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Sample records for oyster creek nuclear

  1. Ocean breeze monitoring network at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, W.

    1987-01-01

    The Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station (OCNGS) is located in New Jersey 10 km west of the Atlantic Ocean. Routine meteorological monitoring at the station has consisted of a single meteorological tower 120 m high and instrumented at the 10-m, 46-m, and 116-m levels. An analysis of 5 yr of data from this tower showed the OCNGS is affected by an ocean breeze ∼ 1 day out of 4 during May through August. This suggested the need for meteorological monitoring in addition to the single met tower at OCNGS. As a result of the 1985 OCNGS meteorological monitoring study, GPU Nuclear established an ocean breeze monitoring network in the fall of 1986. It is a permanent part of OCNGS meteorological monitoring and consists of the same sites as used in the 1985 field study. Meteorological towers are located at the ocean site, the inland site, and at OCNGS. The ocean tower is 13 m (43 ft) high, the inland tower 10 m (33 ft), and the OCNGS tower 116 m (380 ft). Wind speed, wind direction, and temperature are measured on each tower; delta-temperature is also measured on the main tower. The instruments are calibrated in the spring, summer, and fall. The network is operated and maintained by GPU Nuclear Environmental Controls. The ocean breeze monitoring network and meteorological information system forms the basis for including the effects of the ocean breeze in OCNGS emergency off-site dose assessment

  2. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report Sep-Nov 81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1982-06-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the fall of 1981, Teredo bartschi remained in Oyster Creek despite continuous prolonged outages of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station

  3. Exxon Nuclear WREM-based NJP-BWR ECCS evaluation model and example application to the Oyster Creek Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krysinski, T.L.; Bjornard, T.A.; Steves, L.H.

    1975-01-01

    A proposed integrated ECCS model for non-jet pump boiling water reactors is presented, using the RELAP4-EM/BLOWDOWN and RELAP4-EM/SMALL BREAK portions of the Exxon Nuclear WREM-based Generic PWR Evaluation Model coupled with the ENC NJP-BWR Fuel Heatup Model. The results of the application of the proposed model to Oyster Creek are summarized. The results of the break size sensitivity study using the proposed model for the Oyster Creek Plant are presented. The application of the above results yielded the MAPLHGR curves. Included are a description of the proposed non-jet pump boiling water reaction evaluation model, justification of its conformance with TOCFR50, Appendix K, the adopted Oyster Creek plant model, and results of the analysis and sensitivity studies. (auth)

  4. Drywell corrosion stopped at Oyster Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipford, B.L.; Flynn, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the detection of corrosion on the drywell containment vessel of Oyster Creek Nuclear Plant and the application of a protective coating to repair the drywell. The topics of the article include drywell design features, identification of the problem, initial action, drywell corrosion, failure of cathodic protection, long-term repair, and repair results

  5. Radwaste reduction experience at Oyster Creek and Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.

    1993-01-01

    True radwaste minimization at an operating nuclear power plant means straddling the line between ''what is'' and ''what-can-be'' and then regularly moving that line so that dreams become reality. This effort involves keeping track of and maintaining successful programs of the past while searching out and incorporating the best of the upcoming processes, equipment, and contractors. Some of the tactics used for waste minimization have appreciable results and some have small direct results. But even those with small results add to a final total of volume saved. In addition, the approaches with smaller results demonstrate an unmistakable attitude on the part of management that any unnecessary radwaste production is not acceptable. This attitude is understood and assimilated by engineering, operations, and maintenance in such a way that it becomes a matter of pride to reduce radwaste production to quantities below those officially projected. The GPUN plants at Oyster Creek and Three Mile Island Unit-1 limit the quantity of materials allowed onsite under the premise that an item that stays out of contaminated areas cannot become radwaste. For material exiting contaminated zones, the plants have used a combination of preventative avoidance of radwaste generation and careful processing. This includes sorting and screening of materials leaving contaminated areas to reduce the number of items to eventually be treated, preplanning of work efforts to minimize radwaste that must be generated, wood planning, onsite decontamination units, onsite contractor supplied equipment, and offsite radwaste processors in order to minimize the final amount of radwaste to be buried. Sometimes when employing one of these methods, it is necessary to consider not only the waste generated by the process directly but also secondary wastes caused by interactions with other areas of plant operation, such as equipment maintenance

  6. Operational improvement of immersion-type evaporators in the Oyster Creek nuclear generating station radwaste system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.

    1986-01-01

    From 1977 to 1979 Oyster Creek concentrated condensate demineralizer regeneration solutions in two 30 gpm immersion tube evaporators. Then evaporator performance declined to where they could not process water at a rate and quality sufficient to support the regenerations. An extensive test program determined the proper operating setpoints to improve evaporator performance. The changes produced distillate conductivity of 15-30 μmho vs a previously normal conductivity of 200-400 μmho. Despite abandoning demineralizer regeneration in 1984 the operability of one evaporator deteriorated to where it was taken out of service for cleaning and inspection. Tube scaling and failed gaskets were found and remidied. The evaporator is now performing satisfactorily

  7. An aerial radiological survey of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Forked River, New Jersey. Date of survey: September 18--25, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, H.A.; McCall, K.A.

    1994-05-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant in Forked River, New Jersey, during the period September 18 through September 24, 1992. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) over a 26-square-mile (67-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power plant and surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 4 and 10 microroentgens per hour and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The aerial data were compared to ground-based benchmark exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system. A previous survey of the power plant was conducted in August 1969 during its initial startup phase. Exposure rates and radioactive isotopes revealed in both surveys were consistent and within normal terrestrial background levels

  8. 77 FR 69506 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC., Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... unit'' to ``The closed head automatic sprinkler system in the condenser bay area was designed... the time of design.'' Dated in Rockville, Maryland, this 9th day of November 2012. For the Nuclear...

  9. 77 FR 64834 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... oil unit,'' to ``The closed head automatic sprinkler system in the condenser bay area was designed... the time of design.'' Dated in Rockville, Maryland, this 15th day of October 2012. For the Nuclear...

  10. 77 FR 135 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC, Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... not have a significant effect on the quality of the human environment (76 FR 79227, December 21, 2011.... For The Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Michele G. Evans, Director, Division of Operating Reactor...

  11. Integrated plant safety assessment: systematic evaluation program. Oyster Creek nuclear generating station. GPU Nuclear Corporation and Jersey Central Power and Light Company. Docket No. 50-219

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The Systematic Evaluation Program was initiated in February 1978 by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to review the designs of older operating nuclear reactor plants to reconfirm and document their safety. The review provides (1) an assessment of how these plants compare with current licensing safety requirements relating to selected issues, (2) a basis for deciding on how these differences should be resolved in an integrated plant review, and (3) a documented evaluation of plant safety. This report documents the review of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station (located in Ocean County, New Jersey), one of ten plants reviewed under Phase II of this program, and indicates how 137 topics selected for review under Phase I of the program were addressed. Equipment and procedural changes have been identified as a result of the review. It is expected that this report will be one of the bases in considering the issuance of a full-term operating license in place of the existing provisional operating license

  12. Continuous fission-product monitor system at Oyster Creek. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, L.L.; Chulick, E.T.

    1980-10-01

    A continuous on-line fission product monitor has been installed at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Forked River, New Jersey. The on-line monitor is a minicomputer-controlled high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer system. An intrinsic Ge detector scans a collimated sample line of coolant from one of the plant's recirculation loops. The minicomputer is a Nuclear Data 6620 system. Data were accumulated for the period from April 1979 through January 1980, the end of cycle 8 for the Oyster Creek plant. Accumulated spectra, an average of three a day, were stored on magnetic disk and subsequently analyzed for fisson products, Because of difficulties in measuring absolute detector efficiency, quantitative fission product concentrations in the coolant could not be determined. Data for iodine fission products are reported as a function of time. The data indicate the existence of fuel defects in the Oyster Creek core during cycle 8

  13. CREEK Project's Oyster Biomass Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight tidal creeks dominated by oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated BACI (Before -...

  14. Digital feedwater and recirculation flow control for GPUN Oyster Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burjorjee, D.; Gan, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the digital system for feedwater and recirculation control that GPU Nuclear will be installing at Oyster Creek during its next outage - expected circa December 1992. The replacement was motivated by considerations of reliability and obsolescence - the analog equipment was aging and reaching the end of its useful life. The new system uses Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd.'s software platform running on dual, redundant, industrial-grade 386 computers with opto-isolated field input/output (I/O) accessed through a parallel bus. The feedwater controller controls three main feed regulating valves, two low flow regulating valves, and two block valves. The recirculation controller drives the five scoop positioners of the hydraulic couplers. The system also drives contacts that lock up the actuators on detecting an open circuit in their current loops

  15. Retran simulation of Oyster Creek generator trip startup test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alammar, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    RETRAN simulation of Oyster Creek generator trip startup test was carried out as part of Oyster Creek RETRAN model qualification program for reload licensing applications. The objective of the simulation was to qualify the turbine model and its interface with the control valve and bypass systems under severe transients. The test was carried out by opening the main breakers at rated power. The turbine speed governor closed the control valves and the pressure regulator opened the bypass valves within 0.5 sec. The stop valves closed by a no-load turbine trip, before the 10 percent overspeed trip was reached and the reactor scrammed on high APRM neutron flux. The simulation resulted in qualifying a normalized hydraulic torque for the turbine model and a 0.3 sec, delay block for the bypass model to account for the different delays in the hydraulic linkages present in the system. One-dimensional kinetics was used in this simulation

  16. Oyster Creek fuel thermal margin during core thermal-hydraulic oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougher, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Oyster Creek nuclear facility, a boiling water reactor (BWR)-2 plant type, has never experienced core thermal-hydraulic instability. Power oscillations, however, have been observed in other BWR cores both domestically and internationally. Two modes of oscillations have been observed, core wide and regional half-core. During core wide oscillations, the neutron flux in the core oscillates in the radial fundamental mode. During regional half-core oscillations, higher order harmonics in the radial plane result in out-of-phase oscillations with the neutron flux in one half of the core oscillating 180 deg out-of-phase with the neutron flux in the other half of the core. General Design Criteria 12 requires either prevention or detection and suppression of power oscillations which could result in violations of fuel design limits. Analyses performed by General Electric have demonstrated that for large-magnitude oscillations the potential exists for violation of the safety limit minimum critical power ratio (MCPR). However, for plants with a flow-biased neutron flux scram automatic mitigation of oscillations may be provided at an oscillation magnitude below that at which the safety limit is challenged. Plant-specific analysis for Oyster Creek demonstrates that the existing average power range monitor (APRM) system will sense and suppress power oscillations prior to violation of any safety limits

  17. Inclusion of the ocean breeze in Oyster Creek emergency off-site dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, W.

    1986-01-01

    The Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station (OCNGS) is located 6 mi west of the Atlantic Ocean. From spring through late summer, atmospheric transport in the vicinity of OCNGS is periodically affected by the ocean breeze. The ocean breeze produces large differences in wind direction within the OCNGS emergency planning zone during the morning to evening hours. In addition, trajectory reversals can occur near the ocean breeze front. These two characteristics of the ocean breeze must be taken into account when interpreting results from conventional atmospheric dispersion models. The purpose of the study was to determine the flow characteristics of the ocean breeze and to apply these characteristics to an emergency preparedness implementing procedure (EPIP). The EPIP would be used to determine the radiological plume impact region if an accidental release occurred during an ocean breeze

  18. CREEK Project's Oyster Growth and Survival Monitoring Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-1999.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated...

  19. CREEK Project: RUI: the Role of Oyster Reefs in the Structure and Function of Tidal Creeks. A Project Overview: 1996-2000.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight tidal creeks dominated by oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated BACI (Before - After...

  20. Technical-evaluation report on the monitoring of electric power to the reactor-protection system for the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. (Docket No. 50-219)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selan, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    During the operating license review for Hatch 2, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff raised a concern about the capability of the Class 1E reactor protection system (RPS) to operate after suffering sustained, abnormal voltage or frequency conditions from a non-Class 1E power supply. Abnormal voltage or frequency conditions could be produced as a result of one of the following causes: combinations of undetected, random single failures of the power supply components, or multiple failures of the power supply components caused by external phenomena such as a seismic event. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the licensees submittal with respect to the NRC criteria and present the reviewer's conclusion on the adequacy of the design modifications to protect the RPS from abnormal voltage and frequency conditions

  1. RETRAN simulation of Oyster Creek MSIV closure and bypass valve tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alammar, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    A series of benchmarks against start-up tests have been performed on the Oyster Creek boiling water reactor unit 2 RETRAN model in support of developing an in-house reload capability. The liquid and the pressure regulator models have been benchmarked against level and pressure setpoint changes, where small setpoint perturbations were made at rated power. The purpose of the present benchmark is to check the liquid level behavior during a severe level drop as during void collapse following a scram and to size the bypass valves by benchmarking the valves' contraction coefficient. The main steam isolation valves (MSIVs) closure start-up test was chosen for the former, while the bypass valve test was chosen for the latter. The two benchmarks complete the qualification of the upper downcomer liquid level for small and large level changes and the pressure regulator system for the Oyster Creek RETRAN model

  2. 33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. 165.552 Section 165.552 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.552 Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean... part. (2) No person or vessel may enter or navigate within this security zone unless authorized to do...

  3. Nuclear Regulatory Commission inspection program and the Oyster Creek, N.J., nuclear facility. Hearings before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, second session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    One of the most significant, but little noticed conclusions of the studies of the Three Mile Island accident-including both the Kemeny and Rogovin studies- is that the nuclear industry is just the same. In fact, those groups found that the NRC and the industry have long been aware that there are poor performances and weak utilities in the nuclear power business, just as there are comparatively stronger nuclear licensees. The distressing fact, however, is that the NRC has never yet been able to come to grips with the implications of that raw observation. The agency has been reluctant for years to arrive at any system of grading or ranking utilities to reflect their competence and quality of management. The NRC program being examined in these hearings is an effort to strengthen the regulatory process by at least identifying the consistently weaker utilities in an objective fashion and accelerating the enforcement and regulatory attention to those utilities. It is an important effort and one that deserves congressional support. The subcommittee will actually be examining two programs that the NRC plans to mesh. First, there is the overall effort to objectively assess the performances of licensees. This is called the systematic assessment of licensee performance, which NRC witnesses will describe. Second, there is the new group within the Inspection and Enforcement Division of NRC, called the Performance Appraisal Branch. This group, from which there are two representatives, is a new specialized team with veteran NRC inspectors. This PAB team performs indepth inspections at selected sites to assess the licensee's overall management strengths and weaknesses

  4. Oyster Creek cycle 10 nodal model parameter optimization study using PSMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougher, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The power shape monitoring system (PSMS) is an on-line core monitoring system that uses a three-dimensional nodal code (NODE-B) to perform nodal power calculations and compute thermal margins. The PSMS contains a parameter optimization function that improves the ability of NODE-B to accurately monitor core power distributions. This functions iterates on the model normalization parameters (albedos and mixing factors) to obtain the best agreement between predicted and measured traversing in-core probe (TIP) reading on a statepoint-by-statepoint basis. Following several statepoint optimization runs, an average set of optimized normalization parameters can be determined and can be implemented into the current or subsequent cycle core model for on-line core monitoring. A statistical analysis of 19 high-power steady-state state-points throughout Oyster Creek cycle 10 operation has shown a consistently poor virgin model performance. The normalization parameters used in the cycle 10 NODE-B model were based on a cycle 8 study, which evaluated only Exxon fuel types. The introduction of General Electric (GE) fuel into cycle 10 (172 assemblies) was a significant fuel/core design change that could have altered the optimum set of normalization parameters. Based on the need to evaluate a potential change in the model normalization parameters for cycle 11 and in an attempt to account for the poor cycle 10 model performance, a parameter optimization study was performed

  5. Long-Term Low Tide Monitoring Data for Fishes, Shrimps, & Crabs in Oyster Landing Creek, North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1983-2003.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — Seine samples of the nekton community were taken every 2 weeks with a 6-millimeter mesh bag seine at low tide, in an intertidal creek pool in the Oyster Landing...

  6. 75 FR 6223 - PSEG Nuclear LLC; Hope Creek Generating Station and Salem Nuclear Generating Station, Unit Nos. 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-272, 50-311 and 50-354; NRC-2010-0043] PSEG Nuclear LLC; Hope Creek Generating Station and Salem Nuclear Generating Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...-70, and DPR-75, issued to PSEG Nuclear LLC (PSEG, the licensee), for operation of the Hope Creek...

  7. Proceedings of the third nuclear thermal hydraulics meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the Thermal Hydraulics Division of the American Nuclear Society. The papers presented include: Simulator qualification using engineering codes and Development of thermal hydraulic analysis capabilities for Oyster Creek

  8. 76 FR 45301 - PSEG Nuclear LLC, Hope Creek Generating Station; Notice of Issuance of Renewed Facility Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Docket No. 50-354 [NRC-2009-0391] PSEG Nuclear LLC, Hope Creek... operator of the Hope Creek Generating Station (HCGS). Renewed Facility Operating License No. NPF- 57... Renewal of Nuclear Power Plants, Supplement 45, Regarding Hope Creek Generating Station and Salem Nuclear...

  9. 76 FR 19148 - PSEG Nuclear, LLC, Hope Creek Generating Station and Salem Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-272, 50-311, 50-354; NRC-2009-0390 and NRC-2009-0391] PSEG Nuclear, LLC, Hope Creek Generating Station and Salem Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1 and 2..., DPR-70, and DPR-75 for an additional 20 years of operation for the Hope Creek Generating Station (HCGS...

  10. Elemental composition of Chesapeake Bay oyster Crassostrea virginica in the vicinity of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilas, M.; Munno, F.J.

    1984-01-01

    The stable element composition of the American oyster Crassostrea virginica collected between June 1978 and August 1983 in the Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant was analyzed by neutron activation. The minimum, maximum and the mean values of the elemental concentrations are given. The seasonal effect and the linear correlation between elements entering the oyster composition are shown. 7 references, 1 figure, 4 tables

  11. The nuclear receptor gene family in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, contains a novel subfamily group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeler, Susanne; Galloway, Tamara S; Lyons, Brett P; Bean, Tim P

    2014-05-15

    Nuclear receptors are a superfamily of transcription factors important in key biological, developmental and reproductive processes. Several of these receptors are ligand- activated and through their ability to bind endogenous and exogenous ligands, are potentially vulnerable to xenobiotics. Molluscs are key ecological species in defining aquatic and terrestrial habitats and are sensitive to xenobiotic compounds in the environment. However, the understanding of nuclear receptor presence, function and xenobiotic disruption in the phylum Mollusca is limited. Here, forty-three nuclear receptor sequences were mined from the genome of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. They include members of NR0-NR5 subfamilies, notably lacking any NR6 members. Phylogenetic analyses of the oyster nuclear receptors have been conducted showing the presence of a large novel subfamily group not previously reported, which is named NR1P. Homologues to all previous identified nuclear receptors in other mollusc species have also been determined including the putative heterodimer partner retinoid X receptor, estrogen receptor and estrogen related receptor. C. gigas contains a highly diverse set of nuclear receptors including a novel NR1 group, which provides important information on presence and evolution of this transcription factor superfamily in invertebrates. The Pacific oyster possesses two members of NR3, the sex steroid hormone receptor analogues, of which there are 9 in humans. This provides increasing evidence that steroid ligand specific expansion of this family is deuterostome specific. This new knowledge on divergence and emergence of nuclear receptors in C. gigas provides essential information for studying regulation of molluscan gene expression and the potential effects of xenobiotics.

  12. 76 FR 19488 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC, Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... origin Area name Actions 1 CW-FA-14 Circulatory Water Intake. Provide makeup control 17 air to the... loss of instrument air. 8 OB-FZ-10A Office Bldg. Monitor and Provide makeup control 18 Change Room Area... due to the loss of instrument air. 10 RB-FZ-1E Reactor Building Elev. Provide makeup control 17 23'-6...

  13. Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1. Annual operating report No. 1: January--December 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Net electrical power generated was 3,860,347 MWH with the reactor on line 6,967.3 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, power generation, shutdowns, corrective maintenance, chemistry and radiochemistry, occupational radiation exposure, release of radioactive materials, reportable occurrences, fuel performance, and leak rate testing

  14. 76 FR 19795 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... Manually open 7 Intake. valve (V) V-9- 2099 and V-11-49 and close V-11- 63 and V-11-41. Manually open V- 12...-FZ-6B Office Bldg. Manually open V-9- 7 ``B'' 480V SWGR 2099 and V-11-49 Room Elev. 23'- and close V...) FI-225-2 and close V-15-52. 5 OB-FZ-8A Office Bldg. Manually open V-9- 7 Reactor 2099 and V-11-49...

  15. Draft environmental assessment: Cypress Creek Dome site, Mississippi. Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 112)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Cypress Creek dome site in Mississippi as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Cypress Creek dome site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations are reported in this draft environmental assessment (EA), which is being issued for public review and comment. The DOE findings and determinations that are based on these evaluations are preliminary and subject to public review and comment. A final EA will be prepared after considering the comments received. On the basis of the evaluations contained in this draft EA, the DOE has found that the Cypress Creek dome site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The site is contained in the Gulf Interior Region of the Gulf Coastal Plain, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains two other potentially acceptable sites - the Richton dome site and the Vacherie dome site. Although the Cypress Creek dome site appears to be suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Richton dome site is the preferred site in the Gulf Interior Region and is proposing to nominate the Richton dome site rather than the Cypress Creek dome site as one of the three sites suitable for characterization

  16. Interactions of radionuclides in water, particulates, and oysters in the discharge canal of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, F.L.; Wong, K.M.; Heft, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    This study was designed to provide data for dynamic modeling of radioactive pollutants in marine ecosystems adjacent to nuclear power plants. The data are relevant to the dynamics of radionuclide transfer among seawater, suspended particulates, sediments, and biota. Gamma-emitting radionuclides ( 54 Mn, 60 Co, 65 Zn, and 137 Cs) were followed in the water and particulates, as well as in oysters introduced into the discharge canal of the boiling water reactor of the Humboldt Bay Power Plant near Eureka, California. The liquid waste was introduced into the canal at irregular intervals and contained radionuclides at extremely low but variable concentrations. Radionuclides were determined in the oysters, water, and particulates after single releases (over about 6 hr) and over a long series of releases

  17. Operator training and requalification at GPU Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, R.L.; Barrett, R.J.; Newton, S.L.

    1982-01-01

    The operator training and requalification programs at GPU Nuclear's Oyster Creek (650 MWe BWR) and Three Mile Island-1 (776 MWe PWR) nuclear plants have undergone significant revisions since the Three Mile Island-2 accident. This paper describes the Training and Education organization, the expanded training facilities, including basic principle trainers and replica simulators, and the present operator training and requalification programs

  18. CREEK Project's Phytoplankton Pigment Monitoring Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The CREEK Project began in January of 1996 and was designed to help determine the role of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in tidal creeks of the North Inlet Estuary,...

  19. CREEK Project's Internal Creek Habitat Survey for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: January 1998.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated...

  20. Probing for heavy element impurities in the shell of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, with nuclear microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markwitz, A.; Barry, B.; Gauldie, R.W.; Roberts, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear microscopy was performed on shells of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, to probe for heavy element impurities. For the studies 14 shells from the Auckland and the Marlborough Sounds region were chosen. In sections, the shells appear as opaque with white and grey zones, which are related to alternating layers of calcite and aragonite. Raster scans with 2.5 MeV protons over the sections (scan area 5 x 5 mm) were used in the experiment to measure trace elements in the ppm region using proton induced X-ray spectroscopy. Two dimensional maps and line scans revealed the presence of bromine in all shells investigated. Bromine was found to be related with the pattern of calcium. Hot spots of iron proved to be a common feature in the shells as well. In some shells, copper and zinc were also measured in hot spots of a few micrometers in diameter. Spatially resolved results on the micrometer level indicate the usefulness of nuclear microscopy for the detection of heavy elements in shells of the Pacific oyster

  1. Nuclear microprobe and Raman investigation of the chemistry of the shell of the pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markwitz, A.; Gauldie, R.W.; Pithie, J.; Sharma, S.K.; Jamieson, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    High-resolution nuclear microscopy was used to study the layered structure in the shell of the pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. In cross section, the layers appear as opaque white zones and clearer translucent zones. Raman spectroscopy indicates that the zones consist of alternating layers of the aragonite and calcite morphs of calcium carbonate, the mineral constituent of the shell. The chemistry of the shell varies from individual to individual but generally the predominant metal ion is Ca, with varying amounts of Si, Cl, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, Sb, Ni, Fe, As and Sr. Two dimensional maps of these major, minor and trace elements were measured in many shells with nuclear microscopy to identify the patterns of Zn and Sr deposition reflecting the calcite and aragonite layers. The significant difference in the patterns identified by ion beam analyses are possibly a result of isostructural exclusion of these metal ions between the different aragonite and calcite polymorphic forms of calcium carbonate. (author)

  2. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances, January 1997. Volume 45, Number 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This book contains issuances of the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board, Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Director's Decision for January 1997. The issuances concern Sequoyah Fuels Corporation and General Atomics Gore, Oklahoma Site decontamination and decommissioning funding; Louisiana Energy Services, Claiborne Enrichment Center denies appeal to review emergency planning; General Public Utilities Nuclear Corporation, Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating station, challenges to technical specifications concerning spent fuel pool; and Consumers Power Company, Palisades Nuclear Plant dry cask storage of spent nuclear fuel

  3. Study of the impact of radionuclides discharges from nuclear industry in the northern Cotentin area on the oyster Crassostrea gigas: expression of cellular stress molecular markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farcy, E.

    2006-11-01

    This thesis explores the potential radiological impact of radionuclide discharges from the nuclear industry on the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. One of the major goals of this research was to identify markers that could be used to monitor the effects of low-level chronic irradiation. We decided to focalize on the expression of stress-induced genes involved in the regulation of cellular stress, focusing on transcription. First, homology cloning was used to identify four new cDNAs encoding stress markers. Then data collected at various sites enabled to evidence that mRNA levels for each of the genes of interest naturally vary to a significant degree, based on individual differences and seasonal factors. Comparing oysters from exposed sites with those from a reference site located on the Atlantic coast did not suggest any relationship between mRNA levels changes and the oysters exposure to liquid radioactive waste from the A.R.E.V.A. reprocessing plant. In the environment, we found that those radionuclide releases resulted in a very small increase in radioactivity in oysters, especially compared with their natural radioactivity. In the laboratory, by exposing the oysters to higher radionuclide concentrations than those found in the environment, we were able to identify two genes as potential candidates for studying the effects of chronic exposure to low doses of ionizing radiations in the oyster: genes encoding MT and MXR. We confirmed that transcriptional induction of these two genes occurs in response to high doses of acute irradiation. Finally, the comparison between environmental results and the laboratory results underlined the complementarity of these two approaches. In particular, it revealed that seasonal variations in mRNA levels probably have a significant effect on the stress response. (author)

  4. A mathematical model of the accumulation of radionuclides by oysters (C. virginica) aquacultured in the effluent of a nuclear power reactor to include major biological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, C.T.; Smith, C.W.; Price, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    The uptake, accumulation and loss of radionuclides by the American oyster (C. virginica) aquacultured in the effluent of a nuclear power reactor has been measured monthly for 3 yr at four field stations in the Montsweag Estuary of the Sheepscot River and at a control station in the nearby Damariscotta River Estuary, southern central coastal Maine, U.S.A. A mathematical model for the time variation of the specific activity of the oysters has been developed to include the physical half-lives of the various radionuclides, the biological half-lives of the various radionuclides (biological depuration), the water temperature (oyster hibernation) and shell growth. The resulting first order linear differential equation incorporating these phenomena is driven by the liquid radionuclide effluent release of the Maine Yankee Nuclear Reactor. Comparison of the monthly measurements of the specific activity for 58 Co, 60 Co, 54 Mn, 134 Cs and 137 Cs in oysters with model calculations show close agreement over all ranges of variation observed. A special feature of this mathematical model is its ability to describe the non-chemostatic field situation. (author)

  5. Cloning retinoid and peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptors of the Pacific oyster and in silico binding to environmental chemicals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Vogeler

    Full Text Available Disruption of nuclear receptors, a transcription factor superfamily regulating gene expression in animals, is one proposed mechanism through which pollution causes effects in aquatic invertebrates. Environmental pollutants have the ability to interfere with the receptor's functions through direct binding and inducing incorrect signals. Limited knowledge of invertebrate endocrinology and molecular regulatory mechanisms, however, impede the understanding of endocrine disruptive effects in many aquatic invertebrate species. Here, we isolated three nuclear receptors of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas: two isoforms of the retinoid X receptor, CgRXR-1 and CgRXR-2, a retinoic acid receptor ortholog CgRAR, and a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ortholog CgPPAR. Computer modelling of the receptors based on 3D crystal structures of human proteins was used to predict each receptor's ability to bind to different ligands in silico. CgRXR showed high potential to bind and be activated by 9-cis retinoic acid and the organotin tributyltin (TBT. Computer modelling of CgRAR revealed six residues in the ligand binding domain, which prevent the successful interaction with natural and synthetic retinoid ligands. This supports an existing theory of loss of retinoid binding in molluscan RARs. Modelling of CgPPAR was less reliable due to high discrepancies in sequence to its human ortholog. Yet, there are suggestions of binding to TBT, but not to rosiglitazone. The effect of potential receptor ligands on early oyster development was assessed after 24h of chemical exposure. TBT oxide (0.2μg/l, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA (0.06 mg/L and perfluorooctanoic acid (20 mg/L showed high effects on development (>74% abnormal developed D-shelled larvae, while rosiglitazone (40 mg/L showed no effect. The results are discussed in relation to a putative direct (TBT disruption effect on nuclear receptors. The inability of direct binding of ATRA to CgRAR suggests

  6. CREEK Project's Nekton Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-1998.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated...

  7. CREEK Project's Microzooplankton Seasonal Monitoring Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated...

  8. Oysters and Oyster Reef Communities in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jean; Bly, Joe

    1989-01-01

    The habitat, life history, feeding, classification, anatomy and pearl production of the American oyster (Crassostrea virginica) are presented. A list of other oyster reef inhabitants and predators is provided. Harvest and habitat loss are discussed. (CW)

  9. CREEK Project's Water Chemistry, Chlorophyll a, and Suspended Sediment Weekly Monitoring Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-2000.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight tidal creeks dominated by oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated BACI (Before -...

  10. Analysis of dust samples collected from spent nuclear fuel interim storage containers at Hope Creek, Delaware, and Diablo Canyon, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Enos, David George [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Potentially corrosive environments may form on the surface of spent nuclear fuel dry storage canisters by deliquescence of deposited dusts. To assess this, samples of dust were collected from in-service dry storage canisters at two near-marine sites, the Hope Creek and Diablo Canyon storage installations, and have been characterized with respect to mineralogy, chemistry, and texture. At both sites, terrestrially-derived silicate minerals, including quartz, feldspars, micas, and clays, comprise the largest fraction of the dust. Also significant at both sites were particles of iron and iron-chromium metal and oxides generated by the manufacturing process. Soluble salt phases were minor component of the Hope Creek dusts, and were compositionally similar to inland salt aerosols, rich in calcium, sulfate, and nitrate. At Diablo Canyon, however, sea-salt aerosols, occurring as aggregates of NaCl and Mg-sulfate, were a major component of the dust samples. The seasalt aerosols commonly occurred as hollow spheres, which may have formed by evaporation of suspended aerosol seawater droplets, possibly while rising through the heated annulus between the canister and the overpack. The differences in salt composition and abundance for the two sites are attributed to differences in proximity to the open ocean and wave action. The Diablo Canyon facility is on the shores of the Pacific Ocean, while the Hope Creek facility is on the shores of the Delaware River, several miles from the open ocean.

  11. Enhancing professionalism at GPU Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coe, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    Late in 1988, GPU Nuclear embarked on a major program aimed at enhancing professionalism at its Oyster Creek and Three Mile Island nuclear generating stations. The program was also to include its corporate headquarters in Parsippany, New Jersey. The overall program was to take several directions, including on-site degree programs, a sabbatical leave-type program for personnel to finish college degrees, advanced technical training for licensed staff, career progression for senior reactor operators, and expanded teamwork and leadership training for control room crew. The largest portion of this initiative was the development and delivery of professionalism training to the nearly 2,000 people at both nuclear generating sites

  12. Oysters and Vibriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Oysters and Vibriosis Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... is to cook them properly. Tips for Cooking Oysters & Other Shellfish Before cooking, throw out any shellfish ...

  13. THE USE OF THE MANGROVE OYSTER ( CROSSOSTREA GASAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR NWAGBOJE

    mangrove oyster (Crossostrea gasar) and water from Golubo creek in the Niger ... did not exceed the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) maximum ... the area include farming, local gin production, lumbering and palm wine production. ..... Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Ogba River, Benin City, Nigeria.

  14. 78 FR 62293 - Safety Zone, Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display, Oyster Bay; Oyster Bay, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-15

    ... Safety Zone, Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display, Oyster Bay; Oyster Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast... zone on the navigable waters of Oyster Bay near Oyster Bay, NY for the Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary... Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display is scheduled for October 19, 2013 and is one of...

  15. Atmospheric Tracer Depletion Testing for Unfiltered Air In-Leakage Determination at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wilke, R. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roberts, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Vignato, G. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Atmospheric Tracer Depletion tests were conducted at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant to quantify the unfiltered in-leakage (UI) into the Control Room (CR), Control Building (CB), and Equipment Rooms (ER) at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant. Wolf Creek has two independent charcoal filter Emergency Ventilation Systems (EVS) that can be used to purify air entering the control building and control room. The Bravo System contains a filtration system in Room 1501 in the Auxiliary Building for the Control Room and another filtration system (FGK02B) on Elevation 2016 for the Control Building. The Alpha system contains a filtration system in Room 1512 in the Auxiliary Building for the Control Room and another filtration system (FGK02A) on Elevation 2016 for the Control Building. The Atmospheric Tracer Depletion (ATD) test is a technique to measure in-leakage using the concentration of perfluorocarbon compounds that have a constant atmospheric background. These levels are present in the Control Room and Control Building under normal operating conditions. When air is supplied by either of the EVS, most of the PFTS are removed by the charcoal filters. If the concentrations of the PFTs measured in protected areas are the same as the levels at the output of the EVS, the in-leakage of outside air into the protected area would be zero. If the concentration is higher in the protected area than at the output of the filter system, there is in-leakage and the in-leakage can be quantified by the difference. Sampling was performed using state-of-the-art Brookhaven Atmospheric Tracer Samplers (BATS) air sampling equipment and analysis performed on Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) dedicated PFT analytical systems. In the Alpha test two tracers PMCH and mcPDCH were used to determine in-leakage into the control building. The analytical system was tuned to maximize sensitivity after initial analysis of the Alpha test. The increased sensitivity permitted accurate quantification of

  16. Atmospheric Tracer Depletion Testing for Unfiltered Air In-Leakage Determination at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wilke, R. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roberts, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Vignato, G. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric Tracer Depletion tests were conducted at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant to quantify the unfiltered in-leakage (UI) into the Control Room (CR), Control Building (CB), and Equipment Rooms (ER) at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant. Wolf Creek has two independent charcoal filter Emergency Ventilation Systems (EVS) that can be used to purify air entering the control building and control room. The Bravo System contains a filtration system in Room 1501 in the Auxiliary Building for the Control Room and another filtration system (FGK02B) on Elevation 2016 for the Control Building. The Alpha system contains a filtration system in Room 1512 in the Auxiliary Building for the Control Room and another filtration system (FGK02A) on Elevation 2016 for the Control Building.The Atmospheric Tracer Depletion (ATD) test is a technique to measure in-leakage using the concentration of perfluorocarbon compounds that have a constant atmospheric background. These levels are present in the Control Room and Control Building under normal operating conditions. When air is supplied by either of the EVS, most of the PFTS are removed by the charcoal filters. If the concentrations of the PFTs measured in protected areas are the same as the levels at the output of the EVS, the in-leakage of outside air into the protected area would be zero. If the concentration is higher in the protected area than at the output of the filter system, there is in-leakage and the in-leakage can be quantified by the difference.Sampling was performed using state-of-the-art Brookhaven Atmospheric Tracer Samplers (BATS) air sampling equipment and analysis performed on Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) dedicated PFT analytical systems. In the Alpha test two tracers PMCH and mcPDCH were used to determine in-leakage into the control building. The analytical system was tuned to maximize sensitivity after initial analysis of the Alpha test. The increased sensitivity permitted accurate quantification of five

  17. Aerial radiological survey of the creeks and tributaries near the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generation Station, Clay Station, California. Date of survey: December 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    Radiological contamination due to man-made radionuclides was detected using hand-held instruments in the summer of 1984 in the creeks and tributaries near the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station at Clay Station, California. To help determine the extent of the contamination an aerial radiological survey centered over the creeks and tributaries and including the Rancho Seco facility was conducted during the period 3 to 15 December 1984. Radiological contaminants were detected along a 9-mile segment of the system of creeks in the area. These contaminants included cesium-134, cesium-137, and cobalt-60. Radiation measurements away from the contaminated areas were the same as those made during the aerial radiological survey conducted in 1980

  18. Analysis of Dust Samples Collected from an Unused Spent Nuclear Fuel Interim Storage Container at Hope Creek, Delaware.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Enos, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    In July, 2014, the Electric Power Research Institute and industry partners sampled dust on the surface of an unused canister that had been stored in an overpack at the Hope Creek Nuclear Generating Station for approximately one year. The foreign material exclusion (FME) cover that had been on the top of the canister during storage, and a second recently - removed FME cover, were also sampled. This report summarizes the results of analyses of dust samples collected from the unused Hope Creek canister and the FME covers. Both wet and dry samples of the dust/salts were collected, using SaltSmart(TM) sensors and Scotch - Brite(TM) abrasive pads, respectively. The SaltSmart(TM) samples were leached and the leachate analyzed chemically to determine the composition and surface load per unit area of soluble salts present on the canister surface. The dry pad samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence and by scanning electron microscopy to determine dust texture and mineralogy; and by leaching and chemical analysis to deter mine soluble salt compositions. The analyses showed that the dominant particles on the canister surface were stainless steel particles, generated during manufacturing of the canister. Sparse environmentally - derived silicates and aluminosilicates were also present. Salt phases were sparse, and consisted of mostly of sulfates with rare nitrates and chlorides. On the FME covers, the dusts were mostly silicates/aluminosilicates; the soluble salts were consistent with those on the canister surface, and were dominantly sulfates. It should be noted that the FME covers were w ashed by rain prior to sampling, which had an unknown effect of the measured salt loads and compositions. Sulfate salts dominated the assemblages on the canister and FME surfaces, and in cluded Ca - SO4 , but also Na - SO4 , K - SO4 , and Na - Al - SO4 . It is likely that these salts were formed by particle - gas conversion reactions, either

  19. The impact of team building and leadership development on nuclear plant performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler, P.B.; Long, R.L.; Childress, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Within the nuclear utility industry, the pressures of complex technologies, increasing regulations, and critical public scrutiny create a working environment filled with numerous pressures. The difficult nature of the industry puts a premium on effective teamwork, interdepartmental cooperation, and communication skills. A well-conceived and implemented team building and leadership development program can substantially improve the operating performance of a nuclear plant. This paper describes one such implementation effort at GPU Nuclear Corporation and at the Oyster Creek nuclear generating station (OCNGS) over an 18-month period

  20. 21 CFR 161.136 - Olympia oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Olympia oysters. 161.136 Section 161.136 Food and... oysters. Olympia oysters, raw Olympia oysters, shucked Olympia oysters, are of the species Ostrea lurida and conform to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for oysters in § 161.130. ...

  1. Oyster radiation sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchese, Sandra R.M.; Mastro, Nelida L. del

    1996-01-01

    Various food products like oysters, crabs and shrimps have been described as possible Vibrio spp. transmitting agents. Seafood irradiation is been presented as an alternative among the different public health intervention measures to control food borne diseases. The objective of this work was to establish, firstly, the radioresistance of Crassostrea brasiliana oysters. The oysters were irradiated with Co-60 radiation with doses of 0, 1.5,3 and 6 kGy. Survival curves a function of time showed that 100% of samples irradiated with 3 kGy survived at least 6 days; among those irradiated with 6 kGy, 100% survived 3 days. These results are encouraging since a dose of 2 kGy is already effective in diminishing oyster bioburden. (author)

  2. Training of system engineers for Salem and Hope Creek nuclear power plant personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketcham, S.

    1988-01-01

    To establish and maintain a high level of plant reliability at a nuclear power station, a conscientious, integrated, day-to-day effort is required from operations and maintenance personnel, as well as the engineering support groups. The catalyst and focus to ensure that this occurs within the Public Service Electric and Gas Company system is the station system engineer. These engineers have total responsibility for their designated systems. For these individuals to communicate with the operations and maintenance departments effectively, they must have an understanding of the design and operation of each and every system and the effect they may have on the overall plant. (author)

  3. Calcium, strontium and fluorine patterns in shells of Pacific Oyster and Rock Oyster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coote, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The IGNS proton microprobe has been applied in a study of the distribution of Calcium, Strontium and Fluorine in the calcite shells of Pacific Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and the native Rock oyster (Crassostrea glomerata). The ultimate aim is to derive information which could have application in such fields as archaeology, biology, palaeontology, aquaculture and environmental studies. Calcium and strontium were determined from their emissions of K X-rays under proton bombardment, and fluorine from the 19 F (p,alpha gamma) 16 O nuclear reaction. The three elements were determined simultaneously at points no more than 20 micrometres apart. A total of 14 one and 17 two-dimensional scans were performed on sections of the shells embedded in epoxy resin. We studied shells from nine Pacific oysters (five transferred from the Marlborough Sounds to Wellington Harbour and four from the Bay of Islands). (author). 11 refs.; 5 figs

  4. 75 FR 9956 - PSEG Nuclear LLC, Hope Creek Generating Station and Salem Nuclear Generating Station, Unit Nos. 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... letter number LR-N09- 0248 and the second enclosure is an environmental impact statement. Based on a... November 3, and November 20, 2009, submittals, with the exception of the environmental impact statement... M. S. Fertel, Nuclear Energy Institute, ADAMS Accession No. ML091410309). The licensee's request for...

  5. Monitoring equipment environment during nuclear plant operation at Salem and Hope Creek generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, A.; Smith, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Monitoring of environmental parameters has become a significant issue for operating nuclear power plants. While the long-term benefits of plant life extension programs are being pursued with comprehensive environmental monitoring programs, the potential effect of local hot spots at various plant locations needs to be evaluated for its effect on equipment degradation and shortening of equipment qualified life. A significant benefit can be experienced from temperature monitoring when a margin exists between the design versus actual operating temperature. This margin can be translated into longer equipment qualified life and significant reduction in maintenance activities. At PSE and G, the immediate need for monitoring environmental parameters is being accomplished via the use of a Logic Beach Bitlogger. The Bitlogger is a portable data loggings system consisting of a system base, input modules and a communication software package. Thermocouples are installed on selected electrical equipment and cables are run from the thermocouples to the input module of the Bitlogger. Temperature readings are taken at selected intervals, stored in memory, and downloaded periodically to a PC software program, i.e., Lotus. The data is formatted into tabular or graphical documents. Because of their versatility, Bitloggers are being used differently at the authors Nuclear facility. At the Salem Station (2 Units-4 loop Westinghouse PWR), a battery powered, fully portable, calibrated Bitlogger is located in an accessible area inside Containment where it monitors the temperature of various electrical equipment within the Pressurizer Enclosure. It is planned that close monitoring of the local hot spot temperatures in this area will allow them to adjust and reconcile the environmental qualification of the equipment

  6. Effects of a thermal effluent on the reproduction of the American oyster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinsman, J.C.; Tinsman, S.G.; Maurer, D.

    1976-01-01

    Oysters were sampled from September 1970 to September 1972 from two stations in Indian River Bay, Delaware, for histological examination. Station 1 (control) was located near the intake of the Delmarva Power and Light Company's fossil-fuel plant in Millsboro, Del. Station 2 (effluent) was 2.5 km east of the plant at the mouth of Island Creek. A combination of classical and quantitative methods was used to document changes in the developmental cycle of oysters resulting from the influence of a thermal effluent. Oysters in the effluent showed precocious gonadal development during the spring, but the time of maximum ripeness and spawning activity was the same at both stations. An extension of the spawning season for several weeks in September was noted for oysters in the effluent. During 1972, oysters in the thermal effluent showed a significantly lower level of gonadal development than did controls. Since this season of decreased reproductive amplitude corresponds with a period of high mortalities among effluent oysters, it seems likely that these oysters were thermally stressed, requiring more energy for maintenance and leaving less available for reproduction

  7. Draft environmental statement related to construction of Yellow Creek Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2: (Docket Nos. STN 50-566 and STN 50-567)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of construction permits to the Tennessee Valley Authority for the construction of the Yellow Creek Nuclear Plant Units 1 and 2. The 470-hectare site is predominantly wooded. Construction-related activities on the site would disturb about 59 hectares. The portion of this land not to be used for plant facilities, parking lots, roads, etc., will be restored by seeding and landscaping. The temporary removal of vegetation will tend to promote erosion. Increased siltation and turbidity can be expected in the Yellow Creek embayment during construction, but measures will be taken to minimize these effects. A maximum of 237.6 m 3 /min of make-up water will be withdrawn from the Yellow Creek embayment, of which 106 m 3 /min will be returned to Pickwick Lake via a pipeline with the dissolved solids concentration increased by a factor of about two. About 106 m 3 /min will be evaporated to the atmosphere by the cooling towers. The volume of thermal discharge (106 m 3 /min) is small compared with the flow in Pickwick Lake (minimum daily average flow of 7812 m 3 /min) and the effect on the Pickwick Lake ecosystem is not expected to be significant. During periods of average flow the plant could use about 24% of the flow through Yellow Creek embayment. Chemical discharges (with the possible exception of copper) from the plant will be diluted to concentrations below those which might adversely affect aquatic biota. The risk associated with accidental radiation exposure will be very low. 42 figs., 100 tabs

  8. The American Oyster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Nancy E.

    The Maryland Marine Science Education Project has produced a series of mini-units in marine science education for the junior high/middle school classroom. This unit focuses on the American oyster. Although the unit specifically treats the Chesapeake Bay, it may be adapted for use with similar estuarine systems. In addition, the unit may be…

  9. Putting oysters under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    High pressure processing (HPP) is the most commercially important food processing technology in use now and is anticipated to remain of equal or greater importance during the next five to 10 years. This month’s column reviews the theory and current applications of HPP for oysters to improve their sa...

  10. Oyster Fauna of Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussarawit, Somchai; Cedhagen, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Here, we describe 16 species of true oysters from Thai waters. They are widely distributed on various intertidal and subtidal substrates in the Gulf of Thailand and in the Andaman Sea. The different species were identified on the basis of their shell morphology, and their characteristic features...

  11. Dangerous Raw Oysters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-05

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch at the California Department of Public Health, discusses the dangers of eating raw oysters.  Created: 8/5/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/7/2013.

  12. Study of the impact of radionuclides discharges from nuclear industry in the northern Cotentin area on the oyster Crassostrea gigas: expression of cellular stress molecular markers; Etude de l'impact des radionucleides rejetes par les installations nucleaires du Nord Cotentin sur l'huitre creuse Crassostrea gigas: analyse de l'expression de marqueurs moleculaires de stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farcy, E

    2006-11-15

    This thesis explores the potential radiological impact of radionuclide discharges from the nuclear industry on the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. One of the major goals of this research was to identify markers that could be used to monitor the effects of low-level chronic irradiation. We decided to focalize on the expression of stress-induced genes involved in the regulation of cellular stress, focusing on transcription. First, homology cloning was used to identify four new cDNAs encoding stress markers. Then data collected at various sites enabled to evidence that mRNA levels for each of the genes of interest naturally vary to a significant degree, based on individual differences and seasonal factors. Comparing oysters from exposed sites with those from a reference site located on the Atlantic coast did not suggest any relationship between mRNA levels changes and the oysters exposure to liquid radioactive waste from the A.R.E.V.A. reprocessing plant. In the environment, we found that those radionuclide releases resulted in a very small increase in radioactivity in oysters, especially compared with their natural radioactivity. In the laboratory, by exposing the oysters to higher radionuclide concentrations than those found in the environment, we were able to identify two genes as potential candidates for studying the effects of chronic exposure to low doses of ionizing radiations in the oyster: genes encoding MT and MXR. We confirmed that transcriptional induction of these two genes occurs in response to high doses of acute irradiation. Finally, the comparison between environmental results and the laboratory results underlined the complementarity of these two approaches. In particular, it revealed that seasonal variations in mRNA levels probably have a significant effect on the stress response. (author)

  13. Hail creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, J.

    2005-09-01

    The paper examines the development of one of the largest coking coal deposits in the world. Hail Creek is 100 km west of Mackay and 35 km northeast of Nebo, Queensland and has proven opencut reserves of 195.6 as at December 2003. Coal processing stated in July 2003. The award winning project included construction of a coal handling and preparation plant, a railway, a village and offsite infrastructure and mine buildings and site services. Coal is mined by conventional dragline and truck/shovel techniques. 1 photo.

  14. Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Commercially Important Oysters from Goa, Central-West Coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenai-Tirodkar, Prachi S; Gauns, Mangesh U; Ansari, Zakir A

    2016-12-01

    The major beds of oyster along the central-west coast of India are exposed to different anthropogenic activities and are severely exploited for human consumption. In this viewpoint, tissues of oyster Crassostrea madrasensis, C. gryphoides and Saccostrea cucullata were analyzed for Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb concentrations (dry weight) from Chicalim Bay, Nerul Creek and Chapora Bay in pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. A higher concentration of Cu (134.4-2167.9 mg kg -1 ) and Cd (7.1-88.5 mg kg -1 ) was found, which is greater than the recommended limits in all the three species (and sites). Moreover, significant (p metals concentrations among the species, seasons and sites. The high concentrations of Cd and Cu in tissues of edible oyster pose a threat to human health. Therefore, continuous monitoring, people awareness and a stringent government policy should be implemented to mitigate the metal pollution along the studied sites.

  15. Distribution of Georgia Oyster Reefs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The feature class in this ESRI Geodatabase contains polygons representing oyster reefs along the Georgia coastal waterways from Chatham County south to Glynn County....

  16. Wolf Creek Generating Station containment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, D.H.; Neises, G.J.; Howard, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a CONTEMPT-LT/28 containment model that has been developed by Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation (WCNOC) to predict containment pressure and temperature behavior during the postulated events at Wolf Creek Generating Station (WCGS). The model has been validated using data provided in the WCGS Updated Safety Analysis Report (USAR). CONTEMPT-LT/28 model has been used extensively at WCGS to support plant operations, and recently, to support its 4.5% thermal power uprate project

  17. Evolution of GPU nuclear's training program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, R.L.; Coe, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    GPU Nuclear Corporation (GPUN) manages the operators of Three Mile Island Unit 1 and Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Stations and the recovery activities at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 plant. From the time it was formed in January 1980 GPUN emphasized the use of behavioral learning objectives as the basis for all its training programs. This paper describes the evolution to a formalized performance based Training System Development (TSD) Process. The Training and Education Department staff increased from 10 in 1979 to the current 120 dedicated professionals, with a corresponding increase in facilities and acquisition of sophisticated Basic Principles Training Simulators and a Three Mile Island Unit 1 control Room Replica Simulator. The impact of these developments and achievement of full INPO accreditation are discussed and related to plant performance improvements

  18. 7 CFR 701.54 - Oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oysters. 701.54 Section 701.54 Agriculture Regulations... ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.54 Oysters. (a) Notwithstanding § 701.5(b), but otherwise subject to the... be made available under this section for the eligible cost of refurbishing public or private oyster...

  19. Role of solubles and particulates in radionuclide accumulation in the oyster Crassostrea Gigas in the discharge canal of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, F.L.; Wong, K.M.; Heft, R.E.

    1972-01-01

    Changes in 54 Mn, 60 Co, 65 Zn, and 137 Cs concentrations were followed in oysters introduced into a discharge canal receiving low-level radioactive waste from a boiling water reactor. Groups of animals were maintained either in filtered or nonfiltered discharge-canal water. They were sampled immediately before and after single radioactive releases and at one-day intervals thereafter. Radionuclide concentrations were determined also in the water and in suspended and settled particulates. In the canal water, concentrations changed rapidly during a release, reaching peak values within 30 minutes. The partition between soluble and particulate (filterable) phases in the water differed with the radionuclide. Continuous sampling of suspended particulates after single releases showed considerable variation in concentrations per liter of water for each radionuclide. Comparisons of animals held in filtered water to those in nonfiltered water showed similar concentrations only for 137 Cs. Results indicate that suspended particulates play an important role in the accumulation of some radionuclides and that resuspension of particulates is an important source between periods of releases. (U.S.)

  20. 77 FR 66484 - PSEG Nuclear LLC; Hope Creek Generating Station and Salem Generating Station, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Power Plant Personnel,'' endorses the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) report, NEI 06-11, Revision 1... exclusion, set forth in 10 CFR 51.22(c)(25). Pursuant to 10 CFR 51.22(b), no environmental impact statement... Commission (NRC or the Commission) now or hereafter in effect. The facilities consist of one boiling-water...

  1. Effect of branding Gulf oysters on consumers willingness to pay

    OpenAIRE

    Acquah, Sarah; Petrolia, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Using a choice experiment this study found that raw oyster consumers are more likely to buy oysters harvested from their region over those harvested outside the region. Consumers are more likely to buy wild-caught oysters over cultivated oysters. Non-Gulf consumers are more likely to buy medium or large size oysters over small size.

  2. Persistence of Caliciviruses in Artificially Contaminated Oysters during Depuration▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ueki, You; Shoji, Mika; Suto, Atsushi; Tanabe, Toru; Okimura, Yoko; Kikuchi, Yoshihiko; Saito, Noriyuki; Sano, Daisuke; Omura, Tatsuo

    2007-01-01

    The fate of calicivirus in oysters in a 10-day depuration was assessed. The norovirus gene was persistently detected from artificially contaminated oysters during the depuration, whereas feline calicivirus in oysters was promptly eliminated. The prolonged observation of norovirus in oysters implies the existence of a selective retention mechanism for norovirus within oysters.

  3. Hyperspectral remote sensing of wild oyster reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bris, Anthony; Rosa, Philippe; Lerouxel, Astrid; Cognie, Bruno; Gernez, Pierre; Launeau, Patrick; Robin, Marc; Barillé, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    The invasion of the wild oyster Crassostrea gigas along the western European Atlantic coast has generated changes in the structure and functioning of intertidal ecosystems. Considered as an invasive species and a trophic competitor of the cultivated conspecific oyster, it is now seen as a resource by oyster farmers following recurrent mass summer mortalities of oyster spat since 2008. Spatial distribution maps of wild oyster reefs are required by local authorities to help define management strategies. In this work, visible-near infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing was investigated to map two contrasted intertidal reef structures: clusters of vertical oysters building three-dimensional dense reefs in muddy areas and oysters growing horizontally creating large flat reefs in rocky areas. A spectral library, collected in situ for various conditions with an ASD spectroradiometer, was used to run Spectral Angle Mapper classifications on airborne data obtained with an HySpex sensor (160 spectral bands) and SPOT satellite HRG multispectral data (3 spectral bands). With HySpex spectral/spatial resolution, horizontal oysters in the rocky area were correctly classified but the detection was less efficient for vertical oysters in muddy areas. Poor results were obtained with the multispectral image and from spatially or spectrally degraded HySpex data, it was clear that the spectral resolution was more important than the spatial resolution. In fact, there was a systematic mud deposition on shells of vertical oyster reefs explaining the misclassification of 30% of pixels recognized as mud or microphytobenthos. Spatial distribution maps of oyster reefs were coupled with in situ biomass measurements to illustrate the interest of a remote sensing product to provide stock estimations of wild oyster reefs to be exploited by oyster producers. This work highlights the interest of developing remote sensing techniques for aquaculture applications in coastal

  4. Japanese oysters in Dutch waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den J.B.; Kozyreff, G.; Lin, H.X.; McDarby, J.; Peletier, M.A.; Planqué, R.; Wilson, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Japanese oyster in the Eastern Scheldt it has spread into the Wadden Sea. This growth has a negative impact on the life of various other species in the sea. Seen from a mathematical viewpoint, the biological problem of how to restore the disturbed natural equilibrium

  5. Japanese oysters in Dutch waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den J.B.; Kozyreff, G.; Lin, H.X.; McDarby, J.; Peletier, M.A.; Planqué, R.; Wilson, P.L.; Pik, D.; Rottschäfer, V.

