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  1. Pressure Sores

    Pressure sores are areas of damaged skin caused by staying in one position for too long. They commonly ... wheelchair, or are unable to change your position. Pressure sores can cause serious infections, some of which are ...

  2. Canker sore

    ... under one third inch or 1 centimeter across) Gray color as healing starts Less common symptoms include: ... Aphthous ulcer; Ulcer - aphthous Images Canker sore Mouth anatomy Canker sore (aphthous ulcer) Fever blister References Bope ...

  3. Mouth sores

    ... To help cold sores or fever blisters, you can also apply ice to the sore. You may reduce your chance of getting common mouth sores by: Avoiding very hot foods or beverages Reducing stress and practicing relaxation techniques like yoga or meditation ...

  4. Canker Sores

    ... mouth that move, such as the tongue, soft palate, cheeks, and lips. This condition is recurrent because ... week. Most of the time, canker sores are self-limiting. This means that they will go away ...

  5. Sore Throat

    ... as those that cause colds, the flu, and mononucleosis) can lead to a sore throat. Bacteria (such ... to the valves of the heart. What is mononucleosis? Mononucleosis (mono) is a viral infection caused by ...

  6. Cold Sore

    ... may reduce how often they return. Symptoms A cold sore usually passes through several stages: Tingling and itching. Many people feel an itching, burning or tingling sensation around their lips for a day or so ...

  7. Canker Sores

    ... lack of vitamins and minerals, hormonal changes or menstrual periods. In some cases the cause is unknown. In most cases, the sores go away by themselves. Some ointments, creams or rinses may help with the pain. Avoiding hot, spicy food while you have a ...

  8. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Full Text Available ... play_arrow What is "sepsis," and why is it dangerous? play_arrow How common are pressure sores ... likely to develop pressure sores? play_arrow Is it true that a pressure sore can develop in ...

  9. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Full Text Available ... of a pressure sore required? play_arrow How long is the typical healing time for a pressure ... arrow Why do some pressure sores take so long to heal? play_arrow Can a pressure sore ...

  10. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores ... sores? What is a Spinal Cord Injury? SCI Medical Experts People Living With SCI Personal Experiences By ...

  11. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Full Text Available ... Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to Home ...

  12. Preventing Pressure Sores

    ... and how can it be increased? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to know about pressure sores? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to do to prevent pressure sores? play_ ...

  13. Pharyngitis - sore throat

    ... A streptococcus. Less commonly, bacterial diseases such as gonorrhea and chlamydia can cause sore throat. Most cases ... physical exam alone. A culture for chlamydia or gonorrhea is positive. Sore throat caused by the flu ( ...

  14. Genital sores - male

    Sores - male genitals; Ulcers - male genitals ... A common cause of male genital sores are infections that are spread through sexual contact, such as: Genital herpes (small, painful blisters filled with clear ...

  15. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Full Text Available ... play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to know about pressure sores? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to do to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow ...

  16. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Full Text Available ... increased? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to know about pressure sores? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to do to prevent pressure sores? play_ ...

  17. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Full Text Available ... especially prone to pressure sores? play_arrow What parts of the body are most likely to develop ... play_arrow How long is the typical healing time for a pressure sore? play_arrow Why do ...

  18. Taking Care of Pressure Sores

    ... Tract Infections: Indwelling (Foley) Catheter Taking Care of Pressure Sores [Download this pamphlet: "Taking Care of Pressure Sores" - ( ... may not show up right away. Stages of pressure sores and how to care for them: STAGE ONE ...

  19. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Full Text Available ... cord injuries? play_arrow Why are pressure sores so serious? play_arrow What is "sepsis," and why ... pressure sores? play_arrow Why is pressure relief so important when sitting in a wheelchair? play_arrow ...

  20. ISCHIECTOMY FOR PRESSURE SORES

    Stern, Mark; Cozen, Lewis; Aldes, John

    1960-01-01

    Ischiectomy with primary closure was carried out in five paraplegic patients with pressure sores. This operation, less extensive than the wide excision with full thickness graft that is now widely advocated, was successful in four of the five cases. In the fifth case none of the several attempts to heal the sores was in the least successful. PMID:18732351

  1. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Full Text Available ... and how can it be increased? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to know about pressure sores? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to do to prevent pressure sores? play_ ...

  2. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Full Text Available ... L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury ... do to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow What role does diet and hydration play in preventing pressure ...

  3. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Full Text Available ... play_arrow What parts of the body are most likely to develop pressure sores? play_arrow Is ... daily skin inspections? play_arrow What are the most important things for someone with a spinal cord ...

  4. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Full Text Available ... Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to Home Kim Eberhardt Muir, MS ... medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. ...

  5. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Full Text Available ... Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to Home Kim Eberhardt Muir, MS Coping with a New ... not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found ...

  6. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Full Text Available ... hours? play_arrow What's the best way to do daily skin inspections? play_arrow What are the ... for someone with a spinal cord injury to do to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow Why is ...

  7. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Full Text Available ... Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  8. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Full Text Available ... Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from ... Rosenberg, PsyD Understanding SCI Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa ...

  9. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Full Text Available ... Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  10. Antibiotics for sore throat.

    Spinks, Anneliese; Glasziou, Paul P; Del Mar, Chris B

    2013-11-05

    Sore throat is a common reason for people to present for medical care. Although it remits spontaneously, primary care doctors commonly prescribe antibiotics for it. To assess the benefits of antibiotics for sore throat for patients in primary care settings. We searched CENTRAL 2013, Issue 6, MEDLINE (January 1966 to July week 1, 2013) and EMBASE (January 1990 to July 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs of antibiotics versus control assessing typical sore throat symptoms or complications. Two review authors independently screened studies for inclusion and extracted data. We resolved differences in opinion by discussion. We contacted trial authors from three studies for additional information. We included 27 trials with 12,835 cases of sore throat. We did not identify any new trials in this 2013 update. 1. Symptoms Throat soreness and fever were reduced by about half by using antibiotics. The greatest difference was seen at day three. The number needed to treat to benefit (NNTB) to prevent one sore throat at day three was less than six; at week one it was 21. 2. Non-suppurative complications The trend was antibiotics protecting against acute glomerulonephritis but there were too few cases to be sure. Several studies found antibiotics reduced acute rheumatic fever by more than two-thirds within one month (risk ratio (RR) 0.27; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12 to 0.60). 3. Suppurative complications Antibiotics reduced the incidence of acute otitis media within 14 days (RR 0.30; 95% CI 0.15 to 0.58); acute sinusitis within 14 days (RR 0.48; 95% CI 0.08 to 2.76); and quinsy within two months (RR 0.15; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.47) compared to those taking placebo. 4. Subgroup analyses of symptom reduction Antibiotics were more effective against symptoms at day three (RR 0.58; 95% CI 0.48 to 0.71) if throat swabs were positive for Streptococcus, compared to RR 0.78; 95% CI 0.63 to 0.97 if negative. Similarly at week one the RR was 0.29 (95% CI 0.12 to 0

  11. Herpes Simplex Virus (Cold Sores)

    ... Print Share Cold Sores in Children: About the Herpes Simplex Virus Page Content ​A child's toddler and ... Cold sores (also called fever blisters or oral herpes) start as small blisters that form around the ...

  12. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Full Text Available ... arrow What's the best way to do daily skin inspections? play_arrow What are the most important ... to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow What is “skin tolerance” and how can it be increased? play_ ...

  13. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Full Text Available ... the most important thing to do to prevent pressure sores? What is a Spinal Cord Injury? SCI Medical Experts People Living With SCI Personal Experiences By Topic Resources Blog Peer Counseling About Media Donate Contact Us Terms of ...

  14. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Full Text Available ... arrow Is it true that a pressure sore can develop in a few hours? play_arrow What's ... play_arrow What is “skin tolerance” and how can it be increased? play_arrow What do family ...

  15. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Full Text Available ... cushion? play_arrow What’s important to know about positioning in bed to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow ... Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert ...

  16. Osteomyelitis beneath pressure sores

    Sugarman, B.; Hawes, S.; Musher, D.M.; Klima, M.; Young, E.J.; Pircher, F.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-eight pressure sores were evaluated prospectively. Osteomyelitis was reported histologically in nine of 28 bones and pressure-related changes were reported in 14 bones. Roentgenograms suggested the presence of osteomyelitis in four instances of histologically proved osteomyelitis. Technetium Tc 99m medronate bone scans were highly sensitive, showing increased uptake in all cases of osteomyelitis; however, increased uptake also occurred commonly in uninfected bones due to pressure-related changes or other noninfectious causes. Cultures of bone biopsy samples usually disclosed anaerobic bacteria, gram-negative bacilli, or both. The diagnosis of osteomyelitis must be considered if a pressure sore does not respond to local therapy. If the technetium Tc 99m medronate uptake is increased in the involved area, or roentgenographic findings are abnormal, the diagnosis can only be made with certainty by histologic examination of bone. Antibacterial treatment should be selected based on the results of bone culture

  17. How to care for pressure sores

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000740.htm How to care for pressure sores To use the sharing features on this page, ... Shoulders Back Back of head Caring for a Pressure Sore Stage I or II sores will heal if ...

  18. Pressure sores and hip fractures.

    Haleem, S; Heinert, G; Parker, M J

    2008-02-01

    Development of pressure sores during hospital admission causes morbidity and distress to the patient, increases strain on nursing resources, delaying discharge and possibly increasing mortality. A hip fracture in elderly patients is a known high-risk factor for development of pressure sores. We aimed to determine the current incidence of pressure sores and identify those factors which were associated with an increased risk of pressure sores. We retrospectively analysed prospectively collected data of 4654 consecutive patients admitted to a single unit. One hundred and seventy-eight (3.8%) of our patients developed pressure sores. Patient factors that increased the risk of pressure sores were increased age, diabetes mellitus, a lower mental test score, a lower mobility score, a higher ASA score, lower admission haemoglobin and an intra-operative drop in blood pressure. The risk was higher in patients with an extracapsular neck of femur fracture and patients with an increased time interval between admission to hospital and surgery. Our studies indicate that while co-morbidities constitute a substantial risk in an elderly population, the increase in incidence of pressure sores can be reduced by minimising delays to surgery.

  19. Sore Throat: Diagnosis and Treatment

    ... neck to check for swollen glands (lymph nodes) Listening to your or your child's breathing with a ... of your sore throat, these at-home care strategies can help you ease your symptoms: Rest. And ...

  20. Practical Management of Pressure Sores

    Jordan, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Pressure sores are common in the debilitated elderly. Causal factors are unrelieved pressure, shearing forces, friction, and moisture. Preventive measures should be used for all high-risk patients, defined by general condition, mental status, degree of incontinence, amount of activity, and mobility. Principles of treating ulcers include pressure relief, reducing bacterial counts, debriding necrotic tissue, and providing a moist, clean environment. Imagesp2385-ap2389-ap2392-a PMID:21221298

  1. Evidence-based medicine: pressure sores.

    Cushing, Carolyn A; Phillips, Linda G

    2013-12-01

    After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Cite risk factors for pressure sore development. 2. Detail the pathophysiology of pressure sores. 3. List the types and classification of pressure sores. 4. Consider the various nonsurgical conservative wound management strategies. 5. Describe the appropriate surgical interventions for each pressure sore type. 6. Understand the causes of recurrent pressure sores and methods of avoiding recurrence. Pressure sores are the result of unrelieved pressure, usually over a bony prominence. With an estimated 2.5 million pressure ulcers treated annually in the United States at a cost of $11 billion, pressure sores represent a costly and labor-intensive challenge to the health care system. A comprehensive team approach can address both prevention and treatment of these recalcitrant wounds. Consideration must be given to the patient's medical and socioeconomic condition, as these factors are significantly related to outcomes. Mechanical prophylaxis, nutritional optimization, treatment of underlying infection, and spasm control are essential in management. A variety of pressure sore patterns exist, with surgical approaches directed to maximize future coverage options. A comprehensive approach is detailed in this article to provide the reader with the range of treatment options available.

  2. [Sacral pressure sores and their treatment].

    Bielecki, Marek; Skowroński, Rafał; Skowroński, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Sacral bed sores still present a serious problem in most surgery departments. They occur mainly in elderly patients of limited mobility. The treatment of such sores extends over long periods of time and therefore involves considerable costs. The material consisted of 11 sacral pressure ulcers treated surgically. The sores occurred in 4 severely disabled patients suffering from proximal third femur fractures, 4 patients with traumatic brain injury (treated in the Intensive Care Unit), and 3 patients suffering from bed sores after spinal cord injury. In 6 patients a fasciocutaneous flap was applied to the sores and in 5 cases a pedicled musculocutaneous gluteus maximus flap. The end results were assessed using Seiler's criteria. Complications of the "seroma" type were observed in 3 patients, and in 2 marginal necrosis. In all our patients complete healing was achieved within 2-4 weeks. On analysing our experience to date in surgical treatment of bed sores we are of the opinion that even extensive sacral sores can be covered with unilateral pedicled flaps provided that they are appropriately planned. Deep sores of the 4th degree sometimes with concomitant osteomyelitis require pedicled muscle flaps or in some cases musculocutaneous flaps to improve local circulation. The preparation of the patient for reconstruction surgery is just as important as the operation itself and therefore such preparation should never be neglected.

  3. [Pressure sores in a university hospital].

    Barbut, Frédéric; Parzybut, Bérengère; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Neyme, Denis; Farid, Rachida; Kosmann, Marie-Jeanne; Luquel, Laurence

    2006-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of pressure sores, their risk factors, and the responsible microbial agents in an acute-care hospital and to evaluate their management. A prevalence survey was conducted from 5 July through 9 July 2004. Investigators completed a standardized questionnaire for each hospitalized patient, including demographic data (age, sex, previous hospitalizations, etc.) and Braden scale risk factors (sensory perception, humidity, activity, mobility, nutrition, and friction and shear). Two experts in skin care detected pressure sores by physical examination of the patients. Each pressure sore was swabbed and inoculated on selective media. Management was evaluated by reviewing the clinical charts of each patient with a pressure sore. The study included 535 adult patients (aged 59 +/- 19 years): 75 ulcer sores were observed in 37 patients (prevalence=6.9%). Stage I sores accounted for 24% of the total, stage II for 29%, stage III 31%, and stage IV 16%. The most frequent site was the heel (41%), followed by the sacrum (20%), elbow (11%), back (7%) and ischial tuberosities (7%). Sixty (80%) were acquired while hospitalized. Age-adjusted multivariate analyses found that the risk factors significantly associated with pressure sores were Braden scorepressure sores (OR=5.0 95% CI: 2.2-11.6, psores (24.5%), mostly stage III and IV, were colonized by multiple-drug-resistant bacteria (i.e., methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, extended spectrum beta-lactamase Enterobacteriaceae). Seven (9.3%) of the 75 ulcers were diagnosed only during the survey, by the experts; of the 68 diagnosed before the survey, 57 (83.8%) had been under treatment. Treatment was considered inappropriate according to French guidelines in 31.6% of the cases. This prospective prevalence study resulted in better awareness of the patients at risk for pressure sores. It also made the recently created mobile geriatrics unit better known within the hospital.

  4. FY1995 formation of a global database of color-related sensory values such as color cognition and color emotions and the research and development of a multimedia system for feedback of such values onto the color design of products and living environments; 1995 nendo shikisai ninchi ya shikisai kanjo nado, shikisai ni taisuru kannochi no kokusaiteki database no kochiku to, sore wo seihin oyobi seikatsu kankyo no shikisai sekkei ni han'eisaseru multimedia system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Research was conducted with the aim of provide small and medium enterprises as well as consumers with (1) information concerning color on a global scale and (2) technical support for the color planning of homes and apparel. (1) In 20 major countries (23 regions), color-related sensory evaluations were carried out and simultaneous fact-finding studies to investigate the use of colors in homes and apparel were conducted, after which a database was built containing color information according to country (region). (2) Using the above data together with data from color evaluation experiments, a model formula was obtained for measuring the amenity of colors. (3) This formula was employed to develop software for evaluating the amenity of colors by computer. (4) A multimedia system was built that permits shared use of the results of (1) through (3) above. (NEDO)

  5. FY1995 formation of a global database of color-related sensory values such as color cognition and color emotions and the research and development of a multimedia system for feedback of such values onto the color design of products and living environments; 1995 nendo shikisai ninchi ya shikisai kanjo nado, shikisai ni taisuru kannochi no kokusaiteki database no kochiku to, sore wo seihin oyobi seikatsu kankyo no shikisai sekkei ni han'eisaseru multimedia system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Research was conducted with the aim of provide small and medium enterprises as well as consumers with (1) information concerning color on a global scale and (2) technical support for the color planning of homes and apparel. (1) In 20 major countries (23 regions), color-related sensory evaluations were carried out and simultaneous fact-finding studies to investigate the use of colors in homes and apparel were conducted, after which a database was built containing color information according to country (region). (2) Using the above data together with data from color evaluation experiments, a model formula was obtained for measuring the amenity of colors. (3) This formula was employed to develop software for evaluating the amenity of colors by computer. (4) A multimedia system was built that permits shared use of the results of (1) through (3) above. (NEDO)

  6. [Options for flap coverage in pressure sores].

    Nae, S; Antohi, N; Stîngu, C; Stan, V; Parasca, S

    2010-01-01

    Despite improvements in reconstructive techniques for pressure sores, recurrences are still seen frequently, and success rate remains variable. During 2003 - 2007, at the Emergency Hospital for Plastic Surgery and Burns in Bucharest, 27 patients underwent surgical repair of 45 pressure sores located at sacral (22 ulcers), ischial (12 ulcers) and trochanteric (11 ulcers) regions. The mean patient age was 57, 1 years (range 26 to 82 years). Mean postoperative follow-up was 6 months (range 2 months - 2 years). There were 18 complications for the 45 sores (40%). At 6 months postoperatively, recurrence was noted in 12 ulcers (27%). Details regarding indications, contraindications, advantages and disadvantages for different coverage options are outlined. The authors advocate the importance of surgical coverage in reducing morbidity, mortality and treatment costs.

  7. Occipital pressure sores in two neonates.

    Liu, Yi; Xiao, Bin; Zhang, Cheng; Su, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    The preference for a specific head shape can be influenced by people's culture, religious beliefs and race. Modern Chinese people prefer a "talented" head shape, which is rounded and has a long profile. To obtain their preferred head shape, some parents try to change their neonates' sleeping position. Due to these forced sleeping positions, positional skull deformities, such as plagiocephaly, may be present during the first few months of life. In this article, we report two neonatal cases, of Hui nationality and Dongxiang nationality, with occipital pressure sores that were caused by using hard objects as pillows with the intention of obtaining a flattened occiput. The pressure sores were deep to the occipital bone and needed surgical management. These pressure sores caused wounds that were repaired by local skin flaps, after debridement, and the use of external constraints from a dense sponge-made head frame for approximately two weeks. One case recovered with primary healing after surgical operation. The other case suffered from a disruption of the sutured wound, and a secondary operation was performed to cover the wound. These occipital pressure sores are avoidable by providing guidance to the parents in ethnic minorities' area regarding the prevention, diagnosis and management of positional skull deformity.

  8. [Pressure sores unit--a one year study].

    Jaul, E

    2001-10-01

    The phenomenon of pressure sores in the elderly patient often requires an alternative management policy to that of the standard treatment. In general, the therapeutic approach to pressure sores in the elderly should be different to that in younger patients. This modification is due to the accompanying comorbidity so often associated with aging. Due to accompanying illnesses, the aging population is at high risk and more predisposed to the development of pressure sores. The importance of the establishment of a unit for pressure sores arises from the specific geriatric team approach to the patient and the need to focus carefully on the pressure sores. The management of this special Pressure Sores Unit with a permanent capable staff requires skilled treatment, both localized and systemic, since pressure sores are very often a result of systemic failure or an indication of a terminal condition in the elderly patient. Over six months we followed-up on the number and location of the pressure sores in 47 patients in addition to other functional and nutritional parameters, in order to investigate any connection between the pressure sores and nutritional parameters. The results of the study indicate that the nutritional state of the patients admitted for pressure sores was very poor. Two thirds of the patients suffered from either dementia or stroke, and 90 percent were bedridden, incontinent and enterally fed. Despite the poor general condition of the patient, the study shows improvement in the pressure sores with a reduction from an average of 2.8 to 1.8 pressure sores per patient. The improvement in the pressure sore located on the legs was three times greater than those located in the pelvic area. By the end of the study, 50% of the patients had died, 33% of the original patients who were still in the unit showed improvement in the pressure sores and 15% were discharged showing complete recovery from the sores. No significant correlation was found between changes in the

  9. The ′reading man flap′ for pressure sore reconstruction

    Stamatis Sapountzis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The treatment of pressure sores represents a significant challenge to health care professionals. Although, pressure wound management demands a multidisciplinary approach, soft tissue defects requiring reconstruction are often considered for surgical management. Myocutaneous and fasciocutaneous flaps can provide stable coverage of pressure sores. Purpose: Here, we describe our experience using a recent fasciocutaneous flap, which is named ′reading man′ flap, in sacral, ischial, and trochanteric pressure sores. Materials and Methods: During a period of 1 year the authors operated 16 patients, 11 men, and 5 women, using the reading man flap. The ages of the patients ranged from 24 to 78 years. The location of pressure sores was 8 sacral, 5 ischial, and 3 trochanteric pressure sores. The mean size of pressure sores was 8 cm × 9 cm. Results: All pressure sores covered bt the Reading Man flap healed asymptomatically. After follow-up of 2-8 months, no recurrences were encountered and no further surgical intervention was required. Conclusion: The reading man flap was found to be a useful technique for the closure of pressure sore in different anatomic locations. The advantage of tension-free closure and the minimal additional healthy skin excision made this flap a useful tool in pressure sore reconstructions.

  10. Effects of intravenous diclofenac on postoperative sore throat in ...

    Effects of intravenous diclofenac on postoperative sore throat in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery at Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi: A prospective, randomized, double blind controlled trial.

  11. Pressure sores and underlying bone infection

    Sugarman, B.

    1987-01-01

    Pressure sores are a serious complication of hospitalized and chronically ill patients. Evaluation for underlying bone infection can be made difficult by radiographic, nuclear imaging, and soft-tissue culture studies that are abnormal and suggest the presence of bone infection, when no infection is present. Evaluation by bone biopsy with histologic and microbiological studies can accurately and promptly diagnose whether bone infection is present. This allows appropriate treatment when infection is present, and prevents unneeded and potentially toxic antibiotic therapy when preliminary studies incorrectly suggest that infection is present

  12. Laser homeostatics on delayed onset muscle soreness

    Liu, T C Y; Fu, D R; Liu, X G; Tian, Z X, E-mail: liutcy@scnu.edu.cn [Lab Laser Sports Medicine, South China Normal University, University Town, Guangzhou, GD 510006 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and its photobiomodulation were reviewed from the viewpoint of function-specific homeostasis (FSH) in this paper. FSH is a negative-feedback response of a biosystem to maintain the function-specific fluctuations inside the biosystem so that the function is perfectly performed. A stressor may destroy a FSH. A stress is a response of a biosystem to a stressor and may also be in stress-specific homeostasis (StSH). A low level light (LLL) is so defined that it has no effects on a function in its FSH or a stress in its StSH, but it modulate a function far from its FSH or a stress far from its StSH. For DOMS recovery, protein metabolism in the Z-line streaming muscular cell is the essential process, but the inflammation, pain and soreness are non-essential processes. For many DOMS phenomena, protein metabolism in the Z-line streaming muscular cell is in protein metabolism-specific homeostasis (PmSH) so that there are no effects of LLL although the inflammation can be inhibited and the pain can be relieved. An athlete or animal in the dysfunctional conditions such as blood flow restriction and exercise exhaustion is far from PmSH and the protein metabolism can be improved with LLL.

  13. [The prevention of pressure sores in paediatric intensive care].

    Thueux, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    In paediatric intensive care, children develop pressure sores as a result of various mechanical and clinical factors. The prevention and assessment of the risk of pressure sores constitute a key concern for the nursing teams which establish prevention strategies adapted to the young patients.

  14. New concepts in the prevention of pressure sores.

    Bogie, Kath; Powell, Heather L; Ho, Chester H

    2012-01-01

    Pressure sores are a serious, and costly, complication for many patients with reduced mobility and sensation. Some populations, such as those with spinal cord injury (SCI), remain at high risk throughout their lifetime. Prevention is highly preferable and while the concept is readily definable, it is much more challenging to develop valid preventative measures. Subjective and objective approaches to risk factor assessment before pressure sores develop are reviewed, including risk status scales and emerging techniques to assess deep tissue injury. Devices to prevent pressure sores have traditionally focused on pressure-relieving cushions and mattresses. Technological advances being applied in the development of new pressure sore prevention devices are presented. Clinical evidence-based practice is integral to pressure sore prevention. Comprehensive assessment must include evaluation of systemic diseases, anatomical and physiological factors, together with environmental and psychosocial factors, which can all contribute to pressure sore development. Extrinsic factors need to be considered in conjunction with intrinsic tissue health factors and are reviewed together with an evaluation of currently available clinical practice guidelines. This chapter presents the broad diversity of factors associated with pressure sore development and highlights the need for an interdisciplinary team approach in order to maximize successful prevention of pressure sores. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Prevalence of pressure sores in a university hospital in 2003].

    Daideri, G; Berthier, F; Brocker, P; Darmon, M-J; Mignolet, F; Quaranta, J-F; Staccini, P

    2006-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of pressure sores in a university hospital and to assess the risk of developing a pressure sore. A one-day survey was performed in all hospitalized patients, day hospital excepted. The Garches scale was used to assess the severity of pressure sores and the Braden scale was used to measure the patient's risk for the development of pressure ulcers. One thousand six hundred and eleven patients were included, mean age was 62+/-23 years and 53.3% were over 65 years old. In hospitalized patients, 64% were in acute care, 29% in intermediate medicine and long-term care and 7% in intensive care units. We have found 675 pressure sores in 268 patients, mean age of 76 years; 263 decubitus ulcers were acquired during hospitalization. The most frequent sites were heels (46%) and sacrum (26%). Stage 1 pressure ulcers showed 33% of the total. The total prevalence was 16.6%, 95% CI (14.9-18.6), the hospital acquired pressure sores prevalence was 7.5%, all stages included. A Braden score less than or equal to 15 was found in 29.1% of hospitalized patients. Standard mattresses were used in 37% of patients with pressure sores. Multivariate analysis showed that age and a Braden score less than or equal to 15 were significantly associated with pressure sores. Pressure sores are still an important problem in hospital; occurrence must be considered as an iatrogenic event and management requires a multidisciplinary approach.

  16. Sacral pressure sore reconstruction – the pedicled superior gluteal ...

    Pressure sore reconstruction has always been challenging. Immobile patients are prone to develop pressure sores from unre- lieved pressure on tissue over the sacral area, with shear, friction, moisture and malnutrition as contributing factors. Up to one-third of immobilised patients in long-term care facilities will develop.

  17. Pressure sores following elective total hip arthroplasty: pitfalls of misinterpretation.

    Keong, Nicole; Ricketts, David; Alakeson, Nuki; Rust, Philippa

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of reporting protocols regarding pressure sores. METHODS: Retrospective data were collected regarding pressure sore rates following total hip arthroplasty operations carried out during 2001 at two orthopaedic units in an NHS hospital (Princess Royal Hospital) and in a local private hospital. RESULTS: Preliminary results presented in audit and interim reports indicated an alarmingly high pressure sore rate across the two sites (17/172 [9.9%] NHS, 23/71 [32.4%] private hospital). On analysis, the data collection system was revealed to be flawed. Grade 1 areas (erythema with no ulceration) were included, leading to a dramatic discrepancy between reported and confirmed pressure sores. Re-analysis showed the confirmed pressure sore rates to be much lower (2.3% NHS, 1.0% private hospital). CONCLUSIONS: This audit suggests that both poor data collection and education lead to inaccurate audit. This may lead to subsequent inappropriate management and inappropriate NHS star ratings. PMID:15140301

  18. Application of VSP to geological investigation; P ha oyobi S ha VSP wo mochiita shinso chishitsu chosa

    Kinugasa, Y [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Feng, S; Sugiyama, T; Ishikawa, K [Chuoh Kaihatsu Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Discussed in this paper are the P-wave and S-wave zero-offset VSPs carried out utilizing boreholes located in Nada Ward, Kobe City, and Hokudan-cho, Hyogo Prefecture, as part of the deep layer boring survey following Hanshin Earthquake Disaster. This effort aims at the elucidation of P-wave and S-wave velocity structures, high-precision identification of data obtained by the surface reflection method, and collection of basic data for active faults investigation in the future. Among the velocity structures obtained for various layers, the S-wave velocity structures in particular agree with the stratigraphy excellently and may be utilized in seismic analyses to be conducted in the future. Reflection from geological boundaries is received with precision, providing accurate information about correlation between reflection and geological cross sections. The records will be useful in formulating plans for reflection surveys for instance of the boundary between the Osaka group and Kobe group. Generally speaking, reflection coefficients are large when the reflection is from a boundary where difference is great in elastic wave impedance (mainly difference in velocity). In the case of the boundary between the Kobe group and granite in Awaji Island, however, no strong reflection is found despite the great difference in velocity. This is attributed to the complicated, sharp inclination of the basement rock and to its weathering. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Improved Charge Separation in WO3/CuWO4 Composite Photoanodes for Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation

    Danping Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Porous tungsten oxide/copper tungstate (WO3/CuWO4 composite thin films were fabricated via a facile in situ conversion method, with a polymer templating strategy. Copper nitrate (Cu(NO32 solution with the copolymer surfactant Pluronic®F-127 (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA, generic name, poloxamer 407 was loaded onto WO3 substrates by programmed dip coating, followed by heat treatment in air at 550 °C. The Cu2+ reacted with the WO3 substrate to form the CuWO4 compound. The composite WO3/CuWO4 thin films demonstrated improved photoelectrochemical (PEC performance over WO3 and CuWO4 single phase photoanodes. The factors of light absorption and charge separation efficiency of the composite and two single phase films were investigated to understand the reasons for the PEC enhancement of WO3/CuWO4 composite thin films. The photocurrent was generated from water splitting as confirmed by hydrogen and oxygen gas evolution, and Faradic efficiency was calculated based on the amount of H2 produced. This work provides a low-cost and controllable method to prepare WO3-metal tungstate composite thin films, and also helps to deepen the understanding of charge transfer in WO3/CuWO4 heterojunction.

  20. [Surgical coverage technics of pressure sores and their outcomes].

    Bilkay, Ufuk; Helvaci, Evren; Tokat, Cenk; Ozek, Cüneyt; Akin, Yalçin

    2006-04-01

    We reviewed the outcome of 66 patients with 100 pressure sores between 1984 and 2002. In the current study, 100 pressure sores in 66 patients (45 male, 21 female; mean age 39.4; range 13 to 80 years) who underwent surgical repair of pressure sores reconstructed using myocutaneous or fasciocutaneous flaps, skin grafts, excision and closure. The risk factors for pressure sores included acute trauma-induced spinal cord injury in 40 (61%) patients with paraplegia and in 5 (7%) patients with quadriplegia; congenital spina bifida and multiple sclerosis in 7 (11%) patients and prolonged immobilization in 14 (21 patients) patients. We achieved an overall pressure sore recurrence rate of 22% and overall patient recurrence of 24% in a-3-year follow-up. The recurrence rates according to anatomic sites; 23% (10 of 43) for the ischial pressure sore, sacral 21% (8 of 37), and trochanteric 20% (4 of 20). Fasciocutaneous and myocutaneous flap reconstructions were the most durable, as they were associated with 17% (6 of 34) and 12% recurrence rates (5 of 39). To reduce the recurrence rates the authors advocate the use of myocutaneous and fasciocutaneous flaps instead of skin grafts or direct closure for the coverage of pressure sores.

  1. Prevention of pressure sores by identifying patients at risk.

    Andersen, K E; Jensen, O; Kvorning, S A; Bach, E

    1982-01-01

    The risk of pressure sores developing in patients admitted with acute conditions was assessed by a simple risk score system based on age, reduced mobility, incontinence, pronounced emaciation, redness over bony prominences, unconsciousness, dehydration, and paralysis in a prospective clinical study. During seven months in 1977, 600 of 3571 patients were classified as at risk. Of these 35 (5.8%) developed sores compared with five (0.2%) of those not at risk. The results of this study compared with those over the same period in 1976 show that close observation of at-risk patients and early detection of pressure sores prevents their development. PMID:6803980

  2. Prevention of pressure sores by identifying patients at risk

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Jensen, O; Kvorning, S A

    1982-01-01

    The risk of pressure sores developing in patients admitted with acute conditions was assessed by a simple risk score system based on age, reduced mobility, incontinence, pronounced emaciation, redness over bony prominences, unconsciousness, dehydration, and paralysis in a prospective clinical stu...... of pressure sores prevents their development.......The risk of pressure sores developing in patients admitted with acute conditions was assessed by a simple risk score system based on age, reduced mobility, incontinence, pronounced emaciation, redness over bony prominences, unconsciousness, dehydration, and paralysis in a prospective clinical study...

  3. Mouth Sores Caused by Cancer Treatment: How to Cope

    ... leading to sores and infections. Both chemotherapy and radiation can impair your body's germ-fighting system (immune system). With an impaired immune system, viruses, bacteria and fungi can more easily infect your mouth, ...

  4. When a Sore Throat Is a More Serious Infection

    ... often called Hand, Foot, and Mouth disease). Infectious mononucleosis can produce a sore throat, often with marked ... most young children who are infected with the mononucleosis virus have few or no symptoms. Strep throat ...

  5. Difference between a Sore Throat, Strep, and Tonsillitis

    ... often called Hand, Foot, and Mouth disease ). Infectious mononucleosis (often called "Mono") can produce a sore throat, ... most young children who are infected with the mononucleosis virus have few or no symptoms. Strep Throat ...

  6. Spotlight on Psoriasis: Preventing Patches of Itchy, Sore Skin

    ... Subscribe August 2016 Print this issue Spotlight on Psoriasis Preventing Patches of Itchy, Sore Skin En español ... Sun Damage Sun and Skin Wise Choices Avoid Psoriasis Triggers Factors that may trigger psoriasis or make ...

  7. Microwave mediated synthesis of nanostructured Co -WO_3 and CoWO_4 for supercapacitor applications

    Dhilip Kumar, R.; Karuppuchamy, S.

    2016-01-01

    Co-WO_3 and CoWO_4 nanopowders have been successfully obtained from microwave mediated process. The characterization of the prepared nanopowders was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy techniques. The XRD pattern confirms the formation of orthorhombic and monoclinic phase of the as-synthesized and calcined samples, respectively. Scanning electron microscopic examination of the resultant powders reveals the formation of nanoporous morphology. The electrochemical performance of the Co-WO_3 and CoWO_4 coated electrodes was also investigated. The maximum specific capacitance of 45 F/g was achieved for the Co-WO_3 nanopowder. - Highlights: • Novel nano-sized Co-WO_3 and CoWO_4 materials have been prepared. • A new and simple solution growth technique was developed. • Co-WO_3 is a promising material for supercapacitor applications.

  8. [Treatment of pubic osteomyelitis secondary to pressure sores].

    Brunel, Anne-Sophie; Téot, Luc; Lamy, Brigitte; Masson, Raphaël; Morquin, David; Reynes, Jacques; Le Moing, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    There is no consensus regarding the diagnostic and therapeutic strategy for pubic osteomyelitis secondary to pelvic pressure sores. Diagnosis is often difficult and bone biopsies with microbiological and anatomical-pathological examination remain the gold standard. The rate of cicatrisation of pressure sores is low. Cleansing and negative pressure treatment are key elements of the treatment. Optimising the care management with medical-surgical collaboration is being studied in the Ostear protocol.

  9. Aetiology of pressure sores in patients with spinal cord injury.

    Thiyagarajan, C; Silver, J R

    1984-01-01

    One hundred consecutive patients admitted to the National Spinal Injuries Centre, Stoke Mandeville Hospital, with pressure sores were studied to assess the relative importance of factors known to predispose to the development of scores. Loss of feeling was critical, because patients were unable to appreciate pain when the sore was developing. Risk of developing a sore increased with age, but duration of the paralysis was of equal importance. After discharge from hospital the presence of a caring relative or friend was essential for survival. Many patients developed sores because of poor facilities at home or inappropriate advice from those who looked after them. An even more distressing factor was the number of patients who developed sores in hospital owing to inadequate nursing care. There are relatively few paralysed patients in the community, but the lessons learnt in this study may be applied to all patients with orthopaedic injuries and to geriatric patients with limited mobility. Nursing and medical staff must turn patients regularly and ensure that there is proper equipment to relieve pressure on the skin. Patients should not be allowed to sit in a chair if they develop a sacral or trochanteric sore. More effort should be directed towards the appropriate education of patients, their relatives, and all those who are concerned with their welfare. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 PMID:6439284

  10. [Pressure sores in geriatric medicine: the role of nutrition].

    Fontaine, Juliette; Raynaud-Simon, Agathe

    2008-01-01

    Malnutrition is frequent in geriatric patients: it affects 30 to 60% of elderly residents of institutions and 30 to 70% of patients admitted for short-term hospitalization. Malnutrition is a risk factor for developing pressure sores, and patients with them are more often and more severely malnourished than patients without them. In elderly subjects, multiple and interlinked factors may trigger or aggravate malnutrition; they may be physical, psychological or social and may be worsened by drugs and some diets. Malnutrition has been recognized as a risk factor for the onset and perpetuation of pressure sores. Of the dietary factors, protein intake seems most important. A low body mass index (BMI), low serum albumin, and weight loss are associated with an increased risk of pressure sores. A physician observing pressure sores must conduct a nutritional assessment, using clinical and laboratory screening tools. The criteria for malnutrition in elderly subjects are weight loss > or =5% in 3 months or > or =10% in 6 months, BMIpressure sores in geriatric medicine. It must be adapted for each patient. The recommended calorie intake in malnourished patients at risk of or with pressure sores is 30-40 kcal/kg/d, with 1.2-1.5 g of proteins/kg/d.

  11. Muscular soreness following prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running.

    Thompson, D; Nicholas, C W; Williams, C

    1999-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running on soreness and markers of muscle damage. Sixteen males took part in the study, half of whom were assigned to a running group and half to a resting control group. The exercise protocol involved 90 min of intermittent shuttle running and walking (Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test: LIST), reflecting the activity pattern found in multiple-sprint sports such as soccer. Immediately after exercise, there was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in serum activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase, and values remained above baseline for 48 h (P < 0.05). Median peak activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase occurred 24 h post-exercise and were 774 and 43 U x l(-1), respectively. The intensity of general muscle soreness, and in the specific muscles investigated, was greater than baseline for 72 h after the shuttle test (P < 0.05), peaking 24-48 h post-exercise (P < 0.05). Muscle soreness was not correlated with either creatine kinase or aspartate aminotransferase activity. Soreness was most frequently reported in the hamstrings. Neither soreness nor serum enzyme activity changed in the controls over the 4 day observation period. It appears that unaccustomed performance of prolonged intermittent shuttle running produces a significant increase in both soreness and markers of muscle damage.

  12. Research and development of a color-related global database of sensory values concerning color cognition, color emotions, etc. and the multimedia system to feedback it into products and living environment. FY 1995 data book 3 (2) 'Color cognition of the world's youth' analysis and mapping; 1995 nendo shikisai ninchi ya shikisai kanjo nado, shikisai ni taisuru kannochi no kokusaiteki database no kochiku to, sore wo seihin oyobi seikatsu kankyo no shikisai sekkei ni han'eisaseru multimedia system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Shiryoshu dai 3 kan (2) 'sekai no seinen no shikisai ninchi chosa' shiryohen

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    An investigational study was conducted for the youth of main 20 cities of the world including Japan, aiming at clarifying characteristics of the color sense and at constructing a color-related global database and studying how to use it. This data is the results of the analyses and mapping. The following were included as data: calculational results of the mapping by country (all items), calculational results of the similarity analysis of countries (regions), regional clusters of color taste and characteristics of each cluster, international comparison of memory color in the natural world, analysis of regional difference in warm-cold/light-heavy/loud-quiet images, analysis of color association data by language, analysis of image maps by factor analysis, regional difference in color association concerning 15 languages, analysis of regional difference in color association data by language, analysis of regional difference in colors which have been most enjoyed/colors peculiar to cities, international comparison of evaluation of 2-color coloring matching degrees, and international comparison of evaluation of coloring matching degrees. (NEDO)

  13. Research and development of a color-related global database of sensory values concerning color cognition, color emotions, etc. and the multimedia system to feedback it into products and living environment. FY 1995 data book 7 Color amenity calculating system; 1995 nendo shikisai ninchi ya shikisai kanjo nado, shikisai ni taisuru kannochi no kokusaiteki database no kochiku to, sore wo seihin oyobi seikatsu kankyo no shikisai sekkei ni han'eisaseru multimedia system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Shiryoshu dai 7 kan shikisai kaitekido keisan system

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    A color amenity calculating system was developed. The paper described the details, calculating method, verification, etc. of the system. This calculating system automatically calculates the score of amenity for color of the specified image, and the application field is 'exterior/appearance of building and streets,' 'interior,' and 'fashion.' Elements composing color amenity are the matching degree, familiarity, lightness, brightness and unity of colors. The weighed average value of these becomes general color amenity. Based on 'the survey of the world's youth,' color amenity is calculated by area, assuming that people in 23 areas of 20 countries in the world have different amenity by male/by female. In the system, objects are called up by 'input of stimulus,' and color information of images is numerated by 'measurement of color distribution.' In 'selection of parameters,' it is clarified whom the amenity is for (by country/by sex). The calculation is made instantaneously, indicating the result on the screen. (NEDO)

  14. Research and development of a color-related global database of sensory values concerning color cognition, color emotions, etc. and the multimedia system to feedback it into products and living environment. FY 1995 data book 7 Color amenity calculating system; 1995 nendo shikisai ninchi ya shikisai kanjo nado, shikisai ni taisuru kannochi no kokusaiteki database no kochiku to, sore wo seihin oyobi seikatsu kankyo no shikisai sekkei ni han'eisaseru multimedia system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Shiryoshu dai 7 kan shikisai kaitekido keisan system

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    A color amenity calculating system was developed. The paper described the details, calculating method, verification, etc. of the system. This calculating system automatically calculates the score of amenity for color of the specified image, and the application field is 'exterior/appearance of building and streets,' 'interior,' and 'fashion.' Elements composing color amenity are the matching degree, familiarity, lightness, brightness and unity of colors. The weighed average value of these becomes general color amenity. Based on 'the survey of the world's youth,' color amenity is calculated by area, assuming that people in 23 areas of 20 countries in the world have different amenity by male/by female. In the system, objects are called up by 'input of stimulus,' and color information of images is numerated by 'measurement of color distribution.' In 'selection of parameters,' it is clarified whom the amenity is for (by country/by sex). The calculation is made instantaneously, indicating the result on the screen. (NEDO)

  15. Research and development of a color-related global database of sensory values concerning color cognition, color emotions, etc. and the multimedia system to feedback it into products and living environment. FY 1995 data book 3 (1) 'Color cognition of the world's youth' analysis and mapping; 1995 nendo shikisai ninchi ya shikisai kanjo nado, shikisai ni taisuru kannochi no kokusaiteki database no kochiku to, sore wo seihin oyobi seikatsu kankyo no shikisai sekkei ni han'eisaseru multimedia system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Shiryoshu dai 3 kan (1) 'sekai no seinen no shikisai ninchi chosa' bunseki kekka

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    An investigational study was conducted for the youth of main 20 cities of the world including Japan, aiming at clarifying characteristics of the color sense and at constructing a color-related global database and studying how to use it. This data is the results of the analyses. In the analysis of all items, the following were indicated: color mapping by country, analysis of similarity of countries, relations between 'the survey of the world's youth' and the internet survey, etc. In the analysis of each item, the following were shown: regional difference in color of hair/color of pupil/color taste, analysis of life color, analysis of memory color in the natural world, warm-cold/light-heavy/loud-quiet images and color taste, analysis of color association data by language, regional difference in colors which have been most enjoyed/regional difference in colors peculiar to cities, and analysis of regional difference in evaluation of coloring matching degrees. (NEDO)

  16. Research and development of a color-related global database of sensory values concerning color cognition, color emotions, etc. and the multimedia system to feedback it into products and living environment. FY 1995 data book 3 (1) 'Color cognition of the world's youth' analysis and mapping; 1995 nendo shikisai ninchi ya shikisai kanjo nado, shikisai ni taisuru kannochi no kokusaiteki database no kochiku to, sore wo seihin oyobi seikatsu kankyo no shikisai sekkei ni han'eisaseru multimedia system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Shiryoshu dai 3 kan (1) 'sekai no seinen no shikisai ninchi chosa' bunseki kekka

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    An investigational study was conducted for the youth of main 20 cities of the world including Japan, aiming at clarifying characteristics of the color sense and at constructing a color-related global database and studying how to use it. This data is the results of the analyses. In the analysis of all items, the following were indicated: color mapping by country, analysis of similarity of countries, relations between 'the survey of the world's youth' and the internet survey, etc. In the analysis of each item, the following were shown: regional difference in color of hair/color of pupil/color taste, analysis of life color, analysis of memory color in the natural world, warm-cold/light-heavy/loud-quiet images and color taste, analysis of color association data by language, regional difference in colors which have been most enjoyed/regional difference in colors peculiar to cities, and analysis of regional difference in evaluation of coloring matching degrees. (NEDO)

  17. Phase diagrams of KY(WO4)2-KEr(WO4)2, KGd(WO4)2-KEr(WO4)2 systems and single crystal growth for some tungstates

    Yudanova, L.I.; Pavlyuk, A.A.; Potapova, O.G.

    1992-01-01

    Phase diagrams of the KY(WO 4 ) 2 -KEr(WO 4 ) 2 , KGd(WO 4 ) 2 -KEr(WO 4 ) 2 systems were studied by differential thermal and X-ray diffraction analyses. Continuous variety of solid solutions are in the KY(WO 4 ) 2 -KEr(WO 4 ) 2 system. They occurred just as in the area of alphaso beta-modifications. Limited areas of the solid solutions based on components were in the KGd(WO 4 ) 2 -KEr(WO 4 ) 2 system. Monocrystals of potassium-yttrium and potassium-gadolinium tungstates activated by erbium were grown using modified low-gradient Czochralski method

  18. Treatment of ischial pressure sores with double adipofascial turnover flaps.

    Lin, Haodong; Hou, Chunlin; Xu, Zhen; Chen, Aiming

    2010-01-01

    Despite a variety of flap reconstruction options, the ischium remains the most difficult pressure sore site to treat. This article describes the authors' successful surgical procedure for coverage of ischial ulcers using double adipofascial turnover flaps.After debridement, the adipofascial flaps are harvested both cephalad and caudal to the defect. The flaps are then turned over to cover the exposed bone in a manner so as to overlap the 2 flaps. The skin is then closed with sutures in 2 layers. A total of 15 patients with ischial sores were treated using this surgical procedure.The follow-up period ranged from 11 to 159 months, with a mean of 93.6 months. Overall, 86.7% of the flaps (13 of 15) healed primarily. One patient had a recurrent grade II ischial pressure sore again 11 months after the operation. The other 14 patients did not have a recurrence.Treatment of ischial pressure sores with adipofascial turnover flaps provides an easy, minimally invasive procedure, with preservation of future flap options, and a soft-tissue supply sufficient for covering the bony prominence and filling dead space. This technique is a reliable and safe reconstructive modality for the management of minor ischial pressure sores.

  19. Pressure sores--a multifaceted approach to prevention and treatment.

    Staas, W. E.; Cioschi, H. M.

    1991-01-01

    The incidence and effect of pressure sores on the disabled and elderly population have created a challenge to physicians and health care professionals, from emergency departments to rehabilitation units, and in the community. If not prevented, the morbidity and mortality of patients and the direct and indirect costs to both patients and the health care system are radically increased. In this article we define the impact on our health care system of pressure sores, provide an overview of a multifaceted approach to their prevention and management, and introduce successful behavioral and educational approaches for patients with chronic, recurrent sores. A coordinated approach with patients as informed participants and their care givers enhances the chances for success. PMID:1830985

  20. Medial circumflex femoral artery flap for ischial pressure sore

    Palanivelu S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new axial pattern flap based on the terminal branches of the medial circumflex femoral artery is described for coverage of ischial pressure sore. Based on the terminal branches of the transverse branch of medial circumflex femoral artery, which exit through the gap between the quadratus femoris muscle above and the upper border of adductor magnus muscle below, this fascio cutaneous flap is much smaller than the posterior thigh flap but extremely useful to cover ischeal pressure sores. The skin redundancy below the gluteal fold allows a primary closure of the donor defect. It can also be used in combination with biceps femoris muscle flap.

  1. [An assessment scale for the prevention of pressure sores in children].

    Chauvet, Corinne; Poirier, Marie-Renée; Sourisseau, Petronela Rachieru; Béduneau, Denis; Soulard, Anthony; Delacroix, Delphine

    2015-04-01

    Pressure sores in children are rare. However, when they do occur they can have significant consequences. Professionals in paediatric units realised the importance of assessing the risk of pressure sores and developed a pressure sore assessment scale specific to children. This project, carried out through a hospital-training school partnership, emphasises the importance of clinical reasoning in nursing practices.

  2. Parental contribution to over prescription of antibiotics for sore throat ...

    Introduction: Antibiotics are often prescribed by physicians for sore throat in children because of the danger of post streptococcal complications. The role of the parents in over prescription of antibiotics is less well known. Objective: To evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and practice of parents to antibiotic prescription for ...

  3. [Support devices for the prevention and treatment of pressure sores].

    Perrouin-Verbe, Brigite

    2014-12-01

    There is a strategy to be followed in the treatment of patients with specific pathologies placing them at high risk of pressure sores. In some cases, sophisticated support devices are used.These techniques must be combined with basic good practices.

  4. Reconstruction of pressure sores with perforator-based propeller flaps.

    Jakubietz, Rafael G; Jakubietz, Danni F; Zahn, Robert; Schmidt, Karsten; Meffert, Rainer H; Jakubietz, Michael G

    2011-03-01

    Perforator flaps have been successfully used for reconstruction of pressure sores. Although V-Y advancement flaps approximate debrided wound edges, perforator-based propeller flaps allow rotation of healthy tissue into the defect. Perforator-based propeller flaps were planned in 13 patients. Seven pressure sores were over the sacrum, five over the ischial tuberosity, and one on the tip of the scapula. Three patients were paraplegic, six were bedridden, and five were ambulatory. In three patients, no perforators were found. In 10 patients, propeller flaps were transferred. In two patients, total flap necrosis occurred, which was reconstructed with local advancement flaps. In two cases, a wound dehiscence occurred and had to be revised. One hematoma required evacuation. No further complications were noted. No recurrence at the flap site occurred. Local perforator flaps allow closure of pressure sores without harvesting muscle. The propeller version has the added benefit of transferring tissue from a distant site, avoiding reapproximation of original wound edges. Twisting of the pedicle may cause torsion and venous obstruction. This can be avoided by dissecting a pedicle of at least 3 cm. Propeller flaps are a safe option for soft tissue reconstruction of pressure sores. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  5. [Surgical issues and outcomes in ischial pressure sores treatment].

    Voulliaume, D; Grecea, M; Viard, R; Brun, A; Comparin, J-P; Foyatier, J-L

    2011-12-01

    Ischiatic pressure sores are frequent in spinal cord injury patients, associated with bad prognosis and high recurrence rate. Many surgical techniques were described, including surgical debridement followed by pedicled flap coverage. We aim to propose a practical decision tree for primary or secondary ischial pressure sore treatment. Our series of 48 operated ischial sores with an average follow up of 4 years (range 2 to 8years) is analyzed and compared to previously published reports. Surgical techniques are discussed according to their specific indications. The optimal recurrence rate in published reports about pressure sore treatment is 20%; a rate inferior to 19% is found in our series, showing the equal importance of flap selection and postoperative care and education. Depending on each situation, various available flaps are described and compared: gluteus maximus flap, biceps femoris flap, gracilis flap, tensor fascia lata flap, fasciocutaneous thigh flaps, rectus femoris and vastus lateralis flap, rectus abdominis flap. Specific surgical indications for more extensive wounds are studied: resection arthroplasty of the hip, hip disarticulation, fillet flaps from the leg, microsurgery. Based upon our experience, a decision tree summarizes our proposition of flap selection, depending on the wound size and the patient background. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Medicinal Plants for Healing Sores and Wounds among the ...

    Medicinal Plants for Healing Sores and Wounds among the Communities Surrounding Ungoye Forest, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. ... The focus was on the medicinal plants that grow in the Ungoye forest and around the homesteads. The survey ... Keywords: Traditional medicine, documentation, Ethno-survey, wounds.

  7. Antibiotic prescribing in patients with self-reported sore throat

    Mehta, Nishchay; Schilder, Anne; Fragaszy, Ellen; E R Evans, Hannah; Dukes, Oliver; Manikam, Logan; Little, Paul; Smith, Sarah C; Hayward, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the predictors of general practitioner (GP) consultation and antibiotic use in those developing sore throat. METHODS: We conducted a prospective population-based cohort study on 4461 participants in two rounds (2010-11) from 1897 households. RESULTS: Participants reported

  8. Sore throat · vaginal discharge · labial ulcer · Dx?

    Caravelli, Ashley; Bhatnagar, Rupal; Ashaye, Adelola

    2016-06-01

    The patient complained of worsening vaginal pain and increased vaginal discharge, but reported resolution of her back and chest pain. She also said that a week earlier, she'd had a fever that reached 104° F and a sore throat. She denied urinary frequency/urgency, sexual activity, or sexual abuse.

  9. Pressure sores in spinal cord injury: Active intervention saves costs

    2008-07-22

    Jul 22, 2008 ... interrogated for all cervical spine injuries. Patients were identified retrospectively for the period April 2003 to May 2006 and divided into 4 groups according to the level of intervention they received to prevent pressure sores. Group A. These were the first 100 patients with cervical injuries managed in the unit ...

  10. Smoking, it is slow suicide - aiming for smoking cessation; Kitsuen sore wa kanmannaru jisatsu. Kin'en wo mezashite

    Azuma, Keiko [sophia University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    Toxic substances content rate in the particle phase and the gas phase of paper roll tobacco and included substances in mainstream smoke and sidestream smoke were shown. Delay of information disclosure in developing countries including Japan was introduced along with explanation of the smoking situation in Japan and each country in world in the man and woman independence. As health hazard by smoking, symptom by nicotin, carbon dioxide and included other substances was described separately and smoking cessation countermeasure was introduced. (NEDO)

  11. [Skin care and prevention of bed sores in bedridden patients].

    Martínez Cuervo, Fernando; Soldevilla Agreda, J Javier; Verdú Soriano, José; Segovia Gómez, Teresa; García Fernández, Francisco Pedro; Pancorbo Hidalgo, Pedro Luís

    2007-12-01

    The aging process and environmental aggressions will leave their imprints on the state of a person's skin, possibly compromising some of its functions. Age is a risk factor for the development of bed sores, but not the only factor nor the most important one; therefore, we need to develop prevention programs directed to all patients who spend long periods of time sedentary or bedridden. Prevention programs for bed sores must be based on the best evidence available and include a risk evaluation on these factors: suffering a lesion due to pressure, specific skin treatment, incontinence control, excessive humidity posture changes and the use of special surfaces to manage pressure during an increase in mobility or activity by the patient, local pressure reducing devices as well as paying attention to special situations. All of these care measures have to be developed based on a continuity of treatment among the institutions and caretakers involved with treating each patient.

  12. Ear Acupuncture for Acute Sore Throat: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    2014-09-26

    SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ear acupuncture for acute sore throat. A randomized controlled trial...Auncular Acupuncture is a low risk option for acute pain control •Battlefield acupuncture (BFA) IS a specific auncular acupuncture technique •BFA IS...Strengths: Prospect1ve RCT •Weaknesses Small sample stze. no sham acupuncture performed, patients not blinded to treatment •Th1s study represents an

  13. [Effects of massage on delayed-onset muscle soreness].

    Bakowski, Paweł; Musielak, Bartosz; Sip, Paweł; Biegański, Grzegorz

    2008-01-01

    Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is the pain or discomfort often felt 12 to 24 hours after exercising and subsides generally within 4 to 6 days. Once thought to be caused by lactic acid buildup, a more recent theory is that it is caused by inflammatory process or tiny tears in the muscle fibers caused by eccentric contraction, or unaccustomed training levels. Exercises that involve many eccentric contractions will result in the most severe DOMS. Fourteen healthy men with no history of upper arm injury and no experience in resistance training were recruited. The mean age, height, and mass of the subjects were 22.8 +/- 1.2 years, 178.3 +/- 10.3 cm, and 75.0 +/- 14.2 kg, respectively. Subjects performed 8 sets of concentric and eccentric actions of the elbow flexors with each arm according to Stay protocol. One arm received 10 minutes of massage 30 minutes after exercise, the contralateral arm received no treatment. Measurements were taken at 9 assessment times: pre-exercise and postexercise at 10 min, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 hours. Dependent variables were range of motion, perceived soreness and upper arm circumference. There was noticed difference in perceived soreness across time between groups. The analysis indicated that massage resulted in a 10% to 20% decrease in the severity of soreness, but the differences were not significant. Difference in range of motion and arm circumference was not observed. Massage administered 30 minutes after exercises could have a beneficial influence on DOMS but without influence on muscle swelling and range of motion.

  14. Pressure sores and blood and serum dysmetabolism in spinal cord injury patients.

    Scivoletto, G; Fuoco, U; Morganti, B; Cosentino, E; Molinari, M

    2004-08-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients with pressure sores were studied before and after surgical intervention for ulcer healing and compared with matched SCI patients without sores and with patients with pressure sores and other diseases. To analyse the relationship between pressure sores and anaemia and serum protein alteration in SCI patients. To study the pathogenesis of these alterations and suggest appropriate therapy. Spinal cord unit in Rome, Italy. A total of 13 SCI patients with pressure sores, 13 comparable patients without pressure sores and four patients with other diseases and pressure sores. Haematochemical parameters. Patients with pressure sore showed significant decreased red cells, decreased haemoglobin and haematocrit, increased white cells and ferritin and decreased transferrin and transferrin saturation; total hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia with increased Alfa-1 and gamma globulins increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein were also present. The alterations returned to normal after surgical intervention for pressure sore healing. Patients with pressure sores suffer from anaemia and serum protein alteration that fells within the range of metabolic alteration of chronic disorders and neoplastic diseases. The alterations depend on a decreased utilisation of iron stores in the reticuloendothelial system and on inhibition of the hepatic synthesis of albumin. With regard to treatment, iron treatment should be avoided because of the risk of haemochromatosis.

  15. Approach to the pressure sores in geriatric patients

    Emre İnözü

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the follow-up results of nutritionally supported geriatric patientswho were admitted for their pressure sores then plannedtheir treatment.Materials and methods: In this study, we analyzed thehospitalized geriatric pressure sore patients in our clinicwho were admitted between 2006 and 2011. We calculatedBody Mass Index and the blood albumin levels of allhospitalized geriatric patients. In this patient group proteinenergy malnutrition and deficiency were analyzed andproper nutrition support was provided accordingly. Afterrecovering from malnutrition further treatment surpassed.Results: The mean albumin levels of the hospitalized patientswas 2,53 ± 0,25 g/dL after nutritional support thoselevels increased to mean 3,95 ± 0,42 g/dL . Of all thosepatients 75% were operated when their general conditionallowed us for a surgery. Due to their high risk wedid not perform any surgical operation to the remaining25%.. Post operative mean hospitalization period was 12(8-21 days. Majority of the patients (78.6% were treatedsuccessfully either with surgical or conservative treatmentmodalities.Conclusions: The success of the geriatric pressure soretreatment is highly related with the proper nutritional supportfor the ongoing malnutrition-like pathologies. Beforeoperation nutritional support not only makes a healthygranulation tissue but also yields fast and reliable woundhealing. Despite their chronic health problems many ofour geriatric patients were treated surgically for their pressuresores.Key words: Pressure sore, geriatric medicine, malnutrition,nutritional support

  16. Reduction of the incidence of pressure sores by an education program on nursing care.

    Srisupan, Vijitr; Senaratana, Wilawan; Picheansatian, Wilawan; Chittreecheur, Jittaporn; Watanakool, Malinee; Chaisri, Pratin; Singhakumfu, Laddawan; Tribuddharat, Chanwit; Danchaivijitr, Somwang

    2005-12-01

    To determine whether an education and campaign program would reduce the incidence of pressure sores. The study was performed in a 1,400-bed teaching hospital in Thailand with a total number of 697patients from 47 wards for a point prevalence study; 1,201 and 1,268 patients from 12 wards to determine whether reduction of pressure sore occurrence would be obtained by an education program. The point prevalence of pressure sores was 10.8%. The significant risk factors were age older than 60 years, fecal incontinence, and history of diarrhea. The occurrence of pressure sores was significantly reduced after the educational program from 9.91% to 5. 76%. The education on patient care aiming at reduction of the occurrence of pressure sores could be adopted nation-wide in order to reduce the morbidity, mortality and expenses. The education program was effective in reducing the incidence of pressure sores.

  17. How effective are treatments other than antibiotics for acute sore throat?

    Thomas, M; Del Mar, C; Glasziou, P

    2000-01-01

    To estimate the benefits of treatments other than antibiotics for acute sore throat, and the differences between non-antibiotic interventions and controls in patient-perceived pain of sore throat, a systematic review of controlled trials in Medline and the Cochrane Library was carried out. Sixty-six randomised controlled trials (with or without additional antibiotics) were identified and 17 met the selection criteria. Twenty-two non-antibiotic managements for sore throat were compared. Their ...

  18. Risk factors for pressure sores in adult patients with myelomeningocele – a questionnaire-based study

    Plaum, Pål-Erik; Riemer, Gunnar; Frøslie, Kathrine Frey

    2006-01-01

    Background Myelomeningocele (MMC) is a part of a complex neural tube defect and a disorder of the cerebrospinal fluid system. Pressure sores are a frequent complication for patients with MMC. Little is known about the risk factors for pressure sores in adults with MMC. The aim of this study was to investigate an association between the presence of pressure sores and other patient characteristics, in order to develop an improved strategy for the management of sores. Methods A structured questionnaire regarding sores, medical condition, function and living factors was designed and sent to the 193 patients with MMC registered in the year 2003 at TRS, a National Centre for Rare Disorders in Norway. Results Out of 193 total, 87 patients participated and 71 patients (82%) reported sores; 26 (30%) at the time of the interview and 45 (52%) during the last 5 years. Sores were mostly localized on toes and feet and occurred exclusively in regions with reduced or missing sensibility. A significant association was found between sores and memory deficit (p = 0.02), Arnold Chiari malformation (p = 0.02) and a record of previous sores (p = 0.004). Sores were not significantly associated with hydrocephalus, syringomyelia, nutrition, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, employment or living together with other persons. Some patients (18, 21%) reported skin inspection by others and the remainder relied on self-inspection. Conclusion Patients with sensory deficit, memory problems, and Arnold Chiari malformation had a higher risk of having pressure sores. This patient group needs improved skin inspection routines and sore treatment. PMID:17196099

  19. Risk factors for pressure sores in adult patients with myelomeningocele--a questionnaire-based study.

    Plaum, Pål-Erik; Riemer, Gunnar; Frøslie, Kathrine Frey

    2006-12-29

    Myelomeningocele (MMC) is a part of a complex neural tube defect and a disorder of the cerebrospinal fluid system. Pressure sores are a frequent complication for patients with MMC. Little is known about the risk factors for pressure sores in adults with MMC. The aim of this study was to investigate an association between the presence of pressure sores and other patient characteristics, in order to develop an improved strategy for the management of sores. A structured questionnaire regarding sores, medical condition, function and living factors was designed and sent to the 193 patients with MMC registered in the year 2003 at TRS, a National Centre for Rare Disorders in Norway. Out of 193 total, 87 patients participated and 71 patients (82%) reported sores; 26 (30%) at the time of the interview and 45 (52%) during the last 5 years. Sores were mostly localized on toes and feet and occurred exclusively in regions with reduced or missing sensibility. A significant association was found between sores and memory deficit (p = 0.02), Arnold Chiari malformation (p = 0.02) and a record of previous sores (p = 0.004). Sores were not significantly associated with hydrocephalus, syringomyelia, nutrition, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, employment or living together with other persons. Some patients (18, 21%) reported skin inspection by others and the remainder relied on self-inspection. Patients with sensory deficit, memory problems, and Arnold Chiari malformation had a higher risk of having pressure sores. This patient group needs improved skin inspection routines and sore treatment.

  20. Risk factors for pressure sores in adult patients with myelomeningocele – a questionnaire-based study

    Frøslie Kathrine

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myelomeningocele (MMC is a part of a complex neural tube defect and a disorder of the cerebrospinal fluid system. Pressure sores are a frequent complication for patients with MMC. Little is known about the risk factors for pressure sores in adults with MMC. The aim of this study was to investigate an association between the presence of pressure sores and other patient characteristics, in order to develop an improved strategy for the management of sores. Methods A structured questionnaire regarding sores, medical condition, function and living factors was designed and sent to the 193 patients with MMC registered in the year 2003 at TRS, a National Centre for Rare Disorders in Norway. Results Out of 193 total, 87 patients participated and 71 patients (82% reported sores; 26 (30% at the time of the interview and 45 (52% during the last 5 years. Sores were mostly localized on toes and feet and occurred exclusively in regions with reduced or missing sensibility. A significant association was found between sores and memory deficit (p = 0.02, Arnold Chiari malformation (p = 0.02 and a record of previous sores (p = 0.004. Sores were not significantly associated with hydrocephalus, syringomyelia, nutrition, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, employment or living together with other persons. Some patients (18, 21% reported skin inspection by others and the remainder relied on self-inspection. Conclusion Patients with sensory deficit, memory problems, and Arnold Chiari malformation had a higher risk of having pressure sores. This patient group needs improved skin inspection routines and sore treatment.

  1. [Program for lowering the incidence of pressure sores in neurosurgical patients].

