narrow ridges that fall away sharply on either side characterizes the area. The forest cover is a mosaic of oak-hickory approaching "old growth" condition...

  19. Stability of diameter distributions in a managed uneven-aged oak forest in the Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiming Wang; Paul S. Johnson; H. E. Garrett; Stephen R. Shifley

    1997-01-01

    We studied a privately owned 156,000-acre oak-dominated forest in the Ozark Highlands of southern Missouri. The forest has been managed by the single-tree selection method since 1952. Using 40 years of continuous forest inventory records, we analyzed the stability of the shape of tree diameter distributions at the forest-wide scale. Results show that for trees ...

  20. 78 FR 9410 - Ozark Plateau National Wildlife Refuge; Adair, Cherokee, Craig, Delaware, Mayes, Ottawa, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... 5: Wind Energy Farms. data of bird/bat migration populations corridors; use GIS affected by wind to delineate high- turbines and risk areas; determine locations quantify impacts; to minimize impacts...- hickory-pine Ozark forest, beneficial to nesting and migrating Neotropical birds as well as cave species...

  1. Wildlife diversity of restored shortleaf pine-oak woodlands in the northern Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corinne S. Mann; Andrew R. Forbes

    2007-01-01

    Historic changes in land use have altered the plant composition and structure of shortleaf pine-oak woodlands in the northern Ozarks. As a result, the composition of wildlife communities in these landscapes has shifted to species that are more associated with closed canopy oak forests. For example, the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) has...

  2. The role of environmental factors in oak decline and mortality in the Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Kabrick; Daniel C. Dey; Randy G. Jensen; Michael Wallendorf

    2008-01-01

    Oak decline is a chronic problem in Missouri Ozark forests. Red oak group species are most susceptible and decline is reportedly more severe on droughty, nutrient-poor sites. However, it was not clear whether greater decline severity was caused by poor site conditions or is simply due to the greater abundance of red oak group species found on poorer sites. We conducted...

  3. The Forest as a Resource: From Prehistory to History in the Arkansas Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Sabo; Jami Joe Lockhart; Jerry E. Hilliard

    2004-01-01

    Study of past human land use in the Lee Creek Unit of the Ozark National Forest challenges the existence of "pristine" forests predating the arrival of historic Americans. The distribution of early nineteenth century American settlements corresponds closely to the distribution of late prehistoric Native American archeological sites. One explanation for this...

  4. Sustaining recruitment of oak reproduction in uneven-aged stands in the Ozark Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Larsen; Edward F. Loewenstein; Paul S. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    Successful application of the single-tree selection system in Ozark oak forests depends on sustaining adequate recruitment of reproduction into the overstory. In turn, this requires maintaining stand density at ecologically appropriate levels. The ecological requirements for oak recruitment are discussed and guiding curves are presented that meet those requirements...

  5. Height-Diameter Equations for 12 Upland Species in the Missouri Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R. Lootens; David R. Larsen; Stephen R. Shifley

    2007-01-01

    We calibrated a model predicting total tree height as a function of tree diameter for nine tree species common to the Missouri Ozarks. Model coefficients were derived from nearly 10,000 observed trees. The calibrated model did a good job predicting the mean height-diameter trend for each species (pseudo-R2 values ranged from 0.56 to 0.88), but...

  6. The Ozark Plateaus Regional Aquifer Study—Documentation of a groundwater-flow model constructed to assess water availability in the Ozark Plateaus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian R.; Richards, Joseph M.; Knierim, Katherine J.

    2018-03-30

    Recent short-term drought conditions have emphasized the need to better understand the delicate balance between abundance, sustainability, and scarcity of groundwater in the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system. In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey began construction of a groundwater-flow model as a tool for the assessment of groundwater availability in the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system. The model was developed to benefit concurrent and future investigations involving groundwater-pumping scenarios, optimization, particle transport, and groundwater-monitoring network analysis.The groundwater model simulates 116 years (1900–2015) of hydrologic conditions and the response of the groundwater system to changes in stress including changes in recharge and groundwater pumping for water supply. Semiseasonal stress periods were simulated from the later part of 1991 to 2015 and represent higher demand and lower recharge in the spring and summer months and lower demand and higher recharge in the fall and winter months. Groundwater pumping increases throughout the simulation period with a maximum rate of about 600 million gallons per day (Mgal/d).The process of matching historical hydrologic data for the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system model was accomplished by a combination of manual changes to parameter values and automated calibration methods. Observation data used in the development and evaluation of the model included 19,045 hydraulic-head observations from 6,683 wells within the model area. Observation data also included stream leakage estimates summed to calculate a net gain or net loss value for approximately 81 named streams.The majority (mean of over 95 percent) of the recharge component is discharged through streams simulated in the model. The total simulated discharge to streams fluctuates seasonally between 7,500 and 17,500 Mgal/d with a mean outflow of 11,500 Mgal/d. Much of the remaining balance between modeled recharge inflows and stream outflows is made up by water

  7. Environmental and hydrologic setting of the Ozark Plateaus study unit, Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, James C.; Petersen, James C.; Freiwald, David A.; Davis, Jerri V.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental and hydrologic setting of the Ozark Plateaus National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study unit and the factors that affect water quality are described in this report. The primary natural and cultural features that affect water- quality characteristics and the potential for future water-quality problems are described. These environmental features include climate, physio- graphy, geology, soils, population, land use, water use, and surface- and ground-water flow systems. The study-unit area is approximately 47,600 square miles and includes most of the Ozark Plateaus Province and parts of the adjacent Osage Plains and Mississippi Alluvial Plain in parts of Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. The geology is characterized by basement igneous rocks overlain by a thick sequence of dolomites, limestones, sandstones, and shales of Paleozoic age. Land use in the study unit is predominantly pasture and forest in the southeastern part, and pasture and cropland in the northwestern part. All or part of the White, Neosho-lllinois, Osage, Gasconade, Meramec, St. Francis, and Black River Basins are within the study unit. Streams in the Boston Mountains contain the least mineralized water, and those in the Osage Plains contain the most mineralized water. The study unit contains eight hydrogeologic units including three major aquifers--the Springfield Plateau, Ozark, and St. Francois aquifers. Streams and aquifers in the study unit generally contain calcium or calcium-magnesium bicarbonate waters. Ground- and surface-water interactions are greatest in the Salem and Springfield Plateaus and least in the Boston Mountains and Osage Plains. Geology, land use, and population probably are the most important environmental factors that affect water quality.

  8. A multi-century analysis of disturbance dynamics in pine-oak forests of the Missouri Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad King; Rose-Marie. Muzika

    2013-01-01

    Using dendrochronology and growth release approaches, we analyzed the disturbance history of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mich.) white oak (Quercus alba L.) forests in the Missouri Ozark Highlands. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify growth release events using living and remnant shortleaf pine and white oak, (2)...

  9. Single-tree harvesting reduces survival and growth of oak stump sprouts in the Missouri Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Randy G. Jensen; Michael J. Wallendorf

    2008-01-01

    Regeneration and recruitment into the overstory is critical to the success of using uneven-aged systems to sustain oak forests. We evaluated survival and growth of white oak (Quercus alba L.), black oak (Q. velutina Lam.), and scarlet oak (Q. coccinea Muenchh.) stump sprouts 10 years after harvesting Ozark...

  10. Comparing single-tree selection, group selection, and clearcutting for regenerating oaks and pines in the Missouri Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy G. Jensen; John M. Kabrick

    2008-01-01

    In the Missouri Ozarks, there is considerable concern about the effectiveness of the uneven-aged methods of single-tree selection and group selection for oak (Quercus L.) and shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) regeneration. We compared the changes in reproduction density of oaks and pine following harvesting by single-tree...

  11. Risk factors of oak decline and regional mortality patterns in the Ozark Highlands of Arkansas and Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin A. Spetich; Zhaofei Fan; Xiuli Fan; Hong He; Stephen R. Shifley; W. Keith Moser

    2011-01-01

    Since the late 1970s, oak decline and mortality have plagued Midwestern-upland oak-hickory forests, particularly species in the red oak group (Quercus Section Lobatae) across the Ozark Highlands of Missouri, Arkansas, and Oklahoma (Dwyer and others 1995). Drought is a common inciting factor in oak decline, while advanced tree age is considered a...

  12. A remote sensing-assisted risk rating study to predict oak decline and recovery in the Missouri Ozark Highlands, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuizhen Wang; Hong S. He; John M. Kabrick

    2008-01-01

    Forests in the Ozark Highlands underwent widespread oak decline affected by severe droughts in 1999-2000. In this study, the differential normalized difference water index was calculated to detect crown dieback. A multi-factor risk rating system was built to map risk levels of stands. As a quick response to drought, decline in 2000 mostly occurred in stands at low to...

  13. A Matrix Transition Model for an Uneven-Aged, Oak-Hickory Forest in the Missouri Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    James R. Lootens; David R. Larsen; Edward F. Loewenstein

    1999-01-01

    We present a matrix growth model for an uneven-aged, oak-hickory forest in the Ozark Highlands of Missouri. The model was developed to predict ingrowth, growth of surviving trees, and mortality by diameter class for a five-year period. Tree removal from management activities is accounted for in the model. We evaluated a progression of models from a static, fixed-...

  14. Bayesian spatial prediction of the site index in the study of the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoqian Sun; Zhuoqiong He; John Kabrick

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a Bayesian spatial method for analysing the site index data from the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP). Based on ecological background and availability, we select three variables, the aspect class, the soil depth and the land type association as covariates for analysis. To allow great flexibility of the smoothness of the random field,...

  15. The Insect Guild of White Oak Acorns: Its Effect on Mast Quality in the Ozark and Ouachita National Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex C. Mangini; Roger W. Perry

    2004-01-01

    Abstract - Hardwood regeneration, especially of oaks, is an essential component of ecosystem management in the Ouachita and Ozark Mountains of Arkansas. In addition, oak mast is an important wildlife food. Several species of insects inhabit and consume acorns. Data on the insect guild inhabiting white oak (Quercus alba L.) acorns...

  16. Geologic context of large karst springs and caves in the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, David J.; Orndorff, Randall C.

    2016-01-01

    The ONSR is a karst park, containing many springs and caves. The “jewels” of the park are large springs, several of first magnitude, that contribute significantly to the flow and water quality of the Current River and its tributaries. Completion of 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping of the park and surrounding river basin, along with synthesis of published hydrologic data, allows us to examine the spatial relationships between the springs and the geologic framework to develop a conceptual model for genesis of these springs. Based on their similarity to mapped spring conduits, many of the caves in the ONSR are fossil conduit segments. Therefore, geologic control on the evolution of the springs also applies to speleogenesis in this part of the southern Missouri Ozarks.Large springs occur in the ONSR area because: (1) the Ozark aquifer, from which they rise, is chiefly dolomite affected by solution via various processes over a long time period, (2) Paleozoic hypogenic fluid migration through these rocks exploited and enhanced flow-paths, (3) a consistent and low regional dip of the rocks off of the Salem Plateau (less than 2° to the southeast) allows integration of flow into large groundwater basins with a few discreet outlets, (4) the springs are located where the rivers have cut down into structural highs, allowing access to water from stratigraphic units deeper in the aquifer thus allowing development of springsheds that have volumetrically larger storage than smaller springs higher in the section, and (5) quartz sandstone and bedded chert in the carbonate stratigraphic succession that are locally to regionally continuous, serve as aquitards that locally confine groundwater up dip of the springs creating artesian conditions. This subhorizontal partitioning of the Ozark aquifer allows contributing areas for different springs to overlap, as evidenced by dye traces that cross adjacent groundwater basin boundaries, and possibly contributes to alternate flow routes

  17. USGS geologic Mapping and karst research in the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, David J.; Grant, Victoria M

    2014-01-01

    The Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR) was created in 1964 to protect 134 miles of the Current River and its major tributary, the Jacks Fork, that are located in south-central Missouri (fig. 1). The park includes numerous large karst springs including Big Spring, by flow volume this is the largest spring in the National Park system. The National Park Service (NPS) administers a narrow, nearly continuous corridor of land adjacent to the two rivers. Base flow for the rivers is chiefly supplied by groundwater that has traveled through the karst landscape from as far as 38 miles away from the spring (Imes and Frederick, 2002). The watershed is vulnerable to pollution, but the area remains largely rural with few industries. The springs and rivers provide habitat for numerous aquatic species as well as recreational resources for floaters, fishermen, and campers. The ONSR is a major cave park with hundreds of known caves and diverse in-cave resources.

  18. Selection of tree roosts by male Indiana bats during the autumn swarm in the Ozark Highlands, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; Stephen C. Brandebura; Thomas S. Risch

    2016-01-01

    We identified 162 roosts for 36 male Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) across 3 study areas in the Ozarks of northern Arkansas, USA, during the autumn swarm (late Aug to late Oct, 2005 and 2006). Bats utilized 14 tree species; snags of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) were the most utilized (30% of roosts) and pines were selected over hardwoods. Diameter of trees and snags...

  19. Predicting probability of occurrence and factors affecting distribution and abundance of three Ozark endemic crayfish species at multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, Matthew S.; Magoulick, Daniel D.; DiStefano, Robert J.; Imhoff, Emily M.; Wagner, Brian K.

    2014-01-01

    Crayfishes and other freshwater aquatic fauna are particularly at risk globally due to anthropogenic demand, manipulation and exploitation of freshwater resources and yet are often understudied. The Ozark faunal region of Missouri and Arkansas harbours a high level of aquatic biological diversity, especially in regard to endemic crayfishes. Three such endemics, Orconectes eupunctus,Orconectes marchandi and Cambarus hubbsi, are threatened by limited natural distribution and the invasions of Orconectes neglectus.

  20. Oak woodland restoration in the Missouri Ozarks: two case studies examining responses of ground flora vegetation to prescribed fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron P. Stevenson

    2016-01-01

    Prescribed fire and thinning are two primary tools for restoring overgrown oak and oak-pine woodlands in Missouri. We wanted to examine woodland restoration efforts and determine if we were meeting our goals of promoting herbaceous ground flora cover and richness. We examined herbaceous responses to fire at two restoration sites in the Missouri Ozarks. At the first...

  1. Potentiometric Surfaces in the Springfield Plateau and Ozark Aquifers of Northwestern Arkansas, Southeastern Kansas, Southwestern Missouri, and Northeastern Oklahoma, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillip, Jonathan A.; Czarnecki, John B.; Mugel, Douglas N.

    2008-01-01

    The Springfield Plateau and Ozark aquifers are important sources of ground water in the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system. Water from these aquifers is used for agricultural, domestic, industrial, and municipal water sources. Changing water use over time in these aquifers presents a need for updated potentiometric-surface maps of the Springfield Plateau and Ozark aquifers. The Springfield Plateau aquifer consists of water-bearing Mississippian-age limestone and chert. The Ozark aquifer consists of Late Cambrian to Middle Devonian age water-bearing rocks consisting of dolostone, limestone, and sandstone. Both aquifers are complex with areally varying lithologies, discrete hydrologic units, varying permeabilities, and secondary permeabilities related to fractures and karst features. During the spring of 2006, ground-water levels were measured in 285 wells. These data, and water levels from selected lakes, rivers, and springs, were used to create potentiometric-surface maps for the Springfield Plateau and Ozark aquifers. Linear kriging was used initially to construct the water-level contours on the maps; the contours were subsequently modified using hydrologic judgment. The potentiometric-surface maps presented in this report represent ground-water conditions during the spring of 2006. During the spring of 2006, the region received less than average rainfall. Dry conditions prior to the spring of 2006 could have contributed to the observed water levels as well. The potentiometric-surface map of the Springfield Plateau aquifer shows a maximum measured water-level altitude within the study area of about 1,450 feet at a spring in Barry County, Missouri, and a minimum measured water-level altitude of 579 feet at a well in Ottawa County, Oklahoma. Cones of depression occur in Dade, Lawrence and Newton Counties in Missouri and Delaware and Ottawa Counties in Oklahoma. These cones of depression are associated with private wells. Ground water in the Springfield Plateau aquifer

  2. TEAM Science Advances STEM through Experiential Learning about Karst Geology at the Ozark Underground Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, M. F.; Patterson, J. D.; Ruckman, B.; Keith, N.; Aley, C.; Aley, T.

    2017-12-01

    Carbonate karst represents approximately 14% of the world's land area and 20-25% of the land area in the United States. Most people do not understand this three dimensional landscape because they lack direct experience with this complicated geology. For the last 50 years, Ozark Underground Laboratory (OUL), located in Protem, MO, has been a pioneer in the research of karst geology and its influence on groundwater. OUL has also provided surface and sub-surface immersion experiences to over 40,000 individuals including students, educators, and Department of Transportation officials helping those individuals better understand the challenges associated with karst. Rockhurst University has incorporated OUL field trips into their educational programming for the last 30 years, thus facilitating individual understanding of karst geology which comprises approximately 60% of the state. Technology and Educators Advancing Missouri Science (TEAM Science) is a grant-funded professional development institute offered through Rockhurst University. The institute includes an immersion experience at OUL enabling in-service teachers to better understand natural systems, the interplay between the surface, sub-surface, and cave fauna, as well as groundwater and energy dynamics of karst ecosystems. Educating elementary teachers about land formations is especially important because elementary teachers play a foundational role in developing students' interest and aptitude in STEM content areas. (Funding provided by the U.S. Department of Education's Math-Science Partnership Program through the Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education.)

  3. Behavioral and Physiological Responses of Ozark Zigzag Salamanders to Stimuli from an Invasive Predator: The Armadillo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L. Crane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When new predators invade a habitat, either through range extensions or introductions, prey may be at a high risk because they do not recognize the predators as dangerous. The nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus has recently expanded its range in North America. Armadillos forage by searching soil and leaf litter, consuming invertebrates and small vertebrates, including salamanders. We tested whether Ozark zigzag salamanders (Plethodon angusticlavius from a population coexisting with armadillos for about 30 years exhibit antipredator behavior in the presence of armadillo chemical cues and whether they can discriminate between stimuli from armadillos and a nonpredatory sympatric mammal (white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus. Salamanders appeared to recognize substrate cues from armadillos as a threat because they increased escape behaviors and oxygen consumption. When exposed to airborne cues from armadillos, salamanders also exhibited an antipredator response by spending more time in an inconspicuous posture. Additionally, individually consistent behaviors across treatments for some response variables suggest the potential for a behavioral syndrome in this species.

  4. Mapping vegetation communities using statistical data fusion in the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastain, R.A.; Struckhoff, M.A.; He, H.S.; Larsen, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    A vegetation community map was produced for the Ozark National Scenic Riverways consistent with the association level of the National Vegetation Classification System. Vegetation communities were differentiated using a large array of variables derived from remote sensing and topographic data, which were fused into independent mathematical functions using a discriminant analysis classification approach. Remote sensing data provided variables that discriminated vegetation communities based on differences in color, spectral reflectance, greenness, brightness, and texture. Topographic data facilitated differentiation of vegetation communities based on indirect gradients (e.g., landform position, slope, aspect), which relate to variations in resource and disturbance gradients. Variables derived from these data sources represent both actual and potential vegetation community patterns on the landscape. A hybrid combination of statistical and photointerpretation methods was used to obtain an overall accuracy of 63 percent for a map with 49 vegetation community and land-cover classes, and 78 percent for a 33-class map of the study area. ?? 2008 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  5. Spatio-Temporal Trends of Oak Decline and Mortality under Periodic Regional Drought in the Ozark Highlands of Arkansas and Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaofei Fan; Xiuli Fan; Michael K. Crosby; W. Keith Moser; Hong He; Martin A. Spetich; Stephen R. Shifley

    2012-01-01

    At the forest landscape/region level, based on annual Forest Inventory and Analysis plot data from 1999 to 2010, oak decline and mortality trends for major oak species (groups) were examined in the Ozark Highlands of Arkansas and Missouri. Oak decline has elevated cumulative mortality of red oak species to between 11 and 15 percent in terms of relative density and...

  6. Spatio-Temporal Trends of Oak Decline and Mortality under Periodic Regional Drought in the Ozark Highlands of Arkansas and Missouri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Shifley

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available At the forest landscape/region level, based on annual Forest Inventory and Analysis plot data from 1999 to 2010, oak decline and mortality trends for major oak species (groups were examined in the Ozark Highlands of Arkansas and Missouri. Oak decline has elevated cumulative mortality of red oak species to between 11 and 15 percent in terms of relative density and basal area of standing dead oak trees, respectively. These values are three to five times higher than for white oak group and non-oak species. Oak decline and associated escalating mortality have occurred primarily in red oak species while the white oak group has maintained a relatively stable mortality rate that is comparable to non-oak species. Cross-correlation analyses indicate that mortality in the red oak group was significantly correlated with the growing season Palmer drought severity index (PDSI and usually lagged two to three years following single drought events. Moreover, based on the past 17 years PDSI data, it appears that the cumulative impacts of drought may last up to 10 years. The Ozark Highlands experienced a severe drought extending from 1998 to 2000 and another milder drought from 2005 to 2006. These drought events triggered the escalation of mortality starting around year 2000. Spatially, high red oak mortality sites (hot spots with proportional basal area mortality > 0.12 initially occurred in the central Ozarks and spread gradually over most of the Ozark Highlands as regional droughts continued. In contrast, sites with elevated white oak and non-oak mortality occurred sporadically, mainly in the southern portion (Arkansas of the Ozark Highlands. During the most recent inventory period (2006–2010, over 60%, 7% and 5% of red oak, white oak and non-oak groups, respectively, had relative mortality rates of > 12%.

  7. Stream permanence influences crayfish occupancy and abundance in the Ozark Highlands, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarra, Allyson N.; Magoulick, Daniel D.

    2018-01-01

    Crayfish use of intermittent streams is especially important to understand in the face of global climate change. We examined the influence of stream permanence and local habitat on crayfish occupancy and species densities in the Ozark Highlands, USA. We sampled in June and July 2014 and 2015. We used a quantitative kick–seine method to sample crayfish presence and abundance at 20 stream sites with 32 surveys/site in the Upper White River drainage, and we measured associated local environmental variables each year. We modeled site occupancy and detection probabilities with the software PRESENCE, and we used multiple linear regressions to identify relationships between crayfish species densities and environmental variables. Occupancy of all crayfish species was related to stream permanence. Faxonius meeki was found exclusively in intermittent streams, whereas Faxonius neglectus and Faxonius luteushad higher occupancy and detection probability in permanent than in intermittent streams, and Faxonius williamsi was associated with intermittent streams. Estimates of detection probability ranged from 0.56 to 1, which is high relative to values found by other investigators. With the exception of F. williamsi, species densities were largely related to stream permanence rather than local habitat. Species densities did not differ by year, but total crayfish densities were significantly lower in 2015 than 2014. Increased precipitation and discharge in 2015 probably led to the lower crayfish densities observed during this year. Our study demonstrates that crayfish distribution and abundance is strongly influenced by stream permanence. Some species, including those of conservation concern (i.e., F. williamsi, F. meeki), appear dependent on intermittent streams, and conservation efforts should include consideration of intermittent streams as an important component of freshwater biodiversity.

  8. The influence of drought on flow‐ecology relationships in Ozark Highland streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Dustin T.; Leasure, D. R.; Magoulick, Daniel D.

    2018-01-01

    Drought and summer drying can have strong effects on abiotic and biotic components of stream ecosystems. Environmental flow‐ecology relationships may be affected by drought and drying, adding further uncertainty to the already complex interaction of flow with other environmental variables, including geomorphology and water quality.Environment–ecology relationships in stream communities in Ozark Highland streams, USA, were examined over two years with contrasting environmental conditions, a drought year (2012) and a flood year (2013). We analysed fish, crayfish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages using two different approaches: (1) a multiple regression analysis incorporating predictor variables related to habitat, water quality, geomorphology and hydrology and (2) a canonical ordination procedure using only hydrologic variables in which forward selection was used to select predictors that were most related to our response variables.Reach‐scale habitat quality and geomorphology were found to be the most important influences on community structure, but hydrology was also important, particularly during the flood year. We also found substantial between‐year variation in environment–ecology relationships. Some ecological responses differed significantly between drought and flood years, while others remained consistent. We found that magnitude was the most important flow component overall, but that there was a shift in relative importance from low flow metrics during the drought year to average flow metrics during the flood year, and the specific metrics of importance varied markedly between assemblages and years.Findings suggest that understanding temporal variation in flow‐ecology relationships may be crucial for resource planning. While some relationships show temporal variation, others are consistent between years. Additionally, different kinds of hydrologic variables can differ greatly in terms of which assemblages they affect and how they affect

  9. Receiver function and gravity constraints on crustal structure and vertical movements of the Upper Mississippi Embayment and Ozark Uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Gao, Stephen S.; Liu, Kelly H.; Mickus, Kevin

    2017-06-01

    The Upper Mississippi Embayment (UME), where the seismically active New Madrid Seismic Zone resides, experienced two phases of subsidence commencing in the Late Precambrian and Cretaceous, respectively. To provide new constraints on models proposed for the mechanisms responsible for the subsidence, we computed and stacked P-to-S receiver functions recorded by 49 USArray and other seismic stations located in the UME and the adjacent Ozark Uplift and modeled Bouguer gravity anomaly data. The inferred thickness, density, and Vp/Vs of the upper and lower crustal layers suggest that the UME is characterized by a mafic and high-density upper crustal layer of ˜30 km thickness, which is underlain by a higher-density lower crustal layer of up to ˜15 km. Those measurements, in the background of previously published geological observations on the subsidence and uplift history of the UME, are in agreement with the model that the Cretaceous subsidence, which was suggested to be preceded by an approximately 2 km uplift, was the consequence of the passage of a previously proposed thermal plume. The thermoelastic effects of the plume would have induced wide-spread intrusion of mafic mantle material into the weak UME crust fractured by Precambrian rifting and increased its density, resulting in renewed subsidence after the thermal source was removed. In contrast, the Ozark Uplift has crustal density, thickness, and Vp/Vs measurements that are comparable to those observed on cratonic areas, suggesting an overall normal crust without significant modification by the proposed plume, probably owing to the relatively strong and thick lithosphere.