    2004-01-01

    We study a number of aspects of the colonisation of the Eastern Scheldt by the Japanese Oyster. We formulate and analyse some simple models of the spatial spreading, and determine a rough dependence of the spreading behaviour on parameters. We examine the suggestion of reducing salinity by opening

  6. Calculation of Oyster Benefits with a Bioenergetics Model of the Virginia Oyster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    soft tissue, and reproduction. Inorganic carbon incorporated into shell CaCO3 is considered separately. The organic carbon sequestered in biomass ...oyster biomass (dry tissue weight); • oyster age vs. shell length; • standing stock (population and biomass ); • shell accretion rates; • age...that found use in model parameterization and validation included: • individual oyster biomass (dry tissue weight); • oyster age vs. shell length

  7. 78 FR 25484 - License Amendment for Anadarko Petroleum Corporation, Bear Creek Facility, Converse County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Petroleum Corporation, Bear Creek Facility, Converse County, Wyoming AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission.... 47 for its Bear Creek Uranium Mill facility in Converse County, Wyoming. The NRC has prepared an... INFORMATION: I. Background The Bear Creek Uranium Mill operated from September 1977 until January 1986, and...

  8. High pressure inactivation of HAV within oysters: comparison of shucked oysters with whole in shell meats

    Science.gov (United States)

    High pressure inactivation of hepatitis A virus (HAV) within oysters bioaccumulated under simulated natural conditions to levels >106 PFU/oyster has been evaluated. Five min treatments at 20C were administered at 350, 375, and 400 MegaPascals (MPa). Shucked and whole-in-shell oysters were directly...

  9. Composted oyster shell as lime fertilizer is more effective than fresh oyster shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Han; Islam, Shah Md Asraful; Hong, Sun Joo; Cho, Kye Man; Math, Renukaradhya K; Heo, Jae Young; Kim, Hoon; Yun, Han Dae

    2010-01-01

    Physio-chemical changes in oyster shell were examined, and fresh and composted oyster shell meals were compared as lime fertilizers in soybean cultivation. Structural changes in oyster shell were observed by AFM and FE-SEM. We found that grains of the oyster shell surface became smoother and smaller over time. FT-IR analysis indicated the degradation of a chitin-like compound of oyster shell. In chemical analysis, pH (12.3+/-0.24), electrical conductivity (4.1+/-0.24 dS m(-1)), and alkaline powder (53.3+/-1.12%) were highest in commercial lime. Besides, pH was higher in composted oyster shell meal (9.9+/-0.53) than in fresh oyster shell meal (8.4+/-0.32). The highest organic matter (1.1+/-0.08%), NaCl (0.54+/-0.03%), and moisture (15.1+/-1.95%) contents were found in fresh oyster shell meal. A significant higher yield of soybean (1.33 t ha(-1)) was obtained by applying composted oyster shell meal (a 21% higher yield than with fresh oyster shell meal). Thus composting of oyster shell increases the utility of oyster shell as a liming material for crop cultivation.

  10. Noroviruses in oysters from local markets and oyster farms in southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittigul, Leera; Pombubpa, Kannika; Sukonthalux, Suntharee; Rattanatham, Tippawan; Utrarachkij, Fuangfa

    2011-01-01

    One hundred and eighteen oyster samples collected from local markets and oyster farms in southern Thailand were examined for noroviruses (NoVs) and bacterial indicators of fecal contamination (fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli). Using a virus concentration procedure followed by RT-nested PCR, NoVs were detected in 38% of the samples. Oysters collected from oyster farms were found with NoVs at a higher detection rate (25/53 samples) than oysters from local markets (20/65 samples). Of the 45 NoV-positive oyster samples, 67% belonged to NoV genogroup I (GI), 15% to GII, and 18% to both GI and GII. DNA sequencing showed that 2 NoVs belonged to NoV GI-2 genotype. Fecal coliforms in NoV-positive oyster samples were in the range of oyster samples contained fecal coliforms within the standard acceptable level of raw shellfish (oyster samples were within acceptable levels of E. coli contamination (oysters obtained from both markets and oyster farms might pose a potential risk of acute gastroenteritis associated with raw oyster consumption. Examination for both fecal bacterial indicators and enteric viruses should be conducted for microbiological food safety of shellfish.

  11. Undergraduates in the lab: Analyzing metal and organic contaminants in oysters and sediments from southeastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, R. N.; Kipp, L. E.; Liberatore, H.; Sherard, S.; Steagall, M.; Skrabal, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    A state-funded project to analyze a suite of metal and organic contaminants in oyster tissues and ambient sediments was carried out nearly exclusively by over 10 undergraduates at the University of North Carolina Wilmington. This study will present Concentrations of various trace metals (most notably arsenic, copper, mercury, and zinc) and organic contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the antibacterial, triclosan) have been determined in oyster tissues and adjacent sediments in New Hanover and Brunswick counties, southeastern North Carolina. Trace metals that exceeded national median levels at multiple sites in this study included arsenic, copper, and zinc. Elevated levels of arsenic (exceeding the national median and, often, the national 85th percentiles) in oyster tissues are characteristic of much of the southeastern United States; these elevations are attributed to high natural background levels in the underlying bedrock and sediments as well as historical contamination by arsenic-containing agricultural pesticides. Another metal of national concern is mercury; however, concentrations of this metal were mostly at the national median for oyster tissue. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) barely exceeded or were near the national median at only 3 sites, 2 in Lockwood Folly estuary, Brunswick County and 1 at Bradley Creek, New Hanover County. Concentrations at the remaining sites were 4 to >10 times less than the national median. Triclosan, an antibacterial compound used in many consumer products, was found in oyster tissues and sediments at the 4 sites at which it was examined. Oyster tissues contained triclosan at levels 2 to 43 times as high as adjacent sediments, indicating its bioaccumulation potential. Levels of metals and PAHs in oyster tissues are consistently elevated near more urbanized areas but are unlikely to be at levels harmful for human consumption.

  12. Steel Creek water quality: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, November 1985--December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, J.A.; Kretchmer, D.W.; Chimney, M.J.

    1992-04-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in west-central South Carolina. The Savannah River forms the western boundary of the site. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. All but Upper Three Runs Creek receive, or in the past received, thermal effluents from nuclear production reactors. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor, and protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet envirorunental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and complements the Biological Monitoring Program for L Lake. This extensive program was implemented to address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems

  13. Pacific oyster culture in British Columbia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quayle, D. B; Quayle, Daniel Branch

    1988-01-01

    .... Harvesting, processing, and storage methods are described. The problems of Pacific oyster culture include industrial and sewage pollution, paralytic shellfish poisoning along with predators and disease...

  14. The hot oyster: levels of virulent Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains in individual oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Savannah L; Lovell, Charles R

    2017-02-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-associated gastroenteritis and is most commonly transmitted by raw oysters. Consequently, detection of virulent strains of this organism in oysters is a primary concern for seafood safety. Vibrio parahaemolyticus levels were determined in 110 individual oysters harvested from two sampling sites in SC, USA. The majority of oysters (98%) contained low levels of presumptive V. parahaemolyticus However, two healthy oysters contained presumptive V. parahaemolyticus numbers that were unusually high. These two 'hot' oysters contained levels of presumptive V. parahaemolyticus within the gills that were ∼100-fold higher than the average for other oysters collected at the same date and location. Current V. parahaemolyticus detection practices require homogenizing a dozen oysters pooled together to determine V. parahaemolyticus numbers, a procedure that would dilute out V. parahaemolyticus in these 'hot' oysters. This study demonstrates the variability of V. parahaemolyticus densities taken from healthy, neighboring individual oysters in the environment. Additionally, environmental V parahaemolyticus isolates were screened for the virulence-related genes, tdh and trh, using improved polymerase chain reaction primers and protocols. We detected these genes, previously thought to be rare in environmental isolates, in approximately half of the oyster isolates. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Mapping Oyster Reef Habitats in Mobile Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Oyster reefs around the world are declining rapidly, and although they haven t received as much attention as coral reefs, they are just as important to their local ecosystems and economies. Oyster reefs provide habitats for many species of fish, invertebrates, and crustaceans, as well as the next generations of oysters. Oysters are also harvested from many of these reefs and are an important segment of many local economies, including that of Mobile Bay, where oysters rank in the top five commercial marine species both by landed weight and by dollar value. Although the remaining Mobile Bay oyster reefs are some of the least degraded in the world, projected climate change could have dramatic effects on the health of these important ecosystems. The viability of oyster reefs depends on water depth and temperature, appropriate pH and salinity levels, and the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water. Projected increases in sea level, changes in precipitation and runoff patterns, and changes in pH resulting from increases in the amount of carbon dioxide dissolved in the oceans could all affect the viability of oyster reefs in the future. Human activities such as dredging and unsustainable harvesting practices are also adversely impacting the oyster reefs. Fortunately, several projects are already under way to help rebuild or support existing or previously existing oyster reefs. The success of these projects will depend on the local effects of climate change on the current and potential habitats and man s ability to recognize and halt unsustainable harvesting practices. As the extent and health of the reefs changes, it will have impacts on the Mobile Bay ecosystem and economy, changing the resources available to the people who live there and to the rest of the country, since Mobile Bay is an important national source of seafood. This project identified potential climate change impacts on the oyster reefs of Mobile Bay, including the possible addition of newly viable

  16. 21 CFR 161.130 - Oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... water. Before packing into the containers for shipment or other delivery for consumption the oysters are... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.130 Oysters. (a...

  17. Sensitivity of oysters (Crassostrea Brasiliana) to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattiolo Marchese, S.R.; Mastro, N.L. del

    1997-01-01

    Various foods including oysters, crabs and shrimps have been shown to be possible transmitters of Vibrio ssp. Irradiation of sea-foods is being considered an alternative to intervention measures in Public Health against food borne diseases. The aim of this work was to establish, the radiation resistance of the oysters Crassostrea brasiliana. The oysters were irradiated with Co-60 radiation with doses of 0, 1.5, 3 and 6 kGy. Survival curves as a function of time showed that 100% of the oysters irradiated with doses of 3 kGy survived at least 6 days. 100% those irradiated with 6 kGy survived 3 days. The obtained results are auspicious considering that a dose of 2 kGy is already effective in the diminishing of the microbial load on oysters. (author)

  18. Sensory and Chemical Characteristics of Eastern Oysters(Crassostrea virginica)

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Luman

    2011-01-01

    Eastern Oysters, or Crassostrea virginica, are an important dietary component in the Chesapeake region and have supported a major fishery in the Chesapeake for more than 100 years. Virginia oysters do not always receive attention in up-scale markets. It is possible that the lack of information on sensory characteristics of Chesapeake oysters may contribute to this problem. In order to differentiate Chesapeake oysters from other oysters, a descriptive sensory test (n=8) was conducted and chemi...

  19. Papers presented by A.E.C.L. to the International Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-06-01

    The International Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association was held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on May 25-27, 1964. There were six papers presented by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. The titles were: I. Canada - A Nuclear Power Plant Supplier, by J.L. Gray; II. Nuclear Power Development in Canada and Other Countries, by W.B. Lewis; III. The Development and Some Applications of Cobalt-60 Irradiators, by R.F. Errington; IV. The Definition and Achievement of Development Targets for the Canadian Power Reactor Program, by A.J. Mooradian; V. Recent Applications of Tracers in the Physical Sciences in Canada, by R.H. Betts and J.A. Davies; and, VI. Economic Comparison of Oyster Creek, Nine Mile Point and CANDU-type Stations under Canadian Conditions, by G.A. Pon and R.L. Beck.

  20. Uptake of cadmium from Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in British Columbia oyster growers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copes, Ray; Clark, Nina Annika; Rideout, Karen; Palaty, Jan; Teschke, Kay

    2008-01-01

    Background: Pacific oysters along the North American coast from Washington to Alaska contain concentrations of cadmium (Cd) that are high by comparison with Atlantic oysters, frequently exceeding 2 μg/g wet weight, but it is unclear whether this Cd is absorbed by consumers. Objectives: To determine the effect of oyster consumption on Cd in blood and urine among a group with high oyster consumption. Methods: Sixty-one non-smoking oyster growers and family members with a mean age of 47.3±7.6 years (range 33-64) were interviewed by telephone to assess their oyster consumption and other sources of Cd exposure at present and 5 years prior to the start of oyster farming. Their blood and urine Cd concentrations were measured. Results: The geometric mean Cd concentration in blood was 0.83 μg/L and in urine was 0.76 μg/g creatinine. Thirty-six percent of participants had urinary Cd levels above 1 μg/g creatinine and 5% were above 2 μg/g creatinine. Recent (last 12 months) and long-term oyster consumptions were positive predictors of blood Cd but did not directly predict urinary Cd. The optimal model for predicting the variance in blood Cd included recent intake of oyster-derived Cd, serum iron concentration and recent ketchup consumption (R 2 =0.34, p=0.00004), with the latter two variables showing a protective effect. The factors found to predict urinary Cd were blood Cd concentration and duration of oyster farming. A rise in blood Cd was observed after 12 years of farming oysters, likely caused by higher consumption of oysters during this period. Conclusions: Oyster-derived Cd is bioavailable and affects body stores of the metal

  1. Big Creek Pit Tags

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The BCPITTAGS database is used to store data from an Oncorhynchus mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) population dynamics study in Big Creek, a coastal stream along the...

  2. Feeding traits of the European flat oyster, Ostrea edulis, and the invasive Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette; Hansen, Benni Winding; Vismann, Bent

    2017-01-01

    Two oysters, the native flat oyster, Ostrea edulis, and the non-indigenous Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, have partially overlapping distributions in European waters. Relatively little is known about particle selection by O. edulis, and the goal of the present study was to establish baselines...... for particle selection by both oyster species under controlled conditions in the laboratory. The study was carried out with adult oysters of similar shell size collected in the Limfjord estuary, Denmark (56°47′N, 08°51′E), in November 2011. The feeding traits of both species [clearance rate (CR), retention...... efficiency (RE) and lower threshold for clearance (LTC)] were compared using five algal species with different cell sizes (5−32 µm ESD) (Isochrysis galbana, Rhodomonas salina, Thalassiosira weissflogii, Prorocentrum micans and Akashiwo sanguinea). Oysters were acclimated to an experimental temperature of 22...

  3. Henretta Creek reclamation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pumphrey, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Teck Coal Ltd. operates 6 open-pit coal mines, of which 5 are located in the Elk Valley in southeastern British Columbia. The Fording River Operations (FRO) began in 1971 in mining areas in Eagle Mountain, Turnbull Mountain and Henretta Valley. The recovery of approximately 5 million tons of coal from the Henretta Creek Valley posed significant challenges to mine planners, hydrologists and environmental experts because the coal had to be recovered from the valley flanks and also from under the main valley floor, on which the fish-bearing Henretta Creek runs. The Henretta Dragline Mining project was described along with the water control structures and fisheries management efforts for the cutthroat trout. A detailed Environmental Impact Assessment and Stage 1 mining report for the Henretta Valley area was completed in December 1990. FRO was granted a mining and reclamation permit in 1991. A temporary relocation of 1,270 metres was required in in April 1997 in order to enable mining on both sides and below the creek bed. Among the innovative construction techniques was a diversion of Henretta Creek through large diameter steel culverts and a specialized crossing of the creek to allow fish passage. The first water flowed through the reclaimed Henretta Creek channel in late 1998 and the first high flow occurred in the spring of 2000. Teck coal FRO then launched an annual fish and fish habitat monitoring program which focused on the Henretta Creek Reclaimed Channel and Henretta Lake. This document presented the results from the final year, 2006, and a summary of the 7 year aquatic monitoring program. It was concluded that from mining through to reclamation, the Henretta project shows the commitment and success of mining and reclamation practices at Teck Coal. Indicators of the project's success include riparian zone vegetation, fisheries re-establishment, aquatic communities and habitat utilization by terrestrial and avian species. 33 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Vegetation - Pine Creek WA and Fitzhugh Creek WA [ds484

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This fine-scale vegetation classification and map of the Pine Creek and Fitzhugh Creek Wildlife Areas, Modoc County, California was created following FGDC and...

  5. Enhancing professionalism at GPU nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coe, R.P.; Landy, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Late in 1988, GPU Nuclear embarked on a major program aimed at enhancing Professionalism at its Oyster Creek and Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Stations. The program was also to include its Corporate Headquarters in Parsippany, New Jersey. The overall program was to take several directions which included on-site degree programs, a sabbatical leave-type program for personnel to finish college degrees, advanced technical training for licensed staff, career progression for SROs and expanded teamwork and leadership training for control room crews. The largest portion of this initiative was the development and delivery of professionalism training to the nearly two thousand people at both sites. Three primary philosophies guided the development of the program. Employees as Experts: First, GPU Nuclear employees were considered to be the most valuable source of information for designing a Professionalism program because it is these individuals who are sensitive to the issues encountered in the workplace. Realism: The second philosophy guiding this effort was that the program must be grounded in real life challenges that employees face and must address. Active Learning: The third guiding philosophy was that, in order to have any real impact on the way employees think about professionalism, the program must utilize active rather than passive learning techniques

  6. Oyster Reef Projects 1997-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We used a quantitative sampling device to compare nekton use among high-relief live oyster reef, vegetated marsh edge Spartina alterniflora, and nonvegetated bottom...

  7. Norwalk virus gastroenteritis following raw oyster consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, R A; Janowski, H T; Lieb, S; Prather, E C; Greenberg, H B

    1982-03-01

    In January, 1980, six out of 13 persons (46%) attending a party in a small northwest Florida town near the Gulf of Mexico became ill with Norwalk virus gastroenteritis after eating raw oysters. Symptoms experienced by the ill persons were principally nausea (100%), vomiting (83%) and diarrhea (50%) and were of brief duration. The symptom complex and epidemiology of Norwalk virus infection closely resemble the gastrointestinal illness commonly referred to as the 24-hour intestinal flu or "stomach flu." Norwalk virus infection was identified in this outbreak by application of a recently developed sensitive and specific serologic radioimmunoassay. Oysters from the incriminated batch had fecal coliform levels above recommended standards; however, recent studies of oyster-harvesting waters have shown only a weak correlation between fecal coliforms and the presence of enteric viruses. Further studies are needed to determine whether modifications of monitoring modalities for oyster-harvesting waters are needed.

  8. Survival of Salmonella Newport in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Christopher M; Armstrong, Alexandra E; Evans, Sanford; Mild, Rita M; Langdon, Christopher J; Joens, Lynn A

    2011-08-02

    Salmonella enterica is the leading cause of laboratory-confirmed foodborne illness in the United States and raw shellfish consumption is a commonly implicated source of gastrointestinal pathogens. A 2005 epidemiological study done in our laboratory by Brands et al., showed that oysters in the United States are contaminated with Salmonella, and in particular, a specific strain of the Newport serovar. This work sought to further investigate the host-microbe interactions between Salmonella Newport and oysters. A procedure was developed to reliably and repeatedly expose oysters to enteric bacteria and quantify the subsequent levels of bacterial survival. The results show that 10 days after an exposure to Salmonella Newport, an average concentration of 3.7 × 10(3)CFU/g remains within the oyster meat, and even after 60 days there still can be more than 10(2)CFU/g remaining. However, the strain of Newport that predominated in the market survey done by Brands et al. does not survive within oysters or the estuarine environment better than any other strains of Salmonella we tested. Using this same methodology, we compared Salmonella Newport's ability to survive within oysters to a non-pathogenic strain of E. coli and found that after 10 days the concentration of Salmonella was 200-times greater than that of E. coli. We also compared those same strains of Salmonella and E. coli in a depuration process to determine if a constant 120 L/h flux of clean seawater could significantly reduce the concentration of bacteria within oysters and found that after 3 days the oysters retained over 10(4)CFU/g of Salmonella while the oysters exposed to the non-pathogenic strain of E. coli contained 100-times less bacteria. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that any of the clinically relevant serovars of Salmonella can survive within oysters for significant periods of time after just one exposure event. Based on the drastic differences in survivability between Salmonella and a non

  9. Immunochromatographic assay of cadmium levels in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Kosuke; Kim, In-Hae; Itai, Takaaki; Sugahara, Takuya; Takeyama, Haruko; Ohkawa, Hideo

    2012-08-15

    Oysters are one of foodstuffs containing a relatively high amount of cadmium. Here we report on establishment of an immunochromatographic assay (ICA) method of cadmium levels in oysters. Cadmium was extracted with 0.l mol L(-1) HCl from oysters and cleaned up from other metals by the use of an anion-exchange column. The behavior of five metals Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd was monitored at each step of extraction and clean-up procedure for the ICA method in an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. The results revealed that a simple extraction method with the HCl solution was efficient enough to extract almost all of cadmium from oysters. Clean-up with an anion-exchange column presented almost no loss of cadmium adsorbed on the column and an efficient removal of metals other than cadmium. When a spiked recovery test was performed in the ICA method, the recovery ranged from 98% to 112% with relative standard deviations between 5.9% and 9.2%. The measured values of cadmium in various oyster samples in the ICA method were favorably correlated with those in ICP-MS analysis (r(2)=0.97). Overall results indicate that the ICA method established in the present study is an adequate and reliable detection method for cadmium levels in oysters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermoluminescence analysis of irradiated oyster shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Marcazzó, J.; Della Monaca, S.; Boniglia, C.; Gargiulo, R.; Bortolin, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the thermoluminescence (TL) analysis performed on the oyster shells powder. TL response of 60 Co gamma-rays irradiated samples were studied in the range from 80 Gy to 8 kGy doses. TL signal of irradiated shell powder was higher as compared to the unirradiated control samples, which allowed to identify the irradiated oysters. Results show that the oyster shells have good TL properties and can be useful for the identification of irradiated seafood as well as for the evaluation of the treatment dose. - Highlights: ► TL properties of irradiated oyster shell powder were studied. ► The SEM analysis shows that several elements are present in oyster shell powder. ► Calcite is the main component in the samples and β-calcite is also present. ► Following the European Standard EN 1788, the irradiated oyster can be identified. ► Determination of absorbed dose is possible by performing a preheat treatment.

  11. Oyster Reef Communities in the Chesapeake Bay: A Brief Primer. VORTEX: Virginia's Oyster Reef Teaching EXperience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Juliana M.; Mann, Roger; Clark, Vicki P.

    This document introduces Virginia's Oyster Reef Teaching EXperience (VORTEX), which is an interdisciplinary program focusing on the importance of oyster reef communities in the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. The VORTEX program uses field and laboratory experience supported by multimedia instruction. This document presents an overview on the biology of…

  12. 78 FR 47427 - AUC, LLC Reno Creek, In Situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 040-09092; NRC-2013-0164] AUC, LLC Reno Creek, In Situ... October 3, 2012, AUC submitted a license application to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC... provided the first time that a document is referenced. The AUC License Application request and additional...

  13. Effect of oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus ostreatus ) mycelia on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus ostreatus ) mycelia on petroleum ... of chains of hydrocarbon in a petroleum-hydrocarbon-contaminated substrate over time. ... Keywords: Mycoremediation, Mycelia, Contaminated Soil, Oyster Mushroom ...

  14. INFLUENCE OF ALTERED FRESHWATER FLOWS ON EASTERN OYSTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract for National Shellfisheries AssociationEastern oysters Crassostrea virginica are prominent in Gulf of Mexico estuaries. Valued both commercially and ecologically, oyster populations are threatened by human activity, including dredging, harvesting, and upstream al...

  15. Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) cultivation technique using re ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-08-31

    Aug 31, 2014 ... using re-usable substrate containers and comparison of ... oyster mushrooms in combination with other vegetables complements availability of various essential ..... higher than from oyster mushrooms produced from any.

  16. Transcriptional changes in oysters Crassostrea brasiliana exposed to phenanthrene at different salinities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacchi, Flávia Lucena; Lima, Daína; Flores-Nunes, Fabrício de; Mattos, Jacó Joaquim; Lüchmann, Karim Hahn; Araújo de Miranda Gomes, Carlos Henrique; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Taniguchi, Satie; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou; Dias Bainy, Afonso Celso

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Salinity effect on Crassostrea brasiliana exposed to phenanthrene. • Higher transcription of biotransformation genes under hyposmotic condition. • Elevated transcription of oxidative stress-related genes under hyposmotic condition. • Amino acid metabolism-related genes changes according to salinity. • Phenanthrene does not affect amino acid metabolism-related genes. - Abstract: Euryhaline animals from estuaries, such as the oyster Crassostrea brasiliana, show physiological mechanisms of adaptation to tolerate salinity changes. These ecosystems receive constant input of xenobiotics from urban areas, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as phenanthrene (PHE). In order to understand the influence of salinity on the molecular responses of C. brasiliana exposed to PHE, oysters were acclimatized to different salinities (35, 25 and 10) for 15 days and then exposed to 100 μg L"−"1 PHE for 24 h and 96 h. Control groups were kept at the same salinities without PHE. Oysters were sampled for chemical analysis and the gills were excised for mRNA quantification by qPCR. Transcript levels of different genes were measured, including some involved in oxidative stress pathways, phases I and II of the xenobiotic biotransformation systems, amino acid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator putative gene. Higher transcript levels of Sulfotransferase-like gene (SULT-like) were observed in oysters exposed to PHE at salinity 10 compared to control (24 h and 96 h); cytochrome P450 isoforms (CYP2AU1, CYP2-like1) were more elevated in oysters exposed for 24 h and CYP2-like2 after 96 h of oysters exposed to PHE at salinity 10 compared to control. These results are probably associated to an enhanced Phase I biotransformation activity required for PHE detoxification under hyposmotic stress. Higher transcript levels of CAT-like, SOD-like, GSTm-like (96 h) and GSTΩ-like (24 h) in oysters kept at salinity

  17. Transcriptional changes in oysters Crassostrea brasiliana exposed to phenanthrene at different salinities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacchi, Flávia Lucena; Lima, Daína; Flores-Nunes, Fabrício de [Laboratory of Biomarkers of Aquatic Contamination and Immunochemistry − LABCAI, Federal University Santa Catarina, Florianópolis (Brazil); Mattos, Jacó Joaquim [Aquaculture Pathology Research Center – NEPAQ, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis (Brazil); Lüchmann, Karim Hahn [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology – LBBM, Fishery Engineering Department, Santa Catarina State University, Laguna (Brazil); Araújo de Miranda Gomes, Carlos Henrique [Laboratory of Marine Mollusks – LMM, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis (Brazil); Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Taniguchi, Satie; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou [Laboratory of Marine Organic Chemistry – LABQOM, Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Dias Bainy, Afonso Celso, E-mail: afonso.bainy@ufsc.br [Laboratory of Biomarkers of Aquatic Contamination and Immunochemistry − LABCAI, Federal University Santa Catarina, Florianópolis (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Salinity effect on Crassostrea brasiliana exposed to phenanthrene. • Higher transcription of biotransformation genes under hyposmotic condition. • Elevated transcription of oxidative stress-related genes under hyposmotic condition. • Amino acid metabolism-related genes changes according to salinity. • Phenanthrene does not affect amino acid metabolism-related genes. - Abstract: Euryhaline animals from estuaries, such as the oyster Crassostrea brasiliana, show physiological mechanisms of adaptation to tolerate salinity changes. These ecosystems receive constant input of xenobiotics from urban areas, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as phenanthrene (PHE). In order to understand the influence of salinity on the molecular responses of C. brasiliana exposed to PHE, oysters were acclimatized to different salinities (35, 25 and 10) for 15 days and then exposed to 100 μg L{sup −1} PHE for 24 h and 96 h. Control groups were kept at the same salinities without PHE. Oysters were sampled for chemical analysis and the gills were excised for mRNA quantification by qPCR. Transcript levels of different genes were measured, including some involved in oxidative stress pathways, phases I and II of the xenobiotic biotransformation systems, amino acid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator putative gene. Higher transcript levels of Sulfotransferase-like gene (SULT-like) were observed in oysters exposed to PHE at salinity 10 compared to control (24 h and 96 h); cytochrome P450 isoforms (CYP2AU1, CYP2-like1) were more elevated in oysters exposed for 24 h and CYP2-like2 after 96 h of oysters exposed to PHE at salinity 10 compared to control. These results are probably associated to an enhanced Phase I biotransformation activity required for PHE detoxification under hyposmotic stress. Higher transcript levels of CAT-like, SOD-like, GSTm-like (96 h) and GSTΩ-like (24 h) in oysters kept at

  18. Flat oysters in the Eierlandse Gat, Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, van der T.M.; Kamermans, P.; Zee, van der E.M.

    2018-01-01

    This report presents the results of a short survey of flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) in the Western Wadden Sea. Ten sites were visited and flat oysters were found on nine locations in the Eijerlandse gat. Empty cockleshells and live and dead Pacific oysters provided the main settlement substrate. The

  19. Pyrosequencing Analysis of Norovirus Genogroup II Distribution in Sewage and Oysters: First Detection of GII.17 Kawasaki 2014 in Oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Jian; Kazama, Shinobu; Miura, Takayuki; Azraini, Nabila Dhyan; Konta, Yoshimitsu; Ito, Hiroaki; Ueki, You; Cahyaningrum, Ermaya Eka; Omura, Tatsuo; Watanabe, Toru

    2016-12-01

    Norovirus GII.3, GII.4, and GII.17 were detected using pyrosequencing in sewage and oysters in January and February 2015, in Japan. The strains in sewage and oyster samples were genetically identical or similar, predominant strains belonging to GII.17 Kawasaki 2014 lineage. This is the first report of GII.17 Kawasaki 2014 in oysters.

  20. Pine Creek uranium province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, M.B.; Needham, R.S.; Page, R.W.; Stuart-Smith, P.G.; Wyborn, L.A.I.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this project is to help establish a sound geological framework of the Pine Creek region through regional geological, geochemical and geophysical studies. Uranium ore at the Coronation Hill U-Au mine is confined to a wedge of conglomerate in faulted contact with altered volcanics. The uranium, which is classified as epigenetic sandstone type, is derived from a uranium-enriched felsic volcanic source

  1. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in Oysters in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Brands, Danielle A.; Inman, Allison E.; Gerba, Charles P.; Maré, C. John; Billington, Stephen J.; Saif, Linda A.; Levine, Jay F.; Joens, Lynn A.

    2005-01-01

    Food-borne diseases such as salmonellosis can be attributed, in part, to the consumption of raw oysters. To determine the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in oysters, oysters harvested from 36 U.S. bays (12 each from the West, East, and Gulf coasts in the summer of 2002, and 12 bays, four per coast, in the winter of 2002-2003) were tested. Salmonella was isolated from oysters from each coast of the United States, and 7.4% of all oysters tested contained Salmonella. Isolation tended to be bay spe...

  2. Utilization following of bioremediation attributes using oyster mushrooms - Pleurotus ostreatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galanda, D.; Matel, L.

    2007-01-01

    The mushrooms are not only rich food products, but also a specific component of forest biogeocenoses playing an important role in their functioning, including radionuclide migration. The reason why fungi work as such good indicators for radioactivity and pollution in general is connected to their structure. Using absorption to obtain their nutrition, fungi lack water-conducting organs like stems and roots. They absorb moisture and nutrients from the soil background through surface cells. Dissolved or airborne materials, which include pollutants, move freely through the compartments of hyphae. What is more, radiation released during nuclear testing or accidents is absorbed, especially in areas where it rained heavily shortly after the incident. The present work is devoted to an estimation of the transfer coefficient between reared oyster mushrooms and their support die, which was injected with known activity of 241 Am and 242 Pu. After 2 months when we get the reared mushrooms of cane oyster mushrooms were dried and prepared by liquid extraction with Aliquat 336. The samples were measured by alpha-spectrometry. The results of activity 241 Am and 242 Pu in the mushrooms body and residual activity in the support was detected and calculated (authors)

  3. Oyster leases in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1997) [oyster_leases_USACE_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set indicates the locations of oyster leases in Louisiana. The lease areas should be polygons, however, the source data has very poor topology including...

  4. Associations between land use and Perkinsus marinus infection of eastern oysters in a high salinity, partially urbanized estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Brian R.; Bushek, David; Drane, J. Wanzer; Porter, Dwayne

    2009-01-01

    Infection levels of eastern oysters by the unicellular pathogen Perkinsus marinus have been associated with anthropogenic influences in laboratory studies. However, these relationships have been difficult to investigate in the field because anthropogenic inputs are often associated with natural influences such as freshwater inflow, which can also affect infection levels. We addressed P. marinus-land use associations using field-collected data from Murrells Inlet, South Carolina, USA, a developed, coastal estuary with relatively minor freshwater inputs. Ten oysters from each of 30 reefs were sampled quarterly in each of 2 years. Distances to nearest urbanized land class and to nearest stormwater outfall were measured via both tidal creeks and an elaboration of Euclidean distance. As the forms of any associations between oyster infection and distance to urbanization were unknown a priori, we used data from the first and second years of the study as exploratory and confirmatory datasets, respectively. With one exception, quarterly land use associations identified using the exploratory dataset were not confirmed using the confirmatory dataset. The exception was an association between the prevalence of moderate to high infection levels in winter and decreasing distance to nearest urban land use. Given that the study design appeared adequate to detect effects inferred from the exploratory dataset, these results suggest that effects of land use gradients were largely insubstantial or were ephemeral with duration less than 3 months.

  5. Judy Creek and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The story of the Pengrowth Energy Trust, a company created in 1988 to provide investors with an opportunity to participate in the oil and gas industry without the higher investment risk associated with exploratory drilling is the vehicle used to provide an overview of the development of the Judy Creek oil field, an historical sketch of Imperial Oil Limited, and of the development of the community of Swan Hills shed, a town carved out of muskeg by early pioneers in 1957-1958. The book is replete with anecdotes and photographs, depicting the indomitable spirit of the people whose determination and faith made the development of the oil industry in Alberta possible

  6. INORGANIC ELEMENTS AND DISTRIBUTION OF EASTERN OYSTERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William S. In press. Inorganic Elements and Distribution of Eastern Oysters (Abstract). To be presented at the 96th Annual Meeting (Aquaculture 2004) of the National Shellfisheries Association, 1-5 March 2004, Honolulu, HI. 1 p. (ERL,GB R962). For over a century w...

  7. Oyster mycelium on the liquid medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Gapiński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research presents the results of oyster mycelium growth on the liquid medium. The growth of 4-mycelium genius: Pleurotus citrinopileatus Singer, Pleurotus djamor Fries, Boedjin, Pleurotus erynii Fr. Kumm. and Pleurotus precoce Fr. Quel was tested. The quality and quantity of mycelium was assumed.

  8. Subsurface geology of the Cold Creek syncline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, C.W.; Price, S.M.

    1981-07-01

    Bedrock beneath the Hanford Site is being evaluated by the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) for possible use by the US Department of Energy as a geologic repository for nuclear waste storage. Initial BWIP geologic and hydrologic studies served to determine that the central Hanford Site contains basalt flows with thick, dense interiors that have low porosities and permeabilities. Furthermore, within the Cold Creek syncline, these flows appear to be nearly flat lying across areas in excess of tens of square kilometers. Such flows have been identified as potential repository host rock candidates. The Umtanum flow, which lies from 900 to 1150 m beneath the surface, is currently considered the leading host rock candidate. Within the west-central Cold Creek syncline, a 47-km 2 area designated as the reference repository location (RRL) is currently considered the leading candidate site. The specific purpose of this report is to present current knowledge of stratigraphic, lithologic, and structural factors that directly relate to the suitability of the Umtanum flow within the Cold Creek syncline for use as a nuclear waste repository host rock. The BWIP geologic studies have concentrated on factors that might influence groundwater transport of radionuclides from this flow. These factors include: (1) intraflow structures within the interiors of individual lava flows, (2) interflow zones and flow fronts between adjacent lava flows, and (3) bedrock structures. Data have been obtained primarily through coring and geophysical logging of deep boreholes, petrographic, paleomagnetic, and chemical analysis, seismic-reflection, gravity, and magnetic (ground and multilevel airborne) surveys, and surface mapping. Results included in this document comprise baseline data which will be utilized to prepare a Site Characterization Report as specified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  9. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  10. A microbial spoilage profile of half shell Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Thomas L; Bott, Nathan J; Torok, Valeria A; Percy, Nigel J; Carragher, John F; de Barros Lopes, Miguel A; Kiermeier, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to assess bacterial spoilage of half shell Pacific and Sydney rock oysters during storage using microbial culture and 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. Odour and pH of oyster meats were also investigated. Estimation of microbiological counts by microbial culture highlighted growth of psychrotrophic bacteria. During storage, odour scores (a score describing deterioration of fresh odours where a score of 1 is fresh and 4 is completely spoiled) increased from 1.0 to 3.0 for Pacific oysters and from 1.3 to 3.4 for Sydney rock oysters. pH results obtained for both species fluctuated during storage (range 6.28-6.73) with an overall increase at end of storage. Pyrosequencing revealed that the majority of bacteria at Day 0 represented taxa from amongst the Proteobacteria, Tenericutes and Spirochaetes that have not been cultured and systematically described. During storage, Proteobacteria became abundant with Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio found to be dominant in both oyster species at Day 7. Analysis of the pyrosequencing data showed significant differences in bacterial profiles between oyster species and storage time (both P = 0.001). As oysters spoiled, bacterial profiles between oyster species became more similar indicating a common spoilage profile. Data presented here provides detailed insight into the changing bacterial profile of shucked oysters during storage and has identified two genera, Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio, as being important in spoilage of shucked oysters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Managing the nation's nuclear waste. Site descriptions: Cypress Creek, Davis Canyon, Deaf Smith, Hanford Reference, Lavender Canyon, Richton Dome, Swisher, Vacherie Dome, and Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    In 1982, the Congress enacted the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Public Law 97-425), which established a comprehensive national program directed toward siting, constructing, and operating geologic repositories for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. In February 1983, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) identified the nine referenced repository locations as potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository. These sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories. The DOE findings and determinations are based on the evaluations contained in the draft Environmental Assessments (EA). A final EA will be prepared after considering the comments received on the draft EA. The purpose of this document is to provide the public with specific site information on each potential repository location

  12. OYSTER POPULATUION ESTIMATION IN SUPPORT OF THE TEN-YEAR GOAL FOR OYSTER RESOTRATION IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY: DEVELOPING STRATEGIES FOR RESTORING AND MANAGING THE EASTERN OYSTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Roger, Steve Jordan, Gary Smith, Kennedy Paynter, James Wesson, Mary Christman, Jessica Vanisko, Juliana Harding, Kelly Greenhawk and Melissa Southworth. 2003. Oyster Population Estimation in Support of the Ten-Year Goal for Oyster Restoration in the Chesapeake Bay: Develop...

  13. Immune and stress responses in oysters with insights on adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ximing; He, Yan; Zhang, Linlin; Lelong, Christophe; Jouaux, Aude

    2015-09-01

    Oysters are representative bivalve molluscs that are widely distributed in world oceans. As successful colonizers of estuaries and intertidal zones, oysters are remarkably resilient against harsh environmental conditions including wide fluctuations in temperature and salinity as well as prolonged air exposure. Oysters have no adaptive immunity but can thrive in microbe-rich estuaries as filter-feeders. These unique adaptations make oysters interesting models to study the evolution of host-defense systems. Recent advances in genomic studies including sequencing of the oyster genome have provided insights into oyster's immune and stress responses underlying their amazing resilience. Studies show that the oyster genomes are highly polymorphic and complex, which may be key to their resilience. The oyster genome has a large gene repertoire that is enriched for immune and stress response genes. Thousands of genes are involved in oyster's immune and stress responses, through complex interactions, with many gene families expanded showing high sequence, structural and functional diversity. The high diversity of immune receptors and effectors may provide oysters with enhanced specificity in immune recognition and response to cope with diverse pathogens in the absence of adaptive immunity. Some members of expanded immune gene families have diverged to function at different temperatures and salinities or assumed new roles in abiotic stress response. Most canonical innate immunity pathways are conserved in oysters and supported by a large number of diverse and often novel genes. The great diversity in immune and stress response genes exhibited by expanded gene families as well as high sequence and structural polymorphisms may be central to oyster's adaptation to highly stressful and widely changing environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Exploring Proteomic Variation in Pacific Oysters (Crassostrea gigas)

    OpenAIRE

    Venkataraman, Yaamini

    2017-01-01

    150 sibling Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) were outplanted at five different sites around Puget Sound. Oysters were placed in exclusion cages either inside or outside of eelgrass beds. After a month of environmental exposure, gill tissue samples were collected for proteomic analyses. Initial DIA mass spectrometry methods on a subset of oysters (one per site and eelgrass condition, 10 total) provide data for upwards of 6,000 proteins. A subset of stress-related proteins reveal site-specif...

  15. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in oysters in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Danielle A; Inman, Allison E; Gerba, Charles P; Maré, C John; Billington, Stephen J; Saif, Linda A; Levine, Jay F; Joens, Lynn A

    2005-02-01

    Food-borne diseases such as salmonellosis can be attributed, in part, to the consumption of raw oysters. To determine the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in oysters, oysters harvested from 36 U.S. bays (12 each from the West, East, and Gulf coasts in the summer of 2002, and 12 bays, four per coast, in the winter of 2002-2003) were tested. Salmonella was isolated from oysters from each coast of the United States, and 7.4% of all oysters tested contained Salmonella. Isolation tended to be bay specific, with some bays having a high prevalence of Salmonella, while other bays had none. Differences in the percentage of oysters from which Salmonella was isolated were observed between the summer and winter months, with winter numbers much lower probably due to a variety of weather-related events. The vast majority (78/101) of Salmonella isolates from oysters were Salmonella enterica serovar Newport, a major human pathogen, confirming the human health hazard of raw oyster consumption. Contrary to previous findings, no relationship was found between the isolation of fecal coliforms and Salmonella from oysters, indicating a necessity for specific monitoring for Salmonella and other pathogens rather than the current reliance on fecal coliform testing.

  16. Fluxomics of the Eastern Oyster for Environmental Stress Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey P. Tikunov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The metabolism of 2-13C/15N-glycine and U-13C-glucose was determined in four tissue blocks (adductor muscle, stomach and digestive gland, mantle, and gills of the Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica using proton (1H and carbon-13 (13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. The oysters were treated in aerated seawater with three treatments (5.5 mM U-13C-glucose, 2.7 mM 2-13C/15N-glycine, and 5.5 mM U-13C-glucose plus 2.7 mM 2-13C/15N-glycine and the relative mass balance and 13C fractional enrichments were determined in the four tissue blocks. In all tissues, glycine was metabolized by the glycine cycle forming serine exclusively in the mitochondria by the glycine cleavage system forming 2,3-13C-serine. In muscle, a minor amount of serine-derived pyruvate entered the Krebs cycle as substantiated by detection of a trace of 2,3-13C-aspartate. In all tissues, U-13C-glucose formed glycogen by glycogen synthesis, alanine by glycolysis, and glutamate and aspartate through the Krebs cycle. Alanine was formed exclusively from glucose via alanine transaminase and not glycine via alanine-glyoxylate transaminase. Based on isotopomer analysis, pyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate dehydrogenase appeared to be equal points for pyruvate entry into the Krebs cycle. In the 5.5 mM U-13C-glucose plus 2.7 mM 2-13C/15N-glycine emergence treatment used to simulate 12 h of “low tide”, oysters accumulated more 13C-labeled metabolites, including both anaerobic glycolytic and aerobic Krebs cycle intermediates. The aerobic metabolites could be the biochemical result of the gaping behavior of mollusks during emergence. The change in tissue distribution and mass balance of 13C-labeled nutrients (U-13C-glucose and 2-13C/15N-glycine provides the basis for a new quantitative fluxomic method for elucidating sub-lethal environmental effects in marine organisms called whole body mass balance phenotyping (WoMBaP.

  17. Bridge Creek IMW database - Bridge Creek Restoration and Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The incised and degraded habitat of Bridge Creek is thought to be limiting a population of ESA-listed steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A logical restoration approach...

  18. Temperature-dependent stress response in oysters, Crassostrea virginica: Pollution reduces temperature tolerance in oysters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lannig, Gisela; Flores, Jason F.; Sokolova, Inna M.

    2006-01-01

    Combined effects of temperature and a toxic metal, cadmium (Cd), on energy metabolism were studied in a model marine bivalve, the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, acclimated at 20, 24 and 28 deg. C and exposed to 50 μg l -1 of Cd. Both increasing temperature and Cd exposure led to a rise in standard metabolic rates, and combined stressors appeared to override the capability for aerobic energy production resulting in impaired stress tolerance. Oysters exposed to elevated temperature but not Cd showed no significant change in condition, survival rate and lipid peroxidation, whereas those exposed to both Cd and temperature stress suffered high mortality accompanied by low condition index and elevated lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, RNA/DNA ratios indicative of protein synthesis rate, and levels of glutathione, which is involved in metal detoxification, increased in Cd-exposed oysters at 20 deg. C but not at 28 deg. C. Implications of the synergism between elevated temperatures and cadmium stress on energy metabolism of oysters are discussed in the light of the potential effects of climate change on oyster populations in polluted areas

  19. A holistic approach to taxonomic evaluation of two closely related endangered freshwater mussel species, the oyster mussel Epioblasma capsaeformis and tan riffleshell Epioblasma florentina walkeri (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.W.; Neves, R.J.; Ahlstedt, S.A.; Hallerman, E.M.

    2006-01-01

    Species in the genus Epioblasma have specialized life history requirements and represent the most endangered genus of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) in the world. A genetic characterization of extant populations of the oyster mussel E. capsaeformis and tan riffleshell E. florentina walkeri sensu late was conducted to assess taxonomic validity and to resolve conservation issues for recovery planning. These mussel species exhibit pronounced phenotypic variation, but were difficult to characterize phylogenetically using DNA sequences. Monophyletic lineages, congruent with phenotypic variation among species, were obtained only after extensive analysis of combined mitochondrial (1396 bp of 16S, cytochrome-b, and ND1) and nuclear (515 bp of ITS-1) DNA sequences. In contrast, analysis of variation at 10 hypervariable DNA microsatellite loci showed moderately to highly diverged populations based on FST and R ST values, which ranged from 0.12 to 0.39 and 0.15 to 0.71, respectively. Quantitative variation between species was observed in fish-host specificity, with transformation success of glochidia of E. capsaeformis significantly greater (P<0.05) on greenside darter Etheostoma blennioides, and that of E. f. walkeri significantly greater (P<0.05) on fantail darter Etheostoma flabellare. Lengths of glochidia differed significantly (P<0.001) among species and populations, with mean sizes ranging from 241 to 272 ??m. The texture and colour of the mantle-pad of E. capsaeformis sensu stricto is smooth and bluish-white, whereas that of E. f. walkeri is pustuled and brown, with tan mottling. Based on extensive molecular, morphological and life history data, the population of E. capsaeformis from the Duck River, Tennessee, USA is proposed as a separate species, and the population of E. f. walkeri from Indian Creek, upper Clinch River, Virginia, USA is proposed as a distinct subspecies.

  20. Tidal Creek Sentinel Habitat Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ecological Research, Assessment and Prediction's Tidal Creeks: Sentinel Habitat Database was developed to support the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  1. Eating oysters without risk of vibriosis: application of a bacteriophage against Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jin Woo; Kim, Hyoun Joong; Yun, Sae Kil; Chai, Ji Young; Park, Se Chang

    2014-10-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a major cause of foodborne illness and related with the consumption of raw contaminated seafood, especially oysters. To evaluate the effectiveness of various applications of a bacteriophage (phage), pVp-1, against a multiple-antibiotic-resistant V. parahaemolyticus pandemic strain (CRS 09-17), we designed artificial contamination models that are most likely to be encountered during oyster processing. When live oysters were treated with bath immersion with pVp-1 after CRS 09-17 challenge, the growth of bacterial strain was significantly reduced. After 72h of phage application with bath immersion, bacterial growth reduction was observed to be 8.9×10(6)CFU/ml (control group) to 1.4×10CFU/ml (treatment group). When pVp-1 was surface-applied on the flesh of oysters after CRS 09-17 inoculation, bacterial growth was properly inhibited. After 12h of phage application on the surface of oysters, bacterial growth inhibition was revealed to be 1.44×10(6)CFU/ml (control group) to 1.94CFU/ml (treatment group). This is the first report, to the best of our knowledge, of oyster surface-application of a phage against a multiple-antibiotic-resistant V. parahaemolyticus pandemic strain, and our successful phage application to various situations emphasizes the potential use of the phage to avoid V. parahaemolyticus infection from aquaculture to consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Decontamination of Cuban oysters using irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cisneros Despaigne, E; Leyva Castillo, V; Martinez, L L; Lara Ortiz, C [Instituto de Nutricion e Higiene de los Alimentos (Cuba); Castillo Rodriguez, E [Centro Nacional de Salud Animal (Cuba)

    2001-04-01

    Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) collected on the Cuban coast near Havana were examined for contamination with Vibrio cholerae and other potentially pathogenic Vibrio species. The strains thus isolated were characterized and identified to species following standard methods, and their radiation resistance (D{sub 10}) was determined in pure culture. The Vibrio species most often isolated were V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus and V. Alginolyticus. Representative cultures from each species were later used to inoculate shucked oysters to determine the optimal radiation dose that would ensure elimination of 10{sup 8} colony forming units (CFU)/g. The highest proportion of isolates were identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. algynoliticus. Non-O1 strains of Vibrio cholerae were isolated from 50% of samples, but no V. cholerae O1 was identified. D{sub 10} values calculated for the various strains were low in relation to those in the literature. The radiation dose for decontaminating heavily inoculated (10{sup 8} CFU/g) oysters was 1.2 kGy. (author)

  3. Decontamination of Cuban oysters using irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisneros Despaigne, E.; Leyva Castillo, V.; Martinez, L.L.; Lara Ortiz, C.; Castillo Rodriguez, E.

    2001-01-01

    Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) collected on the Cuban coast near Havana were examined for contamination with Vibrio cholerae and other potentially pathogenic Vibrio species. The strains thus isolated were characterized and identified to species following standard methods, and their radiation resistance (D 10 ) was determined in pure culture. The Vibrio species most often isolated were V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus and V. Alginolyticus. Representative cultures from each species were later used to inoculate shucked oysters to determine the optimal radiation dose that would ensure elimination of 10 8 colony forming units (CFU)/g. The highest proportion of isolates were identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. algynoliticus. Non-O1 strains of Vibrio cholerae were isolated from 50% of samples, but no V. cholerae O1 was identified. D 10 values calculated for the various strains were low in relation to those in the literature. The radiation dose for decontaminating heavily inoculated (10 8 CFU/g) oysters was 1.2 kGy. (author)

  4. The potential of aerial photography for estimating surface areas of intertidal Pacific oyster beds (Crassostrea gigas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kater, B.J.; Baars, J.M.D.D.

    2004-01-01

    Pacific oysters were introduced into the Eastern Scheldt in 1964 for breeding purposes. The first spatfall of wild Pacific oysters was recorded in 1976, and a second larval outburst in 1982 definitely settled wild Pacific oysters in the Eastern Scheldt waters. Oyster beds on intertidal and subtidal

  5. Markers associated with disease resistance in Eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern oyster, Crassostrea viginica, is an economically important aquaculture species in the USA, but production has been impacted by diseases such as dermo and MSX. Efforts have been put into the development of disease-resistant oyster lines using selective breeding techniques. However, these met...

  6. CAN OYSTERS PLAY A ROLE IN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The culinary and commercial value of oysters is widely recognized but, until recently, their ecological importance has been largely overlooked. Field and laboratory studies have begun to explore how filter-feeding and reef building by oysters can influence nutrient cycling, biodi...

  7. Bioimmuring late Cretaceous and Recent oysters : 'A view from within'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt, John W M; Neumann, Christian; Schulp, Anne S.

    2007-01-01

    Being obligate cementers, oysters (Ostreoidea), both fossil and Recent, often yield valuable information on their substrates, whether biotic/ abiotic, perishable or inert. By a process called bioimmuration, oyster shells may preserve lightly or non-calcified sessile organisms already present on the

  8. Cultivation of oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus spp.) on palm oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oyster mushroom is a popular mushroom due to its nutritional, medicinal and potential commercial value. In Malaysia, the fungus is currently cultivated on sawdust and rice husk. In this study, the efficiency of cultivating oyster mushroom was assessed using palm oil mesocarp fibre as a substrate. The experiment consisted ...

  9. Shell Games. VORTEX: Virginia's Oyster Reef Teaching EXperience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Juliana M.; Mann, Roger; Clark, Vicki P.

    This document introduces Virginia's Oyster Reef Teaching EXperience (VORTEX), which is an interdisciplinary program focusing on the importance of oyster reef communities in the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. The VORTEX program uses field and laboratory experiences supported by multimedia instruction. This document presents an overview on the biology of…

  10. Resource potential and status of pearl oyster fishery in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Many cultivable species of pearl oysters are known to occur in the Indo-Australian Archipelago which is an important region in the world distribution of pearl oysters. An account of the development of Indian pearl fisheries that took place over...

  11. Seasonal dynamics and diversity of bacteria in retail oyster tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dapeng; Zhang, Qian; Cui, Yan; Shi, Xianming

    2014-03-03

    Oysters are one of the important vehicles for the transfer of foodborne pathogens. It was reported that bacteria could be bio-accumulated mainly in the gills and digestive glands. In artificially treated oysters, bacterial communities have been investigated by culture-independent methods after harvest. However, little information is available on the seasonal dynamics of bacterial accumulation in retail oyster tissues. In this study, retail oysters were collected from local market in different seasons. The seasonal dynamics and diversity of bacteria in oyster tissues, including the gills, digestive glands and residual tissues, were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). It was interesting that the highest bacterial diversity appeared in the Fall season, not in summer. Our results indicated that Proteobacteria was the predominant member (23/46) in oyster tissues. Our results also suggested that bacterial diversity in gills was higher than that in digestive glands and other tissues. In addition, not all the bacteria collected from surrounding water by gills were transferred to digestive glands. On the other hand, few bacteria were found in oyster tissues except in the gills. Therefore, the gills could be the best candidate target tissue for monitoring of pathogenic bacteria either to human or to oyster. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Macrofauna Settlement on Pearl Oyster Collectors in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Pearl oysters, seed collection, macrofauna, bivalves, settlement, monsoon seasons,. Kenya .... have shown that pearl oyster settlement is higher within calm ...... collectors in the Timor Sea, Northern Australia. J. Shellfish ... systems. Aquaculture, 189: 375-388. Urban, H.J. (2000b): Culture potential of the pearl.

  13. Microcontroller based automatic temperature control for oyster mushroom plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihombing, P.; Astuti, T. P.; Herriyance; Sitompul, D.