    Chang, Chau-Hui; Chen, Hui-Ling; Chen, Hsiang-Chi

    2007-12-01

    Pressure sores are one of the well known problems that occur in hospitals. As the literature on the subject indicates, a lot of money is expended in managing this problem every year, and 12-66% of pressure sores are caused during surgery. Patients who undergo neurosurgical procedures are susceptible to pressure sores because of lengthy operations. We collected data on patients with pressure sores who underwent surgery between May 2004 and August 2004, and found that the incidence of pressure sore in neurosurgical patients was 9.5%, which was the highest among all surgical patients. This project was developed to solve the problem of pressure sores by setting up standard preventive procedures, a nursing follow up system and continuing education courses, and utilizing cotton rolls to pad sites of pressure sores. The incidence of pressure sore in neurosurgical patients was reduced from 9.5% to 7% after the improvement project was carried out. The more concerned nurses are about pressure sores, the better the quality of operative nursing care.

  2. Prophylaxis of postintubation sore throat by the use of single puff inhalation of clomethasone dipropionate preoperatively

    Bashir, I.; Masood, N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to asses the occurrence and severity of sore throat following endotracheal anesthesia and its reduction by beclomethasone inhalation. Study Design: A randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at the main operation theatre, Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi from October 2002 to April 2003. Patients and Methods: Two hundred patients undergoing general anaesthesia for elective surgery were included. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups of 100 patients each. The patients in group A were given one puff inhalation of beclomethasone before intubation while group B was control group. The patients were evaluated for occurrence and severity of postoperative sore throat by direct questions 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours after surgery. Results: In the beclomethasone group, 10 patients had sore throat as compared to 55 in control group (p<0.01). All 10 patients who experienced symptoms in beclomethasone group had mild sore throat while among the patients in the control group 22 had mild, 13 had moderate and 20 had severe sore throat. After 48 hours, no patient had the symptoms in the study group while 9 of the control group still suffered from sore throat. No drug related side effects were observed. Conclusion: Postoperative sore throat after general anaesthesia is common (occurrence rate of 55%). Beclomethasone inhaler is highly effective in the prevention of postoperative sore throat. It reduces both the occurrence and severity of sore throat. (author)

  3. Development of a cushion to prevent ischial pressure sores.

    Bowker, P; Davidson, L M

    1979-01-01

    A study was carried out jointly by nursing staff and technologists in an attempt to develop a cushion based on scientific principles and measurement that might prevent pressure sores. At each stage in the development clinical trials were carried out, and using the results of these together with the opinions of medical staff and patients who used the cushion the design was suitably modified. Over four years a seat was evolved that was simple to construct and fulfilled the clinical requirements for a wide range of patients while providing maximum relief of high-pressure points. The design was subsequently taken up commercially. Images Fig 3 PMID:509176

  4. Antioxidants for preventing and reducing muscle soreness after exercise.

    Ranchordas, Mayur K; Rogerson, David; Soltani, Hora; Costello, Joseph T

    2017-12-14

    Muscle soreness typically occurs after intense exercise, unaccustomed exercise or actions that involve eccentric contractions where the muscle lengthens while under tension. It peaks between 24 and 72 hours after the initial bout of exercise. Many people take antioxidant supplements or antioxidant-enriched foods before and after exercise in the belief that these will prevent or reduce muscle soreness after exercise. To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of antioxidant supplements and antioxidant-enriched foods for preventing and reducing the severity and duration of delayed onset muscle soreness following exercise. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, SPORTDiscus, trial registers, reference lists of articles and conference proceedings up to February 2017. We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of all forms of antioxidant supplementation including specific antioxidant supplements (e.g. tablets, powders, concentrates) and antioxidant-enriched foods or diets on preventing or reducing delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). We excluded studies where antioxidant supplementation was combined with another supplement. Two review authors independently screened search results, assessed risk of bias and extracted data from included trials using a pre-piloted form. Where appropriate, we pooled results of comparable trials, generally using the random-effects model. The outcomes selected for presentation in the 'Summary of findings' table were muscle soreness, collected at times up to 6 hours, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post-exercise, subjective recovery and adverse effects. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE. Fifty randomised, placebo-controlled trials were included, 12 of which used a cross-over design. Of the 1089 participants, 961 (88.2%) were male and 128 (11.8%) were female. The age range for

  5. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of bacteriophage WO in spiders (Araneae).

    Yan, Qian; Qiao, Huping; Gao, Jin; Yun, Yueli; Liu, Fengxiang; Peng, Yu

    2015-11-01

    Phage WO is a bacteriophage found in Wolbachia. Herein, we represent the first phylogenetic study of WOs that infect spiders (Araneae). Seven species of spiders (Araneus alternidens, Nephila clavata, Hylyphantes graminicola, Prosoponoides sinensis, Pholcus crypticolens, Coleosoma octomaculatum, and Nurscia albofasciata) from six families were infected by Wolbachia and WO, followed by comprehensive sequence analysis. Interestingly, WO could be only detected Wolbachia-infected spiders. The relative infection rates of those seven species of spiders were 75, 100, 88.9, 100, 62.5, 72.7, and 100 %, respectively. Our results indicated that both Wolbachia and WO were found in three different body parts of N. clavata, and WO could be passed to the next generation of H. graminicola by vertical transmission. There were three different sequences for WO infected in A. alternidens and two different WO sequences from C. octomaculatum. Only one sequence of WO was found for the other five species of spiders. The discovered sequence of WO ranged from 239 to 311 bp. Phylogenetic tree was generated using maximum likelihood (ML) based on the orf7 gene sequences. According to the phylogenetic tree, WOs in N. clavata and H. graminicola were clustered in the same group. WOs from A. alternidens (WAlt1) and C. octomaculatum (WOct2) were closely related to another clade, whereas WO in P. sinensis was classified as a sole cluster.

  6. Decubitus grade IV (deep pressure sore) with intact skin in a patient with spinal cord injury

    Theunissen, C.C.W.; Zeilstra, J.T.; van Voorst Vader, P.C.; Kardaun, S.H.; Leeman, F.W.J.

    2006-01-01

    Even with intact skin the possibility of pressure sores should not be dismissed. Early recognition of a pressure sore is important for adequate treatment and prevention of progression. Multidisciplinary intervention is essential. A wheelchair patient with spinal cord injury is described, who

  7. Evaluation of blood and serum markers in spinal cord injured patients with pressure sores.

    Gurcay, Eda; Bal, Ajda; Gurcay, Ahmet G; Cakci, Aytul

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate blood and serum markers in traumatic spinal cord injured (SCI) patients, with and without pressure sores. This cross-sectional study was performed at the Ministry of Health Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit, and Numune Education and Research Hospitals, Ankara, Turkey, from 2006-2008. A total of 23 SCI patients with pressure sores (group I) and a control group of 25 SCI patients without pressure sores (group II) were evaluated. Characteristics of sores were examined with respect to duration, location, grade, tissue types, surface area, and exudate amount. Recorded laboratory parameters included erythrocyte sedimentation rates (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Htc), lymphocytes, white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), serum iron, transferrin, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), ferritin, total protein, albumin, vitamin B12, and zinc. The most common pressure sore location was the sacrum (38%). Compared to the control group, the patients with pressure sores showed anemia with reduced serum iron, transferrin, TIBC, and increased ferritin. They also had increased ESR, CRP, and WBC and reduced lymphocytes, total protein, albumin and zinc. Statistically significant correlations were found between CRP, Hb, Htc, lymphocytes, RBC, WBC, and serum protein levels, and grade of pressure sores. Clinicians should regularly screen patients with respect to blood and serum markers, in order to determine any risks for pressure sores, and they should perform immediate preventive measures based on the patient's condition.

  8. [A scale for the assessment of the risk of pressure sores in paediatric intensive care].

    Weigel, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    Pressure sores are a frequent complication in paediatric intensive care. A multi-disciplinary nursing team has drawn up an assessment scale for the risk of pressure sores and has put in place guidelines for caring for children in intensive care. Prevention actions are thereby adapted to each young patient.

  9. Cost analysis of surgically treated pressure sores stage III and IV.

    Filius, A.; Damen, T.H.; Schuijer-Maaskant, K.P.; Polinder, S.; Hovius, S.E.R.; Walbeehm, E.T.

    2013-01-01

    Health-care costs associated with pressure sores are significant and their financial burden is likely to increase even further. The aim of this study was to analyse the direct medical costs of hospital care for surgical treatment of pressure sores stage III and IV. We performed a retrospective chart

  10. What role can nurse leaders play in reducing the incidence of pressure sores?

    Wurster, Joan

    2007-01-01

    Pressure sores have plagued the nursing profession for many years as a major health care problem in terms of a patient's suffering and financial cost. Pressure sores are increasingly common in hospitalized patients in the United States with a 63% increase from 1993 to 2003. The nurse leader is accountable for the occurrence of pressure sores, a nurse-sensitive indicator, by a scorecard which is benchmarked against other facilities. The nurse leader must take a systematic approach in the prevention of pressure sores, with the strategy being consistent and motivating to the staff in order to improve patient outcome. The chief nursing officer, the unit manager, and the bedside nurse must all collaborate to prevent tissue injury in patients at risk for developing pressure sores and to promote wound healing in patients with existing breakdown.

  11. Nonlinear current-voltage characteristics of WO3-x nano-/micro-rods

    Shen, Zhenguang; Peng, Zhijian; Zhao, Zengying; Fu, Xiuli

    2018-04-01

    A series of crystalline tungsten oxide nano-/micro-rods with different compositions of WO3, WO2.90, W19O55 (WO2.89) and W18O49 (WO2.72) but identical morphology feature were first prepared. Then, various nanoscaled electrical devices were fabricated from them by micro-fabrication through a focused ion beam technique. Interestingly, the devices from the oxygen-deficient WO3-x display significantly nonlinear current-voltage characteristics. The calculated nonlinear coefficients of the WO2.90, WO2.83, and WO2.72 varistors are 2.52, 3.32 and 4.91, respectively. The breakdown voltage of the WO2.90, WO2.83, and WO2.72 varistors are 1.93, 1.28 and 0.93 V, respectively. Such WO3-x nano-varistors might be promising for low-voltage electrical/electronic devices.

  12. Flurbiprofen microgranules for relief of sore throat: a randomised, double-blind trial

    Russo, Marc; Bloch, Mark; de Looze, Fred; Morris, Christopher; Shephard, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Background Many people with sore throat seek, and are often inappropriately prescribed, antibiotics. Aim The objective of this study was to determine the analgesic efficacy of flurbiprofen 8.75 mg microgranules versus placebo. These microgranules are a possible alternative treatment for patients with sore throat due to upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). Design and setting Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose study conducted at eight primary care sites in Australia. Method Participants with sore throat of onset within the past 4 days received either flurbiprofen 8.75 mg microgranules or non-medicated placebo microgranules. Throat soreness, difficulty in swallowing, sore throat pain intensity, sore throat relief, oral temperature, and treatment benefits were all assessed at regular intervals. Result Of 373 patients from eight centres, 186 received flurbiprofen 8.75 mg microgranules and 187 received placebo microgranules (intent-to-treat population). Throat soreness was significantly reduced over the first 2 hours after the first dose. Reductions in difficulty in swallowing were observed at all time points from 5 to 360 minutes after the first dose, after taking flurbiprofen microgranules versus placebo. Sore throat relief was also evident at 1 minute and lasted for at least 6 hours. The multiple-dose efficacy results showed reduction of difficulty in swallowing at the end of days 1–3 and sore throat relief at the end of day 1. Conclusion Microgranules containing flurbiprofen 8.75 mg provided fast and effective relief from sore throat due to URTI and represent an alternative treatment option to antibiotic therapy. PMID:23561694

  13. Cost analysis of surgically treated pressure sores stage III and IV.

    Filius, A; Damen, T H C; Schuijer-Maaskant, K P; Polinder, S; Hovius, S E R; Walbeehm, E T

    2013-11-01

    Health-care costs associated with pressure sores are significant and their financial burden is likely to increase even further. The aim of this study was to analyse the direct medical costs of hospital care for surgical treatment of pressure sores stage III and IV. We performed a retrospective chart study of patients who were surgically treated for stage III and IV pressure sores between 2007 and 2010. Volumes of health-care use were obtained for all patients and direct medical costs were subsequently calculated. In addition, we evaluated the effect of location and number of pressure sores on total costs. A total of 52 cases were identified. Average direct medical costs in hospital were €20,957 for the surgical treatment of pressure sores stage III or IV; average direct medical costs for patients with one pressure sore on an extremity (group 1, n = 5) were €30,286, €10,113 for patients with one pressure sore on the trunk (group 2, n = 32) and €40,882 for patients with multiple pressure sores (group 3, n = 15). The additional costs for patients in group 1 and group 3 compared to group 2 were primarily due to longer hospitalisation. The average direct medical costs for surgical treatment of pressure sores stage III and IV were high. Large differences in costs were related to the location and number of pressure sores. Insight into the distribution of these costs allows identification of high-risk patients and enables the development of specific cost-reducing measures. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tuning the pure monoclinic phase of WO3 and WO3-Ag nanostructures for non-enzymatic glucose sensing application with theoretical insight from electronic structure simulations

    Ponnusamy, Rajeswari; Gangan, Abhijeet; Chakraborty, Brahmananda; Sekhar Rout, Chandra

    2018-01-01

    Here, we report the controlled hydrothermal synthesis and tuning of the pure monoclinic phase of WO3 and WO3-Ag nanostructures. Comparative electrochemical nonenzymatic glucose sensing properties of WO3 and WO3-Ag were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric tests. We observed enhanced glucose sensing performance of WO3-Ag porous spheres as compared to bare WO3 nanoslabs. The sensitivity of the pure WO3 nanoslabs is 11.1 μA μM-1 cm-2 whereas WO3-Ag porous spheres exhibit sensitivity of 23.3 μA μM-1 cm-2. The WO3-Ag porous spheres exhibited a good linear range (5-375 μM) with excellent anti-interference property. Our experimental observations are qualitatively supported by density functional theory simulations through investigation of bonding and charge transfer mechanism of glucose on WO3 and Ag doped WO3. As the binding energy of glucose is more on the Ag doped WO3 (100) surface compared to the bare WO3 (100) surface and the Ag doped WO3 (100) surface becomes more conducting due to enhancement of density of states near the Fermi level, we can infer that Ag doped WO3 exhibits a better charge transfer media compared to bare WO3 resulting in enhanced glucose sensitivity in consistency with our experimental data.

  15. Recycling method of rubbish glass, wasted slate and oyster shell; Gan Ca haizai wo riyosuru kenzaiyo glass kuzu oyobi senshoseki kuzu no recycle

    Okawa, A.; Omi, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Advanced Materials Processing

    1996-03-29

    Examination was made about the method of recycling rubbish glass and Gensho-stone slate, left after the use of construction materials, and oyster shells. In the experiment, quartz powder having the highest softening temperature was used instead of rubbish glass powder, and H3PO4 was used as the additive agent. The Gensho-stone slate was ground in a ball mill into power smaller than 100 mesh. The main constituent of the oyster shell, CaCO3, was subjected to thermolysis for conversion into CaO; and calcium phosphate was used as animal bone powder. The above-said materials as the starting materials were subjected to pressure-forming, and heating was done in the air at 1173K for 7.2ks for the production of sintered pellets. The sintered bodies were left in the air for 30 days and examined for geometrical changes, and it was found that the Gensho-stone slate was the best specimen, with the oyster shell occupying the second place, and that the sintered bodies of bone powder and SiO2 absorbed moisture indicating they were short of serviceability. As for the use of sintered bodies, Gensho stone may be used as material for landscape building while CaO may be used as a Ca ion source in the sea for cultivating seashells. 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Study on properties of mortar using silica fume and ground blast furnace slag. Silica fume oyobi koro slag funmatsu wo mochiita mortar no tokusei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Shiiba, H; Honda, S; Araki, A [Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1992-09-01

    The effect of silica fume and ground blast furnace slag in concrete on the content of superplasticizer, and dynamic properties of hardened mortar with such admixtures were studied experimentally. Although the dependence of a flow value on the superplasticizer was dominated by kinds of superplasticizers, blast furnace slag enhanced the flow value resulting in a high fluidity. Adsorption of superplasticizers onto admixtures was dependent on kinds of superplasticizers, and adsorption onto blast furnace slag was 1.3-2 times that onto normal Portland cement (NPC). The compressive strength of mortar increased by mixing admixtures, while the bending strength was enhanced only by mixing silica fume. Mixing mortar was lower in dynamic elastic modulus than NPC mortar at the same compressive strength, and the velocity of supersonic wave in mortar was scarcely affected by mixing. 11 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Solubilization of lignite and behavior of oxygen containing functional groups in coal with superacid; Chokyosan wo mochiita kattan no kayoka oyobi sanso kannoki no kyodo

    Shimizu, K.; Saito, I. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Sasaki, S.; Suganuma, A. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    1996-10-28

    Solubilization of lignite including a large amount of oxygen containing functional groups was attempted using HF/BF3, and the behavior of oxygen containing functional group, one of the important factors for coal liquefaction, was studied. In experiment, the cooled slurry of Yallourn coal specimen and solvent (toluene, isopentane) was filled into a vacuum autoclave together with HF/BF3. Reaction was performed under spontaneous pressure at 50, 100 or 150{degree}C for 3 hours. The distribution of oxygen containing functional groups in each coal specimen was determined by quantification of carboxyl group, hydroxyl group and carbonyl group. As the experimental result, the superacid mixture of HF and BF3 considerably improved the solubility of coal specimens into solvent as compared with individual HF and BF3. The solubility was 68wt% into benzene, 96% into THF and 99% (nearly 100%) into pyridine. It was suggested that production of Broensted acid with strong acidity causes strong catalysis. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Delayed onset muscle soreness : treatment strategies and performance factors.

    Cheung, Karoline; Hume, Patria; Maxwell, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a familiar experience for the elite or novice athlete. Symptoms can range from muscle tenderness to severe debilitating pain. The mechanisms, treatment strategies, and impact on athletic performance remain uncertain, despite the high incidence of DOMS. DOMS is most prevalent at the beginning of the sporting season when athletes are returning to training following a period of reduced activity. DOMS is also common when athletes are first introduced to certain types of activities regardless of the time of year. Eccentric activities induce micro-injury at a greater frequency and severity than other types of muscle actions. The intensity and duration of exercise are also important factors in DOMS onset. Up to six hypothesised theories have been proposed for the mechanism of DOMS, namely: lactic acid, muscle spasm, connective tissue damage, muscle damage, inflammation and the enzyme efflux theories. However, an integration of two or more theories is likely to explain muscle soreness. DOMS can affect athletic performance by causing a reduction in joint range of motion, shock attenuation and peak torque. Alterations in muscle sequencing and recruitment patterns may also occur, causing unaccustomed stress to be placed on muscle ligaments and tendons. These compensatory mechanisms may increase the risk of further injury if a premature return to sport is attempted.A number of treatment strategies have been introduced to help alleviate the severity of DOMS and to restore the maximal function of the muscles as rapidly as possible. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have demonstrated dosage-dependent effects that may also be influenced by the time of administration. Similarly, massage has shown varying results that may be attributed to the time of massage application and the type of massage technique used. Cryotherapy, stretching, homeopathy, ultrasound and electrical current modalities have demonstrated no effect on the alleviation of

  19. [Plastic surgery treatment techniques for interdisciplinary therapy of pressure sores].

    Müller, Karin; Becker, Frederic; Pfau, Matthias; Werdin, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Pressure sores in geriatric patients represent a challenge for all disciplines involved in the treatment process; however, the prerequisite for successful treatment is the elaboration of an interdisciplinary treatment concept. The treatment goals should be adapted to the individual needs of the patients including the life situation, general condition and local findings. In addition to general basic operative techniques, such as wound cleansing and conditioning, plastic and reconstructive surgery provides a wide range of highly specialized operative techniques for the treatment of these patients by which a definitive defect coverage can be achieved. The aim of this article is to raise awareness for these complex and highly specialized procedures for all disciplines participating in the treatment in order to improve the interdisciplinary cooperation and ultimately the quality of treatment.

  20. [Prescribing antibiotics for sore throat: a persistent habit].

    Damoiseaux, Roger A M J; Venekamp, Roderick P

    2015-01-01

    Recently the revision of the guideline of the Dutch College of General Practitioners on sore throat has been published. Again, one of the key messages is restricting the use of antibiotics. In the Netherlands general practitioners prescribe antibiotics in 50% of cases of tonsillitis. Although there has been a decrease in the number of antibiotic prescriptions for tonsillitis in the last 30 years, they are still being prescribed twice as often as is recommended by the guideline. The beliefs of both patient and doctor play an important role in prescribing and better communication might help to improve the situation. Public campaigns can also help by providing the best knowledge on the effectiveness of antibiotics to the public.

  1. Parasacral Perforator Flaps for Reconstruction of Sacral Pressure Sores.

    Lin, Chin-Ta; Chen, Shih-Yi; Chen, Shyi-Gen; Tzeng, Yuan-Sheng; Chang, Shun-Cheng

    2015-07-01

    Despite advances in reconstruction techniques, pressure sores continue to present a challenge to the plastic surgeon. The parasacral perforator flap is a reliable flap that preserves the entire contralateral side as a future donor site. On the ipsilateral side, the gluteal muscle itself is preserved and all flaps based on the inferior gluteal artery are still possible. We present our experience of using parasacral perforator flaps in reconstructing sacral defects. Between August 2004 and January 2013, 19 patients with sacral defects were included in this study. All the patients had undergone surgical reconstruction of sacral defects with a parasacral perforator flap. The patients' sex, age, cause of sacral defect, flap size, flap type, numbers of perforators used, rotation angle, postoperative complications, and hospital stay were recorded. There were 19 parasacral perforator flaps in this series. All flaps survived uneventfully except for 1 parasacral perforator flap, which failed because of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. The overall flap survival rate was 95% (18/19). The mean follow-up period was 17.3 months (range, 2-24 months). The average length of hospital stay was 20.7 days (range, 9-48 days). No flap surgery-related mortality was found. Also, there was no recurrence of sacral pressure sores or infected pilonidal cysts during the follow-up period. Perforator-based flaps have become popular in modern reconstructive surgery because of low donor-site morbidity and good preservation of muscle. Parasacral perforator flaps are durable and reliable in reconstructing sacral defects. We recommend the parasacral perforator flap as a good choice for reconstructing sacral defects.

  2. A study of electron excitations in CaWO sub 4 and PbWO sub 4 single crystals

    Muerk, V; Mihoková, E; Nitsch, K

    1997-01-01

    The excitation spectra of photo- and thermo-luminescence were compared in the VUV-UV spectral region in CaWO sub 4 and PbWO sub 4 scheelite tungstates. Temperature dependences of emission intensities and decay times were measured for PbWO sub 4 in the 80-300 K range and approximated by a simple phenomenological model. The energy level structure of the emission centre excited state and related kinetic processes are discussed for both tungstates. (author)

  3. Oxidative stress and acute-phase response in patients with pressure sores.

    Cordeiro, Maria Bernarda Cavalcanti; Antonelli, Elida Juliana; da Cunha, Daniel Ferreira; Júnior, Alceu Afonso Jordão; Júnior, Virmondes Rodrigues; Vannucchi, Helio

    2005-09-01

    We investigated the relation between oxidative stress and the occurrence of the acute-phase response with serum ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol levels in patients with pressure sores. The following groups of patients were studied: 1) those who had patients with pressure sores, 2) those who had pneumonia, and 3) those who did not develop pressure sores or any type of infection (control). Concentrations of total proteins, albumin, creatinine, iron, ferritin, transferrin, C-reactive protein, alpha1-acid glycoprotein, total iron-binding capacity, ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and malondialdehyde were measured during the first days of hospitalization. Albumin concentrations were significantly lower (P pressure sores compared with controls. Concentrations of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol were significantly decreased (P pressure sores or infection, whereas malondialdehyde concentrations were significantly increased (P pressure sores and 10 of 12 patients (83.33%) with pneumonia presented serum ascorbic acid concentrations below the reference value (34 to 91 micromol/L). Concentrations of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol versus malondialdehyde were significantly correlated in the three patient groups (r = -0.44, P pressure sores and acute infection present a systemic inflammatory response accompanied by an increase in lipid peroxidation that is associated with decreased serum ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol levels, suggesting that these patients may be at risk for important nutritional deficiencies.

  4. In situ synthesis of CdS/CdWO4/WO3 heterojunction films with enhanced photoelectrochemical properties

    Zhan, Faqi; Li, Jie; Li, Wenzhang; Yang, Yahui; Liu, Wenhua; Li, Yaomin

    2016-09-01

    CdS/CdWO4/WO3 heterojunction films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates are for the first time prepared as an efficient photoanode for photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen generation by an in situ conversion process. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet visible spectrometry (UV-vis) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The CdS hollow spheres (∼80 nm) sensitized WO3 plate film with a CdWO4 buffer-layer exhibits increased visible light absorption and a significantly improved photoelectrochemical performance. The photocurrent density at 0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) of the CdS/CdWO4/WO3 anode is ∼3 times higher than that of the CdWO4/WO3 anode, and ∼9 times higher than that of pure WO3 under illumination. The highest incident-photon-to-current-efficiency (IPCE) value increased from 16% to 63% when the ternary heterojunction was formed. This study demonstrates that the synthesis of ternary composite photocatalysts by the in situ conversion process may be a promising approach to achieve high photoelectric conversion efficiency.

  5. A comparative analysis of pressure sore treatment modalities in community settings

    N. Small

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The management of pressure sores in community settings, poses a clinical problem which challenges the patient’s tolerance and the clinician’s diligence and ingenuity. Pressure sores can be painful, lead to infection and are associated with considerable morbidity and increased mortality (Patterson & Bennett, 1995:919; Bale, Banks, Hagelstein & Harding, 1998:65. Treatment costs of these wounds are high in terms of resources (Colin 1995:65; Wood, Griffiths & Stoner, 1997:256. However, since there are untold cost in terms of pain and suffering to the patient, it is impossible to calculate the true cost of pressure sores (Dealey, 1994:87.

  6. [Primary investigation on fumigation and moxibustion in treatment ulcer and sore of yin syndrome].

    Zhu, Chao-Jun; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Ma, Jing; Li, Pin-Chuan; Liu, Xian-Zhou; Yin, Yue; Tian, Ying

    2011-09-01

    To explore the fumigation and moxibustion therapy in treatment of ulcer and sore of yin syndrome. The fumigation and moxibustion therapy is the combination of fumigation and moxibustion, in which, smoking fumigation is provided with warming effect and the actions as moxibustion. This therapy works on the efficacy of both fumigation and moxibustion. In treatment, different herbal medicines can be selected flexibly, acting on dispersing yin and rescuing yang. The fumigation and moxibustion therapy can drain toxin and remove ulcer and sore. It contributes to the treatment of boils and chronic sores of yin syndrome and promotes wound healing.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of WO3/Ag/WO3 multilayer transparent anode with solution-processed WO3 for polymer light-emitting diodes.

    Jeon, Kangmin; Youn, Hongseok; Kim, Seongbeom; Shin, Seongbeom; Yang, Minyang

    2012-05-15

    The dielectric/metal/dielectric multilayer is suitable for a transparent electrode because of its high-optical and high-electrical properties; however, it is fabricated by an expensive and inefficient multistep vacuum process. We present a WO3/Ag/WO3 (WAW) multilayer transparent anode with solution-processed WO3 for polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs). This WAW multilayer not only has high transmittance and low resistance but also can be easily and rapidly fabricated. We devised a novel method to deposit a thin WO3 layer by a solution process in an air environment. A tungstic acid solution was prepared from an aqueous solution of Na2WO4 and then converted to WO3 nanoparticles (NPs) by a thermal treatment. Thin WO3 NP layers form WAW multilayer with a thermal-evaporated Ag layer, and they improve the transmittance of the WAW multilayer because of its high transmittance and refractive index. Moreover, the surface of the WO3 layer is homogeneous and flat with low roughness because of the WO3 NP generation from the tungstic acid solution without aggregation. We performed optical simulation and experiments, and the optimized WAW multilayer had a high transmittance of 85% with a sheet resistance of 4 Ω/sq. Finally, PLEDs based on the WAW multilayer anode achieved a maximum luminance of 35,550 cd/m2 at 8 V, and this result implies that the solution-processed WAW multilayer is appropriate for use as a transparent anode in PLEDs.

  8. A study on properties of PbWO4 crystal

    He Jingtang; Mao Yufang; Dong Xiaoli

    1997-01-01

    The experimental results on properties of the PbWO 4 crystal are reported, including the excitation and fluorescence spectra, absolute and relative light yield and decay times. It seems that the PbWO 4 crystal can be used in high energy physics experiments for detecting high energy shower particles

  9. Intrinsic Defects and H Doping in WO3

    Zhu, Jiajie; Vasilopoulou, Maria; Davazoglou, Dimitris; Kennou, Stella; Chroneos, Alexander; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2017-01-01

    WO3 is widely used as industrial catalyst. Intrinsic and/or extrinsic defects can tune the electronic properties and extend applications to gas sensors and optoelectonics. However, H doping is a challenge to WO3, the relevant mechanisms being hardly

  10. The luminescence of CaWO4: Bi single crystals

    Zorenko, Yu.; Pashkovsky, M.; Voloshinovskii, A.; Kuklinski, B.; Grinberg, M.

    2006-01-01

    Influence of doping with Bi 3+ ions and Bi 3+ -Na + or Bi 3+ -Li + ions pairs on luminescence, emission kinetics and light yield of CaWO 4 crystals has been investigated. It has been shown that under excitation in the A-band at 272 and 287nm, related to the Bi 3+ ions absorption, the luminescence peaked at 468nm decaying with time τ=0.41μs is observed. For bismuth concentration 50-500ppm and the equimolar concentrations of the Bi 3+ ions accompanied by Na + or Li + ions compensators the significant suppression of the phosphorescence peaked at 520nm, related to the defect WO 3 -V O complex, and an improvement of scintillation characteristics of the CaWO 4 are noticed. Energy transfer from the defect WO 3 -V O and regular WO 4 2- oxy-anions to Bi 3+ ions have been observed at room temperatures and discussed

  11. Evaluation of the effectiveness of kinesiotaping in reducing delayed onset muscle soreness of the biceps brachii

    Boguszewski Dariusz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available biological regeneration in athletes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the application of lymphatic kinesiotaping in reducing delayed onset muscle soreness of biceps brachii.

  12. Delayed onset muscle soreness: No pain, no gain? The truth behind ...

    Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is muscle pain and stiffness that develops ... limited success in reducing the symptoms.1,4-6 The DOMS phenomenon ... Nutritional supplementation (antioxidants and L-carnitine) shows promise, but ...

  13. How elderly patients with femoral fracture develop pressure sores in hospital.

    Versluysen, M

    1986-01-01

    The routine hospital management of 100 consecutive elderly patients was studied to determine the reason for the high incidence of pressure sores among patients admitted to hospital for femoral fractures. Of these patients, 66 developed sores, 83% occurring by the fifth day in hospital. This was due to the long periods that patients were immobilised on high pressure surfaces in the casualty department, wards, and theatres before repair of the fracture and restoration of their weight bearing function. Sores are not simply a ward or nursing problem, but an unintended consequence of hospital treatment. To reduce the incidence of sores elderly patients should be treated on low pressure patient support systems from the point of entry to hospital until mobility is restored. PMID:3085827

  14. Diabetes: Good Diabetes Management and Regular Foot Care Help Prevent Severe Foot Sores

    Amputation and diabetes: How to protect your feet Good diabetes management and regular foot care help prevent severe foot sores that ... and may require amputation. By Mayo Clinic Staff Diabetes complications can include nerve damage and poor blood ...

  15. ASPECTS REGARDING THE EFFECT OF ANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS ON DELAYED ONSET MUSCLE SORENESS

    Honceriu C.; Hagiu B.A.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to investigate the effects of using Diclofenac ointment for delayed onset muscle soreness. The research has been conducted on two groups of junior football players, males, the number of 9 each (control and treated), which has been induced by this type of muscle soreness with specific exercises. The treated group used Diclofenac gel for the relief of musculoskeletal pain. The evaluation of values of muscular strength (Squat Jump, Jump Countermovement, Free Jump,...

  16. Cutaneous flaps in the treatment of 338 pressure sores: a better choice.

    Greco, Manfredi; Marchetti, Francesco; Tempesta, Massimo; Ruggiero, Marco; Marcasciano, Marco; Carlesimo, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Muscular flaps are considered by many surgeons as a treatment of choice for pressure sores. Nevertheless fasciocutaneous and adipofascial flaps are less sensitive to ischemia, more resistant to pressure and have higher mechanical resistance. The aim of this study is to evaluate the results of our integrated rehabilitative and surgical protocol in pressure sore management based on the use of cutaneous flaps. Since 1998, we treated 338 pressure sores (PS) in 195 patients (120 males; 75 females), 189 patients were affected by paraplegia and tetraplegia and 6 of them by neurological disorders. Ninety sacral, 156 ischiatic, 75 trochanteric, 9 calcanean and 8 sores of the iliac-crest were succesfully treated. All showed an involvement of the bone element, with osteitis and/or periosteitis. 14 cases of trocanteric sores showed a deeper bone involvement, with evidences of osteomyelitis. Follow up ranges from 7 years to 2 months. Median time for wound healing was 18 days. The use of fasciocutaneous flaps, as an alternative to the traditional muscolocutaneous flaps in the treatment of pressure sores leads to good and statistically comparable, healing rate, time and incidence of complications. Reconstructive plastic surgery as is a decisive factor to reach a good rehabilitative outcome, minimizing the time of rehabilitation with a following decrease of hospitalization costs. In spinal cord injured patients, surgical treatment of pressure sores is not proposed as the main procedure, but it is an important stage during the natural history of pressure sores. Cutaneous, adipofascial and fasciocutaneous flaps are less invasive, of a relatively easy execution, provided by a reliable vascular pedicle and they could be "re-used" in case of recurrences.

  17. Pressure Sore at an Unusual Site- the Bilateral Popliteal Fossa: A Case report

    Kamal Kataria

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pressure sore is tissue ulceration due to unrelieved pressure, altered sensory perception, and exposure to moisture. Geriatric patients with organic problems and patients with spinal cord injuries are the high-risk groups. Soft tissues over bony prominences are the common sites for ulcer development. About 95% of pressure ulcers occur in the lower part of the body. Ischial tuberosity, greater trochanter, sacrum and heel are common sites. In addition to these, pressure sores at unusual sites like nasal alae, malar eminences, cervical region and medial side of knee have also been described. Only 1.6% of the patients present with sores in areas outside the pelvis and lower extremity. In a paraplegic patient, pressure sores are usually over extensor surface of knee and heel but pressure ulcer over popliteal fossa are extremely rare. We herein report a case of a 36-years-old diabetic and paraplegic male, who presented with multiple bed sores involving the sacral area, heels and bilateral popliteal fossa. Popliteal fossa is an unusual site for pressure sores. Only one similar case has been previously reported in the literature.

  18. [Urinary incontinence as a risk factor for pressure sores does not withstand a critical examination].

    Krause, Tom; Anders, Jennifer; von Renteln-Kruse, Wolfgang

    2005-10-01

    The association between urinary incontinence and pressure sores is put down to various causes. Most frequently urinary wet and following maceration of the skin are mentioned. However, it is possible that urinary incontinence is only an indicator for other risk factors or a measure of the need for care without any causal relation to pressure sores. There are hardly any controlled or randomised studies; this lack of scientific evidence is problematic. Based on a case-control-study including data of 200 patients as well as on the existing models of explanation, the following study tries to examine critically the connections between pressure sores and urinary incontinence. Out of the patients in our study population 97.5 percent were incontinent. Different categories of the risk factor urinary incontinence and different dichotomisations have led to different statistical results. Statements concerning the connection between urinary incontinence and pressure sores have to be interpreted critically. The dependence of urinary incontinence on other risk factors such as patients' need for care or compliance suggests that the causal connection to pressure sores be not reduced to the influence of wetness. We advise to research connections between urinary incontinence and pressure sores in a methodologically appropriate setting.

  19. Treatment of ischial pressure sores with both profunda femoris artery perforator flaps and muscle flaps.

    Kim, Chae Min; Yun, In Sik; Lee, Dong Won; Lew, Dae Hyun; Rah, Dong Kyun; Lee, Won Jai

    2014-07-01

    Reconstruction of ischial pressure sore defects is challenging due to extensive bursas and high recurrence rates. In this study, we simultaneously applied a muscle flap that covered the exposed ischium and large bursa with sufficient muscular volume and a profunda femoris artery perforator fasciocutaneous flap for the management of ischial pressure sores. We retrospectively analyzed data from 14 patients (16 ischial sores) whose ischial defects had been reconstructed using both a profunda femoris artery perforator flap and a muscle flap between January 2006 and February 2014. We compared patient characteristics, operative procedure, and clinical course. All flaps survived the entire follow-up period. Seven patients (50%) had a history of surgery at the site of the ischial pressure sore. The mean age of the patients included was 52.8 years (range, 18-85 years). The mean follow-up period was 27.9 months (range, 3-57 months). In two patients, a biceps femoris muscle flap was used, while a gracilis muscle flap was used in the remaining patients. In four cases (25%), wound dehiscence occurred, but healed without further complication after resuturing. Additionally, congestion occurred in one case (6%), but resolved with conservative treatment. Among 16 cases, there was only one (6%) recurrence at 34 months. The combination of a profunda femoris artery perforator fasciocutaneous flap and muscle flap for the treatment of ischial pressure sores provided pliability, adequate bulkiness and few long-term complications. Therefore, this may be used as an alternative treatment method for ischial pressure sores.

  20. Treatment of ischial pressure sores using a modified gracilis myofasciocutaneous flap.

    Lin, Haodong; Hou, Chunlin; Chen, Aimin; Xu, Zhen

    2010-04-01

    Despite the availability of a variety of flap reconstruction options, ischial pressure sores continue to be the most difficult pressure sores to treat. This article describes a successful surgical procedure for the coverage of ischial ulcers using a modified gracilis myofasciocutaneous flap. From August 2000 to April 2004, 12 patients with ischial sores were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent early aggressive surgical debridement followed by surgical reconstruction with a modified gracilis myofasciocutaneous flap. The follow-up period ranged from 13 to 86 months, with a mean of 44 months. Overall, 91.7% of the flaps (11 of 12) survived primarily. Partial flap necrosis occurred in one patient. Primary wound healing occurred without complications at both the donor and recipient sites in all cases. In one patient, grade II ischial pressure sores recurred 13 months after the operation. There was no recurrence in other 11 patients. A modified gracilis myofasciocutaneous flap provides a good cover for ischial pressure sores. Because it is easy to use and has favorable results, it can be used in the primary treatment for large and deep ischial pressure sores. Copyright Thieme Medical Publishers.

  1. The evaluation of daily living activities, pressure sores and risk factors.

    Aydın, Gökçen; Mucuk, Salime

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess daily living activities, pressure sores and risk factors. This was a descriptive study. The study was conducted at a rehabilitation center with 188 individuals participating in the study. Data were collected with a questionnaire form, Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADLS), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (IADLS) and Braden Risk Assessment Scale (BRAS). Among the participants, 48.9% were dependent according to activities of daily living and 71.8% were dependent on instrumental activities of daily living. It was noted that 4.8% had pressure sores and 38.8% were at high risk. A strong and positive correlation was found among ADLS, IADLS, and BRAS scores (p pressure sores (p pressure sores. Individuals who are treated at rehabilitation centers should be periodically assessed in terms of risk. Pressure sore development can be prevented with appropriate nursing interventions. To reduce the risk of developing pressure sores, nurses should describe the individual's degree of dependency according to ADLS and IADLS and initiate preventive nursing care. © 2014 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  2. Pressure Sore at an Unusual Site- the Bilateral Popliteal Fossa: A Case report

    Kataria, Kamal; Sagar, Sushma; Singhal, Manish; Yadav, Rajni

    2012-01-01

    Pressure sore is tissue ulceration due to unrelieved pressure, altered sensory perception, and exposure to moisture. Geriatric patients with organic problems and patients with spinal cord injuries are the high-risk groups. Soft tissues over bony prominences are the common sites for ulcer development. About 95% of pressure ulcers occur in the lower part of the body. Ischial tuberosity, greater trochanter, sacrum and heel are common sites. In addition to these, pressure sores at unusual sites like nasal alae, malar eminences, cervical region and medial side of knee have also been described. Only 1.6% of the patients present with sores in areas outside the pelvis and lower extremity. In a paraplegic patient, pressure sores are usually over extensor surface of knee and heel but pressure ulcer over popliteal fossa are extremely rare. We herein report a case of a 36-years-old diabetic and paraplegic male, who presented with multiple bed sores involving the sacral area, heels and bilateral popliteal fossa. Popliteal fossa is an unusual site for pressure sores. Only one similar case has been previously reported in the literature. PMID:29181131

  3. [Indication of sclerotherapy in the treatment of ischiatic pressure sore: about 13 cases].

    Bahé, L; Prud'homme, A; Penaud, A; Formé, N; Zakine, G

    2012-12-01

    Ischiatic pressure sore is a common pathology of the paraplegic patient. Usually treated after medical therapy, with fasciocutaneous or musculocutaneous local flaps, despite this treatment the recurrence rate is high. Sclerotherapy, injection of pure ethanol in the cavity of the pressure sore could be an interesting solution in the armentarium of the plastic surgeon in some indications. Sclerotherapy was used for 13 patients in the plastic surgery department to treat ischiatic pressure sores with a cavity, beneath the defect. The mean length of stay was 24 days. The ischiatic pressure sore was completely healed with no skin defect or cavity for nine patients (65%). For two patients, there was a delay of healing of the skin defect but no cavity beneath. There were two early recurrences of the pressure sore. They were treated by sclerotherapy with a complete recovery in 2 months with simple hydrocolloid dressings. The mean post op follow-up was 14,6 months (4 to 24). Only one recurrence was observed after 12 months. The injection of pure ethanol in the cavity of specifics ischiatics pressure sores is a simple, fast and effective technique with a good and stable long term wound healing. The mean length of stay is shorter and the recurrence rate is equivalent to other techniques. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Gargling with Ketamine Attenuates the Postoperative Sore Throat

    A Rudra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative sore throat (POST is a common complication of anaesthesia with endotracheal tube that affects patient satisfaction after surgery. Therefore, this complication remains to be resolved in patients undergoing endotra-cheal intubation. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of ketamine gargles with placebo in prevent-ing POST after endotracheal intubation. Forty patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anaesthesia were randomized into: Group C, water 30 ml; Group K, ketamine 50 mg in water 29 ml. Patients were asked to gargle this mixture for 40 seconds, 5 minutes before induction of anaesthesia. POST was graded at 4, 8 and 24 hours after operation on a four-point scale (0-3. In the Control group POST occurred more frequently, when compared with patients belonging to Ketamine group, at 4, 8, and 24 hours and significantly more patients suffered severe POST in Control group at 8 and 24 hours compared with Ketamine group (P< 0.05. We demonstrated that gargling with ketamine significantly attenuated POST, with no drug-related side effects were observed.

  5. Marjolin's Ulcer Complicating a Pressure Sore: The Clock is Ticking.

    Khan, Kamran; Giannone, Anna Lucia; Mehrabi, Erfan; Khan, Ayda; Giannone, Roberto E

    2016-02-22

    Malignant degeneration in any chronic wound is termed a Marjolin's ulcer (MU). The overall metastatic rate of MU is approximately 27.5%. However, the prognosis of MU specific to pressure sores is poor, with a reported metastatic rate of 61%. This is due to insidious, asymptomatic malignant degeneration, a lack of healthcare provider awareness, and, ultimately, delayed management. An 85-year-old white male was noted by his wound-care nurse to have a rapidly developing growth on his lower back over a period of 4 months. There was history of a non-healing, progressive pressure ulcer of the lower back for the past 10 years. On examination, there was a 4 × 4 cm pressure ulcer of the lower back, with a superimposed 1.5 × 2 cm growth in the superior region. There was an absence of palpable regional lymphadenopathy. Punch biopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma consistent with Marjolin's ulcer. The ulcer underwent excision with wide margins, and a skin graft was placed. Due to the prompt recognition of an abnormality by the patient's wound-care nurse, metastasis was not evident on imaging. There are no signs of recurrence at 1-year follow-up. Marjolin's ulcer has a rapid progression from local disease to widespread metastasis. Therefore, it is essential that wound-care providers are aware of the clinical signs and symptoms of malignant degeneration in chronic wounds.

  6. Specific and cross over effects of massage for muscle soreness: randomized controlled trial.

    Jay, Kenneth; Sundstrup, Emil; Søndergaard, Stine D; Behm, David; Brandt, Mikkel; Særvoll, Charlotte A; Jakobsen, Markus D; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-02-01

    Muscle soreness can negatively interfere with the activities of daily living as well as sports performance. In the working environment, a common problem is muscle tenderness, soreness and pain, especially for workers frequently exposed to unilateral high repetitive movements tasks. The aim of the study is therefore to investigate the acute effect of massage applied using a simple device Thera-band roller Massager on laboratory induced hamstring muscle soreness, and the potential cross over effect to the non-massaged limb. 22 healthy untrained men (Mean age 34 +/- 7 years; mean height 181.7 +/- 6.9 cm; mean weight 80.6 +/- 6.4 kg; BMI: 24.5 +/- 1.3) with no prior history of knee, low back or neck injury or other adverse health issues were recruited. Participants visited the researchers on two separate occasions, separated by 48 hours, each time providing a soreness rating (modified visual analog scale 0-10), and being tested for pressure pain threshold (PPT) and active range of motion (ROM) of the hamstring muscles. During the first visit, delayed onset muscular soreness of the hamstring muscles was induced by 10 x 10 repetitions of the stiff-legged dead-lift. On the second visit participants received either 1) 10 minutes of roller massage on one leg, while the contralateral leg served as a cross over control, or 2) Resting for 10 minutes with no massage at all. Measurement of soreness, PPT and ROM were taken immediately before and at 0, 10, 30 and 60 min. after treatment. There was a significant group by time interaction for soreness (p < 0.0001) and PPT (p = 0.0007), with the massage group experiencing reduced soreness and increasing PPT compared with the control group. There was no group by time interaction for ROM (p = 0.18). At 10 min. post massage there was a significant reduction in soreness of the non-massaged limb in the cross over control group compared to controls but this effect was lost 30 minutes post massage. Massage with a roller device reduces

  7. Synthesis, Characterization, and Gas Sensing Applications of WO3 Nanobricks

    Xiao, Jingkun; Song, Chengwen; Dong, Wei; Li, Chen; Yin, Yanyan; Zhang, Xiaoni; Song, Mingyan

    2015-08-01

    WO3 nanobricks are fabricated by a simple hydrothermal method. Morphology and structure of the WO3 nanobricks are characterized by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. Gas sensing properties of the as-prepared WO3 sensor are systematically investigated by a static gas sensing system. The results show that the WO3 nanobricks with defect corners demonstrate good crystallinity, and the mean edge length and wall thickness are 1-1.5 and 400 nm, respectively. The WO3 sensor achieves its maximum sensitivity to 100 ppm ethanol at the optimal operating temperature of 300 °C. Ultra-fast response time (2-3 s) and fast recovery time (4-11 s) of the WO3 sensor toward 100 ppm ethanol are also observed at this optimal operating temperature. Moreover, the WO3 sensor exhibits high selectivity to other gases such as methanol, benzene, hexane, and dichloromethane, indicating its excellent potential application as a gas sensor for ethanol detection.

  8. Does a foamy-block mattress system prevent pressure sores ? A prospective randomised clinical trial in 1729 patients.

    Berthe, J V; Bustillo, A; Mélot, C; de Fontaine, S

    2007-01-01

    Pressure ulcers are a frequent complication of bed rest. The development of an efficient and low cost pressure relieving system for the prevention of bed-sores would be of considerable hospital health and economic interest. Our study was designed to determine the effectiveness in pressure-sore prevention of an interface pressure-decreasing mattress, the Kliniplot mattress, used in our institution since 1978. In a prospective randomised controlled 7-month clinical trial we compared the Kliniplot mattress with our standard hospital mattress in 1729 patients admitted to medical and surgical departments (neurology, cardiology, oncology-haematology, neurosurgery, thoracic surgery and orthopaedic surgery). Two groups (Klinipot mattress and standard hospital mattress) were monitored for the prevention of pressure sores. The patients were evaluated on a daily basis from their admission until the eventual occurrence of a bed-sore. Patients' characteristics and pressure-sore risk factors were similar at the baseline in both groups. Patients presenting with a pressure sore at the time of admission were excluded. Forty-two of the 1729 patients (2.4%) who entered the study developed at least one pressure sore. Twenty-one of the 657 patients (3.2%) nursed on the Kliniplot mattress, and 21 of the 1072 patients (1.9%) on the standard mattress developed bed-sores (p = 0.154). The median time for the occurrence of pressure sores was 31 days (range 6-87) with the Kliniplot mattress and 18 days (range 2 to 38) with the standard mattress (p sores using the modified Ek's scale were no different at the baseline between both groups (p = 0.764). The severity of the pressure sores was no different between both groups (p = 0.918). Our results show that the occurrence of pressure sores is not reduced but is delayed when patients are nursed on a Kliniplot pressure-decreasing mattress.

  9. Improving outcomes following reconstruction of pressure sores in spinal injury patients: A multidisciplinary approach.

    Tadiparthi, S; Hartley, A; Alzweri, L; Mecci, M; Siddiqui, H

    2016-07-01

    Pressure sore treatment in spinal injury patients is challenging. A multidisciplinary approach with joint management by the plastic surgery and spinal injury teams was initiated at our institution in 2005 to improve patient care and surgical outcomes following reconstruction. This study assessed the surgical outcomes following reconstruction using the team approach and to compare inpatient stay and readmissions for complications before and after the multidisciplinary protocol was introduced. A retrospective review of consecutive patients in the multidisciplinary pressure sore clinic was performed. Data were collected on patient demographics, reconstructive techniques, surgical outcomes and readmission for any complications. In total, 45 patients with 60 pressure sores (grade 3 or 4) were reviewed in the joint clinic between 2005 and 2011. The majority of patients were paraplegic (78%), while the remaining 22% were tetraplegic. Ischial sores were the most common (45%) followed by trochanteric (23%) and sacral (20%) sores. Multiple sores were noted in 44% of patients. Flap reconstruction was required in 32 patients (71%); after a mean follow-up time of 33 months (range 25-72 months), there were three (9%) major complications (two recurrences of pressure sores and one sinus) and seven (22%) minor complications. After introduction of patient care pathways through the multidisciplinary approach, the rate of readmission for complications decreased from 14% to 5.5% and inpatient stay upon readmission reduced from 65 to 45 days. Implementation of a multidisciplinary approach was key to optimising surgical outcomes, achieving a low recurrence rate (6%) and reducing readmissions. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [A clinical audit on the use of medications for pressure sores, after the implementation of guidelines].

    Chiari, Paolo; Fontana, Mirella; Bianchi, Tommaso; Bonzagni, Cristina; Galetti, Caterina

    2006-01-01

    Although guidelines for the management of pressure sores are widely available, their implementation is not always easy and sometimes does not produce the desired changes. To describe the results of a clinical audit aiming at assessing the appropriate use of medications for pressure sores, after the implementation of guidelines. The audit group, with an expert in assessment, a nurse expert in pressure sores, a microbiologist, a dermatologist and a chemist analysed the clinical and nursing records of all the patients with a pressure sore, discharged during the first trimester of 2005 and 2006, after the implementation of the guidelines, from wards with higher prevalence of pressure sores: geriatric, medical, intensive care, rehabilitation and post acute wards. Each documented treatment was classified as appropriate, not appropriate or "grey area", treatments inappropriate according to guidelines but not according to expert or current knowledge (e.g. poliurethane medications for heel pressure sores). After each stage, the results were returned and discussed with the involved wards. One hundred 74 patients were surveyed in 2005 and 199 in 2006, with a total of respectively 287 and 326 sores. The percentage of inappropriate treatments was 20% in 2005 and 12.8% in 2006 (OR 1.79 I.C. 95% 1.10- 2.91), while an increase of treatments considered grey area (from 7% to 13.5%) was observed. The medium number of medications used was 17.3 per lesion, in 2005 and 16.4 in 2006 with a cost respectively of 83.6 and 67.35 per lesion, but the two populations were not strictly comparable. Clinical audit is a strategy that involving doctors and nurses, may promote positive changes. The rate of inappropriate treatments (higher in areas with high turnover of nurses) can be improved with educational interventions. The identification of treatments of the grey area highlights the need of periodically revising guidelines to update their contents according to new knowledge and technologies.

  11. [Clinical application of modified upper gluteal rhomboid fasciocutaneous flap in repairing sacrococcygeal pressure sores].

    Jiang, Maohua; Yang, Xiaoliang; Wei, Bangmin; Li, Yinghao

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the method and effectiveness of repairing sacrococcygeal pressure sores with modified upper gluteal rhomboid fasciocutaneous flap. Between January 2004 and March 2011, 43 patients with sacrococcygeal pressure sores were treated. There were 25 males and 18 females with an average age of 63 years (range, 38-95 years). The disease duration was 3 months to 2 years and 6 months (mean, 8.5 months). The size of pressure sores ranged from 6 cm x 5 cm to 18 cm x 13 cm. According to the extent and lesion degree of pressure scores, 23 pressure sores were rated as degree III and 20 pressure sores as degree IV. The modified upper gluteal rhomboid flap was designed, one-side upper gluteal fasciocutaneous flaps were transplanted to repair sacrococcygeal pressure sores in 19 cases and two-side flaps in 24 cases. The size of one side flap ranged from 6.5 cm x 4.5 cm to 18.0 cm x 11.5 cm. Fluid under flap occurred in 1 case and edge necrosis of the flaps in 3 cases at 7 days after operation, which were cured after drainage and dressing change; the other flaps survived, and incisions healed by first intention. All patients were followed up 6 months to 3 years with an average of 11 months. Two patients relapsed at 5 months and 8 months, respectively; the other patients had no recurrence. The color of the flaps was normal, and the appearance and elasticity of the flaps were good. The modified upper gluteal rhomboid fasciocutaneous flap has the advantages of simple design and operation, less injury, and reliable effect in repairing sacrococcygeal pressure sores.

  12. The usefulness of a clinical 'scorecard' in managing patients with sore throat in general practice

    Bakare Tony MO

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of a clinical scorecard in managing sore throat in general practice. Design: Validation study of scorecard for sore throat with a throat swab culture used as the 'gold standard'. Setting: A solo family practice in rural New South Wales, Australia Participants: Patients attending with sore throat. Methods Patients from the age of 5 years and above presenting with the main symptom of a sore throat, and who have not had any antibiotic treatment in the previous two weeks, were invited to participate in the study. The doctor completed a scorecard for each patient participating and took a throat swab for culture. Adult patients (> 16 yrs were asked to complete a patient satisfaction questionnaire, while guardians accompanying children (5 yr to Main outcome measures: 1. Ability of a new scorecard to differentiate between bacterial and non-bacterial sore throat. 2. Patients' trust in the scorecard. Results The scorecard has a sensitivity of 93.33%, a specificity of 63.16%, a positive predictive value of 50% and a negative predictive value of 96%. The sensitivity is better than other sore throat scorecards that have been published but with a slightly lower specificity. There was a high level of patient trust in the scorecard was (85.8% agreement. Patients also trusted their doctor's judgement based on the scorecard (90.6% agreement. Conclusions As the scorecard has a high sensitivity but only a moderate specificity, this means that it is more reliable for negative results, i.e. when the result suggests a viral infection. When the result favours a bacterial sore throat, then a high sensitivity can mean that there are a number of false positives. GPs can be confident in withholding antibiotics when the scorecard indicates a viral infection.

  13. [High-grade pressure sores in frail older high-risk persons. A retrospective postmortem case-control-study].

    Von Renteln-Kruse, W; Krause, T; Anders, J; Kühl, M; Heinemann, A; Püschel, K

    2004-04-01

    Some old persons at risk do develop, but others, at comparable risk, do not develop high-grade pressure sores. To evaluate potentially different risk factors, we performed a post mortem case-control study in old persons who developed high-grade pressure sores within six months until 14 days before death. Consecutive cases with pressure sores grade >/=3 and potential controls at comparably high risk for pressure sores were examined before cremation. After written informed consent had been obtained by the next relatives, all available nursing and medical records of the deceased were thoroughly evaluated. Cases and controls were matched according to age, gender, immobility, and cachexia.A total of 100 cases with 71 pressure sores grade 3 and 29 pressure sores grade 4 were compared to 100 controls with 27 pressure sores grade pressure sores in frail older high-risk persons. Sedative drug effects and impaired patient compliance with preventive and therapeutic measures may also be associated with the development of high-grade pressure sores in old persons at high risk.

  14. An ultraviolet photodetector fabricated from WO3 nanodiscs/reduced graphene oxide composite material

    Shao Dali; Sawyer, Shayla; Yu Mingpeng; Lian Jie

    2013-01-01

    A high sensitivity, fast ultraviolet (UV) photodetector was fabricated from WO 3 nanodiscs (NDs)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composite material. The WO 3 NDs/reduced GO composite material was synthesized using a facile three-step synthesis procedure. First, the Na 2 WO 4 /GO precursor was synthesized by homogeneous precipitation. Second, the Na 2 WO 4 /GO precursor was transformed into H 2 WO 4 /GO composites by acidification. Finally, the H 2 WO 4 /GO composites were reduced to WO 3 NDs/RGO via a hydrothermal reduction process. The UV photodetector showed a fast transient response and high responsivity, which are attributed to the improved carrier transport and collection efficiency through graphene. The excellent material properties of the WO 3 NDs/RGO composite demonstrated in this work may open up new possibilities for using WO 3 NDs/RGO for future optoelectronic applications. (paper)

  15. Ketorolac Tromethamine Spray Prevents Postendotracheal-Intubation-Induced Sore Throat after General Anesthesia

    H. L. Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Postoperative sore throat is one of the major complaints of general anesthesia in the postanesthesia care unit. This prospective study investigated the preventive effect of ketorolac tromethamine spray in postendotracheal-intubation-induced sore throat after general anesthesia. Methods. Surgical patients undergoing general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation were recruited from a medical center. Patients were randomly assigned to group K (treated with 5% ketorolac tromethamine spray or group D (treated with distilled water spray. Before intubation, each endotracheal tube was sprayed with the appropriate solution by physicians over the 20 cm length of the cuff. Each group comprised 95 patients fitting the inclusion and exclusion criteria for whom complete data sets were collected. The intensity of the sore throat was measured at 1, 3, 6, and 24 h after surgery, and data were compared. Results. The two groups had similar characteristics. Postoperative sore throat was significantly less frequent in group K than in group D (p<0.001 and the pain intensity was significantly lower in group K than in group D at each time point (all p<0.001. Conclusions. This study demonstrated that preanesthesia 5% ketorolac tromethamine spray could effectively decrease postendotracheal-intubation-induced sore throat in patients undergoing general anesthesia.

  16. Vitamin C depletion and pressure sores in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture.

    Goode, H. F.; Burns, E.; Walker, B. E.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the contribution of specific nutritional deficiencies (as indicated by zinc; vitamin A, C, and E; albumin; and haemoglobin concentrations) to the risk of pressure sores. DESIGN--Observational cohort study. SETTING--St James's University Hospital, Leeds. SUBJECTS--21 elderly patients presenting consecutively to the orthopaedic unit with femoral neck fracture. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Full thickness epidermal break over a pressure bearing surface. RESULTS--10 patients (48%) developed a pressure sore during their hospital stay. Indices of zinc status and concentrations of albumin, haemoglobin, and vitamins A and E were similar in patients who developed a pressure sore and those who did not. Mean leucocyte vitamin C concentration, however, was 6.3 (SD 2.2) micrograms/10(8) cells in patients who developed a pressure sore as compared with 12.8 (4.6) micrograms/10(8) cells in patients who did not. CONCLUSIONS--Low concentrations of leucocyte vitamin C appear to be associated with subsequent development of pressure sores in elderly patients with femoral neck fractures. PMID:1458073

  17. Detection and Isolation of Digital Dermatitis Treponemes from Bovine Pressure Sores.

    Clegg, S R; Crosby-Durrani, H E; Bell, J; Blundell, R; Blowey, R W; Carter, S D; Evans, N J

    2016-05-01

    Pressure sores cause severe pain and discomfort in hospitalized people and in farmed cattle and are often infected with unknown bacteria. Pressure sores occur on the upper legs of 6-10% of recumbent cattle and are generally considered to be caused by constant pressure, commonly on bony areas of the limbs. This study analyzed pressure sores taken from the upper limbs of 14 cattle using isolation in culture and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect treponemes associated with digital dermatitis (DD). A 100% association of DD treponemes with the pressure sores was demonstrated, but treponemes were shown not to be part of the normal skin microbiota. Immunohistochemistry showed an association of DD treponemes with lesions and particularly with the hair follicles in lesions, identifying the bacteria deep within wounds, thereby suggesting that they could contribute to lesion pathogenesis. The bacteria isolated from the pressure sore lesions were similar or identical on analysis of the 16S rRNA gene to those found in DD foot lesions in cattle, suggesting the same bacteria can infect multiple lesions. Indeed, the results of this study suggest that these spirochaetal bacteria may be expanding in host range and in their ability to colonize different tissues and contribute to a range of disease manifestations in farm animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Electrochromic device based on electrospun WO{sub 3} nanofibers

    Dulgerbaki, Cigdem; Maslakci, Neslihan Nohut; Komur, Ali Ihsan; Oksuz, Aysegul Uygun, E-mail: ayseguluygun@sdu.edu.tr

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • WO{sub 3} electrochromic nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning technique. • WO{sub 3} nanofibers switched reversibly from transparent to blue color. • Electrochromic device was assembled using ionic liquid based gel electrolyte. • Significant optical modulation and excellent cycling stability were achieved for ECD. - Abstract: The tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) nanofibers were grown directly onto an ITO-coated glass via an electrospinning method for electrochromic applications. The electrochromic properties of WO{sub 3} nanofibers were investigated in the presence of different electrolytes including a series of ionic liquids and classic LiClO{sub 4}-PC system. A significant optical modulation of 20.82% at 760 nm, reversible coloration with efficiency of 64.58 cm{sup 2}/C and excellent cycling stability were achieved for the nanofiber electrochromic device (ECD) with ionic liquid based gel electrolyte.

  19. SrWO4 at high pressures

    Grzechnik, A.; Crichton, W.A.; Hanfland, M.

    2005-01-01

    Room-temperature high-pressure behaviour of SrWO 4 scheelite (I4 1 /a, Z=4) has been studied to 20.7 GPa in a diamond anvil cell using synchrotron angle-dispersive X-ray powder diffraction. Above 10 GPa, it transforms to the fergusonite structure (I2/a, Z=4). Both scheelite and fergusonite types are ordered superstructures of fluorite (Fm anti 3m, Z=4). There is no significant volume collapse at the scheelite-fergusonite phase transition. However, the compression data including both phases of strontium tungstate cannot be fitted by a common Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. An onset of decomposition into component oxides occurs at about 15 GPa. The pressure-induced transformations are irreversible. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Hydrothermal synthesis of CdWO 4 nanorods and their ...

    CdWO4 nanorods with wolframite structure were synthesized in the presence of the surfactant SDBS by a hydrothermal method, and characterized by a variety of techniques. The obtained products are CdWO4 nanorods with length of 0.8–2.5 μm and width of 50–250 nm. The surfactant SDBS plays a key role in the ...

  1. Anti-tumor activity of self-charged (Eu,Ca):WO3 and Eu:CaWO4 nanoparticles

    Lin, Cao; Cong, Wang; De'An, Pan; Jiexin, Cao; Ping, Che; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-stoichiometric (Eu,Ca):WO 3 and Eu:CaWO 4 nanoparticles with anti-tumor activity are synthesized in a sol-gel method by adding excessive Eu 3+ and Ca 2+ ions to tungsten oxide crystal structure. Colorimetric assay shows that 10 nm (Eu,Ca):WO 3 and Eu:CaWO 4 nanoparticles can effectively inhibit growth of mammary cancer cells without any harm to normal cells. Nanoparticles are characterized by X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence optical spectrometry. Nanomaterials, insoluble in synthesized water, have complicated self-charging surfaces that trap mammary cancer cells. Surface self-charging effect is suggested as the inhibition mechanism. (author)

  2. Acute effects of massage or active exercise in relieving muscle soreness

    Andersen, Lars L; Jay, Kenneth; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2013-01-01

    Massage is commonly believed to be the best modality for relieving muscle soreness. However, actively warming up the muscles with exercise may be an effective alternative. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effect of massage with active exercise for relieving muscle soreness. Twenty...... healthy female volunteers (mean age 32 years) participated in this examiner-blind randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01478451). The participants performed eccentric contractions for the upper trapezius muscle on a Biodex dynamometer. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) presented 48 hours...... later, at which the participants (a) received 10 minutes of massage of the trapezius muscle or (b) performed 10 minutes of active exercise (shoulder shrugs 10 × 10 reps) with increasing elastic resistance (Thera-Band). First, 1 treatment was randomly applied to 1 shoulder while the contralateral...

  3. Pressure sores--a constant problem for plegic patients and a permanent challenge for plastic surgery.

    Giuglea, Carmen; Marinescu, Sllviu; Florescu, Ioan Petre; Jecan, Crenguta

    2010-01-01

    Pressure sores can be defined as lesions caused by unrelieved pressure resulting in damage of the underlying tissue. They represent a common problem in the pathology of plegic patients and, plastic surgery has a significant role in their treatment. Pressure sores occur over bony prominences and so, they are most commonly seen at the sacrum and trochanters in paralyzed patients and at ischium for the patients who sit in a wheelchair for a long time. For these patients, surgical treatment is very important because on one hand, it stops the loss of nutrients and proteins at the site of the pressure sore, and on the other hand, it permits the initiation of neuromuscular recuperation treatment much faster.

  4. Conduction and transport numbers in metacomposites MeWO4 · WO3 (Me = Ca, Sr, Ba)

    Nejman, A.Ya.; Pestereva, N.N.; Sharafutdinov, A.R.; Kostikov, Yu.P.