  10. OCO-2 chlorophyll fluorescence tracks late-summer photosynthesis decrease due to water stress at Missouri Ozark site

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L.; Frankenberg, C.; Wood, J. D.; Sun, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate estimate of the photosynthetic uptake of CO2, denoted gross primary productivity (GPP), is important to understand and quantify the carbon cycles at regional to global scales, and has implications in crop and forest management. Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) retrieved from space was found to be strongly correlated with GPP and is now being used as a potential new technique to estimate photosynthetic rates at large scale. We selected the Missouri Ozark Site as a test bed, a well-characterized Eddy Covariance site in deciduous broadleaf forests, to explore the relationships of vegetation indices (VIs) and SIF with GPP and their response to environmental conditions. We find that both GPP fluxes and OCO-2 SIF decreased in late summer at the Ozark Site, directly related to water stress, evidenced by a progressive decrease in soil moisture and concomitant changer in leaf water potential. However, VIs (both NDVI and EVI) stayed stable during the same period. With a focus on this wet-dry transition period, we analyze driving factors of changes in GPP and SIF, which appear to be linearly related even in this period with little reflectance changes. We also used the Soil Canopy Observation, Photochemistry and Energy fluxes (SCOPE) model to compare observations of SIF and GPP against measurement. The primary motivation is not only to quantify the expected correlations between the GPP and SIF but also to validate performance of SCOPE in reproducing such correlations, which have not been tested against independent observations. This study clearly underlines the potential of SIF measurements to study moderate water stress and its impact on photosynthesis.

  11. Soil respiration as affected by long-term broiler litter application to a udult in the ozark highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Richard L; Brye, Kristofor R; Gbur, Edward E

    2015-01-01

    The United States produced 8.4 billion broiler chickens () and an estimated 10.1 to 14.3 million Mg of broiler litter (BL) in 2012. Arkansas' production of 1 billion broilers in 2012 produced an estimated 1.2 to 1.7 million Mg of BL, most of which was concentrated in the Ozark Highlands region of northwest Arkansas. Increased CO release from soils associated with agricultural practices has generated concerns regarding the contribution of certain agricultural management practices to global warming. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of long-term (>6 yr) BL application to a Udult on soil respiration and annual C emissions and to determine the predictability of soil respiration based on soil temperature and moisture in the Ozark Highlands region of northwest Arkansas. Soil respiration was measured routinely between May 2009 and May 2012 in response to annual BL application rates of 0, 5.6, and 11.2 Mg dry litter ha that began in 2003. Soil respiration varied ( 0.05) by BL application rate but differed ( < 0.01) among study years. Multiple regression indicated that soil respiration could be reasonably predicted using 2-cm-depth soil temperature (T) and the product of T and VWC as predictors ( = 0.52; < 0.01). Results indicate that organic amendments, such as BL, can stimulate release of CO from the soil to the atmosphere, potentially negatively affecting atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations; thus, there may be application rates above which the benefits of organic amendments may be diminished by adverse environmental effects. Improved BL management strategies are needed to lessen the loss of CO from BL-amended soils. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. Trachymolgus purpureus sp. n., an armored snout mite (Acari, Bdellidae) from the Ozark highlands: morphology, development, and key to Trachymolgus Berlese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J. Ray; Skvarla, Michael J.; Bauchan, Gary R.; Ochoa, Ronald; Dowling, Ashley P.G.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Trachymolgus purpureus Fisher & Dowling sp. n. is described from the Ozark highlands of North America. A diversity of imaging techniques are used to illustrate the species including low-temperature scanning electron microscopy (LT-SEM), stereomicrography, compound light micrography, and digitally created line drawings. Developmental stages (larva, nymphs, and adult) and morphology are illustrated and discussed, and terminological corrections are suggested. Trachymolgus recki Gomelauri, 1961 is regarded as being described from tritonymphs. A key to Trachymolgus is presented. PMID:21998535

  13. Tectonic Evolution of an Intracratonic Plateau: The Ups and Downs of the Ozark Dome, Midcontinent United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLucia, M. S.; Marshak, S.; Guenthner, W.

    2017-12-01

    Though intracratonic platforms have been affected both by epeirogenic movements (producing regional-scale basins and domes) and by local faulting, they typically have low relief. The Ozark Plateau (OP) of Missouri, a region underlain by the structural Ozark Dome (OD), is an exception for it rises to elevations of up to 0.7 km above the surface of the adjacent Illinois Basin (IB). Structural and geomorphic analysis, and low-temperature thermochronology, provide insight into vertical movements of the OD relative to the IB. The basement top of both the IB and OP exposes 1.47 Ga extrusive rhyolite. Therefore, basement of both the IB and OD sat at the Earth's surface then. Rifting after emplacement established a rectilinear array of steep faults, which delineated what would become the OD, and set the stage for IB subsidence. Zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronology indicates that exhumation of the Midcontinent to form the Great Unconformity (GU) happened from 0.85 to 0.68 Ga. To reset the zircon system, the region must have been buried >4 km prior to 0.85 Ga, perhaps by Grenville foreland deposits. Deposition began on the GU at 0.5 Ga, burying paleotopography of the OD and IB. Differential vertical motion between these regions initiated in the Paleozoic. Strata thin towards the apex of the dome, emphasizing that the OD remained high during IB subsidence. Eventually, as much as 7.5 km of structural relief accumulated across the boundary between the OD and IB. Some of the movement was accommodated by fault slip that was coeval with Appalachian orogenies, emphasizing that orogenic stress penetrated into the continental interior. Faulting contributed to tilting the OD crustal block. Apatite (U-Th)/He and fission-track thermochronology suggests that Mesozoic exhumation removed post-Pennsylvanian cover. Both Proterozoic and Mesozoic exhumation events took place just before supercontinent breakup, suggesting a link between mantle phenomena and intracratonic elevation. Contemporary

  14. Monitoring oak-hickory forest change during an unprecedented red oak borer outbreak in the Ozark Mountains: 1990 to 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joshua S.; Tullis, Jason A.; Haavik, Laurel J.; Guldin, James M.; Stephen, Fred M.

    2014-01-01

    Upland oak-hickory forests in Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma experienced oak decline in the late 1990s and early 2000s during an unprecedented outbreak of a native beetle, the red oak borer (ROB), Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman). Although remote sensing supports frequent monitoring of continuously changing forests, comparable in situ observations are critical for developing an understanding of past and potential ROB damage in the Ozark Mountains. We categorized forest change using a normalized difference water index (NDWI) applied to multitemporal Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery (1990, 2001, and 2006). Levels of decline or growth were categorized using simple statistical thresholds of change in the NDWI over time. Corresponding decline and growth areas were then observed in situ where tree diameter, age, crown condition, and species composition were measured within variable radius plots. Using a machine learning decision tree classifier, remote sensing-derived decline and growth was characterized in terms of in situ observation. Plots with tree quadratic mean diameter at breast height ≥21.5 cm were categorized remotely as in severe decline. Landsat TM/ETM+-based NDWI derivatives reveal forest decline and regrowth in post-ROB outbreak surveys. Historical and future Landsat-based canopy change detection should be incorporated with existing landscape-based prediction of ROB hazard.

  15. Vegetation history since the last glacial maximum in the Ozark highlands (USA): A new record from Cupola Pond, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel A.; Williams, John W.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2017-01-01

    The timing and drivers of vegetation dynamics and formation of no-analog plant communities during the last deglaciation in the unglaciated southeastern US are poorly understood. We present a multi-proxy record spanning the past 19,800 years from Cupola Pond in the Ozarks Mountains, consisting of replicate high-resolution pollen records, 25 AMS radiocarbon dates, and macrofossil, charcoal, and coprophilous spore analyses. Full-glacial Pinus and Picea forests gave way to no-analog vegetation after 17,400 yr BP, followed by development of Quercus-dominated Holocene forests, with late Holocene rises in Pinus and Nyssa. Vegetation transitions, replicated in different cores, are closely linked to hemispheric climate events. Rising Quercus abundances coincide with increasing Northern Hemisphere temperatures and CO2 at 17,500 yr BP, declining Pinus and Picea at 14,500 yr BP are near the Bølling-Allerød onset, and rapid decline of Fraxinus and rise of Ostrya/Carpinus occur 12,700 yr BP during the Younger Dryas. The Cupola no-analog vegetation record is unusual for its early initiation (17,000 yr BP) and for its three vegetation zones, representing distinct rises of Fraxinus and Ostrya/Carpinus. Sporormiella was absent and sedimentary charcoal abundances were low throughout, suggesting that fire and megaherbivores were not locally important agents of disturbance and turnover. The Cupola record thus highlights the complexity of the late-glacial no-analog communities and suggests direct climatic regulation of their formation and disassembly.

  16. Vegetation history since the last glacial maximum in the Ozark highlands (USA): A new record from Cupola Pond, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel A.; Williams, John W.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2017-08-01

    The timing and drivers of vegetation dynamics and formation of no-analog plant communities during the last deglaciation in the unglaciated southeastern US are poorly understood. We present a multi-proxy record spanning the past 19,800 years from Cupola Pond in the Ozarks Mountains, consisting of replicate high-resolution pollen records, 25 AMS radiocarbon dates, and macrofossil, charcoal, and coprophilous spore analyses. Full-glacial Pinus and Picea forests gave way to no-analog vegetation after 17,400 yr BP, followed by development of Quercus-dominated Holocene forests, with late Holocene rises in Pinus and Nyssa. Vegetation transitions, replicated in different cores, are closely linked to hemispheric climate events. Rising Quercus abundances coincide with increasing Northern Hemisphere temperatures and CO2 at 17,500 yr BP, declining Pinus and Picea at 14,500 yr BP are near the Bølling-Allerød onset, and rapid decline of Fraxinus and rise of Ostrya/Carpinus occur 12,700 yr BP during the Younger Dryas. The Cupola no-analog vegetation record is unusual for its early initiation (17,000 yr BP) and for its three vegetation zones, representing distinct rises of Fraxinus and Ostrya/Carpinus. Sporormiella was absent and sedimentary charcoal abundances were low throughout, suggesting that fire and megaherbivores were not locally important agents of disturbance and turnover. The Cupola record thus highlights the complexity of the late-glacial no-analog communities and suggests direct climatic regulation of their formation and disassembly.

  17. Two new species of freshwater crayfish of the genus Faxonius (Decapoda: Cambaridae) from the Ozark Highlands of Arkansas and Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzner, James W Jr; Taylor, Christopher A

    2018-03-22

    Two new species of freshwater crayfish are described from the Ozarks Plateau of northern Arkansas and southern Missouri. Both species are restricted to the mainstem of rocky streams that are at least fourth-order or greater in size. Recent genetic and morphological investigations of the coldwater crayfish, Faxonius eupunctus Williams, 1952, indicated that it was actually composed of several undescribed species. Faxonius eupunctus is herein restricted to just the Eleven Point River system. Faxonius roberti, new species is found in the mainstem of the Spring and Strawberry river systems in northern Arkansas. It differs from F. eupunctus by lacking a male Form-I gonopod with a distal spatulate mesial process, and presence of two spines on the dorsal side of the merus, where F. eupunctus typically has 1 spine. Faxonius wagneri, new species is known from a 54 mile (86 km) stretch of the Eleven Point River mainstem, ranging from just southeast of Greer, Missouri to just north of Birdell, Arkansas. Faxonius wagneri can be differentiated from both F. eupunctus and Faxonius roberti sp. nov. by using the male Form-I and Form-II gonopods, the shape of the chelae, and the female annulus ventralis. In F. wagneri, the terminal elements of the first pleopod are almost twice as long as those in F. eupunctus and F. roberti, with the tips of the appendage reaching the posterior base of the first perieopod when the abdomen is flexed forward, whereas, in the other two species, these elements only reach the base of the second pereiopod. The species also possesses two spines on the dorsal side of the merus of the first pereiopod, which helps distinguish it from F. eupunctus.

  18. Evaluation of microorganisms cultured from injured and repressed tissue regeneration sites in endangered giant aquatic Ozark Hellbender salamanders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A Nickerson

    Full Text Available Investigation into the causes underlying the rapid, global amphibian decline provides critical insight into the effects of changing ecosystems. Hypothesized and confirmed links between amphibian declines, disease, and environmental changes are increasingly represented in published literature. However, there are few long-term amphibian studies that include data on population size, abnormality/injury rates, disease, and habitat variables to adequately assess changes through time. We cultured and identified microorganisms isolated from abnormal/injured and repressed tissue regeneration sites of the endangered Ozark Hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi, to discover potential causative agents responsible for their significant decline in health and population. This organism and our study site were chosen because the population and habitat of C. a. bishopi have been intensively studied from 1969-2009, and the abnormality/injury rate and apparent lack of regeneration were established. Although many bacterial and fungal isolates recovered were common environmental organisms, several opportunistic pathogens were identified in association with only the injured tissues of C.a. bishopi. Bacterial isolates included Aeromonas hydrophila, a known amphibian pathogen, Granulicetella adiacens, Gordonai terrae, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Aerococcus viridans, Streptococcus pneumoniae and a variety of Pseudomonads, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. stutzeri, and P. alcaligenes. Fungal isolates included species in the genera Penicillium, Acremonium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Fusarium, Streptomycetes, and the Class Hyphomycetes. Many of the opportunistic pathogens identified are known to form biofilms. Lack of isolation of the same organism from all wounds suggests that the etiological agent responsible for the damage to C. a. bishopi may not be a single organism. To our knowledge, this is the first study to profile the external microbial consortia

  19. Geochemistry of the Springfield Plateau aquifer of the Ozark Plateaus Province in Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri and Oklahoma, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Geochemical data indicate that the Springfield Plateau aquifer, a carbonate aquifer of the Ozark Plateaus Province in central USA, has two distinct hydrochemical zones. Within each hydrochemical zone, water from springs is geochemically and isotopically different than water from wells. Geochemical data indicate that spring water generally interacts less with the surrounding rock and has a shorter residence time, probably as a result of flowing along discrete fractures and solution openings, than water from wells. Water type throughout most of the aquifer was calcium bicarbonate, indicating that carbonate-rock dissolution is the primary geochemical process occurring in the aquifer. Concentrations of calcium, bicarbonate, dissolved oxygen and tritium indicate that most ground water in the aquifer recharged rapidly and is relatively young (less than 40 years). In general, field-measured properties, concentrations of many chemical constituents, and calcite saturation indices were greater in samples from the northern part of the aquifer (hydrochemical zone A) than in samples from the southern part of the aquifer (hydrochemical zone B). Factors affecting differences in the geochemical composition of ground water between the two zones are difficult to identify, but could be related to differences in chert content and possibly primary porosity, solubility of the limestone, and amount and type of cementation between zone A than in zone B. In addition, specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, concentrations of many chemical constituents and calcite saturation indices were greater in samples from wells than in samples from springs in each hydrochemical zone. In contrast, concentrations of dissolved oxygen, nitrite plus nitrate, and chloride generally were greater in samples from springs than in samples from wells. Water from springs generally flows rapidly through large conduits with minimum water-rock interactions. Water from wells flow through small fractures, which restrict

  20. Ecosystem-scale volatile organic compound fluxes during an extreme drought in a broadleaf temperate forest of the Missouri Ozarks (central USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seco, Roger [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Karl, Thomas [Univ. of Innsbruck (Austria); Guenther, Alex B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Hosman, Kevin P. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Pallardy, Stephen G. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Gu, Lianhong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Geron, Chris [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Harley, Peter [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Kim, Saewung [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2015-07-07

    Considerable amounts and varieties of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are exchanged between vegeta-tion and the surrounding air. These BVOCs play key ecological and atmospheric roles that must be adequately repre-sented for accurately modeling the coupled biosphere–atmosphere–climate earth system. One key uncertainty in existing models is the response of BVOC fluxes to an important global change process: drought. We describe the diur-nal and seasonal variation in isoprene, monoterpene, and methanol fluxes from a temperate forest ecosystem before, during, and after an extreme 2012 drought event in the Ozark region of the central USA. BVOC fluxes were domi-nated by isoprene, which attained high emission rates of up to 35.4 mg m-2h-1 at midday. Methanol fluxes were characterized by net deposition in the morning, changing to a net emission flux through the rest of the daylight hours. Net flux of CO2 reached its seasonal maximum approximately a month earlier than isoprenoid fluxes, which high-lights the differential response of photosynthesis and isoprenoid emissions to progressing drought conditions. Never-theless, both processes were strongly suppressed under extreme drought, although isoprene fluxes remained relatively high compared to reported fluxes from other ecosystems. Methanol exchange was less affected by drought throughout the season, conflrming the complex processes driving biogenic methanol fluxes. The fraction of daytime (7–17 h) assimilated carbon released back to the atmosphere combining the three BVOCs measured was 2% of gross primary productivity (GPP) and 4.9% of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) on average for our whole measurement cam-paign, while exceeding 5% of GPP and 10% of NEE just before the strongest drought phase. The MEGANv2.1 model correctly predicted diurnal variations in fluxes driven mainly by light and temperature, although further research is needed to address model BVOC fluxes

  1. Challenges for creating a site-specific groundwater-use record for the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system (central USA) from 1900 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierim, Katherine J.; Nottmeier, Anna M.; Worland, Scott; Westerman, Drew A.; Clark, Brian R.

    2017-09-01

    Hydrologic budgets to determine groundwater availability are important tools for water-resource managers. One challenging component for developing hydrologic budgets is quantifying water use through time because historical and site-specific water-use data can be sparse or poorly documented. This research developed a groundwater-use record for the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system (central USA) from 1900 to 2010 that related county-level aggregated water-use data to site-specific well locations and aquifer units. A simple population-based linear model, constrained to 0 million liters per day in 1900, provided the best means to extrapolate groundwater-withdrawal rates pre-1950s when there was a paucity of water-use data. To disaggregate county-level data to individual wells across a regional aquifer system, a programmatic hierarchical process was developed, based on the level of confidence that a well pumped groundwater for a specific use during a specific year. Statistical models tested on a subset of the best-available site-specific water-use data provided a mechanism to bracket historic groundwater use, such that groundwater-withdrawal rates ranged, on average, plus or minus 38% from modeled values. Groundwater withdrawn for public supply and domestic use accounted for between 48 and 74% of total groundwater use since 1901, highlighting that groundwater provides an important drinking-water resource. The compilation, analysis, and spatial and temporal extrapolation of water-use data remain a challenging task for water scientists, but is of paramount importance to better quantify groundwater use and availability.

  2. Occurrence and origin of Escherichia coli in water and sediments at two public swimming beaches at Lake of the Ozarks State Park, Camden County, Missouri, 2011-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jordan L.; Schumacher, John G.; Burken, Joel G.

    2014-01-01

    In the past several years, the Missouri Department of Natural Resources has closed two popular public beaches, Grand Glaize Beach and Public Beach 1, at Lake of the Ozarks State Park in Osage Beach, Missouri when monitoring results exceeded the established Escherichia coli (E. coli) standard. As a result of the beach closures, the U.S. Geological Survey and Missouri University of Science and Technology, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, led an investigation into the occurrence and origins of E. coli at Grand Glaize Beach and Public Beach 1. The study included the collection of more than 1,300 water, sediment, and fecal source samples between August 2011 and February 2013 from the two beaches and vicinity. Spatial and temporal patterns of E. coli concentrations in water and sediments combined with measurements of environmental variables, beach-use patterns, and Missouri Department of Natural Resources water-tracing results were used to identify possible sources of E. coli contamination at the two beaches and to corroborate microbial source tracking (MST) sampling efforts. Results from a 2011 reconnaissance sampling indicate that water samples from Grand Glaize Beach cove contained significantly larger E. coli concentrations than adjacent coves and were largest at sites at the upper end of Grand Glaize Beach cove, indicating a probable local source of E. coli contamination within the upper end of the cove. Results from an intensive sampling effort during 2012 indicated that E. coli concentrations in water samples at Grand Glaize Beach cove were significantly larger in ankle-deep water than waist-deep water, trended downward during the recreational season, significantly increased with an increase in the total number of bathers at the beach, and were largest during the middle of the day. Concentrations of E. coli in nearshore sediment (sediment near the shoreline) at Grand Glaize Beach were significantly larger in foreshore samples

  3. Quantifying Forested Riparian Buffer Ability to Ameliorate Stream Temperature in a Missouri Ozark Border Stream of the Central U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulliner, E. A.; Hubbart, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    Riparian buffers play an important role in modulating stream water quality, including temperature. There is a need to better understand riparian form and function to validate and improve contemporary management practices. Further studies are warranted to characterize energy attenuation by forested riparian canopy layers that normally buffer stream temperature, particularly in the central hardwood forest regions of the United States where relationships between canopy density and stream temperature are unknown. To quantify these complex processes, two intensively instrumented hydroclimate stations were installed along two stream reaches of a riparian stream in central Missouri, USA in the winter of 2008. Hydroclimate stations are located along stream reaches oriented in both cardinal directions, which will allow interpolation of results to other orientations. Each station consists of an array of instrumentation that senses the flux of water and energy into and out of the riparian zone. Reference data are supplied from a nearby flux tower (US DOE) located on top of a forested ridge. The study sites are located within a University of Missouri preserved wildland area on the border of the southern Missouri’s Ozark region, an ecologically distinct region in the central United States. Limestone underlies the study area, resulting in a distinct semi-Karst hydrologic system. Vegetation forms a complex, multi-layered canopy extending from the stream edge through the riparian zone and into surrounding hills. Climate is classified as humid continental, with approximate average annual temperature and precipitation of 13.2°C and 970mm, respectively. Preliminary results (summer 2009 data) indicate incoming short-wave radiation is 24.9% higher at the N-S oriented stream reach relative to the E-W oriented reach. Maximum incoming short wave radiation during the period was 64.5% lower at the N-S reach relative to E-W reach. Average air temperature for the E-W reach was 0.3°C lower

  4. Geohydrologic Investigations and Landscape Characteristics of Areas Contributing Water to Springs, the Current River, and Jacks Fork, Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugel, Douglas N.; Richards, Joseph M.; Schumacher, John G.

    2009-01-01

    The Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR) is a narrow corridor that stretches for approximately 134 miles along the Current River and Jacks Fork in southern Missouri. Most of the water flowing in the Current River and Jacks Fork is discharged to the rivers from springs within the ONSR, and most of the recharge area of these springs is outside the ONSR. This report describes geohydrologic investigations and landscape characteristics of areas contributing water to springs and the Current River and Jacks Fork in the ONSR. The potentiometric-surface map of the study area for 2000-07 shows that the groundwater divide extends beyond the surface-water divide in some places, notably along Logan Creek and the northeastern part of the study area, indicating interbasin transfer of groundwater between surface-water basins. A low hydraulic gradient occurs in much of the upland area west of the Current River associated with areas of high sinkhole density, which indicates the presence of a network of subsurface karst conduits. The results of a low base-flow seepage run indicate that most of the discharge in the Current River and Jacks Fork was from identified springs, and a smaller amount was from tributaries whose discharge probably originated as spring discharge, or from springs or diffuse groundwater discharge in the streambed. Results of a temperature profile conducted on an 85-mile reach of the Current River indicate that the lowest average temperatures were within or downstream from inflows of springs. A mass-balance on heat calculation of the discharge of Bass Rock Spring, a previously undescribed spring, resulted in an estimated discharge of 34.1 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), making it the sixth largest spring in the Current River Basin. The 13 springs in the study area for which recharge areas have been estimated accounted for 82 percent (867 ft3/s of 1,060 ft3/s) of the discharge of the Current River at Big Spring during the 2006 seepage run. Including discharge from

  5. Shuttle imaging radar-A (SIR-A) data analysis. [geology of the Ozark Plateau of southern Missouri, land use in western Illinois, and vegetation types at Koonamore Station, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The utility of shuttle imaging radar (SIR-A) data was evaluated in several geological and environmental contexts. For the Ozark Plateau of southern Missouri, SIR-A data were of little use in mapping structural features, because of generally uniform returns. For western Illinois, little was to be gained in terms of identifying land use categories by examining differences between overlapping passes. For southern Australia (Koonamore Station), information ion vegetation types that was not obtainable from LANDSAT MSS data alone was obtained. Specifically, high SIR-A returns in the Australian site were found to correlate with locations where shrubs increase surface roughness appreciably. The Australian study site results demonstrate the synergy of acquiring spectral reflectance and radar data over the same location and time. Such data are especially important in that region, since grazing animals have substantially altered and are continuing to alter the distribution of shrublands, grasslands, and soil exposures. Periodic, synoptic acquisition of MSS and SAR data would be of use in monitoring the dynamics of land-cover change in this environment.