    2018-03-01

    In the cultivation of Oyster Mushrooms need special treatment because oyster mushrooms are susceptible to disease. Mushroom growth will be inhibited if the temperature and humidity are not well controlled because temperature and inertia can affect mold growth. Oyster mushroom growth usually will be optimal at temperatures around 22-28°C and humidity around 70-90%. This problem is often encountered in the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. Therefore it is very important to control the temperature and humidity of the room of oyster mushroom cultivation. In this paper, we developed an automatic temperature monitoring tool in the cultivation of oyster mushroom-based Arduino Uno microcontroller. We have designed a tool that will control the temperature and humidity automatically by Android Smartphone. If the temperature increased more than 28°C in the room of mushroom plants, then this tool will turn on the pump automatically to run water in order to lower the room temperature. And if the room temperature of mushroom plants below of 22°C, then the light will be turned on in order to heat the room. Thus the temperature in the room oyster mushrooms will remain stable so that the growth of oyster mushrooms can grow with good quality.

  14. Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek Watershed Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon; Smith, J.G.

    1999-03-01

    Biological monitoring of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, which border the Paducah Site, has been conducted since 1987. Biological monitoring was conducted by University of Kentucky from 1987 to 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 through March 1999. In March 1998, renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permits were issued to the US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Enrichment Corporation. The renewed DOE permit requires that a watershed monitoring program be developed for the Paducah Site within 90 days of the effective date of the renewed permit. This plan outlines the sampling and analysis that will be conducted for the watershed monitoring program. The objectives of the watershed monitoring are to (1) determine whether discharges from the Paducah Site and the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) associated with the Paducah Site are adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assess the ecological health of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, (3) assess the degree to which abatement actions ecologically benefit Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek, (4) provide guidance for remediation, (5) provide an evaluation of changes in potential human health concerns, and (6) provide data which could be used to assess the impact of inadvertent spills or fish kill. According to the cleanup will result in these watersheds [Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks] achieving compliance with the applicable water quality criteria.

  15. Utilization of detrital complexes by the oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosby, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    The contribution of bacteria and nonliving particulate organic matter of detrital complexes to the nutrition of the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica, was investigated in the laboratory under normal feeding conditions. Results indicate the oysters were capable of assimilating crude fiber extracted from 14 C-Spartina alterniflora with an efficiency of approximately 3% and that enteric bacteria did not enhance this process. Less than 1% of an oyster's energetic demands could be met by direct utilization of this substrate, in the Choptank River subestuary of the Chesapeake Bay. The potential contribution of refractory organics to oysters in large salt marshes having crude fiber concentration greater than in the Choptank system, are discussed. The ability of the oyster to utilize 14 C and 15 N from cellulolytic marine bacteria, isolated from a S. alterniflora dominated salt marsh, was also studied

  16. Behavior of pathogenic bacteria in the oyster, Crassostrea commercialis, during depuration, re-laying, and storage.

    OpenAIRE

    Son, N T; Fleet, G H

    1980-01-01

    Oysters (Crassostrea commercials) harvested from major cultivation areas within the state of New South Wales, Australia, were commonly contaminated with low levels of the food-poisoning organisms Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Salmonella was found in oysters on only one occasion. These bacteria were cleansed from oysters during oyster purification by re-laying in a non-polluted waterway. Oysters were laboratory contaminated to levels in excess 1,000 cel...

  17. Water quality parameters and total aerobic bacterial and vibrionaceae loads in eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from oyster gardening sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyster gardening is a practice designed to restore habitat for marine life and to improve water quality. This study determined physical and chemical water quality parameters at two oyster gardening sites in the Delaware Inland Bays and compared them with total aerobic bacteria and Vibrionaceae conc...

  18. Interactions between the introduced Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the indigenous blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Local-scale food competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans, I.W.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if food competition between mussels and oysters occurs, and how mussel and oyster growth is affected by this interaction. This was done by relating mussel growth to oyster density relating oyster growth to oyster biomass and perform a field control, by

  19. Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella serovars isolated from oysters served raw in restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillhart, Crystal D; Joens, Lynn A

    2011-06-01

    To determine if Salmonella-contaminated oysters are reaching consumer tables, a survey of raw oysters served in eight Tucson restaurants was performed from October 2007 to September 2008. Salmonella spp. were isolated during 7 of the 8 months surveyed and were present in 1.2% of 2,281 oysters tested. This observed prevalence is lower than that seen in a previous study in which U.S. market oysters were purchased from producers at bays where oysters are harvested. To test whether the process of refrigerating oysters in restaurants for several days reduces Salmonella levels, oysters were artificially infected with Salmonella and kept at 4°C for up to 13 days. Direct plate counts of oyster homogenate showed that Salmonella levels within oysters did not decrease during refrigeration. Six different serovars of Salmonella enterica were found in the restaurant oysters, indicating multiple incidences of Salmonella contamination of U.S. oyster stocks. Of the 28 contaminated oysters, 12 (43%) contained a strain of S. enterica serovar Newport that matched by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis a serovar Newport strain seen predominantly in the study of bay oysters performed in 2002. The repeated occurrence of this strain in oyster surveys is concerning, since the strain was resistant to seven antimicrobials tested and thus presents a possible health risk to consumers of raw oysters.

  20. Photosynthetic epibionts and endobionts of Pacific oyster shells from oyster reefs in rocky versus mudflat shores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Barillé

    Full Text Available The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, is the main bivalve species cultivated in the world. With global warming enabling its reproduction and larval survival at higher latitudes, this species is now recognized as invasive and creates wild oyster reefs globally. In this study, the spatial distribution of photosynthetic assemblages colonizing the shells of wild C. gigas was investigated on both a large scale (two contrasting types of reefs found in mudflats and rocky areas and a small scale (within individual shells using a hyperspectral imager. The microspatial distribution of all phototrophs was obtained by mapping the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI. Second derivative (δδ analyses of hyperspectral images at 462, 524, 571 and 647 nm were subsequently applied to map diatoms, cyanobacteria, rhodophytes and chlorophytes, respectively. A concomitant pigment analysis was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography and completed by taxonomic observations. This study showed that there was high microalgal diversity associated with wild oyster shells and that there were differences in the structure of the phototropic assemblages depending on the type of reef. Namely, vertically-growing oysters in mudflat areas had a higher biomass of epizoic diatoms (hyperspectral proxy at δδ462 nm and were mainly colonized by species of the genera Navicula, Nitzschia and Hippodonta, which are epipelic or motile epipsammic. The assemblages on the horizontal oysters contained more tychoplanktonic diatoms (e.g. Thalassiosira pseudonana, T. proschkinae and Plagiogrammopsis vanheurckii. Three species of boring cyanobacteria were observed for both types of reef: Mastigocoleus testarum, Leptolyngbya terrebrans, and Hyella caespistosa, but the second derivative analysis at 524 nm showed a significantly higher biomass for the horizontally-growing oysters. There was no biomass difference for the boring chlorophyte assemblages (δδ647 nm, with

  1. Pine creek geosyncline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needham, R.S.; Ewers, G.R.; Ferguson, J.

    1988-01-01

    The Pine Creek Geosyncline is a 66,000 km 2 inlier of Early Proterozoic metasediments, mafic and felsic intrusives and minor extrusives, surrounding small late Archaean granitic domes. Economic uranium occurrences cluster into three fields, with the Alligator Rivers field being the most significant. The metasediments are alluvial and reduced shallow-water pelites and psammites. Evaporitic carbonate developed on shallow shelves around Archaean islands. Basin development and sedimentation (c. 2000-1870 Ma) were related to gradual subsidence induced by crustal extension. Facies variations and volcanism were in places controlled by the extensional faults. The rocks were metamorphosed to lower the high grade, complexly folded, and intruded by numerous granitoids from c. 1870 to 1730 Ma. Late orogenic felsic volcanics accumulated in local rift systems. Middle Proterozoic sandstone was deposited on a peneplaned and deeply weathered surface from about 1650 Ma. Uranium is enriched in some Archaean and Proterozoic igneous rocks, but there is no local or regional enrichment of the metasedimentary hosts or of the unconformably overlying sandstone. There is no regional gravity, magnetic or radiometric character attributable to the region's significance as a uranium province; contrasts with surrounding sedimentary basins reflect expected differences in rock properties between a heterogeneous igneous/metamorphic region and relatively homogeneous undeformed and unmineralized sediments. Uranium-enriched Archaean and Proterozoic granitoids and felsic volcanics with labile U are likely though not exclusive source rocks. U was probably transported in oxidized low temperature solutions as uranyl complexes and precipitated in reduced, structurally controlled, low-pressure traps. All uranium occurrences are broadly classified as 'Proterozoic unconformity related'. Greatest potential for further discovery is offered in the Alligator Rivers field, where perhaps at least 3 to 5.5 times the

  2. Water quality study at the Congaree Swamp National monument of Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rikard, M.

    1991-11-01

    The Congaree Swamp National Monument is one of the last significant near virgin tracts of bottom land hardwood forests in the Southeast United States. The study documents a water quality monitoring program on Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Basic water quality parameters were analyzed. High levels of aluminum and iron were found, and recommendations were made for further monitoring

  3. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, D.; Holzmiller, J.; Koch, F.; Polumsky, S.; Schlee, D.; Thiessen, G.; Johnson, C.

    1995-04-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon``. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity. The watershed coordinator for the Asotin County Conservation District led a locally based process that combined local concerns and knowledge with technology from several agencies to produce the Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan.

  4. Perkinsus beihaiensis (Perkinsozoa in oysters of Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. A. Luz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study reports the pathogen Perkinsus beihaiensis in oysters of the genus Crassostrea on the coast of the State of Bahia (Brazil, its prevalence, infection intensity and correlation with salinity. Oysters (n = 240 were collected between October and December 2014 at eight sampling stations between latitudes 13°55'S and 15°42'S. The laboratory procedures included macroscopic analysis, histology, culture in Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium (RFTM, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR and DNA sequencing. PCR and sequencing have been used for the genetic identification of oysters as well. Two species of oysters have been identified: Crassostrea rhizophorae and C. brasiliana. In both oyster species P. beihaiensis was the only Perkinsus species detected. In C. rhizophorae, the average prevalence was 82.8% by histology and 65.2% by RFTM. In C. brasiliana, the prevalences were 70.5% and 35.7%, respectively. The higher prevalence of P. beihaiensis in C. rhizophorae was probably influenced by salinity, with which was positively correlated (r> 0.8. In both oysters, P. beihaiensis was located mainly in the gastric epithelium. The infection was generally mild or moderate, without apparent harm to the hosts, but in cases of severe infection, there was hemocytical reaction and tissue disorganization. The generally high prevalence in the region suggests that oysters should be monitored with respect to this pathogen, especially in growing areas.

  5. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek...

  6. Drought Increases Consumer Pressure on Oyster Reefs in Florida, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna G Garland

    Full Text Available Coastal economies and ecosystems have historically depended on oyster reefs, but this habitat has declined globally by 85% because of anthropogenic activities. In a Florida estuary, we investigated the cause of newly reported losses of oysters. We found that the oyster reefs have deteriorated from north to south and that this deterioration was positively correlated with the abundance of carnivorous conchs and water salinity. In experiments across these gradients, oysters survived regardless of salinity if conchs were excluded. After determining that conchs were the proximal cause of oyster loss, we tested whether elevated water salinity was linked to conch abundance either by increasing conch growth and survivorship or by decreasing the abundance of a predator of conchs. In field experiments across a salinity gradient, we failed to detect spatial variation in predation on conchs or in conch growth and survivorship. A laboratory experiment, however, demonstrated the role of salinity by showing that conch larvae failed to survive at low salinities. Because this estuary's salinity increased in 2006 in response to reduced inputs of freshwater, we concluded that the ultimate cause of oyster decline was an increase in salinity. According to records from 2002 to 2012, oyster harvests have remained steady in the northernmost estuaries of this ecoregion (characterized by high reef biomass, low salinity, and low conch abundance but have declined in the southernmost estuaries (characterized by lower reef biomass, increases in salinity, and increases in conch abundance. Oyster conservation in this ecoregion, which is probably one of the few that still support viable oyster populations, may be undermined by drought-induced increases in salinity causing an increased abundance of carnivorous conchs.

  7. Characterization of adhesive from oysters: A structural and compositional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Erik

    The inability for man-made adhesives to set in wet or humid environments is an ongoing challenging the design of biomedical and marine adhesive materials. However, we see that nature has already overcome this challenge. Mussels, barnacles, oysters and sandcastle worms all have unique mechanisms by which they attach themselves to surfaces. By understanding what evolution has already spent millions of years perfecting, we can design novel adhesive materials inspired by nature's elegant designs. The well-studied mussel is currently the standard for design of marine inspired biomimetic polymers. In the work presented here, we aim to provide new insights into the adhesive produced by the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. Unlike the mussel, which produces thread-like plaques comprised of DOPA containing-protein, the oyster secretes an organic-inorganic hybrid adhesive as it settles and grows onto a surface. This form of adhesion renders the oyster to be permanently fixed in place. Over time, hundreds of thousands of oyster grow and agglomerate to form extensive reef structures. These reefs are not only essential to survival of the oyster, but are also vital to intertidal ecosystems. While the shell of the oyster has been extensively studied, curiously, only a few conflicting insights have been made into the nature of the adhesive and contact zone between shell and substrate, and even lesfs information has been ascertained on organic and inorganic composition. In this work, we provide microscopy and histochemical studies to characterize the structure and composition of the adhesive, using oyster in the adult and juvenile stages of life. Preliminary work on extracting and characterizing organic components through collaborative help with solid-state NMR (SSNMR) and proteomics are also detailed here. We aim to provide a full, comprehensive characterization of oyster adhesive so that in the future, we may apply what we learn to the design of new materials.

  8. Human enteroviruses in oysters and their overlying waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, S M; Gerba, C P; Melnick, J L

    1979-03-01

    The presence of enteroviruses in oysters and oyster-harvesting waters of the Texas Gulf coast was monitored over a period of 10 months. Viruses were detected in water and oyster samples obtained from areas both open and closed to shellfish harvesting. Viruses were detected periodically in waters that met current bacteriological standards for shellfish harvesting. No significant statistical relationship was demonstrated between virus concentration in oysters and the bacteriological and physiochemical quality of water and shellfish. Viruses in water were, however, moderately correlated with total coliforms in water and oysters and with fecal coliforms in oysters. Total coliforms in water were realted to total coliforms in sediment were related only to total coliforms in sediment. Among the physiochemical characteristics of water, turbidity was related statistically to the organic matter content of water and to fecal coliforms in water. There was a marked effect of rainfall on the bacteriological quality of water. Of a total of 44 water samples, 26 yielded virus in concentrations from 4 to 167 plaque-forming units per 100-gallon (ca. 378.5-liter) sample. Of a total of 40 pools of 10 to 12 oysters each, virus was found in 14 pools at a concentration of 6 to 224 plaque-forming units per 100 g of oyster meat. On five occasions, virus was found in water samples when no virus could be detected in oysters harvested from the same sites. This study indicates that current bacteriological standards for determining the safety of shellfish and shellfish-growing waters do no reflect the occurrence of enteroviruses.

  9. Drought Increases Consumer Pressure on Oyster Reefs in Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Hanna G; Kimbro, David L

    2015-01-01

    Coastal economies and ecosystems have historically depended on oyster reefs, but this habitat has declined globally by 85% because of anthropogenic activities. In a Florida estuary, we investigated the cause of newly reported losses of oysters. We found that the oyster reefs have deteriorated from north to south and that this deterioration was positively correlated with the abundance of carnivorous conchs and water salinity. In experiments across these gradients, oysters survived regardless of salinity if conchs were excluded. After determining that conchs were the proximal cause of oyster loss, we tested whether elevated water salinity was linked to conch abundance either by increasing conch growth and survivorship or by decreasing the abundance of a predator of conchs. In field experiments across a salinity gradient, we failed to detect spatial variation in predation on conchs or in conch growth and survivorship. A laboratory experiment, however, demonstrated the role of salinity by showing that conch larvae failed to survive at low salinities. Because this estuary's salinity increased in 2006 in response to reduced inputs of freshwater, we concluded that the ultimate cause of oyster decline was an increase in salinity. According to records from 2002 to 2012, oyster harvests have remained steady in the northernmost estuaries of this ecoregion (characterized by high reef biomass, low salinity, and low conch abundance) but have declined in the southernmost estuaries (characterized by lower reef biomass, increases in salinity, and increases in conch abundance). Oyster conservation in this ecoregion, which is probably one of the few that still support viable oyster populations, may be undermined by drought-induced increases in salinity causing an increased abundance of carnivorous conchs.

  10. Quantitative validation of a habitat suitability index for oyster restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth eTheuerkauf

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Habitat suitability index (HSI models provide spatially explicit information on the capacity of a given habitat to support a species of interest, and their prevalence has increased dramatically in recent years. Despite caution that the reliability of HSIs must be validated using independent, quantitative data, most HSIs intended to inform terrestrial and marine species management remain unvalidated. Furthermore, of the eight HSI models developed for eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica restoration and fishery production, none has been validated. Consequently, we developed, calibrated, and validated an HSI for the eastern oyster to identify optimal habitat for restoration in a tributary of Chesapeake Bay, the Great Wicomico River (GWR. The GWR harbors a high density, restored oyster population, and therefore serves as an excellent model system for assessing the validity of the HSI. The HSI was derived from GIS layers of bottom type, salinity, and water depth (surrogate for dissolved oxygen, and was tested using live adult oyster density data from a survey of high vertical relief reefs (HRR and low vertical relief reefs (LRR in the sanctuary network. Live adult oyster density was a statistically-significant sigmoid function of the HSI, which validates the HSI as a robust predictor of suitable oyster reef habitat for rehabilitation or restoration. In addition, HRR had on average 103-116 more adults m^−2 than LRR at a given level of the HSI. For HRR, HSI values ≥0.3 exceeded the accepted restoration target of 50 live adult oysters m^−2. For LRR, the HSI was generally able to predict live adult oyster densities that meet or exceed the target at HSI values ≥0.3. The HSI indicated that there remain large areas of suitable habitat for restoration in the GWR. This study provides a robust framework for HSI model development and validation, which can be refined and applied to other systems and previously developed HSIs to improve the efficacy of

  11. Development of Genetic Markers for Triploid Verification of the Pacific Oyster,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Ha Kang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The triploid Pacific oyster, which is produced by mating tetraploid and diploid oysters, is favored by the aquaculture industry because of its better flavor and firmer texture, particularly during the summer. However, tetraploid oyster production is not feasible in all oysters; the development of tetraploid oysters is ongoing in some oyster species. Thus, a method for ploidy verification is necessary for this endeavor, in addition to ploidy verification in aquaculture farms and in the natural environment. In this study, a method for ploidy verification of triploid and diploid oysters was developed using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR panels containing primers for molecular microsatellite markers. Two microsatellite multiplex PCR panels consisting of three markers each were developed using previously developed microsatellite markers that were optimized for performance. Both panels were able to verify the ploidy levels of 30 triploid oysters with 100% accuracy, illustrating the utility of microsatellite markers as a tool for verifying the ploidy of individual oysters.

  12. Comparison of methods for detection of norovirus in oysters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Saadbye, Peter; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    a successful detection it is of great importance to remove the tissue inhibitors during the viral RNA extraction. To select the most efficient extraction procedure of oysters we have compared four protocols. A pool of digestive gland material from oyster samples was divided into 1.5 g portions and spiked...... with I 0-fold dilutions of human faecal samples containing norovirus genogroup II. The samples were tested on three different occasions using four different sample treatment protocols. The protocols were assessed with regard to their ability to recover viral RNA and detect norovirus in spiked oysters...

  13. 78 FR 51753 - AUC, LLC Reno Creek, In Situ Project, New Source Material License Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 040-09092; [NRC-2013-0164] AUC, LLC Reno Creek, In Situ..., AUC, LLC (AUC) submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an application for a new... and operation, and decommissioning of AUC's proposed in-situ uranium recovery (ISR, also known as in...

  14. Episodic recruitment of the rock oyster Saccostrea cucullata (Born ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Episodic recruitment of the rock oyster Saccostrea cucullata (Born, 1778) on the Transkei coast. ... This single recruitment, which is 6 to 31 times the annual mean recorded over the last 6 to 7 years, represents 5 ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  15. The Edibility and Cultivation of the Oyster Mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, James; Guttman, Mark C.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an enjoyable and fascinating experience that involves the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. By allowing students to participate in this process, the students are able to better understand the biology and utility of fungi. (ZWH)

  16. Phylogeny and Species Diversity of Gulf of California Oysters

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset of DNA sequence data from two mitochondrial loci (COI and 16S) used to infer the phylogeny of oysters in the genus Ostrea along the Pacific coast of North...

  17. Oyster radiation sensitivity; Sensibilidade de ostras a radiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchese, Sandra R.M. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil); Mastro, Nelida L. del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1996-07-01

    Various food products like oysters, crabs and shrimps have been described as possible Vibrio spp. transmitting agents. Seafood irradiation is been presented as an alternative among the different public health intervention measures to control food borne diseases. The objective of this work was to establish, firstly, the radioresistance of Crassostrea brasiliana oysters. The oysters were irradiated with Co-60 radiation with doses of 0, 1.5,3 and 6 kGy. Survival curves a function of time showed that 100% of samples irradiated with 3 kGy survived at least 6 days; among those irradiated with 6 kGy, 100% survived 3 days. These results are encouraging since a dose of 2 kGy is already effective in diminishing oyster bioburden. (author)

  18. Cadmium uptake in oyster isognomon alatus under laboratory condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayon Saed; Ahmad Ismail; Missri Kusnan; Hishamuddin Omar

    1999-01-01

    The uptake of cadmium in Flat tree oyster Isognomon alatus was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions for two weeks. Oysters were exposed to 100 μg 1'-1 cadmium and the accumulation of cadmium in the tissues was measured for every two days. Soft tissues of oyster were digested in concentrated acid and cadmium concentrations were determined by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The accumulation of cadmium in the soft tissues of oysters was increased during the first six days from 0.73 μg g- 1 to 10.77 μg g'-1, and remaining constant for four days at average level of 10.96 μg g'-1. The Cl concentrations was increased to 32.70 μg g'-1 until the end of experiment. There was no sign of cadmium accumulation approaching saturation for the period of exposure. (author)

  19. Carbon And Nitrogen Requirements For The Cultivation Of Oyster ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbon And Nitrogen Requirements For The Cultivation Of Oyster Mushroom ... It was found that under these experimental conditions, the carbon compounds supported growth except ribose, starch and dextrin. ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  20. Length-weight relationship of Giant Oyster, Crassostrea gyphoides (Schlotheim)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Relationship between shell length and total weight, shell weight and meat weight of giant oyster, Crassostrea gryphoides revealed that the growth of these parameters is very fast and significant. It indicates the suitability of the species concerned...

  1. IS COPPER REQUIRED FOR EASTERN OYSTER SETTING AND METAMORPHOSIS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent field research with eastern oysters demonstrated higher defense activities, including hemocyte numbers, locomotion and bactericidal ability, associated with locations exhibiting relatively high contamination. Copper and zinc, found in high concentrations in tissues of oyst...

  2. Molecular and Antibacterial Profile of Edible Oyster Mushrooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012r

    2014-09-24

    Sep 24, 2014 ... Phenol/Chloroform DNA extraction protocol and the DNA was ... DNA from oyster mushroom fermentation broth, mycelia or fruiting bodies. .... Sample preparation: The different strains of Pleurotus were obtained in test- tubes.

  3. Virus, protozoa and organic compounds decay in depurated oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Doris Sobral Marques; Piazza, Rômi Sharon; Pilotto, Mariana Rangel; do Nascimento, Mariana de Almeida; Moresco, Vanessa; Taniguchi, Satie; Leal, Diego Averaldo Guiguet; Schmidt, Éder der Carlos; Cargin-Ferreira, Eduardo; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela; de Araujo, Rafael Alves; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; Bainy, Afonso Celso Dias; Barardi, Célia Regina Monte

    2013-11-01

    (1) Evaluate the dynamic of the depuration process of Crassostrea gigas oysters using different ultraviolet doses with different amounts of contaminants (virus, protozoa and organic contaminants) and (2) investigate the morphological changes in the oysters' tissues produced by the depuration procedures. The oysters were allocated in sites with different degrees of contamination and analyzed after 14 days. Some animals were used as positive controls by artificial bioaccumulation with HAdV2 and MNV1 and subjected to depuration assays using UV lamps (18 or 36 W) for 168 h. The following pollutants were researched in the naturally contaminated oysters, oysters after 14 days in sites and oysters during the depuration processes: virus (HAdV, HAV, HuNoV GI/GII and JCPyV), by (RT) qPCR; protozoa (Cryptosporidium and Giardia species), by immunomagnetic separation and immunofluorescence; and organic compounds (AHs, PAHs, LABs, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides-OCs), by chromatography. Changes in the oysters' tissues produced by the depuration processes were also evaluated using histochemical analysis by light microscopy. In the artificially bioaccumulated oysters, only HAdV2 and MNV1 were investigated by (RT) qPCR before the depuration procedures and after 96 and 168 h of these procedures. At 14 days post-allocation, HAdV was found in all the sites (6.2 × 105 to 4.4 × 107 GC g(-1)), and Giardia species in only one site. Levels of PCBs and OCs in the oyster's tissues were below the detection limit for all samples. AHs (3.5 to 4.4 μg g(-1)), PAHs (11 to 191 ng g(-1)) and LABs (57 to 751 ng g(-1)) were detected in the samples from 3 sites. During the depuration assays, we found HAdV, Giardia and Cryptosporidium species until 168 h, independent of UV treatment. AHs, PAHs and LABs were found also after 168 h of depuration (36 W and without UV lamp). The depuration procedures did not produce changes in the oysters' tissues. In the artificially contaminated and depurated

  4. Audit of Wolf Creek Generating Station, Unit 1 technical specifications. Final technical evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromberg, H.M.

    1985-07-01

    This document was prepared for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to assist them in determining whether the Wolf Creek Generating Station Unit 1 Technical Specifications (T/S), which govern plant systems configurations and operations, are in conformance with the assumptions of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) as amended, the requirements of the Safety Evaluation Report (SER) as supplemented, and the Comments and Responses to the Wolf Creek Technical Specification Draft Inspection Report. A comparative audit of the FSAR as amended, the SER as supplemented, and the Draft Inspection Report was performed with the Wolf Creek T/S. Several discrepancies were identified and subsequently resolved through discussions with the cognizant NRC reviewer, NRC staff reviewers and/or utility representatives. The Wolf Creek Generating Station Unit 1 T/S, to the extent reviewed, are in conformance with the FSAR, SER, and Draft Inspection Report

  5. High-pressure treatment for shelf-life extension and quality improvement of oysters cooked in a traditional Taiwanese oyster omelet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kung-Ming; Chi, Hsin-Yi; Hsu, Kuo-Chiang

    2010-01-01

    Whole oysters were processed using high-pressure (HP) treatment at 250 and 300 MPa for 0 to 10 min and stored at 4 degrees Celsius for up to 28 days. HP-treated oysters and untreated oysters were evaluated for lipid oxidation, growth of microorganisms, and sensory characteristics after cooking at 160 degrees Celsius for 90 s. Microbial counts after HP treatment revealed that the bacterial load was initially reduced at all pressures. HP-treated oysters had significantly higher pH and moisture (P oysters during storage. HP treatment increased lipid oxidation with unpleasant odor during storage compared with the control. HP treatment decreased redness but did not significantly affect the brightness and yellowness of cooked oysters. From tests of mechanical properties, 300 MPa-treated oysters after cooking had significantly increased toughness as measured by cutting force. HP-treated oysters after cooking received higher quality scores than did the control during the storage trial. Results indicated that 300 MPa for 2 min is the optimum HP treatment that results in oysters most acceptable for oyster omelets during storage at 4 degrees Celsius, and this treatment may extend the shelf life of these oysters to 21 days.

  6. National survey of foodborne viruses in Australian oysters at production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torok, Valeria; Hodgson, Kate; McLeod, Catherine; Tan, Jessica; Malhi, Navreet; Turnbull, Alison

    2018-02-01

    Internationally human enteric viruses, such as norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV), are frequently associated with shellfish related foodborne disease outbreaks, and it has been suggested that acceptable NoV limits based on end-point testing be established for this high risk food group. Currently, shellfish safety is generally managed through the use of indicators of faecal contamination. Between July 2014 and August 2015, a national prevalence survey for NoV and HAV was done in Australian oysters suitable for harvest. Two sampling rounds were undertaken to determine baseline levels of these viruses. Commercial Australian growing areas, represented by 33 oyster production regions in New South Wales, South Australia, Tasmania and Queensland, were included in the survey. A total of 149 and 148 samples were collected during round one and two of sampling, respectively, and tested for NoV and HAV by quantitative RT-PCR. NoV and HAV were not detected in oysters collected in either sampling round, indicating an estimated prevalence for these viruses in Australian oysters of oysters was consistent with epidemiological evidence, with no oyster-related foodborne viral illness reported during the survey period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Copper and zinc contamination in oysters: subcellular distribution and detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Xiong; Yang, Yubo; Guo, Xiaoyu; He, Mei; Guo, Feng; Ke, Caihuan

    2011-08-01

    Metal pollution levels in estuarine and coastal environments have been widely reported, but few documented reports exist of severe contamination in specific environments. Here, we report on a metal-contaminated estuary in Fujian Province, China, in which blue oysters (Crassostrea hongkongensis) and green oysters (Crassostrea angulata) were discovered to be contaminated with Cu and other metals. Extraordinarily high metal concentrations were found in the oysters collected from the estuary. Comparison with historical data suggests that the estuary has recently been contaminated with Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn. Metal concentrations in blue oysters were as high as 1.4 and 2.4% of whole-body tissue dry wt for Cu and Zn, respectively. Cellular debris was the main subcellular fraction binding the metals, but metal-rich granules were important for Cr, Ni, and Pb. With increasing Cu accumulation, its partitioning into the cytosolic proteins decreased. In contrast, metallothionein-like proteins increased their importance in binding with Zn as tissue concentrations of Zn increased. In the most severely contaminated oysters, only a negligible fraction of their Cu and Zn was bound with the metal-sensitive fraction, which may explain the survival of oysters in such contaminated environments. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  8. Raw oysters can be a risk for infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes Vieira

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to count and identify sucrose positive and negative vibrios isolated from cultivated Crassostrea rhizophorae oysters during their growing cycle. Every month for 12 months, 10 to 18 oysters were collected for study. Collections occurred at the Center for Studies of Coastal Aquaculture (CSCA, which is associated with the Institute of Marine Science, Labomar, located in Euzebio, Ceará, Brazil. Approximately 150 oysters and their intervalvular liquor were studied. Vibrio Standard Plates Counts (SPC from oyster meat and their intervalvular liquor varied from 25 to 59,000,000 CFU/g. For most of the 12 months of the oysters' life, it was possible to identify Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Vibrio carchariae was identified in four collections. Among other isolated species, the most important, considering public health risks, was V. vulnificus, although only one strain was confirmed. We concluded that retail purchased oysters should never be eaten raw or undercooked because many species of the genus Vibrio are known to be pathogenic to humans and live naturally on and in shellfish throughout their life cycle.

  9. Economic Values Associated With Construction of Oyster Reefs by the Corps of Engineers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henderson, Jim

    2003-01-01

    .... That template includes a community model for the American oyster (Crassostrea virginica) which can be used to quantify the ecological benefits of an oyster reef in an ecosystem restoration project...

  10. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF OYSTER (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) DEFENSES ON CLINICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISOLATES OF VIBRIO PARAHEMOLYTICUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three clinical (2030, 2062, and 2107) and three environmental (1094, 1163, and ATCC 17802) isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus were exposed to hemocytes and plasma collected from oysters (Crassostrea virginica) to determine their susceptibility to putative oyster defenses. Clinic...

  11. Predicting the effects of proposed Mississippi River diversions on oyster habitat quality; application of an oyster habitat suitability index model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soniat, Thomas M.; Conzelmann, Craig P.; Byrd, Jason D.; Roszell, Dustin P.; Bridevaux, Joshua L.; Suir, Kevin J.; Colley, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to decelerate the rate of coastal erosion and wetland loss, and protect human communities, the state of Louisiana developed its Comprehensive Master Plan for a Sustainable Coast. The master plan proposes a combination of restoration efforts including shoreline protection, marsh creation, sediment diversions, and ridge, barrier island, and hydrological restoration. Coastal restoration projects, particularly the large-scale diversions of fresh water from the Mississippi River, needed to supply sediment to an eroding coast potentially impact oyster populations and oyster habitat. An oyster habitat suitability index model is presented that evaluates the effects of a proposed sediment and freshwater diversion into Lower Breton Sound. Voluminous freshwater, needed to suspend and broadly distribute river sediment, will push optimal salinities for oysters seaward and beyond many of the existing reefs. Implementation and operation of the Lower Breton Sound diversion structure as proposed would render about 6,173 ha of hard bottom immediately east of the Mississippi River unsuitable for the sustained cultivation of oysters. If historical harvests are to be maintained in this region, a massive and unprecedented effort to relocate private leases and restore oyster bottoms would be required. Habitat suitability index model results indicate that the appropriate location for such efforts are to the east and north of the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet.

  12. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest), Pacific Oyster

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    are provided by Galtsoff (1964). Pho- The germinal vesicle is eccentricall, tographs of C. ia larval develop- located within the nucleolus . ment at vari... composition to cultures, and together with high tem- which oysters are exposed (Grave 1916; peratures may cause oyster mortality Morse 1944). (Lipovsky...setting in oyster. Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish. European and American oysters: 43(9): 1069-1076. response to surface chemistry versus waterborne

  13. Effect of storage on the quality of purified live Pacific and Sydney rock oysters

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, P; Arnold, G; Holliday, J; Boronovshy, A

    1992-01-01

    In December, 1990, the N.S.W. Minister for Agriculture and Rural Affairs removed the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) from the noxious fish list for the Port Stephens area, permitting it's cultivation. As Port Stephens Pacific oysters are grown intertidally, similar to Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea commercialis) there was a belief that they may have different storage requirements to overseas Pacific oysters which are cultivated in deep water exclusively. Consequently, the keeping quality ...

  14. First isolation of Nocardia crassostreae from Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelsma, M.Y.; Roozenburg, I.; Joly, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    In summer 2006 an extensive mortality of Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas occurred in Lake Grevelingen, the Netherlands. A sample of Pacific oysters was investigated for the presence of shellfish pathogens as potential causes of the mortality. Yellow-green lesions were observed in several oysters

  15. 21 CFR 161.30 - Declaration of quantity of contents on labels for canned oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... canned oysters. 161.30 Section 161.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH....30 Declaration of quantity of contents on labels for canned oysters. (a) For many years packers of canned oysters in the Gulf area of the United States have labeled their output with a declaration of the...

  16. Isolation of Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 from the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, M A; Ness, G E; Rodrick, G E

    1981-01-01

    Two strains of Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 Inaba were isolated from eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica, collected from estuarine waters in Florida during April 1980. The oyster meats and waters from which the oysters were collected had low fecal coliform counts, and the area had no prior evidence of sewage contamination. PMID:7235700

  17. Detection of hepatitis A virus and bacterial contamination in raw oysters in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittigul, Leera; Pombubpa, Kannika; Sukonthalux, Suntharee; Rattanatham, Tippawan; Utrarachkij, Fuangfa; Diraphat, Pornphan

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the presence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in raw oysters (Crassostrea belcheri) using a virus concentration method and reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR). A total of 220 oyster samples were collected from oyster farms and local markets in Thailand. HAV was found in three oyster samples. Nested PCR products of HAV detected in oysters were characterized further by DNA sequencing of the VP1/2A region and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. All HAV sequences (168 basepairs) were associated with human HAV subgenotype IB (GIB). Fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli were determined using the multiple tube fermentation method, to assess the microbiological quality of collected oysters. Among oyster samples tested, 65% had fecal coliforms higher than the standard level for raw shellfish [oyster samples (85%) were contaminated with E. coli in the range of 3.0-4.6 x 10(4) MPN/g. One oyster sample with an acceptable level of fecal coliforms contained HAV GIB. E. coli was found in all HAV-positive oyster samples. The results suggest a significant presence of HAV and bacterial indicators of fecal contamination in raw oysters, which are a health risk for consumers and a source of gastrointestinal illness. Enteric viruses should also be tested to assess the microbiological quality of oysters.

  18. PARASITIC AND SYMBIOTIC FAUNA INHABITING OYSTERS (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) SAMPLED FROM THE CALOOSAHATCHEE ESTUARY, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oysters, Crassostrea virginica, inhabiting 5 sites in the Caloosahatchee River estuary were studied over a 13 month period to determine the suitability of oyster habitat in relation to their health and condition. Histological examination of 650 oysters (10 animals per station per...

  19. Bacteriological quality of fresh and smoke-dried oysters sold in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial isolates found in fresh oyster were Klebsiella sp. Escherichia sp., Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter sp., Micrococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Staphylococccus sp. and Serratia sp. while E. coli, Streptococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp. and B. cereus predominated in dried oysters. The oyster meats did not meet the standards of ...

  20. Oyster reproduction is affected by exposure to polystyrene microplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussarellu, Rossana; Suquet, Marc; Thomas, Yoann; Lambert, Christophe; Fabioux, Caroline; Pernet, Marie Eve Julie; Le Goïc, Nelly; Quillien, Virgile; Mingant, Christian; Epelboin, Yanouk; Corporeau, Charlotte; Guyomarch, Julien; Robbens, Johan; Paul-Pont, Ika; Soudant, Philippe; Huvet, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Plastics are persistent synthetic polymers that accumulate as waste in the marine environment. Microplastic (MP) particles are derived from the breakdown of larger debris or can enter the environment as microscopic fragments. Because filter-feeder organisms ingest MP while feeding, they are likely to be impacted by MP pollution. To assess the impact of polystyrene microspheres (micro-PS) on the physiology of the Pacific oyster, adult oysters were experimentally exposed to virgin micro-PS (2 and 6 µm in diameter; 0.023 mg·L−1) for 2 mo during a reproductive cycle. Effects were investigated on ecophysiological parameters; cellular, transcriptomic, and proteomic responses; fecundity; and offspring development. Oysters preferentially ingested the 6-µm micro-PS over the 2-µm-diameter particles. Consumption of microalgae and absorption efficiency were significantly higher in exposed oysters, suggesting compensatory and physical effects on both digestive parameters. After 2 mo, exposed oysters had significant decreases in oocyte number (−38%), diameter (−5%), and sperm velocity (−23%). The D-larval yield and larval development of offspring derived from exposed parents decreased by 41% and 18%, respectively, compared with control offspring. Dynamic energy budget modeling, supported by transcriptomic profiles, suggested a significant shift of energy allocation from reproduction to structural growth, and elevated maintenance costs in exposed oysters, which is thought to be caused by interference with energy uptake. Molecular signatures of endocrine disruption were also revealed, but no endocrine disruptors were found in the biological samples. This study provides evidence that micro-PS cause feeding modifications and reproductive disruption in oysters, with significant impacts on offspring. PMID:26831072

  1. Oyster reproduction is affected by exposure to polystyrene microplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussarellu, Rossana; Suquet, Marc; Thomas, Yoann; Lambert, Christophe; Fabioux, Caroline; Pernet, Marie Eve Julie; Le Goïc, Nelly; Quillien, Virgile; Mingant, Christian; Epelboin, Yanouk; Corporeau, Charlotte; Guyomarch, Julien; Robbens, Johan; Paul-Pont, Ika; Soudant, Philippe; Huvet, Arnaud

    2016-03-01

    Plastics are persistent synthetic polymers that accumulate as waste in the marine environment. Microplastic (MP) particles are derived from the breakdown of larger debris or can enter the environment as microscopic fragments. Because filter-feeder organisms ingest MP while feeding, they are likely to be impacted by MP pollution. To assess the impact of polystyrene microspheres (micro-PS) on the physiology of the Pacific oyster, adult oysters were experimentally exposed to virgin micro-PS (2 and 6 µm in diameter; 0.023 mg·L(-1)) for 2 mo during a reproductive cycle. Effects were investigated on ecophysiological parameters; cellular, transcriptomic, and proteomic responses; fecundity; and offspring development. Oysters preferentially ingested the 6-µm micro-PS over the 2-µm-diameter particles. Consumption of microalgae and absorption efficiency were significantly higher in exposed oysters, suggesting compensatory and physical effects on both digestive parameters. After 2 mo, exposed oysters had significant decreases in oocyte number (-38%), diameter (-5%), and sperm velocity (-23%). The D-larval yield and larval development of offspring derived from exposed parents decreased by 41% and 18%, respectively, compared with control offspring. Dynamic energy budget modeling, supported by transcriptomic profiles, suggested a significant shift of energy allocation from reproduction to structural growth, and elevated maintenance costs in exposed oysters, which is thought to be caused by interference with energy uptake. Molecular signatures of endocrine disruption were also revealed, but no endocrine disruptors were found in the biological samples. This study provides evidence that micro-PS cause feeding modifications and reproductive disruption in oysters, with significant impacts on offspring.

  2. Probabilistic seismic safety study of an existing nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.; Cornell, C.A.; Kaplan, S.; Perla, H.F.

    1980-01-01

    This study was conducted as part of an overall safety study of the Oyster Creek nuclear power plant. The earthquake hazard was considered as an initiating event that could result in radioactive release from the site as a result of core melt. The probability of earthquake initiated releases were compared with the probability of releases due to other initiating events. Three steps are necessary to evaluate the probability of earthquake initiated core melt. (1) estimate the ground motion (peak ground acceleration) and uncertainty in this estimate as functions of annual probability of occurrence; (2) estimate the conditional probability of failure and its uncertainty for structures, equipment, piping, controls, etc., as functions of ground acceleration; and (3) combine these estimates to obtain probabilities of earthquake induced failure and uncertainties in such estimates to be used in event trees, system models, and fault trees for evaluating the probability of earthquake induced core melt. This paper concentrates on the first two steps with emphasis on step 2. The major difference between the work presented and previous papers is the development and use of uncertainty estimates for both the ground motion probability estimates and the conditional probability of failure estimates. (orig.)

  3. 75 FR 40034 - Northeastern Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, Beaver Creek, Clear Creek, Boone, Fort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY Northeastern Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, Beaver Creek...-managed public land on Beaver Creek, Clear Creek, Boone, Fort Patrick Henry, South Holston, Watauga, and... Proposed Land Use Alternative) identified in the final environmental impact statement (FEIS). Under the...

  4. 78 FR 62616 - Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 3730-005] Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By letter filed September 23, 2013, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company informed the Commission that they have...

  5. Seasonal changes in mRNA encoding for cell stress markers in the oyster Crassostrea gigas exposed to radioactive discharges in their natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farcy, Emilie; Voiseux, Claire; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Fievet, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    The North Cotentin area (Normandy, France) hosts several nuclear facilities among which the AREVA reprocessing plant of La Hague is responsible for controlled discharges of liquid radioactive wastes into the marine environment. The resulting increase in radioactivity is very small compared to natural radioactivity. However, concerns about environment protection prompted the scientific community to focus on the effects of the chronic exposure to low concentrations of radionuclides in non-human biota. This study contributes to the evaluation of the possible impact of radioactive discharges on the oyster Crassostrea gigas in the field. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the expression levels of genes involved in cell stress in the oyster. They included members of the heat shock protein family (Hsp70, Hsc72, Hsp90), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and metallothionein (MT). Times series measurements were built from periodic samplings in the natural environment in order to characterize the natural variability as well as possible seasonal fluctuations. The genes studied exhibited a general seasonal expression pattern with a peak value in winter. The data inversely correlated with seawater temperature and the nature of the relationship between gene expression and temperature is discussed. In parallel, oysters were collected in four locations on the French shores, exposed or not to radioactive liquid wastes from the nuclear facilities hosted in the North Cotentin. The comparison of data obtained in the reference location on the Atlantic coast (not exposed) and data from oysters of the English Channel (exposed) gave no evidence for any statistical difference. However, because of the complexity of the natural environment, we cannot rule out the possibility that other parameters may have masked the impact of radioactive discharges. This dense set of data is a basis for the use of the expression levels of those genes as biomarkers to address the question of the

  6. The long term operation of nuclear power plants in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, G.G.

    2015-01-01

    The NRC has so far granted the renewal license for 73 nuclear reactors in the US but because of economic issues some power plants that got a renewal license are planned to be decommissioned earlier: for instance the Oyster Creek reactor will be stopped definitely in 2019 after a 50 year operating life, another example is the Kewaunee plant that closed mid 2013 while this reactor had been allowed to operate till 2033. The economy concern is the falling price of natural gas that make gas-burning power plants more competitive than nuclear stations. The reactors at risk are the oldest and the smallest ones but in the non-deregulated sector the economic benefit is important for the most powerful reactors to be allowed to operate over 40 and 60 years. A renewal request is composed of a safety assessment of the plant and the assessment of its environmental impact. The safety assessment relies on an Integrated Plant Assessment and on a Time-Limited Ageing Analyses. In order to prepare the second renewal campaign that will allow some reactors to operate up to 80 years, NRC, DOE and EPRI have begun first to identify potential concerns concerning material degradation and secondly to develop an adequate ageing management strategy. (A.C.)

  7. Project ash cultch: A report on optimal oyster cultch based on a prepared fly ash substratum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.S.; Hansen, K.M.; Schlekat, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    Based on a three year study involving setting, growth, mortality, oyster condition, and metals accumulation, the evidence is extensive and convincing that stabilized coal ash is an acceptable oyster growing cultch (substratum). Oyster larvae are attracted to set on coal ash cultch at commercial fishery densities, tend to grow as well as on natural substrata (oyster shell), and are moderately more exposed to predators on the puck shaped ash materials as produced for this study. Oysters grown for one to two years on coal ash do not accumulate heavy metals and generally are in good health as measured by several biological condition indexes

  8. Risk of alpha radionuclides presence in cultivating substrate of oyster mushrooms - Pleurotus ostreatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galanda, D.

    2006-01-01

    The mushrooms are not only rich food products, but also a specific component of forest biogeocenoses playing an important role in their functioning, including radionuclide migration. The reason why fungi work as such good indicators for radioactivity and pollution in general is connected to their structure. Using absorption to obtain their nutrition, fungi lack water-conducting organs like stems and roots. They absorb moisture and nutrients from the soil background through surface cells. Dissolved or airborne materials, which include pollutants, move freely through the compartments of hyphae. What is more, radiation released during nuclear testing or accidents is absorbed, especially in areas where it rained heavily shortly after the incident. The present work is devoted to an estimation of the transfer coefficient between reared oyster mushrooms and their support die, which was injected with known activity of 241 Am and 242 Pu. After 2 months when we get the reared mushrooms of cane oyster mushrooms were dried and prepared by liquid extraction with Aliquat 336. The samples were measured by ? -spectrometry. The results of activity 241 Am and 242 Pu in the mushrooms body and residual activity in the support was detected and calculated. (author)

  9. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw of...

  10. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draws of the Baltimore...

  11. 27 CFR 9.211 - Swan Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swan Creek. 9.211 Section 9.211 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.211 Swan Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural are...

  12. 33 CFR 117.231 - Brandywine Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brandywine Creek. 117.231 Section 117.231 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Delaware § 117.231 Brandywine Creek. The draw of the...

  13. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the S117-S133...

  14. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile...

  15. Currents and siltation at Dharamtar creek, Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.; Kolhatkar, V.M.; Fernandes, A.A.

    Hydrographic data collected in Dharamtar Creek during 1976-77 have been analysed. This showed that the waters in the Creek are well mixed and the salinity varied with the tide. The tidal currents are found to be generally strong. The distribution...

  16. 33 CFR 117.335 - Taylor Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taylor Creek. 117.335 Section 117.335 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.335 Taylor Creek. The draw of US441 bridge, mile 0...

  17. Suspension of oysters reduces the populations of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, K M; Supan, J; Ramirez, A; Johnson, C N

    2015-09-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) and Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) are associated with the consumption of raw oysters and cause illnesses ranging from simple gastroenteritis to life-threatening septicaemia. These halophilic bacteria are frequently found in marine and estuarine systems, accumulating within the tissues of a number of aquatic organisms and passing on to humans after consumption, through contaminated water, or via open wounds. As benthic organisms capable of filtering 40 gallons of water per hour, sediment is an important source of potentially pathogenic vibrios in oysters destined for raw consumption. This research used off-bottom oyster culture to reduce vibrio concentrations in oysters. Colony hybridization was used to enumerate Vp and Vv in bottom and suspended oysters. Vv and Vp concentrations were generally lower in oysters suspended off-bottom, and suspension decreased vibrio loads in oysters by an average of 13%. Suspension of oysters reduced vibrio concentrations. This study found that oyster suspension significantly reduced some populations of potentially pathogenic vibrios. These results indicate that oyster suspension could be a viable approach for preharvest treatment to reduce illness in consumers of raw oysters. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Vibrio bacteria in raw oysters: managing risks to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froelich, Brett A; Noble, Rachel T

    2016-03-05

    The human-pathogenic marine bacteria Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus are strongly correlated with water temperature, with concentrations increasing as waters warm seasonally. Both of these bacteria can be concentrated in filter-feeding shellfish, especially oysters. Because oysters are often consumed raw, this exposes people to large doses of potentially harmful bacteria. Various models are used to predict the abundance of these bacteria in oysters, which guide shellfish harvest policy meant to reduce human health risk. Vibrio abundance and behaviour varies from site to site, suggesting that location-specific studies are needed to establish targeted risk reduction strategies. Moreover, virulence potential, rather than simple abundance, should be also be included in future modeling efforts. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Cholera after the consumption of raw oysters. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klontz, K C; Tauxe, R V; Cook, W L; Riley, W H; Wachsmuth, I K

    1987-12-01

    In August 1986, a 76-year-old woman in Miami, Florida, developed profuse watery diarrhea and abdominal cramps. Two and four days before the onset of her illness, she had eaten six raw oysters at each of two restaurants in Miami. A stool specimen yielded toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor, serotype Inaba. The results of toxin gene probing of the organism recovered from the patient differed significantly from those of other V. cholerae O1 isolates from the Gulf Coast and elsewhere in the world. A program of active surveillance identified no other cases of cholera in Miami. The source of the raw oysters eaten by the patient was traced to Louisiana. Her case represents the first reported case of cholera associated with eating raw oysters.

  20. Guidelines for evaluating performance of oyster habitat restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggett, Lesley P.; Powers, Sean P.; Brumbaugh, Robert D.; Coen, Loren D.; DeAngelis, Bryan M.; Greene, Jennifer K.; Hancock, Boze T.; Morlock, Summer M.; Allen, Brian L.; Breitburg, Denise L.; Bushek, David; Grabowski, Jonathan H.; Grizzle, Raymond E.; Grosholz, Edwin D.; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Luckenbach, Mark W.; McGraw, Kay A.; Piehler, Michael F.; Westby, Stephanie R.; zu Ermgassen, Philine S. E.

    2015-01-01

    Restoration of degraded ecosystems is an important societal goal, yet inadequate monitoring and the absence of clear performance metrics are common criticisms of many habitat restoration projects. Funding limitations can prevent adequate monitoring, but we suggest that the lack of accepted metrics to address the diversity of restoration objectives also presents a serious challenge to the monitoring of restoration projects. A working group with experience in designing and monitoring oyster reef projects was used to develop standardized monitoring metrics, units, and performance criteria that would allow for comparison among restoration sites and projects of various construction types. A set of four universal metrics (reef areal dimensions, reef height, oyster density, and oyster size–frequency distribution) and a set of three universal environmental variables (water temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen) are recommended to be monitored for all oyster habitat restoration projects regardless of their goal(s). In addition, restoration goal-based metrics specific to four commonly cited ecosystem service-based restoration goals are recommended, along with an optional set of seven supplemental ancillary metrics that could provide information useful to the interpretation of prerestoration and postrestoration monitoring data. Widespread adoption of a common set of metrics with standardized techniques and units to assess well-defined goals not only allows practitioners to gauge the performance of their own projects but also allows for comparison among projects, which is both essential to the advancement of the field of oyster restoration and can provide new knowledge about the structure and ecological function of oyster reef ecosystems.

  1. Buck Creek River Flow Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Yasas; George, Elizabeth; Ritter, John

    2009-04-01

    Buck Creek flowing through Springfield Ohio has a number of low-head dams currently in place that cause safety issues and sometimes make it impossible for recreational boaters to pass through. The safety issues include the back eddies created by the dams that are known as drowning machines and the hydraulic jumps. In this study we are modeling the flow of Buck Creek using topographical and flow data provided by the Geology Department of Wittenberg University. The flow is analyzed using Hydraulic Engineering Center - River Analysis System software (HEC-RAS). As the first step a model of the river near Snyder Park has been created with the current structure in place for validation purposes. Afterwards the low-head dam is replaced with four drop structures with V-notch overflow gates. The river bed is altered to reflect plunge pools after each drop structure. This analysis will provide insight to how the flow is going to behave after the changes are made. In addition a sediment transport analysis is also being conducted to provide information about the stability of these structures.

  2. Defining optimal freshwater flow for oyster production: effects of freshet rate and magnitude of change and duration on eastern oysters and Perkinsus marinus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPeyre, Megan K.; Gossman, B.; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2009-01-01

    In coastal Louisiana, the development of large-scale freshwater diversion projects has led to controversy over their effects on oyster resources. Using controlled laboratory experiments in combination with a field study, we examined the effects of pulsed freshwater events (freshet) of different magnitude, duration, and rate of change on oyster resources. Laboratory and field evidence indicate that low salinity events (oyster growth was positively correlated with salinity. To maximize oyster production, data indicate that both low and high salinity events will be necessary.

  3. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Oyster Leases, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_oyster_lease_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) oyster leases data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which...

  4. Genotoxicity of diuron and glyphosate in oyster spermatozoa and embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcha, F; Spagnol, C; Rouxel, J

    2012-01-15

    We investigated the effects of genotoxicant exposure in gametes and embryos to find a possible link between genotoxicity and reproduction/developmental impairment, and explore the impact of chemical genotoxicity on population dynamics. Our study focused on the genotoxic effects of two herbicides on oyster gametes and embryos: glyphosate (both as an active substance and in the Roundup formulation) and diuron. France is Europe's leading consumer of agrochemical substances and as such, contamination of France's coastal waters by pesticides is a major concern. Glyphosate and diuron are among the most frequently detected herbicides in oyster production areas; as oyster is a specie with external reproduction, its gametes and embryos are in direct contact with the surrounding waters and are hence particularly exposed to these potentially dangerous substances. In the course of this study, differences in genotoxic and embryotoxic responses were observed in the various experiments, possibly due to differences in pollutant sensitivity between the tested genitor lots. Glyphosate and Roundup had no effect on oyster development at the concentrations tested, whereas diuron significantly affected embryo-larval development from the lowest tested concentration of 0.05 μg L⁻¹, i.e. an environmentally realistic concentration. Diuron may therefore have a significant impact on oyster recruitment rates in the natural environment. Our spermiotoxicity study revealed none of the tested herbicides to be cytotoxic for oyster spermatozoa. However, the alkaline comet assay showed diuron to have a significant genotoxic effect on oyster spermatozoa at concentrations of 0.05 μg L⁻¹ upwards. Conversely, no effects due to diuron exposure were observed on sperm mitochondrial function or acrosomal membrane integrity. Although our initial results showed no negative effect on sperm function, the possible impact on fertilization rate and the consequences of the transmission of damaged DNA for

  5. Oyster Shell Recycling and Bone Waste Treatment Using Plasma Pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Jae Ou; Knak, S P; Knak, A N; Koo, H J; Ravi, V

    2006-01-01

    Investigations on the recycling of oyster shells and bone waste treatment using the plasma pyrolysis technique are presented in this paper. A arc based plasma torch operated at 25 kW was employed for the experiments. Fresh oyster shells were recycled using the plasma torch to convert them to a useful product such as CaO. Bone waste was treated to remove the infectious organic part and to vitrify the inorganic part. The time required for treatment in both cases was significantly short. Significant reduction in the weight of the samples was observed in both cases

  6. Oyster Shell Recycling and Bone Waste Treatment Using Plasma Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jae, Ou Chae; Knak, S. P.; Knak, A. N.; Koo, H. J.; Ravi, V.