    2005-01-01

    The conductivity and transfer numbers of charge carriers for composites in the MeWO 4 -WO 3 (Me = Ca, Sr, Ba) systems are studied as a function of the temperature and the activity of oxygen in a gas phase. The transfer numbers are determined by the emf method and are estimated from dependences of conductivity on the activity of oxygen in a gas phase. The deficiencies of the given procedure as applied to investigation of properties of composite phases are analyzed. The materials under study are classified as metacomposites. The concentration intervals of the ionic, mixed, and electronic conductivities are determined. The conductivity of (100-x)MeWO 4 · xWO 3 composites is predominantly ionic at x ≤ 10 (Me = Ca), x ≤ 60 (Me = Sr), and x ≤ 45 (Me = Ba). The obtained data are explained in the framework of a model that represents a composite as a distributed matrix system where a film of surface phase MeW-s with a high mobility of oxygen ions plays the role of a connected matrix. It is presumed that the surface phase MeW-s possesses double-sided surface activity (α MeW-s ≤ α WO 3 , α MeWO 4 ) and a higher mobility with respect to MeWO 4 and WO 3 . The discovered anomalies of dependences σ O 2- (T) and partial conductivities σ O 2- , σ el (T) are explained by a change in the stoichiometry, morphology, and the degree of tie-up of surface phase MeW-s caused by a change in the temperature and composition of composites [ru

  5. An audit of the physiotherapy management of paraplegic patients with sacral pressure sores

    D. Pather

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pressure sores are the most common complication post spinal cord injury that requires patients to be on bed rest. Patient bed rest delay rehabilitation and may lead to other complications associated with immobility. This study sought to establish the treatment interventions physiotherapists provide to patients with sacral pressure sores and the factors that they consider when deciding whether the patient should receive physiotherapy in the ward or gym. Methods: This was a questionnaire based survey of physiotherapists working in spinal cord injury rehabilitation units in South Africa. The self-designed questionnaire was sent to all the main spinal rehabilitation units in the country (14 located in Gauteng, Kwa-Zulu Natal, Western Cape, Eastern Cape and Free State provinces. Results: Thirty-nine physiotherapists from a total of 51 completed the questionnaires (76% response rate. The most common treatment practice for patients with sacral pressure sores was bed rest (98%. The most common physio-therapy practices (70% included were upper limb muscle strengthening, upper and lower limb passive movements, positioning into prone and side lying and passive stretching. The choice of treatment environment was influenced by doctors’ orders and the size, grade and duration of the pressure sores. Conclusion: Direct involvement in pressure sore management in South Africa seem to be less than in other parts of the world. If we are to minimise the pressure sore impact, it appears like we need more focus on gait re-education and standardised ADL programmes and patient treatment in the gym to possibly maximise healing and rehabilitation.

  6. Treatment of Ischial Pressure Sores with Both Profunda Femoris Artery Perforator Flaps and Muscle Flaps

    Chae Min Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Reconstruction of ischial pressure sore defects is challenging due to extensive bursas and high recurrence rates. In this study, we simultaneously applied a muscle flap that covered the exposed ischium and large bursa with sufficient muscular volume and a profunda femoris artery perforator fasciocutaneous flap for the management of ischial pressure sores. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data from 14 patients (16 ischial sores whose ischial defects had been reconstructed using both a profunda femoris artery perforator flap and a muscle flap between January 2006 and February 2014. We compared patient characteristics, operative procedure, and clinical course. Results All flaps survived the entire follow-up period. Seven patients (50% had a history of surgery at the site of the ischial pressure sore. The mean age of the patients included was 52.8 years (range, 18-85 years. The mean follow-up period was 27.9 months (range, 3-57 months. In two patients, a biceps femoris muscle flap was used, while a gracilis muscle flap was used in the remaining patients. In four cases (25%, wound dehiscence occurred, but healed without further complication after resuturing. Additionally, congestion occurred in one case (6%, but resolved with conservative treatment. Among 16 cases, there was only one (6% recurrence at 34 months. Conclusions The combination of a profunda femoris artery perforator fasciocutaneous flap and muscle flap for the treatment of ischial pressure sores provided pliability, adequate bulkiness and few long-term complications. Therefore, this may be used as an alternative treatment method for ischial pressure sores.

  7. Sports Mass Age Therapy on the Reduction of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness of the Quadriceps Femoris

    Boguszewski Dariusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Massage therapy is one of most commonly applied treatments during athletic training. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of sports massage therapy on reducing post-exercise quadriceps muscle soreness. Methods. A sample of 29 women aged 24-26 years was divided into an experimental group (n = 15 receiving classic sports massage therapy and a control group (n = 14 given no treatment. An exercise session consisting of five sets of deep squat jumps was administered after which lower limb power as assessed via the vertical jump test. Muscle soreness was assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS and exercise intensity with the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale. Subsequent measurements of lower limb power and muscle soreness were performed 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after the exercise session. Differences between the measurements were assessed by the Friedman and least significant difference tests while between-group comparisons involved the Mann-Whitney U test. Results. The largest decrease in lower limb power was observed between the first measurement after the exercise session and 24 h later (p < 0.01. The smallest decrease in power was observed in the massage group. The highest levels of muscle soreness were noted 24 h post-exercise in the massage group and 48 h post-exercise in the control group. The experimental group showed a decrease in muscle soreness in each subsequent measurement, with the results close to zero on the VAS 96 h postexercise. Conclusions. Massage therapy quickened recovery and improved muscle efficiency post-exercise and may serve as an effective treatment of muscle soreness. The analgesic effect of massage suggests it should be widely applied in sport, physical therapy and rehabilitation.

  8. Photoluminescence in solid solutions and thin films of tungstates CaWO{sub 4}-CdWO{sub 4}

    Taoufyq, A.; Mauroy, V.; Guinneton, F.; Valmalette, J-C. [University of Toulon, IM2NP, UMR CNRS 7334, La Garde, (France); Fiorido, T. [Aix Marseille University, IM2NP, UMR CNRS, 7334, Marseille, (France); Benlhachemi, A. [IBN ZOHR University, Faculty of sciences, Environment and Materials Laboratory, Agadir, (Morocco); Lyoussi, A. [CEA of Cadarache, DEN, Departement of reactors studies, experimental physics, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, (France); Nolibe, G. [Cesigma society, signals and systems, La Garde, (France); Gavarri, J-R. [University of Toulon, IM2NP, UMR CNRS 7334, La Garde, (France)

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we present two types of studies on the luminescence properties under UV and X-ray excitations of solid solutions Ca{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}WO{sub 4} and of thin layers of CaWO{sub 4} and CdWO{sub 4}. These tungstate based solid solutions are susceptible to be integrated into new radiation sensors, in order to be used in different fields of applications such as reactor measurements, safeguards, homeland security, nuclear nondestructive assays, LINAC emission radiation measurement. However these complex materials were rarely investigated in the literature. One first objective of our studies was to establish correlations between luminescence efficiency, chemical substitution and the degree of crystallization resulting from elaboration conditions. A second objective will be to determine the efficiency of luminescence properties of thin layers of these materials. In the present work, we focus our attention on the role of chemical substitution on photon emissions under UV and X-ray irradiations. The luminescence spectra of Ca{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}WO{sub 4} polycrystalline materials have been investigated at room temperature as a function of composition (0≤x≤1). In addition, we present a preliminary study of the luminescence of CaWO{sub 4} and CdWO{sub 4} thin layers: oscillations observed in the case of X-ray excitations in the luminescence spectra are discussed. (authors)

  9. In-situ transmission electron microscopy imaging of formation and evolution of LixWO3 during lithiation of WO3 nanowires

    Qi, Kuo; Li, Xiaomin; Sun, Muhua; Huang, Qianming; Wei, Jiake; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Wenlong; Bai, Xuedong; Wang, Enge

    2016-01-01

    The phase transition from monoclinic WO 3 to cubic Li x WO 3 during lithiation of WO 3 is one of the key features for tungsten oxide as the most used electrochromic material. Conventionally, the lithium intercalation of WO 3 has been studied by building generic layered electrochromic device combining with structural characterization and electrochemistry measurement at macro scale. In-situ transmission electron microscopy (in-situ TEM) has been proposed as a method for revealing the detailed mechanism of structural, physical, and chemical properties. Here, we use in-situ TEM method to investigate the formation and evolution of Li x WO 3 in real-time during the electrochemical lithiation of WO 3 nanowires. The dynamic lithiation process is recorded by TEM imaging, diffraction, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. The WO 3 -Li x WO 3 phase boundary of reaction front has been observed at high resolution. The timeliness of crystallinity of Li x WO 3 and the intercalation channels for Li ions are also identified. Moreover, the co-existence of both polycrystalline Li-poor area and amorphous Li-rich phases of Li x WO 3 was found. Our results provide an insight into the basic lithiation process of WO 3 , which is significantly important for understanding the electrochromic mechanism of tungsten oxide.

  10. Rational Pharmacotherapy for Sore Throat in Children at Different Stages of the Assistance

    A.V. Zaychenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with one of the most pressing problems in pediatrics in the autumn and winter — a sore throat in children. The authors give its basic reasons, threatening symptoms that accompany sore throat, indicating an urgent need to visit a doctor, as well as the issues of treatment. It is noted that the most appropriate is the use of combination drugs that have complex (anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic effect. The characteristics of Strepsils Kids preparation, developed specifically for use in children from 6 years, are given.

  11. Pressure Sores and Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome: UC Davis Quality Improvement Initiative.

    Jairam, Abhishek; Song, Ping; Patel, Nirav B; Wong, Michael S

    2018-05-01

    The National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel estimates pressure sore care to approach $11 billion annually. It is not uncommon for these patients to present to the emergency department (ED) with a chief concern of a pressure sore, while concurrently carrying an undiagnosed infectious process that is the culprit for the acute presentation, rather than the chronic pressure injury. We aim to identify patients who met systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria at ED presentation who were referred to plastic and reconstructive surgery for pressure sore debridement prior to a complete medical workup. We hypothesize that a restructuring of the ED triaging system would help conserve hospital resources, reduce costs of pressure sore management, and improve patient care and outcomes by first treating primary, underlying pathologies. This is a retrospective chart review of 36 patients who presented to the University of California, Davis Medical Center Emergency Department with a pressure sore and met SIRS criteria, but obtained a plastic surgery consult prior to a full medical workup. We defined SIRS based on standardized criteria: temperature greater than 100.4°F or less than 96.8°F, pulse rate greater than 90 beats/min, respiratory rate greater than 20 breaths/min or PaCO2 less than 32 mm Hg, white blood cell count greater than 12,000, less than 4000, or greater than 10% bands. Fifty percent of patients (18/36) met SIRS criteria at ED presentation for their pressure sores. Of these SIRS patients, 9 (50%) had a diagnosis of urinary tract infection or urosepsis, 6 (33.3%) had sepsis of undefined origin, and 3 (16.7%) had other diagnoses such as osteomyelitis or acute respiratory distress syndrome. Half of patients consulted while in the University of California, Davis Medical Center Emergency Department with pressure sores met SIRS criteria and received a plastic and reconstructive surgery consult prior to a full medical workup. We propose a new algorithm for

  12. [Randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of Corpitolinol 60 in the prevention of pressure sores in patients undergoing surgery].

    Chiari, Paolo; Giorgi, Sabina; Ugolini, Daniela; Montanari, Morena; Giudanella, Pietro; Gramantieri, Antonella; Collesi, Franca; Pau, Michelina; Smaldone, Maddalena; Matarasso, Maddalena; Mazzini, Cinzia; Russo, Francesca; Gazineo, Domenica; Fontana, Mirella; Taddia, Patrizia

    2012-01-01

    Randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of Corpitolinol 60 in the prevention of pressure sores in surgical patients. The risk of pressure sores in surgical patients is widely recognised. The Corpitolinol 60 (Sanyréne®) applied on compressed areas seems to reduce the risk of pressure sores. To assess the efficacy of Corpitolinol 60 in preventing pressure sores in the operatory theatre. The open label randomized clinical trial was conducted in 5 operating theatres of Northen Italy. Patients were randomized to receive Corpitolinol 60 in areas undergoing compression. Experimental group and controls were treated with usual measures for preventing pressure sores. The lesions were staged according to NPUAP up to 24 hours after surgery. Three-hundred-one patients were randomized (155 in the Sanyréne® group and 143 controls). The main variables predictive of pressure sores risk (ASA class, sex, age, duration of the surgery, and BMI) were comparable across groups. At the end of the surgery 71 patients (23.8%) in the experimental group and 47 controls (30.8%) had a pressure sore (p 0.006; RR 1.81 IC95% 1.17-2.79). Twelve and 24 hours after surgery the differences between groups were not significant. The aim of reducing pressure sores was not reached for patients treated with Corpitolinol 60.

  13. [A variant of island flaps for the covering of pressure sores: the hatchet flap. Apropos of 31 cases].

    Quillot, M; Lodde, J P; Pegorier, O; Reynaud, J P; Cormerais, A

    1994-08-01

    The authors propose a modification of the classical design of island flaps for cover of pressure sores, applied to gluteus maximus and tensor fascia lata muscles: the hatchet flap. 31 flaps have been used including 13 gluteus maximus superior flaps for sacral pressure sores, 9 gluteal inferior flaps for ischial pressure sores and 9 tensor fascia lata flaps for trochanteric pressure sores. A small partial necrosis and two cases of sepsis were observed in this series, but did not require surgical revision. The authors emphasize the value of this modification of the classical flap design, which preserves an even better musculocutaneous capital in these patients, who are often already multi-operated. The very rapid recovery of patients supports the authors' application of hatchet flaps to the surgery of pressure sores, and suggests the extension to other musculocutaneous flaps in the future.

  14. Present situation, current problems and countermeasures to solve them by the material technology group in chemical companies; Kagaku shakai ni okeru sochi zairyo gijutsu no genjo to kadai oyobi sore eno taio

    Nakahara, Masao. [Asahi Chemical Industry Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Production Technology Center

    1999-05-15

    A questionnaire investigation about the present situation, current problems and countermeasure to be discussed with by material technology groups in the eight chemical companies was carried out. It has become clear from the analysis of answers obtained that the roll of material group has been changing under the diminishing construction of new plant and the increased needs of stable and sustainable plant operation. The present major subjects of material groups, which are pointed out in the answers, are such new technological problems as the plant life estimation, the dissemination and handing down of material technology and the upbringing of technology successors. The countermeasures to meet those requirements made clear are such technology developments as a new monitoring system, preparation of database on material technology and closer cooperation with relatied associations. It is hoped for that the findings of this study would lead to further and more detailed indentification of common problems to be solved and development of practical countermeasures therefor. (author)

  15. Visible-light photocatalytic activity of graphene oxide-wrapped Bi2WO6 hierarchical microspheres

    Zhai, Jiali; Yu, Hongwen; Li, Haiyan; Sun, Lei; Zhang, Kexin; Yang, Hongjun

    2015-07-01

    A facile approach of fabricating homogeneous graphene oxide (GO)-wrapped Bi2WO6 microspheres (GO/Bi2WO6) is developed. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show that a heterojunction interface between GO and Bi2WO6. The UV-vis diffuse reflection spectra (DRS) reveal that the as-prepared GO/Bi2WO6 composites own more intensive absorption in the visible light range compared with pure Bi2WO6. These characteristic structural and optical properties endow GO/Bi2WO6 composites with enhanced photocatalytic activity. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the GO/Bi2WO6 is attributed predominantly to the synergetic effect between GO and Bi2WO6, causing rapid generation and separation of photo-generated charge carriers.

  16. Structure and photocatalytic performance of layered HNbWO6 nanosheet aggregation

    Hu, Li-Fang

    2015-12-10

    Layered HNbWO6HNbWO6 nanosheet aggregation (e-HNbWO6e-HNbWO6) has been assembled by HNbWO6HNbWO6 nanosheet via an exfoliation-restaking route. The as-prepared samples are characterized by means of powder x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, laser Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and N2N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. The photocatalytic performances of the as-prepared samples are evaluated by degradation of methylene blue (MB). The results revealed that e-HNbWO6e-HNbWO6 has a specific surface area of about 156.5  m2 g−1156.5  m2 g−1, and exhibits a relatively excellent photocatalytic performance for degradation of MB under UV light.

  17. Structure and photocatalytic performance of layered HNbWO6 nanosheet aggregation

    Hu, Li-Fang; Li, Rui; He, Jie; Da, Liang-guo; Lv, Wei; Hu, Jin-song

    2015-01-01

    Layered HNbWO6HNbWO6 nanosheet aggregation (e-HNbWO6e-HNbWO6) has been assembled by HNbWO6HNbWO6 nanosheet via an exfoliation-restaking route. The as-prepared samples are characterized by means of powder x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, laser Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and N2N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. The photocatalytic performances of the as-prepared samples are evaluated by degradation of methylene blue (MB). The results revealed that e-HNbWO6e-HNbWO6 has a specific surface area of about 156.5  m2 g−1156.5  m2 g−1, and exhibits a relatively excellent photocatalytic performance for degradation of MB under UV light.

  18. Evidence for antibiotic use for sore throat and URTI in general practice

    banzi

    508 C M E September 2003 Vol.21 No.9. There is a common misconception among many people that antibiotics are necessary for common colds and their symptoms. Evidence- based medicine can provide a rational approach to this problem. Evidence for antibiotic use for sore throat and URTI in general practice. G T J KA ...

  19. Treatment of pressure sores in spina bifida patients with calcium alginate and foam dressings.

    Ausili, E; Paolucci, V; Triarico, S; Maestrini, C; Murolo, D; Focarelli, B; Rendeli, C

    2013-06-01

    Prospective study on local treatment of pressure sores using calcium alginate and foam dressings in spina bifida patients. Investigate if this sequential approach is valid and safe for selected patients with neurological impairments. Using European Pressure Ulcer Grading System, after clinical evaluation of local sore, selected patients of Spina Bifida Center of Rome were treated with sequential calcium alginate and foam dressings for 12 weeks. Pressure ulcere surfaces were measured monthly by ulcer tracing. The endpoints were the mean absolute areas surface reduction during every month and number of patients achieving a 50% or more during study. 14 patients (7 males aged 12-24 years) with spina bifida and pressure sores were treated. Mean and standard deviation of mean surface area reduction were 12.5 ± 7.5 cm 2 at start of the study versus 3.7 ± 5.2 cm 2 after 12 weeks, p pressure sores in selected patients with spina bifida. In fact, they protect the wound and create an environment favorable to healing.

  20. [Assessment of patients with pressure sores admitted in a tertiary care center].

    Moro, Adriana; Maurici, Alice; do Valle, Juliana Barros; Zaclikevis, Viviane Renata; Kleinubing, Harry

    2007-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and analyze the profile of patients with pressure sores, focusing on risk factors, the patients' clinical characteristics at a tertiary care center, as well as stage and location of the lesions on the body. This was a cross sectional not controlled observational study, all patients admitted from April to June of 2005 were observed daily to identify all cases of pressure sores. The affected patients were evaluated by a standard questionnaire and the Scale of Braden was applied to define the risk of developing ulcers. Of the 690 patients admitted during the referred period, a prevalence of 5.9% of patients with lesions was observed, equivalent to 41 patients 63.9% of which were elderly and the average length of stay was 18 days. In the sample studied 41.5% of patients were found in the internal medicine section and the intensive care unit, ICU. The most common location for sores was the sacral area, corresponding to 73.1% of the patients, and stage II was the most frequent, observed in 58.5% of those patients. According to the Braden scale, most patients, 80.4%, had a high risk of developing pressure ulcers, compared to 9.7% of patients with moderate risk and 7.4% with low risk. The affected patients were at high risk of developing pressure sores. Prevalence of these lesions and the clinical and demographic profile of the affected patients are in accordance with the data in literature.

  1. An audit of pressure sores caused by intermittent compression devices used to prevent venous thromboembolism.

    Skillman, Joanna; Thomas, Sunil

    2011-12-01

    When intermittent compression devices (ICDs) are used to prevent venous thromboembolism (VTE) they can cause pressure sores in a selected group of women, undergoing long operations. A prospective audit pre and post intervention showed a reduced risk with an alternative device, without increasing the risk of VTE.

  2. [Pedicled superior gluteal artery perforator bilateral quadrilobed flaps for repair of large sacrococcygeal pressure sores].

    Hai, Henglin; Li, Huatao; Chen, Yang; Li, Qiang; Wu, Shenggang; Lili, Wang; Yan, Lei; Xiaoying, Zhou

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of pedicled superior gluteal artery perforator bilateral quadrilobed flaps for repairing large sacrococcygeal pressure sores. Between June 2003 and August 2011, 6 paraplegia patients with large sacrococcygeal pressure sores were repaired with the pedicled superior gluteal artery perforator bilateral quadrilobed flaps. There were 2 males and 4 females with an average age of 45.6 years (range, 37-62 years). The mean disease duration was 8.4 months (range, 3-26 months). According to National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP) standard, 6 cases rated as degree IV. The size of pressure sores ranged from 15 cm x 13 cm to 18 cm x 16 cm. The size of flaps ranged from 18 cm x 14 cm to 21 cm x 15 cm. After operation, all flaps survived successfully. The wounds healed by first intention in 5 cases; partial dehiscence of incision occurred in 1 case, which was cured after dressing change for 26 days. Six patients were followed up 6-24 months (mean, 12.5 months). The appearance and texture of the flaps were smooth and soft with good elasticity and no ulceration. Pedicled superior gluteal artery perforator bilateral quadrilobed flaps can repair large sacrococcygeal pressure sores. The appearance of flaps is smooth and has good compression-resistance effect.

  3. Evaluating the effects of pentoxifylline administration on experimental pressure sores in rats by biomechanical examinations.

    Velaei, Kobra; Bayat, Mohammad; Torkman, Giti; Rezaie, Fatemealsadat; Amini, Abdollah; Noruzian, Mohsen; Tavassol, Azaedh; Bayat, Mehernoush

    2012-09-01

    This study used a biomechanical test to evaluate the effects of pentoxifylline administration on the wound healing process of an experimental pressure sore induced in rats. Under general anesthesia and sterile conditions, experimental pressure sores generated by no. 25 Halsted mosquito forceps were inflicted on 12 adult male rats. Pentoxifylline was injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 50 mg/kg daily from the day the pressure sore was generated, for a period of 20 days. At the end of 20 days, rats were sacrificed and skin samples extracted. Samples were biomechanically examined by a material testing instrument for maximum stress (N mm(2)), work up to maximum force (N), and elastic stiffness (N/mm). In the experimental group, maximum stress (2.05±0.15) and work up to maximum force (N/mm) (63.75±4.97) were significantly higher than the control group (1.3±0.27 and 43.3±14.96, P=0.002 and P=0.035, respectively). Pentoxifylline administration significantly accelerated the wound healing process in experimental rats with pressure sores, compared to that of the control group.

  4. Interleukin-6 and Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness Do Not Vary during the Menstrual Cycle

    Chaffin, Morgan E.; Berg, Kris E.; Meendering, Jessica R.; Llewellyn, Tamra L.; French, Jeffrey A.; Davis, Jeremy E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a difference in interleukin-6 (IL-6) and delayed onset muscles soreness (DOMS) exists in two different phases of the menstrual cycle. Nine runners performed one 75-min high-intensity interval running session during the early follicular (EF) phase and once during the midluteal (ML) phase of the…

  5. Pattern of Pressure Sores in Spinal Injured Patients with in the First ...

    Background: Before 2006, all our spinal injured patients were nursed on conventional form mattress without pressure redistributing support surface. Pressure sore was a common complication and was a major contributing factor to prolonged hospitalization. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the pattern of pressure ...

  6. Characterization of nanosized Al2(WO4)3

    Nihtianova, D.; Velichkova, N.; Nikolova, R.; Koseva, I.; Yordanova, A.; Nikolov, V.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: TEM method allows to detect small quantities of impurities not detectable by other methods. In our case impurities of W 5 O 14 are detected in Al 2 (WO 4 ) 3 nanopowder. Highlights: → Nanosized Al 2 (WO 4 ) 3 by simple co-precipitation method. → Spherical particles with mean size of 22 nm distributed between 10 and 40 nm at 630 o C. → XRD, DTA and TEM confirm well defined products with perfect structure. → TEM locality allows detection of impurities not detectable by XRD and DTA. -- Abstract: Nanosized aluminum tungstate Al 2 (WO 4 ) 3 was prepared by co-precipitation reaction between Na 2 WO 4 and Al(NO 3 ) 3 aqueous solutions. The powder size and shape, as well as size distribution are estimated after different conditions of powder preparation. The purity of the final product was investigated by XRD and DTA analyses, using the single crystal powder as reference. Between the specimen and the reference no difference was detected. The crystal structure of Al 2 (WO 4 ) 3 nanosized powder was confirmed by TEM (SAED, HRTEM). In additional, TEM locality allows to detect some W 5 O 14 impurities, which are not visible by conventional X-ray powder diffraction and thermal analyses.

  7. Correlations among structure, composition and electrochemical performances of WO3 anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Li, Pu; Li, Xing; Zhao, Ziyan; Wang, Mingshan; Fox, Thomas; Zhang, Qian; Zhou, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The residual precursor ions affect the charge/discharge performances of WO 3 . • Lithiated monoclinic WO 3 reveals the best discharge capacity. • Lithiation can enhance the conductivity of WO 3 . - Abstract: Suitable host structure for lithium insertion and extraction is crucial for lithium-ion batteries. Tungsten trioxides (WO 3 ) are particularly interesting materials for this purpose. In this work, the influences of structure and composition of WO 3 on the charge/discharge performances of Li-ion batteries are systematically investigated. Firstly, lithiated tungsten trioxides (Li-WO 3 ) are successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method followed by annealing at different temperatures (200–600 °C). It is found that the hexagonal framework collapses and gradually transforms to the monoclinic phase due to the release of NH 4 + and NH 3 molecules. Unexpectedly, monoclinic WO 3 reveals better performances than that of hexagonal WO 3 . Among all the investigated samples, the lithiated WO 3 annealed at 500 °C exhibits the highest discharge capacity and cycle performance (703 mAh g −1 after 10 cycles). We believe that the Li + remained in the solid structure of WO 3 can lead to a more stable structure. In addition, Li + could inhibit the oxidation of W 5+ during the heat treatment process, which increases the electron conductivity of WO 3 . Our results indicate that the electrochemical properties of WO 3 are strongly related to the residual precursor and crystal structure.

  8. Biomimetic fabrication of WO3 for water splitting under visible light with high performance

    Yin, Chao; Zhu, Shenmin; Yao, Fan; Gu, Jiajun; Zhang, Wang; Chen, Zhixin; Zhang, Di

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by the high light-harvesting properties of typical butterfly wings, ceramic WO 3 butterfly wings with hierarchical structures of bio-butterfly wings was fabricated using a template of PapilioParis butterfly wings through a sol–gel method. The effect of calcination temperatures on the structures of the ceramic butterfly wings was investigated and the results showed that the WO 3 butterfly wing replica calcined at 550 °C (WO 3 replica-550) is a single phase and has a high crystallinity and relatively fine hierarchical structure. The average grain size of WO 3 replica-550 and WO 3 powder are around 32.6 and 42.2 nm, respectively. Compared with pure WO 3 powder, WO 3 replica-550 demonstrated a higher light-harvesting capability in the region from 460 to 700 nm and more importantly the higher charge separation rate, as evidenced by electron paramagnetic resonance measurements. Photocatalytic O 2 evolutions from water were investigated on the ceramic butterfly wings and pure WO 3 powder under visible light (λ > 420 nm). The results showed that the amount of O 2 produced from WO 3 replica-550 is 50 % higher than that of the pure WO 3 powder. The improved photocatalytic performance of WO 3 replica-550 is attributed to the quasi-honeycomb structure inherited from the PapilioParis butterfly wings, providing both high light-harvesting efficiency and efficient charge transport through the WO 3

  9. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of BaWO{sub 4} and Ba{sub 2}CaWO{sub 6}

    Capece, Angela M., E-mail: acapece@pppl.gov [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Polk, James E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Shepherd, Joseph E. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • XPS reference spectra for Ba{sub 2}CaWO{sub 6} and BaWO{sub 4} are presented. • Binding energies of Ba 3d and W 4f lines are 0.7 eV higher for BaWO{sub 4} than Ba{sub 2}CaWO{sub 6}. • Ca 2p spectrum contains two sets of Ca 2p doublets attributed to Ba{sub 2}CaWO{sub 6} and CaCO{sub 3}. - Abstract: XPS reference spectra for Ba{sub 2}CaWO{sub 6} and BaWO{sub 4} are presented, including high resolution spectra of the Ba 3d, W 4f, C 1s, Ca 2p, and O 1s lines. The peak locations and full widths at half maximum are also given. The binding energies of the Ba 3d and W 4f lines are 0.7 eV higher for BaWO{sub 4} than for Ba{sub 2}CaWO{sub 6}. The Ca 2p spectrum contains two sets of Ca 2p doublets that were attributed to Ba{sub 2}CaWO{sub 6} and CaCO{sub 3}.

  10. Evaluation of local muscle soreness treatment with anterior bite splint made of soft putty impression material

    Harry Laksono

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Local muscle soreness is the most common temporomandibular disorders complaint of patients seeking treatment in the dental clinics. The emergency treatment that can be done in the clinics to manage this disorder is by making anterior bite splint. Anterior bite splint is usually made of acrylic, but currently there is a soft putty impression material that can also be used for making anterior bite splint. The effectiveness of soft putty anterior bite splint in local muscle soreness treatment still has not clear. Purpose: To determine the effectiveness of the soft putty impression material as a material used for making anterior bite splint in the treatment of local muscle soreness. Case: Six patients was reported five female patients aged 20-40 years old and one male patient aged 37 years old with local muscle soreness. Four female patients with a “click” sound on TMJ. Case management: Make differential diagnosis with screening history (anamnesis, clinical examination consists of extra oral examination such as muscle and temporomandibular joint palpation, measure the mandibular movement, end-feel, load test, intra oral examination and radiographic evaluation. Record the results and make the diagnosis. Make a soft putty anterior bite splint, adjusted and inserted in the maxillary anterior teeth. Record the results based on signs and symptoms. Conclusion: It can be concluded that anterior bite splint made of soft putty impression material is effective for treatment the local muscle soreness.Latar belakang: Salah satu tipe temporomandibular disorders yang paling sering dijumpai di klinik dokter gigi adalah local muscle soreness. Perawatan yang dapat dengan segera dilakukan di klinik untuk mengelola gangguan tersebut adalah dengan pembuatan anterior bite splint. Biasanya anterior bite splint terbuat dari akrilik, namun saat ini telah ada bahan cetak soft putty yang memungkinkan untuk dipakai sebagai bahan pembuatan anterior bite splint

  11. Comparison of gluteal perforator flaps and gluteal fasciocutaneous rotation flaps for reconstruction of sacral pressure sores.

    Chen, Yen-Chou; Huang, Eng-Yen; Lin, Pao-Yuan

    2014-03-01

    The gluteus maximus myocutaneous flap was considered the workhorse that reconstructed sacral pressure sores, but was gradually replaced by fasciocutaneous flap because of several disadvantages. With the advent of the perforator flap technique, gluteal perforator (GP) flap has gained popularity nowadays. The aim of this study was to compare the complications and outcomes between GP flaps and gluteal fasciocutaneous rotation (FR) flaps in the treatment of sacral pressure sores. Between April 2007 and June 2012, 63 patients underwent sacral pressure sore reconstructions, with a GP flap used in 31 cases and an FR flap used in 32 cases. Data collected on the patients included patient age, gender, co-morbidity for being bedridden and follow-up time. Surgical details collected included the defect size, operative time and estimated blood loss. Complications recorded included re-operation, dehiscence, flap necrosis, wound infection, sinus formation, donor-site morbidity and recurrence. The complications and clinical outcomes were compared between these two groups. We found that there was no significant difference in patient demographics, surgical complications and recurrence between these two groups. In gluteal FR flap group, all recurrent cases (five) were treated by reuse of previous flaps. Both methods are comparable, good and safe in treating sacral pressure sores. Gluteal FR flap can be performed without microsurgical dissection, and re-rotation is feasible in recurrent cases. The authors suggest using gluteal FR flaps in patients with a high risk of sore recurrence. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A composite gluteofemoral flap for reconstruction of large pressure sores over the sacrococcygeal region.

    Xie, Yun; Zhuang, Yue-Hong; Xue, Lan; Zheng, He-Ping; Lin, Jian-Hua

    2015-12-01

    Gigantic pressure sores pose a daunting challenge for plastic surgeons. This paper presents a composite gluteofemoral flap for reconstruction of large pressure sores over the sacrococcygeal region. In this anatomical study, 30 embalmed cadaveric lower limbs were used for dissection to observe the musculocutaneous perforators of the inferior gluteal artery and the longitudinal nutritional vascular chain of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve. In this clinical study, eight patients underwent surgical harvest of the composite gluteofemoral flap for coverage of grade IV sacrococcygeal pressure sores. The size of the pressure sores ranged between 16 × 9 cm and 22 × 10 cm. The inferior gluteal artery was present in 26 cases and absent in four cases. It gave off two to four musculocutaneous branches with a diameter larger than 0.5 mm to the gluteus maximus. A direct cutaneous branch was given off at the inferior margin of the gluteus maximus, serving as a nutritional artery for the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve. The size of the flap harvested ranged between 22 × 9 cm and 32 × 10 cm. Flaps in seven patients survived uneventfully and developed epidermal necrosis at the distal margin in one case. An average 2-year follow-up revealed no recurrence of pressure sores. The composite gluteofemoral flap, being robust in blood supply, simple in surgical procedure, and large in donor territory, is an important addition to the armamentarium. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Management of patients with sore throats in relation to guidelines: an interview study in Sweden.

    Hedin, Katarina; Strandberg, Eva Lena; Gröndal, Hedvig; Brorsson, Annika; Thulesius, Hans; André, Malin

    2014-12-01

    To explore how a group of Swedish general practitioners (GPs) manage patients with a sore throat in relation to current guidelines as expressed in interviews. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse semi-structured interviews. Swedish primary care. A strategic sample of 25 GPs. Perceived management of sore throat patients. It was found that nine of the interviewed GPs were adherent to current guidelines for sore throat and 16 were non-adherent. The two groups differed in terms of guideline knowledge, which was shared within the team for adherent GPs while idiosyncratic knowledge dominated for the non-adherent GPs. Adherent GPs had no or low concerns for bacterial infections and differential diagnosis whilst non-adherent GPs believed that in patients with a sore throat any bacterial infection should be identified and treated with antibiotics. Patient history and examination was mainly targeted by adherent GPs whilst for non-adherent GPs it was often redundant. Non-adherent GPs reported problems getting patients to abstain from antibiotics, whilst no such problems were reported in adherent GPs. This interview study of sore throat management in a strategically sampled group of Swedish GPs showed that while two-thirds were non-adherent and had a liberal attitude to antibiotics one-third were guideline adherent with a restricted view on antibiotics. Non-adherent GPs revealed significant knowledge gaps. Adherent GPs had discussed guidelines within the primary care team while non-adherent GPs had not. Guideline implementation thus seemed to be promoted by knowledge shared in team discussions.

  14. Intrinsic Defects and H Doping in WO3

    Zhu, Jiajie

    2017-01-18

    WO3 is widely used as industrial catalyst. Intrinsic and/or extrinsic defects can tune the electronic properties and extend applications to gas sensors and optoelectonics. However, H doping is a challenge to WO3, the relevant mechanisms being hardly understood. In this context, we investigate intrinsic defects and H doping by density functional theory and experiments. Formation energies are calculated to determine the lowest energy defect states. O vacancies turn out to be stable in O-poor environment, in agreement with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and O-H bond formation of H interstitial defects is predicted and confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  15. Facile Hydrogen Evolution Reaction on WO3Nanorods

    Rajeswari Janarthanan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractTungsten trioxide nanorods have been generated by the thermal decomposition (450 °C of tetrabutylammonium decatungstate. The synthesized tungsten trioxide (WO3 nanorods have been characterized by XRD, Raman, SEM, TEM, HRTEM and cyclic voltammetry. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the synthesized WO3nanorods are crystalline in nature with monoclinic structure. The electrochemical experiments showed that they constitute a better electrocatalytic system for hydrogen evolution reaction in acid medium compared to their bulk counterpart.

  16. Optical and electrochromic properties of Sn:WO3 cermets

    Ashrit, P.V.; Bader, G.; Girouard, F.E.; Truong, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses optical and electrochromic properties of Sn:WO 3 cermets deposited by alternate layer thermal deposition. These cermets exhibit electrical and optical behavior in the as deposited state. The inclusion of Sn in the WO 3 matrix enhances the Electrical conductivity of the system and renders them fairly transparent in the visible region. The electrochromic behavior of such systems is studied under both proton and Li + ion injection. The good conductivity and good transmission combined with good electrochromic characteristics of these systems indicate the possibility of utilizing this type of cermet for the dual role of transparent conductor (TC) and electrochromic (EC) layer

  17. Cirugía reconstructiva de las úlceras por presión Reconstructive surgery of pressure sores

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Pressure sores are frequent in certain group of patients with predisposing conditions. In their evolution, this type of sores may require surgery, but the incidence of postoperative complications is high in this type of patients, given the confluence of factors that go against the sucessful surgery of these lesions in these patients. A retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study was made to evaluate the results of surgical treatment of pressure sores in a 3 years-period. Taking into account the studied variables, the drawn conclusions will allow designing new strategies for care of these patients, in order to reduce postoperative morbidity and lenght of stay at hospital

  18. Structure, electrochromic and optical properties of WO3 film prepared by dip coating-pyrolysis

    Yang Haitao; Shang Fuliang; Gao Ling; Han Haitao

    2007-01-01

    The tungsten oxide (WO 3 ) film was grown by dip coating-pyrolysis method with the PEG-400 as the structure-directing agent. Microstructure of the WO 3 film was characterized by TG-DSC, XRD and SEM techniques. It was found that the film annealed at 350 deg. C for 2 h comprised cubic WO 3 and orthorhombic WO 3 . The measurements of the cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV-vis spectrum suggested that the WO 3 film had a good electrochromic reversibility performance. The film possessed excellent modulation to the visible light and the maximal average transmittance modulation reached 70.06%

  19. Photocatalytic activity of Bi_2WO_6/Bi_2S_3 heterojunctions: the facilitation of exposed facets of Bi_2WO_6 substrate

    Yan, Long; Wang, Yufei; Shen, Huidong; Zhang, Yu; Li, Jian; Wang, Danjun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Bi_2S_3/Bi_2WO_6 hybrids with exposed (020) Bi_2WO_6 facets have been synthesized. • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that a small amount of Bi_2S_3 was formed. • The enhanced photoactivity of hybrids is due to heterojunction and (020) facets. • A possible photocatalytic degradation mechanism is proposed. - Abstract: Bi_2S_3/Bi_2WO_6 hybrid architectures with exposed (020) Bi_2WO_6 facets have been synthesized via a controlled anion exchange approach. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals that a small amount of Bi_2S_3 was formed on the surface of Bi_2WO_6 during the anion exchange process, thus leading to the transformation from the Bi_2WO_6 to Bi_2S_3/Bi_2WO_6. A rhodamine B (RhB) aqueous solution was chosen as model organic pollutants to evaluate the photocatalytic activities of the Bi_2S_3/Bi_2WO_6 catalysts. Under visible light irradiation, the Bi_2S_3/Bi_2WO_6-TAA displayed the excellent visible light photoactivities compared with pure Bi_2S_3, Bi_2WO_6 and other composite photocatalysts. The efficient photocatalytic activity of the Bi_2S_3/Bi_2WO_6-TAA composite microspheres was ascribed to the constructed heterojunctions and the inner electric field caused by the exposed (020) Bi_2WO_6 facets. Active species trapping experiments revealed that h"+ and O_2·"− are the main active species in the photocatalytic process. Furthermore, the as-obtained photocatalysts showed good photocatalytic activity after four recycles. The results presented in this study provide a new concept for the rational design and development of highly efficient photocatalysts.

  20. Cr2O3 nanoparticle-functionalized WO3 nanorods for ethanol gas sensors

    Choi, Seungbok; Bonyani, Maryam; Sun, Gun-Joo; Lee, Jae Kyung; Hyun, Soong Keun; Lee, Chongmu

    2018-02-01

    Pristine WO3 nanorods and Cr2O3-functionalized WO3 nanorods were synthesized by the thermal evaporation of WO3 powder in an oxidizing atmosphere, followed by spin-coating of the nanowires with Cr2O3 nanoparticles and thermal annealing in an oxidizing atmosphere. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the morphological features and X-ray diffraction was used to study the crystallinity and phase formation of the synthesized nanorods. Gas sensing tests were performed at different temperatures in the presence of test gases (ethanol, acetone, CO, benzene and toluene). The Cr2O3-functionalized WO3 nanorods sensor showed a stronger response to these gases relative to the pristine WO3 nanorod sensor. In particular, the response of the Cr2O3-functionalized WO3 nanorods sensor to 200 ppm ethanol gas was 5.58, which is approximately 4.4 times higher that of the pristine WO3 nanorods sensor. Furthermore, the Cr2O3-functionalized WO3 nanorods sensor had a shorter response and recovery time. The pristine WO3 nanorods had no selectivity toward ethanol gas, whereas the Cr2O3-functionalized WO3 nanorods sensor showed good selectivity toward ethanol. The gas sensing mechanism of the Cr2O3-functionalized WO3 nanorods sensor toward ethanol is discussed in detail.

  1. Faster response of NO2 sensing in graphene–WO3 nanocomposites

    Srivastava, Shubhda; Jain, Kiran; Gupta, Govind; Senguttuvan, T D; Singh, V N; Singh, Sukhvir; Vijayan, N; Dilawar, Nita

    2012-01-01

    Graphene-based nanocomposites have proven to be very promising materials for gas sensing applications. In this paper, we present a general approach for the preparation of graphene–WO 3 nanocomposites. Graphene–WO 3 nanocomposite thin-layer sensors were prepared by drop coating the dispersed solution onto the alumina substrate. These nanocomposites were used for the detection of NO 2 for the first time. TEM micrographs revealed that WO 3 nanoparticles were well distributed on graphene nanosheets. Three different compositions (0.2, 0.5 and 0.1 wt%) of graphene with WO 3 were used for the gas sensing measurements. It was observed that the sensor response to NO 2 increased nearly three times in the case of graphene–WO 3 nanocomposite layer as compared to a pure WO 3 layer at room temperature. The best response of the graphene–WO 3 nanocomposite was obtained at 250 °C. (paper)

  2. Structure of the short-range atomic order of WO3 amorphous films

    Olevskij, S.S.; Sergeev, M.S.; Tolstikhina, A.L.; Avilov, A.S.; Shkornyakov, S.M.; Semiletov, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    To study the causes of electrochromism manifestation in thin tungsten oxide films, the structure of WO 3 amorphous films has been investigated. The films were obtained by three different methods: by W(CO) 6 tungsten carbonyl pyrolysis, by high-frequency ion-plasma sputtering of a target prepared by WO 3 powder sintering, and by WO 3 powder thermal evaporation. Monocrystalline wafers of silicon and sodium chloride were used as substrates. The structure of short-range order in WO 3 amorphous films varies versus, the method of preparation in compliance with the type of polyhedral elements, (WO 6 , WO 5 ) and with the character of their packing (contacts via edges or vertices). Manifestation of electroc ro mism in WO 3 films prepared by varions methods and having different structure of short-range order is supposed to be realized through various mechanisms. One cannot exclude a potential simultaneous effect of the two coloration mechanisms

  3. Electrochemical Behavior of TiO2 Nanoparticle Doped WO3 Thin Films

    Suvarna R. Bathe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle TiO2 doped WO3 thin films by pulsed spray pyrolysis technique have been studied on fluorine tin doped (FTO and glass substrate. XRD shows amorphous nature for undoped and anatase phase of TiO2 having (101 plane for nanoparticle TiO2 doped WO3 thin film. SEM shows microfibrous reticulated porous network for WO3 with 600 nm fiber diameter and nanocrystalline having size 40 nm for TiO2 nanoparticle doped WO3 thin film. TiO2 nanoparticle doped WO3 thin film shows ~95% reversibility due to may be attributed to nanocrystalline nature of the film, which helpful for charge insertion and deinsertion process. The diffusion coefficient for TiO2 nanoparticle doped WO3 film is less than undoped WO3.

  4. APLIKASI PEMESANAN MAKANAN ONLINE BERBASIS WEB PADA RUMAH MAKAN PAGI SORE SIPIN JAMBI

    Novhirtamely Kahar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Rumah Makan Pagi Sore Sipin Jambi merupakan rumah makan yang menyediakan bermacam-macam menu makanan khas minang dan memiliki banyak pelanggan. Pemesanan makanan bagi pelanggan tetap jika jarak tempat tinggal dengan rumah makan berjauhan selama ini dilakukan melalui telepon. Cara tersebut memiliki kendala, salah satunya pelanggan tidak mengetahui daftar menu dan harga yang ditawarkan oleh rumah makan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membangun aplikasi pemesanan makanan online sehingga penyampaian informasi menjadi cepat, akurat, memiliki jangkauan yang luas, serta dapat memesan makanan secara online. Sistem aplikasi pemesanan ini terdiri dari aplikasi untuk pelanggan dan admin. Aplikasi untuk pelanggan terdiri dari : Home, Profil, Menu, Paket Catering, Promotion, Info, dan Pemesanan. Aplikasi pemesanan untuk pelanggan terdiri dari Delivery Service, Paket Catering Service, dan Paket Catering Ruang Minang. Sedangkan aplikasi untuk admin terdiri dari olah data menu utama, transaksi, dan laporan. Untuk transaksi pembayaran dilakukan secara cash kepada bagian pengiriman. Sistem aplikasi ini dibangun dengan menggunakan PHP dan database MySQL. Dengan dibangunnya aplikasi ini, maka pelanggan dengan mudah mendapatkan informasi tentang Rumah Makan Pagi Sore Sipin Jambi dan dapat melakukan pemesanan makanan dimana saja dan kapan saja, sehingga dapat meningkatkan jumlah pelanggan dan berdampak pada peningkatan profit Rumah Makan Pagi Sore tersebut.Rumah Makan Pagi Sore Sipin Jambi merupakan rumah makan yang menyediakan bermacam-macam menu makanan khas minang dan memiliki banyak pelanggan. Pemesanan makanan bagi pelanggan tetap jika jarak tempat tinggal dengan rumah makan berjauhan selama ini dilakukan melalui telepon. Cara tersebut memiliki kendala, salah satunya pelanggan tidak mengetahui daftar menu dan harga yang ditawarkan oleh rumah makan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membangun aplikasi pemesanan makanan online sehingga penyampaian informasi menjadi

  5. Inferior gluteal artery perforator flap: a viable alternative for ischial pressure sores.

    Kim, Young Seok; Lew, Dae Hyun; Roh, Tai Suk; Yoo, Won Min; Lee, Won Jai; Tark, Kwan Chul

    2009-10-01

    The ischial area is by far the most common site for pressure sores in wheelchair-bound paraplegic patients, because most of the pressure of the body is exerted on this area in the seated position. Even after a series of successful pressure sore treatments, the site is very prone to relapse from the simplest everyday tasks. Therefore, it is crucial to preserve the main pedicle during primary surgery. Several surgical procedures, such as myocutaneous flap and perforator flap, have been introduced for the treatment of pressure sores. During a 4-year time period at our institute, we found favourable clinical results using the inferior gluteal artery perforator (IGAP) procedure for ischial sore treatment. A total of 23 patients (20 males and three females) received IGAP flap surgery in our hospital from January 2003 to January 2007. Surgery was performed on the same site again in 10 (43%) patients who had originally relapsed after undergoing the conventional method of pressure sore surgery. The average age of patients was 47.4 years (range 26-71 years). Most of the patients were paraplegic (16 cases, 70%) and others were either quadriplegic (four cases, 17%) or ambulatory (three cases, 13%). Based on hospital records and clinical photographs, we attempted to assess the feasibility and practicability of the IGAP flap procedure through comparative analysis of several parameters including the size of the defective area, treatment modalities, relapses, complications, and postoperative treatments. The average follow-up duration for 23 subjects was 25.4 months (range 5-42 months). All flaps survived without major complications. Partial flap necrosis developed in one case but secondary healing was achieved and the final outcome was not impaired. Most of the cases healed well during the follow-up period. Postoperative complications such as wound dehiscence and fistula developed in some subjects, but all healed well with a secondary treatment. A total of five cases relapsed

  6. Effects of cryotherapy on muscle damage markers and perception of delayed onset muscle soreness after downhill running: A Pilot study

    M. Rossato

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Use of cryotherapy after exercise with eccentric contractions was effective to reestablish the level of biochemical markers of muscle damage and reduce muscle soreness and pain perception in subjects submitted to downhill running.

  7. Influence of ginger and cinnamon intake on inflammation and muscle soreness endued by exercise in Iranian female athletes

    Nafiseh Shokri Mashhadi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Administration of ginger and cinnamon in athlete women for six weeks did not show any significant change in the IL-6 level, but showed a decrease in muscle soreness in the cinnamon and ginger groups.

  8. WO3 nano-ribbons: their phase transformation from tungstite (WO3·H2O) to tungsten oxide (WO3)

    Ahmadi, Majid; Sahoo, Satyaprakash; Younesi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO3) nano-ribbons (NRs) were obtained by annealing tungstite (WO3·H2O) NRs. The latter was synthesized below room temperature using a simple, environmentally benign, and low cost aging treatment of precursors made by adding hydrochloric acid to diluted sodium tungstate solutions (...

  9. Investigation of W/O microemulsion droplets by contrast variation ...

    various molar ratios (µ) of water to AOT and temperatures on water-in-oil (W/O) mi- croemulsions dispersed in n-heptane, ... tures composed of surfactant, water, and oil have attracted much interest since they form thermodynamically stable phases .... filter into dust-free sample cells. The cylindrical sample cells are made of ...

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis of CdWO nanorods and their ...

    NICO

    CdWO4 has a high refractive index, a high X-ray absorption coefficient, low radiation damage, high luminescence intensity and low afterglow to .... atomic number ratio of the elements of Cd, W and O is approxi- mately 1:1:4 and is consistent ...

  11. Morphologically different WO3 nanocrystals in photoelectrochemical water oxidation

    Biswas, Soumya Kanti; Baeg, Jin-Ook; Moon, Sang-Jin; Kong, Ki-jeong; So, Won-Wook

    2012-01-01

    Different morphologies of WO 3 nanocrystals such as nanorods and nanoplates have been obtained under hydrothermal conditions using ammonium metatungstate as the precursor in presence of different organic acids such as citric, oxalic, and tartaric acid in the reaction medium. Detailed characterization of the crystal structure, particle morphology, and optical band gap of the synthesized powders have been done by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and solid-state UV–visible spectroscopy study. The as-synthesized materials are WO 3 hydrates with orthorhombic phase which transform to the hexagonal WO 3 through dehydration upon heating at 350 °C. The resultant products are crystalline with nanoscale dimensions. Finally, the photoactivity of the synthesized materials annealed at 500 °C has been compared employing in photoelectrochemical water oxidation under the illumination of AM 1.5G simulated solar light (100 mWcm −2 ). The photocurrent measurements upon irradiation of light exhibit obvious photocatalytic activity with a photocurrent of about 0.77, 0.61, and 0.65 mAcm −2 for the WO 3 film derived with the oxalic acid, tartaric, and citric acid assisting agents, respectively, at 1.8 V versus Ag/AgCl electrode.

  12. Characterisation and application of WO3 films for electrochromic devices

    Stapinski, Thomas; Marszalek, Konstanty; Swatowska, Barbara; Stanco, Agnieszka

    2013-07-01

    Electrochromic system is the one of the most popular devices using color memory effect under the influence of an applied voltage. The electrochromic system was produced based on the thin WO3 electrochromic films. Films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering from tungsten targets in a reactive Ar+O2 gas atmosphere of various Ar/O2 ratios. The technological gas mixture pressure was 3 Pa and process temperature 30°C. Structural and optical properties of WO3 films were investigated for as-deposited and heat treated samples at temperature range from 350°C to 450°C in air. The material revealed the dependence of properties on preparation conditions and on post-deposition heat treatment. Main parameters of thin WO3 films: thickness d, refractive index n, extinction coefficient k and energy gap Eg were determined and optimized for application in electrochromic system. The main components of the system were glass plate with transparent conducting oxides, electrolyte, and glass plate with transparent conducting oxides and WO3 layer. The optical properties of the system were investigated when a voltage was applied across it. The electrochromic cell revealed the controllable transmittance depended on the operation voltage.

  13. Enhanced photocatalytic properties in well-ordered mesoporous WO3

    Li, Li; Krissanasaeranee, Methira; Pattinson, Sebastian W.; Stefik, Morgan; Wiesner, Ulrich; Steiner, Ullrich; Eder, Dominik

    2010-01-01

    We used polyisoprene-block-ethyleneoxide copolymers as structure-directing agents to synthesise well-ordered and highly-crystalline mesoporous WO 3 architectures that possess improved photocatalytic properties due to enhanced dye-adsorption in absence of diffusion limitation. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  14. Characterization of nanoparticles of lidocaine in w/o microemulsions ...

    drophilic phase and a hydrophobic phase, stabilized with the use of surfactants. Regular MEs consist of nanometer-sized hydrocarbon domains (termed micelles) surrounded by amphiphilic molecules, stabilized in a continuous aqueous phase. In contrast, reverse (w/o) MEs consist of aqueous domains (termed reverse ...

  15. Giant trochanteric pressure sore: Use of a pedicled chimeric perforator flap for cover

    Mehrotra Sandeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pressure sores are increasing in frequency commensurate with an ageing population with multi-system disorders and trauma. Numerous classic options are described for providing stable wound cover. With the burgeoning knowledge on perforator anatomy, recent approaches focus on the use of perforator-based flaps in bedsore surgery. A giant neglected trochanteric pressure sore in a paraplegic is presented. Since conventional options of reconstruction appeared remote, the massive ulcer was successfully managed by a chimeric perforator-based flap. The combined muscle and fasciocutaneous flaps were raised as separate paddles based on the anterolateral thigh perforator branches and provided stable cover without complications. Perforators allow versatility in managing complex wounds without compromising on established principles.

  16. Therapeutic Effect of External Application of Ligustrazine Combined with Holistic Nursing on Pressure Sores.

    Niu, Junzhi; Han, Lin; Gong, Fen

    2016-08-15

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to explore the therapeutic effect of external application of ligustrazine combined with holistic nursing on pressure sores, as well as the underlying mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS From February 2014 to March 2015, a total of 32 patients with Phase II and Phase III pressure sores were enrolled and randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. The clinical data were comparable between the 2 groups. In addition to holistic nursing, the patients in the experimental group received 4 weeks of continuous external application of ligustrazine, whereas patients in the control group received compound clotrimazole cream. Therapeutic effect and healing time were recorded. HaCaT cells were used as an in vitro model for mechanism analysis of the effect of ligustrazine in treating pressure sores. After culturing with different concentrations of ligustrazine or the inhibitor of AKT (LY294002) for 72 h, cell viability, clone formation numbers, and levels of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K), p-AKT, and p-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) were determined. RESULTS Compared to the control group, the total effective rate in the experimental group was significantly higher, and the healing time was significantly reduced. Cell viability and clone formation numbers were significantly upregulated by ligustrazine in a dose-dependent manner. Both the cell viability and clone formation numbers were significantly inhibited by application of LY294002. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that ligustrazine combined with holistic nursing is an effective treatment of pressure sores. The protective effect may be associated with the promotion of cell growth by activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway.

  17. Flap surgery for pressure sores: should the underlying muscle be transferred or not?

    Thiessen, Filip E; Andrades, Patricio; Blondeel, Philip N; Hamdi, Moustapha; Roche, Nathalie; Stillaert, Filip; Van Landuyt, Koenraad; Monstrey, Stan

    2011-01-01

    Musculocutaneous flaps have become the first choice in the surgical repair of pressure sores, but the indication for including muscle in the transferred flaps still remains poorly defined. This study compares outcomes after muscle and non-muscle flap coverage of pressure sores to investigate whether it is still necessary to incorporate muscle tissue as part of the surgical treatment of these ulcers. A retrospective revision of 94 consecutive patients with ischial or sacral pressure sores operated between 1996 and 2002 was performed. Depending on the inclusion of muscle into the flap, the patients were divided in two groups: musculocutaneous flap group and fasciocutaneous flap group. Charts were reviewed for patient characteristics, ulcer features and reconstructive information. Data between groups were compared with emphasis on early (haematoma or seroma, dehiscence, infections, necrosis and secondary procedures) and late (recurrence) postoperative complications. A total of 37 wounds were covered with muscle and 57 wounds covered without muscle tissue. The groups were comparable in relation to age, gender, ulcer characteristics and timing for surgery. There were no significant differences in early complications between the study groups. The mean follow-up period was 3.10 ± 1.8 years (range: 0.5 to 6.7). There were no statistical differences in ulcer recurrence between the groups. The type of flap used was not associated with postoperative morbidity or recurrence in the univariate and multivariate analyses. The findings of this clinical study indicate that the musculocutaneous flaps are as good as fasciocutaneous flaps in the reconstruction of pressure sores, and they question the long-standing dogma that muscle is needed in the repair of these ulcers. Copyright © 2010 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical effects of Angelica dahurica dressing on patients with I-II phase pressure sores.

    Gong, Fen; Niu, Junzhi; Pei, Xing

    2016-11-02

    Angelica dahurica is a well-known traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), while little information is available about its effects on pressure sores. We aimed to investigate the clinical effect of Angelica dahurica on patients with I-II phase pressure sores, as well as the underlying mechanism. Patients (n = 98) with phase I and phase II pressure sores were enrolled and randomly assigned to control and treated groups. In addition to holistic nursing, patients in the control group received compound clotrimazole cream, while patients in the treated group received continuous 4 weeks of external application of Angelica dahurica dressing. Therapeutic effect was recorded, along with the levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8), epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Besides, HaCaT cells were cultured with different concentrations of Angelica dahurica, and then cell viability, clone formation numbers, cell cycle, and levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2 were determined. The total effective rate in the treated group was significantly higher than in the control group. Levels of IL-8, EGF, TGF-β, and VEGF were statistically increased by Angelica dahurica. In addition, the cell viability and clone formation numbers were significantly upregulated by Angelica dahurica in a dose-dependent manner. Also, the percentage of cells in G0/G1 phase, and levels of cyclin D1 and CDK2 were significantly elevated. Our results suggest that Angelica dahurica may provide an effective clinical treatment for I-II phase pressure sores.

  19. Marine oil dietary supplementation reduces delayed onset muscle soreness after a 30 km run

    Baum, Klaus; Telford, Richard D; Cunningham, Ross B

    2013-01-01

    Klaus Baum,1 Richard D Telford,2 Ross B Cunningham,3 1Trainingsinstitut Prof Baum, Köln, Germany; 2College of Medicine, Biology, and Environment, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia; 3The Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia Objective: Runners are prone to delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) during long distance training. This especially holds for unaccustomed training volumes at moderate to high int...

  20. Efficiency of Magnetic Field Treatment on Pressure Sores in Bedridden Patients

    Ferda Özdemir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pressure sores are an important source of complications in patients who are immobilized and bedridden. We aimed to investigate the efficiency of magnetic field treatment in pressure sores. Material and Methods: This was a randomized, double blind controlled design study. 20 patients in the study group received magneto-therapy, once a day for 30 minutes and with 150G, keeping to the BTL09 magnetotherapy device’s program. In the control group, 20 patients received the dressing only once a day. The surface areas of the pressure sores were evaluated at the onset of the treatment (1st day, and on the 7th and 15th days.Results: When within group comparisons were conducted, a significant difference was observed between the 1st and 7th day, 7th and 15th day, and 1st and 15th day measures in both the groups in terms of the scar area. The average healing time for the treatment group was 10.80±4.06 (6-20 days, and the average healing time for the control group was 18.85±9.75 (5-32 days. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (z=-2.114, p=0.034. Also, there was a significant difference in the scar area between the two groups in the 15th day measure (z=-3.818, p=0.000.Conclusion: The healing process of the tissue can be accelerated.with the use of magnetotherapy in the treatment of pressure sores of stage II and III,

  1. Long-term outcome of using posterior-thigh fasciocutaneous flaps for the treatment of ischial pressure sores.

    Lin, Haodong; Hou, Chunlin; Chen, Aimin; Xu, Zhen

    2010-08-01

    Among the many difficult problems presented by patients with spinal cord injuries, management of ischial pressure ulcers remains challenging for reconstructive surgeons. This study describes the long-term outcome of using posterior-thigh fasciocutaneous flaps for the treatment of ischial pressure sores. Between January 1999 and June 2003, 12 patients with ischial sores were enrolled in this study. All the patients underwent early aggressive surgical debridement followed by surgical reconstruction with a laterally based posterior-thigh fasciocutaneous flap. The follow-up period ranged from 24 months to 97 months (mean, 62 months). All the flaps survived, and there were no partial flap losses. Primary-wound healing occurred in all the cases. In two patients, Grade II ischial pressure sores recurred 24 months and 27 months after the operation. There was no recurrence in the other 10 patients. The posterior-thigh fasciocutaneous pedicled flap was a good method for treating ischial bed sores. This flap could be used to treat recurrences observed after primary bed-sore treatment with other methods. The flap was easy to raise, and it did not cause any donor-site morbidity. The long-term outcome of using posterior-thigh fasciocutaneous flaps for the treatment of ischial pressure sores was generally good. (c) Thieme Medical Publishers.

  2. An Intelligent FPGA Based Anti-Sweating System for Bed Sore Prevention in a Clinical Environment

    K. S. Jaichandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bed sores, a common problem among immobile patients occur as a result of continuous sweating due to increase in skin to bed surface temperature in patients lying on same posture for prolonged period. If left untreated, the skin can break open and become infected. Currently adopted methods for bed sores prevention include: use of two hourly flip chat for repositioning patient or use of air fluidized beds. However, the setbacks of these preventive measures include either use of costly equipment or wastage of human resources. This paper introduces an intelligent low cost FPGA based anti-sweating system for bed sores prevention in a clinical environment. The developed system consists of bed surface implanted temperature sensors interfaced with an FPGA chip for sensing the temperature change in patient’s skin to bed surface. Based on the temperature change, the FPGA chip select the - mode (heater/cooler and speed of the fan module. Furthermore, an alarm module was implemented to alert the nurse to reposition the patient only if patient’s skin to bed surface temperature exceeds a predefined threshold thereby saving human resources. By integrating the whole system into a single FPGA chip, we were able to build a low cost compact system without sacrificing processing power and flexibility.

  3. Reconstruction of trochanteric pressure sores with pedicled anterolateral thigh myocutaneous flaps.

    Wang, Chih-Hsin; Chen, Shih-Yi; Fu, Ju-Peng; Dai, Niann-Tzyy; Chen, Shao-Liang; Chen, Tim-Mo; Chen, Shyi-Gen

    2011-05-01

    To provide an alternative choice for covering trochanteric pressure sores, we report on a modified pedicle anterolateral thigh (ALT) myocutaneous flap based on the descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery. From August 2007 to January 2010, 20 consecutive patients (10 men and 10 women) underwent 21 pedicled ALT myocutaneous flaps for reconstruction of trochanteric pressure sores. The flap was designed and elevated, resembling the ALT perforator flap including part of the vastus lateralis muscle but without skeletonisation of the perforators. The mean age of patients was 79.4 years (range: 46-103). The mean follow-up period was 13.9 months (range: 3-32). The flaps were 8-21 cm long and 5-11 cm wide. All flaps healed without major complications. All donor sites were closed primarily without skin grafting and showed good aesthetic results. No recurrence was observed. This modified design of pedicled ALT myocutaneous flap without skeletonisation of perforators is a reliable and easily harvested flap for reconstruction of trochanteric pressure sores with limited morbidity. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Profunda Femoris Artery Perforator Propeller Flap: A Valid Method to Cover Complicated Ischiatic Pressure Sores.

    Scalise, Alessandro; Tartaglione, Caterina; Bolletta, Elisa; Pierangeli, Marina; Di Benedetto, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    We report the case of a 50-year-old paraplegic man with a complicated grade III/IV ischiatic pressure sore treated with a propeller flap based on the first perforator of the profunda femoris artery. Our aim was to surgically reconstruct an ischiatic pressure sore in a patient with ankylosis using a fasciocutaneous perforator propeller flap obtained from the posterior region of the thigh. Our decision to perform a profunda femoris artery perforator propeller flap reconstruction was mainly due to the anatomical contiguity of the flap with the site of the lesion and the good quality of the skin harvested from the posterior region of the thigh. The use of the perforator fasciocutaneous flap represents a muscle-sparing technique, providing a better long-term result in surgical reconstruction. The choice of the 180-degree propeller flap was due to its ability to provide a good repair of the pressure ulcer and to pass over the ischiatic prominence in the patient in the forced decubitus position. The operatory course did not present any kind of complication. Using this reconstructive treatment, we have obtained complete coverage of the ischiatic pressure sore.

  5. The operative treatment of pressure sores in the pelvic region: A 10-year period overview.

    Jósvay, János; Klauber, András; Both, Béla; Kelemen, Péter B; Varga, Zsombor Z; Pesthy, Pál Cs

    2015-07-01

    Pelvic region pressure sores often develop following spinal cord injury. Surgery is often necessary for long standing, large-sized pressure sores not responding to conservative treatment. Authors analyze their results of a 10-year period, and identify factors contributing to the reduction of the recurrence rate. A total of 119 pressure sores were operated on 98 patients in two institutions during a 10-year period (1 January 2003 to 31 December 2012). The encountered perioperative complications are summarized, and the recurrence rate is analyzed with a patient follow-up questionnaire. We experienced 15 perioperative complications (12.6%). All complications were fully resolved by conservative treatment. Fifty-eight returned patient replies were processed. The average follow-up time after surgery was 5.2 years. The recurrence rate was 5.47%. The strict adherence to surgical indications, full patient compliance, specialized pre- and post-operative patient care, our routinely used preferred surgical method, all contribute to a low post-operative complication rate, long-term flap survival, and an extended recurrence free period.