  6. Reconnaissance of the hydrology, water quality, and sources of bacterial and nutrient contamination in the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system and Cave Springs Branch of Honey Creek, Delaware County, Oklahoma, March 1999-March 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlottmann, Jamie L.; Tanner, Ralph S.; Samadpour, Mansour

    2000-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation of hydrology and water quality was conducted to evaluate possible sources of bacteria and nutrient contamination in the Cave Springs Branch basin and the underlying karstic Ozark Plateau aquifer system. Objectives were to: (1) determine the directions of ground-water flow in the basin and determine whether Cave Springs Branch interacts with ground water, (2) compare water quality in Cave Springs Branch with water quality in nearby wells to determine whether the stream is contaminating nearby wells, and (3) determine sources of fecal coliform bacteria and nitrate contamination in Cave Springs Branch and ground water. Potential sources of bacteria and nitrate in the area include cultivated agriculture, cow and horse on pasture, poultry production, households, and wildlife. Presence of fecal coliform and fecal streptococcal bacteria directly indicate fecal contamination and the potential for the presence of other pathogenic organisms in a water supply. Nitrate in drinking water poses health risks and may indicate the presence of additional contaminants. Fecal coliform bacteria colony counts were least in wells, intermediate in the poultry-processing plant wastewater outfall and Honey Creek above the confluence with Cave Springs Branch, and greatest in Cave Springs Branch. Bacteria strains and resistance to antibiotics by some bacteria indicate that livestock may have been sources of some bacteria in the water samples. Multiple antibiotic resistances were not present in the isolates from the water samples, indicating that the bacteria may not be from human or poultry sources. Ribotyping indicates that Escherichia coli bacteria in water samples from the basin were from bird, cow, horse, dog, deer, and human sources. The presence of multiple ribotypes from each type of animal source except bird indicates that most of the bacteria are from multiple populations of source animals. Identifiable sources of bacteria in Cave Springs Branch at the

  7. Sustainable bioenergy production from Missouri's Ozark forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry E. Stelzer; Chris Barnett; Verel W. Bensen

    2008-01-01

    The main source of wood fiber for energy resides in Missouri's forests. Alternative bioenergy systems that can use forest thinning residues are electrical energy, thermal energy, and liquid bio-fuel. By applying a thinning rule and accounting for wood fiber that could go into higher value wood products to all live biomass data extracted from the U.S. Forest...

  8. Anthropology of fire in the Ozark Highland region

    Science.gov (United States)

    David H. Jurney

    2012-01-01

    Native Americans are often considered to have exploited available natural resources rather than modifying their environments to maximize yields. As simpler societies evolved into more complex ones, there is a consensus that intensification of habitat modifications also increased. However, landscape scale archeological inventories now show relatively intensive...

  9. Intoxication of sheep exposed to ozark milkweed (Asclepias viridis Walter).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R A; Scharko, P; Bolin, D; Hong, C B

    2000-12-01

    Some 20 sheep died 1 at a time on a farm in Fleming County, KY, in late July of 1999 after consumption of Asclepias viridis Walter. Major histological lesions were mild multifocal nonsuppurative myocarditis. Gross pathology revealed wet and heavy lungs. Many affected animals had a hunched appearance, and marked posterior paresis was also observed.

  10. Oak regeneration and overstory density in the Missouri Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Larsen; Monte A. Metzger

    1997-01-01

    Reducing overstory density is a commonly recommended method of increasing the regeneration potential of oak (Quercus) forests. However, recommendations seldom specify the probable increase in density or the size of reproduction associated with a given residual overstory density. This paper presents logistic regression models that describe this...

  11. Residual tree damage during selection cuts using two skidding systems in the Missouri Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Ficklin; John P. Dwyer; Bruce E. Cutter; Tom Draper

    1997-01-01

    Today, there is an interest in using alternative silvicultural systems like selection and two-aged management, because the public finds these systems more acceptable than clearcutting. However, repeated entries into forest stands to remove timber increase the risk of residual stand damage. Harvest techniques are desirable that (1) reduce the risk of stand damage and (2...

  12. 78 FR 57875 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Southeast Missouri Ozarks Regional Restoration Plan and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... environment. The results of this administrative process are contained in the planning and decision document... negotiated settlements or adjudicated awards, must be used to restore, rehabilitate, replace and/or acquire...

  13. The Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project: the effects of forest management on the forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Brookshire; Carl Hauser

    1993-01-01

    The effects of forest management on non-timber resources are of growing concern to forest managers and the public. While many previous studies have reported effects of stand-level treatments (less than 15 ha) on various stand-level attributes, few studies have attempted to document the influence of forest management on the biotic and abiotic characteristics of entire...

  14. Spatial controls of occurrence and spread of wildfires in the Missouri Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian Yang; Hong S. He; Stephen R. Shifley

    2008-01-01

    Understanding spatial controls on wildfires is important when designing adaptive fire management plans and optimizing fuel treatment locations on a forest landscape. Previous research about this topic focused primarily on spatial controls for fire origin locations alone. Fire spread and behavior were largely overlooked. This paper contrasts the relative importance of...

  15. Shortleaf pine seed production in natural stands in the Ouachita and Ozark mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Shelton; Robert F. Wittwer

    1996-01-01

    Seed production of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) was monitored from 1965 to 1974 to determine the periodicity qf seed crops in both woods-run stands and seed-production areas. One bumper and two good seed crops occurred during the 9-yr period. The two largest crops occurred in successive years, then seed production was low for 4 yr before...

  16. Movement and survival of brown trout and rainbow trout in an ozark tailwater river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J.W.; Kwak, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the movement of adult brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in relation to a catch-andrelease area in the White River downstream from Beaver Dam, Arkansas. Nine fish of each species were implanted with radio transmitters and monitored from July 1996 to July 1997. The 1.5- km river length of a catch-and-release area (closed to angler harvest) was greater than the total linear range of 72% of the trout (13 of 18 fish), but it did not include two brown trout spawning riffles, suggesting that it effectively protects resident fish within the catch-and-release area except during spawning. The total detected linear range of movement varied from 172 to 3,559 m for brown trout and from 205 to 3,023mfor rainbow trout. The movements of both species appeared to be generally similar to that in unregulated river systems. The annual apparent survival of both trout species was less than 0.40, and exploitation was 44%.Management to protect fish on spawning riffles may be considered if management for wild brown trout becomes a priority. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  17. Determinants of total and available phosphorus in forested Alfisols and Ultisols of the Ozark Highlands, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbir Singh; Keith W. Goyne; John M. Kabrick

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus is an important nutrient limiting forest growth in many parts of world, and soil P forms and concentrations may be associated with a host of soil and environmental attributes in a complex soil landscape. The objective of this study was to identify key environmental and soil properties influencing total and available soil P concentrations in a mixed oak (

  18. Breeding bird populations in Missouri Ozark forests with and without clearcutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank R., III Thompson; William D. Dijak; Thomas G. Kulowiec; David A. Hamilton

    1992-01-01

    Concern has arisen that forest management practices that create edge (such as clearcutting) are contributing to regional declines in neotropical migrant birds that inhabit forest interiors. Consequently, we studied breeding bird populations in an extensively forested region of southern Missouri to determine if the numbers of breeding birds differed between areas (n = 9...

  19. Shortleaf pine natural community restoration on Peck Ranch Conservation Area in the Missouri Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    John G. Tuttle; Kim J. Houf

    2007-01-01

    Oak decline has become a significantly increasing problem on Peck Ranch Conservation Area over the last several years. Most of the oak decline problems exist on past shortleaf pine sites. To address this issue, the area managers wrote a natural community restoration plan for 2,233 acres located on the Current-Eleven Point Oak-Pine Woodland Dissected Plain land type...

  20. Land-cover change in the Ozark Highlands, 1973-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstensen, Krista A.

    2010-01-01

    Led by the Geographic Analysis and Monitoring Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Land-Cover Trends Project was initiated in 1999 and aims to document the types, geographic distributions, and rates of land-cover change on a region by region basis for the conterminous United States, and to determine some of the key drivers and consequences of the change (Loveland and others, 2002). For 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000 land-cover maps derived from the Landsat series are classified by visual interpretation, inspection of historical aerial photography and ground survey, into 11 land-cover classes. The classes are defined to capture land cover that is discernable in Landsat data. A stratified probability-based sampling methodology undertaken within the 84 Omernik Level III Ecoregions (Omernik, 1987) was used to locate the blocks, with 9 to 48 blocks per ecoregion. The sampling was designed to enable a statistically robust 'scaling up' of the sample-classification data to estimate areal land-cover change within each ecoregion (Loveland and others, 2002; Stehman and others, 2005). At the time of writing, approximately 90 percent of the 84 conterminous United States ecoregions have been processed by the Land-Cover Trends Project. Results from these completed ecoregions illustrate that across the conterminous United States there is no single profile of land-cover/land-use change, rather, there are varying pulses affected by clusters of change agents (Loveland and others, 2002). Land-Cover Trends Project results for the conterminous United States to-date are being used for collaborative environmental change research with partners such as; the National Science Foundation, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The strategy has also been adapted for use in a NASA global deforestation initiative, and elements of the project design are being used in the North American Carbon Program's assessment of forest disturbance.

  1. 76 FR 61956 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Ozark Hellbender Salamander

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... stated that animals infected with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (the pathogen which causes amphibian... seq.) is a law that was passed to prevent extinction of species by providing measures to help alleviate the loss of species and their habitats. Before a plant or animal species can receive the...

  2. 75 FR 54579 - Inclusion of the Hellbender, Including the Eastern Hellbender and the Ozark Hellbender, in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ...-0033] [96300-1671-0000-R4] RIN 1018-AW93 Inclusion of the Hellbender, Including the Eastern Hellbender... remove the species from Appendix III without consulting the other CITES Parties. Inclusion of native U.S... determine whether we should propose the species for inclusion in Appendix II, remove it from Appendix III...

  3. 76 FR 61978 - Inclusion of the Hellbender, Including the Eastern Hellbender and the Ozark Hellbender, in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ...-0033; 96300-1671-0000-R4] RIN 1018-AW93 Inclusion of the Hellbender, Including the Eastern Hellbender... range countries is recommended prior to adding or removing a species to Appendix III. Inclusion of... Article II. Appendix III shall include the names of the Parties submitting the species for inclusion...

  4. Fort Leonard Wood Lake of the Ozarks Recreation Area, NRHP Section 110 Inventory and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    is understood, and its meaning (and ultimately its significance) within prehistory or history is made clear (NPS 1997, 7). A historic property is...likely to yield, information important in prehistory or history. 4.3 Aspects of historic integrity In addition to possessing historical...people during any given period in history or prehistory . Feeling Feeling is a property’s expression of the aesthetic or historic sense of a

  5. Medical tourism in the backcountry: alternative health and healing in the Arkansas Ozarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Justin M; Schneider, Mary Jo

    2011-01-01

    Tourists travel to Arkansas' mountain regions to experience, appreciate, and consume multiple aspects of otherness, including sacred sites and pristine and authentic peoples and environments. A largely unexplored aspect of this consumption of authenticity is alternative medicine, provided to tourists and day travelers in search of physical and emotional restoration. Traditional forms of medicine are deeply rooted in women's social roles as community healers in the region and are perpetuated in part because of the lack of readily accessible forms of so-called modern medicine. Contemporary medical tourism in Arkansas has promoted access to folk health systems, preserving them by incorporating them into tourists' health care services, and also has attracted new and dynamic alternative medical practices while encouraging the transformation of existing forms of traditional medicine. Ultimately, the blend of alternative, folk, and conventional medicine in the Arkansas highlands is evidence of globalizing forces at work in a regional culture. It also serves to highlight a renewed appreciation for the historic continuity and the efficacy of traditional knowledge in the upper South.

  6. 75 FR 54561 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Rule To List the Ozark Hellbender...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... Consolidated 2002 Missouri (303(d)) list of impaired waters for organic wastes (fecal coliform). Likely sources... gravel mining, sedimentation, nutrient runoff, and nest site disturbance from recreational uses of the... plateau, water is contaminated by nutrients from increased human waste (in part due to rapid urbanization...

  7. 75 FR 3455 - Union Electric Company dba Ameren/UE; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... located at the Ozark Yacht Club near mile marker 0.8+0.6 in Jennings Branch Cove on the Lake of the Ozarks... of Request: The licensee requests approval to permit Ozark Yacht Club to construct a new 4-slip boat... for use by patrons of the Ozark Yacht Club. l. Locations of the Application: A copy of the application...

  8. Comparing effects of fire modeling methods on simulated fire patterns and succession: a case study in the Missouri Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian Yang; Hong S. He; Brian R. Sturtevant; Brian R. Miranda; Eric J. Gustafson

    2008-01-01

    We compared four fire spread simulation methods (completely random, dynamic percolation. size-based minimum travel time algorithm. and duration-based minimum travel time algorithm) and two fire occurrence simulation methods (Poisson fire frequency model and hierarchical fire frequency model) using a two-way factorial design. We examined these treatment effects on...

  9. Vegetation-site relationships and fire history of a savanna-glade-woodland mosaic in the Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean E. Jenkins; Richard Guyette; Alan J. Rebertus

    1997-01-01

    There is a growing interest in reconstructing past disturbance regimes and how they influenced plant composition, structure and landscape pattern. Such information is useful to resource managers for determining the effects of fire suppression on vegetation or tailoring prescribed fires to restore community and landscape diversity. In the spring of 1995, the National...

  10. Abundance, biomass production, nutrient content, and the possible role of terrestrial salamanders in Missouri Ozark forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.D. Semlitsch; K.M. O' Donnell; F.R. Thompson

    2014-01-01

    The transfer of energy and nutrients largely depends on the role of animals in the movement of biomass between trophic levels and ecosystems. Despite the historical recognition that amphibians could play an important role in the movement of biomass and nutrients, very few studies have provided reliable estimates of abundance and density of amphibians to reveal their...

  11. Microbial properties and litter and soil nutrients after two prescribed fires in developing savannas in an upland Missouri Ozark Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Jr. Ponder; Mahasin Tadros; Edward F. Loewenstein

    2009-01-01

    On some landscapes periodic fire may be necessary to develop and maintain oak-dominated savannas. We studied the effects of two annual prescribed burns to determine their effect on microbial activity and soil and litter nutrients 1 year after the last burn. Surface litter and soil from the upper 0?5 cm soil layer in three developing savannas (oak-hickory, ...

  12. A Regional Guidebook for Conducting Functional Assessments of Forested Wetlands and Riparian Areas in the Ozark Mountains Region of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    declines in the black bear and Florida panther . The extent to which patch size affects animal populations has been most thoroughly investi- gated with... animal communities. Reservoir construction and agricultural practices have eliminated or severely degraded many of the wetlands and riparian areas...oak (Q. falcata), and black oak (Q. velutina), and a variety of hickories, including mockernut (Carya tomentosa), pignut (C. glabra), and shagbark

  13. The importance of drought-pathogen interactions in driving oak mortality events in the Ozark Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jeffrey D.; Knapp, Benjamin O.; Muzika, Rose-Marie; Stambaugh, Michael C.; Gu, Lianhong

    2018-01-01

    Forests are expected to become more vulnerable to drought-induced tree mortality owing to rising temperatures and changing precipitation patterns that amplify drought lethality. There is a crucial knowledge gap regarding drought-pathogen interactions and their effects on tree mortality. The objectives of this research were to examine whether stand dynamics and ‘background’ mortality rates were affected by a severe drought in 2012; and to evaluate the importance of drought-pathogen interactions within the context of a mortality event that killed 10.0% and 26.5% of white (Quercus alba L.) and black (Q. velutina Lam.) oak stems, respectively, in a single year. We synthesized (i) forest inventory data (24 years), (ii) 11 years of ecosystem flux data with supporting biological data including predawn leaf water potential and annual forest inventories, (iii) tree-ring analyses of individual white oaks that were alive and ones that died in 2013, and (iv) documentation of a pathogen infection. This forest displayed stand dynamics consistent with expected patterns of decreasing tree density and increasing basal area. Continued basal area growth outpaced mortality implying a net accumulation of live biomass, which was supported by eddy covariance ecosystem carbon flux observations. Individual white and black oaks that died in 2013 displayed historically lower growth with the majority of dead trees exhibiting Biscogniauxia cankers. Our observations point to the importance of event-based oak mortality and that drought-Biscogniauxia interactions are important in shaping oak stand dynamics in this region. Although forest function has not been significantly impaired, these drought-pathogen interactions could amplify mortality under future climate conditions and thus warrant further investigation.

  14. Relationships between bat occupancy and habitat and landscape structure along a savanna, woodland, forest gradient in the Missouri Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarissa A. Starbuck; Sybill K. Amelon; Frank R. III. Thompson

    2015-01-01

    Many land-management agencies are restoring savannas and woodlands using prescribed fire and forest thinning, and information is needed on how wildlife species respond to these management activities. Our objectives were to evaluate support for relationships of bat site occupancy with vegetation structure and management and landscape composition and structure across a...

  15. Runoff water quality from broiler litter-amended tall fescue in response to natural precipitation in the Ozark Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menjoulet, B C; Brye, K R; Pirani, A L; Haggard, B E; Gbur, E E

    2009-01-01

    The Arkansas poultry industry produced more than 1.2 billion broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and generated approximately 1.3 million Mg of broiler litter in 2002. High transportation costs of relocating broiler litter have led to annual land applications near poultry houses, increasing concern for potential surface water contamination from runoff. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of broiler litter application rate on runoff water quality in response to natural precipitation. Six plots (1.5 by 6.0 m), located on a Captina silt loam (finesilty, siliceous, active, mesic Typic Fragiudult), were amended with fresh broiler litter at 0, 5.6, and 11.2 Mg ha(-1) (control, low, and high litter treatments, respectively) once annually for 4 yr (May 2003 through April 2007). Runoff collected after each runoff-producing event was analyzed for soluble nutrients and metals. Cumulative runoff did not differ among litter treatments over the 4-yr study. At times, flow-weighted mean (FWM) concentrations of As from all litter treatments exceeded the maximum contaminant level for drinking water (0.01 mg As L(-1)). Four-year FWM Fe concentrations and runoff losses were greater (P precipitation is temporally variable, evaluating runoff water quality in response to natural precipitation over several years is key to ascertaining the long-term impacts of surface-applied soil amendments like broiler litter.

  16. A Regional Guidebook for Conducting Functional Assessments of Forested Wetlands and Riparian Areas in the Ozark Mountains Region of Arkansas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klimas, Charles V; Murray, Elizabeth O; Langston, Henry; Pagan, Jody; Witsell, Theo; Foti, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    .... The Hydrogeomorphic Approach is a collection of concepts and methods for developing functional indices and subsequently using them to assess the capacity of a wetland to perform functions relative...

  17. Feeding rates, double brooding, nest reuse, and seasonal fecundity of eastern wood-pewees in the Missouri Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah W. Kendrick; Frank R. III Thompson; Jennifer L. Reidy

    2014-01-01

    Despite being widespread and abundant, little is known about the breeding ecology and natural history of the Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens), in part because nests are often high in the canopy, difficult to view, and adults are monomorphic. We monitored nests of Eastern Wood-Pewees and recorded the feeding rate of nestlings by adults as part of...

  18. Eastern wood-pewee (Contopus virens) breeding demography across a gradient of savanna, woodland, and forest in the Missouri Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah W. Kendrick; Frank R. Thompson; Jennifer L. Reidy

    2013-01-01

    Better knowledge of bird response to savanna and woodland restoration is needed to inform management of these communities. We related temporal and habitat variables to breeding demography and densities of the Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens) across a gradient of savanna, woodland, and forest. We determined nest success, clutch size, young fledged...

  19. 76 FR 56425 - Union Electric Company, dba Ameren Missouri; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... proposed non-project use would be located at the Ozark Yacht Club marina which is located at mile marker 0... for the Osage Hydroelectric Project, requests Commission authorization to permit the Ozark Yacht Club... patrons of the Ozark Yacht Club. No dredging activities, shoreline stabilization, or fueling facilities...

  20. Ordovician of the Sauk megasequence in the Ozark region of northern Arkansas and parts of Missouri and adjacent states: Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethington, Raymond L.; Repetski, John E.; Derby, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Exposures of Ordovician rocks of the Sauk megasequence in Missouri and northern Arkansas comprise Ibexian and lower Whiterockian carbonates with interspersed sandstones. Subjacent Cambrian strata are exposed in Missouri but confined to the subsurface in Arkansas. The Sauk-Tippecanoe boundary in this region is at the base of the St. Peter Sandstone. Ulrich and associates divided the Arkansas section into formations early in the 20th century, principally based on sparse collections of fossil invertebrates. In contrast, the distribution of invertebrate faunas and modern studies of conodonts will be emphasized throughout this chapter. Early workers considered many of the stratigraphic units to be separated by unconformities, but modern analysis calls into question the unconformable nature of some of their boundaries. The physical similarity of the several dolomites and sandstones, complex facies relations, and lack of continuous exposures make identification of individual formations difficult in isolated outcrops.

  1. Integrating LANDIS model and a multi-criteria decision-making approach to evaluate cumulative effects of forest management in the Missouri Ozarks, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong Bo Shang; Hong S. He; Weimin Xi; Stephen R. Shifley; Brian J. Palik

    2012-01-01

    Public forest management requires consideration of numerous objectives including protecting ecosystem health, sustaining habitats for native communities, providing sustainable forest products, and providing noncommodity ecosystem services. It is difficult to evaluate the long-term, cumulative effects and tradeoffs these and other associated management objectives. To...

  2. REGULATION OF CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND WATER USE IN A OZARK FOREST: PROPOSING A NEW STRATEGICALLY LOCATED AMERIFLUX TOWER SITE IN MISSOURI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallardy, Stephen G

    2013-04-19

    by June 14, 2004, the MOFLUX site was fully instrumented and data streams started to flow. A primary accomplished deliverable for the project period was the data streams of CO{sub 2} and water vapor fluxes and numerous meteorological variables (from which prepared datasets have been submitted to the AmeriFlux data archive for 2004-2006, Additionally, measurements of leaf biochemistry and physiology, biomass inventory, tree allometry, successional trends other variables were obtained.

  3. Aquatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren E. Heilman

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides citizens, private and public organizations, scientists, and others with information about the aquatic conditions in or near national forests in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests in Arkansas. This report includes water quality analyses...

  4. Modeling CO2 Sequestration in Saline Aquifer and Depleted Oil Reservoir To Evaluate Regional CO2 Sequestration Potential of Ozark Plateau Aquifer System, South-Central Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watney, W. Lynn [University Of Kansas Center For Research, Inc. Lawrence, KS (United States)

    2014-09-30

    1. Drilled, cored, and logged three wells to the basement and collecting more than 2,700 ft of conventional core; obtained 20 mi2 of multicomponent 3D seismic imaging and merged and reprocessed more than 125 mi2 of existing 3D seismic data for use in modeling CO2- EOR oil recovery and CO2 storage in five oil fields in southern Kansas. 2. Determined the technical feasibility of injecting and sequestering CO2 in a set of four depleted oil reservoirs in the Cutter, Pleasant Prairie South, Eubank, and Shuck fields in southwest Kansas; of concurrently recovering oil from those fields; and of quantifying the volumes of CO2 sequestered and oil recovered during the process. 3. Formed a consortium of six oil operating companies, five of which own and operate the four fields. The consortium became part of the Southwest Kansas CO2-EOR Initiative for the purpose of sharing data, knowledge, and interest in understanding the potential for CO2-EOR in Kansas. 4. Built a regional well database covering 30,000 mi2 and containing stratigraphic tops from ~90,000 wells; correlated 30 major stratigraphic horizons; digitized key wells, including wireline logs and sample logs; and analyzed more than 3,000 drill stem tests to establish that fluid levels in deep aquifers below the Permian evaporites are not connected to the surface and therefore pressures are not hydrostatic. Connectivity with the surface aquifers is lacking because shale aquitards and impermeable evaporite layers consist of both halite and anhydrite. 5. Developed extensive web applications and an interactive mapping system that do the following: a. Facilitate access to a wide array of data obtained in the study, including core descriptions and analyses, sample logs, digital (LAS) well logs, seismic data, gravity and magnetics maps, structural and stratigraphic maps, inferred fault traces, earthquakes, Class I and II disposal wells, and surface lineaments. b. Provide real-time analysis of the project dataset, including automated integration and viewing of well logs, core, core analyses, brine chemistry, and stratigraphy using the Java Profile app. A cross-section app allows for the display of log data for up to four wells at a time. 6. Integrated interpretations from the project’s interactive web-based mapping system to gain insights to aid in assessing the efficacy of geologic CO2 storage in Kansas and insights toward understanding recent seismicity to aid in evaluating induced vs. naturally occurring earthquakes. 7. Developed a digital type-log system, including web-based software to modify and refine stratigraphic nomenclature to provide stakeholders a common means for communication about the subsurface. 8. Contracted use of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) log and ran it slowly to capture response and characterize larger pores common for carbonate reservoirs. Used NMR to extend core analyses to apply permeability, relative permeability to CO2, and capillary pressure to the major rock types, each uniquely expressed as a reservoir quality index (RQI), present in the Mississippian and Arbuckle rocks. 9. Characterized and evaluated the possible role of microbes in dense brines. Used microbes to compliment H/O stable isotopes to fingerprint brine systems. Used perforation/swabbing to obtain samples from multiple hydrostratigraphic units and confirmed equivalent results using less expensive drill stem tests (DST). 10. Used an integrated approach from whole core, logs, tests, and seismic to verify and quantify properties of vuggy, brecciated, and fractured carbonate intervals. 11. Used complex geocellular static and dynamic models to evaluate regional storage capacity using large parallel processing. 12. Carbonates are complex reservoirs and CO2-EOR needs to move to the next generation to increase effectiveness of CO2&l

  5. Modeling CO2 Sequestration in Saline Aquifer and Depleted Oil Reservoir To Evaluate Regional CO2 Sequestration Potential of Ozark Plateau Aquifer System, South-Central Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watney, W. Lynn [University Of Kansas Center For Research, Inc. Lawrence, KS (United States); Rush, Jason [University Of Kansas Center For Research, Inc. Lawrence, KS (United States); Raney, Jennifer [University Of Kansas Center For Research, Inc. Lawrence, KS (United States)

    2014-09-30

    1. Drilled, cored, and logged three wells to the basement and collecting more than 2,700 ft of conventional core; obtained 20 mi2 of multicomponent 3D seismic imaging and merged and reprocessed more than 125 mi2 of existing 3D seismic data for use in modeling CO2- EOR oil recovery and CO2 storage in five oil fields in southern Kansas. 2. Determined the technical feasibility of injecting and sequestering CO2 in a set of four depleted oil reservoirs in the Cutter, Pleasant Prairie South, Eubank, and Shuck fields in southwest Kansas; of concurrently recovering oil from those fields; and of quantifying the volumes of CO2 sequestered and oil recovered during the process. 3. Formed a consortium of six oil operating companies, five of which own and operate the four fields. The consortium became part of the Southwest Kansas CO2-EOR Initiative for the purpose of sharing data, knowledge, and interest in understanding the potential for CO2-EOR in Kansas. 4. Built a regional well database covering 30,000 mi2 and containing stratigraphic tops from ~90,000 wells; correlated 30 major stratigraphic horizons; digitized key wells, including wireline logs and sample logs; and analyzed more than 3,000 drill stem tests to establish that fluid levels in deep aquifers below the Permian evaporites are not connected to the surface and therefore pressures are not hydrostatic. Connectivity with the surface aquifers is lacking because shale aquitards and impermeable evaporite layers consist of both halite and anhydrite. 5. Developed extensive web applications and an interactive mapping system that do the following: a. Facilitate access to a wide array of data obtained in the study, including core descriptions and analyses, sample logs, digital (LAS) well logs, seismic data, gravity and magnetics maps, structural and stratigraphic maps, inferred fault traces, earthquakes, Class I and II disposal wells, and surface lineaments. b. Provide real-time analysis of the project dataset, including automated integration and viewing of well logs, core, core analyses, brine chemistry, and stratigraphy using the Java Profile app. A cross-section app allows for the display of log data for up to four wells at a time. 6. Integrated interpretations from the project’s interactive web-based mapping system to gain insights to aid in assessing the efficacy of geologic CO2 storage in Kansas and insights toward understanding recent seismicity to aid in evaluating induced vs. naturally occurring earthquakes. 7. Developed a digital type-log system, including web-based software to modify and refine stratigraphic nomenclature to provide stakeholders a common means for communication about the subsurface. 8. Contracted use of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) log and ran it slowly to capture response and characterize larger pores common for carbonate reservoirs. Used NMR to extend core analyses to apply permeability, relative permeability to CO2, and capillary pressure to the major rock types, each uniquely expressed as a reservoir quality index (RQI), present in the Mississippian and Arbuckle rocks. 9. Characterized and evaluated the possible role of microbes in dense brines. Used microbes to compliment H/O stable isotopes to fingerprint brine systems. Used perforation/swabbing to obtain samples from multiple hydrostratigraphic units and confirmed equivalent results using less expensive drill stem tests (DST). 10. Used an integrated approach from whole core, logs, tests, and seismic to verify and quantify properties of vuggy, brecciated, and fractured carbonate intervals. 11. Used complex geocellular static and dynamic models to evaluate regional storage capacity using large parallel processing. 12. Carbonates are complex reservoirs and CO2-EOR needs to move to the next generation to increase effectiveness of CO2 and efficiency and safety of the injection.