    2006-11-01

    Investigations on the recycling of oyster shells and bone waste treatment using the plasma pyrolysis technique are presented in this paper. A arc based plasma torch operated at 25 kW was employed for the experiments. Fresh oyster shells were recycled using the plasma torch to convert them to a useful product such as CaO. Bone waste was treated to remove the infectious organic part and to vitrify the inorganic part. The time required for treatment in both cases was significantly short. Significant reduction in the weight of the samples was observed in both cases.

  7. Hydrology of the Johnson Creek Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Karl K.; Snyder, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    The Johnson Creek basin is an important resource in the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area. Johnson Creek forms a wildlife and recreational corridor through densely populated areas of the cities of Milwaukie, Portland, and Gresham, and rural and agricultural areas of Multnomah and Clackamas Counties. The basin has changed as a result of agricultural and urban development, stream channelization, and construction of roads, drains, and other features characteristic of human occupation. Flooding of Johnson Creek is a concern for the public and for water management officials. The interaction of the groundwater and surface-water systems in the Johnson Creek basin also is important. The occurrence of flooding from high groundwater discharge and from a rising water table prompted this study. As the Portland metropolitan area continues to grow, human-induced effects on streams in the Johnson Creek basin will continue. This report provides information on the groundwater and surface-water systems over a range of hydrologic conditions, as well as the interaction these of systems, and will aid in management of water resources in the area. High and low flows of Crystal Springs Creek, a tributary to Johnson Creek, were explained by streamflow and groundwater levels collected for this study, and results from previous studies. High flows of Crystal Springs Creek began in summer 1996, and did not diminish until 2000. Low streamflow of Crystal Springs Creek occurred in 2005. Flow of Crystal Springs Creek related to water-level fluctuations in a nearby well, enabling prediction of streamflow based on groundwater level. Holgate Lake is an ephemeral lake in Southeast Portland that has inundated residential areas several times since the 1940s. The water-surface elevation of the lake closely tracked the elevation of the water table in a nearby well, indicating that the occurrence of the lake is an expression of the water table. Antecedent conditions of the groundwater level and autumn

  8. In vivo effects of metaldehyde on Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas: comparing hemocyte parameters in two oyster families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Pierrick; Burgeot, Thierry; Renault, Tristan

    2015-06-01

    Pollutants via run-off into the ocean represent a potential threat to marine organisms, especially bivalves such as oysters living in coastal environments. These organisms filter large volumes of seawater and may accumulate contaminants within their tissues. Pesticide contamination in water could have a direct or indirect toxic action on tissues or cells and could induce alteration of immune system. Bivalve immunity is mainly supported by hemocytes and participates directly by phagocytosis to eliminate pathogens. Some studies have shown that pesticides can reduce immune defences and/or modify genomes in vertebrates and invertebrates. Metaldehyde is used to kill slugs, snails and other terrestrial gastropods. Although metaldehyde has been detected in surface waters, its effects on marine bivalves including the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, have never been studied. Given the mode of action of this molecule and its targets (molluscs), it could be potentially more toxic to oysters than other pesticides (herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, etc.). Effects of metaldehyde on oyster hemocyte parameters were thus monitored through in vivo experiments based on a short-term exposure. In this work, metaldehyde at 0.1 μg/L, which corresponds to an average concentration detected in the environment, modulated hemocyte activities of Pacific oysters after an in vivo short-term contact. Individuals belonging to two families showed different behaviours for some hemocyte activities after contamination by metaldehyde. These results suggested that effects of pollutants on oysters may differ from an individual to another in relation to genetic diversity. Finally, it appears essential to take an interest in the effects of metaldehyde on a wide variety of aquatic invertebrates including those that have a significant economic impact.

  9. Flow-sediment-oyster interaction around degraded, restored, and reference oyster reefs in Florida's Indian River Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsikoudis, V.; Kibler, K. M.; Spiering, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    This study analyzes flow patterns and sediment distributions around three oyster reefs in a bar-built estuarine lagoon. We studied a degraded reef, a recently restored reef, and a reference condition reef with a healthy live oyster community. The restored reef had been regraded and restored with oyster shell mats to aid in recruitment of oyster spat, with the goal of reestablishing a healthy oyster community. Despite the fact that flow-biota-sediment interaction constitutes a blossoming research field, actual field data are sparse and current knowledge emanates from flume studies and numerical modeling. Moreover, the hydraulic effect of restored oyster reefs has not been thoroughly investigated and it is not clear if the flow field and sediment erosion/deposition are similar or diverge from natural reefs. Instantaneous three-dimensional flow velocities were collected on reefs using a Nortek Vectrino Profiler and an acoustic Doppler current profiler (Nortek Aquadopp). The former measured a 2 - 3 cm velocity profile above the oyster bed, while the latter quantified incoming velocities across the flow profile approximately 10 m from the edge of the reef. Flow measurements were conducted during rising tides and are coupled with simultaneous wind speed and direction data. In addition, 20 cm deep sediment cores were retrieved on and off the investigated reefs. Sediment grain size distributions were determined after individual cores were processed for loss on ignition. Incoming flow velocities were as high as 10 cm/s, relatively higher than those recorded close to reefs. Mean and turbulent flow velocities close to the reefs, varied among the investigated sites, despite the similar wind flow conditions offshore. For instance, the measurements at the degraded reef showed decreased wave attenuation and augmented flow velocities compared to the other sites. Boat wakes exhibited a very distinct signal in the flow velocity time-series and significantly increased the approaching

  10. 77 FR 10960 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Snake Creek, Islamorada, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Operation Regulation; Snake Creek, Islamorada, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary... deviation from the regulation governing the operation of Snake Creek Bridge, mile 0.5, across Snake Creek... schedule of Snake Creek Bridge in Islamorada, Florida. This deviation will result in the bridge opening...

  11. Flood discharges and hydraulics near the mouths of Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, studied the frequency and magnitude of flooding near the mouths of five tributaries to the New River in the New River Gorge National River. The 100-year peak discharge at each tributary was determined from regional frequency equations. The 100-year discharge at Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek was 3,400 cubic feet per second, 640 cubic feet per second, 8,200 cubic feet per second, 7,100 cubic feet per second, and 9,400 cubic feet per second, respectively. Flood elevations for each tributary were determined by application of a steady-state, one-dimensional flow model. Manning's roughness coefficients for the stream channels ranged from 0.040 to 0.100. Bridges that would be unable to contain the 100-year flood within the bridge opening included: the State Highway 82 bridge on Wolf Creek, the second Fayette County Highway 25 bridge upstream from the confluence with New River on Dunloup Creek, and an abandoned log bridge on Mill Creek.

  12. Millennial-scale sustainability of the Chesapeake Bay Native American oyster fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, Torben C; Reeder-Myers, Leslie A; Hofman, Courtney A; Breitburg, Denise; Lockwood, Rowan; Henkes, Gregory; Kellogg, Lisa; Lowery, Darrin; Luckenbach, Mark W; Mann, Roger; Ogburn, Matthew B; Southworth, Melissa; Wah, John; Wesson, James; Hines, Anson H

    2016-06-07

    Estuaries around the world are in a state of decline following decades or more of overfishing, pollution, and climate change. Oysters (Ostreidae), ecosystem engineers in many estuaries, influence water quality, construct habitat, and provide food for humans and wildlife. In North America's Chesapeake Bay, once-thriving eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) populations have declined dramatically, making their restoration and conservation extremely challenging. Here we present data on oyster size and human harvest from Chesapeake Bay archaeological sites spanning ∼3,500 y of Native American, colonial, and historical occupation. We compare oysters from archaeological sites with Pleistocene oyster reefs that existed before human harvest, modern oyster reefs, and other records of human oyster harvest from around the world. Native American fisheries were focused on nearshore oysters and were likely harvested at a rate that was sustainable over centuries to millennia, despite changing Holocene climatic conditions and sea-level rise. These data document resilience in oyster populations under long-term Native American harvest, sea-level rise, and climate change; provide context for managing modern oyster fisheries in the Chesapeake Bay and elsewhere around the world; and demonstrate an interdisciplinary approach that can be applied broadly to other fisheries.

  13. Role of dissolved and particulate cadmium in the accumulation of cadmium in cultured oysters (Crassostrea gigas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekhi, Priyanka [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada)], E-mail: anka.lekhi@ubc.ca; Cassis, D. [Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Pearce, C.M. [Pacific Biological Station, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Nanaimo, BC V9T 6N7 (Canada); Ebell, N. [Odyssey Shellfish Ltd., Nanoose Bay, BC V0R 9G0 (Canada); Maldonado, M.T. [Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Orians, K.J. [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada)

    2008-04-15

    Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) collected on the coast of British Columbia, Canada have occasionally shown cadmium (Cd) concentrations at or above 2 {mu}g g{sup -1} (wet weight), which has resulted in the loss of some international markets. This study investigated the source and transfer of Cd to oysters by focusing on the role of dissolved and particulate Cd in seawater. Parameters monitored for 1 year at two oyster farm sites on Vancouver Island included: oyster tissue mass and shell length, Cd in oysters, dissolved Cd, particulate Cd, temperature and salinity. Results show that dissolved Cd was the main source of Cd to the oysters and that Cd was mainly concentrated in the gut tissues. A seasonal trend was observed in Cd in oysters, in which levels were lowest during periods of higher temperatures. Results also indicate that the local oceanographic inputs and sediment diagenesis directly affect dissolved Cd and thereby influence the Cd levels in oysters. Particulate matter was not found to be a source of Cd in oysters, and was actually negatively correlated. This was likely due to the uptake of dissolved Cd by phytoplankton and the effect of phytoplankton on oyster tissue mass.

  14. Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on the Physical, Microbial, and Chemical Attributes of Oysters (Crassostrea virginica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingham, Talaysha; Ye, Mu; Chen, Haiqiang; Chintapenta, Lathadevi Karuna; Handy, Eunice; Zhao, Jing; Wu, Changqing; Ozbay, Gulnihal

    2016-05-01

    The change in the quality attributes (physical, microbial, and chemical) of oysters (Crassostrea virginica) after high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment at 300 MPa at room temperature (RT, 25 °C) 300, 450, and 500 MPa at 0 °C for 2 min and control oysters without treatment were evaluated over 3 wk. The texture and tissue yield percentages of oysters HHP treated at 300 MPa, RT increased significantly (P oysters reached the spoilage point of 7 log CFU/g after 15 d. Coliform counts (log MPN/g) were low during storage with total and fecal coliforms less than 3.5 and 1.0. High pressure treated oysters at 500 MPa at 0 °C were significantly higher (P oysters HHP treated at 300 MPa at 0 °C in lipid oxidation values. The highest pressure (500 MPa) treatment in this study, significantly (P oysters at 3 wk was significantly higher (P oysters [300 MPa, (RT); 450 MPa (0 °C); and 500 MPa (0 °C)]. HHP treatments of oysters were not significantly different in pH, percent salt extractable protein (SEP), and total lipid values compared to control. Based on our results, HHP prolongs the physical, microbial, and chemical quality of oysters. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Role of dissolved and particulate cadmium in the accumulation of cadmium in cultured oysters (Crassostrea gigas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lekhi, Priyanka; Cassis, D.; Pearce, C.M.; Ebell, N.; Maldonado, M.T.; Orians, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) collected on the coast of British Columbia, Canada have occasionally shown cadmium (Cd) concentrations at or above 2 μg g -1 (wet weight), which has resulted in the loss of some international markets. This study investigated the source and transfer of Cd to oysters by focusing on the role of dissolved and particulate Cd in seawater. Parameters monitored for 1 year at two oyster farm sites on Vancouver Island included: oyster tissue mass and shell length, Cd in oysters, dissolved Cd, particulate Cd, temperature and salinity. Results show that dissolved Cd was the main source of Cd to the oysters and that Cd was mainly concentrated in the gut tissues. A seasonal trend was observed in Cd in oysters, in which levels were lowest during periods of higher temperatures. Results also indicate that the local oceanographic inputs and sediment diagenesis directly affect dissolved Cd and thereby influence the Cd levels in oysters. Particulate matter was not found to be a source of Cd in oysters, and was actually negatively correlated. This was likely due to the uptake of dissolved Cd by phytoplankton and the effect of phytoplankton on oyster tissue mass

  16. Performance of selected eastern oyster lines across northeastern US estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern oyster production derived from aquaculture has expanded, but growth potential is constrained by losses to disease. Breeding programs supporting industry in the Northeast have targeted resistance to three diseases: MSX, Dermo, and ROD. Selected lines should possess some level of resistance a...

  17. High pressure processing inactivates human norovirus within oysters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of raw bivalve mollusks can result in norovirus infection. One potential intervention for virus-contaminated shellfish is high pressure processing (HPP). Currently HPP is known to inactivate Vibrio bacteria, hepatitis A virus, and murine norovirus within oysters. To evaluate the potentia...

  18. Genetic variation in anti-parasite behavior in oysters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behavioral avoidance of disease-causing parasites provides a first line of defense against the threat of infection, particularly when hosts are exposed to free-living parasite stages in the external environment. We report that suspension-feeding oysters (Crassostrea virginica) respond to the presenc...

  19. Growth and reproductive investment of introduced Pacific oysters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, J.F.M.F.; Peralta, N.R.E.; Machado, J.P.; van der Veer, H.W.

    2013-01-01

    Growth and reproductive investment of cultured Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas were studied in two south-western European estuaries: the Ria de Ribadeo in Spain and the Ria Formosa in Portugal. Developing gonads were found in individuals >23.5 mm shell length in the Ria Formosa and >27.5 mm shell

  20. Length-Weight relationships of mangrove oyster, Crassostrea gasar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The length-weight relationships (LWRs) of mangrove oyster, Crassostrea gasar, cultured under continuous and periodic submergence in tidal ponds, for a period of seven months, February to August 2010 were determined. A total of 375 individuals each of pond A (continuous submergence) and B (periodic submergence) ...

  1. Effect of Depuration on Microbial Content of Mangrove Oyster ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mangrove oysters and water samples collected from Benya lagoon, located at Elmina in the Central Region of Ghana were investigated for microbial contamination. A total of nine fungal isolates were identified. These were Aspergilus niger, A. sulphurus, species of Penicillium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Fusarium, ...

  2. Removal of Arsenic with Oyster Shell: Experimental Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Atiqur Rahman, , and

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Oyster shell has tremendous potential as a remediation material for the removal of arsenic from groundwater. A single arsenic removal system was developed with oyster shell for tube well water containing arsenic. The system removes arsenic from water by adsorption through fine oyster shell. Various conditions that affect the adsorption/desorption of arsenic were investigated. Adsorption column methods showed the removal of As(III under the following conditions: initial As concentration, 100 µg /L; oyster shell amount, 6 g; particle size, <355µm ; treatment flow rate, 1.7 mL/min; and pH 6.5. Arsenic concentration of the treated water were below the Bangladesh drinking water standard of 50 µg/L for As. The desorption efficiencies with 2M of KOH after the treatment of groundwater were in the range of 80-83%. A combination of techniques was used to measure the pH, conductivity, cations and anions. The average concentrations of other inorganic constituents of health concern (Na, K, Ca, Mg and Fe in treated water were below their respective WHO guideline for drinking. The present study might provide new avenues to achieve the arsenic concentrations required for drinking water recommended by Bangladesh and the World Health Organization (WHO.

  3. High protein complementation with high fiber substrates for oyster ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural residues have been world widely accepted for oyster mushroom culture. In this study, we used wheat straw, barley straw, maize stem residue, and lawn residue as substrates coupled with wheat bran, rice bran and soybean powder as complements for the growth of Pleurotus florida and Pleurotus ostreatus as ...

  4. Accumulation of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins in the oyster ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) poses a significant threat to the safe consumption of shellfish in the southern Benguela ecosystem. The accumulation of DSP toxins was investigated in two cultivated bivalve species, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the mussel Choromytilus meridionalis, suspended from a ...

  5. Effects of chronic exposure to ionising radiation in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fievet, B.; Devos, A.; Voiseux, C.; Leconte-Pradines, C. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete' Nucleaire (France); Dallas, L.; Jha, A. [University of Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    The Cotentin peninsula (Normandy, France) hosts nuclear industry facilities which operate with controlled discharges of radionuclides in the marine environment. Compared to natural radioactivity, the increase by artificial radionuclides is small but constant. As a consequence, marine species are chronically exposed to low additional doses of ionizing radiation (IR). The effects of chronic exposure to radionuclides were investigated in early stages of development of the Japanese oyster Crassostrea gigas. On the basis of literature, mollusks are expected to be particularly resistant to acute IR (UNSCEAR, 1996. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. Report to the General Assembly, with Scientific Annex. 86 p). Two different chronic exposure conditions consisted in external ({sup 137}Cs) and internal ({sup 241}Am) irradiation for two weeks. Biological endpoints were analyzed in parallel at both the integrated (growth) and molecular (target stress gene expression) levels. To identify potential biological targets of IR, oysters were first exposed to very high dose rates and radionuclide activities with the perspective to reduce the levels and to derive dose-response curves. Although the initial exposure levels ({sup 137}Cs 30 000 μGy.h{sup -1}; {sup 241}Am 57 000 Bq.L{sup -1}) were many orders of magnitude higher than those encountered in the natural environment, no significant change in the measured parameters was observed. This result was surprising because data from the literature showed that exposure of mussel Mytilus edulis to {sup 3}H at lower doses rates (10-100 μGy.h{sup -1}) induced DNA damage in hemocytes (Jha et al., 2005. Impact of low doses of tritium on the marine mussel, Mytilus edulis: Genotoxic effects and tissue-specific bioconcentration. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 586, 47-57). To understand this apparent discrepancy between those two filtering bivalves, a new experiment was performed to compare the response

  6. Biochemical and volatile organic compound profile of European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) and Pacific cupped oyster (Crassostrea gigas) cultivated in the Eastern Scheldt and Lake Grevelingen, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houcke, van Jasper; Medina, Isabel; Linssen, Jozef; Luten, Joop

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two important different geographical cultivation areas in the Netherlands (Eastern Scheldt and Lake Grevelingen) on the volatile organic compound (VOC) profile of European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) and Pacific cupped oyster (Crassostrea

  7. Oysters as biomonitors of the apex barge oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, T.L.; Jackson, T.J.; McDonald, T.J.; Wilkinson, D.L.; Brooks, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The collision of the Greek tanker ship Shinoussa resulted in a spill of an estimated 692,000 gallons of catalytic feed stock oil into Galveston Bay on July 28, 1990. Oysters were collected from Galveston Bay Todds Dump (GBTD) 235 days previous to the spill and 6, 37, 132, and 495 days after the spill. Oysters were also collected from Galveston Bay Redfish Island (GBRI), a site known to be impacted by the spill, 37 and 110 days after the spill. The concentration of the 24 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) measured for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's national status and trends program (NS ampersand T) site showed a sharp increase from about 100 ng/g to over 600 ng/g one week after the spill compared to concentrations 235 days previous to the spill. The concentration of the 24 NS ampersand T PAH in oysters from GBRI ranges from 400 to over 1000 ng/g. Soon after the spill the concentration of the 24 NS ampersand T PAH at Todds Dump decreased to levels not statistically different from prespill samples. However, analyses of alkylated and sulfur containing aromatic compounds indicate the oysters were still contaminated with Apex barge oil at least 37 and 110 days after the spill at GBTD and GBRI, respectively. Data from NS ampersand T sampling at GBTD more than a year after the spill (495 days) indicates the presence of alkylated aromatic hydrocarbons that may be from Apex barge oil still in the area. It appears that a sink of Apex barge oil (i.e., in sediments) may periodically be released by storms or other events into the ecosystem near GBTD. Therefore, bioavailable Apex barge oil is still present and may adversely affect oysters 495 days after the spill

  8. Biochemical profile of oyster Crassostrea madrasensis and its nutritional attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K. Asha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oysters are highly esteemed sea food and considered a delicacy throughout the world. Yet this resource is not optimally utilised in several parts of the world. The aim of this study is to highlight its nutritional importance. Biochemical composition and nutritional attributes of oyster meat are discussed. Proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid profiles and mineral content were determined in oysters (Crassostrea madrasensis. Moisture, protein, fat, carbohydrate and ash contents in the oyster were 82.64%, 9.41%, 3.25% 3.2% and 1.01%, respectively and it was rich in macro-minerals and trace elements especially selenium. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA were highest of the total lipids among which eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and linoleic acid were the prominent fatty acids. The n-3/n-6 index was high indicating a predominance of n-3 fatty acids in the species. Total amino acid content was 99.33 g/100 g crude protein, of which, essential amino acid lysine was the most abundant. Valine had the lowest essential amino acid score (EAAS (0.17 while threonine had the highest EAAS of 3.62. Chemical score was 17% and the lowest limiting amino acid was valine. Protein efficiency ratio, essential amino acid index and biological value of oyster were 3.92, 120.2 and 174.0, respectively which indicates that the protein is of superior quality. Data on biochemical composition, nutritional attributes and quality indices of C. madrasensis protein may prove important for future policies regarding exploitation of this species and for inducing favourable changes in consumer preferences.

  9. Latitudinal gradients in ecosystem engineering by oysters vary across habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, Dominic; Cole, Victoria J; Bishop, Melanie J

    2016-04-01

    Ecological theory predicts that positive interactions among organisms will increase across gradients of increasing abiotic stress or consumer pressure. This theory has been supported by empirical studies examining the magnitude of ecosystem engineering across environmental gradients and between habitat settings at local scale. Predictions that habitat setting, by modifying both biotic and abiotic factors, will determine large-scale gradients in ecosystem engineering have not been tested, however. A combination of manipulative experiments and field surveys assessed whether along the east Australian coastline: (1) facilitation of invertebrates by the oyster Saccostrea glomerata increased across a latitudinal gradient in temperature; and (2) the magnitude of this effect varied between intertidal rocky shores and mangrove forests. It was expected that on rocky shores, where oysters are the primary ecosystem engineer, they would play a greater role in ameliorating latitudinal gradients in temperature than in mangroves, where they are a secondary ecosystem engineer living under the mangrove canopy. On rocky shores, the enhancement of invertebrate abundance in oysters as compared to bare microhabitat decreased with latitude, as the maximum temperatures experienced by intertidal organisms diminished. By contrast, in mangrove forests, where the mangrove canopy resulted in maximum temperatures that were cooler and of greater humidity than on rocky shores, we found no evidence of latitudinal gradients of oyster effects on invertebrate abundance. Contrary to predictions, the magnitude by which oysters enhanced biodiversity was in many instances similar between mangroves and rocky shores. Whether habitat-context modifies patterns of spatial variation in the effects of ecosystem engineers on community structure will depend, in part, on the extent to which the environmental amelioration provided by an ecosystem engineer replicates that of other co-occurring ecosystem engineers.

  10. Featured Partner: Saddle Creek Logistics Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA fact sheet spotlights Saddle Creek Logistics as a SmartWay partner committed to sustainability in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution caused by freight transportation, partly by growing its compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles for

  11. Some Physicochemical Charateristics of Badagry Creek, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Applied Ecology ... Badagry Creek runs through Nigeria and Republic of Benin with access to the Atlantic Ocean. ... Colour, surface temperature, pH, salinity, turbidity, phenol, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen ...

  12. Tritium at the Steel Creek Landing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, M.; Heffner, J.D.; Fledderman, P.D.; Littrell, J.W.; Hayes, D.W.; Dodgen, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    In December 1997 and January 1998, the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) collected routine weekly grab samples from the Savannah River near the Steel Creek Boat Landing

  13. Mercury in Thana creek, Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Desai, B.N.

    weight) with marked increased from harbour to the creek region suggests substantial mercury input in the head region. Chemical extraction by hydrogen peroxide indicated that more than 70% of mercury was leachable and probably organically bound...

  14. Experimental infection of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas spat by ostreid herpesvirus 1: demonstration of oyster spat susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schikorski David

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2008 and 2009, acute mortalities occurred in France among Pacific cupped oyster, Crassostrea gigas, spat. Different hypothesis including the implication of environmental factors, toxic algae and/or pathogens have been explored. Diagnostic tests indicated that OsHV-1 including a particular genotype, termed OsHV-1 μVar, was detected in most of samples and especially in moribund oysters with the highlighting of virus particles looking like herpes viruses by TEM examination. In this study, an experimental protocol to reproduce OsHV-1 infection in laboratory conditions was developed. This protocol was based on the intramuscular injection of filtered (0.22 μm tissue homogenates prepared from naturally OsHV-1 infected spat collected on French coasts during mortality outbreaks in 2008. Results of the experimental trials showed that mortalities were induced after injection. Moreover, filtered tissue homogenates induced mortalities whereas the same tissue homogenates exposed to an ultraviolet (UV treatment did not induce any mortality suggesting that oyster spat mortalities require the presence of a UV sensitive agent. Furthermore, analysis of injected oyster spat revealed the detection of high amounts of OsHV-1 DNA by real-time quantitative PCR. Finally, TEM analysis demonstrated the presence of herpes virus particles. The developed protocol allowed to maintain sources of infective virus which can be useful for the development of further studies concerning the transmission and the development of OsHV-1 infection.

  15. Ocean acidification increases the vulnerability of native oysters to predation by invasive snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Eric; Gaylord, Brian; Hettinger, Annaliese; Lenz, Elizabeth A; Meyer, Kirstin; Hill, Tessa M

    2014-03-07

    There is growing concern that global environmental change might exacerbate the ecological impacts of invasive species by increasing their per capita effects on native species. However, the mechanisms underlying such shifts in interaction strength are poorly understood. Here, we test whether ocean acidification, driven by elevated seawater pCO₂, increases the susceptibility of native Olympia oysters to predation by invasive snails. Oysters raised under elevated pCO₂ experienced a 20% increase in drilling predation. When presented alongside control oysters in a choice experiment, 48% more high-CO₂ oysters were consumed. The invasive snails were tolerant of elevated CO₂ with no change in feeding behaviour. Oysters raised under acidified conditions did not have thinner shells, but were 29-40% smaller than control oysters, and these smaller individuals were consumed at disproportionately greater rates. Reduction in prey size is a common response to environmental stress that may drive increasing per capita effects of stress-tolerant invasive predators.

  16. Influence of eutrophication on metal bioaccumulation and oral bioavailability in oysters, Crassostrea angulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shun-Xing; Chen, Li-Hui; Zheng, Feng-Ying; Huang, Xu-Guang

    2014-07-23

    Oysters (Crassostrea angulata) are often exposed to eutrophication. However, how these exposures influence metal bioaccumulation and oral bioavailability (OBA) in oysters is unknown. After a four month field experimental cultivation, bioaccumulation factors (BAF) of metals (Fe, Cu, As, Cd, and Pb) from seawater to oysters and metal oral bioavailability in oysters by bionic gastrointestinal tract were determined. A positive effect of macronutrient (nitrate N and total P) concentration in seawater on BAF of Cd in oysters was observed, but such an effect was not significant for Fe, Cu, Pb, and As. Only OBA of As was significantly positively correlated to N and P contents. For Fe, OBA was negatively correlated with N. The regular variation of the OBA of Fe and As may be due to the effect of eutrophication on the synthesis of metal granules and heat-stable protein in oysters, respectively.

  17. A comparative proteomic study on the effects of metal pollution in oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lanlan; Ji, Chenglong; Wu, Huifeng; Tan, Qiaoguo; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2016-11-15

    The metal pollution has posed great risk on the coastal organisms along the Jiulongjiang Estuary in South China. In this work, two-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics was applied to the oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis from metal pollution sites to characterize the proteomic responses to metal pollution. Metal accumulation and proteomic responses indicated that the oysters from BJ site were more severely contaminated than those from FG site. Compared with those oyster samples from the clean site (JZ), metal pollution induced cellular injuries, oxidative and immune stresses in oyster heapatopancreas from both BJ and FG sites via differential metabolic pathways. In addition, metal pollution in BJ site induced disturbance in energy and lipid metabolisms in oysters. Results indicated that cathepsin L and ferritin GF1 might be the biomarkers of As and Fe in oyster C. hongkongensis, respectively. This study demonstrates that proteomics is a useful tool for investigating biological effects induced by metal pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Hope Creek Generating Station (Docket No. 50-354). Supplement No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    Supplement No. 1 to the Safety Evaluation Report on the application filed by Public Service Electric and Gas Company as applicant for itself and Atlantic City Electric Company, as owners, for a license to operate Hope Creek Generating Station has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is located in Lower Alloways Creek Township in Salem County, New Jersey. This supplement reports the status of certain items that had not been resolved at the time of publication of the Safety Evaluation Report

  19. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Hope Creek Generating Station (Docket No. 50-354). Supplement No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    Supplement No. 4 to the Safety Evaluation Report on the application filed by Public Service Electric and Gas Company on its own behalf as co-owner and as agent for the other co-owner, the Atlantic City Electric Company, for a license to operate Hope Creek Generating Station has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is located in Lower Alloways Creek Township in Salem County, New Jersey. This supplement reports the status of certain items that had not been resolved at the time of publication of the Safety Evaluation Report

  20. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Hope Creek Generating Station (Docket No. 50-354)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    Supplement No. 3 to the Safety Evaluation Report on the application filed by Public Service Electric and Gas Company on its own behalf as co-owner and as agent for the other co-owner, the Atlantic City Electric Company, for a license to operate Hope Creek Generating Station has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is located in Lower Alloways Creek Township in Salem County, New Jersey. This supplement reports the status of certain items that had not been resolved at the time of publication of the Safety Evaluation Report. 6 tabs

  1. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Hope Creek Generation Station (Docket No. 50-354). Supplement No. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    Supplement No. 5 to the Safety Evaluation Report on the application filed by Public Service Electric and Gas Company on its own behalf as co-owner and as agent for the other co-owner, the Atlantic City Electric Company, for a license to operate Hope Creek Generating Station has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is located in Lower Alloways Creek Township in Salem County, New Jersey. This supplement reports the status of certain items that had not been resolved at the time of the publication of the Safety Evaluation Report

  2. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Hope Creek Generating Station (Docket No. 50-354). Supplement 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    Supplement No. 2 to the Safety Evaluation Report on the application filed by Public Service Electric and Gas Company as applicant for itself and Atlantic City Electric Company, as owners, for a license to operate Hope Creek Generating Station has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is located in Lower Alloways Creek Township in Salem County, New Jersey. This supplement reports the status of certain items that had not been resolved at the time of publication of the Safety Evaluation Report

  3. Detection, quantification and genotyping of noroviruses in oysters implicated in disease outbreaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haefeli, Deborah; Gantenbein-Demarchi, Corinne; Böttiger, Blenda

    2012-01-01

    . While GI and GII have often been verified as causative agents of oyster-transmitted illness, GIV is rarely detected and has so far not been confirmed in outbreaks related to oysters. The aim of this study was to determine whether NoVs from oysters implicated in a disease outbreak were linked to the GI......Noroviruses (NoVs) are a major cause of foodborne outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in humans. Transmission of NoV is commonly linked to the consumption of oysters as they accumulate viruses through filter feeding in faecal-contaminated water. The NoV genogroups (G)I, GII and GIV infect humans...

  4. Exploring spatial and temporal variations of cadmium concentrations in pacific oysters from british columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Cindy Xin; Cao, Jiguo; Bendell, Leah

    2011-09-01

    Oysters from the Pacific Northwest coast of British Columbia, Canada, contain high levels of cadmium, in some cases exceeding some international food safety guidelines. A primary goal of this article is the investigation of the spatial and temporal variation in cadmium concentrations for oysters sampled from coastal British Columbia. Such information is important so that recommendations can be made as to where and when oysters can be cultured such that accumulation of cadmium within these oysters is minimized. Some modern statistical methods are applied to achieve this goal, including monotone spline smoothing, functional principal component analysis, and semi-parametric additive modeling. Oyster growth rates are estimated as the first derivatives of the monotone smoothing growth curves. Some important patterns in cadmium accumulation by oysters are observed. For example, most inland regions tend to have a higher level of cadmium concentration than most coastal regions, so more caution needs to be taken for shellfish aquaculture practices occurring in the inland regions. The semi-parametric additive modeling shows that oyster cadmium concentration decreases with oyster length, and oysters sampled at 7 m have higher average cadmium concentration than those sampled at 1 m. © 2010, The International Biometric Society.

  5. Investigations of Salmonella enterica serovar newport infections of oysters by using immunohistochemistry and knockout mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Christopher M; Dial, Sharon M; Day, William A; Joens, Lynn A

    2012-04-01

    The consumption of raw oysters is an important risk factor in the acquisition of food-borne disease, with Salmonella being one of a number of pathogens that have been found in market oysters. Previous work by our lab found that Salmonella was capable of surviving in oysters for over 2 months under laboratory conditions, and this study sought to further investigate Salmonella's tissue affinity and mechanism of persistence within the oysters. Immunohistochemistry was used to show that Salmonella was capable of breaching the epithelial barriers, infecting the deeper connective tissues of the oysters, and evading destruction by the oysters' phagocytic hemocytes. To further investigate the mechanism of these infections, genes vital to the function of Salmonella's two main type III secretion systems were disrupted and the survivability of these knockout mutants within oysters was assayed. When the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 and 2 mutant strains were exposed to oysters, there were no detectable deficiencies in their abilities to survive, suggesting that Salmonella's long-term infection of oysters does not rely upon these two important pathogenicity islands and must be due to some other, currently unknown, mechanism.

  6. Sediment quality guidelines for copper and zinc for filter-feeding estuarine oysters?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, G.F., E-mail: gavin.birch@sydney.edu.a [Environmental Geology Group, School of Geosciences, Sydney University, NSW (Australia); Hogg, T.D. [Environmental Geology Group, School of Geosciences, Sydney University, NSW (Australia)

    2011-01-15

    Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) assess the ability of bottom sediment to sustain healthy infauna and water quality guidelines (WQGs) provide protection for a designated percentage of aquatic species. Filter-feeding marine species, e.g. oysters and mussels, acquire food from particles in the water column and protection of these animals is not provided by SQGs or WQGs. The current work investigated the relationship between metal (Cu, Zn) concentrations in total and fine-fraction (<62.5 {mu}m) surficial sediment digested in a range of acids and chelating agents and oyster tissue metal concentrations. A strong correlation between oyster tissue Cu and Zn concentrations and fine-fraction surficial sediment digested in 1 M HCl provided a sedimentary guideline which predicted tissue metal concentrations in oysters and established a level (<45 {mu}g g{sup -1} and <1000 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively) for protecting oysters from exceeding human consumption levels (70 {mu}g g{sup -1} and 1000 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively). - A strong correlation between oyster tissue Cu and Zn concentrations and fine-fraction surficial sediment digested in 1 M HCl provided a sedimentary guideline which predicted tissue metal concentrations in oysters and established a level for protecting oysters from exceeding human consumption levels for these metals. The guidelines for fine surficial sediment developed in the present work accurately predicted oyster tissue concentrations in the field.

  7. Inhibition of 4NQO-Induced Oral Carcinogenesis by Dietary Oyster Shell Calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Jiang, Yi; Liao, Liyan; Zhu, Xiaoxin; Tang, Shengan; Yang, Qing; Sun, Lihua; Li, Yujie; Gao, Shuangrong; Xie, Zhongjian

    2016-03-01

    Oyster has gained much attention recently for its anticancer activity but it is unclear whether calcium, the major antitumor ingredient in oyster shell, is responsible for the anticarcinogenic role of the oyster. To address this issue, C57BL/6 mice were fed with the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO, 50 µg/mL) and normal diet or a diet containing oyster powder, oyster calcium, or calcium depleted oyster powder. The tongue tissue specimens isolated from these mice were histologically evaluated for hyperplasia, dysplasia, and papillary lesions, and then analyzed for proliferation and differentiation markers by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that mice on the diet containing oyster calcium significantly reduced rates of tumors in the tongue and proliferation and enhanced differentiation in the oral epithelium compared with the diet containing calcium depleted oyster powder. These results suggest that calcium in oyster plays a critical role in suppressing formation of oral squamous cell carcinoma and proliferation and promoting differentiation of the oral epithelium. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Hoe Creek groundwater restoration, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renk, R.R.; Crader, S.E.; Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    During the summer of 1989, approximately 6.5 million gallons of contaminated groundwater were pumped from 23 wells at the Hoe Creek underground coal gasification site, near Gillette, Wyoming. The organic contaminants were removed using activated carbon before the water was sprayed on 15.4 acres at the sites. Approximately 2647 g (5.8 lb) of phenols and 10,714 g (23.6 lb) of benzene were removed from the site aquifers. Phenols, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and naphthalene concentrations were measured in 43 wells. Benzene is the only contaminant at the site exceeds the federal standard for drinking water (5 {mu}g/L). Benzene leaches into the groundwater and is slow to biologically degrade; therefore, the benzene concentration has remained high in the groundwater at the site. The pumping operation affected groundwater elevations across the entire 80-acre site. The water levels rebounded quickly when the pumping operation was stopped on October 1, 1989. Removing contaminated groundwater by pumping is not an effective way to clean up the site because the continuous release of benzene from coal tars is slow. Benzene will continue to leach of the tars for a long time unless its source is removed or the leaching rate retarded through mitigation techniques. The application of the treated groundwater to the surface stimulated plant growth. No adverse effects were noted or recorded from some 60 soil samples taken from twenty locations in the spray field area. 20 refs., 52 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Rapid detection of toxic metals in non-crushed oyster shells by portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou Ju, E-mail: Ju.Chou@selu.ed [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Southeastern Louisiana University, Hammond, LA 70402 (United States); Clement, Garret; Bursavich, Bradley; Elbers, Don [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Southeastern Louisiana University, Hammond, LA 70402 (United States); Cao Baobao; Zhou Weilie [Advanced Material Research Institute, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The aim of this study was the multi-elemental detection of toxic metals such as lead (Pb) in non-crushed oyster shells by using a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer. A rapid, simultaneous multi-element analytical methodology for non-crushed oyster shells has been developed using a portable XRF which provides a quick, quantitative, non-destructive, and cost-effective mean for assessment of oyster shell contamination from Pb. Pb contamination in oyster shells was further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The results indicated that Pb is distributed in-homogeneously in contaminated shells. Oyster shells have a lamellar structure that could contribute to the high accumulation of Pb on oyster shells. - A rapid, simultaneous multi-element analytical methodology for non-crushed oyster shells has been developed using XRF and contamination of lead on oyster shells was confirmed by XRF and SEM-EDS.

  10. Rapid detection of toxic metals in non-crushed oyster shells by portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou Ju; Clement, Garret; Bursavich, Bradley; Elbers, Don; Cao Baobao; Zhou Weilie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was the multi-elemental detection of toxic metals such as lead (Pb) in non-crushed oyster shells by using a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer. A rapid, simultaneous multi-element analytical methodology for non-crushed oyster shells has been developed using a portable XRF which provides a quick, quantitative, non-destructive, and cost-effective mean for assessment of oyster shell contamination from Pb. Pb contamination in oyster shells was further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The results indicated that Pb is distributed in-homogeneously in contaminated shells. Oyster shells have a lamellar structure that could contribute to the high accumulation of Pb on oyster shells. - A rapid, simultaneous multi-element analytical methodology for non-crushed oyster shells has been developed using XRF and contamination of lead on oyster shells was confirmed by XRF and SEM-EDS.

  11. COMPARISON OF CARBON AND NITROGEN FLUXES IN TIDEFLAT FOOD WEBS DOMINATED BY BURROWING SHRIMP OR BY CULTURED OYSTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species of indigenous, thalassinid burrowing shrimps are pests to the benthic culture of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) because deposition of sediment excavated by the shrimps buries or smothers the oysters. Carbaryl pesticide is used to reduce burrowing shrimp densitie...

  12. 78 FR 64003 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Jump Creek, Succor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ...] Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Jump Creek, Succor Creek, and... Field Office Jump Creek, Succor Creek and Cow Creek Watersheds grazing permit renewal, and by this... in the Federal Register. ADDRESSES: Copies of the Jump Creek, Succor Creek and Cow Creek Watersheds...

  13. 78 FR 26065 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Jump Creek, Succor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ...] Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Jump Creek, Succor Creek, and... the Jump Creek, Succor Creek, and Cow Creek Watersheds Grazing Permit Renewal and by this notice is... receive written comments on the Draft EIS for the Jump Creek, Succor Creek, and Cow Creek Watersheds...

  14. Multibiomarker assessment of three Brazilian estuaries using oysters as bioindicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez Domingos, F.X.; Azevedo, M.; Silva, M.D.; Randi, M.A.F.; Freire, C.A.; Silva de Assis, H.C.; Oliveira Ribeiro, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Oysters have been largely employed as bioindicators of environmental quality in biomonitoring studies. Crassostrea rhizophorae was selected to evaluate the health status of three estuarine areas impacted by anthropogenic activities along the Brazilian coast, in three estuarine complexes, ranging in latitude from 7 to 25 deg. S. In each estuary three sites were sampled in Winter and in Summer: a site considered as reference, and two sites next to contamination sources. Condition index was similar at all sites and estuaries, with the highest values found for Itamaraca oysters in Summer. Necrosis, hyperplasia, mucocyte hypertrophy and fusion of ordinary filaments were the main histopathological lesions observed. Muscle cholinesterase activity was overall similar, but with a strong seasonal effect. Inhibition or activation of branchial total ATPase and Na,K-ATPase activities at the contaminated sites was observed. The health status of these estuarine areas is quite similar, and the combined use of biomarkers is recommended

  15. Plesiomonas shigelloides Periprosthetic Knee Infection After Consumption of Raw Oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustedt, Joshua W; Ahmed, Sarim

    Periprosthetic infections are a leading cause of morbidity after total joint arthroplasty. Common pathogens include Staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus, enterococcus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, there are many cases in which rare bacteria are isolated. This case report describes a periprosthetic knee infection caused by Plesiomonas shigelloides. In the United States, P shigelloides and 2 other Vibrionaceae family members, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, are most often contracted from eating raw oysters and shellfish. P shigelloides usually causes a self-limiting watery diarrhea, but in immunosuppressed people it can cause septicemia. In this case report, a chemically and biologically immunosuppressed man consumed raw oysters and developed P shigelloides septicemia and acute periprosthetic knee infection that required surgical intervention.

  16. Multiple enzymatic profiles of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains isolated from oysters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Albuquerque Costa

    Full Text Available The enzymatic characterization of vibrios has been used as a virulence indicator of sanitary interest. The objective of this study was to determine the enzymatic profile of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains (n = 70 isolated from Crassostrea rhizophorae oysters. The strains were examined for the presence of gelatinase (GEL, caseinase (CAS, elastase (ELAS, phospholipase (PHOS, lipase (LIP, amilase (AML and DNase. All enzymes, except elastase, were detected in more than 60% of the strains. The most recurrent enzymatic profiles were AML + DNase + PHOS + GEL + LIP (n = 16; 22.9% and AML + CAS + DNase + PHOS + GEL + LIP (n = 21; 30%. Considering the fact that exoenzyme production by vibrios is closely related to virulence, one must be aware of the bacteriological risk posed to human health by the consumption of raw or undercooked oysters.

  17. Factors affecting the uptake and retention of Vibrio vulnificus in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froelich, Brett A; Noble, Rachel T

    2014-12-01

    Vibrio vulnificus, a bacterium ubiquitous in oysters and coastal water, is capable of causing ailments ranging from gastroenteritis to grievous wound infections or septicemia. The uptake of these bacteria into oysters is often examined in vitro by placing oysters in seawater amended with V. vulnificus. Multiple teams have obtained similar results in studies where laboratory-grown bacteria were observed to be rapidly taken up by oysters but quickly eliminated. This technique, along with suggested modifications, is reviewed here. In contrast, the natural microflora within oysters is notoriously difficult to eliminate via depuration. The reason for the transiency of exogenous bacteria is that those bacteria are competitively excluded by the oyster's preexisting microflora. Evidence of this phenomenon is shown using in vitro oyster studies and a multiyear in situ case study. Depuration of the endogenous oyster bacteria occurs naturally and can also be artificially induced, but both of these events require extreme conditions, natural or otherwise, as explained here. Finally, the "viable but nonculturable" (VBNC) state of Vibrio is discussed. This bacterial torpor can easily be confused with a reduction in bacterial abundance, as bacteria in this state fail to grow on culture media. Thus, oysters collected from colder months may appear to be relatively free of Vibrio but in reality harbor VBNC cells that respond to exogenous bacteria and prevent colonization of oyster matrices. Bacterial-uptake experiments combined with studies involving cell-free spent media are detailed that demonstrate this occurrence, which could explain why the microbial community in oysters does not always mirror that of the surrounding water. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. The biofilteration ability of oysters (Crassostrea gigas) to reduce Aeromonas salmonicida in salmon culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaona; Li, Xian; Sun, Guoxiang; Sharawy, Zaki Zaki; Qiu, Tianlong; Du, Yishuai; Liu, Ying

    2017-07-01

    Pathogen contamination in the environment is inevitable with the rapid development of intensive aquaculture. Therefore, alternative ecofriendly biological strategies to control pathogenic bacteria are required. However, our aim was to investigate the ability of oysters (Crassostrea gigas) to filter the important opportunistic pathogen, Aeromonas salmonicida (strain C4), using a green fluorescent protein tag (GFP) in the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farming wastewater. Hence, A. salmonicida removal efficiency and ingestion rate were detected in two different oyster stages (larvae and adults). To evaluate the practical performance of oysters as A. salmonicida biofilter, adult oysters were applied to an integrated constructed wetlands system (ICWS) and their long-term C4-GFP removal efficiency was recorded for 60 days. Overall, our results clearly indicated that oysters had substantial A. salmonicida removal ability via their ingestion process when observed under a fluorescent microscope. Approximately 88-95% of C4-GFP was removed by oyster larvae at an ingestion rate of 6.4 × 10 3 -6.2 × 10 5  CFU/h·ind, while 79-92% of C4-GFP was removed by adult oysters at an ingestion rate of 2.1 × 10 4 -3.1 × 10 6  CFU/h·ind. Furthermore, 57.9 ± 17.2% of C4-GFP removal efficiency was achieved when oysters were applied to ICWS. We, therefore, concluded that using oysters as a biofilter represents an effective alternative for removing A. salmonicida from aquaculture wastewater. However, the fate of oysters after ingesting the pathogenic bacteria, acting as a potential reservoir or vector for pathogens, is still debatable. This research provides the basis for the application of oysters as a biofilter to remove pathogens from aquaculture wastewater in industrialized production.

  19. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Hope Creek Generation Station (Docket No. 50-354). Supplement No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    Supplement No. 6 to the Safety Evaluation Report on the application filed by Public Service Electric and Gas Company on its own behalf as co-owner and as agent for the other co-owner, the Atlantic City Electric Company, for a license to operate Hope Creek Generating Station has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is located in Lower Alloways Creek Township in Salem County, New Jersey. This supplement reports the status of certain items that has not been resolved at the time of the publication of the Safety Evaluation Report. This supplement supports the issuance of a full-power license to operate Hope Creek Generating Station

  20. Are oysters being bored to death? Influence of Cliona celata on Crassostrea virginica condition, growth and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, John M; O'Shaughnessy, Kathryn A; Diedrich, Grant A; Finelli, Christopher M

    2015-11-17

    The boring sponge Cliona celata is a nuisance species that can have deleterious effects on eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica growth, condition, and survival. Surprisingly, however, these effects have not been well documented and when examined, results have been equi-vocal. In this study, we provide a direct comparison of growth, condition, and survival of sponge-colonized and uncolonized oysters in southeast North Carolina in 2 separate experiments. In the first experiment, sponge-colonized oysters exhibited significantly slower growth rates, reduced condition, and lower survival relative to uncolonized oysters, although results may have been confounded by oyster source. In the second experiment, using smaller oysters from the same source population, growth rate was again significantly reduced in colonized oysters relative to uncolonized oysters, however neither condition nor survival differed. In field surveys of the same population, colonized individuals across a range of sizes demonstrated significantly reduced condition. Further, condition index was negatively correlated with sponge biomass, which was positively correlated with oyster size, suggesting that the impact of the sponge changes with ontogeny. By investigating clearance rates, tissue isotopic and nutrient content, as well as caloric value, this study provides further evidence that sponge presence causes the oysters to divert energy into costly shell maintenance and repair at the expense of shell and somatic growth. Thus, although variable, our results demonstrate negative impacts of sponge infestation on oyster demographics, particularly as oysters grow larger.

  1. 46 CFR 2.01-50 - Persons other than crew on towing, oyster, or fishing steam vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Persons other than crew on towing, oyster, or fishing steam vessels. 2.01-50 Section 2.01-50 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES... than crew on towing, oyster, or fishing steam vessels. (a) A steam vessel engaged in towing, oyster...

  2. A Peek into 'Alamogordo Creek'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2Figure 3 On its 825th Martian day (May 20, 2006), NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity stopped for the weekend to place its instrument arm onto the soil target pictured here, dubbed 'Alamogordo Creek.' Two views from the panoramic camera, acquired at about noon local solar time, are at the top. Below them is a close-up view from the microscopic imager. At upper left, a false-color view emphasizes differences among materials in rocks and soil. It combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 432-nanometer filters. At upper right is an approximately true-color rendering made with the panoramic camera's 600-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 480-nanometer filters. The microscopic-imager frame covers the area outlined by the white boxes in the panoramic-camera views, a rectangle 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. As Opportunity traverses to the south, it is analyzing soil and rocks along the way for differences from those seen earlier. At this site, the soil contains abundant small spherical fragments, thought to be hematite-rich concretions, plus finer-grained basaltic sand. Most of the spherical fragments seen in the microscopic image are smaller than those first seen at the rover's landing site in 'Eagle Crater,' some five kilometers (3.1 miles) to the north. However, a few larger spherical fragments and other rock fragments can also be seen in the panoramic-camera images.

  3. The reproductive cycle of the oyster Crassostrea gasar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHAM Gomes

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the reproductive cycle of the oyster Crassostrea gasar (= C. brasiliana in the field and the laboratory. The reproductive cycle of the animals was evaluated in the field at Sambaqui Beach, Florianópolis, SC (27° 29′18″ S and 48° 32′12″ W from May 2008 through November 2009. In July, the animals were in the resting stage. The early growth stage began in August and was followed by the late growth stage in October. In November and December, the oysters began to enter the mature stage. Females in spawning condition were predominant during these months. The stages of the reproductive cycle were positively associated with temperature (r=0.77, P<0.01 and negatively associated with salinity (r=−0.56, P=0.042. These findings demonstrated that increased temperature and reduced salinity influence the reproductive development of Crassostrea gasar. The condition index (CI of the animals was also associated with the seawater temperature. The highest values of the condition index were observed during the months when the temperature of the seawater was gradually increasing. A laboratory experiment was performed to test the effect of salinity on the reproductive cycle of the oysters. The experiment was conducted in standardized tanks. The animals were conditioned using two salinities (24‰ and 34‰. The salinity regime influenced the development of the gonadal tissue of the oysters. A salinity of 24‰ produced greater reproductive development.

  4. Electrical stimulation in white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshita, I.; Nurfazira, K. M. P.; Fern, C. Shi; Ain, M. S. Nur

    2017-09-01

    White oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) is an edible mushroom that gained popularity due to its nutritional values, low production cost and ease of cultivation. There are several research reported on the mushroom fruiting bodies which were actively developed when applying electrical shock treatment. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of different electrical voltages on the growth and yield of white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida). Five different electrical voltages had been applied during spawning period which were 6V, 9V, 12V, 15V and mushroom bags without any treatment served as control. Treatment at 6V showed the highest rate for mycelium growth while 15V took the shortest time for fruiting body formation. However, no significant different (P>0.05) among all the treatments was observed for the time taken for the mycelium to fill-up the bag and pinhead emergence. The total fresh weight and percentage of biological efficiency for treatment at 9V showed higher values compared to control. Treatment at 9V also showed the largest pileus diameter and the most firm in the pileus texture. Meanwhile, treatment at 6V showed the highest a* value (redness). In addition, different electrical voltage treatments applied did not show any significant effect on substrate utilization efficiency, colour L* and b* values. In conclusion, among all the electrical treatments applied, 9V could be considered as the best treatment to enhance the yield of white oyster mushroom.

  5. Identification of irradiated oysters by EPR measurements on shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Della Monaca, S., E-mail: sara.dellamonaca@iss.it [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, viale Regina Elena, 299 Rome (Italy); Fattibene, P.; Boniglia, C.; Gargiulo, R.; Bortolin, E. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, viale Regina Elena, 299 Rome (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    In this paper the EPR spectra of the radicals induced in oyster shells after irradiation to (0.5-2) kGy ionizing radiation doses are analyzed. EPR spectra of irradiated shells showed the complex radical composition of biocarbonates, characterized by the presence of SO{sub 2}{sup -}, SO{sub 3}{sup -} and CO{sub 2}{sup -} radicals with different symmetries. In particular, the radiation-induced line at g = 2.0038, due to the g{sub x} component of the orthorhombic SO{sub 3}{sup -}, was well distinguishable from the rest of the spectrum. The g{sub x} component of the orthorhombic SO{sub 3}{sup -} was found to be intense and stable enough to allow the identification at least for the whole shelf life of the oyster. Furthermore, it is still well visible at low microwave powers for which the other signals are weak or non-visible and has a linear dose response in the (0.5-2) kGy range. A possible procedure protocol for the identification of irradiated oysters, can be based on acquisitions of the spectrum at low microwave power values (tenths of milliWatt) and low modulation amplitude values (0.03-0.05 mT) and on the identification of the g = 2.0038 signal as a proof of the ionizing radiation treatment performed on the sample.

  6. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in Brazilian oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, L A; Santos, L K N S S; Brito, P A; Maciel, B M; Da Silva, A V; Albuquerque, G R

    2015-05-04

    The aim of this study was to detect evidence of Toxoplasma gondii using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques in oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) obtained from the southern coastal region of Bahia, Brazil. A total of 624 oysters were collected, and the gills and digestive glands were dissected. Each tissue sample was separated into pools containing tissues (of the same type) from three animals, leading to a total of 416 experimental samples for analysis (208 samples each from the gills and digestive glands). Molecular analysis using PCR-based detection of the T. gondii AF 146527 repetitive fragment yielded negative results for all samples. However, when nested-PCR was used for detection of the T. gondii SAG-1 gene, 17 samples were positive, with the gills being the tissue with maximal detection of the parasite. These positive results were confirmed by sample sequencing. It is therefore suggested that C. rhizophorae oysters are capable of filtering and retaining T. gondii oocysts in their tissue. This represents a risk to public health because they are traditionally ingested in natura.

  7. Identification of irradiated oysters by EPR measurements on shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Monaca, S.; Fattibene, P.; Boniglia, C.; Gargiulo, R.; Bortolin, E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the EPR spectra of the radicals induced in oyster shells after irradiation to (0.5-2) kGy ionizing radiation doses are analyzed. EPR spectra of irradiated shells showed the complex radical composition of biocarbonates, characterized by the presence of SO 2 - , SO 3 - and CO 2 - radicals with different symmetries. In particular, the radiation-induced line at g = 2.0038, due to the g x component of the orthorhombic SO 3 - , was well distinguishable from the rest of the spectrum. The g x component of the orthorhombic SO 3 - was found to be intense and stable enough to allow the identification at least for the whole shelf life of the oyster. Furthermore, it is still well visible at low microwave powers for which the other signals are weak or non-visible and has a linear dose response in the (0.5-2) kGy range. A possible procedure protocol for the identification of irradiated oysters, can be based on acquisitions of the spectrum at low microwave power values (tenths of milliWatt) and low modulation amplitude values (0.03-0.05 mT) and on the identification of the g = 2.0038 signal as a proof of the ionizing radiation treatment performed on the sample.