  6. Muscle fascicle behavior during eccentric cycling and its relation to muscle soreness.

    Peñailillo, Luis; Blazevich, Anthony J; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2015-04-01

    A single bout of eccentric exercise confers a protective effect against muscle damage and soreness in subsequent eccentric exercise bouts, but the mechanisms underpinning this effect are unclear. This study compared vastus lateralis (VL) muscle-tendon behavior between two eccentric cycling bouts to test the hypothesis that muscle-tendon behavior would be different between bouts and would be associated with the protective effect. Eleven untrained men (27.1 ± 7.0 yr) performed two bouts of eccentric cycling (ECC1 and ECC2) separated by 2 wk for 10 min at 65% of maximal concentric workload (191.9 ± 44.2 W) each. Muscle soreness (by visual analog scale) and maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) torque of the knee extensors were assessed before and 1-2 d after exercise. Using ultrasonography, VL fascicle length and angle changes during cycling were assessed, and tendinous tissue (TT) length changes were estimated. VL EMG amplitude, crank torque, and knee joint angles were measured during cycling. Soreness was greater (P tendon behavior may be an important mechanism underpinning the protective effect.

  7. Photoelectrochemical Properties and Behavior of α-SnWO4 Photoanodes Synthesized by Hydrothermal Conversion of WO3 Films.

    Zhu, Zhehao; Sarker, Pranab; Zhao, Chenqi; Zhou, Lite; Grimm, Ronald L; Huda, Muhammad N; Rao, Pratap M

    2017-01-18

    Metal oxides with moderate band gaps are desired for efficient production of hydrogen from sunlight and water via photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. Here, we report an α-SnWO 4 photoanode synthesized by hydrothermal conversion of WO 3 films that achieves photon to current conversion at wavelengths up to 700 nm (1.78 eV). This photoanode is promising for overall PEC water-splitting because the flat-band potential and voltage of photocurrent onset are more negative than the potential of hydrogen evolution. Furthermore, the photoanode utilizes a large portion of the solar spectrum. However, the photocurrent density reaches only a small fraction of that which is theoretically possible. Density functional theory based thermodynamic and electronic structure calculations were performed to elucidate the nature and impact of defects in α-SnWO 4 prepared by this synthetic route, from which hole localization at Sn-at-W antisite defects was determined to be a likely cause for the poor photocurrent. Measurements further showed that the photocurrent decreases over time due to surface oxidation, which was suppressed by improving the kinetics of hole transfer at the semiconductor/electrolyte interface. Alternative synthetic methods and the addition of protective coatings and/or oxygen evolution catalysts are suggested to improve the PEC performance and stability of this promising α-SnWO 4 material.

  8. Preparation and characterization of nanocrystalline porous TiO2/WO3 composite thin films

    Hsu, C.-S.; Lin, C.-K.; Chan, C.-C.; Chang, C.-C.; Tsay, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    TiO 2 materials possessing not only photocatalytic but also electrochromic properties have attracted many research and development interests. Though WO 3 exhibits excellent electrochromic properties, the much higher cost and water-sensitivity of WO 3 as compared with the TiO 2 may restrict the practical application of WO 3 materials. In the present study, the feasibility of preparing nanocrystalline porous TiO 2 /WO 3 composite thin films was investigated. Precursors of sols TiO 2 and/or WO 3 and polystyrene microspheres were used to prepare nanocrystalline pure TiO 2 , WO 3 , and composite TiO 2 /WO 3 thin films by spin coating. The spin-coated thin films were amorphous and, after heat treating at a temperature of 500 o C, nanocrystalline TiO 2 , TiO 2 /WO 3 , and WO 3 thin films with or without pores were prepared successfully. The heat-treated thin films were colorless and coloration-bleaching phenomena can be observed during cyclic voltammetry tests. The heat-treated thin films exhibited good reversible electrochromic behavior while the porous TiO 2 /WO 3 composite film exhibited improved electrochromic properties

  9. Visible-light photocatalytic activity of Ag2O coated Bi2WO6 hierarchical microspheres assembled by nanosheets

    Chen, Lin; Hua, Hao; Yang, Qi; Hu, Chenguo

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Bi 2 WO 6 hierarchical microspheres assembled by nanosheets and dispersed nanosheets are synthesized. • Ag 2 O/Bi 2 WO 6 heterostuctures exhibites an enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with the Bi 2 WO 6 nanostructures. • Photocatalytic activity of the Ag 2 O/Bi 2 WO 6 microspheres is higher than that of the nanosheets. • Bi 2 WO 6 hierarchical structure is an excellent architecture for loading of Ag 2 O nanoparticles. - Abstract: Bi 2 WO 6 hierarchical microspheres assembled by nanosheets and dispersed nanosheets were synthesized by hydrothermal reaction in different conditions. Ag 2 O nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of Bi 2 WO 6 microspheres and nanosheets by the chemical precipitation method. The photocatalytic performance of pure Bi 2 WO 6 nanostructures and Ag 2 O/Bi 2 WO 6 heterostructures were evaluated by the photocatalytic decolorization of RhB solution under visible-light irradiation. Compared with the pure Bi 2 WO 6 nanostructures, the Ag 2 O/Bi 2 WO 6 heterostructures exhibited an obviously enhanced photocatalytic activity. And photocatalytic activity of the Ag 2 O/Bi 2 WO 6 microspheres is higher than that of the Ag 2 O/Bi 2 WO 6 nanosheets. This work demonstrates that the Bi 2 WO 6 hierarchical three-dimensional structure is an excellent architecture for the loading of Ag 2 O nanoparticles to build a highly efficient photocatalyst

  10. Chemical purification of CaCO{sub 3} and CaWO{sub 4} powders used for CaWO{sub 4} crystal production for the CRESST experiment

    Trinh Thi, H.H.; Defay, X.; Erb, A.; Hampf, R.; Lanfranchi, J.C.; Langenkaemper, A.; Morgalyuk, V.; Muenster, A.; Mondragon, E.; Oppenheimer, C.; Potzel, W.; Schoenert, S.; Steiger, H.; Ulrich, A.; Wawoczny, S.; Willers, M.; Zoeller, A. [Physik-Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    CRESST (Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers) uses CaWO{sub 4} single crystals as targets for the direct search for dark matter particles. Since several years these CaWO{sub 4} crystals are grown at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen. Thereby, commercially available CaCO{sub 3} and WO{sub 3} powders are used for the synthesis of CaWO{sub 4} powder. For the experiment low intrinsic contaminations of the crystals play a crucial role. In order to improve the radiopurity of the crystals it is necessary to reduce potential sources for radioactive backgrounds such as U and Th. In this poster we will present our studies of the chemical purification of the CaCO{sub 3} and CaWO{sub 4} powders.

  11. Fungus mediated biosynthesis of WO3 nanoparticles using Fusarium solani extract

    Kavitha, N. S.; Venkatesh, K. S.; Palani, N. S.; Ilangovan, R.

    2017-05-01

    Currently nanoparticles were synthesized by emphasis bioremediation process due to less hazardous, eco-friendly and imperative applications on biogenic process. Fungus mediated biosynthesis strategy has been developed to prepare tungsten oxide nanoflakes (WO3, NFs) using the plant pathogenic fungus F.solani. The powder XRD pattern revealed the monoclinic crystal structure with improved crystalline nature of the synthesized WO3 nanoparticles. FESEM images showed the flake-like morphology of WO3, with average thickness and length around 40 nm and 300 nm respectively. The Raman spectrum of WO3 NFs showed their characteristic vibration modes that revealed the defect free nature of the WO3 NFs. Further, the elemental analysis indicated the stoichiometric composition of WO3 phase.

  12. Poly(methacrylic acid)-mediated morphosynthesis of PbWO4 micro-crystals

    Yu, J.G.; Zhao, X.F.; Liu, S.W.; Li, M.; Mann, S.; Ng, D.H.L.

    2007-01-01

    PbWO 4 crystals with various morphologies were fabricated via a facile poly(methacrylic acid)-mediated hydrothermal route. Novel microsized PbWO 4 single crystals with a needle-like shape as well as other morphologies, such as a fishbone, dendrite, sphere, spindle, ellipsoid, rod, and dumbbell with two dandelion-like heads, could be produced. The presence of PMAA, [Pb 2+ ]/[WO 4 2- ] molar ratio (R), and aging temperature played key roles in the formation of the PbWO 4 needle-like structures. Between temperatures of 60 to 150 C, the length and photoluminescence intensities of the PbWO 4 micro needles significantly increased with aging temperature, while the diameter did not change remarkably. Time-dependent experiments revealed that the formation of PbWO 4 microneedles involved an unusual growth process, involving nucleation, oriented assembly and controlled mesoscale restructuring of nanoparticle building blocks. (orig.)

  13. Preparation and characterization of WO{sub 3} nanoparticles, WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} core/shell nanocomposites and PEDOT:PSS/WO{sub 3} composite thin films for photocatalytic and electrochromic applications

    Boyadjiev, Stefan I., E-mail: boiajiev@gmail.com [MTA-BME Technical Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary); Santos, Gustavo dos Lopes; Szűcs, Júlia [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary); Szilágyi, Imre M., E-mail: imre.szilagyi@mail.bme.hu [MTA-BME Technical Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary); Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary)

    2016-03-25

    In this study, monoclinic WO{sub 3} nanoparticles were obtained by thermal decomposition of (NH{sub 4}){sub x}WO{sub 3} in air at 600 °C. On them by atomic layer deposition (ALD) TiO{sub 2} films were deposited, and thus core/shell WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites were prepared. We prepared composites of WO{sub 3} nanoparticles with conductive polymer as PEDOT:PSS, and deposited thin films of them on glass and ITO substrates by spin coating. The formation, morphology, composition and structure of the as-prepared pure and composite nanoparticles, as well thin films, were studied by TEM, SEM-EDX and XRD. The photocatalytic activity of both the WO{sub 3} and core/shell WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was studied by decomposing methyl orange in aqueous solution under UV light irradiation. Cyclic voltammetry measurements were performed on the composite PEDOT:PSS/WO{sub 3} thin films, and the coloring and bleaching states were studied.

  14. WO{sub 3} nanorods prepared by low-temperature seeded growth hydrothermal reaction

    Ng, Chai Yan [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Abdul Razak, Khairunisak, E-mail: khairunisak@eng.usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); NanoBiotechnology Research and Innovation (NanoBRI), Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Lockman, Zainovia, E-mail: zainovia@eng.usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • WO{sub 3} nanorods with 5–10 nm diameter were grown directly on seeded tungsten foil. • WO{sub 3} nanorods were successfully grown at low temperature of 80 °C. • WO{sub 3} nanorods were grown on the entire surface of the seed layer after 24 h. • Annealed nanorods showed better electrochromic properties than as-made nanorods. -- Abstract: This work describes the first tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) nanorods hydrothermally grown on W foil. WO{sub 3} nanorods were successfully grown at low hydrothermal temperature of 80 °C by seeded growth hydrothermal reaction. The seed layer was prepared by thermally oxidized the W foil at 400 °C for 0.5 h. This work discusses the effect of hydrothermal reaction and annealing period on the morphological, structural, and electrochromic properties of WO{sub 3} nanorods. Various hydrothermal reaction periods (8–24 h) were studied. Monoclinic WO{sub 3} nanorods with 5–10 nm diameter were obtained after hydrothermal reaction for 24 h. These 24 h WO{sub 3} nanorods were also annealed at 400 °C with varying dwelling periods (0.5–4 h). Electrochromic properties of WO{sub 3} nanorods in an acidic electrolyte were analyzed using cyclic voltammetry and UV–vis spectrophotometry. WO{sub 3} nanorods annealed at 400 °C for 1 h showed the highest charge capacity and the largest optical contrast among the 24 h WO{sub 3} films. The sample also showed good cycling stability without significant degradation. Based on the results, the reaction mechanism of WO{sub 3} nanorod formation on W foil was proposed.

  15. Biomimetic fabrication of WO{sub 3} for water splitting under visible light with high performance

    Yin, Chao; Zhu, Shenmin, E-mail: smzhu@sjtu.edu.cn; Yao, Fan; Gu, Jiajun; Zhang, Wang [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites (China); Chen, Zhixin [University of Wollongong, Faculty of Engineering (Australia); Zhang, Di, E-mail: zhangdi@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites (China)

    2013-08-15

    Inspired by the high light-harvesting properties of typical butterfly wings, ceramic WO{sub 3} butterfly wings with hierarchical structures of bio-butterfly wings was fabricated using a template of PapilioParis butterfly wings through a sol-gel method. The effect of calcination temperatures on the structures of the ceramic butterfly wings was investigated and the results showed that the WO{sub 3} butterfly wing replica calcined at 550 Degree-Sign C (WO{sub 3} replica-550) is a single phase and has a high crystallinity and relatively fine hierarchical structure. The average grain size of WO{sub 3} replica-550 and WO{sub 3} powder are around 32.6 and 42.2 nm, respectively. Compared with pure WO{sub 3} powder, WO{sub 3} replica-550 demonstrated a higher light-harvesting capability in the region from 460 to 700 nm and more importantly the higher charge separation rate, as evidenced by electron paramagnetic resonance measurements. Photocatalytic O{sub 2} evolutions from water were investigated on the ceramic butterfly wings and pure WO{sub 3} powder under visible light ({lambda} > 420 nm). The results showed that the amount of O{sub 2} produced from WO{sub 3} replica-550 is 50 % higher than that of the pure WO{sub 3} powder. The improved photocatalytic performance of WO{sub 3} replica-550 is attributed to the quasi-honeycomb structure inherited from the PapilioParis butterfly wings, providing both high light-harvesting efficiency and efficient charge transport through the WO{sub 3}.

  16. Effect of Structural Stress on the Laser Quality of Highly Doped Yb:KY(WO4)2/KY(WO4)2 and Yb:KLu(WO4)2/KLu(WO4)2 Epitaxial Structures

    Carvajal, J.; Raghothamachar, B.; Silvestre, O.; Chen, H.; Pujol, M.; Petrov, V.; Dudley, M.; Aguilo, M.; Diaz, F.

    2009-01-01

    In this communication we demonstrate how the difference in laser performance of two highly doped (20 at %) epitaxial layers of Yb-doped KY(WO4)2 (KYW) grown on a KYW substrate and Yb-doped KLu(WO4)2 (KLuW) grown on a KLuW substrate, respectively, is related to the presence of structural stress in the epilayers, investigated by synchrotron white beam X-ray topography. From the results obtained, it is clear that the samples that show a larger amount of structural stress, Yb:KYW/KYW epitaxies, lead to lower efficiency in laser operation, giving a direct correlation between the existence and magnitude of such structural stress and the loss in efficiency of laser performance in such epitaxial layers which, from a spectroscopical point of view, are otherwise equivalent.

  17. Electrochromism and local order in amorphous WO/sub 3/

    Zeller, H R; Beyeler, H U

    1977-06-01

    WO/sub 3/ films prepared under different conditions (evaporation, reactive sputtering and spraying of aqueous solutions of metatungstic acid) differ by orders of magnitude in their electrochromic sensitivity. Diffuse X-ray studies show the evaporated and sputtered films to be amorphous and to consists of a disordered network of corner sharing WO/sub 6/ octahedra. Sprayed films have different degrees of crystallinity depending on spraying conditions. From differential scanning calorimetry we conclude that the crystal water present in most films strongly affects the local order of the corner sharing octahedra. We find that crystal water not only provides a high ionic conductivity which is conditional for a fast electrochromic reaction but also stabilises electrocatalytically active surface sites for fast hydrogen or Li exchange with the adjacent electrolyte.

  18. Influence of Liquid Petroleum Gas on the Electrical Parameters of the WO3 Thick Film

    R. S. KHADAYATE

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the WO3 thick films were prepared by standard screen-printing technology. These films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Influence of LPG on the electrical properties of the prepared WO3 thick film is reported. It was observed that the slope of the Arrhenius curves of the WO3 thick film decreased as the medium changed from pure air to 100 ppm LPG in air. From I-V characteristics, it was observed that the WO3 thick film exhibit highest sensitivity to 50 ppm LPG in air at 400oC.

  19. Study of the tungsten bronze Ag0.01WO3 using positron annihilation method

    Dryzek, J.; Dryzek, E.; Placzek, A.

    1992-01-01

    The study of the positron annihilation and the Seebeck effect was performed on silver doped tungsten trioxide of composition Ag 0.01 WO 3 and the tungsten trioxide phase: WO 2.90 (W 20 O 58 ). Both methods point out that there are some clusters of Ag + ions in the first compound and oxygen vacancies in the second case. The clusters have some internal substructure. The measurements of the Seebeck effect showed that Ag 0.01 WO 3 is normal n-type semiconductor whereas WO 2.90 exhibits metal-like properties

  20. Synthesis and characterization of polyaniline/MnWO4 nanocomposites as electrodes for pseudocapacitors

    Saranya, S.; Selvan, R. Kalai; Priyadharsini, N.

    2012-03-01

    Polyaniline (PAni)/MnWO4 nanocomposite was successfully synthesized by in situ polymerization method under ultrasonication and the MnWO4 was prepared by surfactant assisted ultrasonication method. The thermal stability of PAni was determined by TG/DTA (Thermo Gravimetric/ Differential thermal analysis). The structural and morphological features of PAni, MnWO4 and PAni/MnWO4 composite was analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images. The electro-chemical properties of PAni, MnWO4 and its composites with different weight percentage of MnWO4 loading were studied through cyclic voltammetry (CV) for the application of supercapacitors as active electrode materials. From the cyclic voltammogram, 50% of MnWO4 impregnated PAni showed a high specific capacitance (SC) of 481 F/g than their individual counterparts of PAni (396 F/g) and MnWO4 (18 F/g). The galvanostatic charge-discharge studies indicate the in situ polymerized composite shows greater specific capacitance (475 F/g) than the physical mixture (346 F/g) at a constant discharge current of 1 mA/cm2 with reasonable cycling stability. The charge transfer resistance (Rct) of PAni/MnWO4 composite (22 ohm) was calculated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and compared with its physical mixture (58 ohm).

  1. Facile synthesis of hierarchical double-shell WO{sub 3} microspheres with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Wang, Zhenfeng [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); State Key Laboratory of Hollow-Fiber Membrane Materials and Membrane Processes, Tianjin 300387 (China); Chu, Deqing, E-mail: dqingchu@163.com [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); State Key Laboratory of Hollow-Fiber Membrane Materials and Membrane Processes, Tianjin 300387 (China); Wang, Limin, E-mail: wanglimin@tjpu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); State Key Laboratory of Hollow-Fiber Membrane Materials and Membrane Processes, Tianjin 300387 (China); Wang, Lipeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Hu, Wenhui; Chen, Xiangyu; Yang, Huifang [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Sun, Jingjing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • HDS-WO{sub 3} were fabricated via mild process. • A possible growth mechanism for HDS-WO{sub 3} is proposed. • The excellent photocatalytic activity is attributed to the larger surface area of the HDS-WO{sub 3} nanostructures. - Abstract: Hierarchical double-shell WO{sub 3} microspheres (HDS-WO{sub 3}) have been successfully obtained through the thermal decomposition of WO{sub 3}·H{sub 2}O formed by metal salts as the templates. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, the HDS-WO{sub 3} microspheres were analyzed by the Thermogravimetric (TG) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. The synthetic mechanism of the products with hierarchical structures was proposed. The obtained HDS-WO{sub 3} exhibits excellent photocatalytic efficiency (84.9%), which is much higher than other WO{sub 3} sample under visible light illumination.

  2. MIS gas sensors based on porous silicon with Pd and WO{sub 3}/Pd electrodes

    Solntsev, V.S. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 03028, Kiev (Ukraine); Gorbanyuk, T.I., E-mail: tatyanagor@mail.r [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 03028, Kiev (Ukraine); Litovchenko, V.G.; Evtukh, A.A. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 03028, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2009-09-30

    Pd and WO{sub 3}/Pd gate metal-oxide-semiconductor (MIS) gas sensitive structures based on porous silicon layers are studied by the high frequency C(V) method. The chemical compositions of composite WO{sub 3}/Pd electrodes are characterized by secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used for morphologic studies of WO{sub 3}/Pd films. As shown in the experiments, WO{sub 3}/Pd structures are more sensitive and selective to the adsorption of hydrogen sulphide compared to Pd gate. The analyses of kinetic characteristics allow us to determine the response and characteristic times for these structures. The response time of MIS-structures with thin composite WO{sub 3}/Pd electrodes (the thickness of Pd is about 50 nm with WO{sub 3} clusters on its surface) is slower compared to the structures with Pd electrodes. Slower sensor responses of WO{sub 3}-based gas sensors may be associated with different mechanism of gas sensitivity of given structures. The enhanced sensitivity and selectivity to H{sub 2}S action of WO{sub 3}/Pd MIS-structures can also be explained by the chemical reaction that occurs at the catalytic active surface of gate electrodes. The possible mechanisms of enhanced sensitivity and selectivity to H{sub 2}S adsorption of MIS gas sensors with WO{sub 3}/Pd composite gate electrodes compared to pure Pd have been analyzed.

  3. Tungsten oxides. I. Effects of oxygen vacancies and doping on electronic and optical properties of different phases of WO3

    Migas, D. B.; Shaposhnikov, V. L.; Rodin, V. N.; Borisenko, V. E.

    2010-11-01

    In this part we present results of our ab initio calculations indicating that dispersion of the bands near the gap region for different phases of WO3 (namely, ɛ-WO3, δ-WO3, γ-WO3, β-WO3, orth-WO3, α-WO3, and hex-WO3) is rather close. The rapid increase in the absorption coefficient starts at the lower energy range for α-WO3 and hex-WO3 than for the other phases in accordance with the calculated band gaps. An oxygen vacancy has turned out to decrease the gap by 0.50 eV and to shift the absorption coefficient to the lower energy range in the room temperature γ-WO3 phase. We have also traced changes caused by molybdenum and sulfur doping of γ-WO3. Only sulfur doped γ-WO3 has been revealed to display the formation of the impurity band along with a sizable reduction in the gap and the shift in the absorption coefficient to the lower energy range.

  4. Progress in PbWO4 scintillating crystal

    Fyodorov, A.; Korzhik, M.; Missevitch, O.; Pavlenko, V.; Kachanov, V.; Singovsky, A.; Annenkov, A.N.; Ligun, V.A.; Peigneux, J.P.; Vialle, J.P.

    1994-12-01

    Lead tungstate PbWO 4 (PWO) has recently been shown to be a promising scintillating material for precise electromagnetic calorimetry. Modifications of PWO technology were made to improve the uniformity of the crystal properties. A model of the scintillation mechanism for PWO was developed and served to guide the improvement. The complex spectroscopic analysis of the crystal after improvement is presented, as well as the new crystal properties achieved. (K.A.). 14 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Preventing pressure sores of the nasal ala after nasotracheal tube intubation: from animal model to clinical application.

    Huang, Tze-Ta; Tseng, Chih-En; Lee, Tsan-Mu; Yeh, Jen-Ying; Lai, Yu-Yung

    2009-03-01

    Nasal-ala pressure sores induced by nasotracheal intubation are common complications of oral and maxillofacial surgery, but are easily ignored. To determine whether such sores could be prevented, we studied the effects of a combination of cushioning material in an animal model, and then analyzed the efficacy of this combination clinically. Four pigs received nasotracheal intubation. Each pig received intubation for 4, 8, 12, or 16 hours. Outcomes from pigs undergoing 500-gram-weight compression on each nostril were compared: one nostril received an application of cushioning materials, and the contralateral nostril did not. After the required study period, clinical assessment and further evaluation were performed by measuring pressure-sore dimensions and performing incisional biopsies. Clinical applications of this protective technique were then undertaken. Eight patients who underwent intubation without Soft Liner (GC Co, Tokyo, Japan) and DuoDERM CGF (ConvaTec, Inc, Princeton, NJ) protection, and 10 patients with Soft Liner and DuoDERM protection, were evaluated. The protective efficacy of the cushioning materials was significant in the animal model as well as in clinical practice. Pressure sores were avoided on the protected side, with severe tissue necrosis documented on the control side. We found that the combined use of Soft Liner and DuoDERM reduced the size and severity of nasal-ala pressure sores attributable to nasotracheal intubation during oral and maxillofacial surgery.

  6. At-Home Application of Autologous Platelet Rich Plasma as Treatment for Pressure Sore and Related Anemia.

    Tendas, Andrea; Niscola, Pasquale; Giovannini, Marco; Costa, Adriana; Venditti, Daniela; Volta, Laura; Malandruccolo, Luigi; Sabbadini, Stefania; Lasorella, Rosa; Fabritiis, Paolo de; Cassetta, Rita; Perrotti, Alessio P

    2017-01-01

    Pressure sores are a major complication in the bed-ridden older patient. In this report, we present the case of platelet rich plasma (PRP) application for the treatment of a pressure sore in an 88-year-old female affected by transfusion-dependent chronic inflammatory disease anemia associated with the congenital and inherited condition of thalassemic trait carrier. A weekly application schedule was planned athome, given the patient's debilitation and her decreased performance status as well as personal and family difficulties to go as outpatients at our treatment center. After 9 PRP applications, a remarkable sore improvement was achieved so that PRP was discontinued; nevertheless, sore rapidly improved until the full resolution and the complete closing after 4 months from the start of PRP treatment. Noteworthy, transfusion support was interrupted and a significant recovery and a sustained stabilization of hemoglobin (Hb) level at 1 year after ulcer healing were observed. The present case suggests that PRP application, performed athome in our case, is a feasible and effective treatment for pressure sores and related complications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. EFFECT OF CAFFEINE ON THE AMOUNT OF PERCEIVED PAIN, JOINT RANGE OF MOTION AND EDEMA AFTER DELAYED MUSCLE SORENESS

    Karabalaeifar Sara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Delayed onset muscle soreness usually occurs after doing a new unusual physical activity, especially when, associated with repeated eccentric contractions and then it gradually disappears. There is not an extensive agreement in the case of treatment method of soreness signs quick reduction. This research was carried out with the aim of investigation caffeine consumption effect to find a good way in order to reduce the signs of delayed onset muscle soreness. In this semi-experimental with Double-blind design, 16 female volleyball player with an age average of 22.5+2.5 in 2 homogeneous 8 subject control and experimental group were studied. In this research, the effect of caffeine existing in coffee in 5 stages (24h before exercise, 12h before, immediately before exercise, after exercise and 12h after it and 1mg per 1kg of body weight on amount of perceived pain and range of motion of the joint and edema due to delay onset muscle soreness because of 50 jumps and lands of a 1 meter stage was investigated. The results showed that caffeine consumption has a meaningful effect on reduction of all the expressed signs after eccentric contractions. So it is recommended that physio thrapysts, doctors and athletes use this method to reduce delayed onset muscle soreness consequences after the injury.

  8. Activation of lower back muscles via FES for pressure sores prevention in paraplegia: a case study.

    Vanoncini, M; Holderbaum, W; Andrews, B J

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the feasibility of the use of functional electrical stimulation (FES) applied to the lower back muscles for pressure sores prevention in paraplegia. The hypothesis under study is that FES induces a change in the pressure distribution on the contact area during sitting. Tests were conducted on a paraplegic subject (T5), sitting on a standard wheelchair and cushion. Trunk extensors (mainly the erector spinae) were stimulated using surface electrodes placed on the skin. A pressure mapping system was used to measure the pressure on the sitting surface in four situations: (a) no stimulation; (b) stimulation on one side of the spine only; (c) stimulation on both sides, at different levels; and (d) stimulation at the same level on both sides, during pressure-relief manoeuvres. A session of prolonged stimulation was also conducted. The experimental results show that the stimulation of the erector spinae on one side of the spine can induce a trunk rotation on the sagittal plane, which causes a change in the pressure distribution. A decrease of pressure on the side opposite to the stimulation was recorded. The phenomenon is intensified when different levels of stimulation are applied to the two sides, and such change can be sustained for a considerable time (around 5 minutes). The stimulation did not induce changes during pressure-relief manoeuvres. Finally, from this research we can conclude that the stimulation of the trunk extensors can be a useful tool for pressure sores prevention, and can potentially be used in a routine for pressure sores prevention based on periodical weight shifts.

  9. The Effect of Early Complications on Flap Selection on Sacral Pressure Sores

    Musa Kemal Keleş

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pressure sores occur in bedridden patients in intensive care units, clinics, and even at their own places. Care for sick relatives and working with doctors to address treatment options and ensure proper follow-up are some of the problems associated with these types of wounds. Surgical therapy in the treatment of pressure ulcers is associated with significant complications. In comparison to non-surgical treatment, surgical treatment has a low complication rate and is more cost-effective. The surgical treatment enables the patients to return to their social life sooner than non-surgical treatment. Patient's ability to early return to their social life is advantageous in terms of reducing morbidity and the need for additional operations. This study is aimed to review the flap choices used to treat sacral pressure sores and the resulting acute complications rates retrospectively. Material and Methods: Patients treated for stage 3 and stage 4 sacral pressure sores in our clinic in the past 5 years were included in the study. Patient records were analyzed retrospectively. Patients' demographic data and surgical treatment they received were documented. Surgical method and surgical outcomes were evaluated and early complication rates were determined. Result: Fifty patients were included in the study; 10 of them were female, 40 of were male cases. The most common causative agent was paraplegia after traffic accident. Conclusion: A significant difference was not observed between the type of flap used in the surgical treatment and the rate of complications. Consequently, the surgical treatment of pressure ulcers in the sacral region depends on the patient's individual situation, the cooperation of the family, and previously applied treatments

  10. Massage Alleviates Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness after Strenuous Exercise: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Jianmin Guo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of massage on alleviating delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS and muscle performance after strenuous exercise.Method: Seven databases consisting of PubMed, Embase, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CNKI and Wanfang were searched up to December 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs were eligible and the outcomes of muscle soreness, performance (including muscle maximal isometric force (MIF and peak torque and creatine kinase (CK were used to assess the effectiveness of massage intervention on DOMS.Results: Eleven articles with a total of 23 data points (involving 504 participants satisfied the inclusion criteria and were pooled in the meta-analysis. The findings demonstrated that muscle soreness rating decreased significantly when the participants received massage intervention compared with no intervention at 24 h (SMD: –0.61, 95% CI: –1.17 to –0.05, P = 0.03, 48 h (SMD: –1.51, 95% CI: –2.24 to –0.77, P < 0.001, 72 h (SMD: –1.46, 95% CI: –2.59 to –0.33, P = 0.01 and in total (SMD: –1.16, 95% CI: –1.60 to –0.72, P < 0.001 after intense exercise. Additionally, massage therapy improved MIF (SMD: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.21–0.90, P = 0.002 and peak torque (SMD: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.04–0.71, P = 0.03 as total effects. Furthermore, the serum CK level was reduced when participants received massage intervention (SMD: –0.64, 95% CI: –1.04 to –0.25, P = 0.001.Conclusion: The current evidence suggests that massage therapy after strenuous exercise could be effective for alleviating DOMS and improving muscle performance.

  11. Photocatalytic properties of h-WO{sub 3} nanoparticles obtained by annealing and h-WO{sub 3} nanorods prepared by hydrothermal method

    Boyadjiev, Stefan I., E-mail: boiajiev@gmail.com [MTA-BME Technical Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary); Nagy-Kovács, Teodóra [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary); Lukács, István [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Research Centre for Energy, Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege M. út 29-33 (Hungary); Szilágyi, Imre M., E-mail: imre.szilagyi@mail.bme.hu [MTA-BME Technical Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary); Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary)

    2016-03-25

    In the present study, two different methods for preparing hexagonal WO{sub 3} (h-WO{sub 3}) photocatalysts were used - controlled thermal decomposition and hydrothermal synthesis. WO{sub 3} nanoparticles with hexagonal structure were obtained by annealing (NH{sub 4}){sub x}WO{sub 3-y} at 500 °C in air. WO{sub 3} nanorods were prepared by a hydrothermal method using sodium tungstate Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}, HCl, (COOH){sub 2} and NaSO{sub 4} precursors at 200 °C. The formation, morphology, structure and composition of the as-prepared nanoparticles and nanorods were studied by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). The photocatalytic activity of the h-WO{sub 3} nanoparticles and nanorods was studied by decomposing methyl orange in aqueous solution under UV light irradiation.

  12. Secondary recrystallisation in 20 w/o Cr-25 w/o Ni-Nb stabilised stainless steel

    Healey, T.; Brown, A.F.; Speight, M.V.

    1976-11-01

    The fuel cladding material for the Commercial Advanced Gas Reactor is a fine grain 20 w/o Cr-25 w/o Ni niobium stabilised stainless steel. The grain structure stability of this alloy has been investigated as a function of carbon content over the temperature range 930 - 990 0 C. It is demonstrated that the primary grain structure is susceptible to abnormal growth due to secondary recrystallisation of the initial fine grain structure after a composition and temperature dependent incubation period. The magnitude of the incubation period is analysed on the basis that secondary recrystallisation commences when randomly dispersed niobium carbide particles have coarsened to a critical size. The validity of the analysis is tested by comparing the predictions with experimental observation. The model is subsequently used to evaluate the incubation period for conditions of temperature, composition and microstructure which differ from those defined in the experimental studies. (author)

  13. CdWO4 polymorphs: Selective preparation, electronic structures, and photocatalytic activities

    Yan, Tingjiang; Li, Liping; Tong, Wenming; Zheng, Jing; Wang, Yunjian; Li, Guangshe

    2011-01-01

    This work explored the selective synthesis of polymorphs of CdWO 4 in either tetragonal or monoclinic phase by optimizing the experimental parameters. Systematic characterization indicated that both polymorphs possessed similar spherical morphologies but different structural building blocks. Electronic structures calculations for both polymorphs demonstrated the same constructions of conduction band or valence band, while the conduction band widths of both polymorphs were quite different. Both CdWO 4 polymorphs exhibited good photocatalytic activity for degradation of methyl orange under UV light irradiation. When comparing to some other well-known tungstate oxide materials, the photocatalytic activity was found to follow such a consequence, monoclinic CdWO 4 ∼monoclinic ZnWO 4 >tetragonal CdWO 4 >tetragonal CaWO 4 . The specific photocatalytic activity of monoclinic CdWO 4 was even higher than that of commercial TiO 2 photocatalyst (Degussa P25). The increased activity from the tetragonal CdWO 4 to the monoclinic was consistent with the trend of the decreased symmetry, and this could be explained in terms of the geometric structures and electronic structures for both polymorphs. -- Graphical abstract: Monoclinic CdWO 4 exhibited a much higher photocatalytic activity than the tetragonal form owing to the lower symmetry, more distorted geometric structure, and the dispersive band configuration. Display Omitted Research highlights: → Polymorphs of CdWO 4 in either tetragonal or monoclinic phase were selectively synthesized. → Both polymorphs possessed similar spherical morphologies, while the relevant structural building blocks were different. → Photocatalytic activities of CdWO 4 polymorphs depended strongly on the symmetry, geometric structure, as well as band configuration.

  14. Flurbiprofen 8.75 mg lozenges for treating sore throat symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Schachtel, Bernard P; Shephard, Adrian; Shea, Timothy; Sanner, Kathleen; Savino, Laurie; Rezuke, Jeanne; Schachtel, Emily; Aspley, Sue

    2016-11-01

    This study assessed multiple doses of flurbiprofen 8.75 mg lozenges for the relief of three prominent symptoms of acute pharyngitis: pain intensity (primary end point), difficulty swallowing and swollen throat. A total of 204 patients (102 in each group) with confirmed pharyngitis (onset ≤4 days) were randomly assigned to take up to five flurbiprofen or placebo lozenges every 3-6 h, for 7 days. Using validated rating scales (sore throat pain intensity, difficulty swallowing and swollen throat) patients rated their symptoms for the duration of the study. Over the first 24 h, patients treated with flurbiprofen lozenges reported significantly greater reductions in sore throat pain (47%) as well as difficulty swallowing (66%) and swollen throat (40%) compared with placebo (all p flurbiprofen lozenges provide effective relief of sore throat pain intensity as well as difficulty swallowing and swollen throat.

  15. Comparative study of patients suffering sore throat after general anesthesia using laryngeal mask airway and cuffed pharyngeal tube in adults

    Hassani V

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Post-operative sore throat is one of the most common complications and complaints of patients after general anesthesia especially in operations that need endotracheal intubations. Its causes are: size of endotracheal tube and type of its cuff, inadequate airway humidification, trauma during intubation and suctioning, high flow of inspiratory gases, surgical manipulation of airway and adjacent organs, ect. Use of instruments with less invasion to upper respiratory tract, for example, face mask and airway, LMA or CPT are methods, used for decreasing the rate of post-operative sore throat. This study was performed to compare the rate of sore throat after general anesthesia between Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA and Cuffed Pharyngeal Tube (CPT. From the patients, 120 ASA: PS-I cases, were selected, who were candidates for elective surgery of Orthopedics, Urology, General surgery and Gynecology in Hazrat Rasool-Akram Hospital Complex in the year 2000. Their operation were performed in supine position and did not need muscle relaxation and the patients had spontaneous breathing. Duration of surgery was less than 2 hours. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups: LMA was used for one group and CPT for others. Immediately after operation, in the recovery room and at 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours after removing the tube, the patients were asked about sore throat and the results were recorded in the related sheets. The results was 31.7 percent of patients in group LMA and 0 percent of patients in group CPT, had sore throat. There were significant difference between groups (LMA and CPT in presentation of sore throat (P<0.001.

  16. Canker Sore

    ... base of your gums, or on your soft palate. You might notice a tingling or burning sensation ... border) Pain that you can't control with self-care measures Extreme difficulty eating or drinking High ...

  17. Pressure Sores

    ... to strengthen your muscles and improve your overall health. Talk to your doctor if physical activity is hard for you. He or she ... and Wellness Staying Healthy Healthy Living Travel Occupational Health First Aid and ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food ...

  18. Sore Throats

    ... since drainage from nose or sinus infections can cause throat infections as well. If you live or work in close quarters such as a child care center, classroom, office, prison, or military installation, ...

  19. Sore Society

    Fausing, Bent

    2014-01-01

    This is not brand new; in fact, I do not even mention the word selfie. However, it was very rewarding for me in terms of the intellectual and emotional richness and challenge, I got in return from working with this article and the questions and the answers it deals with. Maybe it will be good...

  20. Sore Throats

    ... Patient Health Home Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery. Reproduction or republication strictly ... Terms of Use © Copyright 2018. American Academy of Otolaryngology — Head and Neck Surgery 1650 Diagonal Rd Alexandria, ...

  1. Mouth Sores

    ... Patient Health Home Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery. Reproduction or republication strictly ... Terms of Use © Copyright 2018. American Academy of Otolaryngology — Head and Neck Surgery 1650 Diagonal Rd Alexandria, ...

  2. Cold Sores

    ... Men? The History of Dental Advances Pacifiers Have Negative and Positive Effects What is Dental Amalgam (Silver Filling)? What is a Composite Resin (White Filling)? Learn what those dental words mean. Check out how your teeth and mouth change in every stage of life. More RSS ...

  3. Visible-light photocatalytic activity of graphene oxide-wrapped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} hierarchical microspheres

    Zhai, Jiali; Yu, Hongwen, E-mail: yuhw@iga.ac.cn; Li, Haiyan; Sun, Lei; Zhang, Kexin; Yang, Hongjun

    2015-07-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • GO/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} are readily fabricated by facile bubbling pretreatment and freeze drying. • GO/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} possess excellent photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation. • The visible light activity of GO/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} is affected by the amount of GO. • The photostablity of GO is due to the photo-generated electrons transfer to Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. - Abstract: A facile approach of fabricating homogeneous graphene oxide (GO)-wrapped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} microspheres (GO/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}) is developed. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show that a heterojunction interface between GO and Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. The UV–vis diffuse reflection spectra (DRS) reveal that the as-prepared GO/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} composites own more intensive absorption in the visible light range compared with pure Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. These characteristic structural and optical properties endow GO/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} composites with enhanced photocatalytic activity. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the GO/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} is attributed predominantly to the synergetic effect between GO and Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}, causing rapid generation and separation of photo-generated charge carriers.

  4. Liquid phase deposition of WO3/TiO2 heterojunction films with high photoelectrocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation

    Zhang, Man; Yang, Changzhu; Pu, Wenhong; Tan, Yuanbin; Yang, Kun; Zhang, Jingdong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Liquid phase deposition is developed for preparing WO 3 /TiO 2 heterojunction films. • TiO 2 film provides an excellent platform for WO 3 deposition. • WO 3 expands the absorption band edge of TiO 2 film to visible light region. • WO 3 /TiO 2 heterojunction film shows high photoelectrocatalytic activity. - ABSTRACT: The heterojunction films of WO 3 /TiO 2 were prepared by liquid phase deposition (LPD) method via two-step processes. The scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis indicated that flower-like WO 3 film was successfully deposited on TiO 2 film with the LPD processes. The TiO 2 film provided an excellent platform for WO 3 deposition while WO 3 obviously expanded the absorption of TiO 2 film to visible light. As the result, the heterojunction film of WO 3 /TiO 2 exhibited higher photocurrent response to visible light illumination than pure TiO 2 or WO 3 film. The photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) activity of WO 3 /TiO 2 film was evaluated by degrading Rhodamin B (RhB) and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the LPD WO 3 /TiO 2 film possessed high PEC activity for efficient removal of various refractory organic pollutants

  5. [Reliability and validity of the Braden Scale for predicting pressure sore risk].

    Boes, C

    2000-12-01

    For more accurate and objective pressure sore risk assessment various risk assessment tools were developed mainly in the USA and Great Britain. The Braden Scale for Predicting Pressure Sore Risk is one such example. By means of a literature analysis of German and English texts referring to the Braden Scale the scientific control criteria reliability and validity will be traced and consequences for application of the scale in Germany will be demonstrated. Analysis of 4 reliability studies shows an exclusive focus on interrater reliability. Further, even though examination of 19 validity studies occurs in many different settings, such examination is limited to the criteria sensitivity and specificity (accuracy). The range of sensitivity and specificity level is 35-100%. The recommended cut off points rank in the field of 10 to 19 points. The studies prove to be not comparable with each other. Furthermore, distortions in these studies can be found which affect accuracy of the scale. The results of the here presented analysis show an insufficient proof for reliability and validity in the American studies. In Germany, the Braden scale has not yet been tested under scientific criteria. Such testing is needed before using the scale in different German settings. During the course of such testing, construction and study procedures of the American studies can be used as a basis as can the problems be identified in the analysis presented below.

  6. A simple concept for covering pressure sores: wound edge-based propeller perforator flap.

    Kelahmetoglu, Osman; Van Landuyt, Koenraad; Yagmur, Caglayan; Sommeling, Casper E; Keles, Musa K; Tayfur, Volkan; Simsek, Tekin; Demirtas, Yener; Guneren, Ethem

    2017-12-01

    We present a new surgical modification to allow propeller perforator flaps to cover pressure sores at various locations. We used a propeller perforator flap concept based on the detection of newly formed perforator vessels located 1 cm from the wound margin and stimulated by the chronic inflammation process. Between January 2009 and January 2017, 33 wound edge-based propeller perforator flaps were used to cover pressure sores at various locations in 28 patients. In four cases more than one flap was used on the same patient. The patients comprised 18 males and 10 females with a mean age of 41·25 (range, 16-70) years. All patients underwent follow-up for 0-12 months. The mean follow-up duration was 5·03 months. Venous congestion was observed in three flaps that were rotated by 180° (9·1%). However, there was a significant difference between flaps rotated by 90° and 180° according to the complication rate (P = 0·034). Out of 33 flaps, 29 flaps healed uneventfully. Patients were able to sit and lie on their flaps three weeks after surgery. In our study, we were able to obtain satisfying final results using these novel flaps. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. PROGNOSTIC FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH PRESSURE SORES IN A UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL.

    Walter, Gustavo Palmeiro; Seidel, William; Giustina, Renata Della; Bins-Ely, Jorge; Maurici, Rosemeri; Narciso-Schiavon, Janaína Luz

    2017-01-01

    Despite advances in medical care, patients who are hospitalized or have spinal cord injuries often develop pressure sores. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of pressure sores and evaluate factors associated with recurrence and cure. In this historical cohort study, clinical and laboratory data were collected from medical records between 1997 and 2016. Sixty individuals with pressure ulcers were included; mean patient age was 38.1±16.5 (37.0) years, 83.3% were men, and 86.8% identified as white. Most patients (85.1%) had paraplegia, amputation, or trauma of the lower limbs with motor sequelae; the remainder (14.9%) were quadriplegic. Most (78.3%) underwent surgery, and the mean follow-up time was 1.8±2.5 years. The lesions were cured in 25 patients; they recurred in 25% of the patients, and recurrence was seen to be associated with the location of the lesions. Patients with recurrent lesions had more medical consultations and a longer treatment time. Individuals whose ulcers had healed had fewer lesions, higher body mass index (BMI), and a higher proportion of these patients underwent surgery. BMI and location and number of lesions are prognostic factors. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series.

  8. Dual-dermal-barrier fashion flaps for the treatment of sacral pressure sores.

    Hsiao, Yen-Chang; Chuang, Shiow-Shuh

    2015-02-01

    The sacral region is one of the most vulnerable sites for the development of pressure sores. Even when surgical reconstruction is performed, there is a high chance of recurrence. Therefore, the concept of dual-dermal-barrier fashion flaps for sacral pressure sore reconstruction was proposed. From September 2007 to June 2010, nine patients with grade IV sacral pressures were enrolled. Four patients received bilateral myocutaneous V-Y flaps, four patients received bilateral fasciocutaneous V-Y flaps, and one patient received bilateral rotation-advanced flaps for sacral pressure reconstruction. The flaps were designed based on the perforators of the superior gluteal artery in one patient's reconstructive procedure. All flaps' designs were based on dual-dermal-barrier fashion. The mean follow-up time was 16 months (range = 12-25). No recurrence was noted. Only one patient had a complication of mild dehiscence at the middle suture line, occurring 2 weeks after the reconstructive surgery. The dual-dermal fashion flaps are easily duplicated and versatile. The study has shown minimal morbidity and a reasonable outcome.

  9. Combined V-Y Fasciocutaneous Advancement and Gluteus Maximus Muscle Rotational Flaps for Treating Sacral Sores

    Hyun Ho Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sacral area is the most common site of pressure sore in bed-ridden patients. Though many treatment methods have been proposed, a musculocutaneous flap using the gluteus muscles or a fasciocutaneous flap is the most popular surgical option. Here, we propose a new method that combines the benefits of these 2 methods: combined V-Y fasciocutaneous advancement and gluteus maximus muscle rotational flaps. A retrospective review was performed for 13 patients who underwent this new procedure from March 2011 to December 2013. Patients’ age, sex, accompanying diseases, follow-up duration, surgical details, complications, and recurrence were documented. Computed tomography was performed postoperatively at 2 to 4 weeks and again at 4 to 6 months to identify the thickness and volume of the rotational muscle portion. After surgery, all patients healed within 1 month; 3 patients experienced minor complications. The average follow-up period was 13.6 months, during which time 1 patient had a recurrence (recurrence rate, 7.7%. Average thickness of the rotated muscle was 9.43 mm at 2 to 4 weeks postoperatively and 9.22 mm at 4 to 6 months postoperatively (p=0.087. Muscle thickness had not decreased, and muscle volume was relatively maintained. This modified method is relatively simple and easy for reconstructing sacral sores, provides sufficient padding, and has little muscle donor-site morbidity.

  10. Watermelon juice: potential functional drink for sore muscle relief in athletes.

    Tarazona-Díaz, Martha P; Alacid, Fernando; Carrasco, María; Martínez, Ignacio; Aguayo, Encarna

    2013-08-07

    l-Citrulline is an excellent candidate to reduce muscle soreness, and watermelon is a fruit rich in this amino acid. This study investigated the potential of watermelon juice as a functional drink for athletes. An in vitro study of intestinal absorption of l-citrulline in Caco-2 cells was performed using unpasteurized (NW), pasteurized (80 °C for 40 s) watermelon juice (PW) and, as control, a standard of l-citrulline. l-citrulline bioavailability was greater when it was contained in a matrix of watermelon and when no heat treatment was applied. In the in vivo experiment (maximum effort test in a cycloergometer), seven athletes were supplied with 500 mL of natural watermelon juice (1.17 g of l-citrulline), enriched watermelon juice (4.83 g of l-citrulline plus 1.17 g from watermelon), and placebo. Both watermelon juices helped to reduce the recovery heart rate and muscle soreness after 24 h.

  11. Reducing risk of pressure sores: effects of watch prompts and alarm avoidance on wheelchair push-ups.

    White, G W; Mathews, R M; Fawcett, S B

    1989-01-01

    People who use wheelchairs are at risk for developing pressure sores. Regular pressure relief, in the form of a wheelchair push-up, is one way to reduce the likelihood of pressure sores. We examined the effects of antecedent (i.e., instructions, audible prompts) and consequent (i.e., alarm avoidance) events on wheelchair push-ups, using a multiple baseline analysis with 2 participants with spina bifida. Results suggest that the combined procedure was more effective than either antecedent or consequent events alone, and there is some evidence suggesting maintenance of effects over time. PMID:2793635

  12. A novel technique for preventing skin pressure sores using a rubber tube during surgical treatment of mandibular condyle fractures.

    Kawase-Koga, Yoko; Mori, Yoshiyuki; Hoshi, Kazuhito; Takato, Tsuyoshi

    2013-11-01

    Craniofacial surgery occasionally results in sores and necrosis of the facial skin because of pressure from surgical instruments. During surgical treatment of mandibular condylar process fractures, the main mandibular fragment is routinely retracted downward using a wire to achieve a satisfactory anatomic reduction. This procedure may injure the facial skin. This potential complication is easily overlooked by medical staff, but it is easily preventable. We herein describe a method of using a rubber tube to avoid causing pressure sores of the facial skin during surgical treatment of mandibular condylar process fractures.

  13. MnWO{sub 4} nanocapsules: Synthesis, characterization and its electrochemical sensing property

    Muthamizh, Selvamani; Suresh, Ranganathan; Giribabu, Krishnamoorthy; Manigandan, Ramadoss; Praveen Kumar, Sivakumar; Munusamy, Settu; Narayanan, Vengidusamy, E-mail: vnnara@yahoo.co.in

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of MnWO{sub 4} nanocapsules without use of any other external reagent. • High crystalline MnWO{sub 4} was obtained with phase purity. • Electrochemical sensing platform based on MnWO{sub 4} for sensing quercetin. • Micromolar detection ability of MnWO{sub 4} modified GCE. - Abstract: Manganese tungstate (MnWO{sub 4}) was synthesized by surfactant free precipitation method. MnWO{sub 4} was characterized by using various spectroscopic techniques. The phase, crystalline nature and the morphological analysis were carried out using XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). Further, FT-IR, Raman, and DRS-UV–Vis spectral analysis were carried out in order to ascertain the optical property and the presence of functional groups. From the analysis, the morphology of the MnWO{sub 4} was observed to be in capsules with breadth and thickness were in nm range. The oxidation state of tungsten (W), and manganese (Mn) were investigated using X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR). The synthesized MnWO{sub 4} nanocapsules were used to modify glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to detect quercetin.

  14. Influence of disordered morphology on electrochromic stability of WO{sub 3}/PPy

    Gaikwad, Digambar K. [D. Y. Patil College of Engineering & Technology, Kasaba Bawada, Kolhapur, 416006, Maharashtra (India); Mali, Sawanta S.; Hong, Chang K. [Polymer Energy Materials Laboratory, Department of Advanced Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Kadam, Anamika V., E-mail: anamikasonavane@rediff.com [D. Y. Patil College of Engineering & Technology, Kasaba Bawada, Kolhapur, 416006, Maharashtra (India); D.Y. Patil Medical University, Kasaba Bawada, Kolhapur, 416006, Maharashtra (India)

    2016-06-05

    Tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) films are critical for smart windows because of their capacity of varying the throughput of visible light and solar energy. This study highlights the evolution of structural and morphological changes of electrodeposited WO{sub 3} thin films coated with polypyrrole (PPy) by using chemical bath deposition. The structural and surface properties of WO{sub 3} thin films were studied using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The electrochemical stability was inspected using repetitive cyclic voltammetry (CV) cycles for each sample in LiClO{sub 4}-PC electrolyte for prolonged periods. The results showed an improvement in the electrochemical stability after the CV study. - Graphical abstract: Mechanism: A schematic of the mechanism is proposed in above fig. The mechanism is based on three step process: (i) WO{sub 3} coated on ITO by electrodeposition followed by thermal treatment. It produces ordered nanoarrayed morphology. (ii) A second step involving deposition of PPy by chemical bath deposition on ITO. It possesses globular morphology. (iii) When PPy coated on WO{sub 3}, PPy applies shearing force on WO{sub 3} and produces disordered nanoarrayed morphology. - Highlights: • Nanoarrayed WO{sub 3}/PPy composite was synthesized. • Interplanar spacing enhances due to PPy coating. • PPy applies shearing force on WO{sub 3} produces disordered morphology. • Nanocomposite showed high stability in LiClO{sub 4}-PC.

  15. Photodegradation of Malachite Green by Nanostructured Bi2WO6 Visible Light-Induced Photocatalyst

    Yijie Chen; Yaqin Zhang; Chen Liu; Aimin Lu; Weihua Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Bi2WO6 photocatalyst was first utilized to degrade malachite green. The effects of the concentration of malachite green, the pH value, and the concentration of Bi2WO6 on the photocatalytic efficiency were investigated. This study presents a strategy to eliminate highly toxic and persistent dyes such as malachite green.

  16. Oxidative degradation of salicylic acid by sprayed WO{sub 3} photocatalyst

    Mohite, S.V.; Rajpure, K.Y., E-mail: rajpure@yahoo.com

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The photoactivity of sprayed WO{sub 3} thin film. • Photoelectrocatalytic degradation of salicylic acid. • Reaction kinetics and mineralization of pollutants by COD. - Abstract: The WO{sub 3} thin films were deposited using spray pyrolysis technique. The prepared WO{sub 3} thin films were characterized using photoelectrochemical (PEC), X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and UV–vis absorbance spectroscopy techniques. PEC measurements of WO{sub 3} films deposited at different deposition temperatures were carried out to study photoresponse. The maximum photocurrent (I{sub ph} = 261 μA/cm{sup 2}) was observed for the film deposited at the 225 °C. The monoclinic crystal structure of WO{sub 3} has been confirmed from X-ray diffraction studies. AFM studies were used to calculate particle size and average roughness of the films. Optical absorbance was studied to estimate the bandgap energy of WO{sub 3} thin film which was about 2.65 eV. The photoelectrocatalytic activity of WO{sub 3} film was studied by degradation of salicylic acid with reducing concentrations as function of reaction time. The WO{sub 3} photocatalyst degraded salicylic acid to about 67.14% with significant reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) value.

  17. Optical properties of WO3 thin films using surface plasmon resonance technique

    Paliwal, Ayushi; Sharma, Anjali; Gupta, Vinay; Tomar, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Indigenously assembled surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique has been exploited to study the thickness dependent dielectric properties of WO 3 thin films. WO 3 thin films (80 nm to 200 nm) have been deposited onto gold (Au) coated glass prism by sputtering technique. The structural, optical properties and surface morphology of the deposited WO 3 thin films were studied using X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectrophotometer, Raman spectroscopy, and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD analysis shows that all the deposited WO 3 thin films are exhibiting preferred (020) orientation and Raman data indicates that the films possess single phase monoclinic structure. SEM images reveal the variation in grain size with increase in thickness. The SPR reflectance curves of the WO 3 /Au/prism structure were utilized to estimate the dielectric properties of WO 3 thin films at optical frequency (λ = 633 nm). As the thickness of WO 3 thin film increases from 80 nm to 200 nm, the dielectric constant is seen to be decreasing from 5.76 to 3.42, while the dielectric loss reduces from 0.098 to 0.01. The estimated value of refractive index of WO 3 film is in agreement to that obtained from UV-visible spectroscopy studies. The strong dispersion in refractive index is observed with wavelength of incident laser light

  18. Optical properties of WO{sub 3} thin films using surface plasmon resonance technique

    Paliwal, Ayushi; Sharma, Anjali; Gupta, Vinay, E-mail: drguptavinay@gmail.com, E-mail: vgupta@physics.du.ac.in [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Tomar, Monika [Department of Physics, Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2014-01-28

    Indigenously assembled surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique has been exploited to study the thickness dependent dielectric properties of WO{sub 3} thin films. WO{sub 3} thin films (80 nm to 200 nm) have been deposited onto gold (Au) coated glass prism by sputtering technique. The structural, optical properties and surface morphology of the deposited WO{sub 3} thin films were studied using X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectrophotometer, Raman spectroscopy, and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD analysis shows that all the deposited WO{sub 3} thin films are exhibiting preferred (020) orientation and Raman data indicates that the films possess single phase monoclinic structure. SEM images reveal the variation in grain size with increase in thickness. The SPR reflectance curves of the WO{sub 3}/Au/prism structure were utilized to estimate the dielectric properties of WO{sub 3} thin films at optical frequency (λ = 633 nm). As the thickness of WO{sub 3} thin film increases from 80 nm to 200 nm, the dielectric constant is seen to be decreasing from 5.76 to 3.42, while the dielectric loss reduces from 0.098 to 0.01. The estimated value of refractive index of WO{sub 3} film is in agreement to that obtained from UV-visible spectroscopy studies. The strong dispersion in refractive index is observed with wavelength of incident laser light.

  19. A simple synthesis of MnWO{sub 4} nanoparticles as a novel energy storage material

    Li, Feihui, E-mail: feihuili2012@163.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134 (China); Xu, Xiaoyang, E-mail: xiaoyangxu2012@163.com [School of Science, Tianjin University (China); Huo, Jialei; Wang, Wei [School of Chemical Engineering, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-11-01

    MnWO{sub 4} nanoparticles with the shuttle-like shape were prepared by a simple chemical co-precipitation method and analyzed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The prepared MnWO{sub 4} was used as the electrode material of a supercapacitor, and its electrochemical performance was studied using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The MnWO{sub 4} exhibited good electrochemical performance. The MnWO{sub 4} nanoparticles had specific capacitances of 295 F/g at a scan rate of 5 mV/s and 219 F/g at a current density of 0.4 A/g. They also showed good cycle-life stability and low resistance. Therefore, MnWO{sub 4} is a promising electrode material for supercapacitors. - Highlights: • The shuttle-like MnWO{sub 4} nanoparticles have been prepared. • The prepared MnWO{sub 4} nanoparticles exhibit good electrochemical performances. • MnWO{sub 4} is a promising electrode material for supercapacitors.

  20. Optical spectroscopy of rare-earth ions doped KY(WO4)2 thin films

    García-Revilla, S.; Valiente, R.; Romanyuk, Y.E.; Utke, I.; Pollnau, Markus

    KY(WO4)2 thin films doped with Dy3+, Tb3+, Yb3+, were grown onto KY(WO4)2 substrates using liquid-phase epitaxy. Spectroscopic investigations of the grown layers were performed. Obtained results were compared with spectra given for bulk crystals. Upconversion experiments after direct Yb3+ excitation

  1. Physical properties characterization of WO3 films grown by hot-filament metal oxide deposition

    Diaz-Reyes, J.; Delgado-Macuil, R.J.; Dorantes-Garcia, V.; Perez-Benitez, A.; Balderas-Lopez, J.A.; Ariza-Ortega, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    WO 3 is grown by hot-filament metal oxide deposition (HFMOD) technique under atmospheric pressure and an oxygen atmosphere. By X-ray diffraction obtains that WO 3 presents mainly monoclinic crystalline phase. The chemical stoichiometry is obtained by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The IR spectrum of the as-grown WO 3 presents broad peaks in the range of 1100 to 3600 cm -1 . A broad band in the 2200 to 3600 cm -1 region and the peaks sited at 1645 and 1432 cm -1 are well resolved, which are originated from moisture and are assigned to ν(OH) and δ(OH) modes of adsorbed water and the corresponding tungsten oxide vibrations are in infrared region from 400 to 1453 cm -1 and around 3492 cm -1 , which correspond to tungsten-oxygen (W-O) stretching, bending and lattice modes. The Raman spectrum shows intense peaks at 801, 710, 262 and 61 cm -1 that are typical Raman peaks of crystalline WO 3 (m-phase) that correspond to stretching vibrations of the bridging oxygen, which are assigned to W-O stretching (ν) and W-O bending (δ) modes, respectively. By transmittance measurements obtains that the WO 3 band gap can be varied from 2.92 to 3.13 eV in the investigated annealing temperature range.

  2. Improved electrochromical properties of sol-gel WO3 thin films by doping gold nanocrystals

    Naseri, N.; Azimirad, R.; Akhavan, O.; Moshfegh, A.Z.

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, the effect of gold nanocrystals on the electrochromical properties of sol-gel Au doped WO 3 thin films has been studied. The Au-WO 3 thin films were dip-coated on both glass and indium tin oxide coated conducting glass substrates with various gold concentrations of 0, 3.2 and 6.4 mol%. Optical properties of the samples were studied by UV-visible spectrophotometry in a range of 300-1100 nm. The optical density spectra of the films showed the formation of gold nanoparticles in the films. The optical bandgap energy of Au-WO 3 films decreased with increasing the Au concentration. Crystalline structure of the doped films was investigated by X-ray diffractometry, which indicated formation of gold nanocrystals in amorphous WO 3 thin films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to study the surface chemical composition of the samples. XPS analysis indicated the presence of gold in metallic state and the formation of stoichiometric WO 3 . The electrochromic properties of the Au-WO 3 samples were also characterized using lithium-based electrolyte. It was found that doping of Au nanocrystals in WO 3 thin films improved the coloration time of the layer. In addition, it was shown that variation of Au concentration led to color change in the colored state of the Au-WO 3 thin films.

  3. The Effects of Eccentric Contraction Duration on Muscle Strength, Power Production, Vertical Jump, and Soreness.

    Mike, Jonathan N; Cole, Nathan; Herrera, Chris; VanDusseldorp, Trisha; Kravitz, Len; Kerksick, Chad M

    2017-03-01

    Mike, JN, Cole, N, Herrera, C, VanDusseldorp, T, Kravitz, L, and Kerksick, CM. The effects of eccentric contraction duration on muscle strength, power production, vertical jump, and soreness. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 773-786, 2017-Previous research has investigated the effects of either eccentric-only training or comparing eccentric and concentric exercise on changes related to strength and power expression, but no research to date has investigated the impact of altering the duration of either the concentric or the eccentric component on these parameters. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the duration of eccentric (i.e., 2-second, 4-second vs. 6-second) muscle contractions and their effect on muscle strength, power production, vertical jump, and soreness using a plate-loaded barbell Smith squat exercise. Thirty college-aged men (23 ± 3.5 years, 178 ± 6.8 cm, 82 ± 12 kg, and 11.6 ± 5.1% fat) with 3.0 ± 1.0 years of resistance training experience and training frequency of 4.3 ± 0.9 days per week were randomized and assigned to 1 of 3 eccentric training groups that incorporated different patterns of contraction. For every repetition, all 3 groups used 2-second concentric contractions and paused for 1 second between the concentric and eccentric phases. The control group (2S) used 2-second eccentric contractions, whereas the 4S group performed 4-second eccentric contractions and the 6S group performed 6-second eccentric contractions. All repetitions were completed using the barbell Smith squat exercise. All participants completed a 4-week training protocol that required them to complete 2 workouts per week using their prescribed contraction routine for 4 sets of 6 repetitions at an intensity of 80-85% one repetition maximum (1RM). For all performance data, significant group × time (G × T) interaction effects were found for average power production across all 3 sets of a squat jump protocol (p = 0.04) while vertical jump did not reach

  4. Characterization of MAPLE deposited WO3 thin films for electrochromic applications

    Boyadjiev, S. I.; Stefan, N.; Szilágyi, I. M.; Mihailescu, N.; Visan, A.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Stan, G. E.; Besleaga, C.; Iliev, M. T.; Gesheva, K. A.

    2017-01-01

    Tungsten trioxide (WO3) is a widely studied material for electrochromic applications. The structure, morphology and optical properties of WO3 thin films, grown by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) from monoclinic WO3 nano-sized particles, were investigated for their possible application as electrochromic layers. A KrF* excimer (λ=248 nm, ζFWHM=25 ns) laser source was used in all experiments. The MAPLE deposited WO3 thin films were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Cyclic voltammetry measurements were also performed, and the coloring and bleaching were observed. The morpho-structural investigations disclosed the synthesis of single-phase monoclinic WO3 films consisting of crystalline nano-grains embedded in an amorphous matrix. All thin films showed good electrochromic properties, thus validating application of the MAPLE deposition technique for the further development of electrochromic devices.

  5. Characterization of MAPLE deposited WO3 thin films for electrochromic applications

    Boyadjiev, S I; Iliev, M T; Stefan, N; Mihailescu, N; Visan, A; Mihailescu, I N; Szilágyi, I M; Stan, G E; Besleaga, C; Gesheva, K A

    2017-01-01

    Tungsten trioxide (WO 3 ) is a widely studied material for electrochromic applications. The structure, morphology and optical properties of WO 3 thin films, grown by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) from monoclinic WO 3 nano-sized particles, were investigated for their possible application as electrochromic layers. A KrF* excimer (λ=248 nm, ζ FWHM =25 ns) laser source was used in all experiments. The MAPLE deposited WO 3 thin films were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Cyclic voltammetry measurements were also performed, and the coloring and bleaching were observed. The morpho-structural investigations disclosed the synthesis of single-phase monoclinic WO 3 films consisting of crystalline nano-grains embedded in an amorphous matrix. All thin films showed good electrochromic properties, thus validating application of the MAPLE deposition technique for the further development of electrochromic devices. (paper)

  6. Enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activity of WO3-surface modified TiO2 thin film

    Qamar, Mohammad; Drmosh, Qasem; Ahmed, Muhammad I.; Qamaruddin, Muhammad; Yamani, Zain H.

    2015-02-01

    Development of nanostructured photocatalysts for harnessing solar energy in energy-efficient and environmentally benign way remains an important area of research. Pure and WO3-surface modified thin films of TiO2 were prepared by magnetron sputtering on indium tin oxide glass, and photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activities of these films were studied. TiO2 particles were <50 nm, while deposited WO3 particles were <20 nm in size. An enhancement in the photocurrent was observed when the TiO2 surface was modified WO3 nanoparticles. Effect of potential, WO3 amount, and radiations of different wavelengths on the photoelectrochemical activity of TiO2 electrodes was investigated. Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 and WO3-modified TiO2 for the decolorization of methyl orange was tested.