  6. Large Drought-induced Variations in Oak Leaf Volatile Organic Compound Emissions during PINOT NOIR 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Leaf level oak isoprene emissions and co2/H2O exchange in the Ozarks, USA BAGeron.csv is the speciated biomass displayed in Figure 1. Biomass Dry Weights.xlsx is...

  7. Geographic range and morphological and chromosomal variability of Carex molestiformis (Cyperaceae) east of the Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carex molestiformis (frightful sedge), described in 1997 as an endemic to the Ozark and Ouachita Mountain regions, is newly collected from Georgia, Mississippi, and Ohio. Herbarium records have also confirmed this species from North Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia bringing the overall range of...

  8. Biogeography of Missouri. Instructional Unit. Conservation Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillon, David A.

    This unit is designed to help social studies or science teachers incorporate ecological concepts into the teaching of science and Missouri geography. The unit includes: (1) a topic outline; (2) general unit objectives; (3) an introduction to basic biogeographical concepts; (4) descriptions of the glaciated prairie, unglaciated prairie, ozark, and…

  9. Impacts of Potential Oak Forest Change on Breeding Birds in Northwestern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas A. James

    2004-01-01

    Birds found on existing census routes in the Ozark region of northwestern Arkansas were used to predict avifaunal changes that could occur in the area due to oak-hickory forest degradation caused by red oak borer beetle infestations. The two census routes used passed through high elevation forests where red oaks thrive the best. Analysis showed that 21 bird species...

  10. Esthetics evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor A. Rudis; James H. Gramann; Theresa A. Herrick

    1994-01-01

    An analysis of summer visual attributes and an overview of ongoing scenic quality research within selected shortleaf pine-hardwood stands in the Ouachita and Ozark National forests are presented.Within-stand visual attributes were reported prior to even-aged stand-level (Phase II) treatment for twelve 40-acre stands in the north, east, and south regions and for plot-...

  11. Economics of Coharvesting Smallwood by Chainsaw and Skidder for Crop Tree Management in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Becker; E.M.(Ted) Bilek; Terry Cunningham; Michael Bill; Marty Calvert; Jason Jensen; Michael Norris; Terry Thompson

    2011-01-01

    Forest improvement harvests using individual-tree and group selection were conducted in four oak or oak-hickory stands in the Missouri Ozarks with conventional equipment (chainsaw and skidder). Volumes (and revenues) for different timber classes (sawlogs and smallwood from topwood and small trees) and hours of machine use were recorded to calculate production rates....

  12. 76 FR 81987 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ...) and Ozark Motor Lines, Working On- Site at Sanyo Manufacturing Corporation. 81,099 Brake Parts, Inc.... Automotive Coatings, Belcan and Aerotek, Working On-Site at General Motors. 81,008 Lintelle Engineering.... 80,352 Penske Logistics, LLC,, El Paso, TX. General Electric/Penske, El Paso Distribution, Warehouse...

  13. Filters and templates: stonefly (Plecoptera) richness in Ouachita Mountains streams, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew L. Sheldon; Melvin L. Warren

    2009-01-01

    1. We collected adult stoneflies periodically over a 1-year period at 38 sites in twoheadwater catchments in the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas, U.S.A. The 43 speciescollected were a subset of the Ozark-Ouachita fauna and the much larger fauna of theeastern U.S.A. We estimated 78–91% species coverage in...

  14. 77 FR 23273 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    .... Submit your written data, comments, or request for a copy of the complete application to the address... to avoid mortality of listed bats through curtailment of turbines and (2) the relationship between... to take (capture and release) Indiana bats, gray bats, Ozark big-eared bats (Corynorhinus townsendii...

  15. Loss of aboveground forest biomass and landscape biomass variability in Missouri, US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice B. Hanberry; Hong S. He; Stephen R. Shifley

    2016-01-01

    Disturbance regimes and forests have changed over time in the eastern United States. We examined effects of historical disturbance (circa 1813 to 1850) compared to current disturbance (circa 2004 to 2008) on aboveground, live tree biomass (for trees with diameters ≥13 cm) and landscape variation of biomass in forests of the Ozarks and Plains landscapes in Missouri, USA...

  16. Prioritizing Historical Archaeological Sites at Fort Leonard Wood, Pulaski County, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    report are not to be used for advertising , publication, or promotional purposes. Citation of trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or...though this farmstead was nestled deep in the Missouri Ozarks, it was by no means isolated from the global trade networks of the period. The

  17. 78 FR 67187 - Notice of Availability of the Draft General Management Plan/Wilderness Study/Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... focus on protecting natural resources and systems. Under this alternative, most of the Big Spring... Availability of the Draft General Management Plan/ Wilderness Study/Environmental Impact Statement for the... Management Plan/Wilderness Study/Environmental Impact Statement (GMP/WS/EIS) for the Ozark National Scenic...

  18. Climate change vulnerabilities within the forestry sector for the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen D. Handler; Chris W. Swanston; Patricia R. Butler; Leslie A. Brandt; Maria K. Janowiak; Matthew D. Powers; P. Danielle. Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Forests are a defining landscape feature for much of the Midwest, from boreal forests surrounding the northern Great Lakes to oak-hickory forests blanketing the Ozarks. Savannas and open woodlands within this region mark a major transition zone between forest and grassland biomes within the U.S. Forests help sustain human communities in the region, ecologically,...

  19. Understory vegetation composition and abundance in relation to light, water, and nutrient supply gradients in upland oak woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth K. Olson; John M. Kabrick

    2014-01-01

    The Ozark Highlands of Missouri have experienced a complicated series of exploitive events (Flader 2004). The area was heavily cut over for timber at the turn of the last century and was overgrazed by privately owned livestock through the early 1900s. Decades of fire suppression since the 1940s further altered plant composition and structure. The current state of...

  20. Edge Effects and Ecological Traps: Effects on Shrubland Birds in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    April A. Woodward; Alix D. Fink; Frank R. Thompson III

    2001-01-01

    The effect of habitat edge on avian nesting success has been the focus of considerable debate. We studied relationships between habitat edges, locations of nests, and predation. We tested the ecological trap hypothesis for 5 shrubland bird species in the Missouri Ozarks. We compared habitat selection and daily nest predation rates among 3 distance-to-edge categories....

  1. Geologic map of the west-central Buffalo National River region, northern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark R.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2014-01-01

    This map summarizes the geology of the west-central Buffalo National River region in the Ozark Plateaus region of northern Arkansas. Geologically, the region lies on the southern flank of the Ozark dome, an uplift that exposes oldest rocks at its center in Missouri. Physiographically, the map area spans the Springfield Plateau, a topographic surface generally held up by Mississippian cherty limestone and the higher Boston Mountains to the south, held up by Pennsylvanian rocks. The Buffalo River flows eastward through the map area, enhancing bedrock erosion of an approximately 1,600-ft- (490-m-) thick sequence of Ordovician, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian carbonate and clastic sedimentary rocks that have been mildly deformed by a series of faults and folds. Quaternary surficial units are present as alluvial deposits along major streams, including a series of terrace deposits from the Buffalo River, as well as colluvium and landslide deposits mantling bedrock on hillslopes.

  2. Continuation of the Resource Conservation and Development Program Raises Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-11

    almost any measure proposed to be counted toward helping accomplish the plan’s objectives and furthering its goals. SOME PLANS ARE NOT UP TO DATE...FUNDS THEY HAD RECEIVED AS OF SEPTEMBER 1980 Year Project project Amount area (State) authorized received (000 omitted) Sangre de Cristo (Colo.) 1968...Minn.) 1975 711 Northeast (miss.) 1967 4,605 Southeast (Miss.) 1971 1,868 Top of the Ozarks (Mo.) 1965 1,954 Bitter Root Valley ( Mont .) 1965 2,605

  3. A demographic comparison of two black bear populations in the Interior Highlands of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joseph D.; Smith, Kimberly G.

    1994-01-01

    The Ozark and Ouachita mountain regions of western Arkansas, collectively known as the Interior Highlands, historically supported large numbers of black bears (Ursus americanus). Indiscriminate killing of bears by early settlers and subsequent habitat reductions due to extensive logging and changes in land use resulted in their decline (Smith et al. 1991). By the late 1940's, bears had been extirpated from both regions (Holder 1951).

  4. Ecoregions and stream morphology in eastern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splinter, D.K.; Dauwalter, D.C.; Marston, R.A.; Fisher, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    Broad-scale variables (i.e., geology, topography, climate, land use, vegetation, and soils) influence channel morphology. How and to what extent the longitudinal pattern of channel morphology is influenced by broad-scale variables is important to fluvial geomorphologists and stream ecologists. In the last couple of decades, there has been an increase in the amount of interdisciplinary research between fluvial geomorphologists and stream ecologists. In a historical context, fluvial geomorphologists are more apt to use physiographic regions to distinguish broad-scale variables, while stream ecologists are more apt to use the concept of an ecosystem to address the broad-scale variables that influence stream habitat. For this reason, we designed a study using ecoregions, which uses physical and biological variables to understand how landscapes influence channel processes. Ecoregions are delineated by similarities in geology, climate, soils, land use, and potential natural vegetation. In the fluvial system, stream form and function are dictated by processes observed throughout the fluvial hierarchy. Recognizing that stream form and function should differ by ecoregion, a study was designed to evaluate how the characteristics of stream channels differed longitudinally among three ecoregions in eastern Oklahoma, USA: Boston Mountains, Ozark Highlands, and Ouachita Mountains. Channel morphology of 149 stream reaches was surveyed in 1st- through 4th-order streams, and effects of drainage area and ecoregion on channel morphology was evaluated using multiple regressions. Differences existed (?????0.05) among ecoregions for particle size, bankfull width, and width/depth ratio. No differences existed among ecoregions for gradient or sinuosity. Particle size was smallest in the Ozark Highlands and largest in the Ouachita Mountains. Bankfull width was larger in the Ozark Highlands than in the Boston Mountains and Ouachita Mountains in larger streams. Width/depth ratios of the

  5. Regime shifts and weakened environmental gradients in open oak and pine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanberry, Brice B; Dey, Dan C; He, Hong S

    2012-01-01

    Fire suppression allows tree species that are intolerant of fire stress to increase their distribution, potentially resulting in disruption of historical species-environmental relationships. To measure changes between historical General Land Office surveys (1815 to 1850) and current USDA Forest Inventory and Assessment surveys (2004 to 2008), we compared composition, distribution, and site factors of 21 tree species or species groups in the Missouri Ozarks. We used 24 environmental variables and random forests as a classification method to model distributions. Eastern redcedar, elms, maples, and other fire-sensitive species have increased in dominance in oak forests, with concurrent reductions by oak species; specific changes varied by ecological subsection. Ordinations displayed loss of separation between formerly distinctive oak and fire-sensitive tree species groups. Distribution maps showed decreased presence of disturbance-dependent oak and pine species and increased presence of fire-sensitive species that generally expanded from subsections protected from fire along rivers to upland areas, except for eastern redcedar, which expanded into these subsections. Large scale differences in spatial gradients between past and present communities paralleled reduced influence of local topographic gradients in the varied relief of the Missouri Ozarks, as fire-sensitive species have moved to higher, drier, and sunnier sites away from riverine corridors. Due to changes in land use, landscapes in the Missouri Ozarks, eastern United States, and world-wide are changing from open oak and pine-dominated ecosystems to novel oak-mixed species forests, although at fine scales, forests are becoming more diverse in tree species today. Fire suppression weakened the influence by environmental gradients over species dominance, allowing succession from disturbance-dependent oaks to an alternative state of fire-sensitive species. Current and future research and conservation that rely on

  6. Regime shifts and weakened environmental gradients in open oak and pine ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice B Hanberry

    Full Text Available Fire suppression allows tree species that are intolerant of fire stress to increase their distribution, potentially resulting in disruption of historical species-environmental relationships. To measure changes between historical General Land Office surveys (1815 to 1850 and current USDA Forest Inventory and Assessment surveys (2004 to 2008, we compared composition, distribution, and site factors of 21 tree species or species groups in the Missouri Ozarks. We used 24 environmental variables and random forests as a classification method to model distributions. Eastern redcedar, elms, maples, and other fire-sensitive species have increased in dominance in oak forests, with concurrent reductions by oak species; specific changes varied by ecological subsection. Ordinations displayed loss of separation between formerly distinctive oak and fire-sensitive tree species groups. Distribution maps showed decreased presence of disturbance-dependent oak and pine species and increased presence of fire-sensitive species that generally expanded from subsections protected from fire along rivers to upland areas, except for eastern redcedar, which expanded into these subsections. Large scale differences in spatial gradients between past and present communities paralleled reduced influence of local topographic gradients in the varied relief of the Missouri Ozarks, as fire-sensitive species have moved to higher, drier, and sunnier sites away from riverine corridors. Due to changes in land use, landscapes in the Missouri Ozarks, eastern United States, and world-wide are changing from open oak and pine-dominated ecosystems to novel oak-mixed species forests, although at fine scales, forests are becoming more diverse in tree species today. Fire suppression weakened the influence by environmental gradients over species dominance, allowing succession from disturbance-dependent oaks to an alternative state of fire-sensitive species. Current and future research and

  7. Gravel sediment routing from widespread, low-intensity landscape disturbance, Current River basin, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Gran, K.B.

    1999-01-01

    During the last 160 years, land-use changes in the Ozarks have had the potential to cause widespread, low-intensity delivery of excess amounts of gravel-sized sediment to stream channels. Previous studies have indicated that this excess gravel bedload is moving in wave-like forms through Ozarks drainage basins. The longitudinal, areal distribution of gravel bars along 160 km of the Current River, Missouri, was evaluated to determine the relative effects of valley-scale controls, tributary basin characteristics, and lagged sediment transport in creating areas of gravel accumulations. The longitudinal distribution of gravel-bar area shows a broad scale wave-like form with increases in gravel-bar area weakly associated with tributary junctions. Secondary peaks of gravel area with 1·8–4·1 km spacing (disturbance reaches) are superimposed on the broad form. Variations in valley width explain some, but not all, of the short-spacing variation in gravel-bar area. Among variables describing tributary drainage basin morphometry, present-day land use and geologic characteristics, only drainage area and road density relate even weakly to gravel-bar areal inventories. A simple, channel network-based sediment routing model shows that many of the features of the observed longitudinal gravel distribution can be replicated by uniform transport of sediment from widespread disturbances through a channel network. These results indicate that lagged sediment transport may have a dominant effect on the synoptic spatial distribution of gravel in Ozarks streams; present-day land uses are only weakly associated with present-day gravel inventories; and valley-scale characteristics have secondary controls on gravel accumulations in disturbance reaches.

  8. Geologic map of the Montauk quadrangle, Dent, Texas, and Shannon Counties, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, David J.

    2015-04-30

    The Montauk 7.5-minute quadrangle is located in south-central Missouri within the Salem Plateau region of the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province. About 2,000 feet (ft) of flat-lying to gently dipping lower Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, mostly dolomite, chert, sandstone, and orthoquartzite, overlie Mesoproterozoic igneous basement rocks. Unconsolidated residuum, colluvium, terrace deposits, and alluvium overlie the sedimentary rocks. Numerous karst features, such as caves, springs, and sinkholes, have formed in the carbonate rocks. Many streams are spring fed. The topography is a dissected karst plain with elevations ranging from approximately 830 ft where the Current River exits the middle-eastern edge of the quadrangle to about 1,320 ft in sec. 16, T. 31 N., R. 7 W., in the southwestern part of the quadrangle. The most prominent physiographic features within the quadrangle are the deeply incised valleys of the Current River and its major tributaries located in the center of the map area. The Montauk quadrangle is named for Montauk Springs, a cluster of several springs that resurge in sec. 22, T. 32 N., R. 7 W. These springs supply clean, cold water for the Montauk Fish Hatchery, and the addition of their flow to that of Pigeon Creek produces the headwaters of the Current River, the centerpiece of the Ozark National Scenic Riverways park. Most of the land in the quadrangle is privately owned and used primarily for grazing cattle and horses and growing timber. A smaller portion of the land within the quadrangle is publicly owned by either Montauk State Park or the Ozark National Scenic Riverways (National Park Service). Geologic mapping for this investigation was conducted in 2007 and 2009.

  9. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey, Jefferson City Quadrangle, Missouri. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The Jefferson City quadrangle covers approximately 7500 square miles at the Northwestern end of the Ozark uplift. Lithified material exposed, ranges in age from Cambrian through Pennsylvanian, but Pennsylvanian sediments dominate the surface as mapped. Some alluvium is mapped in river flood plain areas. A search of available literature revealed no known uranium deposits. A total of 95 uranium anomalies were detected and are discussed briefly in this report. All anomalies are related to cultural features, but those associated with coal mine tailings appear to have some significance. Magnetic data appear to relate to complexities in the underlying Precambrian rocks

  10. Aerial gama ray and magnetic survey: Lawrence Quadrangle of Kansas and Missouri. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The Lawrence quadrangle covers approximately 7500 square miles in Kansas and Missouri over the western edge of the Ozark Uplift. Sediments in this area are mostly Pennsylvanian and Permian sandstone, shale, limestone, and coal. As mapped, these are the dominant units in the quadrangle. A search of available literature revealed no known uranium deposits. A total of 94 uranium anomalies were detected and are discussed briefly. Most appear to be related to cultural features. Those associated with coal mine tailings appear to be most significant. Magnetic data appears to relate to complexities in the Precambrian basement

  11. Comparing two periphyton collection methods commonly used for stream bioassessment and the development of numeric nutrient standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodman, Ashley R; Scott, J Thad

    2017-07-01

    Periphyton is an important component of stream bioassessment, yet methods for quantifying periphyton biomass can differ substantially. A case study within the Arkansas Ozarks is presented to demonstrate the potential for linking chlorophyll-a (chl-a) and ash-free dry mass (AFDM) data sets amassed using two frequently used periphyton sampling protocols. Method A involved collecting periphyton from a known area on the top surface of variably sized rocks gathered from relatively swift-velocity riffles without discerning canopy cover. Method B involved collecting periphyton from the entire top surface of cobbles systematically gathered from riffle-run habitat where canopy cover was intentionally avoided. Chl-a and AFDM measurements were not different between methods (p = 0.123 and p = 0.550, respectively), and there was no interaction between method and time in the repeated measures structure of the study. However, significantly different seasonal distinctions were observed for chl-a and AFDM from all streams when data from the methods were combined (p methods may effectively be used together with some minor considerations due to potential confounding factors. This study provides motivation for the continued investigation of combining data sets derived from multiple methods of data collection, which could be useful in stream bioassessment and particularly important for the development of regional stream nutrient criteria for the southern Ozarks.

  12. Differences found in the macroinvertebrate community composition in the presence or absence of the invasive alien crayfish, Orconectes hylas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland-Riggert, Brandye T.; Cairns, Stefan H.; Poulton, Barry C.; Riggert, Chris M.

    2016-01-01

    Introductions of alien species into aquatic ecosystems have been well documented, including invasions of crayfish species; however, little is known about the effects of these introductions on macroinvertebrate communities. The woodland crayfish (Orconectes hylas (Faxon)) has been introduced into the St. Francis River watershed in southeast Missouri and has displaced populations of native crayfish. The effects of O. hylas on macroinvertebrate community composition were investigated in a fourth-order Ozark stream at two locations, one with the presence of O. hylas and one without. Significant differences between sites and across four sampling periods and two habitats were found in five categories of benthic macroinvertebrate metrics: species richness, percent/composition, dominance/diversity, functional feeding groups, and biotic indices. In most seasons and habitat combinations, the invaded site had significantly higher relative abundance of riffle beetles (Coleoptera: Elmidae), and significantly lower Missouri biotic index values, total taxa richness, and both richness and relative abundance of midges (Diptera: Chironomidae). Overall study results indicate that some macroinvertebrate community differences due to the O. hylas invasion were not consistent between seasons and habitats, suggesting that further research on spatial and temporal habitat use and feeding ecology of Ozark crayfish species is needed to improve our understanding of the effects of these invasions on aquatic communities.

  13. Geologic map of the Hasty Quadrangle, Boone and Newton Counties, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark R.; Murray, Kyle E.

    2004-01-01

    This digital geologic map compilation presents new polygon (for example, geologic map unit contacts), line (for example, fault, fold axis, and structure contour), and point (for example, structural attitude, contact elevations) vector data for the Hasty 7.5-minute quadrangle in northern Arkansas. The map database, which is at 1:24,000-scale resolution, provides geologic coverage of an area of current hydrogeologic, tectonic, and stratigraphic interest. The Hasty quadrangle is located in northern Newton and southern Boone Counties about 20 km south of the town of Harrison. The map area is underlain by sedimentary rocks of Ordovician, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian age that were mildly deformed by a series of normal and strike-slip faults and folds. The area is representative of the stratigraphic and structural setting of the southern Ozark Dome. The Hasty quadrangle map provides new geologic information for better understanding groundwater flow paths in and adjacent to the Buffalo River watershed.

  14. Geologic map of the Western Grove quadrangle, northwestern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark R.; Turner, Kenzie J.; Repetski, John E.

    2006-01-01

    This map summarizes the geology of the Western Grove 7.5-minute quadrangle in northern Arkansas that is located on the southern flank of the Ozark dome, a late Paleozoic regional uplift. The exposed bedrock of this map area comprises approximately 1,000 ft of Ordovician and Mississippian carbonate and clastic sedimentary rocks that have been mildly folded and broken by faults. A segment of the Buffalo River loops through the southern part of the quadrangle, and the river and adjacent lands form part of Buffalo National River, a park administered by the U.S. National Park Service. This geologic map provides information to better understand the natural resources of the Buffalo River watershed, particularly its karst hydrogeologic framework.

  15. Bedrock geologic map of the Spring Valley, West Plains, and parts of the Piedmont and Poplar Bluff 30'x60' quadrangles, Missouri, including the upper Current River and Eleven Point River drainage basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, David J.; Harrison, Richard W.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Weems, Robert E.; Schindler, J. Stephen; Repetski, John E.; Pierce, Herbert A.

    2015-01-01

    This map covers the drainage basins of the upper Current River and the Eleven Point River in the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province of southeastern Missouri. The two surface drainage basins are contiguous in their headwaters regions, but are separated in their lower reaches by the lower Black River basin in the southeast corner of the map area. Numerous dye-trace studies demonstrate that in the contiguous headwaters areas, groundwater flows from the Eleven Point River basin into the Current River basin. Much of the groundwater discharge of the Eleven Point River basin emanates from Big Spring, located on the Current River. This geologic map and cross sections were produced to help fulfill a need to understand the geologic framework of the region in which this subsurface flow occurs.

