WorldWideScience

Sample records for oxytetracycline resistance determinants

  1. PCR detection of oxytetracycline resistance genes otr(A) and otr(B) in tetracycline-resistant streptomycete isolates from diverse habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolakopoulou, T; Egan, S; van Overbeek, L; Guillaume, G; Heuer, H; Wellington, EMH; van Elsas, JD; Collard, JM; Smalla, K; Karagouni, A

    2005-01-01

    A range of European habitats was screened by PCR for detection of the oxytetracycline resistance genes otr(A) and otr(B), found in the oxytetracycline-producing strain Streptomyces rimosus. Primers were developed to detect these otr genes in tetracycline-resistant (Tc-R) streptomycete isolates from

  2. In vitro development of resistance to enrofloxacin, erythromycin, tylosin, tiamulin and oxytetracycline in Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma iowae and Mycoplasma synoviae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier-Bouchardon, A V; Reinhardt, A K; Kobisch, M; Kempf, I

    2002-08-02

    The in vitro emergence of resistance to enrofloxacin, erythromycin, tylosin, tiamulin, and oxytetracycline in three avian Mycoplasma species, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma iowae was studied. Mutants were selected stepwise and their MICs were determined after 10 passages in subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotic. High-level resistance to erythromycin and tylosin developed within 2-6 passages in the three Mycoplasma species. Resistance to enrofloxacin developed more gradually. No resistance to tiamulin or oxytetracycline could be evidenced in M. gallisepticum or M. synoviae after 10 passages whereas, resistant mutants were obtained with M. iowae. Cross-sensitivity tests performed on mutants demonstrated that mycoplasmas made resistant to tylosin were also resistant to erythromycin, whereas mutants made resistant to erythromycin were not always resistant to tylosin. Some M. iowae tiamulin-resistant mutants were also resistant to both macrolide antibiotics. Enrofloxacin and oxytetracycline did not induce any cross-resistance to the other antibiotics tested. These results show that Mycoplasma resistance to macrolides can be quickly selected in vitro, and thus, providing that similar results could be obtained under field conditions, that development of resistance to these antibiotics in vivo might also be a relatively frequent event.

  3. PCR detection of oxytetracycline resistance genes from diverse habitats in total community DNA and in streptomycete isolates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolakopoulou, T.L.; Egan, S.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Guillaume, G.; Heuer, H.; Wellington, E.M.H.; Elsas, van J.D.; Collard, J.M.; Smalla, K.; Karagouni, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    A range of European habitats was screened by PCR for detection of the oxytetracycline resistance genes otr(A) and otr(B), found in the oxytetracycline-producing strain Streptomyces rimosus. Primers were developed to detect these otr genes in tetracycline-resistant (TcR) streptomycete isolates from

  4. Oxytetracycline in Pyoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Sharma

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred patients with moderate to severe pyoderma were treated with oral oxytetracycline. The most common organism isolated were coagulase positive Staph pyogenes and Str betahemolyticus. Of 100 patients; 87 showed a successful therapeutic response. The predictive value of in vitro test for bacterial susceptibility to oxytetracycline (30 mcg disc was 88% for "sensitive" reports but 17% for "resistant" reports.Judged by clinical response the incidence of false sensitive reports was 12% (9/87 but that of false resistant reports was 83 (22/26.

  5. The tetracycline resistance determinant Tet 39 and the sulphonamide resistance gene sulII are common among resistant Acinetobacter spp. isolated from integrated fish farms in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Petersen, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the genetic basis for tetracycline and sulphonamide resistance and the prevalence of class I and II integrons in oxytetracycline-resistant Acinetobacter spp. from integrated fish farms in Thailand. Methods: A total of 222 isolates were screened for tetracycline resistance...... and Southern blots with sulII and tet(39) probes were performed on selected isolates. Results: The recently identified tetracycline resistance gene tet(39) was demonstrated in 75% (166/222) of oxytetracycline-resistant Acinetobacter spp. from integrated fish farms in Thailand. Isolates that were also...

  6. Diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility of oxytetracycline-resistant isolates of Stenotrophomonas sp. and Serratia sp. associated with Costa Rican crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, C; Wachlin, A; Altendorf, K; García, F; Lipski, A

    2007-12-01

    To ameliorate the identification, evaluate the diversity, and determine the antimicrobial sensitivity of 19 oxytetracycline-resistant isolates of Stenotrophomonas sp. and Serratia sp. associated with Costa Rican crops. Phenotypical, chemotaxonomical, and molecular data allocated most isolates to the species Sten. maltophilia and Ser. marcescens. The API profiles, antimicrobial resistance patterns (ATB system), and BOX-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genomic fingerprints of isolates of Stenotrophomonas sp. exhibited a higher degree of heterogeneity than those obtained for the isolates of Serratia sp. The former group of bacteria exhibited multiresistance to antimicrobials. In contrast, isolates of Serratia sp. were sensitive to the majority of the drugs tested. Changes in the results of the antibiograms throughout incubation, which indicate an induction of tolerance, were observed for isolates of both the species. Minimum inhibitory concentration of oxytetracycline, determined using E-test stripes, were rather elevated. The occurrence of two species of opportunistic pathogens in crop-associated materials poses a risk to consumers in the community. The phenotypic and genotypic data presented could support epidemiologist and physicians dealing with infections caused by environmental strains of these taxa.