  7. CW lasing of Ho in KLu(WO4)2 in-band pumped by a diode-pumped Tm:KLu(WO4)2 laser.

    Mateos, Xavier; Jambunathan, Venkatesan; Pujol, Maria Cinta; Carvajal, Joan Josep; Díaz, Francesc; Aguiló, Magdalena; Griebner, Uwe; Petrov, Valentin

    2010-09-27

    We demonstrate continuous wave (CW) room temperature laser operation of the monoclinic Ho(3+)-doped KLu(WO(4))(2) crystal using a diode-pumped Tm(3+):KLu(WO(4))(2) laser for in-band pumping. The slope efficiency achieved amounts to ~55% with respect to the absorbed power and the maximum output power of 648 mW is generated at 2078 nm.

  8. Enhancement of visible-light photocatalytic activity of silver and mesoporous carbon co-modified Bi2WO6

    Zhao, Qian; Gong, Ming; Liu, Wangping; Mao, Yulin; Le, Shukun; Ju, Shang; Long, Fei; Liu, Xiufang; Liu, Kai; Jiang, Tingshun

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silver and mesoporous carbon co-modified Bi 2 WO 6 (Ag/Bi 2 WO 6 /CMK-3) composite was prepared. • Photocatalytic activity of Bi 2 WO 6 was remarkably enhanced by co-modification of silver and mesoporous carbon. • The degradation rate of MB can reach ca. 95.1% under visible light irradiation. • The Ag/Bi 2 WO 6 /CMK-3 composite has good stability and potential application prospects. - Abstract: Ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-3 was prepared by hard template method using SBA-15 as template, sucrose as carbon source. Flower/sphere-like Bi 2 WO 6 and CMK-3/Bi 2 WO 6 photocatalysts were synthesized by hydrothermal method, and then Ag/Bi 2 WO 6 and Ag/Bi 2 WO 6 /CMK-3 composite photocatalysts were prepared via a photoreduction process. The samples were characterized by XRD, UV–vis, TEM (HR-TEM), SEM, N 2 physical adsorption and PL and their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. The results show that both incorporating of CMK-3 and Ag loading greatly improved the photocatalytic activity of Bi 2 WO 6 , and the content of CMK-3 and silver have an impact on the photocatalytic activity of Bi 2 WO 6 . The photocatalytic activity of Ag/Bi 2 WO 6 /CMK-3 photocatalyst is superior to the activities of CMK-3/Bi 2 WO 6 and Ag/Bi 2 WO 6 under comparable conditions, and Ag/Bi 2 WO 6 /CMK-3 photocatalyst has high stability and is easy to be recycled. Also, the mechanism for the enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of CMK-3 and Ag co-modified Bi 2 WO 6 was also investigated

  9. The enhanced alcohol-sensing response of ultrathin WO3 nanoplates

    Chen Deliang; Hou Xianxiang; Wen Hejing; Wang Yu; Wang Hailong; Zhang Rui; Lu Hongxia; Xu Hongliang; Guan Shaokang; Li Xinjian; Sun Jing; Gao Lian

    2010-01-01

    Chemical sensors based on semiconducting metal oxide nanocrystals are of academic and practical significance in industrial processing and environment-related applications. Novel alcohol response sensors using two-dimensional WO 3 nanoplates as active elements have been investigated in this paper. Single-crystalline WO 3 nanoplates were synthesized through a topochemical approach on the basis of intercalation chemistry (Chen et al 2008 Small 4 1813). The as-obtained WO 3 nanoplate pastes were coated on the surface of an Al 2 O 3 ceramic microtube with four Pt electrodes to measure their alcohol-sensing properties. The results show that the WO 3 nanoplate sensors are highly sensitive to alcohols (e.g., methanol, ethanol, isopropanol and butanol) at moderate operating temperatures (260-360 deg. C). For butanol, the WO 3 nanoplate sensors have a sensitivity of 31 at 2 ppm and 161 at 100 ppm, operating at 300 deg. C. For other alcohols, WO 3 nanoplate sensors also show high sensitivities: 33 for methanol at 300 ppm, 70 for ethanol at 200 ppm, and 75 for isopropanol at 200 ppm. The response and recovery times of the WO 3 nanoplate sensors are less than 15 s for all the test alcohols. A good linear relationship between the sensitivity and alcohol concentrations has been observed in the range of 2-300 ppm, whereas the WO 3 nanoparticle sensors have not shown such a linear relationship. The sensitivities of the WO 3 nanoplate sensors decrease and their response times become short when the operating temperatures increase. The enhanced alcohol-sensing performance could be attributed to the ultrathin platelike morphology, the high crystallinity and the loosely assembling structure of the WO 3 nanoplates, due to the advantages of the effective adsorption and rapid diffusion of the alcohol molecules.

  10. Positron lifetime measurements and positron-annihilation induced auger electron spectroscpy using slow positron beams; Teisoku yodenshi bimu wo mochiita yodenshi jumyo sokutei oyobi yodenshi shometsu reiki oje denshi bunko

    Suzuki, R. [Electrotechnical Lab., Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-02-20

    Slow positron beam with less than several eV can be controlled freely such as accelerating, throttling the beam size, shortening the pulse or making pulse with short time width and so forth. These low positron beams are applied to various measurements like Doppler broadening measurement of annihilation {gamma} rays or lifetime measurement of positron, and secondary particle measurements using positron microscope, positron electron ray diffraction, flight time method and so forth. In particular, these recent years, high intensity slow positron beams were possible using accelerators like electron linac and its application is increasing. In this report, pulse shortening method for high intensity slow positron beam, and incidence energy variable positron lifetime measurement method using this slow pulsed beam and flight time type positron-annihilation-induced auger electron spectroscopy are outlined. In future, these measurements can be possible to carry out with high resolution and also with high counting rate if higher intensity monochromatic excellent positron beam than present one is produced. 31 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Fiscal 1999 research report. Japan-U.S. comparative research on energy technology transfer and innovative industry support; 1999 nendo energy gijutsu wo chushinto shita gijutsu iten oyobi shinki sangyo ikusei no Nichibei hikaku ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Japan-U.S. comparative research was made on technology transfer and innovative industry support. The U.S. industry is greatly benefited by universities, which is consequently strengthening the international competitiveness of the U.S. economy. However, the partnerships between private firms and universities have no fixed pattern, and keep changing dynamically. Business incubators increased to 627 rapidly, and mainly supported by municipal governments and universities. The U.S. has a well-established mechanism of technology transfer, and has succeeded in many cases. Not only universities but also national laboratories commit to technology transfer to venture businesses, and after starting businesses, entrepreneurs can use various hedging systems which are expected to play a role promoting the future technology innovation. The U.S. also has many advanced areas for sustainable technology innovation, like Silicon Valley, and these areas contain many supporting bodies to help new businesses. The activity of these bodies is very suggestive to Japanese local platforms promoting technology innovation and new local industry creation. Study was also made on the possibility of technology exchanges with overseas advanced areas. (NEDO)

  12. One-pot synthesis of hybrid gel by use of tributylstannyl ester of polymeric silicic acid, chlorosilane and organic monomer; Keisan no toribuchiru sutanniru esuteru kobuntai, kuroroshiran oyobi yuki monoma wo mochiita haiburiddo geru no ichidankai gosei

    Moriya, O. [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry; Sugisaki, T. [Lintec Co. Ltd., Saitama (Japan); Tomono, M.; Oikawa, M.; Kageyama, T. [Kanto-Gakuin Univ., Kanagawa (Japan)

    1999-12-10

    Organic-inorganic hybrid gels were obtained efficiently by one-pot procedure from tributylstannyl ester of polymeric silicic acid (PTBS), chloro (3-methacryloyloxypropyl) dimethylsilane (1a), and common monomers such as styrene, acrylonitrile, and methyl methacrylate. In the reaction system, substitution of tributylstannyl groups of PTBS by silyl groups of 1a and copolymerization of methacryloyloxy group of 1a with a monomer proceeded simultaneously under UV irradiation at room temperature. The resulting gel should be consisted of covalently bonded three components an regarded as a nanocomposite material The use of another chlorosilane 1b, which had cyanopropyl group, with 1a led to formation of a multifunctional hybrid gel. (author)

  13. Survey on the present situation and future outlook of energy/environment issues mainly on coal in the APEC region; APEC ikinai no sekitan wo chushin to suru energy kankyo mondai no genjo oyobi kongo no mitoshi ni kansuru chosa

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    For the purpose of studying the energy supply/demand trend and the environmental problem relating mainly to coal in the APEC region, the paper surveyed the situation from the past to the present and outlooked the beginning of the 21st century. GDP in the whole APEC region increased at an annual rate of 3.4% from 1971 to 1991 and made a rapid growth of an annual rate over 7% especially in the non-OECD region. The supply/demand balance of coal, etc. in the non-OECD region is expected to be tight, and the energy price also to be higher. This will be a major factor causing hindrance to the economic growth of resource-importing countries. It is necessary to prepare the energy infrastructure. With the increasing coal utilization, it is feared that pollutants such as SOx, NOx and CO2 will increase, and it is necessary to introduce energy utilization technology/facilities which are high-efficient and environment-friendly and to expedite introduction of non-fossil energy. The APEC region, where the worldwide growth is expected, is a priming for the world development, and a policy which is well balanced in economic growth, stabilized energy supply, and environmental protection is needed for the region to achieve its sustainable growth. 50 figs., 24 tabs.

  14. Analysis of the behavior of orthogonal-core-type push-pull parametric transformer with iron and copper losses. Tetsuson oyobi doson wo koryoshita chokko jishinkei push pull parametric hen prime atsuki no dosa kaiseki

    Tajima, K; Anazawa, Y; Kaga, A [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Mining College; Ichinokura, O [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1991-04-30

    This paper reports on a precise numerical analysis of operating characteristics of the push-pull parametric transformer of orthogonal-core type (proposed by the authors in the preceding papers) made in consideration of both the iron loss of its magnetic core and the copper loss of its windings. A model of magnetic circuit in the core is presented, which involves magnetic reluctances representing saturation characteristics of the core and magnetic inductances representing effects produced by hysteresis. Use is made of the function that expresses the saturation characteristics by a twenty-first power series of magnetic flux, the coefficient of each term being determined by use of experimental data on a specified sample of the magnetic core. Furthermore, recourse is had to the circuit simulator SPICE in order to analyze the operating characteristics of the transformer. Comparing results of the present analysis with experimental results, the following are noted: first, both output voltages and currents of windings of the transformer under the condition of parametric oscillation are calculated with sufficient accuracy; second, the present analysis is capable of evaluating the conversion efficiency of electric power and input power factor of the transformer, and of providing more accurate values of both voltage and current in the case of the maximum output under loading conditions as compared with the analyses so far presented. 8 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Development of free running differential. Development of differential with an actuator and a clutch which disconnects the traction; Free running defu no kaihatsu. Kirippanashi kiko oyobi actuator wo naizoshita differential sochi no kaihatsu

    Yamazaki, N; Teraoka, M; Ishikawa, O; Nagaoka, T; Ugajin, K [Tochigi Fuji Sangyo Co. Ltd., Tochigi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Free Running Differential has an effect on fuel economy and noise reduction from drive line for four wheel drive vehicle. It has an actuator and a clutch which disconnects the traction from no driving side tire when two wheel drive is selected. this unit can be installed in conventional differential carrier with no design change. It is compact in design and low in cost. We evaluate it as having a dominant position among any other Free running system. 7 figs.

  16. Design and construction of radiant panel for cooling and heating with photovoltaic and thermoelectric element modules; Taiyo denchi to netsuden soshi module wo mochiita fukusha reidanbo panel no sekkei oyobi shisaku

    Sato, M; Tani, T [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Kadotani, K; Imaizumi, H [Komatsu Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Utilizing cooling properties and current voltage characteristics of a small cooling panel using thermoelectric elements which had been fabricated previously on a trial basis, design and prototype production were executed on a large radiant cooling and heating panel driven by photovoltaic cell modules. The panel design set the cooling area to about 0.5 m {sup 2} and the number of elements to 70 pieces, and optimum number of elements in series and parallel connection was derived. As a result of the analysis, it was made clear that the optimum number of thermoelectric module arrays in series and parallel connection varies depending on insolation intensity. It was found preferable that the number of parallel connection array be set to one to two in a region or time period in which low insolation intensity is distributed in greater amount. In the case where high insolation intensity is distributed in a greater amount, setting it to two to three is preferable. By using the structured design method and the HASP Tokyo data, thermoelectric element modules were interconnected with 35 modules in series and two in parallel on a cooling panel installed on the roof of the Science University of Tokyo. A simulation result revealed that the average temperature difference on the cooled surface in summer is 4.37 degC, and the solar cell utilization rate is 0.67. It is necessary in the future to improve heat dissipation efficiency and area ratio. 1 ref., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. ECOLO-HOUSE in the heavy snow-fall region. Ground-water and wasted-wood become resources by utilizing storage-tank; Yukiguni ECOLO-HOUSE. Chikunetsuso wo riyoshita chikasui oyobi mokushitsu gomi no shigenka

    Umemiya, H; Fukumuro, S [Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    This paper reports living comfort in summer by operating a groundwater utilization system using a hot water storage tank and a floor air conditioning system. The groundwater utilization system is a system for room cooling by using groundwater and for supplying water for living use. The system operates as follows: groundwater is passed through a coil-type heat exchanger having pipes each 100 m long laid in parallel for a total length of 200 m, the heat exchanger being installed in a hot water storage tank; the water is used to cool water in the storage tank in summer; and the water is warmed up in the storage tank in winter, further heated by an oil boiler to be used as hot water for cooking and bathing. In the floor air conditioning system, cold water in the water storage tank (warm water in winter) is pumped up by a circulation pump, and passed through the floor air conditioning circuit having a pipe with a total length of 400 m at a flow rate of 14 liters per minute. The system is of a closed circuit in which the water is re-heated by a wood burning boiler in winter and returned to the hot water storage tank. The amount of supplied cold heat from groundwater to the hot water tank obtained on a daily average is 90W. About 20% of the monthly cumulative cold heat amount dissipated from the floor circuit is the monthly cumulative cold heat amount supplied from the groundwater circuit to the hot water storage tank. 1 ref., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Calculation of heat balance considering the reflection, refraction of incident ray and salt diffusion on solar pad; Hikari no hansha kussetsu oyobi shio no kakusan wo koryoshita solar pond no netsukeisan

    Kanayama, K; Li, X; Baba, H; Endo, N [Kitami Institute of Technology, (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    In calculating heat balance of solar pond, calculation was made considering things except quality of the incident ray and physical properties of pond water which were conventionally considered. The real optical path length was determined from the reflection ratio of ray on the water surface based on the refraction ratio of pond water and the locus of water transmitted ray in order to calculate a total transmission rate. The rate of absorption of monochromatic lights composing of solar light in their going through the media is different by wavelength, and therefore, calculation was made in each monochromatic light. As to four kinds of salt water solution, NaCl, KCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2, these phenomena seen in solar pond are taken in, and a total transmission rate based on reality can be calculated by the wavelength integration method. Moreover, in the salt gradient layer, there are gradients in both concentration and temperature, and thermal physical values of each layer change. Accordingly, mass transfer and thermal transfer by both gradients were considered at the same time. An analytic solution was introduced which analyzes salt diffusion in the temperature field in the gradient layer and determines the concentration distribution. By these, concentration and physical values of each layer were calculated according to phenomena, and thermal balance of each layer of the solar pond was able to be accurately calculated. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. In-situ testing of the liquefaction potential of soft ground using an s-wave vibrator and seismic cones. Part 1. System, concept and preliminary test result; S ha vibrator oyobi seismic cone wo mochiita gen`ichi jiban ekijoka potential no hyoka. 1. System kosei oyobi genchi yosatsu keisoku kekka

    Inazaki, T [Public Works Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    For the purpose of evaluating liquefaction in situ, it was proposed that an S-wave vibrator designed to serve as a source in a reflection exploration method be utilized as a strong vibration generating source, and measurement was conducted in this connection. Equipment used in this test included an S-wave vibrator, static cone penetration machine, and various measuring cones. A multiplicity of measuring cones had been inserted beforehand into the target layers and comparison layers, and changes upon vibrator activation were measured. On a dry bed of the Tonegawa river, a 40m{sup 2} field was set up, and 41 cone penetration tests were conducted, with the cones positioned zigzag at 5m intervals. In this way, the ground structure was disclosed from the surface to the 10m-deep level. For the measurement, 3-component cones and seismic cones were placed at prescribed depths, and fluctuations and waveforms presented by pore water pressure at each level were determined with the vibration source changing its place. It was found that the changes in the pore water pressure exposed to vibration assume characteristic patterns corresponding to the conditions of vibration application. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Consideration on the dynamic behavior and the structural design of large scale floating structure. 2nd Report. Stability of elastic structure and design of elastic response; Choogata futai no kozo kyodo oyobi kozo sekkei ni kansuru kosatsu. 2. Dansei henkei wo koryoshita fukugensei oyobi kozo oto no sekkei

    Suzuki, H.; Yoshida, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    A policy of improving a very large floating body was planned based on its dynamic characteristics, and a proposal was made thereon. Furthermore, discussions were given on stability that considers effect of elastic deformation required when a structure is mounted on a floating body. With respect to a structural design of a very large floating body in which elastic response is governing, and upon modeling the very large floating body into an aeolotropic plate on an elastic supporting floor, it was shown that the existing range of natural vibration speed in the elastic response is in higher range than the natural vibration speed of heave. It was also indicated that the peak height of response to waves in resonance is inversely proportional to wave frequency, and furthermore, degree of flowing in of vibration energy during the resonance is determined by an inner product of spatial vibration patterns of wave force and the excited mode shape. A proposal was made on a floating body improved of excessive response in the floating body edges by changing the characteristics of the floating body edges. In addition, discussions were given on stability that considers elastic deformation of a floating body that becomes necessary when a structure, such as a building, is built on a very large floating body. 9 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Consideration on the dynamic behavior and the structural design of large scale floating structure. 2nd Report. Stability of elastic structure and design of elastic response; Choogata futai no kozo kyodo oyobi kozo sekkei ni kansuru kosatsu. 2. Dansei henkei wo koryoshita fukugensei oyobi kozo oto no sekkei

    Suzuki, H; Yoshida, K [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    A policy of improving a very large floating body was planned based on its dynamic characteristics, and a proposal was made thereon. Furthermore, discussions were given on stability that considers effect of elastic deformation required when a structure is mounted on a floating body. With respect to a structural design of a very large floating body in which elastic response is governing, and upon modeling the very large floating body into an aeolotropic plate on an elastic supporting floor, it was shown that the existing range of natural vibration speed in the elastic response is in higher range than the natural vibration speed of heave. It was also indicated that the peak height of response to waves in resonance is inversely proportional to wave frequency, and furthermore, degree of flowing in of vibration energy during the resonance is determined by an inner product of spatial vibration patterns of wave force and the excited mode shape. A proposal was made on a floating body improved of excessive response in the floating body edges by changing the characteristics of the floating body edges. In addition, discussions were given on stability that considers elastic deformation of a floating body that becomes necessary when a structure, such as a building, is built on a very large floating body. 9 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Blood flow after contraction and cuff occlusion is reduced in subjects with muscle soreness after eccentric exercise

    Souza-Silva, Eduardo; Wittrup Christensen, Steffan; Hirata, Rogerio Pessoto

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) occur within 1-2 days after eccentric exercise but the mechanism mediating hypersensitivity is unclear. This study hypothesized that eccentric exercise reduces the blood flow response following muscle contractions and cuff occlusion, which may result ...

  3. The posterior thigh flap for defect coverage of ischial pressure sores - a critical single-centre analysis.

    Djedovic, Gabriel; Morandi, Evi M; Metzler, Julia; Wirthmann, Anna; Matiasek, Johannes; Bauer, Thomas; Rieger, Ulrich M

    2017-12-01

    The development of pressure sores is still not only an enormous economical but also a medical burden. Especially in the ischial region, the local defect coverage remains demanding as it is the main weight-bearing area in wheelchair-mobilised patients and is prone to high mobility. The purpose of our study was to report our long-time experience with the reconstruction of ischial pressure ulcers with the medially based posterior thigh flap. A retrospective analysis of all primary pressure sores grade III-IV in the ischial area, which were covered with a medially based posterior thigh flap between January 2008 and December 2014, at our department was conducted. A total of 28 patients underwent defect coverage of an ischial pressure sore with the aforementioned flap. The subgroup with complications showed a statistically significant longer hospital stay. A statistically significant correlation between age and the coincidence of comorbidities could be seen. Older patients showed significantly higher grades of pressure sores. The medially based posterior thigh flap is a safe and reliable flap design. Complication rates are comparable to other flaps. Nevertheless, in case of complications, a significantly longer duration of hospitalisation has to be taken into account. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Penicillin for acute sore throat : randomised double blind trial of seven days versus three days treatment or placebo in adults

    Zwart, S; Sachs, APE; Ruijs, GJHM; Gubbels, JW; Hoes, AW; de Melker, RA

    2000-01-01

    Objective To assess whether treatment with penicillin for three days and the traditional treatment for seven days were equally as effective at accelerating resolution of symptoms in patients with sore throat compared with placebo. Design Randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. Setting 43

  5. How social media meet patients’ questions: YouTube™ review for mouth sores in children.

    Di Stasio, D; Romano, A; Paparella, R S; Gentile, C; Serpico, R; Minervini, G; Candotto, V; Laino, L

    2018-01-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is one of the most common causes of mouth sores in children so the management of this condition is a matter of great importance. YouTube™ is increasingly being used by patients to obtain health-related information. The aim of this work is to examine the quality of information offered by YouTube™ about mouth sores in children (MSC). Searching the term ‘mouth sores in children’, (MSC) displayed 12.300 results. Of the top 60 videos analyzed, 31 were excluded following exclusion criteria. The major source of upload was from healthcare information channels (HC-41,38%), followed by individual users (HP-25.59%), healthcare professionals (IU-17.24%) and generalist information channels (HC-13.78%); 20.69% of them deal with predisposing factors, and related pathologies, the majority of these propose home remedies (60.72%) rather than topical analgesic drugs (21.43%), antimicrobials (7.14%) and topical steroids (3.57). Most of the videos analyzed were slightly useful (68.97%). Information about mouth sores in children on YouTube™ was poor regardless of the upload source. Analyzing health content on social platforms is a starting point for providing greater quality of health-related information.

  6. Randomized clinical study comparing Compeed (R) cold sore patch to acyclovir cream 5% in the treatment of herpes simplex labialis

    Karlsmark, T.; Goodman, J.J.; Drouault, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Background Hydrocolloid technology has been proven effective in treating dermal wounds. A previous study showed that a newly developed thin hydrocolloid patch [Compeed (R) cold sore patch (CSP)] provided multiple wound-healing benefits across all stages of a herpes simplex labialis (HSL) outbreak...

  7. Porous three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide merged with WO3 for efficient removal of radioactive strontium

    Mu, Wanjun; Yu, Qianghong; Hu, rui; Li, Xingliang; Wei, Hongyuan; Jian, Yuan

    2017-11-01

    A simple hydrothermal method was used to prepare 3D nanostructured composite adsorbents of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and WO3 (RGO/WO3). The analysis results suggest that it possesses a mesoporous 3D structure, in which WO3 nanorods are uniformly loaded on the surface of the RGO. Combining the benefits of GO and WO3, the composites exhibit a higher adsorption capacity for removing Sr2+ from aqueous solutions over a wide pH range (4-11). Adsorption isotherms show that the data fit the Langmuir isotherms well (R > 0.99), and the maximum adsorption capacity of 149.56 mg g-1 was achieved, much higher than that for GO, WO3 and other similar adsorbents. Sr2+ adsorption on RGO/WO3 reached equilibrium within 200 min. The fast adsorption and high adsorption rate of RGO/WO3 are mostly attributable to the plentiful adsorption sites provided by the dispersed WO3 nanoparticles on the RGO surface. Furthermore, the existence of Na+ ions has no obvious effect on the removal of Sr2+ ions by RGO/WO3, and RGO/WO3 adsorbent can be repeated at least 5 times without significant loss of adsorption capacity by adsorption-desorption experiment. Thus, RGO/WO3 shows the potential ability for removal of 90Sr from radioactive wastewater.

  8. Subsolidus Phase Relations of the CaO-WO3-CuO System at 800 °C in Air

    Grivel, J. -C.

    2012-01-01

    The subsolidus phase relations of the CaO-WO3-CuO system were investigated in air. The samples were equilibrated at 800 degrees C. Under these conditions, five binary oxide phases are stable: Ca2CuO3, Cu3WO6, CuWO4, CaWO4 and Ca3WO6. The pseudo-ternary section is characterised by 6 three...

  9. Urban sores. On the interaction between segregation, urban decay and deprived neighbourhoods

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    Most European countries have experienced special problems that have emerged in certain more or less well-defined parts of cities called de-prived or depressed urban neighbourhoods. These problems were initially found in the oldest urban areas with the lowest quality housing. Since the beginning...... of the 1980s, however, in Europe they have also emerged in newer social housing estates outside city centres. These neighbourhoods display visible physical and social problems that can disfigure the perhaps otherwise attractive urban landscape. They could in severe cases even be termed sores on the face...... of the city. They are often perceived by the public as places that are not inhabited or frequented by decent people – they are seen as ‘places of exclusion’. The purpose of this book is to contribute to a deeper understanding of why such neighbourhoods come to exist and the impacts they have on cities. Urban...

  10. Computed tomography of pressure sores, pelvic abscess, and osteomyelitis in patients with spinal cord injury

    Firooznia, H.; Rafii, M.; Golimbu, C.; Lam, S.; Sokolow, J.; Kung, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    Nine patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and large pressure ulcers and other possible complications, were evaluated by computed tomography (CT), conventional radiography, tomography, bone scanning, gallium scanning, and sonography. CT revealed the depth, extent, and relationship of the ulcer-bed to the underlying structures in all 9 patients. CT also positively identified unsuspected intra- and extra-pelvic abscess and pelvic osteomyelitis in 4 patients each. Other modalities identified only 2 of these complications. We believe CT is the modality of choice for evaluation of these complications in SCI patients, because of its superior ability in evaluation of pressure sores and detection of pathologic changes in soft tissue and bone in the pelvic region

  11. Development of Marjolin's ulcer following successful surgical treatment of chronic sacral pressure sore

    Knudsen, M.A.; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2008-01-01

    of surgical excision and successful closure of the wound, the patient developed Marjolin's ulcer 2.5 years later. Yet it illustrates the primary importance of preventing the development pressure sores, of aggressive (surgical) therapy with healing when they do arise and of taking frequent biopsies......STUDY DESIGN: Case report. OBJECTIVE: Report of an unusual case, where a Marjolin's ulcer that developed 2.5 years after surgical excision and successful closure. SETTING: Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Burn Unit and the Clinic for Spinal Cord Injuries, Copenhagen University...... Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 22-year-old man sustained a fracture with luxation of the 5th and 6th cervical vertebrae and loss of sensory and motor function after a diving accident (complete C8 lesion). During initial hospitalization, he developed a sacral ulcer...

  12. Ag loaded WO_3 nanoplates for efficient photocatalytic degradation of sulfanilamide and their bactericidal effect under visible light irradiation

    Zhu, Wenyu; Liu, Jincheng; Yu, Shuyan; Zhou, Yan; Yan, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • WO_3/Ag heterogeneous composites were fabricated with simply photo-reduction method. • Property changes due to Ag loading were systematically studied. • WO_3/Ag composites efficiently degraded sulfanilamide under visible light irradiation. • WO_3/Ag composites exhibited bactericidal effectS under visible light irradiation. - Abstract: Sulfonamides (SAs) are extensively used antibiotics and their residues in the water bodies propose potential threat to the public. In this study, degradation efficiency of sulfanilamide (SAM), which is the precursor of SAs, using WO_3 nanoplates and their Ag heterogeneous as photocatalysts was investigated. WO_3 nanoplates with uniform size were synthesized by a facile one step hydrothermal method. Different amount of Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were loaded onto WO_3 nanoplates using a photo-reduction method to generate WO_3/Ag composites. The physio-chemical properties of synthesized nanomaterials were systematically characterized. Photodegradation of SAM by WO_3 and WO_3/Ag composites was conducted under visible light irradiation. The results show that WO_3/Ag composites performed much better than pure WO_3 where the highest removal rate was 96.2% in 5 h. Ag as excellent antibacterial agent also endows certain antibacterial efficiency to WO_3, and 100% removal efficiency against Escherichia Coli and Bacillus subtilis could be achieved in 2 h under visible light irradiation for all three WO_3/Ag composites synthesized. The improved performance in terms of SAM degradation and antibacterial activity of WO_3/Ag can be attributed to the improved electron-hole pair separation rate where Ag NPs act as effective electron trapper during the photocatalytic process.

  13. The Use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Planning a Pedicled Perforator Flap for Pressure Sores in the Gluteal Region.

    Park, Sun-June; Lee, Kyeong-Tae; Jeon, Byung-Joon; Woo, Kyong-Je

    2018-04-01

    Pedicled perforator flaps (PPFs) have been widely used to treat pressure sores in the gluteal region. Selection of a reliable perforator is crucial for successful surgical treatment of pressure sores using PPFs. In this study, we evaluate the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in planning PPF reconstruction of pressure sores in the gluteal region. A retrospective chart review was performed in patients who had undergone these PPF reconstructions and who had received preoperative MRI. Preoperatively, the extent of infection and necrotic tissue was evaluated using MRI, and a reliable perforator was identified, considering the perforator location in relation to the defect, perforator size, and perforator courses. Intraoperatively, the targeted perforator was marked on the skin at the locations measured on the MRI images, and the marked location was confirmed using intraoperative handheld Doppler. Superior gluteal artery, inferior gluteal artery, or parasacral perforators were used for the PPFs. Surgical outcomes were evaluated. A total of 12 PPFs were performed in 12 patients. Superior gluteal artery perforator flaps were performed in 7 patients, inferior gluteal artery perforator flaps were performed in 3 patients, and parasacral perforator flaps were performed in 2 patients. We could identify a reliable perforator on MRI, and it was found at the predicted locations in all cases. There was only one case of partial flap necrosis. There was no recurrence of the pressure sores during the mean follow-up period of 6.7 months (range = 3-15 months). In selected patients with gluteal pressure sores, MRI is a suitable means for not only providing information about disease extent and comorbidities but also for evaluating perforators for PPF reconstructions.

  14. Negative thermal expansion in Sc2(WO4)3

    Evans, J.S.O.; Mary, T.A.; Sleight, A.W.

    1998-01-01

    Sc 2 (WO 4 ) 3 has been found to show the highly unusual property of negative thermal expansion over a temperature range of 10 to 1,073 K. Powder neutron diffraction data from 10 to 450 K shows an essentially linear decrease in cell volume as a function of temperature. The intrinsic linear coefficient of thermal expansion from this data is -2.2 x 10 -6 K -1 . The linear coefficient of thermal expansion measured on a ceramic bar of Sc 2 (WO 4 ) 3 can be as negative as -11 x 10 -6 K -1 due to microstructure changes as a function of temperature. Rietveld refinement as a function of temperature suggests that the intrinsic negative thermal expansion can be related to transverse vibrations of bridging oxygen atoms in the structure. The anharmonic nature of these vibrations leads to a coupled tilting of the quasi-rigid framework polyhedra. This tilting in turn causes the structure to become more dense with increasing temperature

  15. Comparison of the Characteristics and Performance of Flurbiprofen 8.75 mg Spray for Sore Throat.

    Veale, David; Shephard, Adrian; Adams, Verity; Lidster, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Sore throat sprays provide targeted relief by delivering the active ingredient directly to the site of pain. Different sprays vary in characteristics, thus affecting delivery of the active ingredient to the throat, which can impact compliance. The characteristics and performance of FLURBIPROFEN 8.75 mg SPRAY were compared with 12 other sprays. Parameters assessed included spray angle and pattern, droplet size distribution, shot weight uniformity and shot weight throughout life. Among all sprays tested WICK Sulagil Halsspray had the smallest spray angle (46°) and also the smallest diameter spray pattern (X=32.8 mm; Y=34.4 mm). Thiovalone® Buccal Spray Suspension had both the largest spray angle (82°) and largest diameter spray pattern (X=62.6 mm; Y=78.0 mm). Hasco Sept® Aerosol Spray had the smallest droplet size (Dv90=118.4 μm) whereas OKi infiammazione e dolore® 0.16% spray had the largest (Dv90=214.34 μm). In terms of shot weight uniformity, TANTUM® VERDE GOLA 0.25% spray showed the least variation (2% RSD) between shots and UNIBEN Aerosol Spray the most (23.4% RSD). Shot weight throughout life studies showed that FLURBIPROFEN 8.75 mg SPRAY had the least deviation from shot weight (1.77%) whereas OKi infiammazione e dolore® 0.16% spray deviated the most (44.9%). FLURBIPROFEN 8.75 mg SPRAY had the second smallest spray angle/pattern and droplet size distribution and also the least variation in shot weight. Different sore throat sprays vary in different attributes, affecting delivery of the active ingredient. FLURBIPROFEN 8.75 mg SPRAY performed well overall, ranking first among all sprays tested, and providing a dose which is targeted and uniformly delivered throughout the life of the bottle. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Foam Rolling for Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness and Recovery of Dynamic Performance Measures

    Pearcey, Gregory E. P.; Bradbury-Squires, David J.; Kawamoto, Jon-Erik; Drinkwater, Eric J.; Behm, David G.; Button, Duane C.

    2015-01-01

    Context: After an intense bout of exercise, foam rolling is thought to alleviate muscle fatigue and soreness (ie, delayed-onset muscle soreness [DOMS]) and improve muscular performance. Potentially, foam rolling may be an effective therapeutic modality to reduce DOMS while enhancing the recovery of muscular performance. Objective: To examine the effects of foam rolling as a recovery tool after an intense exercise protocol through assessment of pressure-pain threshold, sprint time, change-of-direction speed, power, and dynamic strength-endurance. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: University laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 8 healthy, physically active males (age = 22.1 ± 2.5 years, height = 177.0 ± 7.5 cm, mass = 88.4 ± 11.4 kg) participated. Intervention(s): Participants performed 2 conditions, separated by 4 weeks, involving 10 sets of 10 repetitions of back squats at 60% of their 1-repetition maximum, followed by either no foam rolling or 20 minutes of foam rolling immediately, 24, and 48 hours postexercise. Main Outcome Measure(s): Pressure-pain threshold, sprint speed (30-m sprint time), power (broad-jump distance), change-of-direction speed (T-test), and dynamic strength-endurance. Results: Foam rolling substantially improved quadriceps muscle tenderness by a moderate to large amount in the days after fatigue (Cohen d range, 0.59 to 0.84). Substantial effects ranged from small to large in sprint time (Cohen d range, 0.68 to 0.77), power (Cohen d range, 0.48 to 0.87), and dynamic strength-endurance (Cohen d = 0.54). Conclusions: Foam rolling effectively reduced DOMS and associated decrements in most dynamic performance measures. PMID:25415413

  17. Effects of acupuncture on symptoms and muscle function in delayed-onset muscle soreness.

    Hübscher, Markus; Vogt, Lutz; Bernhörster, Marcus; Rosenhagen, Andreas; Banzer, Winfried

    2008-10-01

    This study was done to investigate the effects of a standardized acupuncture treatment on symptoms and muscle function in exercise-induced delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). A prospective, randomized, controlled, observer and subject-blinded trial was undertaken. Twenty-two (22) healthy subjects (22-30 years; 10 males and 12 females) were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: real acupuncture (deep needling at classic acupuncture points and tender points; n = 7), sham-acupuncture (superficial needling at nonacupuncture points; n = 8), and control (no needling; n = 7). DOMS of the nondominant elbow-flexors was experimentally induced through eccentric contractions until exhaustion. The outcome measures were pain perception (visual analogue scale; VAS; range: 0-10 cm), mechanical pain threshold (MPT; pressure algometer), and maximum isometric voluntary force (MIVF; force transducer). Treatment was applied immediately, 24 and 48 hours after DOMS induction. Measurements of MPT and MIVF were made prior to DOMS induction as well as before and after every treatment session. VAS data were acquired after DOMS induction as well as pre- and post-treatment. Final pain, MPT, and MIVF measurements were performed 72 hours after DOMS induction. Following nonparametric testing, there were no significant differences between groups in outcome measures at baseline. After 72 hours, pain perception (VAS) was significantly lower in the acupuncture group compared to the sham acupuncture and control subjects. However, the mean MPT and MIVF scores were not significantly different between groups. Although acupuncture seemed to have no effects on mechanical pain threshold and muscle function, it proved to reduce perceived pain arising from exercise-induced muscle soreness.

  18. Investigation of the optical property and structure of WO3 thin films with different sputtering depositions

    Chen, Hsi-Chao; Jan, Der-Jun; Chen, Chien-Han; Huang, Kuo-Ting; Lo, Yen-Ming; Chen, Sheng-Hui

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare the optical properties and structure of tungsten oxide (WO3) thin films that was deposited by different sputtering depositions. WO3 thin films deposited by two different depositions of direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering and pulsed DC sputtering. A 99.95% WO3 target was used as the starting material for these depositions. These WO3 thin films were deposited on the ITO glass, PET and silicon substrate by different ratios of oxygen and argon. A shadow moiré interferometer would be introduced to measure the residual stress for PET substrate. RF magnetron sputtering had the large residual stress than the other's depositions. A Raman spectrum could exhibit the phase of oxidation of WO3 thin film by different depositions. At the ratio of oxygen and argon was about 1:1, and the WO3 thin films had the best oxidation. However, it was important at the change of the transmittance (ΔT = Tbleached - Tcolored) between the coloring and bleaching for the smart window. Therefore, we also found the WO3 thin films had the large variation of transmittance between the coloring and bleaching at the gas ratios of oxygen and argon of 1:1.

  19. Low-temperature molten salt synthesis and characterization of CoWO4 nano-particles

    Song Zuwei; Ma Junfeng; Sun Huyuan; Sun Yong; Fang Jingrui; Liu Zhengsen; Gao Chang; Liu Ye; Zhao Jingang

    2009-01-01

    CoWO 4 nano-particles were successfully synthesized at a low temperature of 270 deg. C by a molten salt method, and effects of such processing parameters as holding time and salt quantity on the crystallization and development of CoWO 4 crystallites were initially studied. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and photoluminescent spectra techniques (PL), respectively. Experimental results showed that the well-crystallized CoWO 4 nano-particles with ca. 45 nm in diameter could be obtained at 270 deg. C for a holding time of 8 h with 6:1 mass ratio of the salt to CoWO 4 precursor, and XRD analysis evidenced that the as-prepared sample was a pure monoclinic phase of CoWO 4 with wolframite structure. Their PL spectra revealed that the CoWO 4 nano-particles displayed a very strong PL peak at 453 nm with the excitation wavelength of 230 nm, and PL properties of CoWO 4 crystallites relied on their crystalline state, especially on their particle size.

  20. Gas sensing properties of graphene–WO3 composites prepared by hydrothermal method

    Chu, Xiangfeng; Hu, Tao; Gao, Feng; Dong, Yongping; Sun, Wenqi; Bai, Linshan

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The amount of graphene had an effect on the morphology of graphene–WO 3 composites. • The optimum temperature of 0.1 wt% graphene–WO 3 sensor to acetaldehyde was 100 °C. • 0.1 wt% graphene–WO 3 sensor exhibited good selectivity to acetaldehyde at 100 °C. - Abstract: Graphene–WO 3 composites mixed with different amounts of graphene (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 3 wt%) were prepared by hydrothermal method at 180 °C for 24 h. The as-prepared graphite oxide, graphene and graphene–WO 3 composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The effect of the amount of graphene in the composites on the gas-sensing responses and the gas-sensing selectivity of the materials was investigated. The experimental results revealed that the sensor based on 0.1 wt% graphene–WO 3 composite exhibited high response and good selectivity to acetaldehyde vapor at 100 °C, the optimum operating temperature of this sensor to 1000 ppm acetaldehyde vapor decreased from 180 °C to 100 °C comparing with that of pure WO 3 . The response time and the recovery time for 100 ppm acetaldehyde vapor were 250 s and 225 s, respectively

  1. Tungsten oxide (WO3) thin films for application in advanced energy systems

    Gullapalli, S. K.; Vemuri, R. S.; Manciu, F. S.; Enriquez, J. L.; Ramana, C. V.

    2010-01-01

    Inherent processes in coal gasification plants produce hazardous hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), which must be continuously and efficiently detected and removed before the fuel is used for power generation. An attempt has been made in this work to fabricate tungsten oxide (WO 3 ) thin films by radio-frequency reactive magnetron-sputter deposition. The impetus being the use of WO 3 films for H 2 S sensors in coal gasification plants. The effect of growth temperature, which is varied in the range of 30-500 deg. C, on the growth and microstructure of WO 3 thin films is investigated. Characterizations made using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) indicate that the effect of temperature is significant on the microstructure of WO 3 films. XRD and SEM results indicate that the WO 3 films grown at room temperature are amorphous, whereas films grown at higher temperatures are nanocrystalline. The average grain-size increases with increasing temperature. WO 3 films exhibit smooth morphology at growth temperatures ≤300 deg. C while relatively rough at >300 deg. C. The analyses indicate that the nanocrystalline WO 3 films grown at 100-300 deg. C could be the potential candidates for H 2 S sensor development for application in coal gasification systems.

  2. Enhanced electrochromic coloration in Ag nanoparticle decorated WO3 thin films

    Kharade, Rohini R.; Mali, Sawanta S.; Patil, Satish P.; Patil, Kashinath R.; Gang, Myong G.; Patil, Pramod S.; Kim, Jin H.; Bhosale, Popatrao N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrochromic WO 3 /Ag nanocomposites prepared by hybrid physico-chemical route. • XRD and XPS results confirm formation of Ag 8 W 4 O 16 phase. • WO 3 /Ag thin films showed good optical transmittance change and coloration efficiency. • SPR enhanced coloration and bleaching mechanism is well explained for electrochromism. • Color stimuli are quantified using CIE chromaticity principles. -- Abstract: WO 3 /Ag composite thin films were prepared by microwave assisted sol–gel synthesis (MW-SGS) of WO 3 followed by vacuum evaporation of Ag nanoparticles and their enhanced electrochromic coloration was investigated. The composition and morphology of WO 3 thin films with different thickness of Ag layer obtained by vacuum evaporation were investigated. Distinct plasmon absorption bands of Ag nanoparticle thin films were obtained. The optical band gap energy of WO 3 /Ag films decreased with increasing the Ag layer thickness. The surface of these films has been examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to gain information about the chemical states of species present at surfaces. Experimental results indicated that the conductivity of the films increased after surface modification by Ag layer. To investigate the origin of enhanced electrochromic absorption in optical properties, working electrode consisting of WO 3 /Ag thin film was used and observed the optical properties during electrochemical reaction. It was found that composite electrode shows enhancement in electrochromic properties in terms of optical modulation (ΔOD) and coloration efficiency (η)

  3. Template-free hydrothermal synthesis and high photocatalytic activity of ZnWO4 nanorods

    Gao, Bin; Fan, Huiqing; Zhang, Xiaojun; Song, Lixun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► ZnWO 4 nanorods with uniform diameter are successfully prepared through a template-free hydrothermal method. ► The crystallinity of the products is influenced by the pH value of initial precursor suspension. ► Photocatalytic activity of the ZnWO 4 nanorods for degradation of methylene blue is evaluated. ► The ZnWO 4 nanorods exhibit good stability of photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: ZnWO 4 nanorods are successfully synthesized by a template-free hydrothermal method, and are characterized in detail by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The results show that the ZnWO 4 nanorods with wolframite structure are well-crystallized single crystallites. The crystallinity of the products is influenced by the pH value of initial precursor suspension. The width and length of the synthesized samples increase with hydrothermal reaction temperature. The photocatalytic efficiency of the ZnWO 4 nanorods for degradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution under UV light irradiation declines greatly with increasing crystallinity. The ZnWO 4 nanorods prepared at pH of 4 have the best activity in photo-degradation of MB. After six recycles, photocatalytic activity loss of the catalyst is not obvious.

  4. Controlled synthesis of three-dimensional hierarchical Bi2WO6 microspheres with optimum photocatalytic activity

    Wang, Hong; Song, Jimei; Zhang, Hui; Gao, Fei; Zhao, Shaojuan; Hu, Haiqin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The synthesized method is very simple. It can be widely used in the production. ► The morphology is novel and the property is fine. ► The formation of 3D hierarchical microsphere can be induced by changing the concentration of KNO 3 . -- Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical Bi 2 WO 6 microsphere and octahedral Bi 2 WO 6 have been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method using KNO 3 solution and distilled water as solvent, respectively. The obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, N 2 adsorption/desorption, and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in detail. The concentration of KNO 3 played a key role in the formation of 3D hierarchical Bi 2 WO 6 microspheres. A possible formation mechanism of Bi 2 WO 6 microsphere was proposed. The photocatalytic activity of the as-synthesized products was evaluated by monitoring the degradation of MB solution under sunlight irradiation. It was found that the photocatalytic activity of the 3D hierarchical Bi 2 WO 6 microsphere was superior to the octahedral Bi 2 WO 6 , which was attributed to the larger surface area and special hierarchical structure of Bi 2 WO 6 microsphere.

  5. Synthesis of WO3 flower-like hierarchical architectures and their sensing properties

    Meng, Dan; Wang, Guosheng; San, Xiaoguang; Song, Yinmin; Shen, Yanbai; Zhang, Yajing; Wang, Kangjun; Meng, Fanli

    2015-01-01

    WO 3 flower-like hierarchical architectures were synthesized by hydrothermal process using sodium tungstate (Na 2 WO 4 ·2H 2 O) as tungsten source and citric acid (CA) as an assistant agent. The morphology and crystal structure were investigated using scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer. It is found that CA played a significant role in governing morphologies of product during hydrothermal process. The obtained products were identified as triclinic crystal WO 3 structure. The ethanol gas sensing measurements showed that well-defined WO 3 flower-like structures synthesized at CA/W molar ratio of 1 with large specific surface area exhibited the higher responses compared with others at all operating temperatures. Moreover, the reversible and fast response to ethanol gas at various gas concentrations and good selectivity were obtained. The results indicated that the WO 3 flower-like hierarchical architectures are promising materials for gas sensors. - Highlights: • WO 3 flower-like structures were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method. • The effect of citric acid amount on morphologies was investigated. • Good ethanol gas sensing properties of WO 3 flower-like structures were obtained

  6. Comparison of Effectiveness of Betamethasone gel Applied to the Tracheal Tube and IV Dexamethasone on Postoperative Sore Throat: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Tabari, Masumeh; Soltani, Ghasem; Zirak, Nahid; Alipour, Moammad; Khazaeni, Kamran

    2013-09-01

    Postoperative sore throat is a common complaint in patients with endotracheal intubation and has potentially dangerous complications. This randomized controlled trial study investigated the incidence of postoperative sore throat after general anesthesia when betamethasone gel is applied to a tracheal tube compared with when IV dexamethasone is prescribed. Two hundred and twenty five American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA)-class I and II patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery with tracheal intubation were randomly divided into three groups: betamethasone gel, intravenous (IV) dexamethasone, and control groups. In the post-anesthesia care unit, a blinded anesthesiologist interviewed all patients regarding postoperative sore throat at 1,6, and 24 hours after surgery. The incidence of sore throat was significantly lower in the betamethasone gel group compared with the IV dexamethasone and control groups, 1, 6, and 24 hours after surgery. In the first day after surgery 10.7% of the betamethasone group had sore throat whereas 26.7% of the IV dexamethasone group and 30.7% of the control group had sore throat. Bucking before extubation was observed in 14(18.4%), 8(10.4%), and 9(12.2%) patients, in the IV dexamethasone, betamethasone gel, and control group, respectively. We concluded that wide spread application of betamethasone gel over tracheal tubes effectively mitigates postoperative sore throat, compared with IV dexamethasone application.

  7. Comparison of Effectiveness of Betamethasone gel Applied to the Tracheal Tube and IV Dexamethasone on Postoperative sore Throat: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Masoomeh Tabari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Postoperative sore throat is a common complaint in patients with endotracheal intubation and has potentially dangerous complications. This randomized controlled trial study investigated the incidence of postoperative sore throat after general anesthesia when betamethasone gel is applied to a tracheal tube compared with when IV dexamethasone is prescribed.   Materials and Methods: Two hundred and twenty five American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA-class I and II patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery with tracheal intubation were randomly divided into three groups: betamethasone gel, intravenous (IV dexamethasone, and control groups. In the post-anesthesia care unit, a blinded anesthesiologist interviewed all patients regarding postoperative sore throat at 1,6, and 24 hours after surgery.   Results: The incidence of sore throat was significantly lower in the betamethasone gel group compared with the IV dexamethasone and control groups, 1, 6, and 24 hours after surgery. In the first day after surgery 10.7% of the betamethasone group had sore throat whereas 26.7% of the IV dexamethasone group and 30.7% of the control group had sore throat. Bucking before extubation was observed in 14(18.4%, 8(10.4%, and 9(12.2% patients, in the IV dexamethasone, betamethasone gel, and control group, respectively.   Conclusion:  We concluded that wide spread application of betamethasone gel over tracheal tubes effectively mitigates postoperative sore throat, compared with IV dexamethasone application.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of porous WO3/TiO2 hollow microspheres

    Yang, Liuyang; Si, Zhichun; Weng, Duan; Yao, Youwei

    2014-01-01

    Porous WO 3 /TiO 2 hollow microspheres were prepared by a spray drying method for photodegradation of methylene blue and phenol. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope, N 2 adsorption–desorption measurements, Raman spectrometer, UV–Vis Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy and Zeta-Meter measurements. The results showed that the tungsten oxides mainly existed in highly dispersed amorphous form on anatase when the loading amount of tungsten oxide was below 3 mol%. The improved photocatalytic activity under UV light irradiation of the WO 3 /TiO 2 catalyst mainly arises from the enhanced charge separation efficiency rather than the improved light absorbance by highly dispersed amorphous tungsten oxides. Highly dispersed amorphous WO x can form a shallowly trapped site due to its similar band structure with TiO 2 . The strongly electron-withdrawing of tungsten oxide in highly dispersed state facilitates the electron transition between titanium and WO x , and consequently improves the charge separation. The enhanced acidity of catalyst by WO x in reactant environment also improved the charge separation efficiency due to the timely transition of holes and electrons accumulated on TiO 2 and WO x , respectively. However, the improved photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation of the WO 3 /TiO 2 catalyst mainly arises from light harvest. TiO 2 containing 3 mol% WO 3 displayed the highest photocatalytic activity under UV light irradiation while that containing 4 mol% WO 3 present highest activity under visible light irradiation

  9. Preparation of three dimensional graphene foam–WO3 nanocomposite with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity

    Azimirad, R.; Safa, S.

    2015-01-01

    Three dimensional graphene foam (3D GF) was synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on a nickel foam skeleton. After dissolving the nickel foam, the obtaining 3D GF was used as a highly porous conductive substrate for nucleation and growth of WO 3 particles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy was employed to ensure the quality of the prepared GFs and to judge about the 3D GF–WO 3 chemical structure. The WO 3 characteristic Raman peaks centered at 726, and 809 cm −1 are slightly broadened and displaced to lower wavelength in the 3D GF–WO 3 nanocomposite, as compared to the corresponding peaks of the bare tungsten oxide. This phenomenon confirms the formation of W–C and W–O–C bonds in composite material which is important for faster transferring the photoexcited electrons to graphene 3D network as an exceptional electron acceptor. The 3D GF−WO 3 composite material was applied in photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B dye. It was observed that the annealed samples show an excellent photocatalytic performance relative to the as-prepared 3D GF−WO 3 samples and bare WO 3 , which is ascribed to the lower electron/hole recombination through the formation of W–C and W–O–C bonds. - Highlights: • 3D GF synthesized by CVD on a nickel foam as a highly porous conductive substrate. • WO 3 nanoparticles coated on 3D GF by dip-coating. • 3D GF−WO 3 shows an excellent photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B dye. • Better photocatalytic properties assigned to the formation of W–C and W–O–C bonds

  10. CTAB-assisted ultrasonic synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic properties of WO{sub 3}

    Sánchez-Martínez, D., E-mail: dansanm@gmail.com; Gomez-Solis, C.; Torres-Martinez, Leticia M.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • WO{sub 3} 2D nanostructures were synthesized by ultrasound method assisted with CTAB. • WO{sub 3} morphology was mainly of rectangular nanoplates with a thickness of ∼50 nm. • The highest surface area value of WO{sub 3} was obtained to lowest concentration of CTAB. • WO{sub 3} activity was attributed to morphology, surface area and the addition of CTAB. • WO{sub 3} nanoplates were able to causing almost complete mineralization of rhB and IC. - Abstract: WO{sub 3} 2D nanostructures have been prepared by ultrasound synthesis method assisted with CTAB using different molar ratios. The formation of monoclinic crystal structure of WO{sub 3} was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The characterization of the WO{sub 3} samples was complemented by analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which revealed morphology mainly of rectangular nanoplates with a thickness of around 50 nm and length of 100–500 nm. Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to confirm the elimination of the CTAB in the synthesized samples. The specific surface area was determinate by the BET method and by means of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) it was determinate the band-gap energy (E{sub g}) of the WO{sub 3} samples. The photocatalytic activity of the WO{sub 3} oxide was evaluated in the degradation reactions of rhodamine B (rhB) and indigo carmine (IC) under Xenon lamp irradiation. The highest photocatalytic activity was observed in the samples containing low concentration of CTAB with morphology of rectangular nanoplates and with higher surface area value than commercial WO{sub 3}. Photodegradation of rhB and IC were followed by means of UV–vis absorption spectra. The mineralization degree of organic dyes by WO{sub 3} photocatalyst was determined by total organic carbon analysis (TOC) reaching percentages of mineralization of 92% for rhB and 50% for IC after 96 h of lamp irradiation.

  11. The enhanced photoactivity of nanosized Bi2WO6 catalyst for the degradation of 4-chlorophenol

    Fu Hongbo; Yao Wenqing; Zhang Liwu; Zhu Yongfa

    2008-01-01

    Nanosized Bi 2 WO 6 catalyst exhibited the enhanced photoactivity for the degradation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) under visible irradiation compared to the sample prepared by high-temperature solid reaction. The photoactivity of the catalyst was sensitive to pH variation of the suspension. Nanosized Bi 2 WO 6 catalyst showed the highest activity at pH 7.2. The photodegradation of 4-CP by nanosized Bi 2 WO 6 catalyst followed a pseudo-first-order reaction. After three recycling runs for the photodegradation of 4-CP, the activity of the catalyst did not show any significant loss, suggesting that the catalyst was stable under visible irradiation

  12. Polymorphism of tungsten perovskite compounds Ba/sub 2/SEsub(0. 67)WO/sub 6/

    Schittenhelm, H J; Kemmler-Sack, S [Tuebingen Univ. (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie

    1976-09-01

    The compounds Ba/sub 2/SEsub(0.67)WO/sub 6/ with SE = Gd-Lu are polymorphic. Above 1200/sup 0/C the instable cubic modification (ordered perovskite with 4 formula units Ba/sub 2/SEsub(0.67)vacantsub(0.33)WO/sub 6/ per cell) transforms irreversibly into a hexagonal modification with completely filled cationic lattice. For Ba/sub 2/Eusub(0.67)WO/sub 6/ the transformation is incomplete. With SE = Nd and Sm only the cubic modification is formed.

  13. Neuromorphic transistor achieved by redox reaction of WO3 thin film

    Tsuchiya, Takashi; Jayabalan, Manikandan; Kawamura, Kinya; Takayanagi, Makoto; Higuchi, Tohru; Jayavel, Ramasamy; Terabe, Kazuya

    2018-04-01

    An all-solid-state neuromorphic transistor composed of a WO3 thin film and a proton-conducting electrolyte was fabricated for application to next-generation information and communication technology including artificial neural networks. The drain current exhibited a 4-order-of-magnitude increment by redox reaction of the WO3 thin film owing to proton migration. Learning and forgetting characteristics were well tuned by the gate control of WO3 redox reactions owing to the separation of the current reading path and pulse application path in the transistor structure. This technique should lead to the development of versatile and low-power-consumption neuromorphic devices.

  14. Electrodeposition of WO3 nanoparticles into surface mounted metal-organic framework HKUST-1 thin films

    Yoo, Hyeonseok; Welle, Alexander; Guo, Wei; Choi, Jinsub; Redel, Engelbert

    2017-03-01

    We describe a novel procedure to fabricate WO3@surface-mounted metal-organic framework (SURMOF) hybrid materials by electrodeposition of WO3 nanoparticles into HKUST-1, also termed Cu3(BTC)2 SURMOFs. These materials have been characterized using x-ray diffraction, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as well as linear sweep voltammetry. The WO3 semiconductor/SURMOF heterostructures were further tested as hybrid electrodes in their performance for hydrogen evolution reaction from water.

  15. Fabrication and photocatalysis of mesoporous ZnWO4 with PAMAM as a template

    Lin Shen; Chen Jiebo; Weng Xiulan; Yang Liuyi; Chen Xinqin

    2009-01-01

    Mesoporous ZnWO 4 was prepared with the template of PAMAM. The as-formed samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). It is found that the size of pore is in the range of 5-22 nm and that the porosity of ZnWO 4 is composed of aggregated ZnWO 4 nanoparticles. The photocatalytic activities towards degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and malachite green (MG) under UV light has been investigated. The formation mechanism of mesoporous structures is proposed

  16. Magnetic properties of the strongly correlated chain antiferromagnet KTb(WO4)2

    Khatsko, E.; Loginov, A.; Cherny, A.; Rykova, A.

    2006-01-01

    The susceptibility and magnetization of a single crystal of KTb(WO 4 ) 2 has been measured in the temperature range 0.5-80 K in magnetic fields up to 6 T. It is shown that KTb(WO 4 ) 2 is an Ising magnet with only one component of the magnetic moment. The three-dimensional phase transition to the antiferromagnetically ordered state has been found below 0.7 K. This transition can be described in the molecular field two-level approximation. The principal exchange constant has been estimated. By using experimental data the magnetic structure of KTb(WO 4 ) 2 is proposed

  17. Tungsten oxide-graphene oxide (WO3-GO) nanocomposite as an efficient photocatalyst, antibacterial and anticancer agent

    Jeevitha, G.; Abhinayaa, R.; Mangalaraj, D.; Ponpandian, N.

    2018-05-01

    Functioning of ultrasonically prepared tungsten oxide-graphene oxide (WO3-GO) nanocomposite as a photocatalyst, antibacterial and anticancer system was investigated and the obtained results were compared with that of pure WO3 nanoparticles. Structural, morphological, compositional and optical properties of the prepared WO3 nanoparticles and WO3-GO nanocomposite were studied. Photocatalytic efficiency of the system on organic dyes such as methylene blue (MB, cationic) and indigo carmine (IC, anionic) was investigated. The enhanced efficiency of the WO3-GO nanocomposite system was evaluated under sunlight and compared with that of pure WO3. The degradation efficiency values for MB and IC were found to be 97.03% and 95.43% at 180 and 120 min respectively. Antibacterial activity of the WO3-GO nanocomposite under visible light was tested and improved inhibition results were observed for Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis after 6 h of light exposure. The photocatalytic degradation efficiency and antibacterial activity of the WO3-GO nanocomposite are attributed to the improved electron-hole pair separation rate. Investigation on anticancer activity of WO3-GO nanocomposite was tested on human lung cancer (A-549) cell line and the IC50 value was found to be 139.6 ± 4.53 μg/mL. The results obtained in this study may be used as a platform for the development of photocatalysis applications based on WO3-GO nanocomposite.

  18. Experimental and theoretical investigation on photocatalytic activities of 1D Ag/Ag2WO4 nanostructures

    Liu, Danqing; Huang, Weicheng; Li, Long; Liu, Lu; Sun, Xiaojun; Liu, Bo; Yang, Bin; Guo, Chongshen

    2017-09-01

    Ag2WO4 is a significant photocatalyst that responds to UV light irradiation only, which greatly hinders it for further practical application for solar light. To address this problem, herein, 1D plasmonic Ag/Ag2WO4 photocatalysts have been fabricated by a successive process including hydrothermal synthesis to obtain Ag2WO4 followed by an additional in situ chemical-reduction process for Ag decoration. Then, the structural features, optical properties, and electronic structures of Ag2WO4 and Ag/Ag2WO4 nanowires were systematically investigated via a combination of theoretical calculations and experimental evidence. The plasmon-enhanced Ag/Ag2WO4 nanowires exhibited higher visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity, which performed a desired photodestruction ratio of 91.2% on methylene blue within 60 min and good stability in five cycles. The Ag decoration greatly facilitates visible-light harvesting and thus promotes photogenerated radical oxidation to dye, which is evidenced by the higher hydroxyl radical level of Ag/Ag2WO4 detected in the ESR test during the photocatalytic process. The theoretical calculation based on density functional theory indicates that Ag nanoparticles formed on the surface of Ag2WO4 could narrow the band gap of Ag2WO4. In addition, the surface plasmon resonance absorption effect and fast charge transfer effect in the metal-semiconductor system contribute to the photocatalytic performance of Ag/Ag2WO4.

  19. WO3 nanorods-modified carbon electrode for sustained electron uptake from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 with suppressed biofilm formation

    Zhang, Feng; Yuan, Shi-Jie; Li, Wen-Wei; Chen, Jie-Jie; Ko, Chi-Chiu; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • WO 3 nanorods-modified carbon paper was used as the anode of MFC. • WO 3 nanorods suppressed biofilm growth on the electrode surface. • Sustained electron transfer from cells to electrode via riboflavin was achieved. • C–WO 3 nanorods enable stable and efficient EET process in long-time operation. - Abstract: Carbon materials are widely used as electrodes for bioelectrochemical systems (BES). However, a thick biofilm tends to grow on the electrode surface during continuous operation, resulting in constrained transport of electrons and nutrients at the cell-electrode interface. In this work, we tackled this problem by adopting a WO 3 -nanorods modified carbon electrode (C–WO 3 nanorods), which completely suppressed the biofilm growth of Shewanella Oneidensis MR-1. Moreover, the C–WO 3 nanorods exhibited high electric conductivity and strong response to riboflavin. These two factors together make it possible for the C–WO 3 nanorods to maintain a sustained, efficient process of electron transfer from the MR-1 planktonic cells. As a consequence, the microbial fuel cells with C–WO 3 nanorods anode showed more stable performance than the pure carbon paper and WO 3 -nanoparticles systems in prolonged operation. This work suggests that WO 3 nanorods have the potential to be used as a robust and biofouling-resistant electrode material for practical bioelectrochemical applications

  20. Conductive surface modification of cauliflower-like WO3 and its electrochemical properties for lithium-ion batteries

    Yoon, Sukeun; Woo, Sang-Gil; Jung, Kyu-Nam; Song, Huesup

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of cauliflower-like carbon-decorated WO 3 . • Superior cyclability and rate capability for cauliflower-like carbon-decorated WO 3 . • Electrochemical reaction behavior of cauliflower-like carbon-decorated WO 3 with lithium. • In-situ XRD analysis during the first discharge–charge shows a complex reaction of intercalation and conversion of WO 3 . - Abstract: Cauliflower-like WO 3 was synthesized by a hydrothermal reaction without a surfactant, followed by firing, and was investigated as an anode material for lithium-ion battery applications. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) characterization indicated that WO 3 nanorods had an aggregation framework and built a cauliflower morphology. With the objective of understanding the charge–discharge process within a voltage range of 0–3 V vs. Li + /Li, in situ X-ray diffraction was used and a complex reaction of intercalation and conversion of WO 3 was revealed for the first time. The cauliflower-like WO 3 after being decorated with carbon provides a high gravimetric capacity of >635 mA h/g (Li 5.5 WO 3 ) with good cycling and a high rate capability when used as an anode in lithium-ion batteries. Based on our studies, we attribute the high electrochemical performance to the nanoscopic WO 3 particles and a conductive carbon layer, which makes them a potential candidate for lithium-ion batteries

  1. Preparation of WO3/g-C3N4 composites and their application in oxidative desulfurization

    Zhao, Rongxiang; Li, Xiuping; Su, Jianxun; Gao, Xiaohan

    2017-01-01

    WO3/graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) composites were successfully synthesized through direct calcining of a mixture of WO3 and g-C3N4 at 400 °C for 2 h. The WO3 was prepared by calcination of phosphotungstic acid at 550 °C for 4 h, and the g-C3N4 was obtained by calcination of melamine at 520 °C for 4 h. The WO3/g-C3N4 composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Brunner-Emmett-Teller analysis (BET). The WO3/g-C3N4 composites exhibited stronger XRD peaks of WO3 and g-C3N4 than the WO3 and pure g-C3N4. In addition, two WO3 peaks at 25.7° and 26.6° emerged for the 36% -WO3/g-C3N4 composite. This finding indicated that WO3 was highly dispersed on the surface of the g-C3N4 nanosheets and interacted with the nanosheets, which resulted in the appearance of (012) and (022) planes of WO3. The WO3/g-C3N4 composite also exhibited a larger specific surface area and higher degree of crystallization than WO3 or pure g-C3N4, which resulted in high catalytic activity of the catalyst. Desulfurization experiments demonstrated that the desulfurization rate of dibenzothiophene (DBT) in model oil reached 91.2% under optimal conditions. Moreover, the activity of the catalyst was not significantly decreased after five recycles.