  8. A conserved tad pilus promotes Vibrio vulnificus oyster colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Meng; Duriez, Patrick; Arazi, Mattan; Rowe-Magnus, Dean A

    2018-02-01

    Vibrio vulnificus has the highest death rate (>35%) and per-case economic burden ($3.3 million) of any foodborne pathogen in the United States. Infections occur via open wounds or following ingestion of contaminated seafood, most infamously oysters. We isolated a 1000th generation descendant, designated NT that exhibited increased biofilm and aggregate formation relative to its parent. We identified two significant causal changes underlying these phenotypes. First, the entire 24-kb capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis locus, which is essential for virulence but inhibits biofilm formation, had been purged from the genome. However, NT formed more extensive biofilms and aggregates than a defined cps mutant, suggesting that additional factor(s) contributed to its phenotypes. Second, the expression of a tight adherence (tad) pilus locus was elevated in NT. Deletion of the associated pilin (flp) decreased NT biofilm and aggregate formation. Furthermore, NTΔflp strains were deficient relative to NT in an oyster colonization model, demonstrating a positive correlation between the biofilm and aggregation phenotypes associated with Tad pilus production and efficient bacterial retention by feeding oysters. Despite being widely distributed in the Vibrionaceae, this is the first demonstration of a bona fide physiological role for a Tad pilus in this bacterial family. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The effect of algae diets (Skeletonema costatum and Rhodomonas baltica) on the biochemical composition and sensory characteristics of Pacific cupped oysters (Crassostrea gigas) during land-based refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houcke, van Jasper; Medina, Isabel; Maehre, Hanne K.; Cornet, Josiane; Cardinal, Mireille; Linssen, Jozef; Luten, Joop

    2017-01-01

    Oyster refinement, a common practice in France, is aimed at increasing the weight of oyster tissue and influencing the taste properties of the refined oysters. Refinement usually takes place in land-based systems where the oysters are fed with relatively high concentrations of microalgae. In this

  10. Elevation - LiDAR Survey Minnehaha Creek, MN Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — LiDAR Bare-Earth Grid - Minnehaha Creek Watershed District. The Minnehaha Creek watershed is located primarily in Hennepin County, Minnesota. The watershed covers...

  11. Preliminary Chemical and Biological Assessment of Ogbe Creek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    The study was aimed at assessing the quality of water from the Ogbe Creek ... indicated the impact of the perturbational stress on the organisms inhabiting the creek. ... experiences seasonal flooding which introduces a lot of detritus and ...

  12. Plankton biodiversity of Dharamtar creek adjoining Mumbai harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tiwari, L.R.; Nair, V.R.

    rich plankton community. However, recent industrial development along the banks of creek may pose the problem due to waste disposal into this creek system. Losses of marine life diversity are largely the results of conflicting uses, in particular...

  13. Streamflow conditions along Soldier Creek, Northeast Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2017-11-14

    The availability of adequate water to meet the present (2017) and future needs of humans, fish, and wildlife is a fundamental issue for the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation in northeast Kansas. Because Soldier Creek flows through the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation Reservation, it is an important tribal resource. An understanding of historical Soldier Creek streamflow conditions is required for the effective management of tribal water resources, including drought contingency planning. Historical data for six selected U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages along Soldier Creek were used in an assessment of streamflow characteristics and trends by Juracek (2017). Streamflow data for the period of record at each streamgage were used to compute annual mean streamflow, annual mean base flow, mean monthly flow, annual peak flow, and annual minimum flow. Results of the assessment are summarized in this fact sheet.

  14. Oysters as vectors of marine aliens, with notes on four introduced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surveys of oyster farms in South Africa revealed four newly-recorded alien species: the black sea urchin, Tetrapygus niger, from Chile; the European flat oyster, Ostrea edulis (thought to be extinct since its intentional introduction in 1946); Montagu's crab, Xantho incisus, from the North Eastern Atlantic seas of Europe, and ...

  15. The eastern oyster genome: A resource for comparative genomics in shellfish aquaculture species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyster aquaculture is an important sector of world food production. As such, it is imperative to develop a high quality reference genome for the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, to assist in the elucidation of the genomic basis of commercially important traits. All genetic, gene expression and...

  16. The oyster genome reveals stress adaptation and complexity of shell formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guofan; Fang, Xiaodong; Guo, Ximing

    2012-01-01

    The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas belongs to one of the most species-rich but genomically poorly explored phyla, the Mollusca. Here we report the sequencing and assembly of the oyster genome using short reads and a fosmid-pooling strategy, along with transcriptomes of development and stress re...

  17. Growth and yield performance of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Fr.) Kumm (oyster mushroom) on different substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girmay, Zenebe; Gorems, Weldesemayat; Birhanu, Getachew; Zewdie, Solomon

    2016-12-01

    Mushroom cultivation is reported as an economically viable bio-technology process for conversion of various lignocellulosic wastes. Given the lack of technology know-how on the cultivation of mushroom, this study was conducted in Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural Resource, with the aim to assess the suitability of selected substrates (agricultural and/or forest wastes) for oyster mushroom cultivation. Accordingly, four substrates (cotton seed, paper waste, wheat straw, and sawdust) were tested for their efficacy in oyster mushroom production. Pure culture of oyster mushroom was obtained from Mycology laboratory, Department of Plant Biology and Biodiversity Management, Addis Ababa University. The pure culture was inoculated on potato dextrose agar for spawn preparation. Then, the spawn containing sorghum was inoculated with the fungal culture for the formation of fruiting bodies on the agricultural wastes. The oyster mushroom cultivation was undertaken under aseptic conditions, and the growth and development of mushroom were monitored daily. Results of the study revealed that oyster mushroom can grow on cotton seed, paper waste, sawdust and wheat straw, with varying growth performances. The highest biological and economic yield, as well as the highest percentage of biological efficiency of oyster mushroom was obtained from cotton seed, while the least was from sawdust. The study recommends cotton seed, followed by paper waste as suitable substrates for the cultivation of oyster mushroom. It also suggests that there is a need for further investigation on various aspects of oyster mushroom cultivation in Ethiopia to promote the industry.

  18. A habitat suitability model for Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in the Oosterschelde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, T.; Wijsman, J.W.M.; Brink, van den A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The modelled habitat suitability maps show a reasonable estimation of the suitability for oysters throughout the Delta and can be used to broadly indicate the consequences of the effect of climate change and infrastructural changes on the habitat suitability for oysters. The largest effect on the

  19. Thermal inactivation of enteric viruses and bioaccumulation of enteric foodborne viruses in live oysters (Crassostrea virginica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human enteric viruses are one of the main causative agents of shellfish associated outbreaks. In this study, the kinetics of viral bioaccumulation in live oysters and the heat stability of the most predominant enteric viruses were determined in both tissue culture and in oyster tissues. A human nor...

  20. Growth, morphometrics and nutrient content of farmed eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin), in New Hampshire, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    When harvested, oysters represent a removal from the ecosystem of nutrients such as nitrogen (N)and carbon (C). A number of factors potentially affect nutrient content, but a quantitative understanding across the geographical range of the eastern oysters is lacking. This study wa...

  1. Temperature-dependent persistence of human norovirus within oysters (Crassotrea virginica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study characterizes the persistence of human norovirus in Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) held at different seawater temperatures. Oysters were contaminated with human norovirus GI.1 (Norwalk strain 8fIIa) by exposing them to virus contaminated water at 15 degrees C, and subsequently ho...

  2. Behavior of pathogenic bacteria in the oyster, Crassostrea commercialis, during depuration, re-laying, and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, N T; Fleet, G H

    1980-12-01

    Oysters (Crassostrea commercials) harvested from major cultivation areas within the state of New South Wales, Australia, were commonly contaminated with low levels of the food-poisoning organisms Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Salmonella was found in oysters on only one occasion. These bacteria were cleansed from oysters during oyster purification by re-laying in a non-polluted waterway. Oysters were laboratory contaminated to levels in excess 1,000 cells per g with either B. cereus, C. perfringens, V. parahaemolyticus, Salmonella typhimurium, or S. senftenberg. These species were cleansed from such oysters during purification in a laboratory depuration unit that used ultraviolet light for sterilizing the depuration water. Escherichia coli was also cleansed from oysters under the same re-laying or depuration conditions so that its measurement alone could be used to indicate the cleansing of the above pathogenic species. The levels of these bacteria were also measured during the storage of oysters under conditions that occur during marketing. While B. cereus counts remained relatively stable during storage, the Salmonella spp. gradually decreased in numbers and C. perfringens rapidly died off. V. parahaemolyticus counts increased slightly during the first 4 days of storage, after which decreases occurred.

  3. Impact of an icy winter on the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg, 1793) populations in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Åsa; Blanda, Elisa; Bodvin, Torjan

    2012-01-01

    The Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) is an invasive species that has dispersed into Scandinavia during the last few decades. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of extreme winter conditions on the mortality of the Pacific oyster in Scandinavia. The study was done by compilin...

  4. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF COPPER AND ZINC ACCUMULATED BY EASTERN OYSTER AMEBOCYTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William S. Submitted. Antimicrobial Activity of Copper and Zinc Accumulated by Eastern Oyster Amebocytes. J. Shellfish Res. 54 p. (ERL,GB 1196). The distribution of eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica near terrestrial watersheds has led to a general impression t...

  5. Calcium flouride (CaF2) from oyster shell as a raw material for thermoluminescence dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coloma, Lyra C.; Fanuga, Lyn N.; Ocreto, Cherries Ann; Rodriguez, Richita

    2006-03-01

    This study aims to develop a thermoluminescence dosimeter raw material made of calcium fluoride from locally available seashells that is suitable for personal radiation monitoring. Oyster shells were collected and grounded as powder samples and analyzed for calcium fluoride (CaF 2 ) content using XRF and XRD testing. Samples include pure CaF 2 , pure oyster shell, and oyster shells treated with acid. Based from the XRF results, natural oyster shell (w/ and w/o HNO 3 ) had high percentage of calcium about 49.64% and 47.45%, next to the pure calcium fluoride of 51.08%. X-ray diffractrogram shows that oyster sample had the nearest desired structure of CaF 2 compared with two seashells relative to the pure CaF 2 as standard materials. Results show that all of the natural oyster samples displayed TL emission glow curves at the temperature range 200-300 o C. It was also found that pure oyster sample has better TL response as compared to the treated ones. The researchers concluded that the calcium fluoride from oyster shells (without acid and heated) is a potentially good low-cost TLD raw material and may be used as an alternative for the much more expensive LiF dosimeters. (Authors)

  6. ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES, POTENTIAL VIRULENT FACTORS, IN DIFFERENT STRAINS OF THE OYSTER PROTOZOAN PARASITE, PERKINSUS MARINUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The oyster protozoan parasite, Perkinsus marinus, is one of the two important parasites causing severe mortality in the eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) on the US east coast. Our recent study suggests that P. marinus cells and its extracellular products (ECP) could scaveng...

  7. High pressure processing with hot sauce flavoring enhances sensory quality for raw oysters (Crassostrea virginica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the feasibility of flavoring raw oysters by placing them under pressure in the presence of selected flavorings. Hand-shucked raw oysters were processed at high pressure (600 MPa), in the presence or absence of (Sriracha®) flavoring, and evaluated by a trained sensory panel 3 an...

  8. Desirability of oysters treated by high pressure processing at different temperatures and elevated pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organoleptic changes in sterile triploid oysters (Crassostrea virginica) induced by high pressure processing (HPP) were investigated using a volunteer panel. Using a 1-7 hedonic scale, where seven is “like very much”, and one is “dislike very much”, oysters were evaluated organoleptically for flavo...

  9. Flood-inundation maps for Indian Creek and Tomahawk Creek, Johnson County, Kansas, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Arin J.; Studley, Seth E.

    2016-01-25

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.4-mile upper reach of Indian Creek from College Boulevard to the confluence with Tomahawk Creek, a 3.9-mile reach of Tomahawk Creek from 127th Street to the confluence with Indian Creek, and a 1.9-mile lower reach of Indian Creek from the confluence with Tomahawk Creek to just beyond the Kansas/Missouri border at State Line Road in Johnson County, Kansas, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the city of Overland Park, Kansas. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the U.S. Geological Survey Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgages on Indian Creek at Overland Park, Kansas; Indian Creek at State Line Road, Leawood, Kansas; and Tomahawk Creek near Overland Park, Kansas. Near real time stages at these streamgages may be obtained on the Web from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis or the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at these sites.Flood profiles were computed for the stream reaches by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated for each reach by using the most current stage-discharge relations at the streamgages. The hydraulic models were then used to determine 15 water-surface profiles for Indian Creek at Overland Park, Kansas; 17 water-surface profiles for Indian Creek at State Line Road, Leawood, Kansas; and 14 water-surface profiles for Tomahawk Creek near Overland Park, Kansas, for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to the next interval above the 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability flood level (500-year recurrence interval). The

  10. 77 FR 5201 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice... operation of the Baltimore County highway bridge at Wise Avenue across Bear Creek, mile 3.4, between Dundalk... Avenue across Bear Creek, mile 3.4 between Dundalk and Sparrows Point, MD. This change would require the...

  11. [Comparison of two nucleic acid extraction methods for norovirus in oysters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qiao; Li, Hui; Deng, Xiaoling; Mo, Yanling; Fang, Ling; Ke, Changwen

    2013-04-01

    To explore a convenient and effective method for norovirus nucleic acid extraction from oysters suitable for long-term viral surveillance. Two methods, namely method A (glycine washing and polyethylene glycol precipitation of the virus followed by silica gel centrifugal column) and method B (protease K digestion followed by application of paramagnetic silicon) were compared for their performance in norovirus nucleic acid extraction from oysters. Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect norovirus in naturally infected oysters and in oysters with induced infection. The two methods yielded comparable positive detection rates for the samples, but the recovery rate of the virus was higher with method B than with method A. Method B is a more convenient and rapid method for norovirus nucleic acid extraction from oysters and suitable for long-term surveillance of norovirus.

  12. Structural and compositional characterization of the adhesive produced by reef building oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Erik M; Taylor, Stephen D; Edwards, Stephanie L; Sherman, Debra M; Huang, Chia-Ping; Kenny, Paul; Wilker, Jonathan J

    2015-04-29

    Oysters have an impressive ability to overcome difficulties of life within the stressful intertidal zone. These shellfish produce an adhesive for attaching to each other and building protective reef communities. With their reefs often exceeding kilometers in length, oysters play a major role in balancing the health of coastal marine ecosystems. Few details are available to describe oyster adhesive composition or structure. Here several characterization methods were applied to describe the nature of this material. Microscopy studies indicated that the glue is comprised of organic fiber-like and sheet-like structures surrounded by an inorganic matrix. Phospholipids, cross-linking chemistry, and conjugated organics were found to differentiate this adhesive from the shell. Symbiosis in material synthesis could also be present, with oysters incorporating bacterial polysaccharides into their adhesive. Oyster glue shows that an organic-inorganic composite material can provide adhesion, a property especially important when constructing a marine ecosystem.

  13. Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) δ15N as a bioindicator of nitrogen sources: Observations and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertig, B.; Carruthers, T.J.B.; Dennison, W.C.; Fertig, E.J.; Altabet, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Stable nitrogen isotopes (δ 15 N) in bioindicators are increasingly employed to identify nitrogen sources in many ecosystems and biological characteristics of the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) make it an appropriate species for this purpose. To assess nitrogen isotopic fractionation associated with assimilation and baseline variations in oyster mantle, gill, and muscle tissue δ 15 N, manipulative fieldwork in Chesapeake Bay and corresponding modeling exercises were conducted. This study (1) determined that five individuals represented an optimal sample size; (2) verified that δ 15 N in oysters from two locations converged after shared deployment to a new location reflecting a change in nitrogen sources; (3) identified required exposure time and temporal integration (four months for muscle, two to three months for gill and mantle); and (4) demonstrated seasonal δ 15 N increases in seston (summer) and oysters (winter). As bioindicators, oysters can be deployed for spatial interpolation of nitrogen sources, even in areas lacking extant populations.

  14. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This document proposes a presentation and discussion of the main notions, issues, principles, or characteristics related to nuclear energy: radioactivity (presence in the environment, explanation, measurement, periods and activities, low doses, applications), fuel cycle (front end, mining and ore concentration, refining and conversion, fuel fabrication, in the reactor, back end with reprocessing and recycling, transport), the future of the thorium-based fuel cycle (motivations, benefits and drawbacks), nuclear reactors (principles of fission reactors, reactor types, PWR reactors, BWR, heavy-water reactor, high temperature reactor of HTR, future reactors), nuclear wastes (classification, packaging and storage, legal aspects, vitrification, choice of a deep storage option, quantities and costs, foreign practices), radioactive releases of nuclear installations (main released radio-elements, radioactive releases by nuclear reactors and by La Hague plant, gaseous and liquid effluents, impact of releases, regulation), the OSPAR Convention, management and safety of nuclear activities (from control to quality insurance, to quality management and to sustainable development), national safety bodies (mission, means, organisation and activities of ASN, IRSN, HCTISN), international bodies, nuclear and medicine (applications of radioactivity, medical imagery, radiotherapy, doses in nuclear medicine, implementation, the accident in Epinal), nuclear and R and D (past R and D programmes and expenses, main actors in France and present funding, main R and D axis, international cooperation)

  15. Surveying a fossil oyster reef using terrestrial laser scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, A.; Exner, U.; Harzhauser, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Korneuburg Basin, situated north-west of Vienna, is well known to contain a rich variety of fossils from the Early Miocene (16.5 ma) and therefore has been investigated extensively by scientists in the past decades. An exceptional discovery was made in 2005: a large fossil oyster reef has been excavated and documented carefully during the last years. Aside from the giant-sized oyster (Crassostrea gryphoides), the excavation site contains numerous species of molluscs along with teeth of sharks and rays and even isolated bones of sea cows. The oysters, having lengths of up to 80 cm, are protruding from the ground surface, which is more or less a tilted plane (25˚ ) with a size of about 300 m2. The entire site is crosscut by a network of geological faults, often also offsetting individual oyster shells. Displacements along the normal faults do not exceed ~ 15 cm. The faulted fossils offer a unique opportunity to measure displacement distribution along the faults in great detail and provide insight in deformation mechanisms in porous, barely lithified sediments. In order to get a precise 3D model of the oyster reef, the terrestrial laser scanner system Leica HDS 6000 is used. It is a phase-based laser scanner, i.e. the distance measurement is performed using the phase-shift principle. Compared to the time-of-flight principle, this method is generally more appropriate to projects like this one, where the distances to be measured are relatively small (< 35 m) and where a high point density (point spacing of about 1 cm) and precision (some mm) is required for capturing the oysters adequately. However, due to fact that they occlude each other, one single scan is not sufficient to get all sides of their surface. Therefore, scans from different positions had to be acquired. These scans have to be merged, which involves the problem of sensor orientation as well as sampling of the entire 3D point cloud. Furthermore, a representation of the surface data is required that

  16. Technical specifications: Hope Creek Generating Station (Docket No. 50-354). Appendix A to License No. NPF-50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    Information is provided on the technical specifications for the Hope Creek Nuclear Power Station. Areas of interest discussed in this report include: safety limits and limiting safety system settings; limiting conditions for operation and surveillance requirements; design features; and administrative controls

  17. Satellite remote sensing reveals a positive impact of living oyster reefs on microalgal biofilm development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Echappé

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing (RS is routinely used for the large-scale monitoring of microphytobenthos (MPB biomass in intertidal mudflats and has greatly improved our knowledge of MPB spatio-temporal variability and its potential drivers. Processes operating on smaller scales however, such as the impact of benthic macrofauna on MPB development, to date remain underinvestigated. In this study, we analysed the influence of wild Crassostrea gigas oyster reefs on MPB biofilm development using multispectral RS. A 30-year time series (1985–2015 combining high-resolution (30 m Landsat and SPOT data was built in order to explore the relationship between C. gigas reefs and MPB spatial distribution and seasonal dynamics, using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI. Emphasis was placed on the analysis of a before–after control-impact (BACI experiment designed to assess the effect of oyster killing on the surrounding MPB biofilms. Our RS data reveal that the presence of oyster reefs positively affects MPB biofilm development. Analysis of the historical time series first showed the presence of persistent, highly concentrated MPB patches around oyster reefs. This observation was supported by the BACI experiment which showed that killing the oysters (while leaving the physical reef structure, i.e. oyster shells, intact negatively affected both MPB biofilm biomass and spatial stability around the reef. As such, our results are consistent with the hypothesis of nutrient input as an explanation for the MPB growth-promoting effect of oysters, whereby organic and inorganic matter released through oyster excretion and biodeposition stimulates MPB biomass accumulation. MPB also showed marked seasonal variations in biomass and patch shape, size and degree of aggregation around the oyster reefs. Seasonal variations in biomass, with higher NDVI during spring and autumn, were consistent with those observed on broader scales in other European mudflats. Our

  18. Satellite remote sensing reveals a positive impact of living oyster reefs on microalgal biofilm development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echappé, Caroline; Gernez, Pierre; Méléder, Vona; Jesus, Bruno; Cognie, Bruno; Decottignies, Priscilla; Sabbe, Koen; Barillé, Laurent

    2018-02-01

    Satellite remote sensing (RS) is routinely used for the large-scale monitoring of microphytobenthos (MPB) biomass in intertidal mudflats and has greatly improved our knowledge of MPB spatio-temporal variability and its potential drivers. Processes operating on smaller scales however, such as the impact of benthic macrofauna on MPB development, to date remain underinvestigated. In this study, we analysed the influence of wild Crassostrea gigas oyster reefs on MPB biofilm development using multispectral RS. A 30-year time series (1985-2015) combining high-resolution (30 m) Landsat and SPOT data was built in order to explore the relationship between C. gigas reefs and MPB spatial distribution and seasonal dynamics, using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Emphasis was placed on the analysis of a before-after control-impact (BACI) experiment designed to assess the effect of oyster killing on the surrounding MPB biofilms. Our RS data reveal that the presence of oyster reefs positively affects MPB biofilm development. Analysis of the historical time series first showed the presence of persistent, highly concentrated MPB patches around oyster reefs. This observation was supported by the BACI experiment which showed that killing the oysters (while leaving the physical reef structure, i.e. oyster shells, intact) negatively affected both MPB biofilm biomass and spatial stability around the reef. As such, our results are consistent with the hypothesis of nutrient input as an explanation for the MPB growth-promoting effect of oysters, whereby organic and inorganic matter released through oyster excretion and biodeposition stimulates MPB biomass accumulation. MPB also showed marked seasonal variations in biomass and patch shape, size and degree of aggregation around the oyster reefs. Seasonal variations in biomass, with higher NDVI during spring and autumn, were consistent with those observed on broader scales in other European mudflats. Our study provides the

  19. Intertidal oysters reach their physiological limit in a future high-CO2 world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanes, Elliot; Parker, Laura M; O'Connor, Wayne A; Stapp, Laura S; Ross, Pauline M

    2017-03-01

    Sessile marine molluscs living in the intertidal zone experience periods of internal acidosis when exposed to air (emersion) during low tide. Relative to other marine organisms, molluscs have been identified as vulnerable to future ocean acidification; however, paradoxically it has also been shown that molluscs exposed to high CO 2 environments are more resilient compared with those molluscs naive to CO 2 exposure. Two competing hypotheses were tested using a novel experimental design incorporating tidal simulations to predict the future intertidal limit of oysters in a high-CO 2 world; either high-shore oysters will be more tolerant of elevated P CO 2 because of their regular acidosis, or elevated P CO 2  will cause high-shore oysters to reach their limit. Sydney rock oysters, Saccostrea glomerata , were collected from the high-intertidal and subtidal areas of the shore and exposed in an orthogonal design to either an intertidal or a subtidal treatment at ambient or elevated P CO 2 , and physiological variables were measured. The combined treatment of tidal emersion and elevated P CO 2  interacted synergistically to reduce the haemolymph pH (pH e ) of oysters, and increase the P CO 2  in the haemolymph ( P e,CO 2 ) and standard metabolic rate. Oysters in the intertidal treatment also had lower condition and growth. Oysters showed a high degree of plasticity, and little evidence was found that intertidal oysters were more resilient than subtidal oysters. It is concluded that in a high-CO 2 world the upper vertical limit of oyster distribution on the shore may be reduced. These results suggest that previous studies on intertidal organisms that lacked tidal simulations may have underestimated the effects of elevated P CO 2 . © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Sedimentation Study and Flume Investigation, Mission Creek, Santa Barbara, California; Corte Madera Creek, Marin County, California

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Copeland, Ronald

    2000-01-01

    .... An existing concrete-lined flood control channel on Corte Madera Creek in Marin County, California lacks a debris basin at its upstream terminus and carries significant bed load through a supercritical flow reach...

  1. Branchial lesions associated with abundant apoptotic cells in oysters Ostrea edulis of Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirella da Silva, P; Villalba, Antonio; Sunila, Inke

    2006-06-12

    An experiment to evaluate differences in growth, mortality and disease susceptibility among Ostrea edulis stocks was performed. Five families were produced from each of 4 oyster populations (Irish, Greek and 2 Galician). The spat were transferred to a raft in the Ria de Arousa (Galicia, Spain) for grow-out. Monthly samples of each family were histologically processed from 2001 to 2003. One of the pathological conditions discovered by this study was the occurrence of extensive branchial lesions characterized by haemocytic infiltration and loss of branchial architecture. Furthermore, abundant atypical cells occurred among the haemocytes in the lesions in the branchial connective and epithelial tissues, but rarely in the mantle. These cells were contracted in size with nuclei showing chromatin condensation and fragmentation. Some nuclear chromatin aggregated under the nuclear membranes into crescent shapes, whereas others were uniformly dense. Those characteristics suggested that the cells were apoptotic haemocytes, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and by a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay using the Apoptag Kit on paraffin sections. A low prevalence of gill lesions was detected in some, but not all, families of every origin peaking in July 2002 and April 2003. No etiologic agent was identified by either histology or TEM; thus, the cause of the abundance of apoptotic cells remains unclear.

  2. Trade-off between increased survival and reduced growth for blue mussels living on Pacific oyster reefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eschweiler, Nina; Christensen, Helle Torp

    2011-01-01

    Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg 1793) have been introduced into the Wadden Sea (North Sea, Germany) in the mid of the 1980s and have invaded native blue mussel Mytilus edulis (L.) beds. The latter turned into oyster reefs where mussels seem to be relegated to the bottom in between...... the much larger oysters. By combining field and laboratory experiments, we reveal how mussels react to cohabitation with the invasive oysters. Mussels subjected to direct contact with crabs Carcinus maenas migrate from top to bottom positions between oysters in both field and laboratory experiments within...... 22days. Shell growth was significantly reduced for mussels placed on the bottom compared to mussels at the top of an oyster reef. Condition index was lower for mussels on the bottom of the reef irrespective of whether placed between dead or living oysters. We conclude that mussels experience a trade...

  3. Evaluation of Ice Slurries as a Control for Postharvest Growth of Vibrio spp. in Oysters and Potential for Filth Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydon, Keri Ann; Farrell-Evans, Melissa; Jones, Jessica L

    2015-07-01

    Raw oyster consumption is the most common route of exposure for Vibrio spp. infections in humans. Vibriosis has been increasing steadily in the United States despite efforts to reduce the incidence of the disease. Research has demonstrated that ice is effective in reducing postharvest Vibrio spp. growth in oysters but has raised concerns of possible contamination of oyster meat by filth (as indicated by the presence of fecal coliform bacteria or Clostridium perfringens). This study examined the use of ice slurries (oysters, from 23.9°C (75°F) to 10°C (50°F) within 12 min. The initial bacterial loads in the ice slurry waters were near the limits of detection. Following repeated dipping of oysters into ice slurries, water samples exhibited significant (P oyster meat, however, was unchanged after 15 min of submergence, with no significant differences (P oysters to minimize Vibrio growth.

  4. Geology of the Teakettle Creek watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert S. LaMotte

    1937-01-01

    The Teakettle Creek Experimental Watersheds lie for the most part on quartzites of probable Triassic age. However one of the triplicate drainages has a considerable acreage developed on weathered granodiorite. Topography is relatively uniform and lends itself to triplicate watershed studies. Locations for dams are suitable if certain engineering precautions...

  5. Tidal mixing in Dahej creek waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.; Sarma, R.V.

    Mixing characteristics of a tidal inlet near Dahej at the mouth of Narmada River, Gujarat, India are examined in terms of tides, currents and bathymetry. The dilution potential of the Dahej Creek waters during a tidal march for a given rate...

  6. Species status of Mill Creek Elliptio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G.M. [Academy of Natural Sciences (United States); Mulvey, M. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This report discusses environmental effects of the Savannah River Plant on aqautic populations in Mill Creek and surrounding tributaries. Of particular concern was the status of Elliptio. Genetics and phenotypic characteristics have shown that the current classification system is not adequate for these populations. The appendices characterize genetic variability at different loci, electrophoretic data, allele frequencies, sympatric species, and anatomical characters.

  7. UTILIZING CREEKS FOR INTEGRATED RURAL COASTAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-02-09

    Feb 9, 2013 ... This study examines the Utilization of Creeks for Integrated Coastal Development of Ilaje ... utilization, poor fishing techniques, poor sources of water and navigation routes, and manual ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol. 6 No.3 .... together, implement, monitor and evaluate.

  8. Collaborative monitoring in Walnut Creek, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidi Ballard; Ralph Kraetsch; Lynn Huntsinger

    2002-01-01

    In 1995 and 2000, a monitoring program was designed and implemented to track oak regeneration and native grass populations in target management areas in the four Open Space Preserves of the City of Walnut Creek, California. The program resulted from a collaboration of scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, a group of interested citizens known as the...

  9. Transcriptome of American oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in response to bacterial challenge: insights into potential mechanisms of disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Ian C; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Aguiar, Derek; Lane, Christopher E; Istrail, Sorin; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta

    2014-01-01

    The American oyster Crassostrea virginica, an ecologically and economically important estuarine organism, can suffer high mortalities in areas in the Northeast United States due to Roseovarius Oyster Disease (ROD), caused by the gram-negative bacterial pathogen Roseovarius crassostreae. The goals of this research were to provide insights into: 1) the responses of American oysters to R. crassostreae, and 2) potential mechanisms of resistance or susceptibility to ROD. The responses of oysters to bacterial challenge were characterized by exposing oysters from ROD-resistant and susceptible families to R. crassostreae, followed by high-throughput sequencing of cDNA samples from various timepoints after disease challenge. Sequence data was assembled into a reference transcriptome and analyzed through differential gene expression and functional enrichment to uncover genes and processes potentially involved in responses to ROD in the American oyster. While susceptible oysters experienced constant levels of mortality when challenged with R. crassostreae, resistant oysters showed levels of mortality similar to non-challenged oysters. Oysters exposed to R. crassostreae showed differential expression of transcripts involved in immune recognition, signaling, protease inhibition, detoxification, and apoptosis. Transcripts involved in metabolism were enriched in susceptible oysters, suggesting that bacterial infection places a large metabolic demand on these oysters. Transcripts differentially expressed in resistant oysters in response to infection included the immune modulators IL-17 and arginase, as well as several genes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling. The identification of potential genes and processes responsible for defense against R. crassostreae in the American oyster provides insights into potential mechanisms of disease resistance.

  10. Pine Creek Ranch, FY 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Mark E.

    2001-11-01

    Pine Creek Ranch was purchased in 1999 by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs using Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation funds. The 25,000 acre property will be managed in perpetuity for the benefit of fish and wildlife habitat. Major issues include: (1) Restoring quality spawning and rearing habitat for stealhead. Streams are incised and fish passage barriers exist from culverts and possibly beaver dams. In addition to stealhead habitat, the Tribes are interested in overall riparian recovery in the John Day River system for wildlife habitat, watershed values and other values such as recreation. (2) Future grazing for specific management purposes. Past grazing practices undoubtedly contributed to current unacceptable conditions. The main stem of Pine Creek has already been enrolled in the CREP program administered by the USDA, Natural Resource Conservation Service in part because of the cost-share for vegetation restoration in a buffer portion of old fields and in part because of rental fees that will help the Tribes to pay the property taxes. Grazing is not allowed in the riparian buffer for the term of the contract. (3) Noxious weeds are a major concern. (4) Encroachment by western juniper throughout the watershed is a potential concern for the hydrology of the creek. Mark Berry, Habitat Manager, for the Pine Creek Ranch requested the Team to address the following objectives: (1) Introduce some of the field staff and others to Proper Functioning Condition (PFC) assessments and concepts. (2) Do a PFC assessment on approximately 10 miles of Pine Creek. (3) Offer management recommendations. (4) Provide guidelines for monitoring.

  11. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances, Volume 42, No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This report include the issuances received during the specificed period (August 1995) from the NRC, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards, the Administrative Law Judges, and the Decisions on Petitions for Rule Making. In these issuances, the following areas were addressed: (1) Emergency planning at the University of Missouri, (2) Transfer of operating license at Plant Vogtle, (3) Discriminatory action against a whistle-blower at Millstone Units 1 ampersand 2, (4) Regulatory issues related to embittlement and cracking at Oyster Creek, and (5) Age-related deterioration of reactor internals components at Pilgrim

  12. Metal leaching from experimental coal fly-ash oyster cultch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homziak, J.; Bennett, L.; Simon, P.; Herring, R. (Mississippi State University, MS (USA). Coastal Research and Extension Center)

    1993-08-01

    Because oysters accumulate metals far in excess of ambient concentrations potential leaching and bioaccumulation of metals may be important public health concerns where ash-cement aggregates are being considered for oyster cultivation. This study examined the potential for metal release from an ash-cement aggregate proposed for use in oyster reef construction in Mississippi coastal waters. Seven acid-washed aquaria were each filled with 77L of artificial seawater. Five randomly selected aquaria each received 8.6 L of aggregate pellets. Samples were taken from each aquarium one hour after the start of the experiment and at 10 day intervals on six subsequent sampling dates. The samples were analysed for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium and zinc. Cadmium, iron and mercury were essentially not detected in the treatment aquaria. Except for chromium, the mean concentrations of metals in the treatment samples were generally less than 10 ppb. An overall comparison of the concentrations of 8 metals among all aquaria and sampling dates detected significant differences in the concentration of chromium (p[lt]0.001), manganese (p[lt]0.05) and selenium (p[lt]0.001). Treatment aquaria had significantly greater concentrations of chromium and selenium than did either control (nonparametric multiple comparison, p[lt]0.05). Most of the chromium found in the treatment aquaria was the hexavalent form (means range from 0.052 to 1.328 ppm). Treatment hexavalent chromium concentrations increased over time. 14 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  13. 3D CENTRAL LINE EXTRACTION OF FOSSIL OYSTER SHELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Djuricic

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Photogrammetry provides a powerful tool to digitally document protected, inaccessible, and rare fossils. This saves manpower in relation to current documentation practice and makes the fragile specimens more available for paleontological analysis and public education. In this study, high resolution orthophoto (0.5 mm and digital surface models (1 mm are used to define fossil boundaries that are then used as an input to automatically extract fossil length information via central lines. In general, central lines are widely used in geosciences as they ease observation, monitoring and evaluation of object dimensions. Here, the 3D central lines are used in a novel paleontological context to study fossilized oyster shells with photogrammetric and LiDAR-obtained 3D point cloud data. 3D central lines of 1121 Crassostrea gryphoides oysters of various shapes and sizes were computed in the study. Central line calculation included: i Delaunay triangulation between the fossil shell boundary points and formation of the Voronoi diagram; ii extraction of Voronoi vertices and construction of a connected graph tree from them; iii reduction of the graph to the longest possible central line via Dijkstra’s algorithm; iv extension of longest central line to the shell boundary and smoothing by an adjustment of cubic spline curve; and v integration of the central line into the corresponding 3D point cloud. The resulting longest path estimate for the 3D central line is a size parameter that can be applied in oyster shell age determination both in paleontological and biological applications. Our investigation evaluates ability and performance of the central line method to measure shell sizes accurately by comparing automatically extracted central lines with manually collected reference data used in paleontological analysis. Our results show that the automatically obtained central line length overestimated the manually collected reference by 1.5% in the test set, which

  14. D Central Line Extraction of Fossil Oyster Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuricic, A.; Puttonen, E.; Harzhauser, M.; Mandic, O.; Székely, B.; Pfeifer, N.

    2016-06-01

    Photogrammetry provides a powerful tool to digitally document protected, inaccessible, and rare fossils. This saves manpower in relation to current documentation practice and makes the fragile specimens more available for paleontological analysis and public education. In this study, high resolution orthophoto (0.5 mm) and digital surface models (1 mm) are used to define fossil boundaries that are then used as an input to automatically extract fossil length information via central lines. In general, central lines are widely used in geosciences as they ease observation, monitoring and evaluation of object dimensions. Here, the 3D central lines are used in a novel paleontological context to study fossilized oyster shells with photogrammetric and LiDAR-obtained 3D point cloud data. 3D central lines of 1121 Crassostrea gryphoides oysters of various shapes and sizes were computed in the study. Central line calculation included: i) Delaunay triangulation between the fossil shell boundary points and formation of the Voronoi diagram; ii) extraction of Voronoi vertices and construction of a connected graph tree from them; iii) reduction of the graph to the longest possible central line via Dijkstra's algorithm; iv) extension of longest central line to the shell boundary and smoothing by an adjustment of cubic spline curve; and v) integration of the central line into the corresponding 3D point cloud. The resulting longest path estimate for the 3D central line is a size parameter that can be applied in oyster shell age determination both in paleontological and biological applications. Our investigation evaluates ability and performance of the central line method to measure shell sizes accurately by comparing automatically extracted central lines with manually collected reference data used in paleontological analysis. Our results show that the automatically obtained central line length overestimated the manually collected reference by 1.5% in the test set, which is deemed

  15. Increases in the amounts of Vibrio spp. in oysters upon addition of exogenous bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froelich, Brett; Oliver, James

    2013-09-01

    The bacterial pathogen Vibrio vulnificus is found naturally in brackish coastal waters but can be greatly concentrated by filter-feeding organisms such as shellfish. Numerous experiments in which exogenous V. vulnificus cells are added to oysters in an attempt to measure uptake and depuration have been performed. In nearly all cases, results have shown that laboratory-grown bacteria are rapidly taken up by the oysters but ultimately eliminated, while naturally present Vibrio populations in oysters are resistant to depuration. In this study, oysters harvested during winter months, with low culturable Vibrio concentrations, were incubated in aquaria supplemented with strains of V. vulnificus that were either genotypically or phenotypically distinct from the background bacteria. These exogenous cells were eliminated from the oysters, as previously seen, but other vibrios already inhabiting the oysters responded to the V. vulnificus inoculum by rapidly increasing in number and maintaining a large stable population. The presence of such an oyster-adapted Vibrio population would be expected to prevent colonization by exogenous V. vulnificus cells, thus explaining the rapid depuration of these added bacteria.

  16. Proteomic analysis of Sydney Rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) exposed to metal contamination in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Emma L.; Taylor, Daisy A.; Nair, Sham V.; Birch, Gavin; Hose, Grant C.; Raftos, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This study used proteomics to assess the impacts of metal contamination in the field on Sydney Rock oysters. Oysters were transplanted into Lake Macquarie, NSW, for two weeks in both 2009 and 2010. Two-dimensional electrophoresis identified changes in protein expression profiles of oyster haemolymph between control and metal contaminated sites. There were unique protein expression profiles for each field trial. Principal components analysis attributed these differences in oyster proteomes to the different combinations and concentrations of metals and other environmental variables present during the three field trials. Identification of differentially expressed proteins showed that proteins associated with cytoskeletal activity and stress responses were the most commonly affected biological functions in the Sydney Rock oyster. Overall, the data show that proteomics combined with multivariate analysis has the potential to link the effects of contaminants with biological consequences. - Highlights: ► Sydney Rock oyster haemolymph was analysed by proteomics after metal exposure in 3 field trials. ► 2-DE analysis was used to compare protein profiles between control and contaminated sites. ► Different protein expression profiles were revealed per field trial. ► Principal components analysis attributed profiles to different suites of metals and environmental variables per trial. ► The study highlights the need to do multiple field trials and to combine proteomic and enviro. data. - This study used proteomics to analyse impacts of metal contamination on Sydney Rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata) haemolymph in multiple field trials.

  17. Annual dose of Taiwanese from the ingestion of 210Po in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsiu-wei; Wang, Jeng-Jong

    2013-03-01

    Oysters around the coast of Taiwan were collected, dried, spiked with a (209)Po tracer for yield, digested with concentrated HNO(3) and H(2)O(2), and finally dissolved in 0.5 N HCl. The polonium was then spontaneously deposited onto a silver disc, and the activity of (210)Po was measured using an alpha spectrum analyzer equipped with a silicon barrier detector. Meanwhile, the internal effective dose of (210)Po coming from the intake of oysters by Taiwanese was evaluated. The results of the present study indicate that (210)Po average activity concentrations ranged from 23.4 ± 0.4 to 126 ± 94 Bq kg(-1) of fresh oysters. The oysters coming from Penghu island and Kinmen island regions contain higher concentrations of (210)Po in comparison with oysters from other regions of Taiwan. The value of (210)Po weighted average activity concentrations for all oyster samples studied is 25.9 Bq kg(-1). The annual effective dose of Taiwanese due to the ingestion of (210)Po in oysters was estimated to be 4.1 × 10(-2) mSv y(-1). Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. The role of tissue-specific microbiota in initial establishment success of Pacific oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokmer, Ana; Kuenzel, Sven; Baines, John F; Wegner, Karl Mathias

    2016-03-01

    Microbiota can have positive and negative effects on hosts depending on the environmental conditions. Therefore, it is important to decipher host-microbiota-environment interactions, especially under natural conditions exerting (a)biotic stress. Here, we assess the relative importance of microbiota in different tissues of Pacific oyster for its successful establishment in a new environment. We transplanted oysters from the Southern to the Northern Wadden Sea and controlled for the effects of resident microbiota by administering antibiotics to half of the oysters. We then followed survival and composition of haemolymph, mantle, gill and gut microbiota in local and translocated oysters over 5 days. High mortality was recorded only in non-antibiotic-treated translocated oysters, where high titres of active Vibrio sp. in solid tissues indicated systemic infections. Network analyses revealed the highest connectivity and a link to seawater communities in the haemolymph microbiota. Since antibiotics decreased modularity and increased connectivity of the haemolymph-based networks, we propose that community destabilization in non-treated translocated oysters could be attributed to interactions between resident and external microbiota, which in turn facilitated passage of vibrios into solid tissues and invoked disease. These interactions of haemolymph microbiota with the external and internal environment may thus represent an important component of oyster fitness. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Epizootiology of Perkinsus sp. inCrassostrea gasar oysters in polyculture with shrimps in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Mirella da Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bivalve culture is of considerable economic and social interest in northeastern (NE Brazil. The polyculture is an alternative approach to traditional monoculture for reducing the environmental impact of shrimp farming and improving oyster culture. Perkinsus marinus andPerkinsus olseni were found infecting oysters in NE Brazil and can threaten oyster production. This study evaluatedPerkinsus spp. occurrence in Crassostrea gasar during all production stages. Oyster spats were produced in a hatchery and grown in shrimp ponds in Rio Grande do Norte state.Perkinsus spp. were surveyed by Ray’s fluid thioglycollate medium and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Prevalence and intensity of infection were determined in oysters until they reached 7 cm. Results showed that the broodstock was already infected by Perkinsus (60%, but the derived spats were Perkinsus-free. Oyster spats acquired Perkinsus infection when transferred to ponds. The prevalence gradually increased in the seven months following placement in ponds (73%, and then decreased to 17% by the tenth month. The infections were initially mild, but intensity increased at the final growth stage. In conclusion, it is possible to produce Perkinsus-free C. gasar oyster spats from infected broodstock, and their culture in shrimp ponds is feasible.

  20. Incorporation of metabolites into glycogen and lipids of the oyster, crassostrea virginica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, M.L.; Humphrey, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    Groups of oysters, either fed or unfed, were exposed to U- 14 C labelled D-glucose, L-asp, L-leu, L-ala or acetate for 6 hrs. Except for the glucose trials, the disappearance of radioactivity from the saline of the unfed oysters was greater (83%) than for the fed animals (65%). With glucose, 88% of the radioactivity disappeared in each trial. The specific radioactivity of glycogen isolated from oysters exposed to labelled glucose, asp and ala was 1283, 468 and 8.22 dpm/mg glycogen respectively. Radioactivity was found primarily in the triacylglycerols and phospholipids (PL) in fed oysters and in PL only in unfed oysters. Phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, and a fraction containing phosphatidyl serine and phosphatidyl inositol, had 32%, 25% and 35-40% of the radioactivity respectively. Incorporation of total radioactivity into PL was 70% lower in unfed vs. fed trials, but the distribution of counts among the phospholipids classes was unchanged. Glycogenesis does not appear to be a significant pathway in the oyster. Apparently well-fed oysters are able to store excess dietary calories as lipid. During periods of starvation exogenous small metabolites along with glucose from glycogen are catabolized

  1. Role of bacteria in bioaccumulation of mercury in the oyster Crassostrea virginica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayler, G.S.; Nelson, J.D. Jr.; Colwell, R.R.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation of mercury-resistant bacteria was undertaken to determine their role in the accumulation of mercury in a simplified food chain. Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) were maintained in a closed system, sealed aquarium with stirred, aerated water containing 10 μg of 203 HgCl 2 per liter. Uptake of 203 Hg by oysters held under control conditions was compared with that of 203 Hg uptake by oysters under similar conditions except that mercury-accumulating and mercury-metabolizing species of Pseudomonsa, isolated from Chesapeake Bay, were added to the experimental oysters. After incubation for 4 days, the major portion of the 203 Hg in the water column was found to be associated with the microparticulate fraction, corresponding to a rise in total viable count. Mercury accumulation in the oysters was significantly higher in the gill and fisceral tissue than other tissues. Mercury concentrations were 200 times greater in tissue fractions of oysters dosed with mercury-metabolizing bacteria compared with the oysters held under control conditions without mercury-metabolizing bacteria. (U.S.)

  2. Parasites infecting the cultured oyster Crassostrea gasar (Adanson, 1757) in Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroga, Fernando Ramos; Vianna, Rogério Tubino; Vieira, Cairé Barreto; Farias, Natanael Dantas; Da Silva, Patricia Mirella

    2015-05-01

    The oyster Crassostrea gasar is a species widely used as food and a source of income for the local population of the estuaries of Northeast Brazil. Perkinsus marinus and Perkinsus olseni are deleterious parasites for oyster farming and were recently detected in Brazil. In this study, a histopathologic survey of the oyster C. gasar cultured in the estuary of the River Mamanguape (Paraíba State) was performed. Adult oysters were collected in December 2011 and March, May, August and October 2012 and processed for histology and Perkinsus sp. identification by molecular analyses. Histopathological analysis revealed the presence of parasitic organisms including viral gametocytic hypertrophy, prokaryote-like colonies, protozoans (Perkinsus sp. and Nematopsis sp.) and metazoans (Tylocephalum sp. and cestodes). Other commensal organisms were also detected (the protozoan Ancistrocoma sp. and the turbellarian Urastoma sp.). The protozoan parasite Perkinsus sp. had the highest overall prevalence among the symbiotic organisms studied (48.9%), followed by Nematopsis sp. (36.3%). The other organisms were only sporadically observed. Only the protozoan Perkinsus sp. caused alterations in the oysters' infected organs. Molecular analyses confirmed the presence of P. marinus, P. olseni and Perkinsus beihaiensis infecting the oyster C. gasar. This is the first report of P. beihaiensis in this oyster species.

  3. Biofiltration, growth and body composition of oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae in effluents from shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vieira de Azevedo

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to use oyster as biofilter to improve the quality of effluent from shrimp farming and to assess its growth performance and body composition. It was distributed 1,080 oysters into lanterns in fiberglass tanks (170 L in a completely randomized design with three treatments (0, 60 and 120 oysters and six replicates. It was used the effluent from the sedimentation tank. It was measured weekly: temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH, and it was analyzed ammonia-N, nitrite-N, nitrate-N, orthophosphate-P, suspended solids and chlorophyll-α of the input effluent. The control tanks (without oysters were more efficient at removing ammonia-N, nitrite-N, nitrate-N and orthophosphate-P. The tanks containing oysters were more efficient at removing suspended solids and chlorophyll-α. Stocking density influenced the height growth of oysters, but not width. Wet and daily weight, condition and yield index were not affected by stocking density, and a significant increase in comparison to the initials values was observed. Body composition was not affected by stocking density, and a significant difference (p0.05. Under the conditions evaluated, the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae improves water quality and presents growth rates and body composition similar to those obtained in traditional crops.

  4. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Derived from Cross-Linked Oyster Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Liang Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Following cross-linking by microbial transglutaminase, modified oyster proteins were hydrolyzed to improve inhibitory activity against angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activity with the use of a single protease, or a combination of six proteases. The oyster hydrolysate with the lowest 50% ACE inhibitory concentration (IC50 of 0.40 mg/mL was obtained by two-step hydrolysis of the cross-linked oyster protein using Protamex and Neutrase. Five ACE inhibitory peptides were purified from the oyster hydrolysate using a multistep chromatographic procedure comprised of ion-exchange, size exclusion, and reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Their sequences were identified as TAY, VK, KY, FYN, and YA, using automated Edman degradation and mass spectrometry. These peptides were synthesized, and their IC50 values were measured to be 16.7, 29.0, 51.5, 68.2, and 93.9 μM, respectively. Toxicity of the peptides on the HepG2 cell line was not detected. The oyster hydrolysate also significantly decreased the systolic blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. The antihypertensive effect of the oyster hydrolysate on SHR was rapid and long-lasting, compared to commercially obtained sardine hydrolysate. These results suggest that the oyster hydrolysate could be a source of effective nutraceuticals against hypertension.

  5. The invasive Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, in Scandinavia coastal waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Holm, Mark Wejlemann; Strand, Åsa

    visualized the need for a continued collaboration between scientists in the Scandinavian countries, as the bio-invasion is a cross-border issue and management actions then have to be synchronized, and based on a “state of the art” knowledge of the Scandinavian bio-invasion of the species. The risk assessment......A massive invasion of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas , has occurred in Scandinavia during the last decade. The introduction and dispersal was described through collaboration between scientists from Sweden, Denmark and Norway. This work has been followed up by national activities that clearly...

  6. Bioaccumulation factor of tritium in oyster and tilapia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, T.Y.; Juan, N.B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reports on the bioaccumulation factor as well as the residence time of tritium in marine organisms such as tilapia fish (Tilapia mossambica) and oyster (Crassostrea iredalei) reared under laboratory conditions. The organisms were submerged in aquarium water containing tritium with specific activity of 1.0 nCi/ml. The samples were analyzed for tissue-free water tritium (TFWT) by freeze drying and for tissue-bound tritium (TBT) by combustion methods. Tritiated water collected was assayed using the liquid scintillation counting technique. (author)

  7. Overcoming restoration paradigms: value of the historical record and metapopulation dynamics in native oyster restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald N. Lipcius

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Restoration strategies for native oyster populations rely on multiple sources of information, which often conflict due to time- and space-varying patterns in abundance and distribution. For instance, strategies based on population connectivity and disease resistance can differ, and extant and historical records of abundance and distribution are often at odds, such that the optimal strategy is unclear and valuable restoration sites may be excluded from consideration. This was the case for the Lynnhaven River subestuary of lower Chesapeake Bay, which was deemed unsuitable for Eastern Oyster restoration based on physical conditions, disease challenge, and extant oyster abundance. Consequently, we (i evaluated previously unknown historical data from the 1800s, (ii quantified extant oyster recruitment and abundance, physical conditions, and disease presence on constructed restoration reefs and alternative substrates, and (iii assessed simulations from biophysical models to identify potential restoration sites in the metapopulation. The collective data distinguished numerous restoration sites (i in the polyhaline zone (salinity 18.4-22.2 where disease resistance is evolving, (ii where oysters were abundant in the late 1800s-early 1900s, (iii of recent high recruitment, abundance and survival, despite consistent and elevated disease challenge, and (iv interconnected as a metapopulation via larval dispersal. Moreover, a network of constructed restoration reefs met size structure, abundance and biomass standards of restoration success. These findings demonstrate that assumptions about the suitability of sites for oyster restoration based on individual processes can be severely flawed, and that in-depth examination of multiple processes and sources of information are required for oyster reef restoration plans to maximize success. We use these findings and previous information to recommend a strategy for successful restoration of subtidal oyster reefs

  8. Contrasting impacts of ocean acidification and warming on the molecular responses of CO2-resilient oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Priscila; Thompson, Emma L; Raftos, David A

    2017-06-02

    This study characterises the molecular processes altered by both elevated CO 2 and increasing temperature in oysters. Differences in resilience of marine organisms against the environmental stressors associated with climate change will have significant implications for the sustainability of coastal ecosystems worldwide. Some evidence suggests that climate change resilience can differ between populations within a species. B2 oysters represent a unique genetic resource because of their capacity to better withstand the impacts of elevated CO 2 at the physiological level, compared to non-selected oysters from the same species (Saccostrea glomerata). Here, we used proteomic and transcriptomic analysis of gill tissue to evaluate whether the differential response of B2 oysters to elevated CO 2 also extends to increased temperature. Substantial and distinctive effects on protein concentrations and gene expression were evident among B2 oysters responding to elevated CO 2 or elevated temperature. The combination of both stressors also altered oyster gill proteomes and gene expression. However, the impacts of elevated CO 2 and temperature were not additive or synergistic, and may be antagonistic. The data suggest that the simultaneous exposure of CO 2 -resilient oysters to near-future projected ocean pH and temperature results in complex changes in molecular processes in order to prevent stress-induced cellular damage. The differential response of B2 oysters to the combined stressors also indicates that the addition of thermal stress may impair the resilience of these oysters to decreased pH. Overall, this study reveals the intracellular mechanisms that might enable marine calcifiers to endure the emergent, adverse seawater conditions resulting from climate change.

  9. Controlling Vibrio vulnificus and spoilage bacteria in fresh shucked oysters using natural antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, B S M

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of grape seed extract (GE), citric acid (CA) and lactic acid (LA) on the inactivation of Vibrio vulnificus and inherent microflora in fresh shucked oysters. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of GE, CA or LA against V. vulnificus was determined. Furthermore, the shucked oysters were artificially inoculated with V. vulnificus. The inoculated shucked oysters (25 g) were then dipped in 250 ml GE, CA or LA solutions for 10 min. The population of V. vulnificus in shucked oysters was determined. The effects of the treatments with GE, CA or LA solutions on the inherent microbiota in fresh shucked oysters during storage at 5°C for 20 days were also studied. The MICs of GE, CA or LA against V. vulnificus were 10.0, 5.0 or 1.0 mg ml(-1), respectively. The concentrations of 500, 300 or 150 mg ml(-1) GE, CA or LA solutions were needed to reduce the population of V. vulnificus to below the detection level (1.0 log g(-1)). Treatment with 500, 300, 150 mg ml(-1) GE, CA or LA significantly reduced the initial inherent microbiota in fresh shucked oysters, and inherent levels were significantly (P Oysters filter large volume of seawater during their feeding activities that concentrate bacteria such as Vibrio vulnificus in their body. The presence of V. vulnificus in oysters has a serious impact on public health and international trade. There is increasing concern over the use of chemical preservatives. Furthermore, the food industry is looking for new natural preservation methods. This study indicated that lactic acid and citric acid wash solutions could offer an inexpensive, natural and strong approach to control V. vulnificus and spoilage bacteria in fresh shucked for the oyster industry. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Nutrient bioassimilation capacity of aquacultured oysters: quantification of an ecosystem service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Colleen B; Stephenson, Kurt; Brown, Bonnie L

    2011-01-01

    Like many coastal zones and estuaries, the Chesapeake Bay has been severely degraded by cultural eutrophication. Rising implementation costs and difficulty achieving nutrient reduction goals associated with point and nonpoint sources suggests that approaches supplemental to source reductions may prove useful in the future. Enhanced oyster aquaculture has been suggested as one potential policy initiative to help rid the Bay waters of excess nutrients via harvest of bioassimilated nutrients. To assess this potential, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP), and total carbon (TC) content were measured in oyster tissue and shell at two floating-raft cultivation sites in the Chesapeake Bay. Models were developed based on the common market measurement of total length (TL) for aquacultured oysters, which was strongly correlated to the TN (R2 = 0.76), TP (R2 = 0.78), and TC (R2 = 0.76) content per oyster tissue and shell. These models provide resource managers with a tool to quantify net nutrient removal. Based on model estimates, 10(6) harvest-sized oysters (76 mm TL) remove 132 kg TN, 19 kg TP, and 3823 kg TC. In terms of nutrients removed per unit area, oyster harvest is an effective means of nutrient removal compared with other nonpoint source reduction strategies. At a density of 286 oysters m(-2), assuming no mortality, harvest size nutrient removal rates can be as high as 378 kg TN ha(-1), 54 kg TP ha(-1), and 10,934 kg TC ha(-1) for 76-mm oysters. Removing 1 t N from the Bay would require harvesting 7.7 million 76-mm TL cultivated oysters.