  16. Physical stream habitat dynamics in Lower Bear Creek, northern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Joanna M.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Elliott, Caroline M.

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the roles of geomorphic and hydrologic dynamics in determining physical stream habitat in Bear Creek, a stream with a 239 km2 drainage basin in the Ozark Plateaus (Ozarks) in northern Arkansas. During a relatively wet 12-month monitoring period, the geomorphology of Bear Creek was altered by a series of floods, including at least four floods with peak discharges exceeding a 1-year recurrence interval and another flood with an estimated 2- to 4-year recurrence interval. These floods resulted in a net erosion of sediment from the study reach at Crane Bottom at rates far in excess of other sites previously studied in the Ozarks. The riffle-pool framework of the study reach at Crane Bottom was not substantially altered by these floods, but volumes of habitat in riffles and pools changed. The 2- to 4-year flood scoured gravel from pools and deposited it in riffles, increasing the diversity of available stream habitat. In contract, the smaller floods eroded gravel from the riffles and deposited it in pools, possibly flushing fine sediment from the substrate but also decreasing habitat diversity. Channel geometry measured at the beginning of the study was use to develop a two-dimensional, finite-element hydraulic model at assess how habitat varies with hydrologic dynamics. Distributions of depth and velocity simulated over the range of discharges observed during the study (0.1 to 556 cubic meters per second, cms) were classified into habitat units based on limiting depths and Froude number criteria. The results indicate that the areas of habitats are especially sensitive to change to low to medium flows. Races (areas of swift, relatively deep water downstream from riffles) disappear completely at the lowest flows, and riffles (areas of swift, relatively shallow water) contract substantially in area. Pools also contract in area during low flow, but deep scours associated with bedrock outcrops sustain some pool area even at the lowest modeled flows. Modeled

  17. Geologic map of the Maumee quadrangle, Searcy and Marion Counties, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kenzie J.; Hudson, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    This map summarizes the geology of the Maumee 7.5-minute quadrangle in northern Arkansas. The map area is in the Ozark plateaus region on the southern flank of the Ozark dome. The Springfield Plateau, composed of Mississippian cherty limestone, overlies the Salem Plateau, composed of Ordovician carbonate and clastic rocks, with areas of Silurian rocks in between. Erosion related to the Buffalo River and its tributaries, Tomahawk, Water, and Dry Creeks, has exposed a 1,200-ft-thick section of Mississippian, Silurian, and Ordovician rocks mildly deformed by faults and folds. An approximately 130-mile-long corridor along the Buffalo River forms the Buffalo National River that is administered by the National Park Service. McKnight (1935) mapped the geology of the Maumee quadrangle as part of a larger 1:125,000-scale map focused on understanding the lead and zinc deposits common in the area. Detailed new mapping for this study was compiled using a Geographic Information System (GIS) at 1:24,000 scale. Site location and elevation were obtained by using a Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) receiver in conjunction with a U.S. Geological Survey 7.5-minute topographic map and barometric altimeter. U.S. Geological Survey 10-m digital elevation model data were used to derive a hill-shade-relief map used along with digital orthophotographs to map ledge-forming units between field sites. Bedding attitudes were measured in drainage bottoms and on well-exposed ledges. Bedding measured at less than 2 degree dip is indicated as horizontal. Structure contours constructed for the base of the Boone Formation are constrained by field-determined elevations on both upper and lower formation contacts.

  18. Geologic map of the Murray Quadrangle, Newton County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark R.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2016-07-06

    This map summarizes the geology of the Murray quadrangle in the Ozark Plateaus region of northern Arkansas. Geologically, the area is on the southern flank of the Ozark dome, an uplift that has the oldest rocks exposed at its center, in Missouri. Physiographically, the Murray quadrangle is within the Boston Mountains, a high plateau region underlain by Pennsylvanian sandstones and shales. Valleys of the Buffalo River and Little Buffalo River and their tributaries expose an approximately 1,600-ft-thick (488-meter-thick) sequence of Ordovician, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian carbonate and clastic sedimentary rocks that have been mildly deformed by a series of faults and folds. The Buffalo National River, a park that encompasses the Buffalo River and adjacent land that is administered by the National Park Service is present at the northwestern edge of the quadrangle.Mapping for this study was carried out by field inspection of numerous sites and was compiled as a 1:24,000 geographic information system (GIS) database. Locations and elevation of sites were determined with the aid of a global positioning satellite receiver and a hand-held barometric altimeter that was frequently recalibrated at points of known elevation. Hill-shade relief and slope maps derived from a U.S. Geological Survey 10-meter digital elevation model as well as orthophotographs were used to help trace ledge-forming units between field traverses within the Upper Mississippian and Pennsylvanian part of the stratigraphic sequence. Strike and dip of beds were typically measured along stream drainages or at well-exposed ledges. Structure contours, constructed on the top of the Boone Formation and the base of a prominent sandstone unit within the Bloyd Formation, were drawn based on the elevations of field sites on these contacts well as other limiting information for their minimum elevations above hilltops or their maximum elevations below valley bottoms.

  19. Geologic Map of the Boxley Quadrangle, Newton and Madison Counties, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark R.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map summarizes the geology of the Boxley 7.5-minute quadrangle in the Ozark Plateaus region of northern Arkansas. Geologically, the area lies on the southern flank of the Ozark dome, an uplift that exposes oldest rocks at its center in Missouri. Physiographically, the Boxley quadrangle lies within the Boston Mountains, a high plateau region underlain by Pennsylvanian sandstones and shales. Valleys of the Buffalo River and its tributaries expose an approximately 1,600-ft-(490-m-)thick sequence of Ordovician, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian carbonate and clastic sedimentary rocks that have been mildly deformed by a series of faults and folds. Part of Buffalo National River, a park encompassing the Buffalo River and adjacent land that is administered by the National Park Service, extends through the eastern part of the quadrangle. Mapping for this study was conducted by field inspection of numerous sites and was compiled as a 1:24,000-scale geographic information system (GIS) database. Locations and elevation sites were determined with the aid of a global positioning satellite receiver and a hand-held barometric altimeter. Hill-shade-relief and slope maps derived from a U.S. Geological Survey 10-m digital elevation model as well as orthophotos were used to help trace ledge-forming units between field traverses within the Upper Mississippian and Pennsylvanian part of the stratigraphic sequence. Strike and dip of beds were typically measured along stream drainages or at well-exposed ledges. Structure contours were constructed on the top of the Boone Formation and the base of a prominent sandstone unit within the Bloyd Formation based on elevations of control points as well as other limiting information on their maximum or minimum elevations.

  20. Mary SIDA y otras agresoras fatales en el folclore internáutico: enfermedad, miedo y mito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel J. GONZALO TOBAJAS

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Although the urban legend's versions of «Mary AIDS» and its sequels are mainly transmitted through the new molds for the digital era (blogs, social networks, applications crossplatform messaging as WhatsApp and websites like YouTube, if it deepens in the territories of the oral and written literature, myth, History and the press notes that its content is much more traditional than we might imagine. Between parallels mentioned here, among others, an episode of the Gesta Romanorum, a Breton ballad of the Middle Ages, a popular tale of the Ozarks and a tale by Guy de Maupassant. Furthermore, it's linked here the protagonists of these stories with characters like the serranas of Spanish popular ballads and creatures as lamias, nymphs and succubi of different traditions, cultures and periods of time. RESUMEN: Aunque las versiones de las leyendas urbanas de «Mary SIDA» y sus secuelas se transmitan fundamentalmente a través de los nuevos moldes de la era digital (blogs, redes sociales, aplicaciones de mensajería multiplataforma como WhatsApp y sitios web como YouTube, si se profundiza en los territorios de la literatura oral y escrita, el mito, el cuento, la historia y la prensa se observa que su contenido es mucho más tradicional de lo que a priori se podría imaginar. Entre los paralelos mencionados en este artículo destaca, por ejemplo, un episodio de la Gesta Romanorum, una balada bretona de la Edad Media, un cuento popular de los Ozark y un conocido relato de Guy de Maupassant; asimismo, se vincula aquí a las protagonistas de estas leyendas con personajes como las serranas del Romancero popular y criaturas como las lamias, ninfas y súcubos de distintas tradiciones, culturas y épocas.

  1. Influence of drift and admixture on population structure of American black bears (Ursus americanus) in the Central Interior Highlands, USA, 50 years after translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Emily E; Kristensen, Thea V; Wilton, Clay M; Lyda, Sara B; Noyce, Karen V; Holahan, Paula M; Leslie, David M; Beringer, Jeff; Belant, Jerrold L; White, Don; Eggert, Lori S

    2014-05-01

    Bottlenecks, founder events, and genetic drift often result in decreased genetic diversity and increased population differentiation. These events may follow abundance declines due to natural or anthropogenic perturbations, where translocations may be an effective conservation strategy to increase population size. American black bears (Ursus americanus) were nearly extirpated from the Central Interior Highlands, USA by 1920. In an effort to restore bears, 254 individuals were translocated from Minnesota, USA, and Manitoba, Canada, into the Ouachita and Ozark Mountains from 1958 to 1968. Using 15 microsatellites and mitochondrial haplotypes, we observed contemporary genetic diversity and differentiation between the source and supplemented populations. We inferred four genetic clusters: Source, Ouachitas, Ozarks, and a cluster in Missouri where no individuals were translocated. Coalescent models using approximate Bayesian computation identified an admixture model as having the highest posterior probability (0.942) over models where the translocation was unsuccessful or acted as a founder event. Nuclear genetic diversity was highest in the source (AR = 9.11) and significantly lower in the translocated populations (AR = 7.07-7.34; P = 0.004). The Missouri cluster had the lowest genetic diversity (AR = 5.48) and served as a natural experiment showing the utility of translocations to increase genetic diversity following demographic bottlenecks. Differentiation was greater between the two admixed populations than either compared to the source, suggesting that genetic drift acted strongly over the eight generations since the translocation. The Ouachitas and Missouri were previously hypothesized to be remnant lineages. We observed a pretranslocation remnant signature in Missouri but not in the Ouachitas. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Exploring Blueberry Aroma Complexity by Chromatographic and Direct-Injection Spectrometric Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farneti, Brian; Khomenko, Iuliia; Grisenti, Marcella; Ajelli, Matteo; Betta, Emanuela; Algarra, Alberto Alarcon; Cappellin, Luca; Aprea, Eugenio; Gasperi, Flavia; Biasioli, Franco; Giongo, Lara

    2017-01-01

    Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) fruit consumption has increased over the last 5 years, becoming the second most important soft fruit species after strawberry. Despite the possible economic and sensory impact, the blueberry volatile organic compound (VOC) composition has been poorly investigated. Thus, the great impact of the aroma on fruit marketability stimulates the need to step forward in the understanding of this quality trait. Beside the strong effect of ripening, blueberry aroma profile also varies due to the broad genetic differences among Vaccinium species that have been differently introgressed in modern commercial cultivars through breeding activity. In the present study, divided into two different activities, the complexity of blueberry aroma was explored by an exhaustive untargeted VOC analysis, performed by two complementary methods: SPME-GC-MS (solid phase microextraction- gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) and PTR-ToF-MS (proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry). The first experiment was aimed at determining the VOC modifications during blueberry ripening for five commercially representative cultivars (“Biloxi,” “Brigitta Blue,” “Centurion,” “Chandler,” and “Ozark Blue”) harvested at four ripening stages (green, pink, ripe, and over-ripe) to outline VOCs dynamic during fruit development. The objective of the second experiment was to confirm the analytical capability of PTR-ToF-MS to profile blueberry genotypes and to identify the most characterizing VOCs. In this case, 11 accessions belonging to different Vaccinium species were employed: V. corymbosum L. (“Brigitta,” “Chandler,” “Liberty,” and “Ozark Blue”), V. virgatum Aiton (“Centurion,” “Powder Blue,” and “Sky Blue”), V. myrtillus L. (three wild genotypes of different mountain locations), and one accession of V. cylindraceum Smith. This comprehensive characterization of blueberry aroma allowed the identification of a wide pull of VOCs

  3. Exploring Blueberry Aroma Complexity by Chromatographic and Direct-Injection Spectrometric Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Farneti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry (Vaccinium spp. fruit consumption has increased over the last 5 years, becoming the second most important soft fruit species after strawberry. Despite the possible economic and sensory impact, the blueberry volatile organic compound (VOC composition has been poorly investigated. Thus, the great impact of the aroma on fruit marketability stimulates the need to step forward in the understanding of this quality trait. Beside the strong effect of ripening, blueberry aroma profile also varies due to the broad genetic differences among Vaccinium species that have been differently introgressed in modern commercial cultivars through breeding activity. In the present study, divided into two different activities, the complexity of blueberry aroma was explored by an exhaustive untargeted VOC analysis, performed by two complementary methods: SPME-GC-MS (solid phase microextraction- gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and PTR-ToF-MS (proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry. The first experiment was aimed at determining the VOC modifications during blueberry ripening for five commercially representative cultivars (“Biloxi,” “Brigitta Blue,” “Centurion,” “Chandler,” and “Ozark Blue” harvested at four ripening stages (green, pink, ripe, and over-ripe to outline VOCs dynamic during fruit development. The objective of the second experiment was to confirm the analytical capability of PTR-ToF-MS to profile blueberry genotypes and to identify the most characterizing VOCs. In this case, 11 accessions belonging to different Vaccinium species were employed: V. corymbosum L. (“Brigitta,” “Chandler,” “Liberty,” and “Ozark Blue”, V. virgatum Aiton (“Centurion,” “Powder Blue,” and “Sky Blue”, V. myrtillus L. (three wild genotypes of different mountain locations, and one accession of V. cylindraceum Smith. This comprehensive characterization of blueberry aroma allowed the identification of a wide

  4. Exploring Blueberry Aroma Complexity by Chromatographic and Direct-Injection Spectrometric Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farneti, Brian; Khomenko, Iuliia; Grisenti, Marcella; Ajelli, Matteo; Betta, Emanuela; Algarra, Alberto Alarcon; Cappellin, Luca; Aprea, Eugenio; Gasperi, Flavia; Biasioli, Franco; Giongo, Lara

    2017-01-01

    Blueberry ( Vaccinium spp.) fruit consumption has increased over the last 5 years, becoming the second most important soft fruit species after strawberry. Despite the possible economic and sensory impact, the blueberry volatile organic compound (VOC) composition has been poorly investigated. Thus, the great impact of the aroma on fruit marketability stimulates the need to step forward in the understanding of this quality trait. Beside the strong effect of ripening, blueberry aroma profile also varies due to the broad genetic differences among Vaccinium species that have been differently introgressed in modern commercial cultivars through breeding activity. In the present study, divided into two different activities, the complexity of blueberry aroma was explored by an exhaustive untargeted VOC analysis, performed by two complementary methods: SPME-GC-MS (solid phase microextraction- gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) and PTR-ToF-MS (proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry). The first experiment was aimed at determining the VOC modifications during blueberry ripening for five commercially representative cultivars ("Biloxi," "Brigitta Blue," "Centurion," "Chandler," and "Ozark Blue") harvested at four ripening stages (green, pink, ripe, and over-ripe) to outline VOCs dynamic during fruit development. The objective of the second experiment was to confirm the analytical capability of PTR-ToF-MS to profile blueberry genotypes and to identify the most characterizing VOCs. In this case, 11 accessions belonging to different Vaccinium species were employed: V . corymbosum L. ("Brigitta," "Chandler," "Liberty," and "Ozark Blue"), V. virgatum Aiton ("Centurion," "Powder Blue," and "Sky Blue"), V. myrtillus L. (three wild genotypes of different mountain locations), and one accession of V. cylindraceum Smith. This comprehensive characterization of blueberry aroma allowed the identification of a wide pull of VOCs, for the most aldehydes, alcohols, terpenoids

  5. Occurrence of organic wastewater and other contaminants in cave streams in northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Joseph R.; Becker, C.; Hensley, S.; Stark, R.; Meyer, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of organic wastewater compounds in surface waters of the United States has been reported in a number of recent studies. In karstic areas, surface contaminants might be transported to groundwater and, ultimately, cave ecosystems, where they might impact resident biota. In this study, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCISs) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in six caves and two surface-water sites located within the Ozark Plateau of northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas in order to detect potential chemical contaminants in these systems. All caves sampled were known to contain populations of the threatened Ozark cavefish (Amblyopsis rosae). The surface-water site in Oklahoma was downstream from the outfall of a municipal wastewater treatment plant and a previous study indicated a hydrologic link between this stream and one of the caves. A total of 83 chemicals were detected in the POCIS and SPMD extracts from the surface-water and cave sites. Of these, 55 chemicals were detected in the caves. Regardless of the sampler used, more compounds were detected in the Oklahoma surface-water site than in the Arkansas site or the caves. The organic wastewater chemicals with the greatest mass measured in the sampler extracts included sterols (cholesterol and ??-sitosterol), plasticizers [diethylhexylphthalate and tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate], the herbicide bromacil, and the fragrance indole. Sampler extracts from most of the cave sites did not contain many wastewater contaminants, although extracts from samplers in the Oklahoma surfacewater site and the cave hydrologically linked to it had similar levels of diethylhexyphthalate and common detections of carbamazapine, sulfamethoxazole, benzophenone, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), and octophenol monoethoxylate. Further evaluation of this system is warranted due to potential ongoing transport of wastewaterassociated chemicals into the cave. Halogenated organics

  6. Geologic map of the St. Joe quadrangle, Searcy and Marion Counties, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark R.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2009-01-01

    This map summarizes the geology of the St. Joe 7.5-minute quadrangle in the Ozark Plateaus region of northern Arkansas. Geologically, the area lies on the southern flank of the Ozark dome, an uplift that exposes oldest rocks at its center in Missouri. Physiographically, the St. Joe quadrangle lies within the Springfield Plateau, a topographic surface generally held up by Mississippian cherty limestone. The quadrangle also contains isolated mountains (for example, Pilot Mountain) capped by Pennsylvanian rocks that are erosional outliers of the higher Boston Mountains plateau to the south. Tomahawk Creek, a tributary of the Buffalo River, flows through the eastern part of the map area, enhancing bedrock erosion. Exposed bedrock of this region comprises an approximately 1,300-ft-thick sequence of Ordovician, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian carbonate and clastic sedimentary rocks that have been mildly deformed by a series of faults and folds. The geology of the St. Joe quadrangle was mapped by McKnight (1935) as part of a larger area at 1:125,000 scale. The current map confirms many features of this previous study, but it also identifies new structures and uses a revised stratigraphy. Mapping for this study was conducted by field inspection of numerous sites and was compiled as a 1:24,000-scale geographic information system (GIS) database. Locations and elevations of sites were determined with the aid of a global positioning satellite receiver and a hand-held barometric altimeter that was frequently recalibrated at points of known elevation. Hill-shade-relief and slope maps derived from a U.S. Geological Survey 10-m digital elevation model as well as U.S. Geological Survey orthophotographs from 2000 were used to help trace ledge-forming units between field traverses within the Upper Mississippian and Pennsylvanian part of the stratigraphic sequence. Strikes and dips of beds were typically measured along stream drainages or at well-exposed ledges. Beds dipping less

  7. Geologic map of the Ponca quadrangle, Newton, Boone, and Carroll Counties, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark R.; Murray, Kyle E.

    2003-01-01

    This digital geologic map compilation presents new polygon (i.e., geologic map unit contacts), line (i.e., fault, fold axis, and structure contour), and point (i.e., structural attitude, contact elevations) vector data for the Ponca 7 1/2' quadrangle in northern Arkansas. The map database, which is at 1:24,000-scale resolution, provides geologic coverage of an area of current hydrogeologic, tectonic, and stratigraphic interest. The Ponca quadrangle is located in Newton, Boone, and Carroll Counties about 20 km southwest of the town of Harrison. The map area is underlain by sedimentary rocks of Ordovician, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian age that were mildly deformed by a series of normal and strike-slip faults and folds. The area is representative of the stratigraphic and structural setting of the southern Ozark Dome. The Ponca quadrangle map provides new geologic information for better understanding groundwater flow paths and development of karst features in and adjacent to the Buffalo River watershed.

  8. Occupancy and abundance of the endangered yellowcheek darter in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoulick, Daniel D.; Lynch, Dustin T.

    2015-01-01

    The Yellowcheek Darter (Etheostoma moorei) is a rare fish endemic to the Little Red River watershed in the Boston Mountains of northern Arkansas. Remaining populations of this species are geographically isolated and declining, and the species was listed in 2011 as federally endangered. Populations have declined, in part, due to intense seasonal stream drying and inundation of lower reaches by a reservoir. We used a kick seine sampling approach to examine distribution and abundance of Yellowcheek Darter populations in the Middle Fork and South Fork Little Red River. We used presence data to estimate occupancy rates and detection probability and examined relationships between Yellowcheek Darter density and environmental variables. The species was found at five Middle Fork and South Fork sites where it had previously been present in 2003–2004. Occupancy rates were >0.6 but with wide 95% CI, and where the darters occurred, densities were typical of other Ozark darters but highly variable. Detection probability and density were positively related to current velocity. Given that stream drying has become more extreme over the past 30 years and anthropogenic threats have increased, regular monitoring and active management may be required to reduce extinction risk of Yellowcheek Darter populations.

  9. Use of relational databases to evaluate regional petroleum accumulation, groundwater flow, and CO2 sequestration in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, T.R.; Merriam, D.F.; Bartley, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    Large-scale relational databases and geographic information system tools are used to integrate temperature, pressure, and water geo-chemistry data from numerous wells to better understand regional-scale geothermal and hydrogeological regimes of the lower Paleozoic aquifer systems in the mid-continent and to evaluate their potential for geologic CO2 sequestration. The lower Paleozoic (Cambrian to Mississippian) aquifer systems in Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma comprise one of the largest regional-scale saline aquifer systems in North America. Understanding hydrologic conditions and processes of these regional-scale aquifer systems provides insight to the evolution of the various sedimentary basins, migration of hydrocarbons out of the Anadarko and Arkoma basins, and the distribution of Arbuckle petroleum reservoirs across Kansas and provides a basis to evaluate CO2 sequestration potential. The Cambrian and Ordovician stratigraphic units form a saline aquifer that is in hydrologic continuity with the freshwater recharge from the Ozark plateau and along the Nemaha anticline. The hydrologic continuity with areas of freshwater recharge provides an explanation for the apparent underpressure in the Arbuckle Group. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  10. Life beneath the surface of the central Texan Balcones Escarpment: genus Anillinus Casey, 1918 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Bembidiini: new species, a key to the Texas species, and notes about their way of life and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Sokolov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Texas fauna of the genus Anillinus Casey, 1918 includes three previously described species (A. affabilis (Brues, 1902, A. depressus (Jeannel, 1963 and A. sinuatus (Jeannel, 1963 and four new species here described: A. acutipennis Sokolov & Reddell sp. n. (type locality: Fort Hood area, Bell County, Texas; A. comalensis Sokolov & Kavanaugh sp. n. (type locality: 7 miles W of New Braunfels, Comal County, Texas; A. forthoodensis Sokolov & Reddell sp. n. (type locality: Fort Hood area, Bell County, Texas; A. wisemanensis Sokolov & Kavanaugh sp. n. (type locality: Wiseman Sink, Hays County, Texas. A key for identification of adults of these species is provided. The fauna includes both soil- and cave-inhabiting species restricted to the Balcones Fault Zone and Lampasas Cut Plain and adjacent areas underlain by the Edwards-Trinity Aquifer. Based on morphological and distributional data, we hypothesize that four lineages of endogean Anillinus species extended their geographical ranges from a source area in the Ouachita-Ozark Mountains to the Balconian region in central Texas. There the cavernous Edwards-Trinity aquifer system provided an excellent refugium as the regional climate in the late Tertiary and early Quaternary became increasingly drier, rendering life at the surface nearly impossible for small, litter-inhabiting arthropods. Isolated within the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, these anilline lineages subsequently differentiated, accounting for the currently known diversity. The paucity of specimens and difficulty in collecting them suggest that additional undiscovered species remain to be found in the region.

  11. A Brillouin smart FRP material and a strain data post processing software for structural health monitoring through laboratory testing and field application on a highway bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastianini, Filippo; Matta, Fabio; Galati, Nestore; Nanni, Antonio

    2005-05-01

    Strain and temperature sensing obtained through frequency shift evaluation of Brillouin scattered light is a technology that seems extremely promising for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). Due to the intrinsic distributed sensing capability, Brillouin can measure the deformation of any individual segment of huge lengths of inexpensive single-mode fiber. In addition, Brillouin retains other typical advantages of Fiber Optic Sensors (FOS), such as harsh environment durability and interference rejection. Despite these advantages, the diffusion of Brillouin for SHM is constrained by different factors, such as the high equipment cost, the commercial unavailability of specific SHM oriented fiber products and even some prejudices on the required sensitivity performances. In the present work, a complete SHM pilot application was developed, installed and successfully operated during a diagnostic load test on the High Performance Steel (HPS) bridge A6358 located at the Lake of the Ozarks (Miller County, MO, USA). Four out of five girders were extensively instrumented with a "smart" Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) tape having embedded fibers for strain sensing and thermal compensation. Data collected during a diagnostic load test were elaborated through a specific post-processing software, and the strain profiles retrieved were compared to traditional strain gauges and theoretical results based on the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications for structural assessment purposes. The excellent results obtained confirm the effectiveness of Brillouin SHM systems for the monitoring of real applications.

  12. Multivariate analysis for selecting apple mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faedi, W.; Bagnara, G.L.; Rosati, P.; Cecchini, M.