  2. Efficacy of flurbiprofen 8.75 mg lozenge in patients with a swollen and inflamed sore throat.

    Aspley, Sue; Shephard, Adrian; Schachtel, Emily; Sanner, Kathleen; Savino, Laurie; Schachtel, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    Sore throat is often over-treated with antibiotics, therefore there is a need for non-antibiotic treatments that provide effective relief. From the patient's point of view, symptoms of pharyngeal inflammation such as a "swollen" and "inflamed" throat are often considered the most bothersome; so, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug could be an appropriate treatment. We investigated the efficacy and safety of flurbiprofen 8.75 mg lozenge in adults with a swollen and inflamed throat. We enrolled adults with moderate-to-severe sore throat and evidence of tonsillo-pharyngitis into a randomized, double-blind study. Patients received flurbiprofen 8.75 mg or placebo lozenges every 3-6 hours as needed (up to five lozenges in 24 hours) and rated their symptoms (sore throat pain, difficulty swallowing and the sensation of a swollen throat) on standard linear scales regularly over 24 hours. The efficacy of flurbiprofen lozenge was determined in patients reporting a swollen and inflamed throat at baseline, as well as those with relatively severe symptoms. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01049334. The main outcome measures were the time-weighted summed differences in patient-reported sore throat pain, difficulty swallowing and swollen throat over 24 hours. Out of 204 patients, 124 (60.8%) described their throats as swollen and inflamed at baseline. Flurbiprofen lozenges provided greater relief than placebo over 24 hours: 79.8%, 99.6% and 69.3% (for sore throat pain, difficulty swallowing and swollen throat, respectively, all P ≤ 0.01). These outcomes were more substantial in patients with relatively severe symptoms. No serious or unexpected adverse events occurred. Flurbiprofen 8.75 mg lozenge appears to provide effective, well-tolerated relief of sore throat, difficulty swallowing and swollen throat in adults with a swollen and inflamed throat, as well as those with relatively severe symptoms. A limitation of these findings is that, while predetermined, these are

  3. Cold-water immersion (cryotherapy for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise

    Chris Bleakley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many strategies are in use with the intention of preventing or minimizing delayed onset muscle soreness and fatigue after exercise. Cold-water immersion, in water temperatures of less than 15 °C, is currently one of the most popular interventional strategies used after exercise. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of cold-water immersion in the management of muscle soreness after exercise. SEARCH METHODS: In February 2010, we searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library (2010, Issue 1, Medline, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL, British Nursing Index and archive (BNI, and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro. We also searched the reference lists of articles, handsearched journals and conference proceedings and contacted experts. In November 2011, we updated the searches of Central (2011, Issue 4, Medline (up to November Week 3 2011, Embase (to 2011 Week 46 and CINAHL (to 28 November 2011 to check for more recent publications. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized and quasi-randomized trials comparing the effect of using cold-water immersion after exercise with: passive intervention (rest/no intervention, contrast immersion, warm-water immersion, active recovery, compression, or a different duration/dosage of cold-water immersion. Primary outcomes were pain (muscle soreness or tenderness (pain on palpation, and subjective recovery (return to previous activities without signs or symptoms. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three authors independently evaluated study quality and extracted data. Some of the data were obtained following author correspondence or extracted from graphs in the trial reports. Where possible, data were pooled using the fixed-effect model. MAIN RESULTS: Seventeen small trials were included, involving a total of 366 participants. Study quality was low. The temperature, duration and

  4. Ethanol vapour sensing properties of screen printed WO3 thick films

    TECS

    trations. The WO3 thick films exhibit excellent ethanol vapour sensing properties with a maximum sensitivity ... methanol, acetone, isopropanol and acetic acid, have been reported .... maximum sensitivity was obtained at an operating tem-.

  5. Review of WO3 thin film preparation for photoelectrochemical water splitting

    Ehsan Eftekhari; Mohammad Kassim

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Tungsten trioxide (WO 3 ), which is one of the most essential materials in our daily life has appeared as an excellent photo electrode material for environmental purification. The nano-size of WO 3 thin film water-splitting technology has great potential for environmentally friendly solar-hydrogen production for the future hydrogen economy. There are several methods for producing tungsten oxide film. In this review, we outlined several WO 3 thin film preparation methods such as doctor Bladding, sputtering, layer-by-layer brush painting, spray pyrolysis deposition, sol-gel and other methods. Here we compare the maximum photocurrent obtained, different condition for preparation of WO 3 thin film and characterization outcome. (author)

  6. Eliminating degradation and uncovering ion-trapping dynamics in electrochromic WO3 thin films

    Wen, Rui-Tao; Granqvist, Claes G.; Niklasson, Gunnar A.

    2015-01-01

    Amorphous WO3 thin films are of keen interest as cathodic electrodes in transmittance-modulating electrochromic devices. However, these films suffer from ion-trapping-induced degradation of optical modulation and reversibility upon extended Li+-ion exchange. Here, we demonstrate that ion-trapping-induced degradation, which is commonly believed to be irreversible, can be successfully eliminated by constant-current-driven de-trapping, i.e., WO3 films can be rejuvenated and regain their initial highly reversible electrochromic performance. Pronounced ion-trapping occurs when x exceeds ~0.65 in LixWO3 during ion insertion. We find two main kinds of Li+-ion trapping sites (intermediate and deep) in WO3, where the intermediate ones are most prevalent. Li+-ions can be completely removed from intermediate traps but are irreversibly bound in deep traps. Our results provide a general framework for developing and designing superior electrochromic materials and devices. PMID:26259104

  7. AOT-microemulsions-based formation and evolution of PbWO$_{4}$ crystals

    Chen, D; Tang Kai Bin; Liang Zhen Hua; Zheng Hua Gui

    2004-01-01

    Anionic surfactant-AOT-microemulsions-assisted formation and evolution of PbWO//4 nanostructures with bundles rodlike, ellipsoidlike, and spherelike prepared at different media conditions were studied by powder X-ray diffraction pattern, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The possible mechanisms for the formation of PbWO//4 samples in series of microemulsion systems were discussed. Various comparison experiments show that several experimental parameters, such as the AOT concentration, the water content, and reaction temperature play important roles in the morphological control of PbWO//4 nanostructures. Room-temperature photoluminescence of PbWO//4 samples with different morphologies has also been investigated and the results reveal that all these samples showed similar features with emissions at 480 similar to 510 nm but different luminescence intensity. 40 Refs.

  8. Degradation of malachite green on Pd/WO3 photocatalysts under simulated solar light

    Liu Yonggang; Ohko, Yoshihisa; Zhang Ruiqin; YangYingnan; Zhang Zhenya

    2010-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of malachite green (MG) dye molecules in aqueous solution was investigated by using palladium (Pd) modified tungsten trioxide (WO 3 ) under simulated solar light. The optimum values for Pd content vs. WO 3 and catalyst concentration in solution for MG (5.0 μmol L -1 ) degradation were 0.5 wt.% and 150 mg L -1 , respectively. The MG concentration change followed the pseudo first order kinetics of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. Since MG was also degraded under visible light (λ > 470 nm), which was not absorbed by WO 3 , the mechanism involved both the photocatalytic degradation and self-sensitized degradation of MG. Pd modified WO 3 would be useful as an efficient tool for the decolorization of wastewater under solar light.

  9. Solid-State Electrochromic Device Consisting of Amorphous WO3 and Various Thin Oxide Layers

    Shizukuishi, Makoto; Shimizu, Isamu; Inoue, Eiichi

    1980-11-01

    A mixed oxide containing Cr2O3 was introduced into an amorphous WO3 solid-state electrochromic device (ECD) in order to improve its colour memory effect. The electrochromic characteristics were greatly affected by the chemical constituents of a dielectric layer on the a-WO3 layer. Particularly, long memory effect and low power dissipation were attained in a solid-state ECD consisting of a-WO3 and Cr2O3\\cdotV2O5(50 wt.%). Some electrochromic characteristics of the a-WO3/Cr2O3\\cdotV2O5 ECD and the role of V2O5 were investigated.

  10. Analysis of Publication Trends for DOE National Laboratories Comparisons using WoS and Scopus

    Springer, Everett P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Milligan, Shelby [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-02

    This report describes: 1) how various laboratories compare in terms of peer-reviewed publications; how the numbers and trends compare between WoS and Scopus; and what research areas have grown or decreased.

  11. SrWO{sub 4} at high pressures

    Grzechnik, A. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo. 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, 38043 Grenoble cedex (France); Crichton, W.A.; Hanfland, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, 38043 Grenoble cedex (France)

    2005-11-01

    Room-temperature high-pressure behaviour of SrWO{sub 4} scheelite (I4{sub 1}/a, Z=4) has been studied to 20.7 GPa in a diamond anvil cell using synchrotron angle-dispersive X-ray powder diffraction. Above 10 GPa, it transforms to the fergusonite structure (I2/a, Z=4). Both scheelite and fergusonite types are ordered superstructures of fluorite (Fm anti 3m, Z=4). There is no significant volume collapse at the scheelite-fergusonite phase transition. However, the compression data including both phases of strontium tungstate cannot be fitted by a common Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. An onset of decomposition into component oxides occurs at about 15 GPa. The pressure-induced transformations are irreversible. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Thermal expansion and pressure effect in MnWO4

    Chaudhury, R.P.; Yen, F.; Cruz, C.R. de la; Lorenz, B.; Wang, Y.Q.; Sun, Y.Y.; Chu, C.W.

    2008-01-01

    MnWO 4 has attracted attention because of its ferroelectric property induced by frustrated helical spin order. Strong spin-lattice interaction is necessary to explain ferroelectricity associated with this type of magnetic order. We have conducted thermal expansion measurements along the a, b, c axes revealing the existence of strong anisotropic lattice anomalies at T 1 =7.8 K, the temperature of the magnetic lock-in transition into a commensurate low-temperature (reentrant paraelectric) phase. The effect of hydrostatic pressure up to 1.8 GPa on the FE phase is investigated by measuring the dielectric constant and the FE polarization. The low-temperature commensurate and paraelectric phase is stabilized and the stability range of the ferroelectric phase is diminished under pressure

  13. Non-uniformity measurements of PbWO4 crystals

    Depasse, P.; Ernenwein, J.P.; Ille, B.; Martin, F.; Rosset, C.; Zach, F.

    1998-11-01

    Two independent methods have been used to measure the longitudinal non-uniformity scintillation response of 3 different (23-cm long) PbWO 4 crystals. The first one is the classical 60 Co source method. The source is collimated along the crystal, each 1,5-cm, and the scintillation signal is measured with a photomultiplier (a hybrid photomultiplier in our case). The second one is the use of cosmic particles (Minimum Ionizing Particles). A cosmic bench allows reconstructing the track of the MIP's and thus the energy deposit with the help of a full GEANT simulation of the setup. Variations of E along the crystal artificially cut in 1,5-cm divisions, leads to determine the non-uniformity. The conclusion is that both methods agree quite well. Furthermore, a good estimation of crystal light yield can be obtained. (author)

  14. [Doctor's degree thesis of Tomasz Adolf Wołkowiński "Carditidis rheumaticae historia"].

    Stembrowicz, W

    2001-01-01

    In 1817 on the University of Vilnius Faculty of Medicine, T. A. Wołkowiński, a student of the eminent clinician Józef Frank, defended his doctor's degree thesis about a direct relation between rheumatic disease and cardiomegaly. It was probably the first paper in Poland describing with details the rheumatic heart disease. Unfortunately we don't know much about T. A. Wołkowiński's life.

  15. Study on light output and energy resolution of PbWO4 crystal

    Su Guanghui; Yue Ke; Sun Zhiyu

    2010-01-01

    The light output and energy resolution of PbWO 4 crystal are studied with different wrapping materials and methods. The Wrapping condition was optimized by analyzing the experimental data to gain higher light output and better energy resolution. A GEANT4-based package has been developed to simulate the corresponding features of PbWO 4 crystal, and the simulation results are consistent with the experimental data. (authors)

  16. Light-Driven Au-WO3@C Janus Micromotors for Rapid Photodegradation of Dye Pollutants.

    Zhang, Qilu; Dong, Renfeng; Wu, Yefei; Gao, Wei; He, Zihan; Ren, Biye

    2017-02-08

    A novel light-driven Au-WO 3 @C Janus micromotor based on colloidal carbon WO 3 nanoparticle composite spheres (WO 3 @C) prepared by one-step hydrothermal treatment is described. The Janus micromotors can move in aqueous media at a speed of 16 μm/s under 40 mW/cm 2 UV light due to diffusiophoretic effects. The propulsion of such Au-WO 3 @C Janus micromotors (diameter ∼ 1.0 μm) can be generated by UV light in pure water without any external chemical fuels and readily modulated by light intensity. After depositing a paramagnetic Ni layer between the Au layer and WO 3 , the motion direction of the micromotor can be precisely controlled by an external magnetic field. Such magnetic micromotors not only facilitate recycling of motors but also promise more possibility of practical applications in the future. Moreover, the Au-WO 3 @C Janus micromotors show high sensitivity toward extremely low concentrations of sodium-2,6-dichloroindophenol (DCIP) and Rhodamine B (RhB). The moving speed of motors can be significantly accelerated to 26 and 29 μm/s in 5 × 10 -4 wt % DCIP and 5 × 10 -7 wt % RhB aqueous solutions, respectively, due to the enhanced diffusiophoretic effect, which results from the rapid photocatalytic degradation of DCIP and RhB by WO 3 . This photocatalytic acceleration of the Au-WO 3 @C Janus micromotors confirms the self-diffusiophoretic mechanism and opens an opportunity to tune the motility of the motors. This work also offers the light-driven micromotors a considerable potential for detection and rapid photodegradation of dye pollutants in water.

  17. Preparation of WO3/g-C3N4 composites and their application in oxidative desulfurization

    Zhao, Rongxiang; Li, Xiuping; Su, Jianxun; Gao, Xiaohan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The WO 3 /g-C 3 N 4 was successfully synthesized through simple calcination. • The process is simple and the cost raw materials is cheap. • The WO 3 /g-C 3 N 4 firstly applied to ODS. • The desulpurization rate of WO 3 /g-C 3 N 4 may attach to 91.2%. • Five recycles of WO 3 /g-C 3 N 4 still attach to 89.5% due to heterogeneous catalysis. - Abstract: WO 3 /graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 ) composites were successfully synthesized through direct calcining of a mixture of WO 3 and g-C 3 N 4 at 400 °C for 2 h. The WO 3 was prepared by calcination of phosphotungstic acid at 550 °C for 4 h, and the g-C 3 N 4 was obtained by calcination of melamine at 520 °C for 4 h. The WO 3 /g-C 3 N 4 composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Brunner−Emmett−Teller analysis (BET). The WO 3 /g-C 3 N 4 composites exhibited stronger XRD peaks of WO 3 and g-C 3 N 4 than the WO 3 and pure g-C 3 N 4 . In addition, two WO 3 peaks at 25.7° and 26.6° emerged for the 36% −WO 3 /g-C 3 N 4 composite. This finding indicated that WO 3 was highly dispersed on the surface of the g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets and interacted with the nanosheets, which resulted in the appearance of (012) and (022) planes of WO 3 . The WO 3 /g-C 3 N 4 composite also exhibited a larger specific surface area and higher degree of crystallization than WO 3 or pure g-C 3 N 4 , which resulted in high catalytic activity of the catalyst. Desulfurization experiments demonstrated that the desulfurization rate of dibenzothiophene (DBT) in model oil reached 91.2% under optimal conditions. Moreover, the activity of the catalyst was not significantly decreased after five recycles.

  18. Photoelectrochemical solar cells based on Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}; Celdas solares fotoelectroquimicas basadas en Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}

    Madriz, Lorean; Tata, Jose; Cuartas, Veronica; Cuellar, Alejandra; Vargas, Ronald, E-mail: lmadriz@usb.ve [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    In this study, photoelectrochemical solar cells based on bismuth tungstate electrodes were evaluated. Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} was synthesized by a hydrothermal method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis reflectance spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. For comparison, solar cells based on TiO{sub 2} semiconductor electrodes were evaluated. Photoelectrochemical response of Grätzel-type solar cells based on these semiconductors and their corresponding sensitization with two inexpensive phthalocyanines dyes were determined. Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}-based solar cells presented higher values of photocurrent and efficiency than those obtained with TiO{sub 2} electrodes, even without sensitization. These results portray solar cells based on Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} as promising devices for solar energy conversion owing to lower cost of production and ease of acquisition. (author)

  19. Amylmetacresol/2,4-dichlorobenzyl alcohol, hexylresorcinol, or carrageenan lozenges as active treatments for sore throat

    Morokutti-Kurz M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Martina Morokutti-Kurz, Christine Graf, Eva Prieschl-Grassauer Marinomed Biotechnologie GmbH, Vienna, Austria Abstract: Up to 80% of sore throats are caused by viruses. Several over the counter products are available which provide symptomatic, not causal relief. For such lozenges, containing the antiseptics and local anesthetics amylmetacresol (AMC and 2,4-dichlorobenzyl alcohol (DCBA or hexylresorcinol (HR, recently an additional virucidal effect was published. Therefore, we tested a set of Strepsils® lozenges, containing either HR (Max [#2] or AMC/DCBA (Original [#3], Extra Strong [#4], Warm [#5], Orange and Vitamin C [#6], Sugar free Lemon [#7], Children/Strawberry [#8] and Soothing Honey and Lemon [#9] for their antiviral efficiency against representatives of respiratory viruses known to cause sore throat: human rhinovirus (HRV 1a, HRV8, influenza virus A H1N1n, Coxsackievirus A10, and human coronavirus (hCoV OC43. The lozenges were tested head to head with Coldamaris® lozenges (#1, which contain the patented antiviral iota-carrageenan. None of the tested AMC/DCBA or HR containing lozenges shows any antiviral effectiveness against HRV8 at the tested concentrations, whereas all are moderately active against HRV1a. Only lozenge #5 shows any activity against hCoV OC43 and Coxsackievirus A10 at the tested concentrations. Similarly, only lozenge #3 is moderately active against influenza A H1N1n virus. The data indicates that neither the isolated effect of the active ingredients nor the pH but rather one or more of the excipients of the specific formulations are responsible for the antiviral effect of some of the AMC/DCBA or HR containing lozenges. In contrast, carrageenan-containing lozenges are highly active against all viruses tested. In another experiment, we showed that binding and inactivation of virus particles by iota-carrageenan are fast and highly effective. During the residence time of the lozenge in the mouth, the viral titer is

  20. Antibiotic prescription strategies for acute sore throat: a prospective observational cohort study.

    Little, Paul; Stuart, Beth; Hobbs, F D Richard; Butler, Chris C; Hay, Alastair D; Delaney, Brendan; Campbell, John; Broomfield, Sue; Barratt, Paula; Hood, Kerenza; Everitt, Hazel; Mullee, Mark; Williamson, Ian; Mant, David; Moore, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Data from trials suggest that antibiotics reduce the risk of complications of sore throat by at least 50%, but few trials for complications have been done in modern settings, and datasets of delayed antibiotic prescription are underpowered. Observational evidence is important in view of poor compliance with antibiotic treatment outside trials, but no prospective observational cohort studies have been done to date. We generated a large prospective cohort from the DESCARTE study, and the PRISM component of DESCARTE, of 12,829 adults presenting with sore throat (≤ 2 weeks duration) in primary care. Our follow-up of the cohort was based on a detailed and structured review of routine medical records, and analysis of the comparison of three antibiotic prescription strategies (no antibiotic prescription, immediate antibiotic prescription, and delayed antibiotic prescription) to control for the propensity to prescribe antibiotics. Information about antibiotic prescription was recorded in 12,677 individuals (4805 prescribed no antibiotics, 6088 prescribed antibiotics immediately, and 1784 prescribed delayed antibiotics). We documented by review of patients' notes (n=11,950) the development of suppurative complications (eg, quinsy, impetigo and cellulitis, otitis media, and sinusitis) or reconsultation with new or non-resolving symptoms). We used multivariate analysis to control for variables significantly related to the propensity to prescribe antibiotics and for clustering by general practitioner. 164 (1.4%) of the 11,950 patients with information available developed complications; otitis media and sinusitis were the most common complications (101 patients [62%]). Compared with no antibiotic prescription, immediate antibiotic prescription was associated with fewer complications (adjusted risk ratio [RR] 0.62, 95% CI 0.43-0.91, estimated number needed to treat [NNT 193) as was delayed prescription of antibiotics (0.58, 0.34-0.98; NNT 174). 1787 of the 11,950 patients (15

  1. Marine oil dietary supplementation reduces delayed onset muscle soreness after a 30 km run

    Baum K

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Klaus Baum,1 Richard D Telford,2 Ross B Cunningham,3 1Trainingsinstitut Prof Baum, Köln, Germany; 2College of Medicine, Biology, and Environment, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia; 3The Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia Objective: Runners are prone to delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS during long distance training. This especially holds for unaccustomed training volumes at moderate to high intensities. We investigated the effects of a marine oil complex, PCSO-524®, derived from the New Zealand green-lipped mussel (formulated as Lyprinol® and Omega XL® on DOMS after a 30 km training run. Methods: Initially, peak oxygen uptake of 32 distance runners (4 female, 28 male; median age 45 years, range 28–53 was measured on a treadmill with a 1.5 km hour-1 increase every 4 minutes starting from 8.5 km hour-1. At least 1-week after this initial test, they participated in a 30 km road run at a speed corresponding to about 70% of their individual peak oxygen uptake on a flat terrain. Before and after (0, 24, and 48 hours the run, blood concentration of creatine kinase (CK were measured and pain sensation was determined (pain scale from 0 = no pain to 10 = extremely painful. Runners were then matched in pairs based on maximal CK and peak oxygen uptake, and allocated randomly into two different groups. One group was supplemented with 400 mg per day of PCSO-524® for 11 weeks, the other group with an olive oil placebo. After that period, CK and pain sensations were remeasured following a second 30 km run at the same speed and on the same terrain. Results: The general pattern of soreness in the PCSO-524® supplemented group was reduced by 1.1 units (standard error 0.41 compared to the placebo (P < 0.05, the effects being greater in lesser trained runners (P < 0.05. CK levels were positively associated with pain sensation (P < 0.05, but trends toward lower CK in the

  2. WO3 Nanowires on Graphene Sheets as Negative Electrode for Supercapacitors

    Bo Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available WO3 nanowires directly grown on graphene sheets have been fabricated by using a seed-mediated hydrothermal method. The morphologies and electrochemical performance of WO3 films prepared by different process were studied. The results show that the precoated nanoseeds and graphene sheets on graphite electrode provide more reactive centers for the nucleation and formation of uniform WO3 nanowires. The WO3 nanowires electrode exhibits a high area specific capacitance of 800 mF cm−2 over negative potential range from −1.0 V to 0 V versus SCE in 1 M Li2SO4 solution. A high performance electrochemical supercapacitor assembled with WO3 nanowires as negative electrode and PANI/MnO2 as positive electrodes over voltage range of 1.6 V displays a high volumetric capacitance of 2.5 F cm−3, which indicate great potential applications of WO3 nanowires on graphene sheets as negative electrode for energy storage devices.

  3. WO3 nanoflakes decorated with CuO clusters for enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting

    Chongwu Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The low quantum efficiency arising from poor charges transfer and insufficient light absorption is one of the critical challenges toward achieving highly efficient water splitting in photoelectrochemical cells. Three dimensions (3D structures and heterojunctions have received intensive research interests recent years due to their excellent ability to separate photo-generated charges as well as the enhanced light harvesting property. Herein, 3D CuO/WO3 structure was fabricated through a facile solvothermal method followed by chemical bath deposition. The loading of CuO clusters on WO3 nanoflake arrays results in a much improved photocurrent density compared with that of pristine WO3 nanoflake arrays, which reaches 1.8 mA/cm2 at 1.23 V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement demonstrates that the improved performance of CuO/WO3 electrode is attributed to the accelerated charge transfer kinetics as a result of the desirable band alignment in CuO/WO3 heterojunction. This work demonstrates a facile strategy to construct superior WO3 electrode, which will ultimately allow for efficient storage of solar energy into hydrogen. Keywords: Photoelectrochemistry, Water splitting, Tungsten trioxide photoanode, CuO clusters, Heterojunction

  4. A Resistive Humidity Sensor Based on Nanostructured WO3-ZnO Composites

    Karunesh Tiwari

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Paper reports morphological and humidity sensing studies of WO3 and WO3-ZnO composite pellets prepared in the weight % ratio of 10:1, 4:1 and 2:1 by solid-state reaction route. The pellets have been annealed at temperatures of 300-500 °C. XRD pattern shows peaks of ZnWO4 formed due to solid state reaction between WO3 and ZnO. SEM micrographs show that the sensing elements manifest porous structure. Granulation and tendency to agglomerate seen in the SEM micrograph are due to the presence of zinc ions in ZnWO4. Nanoparticles are having their sizes in the range 37-182 nm. The average Kelvin radius at 20˚C room temperature is 27 Ả. Humidity sensing application of the pellets has been studied in a humidity control cabinet. It is observed that as relative humidity increases, there is decrease in the resistance of pellets in the range 10-85 % RH. Sensing element of WO3-ZnO in 2:1 weight % ratio shows best results in 10-85 % relative humidity range. The average sensitivity of this sample is 1.25 MΩ/%RH. This sensing element shows good reproducibility, low hysteresis and less effect of aging.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sensing properties of WO3 nano-particles

    Singh, Subhash; Majumder, S. B.

    2018-05-01

    Metal oxide sensors, such as ZnO, SnO2, and WO3 etc. have been utilized for several decades for low-costd etection of combustible and toxic gases. In the present work tungsten oxide (WO3) nanoparticles have been prepared by using an economic wet chemical synthesis route. To understand the phase formation behavior of the synthesized powders, X-ray diffraction analysis has been performed. The microstructure evolution of the synthesized powders was characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The calcined phase pure WO3 nanoparticles are investigated in terms of LPG gas sensing properties. The gas sensing measurements has been done in two different mode of operation (namely static and dynamic measurements). The degree of oxygen deficiency in the WO3 sensor also affected the sensor properties and the optimum oxygen content of WO3 was necessary to get high sensitivity for LPG. The WO3 sensor shows the excellent sensor properties for LPG at the operating temperature of 250°C.

  6. Blood flow after contraction and cuff occlusion is reduced in subjects with muscle soreness after eccentric exercise

    Souza-Silva, Eduardo; Wittrup Christensen, Steffan; Hirata, Rogerio Pessoto

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) occur within 1-2 days after eccentric exercise but the mechanism mediating hypersensitivity is unclear. This study hypothesized that eccentric exercise reduces the blood flow response following muscle contractions and cuff occlusion, which may result...... anterior muscle. All measures were done bilaterally at day-0 (pre-exercise), day-2 and day-6 (post-exercise). Subjects scored the muscle soreness on a Likert scale for 6 days. Results: Eccentric exercise increased Likert scores at day-1 and day-2 compared with day-0 (P... in accumulated algesic substances being a part of the sensitization in DOMS. Methods: Twelve healthy subjects (5 women) performed dorsiflexion exercise (5 sets of 10 repeated eccentric contractions) in one leg, while the contralateral leg was the control. The maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the tibialis...

  7. Intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescent angiography-assisted modified superior gluteal artery perforator flap for reconstruction of sacral pressure sores.

    Chang, Chun-Kai; Wu, Chien-Ju; Chen, Chun-Yu; Wang, Chi-Yu; Chu, Tzi-Shiang; Hsu, Kuo-Feng; Chiu, Han-Ting; Liu, Hung-Hui; Chou, Chang-Yi; Wang, Chih-Hsin; Lin, Chin-Ta; Dai, Niann-Tzyy; Tzeng, Yuan-Sheng

    2017-12-01

    Pressure sores are often observed in patients who are bedridden. They can be a severe problem not only for patients and their caregivers but also for plastic surgeons. Here, we describe a new method of superior gluteal artery perforator flap harvesting and anchoring with the assistance of intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescent angiography. In this report, we describe the procedure and outcomes for 19 patients with grades III and IV sacral pressure sores who underwent the operation between September 2015 and November 2016. All flaps survived, and two experienced wound-edge partial dehiscence. With the assistance of this imaging device, we were able to acquire a reliable superior gluteal artery perforator flap and perform modified operations with it that are safe, easy to learn and associated with fewer complications than are traditional. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A longitudinal study of the incidence of pressure sores and the associated risks and strategies adopted in Italian operating theatres.

    Bulfone, Giampiera; Marzoli, Ilaria; Quattrin, Rosanna; Fabbro, Carmen; Palese, Alvisa

    2012-02-01

    To explore the incidence of intraoperative pressure sores, the associated risk factors and the preventive strategies adopted by nurses, we adopted a longitudinal study in a 900-bed teaching hospital with multiple operating theatres, located in the North of Italy. Patients who underwent major surgery were evaluated four times: at the moment of operating theatre admission, at operating theatre discharge, and on their third and sixth postoperative day. Of the patients included (n = 102) who had an average age of 62.3 years (range 20-87), 12.7% (13/102) developed a pressure ulcer in the operating theatre; 46.1% (6/13) of these ulcers were still present on the third postoperative day. Some health conditions (diabetes mellitus, cardiac diseases) and intra-operative factors (lying on the operating table for more than 6.15 hours, intraoperative hypothermia) are associated with the occurrence of pressure sores.

  9. Effects of winter military training on energy balance, whole-body protein balance, muscle damage, soreness, and physical performance.

    Margolis, Lee M; Murphy, Nancy E; Martini, Svein; Spitz, Marissa G; Thrane, Ingjerd; McGraw, Susan M; Blatny, Janet-Martha; Castellani, John W; Rood, Jennifer C; Young, Andrew J; Montain, Scott J; Gundersen, Yngvar; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2014-12-01

    Physiological consequences of winter military operations are not well described. This study examined Norwegian soldiers (n = 21 males) participating in a physically demanding winter training program to evaluate whether short-term military training alters energy and whole-body protein balance, muscle damage, soreness, and performance. Energy expenditure (D2(18)O) and intake were measured daily, and postabsorptive whole-body protein turnover ([(15)N]-glycine), muscle damage, soreness, and performance (vertical jump) were assessed at baseline, following a 4-day, military task training phase (MTT) and after a 3-day, 54-km ski march (SKI). Energy intake (kcal·day(-1)) increased (P balance was lower (P military training provide the basis for future studies to evaluate nutritional strategies that attenuate protein loss and sustain performance during severe energy deficits.

  10. Tungsten-based nanomaterials (WO{sub 3} & Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}): Modifications related to charge carrier transfer mechanisms and photocatalytic applications

    Girish Kumar, S., E-mail: girichem@yahoo.co.in; Koteswara Rao, K.S.R., E-mail: raoksrk@gmail.com

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Photocatalytic applications of WO{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} based nanomaterial are reviewed. • Modifications to improve their performance are highlighted. • Charge carrier generation–separation–recombination is discussed. • Challenges and future prospects in this area are addressed. - Abstract: Heterogeneous photocatalysis is an ideal green energy technology for the purification of wastewater. Although titania dominates as the reference photocatalyst, its wide band gap is a bottleneck for extended utility. Thus, search for non-TiO{sub 2} based nanomaterials has become an active area of research in recent years. In this regard, visible light absorbing polycrystalline WO{sub 3} (2.4–2.8 eV) and Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} (2.8 eV) with versatile structure-electronic properties has gained considerable interest to promote the photocatalytic reactions. These materials are also explored in selective functional group transformation in organic reactions, because of low reduction and oxidation potential of WO{sub 3} CB and Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} VB, respectively. In this focused review, various strategies such as foreign ion doping, noble metal deposition and heterostructuring with other semiconductors designed for efficient photocatalysis is discussed. These modifications not only extend the optical response to longer wavelengths, but also prolong the life-time of the charge carriers and strengthen the photocatalyst stability. The changes in the surface-bulk properties and the charge carrier transfer dynamics associated with each modification correlating to the high activity are emphasized. The presence of oxidizing agents, surface modification with Cu{sup 2+} ions and synthesis of exposed facets to promote the degradation rate is highlighted. In depth study on these nanomaterials is likely to sustain interest in wastewater remediation and envisaged to signify in various green energy applications.

  11. Efficacy of flurbiprofen 8.75 mg spray in patients with sore throat due to an upper respiratory tract infection: A randomised controlled trial.

    de Looze, Ferdinandus; Russo, Marc; Bloch, Mark; Montgomery, Barney; Shephard, Adrian; Smith, Gary; Aspley, Sue

    2016-06-01

    Viral infections cause most cases of pharyngitis (sore throat); consequently, antibiotics are generally not warranted. However, a treatment targeting pain and inflammation, e.g. a topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory spray, may be helpful for patients. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of flurbiprofen 8.75 mg spray. This randomised, double-blind, parallel group study was conducted at six community-based clinical research centres in Australia and two in New Zealand. Adults with sore throat due to upper respiratory tract infection (onset ≤ four days) took one dose of flurbiprofen (n = 249) or placebo spray (n = 256); after six hours, they could re-dose every three-six hours as required, for three days (max. five doses/day). The primary endpoint was the area under the change from baseline curve in throat soreness from zero-two hours (AUC0-2h). The change from baseline in other sore throat symptoms also assessed efficacy. The mean AUC0-2h for throat soreness was significantly greater with flurbiprofen spray (-1.82; 95% CI: -1.98 to 1.65) compared with placebo (-1.13; 95% CI: -1.27 to 0.99) (P flurbiprofen spray compared with placebo from the first time-points assessed (five minutes for throat soreness/difficulty swallowing, 20 minutes for sore throat pain intensity and 30 minutes for swollen throat) for up to six hours (P Flurbiprofen spray provides rapid and long-lasting relief from sore throat symptoms, and is well-tolerated over three days.

  12. EFFECTS OF TWO DIFFERENT DOSAGE OF BCAA SUPPLEMENTATION ON SERUM INDICES OF MUSCLE DAMAGE AND SORENESS IN SOCCER PLAYERS

    Payam Mohamad-Panahi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigation of the effects of two different dose of BCAA supplementation on serum indices of muscle damage and soreness in soccer players. 30 male soccer players (age: 20.2+-0.6 yr participated as subjects in this study. Subjects were randomly divided into three groups (double-blind design. All subjects performed lower- body resistance exercise (6 sets, 10 repetitions, 70% 1RM. The BCAA was given at doses of 200 and 450 mg.kg -1 BW for supplemental groups 1 and 2, respectively, 30 minutes before and after to exercise tests and carbohydrate was given at dose of 200 mg.kg -1 BW for placebo group. To identify enzymes activity (IU/L, venous blood samples were collected 30 min prior to exercise and at 24 and 48 hrs post exercise. Data were statistically analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and Bonfferoni test. Baseline CK, CK-MB and muscle soreness were determined 30 minutes before the exercise test. Baseline serum values for CK, CK-MB and baseline muscle soreness were not different between groups in the 30 minutes before the exercise test (p>0/05. However, there were significant increases between the pre-exercise and post-exercise values for CK, CK-MB and muscle soreness from 24 hrs to 48 hrs post-test (p<0/05, but there were no significant differences between two groups (p< 0.05(. These results suggested that two different dosages of BCAA supplementation did not affect muscle damage and muscle sureness during resistance exercise bout in soccer players.

  13. The Pacman Perforator-Based V-Y Advancement Flap for Reconstruction of Pressure Sores at Different Locations.

    Bonomi, Stefano; Salval, André; Brenta, Federica; Rapisarda, Vincenzo; Settembrini, Fernanda

    2016-09-01

    Many procedures have been proposed for the treatment of pressure sores, and V-Y advancement flaps are widely used to repair a defect. Unfortunately, the degree of mobility of a V-Y advancement flap is dependent on the laxity of the underlying subcutaneous tissue. This is an important disadvantage of traditional V-Y advancement flap and limits its use.We used V-Y advancement flaps as perforator-based to overcome mobility restriction problem, with a further modification (Pacman-like shape) to improve the covering surface area of the flap. Between January 2012 and December 2014, the authors used 37 V-Y Pacman perforator-based flaps in 33 consecutive patients for coverage of defects located at sacral (n = 21), ischial (n = 13), trochanter (n = 1) regions. There were 27 male and 6 female patients with a mean age of 49.9 years (range, 15-74 years). All flaps survived completely (92.3%) except 3 in which one of them had undergone total necrosis due to hematoma and the other 2 had partial necrosis. No venous congestion was observed. The mean follow-up period was 14.9 months (range, 2-38 months). No flap surgery-related mortality or recurrence of pressure sores was noted. The V-Y Pacman perforator-based advancement flaps are safe and very effective for reconstruction of pressure sores at various regions. The advantage of our modification procedure include shorter operative time, lesser pedicle dissection, low donor site morbidity, good preservation of muscle, and offers remarkable excursion to the V-Y flap, which make the V-Y Pacman perforator-based flaps an excellent choice for large pressure sore coverage.

  14. Sore throat: effective communication delivers improved diagnosis, enhanced self-care and more rational use of antibiotics.

    van der Velden, A W; Bell, J; Sessa, A; Duerden, M; Altiner, A

    2013-11-01

    The majority of throat infections are of viral origin and resolve without antibiotic treatment. Despite this, antibiotic use for sore throat infections remains high, partly because it is difficult to determine when antibiotics may be useful, on the basis of physical findings alone. Antibiotics may be beneficial in bacterial throat infections under certain clinical and epidemiological circumstances; however, even many of those infections in which bacteria play a role do resolve just as quickly without antibiotics. Furthermore, non-medical factors such as patient expectations and patient pressure are also important drivers of antibiotic use. To address these issues, a behavioural change is required that can be facilitated by improved communication between primary healthcare providers and patients. In this article, we provide doctors, nurses and pharmacy staff, working in primary care or in the community, with a structured approach to sore throat management, with the aim of educating and empowering patients to self-manage their condition. The first component of this approach involves identifying and addressing patients' expectations and concerns with regard to their sore throat and eliciting their opinion on antibiotics. The second part is dedicated to a pragmatic assessment of the severity of the condition, with attention to red-flag symptoms and risk factors for serious complications. Rather than just focusing on the cause (bacterial or viral) of the upper respiratory tract infections as a rationale for antibiotic use, healthcare providers should instead consider the severity of the patient's condition and whether they are at high risk of complications. The third part involves counselling patients on effective self-management options and providing information on the expected clinical course. Such a structured approach to sore throat management, using empathetic, non-paternalistic language, combined with written patient information, will help to drive patient

  15. [Thigh and leg musculo-cutaneous island flap for giant bilateral trochanteric and perineal pressure sores coverage: Extreme treatment in spinal cord injury].

    André, A; Crouzet, C; De Boissezon, X; Grolleau, J-L

    2015-06-01

    Surgical treatment of perineal pressure sores could be done with various fascio-cutaneous or musculo-cutaneous flaps, which provide cover and filling of most of pressure sores after spinal cord injuries. In rare cases, classical solutions are overtaken, then it is necessary to use more complex techniques. We report a case of a made-to-measure lower limb flap for coverage of confluent perineal pressure sores. A 49-year-old paraplegic patient developed multiple pressure sores on left and right ischial tuberosity, inferior pubic bone and bilateral trochanters with hips dislocation. Surgical treatment involved a whole right thigh flap to cover and fill right side lesions, associated to a posterior right leg musculo-cutaneous island flap to cover and fill the left trochanteric pressure sore. The surgical procedure lasted 6.5 hours and required massive blood transfusion. Antibiotics were adapted to bacteriological samples. There were no postoperative complications; complete wound healing occurred after three weeks. A lower limb sacrifice for coverage of a giant perineal pressure sores is an extreme surgical solution, reserved to patients understanding the issues of this last chance procedure. A good knowledge of vascular anatomy is an essential prerequisite, and allows to shape made-to-measure flaps. The success of such a procedure is closely linked to the collaboration with the rehabilitation team (appropriate therapeutic education concerning transfers and positioning). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Facile synthesis of reduced graphene oxide/CoWO4 nanocomposites with enhanced electrochemical performances for supercapacitors

    Xu, Xiaowei; Shen, Jianfeng; Li, Na; Ye, Mingxin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • RGO/CoWO 4 composites were successfully prepared through a facile hydrothermal method. • RGO/CoWO 4 composites show much higher specific capacitances than pure CoWO 4 . • Enhanced electrical conductivity leads to superior electrochemical performance. - Abstract: A facile one-pot hydrothermal method was provided for synthesis of the reduced graphene oxide-cobalt tungstate (RGO/CoWO 4 ) nanocomposites with the enhanced electrochemical performances for supercapacitors for the first time. The resulting nanocomposites are comprised of CoWO 4 nanospheres that are well-anchored on graphene sheets by in situ reducing. The prepared RGO/CoWO 4 nanocomposites have been thoroughly characterized by Fourier–transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric analysis, Scanning electron microscopy, Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and N 2 adsorption–desorption. Importantly, the prepared nanocomposites exhibit superior electrochemical performance to CoWO 4 as electrodes for supercapacitors. As a result, RGO/CoWO 4 nanocomposites with 91.6 wt% CoWO 4 content achieved a specific capacitance about 159.9 F g −1 calculated from the CV curves at 5 mV s −1 , which was higher than that of CoWO 4 (60.6 F g −1 ). The good electrochemical performance can be attributed to the increased electrical conductivity and the creation of new active sites due to the synergetic effect of RGO and CoWO 4 nanospheres. The cyclic stability tests demonstrated capacitance retention of about 94.7% after 1000 cycles, suggesting the potential application of RGO/CoWO 4 nanocomposites in energy-storage devices

  17. Morphology-controlled synthesis of CdWO4 nanorods and nanoparticles via a molten salt method

    Wang Yonggang; Ma Junfeng; Tao Jiantao; Zhu Xiaoyi; Zhou Jun; Zhao Zhongqiang; Xie Lijin; Tian Hua

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium tungstate (CdWO 4 ) nanoparticles and nanorods have been successfully synthesized by a molten salt method at 270 deg. C, and the morphology of the nanocrystals can be controlled by adjusting such reaction conditions as the calcined time and the weight ratio of the salt to the CdWO 4 precursor. The resultant sample is a pure phase of CdWO 4 without any other impurities

  18. The influence of an artificial playing surface on injury risk and perceptions of muscle soreness in elite Rugby Union.

    Williams, S; Trewartha, G; Kemp, S P T; Michell, R; Stokes, K A

    2016-01-01

    This prospective cohort study investigated the influence of an artificial playing surface on injury risk and perceptions of muscle soreness in elite English Premiership Rugby Union players. Time loss (from 39.5 matches) and abrasion (from 27 matches) injury risk was compared between matches played on artificial turf and natural grass. Muscle soreness was reported over the 4 days following one match played on each surface by 95 visiting players (i.e., normally play on natural grass surfaces). There was a likely trivial difference in the overall injury burden relating to time-loss injuries between playing surfaces [rate ratio = 1.01, 90% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-1.38]. Abrasions were substantially more common on artificial turf (rate ratio = 7.92, 90% CI: 4.39-14.28), although the majority of these were minor and only two resulted in any reported time loss. Muscle soreness was consistently higher over the 4 days following a match on artificial turf in comparison with natural grass, although the magnitude of this effect was small (effect sizes ranging from 0.26 to 0.40). These results suggest that overall injury risk is similar for the two playing surfaces, but further surveillance is required before inferences regarding specific injury diagnoses and smaller differences in overall injury risk can be made. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Influence of fatigue, stress, muscle soreness and sleep on perceived exertion during submaximal effort.

    Haddad, Monoem; Chaouachi, Anis; Wong, Del P; Castagna, Carlo; Hambli, Mourad; Hue, Olivier; Chamari, Karim

    2013-07-02

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the Hooper's Index variations (i.e., self-ratings of fatigue, stress, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and sleep) on rating of perceived exertion during a 10 min submaximal exercise training session (RPE-10 min) and then check the stability and the internal consistency of RPE-10 min. Seventeen junior soccer players took part in this study. The individual Hooper's indices taken before each training session were correlated with RPE-10 min during a constant intensity and duration effort (10 min) using Pearson product moment correlation. Intraclass correlation (ICC) was used to assess the internal consistency of the RPE-10 min. All individual correlations between RPE-10 min and quality of sleep and quantity of fatigue, stress, and DOMS were non-significant (p>0.05). No significant correlations were resulted between RPE-10 min and Hooper's Index in all athletes. The ICC of RPE-10 min was 0.77 thus demonstrating internal consistency. The results of the present study demonstrated the objectivity and utility of RPE as a psychological tool for monitoring training during traditional soccer training. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that fatigue, stress, DOMS and sleep are not major contributors of perceived exertion during traditional soccer training without excessive training loads. It seems that psychobiological factors other than fatigue, stress, DOMS and sleep may have mediated the 10 min exercise perceptual intensity. © 2013.

  20. Design of a Novel Two-Component Hybrid Dermal Scaffold for the Treatment of Pressure Sores.

    Sharma, Vaibhav; Kohli, Nupur; Moulding, Dale; Afolabi, Halimat; Hook, Lilian; Mason, Chris; García-Gareta, Elena

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to design a novel two-component hybrid scaffold using the fibrin/alginate porous hydrogel Smart Matrix combined to a backing layer of plasma polymerized polydimethylsiloxane (Sil) membrane to make the fibrin-based dermal scaffold more robust for the treatment of the clinically challenging pressure sores. A design criteria are established, according to which the Sil membranes are punched to avoid collection of fluid underneath. Manual peel test shows that native silicone does not attach to the fibrin/alginate component while the plasma polymerized silicone membranes are firmly bound to fibrin/alginate. Structural characterization shows that the fibrin/alginate matrix is intact after the addition of the Sil membrane. By adding a Sil membrane to the original fibrin/alginate scaffold, the resulting two-component scaffolds have a significantly higher shear or storage modulus G'. In vitro cell studies show that dermal fibroblasts remain viable, proliferate, and infiltrate the two-component hybrid scaffolds during the culture period. These results show that the design of a novel two-component hybrid dermal scaffold is successful according to the proposed design criteria. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study that reports the combination of a fibrin-based scaffold with a plasma-polymerized silicone membrane. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Herbs and natural supplements in the prevention and treatment of delayed-onset muscle soreness

    Abbas Meamarbashi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:  Unaccustomed and intense eccentric exercise is a common cause of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS. There are multiple remedies for the treatment of DOMS, but its clinical and laboratory pieces of evidence are scarce. Currently, the treatments proposed for DOMS are numerous and include pharmaceuticals, herbal remedies, stretching, massage, nutritional supplements, and other alternatives. To find a holistic treatment with effective pain relief and minimum side effects, complementary and alternative medicine, including herbal therapies, plays a main role.Methods: In this review, the existing published studies investigating the efficacy of herbal and natural supplementation therapies for the prevention or treatment of side effects, symptoms, and signs of DOMS are summarized.Results: Previous studies have documented the efficacy of herbal therapies to treat pain, inflammation, as well as laboratory and clinical side effects of DOMS.Conclusion: The use of herbs in DOMS seems safer and has lower side effects than pharmacotherapy. However, the potential for side effects and drug interactions should be considered.

  2. The Effects of Pre-Exercise Ginger Supplementation on Muscle Damage and Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness.

    Matsumura, Melissa D; Zavorsky, Gerald S; Smoliga, James M

    2015-06-01

    Ginger possesses analgesic and pharmacological properties mimicking non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs. We aimed to determine if ginger supplementation is efficacious for attenuating muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) following high-intensity resistance exercise. Following a 5-day supplementation period of placebo or 4 g ginger (randomized groups), 20 non-weight trained participants performed a high-intensity elbow flexor eccentric exercise protocol to induce muscle damage. Markers associated with muscle damage and DOMS were repeatedly measured before supplementation and for 4 days following the exercise protocol. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed one repetition maximum lift decreased significantly 24 h post-exercise in both groups (p ginger group (p = 0.002), and improved at 72 (p = 0.021) and 96 h (p = 0.044) only in the placebo group. Blood creatine kinase significantly increased for both groups (p = 0.015) but continued to increase only in the ginger group 72 (p = 0.006) and 96 h (p = 0.027) post-exercise. Visual analog scale of pain was significantly elevated following eccentric exercise (p ginger. In conclusion, 4 g of ginger supplementation may be used to accelerate recovery of muscle strength following intense exercise but does not influence indicators of muscle damage or DOMS. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Pt supported self-assembled nest-like-porous WO3 hierarchical microspheres as electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation

    Zhang, Jun; Tu, Jiang-ping; Du, Gao-hui; Dong, Zi-min; Su, Qing-mei; Xie, Dong; Wang, Xiu-li

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nest-like-porous (NLP) WO 3 microspheres are assembled by a hydrothermal method. ► The NLP-WO 3 microspheres have a hexagonal structure and high porous surface. ► Great enhancement of electrochemical property is achieved for Pt/NLP-WO 3 microspheres. -- Abstract: Hexagonal tungsten trioxide (hex-WO 3 ) hierarchical microspheres with nest-like pores are synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. The nest-like-porous (NLP) WO 3 hierarchical microspheres with 5–6 μm in diameters are self-assembled of single-crystal nanowires. The nanowires have lengths of several hundred nanometers and diameters of 5–30 nm; the long axis of nanowire is oriented toward 〈0 0 1〉 direction. The specific surface area of hex-WO 3 microspheres is 62 m 2 g −1 . 20 wt.% Pt nanoparticles with ∼7 nm are loaded onto the WO 3 microspheres using a conventional microwave-assisted ethylene glycol (EG) method. The electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation of Pt/NLP-WO 3 microspheres is investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. Due to the large tunnels of hexagonal structure and high porous surface morphology, great enhancement of electrochemical performance is achieved. The Pt/NLP-WO 3 microspheres are demonstrated to be a promising anode material for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC)

  4. Degradation of organic dyes using spray deposited nanocrystalline stratified WO3/TiO2 photoelectrodes under sunlight illumination

    Hunge, Y. M.; Yadav, A. A.; Mahadik, M. A.; Bulakhe, R. N.; Shim, J. J.; Mathe, V. L.; Bhosale, C. H.

    2018-02-01

    The need to utilize TiO2 based metal oxide hetero nanostructures for the degradation of environmental pollutants like Rhodamine B and reactive red 152 from the wastewater using stratified WO3/TiO2 catalyst under sunlight illumination. WO3, TiO2 and stratified WO3/TiO2 catalysts were prepared by a spray pyrolysis method. It was found that the stratified WO3/TiO2 heterostructure has high crystallinity, no mixed phase formation occurs, strong optical absorption in the visible region of the solar spectrum, and large surface area. The photocatalytic activity was tested for degradation of Rhodamine B (Rh B) and reactive red 152 in an aqueous medium. TiO2 layer in stratified WO3/TiO2 catalyst helps to extend its absorption spectrum in the solar light region. Rh B and Reactive red 152is eliminated up to 98 and 94% within the 30 and 40 min respectively at optimum experimental condition by stratified WO3/TiO2. Moreover, stratified WO3/TiO2 photoelectrode has good stability and reusability than individual TiO2 and WO3 thin film in the degradation of Rh B and reactive red 152. The photoelectrocatalytic experimental results indicate that stratified WO3/TiO2 photoelectrode is a promising material for dye removal.

  5. [Reduction of pressure sores during prone positioning of ventilated intensive care patients by the prone-head support system: a pilot study].

    Prebio, Michael; Katz-Papatheophilou, Elfriede; Heindl, Werner; Gelbmann, Herbert; Burghuber, Otto C

    2005-02-01

    Prone positioning in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome is a well-known method to improve oxygenation. The aim of our study was to evaluate a new device for prone positioning, the prone-head support system (PHS system), with regard to reduction of cutaneous pressure sores. In a pilot study we randomized 8 patients with ARDS in two groups: 180 degrees standard prone positioning (group without mask) and prone positioning with the PHS system (group with mask). The PHS system consists of a facemask support, which is connected to an adapted air suspension bed. The patients of both groups were intermittently proned for several days. We evaluated the pressure sores on head and neck before turning the patients prone for the first time and after each period of prone positioning. We documented the quantity, the size, the type and the localization of the pressure sores. There was no significant difference in the mean duration of prone positioning (27.1+/-14.7 hours in the group with mask versus 24.5+/-18.7 h in the group without mask). In the group with mask there were 1.5+/-0.8 new pressure sores by each proning, whereas in the group without mask there were 2.37+/-1.6 new pressure sores, which was lower, but not significantly. The overall area of pressure sores (798 mm2 versus 3184 mm2, p=0.004), the area of pressure sores per patient (199.5+/-104.7 mm2 versus 796+/-478 mm2, p=0.03) and the increase of the area of pressure sores per proning (79.8+/-52.0 mm2 versus 398.0+/-214.3 mm2, p=0.004) were significantly lower in the group with mask in comparison to the group without mask. The lips were the most effected localization in both groups. The pressure sores in the group with mask were less severe and showed a homogenous distribution in comparison to the group without mask. Blisters dominated in the group with mask in comparison to erosions, necrosis and ulcers in the group without mask. The PHS system with its face mask is able to reduce the extent and the

  6. Humidity sensing properties of WO3 thick film resistor prepared by screen printing technique

    Garde, Arun S

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Polycrystalline WO 3 Thick films are fabricated by screen printing technique. • Monoclinic phases were the majority in formation of films. • The peak at 1643 cm −1 shows stretching vibrations attributed to W-OH of adsorbed H 2 O. • Absorption peaks in the range 879–650 cm −1 are attributed to the stretching W-O-W bonds. • Increase in resistance with decrease in RH when exposed to 20–100% RH. - Abstract: Thick films of tungsten oxide based were prepared using standard screen printing technique. To study the effect of temperature on the thick films were fired at different temperature for 30 min in air atmosphere. The WO 3 thick films were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and EDAX for elemental analysis. The formation of mixed phases of the film together with majority of monoclinic phase was observed. IR spectra confirm the peak at 1643 cm −1 clearly shows stretching vibrations attributed to the W-OH bending vibration mode of the adsorbed water molecules. The absorption peaks in the range 879–650 cm −1 are attributed to the stretching W-O-W bonds (i.e. ν [W-O inter -W]). The peak located at 983 cm −1 belong to W=O terminal of cluster boundaries. A change in the resistance was observed with respect to the relative humidity when the WO 3 thick films were exposed to a wide humidity range of 20–100%. An increasing firing temperature of WO 3 film increases with the sensitivity. The parameters such as sensitivity and hysteresis of the WO 3 film sensors have been evaluated

  7. WO-Type Wolf-Rayet Stars: the Last Hurrah of the Most Massive Stars?

    Massey, Philip

    2014-10-01

    WO-type Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars are considered the final evolutionary stage of the highest mass stars, immediate precursors to Type Ic (He-poor) core-collapse supernovae. These WO stars are rare, and until recently only 6 were known. Our knowledge about their physical properties is mostly based on a single object, Sand 2 in the LMC. It was the only non-binary WO star both bright and unreddened enough that its FUV and NUV spectra could be obtained by FUSE and HST/FOS. A non-LTE analysis showed that Sand 2 is very hot and its (C+O)/He abundance ratio is higher than that found in WC-type WRs, suggesting it is indeed highly evolved. However, the O VI resonance doublet in the FUV required a considerably cooler temperature (120,000 K) model than did the optical O VI lines (170,000 K). Further, the enhanced chemical abundances did not match the predictions of stellar evolutionary models. Another non-LTE study found a 3x higher (C+O)/He abundance ratio and a cooler temperature. We have recently discovered two other bright, single, and lightly reddened WOs in the LMC, allowing us to take a fresh look at these important objects. Our newly found WOs span a range in excitation type, from WO1 (the highest) to WO4 (the lowest). Sand 2 is intermediate (WO3). We propose to use COS to obtain FUV and NUV data of all three stars for as comprehensive a study as is currently possible. These UV data will be combined with our optical Magellan spectra for a detailed analysis with CMFGEN with the latest atomic data. Knowing the degree of chemical evolution of these WO stars is crucial to determining their evolutionary status, and thus in understanding the final stages of the most massive stars.

  8. On tungstates of divalent cations (II). Polymorphy of Pb{sub 2}WO{sub 5}

    Jantz, Stephan G.; Dialer, Marwin; Hoeppe, Henning A. [Lehrstuhl fuer Festkoerperchemie, Universitaet Augsburg (Germany); Pielnhofer, Florian [Abteilung Nanochemie, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2017-12-13

    The phase transition from the low temperature form Pb{sub 2}[WO{sub 5}] to its high temperature form Pb{sub 2}O[WO{sub 4}] was monitored by means of temperature dependent powder XRD. Single-crystals of Pb{sub 2}[WO{sub 5}], suitable for a structure determination by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, were obtained by quenching a sample from 500 C to room temperature. The low-temperature phase Pb{sub 2}[WO{sub 5}] comprises the structural motive of infinite zigzag chains built by cornersharing WO{sub 6} octahedra, known from the tungstates M{sub 2}[WO{sub 5}] (M = Sr, Ba), but crystallizes in a new structure type [C2/c, a = 14.0996(4) Aa, b = 5.8579(2) Aa, c = 12.6877(4) Aa, β = 114.3569(13) , Z = 8, R{sub int} = 0.042, R{sub 1} = 0.040, wR{sub 2} = 0.068]. The crystal structure of the high-temperature phase Pb{sub 2}O[WO{sub 4}] [C2/m, a = 14.2126(4) Aa, b = 5.80150(10) Aa, c = 7.3477(2) Aa, β = 113.9402(7) , Z = 4, R{sub 1} = 0.035, wR{sub 2} = 0.055] is revised, based on single-crystal XRD data. Furthermore spectroscopic data (IR, Raman and UV/Vis spectra) are presented. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Evaluate humidity sensing properties of novel TiO2–WO3 composite material

    Lin, Wang-De; Lai, De-Sheng; Chen, Min-Hung; Wu, Ren-Jang; Chen, Fu-Chou

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: TiO 2 –WO 3 (1:1) showed better humidity sensing properties than others within the range of 12–90% relative humidity (RH), the response and recovery time were about 20 s and 160 s, respectively. Compared to the previous studies, the prepared sensor exhibits higher sensitivity (S = 451) and the low hysteresis value was around 0.13% at 32% RH. - Highlights: • Novel TiO 2 –WO 3 composite material was prepared for humidity sensor. • The sensor exhibits higher sensitivity (S = 451). • Low hysteresis value was around 0.13% at 32% RH. - Abstract: A novel TiO 2 –WO 3 composite material was prepared using a different proportion of TiO 2 and WO 3 to that investigated in previous studies. The obtained mesoporous material was characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and N 2 adsorption-desorption techniques. The humidity-sensing properties were measured using an inductance, capacitance and resistance analyzer. The results demonstrated that the TiO 2 –WO 3 sample with a ratio of 1:1 showed better humidity sensing properties. Compared to previous studies, the prepared sensor exhibited higher sensitivity (S = 451) and the lower hysteresis value was around 0.13% at 32% RH. Complex impedance analysis indicated that the enhanced humidity sensitivity was probably due to spherical Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area and the hetero-junction between TiO 2 –WO 3 thin films, while the impedance varied about three orders of magnitude. Our results demonstrated the potential application of TiO 2 –WO 3 composite for fabricating high performance humidity sensors

  10. Preparation of tungsten coatings on graphite by electro-deposition via Na2WO4–WO3 molten salt system

    Sun, Ning-bo; Zhang, Ying-chun; Jiang, Fan; Lang, Shao-ting; Xia, Min

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Tungsten coatings on graphite were firstly obtained by electro-deposition method via Na 2 WO 4 –WO 3 molten salt system. • Uniform and dense tungsten coatings could be easily prepared in each face of the sample, especially the complex components. • The obtained tungsten coatings are with high purity, ultra-low oxygen content (about 0.022 wt%). • Modulate pulse parameters can get tungsten coatings with different thickness and hardness. - Abstract: Tungsten coating on graphite substrate is one of the most promising candidate materials as the ITER plasma facing components. In this paper, tungsten coatings on graphite substrates were fabricated by electro-deposition from Na 2 WO 4 –WO 3 molten salt system at 1173 K in atmosphere. Tungsten coatings with no impurities were successfully deposited on graphite substrates under various pulsed current densities in an hour. By increasing the current density from 60 mA cm −2 to 120 mA cm −2 an increase of the average size of tungsten grains, the thickness and the hardness of tungsten coatings occurs. The average size of tungsten grains can reach 7.13 μm, the thickness of tungsten coating was in the range of 28.8–51 μm, and the hardness of coating was higher than 400 HV. No cracks or voids were observed between tungsten coating and graphite substrate. The oxygen content of tungsten coating is about 0.022 wt%

  11. Structural, vibrational and luminescence properties of the (1−x)CaWO{sub 4}−xCdWO{sub 4} system

    Taoufyq, A. [Institut Matériaux Microélectronique et Nanosciences de Provence, Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Université de Toulon, IM2NP UMR 7334, 83957, La Garde (France); Laboratoire Matériaux et Environnement LME, Faculté des Sciences, Université Ibn Zohr, BP 8106, Cité Dakhla, Agadir, Maroc (Morocco); CEA/DEN, Département d’Études des Réacteurs, Laboratoire Dosimétrie Capteurs Instrumentation, CEA Cadarache, 13108, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Société CESIGMA, Signals and Systems, 1576 Chemin de La Planquette, 83130 La Garde (France); Guinneton, F.; Valmalette, J-C.; Arab, M. [Institut Matériaux Microélectronique et Nanosciences de Provence, Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Université de Toulon, IM2NP UMR 7334, 83957, La Garde (France); Benlhachemi, A.; Bakiz, B. [Laboratoire Matériaux et Environnement LME, Faculté des Sciences, Université Ibn Zohr, BP 8106, Cité Dakhla, Agadir, Maroc (Morocco); Villain, S. [Institut Matériaux Microélectronique et Nanosciences de Provence, Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Université de Toulon, IM2NP UMR 7334, 83957, La Garde (France); and others

    2014-11-15

    In the present work, we investigate the structural, microstructural, vibrational and luminescence properties of the system (1−x)CaWO{sub 4}−xCdWO{sub 4} with x ranging between 0 and 1. Polycrystalline samples were elaborated using a coprecipitation technique followed by thermal treatment at 1000 °C. The samples were then characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and luminescence analyses. X-ray diffraction profile analyses using Rietveld method showed that two kinds of solid solutions Ca{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}WO{sub 4} having scheelite and wolframite structures, with respectively tetragonal and monoclinic crystal cells, were observed, with a biphasic system for compositions x=0.6 and 0.7. The scanning electron microscopy experiments showed a complex evolution of morphologies and crystallite sizes as x increased. The vibration modes of Raman spectra were characteristic of composition-dependent disordered solid solutions with decreasing wavenumbers as x increased. Luminescence experiments were performed under UV-laser light irradiation. The energies of emission bands increased linearly with cadmium composition x. The integrated intensity of luminescence reached a maximum value for the substituted wolframite phase with composition x=0.8. - Graphical abstract: Luminescence on UV excitation (364.5 nm) of (1−x)CaWO{sub 4−x}CdWO{sub 4} system, elaborated from coprecipitation technique at 1000 °C, with 0WO{sub 4} polycrystalline phases with 0≤x≤0.5. (b) Maximum of luminescence intensity for the composition x=0.8. - Highlights: • Solid solutions Ca{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}WO{sub 4} are elaborated from coprecipitation technique. • The structures of two types of solid solutions are refined using Rietveld method. • A maximum of luminescence is obtained for an intermediate composition x=0.8.

  12. Investigation of the La2O3-Nb2O5-WO3 ternary phase diagram: Isolation and crystal structure determination of the original La3NbWO10 material

    Vu, T.D.; Vu, T.D.; Barre, M.; Adil, Karim; Jouanneaux, A.; Suard, E.; Goutenoire, F.

    2015-01-01

    In the course of the exploration of the La2O3-WO3-Nb2O5 ternary phase diagram, a new compound with the formula La3NbWO10 was discovered. Its structure was determined from a combination of powder X-ray and neutron diffraction data. It crystallizes

  13. Phytochemical, Antimicrobial, and Toxicological Evaluation of Traditional Herbs Used to Treat Sore Throat

    Arifa Mehreen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro antibacterial activities of 29 traditional medicinal plants used in respiratory ailments were assessed on multidrug resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria isolated from the sore throat patients and two reference strains. The methanolic, n-hexane, and aqueous extracts were screened by the agar well diffusion assay. Bioactive fractions of effective extracts were identified on TLC coupled with bioautography, while their toxicity was determined using haemolytic assay against human erythrocytes. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of effective extracts was also performed. Methanolic extract of 18 plants showed antimicrobial activity against test strains. Adhatoda vasica (ZI = 17–21 mm, MIC: 7.12–62.5 μg/mL, Althaea officinalis (ZI = 16–20 mm, MIC: 15.62–31.25 μg/mL, Cordia latifolia (ZI = 16–20 mm, MIC: 12.62–62.5 μg/mL, Origanum vulgare (ZI = 20–22 mm, MIC: 3–15.62 μg/mL, Thymus vulgaris (ZI = 21–25 mm, MIC: 7.81–31.25 μg/mL, and Ziziphus jujuba (ZI = 14–20 mm, MIC: 7.81–31.25 μg/mL showed significant antibacterial activity. Alkaloid fractions of Adhatoda vasica, Cordia latifolia, and Origanum vulgare and flavonoid fraction of the Althaea officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Thymus Vulgaris, and Ziziphus jujuba exhibited antimicrobial activity. Effective plant extracts show 0.93–0.7% erythrocyte haemolysis. The results obtained from this study provide a scientific rationale for the traditional use of these herbs and laid the basis for future studies to explore novel antimicrobial compounds.

  14. Effect of hydrotherapy on the signs and symptoms of delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Vaile, Joanna; Halson, Shona; Gill, Nicholas; Dawson, Brian

    2008-03-01

    This study independently examined the effects of three hydrotherapy interventions on the physiological and functional symptoms of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Strength trained males (n = 38) completed two experimental trials separated by 8 months in a randomised crossover design; one trial involved passive recovery (PAS, control), the other a specific hydrotherapy protocol for 72 h post-exercise; either: (1) cold water immersion (CWI: n = 12), (2) hot water immersion (HWI: n = 11) or (3) contrast water therapy (CWT: n = 15). For each trial, subjects performed a DOMS-inducing leg press protocol followed by PAS or one of the hydrotherapy interventions for 14 min. Weighted squat jump, isometric squat, perceived pain, thigh girths and blood variables were measured prior to, immediately after, and at 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Squat jump performance and isometric force recovery were significantly enhanced (P < 0.05) at 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise following CWT and at 48 and 72 h post-exercise following CWI when compared to PAS. Isometric force recovery was also greater (P < 0.05) at 24, 48, and 72 h post-exercise following HWI when compared to PAS. Perceived pain improved (P < 0.01) following CWT at 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Overall, CWI and CWT were found to be effective in reducing the physiological and functional deficits associated with DOMS, including improved recovery of isometric force and dynamic power and a reduction in localised oedema. While HWI was effective in the recovery of isometric force, it was ineffective for recovery of all other markers compared to PAS.