  11. Mortalities of Eastern and Pacific oyster Larvae caused by the pathogens Vibrio coralliilyticus and Vibrio tubiashii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gary P; Watson, Michael A; Needleman, David S; Church, Karlee M; Häse, Claudia C

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio tubiashii is reported to be a bacterial pathogen of larval Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and has been associated with major hatchery crashes, causing shortages in seed oysters for commercial shellfish producers. Another bacterium, Vibrio coralliilyticus, a well-known coral pathogen, has recently been shown to elicit mortality in fish and shellfish. Several strains of V. coralliilyticus, such as ATCC 19105 and Pacific isolates RE22 and RE98, were misidentified as V. tubiashii until recently. We compared the mortalities caused by two V. tubiashii and four V. coralliilyticus strains in Eastern and Pacific oyster larvae. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) of V. coralliilyticus in Eastern oysters (defined here as the dose required to kill 50% of the population in 6 days) ranged from 1.1 × 10(4) to 3.0 × 10(4) CFU/ml seawater; strains RE98 and RE22 were the most virulent. This study shows that V. coralliilyticus causes mortality in Eastern oyster larvae. Results for Pacific oysters were similar, with LD50s between 1.2 × 10(4) and 4.0 × 10(4) CFU/ml. Vibrio tubiashii ATCC 19106 and ATCC 19109 were highly infectious toward Eastern oyster larvae but were essentially nonpathogenic toward healthy Pacific oyster larvae at dosages of ≥1.1 × 10(4) CFU/ml. These data, coupled with the fact that several isolates originally thought to be V. tubiashii are actually V. coralliilyticus, suggest that V. coralliilyticus has been a more significant pathogen for larval bivalve shellfish than V. tubiashii, particularly on the U.S. West Coast, contributing to substantial hatchery-associated morbidity and mortality in recent years. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Transcription factor CgMTF-1 regulates CgZnT1 and CgMT expression in Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) under zinc stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Jie; Zhang, Linlin [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, Shandong (China); Li, Li, E-mail: lili@qdio.ac.cn [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, Shandong (China); Li, Chunyan; Wang, Ting [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, Shandong (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, Guofan, E-mail: gfzhang@qdio.ac.cn [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, Shandong (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • CgMTF-1 and CgZnT1 were first identified in oysters. • CgMTF-1 localized in cell nucleus under unstressed conditions. • CgMTF-1 proteins could bind with the typical MRE motif. • CgMTF-1 activated CgZnT1, CgMT1 and CgMT4 promoters and regulated their expressions under zinc exposure. - Abstract: Oysters accumulate zinc at high tissue concentrations, and the metal response element (MRE)-binding transcription factor (MTF) functions as the cellular zinc sensor that coordinates the expression of genes involved in zinc efflux and storage, as well as those that protect against metal toxicity. In this study, we cloned MTF-1 in oysters and examined its regulation mechanism for its classic target genes, including MTs and ZnT1 under zinc exposure conditions. We cloned CgMTF-1 and determined the subcellular locations of its protein product in HEK293 cells. CgMTF-1 has a 2826 bp open reading frame that encodes a predicted polypeptide with 707 amino acid residues, showing six well-conserved zinc finger domains that are required for metal binding. In HEK293 cell lines, CgMTF-1 primarily localizes in the cell nucleus under unstressed conditions and nuclear translocation was not critical for the activation of this gene. We searched for CgMTF-1-regulated genes in oysters using RNA interference. Decreased expression levels of CgMT1, CgMT4, and CgZnT1 were observed after CgMTF-1 interference (>70% inhibition) under zinc exposure, indicating the critical role of CgMTF-1 in the regulation of these genes. We searched for a direct regulation mechanism involving CgMTF-1 for CgMT1, CgMT4, and CgZnT1 in vitro. EMSA experiments indicated that CgMTF-1 can bind with the MREs found in the CgZnT1, CgMT1 and CgMT4 promoter regions. Additionally, luciferase reporter gene experiments indicated that CgMTF-1 could activate the CgMT1, CgMT4, and CgZnT1 promoters. Overall, our results suggest that CgMTF-1 directly coordinates the regulation of CgMTs and CgZnT1 expression and plays

  13. Transcription factor CgMTF-1 regulates CgZnT1 and CgMT expression in Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) under zinc stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Jie; Zhang, Linlin; Li, Li; Li, Chunyan; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Guofan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CgMTF-1 and CgZnT1 were first identified in oysters. • CgMTF-1 localized in cell nucleus under unstressed conditions. • CgMTF-1 proteins could bind with the typical MRE motif. • CgMTF-1 activated CgZnT1, CgMT1 and CgMT4 promoters and regulated their expressions under zinc exposure. - Abstract: Oysters accumulate zinc at high tissue concentrations, and the metal response element (MRE)-binding transcription factor (MTF) functions as the cellular zinc sensor that coordinates the expression of genes involved in zinc efflux and storage, as well as those that protect against metal toxicity. In this study, we cloned MTF-1 in oysters and examined its regulation mechanism for its classic target genes, including MTs and ZnT1 under zinc exposure conditions. We cloned CgMTF-1 and determined the subcellular locations of its protein product in HEK293 cells. CgMTF-1 has a 2826 bp open reading frame that encodes a predicted polypeptide with 707 amino acid residues, showing six well-conserved zinc finger domains that are required for metal binding. In HEK293 cell lines, CgMTF-1 primarily localizes in the cell nucleus under unstressed conditions and nuclear translocation was not critical for the activation of this gene. We searched for CgMTF-1-regulated genes in oysters using RNA interference. Decreased expression levels of CgMT1, CgMT4, and CgZnT1 were observed after CgMTF-1 interference (>70% inhibition) under zinc exposure, indicating the critical role of CgMTF-1 in the regulation of these genes. We searched for a direct regulation mechanism involving CgMTF-1 for CgMT1, CgMT4, and CgZnT1 in vitro. EMSA experiments indicated that CgMTF-1 can bind with the MREs found in the CgZnT1, CgMT1 and CgMT4 promoter regions. Additionally, luciferase reporter gene experiments indicated that CgMTF-1 could activate the CgMT1, CgMT4, and CgZnT1 promoters. Overall, our results suggest that CgMTF-1 directly coordinates the regulation of CgMTs and CgZnT1 expression and plays

  14. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers. Summary report, field sampling program for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, W.H.; Ecker, R.M.; Onishi, Y.

    1982-11-01

    A three-phase field sampling program was conducted on the Buttermilk-Cattaraugus Creek system to investigate the transport of radionuclides in surface waters as part of a continuing program to provide data for application and verification of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) sediment and radionuclide transport model, SERATRA. Phase 1 of the sampling program was conducted during November and December 1977; Phase 2 during September 1978; and Phase 3 during April 1979. Bed sediment, suspended sediment, and water samples were collected over a 45-mile reach of the creek system. Bed sediment samples were also collected at the mouth of Cattaraugus Creek in Lake Erie. A fourth sampling trip was conducted during May 1980 to obtain supplementary channel geometry data and flood plain sediment samples. Radiological analysis of these samples included gamma ray spectrometry analysis, and radiochemical separation and analysis of Sr-90, Pu-238, Pu-239,240, Am-241 and Cm-244. Tritium analysis was also performed on water samples. Based on the evaluation of radionuclide levels in Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, the Nuclear Fuel Services facility at West Valley, New York, may be the source of Cs-137, Sr-90, CS-134, Co-60, Pu-238, Pu-239,240, Am-241, Cm-244 and tritium found in the bed sediment, suspended sediment and water of Buttermilk and Cattaraugus Creeks

  15. Hemolymph chemistry and histopathological changes in Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in response to low salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Graeme; Handlinger, Judith; Jones, Brian; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie

    2014-09-01

    This study described seasonal differences in the histopathological and hemolymph chemistry changes in different family lines of Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, in response to the stress of an abrupt change to low salinity, and mechanical grading. The most significant changes in pallial cavity salinity, hemolymph chemistry and histopathological findings occurred in summer at low salinity. In summer (water temperature 18°C) at low salinity, 9 (25.7% of full salinity), the mean pallial cavity salinity in oysters at day 3 was 19.8±1.6 (SE) and day 10 was 22.8±1.6 (SE) lower than oysters at salinity 35. Associated with this fall in pallial cavity salinity, mean hemolymph sodium for oysters at salinity 9 on day 3 and 10 were 297.2mmol/L±20(SE) and 350.4mmol/L±21.3(SE) lower than oysters at salinity 35. Similarly mean hemolymph potassium in oysters held at salinity 9 at day 3 and 10 were 5.6mmol/L±0.6(SE) and 7.9mmol/L±0.6 (SE) lower than oysters at salinity 35. These oysters at low salinity had expanded intercellular spaces and significant intracytoplasmic vacuolation distending the cytoplasm of epithelial cells in the alimentary tract and kidney and hemocyte infiltrate (diapedesis) within the alimentary tract wall. In contrast, in winter (water temperature 8°C) oyster mean pallial cavity salinity only fell at day 10 and this was by 6.0±0.6 (SE) compared to that of oysters at salinity 35. There were limited histopathological changes (expanded intercellular spaces and moderate intracytoplasmic vacuolation of renal epithelial cells) in these oysters at day 10 in low salinity. Mechanical grading and family line did not influence the oyster response to sudden low salinity. These findings provide additional information for interpretation of non-lethal, histopathological changes associated with temperature and salinity variation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [History of oyster as drug from the origin to the 21st century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnemain, Bruno

    2015-06-01

    Since Antiquity, oyster is a subject of interest and medical use, as indicated by Oribiase and Galien. From the 17th century, this unique drug was proposed by physicians for various diseases, and more often for (la rage). One could think that that drug disappeared at the 20th and 21st centuries. But we can observe that it was still recommended by several authors as drug. Still today, companies offer oyster under various forms for allopathic and homeopathic treatments, as well as for food supplement. Research are ongoing to discover active substances within oyster and their potential medical interests.

  17. Growth, mortality and susceptibility of oyster Crassostrea spp. to Perkinsus spp. infection during on growing in northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Paiva Scardua

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Crassostrea rhizophorae and C. gasar oysters are cultivated in the northeast region. Perkinsus parasites infect bivalves, and their effects on oysters from tropical regions are poorly understood. This study evaluated the impact of Perkinsus infection on the productive traits of native oysters. Oysters were sampled bimonthly during 7 months, from July 2010 to February 2011, to evaluate growth rate, mortality and shell color patterns (white and dark-gray (n = 500, and to determine the prevalence and intensity of Perkinsus (n = 152. Perkinsus and Crassostrea species were determined using molecular tools. Results showed that most dark-gray (90%, n = 20 and white (67%, n = 18 oysters were C. gasar and C. rhizophorae, respectively. Oysters showed a high growth rate and moderate cumulative mortality (44%. C. gasar oysters grew better and showed lower mortality and lower incidence of Perkinsus compared to C. rhizophorae. The mean prevalence of Perkinsus was moderate (48%, but the infection intensity was light (2.2. Perkinsosis affected very small oysters (19.4 mm. In conclusion, native oysters, especially C. gasar, have a great potential for culture, mortality is not associated with perkinsosis, and the shell color of oysters can be used to improve selection for spats with better performance.

  18. Effect of linear alkylbenzene mixtures and sanitary sewage in biochemical and molecular responses in pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Nunes, Fabrício; Mattos, Jacó J; Zacchi, Flávia L; Serrano, Miguel A S; Piazza, Clei E; Sasaki, Silvio T; Taniguchi, Satie; Bicego, Márcia C; Melo, Cláudio M R; Bainy, Afonso C D

    2015-11-01

    Urban effluents are rich in nutrients, organic matter, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), pesticides, hydrocarbons, surfactants, and others. Previous studies have shown that oysters Crassostrea gigas accumulate significant levels of linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) in sanitary sewage contaminated sites, but there is little information about its toxicological effects in marine bivalves. The aim of this study was to analyze the transcription of genes in two tissues of C. gigas exposed for 12, 24, and 36 h to LABs or sanitary sewage. Likewise, the activity of antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes was measured in oysters exposed for 36 h in all groups. Oysters exposed to LABs and oysters exposed to sanitary sewage showed different patterns of transcriptional responses. LAB-exposed oysters showed lower level of biological responses than the oysters exposed to sanitary sewage. Despite the ability of the oyster C. gigas to accumulate LABs (28-fold), the data indicate that these contaminants are not the cause for the transcriptional responses observed in oysters exposed to sanitary sewage. Possibly, the biological changes observed in the sanitary sewage-exposed oysters are associated with the presence of other contaminants, which might have caused synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effects. The results show that FABP-like and GST-ω-like messenger RNAs (mRNAs) have a rapid response in tissues of oyster C. gigas exposed to sanitary sewage, suggesting a possible protective response and a role in maintaining homeostasis of these organisms.

  19. 75 FR 10328 - Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Plan, Safeguards Contingency Plan, and Cyber Security Plan referred to collectively hereafter as... its security plans. Pursuant to 10 CFR 51.32, ``Finding of no significant impact,'' the Commission has... by designing and implementing comprehensive site security programs. The amendments to 10 CFR 73.55...

  20. 75 FR 5631 - Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... workers and members of the public. Therefore, no changes or different types of radiological impacts are... to historical and cultural resources. There would be no impact to socioeconomic resources. Therefore...

  1. Neuropeptides encoded by the genomes of the Akoya pearl oyster Pinctata fucata and Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas: a bioinformatic and peptidomic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Michael J; Favrel, Pascal; Rotgans, Bronwyn A; Wang, Tianfang; Zhao, Min; Sohail, Manzar; O'Connor, Wayne A; Elizur, Abigail; Henry, Joel; Cummins, Scott F

    2014-10-02

    Oysters impart significant socio-ecological benefits from primary production of food supply, to estuarine ecosystems via reduction of water column nutrients, plankton and seston biomass. Little though is known at the molecular level of what genes are responsible for how oysters reproduce, filter nutrients, survive stressful physiological events and form reef communities. Neuropeptides represent a diverse class of chemical messengers, instrumental in orchestrating these complex physiological events in other species. By a combination of in silico data mining and peptide analysis of ganglia, 74 putative neuropeptide genes were identified from genome and transcriptome databases of the Akoya pearl oyster, Pinctata fucata and the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, encoding precursors for over 300 predicted bioactive peptide products, including three newly identified neuropeptide precursors PFGx8amide, RxIamide and Wx3Yamide. Our findings also include a gene for the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and two egg-laying hormones (ELH) which were identified from both oysters. Multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis supports similar global organization of these mature peptides. Computer-based peptide modeling of the molecular tertiary structures of ELH highlights the structural homologies within ELH family, which may facilitate ELH activity leading to the release of gametes. Our analysis demonstrates that oysters possess conserved molluscan neuropeptide domains and overall precursor organization whilst highlighting many previously unrecognized bivalve idiosyncrasies. This genomic analysis provides a solid foundation from which further studies aimed at the functional characterization of these molluscan neuropeptides can be conducted to further stimulate advances in understanding the ecology and cultivation of oysters.

  2. Summer food habits and trophic overlap of roundtail chub and creek chub in Muddy Creek, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, M.C.; Bower, M.R.; Hubert, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Native fishes of the Upper Colorado River Basin have experienced substantial declines in abundance and distribution, and are extirpated from most of Wyoming. Muddy Creek, in south-central Wyoming (Little Snake River watershed), contains sympatric populations of native roundtail chub (Gila robusta), bluehead sucker, (Catostomus discobolus), and flannelmouth sucker (C. tatipinnis), and represents an area of high conservation concern because it is the only area known to have sympatric populations of all 3 species in Wyoming. However, introduced creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) are abundant and might have a negative influence on native fishes. We assessed summer food habits of roundtail chub and creek chub to provide information on the ecology of each species and obtain insight on potential trophic overlap. Roundtail chub and creek chub seemed to be opportunistic generalists that consumed a diverse array of food items. Stomach contents of both species were dominated by plant material, aquatic and terrestrial insects, and Fishes, but also included gastropods and mussels. Stomach contents were similar between species, indicating high trophic, overlap. No length-related patterns in diet were observed for either species. These results suggest that creek chubs have the potential to adversely influence the roundtail chub population through competition for food and the native fish assemblage through predation.

  3. The macroinvertebrates of Magela Creek, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchant, R.

    1982-04-01

    The littoral zones of five permanent billabongs in Magela Creek were sampled monthly for macroinvertebrates. Greatest numbers of taxa and individuals were caught in the late wet season and early dry season in the shallow billabongs; in the deep billabongs, seasonal variations were not so marked. These changes appeared to be associated with the development of macrophytes, which offered food and shelter to the invertebrate fauna. The dominant groups were the Chironomidae, Oligochaetae and Ephemeroptera. The seasonal patterns of the catches were sufficiently consistent for future samples to be able to be compared with these initial ones with some confidence that any changes are real. This work is part of a larger study into the biota and water quality of Magela Creek designed to provide data on aquatic communities before mining of the Ranger uranium deposit starts

  4. Mathematical modelling of flooding at Magela Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardavas, I.

    1989-01-01

    The extent and frequency of the flooding at Magela Creek can be predicted from a mathematical/computer model describing the hydrological phases of surface runoff. Surface runoff involves complex water transfer processes over very inhomogeneous terrain. A simple mathematical model of these has been developed which includes the interception of rainfall by the plant canopy, evapotranspiration, infiltration of surface water into the soil, the storage of water in surface depressions, and overland and subsurface water flow. The rainfall-runoff model has then been incorporated into a more complex computer model to predict the amount of water that enters and leaves the Magela Creek flood plain, downstream of the mine. 2 figs., ills

  5. Characteristic crystal orientation of folia in oyster shell, Crassostrea gigas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Woo [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gyeung Ho [Nano-Materials Reserch Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Cheong Song [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: cschoi@sogang.ac.kr

    2008-03-10

    The thin sheets of calcite, termed folia, that make up much of the shell of an oyster are composed of foliated lath. Folia of the giant Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) were examined using TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and tested using microindentation and nanoindentation techniques. Analysis of the Kikuchi patterns obtained from the folia showed that there are two types (type I and type II) of preferred orientation, with an angle of around 70{sup o} between them. Nanoindentation tests showed that the folia exhibit a hardness of about 3 GPa and elastic modulus of about 73 GPa. Microcracks were generated using a microindenter in order to study the fracture mechanisms of the folia. Following on from these investigations, fracture mechanisms are discussed in conjunction with the correlation between preferred orientation and structural characteristics during cracking of the folia. Comparing the morphology and the polymorphism with nacre (also known as mother of pearl), the advantages of the relatively fast crystal growth and less amount of organic matrix in folia may have interesting implications for the development of sophisticated synthetic materials.

  6. A research program in determination of heavy metals in sediments and benthic species in relation to nuclear power plant operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, H. L.

    1984-01-01

    Heavy metals in the estuarine environment can be toxic to fish and shellfish early life history stages and concentrations build up to levels of concern in marketable shellfish. The present survey was begun just before startup in 1974 of the 1900 megawatt Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant on the Chesapeake Bay in order to assess and understand factors relating to heavy metal accumulation in estuarine biota. Oysters were collected in large numbers at test and reference sites in June 1974 to 77 and individually analyzed for copper and zinc. Oyster copper and zinc concentrations were correlated with salinity read at time of collection. The relationship of oyster age to metal concentration was examined with two sets of oysters of known age and genetic origin (laboratory spawned). Copper sorption by typical mid Bay sediments, and field studies on cadmium concentrations in sediments were examined.

  7. Clean Coal Power at Toms Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    On October 20, 1992 the US Department of Energy (DOE), through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, entered into Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-21-93MC92444 with TAMCO Power Partners to implement the Toms Creek Integrated Gasification Combined - Cycle Demonstration Project. The process design is proceeding as scheduled, and a draft Environmental Information Volume has been produced. The overall project schedule, however, may have to be adjusted when the Power Sales Agreement has been finalized

  8. Final Environmental Assessment, Horse Creek Bridge Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    existing bridge pipes that have failed and replace the failed structure with a new, prefabricated pedestrian bridge within the original bridge footprint...vehicles, nor designed for support of standard passenger vehicle loads. The bridge would be a single prefabricated unit consisting of a steel grate...placed on new concrete abutments built on the existing foundations on the creek banks, and put in place by a crane operating from the vehicle parking

  9. Channel stability of Turkey Creek, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, David L.; Soenksen, Philip J.

    1998-01-01

    Channelization on Turkey Creek and its receiving stream, the South Fork Big Nemaha River, has disturbed the equilibrium of Turkey Creek and has led to channel-stability problems, such as degradation and channel widening, which pose a threat to bridges and land adjacent to the stream. As part of a multiagency study, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel stability at two bridge sites on upper and middle portions of Turkey Creek by analyzing streambed-elevation data for gradation changes, comparing recent cross-section surveys and historic accounts, identifying bank-failure blocks, and analyzing tree-ring samples. These results were compared to gradation data and trend results for a U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station near the mouth of Turkey Creek from a previous study. Examination of data on streambed elevations reveals that degradation has occurred. The streambed elevation declined 0.5 m at the upper site from 1967-97. The streambed elevation declined by 3.2 m at the middle site from 1948-97 and exposed 2 m of the pilings of the Nebraska Highway 8 bridge. Channel widening could not be verified at the two sites from 1967-97, but a historic account indicates widening at the middle site to be two to three times that of the 1949 channel width. Small bank failures were evident at the upper site and a 4-m-wide bank failure occurred at the middle site in 1987 according to tree ring analyses. Examination of streambed-elevation data from a previous study at the lower site reveals a statistically significant aggrading trend from 1958-93. Further examination of these data suggests minor degradation occurred until 1975, followed by aggradation.

  10. Steel Creek primary producers: Periphyton and seston, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Toole, M.A.; van Duyn, Y. [Normandeau Associates Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-02-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in west-central South Carolina. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor and to protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to assess various components of the system and identify and changes due to the operation of L-Reactor or discharge from L Lake. An intensive ecological assessment program prior to the construction of the lake provided baseline data with which to compare data accumulated after the lake was filled and began discharging into the creek. The Department of Energy must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems. This report summarizes the results of six years` data from Steel Creek under the L-Lake/Steel Creek Monitoring Program. L Lake is discussed separately from Steel Creek in Volumes NAI-SR-138 through NAI-SR-143.

  11. Steel Creek primary producers: Periphyton and seston, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, J.A.; Toole, M.A.; van Duyn, Y.

    1992-02-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in west-central South Carolina. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor and to protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to assess various components of the system and identify and changes due to the operation of L-Reactor or discharge from L Lake. An intensive ecological assessment program prior to the construction of the lake provided baseline data with which to compare data accumulated after the lake was filled and began discharging into the creek. The Department of Energy must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems. This report summarizes the results of six years' data from Steel Creek under the L-Lake/Steel Creek Monitoring Program. L Lake is discussed separately from Steel Creek in Volumes NAI-SR-138 through NAI-SR-143

  12. Radiosensitivity study and radiation effects on morphology characterization of grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Rosnani Abdul; Awang, Mat Rasol; Mohamad, Azhar; Mutaat, Hassan Hamdani; Maskom, Mohd Meswan [Bioprocess Group, Agrotechnology and Biosciences Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi 43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Daud, Fauzi; Senafi, Sahidan [School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Radiosensitive dosage and morphology characterization of irradiated grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju by gamma rays was investigated due to effects of irradiation. In order to establish the effect, mycelium of P. sajor-caju was irradiated by gamma rays at dose 0.1 to 8.0 kGy with dose rate 0.227 Gy sec{sup −1}. The irradiation of mycelia was carried out at the radiation facility in Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The radiosensitivity study was performed by evaluating the percentage of survival irradiated mycelia. The lethal dose of the mycelium P. sajor-caju was determined at 4.0 kGy and LD{sub 50} to be equal at 2.2 kGy. The radiation effects on morphology were evaluated based on growth rate of irradiated mycelia, mycelia types, colonization period on substrate, morphology of fruit bodies and yields. The results shown growth rate of irradiated mycelium was slightly lower than the control and decreased as the dose increased. Irradiation was found can induced the primordia formation on PDA and the BE of irradiated seed is higher than to control. The irradiation is proven to be useful for generating new varieties of mushroom with commercial value to the industry.

  13. Year-round screening of noncommercial and commercial oysters for the presence of human pathogenic viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodder-Verschoor, F.; Husman, A.M.R.; Berg, van den H.H.J.L.; Stein, A.; Pelt-Heerschap, van H.M.L.; Poel, van der W.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Consumption of virus-contaminated shellfish has caused numerous outbreaks of gastroenteritis and hepatitis worldwide. In The Netherlands, oysters are cultured and imported both for consumption and export; therefore, the presence of noroviruses, rotaviruses, astroviruses, hepatitis A viruses, and

  14. Evaluation of waste concrete road materials for use in oyster aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the suitability of recycled concrete : aggregate (RCA) from road projects as bottom conditioning material for on-bottom oyster : aquaculture in the Chesapeake Bay. The testing was designed to (1) e...

  15. Phase II evaluation of waste concrete road materials for use in oyster aquaculture - field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The overall objective of this study was to determine the suitability of recycled concrete aggregate : (RCA) from road projects as bottom conditioning material for on-bottom oyster aquaculture in the : Chesapeake Bay. During this Phase of the study, t...

  16. Use of extracts from oyster shell and soil for cultivation of Spirulina maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Joo-Young; Kim, Sunmin; Lee, Hansol; Kim, Kyochan; Kim, Woong; Park, Min S; Kwon, Jong-Hee; Yang, Ji-Won

    2014-12-01

    Calcium ion and trace metals play important roles in various metabolisms of photosynthetic organisms. In this study, simple methods were developed to extract calcium ion and micronutrients from oyster shell and common soil, and the prepared extracts were tested as a replacement of the corresponding chemicals that are essential for growth of microalgae. The oyster shell and soil were treated with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide or with 10 % hydrogen peroxide, respectively. The potential application of these natural sources to cultivation was investigated with Spirulina maxima. When compared to standard Zarrouk medium, the Spirulina maxima cultivated in a modified Zarrouk media with elements from oyster shell and soil extract exhibited increases in biomass, chlorophyll, and phycocyanin by 17, 16, and 64 %, respectively. These results indicate that the extracts of oyster shell and soil provide sufficient amounts of calcium and trace metals for successful cultivation of Spirulina maxima.

  17. Network analysis of oyster transcriptome revealed a cascade of cellular responses during recovery after heat shock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Zhang

    Full Text Available Oysters, as a major group of marine bivalves, can tolerate a wide range of natural and anthropogenic stressors including heat stress. Recent studies have shown that oysters pretreated with heat shock can result in induced heat tolerance. A systematic study of cellular recovery from heat shock may provide insights into the mechanism of acquired thermal tolerance. In this study, we performed the first network analysis of oyster transcriptome by reanalyzing microarray data from a previous study. Network analysis revealed a cascade of cellular responses during oyster recovery after heat shock and identified responsive gene modules and key genes. Our study demonstrates the power of network analysis in a non-model organism with poor gene annotations, which can lead to new discoveries that go beyond the focus on individual genes.

  18. IN VITRO KILLING OF PERKINSUS MARINUS BY HEMOCYTES OF OYSTERS CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A colorimetric microbicidal assay was adapted, optimized and applied in experiments to characterize the in vitro capacity of eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) hemocytes to kill cultured isolates of Perkinsus marinus, a protozoan parasite causing a highly destructive disease...

  19. EFFECTS OF FRESHWATER RELEASES AND SEASON ON OYSTERS (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) IN CALOOSAHATCHEE ESTUARY, FLORIDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of freshwater releases and season on disease prevalence and intensity of Perkinsus marinus, condition index, gonadal condition, recruitment potential, and growth of oysters was examined monthly at five locations along the Caloosahatchee estuary, Florida. Temperature...

  20. ESTABLISHING MINIMUM FLOWS AND LEVELS OF FRESHWATER IN THE CALOOSAHATCHEE RIVER, FLORIDA, USING RESPONSES OF OYSTERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterations in freshwater inflow resulting from watershed development and water management practices have impacted salinity and water quality and led to declines in oyster populations within southwest Florida estuaries. In the Caloosahatchee Estuary, Florida watershed management ...

  1. PARASITIC AND SYMBIONIC FAUNA IN OYSTERS (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) COLLECTED FROM THE CALOOSAHATCHEE RIVER AND ESTUARY, FLORIDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, collected from ten sites in the Caloosahatchee River and Estuary, Florida, revealed a varied parasite and symbiotic fauna that have never been reported from this area. Organisms observed included ovacystis virus infecting gametes...

  2. Phase II evaluation of waste concrete road materials for use in oyster aquaculture - field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The overall objective of this study was to determine the suitability of recycled concrete : aggregate (RCA) from road projects as bottom conditioning material for on-bottom oyster : aquaculture in the Chesapeake Bay. During this Phase of the study, t...

  3. SEASONAL VARIATION IN LYSOSOMAL DESTABILIZATION IN OYSTERS, CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA. (R826201)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysosomal destabilization assays have been used as valuable biomarkers of pollutant exposures in a variety of bivalve and fish species. The responses of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, deployed at and native to various reference and degraded sites were evaluated for lys...

  4. Physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of noodle enriched with oyster mushroom (Pleorotus ostreatus) powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyono, A.; Novianti; Bakri, A.; Kasutjianingati

    2018-01-01

    Oyster Mushroom is a mushroom that can be used for food and medicine. It contains highly nutritious and functional substances such as statins and beta-glucan. A comprehensive evaluation of noodle-enriched with Oyster Mushroom powder has not been performed so far. In this study, we performed a comprehensive evaluation of noodle-enriched with Oyster Mushroom powder. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of enrichment of Oyster Mushroom Powder (OMP) on the quality of noodle. The quality of noodle was evaluated based on physical, chemical and sensorial characteristics. This study was done by substituting wheat flour with OMP at the level of 0 (control); 5; 7.5; 10; 12.5; and 15%. The results showed that OMP significantly affected (Pvalues of noodle.

  5. INFLUENCE OF SEASONAL FACTORS ON OYSTER HEMOCYTE KILLING OF VIBRIO PARAHEMOLYTICUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal variation of cellular defenses of oyster Crassostrea virginica against Vibrio parahaemolyticus were examined from June 1997 to December 1998 using a recently developed bactericidal assay that utilizes a tetrazolium dye. Mean hemocyte numbers, plasma lysozyme, and P. mari...

  6. THE EFFECT OF PCBS ON GLYCOGEN RESERVES IN THE EASTERN OYSTER CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA. (R825349)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent declines in Chesapeake Bay oyster populations have been attributed to disease, and reduced water quality from pollution. The stress associated with pollutant exposure may reduce energy available for growth and reproduction. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are lipophilic c...

  7. The Patroon Creek Contamination Migration Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufek, K.; Zafran, A.; Moore, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Shaw performed a Site Investigation (SI) for sediment within the Unnamed Tributary of the Patroon Creek, a section of the Patroon Creek, and the Three Mile Reservoir as part of the overall contract with the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to remediate the Colonie Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Site. The Unnamed Tributary formerly flowed through the former Patroon Lake, which was located on the main site property and was used as a landfill for radiological and chemical wastes. The objective of the investigation was to determine the absence/presence of radioactive contamination within the three Areas of Concern (AOC). In order to accomplish this objective, Shaw assembled a team to produce a Technical Memorandum that provided an in-depth understanding of the environmental conditions related to the Patroon Creek. Upon completion and analysis of the Technical Memorandum, a Conceptual Site Model (CSM) was constructed and a Technical Planning Program (TPP) was held to develop a Sediment Investigation Work Plan and Sediment Investigation Sampling and Analysis Plan. A total of 32 sample locations were analyzed using on-site direct gamma scans with a Pancake Geiger-Mueller (PGM) instrument for screening purposes and samples were analyzed at on-site and off-site laboratories. The highest interval from each core scan was selected for on-site analysis utilizing a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. Eight of these samples were sent off-site for gamma/alpha spectroscopy confirmation. The data collected during the SI indicated that the U-238 cleanup criterion was exceeded in sediment samples collected from two locations within the Unnamed Tributary but not in downstream sections of Patroon Creek or Three Mile Reservoir. Future actions for impacted sediment in the Unnamed Tributary will be further evaluated. Concentrations of U-238 and Th-232 in all other off-site sediment samples collected from the Unnamed Tributary, Patroon Creek, and

  8. Differential response of oyster shell powder on enzyme profile and nutritional value of oyster mushroom Pleurotus florida PF05.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraian, Ram; Narayan, Om Prakash; Srivastava, Jatin

    2014-01-01

    Oyster mushroom Pleurotus florida was cultivated on different combinations of wheat straw (WS) as basal substrate and oyster shell powder (OSP) supplement. The OSP supplementation considerably responded to different cultivation phases. The mycelium grew fast and showed rapid growth rate (8.91 mmd(-1)) in WS + OSP (97 + 3) combination while WS + OSP (92 + 8) showed maximum laccase (3.133 U/g) and Mn peroxidase (MnP) activities (0.091 U/g). The climax level of laccase (5.433 U/g) and MnP (0.097 U/g) was recorded during fruit body initiation in WS + OSP (97 + 3) and WS + OSP (98 + 2) combinations, respectively. The WS + OSP (97 + 3) combination represented the best condition for mushroom cultivation and produced the highest biological efficiency (147%). In addition, protein and lipid contents in fruit bodies were slightly improved in response to OSP. The carbohydrate was significantly increased by raising concentration of OSP. The highest values of protein, carbohydrate, and lipid noted were 31.3 μg/g, 0.0639 (g/g), and 0.373 (g/g) correspondingly. Conclusively it was evident that lower concentrations of OSP acted positively and relatively to higher concentrations and improved nutritional content which may suitably be used to enhance both yield and nutritional values of mushroom.

  9. Pathogenic bacteria associated with oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana) and estuarine water along the south coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristori, Christiane A; Iaria, Sebastião T; Gelli, Dilma S; Rivera, Irma N G

    2007-08-01

    Oysters and estuarine water samples were collected monthly, from June 1998 to March 1999, in the Cananéia estuary, on the south coast of São Paulo, Brazil, and analyzed for bacterial hazards with and without depuration in filtered estuarine water. Aeromonas spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Vibrio cholerae O1, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus were counted in oyster samples using the most probable number (MPN) and their presence verified in the surrounding estuarine water samples. The presence of Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and fecal coliforms counts were determined in oysters and in water samples too. Sixty percent of water samples contained fecal coliforms ranging from 200 CFU/100 ml and 100%, 30%, 20% and 10% were positive for V. parahaemolyticus, Salmonella, Aeromonas, and V. vulnificus in 5 l of water samples, respectively. In oyster samples, the fecal coliforms concentration ranged from or =2.4 x 10(3) MPN/g in 40% of untreated and from oyster samples and their concentration varied from 3.6 to > or =2.4 x 10(3) MPN/g. For the untreated oyster samples 80%, 70%, and 10% were positive for V. vulnificus (oyster samples 60%, 30%, and 0% of them contained the same bacteria, respectively. Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella spp., P. shigelloides, and V. cholerae O1 were not detected in any of the samples. Fecal indicators did not correlate with Vibrio presence (p>0.05), although the isolation of Aeromonas species had a positive correlation (p = 0.017). The results showed no correlation between temperature, salinity, and bacteria (p > 0.05). The comparison between bacterial concentration in treated and untreated oyster samples, showed that only Aeromonas was higher in untreated oyster samples (p = 0.039). This study contributes toward creating a more global understanding of food-borne bacterial pathogens. The presence and concentration of viable bacterial hazards in oysters and water surrounding areas was determined for the first time

  10. Using oysters as anthropogenic indicators to evaluate the occurrence of the wastewater contamination of the estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2015-04-01

    The oyster (Crossostrea gigas) is an important aquacultural species in Taiwan. With an area of over 85% of the total inshore aquacultural field, its production, measured by quantity or economic value, ranks above all other aquacultural products in Taiwan. Since oyster's habitat is on shelves near the coast, the samples from a particular "oyster cultural site" can be applied to evaluate the pollution of a segment of the coastal water. Deficient wastewater treatment has caused untreated wastewaters to have flown in rivers into oyster cultural areas in estuaries as well as shallow coastal water. Therefore, the concentration of pollutants in the oysters can be used as anthropogenic indicators to evaluate the occurrence of the for wastewater contamination of the coastal water. In this study, two groups of anthropogenic organic compounds, chlorinated flame retardant (i.e., Dechlorane Plus) and benzophenone-type UV absorbing substances (i.e., 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone), were determined in oyster samples as wastewater contamination pollutants. The method involves the use of matrix solid-phase dispersion prior to their determination by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The results show that these two groups of compounds are ubiquitous in oysters with the concentrations of chlorinated flame retardant and benzophenone-type UV absorbing substances ranging from 0.3 to 3.6 ng/g and from 120 to 910 ng/g (lipid weight), respectively. Oysters are useful anthropogenic indicators of organic pollutants in Taiwan's marine environment. The ubiquity of these pollutants in Taiwan's coastal environment supports the need for greater awareness of bioaccumulation processes.

  11. Optimal Site Characterization and Selection Criteria for Oyster Restoration using Multicolinear Factorial Water Quality Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, J.

    2015-12-01

    Elevated levels of nutrient loadings have enriched the Chesapeake Bay estuaries and coastal waters via point and nonpoint sources and the atmosphere. Restoring oyster beds is considered a Best Management Practice (BMP) to improve the water quality as well as provide physical aquatic habitat and a healthier estuarine system. Efforts include declaring sanctuaries for brood-stocks, supplementing hard substrate on the bottom and aiding natural populations with the addition of hatchery-reared and disease-resistant stocks. An economic assessment suggests that restoring the ecological functions will improve water quality, stabilize shorelines, and establish a habitat for breeding grounds that outweighs the value of harvestable oyster production. Parametric factorial models were developed to investigate multicolinearities among in situ water quality and oyster restoration activities to evaluate posterior success rates upon multiple substrates, and physical, chemical, hydrological and biological site characteristics to systematically identify significant factors. Findings were then further utilized to identify the optimal sites for successful oyster restoration augmentable with Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) and BMPs. Factorial models evaluate the relationship among the dependent variable, oyster biomass, and treatments of temperature, salinity, total suspended solids, E. coli/Enterococci counts, depth, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a, nitrogen and phosphorus, and blocks consist of alternative substrates (oyster shells versus riprap, granite, cement, cinder blocks, limestone marl or combinations). Factorial model results were then compared to identify which combination of variables produces the highest posterior biomass of oysters. Developed Factorial model can facilitate maximizing the likelihood of successful oyster reef restoration in an effort to establish a healthier ecosystem and to improve overall estuarine water quality in the Chesapeake Bay estuaries.

  12. A hemocyte gene expression signature correlated with predictive capacity of oysters to survive Vibrio infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Rafael

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complex balance between environmental and host factors is an important determinant of susceptibility to infection. Disturbances of this equilibrium may result in multifactorial diseases as illustrated by the summer mortality syndrome, a worldwide and complex phenomenon that affects the oysters, Crassostrea gigas. The summer mortality syndrome reveals a physiological intolerance making this oyster species susceptible to diseases. Exploration of genetic basis governing the oyster resistance or susceptibility to infections is thus a major goal for understanding field mortality events. In this context, we used high-throughput genomic approaches to identify genetic traits that may characterize inherent survival capacities in C. gigas. Results Using digital gene expression (DGE, we analyzed the transcriptomes of hemocytes (immunocompetent cells of oysters able or not able to survive infections by Vibrio species shown to be involved in summer mortalities. Hemocytes were nonlethally collected from oysters before Vibrio experimental infection, and two DGE libraries were generated from individuals that survived or did not survive. Exploration of DGE data and microfluidic qPCR analyses at individual level showed an extraordinary polymorphism in gene expressions, but also a set of hemocyte-expressed genes whose basal mRNA levels discriminate oyster capacity to survive infections by the pathogenic V. splendidus LGP32. Finally, we identified a signature of 14 genes that predicted oyster survival capacity. Their expressions are likely driven by distinct transcriptional regulation processes associated or not associated to gene copy number variation (CNV. Conclusions We provide here for the first time in oyster a gene expression survival signature that represents a useful tool for understanding mortality events and for assessing genetic traits of interest for disease resistance selection programs.

  13. Kinds of nucleus for effective pearl cultivation of the pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata

    OpenAIRE

    Kanjanachatree, K.; Piyathamrongrut, K.; Inthoncharoen, J.

    2007-01-01

    Seeding is the most important aspect of pearl cultivation, and appropriate nucleus can determine the quality of a pearl : nacre secretion and accumulation around the nucleus. This affects harvest time, nucleus extrusion, survival rate of the pearl oysters and the production cost. In order to provide nuclei to substitute for those imported from China which are made from freshwater pearl oyster-shells, 3 kinds of the local shells of Pinctada fucata, Pteria penguin and Pinctada maxima were selec...

  14. Gear and survey efficiency of patent tongs for oyster populations on restoration reefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Schulte

    Full Text Available Surveys of restored oyster reefs need to produce accurate population estimates to assess the efficacy of restoration. Due to the complex structure of subtidal oyster reefs, one effective and efficient means to sample is by patent tongs, rather than SCUBA, dredges, or bottom cores. Restored reefs vary in relief and oyster density, either of which could affect survey efficiency. This study is the first to evaluate gear (the first full grab and survey (which includes selecting a specific half portion of the first grab for further processing efficiencies of hand-operated patent tongs as a function of reef height and oyster density on subtidal restoration reefs. In the Great Wicomico River, a tributary of lower Chesapeake Bay, restored reefs of high- and low-relief (25-45 cm, and 8-12 cm, respectively were constructed throughout the river as the first large-scale oyster sanctuary reef restoration effort (sanctuary acreage > 20 ha at one site in Chesapeake Bay. We designed a metal frame to guide a non-hydraulic mechanical patent tong repeatedly into the same plot on a restored reef until all oysters within the grab area were captured. Full capture was verified by an underwater remotely-operated vehicle. Samples (n = 19 were taken on nine different reefs, including five low- (n = 8 and four high-relief reefs (n = 11, over a two-year period. The gear efficiency of the patent tong was estimated to be 76% (± 5% standard error, whereas survey efficiency increased to 81% (± 10% due to processing. Neither efficiency differed significantly between young-of-the-year oysters (spat and adults, high- and low-relief reefs, or years. As this type of patent tong is a common and cost-effective tool to evaluate oyster restoration projects as well as population density on fished habitat, knowing the gear and survey efficiencies allows for accurate and precise population estimates.

  15. Gear and survey efficiency of patent tongs for oyster populations on restoration reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, David M; Lipcius, Romuald N; Burke, Russell P

    2018-01-01

    Surveys of restored oyster reefs need to produce accurate population estimates to assess the efficacy of restoration. Due to the complex structure of subtidal oyster reefs, one effective and efficient means to sample is by patent tongs, rather than SCUBA, dredges, or bottom cores. Restored reefs vary in relief and oyster density, either of which could affect survey efficiency. This study is the first to evaluate gear (the first full grab) and survey (which includes selecting a specific half portion of the first grab for further processing) efficiencies of hand-operated patent tongs as a function of reef height and oyster density on subtidal restoration reefs. In the Great Wicomico River, a tributary of lower Chesapeake Bay, restored reefs of high- and low-relief (25-45 cm, and 8-12 cm, respectively) were constructed throughout the river as the first large-scale oyster sanctuary reef restoration effort (sanctuary acreage > 20 ha at one site) in Chesapeake Bay. We designed a metal frame to guide a non-hydraulic mechanical patent tong repeatedly into the same plot on a restored reef until all oysters within the grab area were captured. Full capture was verified by an underwater remotely-operated vehicle. Samples (n = 19) were taken on nine different reefs, including five low- (n = 8) and four high-relief reefs (n = 11), over a two-year period. The gear efficiency of the patent tong was estimated to be 76% (± 5% standard error), whereas survey efficiency increased to 81% (± 10%) due to processing. Neither efficiency differed significantly between young-of-the-year oysters (spat) and adults, high- and low-relief reefs, or years. As this type of patent tong is a common and cost-effective tool to evaluate oyster restoration projects as well as population density on fished habitat, knowing the gear and survey efficiencies allows for accurate and precise population estimates.

  16. Temporal variation in development of ecosystem services from oyster reef restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPeyre, Megan K.; Humphries, Austin T.; Casas, Sandra M.; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2014-01-01

    Restoration ecology relies heavily on ecosystem development theories that generally assume development of fully functioning natural systems over time, but often fail to identify the time-frame required for provision of desired functions, or acknowledge different pathways of functional development. In estuaries, a decline of overall habitat quality and functioning has led to significant efforts to restore critical ecosystem services, recently through the creation and restoration of oyster reefs. Oyster reef restoration generally occurs with goals of (1) increasing water quality via filtration through sustainable oyster recruitment, (2) stabilizing shorelines, and (3) creating and enhancing critical estuarine habitat for fish and invertebrates. We restored over 260 m2 of oyster reef habitat in coastal Louisiana and followed the development and provision of these ecosystem services from 2009 through 2012. Oysters recruited to reefs immediately, with densities of oysters greater than 75 mm exceeding 80 ind m−2 after 3 years, and provision of filtration rates of 1002 ± 187 L h−1 m−2; shoreline stabilization effects of the created reefs were minimal over the three years of monitoring, with some evidence of positive shoreline stabilization during higher wind/energy events only; increased nekton abundance of resident, but not larger transient fish was immediately measurable at the reefs, however, this failed to increase through time. Our results provide critical insights into the development trajectories of ecosystem services provided by restored oyster reefs, as well as the mechanisms mediating these changes. This is critical both ecologically to understand how and where a reef thrives, and for policy and management to guide decision-making related to oyster reef restoration and the crediting and accounting of ecosystem services.

  17. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The first text deals with a new circular concerning the collect of the medicine radioactive wastes, containing radium. This campaign wants to incite people to let go their radioactive wastes (needles, tubes) in order to suppress any danger. The second text presents a decree of the 31 december 1999, relative to the limitations of noise and external risks resulting from the nuclear facilities exploitation: noise, atmospheric pollution, water pollution, wastes management and fire prevention. (A.L.B.)

  18. Preliminary study of transplanting as a process for reducing levels of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in shellstock oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, William C; Nelson, Chris; Hochman, Mona; Schwarz, John

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly strict standards for harvest of oysters for the raw, half-shell market (designated as "white tag") should increase the proportion of oysters not meeting these standards (designated as "green tag"). Transplanting of green tag oysters into highsalinity waters (>20 practical salinity units) was explored as a means of returning Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus levels to levels present on initial harvest. In summer 2011, oysters originally harvested in Louisiana were transplanted on two separate occasions (n = 2) to two sites in Mississippi Sound, AL: Sandy Bay and Dauphin Island. Oysters were tested for V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus densities (by using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration enrichment method) after 2, 7, and 14 days deployed, with baseline samples taken (i) at the time of original harvest and iced, (ii) from oysters refrigerated within 1 h of harvest at oysters not refrigerated during the harvest trip (green tag) but refrigerated after an 8-h trip. White and green tag oysters were sampled ∼24 h on arrival in Bon Secour, AL, put on ice, and shipped for analysis. Among baseline samples, there were no significant differences in V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus densities, although the densities in the green tag oysters tended to be highest. After transplanting, V. vulnificus densities were significantly highest on day 2, with no significant differences among any of the other days within a site. On day 2, Sandy Bay had significantly greater densities of V. vulnificus than the Dauphin Island site, but no other days differed from time zero. For Vibrio parahaemolyticus, densities were greatest on day 2 and lowest at time zero, but this did not differ significantly from abundance on day 14. Average survival was 83.4% (± 3.13 SD), with no differences between sites. These preliminary results indicate that high-salinity transplanting could be an effective method of converting green tag oysters to oysters suitable for

  19. Integrated application of transcriptomics and metabolomics provides insights into glycogen content regulation in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Busu; Song, Kai; Meng, Jie; Li, Li; Zhang, Guofan

    2017-09-11

    The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas is an important marine fishery resource, which contains high levels of glycogen that contributes to the flavor and the quality of the oyster. However, little is known about the molecular and chemical mechanisms underlying glycogen content differences in Pacific oysters. Using a homogeneous cultured Pacific oyster family, we explored these regulatory networks at the level of the metabolome and the transcriptome. Oysters with the highest and lowest natural glycogen content were selected for differential transcriptome and metabolome analysis. We identified 1888 differentially-expressed genes, seventy-five differentially-abundant metabolites, which are part of twenty-seven signaling pathways that were enriched using an integrated analysis of the interaction between the differentially-expressed genes and the differentially-abundant metabolites. Based on these results, we found that a high expression of carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2), indicative of increased fatty acid degradation, is associated with a lower glycogen content. Together, a high level of expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and high levels of glucogenic amino acids likely underlie the increased glycogen production in high-glycogen oysters. In addition, the higher levels of the glycolytic enzymes hexokinase (HK) and pyruvate kinase (PK), as well as of the TCA cycle enzymes malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and pyruvate carboxylase (PYC), imply that there is a concomitant up-regulation of energy metabolism in high-glycogen oysters. High-glycogen oysters also appeared to have an increased ability to cope with stress, since the levels of the antioxidant glutathione peroxidase enzyme 5 (GPX5) gene were also increased. Our results suggest that amino acids and free fatty acids are closely related to glycogen content in oysters. In addition, oysters with a high glycogen content have a greater energy production capacity and a greater ability to cope with

  20. 75 FR 16728 - Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger District, Custer National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger... manner that increases resiliency of the Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project area ecosystem to... requirements to require. The Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project includes treatments previously proposed...

  1. Rice straw addition as sawdust substitution in oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) planted media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, Christine Pamardining; Susilawati, Puspita Ratna

    2017-08-01

    Oyster mushroom is favorite by the people because of the high nutrients. The oyster mushroom cultivation usually using sawdust. The availability of sawdust become difficult to find. It makes difficulties of mushroom cultivation. Rice straw as an agricultural waste can be used as planted media of oyster mushroom because they contain much nutrition needed to the mushroom growth. The aims of this research were to analysis the influence of rice straw addition in a baglog as planted media and to analysis the concentration of rice straw addition which can substitute sawdust in planted media of oyster mushroom. This research used 4 treatment of sawdust and rice straw ratio K = 75 % : 0 %, P1 = 60 % : 15 %, P2 = 40 % : 35 %, P3 = 15 % : 60 %. The same material composition of all baglog was bran 20%, chalk 5%, and water 70%. The parameters used in this research were wet weight, dry weight, moisture content and number of the mushroom fruit body. Data analysis was used ANOVA test with 1 factorial. The results of this research based on statistical analysis showed that there was no influence of rice straw addition in a planted media on the oyster mushroomgrowth. 15% : 60% was the concentrationof rice straw additionwhich can substitute the sawdust in planted media of oyster mushroom.

  2. Widespread survey finds no evidence of Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX) in Gulf of Mexico oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Susan E; Paterno, Jenny; Scarpa, Emily; Stokes, Nancy A; Kim, Yungkul; Powell, Eric N; Bushek, David

    2011-02-22

    The advent of molecular detection assays has provided a set of very sensitive tools for the detection of pathogens in marine organisms, but it has also raised problems of how to interpret positive signals that are not accompanied by visual confirmation. PCR-positive results have recently been reported for Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX), a pathogen of the oyster Crassostrea virginica in 31 of 40 oysters from 6 sites in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. Histological confirmation of the PCR results was not undertaken, and no haplosporidian has been reported from the numerous histological studies and surveys of oysters in the region. To further investigate the possibility that H. nelsoni is present in this region, we sampled 210 oysters from 40 sites around the Gulf of Mexico and Puerto Rico using PCR and 180 of these using tissue-section histology also. None of the oysters showed evidence of H. nelsoni by PCR or of any haplosporidian by histology. We cannot, therefore, confirm that H. nelsoni is present and widespread in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. Our results do not prove that H. nelsoni is absent from the region, but taken together with results from previous histological surveys, they suggest that for the purposes of controlling oyster importation, the region should continue to be considered free of the parasite.

  3. Comparative and quantitative proteomics reveal the adaptive strategies of oyster larvae to ocean acidification

    KAUST Repository

    Dineshram, R.; Q., Quan; Sharma, Rakesh; Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli; Yalamanchili, Hari Krishna; Chu, Ivan; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Decreasing pH due to anthropogenic CO2 inputs, called ocean acidification (OA), can make coastal environments unfavorable for oysters. This is a serious socioeconomical issue for China which supplies >70% of the world's edible oysters. Here, we present an iTRAQ-based protein profiling approach for the detection and quantification of proteome changes under OA in the early life stage of a commercially important oyster, Crassostrea hongkongensis. Availability of complete genome sequence for the pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) enabled us to confidently quantify over 1500 proteins in larval oysters. Over 7% of the proteome was altered in response to OA at pHNBS 7.6. Analysis of differentially expressed proteins and their associated functional pathways showed an upregulation of proteins involved in calcification, metabolic processes, and oxidative stress, each of which may be important in physiological adaptation of this species to OA. The downregulation of cytoskeletal and signal transduction proteins, on the other hand, might have impaired cellular dynamics and organelle development under OA. However, there were no significant detrimental effects in developmental processes such as metamorphic success. Implications of the differentially expressed proteins and metabolic pathways in the development of OA resistance in oyster larvae are discussed. The MS proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD002138 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD002138).

  4. The depuration dynamics of oysters (Crassostrea gigas artificially contaminated with hepatitis A virus and human adenovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Abreu Corrêa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Within the country of Brazil, Santa Catarina is a major shellfish producer. Detection of viral contamination is an important step to ensure production quality and consumer safety during this process. In this study, we used a depuration system and ultraviolet (UV disinfection to eliminate viral pathogens from artificially infected oysters and analysed the results. Specifically, the oysters were contaminated with hepatitis A virus (HAV or human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV5. After viral infection, the oysters were placed into a depuration tank and harvested after 48, 72 and 96 h. After sampling, various oyster tissues were dissected and homogenised and the viruses were eluted with alkaline conditions and precipitated with polyethylene glycol. The oyster samples were evaluated by cell culture methods, as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR and quantitative-PCR. Moreover, at the end of the depuration period, the disinfected seawater was collected and analysed by PCR. The molecular assays showed that the HAdV5 genome was present in all of the depuration time samples, while the HAV genome was undetectable after 72 h of depuration. However, viral viability tests (integrated cell culture-PCR and immunofluorescence assay indicated that both viruses were inactivated with 96 h of seawater recirculation. In conclusion, after 96 h of UV treatment, the depuration system studied in this work purified oysters that were artificially contaminated with HAdV5 and HAV.