  7. Effect of different oral oxytetracycline treatment regimes on selection of antimicrobial resistant coliforms in nursery pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fresno, Ana Herrero; Zachariasen, Camilla; Norholm, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    A major concern derived from using antimicrobials in pig production is the development of resistance. This study aimed to assess the impact of selected combinations of oral dose and duration of treatment with oxytetracycline (OTC) on selection of tetracycline resistant (TET-R) coliforms recovered...

  8. Tetracycline and oxytetracycline resistance determinants detected in Bacillus cereus strains isolated from honey samples Detección de determinantes de resistencia a tetraciclina y oxitetraciclina en cepas de Bacillus cereus aisladas de muestras de miel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. López

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of tetracycline and oxytetracycline resistance determinants in Bacillus cereus strains isolated from honey samples. Of a total of 77 isolates analyzed, 30 (39% exhibited resistance to tetracyclines according to the results of a disk diffusion method. Resistant strains (n=30 were screened by PCR for the presence of the resistant determinants tetK, tetL, tetM, tetO, tetW, otrA and otrB and their MIC values for tetracycline, oxytetracycline and minocycline were assessed. According to the PCR results, 23 isolates (77% presented at least one tetracycline or oxytetracycline resistance determinant. The tetK genotype was present in 10 isolates while the tetL, tetM, and otrA genotypes were present in 3, 2, and 5 isolates, respectively. In addition, 2 isolates of the tetK plus tetM genotype, 1 of the tetK plus tetL genotype, and 1 of the tetK plus otrA genotype were found. All isolates were tetW, tetO and otrB negatives. On the other hand, 7 isolates (23% showed a tetracycline-resistant and/or minocyclineresistant phenotype (MIC but did not carry any of the tet or otr determinants investigated in this study. This research has shown that B. cereus isolates from honey samples contain a variety of tetracycline and oxytetracycline resistance genes, including the tetK and tetL determinants which encode for efflux proteins, and tetM and otrA, which encode for ribosomal protection proteins. These findings indicate that strains isolated from honeys could represent a reservoir for tetracycline resistance genes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of tetracycline-resistant and oxytetracyclineresistant B. cereus strains carrying the tetK determinant, and also the first report of oxytetracycline-resistant and tetracycline- resistant Bacillus species carrying the otrA determinant.El objetivo del presente estudio ha sido investigar la presencia de diversos determinantes de resistencia a tetraciclina y

  9. Determination of oxytetracycline residues in cattle meat marketed in the Kilosa district, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhura I. Kimera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxytetracycline is used to treat various diseases in cattle. However, its use may be associated with unacceptable residue levels in food. Oxytetracycline residues in tissues from indigenous cattle were determined in a cross-sectional study conducted in the Kilosa district, Tanzania, between November 2012 and April 2013. A total of 60 tissue samples, including muscle, liver and kidney, were collected from slaughterhouses and butchers and analysed for oxytetracycline using high-performance liquid chromatography. Oxytetracycline residues were found in 71.1% of the samples, of which 68.3% were above acceptable regulatory levels. The mean concentration of oxytetracycline across tissues was 3401.1 μg/kg ± 879.3 μg/kg; concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney were 2604.1 μg/kg ± 703.7 μg/kg, 3434.4 μg/kg ± 606.4 μg/kg and 3533.1 μg/kg ± 803.6 μg/kg, respectively. High levels of oxytetracycline residue in meat from indigenous cattle may pose a health threat to consumers in Kilosa. The findings possibly reflect a general lack of implementation of recommended withdrawal periods, ignorance about drug use and lack of extension services. Strict regulation of the use of antimicrobial drugs in the livestock industry and associated testing of animal-derived food sources prior to marketing are required.

  10. Determination of oxytetracycline residues in cattle meat marketed in the Kilosa district, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimera, Zuhura I; Mdegela, Robinson H; Mhaiki, Consolatha J N; Karimuribo, Esron D; Mabiki, Faith; Nonga, Hezron E; Mwesongo, James

    2015-11-27

    Oxytetracycline is used to treat various diseases in cattle. However, its use may be associated with unacceptable residue levels in food. Oxytetracycline residues in tissues from indigenous cattle were determined in a cross-sectional study conducted in the Kilosa district, Tanzania, between November 2012 and April 2013. A total of 60 tissue samples, including muscle, liver and kidney, were collected from slaughterhouses and butchers and analysed for oxytetracycline using high-performance liquid chromatography. Oxytetracycline residues were found in 71.1% of the samples, of which 68.3% were above acceptable regulatory levels. The mean concentration of oxytetracycline across tissues was 3401.1 μg/kg ± 879.3 μg/kg; concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney were 2604.1 μg/kg ± 703.7 μg/kg, 3434.4 μg/kg ± 606.4 μg/kg and 3533.1 μg/kg ± 803.6 μg/kg, respectively. High levels of oxytetracycline residue in meat from indigenous cattle may pose a health threat to consumers in Kilosa. The findings possibly reflect a general lack of implementation of recommended withdrawal periods, ignorance about drug use and lack of extension services. Strict regulation of the use of antimicrobial drugs in the livestock industry and associated testing of animal-derived food sources prior to marketing are required.