  15. Phytochemical, Antimicrobial, and Toxicological Evaluation of Traditional Herbs Used to Treat Sore Throat

    Mehreen, Arifa; Waheed, Muzzamil; Liaqat, Iram; Arshad, Najma

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro antibacterial activities of 29 traditional medicinal plants used in respiratory ailments were assessed on multidrug resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria isolated from the sore throat patients and two reference strains. The methanolic, n-hexane, and aqueous extracts were screened by the agar well diffusion assay. Bioactive fractions of effective extracts were identified on TLC coupled with bioautography, while their toxicity was determined using haemolytic assay against human erythrocytes. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of effective extracts was also performed. Methanolic extract of 18 plants showed antimicrobial activity against test strains. Adhatoda vasica (ZI = 17–21 mm, MIC: 7.12–62.5 μg/mL), Althaea officinalis (ZI = 16–20 mm, MIC: 15.62–31.25 μg/mL), Cordia latifolia (ZI = 16–20 mm, MIC: 12.62–62.5 μg/mL), Origanum vulgare (ZI = 20–22 mm, MIC: 3–15.62 μg/mL), Thymus vulgaris (ZI = 21–25 mm, MIC: 7.81–31.25 μg/mL), and Ziziphus jujuba (ZI = 14–20 mm, MIC: 7.81–31.25 μg/mL) showed significant antibacterial activity. Alkaloid fractions of Adhatoda vasica, Cordia latifolia, and Origanum vulgare and flavonoid fraction of the Althaea officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Thymus Vulgaris, and Ziziphus jujuba exhibited antimicrobial activity. Effective plant extracts show 0.93–0.7% erythrocyte haemolysis. The results obtained from this study provide a scientific rationale for the traditional use of these herbs and laid the basis for future studies to explore novel antimicrobial compounds. PMID:27429983

  16. Reduced graphene oxide/δ-WO{sub 3} composites for volatile organic compounds sensing

    Perfecto, Tarcisio Micheli; Zito, Cecilia de Almeida; Volanti, Diogo Paschoalini, E-mail: tarcisio93@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Metal oxide semiconductors (MOS) is a simple and low-cost alternative to detect volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with fast response and recovery time [1]. In this context, reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is used in order to achieve a superior metal oxides gas sensing performance [2]. Thus, we report the synthesis of RGO/δ-WO{sub 3} composites by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method and its application in VOCs detection. The composites were prepared in a single-step using a graphene oxide dispersion, tungsten salt, ammonium oxalate hydrate as morphological control agent, and HCl in aqueous medium. The mixture was sealed in an autoclave and irradiated by microwave (800W) at 140 °C for 10 minutes. Then the sample was heating treatment at 400 °C for 1 hour. δ-WO{sub 3} single phase was also prepared by the same process without graphene oxide. The XRD results indicated the successful formation of triclinic phase of WO{sub 3} for both samples. FEG-SEM images showed the δ-WO{sub 3} nanoplates formation that are agglomerated and become more disperse and with irregular shape in RGO/δ-WO{sub 3} composite. TEM analysis revealed the interaction between RGO and δ-WO{sub 3} particles. The preliminary gas sensing results showed that increasing the operation temperature, more sensitive the composite RGO/δ-WO{sub 3} was toward the ethanol, methanol, acetone, toluene and benzene. So far, the highest response observed was to acetone at 300 °C. The response of RGO/δ-WO{sub 3} to 5, 10, 50, 100 and 200 ppm of acetone was 1.08, 1.12, 1.42, 1.75, and 1.99, respectively. We expect that increasing the operating temperature, more sensitive the material will become, since reports shows that WO{sub 3} sensors exhibit higher responses at higher temperatures [3]. Acknowledgments: The authors acknowledge FAPESP grants: 16/04371-1, 15/04306-2 and 14/17343-0. Refs.: [1] Jiang, D.;et al. RSC Adv. 2015, 5 (49), 39442-39448. [2] Jie, X.; et al. Sensors Actuators B Chem. 2015, 220

  17. Ethylene Separation via Hydrate Formation in W/O Emulsions

    Yong Pan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An hybrid absorption-hydration method was adopted to recover C2H4 from C2H4/CH4 binary gas mixtures and the hydrate formation conditions of C2H4/CH4 mixtures was studied experimentally in diesel in water (w/o emulsions. Span 20 at a concentration of 1.0 wt% in the aqueous phase was added to form water in diesel emulsions before hydrate formation and then hydrate in diesel slurry was separated after hydrate formation. The influences of initial gas-liquid volume ratio (53–142, pressure (3.4–5.4 MPa, temperature (274.15–278.15 K, water cuts (10–30 vol%, and the mole fraction of C2H4 in feed gas (13.19–80.44 mol% upon the C2H4 separation efficiency were systematically investigated. The experimental results show that ethylene can be enriched in hydrate slurry phase with high separation factor (S and recovery ratio (R. Most hydrate formation finished in 20 min, after that, the hydrate formation rate became very slow. The conclusion is useful for determining the suitable operation conditions when adopting an absorption-hydration method to separate C2H4/CH4.

  18. Production of CaWO{sub 4} crystals for direct dark matter search with CRESST

    Muenster, Andrea [Physik-Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Collaboration: CRESST-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The direct dark matter search experiment CRESST (Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers) uses scintillating CaWO{sub 4} single crystals as targets for possible recoils of dark matter particles. Since several years these CaWO{sub 4} crystals are produced directly at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM) including the CaWO{sub 4} powder production from the raw materials CaCO{sub 3} and WO{sub 3}, the CaWO{sub 4} crystal growth via the Czochralski method as well as the after-growth treatment of the crystals. In the recently finished CRESST-II Phase 2 (2013-2015), 4 TUM-grown crystals were installed in the main cryostat for the first time. Showing one of the best radiopurities of all installed crystals combined with an excellent detector performance the analysis of the crystal TUM40 resulted in the best sensitivity for low-mass dark matter particles in 2014. For the upcoming CRESST-III phase 2 we aim for a further improvement in radiopurity by a factor of 100. First results of a chemical purification of the raw materials as well as future plans to reduce the intrinsic background via recrystallization are presented.

  19. Non-stoichiometry defects and radiation hardness of lead tungstate crystals PbWO sub 4

    Devitsin, E G; Potashov, S Yu; Terkulov, A R; Nefedov, V A; Polyansky, E V; Zadneprovski, B I; Kjellberg, P; Korbel, V

    2002-01-01

    It has been stated many times that the formation of radiation infringements in PbWO sub 4 is to a big extent stipulated by the non-stoichiometry defects of the crystals, arising in the process of their growth and annealing. To refine the idea of characteristics of the non-stoichiometry defects and their effect on the radiation hardness of PbWO sub 4 , the current study is aimed at the melt composition infringements during its evaporation and at optical transmission of crystals obtained in these conditions after their irradiation ( sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs source). In the optical transmission measurements along with traditional techniques a method 'in situ' was used, which provided the measurements in fixed points of the spectrum (380, 470 and 535 nm) directly in the process of the irradiation. X-ray phase and fluorescence analysis of condensation products of vapours over PbWO sub 4 melt has found PbWO sub 4 phase in their content as well as compounds rich in lead PbO, Pb sub 2 WO sub 5 with overall ratio Pb/W (3....

  20. Non-stoichiometry Defects and Radiation Hardness of Lead Tungstate Crystals PbWO4

    Devitsin, E G; Kozlov, V A; Nefedov, L; Polyansky, E V; Potashov, S Yu; Terkulov, A R; Zadneprovski, B I

    2001-01-01

    It has been stated many times that the formation of radiation infringements in PbWO4 is to big extent stipulated by non-stoichiometry defects of the crystals, arising in the process of their growth and annealing. To refine the idea of characteristics of non-stoichiometry defects and their effect on the radiation hardness of PbWO4 the current study is aimed at the melt composition infringements during its evaporation and at optical transmission of crystals obtained in these conditions after their irradiation (137Cs source). In the optical transmission measurements along with traditional techniques a method "in situ" was used, which provided the measurements in fixed points of the spectrum (380, 470 and 535 nm) directly in the process of the irradiation. X-ray phase and fluorescence analysis of condensation products of vapours over PbWO4 melt has found PbWO4 phase in their content as well as compounds rich in lead, PbO, Pb2WO5, with overall ratio Pb/W = 3.2. Correspondingly the lack of lead and variations in th...

  1. Charge doping and large lattice expansion in oxygen-deficient heteroepitaxial WO3

    Mattoni, Giordano; Filippetti, Alessio; Manca, Nicola; Zubko, Pavlo; Caviglia, Andrea D.

    2018-05-01

    Tungsten trioxide (WO3) is a versatile material with widespread applications ranging from electrochromics and optoelectronics to water splitting and catalysis of chemical reactions. For technological applications, thin films of WO3 are particularly appealing, taking advantage from a high surface-to-volume ratio and tunable physical properties. However, the growth of stoichiometric crystalline thin films is challenging because the deposition conditions are very sensitive to the formation of oxygen vacancies. In this paper, we show how background oxygen pressure during pulsed laser deposition can be used to tune the structural and electronic properties of WO3 thin films. By performing x-ray diffraction and low-temperature electrical transport measurements, we find changes in the WO3 lattice volume of up to 10% concomitantly with a resistivity drop of more than five orders of magnitude at room temperature as a function of increased oxygen deficiency. We use advanced ab initio calculations to describe in detail the properties of the oxygen vacancy defect states and their evolution in terms of excess charge concentration. Our results depict an intriguing scenario where structural, electronic, optical, and transport properties of WO3 single-crystal thin films can all be purposely tuned by controlling the oxygen vacancy formation during growth.

  2. Combustion synthesized hierarchically porous WO{sub 3} for selective acetone sensing

    Dong, Chengjun; Liu, Xu; Guan, Hongtao; Chen, Gang; Xiao, Xuechun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, 650091, Kunming (China); Djerdj, Igor [Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, 10000, Zagreb (Croatia); Wang, Yude, E-mail: ydwang@ynu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, 650091, Kunming (China); Yunnan Province Key Lab of Mico-Nano Materials and Technology, Yunnan University, 650091, Kunming (China)

    2016-12-01

    An easy, inexpensive combustion route was designed to synthesize hierarchically porous WO{sub 3}. The tungsten source was fresh peroxiotungstic acid by dissolving tungsten powder into hydrogen peroxide. To promote the combustion reaction, a combined fuel of both glycine and hydrazine hydrate was used. The microstructure was well-connected pores comprised of subunit nanoparticles. Upon exposing towards acetone gas, the porous WO{sub 3} based sensor exhibits high gas response, rapid response and recovery, and good selectivity in the range of 5–1000 ppm under working temperature of 300 °C. This excellent sensing performance was plausibly attributed to the porous morphology, which hence provides more active sites for the gas molecules' reaction. - Graphical abstract: Hierarchically porous WO{sub 3} synthesized by combustion process exhibits high gas response, rapid response and recovery, and excellent selectivity for acetone, making it to be promising candidates for practical detectors for acetone. - Highlights: • Hierarchically porous WO{sub 3} synthesized by combustion process. • Hierarchically porous WO{sub 3} exhibits high gas response and excellent selectivity for acetone. • The excellent sensing property was plausibly attributed to the porous morphology.

  3. Nest-like structures of Sr doped Bi2WO6: Synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic properties

    Liu Ying; Wang Weimin; Fu Zhengyi; Wang Hao; Wang Yucheng; Zhang Jinyong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Bi 2 WO 6 with 3D nest-like structures was obtained without the presence of templates but after Sr-doping, which represents a marked improvement over previous reports. → The products showed enhanced photocatalytic properties over pure Bi 2 WO 6 . → Samples subsequently thermal treated at 500 deg. C show better photocatalytic activities. - Abstract: A series of Sr-doped Bi 2 WO 6 with three-dimensional (3D) nest-like structures were synthesized through simple hydrothermal route and characterized by XRD, FESEM, TEM, XPS, UV-vis DRS, etc. Morphology observation revealed that the as-synthesized Bi 2 WO 6 were self-assembled three-dimensional (3D) nest-like structures, which were constructed from nanoplates. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra indicated that the samples had absorption in both UV and visible light areas. Their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under UV and visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). The photocatalytic properties were enhanced after Sr doping. Samples subsequently thermal treated at 500 deg. C showed higher photocatalytic activities. The reasons for the differences in the photocatalytic activities of these nest-like Bi 2 WO 6 microstructures were further investigated.

  4. Oxygen partial pressure effects on the magnetron sputtered WO3 films

    Muğlu, G Merhan; Gür, E

    2016-01-01

    Electrochromism is changing color of a substance in response to the applied an external electric field and the phenomenon is reversible. WO 3 is very attractive material due to its electrochromic properties as well as it is also attractive for many different applications such as gas sensors, phosphorous screen, textile, glass industry. In this study, it is aimed to provide optimization of the optical and structural characteristics of WO 3 by changing the growth parameters mainly the oxygen partial pressure. The partial pressure of oxygen was changed with increments of 0.7 mTorr. For the analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), absorption, Raman spectroscopy measurements were used. When O 2 gas increased, peaks belong to the WO 3 was observed in XRD patterns at the 2 theta angles of 23.0, 11.0, 23.5 and 28.5 angles corresponding to the (002), (020) and (220) planes, respectively. This shows that there is a significant effect of increasing O 2 partial pressure in the formation of WO 3 films. The bandgap energy of the WO 3 thin films are found to be around 3.0 eV. Raman measurements showed vibrational modes of W-O-W stretching and bending modes which shows small shifts depending on the partial pressures of the O 2 . Obtained results indicated that better crystal structure is obtained with higher O 2 gas partial pressure. (paper)

  5. Synthesis of chemically bonded BiOCl@Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} microspheres with exposed (0 2 0) Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} facets and their enhanced photocatalytic activities under visible light irradiation

    Ma, Yongchao [Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Chen, Zhiwei [School of Life Sciences, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); Qu, Dan [Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Shi, Jinsheng, E-mail: jsshiqn@aliyun.com [Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • BiOCl@Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} composites were prepared via a controlled anion exchange method. • The shell of composites was composed of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} sheets with exposed (0 2 0) facets. • The BiOCl@Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} composites showed efficient photocatalytic activity. • A possible photocatalytic degradation mechanism is proposed. - Abstract: Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} photocatalysts has been extensively studied for its photocatalytic activity. However, few works have been conducted on hierarchical Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} composite photocatalysts with specifically exposed facets. In this work, we report a facile method to synthesize BiOCl@Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} hierarchical composite microspheres. Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} nanosheets with specifically exposed (0 2 0) facet were directly formed on the surface of BiOCl precursor microspheres via a controlled anion exchange route between BiOCl and Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}. The visible-light photocatalytic activity of the BiOCl@Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} heterojunction with exposed (0 2 0) facets (denoted as BiOCl@Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}) was investigated by degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. The experimental results indicated that the BiOCl@Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} composite microsphere with intimate interfacial contacts exhibited improved efficiency for RhB photodegradation in comparison with pure BiOCl and Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. The BiOCl@Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} composite microsphere also shows high photocatalytic activity for degradation of CIP under visible light irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic performance of BiOCl@Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}-020 hierarchical microspheres can be ascribed to the improved visible light harvesting ability, high charge separation and transfer. This work will make significant contributions toward the exploration of novel heterostructures with high potential in photocatalytic applications.

  6. Exploration on anion ordering, optical properties and electronic structure in K3WO3F3 elpasolite

    Atuchin, V.V.; Isaenko, L.I.; Kesler, V.G.; Lin, Z.S.; Molokeev, M.S.; Yelisseyev, A.P.; Zhurkov, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Room-temperature modification of potassium oxyfluorotungstate, G2-K 3 WO 3 F 3 , has been prepared by low-temperature chemical route and single crystal growth. Wide optical transparency range of 0.3–9.4 μm and forbidden band gap E g =4.32 eV have been obtained for G2-K 3 WO 3 F 3 crystal. Meanwhile, its electronic structure has been calculated with the first-principles calculations. The good agreement between the theorectical and experimental results have been achieved. Furthermore, G2-K 3 WO 3 F 3 is predicted to possess the relatively large nonlinear optical coefficients. - Graphical abstract: Using the cm-size K 3 WO 3 F 3 crystal (left upper), the transmission spectrum (right upper) and XPS valence electronic states (left lower) were measured, agreed with the ab initio results (right lower). Highlights: ► The cm-size G2-K 3 WO 3 F 3 single crystals are obtained. ► Optical absorption edge and transmission range are defined for G2-K 3 WO 3 F 3 crystal. ► Crystal structures of all known K 3 WO 3 F 3 polymorph modifications are determined. ► Experimental electronic structure is consistent with the first-principles result. ► G2-K 3 WO 3 F 3 is predicted as a crystal with large NLO coefficients.

  7. Structural properties of WO{sub 3} dependent of the annealing temperature deposited by hot-filament metal oxide deposition

    Flores M, J. E. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ciencias de la Electronica, Av. San Claudio y 18 Sur, Ciudad Universitaria, Col. Jardines de San Manuel, 72570 Puebla (Mexico); Diaz R, J. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Biotecnologia Aplicada, Ex-Hacienda de San Molino Km 1.5 Tepetitla, 90700 Tlaxcala (Mexico); Balderas L, J. A., E-mail: eflores@ece.buap.mx [IPN, Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Biotecnologia, Av. Acueducto s/n, Col. Barrio la Laguna, 07340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    In this work presents a study of the effect of the annealing temperature on structural and optical properties of WO{sub 3} that has been grown by hot-filament metal oxide deposition. The chemical stoichiometry was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. By X-ray diffraction obtained that the as-deposited WO{sub 3} films present mainly monoclinic crystalline phase. WO{sub 3} optical band gap energy can be varied from 2.92 to 3.15 eV obtained by transmittance measurements by annealing WO{sub 3} from 100 to 500 C. The Raman spectrum of the as-deposited WO{sub 3} film shows four intense peaks that are typical Raman peaks of crystalline WO{sub 3} (m-phase) that corresponds to the stretching vibrations of the bridging oxygen that are assigned to W-O stretching ({upsilon}) and W-O bending ({delta}) modes, respectively, which enhanced and increased their intensity with the annealing temperature. (Author)

  8. Comparative studies of monoclinic and orthorhombic WO3 films used for hydrogen sensor fabrication on SiC crystal

    Zuev, V V; Romanov, R I; Fominski, V Y; Grigoriev, S N; Volosova, M A; Demin, M V

    2016-01-01

    Amorphous WO x films were prepared on the SiC crystal by using two different methods, namely, reactive pulsed laser deposition (RPLD) and reactive deposition by ion sputtering (RDIS). After deposition, the WO x films were annealed in an air. The RISD film possessed a m-WO 3 structure and consisted of closely packed microcrystals. Localized swelling of the films and micro-hills growth did not destroy dense crystal packing. RPLD film had layered β-WO 3 structure with relatively smooth surface. Smoothness of the films were destroyed by localized swelling and the micro-openings formation was observed. Comparative study of m-WO 3 /SiC, Pt/m-WO 3 /SiC, and P-WO 3 /SiC samples shows that structural characteristics of the WO 3 films strongly influence on the voltage/current response as well as on the rate of current growth during H 2 detection at elevated temperatures. (paper)

  9. Study of phase equilibria and glass formation in the CaO-WO3-P2O5 system

    Bielis, I.Ya.

    1980-01-01

    The method of quenching has been used to investigate the liquidus surface of a portion of the CaO-WO 3 -P 2 O 5 system limited by the Ca(PO 3 ) 2 -W 2 O 3 (PO 4 ) 2 and CaWO 4 -Ca 2 P 2 O 7 cross-sections. The primary crystallization fields on the compounds: WO 3 , W 2 O 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , CaWO 4 , Ca 2 P 7 O 7 , Ca(PO 3 ) 2 are separated. The liquidus surface isotherms at 900, 1000, 1100 and 1200 deg C have been plotted on the concentration triangle plane. It has been found that the cross-sections of W 2 O 3 (PO 4 ) 2 -Ca(PO 3 ) 2 , WO 3 -Ca(PO 3 ) 2 , WO 3 -Ca 2 P 2 O 7 and CaWO 4 -Ca 2 P 2 O 7 are eutectic-type quasi-binary systems. The position of the glass transition region in the CaO-WO 3 -P 2 O 5 system has been determined for the treatment temperatures of 1100, 1200 and 1300 deg C and a correlation between the configuration of the glass transition region and the phase diagram of the system has been demonstrated [ru

  10. Physical properties characterization of WO{sub 3} films grown by hot-filament metal oxide deposition

    Diaz-Reyes, J., E-mail: jdiazr2001@yahoo.com [Centro de Investigacion en Biotecnologia Aplicada del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Ex-Hacienda de San Juan Molino, Km. 1.5, Tepetitla, Tlaxcala, 90700 (Mexico); Delgado-Macuil, R.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Biotecnologia Aplicada del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Ex-Hacienda de San Juan Molino, Km. 1.5, Tepetitla, Tlaxcala, 90700 (Mexico); Dorantes-Garcia, V. [Preparatoria ' Simon Bolivar' de la Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 4 Oriente 408, Col. Centro, Atlixco, Puebla, C. P. 74200 (Mexico); Perez-Benitez, A. [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas de la Benemerita Universidad Autonoma Puebla, 14 Sur y Av. San Claudio, Col. San Manuel, Puebla, Puebla, C. P. 72570 (Mexico); Balderas-Lopez, J.A. [Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Biotecnologia del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Avenida Acueducto S/N, Col. Barrio la Laguna, Ticoman, Del. Gustavo A. Madero, Mexico, D.F. 07340 (Mexico); Ariza-Ortega, J.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Biotecnologia Aplicada del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Ex-Hacienda de San Juan Molino, Km. 1.5, Tepetitla, Tlaxcala, 90700 (Mexico)

    2010-10-25

    WO{sub 3} is grown by hot-filament metal oxide deposition (HFMOD) technique under atmospheric pressure and an oxygen atmosphere. By X-ray diffraction obtains that WO{sub 3} presents mainly monoclinic crystalline phase. The chemical stoichiometry is obtained by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The IR spectrum of the as-grown WO{sub 3} presents broad peaks in the range of 1100 to 3600 cm{sup -1}. A broad band in the 2200 to 3600 cm{sup -1} region and the peaks sited at 1645 and 1432 cm{sup -1} are well resolved, which are originated from moisture and are assigned to {nu}(OH) and {delta}(OH) modes of adsorbed water and the corresponding tungsten oxide vibrations are in infrared region from 400 to 1453 cm{sup -1} and around 3492 cm{sup -1}, which correspond to tungsten-oxygen (W-O) stretching, bending and lattice modes. The Raman spectrum shows intense peaks at 801, 710, 262 and 61 cm{sup -1} that are typical Raman peaks of crystalline WO{sub 3} (m-phase) that correspond to stretching vibrations of the bridging oxygen, which are assigned to W-O stretching ({nu}) and W-O bending ({delta}) modes, respectively. By transmittance measurements obtains that the WO{sub 3} band gap can be varied from 2.92 to 3.13 eV in the investigated annealing temperature range.

  11. Rare-earth-ion doped KY(WO4)2 optical waveguides grown by liquid-phase epitaxy

    Romanyuk, Y.E.; Apostolopoulos, V.; Utke, U.; Pollnau, Markus

    High-quality KY(WO4)2 thin layers doped with rare-earth-ions were grown using liquid-phase epitaxy. A low-temperature mixture of chlorides was used as the flux and undoped KY(WO4)2 crystals as substrates. The crystalline layers possessed thicknesses up to 10 µm. Passive and active planar waveguiding

  12. Electronic and optical properties of nanocrystalline WO3 thin films studied by optical spectroscopy and density functional calculations

    Johansson, Malin B; Niklasson, Gunnar A; Österlund, Lars; Baldissera, Gustavo; Persson, Clas; Valyukh, Iryna; Arwin, Hans

    2013-01-01

    The optical and electronic properties of nanocrystalline WO 3 thin films prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering at different total pressures (P tot ) were studied by optical spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Monoclinic films prepared at low P tot show absorption in the near infrared due to polarons, which is attributed to a strained film structure. Analysis of the optical data yields band-gap energies E g ≈ 3.1 eV, which increase with increasing P tot by 0.1 eV, and correlate with the structural modifications of the films. The electronic structures of triclinic δ-WO 3 , and monoclinic γ- and ε-WO 3 were calculated using the Green function with screened Coulomb interaction (GW approach), and the local density approximation. The δ-WO 3 and γ-WO 3 phases are found to have very similar electronic properties, with weak dispersion of the valence and conduction bands, consistent with a direct band-gap. Analysis of the joint density of states shows that the optical absorption around the band edge is composed of contributions from forbidden transitions (>3 eV) and allowed transitions (>3.8 eV). The calculations show that E g in ε-WO 3 is higher than in the δ-WO 3 and γ-WO 3 phases, which provides an explanation for the P tot dependence of the optical data. (paper)

  13. Electronic and optical properties of nanocrystalline WO3 thin films studied by optical spectroscopy and density functional calculations

    Johansson, Malin B.; Baldissera, Gustavo; Valyukh, Iryna; Persson, Clas; Arwin, Hans; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Österlund, Lars

    2013-05-01

    The optical and electronic properties of nanocrystalline WO3 thin films prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering at different total pressures (Ptot) were studied by optical spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Monoclinic films prepared at low Ptot show absorption in the near infrared due to polarons, which is attributed to a strained film structure. Analysis of the optical data yields band-gap energies Eg ≈ 3.1 eV, which increase with increasing Ptot by 0.1 eV, and correlate with the structural modifications of the films. The electronic structures of triclinic δ-WO3, and monoclinic γ- and ε-WO3 were calculated using the Green function with screened Coulomb interaction (GW approach), and the local density approximation. The δ-WO3 and γ-WO3 phases are found to have very similar electronic properties, with weak dispersion of the valence and conduction bands, consistent with a direct band-gap. Analysis of the joint density of states shows that the optical absorption around the band edge is composed of contributions from forbidden transitions (>3 eV) and allowed transitions (>3.8 eV). The calculations show that Eg in ε-WO3 is higher than in the δ-WO3 and γ-WO3 phases, which provides an explanation for the Ptot dependence of the optical data.

  14. Effects of protein supplements on muscle damage, soreness and recovery of muscle function and physical performance: a systematic review.

    Pasiakos, Stefan M; Lieberman, Harris R; McLellan, Tom M

    2014-05-01

    Protein supplements are frequently consumed by athletes and recreationally-active individuals, although the decision to purchase and consume protein supplements is often based on marketing claims rather than evidence-based research. To provide a systematic and comprehensive analysis of literature examining the hypothesis that protein supplements enhance recovery of muscle function and physical performance by attenuating muscle damage and soreness following a previous bout of exercise. English language articles were searched with PubMed and Google Scholar using protein and supplements together with performance, exercise, competition and muscle, alone or in combination as keywords. Inclusion criteria required studies to recruit healthy adults less than 50 years of age and to evaluate the effects of protein supplements alone or in combination with carbohydrate on performance metrics including time-to-exhaustion, time-trial or isometric or isokinetic muscle strength and markers of muscle damage and soreness. Twenty-seven articles were identified of which 18 dealt exclusively with ingestion of protein supplements to reduce muscle damage and soreness and improve recovery of muscle function following exercise, whereas the remaining 9 articles assessed muscle damage as well as performance metrics during single or repeat bouts of exercise. Papers were evaluated based on experimental design and examined for confounders that explain discrepancies between studies such as dietary control, training state of participants, sample size, direct or surrogate measures of muscle damage, and sensitivity of the performance metric. High quality and consistent data demonstrated there is no apparent relationship between recovery of muscle function and ratings of muscle soreness and surrogate markers of muscle damage when protein supplements are consumed prior to, during or after a bout of endurance or resistance exercise. There also appears to be insufficient experimental data

  15. Use of inferior gluteal artery and posterior thigh perforators in management of ischial pressure sores with limited donor sites for flap coverage.

    Unal, Cigdem; Ozdemir, Jale; Yirmibesoglu, Oktay; Yucel, Ergin; Agir, Hakan

    2012-07-01

    Reconstructive surgery for ischial pressure sore defects presents a challenge because of high rates of recurrence. The aim of this study was to describe the use of inferior gluteal artery (IGA) and posterior thigh perforators in management of ischial pressure sores with limited donor sites. Between September 2005 and 2009, 11 patients (9 male, 2 female) with ischial sores were operated by using IGA and posterior thigh perforator flaps. The data of patients included age, sex, cause of paraplegia, flap size, perforator of flap, previous surgeries, recurrences, complications, and postoperative follow-up. Nine IGA and 5 posterior thigh perforator flaps were used. Six patients presented with recurrent lesions, 5 patients were operated for sacral and contralateral ischial pressure sores previously. In 2 patients, IGA and posterior thigh perforator flaps were used in combination. Patients were followed for an average of 34.3 months. In 2 recurrent cases, readvancement of IGA perforator flap and gluteus maximus myocutaneous flap were treatment of choice. Treatment of patients with recurrent lesions or multiple pressure sores is challenging because of limited available flap donor sites. In this study, posterior thigh perforator flaps were preferred in patients in whom the previous donor site was the gluteal region. IGA perforator flaps were the treatment of choice in patients for whom posterior thigh region was previously used. Alternately, preserved perforators of previous conventional myocutaneous flaps enabled us to use these perforators in recurrences.

  16. [Cohort study of the incidence of heel pressure sores in patients with leg casts at the Rizzoli Orthopedic Hospital and of the associated risk factors].

    Forni, Cristiana; Zoli, Marina; Loro, Loretta; Tremosini, Morena; Mini, Sandra; Pirini, Valter; Turrini, Roberta; Durante, Stefano; Nicolini, Annamaria; Riccioni, Francesca; Girolami, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Pressure sores, especially at the heel, are a side effect of the cast. To assess the incidence of late skin complications (heel pressure sores) of a cast and determine risk factors. All consecutive patients treated with a leg cast over a 16 months observation time were recruited. Risk factors were identified by the nurse that placed the cast and skin lesions classified with the NPUAP scale when the cast was removed. In the 216 enrolled patients 17.6% (38) developed a pressure sore: 16/124 in orthopedic wards; 22/92 in oncology wards. The multivariate analysis identified the following risk factors: administration of cytotoxic drugs (p = 0.033; OR = 2.61; having a cancer did not increase the risk); skin redness before cast application (p = 0.001; OR = 4.44) and having reported symptoms after the application (p = 0.000; OR = 7.86). Pressure sores were mainly stage 1 and only 6/216 (2.4%) > or = stage II. The type of plaster cast, the material, the number of days it was worn and having had a surgery are not significant risk factors. Pressure sores related to leg plaster casts are a frequent complication in at risk sub-groups. The acknowledgement and identification of specific risk factors may allow to identify and evaluate preventive interventions to improve the care of these patients.

  17. Red photoluminescent property and modification of WO3:Eu3+ inverse opal for blue light converted LEDs

    Ruan, Jiufeng; Yang, Zhengwen; Huang, Anjun; Chai, Zhuangzhuang; Qiu, Jianbei; Song, Zhiguo

    2018-01-01

    Blue light converted light-emitting diodes is of great significance as a candidate for next generation lighting. In this work, the WO3:Eu3+ inverse opal photonic crystals were prepared and their luminescence properties were studied. The results demonstrated that the main excitation peak of WO3:Eu3+ inverse opals were located at 465 nm. The red luminescence peak at the 613 nm was observed in the WO3:Eu3+ inverse opal upon 465 nm excitation, exhibiting better red color purity. The influence of photonic band gap on the photoluminescence of WO3:Eu3+ inverse opal was obtained. When the red luminescence peak is in the regions of the photonic band gap and the edge of the band-gap, the red luminescence suppression and enhancement was observed respectively. The WO3:Eu3+ inverse opals may be a promising candidate for the blue light converted LEDs.

  18. Ultrasensitive ppb-level NO2 gas sensor based on WO3 hollow nanosphers doped with Fe

    Zhang, Ziyue; haq, Mahmood; Wen, Zhen; Ye, Zhizhen; Zhu, Liping

    2018-03-01

    WO3 mesoporous hollow nanospheres doped with Fe synthesized by a facile method have mesoporous hollow nanospherical like morphology, small grain size (10 nm), high crystalline quality and ultrahigh surface area (165 m2/g). XRD spectra and Raman spectra indicate the Fe doping leading to the smaller cell parameters as compared to pure WO3, and the slight distortion in the crystal lattice produces a number of defects, making it a better candidate for gas sensing. XPS analysis shows that Fe-doped WO3 mesoporous hollow nanospheres have more oxygen vacancies than pure WO3, which is beneficial to the adsorption of oxygen and NO2 and its surface reaction. The gas sensor based on Fe-WO3 exhibited excellent low ppb-level (10 ppb) NO2 detecting performance and outstanding selectivity.

  19. Controllable Fabrication of Ordered Mesoporous Bi2WO6 and Its High Photocatalytic Activity under Visible Light

    Xueming Dang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ordered mesoporous Bi2WO6 was fabricated by nanocasting technique using SBA-15 as the template. The effect of the dosage of SBA-15 on the formation of the ordered structure and the photocatalytic ability of mesoporous Bi2WO6 was discussed. It was confirmed that the ordered mesoporous structure was obtained as the dosage of SBA-15 was 0.3 g. It was found that, compared to Bi2WO6, the RhB degradation rate with ordered mesoporous Bi2WO6 was enhanced under visible light (λ>400 nm by the photocatalytic measurements. The enhanced photocatalytic performance of ordered mesoporous Bi2WO6 was attributed to its particular ordered mesoporous structure which could increase the light-harvesting efficiency, reduce the recombination of the photogenerated charge carriers, and promote the surface reaction.

  20. Comparing the effect of ketamine and benzydamine gargling with placebo on post-operative sore throat: A randomized controlled trial

    Seyed Hamid Reza Faiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air way intubation for general anesthesia usually leads to sore throat after surgery. Ketamine plays an important role to block a number of receptors related to pain. Benzydamine hydrochloride is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that has been used to improve oropharyngeal disorders. In this study, it was intended to compare the effect of gargling different solutions before the surgery on post-operative sore throat (POST in patients who underwent general anesthesia for hysterectomy. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients who underwent the elective hysterectomy were entered to the randomized controlled trial regarding to the eligibility criteria. Patients were simply randomly allocated to three groups and received one code. Every code was representative for a specific drug: 20 cc normal saline (control group or 1.5 mg benzydamine in 20 cc solution or 20 mg ketamine in 20 cc solutions. All the research teams were blinded to the received solutions. POST was evaluated with numerical rating scale. The data were entered to SPSS software and analysis of variance (ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance test, were performed. Results: The mean ages of ketamine, benzydamine, and normal saline recipients were not significantly different. The trend of the severity of sore throat during the first 24 h after the operation in ketamine recipients was significantly lower than the other two groups (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The pain scale after surgery was reduced by using both ketamine and benzydamine, but the ketamine effect was more noticeable.

  1. The Effect of Pharyngeal Packing during Nasal Surgery on the Incidence of Post Operative Nausea, Vomiting, and Sore Throat

    Ali Karbasfrushan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nausea and vomiting after ear, nose and throat (ENT surgery is one of the most common and notable problems facing anesthesiologists in this area. This study was conducted to determine the effect of a pharyngeal pack on the severity of nausea, vomiting, and sore throat among patients after ear, pharynx, and throat surgeries.   Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical study was performed in 140 patients (61 men and 79 women; age range, 20–40 years who had undergone nasal surgery in 2010. Patients were divided into two groups: the first group were treated using a pharyngeal pack (case group and the second group were managed without a pharyngeal pack (control group. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi-square test and the Mann-Whitney U test. SPSS software was used for data analysis.   Results: The mean severity of nausea and vomiting in the two groups was 2.057, 1.371 and 1.100, respectively, with no significant differences between groups. However, the mean severity of sore throat was 1.714 in the group with the pharyngeal pack and 1.385 in the group without pharyngeal pack (P=0.010.   Conclusion:  Not only does a pharyngeal pack in ENT surgery not reduce the extent and severity of nausea and vomiting, but it also increases the severity of sore throat in patients when leaving the recovery room and discharging hospital.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of large WO{sub 3} sheets synthesized by resistive heating method

    Filippo, Emanuela, E-mail: emanuela.filippo@unisalento.it [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Monteroni Street, Lecce I-73100 Italy (Italy); Tepore, Marco [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Monteroni Street, Lecce I-73100 Italy (Italy); Baldassarre, Francesca [Department of Cultural Heritage, University of Salento, Lecce I-73100 Italy (Italy); Quarta, Gianluca; Calcagnile, Lucio [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Monteroni Street, Lecce I-73100 Italy (Italy); Guascito, Maria Rachele [DiSTeBA, University of Salento, Lecce I-73100 Italy (Italy); Tepore, Antonio [Department of Cultural Heritage, University of Salento, Lecce I-73100 Italy (Italy)

    2015-09-01

    A simple, low-cost method is presented to grow tungsten oxide large sheets simply by resistively heating a pure tungsten filament under air/water vapor flow. The obtained structures were studied using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, selected area diffraction, X Ray diffraction, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence and zeta potential measurements. SEM observations revealed that sheets formed by broadening of the wires/belts over longer growth period. Photoluminescence measurements showed that tungsten oxide sheets had an intense visible emission band. - Highlights: • WO{sub 3} large sheets were prepared by resistively heating a W filament. • WO{sub 3} sheets were carefully characterized. • Formation mechanism of sheets was studied. • WO{sub 3} sheets had an intense visible emission band at 462 nm.

  3. Radiation-induced color centers in La-doped PbWO sub 4 crystals

    Deng, Q; Zhu, R Y

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the result of a study on radiation-induced color center densities in La-doped lead tungstate (PbWO sub 4) crystals. The creation and annihilation constants of radiation-induced color centers were determined by using transmittance data measured for a PbWO sub 4 sample before and during sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma-ray irradiation at a dose rate of 15 rad/h. Following a model of color center kinetics, these constants were used to calculate color center densities under irradiations at 100 rad/h. The result was found to be in good agreement with experimental data, indicating that the behaviour of PbWO sub 4 crystals under irradiation can be predicted according to this model.

  4. Surface Functionalization of WO3 Thin Films with (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane and Succinic Anhydride

    Ta, Thi Kieu Hanh; Tran, Thi Nhu Hoa; Tran, Quang Minh Nhat; Pham, Duy Phong; Pham, Kim Ngoc; Cao, Thi Thanh; Kim, Yong Soo; Tran, Dai Lam; Ju, Heongkyu; Phan, Bach Thang

    2017-06-01

    We report effects of oxygen plasma treatment on the surface functionalization of WO3 thin films with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and succinic anhydride (SA). X-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicate the existence of the WO3 phase. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurement shows clear bands at 1040 cm-1 (Si-O-Si), 1556 cm-1 (N-H), 1655 cm-1 (C=O), 2937 cm-1 (C-H) and 3298 cm-1 (N-H), confirming the surface functionalization efficiency enhanced by prior treatment of oxygen plasma. It thus follows that the prior oxygen plasma treatment activates hydroxylation with more -OH groups on the WO3 surface, which can pave a highly efficient way to the surface functionalization by APTES and SA.

  5. Scintillation properties of pure and Ca-doped ZnWO4 crystals

    Danevich, F.A.; Shkulkova, O.G.; Henry, S.; Kraus, H.; McGowan, R.; Mikhailik, V.B.; Telfer, J.

    2008-01-01

    Following the investigations of the structure and scintillation properties of Ca-doped zinc tungstate powder [phys. stat. sol. (a) 204, 730 (2007)] a single-crystal of ZnWO 4 -Ca (0.5 mol%) was grown and characterised. The relative light output, energy resolution and decay characteristics were measured for pure and Ca-doped ZnWO 4 scintillators. An increase in the light yield of ∝40% compared with the undoped crystal, and an energy resolution 9.6% ( 137 Cs) were obtained for Ca-doped ZnWO 4 . The observed improvement is attributed to the reduction of self-absorption (bleaching) of the crystal. The cause of bleaching as well as the possible contribution of scattering is discussed. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Mechanism Of Long Term Change In Electrochrcmism Of LixWO3 Films

    Nagai, Junichi; Kamimori, Tadatoshi; Mizuhashi, Mamoru

    1984-11-01

    The degradation mechanism of gradual decrease of the contrast between colored and bleached states of Lix'. WO3 films with switching cycles was investigated. We made electro-chemical and quantitative chemical analyses to clarify this phenomenon. It was found that the decrease in contrast was mostly attributed to the parallel cathodic shift of emf(x), passibly caused by ion exchange reaction expressed by: WOH + Li+ WOLi + H. Fully ion-exchanged WO3 films showed no appreciable change in spite of the presence of a large amount of Li in them. These films were capable of accepting as much Li as the fresh films did on coloration and reached to the same optical densities. It is concluded that there are two kinds of active sites available for accepting lithium ions in the WO3 structure, one for ion exchange and the other for coloration.

  7. Giant Persistent Photoconductivity of the WO3 Nanowires in Vacuum Condition

    Huang Kai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A giant persistent photoconductivity (PPC phenomenon has been observed in vacuum condition based on a single WO3 nanowire and presents some interesting results in the experiments. With the decay time lasting for 1 × 104 s, no obvious current change can be found in vacuum, and a decreasing current can be only observed in air condition. When the WO3 nanowires were coated with 200 nm SiO2 layer, the photoresponse almost disappeared. And the high bias and high electric field effect could not reduce the current in vacuum condition. These results show that the photoconductivity of WO3 nanowires is mainly related to the oxygen adsorption and desorption, and the semiconductor photoconductivity properties are very weak. The giant PPC effect in vacuum condition was caused by the absence of oxygen molecular. And the thermal effect combining with oxygen re-adsorption can reduce the intensity of PPC.

  8. Gasochromic performance of WO3-nanorod thin films fabricated with an ArF excimer laser

    Yaacob, M. H.; Ou, J. Z.; Wlodarski, W.; Kim, C. S.; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, Y. H.; Oh, C. M.; Dhakal, K. P.; Kim, J. Y.; Kang, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    Thin films with tungsten trioxide (WO 3 ) nanorods were fabricated by using an ArF pulsed laser deposition system. Because the ArF excimer laser operates at a very short wavelength of 193 nm, short enough to expect strong absorption of the photons in the semiconductor oxide targets, and because the clusters incoming to the substrates have high momentum, we could build thin films with good surface morphology. Highly homogeneous arrays of nanorods with sizes mostly in the range of 30 - 40 nm were observed. The absorbance response towards hydrogen (H 2 ) gas was investigated for a WO 3 film coated with 25-A-thick palladium (Pd). The Pd/WO 3 -nanorod thin films exhibited excellent gasochromic response when measured in the visible-NIR range (400 - 1000 nm). As low as 0.06% H 2 concentration was clearly sensed. A significant reversible absorbance change and fast recovery ( 2 at different concentrations.

  9. Understanding the Potential of WO3 Based Sensors for Breath Analysis

    Staerz, Anna; Weimar, Udo; Barsan, Nicolae

    2016-01-01

    Tungsten trioxide is the second most commonly used semiconducting metal oxide in gas sensors. Semiconducting metal oxide (SMOX)-based sensors are small, robust, inexpensive and sensitive, making them highly attractive for handheld portable medical diagnostic detectors. WO3 is reported to show high sensor responses to several biomarkers found in breath, e.g., acetone, ammonia, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, toluene, and nitric oxide. Modern material science allows WO3 samples to be tailored to address certain sensing needs. Utilizing recent advances in breath sampling it will be possible in the future to test WO3-based sensors in application conditions and to compare the sensing results to those obtained using more expensive analytical methods. PMID:27801881

  10. Bibliometric analysis of publications on wine tourism in the databases Scopus and WoS

    Amador Durán Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to show the current state of scientific research regarding wine tourism, by comparing the platforms of scientific information WoS and Scopus and applying quantitative methods. For this purpose, a bibliometric study of the publications indexed in WoS and Scopus was conducted, analyzing the correlation between increases, coverage, overlap, dispersion and concentration of documents. During the search process, a set of 238 articles and 122 different journals were obtained. Based on the results of the comparative study, we conclude that WoS and Scopus databases differ in scope, data volume and coverage policies with a high degree of unique sources and articles, resulting both of them complementary and not mutually exclusive. Scopus covers the area of wine tourism better, by including a greater number of journals, papers and signatures.

  11. Conductive surface modification of cauliflower-like WO{sub 3} and its electrochemical properties for lithium-ion batteries

    Yoon, Sukeun, E-mail: skyoon@kongju.ac.kr [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kongju National University, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Sang-Gil [Advanced Batteries Research Center, Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Gyeonggi 463-816 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyu-Nam [Energy Efficiency and Materials Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Huesup, E-mail: hssong@kongju.ac.kr [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kongju National University, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of cauliflower-like carbon-decorated WO{sub 3}. • Superior cyclability and rate capability for cauliflower-like carbon-decorated WO{sub 3}. • Electrochemical reaction behavior of cauliflower-like carbon-decorated WO{sub 3} with lithium. • In-situ XRD analysis during the first discharge–charge shows a complex reaction of intercalation and conversion of WO{sub 3}. - Abstract: Cauliflower-like WO{sub 3} was synthesized by a hydrothermal reaction without a surfactant, followed by firing, and was investigated as an anode material for lithium-ion battery applications. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) characterization indicated that WO{sub 3} nanorods had an aggregation framework and built a cauliflower morphology. With the objective of understanding the charge–discharge process within a voltage range of 0–3 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li, in situ X-ray diffraction was used and a complex reaction of intercalation and conversion of WO{sub 3} was revealed for the first time. The cauliflower-like WO{sub 3} after being decorated with carbon provides a high gravimetric capacity of >635 mA h/g (Li{sub 5.5}WO{sub 3}) with good cycling and a high rate capability when used as an anode in lithium-ion batteries. Based on our studies, we attribute the high electrochemical performance to the nanoscopic WO{sub 3} particles and a conductive carbon layer, which makes them a potential candidate for lithium-ion batteries.

  12. Electron microscopy analyses and electrical properties of the layered Bi2WO6 phase

    Taoufyq, A.; Ait Ahsaine, H.; Patout, L.; Benlhachemi, A.; Ezahri, M.

    2013-01-01

    The bismuth tungstate Bi 2 WO 6 was synthesized using a classical coprecipitation method followed by a calcination process at different temperatures. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, simultaneous thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) analyses. The Rietveld analysis and electron diffraction clearly confirmed the Pca2 1 non centrosymmetric space group previously proposed for this phase. The layers Bi 2 O 2 2+ and WO 4 2− have been directly evidenced from the HRTEM images. The electrical properties of Bi 2 WO 6 compacted pellets systems were determined from electrical impedance spectrometry (EIS) and direct current (DC) analyses, under air and argon, between 350 and 700 °C. The direct current analyses showed that the conduction observed from EIS analyses was mainly ionic in this temperature range, with a small electronic contribution. Electrical change above the transition temperature of 660 °C is observed under air and argon atmospheres. The strong conductivity increase observed under argon is interpreted in terms of formation of additional oxygen vacancies coupled with electron conduction. - Graphical abstract: High resolution transmission electron microscopy: inverse fast Fourier transform giving the layered structure of the Bi 2 WO 6 phase, with a representation of the cell dimensions (b and c vectors). The Bi 2 O 2 2+ and WO 4 2− sandwiches are visible in the IFFT image. - Highlights: • Using transmission electron microscopy, we visualize the layered structure of Bi 2 WO 6 . • Electrical analyses under argon gas show some increase in conductivity. • The phase transition at 660 °C is evidenced from electrical modification

  13. Polarized spectroscopic properties of Nd3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystal

    Chen Yujin; Lin Yanfu; Gong Xinghong; Tan Qiguang; Zhuang Jian; Luo Zundu; Huang Yidong

    2007-01-01

    The polarized absorption spectra, infrared fluorescence spectra, upconversion visible fluorescence spectra, and fluorescence decay curve of orientated Nd 3+ :KGd(WO 4 ) 2 crystal were measured at room-temperature. Some important spectroscopic parameters were investigated in detail in the framework of the Judd-Ofelt theory and the Fuchtbauer-Ladenburg formula. The effect of the crystal structure on the spectroscopic properties of the Nd 3+ ions was analyzed. The relation among the spectroscopic parameters and the laser performances of the Nd 3+ :KGd(WO 4 ) 2 crystal was discussed

  14. Synthesis, formation mechanism and sensing properties of WO3 hydrate nanowire netted-spheres

    Yan, Aihua; Xie, Changsheng; Zeng, Dawen; Cai, Shuizhou; Hu, Mulin

    2010-01-01

    Tungsten oxide hydrate nanowire netted-spheres were successfully synthesized in the glycol solution using a facile solvothermal approach. The nanowires with uniform diameter of 4-6 nm are actually a kind of tungsten oxide hydrate/surfactant hybrid materials. The influence of surfactant, solvent, time and temperature on tailoring morphology was investigated in detail. The possible formation process of WO 3 hydrate nanowire netted-sphere was proposed. Sensing properties of such WO 3 hydrate sensor show that the desirable sensing characteristics towards 100 ppm ammonia gas at 320 o C were obtained, such as rapid response (18.3 s), high sensitivity, good reproducibility and stability.

  15. Myocellular enzyme leakage, polymorphonuclear neutrophil activation and delayed onset muscle soreness induced by isokinetic eccentric exercise.

    Croisier, J L; Camus, G; Deby-Dupont, G; Bertrand, F; Lhermerout, C; Crielaard, J M; Juchmès-Ferir, A; Deby, C; Albert, A; Lamy, M

    1996-01-01

    To address the question of whether delayed onset muscular soreness (DOMS) following intense eccentric muscle contraction could be due to increased production of the arachidonic acid derived product prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). 10 healthy male subjects were submitted to eccentric and concentric isokinetic exercises on a Kin Trex device at 60 degrees/s angular velocity. Exercise consisted of 8 stages of 5 maximal contractions of the knee extensor and flexor muscle groups of both legs separated by 1 min rest phases. There was an interval of at least 30 days between eccentric and concentric testing, and the order of the two exercise sessions was randomly assigned. The subjective presence and intensity of DOMS was evaluated using a visual analogue scale, immediately, following 24 h and 48 h after each test. Five blood samples were drawn from an antecubital vein: at rest before exercise, immediately after, after 30 min recovery, 24 h and 48 h after the tests. The magnitude of the acute inflammatory response to exercise was assessed by measuring plasma levels of polymorphonuclear elastase ([EL]), myeloperoxidase ([MPO]) and PGE2 ([PGE2]). Using two way analysis of variance, it appeared that only eccentric exercise significantly increased [EL] and DOMS, especially of the hamstring muscles. Furthermore, a significant decrease in eccentric peak torque of this muscle group only was observed on day 2 after eccentric work (- 21%; P < 0.002). Serum activity of creatine kinase and serum concentration of myoglobin increased significantly 24 and 48 h after both exercise tests. However, these variables reached significantly higher values following eccentric contractions 48 h after exercise. Mean [PGE2] in the two exercise modes remained unchanged over time and were practically equal at each time point. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that the magnitude of polymorphonuclear (PMN) activation, muscle damage, and DOMS are greater after eccentric than after concentric muscle

  16. Advanced nanostructured photocatalysts based on reduced graphene oxide-flower-like Bi_2WO_6 composites for an augmented simulated solar photoactivity activity

    Li, Yukun; Chen, Lin; Wang, Yue; Zhu, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A simple route was proposed to prepare flower-like Bi_2WO_6 and RGO/Bi_2WO_6. • Cipro HCl was degraded firstly by RGO/Bi_2WO_6 under the visible-light. • 2% RGO/Bi_2WO_6 exhibited the best removal efficiency. - Abstract: A simple hydrothermal process was proposed to prepare the flower-like Bi_2WO_6 architectures, and the as-synthesized Bi_2WO_6 photocatalysts were further processed with the prepared graphene oxide (GO) to form novel reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/Bi_2WO_6 composites. The nano-materials were characterized with the help of XRD, XPS, SEM, FTIR, UV-DRS, PL techniques to investigate their morphological, physical, optical, and photochemical properties. Photocatalytic performances of the pure flower-like Bi_2WO_6 architectures and RGO/Bi_2WO_6 composites were compared and evaluated through the degradation of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (Cipro HCl) wastewater under the simulated visible light. It was found that the RGO/Bi_2WO_6 composites displayed enhanced visible light-driven photocatalytic activities. It might be that the RGO loading not only effectively suppressed the electron–hole recombination, but also increased the light absorption ability. The effects of operating condition involved in the photocatalytic process were further examined, and the cycle-stability experiment demonstrated that as-obtained 2% RGO/Bi_2WO_6 photocatalysts had good photocatalytic repeatability.

  17. Impact of thermal loading and other water quality parameters on the epizootiology of red-sore disease in centrarchids. Progress report, December 1, 1977--November 30, 1978

    Esch, G.W.; Hazen, T.C.

    1978-07-01

    The implications from these studies are varied, sometimes clear and sometimes less so, for many of the results have raised new and even more critical questions. Thus, our data clearly show that Aeromonas hydrophila is the etiological agent for red-sore disease. Furthermore, they suggest that the effects of temperature are twofold, first in increasing the density of the pathogen in the water column and then in affecting the physiology of the host organism to such an extent as to increase the probability of acquiring the pathogen. On the other hand, organic loading, suggested by other investigators as being important in red-sore disease, was not identified as being significant in the present study. However, if organic loading, or any of its consequences, can be shown to induce stress, then it may be as important in other systems as temperature is in Par Pond. Thus it is quite conceivable that it (organic loading), or some other water quality parameter, may create conditions conducive to increasing densities of A. hydrophila while simultaneously producing water quality characteristics which would lead to stress in fish, and then to increasing the probability of fish acquiring red-sore disease. An enigmatic observation (see Hazen, 1978, for details) is that A. hydrophila has been recovered from a variety of habitats throughout the U.S., yet red-sore disease is known to occur only in the southeast. This peculiar distribution pattern raises several important questions regarding the epizootiology of red-sore, not the least of which is the possibility of there existing differentially virulent strains of A. hydrophila and/or more or less susceptible populations of potential hosts in various parts of the country. Other significant questions are related to the variability in amplitude of red-sore disease from one year to the next among bass in Par Pond, the mode of entry of the pathogen into largemouth bass, and the basic, cellular mechanisms of stress in largemouth bass.

  18. [Topic efficacy of ialuronic acid associated with argentic sulphadiazine (Connettivina Plus) in the treatment of pressure sores: a prospective observational cohort study].

    Paghetti, Angela; Bellingeri, Andrea; Pomponio, Giovanni; Sansoni, Julita; Paladino, Dario

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this observational study was to evaluate the efficacy, tolerability and methods of application of ialuronic acid associated with argentic sulphadiazine (Connettivina Plus) in routine clinical activity, on a target of "complex" patients with pressure sores, for the most realistic assessment possible. The study comprised 127 patients hospitalized between January 2006 and December 2007, who received ialuronic acid associated with argentic sulphadiazine in addition to the standard treatment. Inclusion criteria were th presence of at least one stage 2 or 3 pressure sore (NPUAP '89 classification), pressure sore that the researcher had already decided to treat using ialuronic acid associated with argentic sulphadiazine , according to hospital protocol, area of the lesion less than 25cm2, patient age 18 years or more, informed patient consensus. Patients with these characteristics were , however, excluded if they did not provide written consent or if they had one of the following: presence of pressure sores with escara, concomitant neoplastic disease, concomitant insulin-dependent diabetes or other pathologies that interfere with skin regeneration, allergic diasthesis (acclaimed or presumed) to ialuronic acid - argentic sulphadiazine, inability / refusal to undergo all the subsequent controls required by the study. Improvement or complete healing of the pressure sores was observed in 67% of patients at early follow-up (10 days), increasing to 76% and 87% at 20 and 35 day controls respectively. The Push tool further improved in patients who carried on treatment. Use of ialuronic acid associated with argentic sulphadiazine was effective for treating grade 2-3 pressure sores in patients with chronic lesions and its efficacy was confirmed in association with both advanced and traditional types of medication.

  19. Impact of thermal loading and other water quality parameters on the epizootiology of red-sore disease in centrarchids. Progress report, December 1, 1977--November 30, 1978

    Esch, G.W.; Hazen, T.C.

    1978-07-01

    The implications from these studies are varied, sometimes clear and sometimes less so, for many of the results have raised new and even more critical questions. Thus, our data clearly show that Aeromonas hydrophila is the etiological agent for red-sore disease. Furthermore, they suggest that the effects of temperature are twofold, first in increasing the density of the pathogen in the water column and then in affecting the physiology of the host organism to such an extent as to increase the probability of acquiring the pathogen. On the other hand, organic loading, suggested by other investigators as being important in red-sore disease, was not identified as being significant in the present study. However, if organic loading, or any of its consequences, can be shown to induce stress, then it may be as important in other systems as temperature is in Par Pond. Thus it is quite conceivable that it (organic loading), or some other water quality parameter, may create conditions conducive to increasing densities of A. hydrophila while simultaneously producing water quality characteristics which would lead to stress in fish, and then to increasing the probability of fish acquiring red-sore disease. An enigmatic observation (see Hazen, 1978, for details) is that A. hydrophila has been recovered from a variety of habitats throughout the U.S., yet red-sore disease is known to occur only in the southeast. This peculiar distribution pattern raises several important questions regarding the epizootiology of red-sore, not the least of which is the possibility of there existing differentially virulent strains of A. hydrophila and/or more or less susceptible populations of potential hosts in various parts of the country. Other significant questions are related to the variability in amplitude of red-sore disease from one year to the next among bass in Par Pond, the mode of entry of the pathogen into largemouth bass, and the basic, cellular mechanisms of stress in largemouth bass

  20. Preparation of Ba1-xSrxWO4 and Ba1-xCaxWO4 films on tungsten plate by mechanically assisted solution reaction at room temperature

    Rangappa, Dinesh; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Watanabe, Tomoaki; Yoshimura, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    Preparation of the alkaline earth tungstate films such as Ba 1-x Sr x WO 4 and Ba 1-x Ca x WO 4 on the tungsten substrate was studied with a simple solution process assisted with the ball rotation at room temperature. The solid solution formation and limitations, the effect of oxidizing agent H 2 O 2 and alkaline earth ions concentration on the dissolution of W substrate and the growth of Ba 1-x Sr x WO 4 and Ba 1-x Ca x WO 4 films were studied in detail. The ball rotation assistance plays a very important role to enhance the dissolution of the W substrate and mass transport of the reactant species such as alkaline earth ions and WO 4 2- ions onto the solid/solution interface region, where precipitation occurs. Therefore, the rate of film formation was accelerated by the ball rotation assistance to the reaction system. Ba-rich Ba 1-x Sr x WO 4 and Ba 1-x Ca x WO 4 films were formed without high energy or high temperature treatment

  1. The accordion gracilis muscle flap: a new design for coverage of recurrent and complicated ischeal pressure sores.

    El-Sabbagh, Ahmed H

    2011-10-01

    Management of patients with large or recurrent pressure ulcerations can be complicated by the lack of available local flap, whether already used or because adjacent lesions make such flap insufficient for complete coverage. In this article, the gracilis muscle was modified to cover large defects without help from its cutaneous territory. Twelve ischeal pressure sores were treated between August 2007 and 2009 with the modified gracilis muscle flap in a single-staged procedure. Five ulcers were recurrent and seven patients have associated pressure ulcers. All reconstructions were successful. Mean patient age was 35 years and nearly all patients had multiple significant comorbidities, including associated ulcers, diabetes and urethrocutaneous fistula. All flaps and donor sites healed uneventfully. There was one complication presented as cellulites at the donor site. Follow-up in some cases extend up to 1·5 years. No recurrence was observed. The accordion gracilis muscle flap is a handy, safe and fast flap for reconstruction of recurrent, difficult ischeal pressure sores. © 2011 The Author. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  2. Pressure sores significantly increase the risk of developing a Fournier's gangrene in patients with spinal cord injury.

    Backhaus, M; Citak, M; Tilkorn, D-J; Meindl, R; Schildhauer, T A; Fehmer, T

    2011-11-01

    Retrospective chart review. The aim of our study was to evaluate the mortality rate and further specific risk factors for Fournier's gangrene in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Division of Spinal Cord Injury, BG-University Hospital Bergmannsheil Bochum, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany. All patients with a SCI and a Fournier's gangrene treated in our hospital were enrolled in this study. Following parameters were taken form patients medical records: age, type of SCI, cause of Fournier's gangrene, number of surgical debridements, length of hospital and intensive care unit stay, co morbidity factors and mortality rate. In addition, laboratory parameter including the laboratory risk indicator for necrotizing fasciitis (LRINEC) score and microbiological findings were analyzed. Clinical diagnosis was made via histological examination. A total of 16 male patients (15 paraplegic and one tetraplegic) were included in the study. In 81% of all cases, the origin of Fournier's gangrene was a pressure sore. The median LRINEC score on admission was 6.5. In the vast majority of cases, a polybacterial infection was found. No patient died during the hospital stay. The mean number of surgical debridements before soft tissue closure was 1.9 and after a mean time interval of 39.1 days wound closure was performed in all patients. Pressure sores significantly increase the risk of developing Fournier's gangrene in patients with SCI. We reported the results of our patients to increase awareness among physicians and training staff working with patients with a SCI in order to expedite the diagnosis.

  3. Whole-body cryotherapy (extreme cold air exposure) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults.

    Costello, Joseph T; Baker, Philip R A; Minett, Geoffrey M; Bieuzen, Francois; Stewart, Ian B; Bleakley, Chris

    2015-09-18

    Recovery strategies are often used with the intention of preventing or minimising muscle soreness after exercise. Whole-body cryotherapy, which involves a single or repeated exposure(s) to extremely cold dry air (below -100 °C) in a specialised chamber or cabin for two to four minutes per exposure, is currently being advocated as an effective intervention to reduce muscle soreness after exercise. To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of whole-body cryotherapy (extreme cold air exposure) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the British Nursing Index and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database. We also searched the reference lists of articles, trial registers and conference proceedings, handsearched journals and contacted experts.The searches were run in August 2015. We aimed to include randomised and quasi-randomised trials that compared the use of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) versus a passive or control intervention (rest, no treatment or placebo treatment) or active interventions including cold or contrast water immersion, active recovery and infrared therapy for preventing or treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults. We also aimed to include randomised trials that compared different durations or dosages of WBC. Our prespecified primary outcomes were muscle soreness, subjective recovery (e.g. tiredness, well-being) and adverse effects. Two review authors independently screened search results, selected studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted and cross-checked data. Where appropriate, we pooled results of comparable trials. The random-effects model was used for pooling where there was substantial heterogeneity. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE. Four laboratory-based randomised controlled trials were included. These reported results for 64

  4. Histopathology of red-sore disease (aeromonas hydrophila) in naturally and experimentally infected largemouth bass micropterus salmoides(lacepede)

    Huizinga, H W [Illinois State Univ., Normal; Esch, G W; Hazen, T C

    1979-01-01

    The histopathology of red-sore disease, caused by the gram-negative bacterium, Aeromonas hydrophila, is described for largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides. Externally, lesions range from those affecting a few scales (pin-point), to those associated with extensive chronic ulcerations; there is focal hemorrhage, oedema and dermal necrosis which exposes underlying muscles producing infiltration of mononuclear and granulocytic inflammatory cells. Internally, the liver and kidneys are foci for toxic products produced by A. hydrophila with, in the most severe cases, complete destruction of the structural integrity of both organs. Pathological changes were not serious in either the spleen or heart, even in cases with massive damage in the liver and kidney. Internal and external lesions were similar in both natural and experimentally induced infections. The pathobiology of red-sore disease in bass was postulated to be linked to elevated water temperature stimulating increased metabolism, decreased body condition and stress, leading to the increased production of corticosteroids and the concommitant rise in susceptibility to infection.

  5. Soreness during non-music activities is associated with playing-related musculoskeletal problems: an observational study of 731 child and adolescent instrumentalists

    Sonia Ranelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Question: Is exposure to non-music-related activities associated with playing-related musculoskeletal problems in young instrumentalists? Is non-music-activity-related soreness associated with playing-related musculoskeletal problems in this group of instrumentalists? Design: Observational study using a questionnaire and physical measures. Participants: 859 instrumentalists aged 7 to 17 years from the School of Instrumental Music program. Results: Of the 731 respondents who completed the questionnaire adequately, 412 (56% experienced instrument-playing problems; 219 (30% had symptoms severe enough to interfere with normal playing. Children commonly reported moderate exposure to non-music-related activities, such as watching television (61%, vigorous physical activity (57%, writing (51% and computer use (45%. Greater exposure to any non-music activity was not associated with playing problems, with odds ratios ranging from 1.01 (95% CI 0.7 to 1.5 for watching television to 2.08 (95% CI 0.5 to 3.3 for intensive hand activities. Four hundred and seventy eight (65% children reported soreness related to non-music activities, such as vigorous physical activity (52%, writing (40%, computer use (28%, intensive hand activities (22%, electronic game use (17% and watching television (15%. Non-music-activity-related soreness was significantly associated with instrument playing problems, adjusting for gender and age, with odds ratios ranging from 2.6 (95% CI 1.7 to 3.9 for soreness whilst watching television, to 4.3 (95% CI 2.6 to 7.1 for soreness during intensive hand activities. Conclusion: Non-music-activity-related soreness co-occurs significantly with playing problems in young instrumentalists. The finding of significant co-occurrence of music and non-music-related soreness in respondents in this study suggests that intervention targets for young instrumentalists could include risk factors previously identified in the general child and adolescent

  6. Preparation of tungsten coatings on graphite by electro-deposition via Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}–WO{sub 3} molten salt system

    Sun, Ning-bo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Ying-chun, E-mail: zycustb@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Jiang, Fan; Lang, Shao-ting [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Xia, Min [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Institute of Powder Metallurgy and Advanced Ceramics, Southwest Jiaotong University, 111, 1st Section, Northern 2nd Ring Road, Chengdu (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Tungsten coatings on graphite were firstly obtained by electro-deposition method via Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}–WO{sub 3} molten salt system. • Uniform and dense tungsten coatings could be easily prepared in each face of the sample, especially the complex components. • The obtained tungsten coatings are with high purity, ultra-low oxygen content (about 0.022 wt%). • Modulate pulse parameters can get tungsten coatings with different thickness and hardness. - Abstract: Tungsten coating on graphite substrate is one of the most promising candidate materials as the ITER plasma facing components. In this paper, tungsten coatings on graphite substrates were fabricated by electro-deposition from Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}–WO{sub 3} molten salt system at 1173 K in atmosphere. Tungsten coatings with no impurities were successfully deposited on graphite substrates under various pulsed current densities in an hour. By increasing the current density from 60 mA cm{sup −2} to 120 mA cm{sup −2} an increase of the average size of tungsten grains, the thickness and the hardness of tungsten coatings occurs. The average size of tungsten grains can reach 7.13 μm, the thickness of tungsten coating was in the range of 28.8–51 μm, and the hardness of coating was higher than 400 HV. No cracks or voids were observed between tungsten coating and graphite substrate. The oxygen content of tungsten coating is about 0.022 wt%.