    1992-01-01

    The mutlivariate analysis of four year records on several vegetative and productive traits of twenty-one apple mutants (3 of 'Jonathan', 3 of 'Ozark Gold', 14 of 'Mollie's Delicious', 1 of 'Neipling's Early Stayman)' induced by gamma radiations showed that observation of some traits of one-year-old shoots is the most efficient way to reveal compact growing apple mutants. In particular, basal cross-section area, total length and leaf area resulted the most appropriate parameters, while internode length together with conopy height and width are less appropriate. The most interesting mutants we found are: one of 'Mollie's Delicious for the best balance among tree and fruit traits and for high skin color; one of 'Neipling's Early Stayman' with an earlier and more extensively red colored apple than the original clone. (author)

  13. Conodont biostratigraphy of lower Ordovician rocks, Arbuckle Group, southern Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresbach, R.I.; Ethington, R.L. (Univ. of Missouri, Columbia (USA))

    1989-08-01

    The Arbuckle Group of southern Oklahoma displays the only complete exposure of the shallow-water carbonates that characterize the Lower Ordovician of interior North America. Trilobites have been described from some parts of this sequence and sporadic occurrences of other invertebrates are known, but much of the sequence is sparingly fossiliferous. As a consequence, these magnificent exposures have not contributed notably to continuing efforts toward development of a comprehensive biostratigraphic scheme for the Lower Ordovician of the North American platform. Samples collected at 25-ft intervals through the Arbuckle Group along and adjacent to Interstate Highway 35 on the south flank of the Arbuckle anticline near Ardmore, Oklahoma, produced conodonts in abundances ranging from a few tens to over a thousand elements per kilogram and displaying good to excellent preservation with low CAI. These conodonts document a biostratigraphic continuum that provides a standard for correlation of Lower Ordovician rocks in the subsurface of central US and of the many localized and incomplete outcrops of generally equivalent strata in the Ozark and Upper Mississippi Valley regions. The stratigraphic continuity of the collections makes the I-35 section an ideal standard reference section for graphic correlation of Lower Ordovician rocks containing conodonts of the Mid-Continent Province.

  14. Black bears in Arkansas: Characteristics of a successful translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kimberly G.; Clark, Joseph D.

    1994-01-01

    In 1958, the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission began translocating black bears (Ursus americanus) from Minnesota to the Interior Highlands (Ozark and Ouachita mountains) of Arkansas where bears had been extirpated early in this century. This project continued for 11 years with little public imput, during which time an estimated 254 bears were released. We estimate there are now >2,500 bears in the Interior Highlands of Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma, making it one of the most successful translocations of a Carnivora. Factors that contributed to the success include use of wild-captured animals, elimination of major factors associated with extirpation, release into prime habitats within the former range, multiple release sites, release of 20–40 animals/year for eight years, and release of mostly males prior to release of mostly females. Studies on two allopatric populations demonstrate that they are now diverging in some demographic characteristics, including litter size, cub survivorship, and adult sex-ratio. Translocation of black bears to the Interior Highlands is successful in terms of numbers of animals, but it will not be truly successful until people accept black bears as part of the regional fauna. To that end, those associated with management and research of bears in Arkansas are now focussing on public education and control of nuisance bears.

  15. First definitive record of a stygobiotic fish (Percopsiformes, Amblyopsidae, Typhlichthys from the Appalachians karst region in the eastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L. Niemiller

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the central and eastern United States, cavefishes have been known historically only from the Interior Low Plateau and Ozarks karst regions. Previously, cavefishes were unknown from the Appalachians karst region, which extends from southeastern New York southwestward into eastern Tennessee, northwestern Georgia, and northeastern Alabama. Here we report the discovery of a new population of the amblyopsid cavefish Typhlichthys subterraneus Girard, 1859 from a cave in Catoosa County, Georgia, that significantly extends the known distribution of the species. The cave is located in the Appalachian Valley and Ridge physiographic province and Appalachians karst region, and represents the first definitive report of a stygobiotic fish from the Appalachians karst region. Genetic analyses of one mitochondrial and one nuclear locus from the cavefish indicate this population is closely allied with populations that occur along the western margins of Lookout and Fox mountains in Dade County, Georgia, and populations to the northwest in southern Marion County, Tennessee. It is likely that these populations are also related to those from Wills Valley, DeKalb County, Alabama. The distribution of this new population of T. subterraneus and its close allies pre-dates the emergence of a Tennessee-Coosa River drainage divide in the Pliocene. The potential exists to discover additional populations in caves within the Appalachians karst region in Catoosa County and northward into Hamilton County, Tennessee.

  16. Automated Method for Monitoring Water Quality Using Landsat Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Clay Barrett

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Regular monitoring of water quality is increasingly necessary to keep pace with rapid environmental change and protect human health and well-being. Remote sensing has been suggested as a potential solution for monitoring certain water quality parameters without the need for in situ sampling, but universal methods and tools are lacking. While many studies have developed predictive relationships between remotely sensed surface reflectance and water parameters, these relationships are often unique to a particular geographic region and have little applicability in other areas. In order to remotely monitor water quality, these relationships must be developed on a region by region basis. This paper presents an automated method for processing remotely sensed images from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ and extracting corrected reflectance measurements around known sample locations to allow rapid development of predictive water quality relationships to improve remote monitoring. Using open Python scripting, this study (1 provides an openly accessible and simple method for processing publicly available remote sensing data; and (2 allows determination of relationships between sampled water quality parameters and reflectance values to ultimately allow predictive monitoring. The method is demonstrated through a case study of the Ozark/Ouchita-Appalachian ecoregion in eastern Oklahoma using data collected for the Beneficial Use Monitoring Program (BUMP.

  17. Sampling the stream landscape: Improving the applicability of an ecoregion-level capture probability model for stream fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenhauer, Robert; Mouser, Joshua B.; Brewer, Shannon K.

    2018-01-01

    Temporal and spatial variability in streams result in heterogeneous gear capture probability (i.e., the proportion of available individuals identified) that confounds interpretation of data used to monitor fish abundance. We modeled tow-barge electrofishing capture probability at multiple spatial scales for nine Ozark Highland stream fishes. In addition to fish size, we identified seven reach-scale environmental characteristics associated with variable capture probability: stream discharge, water depth, conductivity, water clarity, emergent vegetation, wetted width–depth ratio, and proportion of riffle habitat. The magnitude of the relationship between capture probability and both discharge and depth varied among stream fishes. We also identified lithological characteristics among stream segments as a coarse-scale source of variable capture probability. The resulting capture probability model can be used to adjust catch data and derive reach-scale absolute abundance estimates across a wide range of sampling conditions with similar effort as used in more traditional fisheries surveys (i.e., catch per unit effort). Adjusting catch data based on variable capture probability improves the comparability of data sets, thus promoting both well-informed conservation and management decisions and advances in stream-fish ecology.

  18. Landscape structure affects specialists but not generalists in naturally fragmented grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jesse E.D.; Damschen, Ellen Ingman; Harrison, Susan P.; Grace, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how biotic communities respond to landscape spatial structure is critically important for conservation management as natural landscapes become increasingly fragmented. However, empirical studies of the effects of spatial structure on plant species richness have found inconsistent results, suggesting that more comprehensive approaches are needed. In this study, we asked how landscape structure affects total plant species richness and the richness of a guild of specialized plants in a multivariate context. We sampled herbaceous plant communities at 56 dolomite glades (insular, fire-adapted grasslands) across the Missouri Ozarks, and used structural equation modeling (SEM) to analyze the relative importance of landscape structure, soil resource availability, and fire history for plant communities. We found that landscape spatial structure-defined as the area-weighted proximity of glade habitat surrounding study sites (proximity index)-had a significant effect on total plant species richness, but only after we controlled for environmental covariates. Richness of specialist species, but not generalists, was positively related to landscape spatial structure. Our results highlight that local environmental filters must be considered to understand the influence of landscape structure on communities, and that unique species guilds may respond differently to landscape structure than the community as a whole. These findings suggest that both local environment and landscape context should be considered when developing management strategies for species of conservation concern in fragmented habitats.

  19. Life beneath the surface of the central Texan Balcones Escarpment: genus Anillinus Casey, 1918 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Bembidiini): new species, a key to the Texas species, and notes about their way of life and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Igor M; Reddell, James R; Kavanaugh, David H

    2014-01-01

    The Texas fauna of the genus Anillinus Casey, 1918 includes three previously described species (A. affabilis (Brues), 1902, A. depressus (Jeannel), 1963 and A. sinuatus (Jeannel), 1963) and four new species here described: A. acutipennis Sokolov & Reddell, sp. n. (type locality: Fort Hood area, Bell County, Texas); A. comalensis Sokolov & Kavanaugh, sp. n. (type locality: 7 miles W of New Braunfels, Comal County, Texas); A. forthoodensis Sokolov & Reddell, sp. n. (type locality: Fort Hood area, Bell County, Texas); A. wisemanensis Sokolov & Kavanaugh, sp. n. (type locality: Wiseman Sink, Hays County, Texas). A key for identification of adults of these species is provided. The fauna includes both soil- and cave-inhabiting species restricted to the Balcones Fault Zone and Lampasas Cut Plain and adjacent areas underlain by the Edwards-Trinity Aquifer. Based on morphological and distributional data, we hypothesize that four lineages of endogean Anillinus species extended their geographical ranges from a source area in the Ouachita-Ozark Mountains to the Balconian region in central Texas. There the cavernous Edwards-Trinity aquifer system provided an excellent refugium as the regional climate in the late Tertiary and early Quaternary became increasingly drier, rendering life at the surface nearly impossible for small, litter-inhabiting arthropods. Isolated within the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, these anilline lineages subsequently differentiated, accounting for the currently known diversity. The paucity of specimens and difficulty in collecting them suggest that additional undiscovered species remain to be found in the region.

  20. Changes to oak woodland stand structure and ground flora composition caused by thinning and burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkead, Carter O.; Kabrick, John M.; Stambaugh, Michael C.; Grabner, Keith W.

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to quantify the cumulative effects of prescribed burning and thinning on forest stocking and species composition at a woodland restoration experiment site in the Ozark Highlands of Missouri. Our study used four treatments (burn, harvest, harvest and burn, control) on three slope position and aspect combinations (south, north, ridge) replicated in three complete blocks. Harvested stands were thinned from below to 40 percent residual stocking. Two prescribed fires were applied to both burn and harvest-burn treatment units in a 5-year period. Results reflect changes that have taken place over a 6-year period, from pretreatment conditions to 1 year after the last fire. In this period, there was a 10-percent reduction in the stocking in burned stands compared to control and a 6-percent reduction in harvested and burned stands compared to harvested stands. Compared to the control, percentage ground cover of woodland indicators was seven times greater in burned stands, six times greater in harvested stands, and 22 percent greater in harvested and burned stands. Th ere was no significant (P > 0.05) interaction between aspect and treatment on stocking or ground flora cover. Th is study indicated that silvicultural treatments do achieve various goals that are common to managers who aim to restore woodland communities.

  1. Genetic restoration in the eastern collared lizard under prescribed woodland burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwald, Jennifer L; Templeton, Alan R

    2013-07-01

    Eastern collared lizards of the Ozarks live in glades--open, rocky habitats embedded in a woodland matrix. Past fire suppression had made the woodlands a barrier to dispersal, leading to habitat destruction, fragmentation and local extinction. Reintroduced populations of lizards were subjected to 10 years of habitat fragmentation under continued fire suppression followed by twelve years of landscape restoration with prescribed burns. Prior to prescribed burning, genetic diversity decreased within glades and differentiation increased among glades. With woodland burning, genetic diversity within glades first decreased during an expanding colonization phase, but then increased as a dynamically stable metapopulation was established. Population differentiation among glades also stabilized in the metapopulation under weak isolation-by-distance. This study is one of the first to examine the genetic changes in a species of conservation concern throughout all the stages of decline and recovery and shows the importance of landscape-level restoration for maintaining the genetic integrity of populations. This study also demonstrates how mark-recapture and genetic data together can yield detailed insight into metapopulation dynamics that would be impossible from just one type of data alone. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A comparison of two gears for quantifying abundance of lotic-dwelling crayfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kristi; Brewer, Shannon K.; Ellersieck, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Crayfish (saddlebacked crayfish, Orconectes medius) catch was compared using a kick seine applied two different ways with a 1-m2 quadrat sampler (with known efficiency and bias in riffles) from three small streams in the Missouri Ozarks. Triplicate samples (one of each technique) were taken from two creeks and one headwater stream (n=69 sites) over a two-year period. General linear mixed models showed the number of crayfish collected using the quadrat sampler was greater than the number collected using either of the two seine techniques. However, there was no significant interaction with gear suggesting year, stream size, and channel unit type did not relate to different catches of crayfish by gear type. Variation in catch among gears was similar, as was the proportion of young-of-year individuals across samples taken with different gears or techniques. Negative binomial linear regression provided the appropriate relation between the gears which allows correction factors to be applied, if necessary, to relate catches by the kick seine to those of the quadrat sampler. The kick seine appears to be a reasonable substitute to the quadrat sampler in these shallow streams, with the advantage of ease of use and shorter time required per sample.

  3. Microbiological and chemical quality of ground water used as a source of public supply in southern Missouri : Phase II, April-July, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femmer, Suzanne R.

    2000-01-01

    included comparing and contrasting the data by grouping according to well age and construction, karst type, geohydrology, soil type, and land use. There was little variation in well construction between selected wells. The results indicated several groupings of similar and dissimilar concentrations, most expected because of hydrological, physical, or land use differences. Dissolved oxygen values indicated distinct variation in the different groupings. There were significant differences in dissolved oxygen values between the secondary and non-karst areas, the Ozark confined and Ozark unconfined geohydrologic groups, and between agricultural and other land uses. In groupings by soil and geohydrology, the Missouri bootheel region differed with respect to ammonia, total organic carbon, and phosphorus when compared with the other groups. Less than 10 percent of the wells sampled tested positive for bacterial contamination. E. coli was the most frequently detected bacterium. The public wells at Monett and West Plains, Missouri, had plates with colonies too numerous to count for all three indicator bacteria. Further analyses by rRNA (ribosomal RiboNucleic Acid) hybridization techniques detennined that much of the bacteria present were from ruminant and human sources. No enteric viruses were detected in the 109 samples. Both ribonucleic acid and somatic coliphage were detected at two wells. One additional well had ribonucleic acid coliphage and another had somatic coliphage for a total of four wells with coliphage selects.

  4. Histoire tertiaire de l'Arche de Brahmaputra ; son rôle dans la prospection des hydrocarbures du Haut Assam (Inde (résumé Tertiary History of Brahmaputra Arch. Its Role in Hydrocarbon Prospects of Upper Assam, India (Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murty K. N.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available On analyse l'histoire tertiaire de la plate-forme du Haut Assam (Inde et on discute les facteurs géologiques responsables du caractère pétrolier de cette importante province ainsi que ses relations avec la ceinture mobile de Naga au Sud-Est et avec l'avant-fosse himalayenne au Nord-Ouest. A cette intention, on a préparé des cartes paléologiques pour différentes formations dans la vallée supérieure de l'Assam, basées sur de nombreux puits et levers géophysiques. A partir de ces cartes, on a construit une série de coupes paléogéologiques pour illustrer l'évolution structurale de la plate-forme du haut Assam. Cette étude montre que la structure régionale de la haute vallée de l'Assam est en subsurface une arche large - l'Arche de Brahrnaputra - parallèle à, et juste au sud de la rivière Brahmaputra, formée par un double basculernent opposé : un ancien talus vers le Sud-Est durant le Paléogène et l'autre tourné vers le Nord-Ouest pendant le Mio-Pliocène. On peut identifier deux phases de migration des hydrocarbures. L'étude permet l'affirmation d'objectifs futurs en Haut Assam. Cette arche a une histoire géologique voisine de celle de l'arche de Bend du centre-nord du Texas et de l'arche de Hunton-Seminole-Ozark en Oklahoma où de riches gisements ont été trouvés dans presque tous les terrains impliqués dans le bombement. The Tertiary history of Upper Assam shelf, India is analysed. The geological factors responsible for making this an important petroleum province and ifs relationship with the Nago mobile belt in the south-east and the Himalayan fore deep in the north-vvest ore discussed. Sub-crop maps of différent geological formations in Upper Assam Valley based on a number of drilled wells and various geophysical surveys ore prepared for this purpose. From these maps, a series of palaeogeological sections are constructed to illustrate the structural evolution of the Upper Assam shelf. The study reveals thot the

  5. Two-generation analysis of pollen flow across a landscape. I. Male gamete heterogeneity among females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smouse, P E; Dyer, R J; Westfall, R D; Sork, V L

    2001-02-01

    Gene flow is a key factor in the spatial genetic structure in spatially distributed species. Evolutionary biologists interested in microevolutionary processess and conservation biologists interested in the impact of landscape change require a method that measures the real time process of gene movement. We present a novel two-generation (parent-offspring) approach to the study of genetic structure (TwoGener) that allows us to quantify heterogeneity among the male gamete pools sampled by maternal trees scattered across the landscape and to estimate mean pollination distance and effective neighborhood size. First, we describe the model's elements: genetic distance matrices to estimate intergametic distances, molecular analysis of variance to determine whether pollen profiles differ among mothers, and optimal sampling considerations. Second, we evaluate the model's effectiveness by simulating spatially distributed populations. Spatial heterogeneity in male gametes can be estimated by phiFT, a male gametic analogue of Wright's F(ST) and an inverse function of mean pollination distance. We illustrate TwoGener in cases where the male gamete can be categorically or ambiguously determined. This approach does not require the high level of genetic resolution needed by parentage analysis, but the ambiguous case is vulnerable to bias in the absence of adequate genetic resolution. Finally, we apply TwoGener to an empirical study of Quercus alba in Missouri Ozark forests. We find that phiFT = 0.06, translating into about eight effective pollen donors per female and an effective pollination neighborhood as a circle of radius about 17 m. Effective pollen movement in Q. alba is more restricted than previously realized, even though pollen is capable of moving large distances. This case study illustrates that, with a modest investment in field survey and laboratory analysis, the TwoGener approach permits inferences about landscape-level gene movements.

  6. Understanding Local Policy Elites' Perceptions on the Benefits and Risks Associated with High-Voltage Power Line Installations in the State of Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Rachael M; Song, Geoboo

    2016-10-01

    Recently, a controversial policy debate has arisen concerning the installation of high-voltage power lines in northwest Arkansas. While proponents argue that such an installation is inevitable to efficiently and reliably support the identified electric load in the region, opponents claim that the lines will degrade the natural environment and hamper the tourism-based local economy in affected regions, notably in Ozark Mountain areas. Of particular interest is to understand how local policy elites perceive the benefits and risks associated with such divisive proposals, which is critical for comprehending the formation and changes of related government policies. Based upon the dual process theory of judgment, this study systematically investigates the triadic relationships between (a) more profound personal value predispositions, (b) affects and feelings, and (c) perceived benefits and risks related to the proposed installation of high-voltage power lines among local policy elites in the state of Arkansas. In doing so, we analyze original data collected from a statewide Internet survey of 420 local leaders and key policymakers about their opinions on the related issues, while considering other factors claimed by previous literature to influence risk perceptions, including trust, knowledge level, and demographic characteristics. Analytical results suggest that grid-group cultural predispositions, as deeply held core values within local policy elites' individual belief systems, both directly and indirectly-through affective feelings-shape perceived utility associated with the installation of high-voltage power lines. We conclude this article by suggesting some practical considerations for better designing policy addressing controversial issues of this nature. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Groundwater flux estimation in streams: A thermal equilibrium approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Fox, Garey A.; Miller, Ron B.; Mollenhauer, Robert; Brewer, Shannon

    2018-06-01

    Stream and groundwater interactions play an essential role in regulating flow, temperature, and water quality for stream ecosystems. Temperature gradients have been used to quantify vertical water movement in the streambed since the 1960s, but advancements in thermal methods are still possible. Seepage runs are a method commonly used to quantify exchange rates through a series of streamflow measurements but can be labor and time intensive. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a thermal equilibrium method as a technique for quantifying groundwater flux using monitored stream water temperature at a single point and readily available hydrological and atmospheric data. Our primary assumption was that stream water temperature at the monitored point was at thermal equilibrium with the combination of all heat transfer processes, including mixing with groundwater. By expanding the monitored stream point into a hypothetical, horizontal one-dimensional thermal modeling domain, we were able to simulate the thermal equilibrium achieved with known atmospheric variables at the point and quantify unknown groundwater flux by calibrating the model to the resulting temperature signature. Stream water temperatures were monitored at single points at nine streams in the Ozark Highland ecoregion and five reaches of the Kiamichi River to estimate groundwater fluxes using the thermal equilibrium method. When validated by comparison with seepage runs performed at the same time and reach, estimates from the two methods agreed with each other with an R2 of 0.94, a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 0.08 (m/d) and a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) of 0.93. In conclusion, the thermal equilibrium method was a suitable technique for quantifying groundwater flux with minimal cost and simple field installation given that suitable atmospheric and hydrological data were readily available.

  8. Moho Depth and Geometry in the Illinois Basin Region Based on Gravity and Seismic Data from an EarthScope FlexArray Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, D. D.; Pavlis, G. L.; Yang, X.; Hamburger, M. W.; Zhang, H.; Ravat, D.

    2017-12-01

    We present results from a combined analysis of seismic and gravity in the Illinois Basin region that demonstrate the presence of an unusually deep and highly variable Moho discontinuity. We construct a new, high-resolution image of the Earth's crust beneath the Illinois Basin using teleseismic P-wave receiver functions from the EarthScope OIINK (Ozarks, Illinois, INdiana, Kentucky) Flexible Array and the USArray Transportable Array. Our seismic analyses involved data from 143 OIINK stations and 80 USArray stations, using 3D plane-wave migration and common conversion point (CCP) stacking of P-to-S conversion data. Seismic interpretation has been done using the seismic exploration software package Petrel. One of the most surprising results is the anomalous depth of the Moho in this area, ranging from 41 to 63 km, with an average depth of 50 km. This thickened crust is unexpected in the Illinois Basin area, which has not been subject to convergence and mountain building processes in the last 900 Ma. This anomalously thick crust in combination with the minimal topography requires abnormally dense lower crust or unusually light upper mantle in order to retain gravitational equilibrium. Combining gravity modeling with the seismically identified Moho and a ubiquitous lower crustal boundary, we solve for the density variation of the middle and lower crust. We test the hypothesis that the anomalously thick crust and its high lower crustal layer observed in most of the central and southeastern Illinois Basin predates the formation and development of the current Illinois Basin. Post-formation tectonic activity, such as late Precambrian rifting or underplating are inferred to have modified the crustal thickness as well. The combination of high-resolution seismic data analysis and gravity modeling promises to provide additional insight into the geometry and composition of the lower crust in the Illinois Basin area.

  9. The Power Behind the Controversy: Understanding Local Policy Elites' Perceptions on the Benefits and Risks Associated with High Voltage Power Line Installation in the State of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Rachael M.

    Following a proposal for the installation of high voltage power lines in northwest Arkansas, a controversial policy debate emerged. Proponents of the transmission line argue that such an installation is inevitable and necessary to efficiently and reliably support the identified electric load in the region. Opponents claim that the lines will degrade the natural environment and hamper the tourism-based local economy in affected regions, notably in Ozark Mountain areas. This study seeks to understand how local policy elites perceive the benefits and risks associated with proposed transmission lines, which is a critical step in comprehending the formation and changes of related government policies. First, based upon the dual process theory of judgment, this study systematically investigates the triadic relationships between (a) more profound personal value predispositions, (b) affects and feelings, and (c) perceived benefits and risks related to the proposed installation of high voltage power lines among local policy elites in the state of Arkansas. Next, this study focuses more specifically on the role of value predispositions, specific emotional dimensions of affect heuristics, and perceptions pertaining to high voltage power line risks and benefits. Using original data collected from a statewide Internet survey of 420 local leaders and key policymakers about their opinions on the related issues, other factors claimed by previous literature, including trust, knowledge level, and demographic characteristics are considered. Analytical results suggest that grid-group cultural predispositions, as deeply held core values within local policy elites' individual belief systems, both directly and indirectly -- through affective feelings -- shape perceived utility associated with the installation of high voltage power lines. Recognizing that risk perceptions factor into policy decisions, some practical considerations for better designing policy addressing controversial issues

  10. Identifying suitable sites for Florida panther reintroduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Cindy A.; van Manen, Frank T.; Clark, Joseph D.

    2006-01-01

    A major objective of the 1995 Florida Panther (Puma concolor cory) Recovery Plan is the establishment of 2 additional panther populations within the historic range. Our goal was to identify prospective sites for Florida panther reintroduction within the historic range based on quantitative landscape assessments. First, we delineated 86 panther home ranges using telemetry data collected from 1981 to 2001 in south Florida to develop a Mahalanobis distance (D2) habitat model, using 4 anthropogenic variables and 3 landscape variables mapped at a 500-m resolution. From that analysis, we identified 9 potential reintroduction sites of sufficient size to support a panther population. We then developed a similar D2 model at a higher spatial resolution to quantify the area of favorable panther habitat at each site. To address potential for the population to expand, we calculated the amount of favorable habitat adjacent to each prospective reintroduction site within a range of dispersal distances of female panthers. We then added those totals to the contiguous patches to estimate the total amount of effective panther habitat at each site. Finally, we developed an expert-assisted model to rank and incorporate potentially important habitat variables that were not appropriate for our empirical analysis (e.g., area of public lands, livestock density). Anthropogenic factors heavily influenced both the landscape and the expert-assisted models. Of the 9 areas we identified, the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge, Ozark National Forest, and Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge regions had the highest combination of effective habitat area and expert opinion scores. Sensitivity analyses indicated that variability among key model parameters did not affect the high ranking of those sites. Those sites should be considered as starting points for the field evaluation of potential reintroduction sites.