  5. Populations, not clones, are the unit of vibrio pathogenesis in naturally infected oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemire, Astrid; Goudenège, David; Versigny, Typhaine; Petton, Bruno; Calteau, Alexandra; Labreuche, Yannick; Le Roux, Frédérique

    2015-07-01

    Disease in oysters has been steadily rising over the past decade, threatening the long-term survival of commercial and natural stocks. Our understanding and management of such diseases are of critical importance as aquaculture is an important aspect of dealing with the approaching worldwide food shortage. Although some bacteria of the Vibrio genus isolated from diseased oysters have been demonstrated to be pathogenic by experimental infection, direct causality has not been established. Little is known about the dynamics of how the bacterial population hosted by oysters changes during disease progression. Combining experimental ecology, a high-throughput infection assay and genome sequencing, we show that the onset of disease in oysters is associated with progressive replacement of diverse benign colonizers by members of a phylogenetically coherent virulent population. Although the virulent population is genetically diverse, all members of that population can cause disease. Comparative genomics across virulent and nonvirulent populations identified candidate virulence factors that were clustered in population-specific genomic regions. Genetic analyses revealed that one gene for a candidate virulent factor, a putative outer membrane protein, is necessary for infection of oysters. Finally, analyses of oyster mortality following experimental infection suggest that disease onset can be facilitated by the presence of nonvirulent strains. This is a new form of polymicrobial disease, in which nonpathogenic strains contribute to increase mortality.

  6. Biomarkers of dissolved oxygen stress in oysters: a tool for restoration and management efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Heather K; Boettcher, Anne; Carmichael, Ruth H

    2014-01-01

    The frequency and intensity of anoxic and hypoxic events are increasing worldwide, creating stress on the organisms that inhabit affected waters. To understand the effects of low dissolved oxygen stress on oysters, hatchery-reared oysters were placed in cages and deployed along with continuously recording environmental data sondes at a reef site in Mobile Bay, AL that typically experiences low oxygen conditions. To detect and measure sublethal stress, we measured growth and survival of oysters as well as expression of three biomarkers, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) and phospho-p38 MAP kinase, in tissues from juvenile and adult oysters. Survival rates were high for both juvenile and adult oysters. Expression levels of each of the 3 isoforms of HSP 70 were negatively correlated to dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations, suggesting that HSP 70 is useful to quantify sublethal effects of DO stress. Results for HIF and phospho-p38 MAP kinase were inconclusive. Test deployments of oysters to assess expression of HSP 70 relative to environmental conditions will be useful, in addition to measuring abiotic factors, to identify appropriate sites for restoration, particularly to capture negative effects of habitat quality on biota before lethal impacts are incurred.

  7. Investigation of coal combustion by-product utilization for oyster reef development in Texas bay waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.B. Jr.; Ray, S.M.; Landry, A.M. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Houston Lighting and Power Company (HL and P), Texas A and M University at Galveston and JTM Industries, Inc. initiated research in May 1988 and coordinated it with state and federal resource protection agencies to investigate the use of certain HL and P coal combustion by-products (CCBP) for enhancing and creating oyster reefs. Initial research involved determining and optimum mix design based on compressive strength, leaching potential, biofouling success, and cost. CCBP material was found to exceed compressive strength criterion (300 psi for at sign 14 days) and was not a significant leaching source. Candidate mix designs and oyster shell controls were exposed to hatchery-reared oyster larvae to determine spat setability and biofouling success. Larvae setting on CCBP substrate developed into spat and grew at a rate comparable to that for larvae on controls. Since all candidate mix designs exhibited excellent biofouling, an optimum design was chosen based on strength and material cost factors. Chemical analyses conducted to determine materials did not significantly contribute to the trace element load in oysters. Development of oyster cultch material was initiated with input from commercial 2.5 to 7.6 cm (1 to 3 inch) diameter pellets which are irregularly shaped and rough textured. These pellets greatly enhance water circulation, provide maximum setting potential for oyster larvae, and maximize the surface area to volume potential of the CCBP material

  8. A survey of Australian oysters for the presence of human noroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, Felicity; Ross, Tom; Holds, Geoffrey; Kiermeier, Andreas; McLeod, Catherine

    2014-12-01

    Impending international policies for norovirus in oysters and the lack of Australian data suggested there was a need to undertake a national survey of norovirus in oysters. Two geographically distinct oyster-growing areas from each of three Australian states were sampled on 4 occasions during 2010 and 2011. The sites selected were considered by state shellfish authorities to be the most compromised with respect to the potential for human faecal contamination as identified by shoreline surveys. The oysters were tested for norovirus GI, GII and Escherichia coli. Norovirus GII was detected in two of 120 (1.7%) samples and norovirus GI was not detected. One of the norovirus positive samples was cloned and sequenced as GII.3. Five of 120 (4.2%) samples were found to have more than the guidance concentration of 230 E. coli per 100 g of shellfish but these samples did not contain detectable concentrations of norovirus. The apparently low prevalence of norovirus in oysters from Australian growing areas supports epidemiological data that suggests norovirus contamination of Australian oysters is rare. The results from this study emphasise the need for future norovirus control measures for shellfish to be commensurate with the risk associated with the growing area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Predatory blue crabs induce stronger nonconsumptive effects in eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica than scavenging blue crabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery E. Scherer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available By influencing critical prey traits such as foraging or habitat selection, predators can affect entire ecosystems, but the nature of cues that trigger prey reactions to predators are not well understood. Predators may scavenge to supplement their energetic needs and scavenging frequency may vary among individuals within a species due to preferences and prey availability. Yet prey reactions to consumers that are primarily scavengers versus those that are active foragers have not been investigated, even though variation in prey reactions to scavengers or predators might influence cascading nonconsumptive effects in food webs. Oysters Crassostrea virginica react to crab predators by growing stronger shells. We exposed oysters to exudates from crabs fed live oysters or fed aged oyster tissue to simulate scavenging, and to controls without crab cues. Oysters grew stronger shells when exposed to either crab exudate, but their shells were significantly stronger when crabs were fed live oysters. The stronger response to predators than scavengers could be due to inherent differences in diet cues representative of reduced risk in the presence of scavengers or to degradation of conspecific alarm cues in aged treatments, which may mask risk from potential predators subsisting by scavenging.

  10. Optimization and application of spray-drying process on oyster cooking soup byproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huibin CHEN

    Full Text Available Abstract Oyster drying processes have produced a large amount of cooking soup byproducts. In this study, oyster cooking soup byproduct was concentrated and spray-dried after enzymatic hydrolysis to produce seasoning powder. Response surface methodology (RSM was performed on the basis of single-factor studies to optimize the feeding temperature, hot air temperature, atomization pressure, and total solid content of oyster drying. Results revealed the following optimized parameters of this process: feeding temperature of 60 °C, total solid content of 30%, hot air temperature of 197 °C, and atomization pressure of 92 MPa. Under these conditions, the oyster powder yield was 63.7% ± 0.7% and the moisture content was 4.1% ± 0.1%. Our pilot trial also obtained 63.1% yield and 4.0% moisture content. The enzyme hydrolysis of cooking soup byproduct further enhanced the antioxidant activity of the produced oyster seasoning powder to some extent. Spray drying process optimized by RSM can provide a reference for high-valued applications of oyster cooking soup byproducts.

  11. Comparative and quantitative proteomics reveal the adaptive strategies of oyster larvae to ocean acidification

    KAUST Repository

    Dineshram, R.

    2015-10-28

    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Decreasing pH due to anthropogenic CO2 inputs, called ocean acidification (OA), can make coastal environments unfavorable for oysters. This is a serious socioeconomical issue for China which supplies >70% of the world\\'s edible oysters. Here, we present an iTRAQ-based protein profiling approach for the detection and quantification of proteome changes under OA in the early life stage of a commercially important oyster, Crassostrea hongkongensis. Availability of complete genome sequence for the pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) enabled us to confidently quantify over 1500 proteins in larval oysters. Over 7% of the proteome was altered in response to OA at pHNBS 7.6. Analysis of differentially expressed proteins and their associated functional pathways showed an upregulation of proteins involved in calcification, metabolic processes, and oxidative stress, each of which may be important in physiological adaptation of this species to OA. The downregulation of cytoskeletal and signal transduction proteins, on the other hand, might have impaired cellular dynamics and organelle development under OA. However, there were no significant detrimental effects in developmental processes such as metamorphic success. Implications of the differentially expressed proteins and metabolic pathways in the development of OA resistance in oyster larvae are discussed. The MS proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD002138 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD002138).

  12. Quantitative assessment of viable Cryptosporidium parvum load in commercial oysters (Crassostrea virginica) in the Chesapeake Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Lewis, Earl J; Glass, Gregory; Dasilva, Alexandre J; Tamang, Leena; Girouard, Autumn S; Curriero, Frank C

    2007-01-01

    The epidemiological importance of increasing reports worldwide on Cryptosporidium contamination of oysters remains unknown in relation to foodborne cryptosporidiosis. Thirty market-size oysters (Crassostrea virginica), collected from each of 53 commercial harvesting sites in Chesapeake Bay, MD, were quantitatively tested in groups of six for Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts by immunofluorescent antibody (IFA). After IFA analysis, the samples were retrospectively retested for viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by combined fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and IFA. The mean cumulative numbers of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts in six oysters (overall, 42.1+/-4.1) were significantly higher than in the numbers of viable C. parvum oocysts (overall, 28.0+/-2.9). Of 265 oyster groups, 221 (83.4%) contained viable C. parvum oocysts, and overall, from 10-32% (mean, 23%) of the total viable oocysts were identified in the hemolymph as distinct from gill washings. The amount of viable C. parvum oocysts was not related to oyster size or to the level of fecal coliforms at the sampling site. This study demonstrated that, although oysters are frequently contaminated with oocysts, the levels of viable oocysts may be too low to cause infection in healthy individuals. FISH assay for identification can be retrospectively applied to properly stored samples.

  13. Pesticides and Ostreid Herpesvirus 1 Infection in the Pacific Oyster, Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Pierrick; Faury, Nicole; Burgeot, Thierry; Renault, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Since 2008, mass mortality outbreaks have been reported in all French regions producing Pacific oysters, and in several Member States of the European Union. These mass mortality events of Pacific oysters are related to OsHV-1 infection. They occur during spring and summer periods leaving suspect the quality of the marine environment and the role of seasonal use of pesticides associated with the arrival of freshwater in oyster rearing areas. Pesticides have been also detected in French coastal waters, especially in areas of oyster production. Using PMA real-time PCR we showed that a mixture of 14 pesticides has no effect on the integrity of virus capsids from viral suspension in the conditions tested. A contact of oysters with this pesticide mixture was related to higher mortality rates among experimentally infected animals in comparison with control ones (no previous pesticide exposure before experimental infection). We therefore suggest that pesticides at realistic concentration can exert adverse effects on Pacific oysters and causes an increased susceptibility to the viral infection in experimental conditions.

  14. Detection and distribution of ostreid herpesvirus 1 in experimentally infected Pacific oyster spat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra, Amélie; Baillon, Laury; Faury, Nicole; Tourbiez, Delphine; Renault, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    High mortality rates are reported in spat and larvae of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and associated with ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) detection in France. Although the viral infection has been experimentally reproduced in oyster larvae and spat, little knowledge is currently available concerning the viral entry and its distribution in organs and tissues. This study compares OsHV-1 DNA and RNA detection and localization in experimentally infected oysters using two virus doses: a low dose that did not induce any mortality and a high dose inducing high mortality. Real time PCR demonstrated significant differences in terms of viral DNA amounts between the two virus doses. RNA transcripts were detected in oysters receiving the highest dose of viral suspension whereas no transcript was observed in oysters injected with the low dose. This study also allowed observing kinetics of viral DNA and RNA detection in different tissues of oyster spat. Finally, viral detection was significantly different in function of tissues (p<0.005), time (p<0.005) with an interaction between tissues and time (p<0.005) for each probe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ostreid herpesvirus type 1 replication and host response in adult Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra, Amélie; Baillon, Laury; Tourbiez, Delphine; Benabdelmouna, Abdellah; Faury, Nicole; Bourgougnon, Nathalie; Renault, Tristan

    2014-10-08

    Since 2008, massive mortality outbreaks associated with OsHV-1 detection have been reported in Crassostrea gigas spat and juveniles in several countries. Nevertheless, adult oysters do not demonstrate mortality in the field related to OsHV-1 detection and were thus assumed to be more resistant to viral infection. Determining how virus and adult oyster interact is a major goal in understanding why mortality events are not reported among adult Pacific oysters. Dual transcriptomics of virus-host interactions were explored by real-time PCR in adult oysters after a virus injection. Thirty-nine viral genes and five host genes including MyD88, IFI44, IkB2, IAP and Gly were measured at 0.5, 10, 26, 72 and 144 hours post infection (hpi). No viral RNA among the 39 genes was detected at 144 hpi suggesting the adult oysters are able to inhibit viral replication. Moreover, the IAP gene (oyster gene) shows significant up-regulation in infected adults compared to control adults. This result suggests that over-expression of IAP could be a reaction to OsHV-1 infection, which may induce the apoptotic process. Apoptosis could be a main mechanism involved in disease resistance in adults. Antiviral activity of haemolymph against herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) was not significantly different between infected adults versus control.

  16. Refining the tethering of American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) to measure the effects of two environmental stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Luke A; Gilbert, Shane T C; St-Hilaire, Sophie; Davidson, Jeff; Cox, Ruth; Quijón, Pedro A

    2018-02-01

    Tethering assays, or the physical restraint of test organisms, has been used in the past to measure selected organisms' response to stressors while removing the observer from the experimental setting. Although informative for monitoring and hypothesis testing, these assays often used microfilaments that have been found to be too invasive or prone to biases given their effects on test organisms' behavior. Here, we describe a new variation of tethering using American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and illustrate its use in the study of their mortality rates as a result of two stressors: siltation and predation by a non-indigenous species. Our protocol identified a resistant (non-toxic) glue that could be used to attach oysters to stone slabs, thus partially mimicking the natural cementation of the shell to natural substrates. This variation of tethering was harmless and maintained oysters' body position and natural ability to filter feed. Using tethered oysters in separate two-week field cage experiments, we also show how siltation and predation by a non-indigenous species (the European green crab, Carcinus maenas), caused a gradual, easily measurable increase in oyster mortality rates. We argue that this variation of tethering is a cost-effective and advantageous way to monitor or test the effects of these and other stressors on oysters and similar species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sediment quality guidelines for copper and zinc for filter-feeding estuarine oysters?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch, G.F.; Hogg, T.D.

    2011-01-01

    Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) assess the ability of bottom sediment to sustain healthy infauna and water quality guidelines (WQGs) provide protection for a designated percentage of aquatic species. Filter-feeding marine species, e.g. oysters and mussels, acquire food from particles in the water column and protection of these animals is not provided by SQGs or WQGs. The current work investigated the relationship between metal (Cu, Zn) concentrations in total and fine-fraction ( -1 and -1 , respectively) for protecting oysters from exceeding human consumption levels (70 μg g -1 and 1000 μg g -1 , respectively). - A strong correlation between oyster tissue Cu and Zn concentrations and fine-fraction surficial sediment digested in 1 M HCl provided a sedimentary guideline which predicted tissue metal concentrations in oysters and established a level for protecting oysters from exceeding human consumption levels for these metals. The guidelines for fine surficial sediment developed in the present work accurately predicted oyster tissue concentrations in the field.

  18. Adsorption of copper to different biogenic oyster shell structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qiong; Chen, Jie [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, New Campus, Minhou, Fujian Province 350108 (China); Clark, Malcolm [Marine Ecology Research Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, P.O. Box 157, Lismore, NSW 2480 (Australia); Yu, Yan, E-mail: yuyan_1972@126.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, New Campus, Minhou, Fujian Province 350108 (China)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Adsorption of copper to waste oyster shell occurs rapidly at pH 5.5. • Copper adsorbs to the different structures of oyster shell at different rates. • The prismatic layer dominates copper sorption rather than the nacreous layer. • SEM analysis shows a porous open network structure to the prismatic layer. • Surface ζ-potentials establish electrostatic attraction to drive copper sorption. - Abstract: The removal of copper from solution by oyster shell powder was investigated for potential wastewater treatment uses. In particular, adsorption behavior differences between the prismatic (PP) and nacreous (NP) shell layers, and how this affects copper removal, were investigated. Experimental results indicated that copper adsorption was highly pH-dependent with optimal copper removal at pH 5.5, where the powdered whole raw shell (RP) removed up to 99.9% of the copper within 24 h at a 10 mg/L initial copper concentration. Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to analyze the isotherm PP, NP and RP data. These results showed a strong homogeneous Langmuir model for low initial copper concentrations (5–30 mg/L) to both RP and PP layer, while strong agreement with a heterogeneous Freundlich model for high initial copper concentrations (30–200 mg/L); nevertheless, a homogeneous Langmuir model provided the best fit for the more dense NP layer across the initial concentration range (5–200 mg/L). The distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) value of PP layer for each initial concentration investigated was substantially higher than the NP layer and it was also found that the PP layer dominated the adsorption process with an adsorption capacity of 8.9 mg/g, while the adsorption capacity of the NP layer was 2.6 mg/g. These differences are believed to be because of the more porous structure of the PP layer, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and

  19. Nitrogenous compounds changes in emersed oysters: Crassostrea gigas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafrafi, Sarra; Uglow, Roger F.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of emersing oysters ( Crassostrea gigas) for up to 66 h at 4 °C under humid air and nitrogen atmospheres were studied. A significant, gradual body mass loss occurred under nitrogen (8.36 ± 0.85% final weight loss) but no significant loss occurred under humid air (4.92 ± 2.67% final weight loss). Emersion duration and the mantle cavity fluid (MCF) total ammonia (TA) concentration showed a positive, linear relationship ( r2 = 0.73 and 0.74 under humid air and N 2, respectively). The MCF TA and trimethylamine (TMA) contents were also positively related ( r2 = 0.64 and 0.69 under humid air and N 2, respectively). Proline was the most abundant soft tissue free amino acid (71.07 ± 11.8%) in the control group and its concentration did not change significantly under either treatment. The concentration of alanine and valine increased significantly only under humid air. Under N 2, the concentrations of valine and lysine increased significantly and aspartate decreased significantly. Succinate showed a large increase during the first 6 h of emersion under both treatments but significantly more was accumulated in the N 2-exposed group (4.2-fold increase and 8.1-fold increase for the humid air- and N 2-exposed groups, respectively). The succinate concentration difference remained higher in the N 2-treated groups but, in the final 24 h, levels decreased again (quadratic regressions of r2 = 0.97 and 0.95 under humid air and N 2, respectively). Although the trend of succinate accumulation was similar under both treatments, the groups held under nitrogen did not gape (whereas those under humid air did). It is concluded that the implications of gaping behaviour on succinate accumulation in the initial hours of emersion have considerable ecological significance for oysters which occupy habitats in which they may become emersed for some hours naturally. Gaping behaviour also has considerable commercial implications because emersion occurs frequently during the marketing

  20. Adsorption of copper to different biogenic oyster shell structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qiong; Chen, Jie; Clark, Malcolm; Yu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Adsorption of copper to waste oyster shell occurs rapidly at pH 5.5. • Copper adsorbs to the different structures of oyster shell at different rates. • The prismatic layer dominates copper sorption rather than the nacreous layer. • SEM analysis shows a porous open network structure to the prismatic layer. • Surface ζ-potentials establish electrostatic attraction to drive copper sorption. - Abstract: The removal of copper from solution by oyster shell powder was investigated for potential wastewater treatment uses. In particular, adsorption behavior differences between the prismatic (PP) and nacreous (NP) shell layers, and how this affects copper removal, were investigated. Experimental results indicated that copper adsorption was highly pH-dependent with optimal copper removal at pH 5.5, where the powdered whole raw shell (RP) removed up to 99.9% of the copper within 24 h at a 10 mg/L initial copper concentration. Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to analyze the isotherm PP, NP and RP data. These results showed a strong homogeneous Langmuir model for low initial copper concentrations (5–30 mg/L) to both RP and PP layer, while strong agreement with a heterogeneous Freundlich model for high initial copper concentrations (30–200 mg/L); nevertheless, a homogeneous Langmuir model provided the best fit for the more dense NP layer across the initial concentration range (5–200 mg/L). The distribution coefficient (K d ) value of PP layer for each initial concentration investigated was substantially higher than the NP layer and it was also found that the PP layer dominated the adsorption process with an adsorption capacity of 8.9 mg/g, while the adsorption capacity of the NP layer was 2.6 mg/g. These differences are believed to be because of the more porous structure of the PP layer, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and

  1. Transmission of the haplosporidian parasite MSX Haplosporidium nelsoni to the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica in an upweller system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunila, I; Karolus, J; Lang, E P; Mroczka, M E; Volk, J

    2000-08-31

    The haplosporidian oyster parasite MSX (Multinucleated Sphere X) Haplosporidium nelsoni was transmitted to eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica. Hatchery-raised, MSX-free juvenile oysters were placed in upweller tanks. Water to the tanks was filtered through a screen with 1 mm2 openings and originated from the water column overlaying naturally infected oysters beds (MSX prevalence 17 to 57%). MSX was diagnosed by histopathological analysis. MSX-disease (57% prevalence) with increased mortality (19%) was observed 11 wk after the beginning of the exposure and mortality of 80% after 16 wk. The study demonstrates transmission of MSX via water-borne infectious agents capable of passing through a 1 mm filter.

  2. Modeling the impact of oyster culture on a mudflat food web in Marennes-Oleron Bay (France)

    OpenAIRE

    Leguerrier, D; Niquil, Nathalie; Petiau, A; Bodoy, Alain

    2004-01-01

    We used a carbon-based food web model to investigate the effects of oyster cultivation on the ecosystem of an intertidal mudflat. A previously published food web model of a mudflat in Marennes-Oleron Bay, France, was updated with revised parameters, and a realistic surface area and density of existing oyster cultures on the mudflat. We developed 2 hypothetical scenarios to estimate the impact of oyster cultivation on the food web structure of the ecosystem: one with no oysters, the other with...

  3. Microbiological quality and bacterial diversity of the tropical oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae in a monitored farming system and from natural stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Neta, M T; Maciel, B M; Lopes, A T S; Marques, E L S; Rezende, R P; Boehs, G

    2015-12-02

    Microbiological evaluation is one of the most important parameters for analyzing the viability of an oyster farming system, which addresses public health and ecological concerns. Here, the microbiological quality of the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae cultivated in a monitored environment and from natural beds in Bahia, northeastern Brazil, was determined. Bacterial diversity in oysters was measured by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Sequence analysis revealed that most bacterial species showed similarity with uncultured or unidentified bacteria from environmental samples, and were clustered into the phylum Proteobacteria. Diverse bacteria from cultivated (monitored) oyster samples were grouped in the same cluster with a high similarity index (above 79%). Microbiological analyses revealed that these oysters did not contain pathogens. These results reflect the natural balance of the microbial communities essential to the maintenance of health and in inhibiting pathogen colonization in the oyster. On the other hand, bacterial diversity of samples from native stocks in extractive areas displayed a similarity index varying between 55 and 77%, and all samples were clustered separately from each other and from the cluster of samples derived from the cultivation area. Microbiological analyses showed that oysters from the extractive area were not fit for human consumption. This reflected a different composition of the microbial community in this area, probably resulting from anthropic impact. Our study also demonstrated that low temperatures and high rainfall limits the bacterial concentration in tropical oysters. This is the first study analyzing the total bacterial community profiles of the oyster C. rhizophorae.

  4. Heavy metal pollution levels in water and oysters, Saccostrea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher concentrations of metals were recorded in SPM in samples from the Mzinga Creek mangrove forest, on ebb tides during the rainy season. Concentrations of Cd in SPM ranged from 33.9–85.5μg g–1 dw and, for Cr, from 23.9–138.1μg g–1 dw. The concentration of Pb ranged from 56.5–114.0μg g–1 dw and the ...

  5. The natural channel of Brandywine Creek, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolman, M.G.

    1955-01-01

    This study of the channel of Brandy wine Creek, Pennsylvania, consists of three parts. The first is an analysis of the changes which take place in the width, depth, velocity, slope of the water surface, suspended load, and roughness factor with changing discharge below the bankfull stage at each of several widely separated cross sections of the channel. Expressed as functions of the discharge, it is found that the variables behave systematically. In every section studied, as the discharge increases, the velocity increases to about the 0.6 power, depth to the 0.4, and load to the 2.0 power of the discharge. The roughness decreases to the 0.2 power of the discharge. The relative magnitudes and the direction of these variations are similar to those which have been observed in other rivers in the United States, primarily in the West. Some modifications of the hypotheses applicable to the western rivers are probably required because on Brandywine Creek the difference between the materials on the bed and in the banks is considerably greater than it is on most of the western rivers studied. In the second part of the paper the progressive changes of the same variables in the downstream direction with increasing discharge at a given frequency are described. Despite the disorderly appearance of the stream, it is found that the variables display a progressive, orderly change in the downstream direction when traced from the headwater tributaries through the trunk stream of Brandywine Creek. At a given frequency of flow, width increases with discharge to about the 0.5 power. Depth increases downstream somewhat less rapidly, while the slope and roughness both decrease in the downstream direction. Despite a decrease in the size of the material on the bed, both the mean velocity and the mean bed velocity increase downstream. The rates of change of these variables are in close accord with the changes observed on rivers flowing in alluvium and in stable irrigation canals. These

  6. Infectious diseases in oyster aquaculture require a new integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernet, Fabrice; Lupo, Coralie; Bacher, Cédric; Whittington, Richard J

    2016-03-05

    Emerging diseases pose a recurrent threat to bivalve aquaculture. Recently, massive mortality events in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas associated with the detection of a microvariant of the ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1µVar) have been reported in Europe, Australia and New Zealand. Although the spread of disease is often viewed as a governance failure, we suggest that the development of protective measures for bivalve farming is presently held back by the lack of key scientific knowledge. In this paper, we explore the case for an integrated approach to study the management of bivalve disease, using OsHV-1 as a case study. Reconsidering the key issues by incorporating multidisciplinary science could provide a holistic understanding of OsHV-1 and increase the benefit of research to policymakers. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Oysters and eelgrass: potential partners in a high pCO2 ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groner, Maya L; Burge, Colleen A; Cox, Ruth; Rivlin, Natalie; Turner, Mo; Van Alstyne, Kathryn L; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Bucci, John; Staudigel, Philip; Friedman, Carolyn S

    2018-05-25

    Climate change is affecting the health and physiology of marine organisms and altering species interactions. Ocean acidification (OA) threatens calcifying organisms such as the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. In contrast, seagrasses, such as the eelgrass Zostera marina, can benefit from the increase in available carbon for photosynthesis found at a lower seawater pH. Seagrasses can remove dissolved inorganic carbon from OA environments, creating local daytime pH refugia. Pacific oysters may improve the health of eelgrass by filtering out pathogens such as Labyrinthula zosterae (LZ), which causes eelgrass wasting disease (EWD). We examined how co-culture of eelgrass ramets and juvenile oysters affected the health and growth of eelgrass and the mass of oysters under different pCO 2 exposures. In Phase I, each species was cultured alone or in co-culture at 12°C across ambient, medium, and high pCO 2 conditions, (656, 1158 and1606 μatm pCO 2 , respectively). Under high pCO 2 , eelgrass grew faster and had less severe EWD (contracted in the field prior to the experiment). Co-culture with oysters also reduced the severity of EWD. While the presence of eelgrass decreased daytime pCO 2 , this reduction was not substantial enough to ameliorate the negative impact of high pCO 2 on oyster mass. In Phase II, eelgrass alone or oysters and eelgrass in co-culture were held at 15°C under ambient and high pCO 2 conditions, (488 and 2013 μatm pCO 2 , respectively). Half of the replicates were challenged with cultured LZ. Concentrations of defensive compounds in eelgrass (total phenolics and tannins), were altered by LZ exposure and pCO 2 treatments. Greater pathogen loads and increased EWD severity were detected in LZ exposed eelgrass ramets; EWD severity was reduced at high relative to low pCO 2 . Oyster presence did not influence pathogen load or EWD severity; high LZ concentrations in experimental treatments may have masked the effect of this treatment. Collectively, these

  8. Bear Creek Project. Final environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The Bear Creek Project consists of certain mining and milling operations involving uranium ore deposits located in Converse County, Wyoming. Mining of uranium from nine known ore bodies will take place over a period of ten years (estimated); a mill with a nominal capacity of 1000 tons per day of ore will be constructed and operated as long as ore is available. The waste material (tailings) from the mill, also produced at a rate of about 1000 tons per day, will be stored onsite in an impoundment. Environmental impacts and adverse effects are summarized

  9. 75 FR 8036 - Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project AGENCY: Forest... Rangeland Project area. The analysis will determine if a change in management direction for livestock grazing is needed to move existing resource conditions within the Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project area...

  10. 75 FR 57766 - Ryckman Creek Resources, LLC; Notice of Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP10-498-000] Ryckman Creek Resources, LLC; Notice of Petition September 15, 2010. Take notice that on September 3, 2010, Ryckman Creek..., a petition for an Exemption of Temporary Acts and Operations and Request for Expedited Approval...

  11. 33 CFR 117.1001 - Cat Point Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cat Point Creek. 117.1001 Section 117.1001 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia § 117.1001 Cat Point Creek. The draw of the...

  12. 33 CFR 117.800 - Mill Neck Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mill Neck Creek. 117.800 Section 117.800 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.800 Mill Neck Creek. The draw of the...

  13. 33 CFR 117.705 - Beaver Dam Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Beaver Dam Creek. 117.705 Section 117.705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.705 Beaver Dam Creek. The draw of the...

  14. Hydrology of Bishop Creek, California: An Isotopic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael L. Space; John W. Hess; Stanley D. Smith

    1989-01-01

    Five power generation plants along an eleven kilometer stretch divert Bishop Creek water for hydro-electric power. Stream diversion may be adversely affecting the riparian vegetation. Stable isotopic analysis is employed to determine surface water/ground-water interactions along the creek. surface water originates primarily from three headwater lakes. Discharge into...

  15. 78 FR 76750 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Chambers Creek, Steilacoom, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... operating schedule that governs the Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) Chambers Creek Railway Bridge across... performing lift bridge maintenance and upgrades for the BNSF Chambers Creek Railway Bridge across Chambers... maintenance and upgrade items to this vertical lift bridge in support of Positive Train Control requirements...

  16. The risk of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections associated with consumption of raw oysters as affected by processing and distribution conditions in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The steadily increased consumption of raw oysters in Taiwan warrants an assessment of the risk (probability of illness) of raw oyster consumption attributed by Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of V. parahaemolyticus infection associated with raw oyster consumpt...

  17. Construction and evaluation of a high-density SNP array for the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haigang Qi

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are widely used in genetics and genomics research. The Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas is an economically and ecologically important marine bivalve, and it possesses one of the highest levels of genomic DNA variation among animal species. Pacific oyster SNPs have been extensively investigated; however, the mechanisms by which these SNPs may be used in a high-throughput, transferable, and economical manner remain to be elucidated. Here, we constructed an oyster 190K SNP array using Affymetrix Axiom genotyping technology. We designed 190,420 SNPs on the chip; these SNPs were selected from 54 million SNPs identified through re-sequencing of 472 Pacific oysters collected in China, Japan, Korea, and Canada. Our genotyping results indicated that 133,984 (70.4% SNPs were polymorphic and successfully converted on the chip. The SNPs were distributed evenly throughout the oyster genome, located in 3,595 scaffolds with a length of ~509.4 million; the average interval spacing was 4,210 bp. In addition, 111,158 SNPs were distributed in 21,050 coding genes, with an average of 5.3 SNPs per gene. In comparison with genotypes obtained through re-sequencing, ~69% of the converted SNPs had a concordance rate of >0.971; the mean concordance rate was 0.966. Evaluation based on genotypes of full-sib family individuals revealed that the average genotyping accuracy rate was 0.975. Carrying 133 K polymorphic SNPs, our oyster 190K SNP array is the first commercially available high-density SNP chip for mollusks, with the highest throughput. It represents a valuable tool for oyster genome-wide association studies, fine linkage mapping, and population genetics.

  18. Transcriptome Analysis of the Sydney Rock Oyster, Saccostrea glomerata: Insights into Molluscan Immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole G Ertl

    Full Text Available Oysters have important ecological functions in their natural environment, acting as global carbon sinks and improving water quality by removing excess nutrients from the water column. During their life-time oysters are exposed to a variety of pathogens that can cause severe mortality in a range of oyster species. Environmental stressors encountered in their habitat can increase the susceptibility of oysters to these pathogens and in general have been shown to impact on oyster immunity, making immune parameters expressed in these marine animals an important research topic.Paired-end Illumina high throughput sequencing of six S. glomerata tissues exposed to different environmental stressors resulted in a total of 484,121,702 paired-end reads. When reads and assembled transcripts were compared to the C. gigas genome, an overall low level of similarity at the nucleotide level, but a relatively high similarity at the protein level was observed. Examination of the tissue expression pattern showed that some transcripts coding for cathepsins, heat shock proteins and antioxidant proteins were exclusively expressed in the haemolymph of S. glomerata, suggesting a role in innate immunity. Furthermore, analysis of the S. glomerata ORFs showed a wide range of genes potentially involved in innate immunity, from pattern recognition receptors, components of the Toll-like signalling and apoptosis pathways to a complex antioxidant defence mechanism.This is the first large scale RNA-Seq study carried out in S. glomerata, showing the complex network of innate immune components that exist in this species. The results confirmed that many of the innate immune system components observed in mammals are also conserved in oysters; however, some, such as the TLR adaptors MAL, TRIF and TRAM are either missing or have been modified significantly. The components identified in this study could help explain the oysters' natural resilience against pathogenic microorganisms

  19. Warm temperature acclimation impacts metabolism of paralytic shellfish toxins from Alexandrium minutum in commercial oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Hazel; Seebacher, Frank; O'Connor, Wayne; Zammit, Anthony; Harwood, D Tim; Murray, Shauna

    2015-09-01

    Species of Alexandrium produce potent neurotoxins termed paralytic shellfish toxins and are expanding their ranges worldwide, concurrent with increases in sea surface temperature. The metabolism of molluscs is temperature dependent, and increases in ocean temperature may influence both the abundance and distribution of Alexandrium and the dynamics of toxin uptake and depuration in shellfish. Here, we conducted a large-scale study of the effect of temperature on the uptake and depuration of paralytic shellfish toxins in three commercial oysters (Saccostrea glomerata and diploid and triploid Crassostrea gigas, n = 252 per species/ploidy level). Oysters were acclimated to two constant temperatures, reflecting current and predicted climate scenarios (22 and 27 °C), and fed a diet including the paralytic shellfish toxin-producing species Alexandrium minutum. While the oysters fed on A. minutum in similar quantities, concentrations of the toxin analogue GTX1,4 were significantly lower in warm-acclimated S. glomerata and diploid C. gigas after 12 days. Following exposure to A. minutum, toxicity of triploid C. gigas was not affected by temperature. Generally, detoxification rates were reduced in warm-acclimated oysters. The routine metabolism of the oysters was not affected by the toxins, but a significant effect was found at a cellular level in diploid C. gigas. The increasing incidences of Alexandrium blooms worldwide are a challenge for shellfish food safety regulation. Our findings indicate that rising ocean temperatures may reduce paralytic shellfish toxin accumulation in two of the three oyster types; however, they may persist for longer periods in oyster tissue. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Preliminary Evaluation of Microbial Communities Isolated from the Calcifying Fluid of Oysters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banker, R.

    2016-02-01

    The process of biomineralization is defined as the selective uptake of elements that are incorporated into a defined mineral structure under strict biological control. For bivalve molluscs, such as clams, oysters, and mussels, the mantle is the primary organ in control of shell deposition. Alternatively, remote calcification takes place when carbonate-precipitating microbes (e.g. sulfate reducers) colonize a shell-secreting organism and enhance the ability of the host to build shell material. The oyster syndrome is a term that describes bivalves that possess an unusual shell morphology characterized by exceptionally thick valves containing numerous chambers filled with chalky calcite. Although remote calcification via microbial metabolism has been proposed as a mechanism of chalky deposit formation in oysters, this hypothesis has not yet been rigorously investigated. Here I present data on the microbial communities found in the calcifying fluid of two oyster species; Crassostrea gigas and Ostrea lurida are examples of oysters that do and do not exhibit the oyster syndrome, respectively. Comparison of the microbiomes of these two morphological end members may provide insight into the role of microbes in the formation of chalky deposits. Results indicate that the microbial community in the surrounding water is the dominant source for bacterial taxa found in the calcifying fluid of both oyster species. Also, it appears as though C. gigas maintains a microbial community that is more similar to its ambient environment than O. lurida. These results demonstrate that the ambient aquatic environment has a guiding influence on the microbiome found in the calcifying fluid of bivalve molluscs. However, the magnitude of this effect varies among organisms, even those that are closely related.

  1. Post-mortem ecosystem engineering by oysters creates habitat for a rare marsh plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongyu; Pennings, Steven C

    2012-11-01

    Oysters are ecosystem engineers in marine ecosystems, but the functions of oyster shell deposits in intertidal salt marshes are not well understood. The annual plant Suaeda linearis is associated with oyster shell deposits in Georgia salt marshes. We hypothesized that oyster shell deposits promoted the distribution of Suaeda linearis by engineering soil conditions unfavorable to dominant salt marsh plants of the region (the shrub Borrichia frutescens, the rush Juncus roemerianus, and the grass Spartina alterniflora). We tested this hypothesis using common garden pot experiments and field transplant experiments. Suaeda linearis thrived in Borrichia frutescens stands in the absence of neighbors, but was suppressed by Borrichia frutescens in the with-neighbor treatment, suggesting that Suaeda linearis was excluded from Borrichia frutescens stands by interspecific competition. Suaeda linearis plants all died in Juncus roemerianus and Spartina alterniflora stands, regardless of neighbor treatments, indicating that Suaeda linearis is excluded from these habitats by physical stress (likely water-logging). In contrast, Borrichia frutescens, Juncus roemerianus, and Spartina alterniflora all performed poorly in Suaeda linearis stands regardless of neighbor treatments, probably due to physical stresses such as low soil water content and low organic matter content. Thus, oyster shell deposits play an important ecosystem engineering role in influencing salt marsh plant communities by providing a unique niche for Suaeda linearis, which otherwise would be rare or absent in salt marshes in the southeastern US. Since the success of Suaeda linearis is linked to the success of oysters, efforts to protect and restore oyster reefs may also benefit salt marsh plant communities.

  2. Oyster larvae settle in response to habitat-associated underwater sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, Ashlee; Eggleston, David B; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R

    2013-01-01

    Following a planktonic dispersal period of days to months, the larvae of benthic marine organisms must locate suitable seafloor habitat in which to settle and metamorphose. For animals that are sessile or sedentary as adults, settlement onto substrates that are adequate for survival and reproduction is particularly critical, yet represents a challenge since patchily distributed settlement sites may be difficult to find along a coast or within an estuary. Recent studies have demonstrated that the underwater soundscape, the distinct sounds that emanate from habitats and contain information about their biological and physical characteristics, may serve as broad-scale environmental cue for marine larvae to find satisfactory settlement sites. Here, we contrast the acoustic characteristics of oyster reef and off-reef soft bottoms, and investigate the effect of habitat-associated estuarine sound on the settlement patterns of an economically and ecologically important reef-building bivalve, the Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica). Subtidal oyster reefs in coastal North Carolina, USA show distinct acoustic signatures compared to adjacent off-reef soft bottom habitats, characterized by consistently higher levels of sound in the 1.5-20 kHz range. Manipulative laboratory playback experiments found increased settlement in larval oyster cultures exposed to oyster reef sound compared to unstructured soft bottom sound or no sound treatments. In field experiments, ambient reef sound produced higher levels of oyster settlement in larval cultures than did off-reef sound treatments. The results suggest that oyster larvae have the ability to respond to sounds indicative of optimal settlement sites, and this is the first evidence that habitat-related differences in estuarine sounds influence the settlement of a mollusk. Habitat-specific sound characteristics may represent an important settlement and habitat selection cue for estuarine invertebrates and could play a role in driving

  3. Oyster larvae settle in response to habitat-associated underwater sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlee Lillis

    Full Text Available Following a planktonic dispersal period of days to months, the larvae of benthic marine organisms must locate suitable seafloor habitat in which to settle and metamorphose. For animals that are sessile or sedentary as adults, settlement onto substrates that are adequate for survival and reproduction is particularly critical, yet represents a challenge since patchily distributed settlement sites may be difficult to find along a coast or within an estuary. Recent studies have demonstrated that the underwater soundscape, the distinct sounds that emanate from habitats and contain information about their biological and physical characteristics, may serve as broad-scale environmental cue for marine larvae to find satisfactory settlement sites. Here, we contrast the acoustic characteristics of oyster reef and off-reef soft bottoms, and investigate the effect of habitat-associated estuarine sound on the settlement patterns of an economically and ecologically important reef-building bivalve, the Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica. Subtidal oyster reefs in coastal North Carolina, USA show distinct acoustic signatures compared to adjacent off-reef soft bottom habitats, characterized by consistently higher levels of sound in the 1.5-20 kHz range. Manipulative laboratory playback experiments found increased settlement in larval oyster cultures exposed to oyster reef sound compared to unstructured soft bottom sound or no sound treatments. In field experiments, ambient reef sound produced higher levels of oyster settlement in larval cultures than did off-reef sound treatments. The results suggest that oyster larvae have the ability to respond to sounds indicative of optimal settlement sites, and this is the first evidence that habitat-related differences in estuarine sounds influence the settlement of a mollusk. Habitat-specific sound characteristics may represent an important settlement and habitat selection cue for estuarine invertebrates and could play a

  4. Kinds of nucleus for effective pearl cultivation of the pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanjanachatree, K.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Seeding is the most important aspect of pearl cultivation, and appropriate nucleus can determine the quality of a pearl : nacre secretion and accumulation around the nucleus. This affects harvest time, nucleus extrusion, survival rate of the pearl oysters and the production cost. In order to provide nuclei to substitute for those imported from China which are made from freshwater pearl oyster-shells, 3 kinds of the local shells of Pinctada fucata, Pteria penguin and Pinctada maxima were selected for seed production. The obtained nuclei have various diameters depend on the shell width at the hinge region. The average diameters are 5.44, 6.78, 7.54 and 6.10 mm, while their production costs are 5, 7.7, 18.5 and 7.5 baht per 1 nucleus, respectively, for Pinctada fucata, Pteria penguin, Pinctada maxima and freshwater pearl oysters (control group. After nucleus implantation into the gonad of culture pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata, and rearing in the sea, the obtained pearls using nuclei made from the shells of Pinctada fucata and Pinctada maxima (both belong to the same genus as the implanted culture pearl oysters have as good nacre formation as that from freshwater pearl oysters. In contrast, the pearl production using nuclei made from Pteria penguin-shells have significantly worse nacre formation. Survival rate of the culture oysters seeded with nuclei made from Pinctada fucata-shells is highest at 47%, nucleus extrusion 8% only, and harvest rate 31%; while with Pinctada maxima-shells, these values are 38%, 17.5% and 14%, respectively. So the nuclei made from local Pinctada fucata-shells are appropriate for pearl cultivation and are comparable to imported nuclei. Although the obtained pearls are small, the nuclei made from Pinctada fucata-shells have low cost, low nucleus extrusion and high productivity.

  5. Detection and forecasting of oyster norovirus outbreaks: recent advances and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiao; Deng, Zhiqiang

    2012-09-01

    Norovirus is a highly infectious pathogen that is commonly found in oysters growing in fecally contaminated waters. Norovirus outbreaks can cause the closure of oyster harvesting waters and acute gastroenteritis in humans associated with consumption of contaminated raw oysters. Extensive efforts and progresses have been made in detection and forecasting of oyster norovirus outbreaks over the past decades. The main objective of this paper is to provide a literature review of methods and techniques for detecting and forecasting oyster norovirus outbreaks and thereby to identify the future directions for improving the detection and forecasting of norovirus outbreaks. It is found that (1) norovirus outbreaks display strong seasonality with the outbreak peak occurring commonly in December-March in the U.S. and April-May in the Europe; (2) norovirus outbreaks are affected by multiple environmental factors, including but not limited to precipitation, temperature, solar radiation, wind, and salinity; (3) various modeling approaches may be employed to forecast norovirus outbreaks, including Bayesian models, regression models, Artificial Neural Networks, and process-based models; and (4) diverse techniques are available for near real-time detection of norovirus outbreaks, including multiplex PCR, seminested PCR, real-time PCR, quantitative PCR, and satellite remote sensing. The findings are important to the management of oyster growing waters and to future investigations into norovirus outbreaks. It is recommended that a combined approach of sensor-assisted real time monitoring and modeling-based forecasting should be utilized for an efficient and effective detection and forecasting of norovirus outbreaks caused by consumption of contaminated oysters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid transcriptional acclimation following transgenerational exposure of oysters to ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Priscila; Anderson, Kelli; Thompson, Emma L; Melwani, Aroon; Parker, Laura M; Ross, Pauline M; Raftos, David A

    2016-10-01

    Marine organisms need to adapt in order to cope with the adverse effects of ocean acidification and warming. Transgenerational exposure to CO2 stress has been shown to enhance resilience to ocean acidification in offspring from a number of species. However, the molecular basis underlying such adaptive responses is currently unknown. Here, we compared the transcriptional profiles of two genetically distinct oyster breeding lines following transgenerational exposure to elevated CO2 in order to explore the molecular basis of acclimation or adaptation to ocean acidification in these organisms. The expression of key target genes associated with antioxidant defence, metabolism and the cytoskeleton was assessed in oysters exposed to elevated CO2 over three consecutive generations. This set of target genes was chosen specifically to test whether altered responsiveness of intracellular stress mechanisms contributes to the differential acclimation of oyster populations to climate stressors. Transgenerational exposure to elevated CO2 resulted in changes to both basal and inducible expression of those key target genes (e.g. ecSOD, catalase and peroxiredoxin 6), particularly in oysters derived from the disease-resistant, fast-growing B2 line. Exposure to CO2 stress over consecutive generations produced opposite and less evident effects on transcription in a second population that was derived from wild-type (nonselected) oysters. The analysis of key target genes revealed that the acute responses of oysters to CO2 stress appear to be affected by population-specific genetic and/or phenotypic traits and by the CO2 conditions to which their parents had been exposed. This supports the contention that the capacity for heritable change in response to ocean acidification varies between oyster breeding lines and is mediated by parental conditioning. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Effects of heavy metals on the oyster (Crassostrea virginica at Mandinga Lagoon, Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X Guzmán-García

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mandinga Lagoon in the Mexican State of Veracruz is an important ecological zone that produces 32% of the oyster output in the state of Veracruz, the main oyster producer in Mexico. Samples of water, sediment, and oysters were collected in 2003 and 2004 to study heavy metal pollution. Metal concentrations were determined in water, soil, and oyster tissues from fresh and detoxified Crassostrea virginica, and histology samples were analyzed. Metal (Cr, Cd, and Pb concentrations in water were within the Mexican legal limits. The recorded values in sediments corresponded to those not producing biological effects (ERL. In the tissues, the highest concentrations corresponded to Pb, above 5.84 μgg-1 dry weight (d.w.; Cd was of 2.23 μgg-1 d.w., and Cr above 6 μgg-1 d.w. The metal levels detected in oysters exceeded the maximum permissible limits (MPL for Cd and Pb, and oysters were unable to eliminate the concentrations of the bioaccumulated metals during the detoxification stage. The histopathological analysis revealed lesions in the digestive gland, edema, atrophy of epithelia in the digestive tubules, the presence of brown vesicles, hemocytic reaction, and necrosis. During detoxification, a higher number of epithelia were observed in the tubules, as well as an increase in brown vesicles and hemocytic reaction. Forty seven percent of oysters presented histopathological lesions related to metal concentrations. It is important to monitor metal concentrations, to detect the source of pollution, andto evaluate the effects on organisms to establish culture areas and adequate criteria for the exploitation of such an important fishery resource. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 955-962. Epub 2009 December 01.

  8. Hoe Creek 1990 quarterly sampling cumulative report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crader, S.E.; Huntington, G.S.

    1991-03-01

    Groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for benzene and for total phenols three times during 1990. This report summarizes the results of these sampling events and compares the results with those obtained in previous years. Possible further options for remediation of the Hoe Creek site was addressed. Three underground coal gasification (UCG) burns were performed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy in 1976, 1977, and 1979 at the Hoe Creek site, which is about 20 miles south of Gillette, Wyoming. As a result of these burns, there has been considerable contamination of groundwater by various organic compounds. There have been three efforts at remediating this situation. In 1986 and again in 1987, contaminated water was pumped out, treated, and reinjected. In 1989, the water was pumped, treated, and sprayed into the atmosphere. Benzene and total phenols have been monitored at various monitoring wells as the site during 1990. The highest detected benzene concentration in 1990 was 220 {mu}g/L, and the highest total phenols concentration was 430 {mu}g/L. It is apparent that contamination is still above baseline levels, although the concentration of total phenols is far less than immediately after the burns. The burned coal seams are still releasing organic compounds into the groundwater that passes through them.

  9. Assessment of the impacts of the Salem and Hope Creek Stations on shortnose sturgeon, 'Acipenser brevirostrum' lesueur. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masnik, M.T.; Wilson, J.H.

    1980-04-01

    Acipenser brevirostrum, a federally recognized endangered species, is known from the Delaware River in the vicinity of the Salem and Hope Creek Nuclear Stations. The potential for adverse impact to this species due to the completion of construction and the operation of these stations is assessed. A review of the literature pertaining to the distribution, life history, and tolerance of this species is presented. Both historical records and current status of the shortnose sturgeon population in the Delaware River are discussed

  10. Four Mile Creek bottomland restoration program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLeod, K.W.

    1995-12-31

    On the Savannah River Site (SRS), nuclear production reactors were cooled by a once-through cooling cycle, using water from the Savannah River and discharging the effluent to small tributaries of the Savannah River. Four Mile Creek (also known as Fourmile Branch) is a third order tributary of the Savannah River on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. It received thermal effluent from C Reactor from 1955 to 1985, which increased the flow rate, water depth and water temperature. Prior to 1955, the base flow was approximately one cubic meter per second, but increased, with the reactor effluent, to approximately 11 cubic meters per second, raising the water depth in the channel by 15 to 30 cm. Effluent temperature at the outfall was approximately 60 C and at the delta was 40 to 45 C, depending on the operation level of the reactor, the season of the year and the specific meteorological conditions. The increased flow rate also increased erosion in the upper reaches of the stream with deposition of this eroded material occurring in the delta averaging 60 cm of newly deposited sand on top of the former substrate.

  11. Basic repository environment assessment design basis, Cypress Creek Dome Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This study examines the engineering factors and costs associated with the construction, operation, and decommissioning of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt in the Gulf Interior Region at Cypress Creek Cone, Mississippi. The study assumes a repository capacity of 36,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) of unreprocessed spent fuel and 36,000 MTHM of commercial high-level reprocessing waste, along with 7020 canisters of defense high-level reprocessing waste and associated quantities of remote- and contact-handled transuranic waste (TRU). With the exception of TRU, all the waste forms are placed in 300- to 1000-year-life carbon-steel waste packages in a collocated waste handling and packaging facility (WHPF), which is also described. The construction, operation, and decommissioning of the proposed repository is estimated to cost approximately $4.66 billion. Costs include those for the collocated WHPF, engineering, and contingency, but exclude waste from assembly and shipment to the site and waste package fabrication and shipment to the site. These costs reflect the relatively easy access to the site. Construction would require an estimated 7 years. Engineering factors and costs are not strongly influenced by environmental considerations. 53 refs., 24 figs., 10 tabs

  12. Four Mile Creek bottomland restoration program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeod, K.W.

    1995-01-01

    On the Savannah River Site (SRS), nuclear production reactors were cooled by a once-through cooling cycle, using water from the Savannah River and discharging the effluent to small tributaries of the Savannah River. Four Mile Creek (also known as Fourmile Branch) is a third order tributary of the Savannah River on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. It received thermal effluent from C Reactor from 1955 to 1985, which increased the flow rate, water depth and water temperature. Prior to 1955, the base flow was approximately one cubic meter per second, but increased, with the reactor effluent, to approximately 11 cubic meters per second, raising the water depth in the channel by 15 to 30 cm. Effluent temperature at the outfall was approximately 60 C and at the delta was 40 to 45 C, depending on the operation level of the reactor, the season of the year and the specific meteorological conditions. The increased flow rate also increased erosion in the upper reaches of the stream with deposition of this eroded material occurring in the delta averaging 60 cm of newly deposited sand on top of the former substrate

  13. Sensitivity of hepatitis A and murine norovirus to electron beam irradiation in oyster homogenates and whole oysters - quantifying the reduction in potential infection risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite worldwide regulations and advisories restricting shellfish harvest to approved locations, consumption of raw oysters continues to be an exposure route for human norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV). Therefore, a technology that can reduce the public health risks is needed. The focus...

  14. Sources of baseflow for the Minnehaha Creek Watershed, Minnesota, US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieber, J. L.; Moore, T. L.; Gulliver, J. S.; Magner, J. A.; Lahti, L. B.

    2013-12-01

    Minnehaha Creek is among the most valued surface water features in the Minneapolis, MN metro area, with a waterfall as it enters the Minnehaha Creek park. Flow in Minnehaha Creek is heavily dependent on discharge from the stream's origin, Lake Minnetonka, the outlet of which is closed during drought periods to maintain water elevations in the lake resulting in low- (or no-) flow conditions in the creek. Stormwater runoff entering directly to the creek from the creek's largely urbanized watershed exacerbates extremes in flow conditions. Given the cultural and ecological value of this stream system, there is great interest in enhancing the cultural and ecosystem services provided by Minnehaha Creek through improvements in streamflow regime by reducing flashiness and sustaining increased low-flows. Determining the potential for achieving improvements in flow requires first that the current sources of water contributing to low-flows in the creek be identified and quantified. Work on this source identification has involved a number of different approaches, including analyses of the streamflow record using a hydrologic system model framework, examination of the Quaternary and bedrock geology of the region, estimation of groundwater-surface water exchange rates within the channel using hyporheic zone temperature surveys and flux meter measurements, and analyses of the stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in samples of stream water, groundwater, and rainfall. Analysis of baseflow recessions using the method of Brutsaert and Nieber (1977) indicates that only a small portion of the catchment, probably the riparian zone, contributes to baseflows. This result appears to be supported by the observation that the limestone/shale bedrock layer underlying the surficial aquifer has a non-zero permeability, and in a significant portion of the watershed the layer has been eroded away leaving the surficial aquifer ';bottomless' and highly susceptible to vertical (down) water loss

  15. 76 FR 59423 - Drakes Bay Oyster Company Special-Use Permit, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Point Reyes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... commercial production, harvesting, processing, and sale of shellfish at Point Reyes National Seashore. The... Bay Oyster Company Special-Use Permit, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Point Reyes National... Drakes Bay Oyster Company Special-use permit in Drakes Estero, Point Reyes National Seashore, California...