  7. Numerical model of the catchments of the oziąbel and wołczyński strumień rivers - Wołczyn municipality

    Olichwer, Tomasz; Wcisło, Marek; Staśko, Stanisław; Buczyński, Sebastian; Modelska, Magdalena; Tarka, Robert

    2012-10-01

    The article presents a numerical model designed for determining groundwater dynamics and water balance of the catchments of the Oziąbel (Czarna Woda) river and the Wołczyński Strumień river in Wołczyn region. Hydrogeological mapping and modelling research covered the area of 238.9 km2. As a result of measurements performed in 2008-2009, flows were determined in major rivers and water table positions were measured at 26 points. In the major part of the area described, the water table, lying at the depth of 1.5-18.7 m, has unconfined character, and the aquifer is built of Neogene (Quaternary) sands and gravels. In the area under study, groundwaters are drawn from 6 wells with total withdrawal of 6133 m3/d. The numerical modelling was performed with the use of Visual Modflow 3.1.0 software. The area was partitioned by a discretization grid with a step size l = 250 m. The conceptual model of the hydrogeological system is based on hydrological data gathered over a period of one year, data from HYDRO bank database, cross-sections and maps. The boundaries of the modelled hydrogeological system were established on the watersheds of the Wołczyński Strumień river and the Oziąbel river, apart from the areas where they run together. The modelled area was extended (271.5 km2) around the Wołczyński Strumień river catchment to achieve a more effective mapping of the anthropogenic impact on its balance and the hydrodynamic system of the catchment area. The structure is characterised by the occurrence of one or rarely two aquifers separated by a pack of Quaternary clays. The investigation produced a detailed water balance and its components.

  8. Ag loaded WO{sub 3} nanoplates for efficient photocatalytic degradation of sulfanilamide and their bactericidal effect under visible light irradiation

    Zhu, Wenyu [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute (NEWRI), Nanyang Technological University, 1 Cleantech Loop, CleanTech One, Singapore 637141 (Singapore); Liu, Jincheng, E-mail: JCLIU@ntu.edu.sg [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Current address: Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510009 (China); Yu, Shuyan; Zhou, Yan [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute (NEWRI), Nanyang Technological University, 1 Cleantech Loop, CleanTech One, Singapore 637141 (Singapore); Yan, Xiaoli, E-mail: XLYAN@ntu.edu.sg [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Current address: Environmental and Water Technology Centre of Innovation, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, 535 Clementi Road, Singapore 599489 (Singapore)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • WO{sub 3}/Ag heterogeneous composites were fabricated with simply photo-reduction method. • Property changes due to Ag loading were systematically studied. • WO{sub 3}/Ag composites efficiently degraded sulfanilamide under visible light irradiation. • WO{sub 3}/Ag composites exhibited bactericidal effectS under visible light irradiation. - Abstract: Sulfonamides (SAs) are extensively used antibiotics and their residues in the water bodies propose potential threat to the public. In this study, degradation efficiency of sulfanilamide (SAM), which is the precursor of SAs, using WO{sub 3} nanoplates and their Ag heterogeneous as photocatalysts was investigated. WO{sub 3} nanoplates with uniform size were synthesized by a facile one step hydrothermal method. Different amount of Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were loaded onto WO{sub 3} nanoplates using a photo-reduction method to generate WO{sub 3}/Ag composites. The physio-chemical properties of synthesized nanomaterials were systematically characterized. Photodegradation of SAM by WO{sub 3} and WO{sub 3}/Ag composites was conducted under visible light irradiation. The results show that WO{sub 3}/Ag composites performed much better than pure WO{sub 3} where the highest removal rate was 96.2% in 5 h. Ag as excellent antibacterial agent also endows certain antibacterial efficiency to WO{sub 3}, and 100% removal efficiency against Escherichia Coli and Bacillus subtilis could be achieved in 2 h under visible light irradiation for all three WO{sub 3}/Ag composites synthesized. The improved performance in terms of SAM degradation and antibacterial activity of WO{sub 3}/Ag can be attributed to the improved electron-hole pair separation rate where Ag NPs act as effective electron trapper during the photocatalytic process.

  9. Enhanced structural and optical properties of the polyaniline-calcium tungstate (PANI-CaWO4 nanocomposite for electronics applications

    Sabu, N. Aloysius; Francis, Xavier; Anjaly, Jose; Sankararaman, S.; Varghese, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    In this article, we report the synthesis and characterization of polyaniline-calcium tungstate nanocomposite, a novel material for potential applications. The PANI-CaWO4 nanocomposite was prepared by in situ oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of CaWO4 nanoparticles dispersed in ethanol. Investigations using X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, UV-visible, photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the formation of the nanocomposite of PANI with CaWO4 nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy revealed almost uniform distribution of CaWO4 nanoparticles in the polyaniline matrix. These studies also confirmed electronic structure modification as a result of incorporating CaWO4 nanoparticles in PANI. Composite formation resulted in large decrease in the optical band gap and enhanced photoluminescence. The augmented structural, optical and photoluminescence properties of the PANI-CaWO4 nanocomposite can be used to explore potential applications in micro- and optoelectronics. This is the first report presenting synthesis and characterization of the PANI-CaWO4 nanocomposite.

  10. Incorporation of tantalum ions enhances the electrocatalytic activity of hexagonal WO3 nanowires for hydrogen evolution reaction

    Xie, Xiang; Mu, Wanjun; Li, Xingliang; Wei, Hongyuan; Jian, Yuan; Yu, Qianhong; Zhang, Rui; Lv, Kai; Tang, Hui; Luo, Shunzhong

    2014-01-01

    WO 3 has been identified as a promising candidate electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), because it can form a tungsten bronze (HxWO 3 ) which is highly electron and proton conducting. In this paper, we report that the electrocatalytic activity of WO 3 for HER can be enhanced by incorporation of tantalum ions (Ta 5+ ) into the lattice of WO 3 . The most active performance is achieved with the molar ratio of Ta/W being 0.01, which is two times more active than that of undoped WO 3 at an overpotential of -0.52 V. It is shown that incorporation of proper Ta 5+ into WO 3 can induce moderate defects and oxygen vacancies, as well as intercalate a higher amount of protons, which enhance the electron transfer and short the protons diffusion paths. These changes correlated positively with the enhanced catalytic HER activity. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that metal ions-doped WO 3 nanowires are promising electrocatalysts for HER

  11. Study of photocatalytic activities of Bi2WO6 nanoparticles synthesized by fast microwave-assisted method

    Phu, Nguyen Dang; Hoang, Luc Huy; Chen, Xiang-Bai; Kong, Meng-Hong; Wen, Hua-Chiang; Chou, Wu Ching

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of photocatalytic activities of Bi 2 WO 6 nanoparticles synthesized by fast microwave-assisted method. The photocatalytic activities of the nanoparticles were evaluated by the decolorization of methylene-blue under visible-light-irradiation. Our results show that the surface area of Bi 2 WO 6 nanoparticles plays a major role for improving photocatalytic activity, while visible-light absorption has only a weak effect on photocatalytic activity. This suggests efficient transportation of photo-generated electrons and holes to the oxidation active sites on the surface of nanoparticles, indicating Bi 2 WO 6 nanoparticles synthesized by fast microwave-assisted method are promising for achieving high photocatalytic activity under visible-light-irradiation. - Highlights: • The Bi 2 WO 6 nanoparticles were synthesized via fast microwave-assisted method. • The obtained Bi 2 WO 6 nanoparticles exhibited visible-light absorbance. • The surface area of Bi 2 WO 6 nanoparticles plays major role for improving photocatalytic activity. • The Bi 2 WO 6 nanoparticles are promising for achieving high photocatalytic activity under visible-light-irradiation

  12. A Facile Synthesis of Graphene-WO3 Nanowire Clusters with High Photocatalytic Activity for O2 Evolution

    M.-J. Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, graphene-WO3 nanowire clusters were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method. The obtained graphene-WO3 nanowire clusters were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS techniques. The photocatalytic oxygen (O2 evolution properties of the as-synthesized samples were investigated by measuring the amount of evolved O2 from water splitting. The graphene-WO3 nanowire clusters exhibited enhanced performance compared to pure WO3 nanowire clusters for O2 evolution. The amount of evolved O2 from water splitting after 8 h for the graphene-WO3 nanowire clusters is ca. 0.345 mmol/L, which is more than 1.9 times as much as that of the pure WO3 nanowire clusters (ca. 0.175 mmol/L. The high photocatalytic activity of the graphene-WO3 nanowire clusters was attributed to a high charge transfer rate in the presence of graphene.

  13. Photocatalytic activity of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}/Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} heterojunctions: the facilitation of exposed facets of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} substrate

    Yan, Long [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yulin University, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Low Metamorphic Coal Clean Utilization, Yulin 71900 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yan’an University, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Chemical Reaction Engineering, Yan’an 716000 (China); Wang, Yufei [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yulin University, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Low Metamorphic Coal Clean Utilization, Yulin 71900 (China); Shen, Huidong; Zhang, Yu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yan’an University, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Chemical Reaction Engineering, Yan’an 716000 (China); Li, Jian [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yulin University, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Low Metamorphic Coal Clean Utilization, Yulin 71900 (China); Wang, Danjun, E-mail: yulyanlong@aliyun.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yan’an University, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Chemical Reaction Engineering, Yan’an 716000 (China)

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} hybrids with exposed (020) Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} facets have been synthesized. • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that a small amount of Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} was formed. • The enhanced photoactivity of hybrids is due to heterojunction and (020) facets. • A possible photocatalytic degradation mechanism is proposed. - Abstract: Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} hybrid architectures with exposed (020) Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} facets have been synthesized via a controlled anion exchange approach. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals that a small amount of Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} was formed on the surface of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} during the anion exchange process, thus leading to the transformation from the Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} to Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. A rhodamine B (RhB) aqueous solution was chosen as model organic pollutants to evaluate the photocatalytic activities of the Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} catalysts. Under visible light irradiation, the Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}-TAA displayed the excellent visible light photoactivities compared with pure Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3}, Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} and other composite photocatalysts. The efficient photocatalytic activity of the Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}-TAA composite microspheres was ascribed to the constructed heterojunctions and the inner electric field caused by the exposed (020) Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} facets. Active species trapping experiments revealed that h{sup +} and O{sub 2}·{sup −} are the main active species in the photocatalytic process. Furthermore, the as-obtained photocatalysts showed good photocatalytic activity after four recycles. The results presented in this study provide a new concept for the rational design and development of highly efficient photocatalysts.

  14. NO{sub 2} gas sensing of flame-made Pt-loaded WO{sub 3} thick films

    Samerjai, Thanittha [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Program, Faculty of Graduate School, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Tamaekong, Nittaya [Program in Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Chiang Mai 50290 (Thailand); Liewhiran, Chaikarn [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wisitsoraat, Anurat [Nanoelectronics and MEMS Laboratory, National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Phanichphant, Sukon, E-mail: sphanichphant@yahoo.com [Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2014-06-01

    Unloaded WO{sub 3} and 0.25–1.0 wt% Pt-loaded WO{sub 3} nanoparticles for NO{sub 2} gas detection were synthesized by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) and characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The BET surface area (SSA{sub BET}) of the nanoparticles was measured by nitrogen adsorption. The NO{sub 2} sensing properties of the sensors based on unloaded and Pt-loaded WO{sub 3} nanoparticles were investigated. The results showed that the gas sensing properties of the Pt-loaded WO{sub 3} sensors were excellent to those of the unloaded one. Especially, 0.25 wt% Pt-loaded WO{sub 3} sensor showed highest response to NO{sub 2} than the others at low operating temperature of 150 °C. - Graphical abstract: The response of 0.25 wt% Pt-loaded WO3 sensor was 637 towards NO{sub 2} concentration of 10 ppm at 150 °C. - Highlights: • Unloaded and Pt-loaded WO{sub 3} nanoparticles for NO{sub 2} gas detection were synthesized by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP). • Gas sensing properties of the Pt-loaded WO{sub 3} sensors were excellent to those of the unloaded one. • 0.25 wt% Pt-loaded WO{sub 3} sensor showed highest response to NO{sub 2} at low operating temperature of 150 °C.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of porous WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} hollow microspheres

    Yang, Liuyang [Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Si, Zhichun, E-mail: emsztsinghua@126.com [Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Weng, Duan [Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Process, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yao, Youwei [Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Porous WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} hollow microspheres were prepared by a spray drying method for photodegradation of methylene blue and phenol. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope, N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption measurements, Raman spectrometer, UV–Vis Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy and Zeta-Meter measurements. The results showed that the tungsten oxides mainly existed in highly dispersed amorphous form on anatase when the loading amount of tungsten oxide was below 3 mol%. The improved photocatalytic activity under UV light irradiation of the WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst mainly arises from the enhanced charge separation efficiency rather than the improved light absorbance by highly dispersed amorphous tungsten oxides. Highly dispersed amorphous WO{sub x} can form a shallowly trapped site due to its similar band structure with TiO{sub 2}. The strongly electron-withdrawing of tungsten oxide in highly dispersed state facilitates the electron transition between titanium and WO{sub x}, and consequently improves the charge separation. The enhanced acidity of catalyst by WO{sub x} in reactant environment also improved the charge separation efficiency due to the timely transition of holes and electrons accumulated on TiO{sub 2} and WO{sub x}, respectively. However, the improved photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation of the WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst mainly arises from light harvest. TiO{sub 2} containing 3 mol% WO{sub 3} displayed the highest photocatalytic activity under UV light irradiation while that containing 4 mol% WO{sub 3} present highest activity under visible light irradiation.

  16. Correlation between excited d-orbital electron lifetime in polaron dynamics and coloration of WO3 upon ultraviolet exposure

    Lee, Young-Ahn; Han, Seung-Ik; Rhee, Hanju; Seo, Hyungtak

    2018-05-01

    Polarons have been suggested to explain the mechanism of the coloration of WO3 induced by UV light. However, despite the many experimental results that support small polarons as a key mechanism, direct observation of the carrier dynamics of polarons have yet to be reported. Here, we investigate the correlation between the electronic structure and the coloration of WO3 upon exposure to UV light in 5% H2/N2 gas and, more importantly, reveal photon-induced excited d-electron generation/relaxation via the W5+ oxidation state. The WO3 is fabricated by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. X-ray diffraction patterns show that prepared WO3 is amorphous. Optical bandgap of 3.1 eV is measured by UV-vis before and after UV light. The results of Fourier transform infrared and Raman exhibit pristine WO3 is formed with surface H2O. The colored WO3 shows reduced state of W5+ state (34.3 eV) by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The valence band maximum of WO3 after UV light in H2 is shifted from mid gap to shallow donor by using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. During the exploration of the carrier dynamics, pump (700 nm)-probe (1000 nm) spectroscopy at the femtosecond scale was used. The results indicated that electron-phonon relaxation of UV-irradiated WO3, which is the origin of the polaron-induced local surface plasmonic effect, is dominant, resulting in slow decay (within a few picoseconds); in contrast, pristine WO3 shows fast decay (less than a picosecond). Accordingly, the long photoinduced carrier relaxation is ascribed to the prolonged hot-carrier lifetime in reduced oxides resulting in a greater number of free d-electrons and, therefore, more interactions with the W5+ sub-gap states.

  17. Promotion effect of Pt on a SnO2-WO3 material for NOx sensing

    Wang, Chen-Yang; Hong, Zih-Siou; Wu, Ren-Jang

    2015-05-01

    Metal-oxide nanocomposites were prepared over screen-printed gold electrodes to be used as room-temperature NOx (nitric-oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) sensors. Various weight ratios of SnO2-WO3 and Pt loadings were used for NO sensing. The sensing materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and BET surface analysis. The NO-sensing results indicated that SnO2-WO3 (1:2) was more effective than other materials were. The sensor response (S=resistance of N2/resistance of NO=RN2/RNO) for detecting 1000 ppm of NO at room temperature was 2.6. The response time (T90) and recovery time (TR90) was 40 s and 86 s, respectively. By further loading with 0.5% Pt, the sensor response increased to 3.3. The response and recovery times of 0.5% Pt/SnO2-WO3 (1:2) were 40 s and 206 s, respectively. The linearity of the sensor response for a NO concentration range of 10-1000 ppm was 0.9729. A mechanism involving Pt promotion of the SnO2-WO3 heterojunction was proposed for NO adsorption, surface reaction, and adsorbed NO2 desorption.

  18. Highly Yb-doped KGd(WO4)2 thin-film amplifier

    Yong, Yean Sheng; Aravazhi, S.; Vázquez-Córdova, Sergio Andrés; García Blanco, Sonia Maria; Pollnau, Markus

    We report record-high small-signal gain of 1050 dB/cm at 981 nm wavelength in a KGd0.425Yb0.575(WO4)2 thin film. The sensitivity of gain to the shift of beam-focus position, which is critical under non-waveguiding conditions, is investigated.

  19. Crystal structures of the double perovskites Ba2Sr1-x Ca x WO6

    Fu, W.T.; Akerboom, S.; IJdo, D.J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Structures of the double perovskites Ba 2 Sr 1- x Ca x WO 6 have been studied by the profile analysis of X-ray diffraction data. The end members, Ba 2 SrWO 6 and Ba 2 CaWO 6 , have the space group I2/m (tilt system a 0 b - b - ) and Fm3-barm (tilt system a 0 a 0 a 0 ), respectively. By increasing the Ca concentration, the monoclinic structure transforms to the cubic one via the rhombohedral R3-bar phase (tilt system a - a - a - ) instead of the tetragonal I4/m phase (tilt system a 0 a 0 c - ). This observation supports the idea that the rhombohedral structure is favoured by increasing the covalency of the octahedral cations in Ba 2 MM'O 6 -type double perovskites, and disagrees with a recent proposal that the formation of the π-bonding, e.g., d 0 -ion, determines the tetragonal symmetry in preference to the rhombohedral one. - Graphical abstract: Enlarged sections showing the evolution of the basic (222) and (400) reflections in Ba 2 Sr 1- x Ca x WO 6 . Tick marks below are the positions of Bragg's reflections calculated using the space groups I2/m (x=0), R3-bar (x=0.25, 0.5 and 0.75) and Fm3-barm (x=1), respectively

  20. Status of 116Cd double β decay study with 116CdWO4 scintillators

    Bizzeti, P.G.; Fazzini, T.F.; Danevich, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    A new set-up with four enriched 116 CdWO 4 scintillators with the mass of 0.34 kg is presented. The measured half-life for 2ν2β decay as well as the T 1/2 limits for different modes of neutrinoless 2β decay of 116 Cd are reported

  1. An UV photochromic memory effect in proton-based WO3 electrochromic devices

    Zhang Yong; Lee, S.-H.; Mascarenhas, A.; Deb, S. K.

    2008-01-01

    We report an UV photochromic memory effect on a standard proton-based WO 3 electrochromic device. It exhibits two memory states, associated with the colored and bleached states of the device, respectively. Such an effect can be used to enhance device performance (increasing the dynamic range), re-energize commercial electrochromic devices, and develop memory devices

  2. Characterization of Porous WO3 Electrochromic Device by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    Chien Chon Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the microstructure of the anodic tungsten oxide (WO3 and its use in an electrochromic (EC glass device. When voltages between 100 V and 160 V were applied to tungsten film for 1 h under 0.4 wt. % NaF electrolyte, porous WO3 film was formed. The film, which had a large surface area, was used as electrochromic film for EC glass. The average transmittance in a visible region of the spectrum for a 144 cm2 EC device was above 75% in the bleached state and below 40% in the colored state, respectively. Repeatability using of the colored/bleached cycles was tested good by a cyclic voltammograms method. The internal impedance values under colored and bleached states were detected and simulated using an electrical impedance spectra (EIS technique. The EC glass impedance characteristics were simulated using resistors, capacitors, and Warburg impedance. The ITO/WO3, WO3/electrolyte, electrolyte/NiO, and NiO/ITO interfaces can be simulated using a resistance capacitance (RC parallel circuits, and bulk materials such as the indium tin oxide (ITO and conducting wire can be simulated by using a series of resisters.

  3. Super-Nernstian pH sensors based on WO3 nanosheets

    Kuo, Chao-Yin; Wang, Shui-Jinn; Ko, Rong-Ming; Tseng, Hung-Hao

    2018-04-01

    The effects of the surface morphology of hydrothermally grown WO3 nanosheets (NSs) and sputtering WO3 film on the performance of pH sensing electrodes are presented and compared in the pH range of 2–12. Using a separated electrode of an extended-gate field-effect transistor (EGFET) configuration, the WO3 nanosheet (NS) pH sensor shows a sensitivity of 63.37 mV/pH, a good linearity of 0.9973, a low voltage hysteresis of 4.79 mV, and a low drift rate of 3.18 mV/h. In contrast, the film-type one shows a typical sensitivity of only 50.08 mV/pH and a linearity of 0.9932. The super-Nernstian response could be attributed to the significant increase in the number of surface ion adsorption sites of the NS structure and the occurrence of local electric field enhancement over the sharp edges and corners of WO3 NSs.

  4. Characteristics of W/O emulsions containing polymeric emulsifier PEG 30-dipolyhydroxystearate

    Milinković Jelena R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-in-oil (W/O emulsions are dispersed systems which are often used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries as products, or as carriers of active substances. It is well known that they are very unstable, so that selection of the emulsifier and properties of the oil and water phase are main factors affecting their stability. The aim of this paper was to examine the possibility of application of a lipophilic, polymeric emulsifier, PEG 30-dipolyhydroxystearate (CithrolTM DPHS, for stabilization of W/O emulsions. Behaviour of the emulsifier at W/O interfaces was determined by means of tensiometry. A series of emulsions were prepared with 20% (w/w of water and different types of oil. Droplet size, droplet size distribution, viscosity, and sedimentation stability during 30 days of storage at room temperature of the emulsions prepared with paraffin oil, olive oil, grape seed oil, and medium-chain triglycerides, stabilized with 1% CithrolTM DPHS, were determined. All investigated emulsions were stable for 30 days, except the one prepared with paraffin oil. The results of this study confirmed that PEG 30-dipolyhydroxylstearate is a good emulsifier and stabilizer of W/O emulsions which contain different types of oil. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46010

  5. Thermal oxidation of seeds for the hydrothermal growth of WO3 nanorods on ITO glass substrate

    Ng, Chai Yan; Abdul Razak, Khairunisak; Lockman, Zainovia

    2015-01-01

    This work reports a simple seed formation method for the hydrothermal growth of tungsten oxide (WO 3 ) nanorods. A WO 3 seed layer was prepared by thermal oxidation, where a W-sputtered substrate was heated and oxidized in a furnace. Oxidation temperatures and periods were varied at 400–550 °C and 5–60 min, respectively, to determine an appropriate seed layer for nanorod growth. Thermal oxidation at 500 °C for 15 min was found to produce a seed layer with sufficient crystallinity and good adhesion to the substrate. These properties prevented the seed from peeling off during the hydrothermal process, thereby allowing nanorod growth on the seed. The nanorod film showed better electrochromic behavior (higher current density of − 1.11 and + 0.65 mA cm −2 ) than compact film (lower current density of − 0.54 and + 0.28 mA cm −2 ). - Highlights: • A simple seed formation method (thermal oxidation) on sputtered W film is reported. • Crystalline seed with good adhesion to substrate is required for nanorod growth. • The appropriate temperature and period for seed formation were 500 °C and 15 min. • WO 3 nanorods exhibited higher electrochromic current density than WO 3 compact film.

  6. A. C. conduction behaviour in amorphous WO 3 /CEO 2 thin film ...

    A. C. conduction behaviour in amorphous WO3/CEO2 thin film. B Yagoubi, C A Hogarth, A Boukorrt. Abstract. No Abstract. Technologies Avancees Vol. 17 2005: pp. 5-8. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ta.v17i1.18478.

  7. An UV photochromic memory effect in proton-based WO3 electrochromic devices

    Zhang, Yong; Lee, S.-H.; Mascarenhas, A.; Deb, S. K.

    2008-11-01

    We report an UV photochromic memory effect on a standard proton-based WO3 electrochromic device. It exhibits two memory states, associated with the colored and bleached states of the device, respectively. Such an effect can be used to enhance device performance (increasing the dynamic range), re-energize commercial electrochromic devices, and develop memory devices.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of MoO3–WO3 composite thin films ...

    Abstract. In order to achieve high colouration efficiency, MoO3–WO3 composite thin films have been successfully deposited on sodium silicate glass and silicon wafer (111) at 30 ◦C by a very simple novel wet process known as liquid phase deposition. The deposited films were annealed at different temperatures and ...

  9. Phase modification and surface plasmon resonance of Au/WO{sub 3} system

    Bose, R. Jolly; Kavitha, V.S. [Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala, Kariyavattom, Thiruvananthapuram 691574, Kerala (India); Sudarsanakumar, C. [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Priyadarshini Hills, Kottayam 686560, Kerala (India); Pillai, V.P. Mahadevan, E-mail: vpmpillai9@gmail.com [Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala, Kariyavattom, Thiruvananthapuram 691574, Kerala (India)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • We have investigated the role of gold as catalyst and nucleation centers, for the crystallization and phase modification of tungsten oxide, in Au/WO{sub 3} matrix. • The phase change from triclinic WO{sub 3} to monoclinic W{sub 18}O{sub 49} is found to enhance with gold incorporation. • The surface plasmon resonance is observed in gold/tungsten oxide system with the appearance of an absorption band near the wavelength 604 nm. - Abstract: We report the action of gold as catalyst for the modification of phase from triclinic WO{sub 3} to monoclinic W{sub 18}O{sub 49} and nucleation centre for the formation of W{sub 18}O{sub 49} phase, in gold incorporated tungsten oxide films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering technique. A new band is observed near 925 cm{sup −1} in the Raman spectra of gold incorporated tungsten oxide films which is not observed in the pure tungsten oxide film. The intensity of this band enhances with gold content. A localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) band is observed near the wavelength 604 nm in gold incorporated tungsten oxide films. The integrated intensities of LSPR band and Raman band (∼925 cm{sup −1}) can be used for sensing the quantity of gold in the Au/WO{sub 3} matrix.

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis of hierarchical WO3 nanostructures for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Rashad, M.M.; Shalan, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Hierarchical architectures consisting of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures are of great interest for potential use in energy and environmental applications in recent years. In this work, hierarchical tungsten oxide (WO 3 ) has been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route from ammonium metatungstate hydrate and implemented as photoelectrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. The urchin-like WO 3 micro-patterns are constructed by self-organized nanoscale length 1D building blocks, which are single crystalline in nature, grown along (001) direction and confirm an orthorhombic crystal phase. The obtained powders were investigated by XRD, SEM, TEM and UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on WO 3 photoanodes was investigated. With increasing the calcination temperature of the prepared nanopowders, the light-electricity conversion efficiency (η) was increased. The results were attributed to increase the crystallinity of the particles and ease of electron movement. The DSSC based on hierarchical WO 3 showed a short-circuit current, an open-circuit voltage, a fill factor, and a conversion efficiency of 4.241 mA/cm 2 , 0.656 V, 66.74, and 1.85 %, respectively. (orig.)

  11. Hydrothermal synthesis of hierarchical WO{sub 3} nanostructures for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Rashad, M.M. [Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Helwan, P.O. Box 87, Cairo (Egypt); Shalan, A.E. [Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Helwan, P.O. Box 87, Cairo (Egypt); Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Institute of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (i-MEET), Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Hierarchical architectures consisting of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures are of great interest for potential use in energy and environmental applications in recent years. In this work, hierarchical tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) has been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route from ammonium metatungstate hydrate and implemented as photoelectrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. The urchin-like WO{sub 3} micro-patterns are constructed by self-organized nanoscale length 1D building blocks, which are single crystalline in nature, grown along (001) direction and confirm an orthorhombic crystal phase. The obtained powders were investigated by XRD, SEM, TEM and UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on WO{sub 3} photoanodes was investigated. With increasing the calcination temperature of the prepared nanopowders, the light-electricity conversion efficiency (η) was increased. The results were attributed to increase the crystallinity of the particles and ease of electron movement. The DSSC based on hierarchical WO{sub 3} showed a short-circuit current, an open-circuit voltage, a fill factor, and a conversion efficiency of 4.241 mA/cm{sup 2}, 0.656 V, 66.74, and 1.85 %, respectively. (orig.)

  12. Ethanol vapour sensing properties of screen printed WO 3 thick films

    The ethanol vapour sensing properties of these thick films were investigated at different operating temperatures and ethanol vapour concentrations. The WO3 thick films exhibit excellent ethanol vapour sensing properties with a maximum sensitivity of ∼1424.6% at 400°C in air atmosphere with fast response and recovery ...

  13. Luminescent and structural properties of Zn_xMg_1_-_xWO_4 mixed crystals

    Krutyak, N.; Nagirnyi, V.; Spassky, D.; Tupitsyna, I.; Dubovik, A.; Belsky, A.

    2016-01-01

    The structural and luminescent properties of perspective scintillating Zn_xMg_1_-_xWO_4 mixed crystals were studied. The following characteristics were found to depend linearly on x value: the energy of several vibrational modes detected by Raman spectroscopy, the bandgap width deduced from the shift of the excitation spectrum onset of a self-trapped exciton (STE) emission, the position of thermally stimulated luminescence peaks. It is also shown that the thermal stability of the STE luminescence decreases gradually when x decreases. These data indicate that each Zn_xMg_1_-_xWO_4 mixed crystal is not a mixture of two constituents, but possesses its original crystalline structure, as well as optical and luminescent properties. - Highlights: • The structural and luminescent properties of Zn_xMg_1_-_xWO_4 were studied. • The energy of Raman modes, the bandgap width, TSL peak position linearly depend on x. • Each Zn_xMg_1_-_xWO_4 possesses its original crystalline structure.

  14. Structural phototransformation of WO{sub 3} thin films detected by photoacoustic analysis

    Pacheco, Argelia Perez, E-mail: ekargy@hotmail.com [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Laboratorio de Fotofisica y Peliculas Delgadas-CCADET, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan, A.P. 70-186, C.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Montes de Oca, C. Oliva; Castaneda-Guzman, R.; Garcia, A. Esparza [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Laboratorio de Fotofisica y Peliculas Delgadas-CCADET, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan, A.P. 70-186, C.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phototransformation of WO{sub 3} thin films were studied by photoacoustic technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phase transition in WO{sub 3} thin films was induced by laser irradiation fluence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The onset and end of the phototransformation in the thin films was identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ablation threshold for each sample was identified. - Abstract: The photoacoustic technique (PA) was used to detect the phase transformation from amorphous to crystalline state of tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) thin films induced by UV pulsed laser radiation at low energy (<1.5 mJ). The evolution of photoacoustic signal was studied by a correlation analysis, comparing successive signals at fluences ranging from 0 to 20 mJ/cm{sup 2}. In this interval, it was possible to observe structural changes and the ablation threshold in films due to incident laser fluence effect. Thin films of WO{sub 3} were deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering over glass substrates at different deposition times. The results obtained by correlation analysis were compared with Raman spectroscopy data.

  15. Managing SRS competition in a miniature visible Nd:YVO4/BaWO4 Raman laser.

    Li, Xiaoli; Lee, Andrew J; Huo, Yujing; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Jiyang; Piper, James A; Pask, Helen M; Spence, David J

    2012-08-13

    We demonstrate the operation of a compact and efficient continuous wave (CW) self-Raman laser utilizing a Nd:YVO4 gain crystal and BaWO4 Raman crystal, generating yellow emission at 590 nm. We investigate the competition that occurs between Stokes lines in the Nd:YVO4 and BaWO4 crystals, and within the BaWO4 crystal itself. Through careful consideration of crystal length and orientation, we are able to suppress competition between Stokes lines, and generate pure yellow emission at 590 nm with output power of 194 mW for just 3.8 W pump power.

  16. Temperature dependent selective detection of hydrogen and acetone using Pd doped WO3/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite

    Kaur, Jasmeet; Anand, Kanica; Kohli, Nipin; Kaur, Amanpreet; Singh, Ravi Chand

    2018-06-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and Pd doped WO3 nanocomposites were fabricated by employing electrostatic interactions between poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) modified Pd doped WO3 nanostructures and graphite oxide (GO) and studied for their gas sensing application. XRD, Raman, FTIR, FESEM-EDX, TEM, TGA, XPS and Photoluminescence techniques were used for characterization of as-synthesized samples. Gas sensing studies revealed that the sensor with optimized doping of 1.5 mol% Pd and 1 wt% GO shows temperature dependent selectivity towards hydrogen and acetone. The role of WO3, Pd and RGO has been discussed in detail for enhanced sensing performance.

  17. Relationship between physical exercise, muscle damage and delayed-onset muscle soreness

    Denis Foschini

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between physical exercise involving muscle damage and delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS. A literature review of national and international periodicals was carried out. Muscle structures (membranes, Z-line, sarcomeres, T tubules and myofi brils can become damaged as a result of an imposed mechanical overload. Of greatest note are exercises requiring strength, particularly when muscular action is eccentric. Damage to skeletal musculature can be analyzed by direct methods (muscle biopsy or magnetic resonance or by indirect methods (maximum voluntary movement, subjective pain perception scales, analysis of enzyme and protein concentrations in blood. Creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, myosin heavy chain fragments, troponin-I and myoglobin can be used as indirect markers of muscle damage. Both DOMS and muscle damage can be infl uenced by the type of activity, with emphasis on eccentric muscle movements, type of exercise, velocity of the movement, interval period between series, the level of individual fi tness, this last primarily affecting beginners. When myotrauma occurs, muscle damage repair is initiated by leukocytes migrating to the injured area, although, the histamines, prostaglandins, kinins and K+ produced by neutrophils and macrophages stimulate free nerve endings in the muscle, causing the DOMS. Despite this apparent relationship between muscle damage and DOMS, it is not possible toestablish a linear relationship between these two variables, since published data are divergent. RESUMO O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar as relações do exercício físico com o dano muscular e dor muscular de início tardio (DMIT. Para tanto, foi realizada uma revisão de literatura de periódicos nacionais e internacionais. O dano muscular pode ocorrer em estruturas musculares (membranas, linha Z, sarcolema, túbulos T e miofi brilas em função da sobrecarga mec

  18. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of Sm3+-doped CaWO4 nanoparticles

    Xiao Qi; Zhou Qitao; Li Ming

    2010-01-01

    The Sm 3+ -doped CaWO 4 nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Sm 3+ -doped CaWO 4 nanoparticles doped with different Sm 3+ concentrations under 405 nm excitation have been investigated. The PL spectra showed four strong emission peaks at 460, 571, 609, and 653 nm. The first emission peak at 460 nm could be due to a structural defect of the lattice, an oxygen-deficient WO 3 complex. The other three emissions at 571, 609, and 653 nm were due to the f-f forbidden transitions of the 4f electrons of Sm 3+ , corresponding to 4 G 5/2 → 6 H 5/2 (571 nm), 6 H 7/2 (609 nm), and 6 H 9/2 (653 nm), respectively. In addition, the optimum Sm 3+ concentration in CaWO 4 nanoparticles for optical emission was determined to be 1.0%. The Sm 3+4 G 5/2 → 6 H 7/2 (609 nm) emission intensity of Sm 3+ -doped CaWO 4 nanoparticles significantly increased with the increase of Sm 3+ concentration, and showed a maximum when Sm 3+ doping content was 1.0%. If Sm 3+ concentration continued to increase, namely more than 1.0%, the Sm 3+4 G 5/2 → 6 H 7/2 emission intensity would decrease. The present materials might be a promising phosphor for white-light LED applications.

  19. Electrochromism and photocatalysis in dendrite structured Ti:WO3 thin films grown by sputtering

    Karuppasamy, A., E-mail: karuppasamy@psnacet.edu.in

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Dendrite structured Ti doped WO{sub 3} (WTO) thin films are grown by co-sputtering. • Sputtering condition influences structure and surface morphology of WTO films. • Titanium doping and annealing lead to dendritic surface structures in WTO films. • Structural, optical, electrochromic and photocatalytic properties of WTO films. • Enhanced electrochromism and photocatalysis in dendrite structured WTO thin films. - Abstract: Titanium doped tungsten oxide (Ti:WO{sub 3}) thin films with dendrite surface structures were grown by co-sputtering titanium and tungsten in Ar + O{sub 2} atmosphere. Ti:WO{sub 3} thin films were deposited at oxygen flow rates corresponding to pressures in the range 1.0 × 10{sup −3}–5.0 × 10{sup −3} mbar. Argon flow rate and sputtering power densities for titanium (2 W/cm{sup 2}) and tungsten (3 W/cm{sup 2}) were kept constant. Ti:WO{sub 3} films deposited at an oxygen pressure of 5 × 10{sup −3} mbar are found to be better electrochromic and photocatalytic. They have high optical modulation (80% at λ = 550 nm), coloration efficiency (60 cm{sup 2}/C at λ = 550 nm), electron/ion storage and removal capacity (Qc: −22.01 mC/cm{sup 2}, Qa: 17.72 mC/cm{sup 2}), reversibility (80%) and methylene blue decomposition rate (−1.38 μmol/l d). The combined effects of titanium doping, dendrite surface structures and porosity leads to significant enhancement in the electrochromic and photocatalytic properties of Ti:WO{sub 3} films.

  20. Electrochromism and photocatalysis in dendrite structured Ti:WO3 thin films grown by sputtering

    Karuppasamy, A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Dendrite structured Ti doped WO 3 (WTO) thin films are grown by co-sputtering. • Sputtering condition influences structure and surface morphology of WTO films. • Titanium doping and annealing lead to dendritic surface structures in WTO films. • Structural, optical, electrochromic and photocatalytic properties of WTO films. • Enhanced electrochromism and photocatalysis in dendrite structured WTO thin films. - Abstract: Titanium doped tungsten oxide (Ti:WO 3 ) thin films with dendrite surface structures were grown by co-sputtering titanium and tungsten in Ar + O 2 atmosphere. Ti:WO 3 thin films were deposited at oxygen flow rates corresponding to pressures in the range 1.0 × 10 −3 –5.0 × 10 −3 mbar. Argon flow rate and sputtering power densities for titanium (2 W/cm 2 ) and tungsten (3 W/cm 2 ) were kept constant. Ti:WO 3 films deposited at an oxygen pressure of 5 × 10 −3 mbar are found to be better electrochromic and photocatalytic. They have high optical modulation (80% at λ = 550 nm), coloration efficiency (60 cm 2 /C at λ = 550 nm), electron/ion storage and removal capacity (Qc: −22.01 mC/cm 2 , Qa: 17.72 mC/cm 2 ), reversibility (80%) and methylene blue decomposition rate (−1.38 μmol/l d). The combined effects of titanium doping, dendrite surface structures and porosity leads to significant enhancement in the electrochromic and photocatalytic properties of Ti:WO 3 films.

  1. Comparison of fasciocutaneous V-Y and rotational flaps for defect coverage of sacral pressure sores: a critical single-centre appraisal.

    Djedovic, Gabriel; Metzler, Julia; Morandi, Evi M; Wachter, Tanja; Kühn, Shafreena; Pierer, Gerhard; Rieger, Ulrich M

    2017-12-01

    Pressure sore rates remain high in both nursing homes as well as in hospitals. Numerous surgical options are available for defect coverage in the sacral region. However, objective data is scarce as to whether a specific flap design is superior to another. Here, we aim to compare two fasciocutaneous flap designs for sacral defect coverage: the gluteal rotation flap and the gluteal V-Y flap. All primary sacral pressure sores of grades III-IV that were being covered with gluteal fasciocutaneous rotational or V-Y flaps between January 2008 and December 2014 at our institution were analysed. A total of 41 patients received a total of 52 flaps. Of these, 18 patients received 20 gluteal rotational flaps, and 23 patients received 32 V-Y flaps. Both groups were comparable with regards to demographics, comorbidities and complications. Significantly more V-Y flaps were needed to cover smaller defects. Mean length of hospital stay was significantly prolonged when surgical revision had to be carried out. Both flap designs have proven safe and reliable for defect coverage after sacral pressure sores. Gluteal rotational flaps appear to be more useful for larger defects. Both flap designs facilitate their reuse in case of pressure sore recurrence. Complication rates appear to be comparable in both designs and to the current literature. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Quantification and localisation of damage in rat muscles after controlled loading; a new approach to study the aetiology of pressure sores

    Bosboom, E.M.H.; Bouten, C.V.C.; Oomens, C.W.J.; Straaten, van H.W.M.; Baaijens, F.P.T.; Kuipers, H.

    2001-01-01

    To obtain more insight in the aetiology of deep pressure sores, an animal model was developed to relate controlled externalloading to local muscle damage. The tibialis anterior muscle (TA) and overlying skin of a rat were compressed between indentorand tibia. Loads of 10, 70 and 250 kPa at skin

  3. [Repair of pressure sores over ischial tuberosity with long head of biceps femoris muscle flap combined with semi-V posterior thigh fasciocutaneous flap].

    Hai, Heng-lin; Shen, Chuan-an; Chai, Jia-ke; Li, Hua-tao

    2012-02-01

    To explore the clinical effect of transplantation of the long head of biceps femoris muscle flap in combination with semi-V posterior thigh fasciocutaneous flap for repair of pressure sores over ischial tuberosity. Eight patients with 10 deep pressure sores over ischial tuberosity were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital to the PLA General Hospital and the 98th Hospital of PLA from April 2004 to June 2010. The wounds measured from 2 cm × 2 cm to 6 cm × 4 cm were covered with the long head of biceps femoris muscle flap and semi-V posterior thigh fasciocutaneous flap (ranged from 10 cm × 6 cm to 13 cm × 8 cm). The condition of flaps was observed and followed up for a long time. All flaps survived. Nine wounds healed by first intention. Subcutaneous accumulation of fluids occurred in one wound with formation of a sinus at drainage site, and it healed after dressing change for 25 days. Patients were followed up for 7 to 34 months. Sore recurred in one patient 9 months after surgery, and it was successfully repaired with the same flap for the second time. Flaps in the other 7 patients appeared satisfactory with soft texture and without ulceration. This combined flap is easy in formation and transfer, and it causes little side injury with good resistance against pressure. It is a new method for repair of pressure sore over sacral region.

  4. [The practice guideline 'Sore throat' (second revision) from the Dutch College of General Practitioners; a response from the perspective of otorhinolaryngology

    Marres, H.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this comment, the practice guideline 'Sore throat' (second revision) is discussed. This guideline, composed by the Dutch College of General Practitioners, offers general practitioners a well-appreciated overview of the common practices regarding diagnostic tests and treatment of pharyngitis and

  5. Importance of diagnostic laboratory methods of beta hemolytic streptococcus group A in comparison with clinical findings in the diagnosis of streptococcal sore throat and unnecessary antibacterial therapy

    Peiman Eini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Streptococcus Pyogenes (group A streptococcus, GAS is the most important cause of bacterial pharyngitis in children and adolescents. Acute pharyngitis is one of the most common conditions in all ages but it is most common in children. Over diagnosis of acute pharyngitis represents one of the major causes of antibiotic abuse. The goal of this study is to make an estimate of the frequency of group A streptococcus in sore throat patients in Farshchian hospital emergency department and clinic in Hamadan. Methods: For estimation of the clinical features role in diagnosis of streptococcal sore throat, we took samples of 100 patients with average age of 32.96±29.86 years with sore throat. We took samples from pharynx and used standard methods of bacteriology in order to detect streptococcus. Results: Group A Streptococcus (GAS accounts for 3 percent of all cases of pharyngitis. Clinically, all of the patients had sore throat. The percent breakdowns are as follows: 30% had exudate, 78% had fever, 8% had lymphadenopathy and 7.7 percent of exudative pharyngitis was streptococcal. The cost for unnecessary antibiotic therapy for every single patient who had negative pharynx culture was approximately 32160 Rails. Conclusion: The low frequency of streptococcus pharyngitis in treated patients reveal that diagnosis based on clinical features is not reliable. We recommend use of other diagnostic methods such as Rapid Antigen Detection Tests (RATs. Only reliable and scientific protocols for antibiotic to therapy.

  6. Soreness during non-music activities is associated with playing-related musculoskeletal problems: an observational study of 731 child and adolescent instrumentalists.

    Ranelli, Sonia; Straker, Leon; Smith, Anne

    2014-06-01

    Is exposure to non-music-related activities associated with playing-related musculoskeletal problems in young instrumentalists? Is non-music-activity-related soreness associated with playing-related musculoskeletal problems in this group of instrumentalists? Observational study using a questionnaire and physical measures. 859 instrumentalists aged 7 to 17 years from the School of Instrumental Music program. Of the 731 respondents who completed the questionnaire adequately, 412 (56%) experienced instrument-playing problems; 219 (30%) had symptoms severe enough to interfere with normal playing. Children commonly reported moderate exposure to non-music-related activities, such as watching television (61%), vigorous physical activity (57%), writing (51%) and computer use (45%). Greater exposure to any non-music activity was not associated with playing problems, with odds ratios ranging from 1.01 (95% CI 0.7 to 1.5) for watching television to 2.08 (95% CI 0.5 to 3.3) for intensive hand activities. Four hundred and seventy eight (65%) children reported soreness related to non-music activities, such as vigorous physical activity (52%), writing (40%), computer use (28%), intensive hand activities (22%), electronic game use (17%) and watching television (15%). Non-music-activity-related soreness was significantly associated with instrument playing problems, adjusting for gender and age, with odds ratios ranging from 2.6 (95% CI 1.7 to 3.9) for soreness whilst watching television, to 4.3 (95% CI 2.6 to 7.1) for soreness during intensive hand activities. Non-music-activity-related soreness co-occurs significantly with playing problems in young instrumentalists. The finding of significant co-occurrence of music and non-music-related soreness in respondents in this study suggests that intervention targets for young instrumentalists could include risk factors previously identified in the general child and adolescent population, as well as music-specific risk factors. This is an

  7. THE DISCOVERY OF A RARE WO-TYPE WOLF-RAYET STAR IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Neugent, Kathryn F.; Massey, Philip [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Morrell, Nidia, E-mail: kneugent@lowell.edu, E-mail: phil.massey@lowell.edu, E-mail: nmorrell@lco.cl [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile)

    2012-12-01

    While observing OB stars within the most crowded regions of the Large Magellanic Cloud, we happened upon a new Wolf-Rayet (WR) star in Lucke-Hodge 41, the rich OB association that contains S Doradus and numerous other massive stars. At first glance the spectrum resembled that of a WC4 star, but closer examination showed strong O VI {lambda}{lambda}3811, 34 lines, leading us to classify it as a WO4. This is only the second known WO in the LMC, and the first known WO4 (the other being a WO3). This rarity is to be expected due to these stars' short lifespans as they represent the most advanced evolutionary stage in a massive star's lifetime before exploding as supernovae. This discovery shows that while the majority of WRs within the LMC have been discovered, there may be a few WRs left to be found.

  8. THE DISCOVERY OF A RARE WO-TYPE WOLF–RAYET STAR IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Neugent, Kathryn F.; Massey, Philip; Morrell, Nidia

    2012-01-01

    While observing OB stars within the most crowded regions of the Large Magellanic Cloud, we happened upon a new Wolf-Rayet (WR) star in Lucke-Hodge 41, the rich OB association that contains S Doradus and numerous other massive stars. At first glance the spectrum resembled that of a WC4 star, but closer examination showed strong O VI λλ3811, 34 lines, leading us to classify it as a WO4. This is only the second known WO in the LMC, and the first known WO4 (the other being a WO3). This rarity is to be expected due to these stars' short lifespans as they represent the most advanced evolutionary stage in a massive star's lifetime before exploding as supernovae. This discovery shows that while the majority of WRs within the LMC have been discovered, there may be a few WRs left to be found.

  9. CTAB-Assisted Hydrothermal Synthesis of WO3 Hierarchical Porous Structures and Investigation of Their Sensing Properties

    Dan Meng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available WO3 hierarchical porous structures were successfully synthesized via cetyltrimethylammonium bromide- (CTAB- assisted hydrothermal method. The structure and morphology were investigated using scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffractometer, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller nitrogen adsorption-desorption, and thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis. The result demonstrated that WO3 hierarchical porous structures with an orthorhombic structure were constructed by a number of nanoparticles about 50–100 nm in diameters. The H2 gas sensing measurements showed that well-defined WO3 hierarchical porous structures with a large specific surface area exhibited the higher sensitivity compared with products without CTAB at all operating temperatures. Moreover, the reversible and fast response to H2 gas and good selectivity were obtained. The results indicated that the WO3 hierarchical porous structures are promising materials for gas sensors.

  10. High photocatalytic performance of BiOI/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} toward toluene and Reactive Brilliant Red

    Li Huiquan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuyang Normal College, Fuyang 236041 (China); Key Laboratory of Mesoscopic Chemistry of MOE, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Nanotechnology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Cui Yumin, E-mail: cuiyumin0908@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuyang Normal College, Fuyang 236041 (China); Hong Wenshan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuyang Normal College, Fuyang 236041 (China)

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: When BiOI/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} catalyst was exposed to UV or visible light, the electrons in the valence band of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} would be excited into the conduction band and then injected into the more positive conduction band of BiOI. Therefore, the photoelectrons were generated from Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} and transferred across the interface between BiOI and Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} to the surface of BiOI, leaving the photogenerated holes in the valence band of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. In this way, the photoinduced electron-hole pairs were effectively separated. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BiOI sensitized Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} catalysts were successfully prepared by a facile method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 13.2% BiOI/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} catalyst exhibits higher photoactivities than P25. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A possible transfer process of photogenerated carriers was proposed. - Abstract: BiOI sensitized nano-Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} photocatalysts with different BiOI contents were successfully synthesized by a facile deposition method at room temperature, and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectra, UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurements. The photocatalytic activity of BiOI/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} was evaluated by the photo-degradation of Reactive Brilliant Red (X-3B) in suspended solution and toluene in gas phase. It has been shown that the BiOI/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} catalysts exhibit a coexistence of both tetragonal BiOI and orthorhombic Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} phases. With increasing BiOI content, the absorption intensity of BiOI/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} catalysts increases in the 380-600 nm region and the absorption edge shifts significantly to longer wavelengths as compared to pure Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. The 13.2% BiOI/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} catalyst exhibits

  11. Pronounced effects of the nominal concentrations of WO3 and Ag: WO3 nano-plates (obtained by a co-precipitation method) on their structural, morphological and optical properties

    Rajendran, V.; Deepa, B.

    2018-03-01

    Tungsten oxide and different concentration of silver (Ag)-doped tungsten oxide nano material were synthesized by co-precipitation technique. The functional vibrations, structure, and morphology of as-prepared nano material were studied by Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) techniques. The SEM and HR-TEM analysis revealed the formation of nano-plate/nano rods with an average diameter of 40-80 nm diameter and 1-1.5 mm length. Fluorescence (PL) and UV-visible absorption techniques have been used to study the optical properties of the prepared nanoparticles. The observed red shift in the visible absorption spectra confirmed the promoted electron-phonon interaction in WO3 and Ag: WO3 nanoparticles compared to bulk structures. The photoluminescence of nanocrystalline Ag2+ doped WO3 exhibited a strong violet-blue, blue-green emission. Concentration dependence of the emission intensity of Ag2+ in WO3 was studied, and the significant concentration was found to be 0.5% of Ag: WO3. The effluent dye degradation executed for the 0.5% of Ag: WO3 sample under the visible light which reveals the highest degradation efficiency in appropriate time.

  12. Pain relief of sore throat with a new anti-inflammatory throat lozenge, ibuprofen 25 mg: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, international phase III study.

    Bouroubi, Athmane; Donazzolo, Yves; Donath, Franck; Eccles, Ron; Russo, Marc; Harambillet, Nadine; Gautier, Stéphanie; Montagne, Agnès

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of a new oromucosal ibuprofen form, ibuprofen 25 mg lozenge, in single and repeat dosing for up to 4 days, to the matched placebo, in the treatment of acute sore throat pain in adults. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, adult patients with non-streptococcal sore throat and signs of moderate-to-severe associated pain (≥5 on the objective Tonsillo-Pharyngitis Assessment 21-point scale and ≥60 mm on the subjective 0-100 mm visual analogue Sore Throat Pain Intensity Scale [STPIS]) were assigned ibuprofen 25 mg (n=194) or matching placebo (n=191) lozenge treatment. Efficacy was assessed (at the investigating centre up to 2 hours after first dosing, then on an ambulatory basis) by parameters derived from patient's scores on scales of pain relief, pain intensity, and global efficacy assessment. The primary efficacy end-point was the time-weighted TOTal PAin Relief (TOTPAR) over 2 hours after first dosing using the Sore Throat Relief Scale (STRS). Safety and local tolerability were assessed. Ibuprofen 25 mg was superior to placebo on numerous pain relief parameters; TOTPAR was significantly higher with ibuprofen 25 mg over 2 hours after first dosing (Ppain (n=128), after an average 4 days (Prelief of sore throat pain and is as well tolerated as placebo. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01785862. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Utility of the sore throat pain model in a multiple-dose assessment of the acute analgesic flurbiprofen: a randomized controlled study.

    Schachtel, Bernard; Aspley, Sue; Shephard, Adrian; Shea, Timothy; Smith, Gary; Schachtel, Emily

    2014-07-03

    The sore throat pain model has been conducted by different clinical investigators to demonstrate the efficacy of acute analgesic drugs in single-dose randomized clinical trials. The model used here was designed to study the multiple-dose safety and efficacy of lozenges containing flurbiprofen at 8.75 mg. Adults (n=198) with moderate or severe acute sore throat and findings of pharyngitis on a Tonsillo-Pharyngitis Assessment (TPA) were randomly assigned to use either flurbiprofen 8.75 mg lozenges (n=101) or matching placebo lozenges (n=97) under double-blind conditions. Patients sucked one lozenge every three to six hours as needed, up to five lozenges per day, and rated symptoms on 100-mm scales: the Sore Throat Pain Intensity Scale (STPIS), the Difficulty Swallowing Scale (DSS), and the Swollen Throat Scale (SwoTS). Reductions in pain (lasting for three hours) and in difficulty swallowing and throat swelling (for four hours) were observed after a single dose of the flurbiprofen 8.75 mg lozenge (Pflurbiprofen-treated patients experienced a 59% greater reduction in throat pain, 45% less difficulty swallowing, and 44% less throat swelling than placebo-treated patients (all Pflurbiprofen 8.75 mg lozenges were shown to be an effective, well-tolerated treatment for sore throat pain. Other pharmacologic actions (reduced difficulty swallowing and reduced throat swelling) and overall patient satisfaction from the flurbiprofen lozenges were also demonstrated in this multiple-dose implementation of the sore throat pain model. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, registration number: NCT01048866, registration date: January 13, 2010.

  14. Solar photocatalytic activity of TiO2 modified with WO3 on the degradation of an organophosphorus pesticide

    Ramos-Delgado, N.A.; Gracia-Pinilla, M.A.; Maya-Treviño, L.; Hinojosa-Reyes, L.; Guzman-Mar, J.L.; Hernández-Ramírez, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO 2 and WO 3 /TiO 2 (2 and 5%) were tested in the photocatalytic malathion degradation. • The use of solar radiation in the photocatalytic degradation process was evaluated. • Modified catalyst showed greater photocatalytic activity than pure TiO 2 . • The mineralization rate was improved when WO 3 content on TiO 2 was 2%. -- Abstract: In this study, the solar photocatalytic activity (SPA) of WO 3 /TiO 2 photocatalysts synthesized by the sol–gel method with two different percentages of WO 3 (2 and 5%wt) was evaluated using malathion as a model contaminant. For comparative purpose bare TiO 2 was also prepared by sol–gel process. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance UV–vis spectroscopy (DRUV–vis), specific surface area by the BET method (SSA BET ), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy with a high annular angle dark field detector (STEM-HAADF). The XRD, Raman, HRTEM and STEM-HAADF analyses indicated that WO 3 was present as a monoclinic crystalline phase with nanometric cluster sizes (1.1 ± 0.1 nm for 2% WO 3 /TiO 2 and 1.35 ± 0.3 nm for 5% WO 3 /TiO 2 ) and uniformly dispersed on the surface of TiO 2 . The particle size of the materials was 19.4 ± 3.3 nm and 25.6 ± 3 nm for 2% and 5% WO 3 /TiO 2 , respectively. The SPA was evaluated on the degradation of commercial malathion pesticide using natural solar light. The 2% WO 3 /TiO 2 photocatalyst exhibited the best photocatalytic activity achieving 76% of total organic carbon (TOC) abatement after 300 min compared to the 5% WO 3 /TiO 2 and bare TiO 2 photocatalysts, which achieved 28 and 47% mineralization, respectively. Finally, experiments were performed to assess 2% WO 3 /TiO 2 catalyst activity on repeated uses; after several successive cycles its photocatalytic activity was retained showing long-term stability

  15. Increased technetium uptake is not equivalent to muscle necrosis: scintigraphic, morphological and intramuscular pressure analyses of sore muscles after exercise

    Crenshaw, A. G.; Friden, J.; Hargens, A. R.; Lang, G. H.; Thornell, L. E.

    1993-01-01

    A scintigraphic technique employing technetium pyrophosphate uptake was used to identify the area of skeletal muscle damage in the lower leg of four runners 24 h after an ultramarathon footrace (160 km). Most of the race had been run downhill which incorporated an extensive amount of eccentric work. Soreness was diffuse throughout the posterior region of the lower leg. In order to interpret what increased technetium uptake reflects and to express extreme endurance related damages, a biopsy was taken from the 3-D position of abnormal uptake. In addition, intramuscular pressures were determined in the deep posterior compartment. Scintigraphs revealed increased technetium pyrophosphate uptake in the medial portion of the gastrocnemius muscle. For 3698 fibres analysed, 33 fibres (1%) were necrotic, while a few other fibres were either atrophic or irregular shaped. A cluster of necrotic fibres occurred at the fascicular periphery for one subject and fibre type grouping occurred for another. Ultrastructural analysis revealed Z-line streaming near many capillaries and variously altered subsarcolemmal mitochondria including some with paracrystalline inclusions. The majority of the capillaries included thickened and irregular shaped endothelial cells. Intramuscular pressures of the deep posterior compartment were slightly elevated (12-15 mmHg) for three of the four subjects. Increased technetium uptake following extreme endurance running does not just reflect muscle necrosis but also subtle fibre abnormalities. Collectively, these pathological findings are attributed to relative ischaemia occurring during the race and during pre-race training, whereas, intramuscular pressure elevations associated with muscle soreness are attributed to mechanical stress caused by extensive eccentric work during the race.

  16. A retrospective study: Multivariate logistic regression analysis of the outcomes after pressure sores reconstruction with fasciocutaneous, myocutaneous, and perforator flaps.

    Chiu, Yu-Jen; Liao, Wen-Chieh; Wang, Tien-Hsiang; Shih, Yu-Chung; Ma, Hsu; Lin, Chih-Hsun; Wu, Szu-Hsien; Perng, Cherng-Kang

    2017-08-01

    Despite significant advances in medical care and surgical techniques, pressure sore reconstruction is still prone to elevated rates of complication and recurrence. We conducted a retrospective study to investigate not only complication and recurrence rates following pressure sore reconstruction but also preoperative risk stratification. This study included 181 ulcers underwent flap operations between January 2002 and December 2013 were included in the study. We performed a multivariable logistic regression model, which offers a regression-based method accounting for the within-patient correlation of the success or failure of each flap. The overall complication and recurrence rates for all flaps were 46.4% and 16.0%, respectively, with a mean follow-up period of 55.4 ± 38.0 months. No statistically significant differences of complication and recurrence rates were observed among three different reconstruction methods. In subsequent analysis, albumin ≤3.0 g/dl and paraplegia were significantly associated with higher postoperative complication. The anatomic factor, ischial wound location, significantly trended toward the development of ulcer recurrence. In the fasciocutaneous group, paraplegia had significant correlation to higher complication and recurrence rates. In the musculocutaneous flap group, variables had no significant correlation to complication and recurrence rates. In the free-style perforator group, ischial wound location and malnourished status correlated with significantly higher complication rates; ischial wound location also correlated with significantly higher recurrence rate. Ultimately, our review of a noteworthy cohort with lengthy follow-up helped identify and confirm certain risk factors that can facilitate a more informed and thoughtful pre- and postoperative decision-making process for patients with pressure ulcers. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  17. Synthesis of WO{sub 3} nanoparticles by citric acid-assisted precipitation and evaluation of their photocatalytic properties

    Sánchez-Martínez, D. [Departamento de Ecomateriales y Energía, Facultad de Ingeniería Civil (UANL), Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 66451, San Nicolás de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Martínez-de la Cruz, A., E-mail: azael70@yahoo.com.mx [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 66451, San Nicolás de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); López-Cuéllar, E. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 66451, San Nicolás de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico)

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► WO{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple citric acid-assisted precipitation. ► WO{sub 3} photocatalyst was able to the partial mineralization of rhB, IC and MO. ► WO{sub 3} can be considered as a photocatalyst active under visible light irradiation. -- Abstract: WO{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized by citric acid-assisted precipitation method using a 1:1.5 molar ratio of ammonium paratungstate hydrate (H{sub 42}N{sub 10}O{sub 42}W{sub 12}·xH{sub 2}O):citric acid (C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 7}). The formation of monoclinic crystal structure of WO{sub 3} at different temperatures was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The characterization of the samples synthesized was complemented by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer–Emmitt–Teller surface area (BET) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). According to the thermal treatment followed during the synthesis of WO{sub 3}, the morphology of the nanoparticles formed was characterized by rectangular and ovoid shapes. The photocatalytic activity of WO{sub 3} obtained under different experimental conditions was evaluated in the degradation of rhodamine B (rhB), indigo carmine (IC), methyl orange (MO), and Congo red (CR) in aqueous solution under UV and UV–vis radiation. The highest photocatalytic activity was observed in the sample obtained by thermal treatment at 700 °C. In general, the sequence of degradation of the organic dyes was: indigo carmine (IC) > rhodamine B (rhB) > methyl orange (MO) > Congo red (CR). The mineralization degree of organic dyes by WO{sub 3} photocatalysts was determined by total organic carbon analysis (TOC) reaching percentages of mineralization of 82% (rhB), 85% (IC), 28% (MO), and 7% (CR) for 96 h of lamp irradiation.

  18. Mesoporous WN/WO3-Composite Nanosheets for the Chemiresistive Detection of NO2 at Room Temperature

    Fengdong Qu; Bo He; Rohiverth Guarecuco; Minghui Yang

    2016-01-01

    Composite materials, which can optimally use the advantages of different materials, have been studied extensively. Herein, hybrid tungsten nitride and oxide (WN/WO3) composites were prepared through a simple aqueous solution route followed by nitriding in NH3, for application as novel sensing materials. We found that the introduction of WN can improve the electrical properties of the composites, thus improving the gas sensing properties of the composites when compared with bare WO3. The highe...

  19. Synthesis of WO3 nanoparticles by citric acid-assisted precipitation and evaluation of their photocatalytic properties

    Sánchez-Martínez, D.; Martínez-de la Cruz, A.; López-Cuéllar, E.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► WO 3 nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple citric acid-assisted precipitation. ► WO 3 photocatalyst was able to the partial mineralization of rhB, IC and MO. ► WO 3 can be considered as a photocatalyst active under visible light irradiation. -- Abstract: WO 3 nanoparticles were synthesized by citric acid-assisted precipitation method using a 1:1.5 molar ratio of ammonium paratungstate hydrate (H 42 N 10 O 42 W 12 ·xH 2 O):citric acid (C 6 H 8 O 7 ). The formation of monoclinic crystal structure of WO 3 at different temperatures was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The characterization of the samples synthesized was complemented by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer–Emmitt–Teller surface area (BET) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). According to the thermal treatment followed during the synthesis of WO 3 , the morphology of the nanoparticles formed was characterized by rectangular and ovoid shapes. The photocatalytic activity of WO 3 obtained under different experimental conditions was evaluated in the degradation of rhodamine B (rhB), indigo carmine (IC), methyl orange (MO), and Congo red (CR) in aqueous solution under UV and UV–vis radiation. The highest photocatalytic activity was observed in the sample obtained by thermal treatment at 700 °C. In general, the sequence of degradation of the organic dyes was: indigo carmine (IC) > rhodamine B (rhB) > methyl orange (MO) > Congo red (CR). The mineralization degree of organic dyes by WO 3 photocatalysts was determined by total organic carbon analysis (TOC) reaching percentages of mineralization of 82% (rhB), 85% (IC), 28% (MO), and 7% (CR) for 96 h of lamp irradiation.

  20. Radiation Damage Mechanism in PbWO4 Crystal and Radiation Hardness Quality Control of PWO Scintillators for CMS

    Baccaro, Stefania; Borgia, Bruno; Cavallari, Francesca; Cecilia, Angelica; Dafinei, Ioan; Diemoz, Marcella; Lecoq, Paul; Longo, Egidio; Montecchi, Marco; Organtini, Giovanni; Salvatori, S

    1997-01-01

    The optical damage induced by UV light in PbWO4 crystals is found to be similar to that induced by g radiation. Due to the peculiarities of optical absorption in PbWO4, the damage induced by UV light is a bulk process. This fact has important consequences for the approach to be adopted both for the use of the crystal as scintillator and for the qualification methods foreseen in the Regional Centres of the ECAL CMS Collaboration.