  11. A mechanistic diagnosis of the simulation of soil CO2 efflux of the ACME Land Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, J.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Wang, G.; Gu, L.; Hanson, P. J.; Mayes, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate simulation of the CO2 efflux from soils (i.e., soil respiration) to the atmosphere is critical to project global biogeochemical cycles and the magnitude of climate change in Earth system models (ESMs). Currently, the simulated soil respiration by ESMs still have a large uncertainty. In this study, a mechanistic diagnosis of soil respiration in the Accelerated Climate Model for Energy (ACME) Land Model (ALM) was conducted using long-term observations at the Missouri Ozark AmeriFlux (MOFLUX) forest site in the central U.S. The results showed that the ALM default run significantly underestimated annual soil respiration and gross primary production (GPP), while incorrectly estimating soil water potential. Improved simulations of soil water potential with site-specific data significantly improved the modeled annual soil respiration, primarily because annual GPP was simultaneously improved. Therefore, accurate simulations of soil water potential must be carefully calibrated in ESMs. Despite improved annual soil respiration, the ALM continued to underestimate soil respiration during peak growing seasons, and to overestimate soil respiration during non-peak growing seasons. Simulations involving increased GPP during peak growing seasons increased soil respiration, while neither improved plant phenology nor increased temperature sensitivity affected the simulation of soil respiration during non-peak growing seasons. One potential reason for the overestimation of the soil respiration during non-peak growing seasons may be that the current model structure is substrate-limited, while microbial dormancy under stress may cause the system to become decomposer-limited. Further studies with more microbial data are required to provide adequate representation of soil respiration and to understand the underlying reasons for inaccurate model simulations.

  12. Multinomial N-mixture models improve the applicability of electrofishing for developing population estimates of stream-dwelling Smallmouth Bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenhauer, Robert; Brewer, Shannon K.

    2017-01-01

    Failure to account for variable detection across survey conditions constrains progressive stream ecology and can lead to erroneous stream fish management and conservation decisions. In addition to variable detection’s confounding long-term stream fish population trends, reliable abundance estimates across a wide range of survey conditions are fundamental to establishing species–environment relationships. Despite major advancements in accounting for variable detection when surveying animal populations, these approaches remain largely ignored by stream fish scientists, and CPUE remains the most common metric used by researchers and managers. One notable advancement for addressing the challenges of variable detection is the multinomial N-mixture model. Multinomial N-mixture models use a flexible hierarchical framework to model the detection process across sites as a function of covariates; they also accommodate common fisheries survey methods, such as removal and capture–recapture. Effective monitoring of stream-dwelling Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu populations has long been challenging; therefore, our objective was to examine the use of multinomial N-mixture models to improve the applicability of electrofishing for estimating absolute abundance. We sampled Smallmouth Bass populations by using tow-barge electrofishing across a range of environmental conditions in streams of the Ozark Highlands ecoregion. Using an information-theoretic approach, we identified effort, water clarity, wetted channel width, and water depth as covariates that were related to variable Smallmouth Bass electrofishing detection. Smallmouth Bass abundance estimates derived from our top model consistently agreed with baseline estimates obtained via snorkel surveys. Additionally, confidence intervals from the multinomial N-mixture models were consistently more precise than those of unbiased Petersen capture–recapture estimates due to the dependency among data sets in the

  13. Isoprene emission response to drought and the impact on global atmospheric chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoyan; Guenther, Alex; Potosnak, Mark; Geron, Chris; Seco, Roger; Karl, Thomas; Kim, Saewung; Gu, Lianhong; Pallardy, Stephen

    2018-06-01

    Biogenic isoprene emissions play a very important role in atmospheric chemistry. These emissions are strongly dependent on various environmental conditions, such as temperature, solar radiation, plant water stress, ambient ozone and CO2 concentrations, and soil moisture. Current biogenic emission models (i.e., Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature, MEGAN) can simulate emission responses to some of the major driving variables, such as short-term variations in temperature and solar radiation, but the other factors are either missing or poorly represented. In this paper, we propose a new modelling approach that considers the physiological effects of drought stress on plant photosynthesis and isoprene emissions for use in the MEGAN3 biogenic emission model. We test the MEGAN3 approach by integrating the algorithm into the existing MEGAN2.1 biogenic emission model framework embedded into the global Community Land Model of the Community Earth System Model (CLM4.5/CESM1.2). Single-point simulations are compared against available field measurements at the Missouri Ozarks AmeriFlux (MOFLUX) field site. The modelling results show that the MEGAN3 approach of using of a photosynthesis parameter (Vcmax) and soil wetness factor (βt) to determine the drought activity factor leads to better simulated isoprene emissions in non-drought and drought periods. The global simulation with the MEGAN3 approach predicts a 17% reduction in global annual isoprene emissions, in comparison to the value predicted using the default CLM4.5/MEGAN2.1 without any drought effect. This reduction leads to changes in surface ozone and oxidants in the areas where the reduction of isoprene emissions is observed. Based on the results presented in this study, we conclude that it is important to simulate the drought-induced response of biogenic isoprene emission accurately in the coupled Earth System model.

  14. Identification of Neosho Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu velox) stocks for possible introduction into Grand Lake, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew T.; Long, James M.; Schwemm, Michael R.; Tringali, Michael D.; Brewer, Shannon K.

    2016-01-01

    Stocking black basses (Micropterus spp.) is a common practice used to increase angling opportunities in impoundments; however, when non-native black basses are introduced they often invade riverine habitats where they threaten the persistence of other fishes, including native black basses. Neosho Smallmouth Bass (M. dolomieu velox) is endemic to portions of the Ozark Highlands and Boston Mountains ecoregions and is threatened by introductions of non-native Smallmouth Bass (“SMB”) forms. Because of recent interest in stocking SMB into Grand Lake o’ the Cherokees, we assessed the suitability of local Neosho SMB populations as potential broodstock sources by assessing introgression with non-native SMB forms, as well as characterizing population structure and genetic diversity. The majority of Neosho SMB populations contained low, but non-negligible, genomic proportions of two genetically distinct non-native SMB forms. Introgression was highest in the Illinois River upstream of Lake Tenkiller, where Tennessee ‘lake strain’ SMB were stocked in the early 1990’s. We recovered three genetically distinct clusters of Neosho SMB at the uppermost hierarchical level of population structure: a distinct Illinois River cluster and two Grand River clusters that appear to naturally mix at some sites. Genetic diversity measures generally increased with stream size, and smaller populations with low diversity measures may benefit from immigration of novel genetic material. Overall, introgression with non-native SMB forms appears to pose a prominent threat to Neosho SMB; however, relatively intact populations of Neosho SMB exist in some Grand Lake o’ the Cherokees tributaries. Results could be used in developing a stocking program that promotes and sustains existing genetic diversity within and among Neosho SMB populations.

  15. Spatiotemporal phenological changes in fall foliage peak coloration in deciduous forest and the responses to climatic variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y.; Wilson, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Plant phenology studies typically focus on the beginning and end of the growing season in temperate forests. We know too little about fall foliage peak coloration, which is a bioindicator of plant response in autumn to environmental changes, an important visual cue in fall associated with animal activities, and a key element in fall foliage ecotourism. Spatiotemporal changes in timing of fall foliage peak coloration of temperate forests and the associated environmental controls are not well understood. In this study, we examined multiple color indices to estimate Land Surface Phenology (LSP) of fall foliage peak coloration of deciduous forest in the northeastern USA using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily imagery from 2000 to 2015. We used long term phenology ground observations to validate our estimated LSP, and found that Visible Atmospherically Resistant Index (VARI) and Plant Senescence Reflectance Index (PSRI) were good metrics to estimate peak and end of leaf coloration period of deciduous forest. During the past 16 years, the length of period with peak fall foliage color of deciduous forest at southern New England and northern Appalachian forests regions became longer (0.3 7.7 days), mainly driven by earlier peak coloration. Northern New England, southern Appalachian forests and Ozark and Ouachita mountains areas had shorter period (‒0.2 ‒9.2 days) mainly due to earlier end of leaf coloration. Changes in peak and end of leaf coloration not only were associated with changing temperature in spring and fall, but also to drought and heat in summer, and heavy precipitation in both summer and fall. The associations between leaf peak coloration phenology and climatic variations were not consistent among ecoregions. Our findings suggested divergent change patterns in fall foliage peak coloration phenology in deciduous forests, and improved our understanding in the environmental control on timing of fall foliage color change.

  16. Prescribed Burning and Erosion Potential in Mixed Hardwood Forests of Southern Illinois

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurbir Singh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Prescribed fire has several benefits for managing forest ecosystems including reduction of fuel loading and invasive species and enhanced regeneration of desirable tree species. Along with these benefits there are some limitations like nutrient and sediment loss which have not been studied extensively in mixed hardwood forests. The objective of our research was to quantify the amount of sediment movement occurring on a watershed scale due to prescribed fire in a southern Illinois mixed hardwood ecosystem. The research site was located at Trail of Tears State Forest in western Union county, IL, USA and included five watershed pairs. One watershed in each pair was randomly assigned the prescribed burn treatment and the other remained as control (i.e., unburned. The prescribed burn treatment significantly reduced the litter depth with 12.6%–31.5% litter remaining in the prescribed burn treatment watersheds. When data were combined across all watersheds, no significant differences were obtained between burn treatment and control watershed for total suspended solids and sediment concentrations or loads. The annual sediment losses varied from 1.41 to 90.54 kg·ha−1·year−1 in the four prescribed burn watersheds and 0.81 to 2.54 kg·ha−1·year−1 in the four control watersheds. Prescribed burn watershed 7 showed an average soil sediment loss of 4.2 mm, whereas control watershed 8 showed an average accumulation of sediments (9.9 mm, possibly due to steeper slopes. Prescribed burning did not cause a significant increase in soil erosion and sediment loss and can be considered acceptable in managing mixed hardwood forests of Ozark uplands and the Shawnee Hills physiographic regions of southern Illinois.

  17. Principal aquifers can contribute radium to sources of drinking water under certain geochemical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Zoltan; Fischer, Jeffrey M.; Hancock, Tracy Connell

    2012-01-01

    What are the most important factors affecting dissolved radium concentrations in principal aquifers used for drinking water in the United States? Study results reveal where radium was detected and how rock type and chemical processes control radium occurrence. Knowledge of the geochemical conditions may help water-resource managers anticipate where radium may be elevated in groundwater and minimize exposure to radium, which contributes to cancer risk. Summary of Major Findings: * Concentrations of radium in principal aquifers used for drinking water throughout the United States generally were below 5 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) for combined radium - radium-226 (Ra-226) plus radium-228 (Ra-228) - in public water supplies. About 3 percent of sampled wells had combined radium concentrations greater than the MCL. * Elevated concentrations of combined radium were more common in groundwater in the eastern and central United States than in other regions of the Nation. About 98 percent of the wells that contained combined radium at concentrations greater than the MCL were east of the High Plains. * The highest concentrations of combined radium were in the Mid-Continent and Ozark Plateau Cambro-Ordovician aquifer system and the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system. More than 20 percent of sampled wells in these aquifers had combined radium concentrations that were greater than or equal to the MCL. * Concentrations of Ra-226 correlated with those of Ra-228. Radium-226 and Ra-228 occur most frequently together in unconsolidated sand aquifers, and their presence is strongly linked to groundwater chemistry. * Three common geochemical factors are associated with the highest radium concentrations in groundwater: (1) oxygen-poor water, (2) acidic conditions (low pH), and (3) high concentrations of dissolved solids.

  18. Biogenic isoprene emissions driven by regional weather predictions using different initialization methods: case studies during the SEAC4RS and DISCOVER-AQ airborne campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Crawford, James H.; Wisthaler, Armin; Zhan, Xiwu; Hain, Christopher R.; Lee, Pius; Guenther, Alex B.

    2017-08-01

    Land and atmospheric initial conditions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model are often interpolated from a different model output. We perform case studies during NASA's SEAC4RS and DISCOVER-AQ Houston airborne campaigns, demonstrating that using land initial conditions directly downscaled from a coarser resolution dataset led to significant positive biases in the coupled NASA-Unified WRF (NUWRF, version 7) surface and near-surface air temperature and planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) around the Missouri Ozarks and Houston, Texas, as well as poorly partitioned latent and sensible heat fluxes. Replacing land initial conditions with the output from a long-term offline Land Information System (LIS) simulation can effectively reduce the positive biases in NUWRF surface air temperature by ˜ 2 °C. We also show that the LIS land initialization can modify surface air temperature errors almost 10 times as effectively as applying a different atmospheric initialization method. The LIS-NUWRF-based isoprene emission calculations by the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN, version 2.1) are at least 20 % lower than those computed using the coarser resolution data-initialized NUWRF run, and are closer to aircraft-observation-derived emissions. Higher resolution MEGAN calculations are prone to amplified discrepancies with aircraft-observation-derived emissions on small scales. This is possibly a result of some limitations of MEGAN's parameterization and uncertainty in its inputs on small scales, as well as the representation error and the neglect of horizontal transport in deriving emissions from aircraft data. This study emphasizes the importance of proper land initialization to the coupled atmospheric weather modeling and the follow-on emission modeling. We anticipate it to also be critical to accurately representing other processes included in air quality modeling and chemical data assimilation. Having more confidence in the weather

  19. Geospatial Characterization of Fluvial Wood Arrangement in a Semi-confined Alluvial River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D. J.; Harden, C. P.; Pavlowsky, R. T.

    2014-12-01

    Large woody debris (LWD) has become universally recognized as an integral component of fluvial systems, and as a result, has become increasingly common as a river restoration tool. However, "natural" processes of wood recruitment and the subsequent arrangement of LWD within the river network are poorly understood. This research used a suite of spatial statistics to investigate longitudinal arrangement patterns of LWD in a low-gradient, Midwestern river. First, a large-scale GPS inventory of LWD, performed on the Big River in the eastern Missouri Ozarks, resulted in over 4,000 logged positions of LWD along seven river segments that covered nearly 100 km of the 237 km river system. A global Moran's I analysis indicates that LWD density is spatially autocorrelated and displays a clustering tendency within all seven river segments (P-value range = 0.000 to 0.054). A local Moran's I analysis identified specific locations along the segments where clustering occurs and revealed that, on average, clusters of LWD density (high or low) spanned 400 m. Spectral analyses revealed that, in some segments, LWD density is spatially periodic. Two segments displayed strong periodicity, while the remaining segments displayed varying degrees of noisiness. Periodicity showed a positive association with gravel bar spacing and meander wavelength, although there were insufficient data to statistically confirm the relationship. A wavelet analysis was then performed to investigate periodicity relative to location along the segment. The wavelet analysis identified significant (α = 0.05) periodicity at discrete locations along each of the segments. Those reaches yielding strong periodicity showed stronger relationships between LWD density and the geomorphic/riparian independent variables tested. Analyses consistently identified valley width and sinuosity as being associated with LWD density. The results of these analyses contribute a new perspective on the longitudinal distribution of LWD in

  20. Crustal layering and gravity highs in the Midcontinent of North America - implications for the formation of the Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, H. J.; Boschelli, J.; Pavlis, G. L.; Hamburger, M. W.; Marshak, S.; Chen, C.; Yang, X.; DeLucia, M. S.; Larson, T. H.; Rupp, J.

    2017-12-01

    The emerging picture of crustal and lithospheric structure beneath the North American cratonic platform resulting from recent increases in the resolution of seismic studies is revealing a scale of complexity and heterogeneity not previously recognized. Examples of novel images of the lithosphere allowed by this increased sampling come from the results of the OIINK project, an EarthScope FlexArray experiment. OIINK data provides new insight into tectonic relationships among the Reelfoot Rift, Ozark Plateau, Rough Creek Graben, and Illinois Basin. Making use of ambient-noise tomography from data recorded by the OIINK Array and surrounding stations we produced a new shear-wave velocity model of the region. This model indicates detailed variations in crustal wavespeeds align with the regional tectonic features. Beyond corroborating previous observations of high-speed material in the mid- to lower crust of the southern Illinois Basin, this new model demonstrates that these anomalous velocities extend continuously from the Reelfoot, beneath the Mississippi Embayment, into southern Indiana. This model also includes a separate area characterized by a similarly thickened layer of increased velocities in the middle and lower crust beneath the LaSalle Deformation Belt, a north-south band of faults and folds that runs along the axis of the Illinois Basin. At depths of about 20 km, the top of these areas of thickened high-velocity crust align with a midcrustal discontinuity identified by receiver functions. Additionally, the lateral extent of these structures correlates with regions of increased Bouguer gravity. If the high-velocity structures contain high-density material, this configuration provides an explanation for the source of these positive gravity anomalies. These observations support a model in which Late Proterozoic rifting beneath the region of the Illinois Basin provided an opportunity for high-density material to enter the crust as residuum from melt extraction

  1. Spatial Analysis of Large Woody Debris Arrangement in a Midwestern U.S. River System: Geomorphic Implications and Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Large woody debris (LWD) is universally recognized as a key component of the geomorphological and ecological function of fluvial systems and has been increasingly incorporated into stream restoration and watershed management projects. However, 'natural' processes of recruitment and the subsequent arrangement of LWD within the river network are poorly understood and are thus, rarely a management consideration. Additionally, LWD research tends to be regionally biased toward mountainous regions, and scale biased toward the micro-scale. In many locations, the lack of understanding has led to the failure of restoration/rehabilitation projects that involved the use of LWD. This research uses geographic information systems and spatial analysis techniques to investigate longitudinal arrangement patterns of LWD in a low-gradient, Midwestern river. A large-scale GPS inventory of LWD was performed on the Big River, located in the eastern Missouri Ozarks resulting in over 5,000 logged positions of LWD along seven river segments covering nearly 100 km of the 237 km river system. A time series analysis framework was used to statistically identify longitudinal spatial patterns of LWD arrangement along the main stem of the river, and correlation analyses were performed to help identify physical controls of those patterns. Results indicate that upstream segments have slightly lower densities than downstream segments, with the exception of the farthest upstream segment. Results also show lack of an overall longitudinal trend in LWD density; however, periodogram analysis revealed an inherent periodicity in LWD arrangement. Periodicities were most evident in the downstream segments with frequencies ranging from 3 km to 7 km. Additionally, Pearson correlation analysis, performed within the segment displaying the strongest periodic behavior, show that LWD densities are correlated with channel sinuosity (r=0.25). Ongoing research is investigating further relationships between arrangement

  2. Impacts of short-rotation early-growing season prescribed fire on a ground nesting bird in the central hardwoods region of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, H. Tyler; Krementz, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Landscape-scale short-rotation early-growing season prescribed fire, hereafter prescribed fire, in upland hardwood forests represents a recent shift in management strategies across eastern upland forests. Not only does this strategy depart from dormant season to growing season prescriptions, but the strategy also moves from stand-scale to landscape-scale implementation (>1,000 ha). This being so, agencies are making considerable commitments in terms of time and resources to this management strategy, but the effects on wildlife in upland forests, especially those dominated by hardwood canopy species, are relatively unknown. We initiated our study to assess whether this management strategy affects eastern wild turkey reproductive ecology on the Ozark-St. Francis National Forest. We marked 67 wild turkey hens with Global Positioning System (GPS) Platform Transmitting Terminals in 2012 and 2013 to document exposure to prescribed fire, and estimate daily nest survival, nest success, and nest-site selection. We estimated these reproductive parameters in forest units managed with prescribed fire (treated) and units absent of prescribed fire (untreated). Of 60 initial nest attempts monitored, none were destroyed or exposed to prescribed fire because a majority of fires occurred early than a majority of the nesting activity. We found nest success was greater in untreated units than treated units (36.4% versus 14.6%). We did not find any habitat characteristic differences between successful and unsuccessful nest-sites. We found that nest-site selection criteria differed between treated and untreated units. Visual concealment and woody ground cover were common selection criteria in both treated and untreated units. However, in treated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with fewer small shrubs (20 cm DBH) but not in untreated units. In untreated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with more large shrubs (≥5cm ground diameter) but did not select for small shrubs or large

  3. Impacts of Short-Rotation Early-Growing Season Prescribed Fire on a Ground Nesting Bird in the Central Hardwoods Region of North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Tyler Pittman

    Full Text Available Landscape-scale short-rotation early-growing season prescribed fire, hereafter prescribed fire, in upland hardwood forests represents a recent shift in management strategies across eastern upland forests. Not only does this strategy depart from dormant season to growing season prescriptions, but the strategy also moves from stand-scale to landscape-scale implementation (>1,000 ha. This being so, agencies are making considerable commitments in terms of time and resources to this management strategy, but the effects on wildlife in upland forests, especially those dominated by hardwood canopy species, are relatively unknown. We initiated our study to assess whether this management strategy affects eastern wild turkey reproductive ecology on the Ozark-St. Francis National Forest. We marked 67 wild turkey hens with Global Positioning System (GPS Platform Transmitting Terminals in 2012 and 2013 to document exposure to prescribed fire, and estimate daily nest survival, nest success, and nest-site selection. We estimated these reproductive parameters in forest units managed with prescribed fire (treated and units absent of prescribed fire (untreated. Of 60 initial nest attempts monitored, none were destroyed or exposed to prescribed fire because a majority of fires occurred early than a majority of the nesting activity. We found nest success was greater in untreated units than treated units (36.4% versus 14.6%. We did not find any habitat characteristic differences between successful and unsuccessful nest-sites. We found that nest-site selection criteria differed between treated and untreated units. Visual concealment and woody ground cover were common selection criteria in both treated and untreated units. However, in treated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with fewer small shrubs (20 cm DBH but not in untreated units. In untreated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with more large shrubs (≥5 cm ground diameter but did not select for small

  4. Impacts of Short-Rotation Early-Growing Season Prescribed Fire on a Ground Nesting Bird in the Central Hardwoods Region of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, H Tyler; Krementz, David G

    2016-01-01

    Landscape-scale short-rotation early-growing season prescribed fire, hereafter prescribed fire, in upland hardwood forests represents a recent shift in management strategies across eastern upland forests. Not only does this strategy depart from dormant season to growing season prescriptions, but the strategy also moves from stand-scale to landscape-scale implementation (>1,000 ha). This being so, agencies are making considerable commitments in terms of time and resources to this management strategy, but the effects on wildlife in upland forests, especially those dominated by hardwood canopy species, are relatively unknown. We initiated our study to assess whether this management strategy affects eastern wild turkey reproductive ecology on the Ozark-St. Francis National Forest. We marked 67 wild turkey hens with Global Positioning System (GPS) Platform Transmitting Terminals in 2012 and 2013 to document exposure to prescribed fire, and estimate daily nest survival, nest success, and nest-site selection. We estimated these reproductive parameters in forest units managed with prescribed fire (treated) and units absent of prescribed fire (untreated). Of 60 initial nest attempts monitored, none were destroyed or exposed to prescribed fire because a majority of fires occurred early than a majority of the nesting activity. We found nest success was greater in untreated units than treated units (36.4% versus 14.6%). We did not find any habitat characteristic differences between successful and unsuccessful nest-sites. We found that nest-site selection criteria differed between treated and untreated units. Visual concealment and woody ground cover were common selection criteria in both treated and untreated units. However, in treated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with fewer small shrubs (20 cm DBH) but not in untreated units. In untreated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with more large shrubs (≥5 cm ground diameter) but did not select for small shrubs or

  5. An improved approach for remotely sensing water stress impacts on forest C uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Daniel A; Brzostek, Edward R; Rahman, Abdullah F; Dragoni, Danilo; Phillips, Richard P

    2014-09-01

    Given that forests represent the primary terrestrial sink for atmospheric CO2 , projections of future carbon (C) storage hinge on forest responses to climate variation. Models of gross primary production (GPP) responses to water stress are commonly based on remotely sensed changes in canopy 'greenness' (e.g., normalized difference vegetation index; NDVI). However, many forests have low spectral sensitivity to water stress (SSWS) - defined here as drought-induced decline in GPP without a change in greenness. Current satellite-derived estimates of GPP use a vapor pressure deficit (VPD) scalar to account for the low SWSS of forests, but fail to capture their responses to water stress. Our objectives were to characterize differences in SSWS among forested and nonforested ecosystems, and to develop an improved framework for predicting the impacts of water stress on GPP in forests with low SSWS. First, we paired two independent drought indices with NDVI data for the conterminous US from 2000 to 2011, and examined the relationship between water stress and NDVI. We found that forests had lower SSWS than nonforests regardless of drought index or duration. We then compared satellite-derived estimates of GPP with eddy-covariance observations of GPP in two deciduous broadleaf forests with low SSWS: the Missouri Ozark (MO) and Morgan Monroe State Forest (MMSF) AmeriFlux sites. Model estimates of GPP that used VPD scalars were poorly correlated with observations of GPP at MO (r(2) = 0.09) and MMSF (r(2) = 0.38). When we included the NDVI responses to water stress of adjacent ecosystems with high SSWS into a model based solely on temperature and greenness, we substantially improved predictions of GPP at MO (r(2) = 0.83) and for a severe drought year at the MMSF (r(2) = 0.82). Collectively, our results suggest that large-scale estimates of GPP that capture variation in SSWS among ecosystems could improve predictions of C uptake by forests under drought. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons

  6. Concentrations of cadmium, Cobalt, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc in Blood and Fillets of Northern Hog Sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) from streams contaminated by lead-Zinc mining: Implications for monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, C.J.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    Lead (Pb) and other metals can accumulate in northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) and other suckers (Catostomidae), which are harvested in large numbers from Ozark streams by recreational fishers. Suckers are also important in the diets of piscivorous wildlife and fishes. Suckers from streams contaminated by historic Pb-zinc (Zn) mining in southeastern Missouri are presently identified in a consumption advisory because of Pb concentrations. We evaluated blood sampling as a potentially nonlethal alternative to fillet sampling for Pb and other metals in northern hog sucker. Scaled, skin-on, bone-in "fillet" and blood samples were obtained from northern hog suckers (n = 75) collected at nine sites representing a wide range of conditions relative to Pb-Zn mining in southeastern Missouri. All samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), Pb, nickel (Ni), and Zn. Fillets were also analyzed for calcium as an indicator of the amount of bone, skin, and mucus included in the samples. Pb, Cd, Co, and Ni concentrations were typically higher in blood than in fillets, but Zn concentrations were similar in both sample types. Concentrations of all metals except Zn were typically higher at sites located downstream from active and historic Pb-Zn mines and related facilities than at nonmining sites. Blood concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Co were highly correlated with corresponding fillet concentrations; log-log linear regressions between concentrations in the two sample types explained 94% of the variation for Pb, 73-83% of the variation for Co, and 61% of the variation for Cd. In contrast, relations for Ni and Zn explained Fillet Pb and calcium concentrations were correlated (r = 0.83), but only in the 12 fish from the most contaminated site; concentrations were not significantly correlated across all sites. Conversely, fillet Cd and calcium were correlated across the range of sites (r = 0.78), and the inclusion of calcium in the fillet-to-blood relation explained an

  7. High-resolution inversion of OMI formaldehyde columns to quantify isoprene emission on ecosystem-relevant scales: application to the southeast US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Jennifer; Jacob, Daniel J.; Zhu, Lei; Travis, Katherine R.; Fisher, Jenny A.; González Abad, Gonzalo; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Xuesong; Fried, Alan; Crounse, John D.; St. Clair, Jason M.; Wisthaler, Armin

    2018-04-01

    Isoprene emissions from vegetation have a large effect on atmospheric chemistry and air quality. Bottom-up isoprene emission inventories used in atmospheric models are based on limited vegetation information and uncertain land cover data, leading to potentially large errors. Satellite observations of atmospheric formaldehyde (HCHO), a high-yield isoprene oxidation product, provide top-down information to evaluate isoprene emission inventories through inverse analyses. Past inverse analyses have however been hampered by uncertainty in the HCHO satellite data, uncertainty in the time- and NOx-dependent yield of HCHO from isoprene oxidation, and coarse resolution of the atmospheric models used for the inversion. Here we demonstrate the ability to use HCHO satellite data from OMI in a high-resolution inversion to constrain isoprene emissions on ecosystem-relevant scales. The inversion uses the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model at 0.25° × 0.3125° horizontal resolution to interpret observations over the southeast US in August-September 2013. It takes advantage of concurrent NASA SEAC4RS aircraft observations of isoprene and its oxidation products including HCHO to validate the OMI HCHO data over the region, test the GEOS-Chem isoprene oxidation mechanism and NOx environment, and independently evaluate the inversion. This evaluation shows in particular that local model errors in NOx concentrations propagate to biases in inferring isoprene emissions from HCHO data. It is thus essential to correct model NOx biases, which was done here using SEAC4RS observations but can be done more generally using satellite NO2 data concurrently with HCHO. We find in our inversion that isoprene emissions from the widely used MEGAN v2.1 inventory are biased high over the southeast US by 40 % on average, although the broad-scale distributions are correct including maximum emissions in Arkansas/Louisiana and high base emission factors in the oak-covered Ozarks of southeast

  8. Development and assessment of indices to determine stream fish vulnerability to climate change and habitat alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Nicholas A.; Paukert, Craig P.; Tsang, Yin-Phan; Infante, Dana M.