  16. Radiation resistances and decontamination of common pathogenic bacteria contaminated in white scar oyster (Crassostrea belcheri) in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thupila, Nunticha; Ratana-arporn, Pattama; Wilaipun, Pongtep

    2011-01-01

    In Thailand, white scar oyster (Crassostrea belcheri) was ranked for premium quality, being most expensive and of high demand. This oyster is often eaten raw, hence it may pose health hazards to consumers when contaminated with food-borne pathogens. As limited alternative methods are available to sterilize the oyster while preserving the raw characteristic, irradiation may be considered as an effective method for decontamination. In this study, the radiation resistance of pathogenic bacteria commonly contaminating the oyster and the optimum irradiation doses for sterilization of the most radiation resistant bacteria were investigated. The radiation decimal reduction doses (D 10 ) of Salmonella Weltevreden DMST 33380, Vibrio parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802 and Vibrio vulnificus DMST 5852 were determined in broth culture and inoculated oyster homogenate. The D 10 values of S. Weltevreden, V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in broth culture were 0.154, 0.132 and 0.059 kGy, while those of inoculated oyster homogenate were 0.330, 0.159 and 0.140 kGy, respectively. It was found that among the pathogens tested, S. Weltevreden was proved to be the most resistant species. An irradiation dose of 1.5 kGy reduced the counts of 10 5 CFU/g S. Weltevreden inoculated in oyster meat to an undetectable level. The present study indicated that a low-dose irradiation can improve the microbial quality of oyster and further reduce the risks from the food-borne pathogens without adversely affecting the sensory attributes.

  17. Apparent loss of Vibrio vulnificus from North Carolina oysters coincides with a drought-induced increase in salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froelich, Brett A; Williams, Tiffany C; Noble, Rachel T; Oliver, James D

    2012-06-01

    Despite years of successful isolation of Vibrio vulnificus from estuarine waters, beginning in 2007, it was extremely difficult to culture V. vulnificus from either North Carolina estuarine water or oyster samples. After employing culture-based methods as well as PCR and quantitative PCR for the detection of V. vulnificus, always with negative results, we concluded that this pathogen had become nearly undetectable in the North Carolina estuarine ecosystem. We ensured that the techniques were sound by seeding North Carolina oysters with V. vulnificus and performing the same tests as those previously conducted on unadulterated oysters. V. vulnificus was readily detected in the seeded oysters using both classes of methods. Furthermore, oysters were obtained from the Gulf of Mexico, and V. vulnificus was easily isolated, confirming that the methodology was sound but that the oysters and waters of North Carolina were lacking the V. vulnificus population studied for decades. Strikingly, the apparent loss of detectable V. vulnificus coincided with the most severe drought in the history of North Carolina. The drought continued until the end of 2009, with an elevated water column salinity being observed throughout this period and with V. vulnificus being nearly nonexistent. When salinities returned to normal after the drought abated in 2010, we were again able to routinely isolate V. vulnificus from the water column, although we were still unable to culture it from oysters. We suggest that the oysters were colonized with a more salt-tolerant bacterium during the drought, which displaced V. vulnificus and may be preventing recolonization.

  18. SURVEY OF OYSTERS CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA FROM TAMPA BAY, FLORIDA: ASSOCIATIONS OF INTERNAL DEFENSE MEASUREMENTS WITH CONTAMINANT BURDENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oysters from 16 sites in Tampa Bay, Florida, were collected during a 6-week period in winter 1993 and analyzed for both biological characteristics and tissue chemical concentrations. Using previous sediment contamination and toxicity data, oyster tissues from the selected sites w...

  19. Top-down control of phytoplankton by oysters in Chesapeake Bay, USA: Comment on Pomeroy et al. (2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy et al. (2006) proposed that temporal and spatial mismatches between eastern oyster filtration and phytoplankton abundance will preclude restored stocks of eastern oysters from reducing the severity of hypoxia in the deep channel of central Chesapeake Bay. We refute this c...

  20. Effects of High-Hydrostatic Pressure on Inactivation of Human Norovirus and Physical and Sensory Characteristics of Oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mu; Lingham, Talaysha; Huang, Yaoxin; Ozbay, Gulnihal; Ji, Lin; Karwe, Mukund; Chen, Haiqiang

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of high-hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on inactivation of human norovirus (HuNoV) in oysters and to evaluate organoleptic characteristics of oysters treated at pressure levels required for HuNoV inactivation. Genogroup I.1 (GI.1) or Genogroup II.4 (GII.4) HuNoV was inoculated into oysters and treated at 300 to 600 MPa at 25 and 0 °C for 2 min. After HHP, viral particles were extracted by porcine gastric mucin-conjugated magnetic beads (PGM-MBs) and viral RNA was quantified by real-time RT-PCR. Lower initial temperature (0 °C) significantly enhanced HHP inactivation of HuNoV compared to ambient temperature (25 °C; P oysters, respectively. HHP treatments did not significantly change color or texture of oyster tissue. A 1- to 5-scale hedonic sensory evaluation on appearance, aroma, color, and overall acceptability showed that pressure-treated oysters received significantly higher quality scores than the untreated control (P oysters. Oysters treated at 0 °C had slightly lower acceptability than the group treated at room temperature on day 1 (P 0.05). © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Perception of oyster-based products by French consumers. The effect of processing and role of social representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debucquet, Gervaise; Cornet, Josiane; Adam, Isabelle; Cardinal, Mireille

    2012-12-01

    The search for new markets in the seafood sector, associated with the question of the continuity of raw oyster consumption over generations can be an opportunity for processors to extend their ranges with oyster-based products. The twofold aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of processing and social representation on perception of oyster-based products by French consumers and to identify the best means of development in order to avoid possible failure in the market. Five products with different degrees of processing (cooked oysters in a half-shell, hot preparation for toast, potted oyster, oyster butter and oyster-based soup) were presented within focus groups and consumer tests, at home and in canteens with the staff of several companies in order to reach consumers with different ages and professional activities. The results showed that social representation had a strong impact and that behaviours were contrasted according to the initial profile of the consumer (traditional raw oyster consumers or non-consumers) and their age distribution (younger and older people). The degree of processing has to be adapted to each segment. It is suggested to develop early exposure to influence the food choices and preferences of the youngest consumers on a long-term basis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High pressure treatment changes spoilage characteristics and shelf life of Pacific oysters ( Crassostrea gigas) during refrigerated storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Rong; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Qi

    2017-04-01

    The effects of high pressure (HP) treatment on spoilage characteristic and shelf life extension of Pacific oysters ( Crassostrea gigas) during refrigerated storage were studied. Results showed that HP treatment of 275 MPa for 3 min or 300 MPa for 2 min could achieve 100% full release of oyster adductor muscle, pressures higher than 350 MPa caused excessive release as the shells of oysters were broken, thus use of higher pressures should be cautious in oyster processing industry because of its adverse impact on the appearance of shells. HP treatment (300 MPa, 2 min) was proper for the shucking of Pacific oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) in China. This treatment caused no organoleptic disadvantage. Moreover, HP treatment resulted in obvious differences in biochemical spoilage indicators (pH, TVB-N and TBARS) changes and volatile compounds profile determined by electronic nose during storage. HP treatment (300 MPa, 2 min) also led to a reduction of aerobic bacterial count (APC) by 1.27 log cycles. Furthermore, the APC values of oysters treated by HP were always lower than those of the control samples during storage. Based on the organoleptic, biochemical and microbiological indicators, shelf life of 6-8 d for control and 12 d for HP-treated oysters could be expected. HP treatment showed great potential in oyster processing and preservation.

  3. PROGRESSION OF DISEASES CAUSED BY THE OYSTER PARASITES, PERKINSUS MARINUS AND HAPLOSPORIDIUM NELSONI, IN CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA ON CONSTRUCTED INTERTIDAL REEFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The progression of diseases caused by the oyster parasites, Perkinsus marinus and Haplosporidium nelsoni, were evaluated by periodic sampling (May 1994-Dec. 1995) of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, that set on an artificial reef located in the Piankatank River, Virginia, in Augus...

  4. Ecological studies on the seasonal production of the edible oyster, Crassostrea madrasensis (Preston) in Cochin Backwater, Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Purushan, K.S.; Gopalan, U.K.; Rao, T.S.S.

    the intertidal ones, but as regards percentage meat weight the latter out-weighed the former. Among environmental variables, salinity seemed to be the foremost factor in influencing the production of oysters. A large majority (90-98%) of the intertidal oysters...

  5. Evaluation of the proximate quality of the combination of Tuna (Thunnus albacares) and white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yufidasari, H. S.; Prihanto, A. A.; Nurdiani, R.; Jaziri, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    Nugget is a processed meat product which has great market demand but need variations to increase its nutritional content. Tuna is rich in omega-3 protein, vitamins, and minerals. White oyster mushrooms have high nutritional content which are about 23-33% protein, 36-68 % carbohydrates and 12-22 % amino acids. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the chemical quality of Tuna nugget (Thunnus albacores) with combination of white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Complete Randomized Design (RAL) with parameters of Tuna and white oyster mushroom formulation, TJ1 (70 % Tuna: 30 % white oyster mushroom), TJ2 (50 % Tuna: 50 % white oyster mushroom), TJ3 (30 % Tuna: 70 % white oyster mushroom), and Control or K Treatment (100 % Tuna) is used. Results of Tuna nuggets with white oyster mushroom combination showed the highest value of water content in TJ3 50.14 %, protein K 19.6 %, fat TJ3 22.98 %, ash K 3.99 % and 2.47 % crude fiber. From these results, there is a need for further research on fat, ash and coarse fiber content that is used in the manufacture of fish nuggets combined with oyster mushrooms because it failed to meet Indonesian National Standard (SNI).

  6. Radiation resistances and decontamination of common pathogenic bacteria contaminated in white scar oyster ( Crassostrea belcheri) in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thupila, Nunticha; Ratana-arporn, Pattama; Wilaipun, Pongtep

    2011-07-01

    In Thailand, white scar oyster ( Crassostrea belcheri) was ranked for premium quality, being most expensive and of high demand. This oyster is often eaten raw, hence it may pose health hazards to consumers when contaminated with food-borne pathogens. As limited alternative methods are available to sterilize the oyster while preserving the raw characteristic, irradiation may be considered as an effective method for decontamination. In this study, the radiation resistance of pathogenic bacteria commonly contaminating the oyster and the optimum irradiation doses for sterilization of the most radiation resistant bacteria were investigated. The radiation decimal reduction doses ( D10) of Salmonella Weltevreden DMST 33380, Vibrio parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802 and Vibrio vulnificus DMST 5852 were determined in broth culture and inoculated oyster homogenate. The D10 values of S. Weltevreden, V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in broth culture were 0.154, 0.132 and 0.059 kGy, while those of inoculated oyster homogenate were 0.330, 0.159 and 0.140 kGy, respectively. It was found that among the pathogens tested, S. Weltevreden was proved to be the most resistant species. An irradiation dose of 1.5 kGy reduced the counts of 10 5 CFU/g S. Weltevreden inoculated in oyster meat to an undetectable level. The present study indicated that a low-dose irradiation can improve the microbial quality of oyster and further reduce the risks from the food-borne pathogens without adversely affecting the sensory attributes.

  7. Simulation of Water Quality in the Tull Creek and West Neck Creek Watersheds, Currituck Sound Basin, North Carolina and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ana Maria

    2009-01-01

    A study of the Currituck Sound was initiated in 2005 to evaluate the water chemistry of the Sound and assess the effectiveness of management strategies. As part of this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to simulate current sediment and nutrient loadings for two distinct watersheds in the Currituck Sound basin and to determine the consequences of different water-quality management scenarios. The watersheds studied were (1) Tull Creek watershed, which has extensive row-crop cultivation and artificial drainage, and (2) West Neck Creek watershed, which drains urban areas in and around Virginia Beach, Virginia. The model simulated monthly streamflows with Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients of 0.83 and 0.76 for Tull Creek and West Neck Creek, respectively. The daily sediment concentration coefficient of determination was 0.19 for Tull Creek and 0.36 for West Neck Creek. The coefficient of determination for total nitrogen was 0.26 for both watersheds and for dissolved phosphorus was 0.4 for Tull Creek and 0.03 for West Neck Creek. The model was used to estimate current (2006-2007) sediment and nutrient yields for the two watersheds. Total suspended-solids yield was 56 percent lower in the urban watershed than in the agricultural watershed. Total nitrogen export was 45 percent lower, and total phosphorus was 43 percent lower in the urban watershed than in the agricultural watershed. A management scenario with filter strips bordering the main channels was simulated for Tull Creek. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool model estimated a total suspended-solids yield reduction of 54 percent and total nitrogen and total phosphorus reductions of 21 percent and 29 percent, respectively, for the Tull Creek watershed.

  8. Annual effective dose of {sup 210}Po from sea food origin (Oysters and Mussels) in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Bo Eum; Hong, Gi Hoon; Kim, Suk Hyun; Lee, Hyun Mi [Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Ingestion of {sup 210}Po laden seafood accounts for a substantial amount of the effective dose of {sup 210}Po. Among seafood items, mollusks, especially domestically produced oysters and mussels, are highly enriched in {sup 210}Po and are consumed in large quantities in Korea. Oysters and mussels around the Korean coasts were collected from major farm areas in November 2013. Samples were spiked with an aliquot of {sup 210}Po as a yield tracer, and they were digested with 6 mol·L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The {sup 210}Po and {sup 209}Po were spontaneously deposited onto a silver disc in an acidic solution of 0.5 mol·L{sup -1} HCl and measured using an alpha spectrometer. The activity concentrations of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po were decay corrected to the sampling date, accounting for the possible in-growth and decay of {sup 210}Po. {sup 210}Po activity concentrations in oysters were in a range from 41.3 to 206 Bq·(kg-ww{sup -1} and mussels in a range from 42.9 to 46.7 Bq·(kg-ww){sup -1}. The {sup 210}Po activity concentration of oysters in the turbid Western coast was higher than the Southern coast. The {sup 210}Po activity concentration of the oysters was positively correlated (R2=0.89) with those of the suspended particulate matter in the surface water. The calculated annual effective dose of {sup 210}Po from oysters and mussels consumed by the Korean population was 21-104 and 5.01-5.46 μSv·y{sup -1}. The combined effective dose due to the consumption of oysters and mussels appears to account for about 35±19% of that arising from seafood consumption in the Korean population. The annual effective dose of {sup 210}Po for oysters in the Korean population was found to be higher than other countries. The total annual effective dose of 210Po{sup 210}Po due to consumption of oysters and mussels consumed in Korea was found to be 76±42 μSv·y{sup -1}, accounting for 28±16% of the total effective dose of {sup 210}Po from food in Korea.

  9. Occurrence of marine algal toxins in oyster and phytoplankton samples in Daya Bay, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Liu, Lei; Li, Yang; Zhang, Jing; Tan, Zhijun; Wu, Haiyan; Jiang, Tianjiu; Lu, Songhui

    2017-09-01

    The occurrence and seasonal variations of marine algal toxins in phytoplankton and oyster samples in Daya Bay (DYB), South China Sea were investigated. Two Dinophysis species, namely, D. caudata and D. acuminata complex, were identified as Okadaic acid (OA)/pectenotoxin (PTX) related species. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis demonstrated that 2.04-14.47 pg PTX2 per cell was the predominant toxin in single-cell isolates of D. caudata. D. acuminata was not subjected to toxin analysis. The occurrence of OAs in phytoplankton concentrates of net-haul sample coincided with the presence of D. accuminata complex, suggesting that this species is most likely an OA producer in this sea area. OA, dinophysistoxins-1 (DTX1), PTX2, PTX2sa, gymnodimine (GYM), homoyessotoxin (homoYTX), and domoic acid (DA) demonstrated positive results in net haul samples. To our best knowledge, this paper is the first to report the detection of GYM, DA, and homoYTX in phytoplankton samples in Chinese coastal waters. Among the algal toxins, GYM demonstrated the highest frequency of positive detections in phytoplankton concentrates (13/17). Five compounds of algal toxins, including OA, DTX1, PTX2, PTX2sa, and GYM, were detected in oyster samples. DA and homoYTX were not detected in oysters despite of positive detections for both in the phytoplankton concentrates. However, neither the presence nor absence of DA in oysters can be determined because extraction conditions with 100% methanol used to isolate toxins from oysters (recommended by the EU-Harmonised Standard Operating Procedure, 2015) would likely be unsuitable for this water-soluble toxin. In addition, transformation of DA during the digestion process of oysters may also be involved in the negative detections of this toxin. GYM exhibited the highest frequency of positive results in oysters (14/17). OAs were only detected in the hydrolyzed oyster samples. The detection rates of PTX and PTX2sa in

  10. Annual effective dose of 210Po from sea food origin (Oysters and Mussels) in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bo Eum; Hong, Gi Hoon; Kim, Suk Hyun; Lee, Hyun Mi

    2016-01-01

    Ingestion of 210 Po laden seafood accounts for a substantial amount of the effective dose of 210 Po. Among seafood items, mollusks, especially domestically produced oysters and mussels, are highly enriched in 210 Po and are consumed in large quantities in Korea. Oysters and mussels around the Korean coasts were collected from major farm areas in November 2013. Samples were spiked with an aliquot of 210 Po as a yield tracer, and they were digested with 6 mol·L -1 HNO 3 and H 2 O 2 . The 210 Po and 209 Po were spontaneously deposited onto a silver disc in an acidic solution of 0.5 mol·L -1 HCl and measured using an alpha spectrometer. The activity concentrations of 210 Pb and 210 Po were decay corrected to the sampling date, accounting for the possible in-growth and decay of 210 Po. 210 Po activity concentrations in oysters were in a range from 41.3 to 206 Bq·(kg-ww -1 and mussels in a range from 42.9 to 46.7 Bq·(kg-ww) -1 . The 210 Po activity concentration of oysters in the turbid Western coast was higher than the Southern coast. The 210 Po activity concentration of the oysters was positively correlated (R2=0.89) with those of the suspended particulate matter in the surface water. The calculated annual effective dose of 210 Po from oysters and mussels consumed by the Korean population was 21-104 and 5.01-5.46 μSv·y -1 . The combined effective dose due to the consumption of oysters and mussels appears to account for about 35±19% of that arising from seafood consumption in the Korean population. The annual effective dose of 210 Po for oysters in the Korean population was found to be higher than other countries. The total annual effective dose of 210Po 210 Po due to consumption of oysters and mussels consumed in Korea was found to be 76±42 μSv·y -1 , accounting for 28±16% of the total effective dose of 210 Po from food in Korea

  11. Effects of ambient exposure, refrigeration, and icing on Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus abundances in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J L; Lydon, K A; Kinsey, T P; Friedman, B; Curtis, M; Schuster, R; Bowers, J C

    2017-07-17

    Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) and V. parahaemolyticus (Vp) illnesses are typically acquired through the consumption of raw molluscan shellfish, particularly oysters. As Vibrio spp. are naturally-occurring bacteria, one means of mitigation of illness is achieved by limiting post-harvest growth. In this study, effects of ambient air storage, refrigeration, and icing of oysters on Vibrio spp. abundances were examined at two sites in Alabama (AL) [Dog River (DR) and Cedar Point (CP)] and one site in Delaware Bay, New Jersey (NJ). As the United States shellfish program recommendations include testing for total these organisms and gene targets, Vv and total (tlh) and pathogenic (tdh+ and trh+) Vp were enumerated from samples using MPN-real-time-PCR approaches. Mean Vv and Vp abundances in oysters from AL-DR were lowest in immediately iced samples (2.3 and -0.1 log MPN/g, respectively) and highest in the 5h ambient then refrigerated samples (3.4 and 0.5 log MPN/g, respectively). Similarly, in AL-CP Vv and Vp mean levels in oysters were lowest in immediately iced samples (3.6 and 1.2 log MPN/g, respectively) and highest in 5h ambient then refrigerated samples (5.1 and 3.2 log MPN/g, respectively). Mean levels of pathogenic Vp from AL sites were frequently below the limit of detection (oysters were highest in samples which were held for 7h in the shade (5.3 and 4.8 log MPN/g, respectively). Mean pathogenic Vp levels in oysters at initial harvest were also highest in oysters 7h in the shade (2.1 and 2.2 log MPN/g for tdh+ and trh+ Vp). Regardless of sampling location, Vibrio spp. levels were generally significantly (poysters exposed to 5h of air storage compared to the initially harvested samples. In addition, the data demonstrated that the use of layered ice resulted in lower Vibrio spp. levels in oysters, compared to those that were refrigerated post-harvest. These results suggest vibriosis risk can be mitigated by shorter storage times and more rapid cooling of oysters

  12. Microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of gamma-irradiated fresh oysters during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Sek; Pak, Jae Nam; Park, Jin Gyu; Han, In Jun; Jung, Pil Mun; Song, Beaom Seok; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Jae Hun; Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Han, Sang Bae

    2008-01-01

    The microbiological, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of gamma irradiated fresh oysters were evaluated regarding its shelf-life during refrigeration. Non-irradiated fresh oysters began to be putrefied after 14 days, while fresh oysters irradiated with 2 kGy showed 5.54 log CFU∙g-1 even after 28 days. Volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) value increased more rapidly in the non-irradiated sample than the irradiated samples during storage. Especially the VBN value of the non-irradiated sample was eight fold higher then that of the the sample irradiated with 2 kGy. The pH of the non-irradiated fresh oysters significantly decreased during storage while the samples irradiated with doses higher than 2 kGy showed no significant change. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value increased in all samples during a storage period, and gamma irradiation accelerated the increase of lipid oxidation. Sensory characteristics of fresh oysters were deteriorated as irradiation doses increased, and sensory scores of the samples irradiated with doses higher than 2 kGy were significantly decreased

  13. The ecology of intertidal oyster reefs of the South Atlantic Coast: A community profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Leonard M.; Lanier, William P.

    1981-01-01

    The functional role of the intertidal oyster reef community in the southeastern Atlantic coastal zone is described. This description is based on a compilation of published data, as well as some unpublished information presented as hypotheses. The profile is organized in a hierarchical manner, such that relevant details of reef oyster biology (autecology) are presented, followed by a description of the reef community level of organization. Then the reef community is described as a subsystem of the coastal marsh-ecosystem (synecoloqy). This information is also synthesized in a series of nested conceptual models of oyster reefs at the regional level, the drainage basin level, and the individual reef level. The final chapter includes a summary overview and a section on management implications and guidelines. Intertidal oyster reefs are relatively persistent features of the salt marsh estuarine ecosystem in the southeastern Atlantic coastal zone. The average areal extent of the oyster reef subsystem in this larger ecosystem is relatively small (about 0.05%). This proportion does not reflect, however, the functional importance of the reef subsystem in stablizing the marsh, providing food for estuarine consumers, mineralizing organic matter, and providing firm substrates in this otherwise soft environment.

  14. Variability of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus densities in northern Gulf of Mexico water and oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, A M; DePaola, A; Bowers, J C; Krantz, J A; Nordstrom, J L; Johnson, C N; Grimes, D J

    2007-12-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is indigenous to coastal environments and a frequent cause of seafood-borne gastroenteritis in the United States, primarily due to raw-oyster consumption. Previous seasonal-cycle studies of V. parahaemolyticus have identified water temperature as the strongest environmental predictor. Salinity has also been identified, although it is evident that its effect on annual variation is not as pronounced. The effects of other environmental factors, both with respect to the seasonal cycle and intraseasonal variation, are uncertain. This study investigated intraseasonal variations of densities of total and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus organisms in oysters and overlying waters during the summer of 2004 at two sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Regression analyses indicated significant associations (P turbidity in water and in oysters at the Mississippi site but not at the Alabama site. Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus organisms in Mississippi oyster and water samples were detected in 56% (9 out of 16) and 78% (43 out of 55) of samples, respectively. In contrast, 44% (7 out of 16) of oyster samples and 30% (14 out of 47) of water samples from Alabama were positive. At both sites, there was greater sample-to-sample variability in pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus densities than in total V. parahaemolyticus densities. These data suggest that, although total V. parahaemolyticus densities may be very informative, there is greater uncertainty when total V. parahaemolyticus densities are used to predict the risk of infection by pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus than previously recognized.

  15. Testing the effect of habitat structure and complexity on nekton assemblages using experimental oyster reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Austin T.; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Kimball, Matthew E.; Rozas, Lawrence P.

    2011-01-01

    Structurally complex habitats are often associated with more diverse and abundant species assemblages in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Biogenic reefs formed by the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) are complex in nature and are recognized for their potential habitat value in estuarine systems along the US Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Few studies, however, have examined the response of nekton to structural complexity within oyster reefs. We used a quantitative sampling technique to examine how the presence and complexity of experimental oyster reefs influence the abundance, biomass, and distribution of nekton by sampling reefs 4 months and 16 months post-construction. Experimental oyster reefs were colonized immediately by resident fishes and decapod crustaceans, and reefs supported a distinct nekton assemblage compared to mud-bottom habitat. Neither increased reef complexity, nor age of the experimental reef resulted in further changes in nekton assemblages or increases in nekton abundance or diversity. The presence of oyster reefs per se was the most important factor determining nekton usage.

  16. Microplastics in oysters Saccostrea cucullata along the Pearl River Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng-Xiang; Ma, Li-Sha; Lin, Lang; Ni, Zhi-Xin; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Shi, Hua-Hong; Yan, Yan; Zheng, Guang-Ming; Rittschof, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    As a transitional zone between riverine and marine environments, an estuary plays an important role for the sources, accumulation and transport of microplastics. Although estuarine environments are hotspots of microplastic pollution, the correlation between microplastic pollution and aquatic organisms is less known. Here we investigated microplastic pollution in wild oysters Saccostrea cucullata from 11 sampling sites along the Pearl River Estuary in South China. The microplastic abundances in oysters ranged from 1.4 to 7.0 items per individual or from 1.5 to 7.2 items per gram tissue wet weight, which were positively related to those in surrounding waters. The oysters near urban areas contained significantly more microplastics than those near rural areas. Fibers accounted for 69.4% of the total microplastics in oysters. Microplastic sizes varied from 20 to 5000 μm and 83.9% of which were less than 100 μm. Light color microplastics were significantly more common than dark color ones. Based on the results, oysters are recommended as a biomonitor for the microplastic pollution in estuaries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in the microbiological quality of mangrove oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana) during different storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanhini, Maike Taís Maziero; Montanhini Neto, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of temperature and period of postharvest storage on the microbiological quality and shelf life of raw mangrove oysters, Crassostrea brasiliana. A total of 150 dozen oysters were collected directly from the points of extraction or cultivation in southern Brazil, and in the laboratory, they were stored raw at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C for 1, 4, 8, 11, and 15 days. On each of these days, the oysters were subjected to microbiological analyses of aerobic mesophilic count, total coliforms, enterococci, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella. None of the tested samples under any storage condition showed contamination levels above those allowed by Brazilian legislation for E. coli, S. aureus, and Salmonella, and there was no change (P > 0.05) in the counts of these microorganisms due to the temperature and/or period of oyster storage. Counts of enterococci and total coliforms showed a tendency to increase (P mangrove oysters remain in safe microbiological conditions for consumption up to 8 days after harvesting, regardless of temperature, and their shelf life may be extended to 15 days if they are stored at temperatures not exceeding 15°C.

  18. Distribution and survival of Vibrio vulnificus genotypes in postharvest Gulf Coast (USA) oysters under refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, R R; Arias, C R

    2012-07-01

      The effect of refrigeration on the seafood-borne pathogen Vibrio vulnificus was investigated in terms of genotype selection and persistence in refrigerated oysters.   Naturally occurring numbers of V. vulnificus in oysters from two different locations were compared during a 2-week period under refrigeration conditions. At different time points, V. vulnificus isolates were recovered from oysters and ascribed to 16S rRNA gene type A, B or AB using restriction fragment length polymorphism. Initial V. vulnificus numbers were higher than 10(4) most probable number (MPN) g(-1) and remained unchanged throughout the duration of the study. 16S rRNA gene type B isolates accounted for 53% of the isolates recovered. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis confirmed the high genetic variability previously observed within this species but revealed the presence of two main genetic groups within the species that matched 16S rRNA gene ascription.   Vibrio vulnificus numbers in oysters did not significantly declined over the shelf life of the product and refrigeration did not select for specific V. vulnificus types.   The prevalence of V. vulnificus 16S rRNA gene type B in oysters was higher than previously reported from the same geographic area and was not significantly reduced during the storage period. Vibrio vulnificus is divided into two clear genotypes, regardless of the genetic marker used. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Accumulation of heavy metals by flat tree-oyster isognomon alatus, in Sepang River, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saed, K.; Ismail, A.

    1999-01-01

    Zinc, copper and cadmium were studied in flat tree-oysters from the estuary of Sepang River which receives effluent from pig farm and other human activities. Oysters were collected from six stations along the river in August 1998, and the soft tissue of individuals were analyses. The results showed that concentrations of these metals are in the range of 97.78 - 598.40 μgg -1 for zinc, 1 1. 2 8-49.24 μgg -1 for copper and 0.41 - 7.74 μgg -1 for cadmium. Oysters sampled close to pig farm appeared to have significantly (p<0.01) higher mean concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cd than the other oysters. Zinc, cadmium and copper concentrations in all stations studied are higher than the maximum permissible levels, except copper from three stations which are further from pig farm. So far there is no available data on heavy metals in oysters from Sepang River. These results can be a useful information for future studies. (Author)

  20. Microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of gamma-irradiated fresh oysters during storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Sek; Pak, Jae Nam; Park, Jin Gyu; Han, In Jun; Jung, Pil Mun; Song, Beaom Seok; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Jae Hun; Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sang Bae [Food and Risk Standardization Team, KFDA, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    The microbiological, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of gamma irradiated fresh oysters were evaluated regarding its shelf-life during refrigeration. Non-irradiated fresh oysters began to be putrefied after 14 days, while fresh oysters irradiated with 2 kGy showed 5.54 log CFU∙g-1 even after 28 days. Volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) value increased more rapidly in the non-irradiated sample than the irradiated samples during storage. Especially the VBN value of the non-irradiated sample was eight fold higher then that of the the sample irradiated with 2 kGy. The pH of the non-irradiated fresh oysters significantly decreased during storage while the samples irradiated with doses higher than 2 kGy showed no significant change. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value increased in all samples during a storage period, and gamma irradiation accelerated the increase of lipid oxidation. Sensory characteristics of fresh oysters were deteriorated as irradiation doses increased, and sensory scores of the samples irradiated with doses higher than 2 kGy were significantly decreased.

  1. Chronic or accidental exposure of oysters to norovirus: is there any difference in contamination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrone, Iole; Schaeffer, Julien; Ollivier, Joanna; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Pepe, Tiziana; Le Pendu, Jacques; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2013-03-01

    Bivalve molluscan shellfish such as oysters may be contaminated by human pathogens. Currently, the primary pathogens associated with shellfish-related outbreaks are noroviruses. This study was conducted to improve understanding of oyster bioaccumulation when oysters were exposed to daily contamination or one accidental contamination event, i.e., different modes of contamination. Oysters were contaminated with two representative strains of norovirus (GI.1 and GII.3) and then analyzed with real-time reverse transcription PCR. Exposure to a repeated virus dose for 9 days (mimicking a growing area subjected to frequent sewage contamination) led to an additive accumulation that was not significantly different from that obtained when the same total dose of virus was added all at once (as may happen after accidental sewage discharge). Similarly, bioaccumulation tests performed with mixed strains revealed additive accumulation of both viruses. Depuration may not be efficient for eliminating viruses; therefore, to prevent contaminated shellfish from being put onto the market, continuous sanitary monitoring must be considered. All climatic events or sewage failures occurring in production areas must be recorded, because repeated low-dose exposure or abrupt events may lead to similar levels of accumulation. This study contributes to an understanding of norovirus accumulation in oysters and provides suggestions for risk management strategies.

  2. Ostreid herpesvirus in wild oysters from the Huelva coast (SW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sanmartín, M; López-Fernández, J R; Cunha, M E; De la Herrán, R; Navas, J I

    2016-08-09

    This is the first report of ostreid herpesvirus 1 microvariant (OsHV-1 µVar) infecting natural oyster beds located in Huelva (SW Spain). The virus was detected in 3 oyster species present in the intertidal zone: Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793), C. angulata (Lamarck, 1819) and, for the first time, in Ostrea stentina Payraudeau, 1826. Oysters were identified by a specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and posterior restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis based on cytochrome oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial DNA. Results confirmed that C. angulata still remains the dominant oyster population in SW Spain despite the introduction of C. gigas for cultivation in the late 1970s, and its subsequent naturalization. C. angulata shows a higher haplotype diversity than C. gigas. OsHV-1 virus was detected by PCR with C2/C6 pair primers. Posterior RFLP analyses with the restriction enzyme MfeI were done in order to reveal the OsHV-1 µVar. Detections were confirmed by DNA sequencing, and infections were evidenced by in situ hybridization in C. gigas, C. angulata and O. stentina samples. The prevalence was similar among the 3 oyster species but varied between sampling locations, being higher in areas with greater harvesting activities. OsHV-1 µVar accounted for 93% of all OsHV-1 detected.

  3. Measuring Macrobenthos Biodiversity at Oyster Aquaculture Sites in the Delaware Inland Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuoco, M. J.; Ozbay, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Delaware Inland Bays consists of three shallow coastal bays located in the southern portion of Delaware. Anthropogenic activities have led to the degradation of water quality, because the bays are surrounded by highly developed areas and have low flushing rates. This results in loss of biodiversity and abundance of organisms. Ongoing degradation of the bays has led to a dramatic decline in local oyster populations since the late 1800s. Oysters are keystone species, which provide habitats for organisms and help to improve water quality. This study aims to find if the introduction of oyster aquaculture improves local biodiversity and abundance of macrobenthos. The study was conducted in Rehoboth Bay, Indian River Bay and Little Assawoman Bay. Aquaculture gear was placed at one location in each of the bays and 24 sediment core samples were taken once a month. From these core samples all worms were fixed and stained in a 10% Formalin Rose Bengal solution and preserved in 70% Ethanol for later identification. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of oyster tissue will also be performed to assess the health of the bay. The goals of this research are to better understand the role of oyster aquaculture in restoring the viability and health of the Delaware Inland Bays.

  4. Effective preservation techniques to prolong the shelf life of ready-to-eat oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cristina; Conte, Amalia; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    Oysters have a high commercial value but owing to their short shelf life are generally commercialized as raw material within very restricted market borders. A step-by-step optimization approach was used in this work to design ready-to-eat oyster packaging. In particular, six different steps were carried out in order to extend their shelf life. The concentration of sodium alginate to realize a coating that was effective in terms of easy peeling and ability in preventing product dehydration was optimized. Coated oysters were packaged under different modified atmosphere (MAP) conditions to find the best MAP. Subsequently, to further promote product preservation, sodium acetate was selected as an effective antimicrobial agent to be applied by dipping treatment prior to coating. All preservation strategies singly tested were finally combined to assess the shelf life prolongation of ready-to-eat oysters. Dipping in sodium acetate (10 g L⁻¹), coating with sodium alginate (40 g L⁻¹) and packaging under MAP (0:75 O₂:CO₂) represent the best conditions to guarantee a significant shelf life extension to about 160 h compared with 57 h for unpackaged oysters. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Occurrence of Proteus mirabilis associated with two species of venezuelan oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Delgado, Milagro; Contreras, Monica; García-Amado, María Alexandra; Gueneau, Pulchérie; Suárez, Paula

    2007-01-01

    The fecal contamination of raw seafood by indicators and opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms represents a public health concern. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of enteric bacteria colonizing oysters collected from a Venezuelan touristic area. Oyster samples were collected at the northwestern coast of Venezuela and local salinity, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen of seawater were recorded. Total and fecal coliforms were measured for the assessment of the microbiological quality of water and oysters, using the Multiple Tube Fermentation technique. Analyses were made using cultures and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Diverse enrichment and selective culture methods were used to isolate enteric bacteria. We obtained pure cultures of Gram-negative straight rods with fimbriae from Isognomon alatus and Crassostrea rhizophorae. Our results show that P. mirabilis was predominant under our culture conditions. We confirmed the identity of the cultures by biochemical tests, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and data analysis. Other enterobacteria such as Escherichia coli, Morganella morganii and Klebsiella pneumoniae were also isolated from seawater and oysters. The presence of pathogenic bacteria in oysters could have serious epidemiological implications and a potential human health risk associated with consumption of raw seafood.

  6. Ice immersion as a postharvest treatment of oysters for the reduction of Vibrio vulnificus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Ana C; Smith, James G; Rodrick, Gary E; Wright, Anita C

    2005-06-01

    Vibrio vulnificus produces serious illnesses that are commonly associated with shellfish consumption, particularly raw oysters. Ingestion can result in fatal septicemia in susceptible individuals with hepatitis, cirrhosis, immune dysfunction, diabetes, or hemochromatosis (metabolic iron overload). Therefore, postharvest treatments to reduce vibrio levels in oysters have been recommended. In this study, rapid chilling by immersion of unwashed whole oysters in ice for 3 h was assessed as a postharvest treatment for reduction of V. vulnificus. Treated oysters were subsequently refrigerated at 45 degrees F (7.2 degrees C), whereas control oysters were not iced but were maintained at 45 degrees F throughout the study. Homogenized meats were monitored for total heterotrophic aerobic bacteria, V. vulnificus, and fecal coliform content before and after treatment over a 2-week period. V. vulnificus was enumerated by DNA probe hybridization of colonies from standard plate counts on nonselective medium, and recovery was compared for several media. Loss of plating efficiency was observed on standard selective and differential media compared with nonselective agars. Numbers of V. vulnificus generally declined in treated samples compared with controls; however, increases in total heterotrophic bacteria and fecal coliforms were also observed in treated samples at some time points. This study does not support the use of ice immersion as a postharvest method because of the relatively small declines in V. vulnificus numbers and the possibility of concomitant increases in fecal coliform and total bacterial contamination.

  7. Oral bioaccessibility of toxic metals in contaminated oysters and relationships with metal internal sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shi; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2014-12-01

    The Hong Kong oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis are widely farmed in the estuarine waters of Southern China, but they accumulate Cu and Zn to alarmingly high concentrations in the soft tissues. Health risks of seafood consumption are related to contaminants such as toxic metals which are bioaccessible to humans. In the present study, we investigated the oral bioaccessibility of five toxic metals (Ag, Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn) in contaminated oysters collected from different locations of a large estuary in southern China. In all oysters, total Zn concentration was the highest whereas total Pb concentration was the lowest. Among the five metals, Ag had the lowest oral bioaccessibility (38.9-60.8%), whereas Cu and Zn had the highest bioaccessibility (72.3-93.1%). Significant negative correlation was observed between metal bioaccessibility and metal concentration in the oysters for Ag, Cd, and Cu. We found that the oral bioaccessibility of the five metals was positively correlated with their trophically available metal fraction (TAM) in the oyster tissues, and negatively correlated with metal distribution in the cellular debris. Thus, metal partitioning in the TAM and cellular debris controlled the oral bioaccessibility to humans. Given the dependence of oral bioaccessibility on tissue metal contamination, bioaccessibility needs to be incorporated in the risk assessments of contaminated shellfish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of Dredged Oyster Shell Deposits at Mobile Bay, Alabama Using Geophysical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley C. Nwokebuihe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for disposing materials dredged from ship channels is a common problem in bays and lagoons. This study is aimed at investigating the suitability of scour features produced by dredging oyster shell deposits in Mobile Bay, Alabama, to dispose excavated channel material. A study area approximately 740 by 280 m lying about 5 km east of Gaillard Island was surveyed using underwater electrical resistivity tomography (UWERT and continuous electrical resistivity profiling (CERP tools. The geophysical survey was conducted with the intent to map scour features created by oyster shell dredging activities in the bay between 1947 and 1982. The geoelectrical surveys show that oyster beds are characterized by high resistivity values greater than 1.1 ohm.m while infilled dredge cuts show lower resistivity, generally from 0.6 to 1.1 ohm.m. The difference in resistivity mainly reflects the lithology and the consolidation of the shallow sediments: consolidated silty clay and sandy sediments rich in oyster shell deposits (with less clay content overlying unconsolidated clayey materials infilling the scours. Results show that most of the infilled dredge cuts are mostly distributed in the north-south direction. Considering that the scours are generally up to 6 m deep across the survey location, it is estimated that about 0.8 million cubic meters of oyster shells and overlying strata were dredged from the survey location.

  9. A 1-year investigation of the parasite Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX) in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas from Dayaowan Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongwei; Lu, Xin; Liang, Yubo

    2010-06-01

    The infection prevalence of the protozoan parasite Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX) in Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas), collected from Dayaowan Bay on the north coast of the Yellow Sea, China, was investigated in 2007. The traditional histological method of diagnosing H. nelsoni infection in oysters was compared to that of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Histology and the first PCR analysis detected infection in 21 (a total of 240 oysters) (8.75%) oysters, and the second PCR revealed infection in 26 oysters (10.83%). Only local or epithelial infections were found; no systemic infections were detected. Infection by H. nelsoni mostly occurred from April through October, and the monthly prevalence ranged from 5% to 25%, with a peak in August. These results suggest that the prevalence of the parasite is low in Dayaowan Bay. The prevalence of H. nelsoni is thought to be controlled in some way by temperature and salinity.

  10. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in oysters from the southern coast of Korea: assessment of potential risk to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Jong Soo; Yoo, Hyun Duk; Kim, Poong Ho; Yoon, Ho Dong; Park, Young Cheol; Lee, Tae Seek; Kwon, Ji Young; Son, Kwang Tae; Lee, Hee Jung; Ha, Kwang Soo; Shim, Kil Bo; Kim, Ji Hoe

    2015-06-01

    From 2009 to 2013, 80 oyster and 16 seawater samples were collected from the southern coast of Korea, including designated shellfish growing areas for export. The concentrations and bioaccumulation of heavy metals were determined, and a potential risk assessment was conducted to evaluate their hazards towards human consumption. The cadmium (Cd) concentration in oysters was the highest of three hazardous metals, including Cd, lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg), however, below the standards set by various countries. The metal bioaccumulation ratio in oysters was relatively high for zinc and Cd but low for Hg, Pb, arsenic, and chromium. The estimated dietary intakes of all heavy metals for oysters accounted for 0.02%-17.75% of provisional tolerable daily intake. The hazard index for all samples was far oysters do not pose an appreciable hazard to humans for the metal pollutants of study.

  11. Larvae of commercial  and other oyster species in Thailand (Andaman Sea and Gulf of Thailand)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussarawit, Somchai; Cedhagen, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    The development of larvae of some Thai commercial oyster species (Crassostrea belcheri (Sowerby, 1871), Crassostrea bilineata (Röding, 1798), Saccostrea forskali (Gmelin, 1791) and Dendrostrea folium (Linnaeus, 1758)) is described from newly hatched to the settlement stage with particular...... reference to changes in shell morphology. Planktonic oyster larvae were collected in the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand. Different species of oyster larvae were found in the genera Crassostrea, Saccostrea, Ostrea, Dendrostrea, Nanostrea, Planostrea, Lopha, and Hyotissa. Detailed morphological...... descriptions and measurements are provided. Diagnostic features of the larval shape, hinge teeth, and prodissoconch sizes were identified in order to allow separation of commercial oyster larvae from other oyster species in Thai waters. Brooding species (incubatory) of the subfamilies Ostreinae (Ostrea...

  12. Larvae of the Commercial Tropical Oyster Crassostrea belcheri (Sowerby) are induced to settle by Pheromones from the Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussarawit, Somchai; Cedhagen, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Pediveliger larvae of the commercial tropical oyster Crassostrea belcheri were allowed to settle under different conditions. Two types of seawater were used for the experiments: aged seawater (1 month) and aged seawater conditioned by the presence of adult oysters for 24 hours. Two groups of five...... other species within the same genus or from a different genus. Settling frequency was increased by the presence of living oysters together with soaked spatfall collectors in commercial aquaculture. The fact that larvae are induced to settle by pheromones released from the adults is an important...... mechanism that favours the gregariousness of the oysters in nature. Settling behaviour of oyster larvae was observed and the behaviour of the three main stages was described: free swimming searching stage, crawling stage and cementing stage....

  13. 75 FR 3195 - Ochoco National Forest, Lookout Mountain Ranger District; Oregon; Mill Creek; Allotment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ...; Oregon; Mill Creek; Allotment Management Plans EIS AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent... allotments on the Lookout Mountain Ranger District. These four allotments are: Cox, Craig, Mill Creek, and..., Mill Creek and Old Dry Creek allotments. The responsible official will also decide how to mitigate...

  14. Seasonal variation in mitochondrial responses to cadmium and temperature in eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin) from different latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherkasov, A.S. [Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC (United States); Taylor, C. [Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC (United States); Johnson C. Smith University, 100 Beatties Ford Rd., Charlotte, NC 28216 (United States); Sokolova, I.M., E-mail: isokolov@uncc.edu [Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an important environmental pollutant that can lead to impairment of cellular functions, energy misbalance and negatively impact survival in estuarine organisms including oysters. Like other marine bivalves, oysters can accumulate high Cd burdens in their tissues and are susceptible to the toxic effects of this metal. Presently, the factors that affect sensitivity to Cd toxicity and its variation in wild oyster populations are poorly understood. We analyzed geographical and seasonal variability of mitochondrial responses to elevated temperatures and Cd stress in eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica from populations adapted to different thermal regimes (subtropical Texas (TX), warm temperate North Carolina (NC) and cold temperate Washington (WA) areas). Seasonality had a strong effect on mitochondrial function in oysters from the two studied southern populations (TX and NC) but not in their northern (WA) counterparts, with decreased mitochondrial abundance and increased rates of mitochondrial proton leak in gill tissues of TX and NC oysters in summer. Compared to WA oysters, oysters from the two southern populations accumulated Cd faster in their tissues, and their mitochondria were more sensitive to Cd inhibition in resting and ADP-stimulated states at 20 and 28 {sup o}C. At 12 {sup o}C, inter-populational differences in Cd accumulation rates and sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to Cd were not significant. Within each of the three studied populations, sensitivity of mitochondrial ADP-stimulated respiration to Cd inhibition increased with increasing temperatures (28 > 20 > 12 {sup o}C). This indicates that oysters from the two southern sites may be more vulnerable to Cd toxicity due to exposure to high environmental temperatures in summer, elevated rates of Cd accumulation and high intrinsic sensitivity of their mitochondria to Cd. This study suggests that data on sensitivity to pollutants obtained for one population of oysters should be

  15. A Restoration Suitability Index Model for the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) in the Mission-Aransas Estuary, TX, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beseres Pollack, Jennifer; Cleveland, Andrew; Palmer, Terence A.; Reisinger, Anthony S.; Montagna, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Oyster reefs are one of the most threatened marine habitats on earth, with habitat loss resulting from water quality degradation, coastal development, destructive fishing practices, overfishing, and storm impacts. For successful and sustainable oyster reef restoration efforts, it is necessary to choose sites that support long-term growth and survival of oysters. Selection of suitable sites is critically important as it can greatly influence mortality factors and may largely determine the ultimate success of the restoration project. The application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) provides an effective methodology for identifying suitable sites for oyster reef restoration and removes much of the uncertainty involved in the sometimes trial and error selection process. This approach also provides an objective and quantitative tool for planning future oyster reef restoration efforts. The aim of this study was to develop a restoration suitability index model and reef quality index model to characterize locations based on their potential for successful reef restoration within the Mission-Aransas Estuary, Texas, USA. The restoration suitability index model focuses on salinity, temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, and depth, while the reef quality index model focuses on abundance of live oysters, dead shell, and spat. Size-specific Perkinsus marinus infection levels were mapped to illustrate general disease trends. This application was effective in identifying suitable sites for oyster reef restoration, is flexible in its use, and provides a mechanism for considering alternative approaches. The end product is a practical decision-support tool that can be used by coastal resource managers to improve oyster restoration efforts. As oyster reef restoration activities continue at small and large-scales, site selection criteria are critical for assisting stakeholders and managers and for maximizing long-term sustainability of oyster resources. PMID:22792410

  16. Developing tools for the study of molluscan immunity: The sequencing of the genome of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Chiarri, Marta; Warren, Wesley C; Guo, Ximing; Proestou, Dina

    2015-09-01

    The eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, provides important ecological and economical services, making it the target of restoration projects and supporting a significant fishery/aquaculture industry with landings valued at more than $100 million in 2012 in the United States of America. Due to the impact of infectious diseases on wild, restored, and cultured populations, the eastern oyster has been the focus of studies on host-pathogen interactions and immunity, as well as the target of selective breeding efforts for disease resistant oyster lines. Despite these efforts, relatively little is known about the genetic basis of resistance to diseases or environmental stress, not only in eastern oyster, but also in other molluscan species of commercial interest worldwide. In order to develop tools and resources to assist in the elucidation of the genomic basis of traits of commercial, biological, and ecological interest in oysters, a team of genome and bioinformatics experts, in collaboration with the oyster research community, is sequencing, assembling, and annotating the first reference genome for the eastern oyster and producing an exhaustive transcriptome from a variety of oyster developmental stages and tissues in response to a diverse set of environmentally-relevant stimuli. These transcriptomes and reference genome for the eastern oyster, added to the already available genome and transcriptomes for the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and other bivalve species, will be an essential resource for the discovery of candidate genes and markers associated with traits of commercial, biological, and ecologic importance in bivalve molluscs, including those related to host-pathogen interactions and immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cellular and biochemical responses of the oyster Crassostrea gigas to controlled exposures to metals and Alexandrium minutum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberkorn, Hansy; Lambert, Christophe; Le Goïc, Nelly [Laboratoire des Sciences de l‘Environnement Marin, UMR 6539, Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Place Copernic, Technopôle Brest-Iroise, 29280 Plouzané (France); Quéré, Claudie [IFREMER Centre de Brest, Laboratoire de Physiologie des Invertébrés, Unité Physiologie Fonctionnelle des Organismes Marins, BP 70, 29280 Plouzané (France); Bruneau, Audrey; Riso, Ricardo; Auffret, Michel [Laboratoire des Sciences de l‘Environnement Marin, UMR 6539, Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Place Copernic, Technopôle Brest-Iroise, 29280 Plouzané (France); Soudant, Philippe, E-mail: Philippe.Soudant@univ-brest.fr [Laboratoire des Sciences de l‘Environnement Marin, UMR 6539, Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Place Copernic, Technopôle Brest-Iroise, 29280 Plouzané (France)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: •Oysters, C. gigas, were exposed to both metals and PST-producer A. minutum. •Oysters exposed to metals accumulated about thirty-six times less PSTs. •Exposure to both metals and A. minutum induced antagonistic or synergetic effects. -- Abstract: Effects of simultaneous exposure of Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, to both a harmful dinoflagellate that produces Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PST), Alexandrium minutum, and cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu), were assessed. Oysters were exposed to a mix of Cd–Cu with two different diets (i.e. A. minutum or Tisochrysis lutea) and compared to control oysters fed A. minutum or T. lutea, respectively, without metal addition. Metals and PST accumulations, digestive gland lipid composition, and cellular and biochemical hemolymph variables were measured after 4 days of exposure. Oysters exposed to Cd–Cu accumulated about thirty-six times less PSTs than oysters exposed to A. minutum alone. Exposure to Cd–Cu induced significant changes in neutral lipids (increase in diacylglycerol – DAG – and decrease in sterols) and phospholipids (decreases in phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, cardiolipin and ceramide aminoethylphosphonate) of digestive gland suggesting that lipid metabolism disruptions and/or lipid peroxidation have occurred. Simultaneously, concentrations, percentages of dead cells and phenoloxidase activity of hemocytes increased in oysters exposed to metals while reactive oxygen species production of hemocytes decreased. Feeding on the harmful dinoflagellate A. minutum resulted in significant decreases in monoacylglycerol (MAG) and DAG and ether glycerides (EG), as well as significant increases in hemocyte concentration and phagocytic activity as compared to oysters fed T. lutea. Finally, the present study revealed that short-term, simultaneous exposure to Cd–Cu and A. minutum may induce antagonistic (i.e. hemocyte concentration and phagocytosis) or synergic (i.e. DAG content in

  18. Seasonal variation in mitochondrial responses to cadmium and temperature in eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin) from different latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherkasov, A.S.; Taylor, C.; Sokolova, I.M.

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an important environmental pollutant that can lead to impairment of cellular functions, energy misbalance and negatively impact survival in estuarine organisms including oysters. Like other marine bivalves, oysters can accumulate high Cd burdens in their tissues and are susceptible to the toxic effects of this metal. Presently, the factors that affect sensitivity to Cd toxicity and its variation in wild oyster populations are poorly understood. We analyzed geographical and seasonal variability of mitochondrial responses to elevated temperatures and Cd stress in eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica from populations adapted to different thermal regimes (subtropical Texas (TX), warm temperate North Carolina (NC) and cold temperate Washington (WA) areas). Seasonality had a strong effect on mitochondrial function in oysters from the two studied southern populations (TX and NC) but not in their northern (WA) counterparts, with decreased mitochondrial abundance and increased rates of mitochondrial proton leak in gill tissues of TX and NC oysters in summer. Compared to WA oysters, oysters from the two southern populations accumulated Cd faster in their tissues, and their mitochondria were more sensitive to Cd inhibition in resting and ADP-stimulated states at 20 and 28 o C. At 12 o C, inter-populational differences in Cd accumulation rates and sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to Cd were not significant. Within each of the three studied populations, sensitivity of mitochondrial ADP-stimulated respiration to Cd inhibition increased with increasing temperatures (28 > 20 > 12 o C). This indicates that oysters from the two southern sites may be more vulnerable to Cd toxicity due to exposure to high environmental temperatures in summer, elevated rates of Cd accumulation and high intrinsic sensitivity of their mitochondria to Cd. This study suggests that data on sensitivity to pollutants obtained for one population of oysters should be extrapolated to

  19. The effect of a novel photodynamic activation method mediated by curcumin on oyster shelf life and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Li, Zhaojie; Cao, Binbin; Wu, Juan; Wang, Yuming; Xue, Yong; Xu, Jie; Xue, Changhu; Tang, Qing Juan

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the effect of photodynamic method mediated by curcumin (PDT) on the shelf life and quality of pacific oysters during storage at 5±1°C were analyzed. In our previous study we investigated the optimal treatment conditions of photodynamic method mediated by curcumin to sterilization were 10uM photosensitizer concentration and 5.4J/cm 2 light energy density. Under these conditions, the effect of a novel photodynamic activation method mediated by curcumin on oyster shelf life and quality was researched. The total bacterial counts, TVB-N content and sensory analysis were used to evaluate the effects on oyster shelf life. The oyster shelf life was prolonged from 8days to 12days after photodynamic treatment and the oysters in the treatment group displayed notable odor retention, produced fewer odor corrupting substances when the control group oysters reached the end of their shelf life (day 8). Texture, free amino acid contents and fatty acid levels were applied to estimate the quality of the treated oysters. The texture had no significant change after treated with PDT. At the end of oyster shelf life, compared PDT group (PDT) with control group (control), total free amino acid contents (control: 234.30mg/100g, PDT: 813.02mg/100g) was higher and free fatty acid levels (control: 0.071mEq/L, PDT: 0.0455mEq/L) displayed lower in PDT group. This indicated that the treated oysters oxidized minimally, decayed slowly, decomposed fewer nutrients and had lower metabolic levels of spoilage microorganisms. PDT has a positive effect on prolonging oyster shelf life and its quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bereavement rituals in the Muscogee Creek tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Andrea C; Balk, David E

    2007-08-01

    A qualitative, collective case study explores bereavement rituals in the Muscogee Creek tribe. Data from interviews with 27 participants, all adult members of the tribe, revealed consensus on participation in certain bereavement rituals. Common rituals included: (a) conducting a wake service the night before burial; (b) never leaving the body alone before burial; (c) enclosing personal items and food in the casket; (d) digging graves by hand; (e) each individual throwing a handful of dirt into the grave before covering, called giving a "farewell handshake"; (f) covering the grave completely by hand; (g) building a house over the grave; (h) waiting 4 days before burial; (i) using medicine/purification; and (j) adhering to socialized mourning period. Cultural values of family, community, religion, importance of the number 4, Indian medicine, and the meaning of death contributed to the development of these rituals.