    2016-01-01

    measure of validation. Our indices classified species identified as being in need of conservation by the state of Missouri as highly vulnerable. The distribution of vulnerable species in Missouri showed consistent patterns between indices, with the more forest-dominated, groundwater fed streams in the Ozark subregion generally having higher numbers and proportions of vulnerable species per site than subregions that were agriculturally dominated with more overland flow. These results suggest that both indices will identify similar habitats as conservation action targets despite discrepancies in the classification of vulnerable species. Our vulnerability assessment provides a framework that can be refined and used in other regions.

  9. Surface-water hydrology of the Little Black River basin, Missouri and Arkansas, before water-land improvement practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkas, W.R.; Femmer, Suzanne R.; Mesko, T.O.; Thompson, B.W.

    1987-01-01

    The U. S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, in accordance with Public Law 566, is implementing various types of water-land improvement practices in the Little Black River basin in southeastern Missouri. These practices are designed, in part, to decrease the suspended sediment (SS) transport in the basin, decrease flood damage in the basin, and improve drainage in the agricultural area. The general features of the basin, such as geology, groundwater hydrology, soils, land use, water use, and precipitation are described; surface water quantity, quality, and suspended sediment discharge are also described. The aquifers are the Mississippi River valley alluvial aquifer, which can yield about 3,500 gal/min to properly constructed wells, and the Ozark and St. Francois aquifers, which can yield from about 30 to 500 gal/min to properly constructed wells. Soils in the area have formed in loess and cherty residuum in the uplands or have formed in alluvial sediment in the lowlands. About 93% of the estimated 3 billion gal/year of water used in the basin is for crop irrigation. The average monthly precipitation varies slightly throughout the year, with an average annual precipitation of about 47 inches. Water quality data were collected at seven stations. Specific conductance values ranged from 50 to 400 microsiemens/cm at 25 C. Water temperatures ranged from 0.0 C in the winter to 33.5 C in summer. pH values ranged from 6.4 to 8.5 units. Dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 2.2 to 12.8 ml/l. Total nitrogen concentrations ranged from 0.13 to 2.20 ml/l as nitrogen, with organic nitrogen as the most abundant form. Phosphorus concentrations ranged from zero to 0.29 ml/l as phosphorus. Bacterial counts were largest during storm runoff in the basin with livestock waste as the significant contributor. For the period from October 1, 1980, to September 30, 1984, the average annual SS discharge ranged from 2,230 tons/yr in the headwater areas to 27,800 tons

  10. Soil color - a window for public and educators to understands soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libohova, Zamir; Beaudette, Dylan; Wills, Skye; Monger, Curtis; Lindbo, David

    2017-04-01

    flooding, scouring, depositions and standing water areas, providing a mosaic of process-driven colors. In the drier areas of the High Plains and Desert Southwest, soils are lighter in color and reflect the presence of sands like Nebraska Sand Hills or enrichment with light-colored carbonates and salts. The mountainous regions such as Appalachians, Ozarks etc., were predominantly red to brown due to higher clay content and older soils.

  11. Lithospheric discontinuities beneath the U.S. Midcontinent - signatures of Proterozoic terrane accretion and failed rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Gilbert, Hersh; Fischer, Karen M.; Andronicos, Christopher L.; Pavlis, Gary L.; Hamburger, Michael W.; Marshak, Stephen; Larson, Timothy; Yang, Xiaotao

    2018-01-01

    Seismic discontinuities between the Moho and the inferred lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) are known as mid-lithospheric discontinuities (MLDs) and have been ascribed to a variety of phenomena that are critical to understanding lithospheric growth and evolution. In this study, we used S-to-P converted waves recorded by the USArray Transportable Array and the OIINK (Ozarks-Illinois-Indiana-Kentucky) Flexible Array to investigate lithospheric structure beneath the central U.S. This region, a portion of North America's cratonic platform, provides an opportunity to explore how terrane accretion, cratonization, and subsequent rifting may have influenced lithospheric structure. The 3D common conversion point (CCP) volume produced by stacking back-projected Sp receiver functions reveals a general absence of negative converted phases at the depths of the LAB across much of the central U.S. This observation suggests a gradual velocity decrease between the lithosphere and asthenosphere. Within the lithosphere, the CCP stacks display negative arrivals at depths between 65 km and 125 km. We interpret these as MLDs resulting from the top of a layer of crystallized melts (sill-like igneous intrusions) or otherwise chemically modified lithosphere that is enriched in water and/or hydrous minerals. Chemical modification in this manner would cause a weak layer in the lithosphere that marks the MLDs. The depth and amplitude of negative MLD phases vary significantly both within and between the physiographic provinces of the midcontinent. Double, or overlapping, MLDs can be seen along Precambrian terrane boundaries and appear to result from stacked or imbricated lithospheric blocks. A prominent negative Sp phase can be clearly identified at 80 km depth within the Reelfoot Rift. This arrival aligns with the top of a zone of low shear-wave velocities, which suggests that it marks an unusually shallow seismic LAB for the midcontinent. This boundary would correspond to the top of a

  12. Modeling canopy-level productivity: is the "big-leaf" simplification acceptable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprintsin, M.; Chen, J. M.

    2009-05-01

    The "big-leaf" approach to calculating the carbon balance of plant canopies assumes that canopy carbon fluxes have the same relative responses to the environment as any single unshaded leaf in the upper canopy. Widely used light use efficiency models are essentially simplified versions of the big-leaf model. Despite its wide acceptance, subsequent developments in the modeling of leaf photosynthesis and measurements of canopy physiology have brought into question the assumptions behind this approach showing that big leaf approximation is inadequate for simulating canopy photosynthesis because of the additional leaf internal control on carbon assimilation and because of the non-linear response of photosynthesis on leaf nitrogen and absorbed light, and changes in leaf microenvironment with canopy depth. To avoid this problem a sunlit/shaded leaf separation approach, within which the vegetation is treated as two big leaves under different illumination conditions, is gradually replacing the "big-leaf" strategy, for applications at local and regional scales. Such separation is now widely accepted as a more accurate and physiologically based approach for modeling canopy photosynthesis. Here we compare both strategies for Gross Primary Production (GPP) modeling using the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) at local (tower footprint) scale for different land cover types spread over North America: two broadleaf forests (Harvard, Massachusetts and Missouri Ozark, Missouri); two coniferous forests (Howland, Maine and Old Black Spruce, Saskatchewan); Lost Creek shrubland site (Wisconsin) and Mer Bleue petland (Ontario). BEPS calculates carbon fixation by scaling Farquhar's leaf biochemical model up to canopy level with stomatal conductance estimated by a modified version of the Ball-Woodrow-Berry model. The "big-leaf" approach was parameterized using derived leaf level parameters scaled up to canopy level by means of Leaf Area Index. The influence of sunlit

  13. The occurrence of trace elements in bed sediment collected from areas of varying land use and potential effects on stream macroinvertebrates in the conterminous western United States, Alaska, and Hawaii, 1992-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Angela P.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; MacCoy, Dorene E.; Brasher, Anne M.D.

    2012-01-01

    the Ozark Highland ecoregion were different than other ecoregions as evidenced by generally more diverse mayfly populations. In addition, Baetis sp. was common and dominated many of the mayfly populations found in the Rocky Mountain streams within the Mountain Southern Rockies and Mountain Northern Rockies ecoregions; however, within the Ozark Highland ecoregion, Tricorythodes sp. appeared to be more common than Baetis sp.

  14. Effects of land use, stream habitat, and water quality on biological communities of wadeable streams in the Illinois River Basin of Arkansas, 2011 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, James C.; Justus, B.G.; Meredith, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    ; some of these factors were strongly correlated with percent forest, percent urban, or percent agriculture. Total biovolume of periphyton was not strongly correlated with any of the land use, habitat, or water-quality factors assessed in the present study. Although algal growth typically increases with higher nutrient concentrations and less shading, the standing crop of periphyton on rocks can be reduced by herbivorous macroinvertebrates and fish, which may explain why total biovolume in Ozark streams was not strongly affected by water-quality (or other habitat) factors. A macroinvertebrate index and several macroinvertebrate metrics were adversely affected by increasing urban and agricultural land use and associated environmental factors. Factors most commonly affecting the index and metrics included factors associated with water quality, stream geometry, sediment, land-use percentages, and road density. In general, the macroinvertebrate index was higher (indicative of least disturbance) at sites with greater percentages of forest in their basins, lower percentages of urban land in their basins, and lower paved road density. Upstream wastewater-treatment plants affected several metrics. For example, three of the five lowest macroinvertebrate index scores, two of the five lowest percent predator values, and two of the five highest percent gatherer-collector values were at sites downstream from wastewater-treatment plants. The Ozark Highlands fish index of biotic integrity and several fish metrics were adversely affected by increasing urban and agricultural land use and associated factors. Factors affecting these metrics included factors associated with nutrients, sediment, and shading. In general, the fish index of biotic integrity was higher at sites with higher percentages of forest in their basins, lower percentages of urban land in their basins, higher unpaved road density, and lower paved and total road density. Upstream wastewater-treatment plants seemed to

  15. Seasonal patterns in nutrients, carbon, and algal responses in wadeable streams within three geographically distinct areas of the United States, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Lorenz, David L.; Petersen, James C.; Greene, John B.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey determined seasonal variability in nutrients, carbon, and algal biomass in 22 wadeable streams over a 1-year period during 2007 or 2008 within three geographically distinct areas in the United States. The three areas are the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMIS) in Minnesota, the Ozark Plateaus (ORZK) in southern Missouri and northern Arkansas, and the Upper Snake River Basin (USNK) in southern Idaho. Seasonal patterns in some constituent concentrations and algal responses were distinct. Nitrate concentrations were greatest during the winter in all study areas potentially because of a reduction in denitrification rates and algal uptake during the winter, along with reduced surface runoff. Decreases in nitrate concentrations during the spring and summer at most stream sites coincided with increased streamflow during the snowmelt runoff or spring storms indicating dilution. The continued decrease in nitrate concentrations during summer potentially is because of a reduction in nitrate inputs (from decreased surface runoff) or increases in biological uptake. In contrast to nitrate concentrations, ammonia concentrations varied among study areas. Ammonia concentration trends were similar at UMIS and USNK sampling sites with winter peak concentrations and rapid decreases in ammonia concentrations by spring or early summer. In contrast, ammonia concentrations at OZRK sampling sites were more variable with peak concentrations later in the year. Ammonia may accumulate in stream water in the winter under ice and snow cover at the UMIS and USNK sites because of limited algal metabolism and increased mineralization of decaying organic matter under reducing conditions within stream bottom sediments. Phosphorus concentration patterns and the type of phosphorus present changes with changing hydrologic conditions and seasons and varied among study areas. Orthophosphate concentrations tended to be greater in the summer at UMIS sites, whereas total

  16. Legacy sediment, lead, and zinc storage in channel and floodplain deposits of the Big River, Old Lead Belt Mining District, Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlowsky, Robert T.; Lecce, Scott A.; Owen, Marc R.; Martin, Derek J.

    2017-12-01

    The Old Lead Belt of southeastern Missouri was one of the leading producers of Pb ore for more than a century (1869-1972). Large quantities of contaminated mine waste have been, and continue to be, supplied to local streams. This study assessed the magnitude and spatial distribution of mining-contaminated legacy sediment stored in channel and floodplain deposits of the Big River in the Ozark Highlands of southeastern Missouri. Although metal concentrations decline downstream from the mine sources, the channel and floodplain sediments are contaminated above background levels with Pb and Zn along its entire 171-km length below the mine sources. Mean concentrations in floodplain cores > 2000 mg kg- 1 for Pb and > 1000 mg kg- 1 for Zn extend 40-50 km downstream from the mining area in association with the supply of fine tailings particles that were easily dispersed downstream in the suspended load. Mean concentrations in channel bed and bar sediments ranging from 1400 to 1700 mg kg- 1 for Pb extend 30 km below the mines, while Zn concentrations of 1000-3000 mg kg- 1 extend 20 km downstream. Coarse dolomite fragments in the 2-16 mm channel sediment fraction provide significant storage of Pb and Zn, representing 13-20% of the bulk sediment storage mass in the channel and can contain concentrations of > 4000 mg kg- 1 for Pb and > 1000 mg kg- 1 for Zn. These coarse tailings have been transported a maximum distance of only about 30 km from the source over a period of 120 years for an average of about 250 m/y. About 37% of the Pb and 9% of the Zn that was originally released to the watershed in tailings wastes is still stored in the Big River. A total of 157 million Mg of contaminated sediment is stored along the Big River, with 92% of it located in floodplain deposits that are typically contaminated to depths of 1.5-3.5 m. These contaminated sediments store a total of 188,549 Mg of Pb and 34,299 Mg of Zn, of which 98% of the Pb and 95% of the Zn are stored in floodplain

  17. The Second "Ring of Towers": Over-sampling the Mid Continent Intensive region CO2 mixing ratio?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, S.; Miles, N.; Davis, K.; Crosson, E.; Denning, S.; Zupanksi, D.; Uliasz, M.

    2007-12-01

    well-calibrated CO2 mixing ratio measurements deployed at Ameriflux towers are within the midcontinental region: Ozark, MO (30 m AGL) and Mead, NE (3-6 m AGL) (www.amerifluxco2.psu.edu). The instruments chosen for the Ring 2 deployment are Picarro Inc., Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) instruments. One advantage of the CRDS instruments is the reduced need for calibration compared to the systems used in PSU's Ameriflux CO2 network which are calibrated every four hours using four calibration tanks. Although the long-term stability is not exactly known, tests have shown accuracy to within 0.2 ppm on a monthly time scale without additional calibration. Preliminary results show spatial differences in daytime CO2 across the ring that are as large as 40 ppm, and highly variable in time. We will present observations and preliminary interpretation of these data.

  18. U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group Proceedings, San Antonio, Texas, May 16–18, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, Eve L.; Spangler, Lawrence E.

    2017-05-15

    karst hydrogeologic systems. As a result, numerous federal, state, and local agencies have a strong interest in the study of karst terrains.Many of the major springs and aquifers in the United States have developed in carbonate rocks, such as the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina; the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system in parts of Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma; and the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system in west-central Texas. These aquifers, and the springs that discharge from them, serve as major water-supply sources and form unique ecological habitats. Competition for the water resources of karst aquifers is common, and urban development and the lack of attenuation of contaminants in karst areas due to dissolution features that form direct pathways into karst aquifers can impact the ecosystem and water quality associated with these aquifers.The concept for developing a platform for interaction among scientists within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) working on karst-related studies evolved from the November 1999 National Groundwater Meeting of the USGS. As a result, the Karst Interest Group (KIG) was formed in 2000. The KIG is a loose-knit, grass-roots organization of USGS and non-USGS scientists and researchers devoted to fostering better communication among scientists working on, or interested in, karst science. The primary mission of the KIG is to encourage and support interdisciplinary collaboration and technology transfer among scientists working in karst areas. Additionally, the KIG encourages collaborative studies between the different mission areas of the USGS as well as with other federal and state agencies, and with researchers from academia and institutes.To accomplish its mission, the KIG has organized a series of workshops that have been held near nationally important karst areas. To date (2017) seven KIG workshops, including the workshop documented in this report, have been held. The workshops

  19. U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group Proceedings, Carlsbad, New Mexico, April 29-May 2, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, Eve L.; Spangler, Lawrence E.; Kuniansky, Eve L.; Spangler, Lawrence E.

    2014-01-01

    strong interest in the study of karst terrains.Many of the major springs and aquifers in the United States have developed in carbonate rocks, such as the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina; the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system in parts of Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma; and the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system in west-central Texas. These aquifers, and the springs that discharge from them, serve as major water-supply sources and as unique ecological habitats. Competition for the water resources of karst aquifers is common, and urban development and the lack of attenuation of contaminants in karst areas can impact the ecosystem and water quality of these aquifers.The concept for developing a platform for interaction among scientists within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) working on karst-related studies evolved from the November 1999 National Ground-Water Meeting of the USGS. As a result, the Karst Interest Group (KIG) was formed in 2000. The KIG is a loose-knit, grass-roots organization of USGS and non-USGS scientists and researchers devoted to fostering better communication among scientists working on, or interested in, karst science. The primary mission of the KIG is to encourage and support interdisciplinary collaboration and technology transfer among scientists working in karst areas. Additionally, the KIG encourages collaborative studies between the different mission areas of the USGS as well as other federal and state agencies, and with researchers from academia and institutes. The KIG also encourages younger scientists by participation of students in the poster and oral sessions.To accomplish its mission, the KIG has organized a series of workshops that are held near nationally important karst areas. To date (2014) six KIG workshops, including the workshop documented in this report, have been held. The workshops typically include oral and poster sessions on selected karst-related topics and research, as well

  20. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This image of North America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south and 736 meters east-west in central North America), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the North American continent is readily apparent.Active tectonics (structural deformation of the Earth's crust) along and near the Pacific -- North American plate boundary creates the great topographic relief seen along the Pacific coast. Earth's crustal plates converge in southern Mexico and in the northwest United States, melting the crust and producing volcanic cones. Along the California coast, the plates are sliding laterally past each other, producing a pattern of slices within the San Andreas fault system. And, where the plates are diverging, the crust appears torn apart as one huge tear along the Gulf of California (northwest Mexico), and as the several fractures comprising the Basin and Range province (in and around Nevada).Across the Great Plains, erosional patterns dominate, with streams channels surrounding and penetrating the remnants of older smooth slopes east of the Rocky Mountains. This same erosion process is exposing the bedrock structural patterns of the Black Hills in South Dakota and the Ozark Mountains in Arkansas. Lateral erosion and sediment deposition by the Mississippi River has produced the flatlands of the lower Mississippi Valley and the Mississippi Delta.To the north, evidence of the glaciers of the last ice age is widely found, particularly east of the Canadian Rocky Mountains and around the Great Lakes. From northeastern British Columbia, across Alberta, Saskatchewan, and

  1. Computed statistics at streamgages, and methods for estimating low-flow frequency statistics and development of regional regression equations for estimating low-flow frequency statistics at ungaged locations in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Rodney E.

    2013-01-01

    estimates on one of these streams can be calculated at an ungaged location that has a drainage area that is between 40 percent of the drainage area of the farthest upstream streamgage and within 150 percent of the drainage area of the farthest downstream streamgage along the stream of interest. The second method may be used on any stream with a streamgage that has operated for 10 years or longer and for which anthropogenic effects have not changed the low-flow characteristics at the ungaged location since collection of the streamflow data. A ratio of drainage area of the stream at the ungaged location to the drainage area of the stream at the streamgage was computed to estimate the statistic at the ungaged location. The range of applicability is between 40- and 150-percent of the drainage area of the streamgage, and the ungaged location must be located on the same stream as the streamgage. The third method uses regional regression equations to estimate selected low-flow frequency statistics for unregulated streams in Missouri. This report presents regression equations to estimate frequency statistics for the 10-year recurrence interval and for the N-day durations of 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, 30, and 60 days. Basin and climatic characteristics were computed using geographic information system software and digital geospatial data. A total of 35 characteristics were computed for use in preliminary statewide and regional regression analyses based on existing digital geospatial data and previous studies. Spatial analyses for geographical bias in the predictive accuracy of the regional regression equations defined three low-flow regions with the State representing the three major physiographic provinces in Missouri. Region 1 includes the Central Lowlands, Region 2 includes the Ozark Plateaus, and Region 3 includes the Mississippi Alluvial Plain. A total of 207 streamgages were used in the regression analyses for the regional equations. Of the 207 U.S. Geological Survey streamgages, 77 were

  2. Geology, mineralization, mineral chemistry, and ore-fluid conditions of Irankuh Pb-Zn mining district, south of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Karimpour

    2017-11-01

    in Mining Engineering, 6: 83-91 (in Persian. Boveiri Konari, M. and Rastad, E., 2016. Nature and origin of dolomitization associated with sulphide mineralization: new insights from the Tappehsorkh Zn-Pb (-Ag-Ba deposit, Irankuh Mining District, Iran. Geological Journal, DOI: 10.1002/gj.2875 Ghasemi, A., 1995. Facies analysis and geochemistry of Kolah-Darvazaeh, Goud-Zendan, and Khaneh-Gorgi Pb-Zn deposits from south of Irankuh. M.Sc. thesis, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran, 158 pp. (in Persian Ghazban, F., McNutt, R.H. and Schwarcz, H. P., 1994. Genesis of sediment-hosted Zn-Pb-Ba deposits in the Irankuh district, Esfahan area, west-central Iran. Economic Geology, 89: 1262-1278. Hosseini-Dinani, H., Aftabi, A., Esmaeili, A. and Rabbani, M., 2015. Composite soil-geochemical halos delineating carbonate-hosted zinc–lead–barium mineralization in the Irankuh district, Isfahan, west-central Iran. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 156: 114-130. Malakhov, A.A., 1968. Bismuth and antimony in galena, indicators of conditions of ore deposition. Geokhimiya, 11: 1283-1296. Rastad, E., 1981. Geological, mineralogical and ore facies investigations on the Lower Cretaceous stratabound Zn – Pb – Ba – Cu deposits of the Irankuh mountain range, Isfahan, west central Iran. Ph.D. thesis, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany, 334 pp. Reichert, J., 2007. A metallogenetic model for carbonate-hosted non-sulphide zinc deposits based on observations of Mehdi Abad and Irankuh, Central and Southwestern Iran. Ph.D. thesis, Martin Luther University Halle Wittenberg, Halle, Germany, 152 pp. Timoori-Asl, F., 2010. Sedimentology and petrology of Jurassic deposits and Basinal brines studies in formation of Irankuh deposit. M.Sc. thesis, Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran, 120 pp. (in Persian Viets, J.G., Hopkins, R.T. and Miller, B.M., 1992. Variation in minor and trace metals in sphalerite from Mississippi Valley-type deposits of the Ozark Region: genetic implications