  11. Detection and determination of Oxytetracycline and Penicillin G ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concentrations of oxytetracycline and penicillin G in all samples were between ranges of 45 -192 μg/l and 0-28 μg/l, respectively. The antibiotic residue positive samples which showed residues of oxytetracycline above the WTO/FAO/ CAC established maximum residue limit of 100μg/l were 40 (83.33%). For penicillin G, the ...

  12. Effect of variation in oxytetracycline treatment of Lawsonia intracellularis diahrea in nursery pigs on treatment-efficacy and resistance development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, I.; Mellerup, Anders; Zachariasen, C.

    2015-01-01

    A Danish research project, MINIRESIST, investigated the consequences of varying doses and treatment strategies for oxytetracycline treatment of Lawsonia intracellularis diarrhea in nursery pigs. Batches of nursery pigs in five herds were randomly allocated to one of five treatment protocols (batch...... scores, which have low sensitivity for diarrhea. Simulation studies suggested that resistance development was mostly dependent on the duration of the treatment and the total amount of oxytetracycline used per pig. Ongoing field testing has been initiated to confirm this conclusion, since no field...

  13. Cow excrements enhance the occurrence of tetracycline resistance genes in soil regardless of their oxytetracycline content

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselková, Martina; Jirout, Jiří; Chroňáková, Alica; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Bradley, R.; Schmitt, H.; Elhottová, Dana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 10 (2013), s. 2413-2418 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/10/2077; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Grant - others:OECD(FR) JA00054767 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : cattle excrement * environmental risk assessment * manured soil * oxytetracycline * tetracycline resistance * tetracycline resistance gene Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.499, year: 2013

  14. Short communication: Determination of withdrawal time for oxytetracycline in different types of goats for milk consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaie, Rahmat; Bsharat, Mohammed; Mora-Gutierrez, Adela; Woldesenbet, Sela

    2015-07-01

    Antibiotics are widely used in animal husbandry and the presence of antibiotics in milk is a health hazard. The objective of this study was to determine residual amounts of oxytetracycline in fresh, aged, and pasteurized milk of 3 breeds of goats using HPLC analysis. It was also essential to determine the safe withdrawal period of oxytetracycline in lactating goats. The quantitative results obtained using the HPLC system were compared with the tolerance limit of oxytetracycline in milk in the United States. Fifteen milking does, 5 Nubians, 5 Alpines, and 5 LaManchas were randomly selected from the milking herd at the International Goat Research Center at Prairie View A&M University. A simple sample preparation and isocratic HPLC method using ultraviolet detection was used for analysis of milk samples. The HPLC results indicated that the withdrawal period of oxytetracycline in treated Alpine does was 82h (7 milking), whereas for Nubian does the period was 58h (5 milking), and for LaManchas the period was 72h (6 milking) after drug administration. The overall withdrawal period for all the treated goats of 3 breeds was 72h. Although these results indicated that the depletion rate of this antibiotic was faster in goats than the reported data for cows, the 96-h withdrawal period that is currently used for lactating cows is still necessary for these 3 breeds of goats. Additionally, our results indicated that oxytetracycline is not stable in goat milk at refrigeration temperature or during pasteurization and will decrease significantly. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of Oxytetracycline from Salmon Muscle and Skin by Derivative Spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, M Inés; Sabay, Tamara; Orellana, Sandra L; Richter, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    A method was developed for the identification and quantification of oxytetracycline residues present in salmon muscle and skin using UV-Vis derivative spectrophotometry. With this method, it was possible to reduce the number of steps in the procedure typically required for instrumental analysis of a sample. The spectral variables, order of the derivative, scale factor, smoothing factor, and analytical wavelength were optimized using standard solutions of oxytetracycline dissolved in 900 mg/L oxalic acid in methanol. The matrix effect was significant; therefore, quantification for oxytetracycline residues was carried out using drug-free salmon muscle and skin samples fortified with oxytetracycline. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 271 and 903 μg/kg, respectively. The precision and accuracy of the method were validated using drug-free salmon muscle and skin tissues fortified at three different concentrations (8, 16, and 32 mg/kg) on 3 different days. The recoveries at all fortified concentrations were between 90 and 105%, and RSDs in all cases were less than 6.5%. This method can be used to screen out compliant samples and thereby reduce the number of suspect positive samples that will require further confirmatory analysis.

  16. Improvement of oxytetracycline production mediated via cooperation of resistance genes in Streptomyces rimosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shouliang; Wang, Xuefeng; Shi, Mingxin; Yuan, Fang; Wang, Huizhuan; Jia, Xiaole; Yuan, Fang; Sun, Jinliang; Liu, Tiejun; Yang, Keqian; Zhang, Yuxiu; Fan, Keqiang; Li, Zilong

    2017-09-01

    Increasing the self-resistance levels of Streptomyces is an effective strategy to improve the production of antibiotics. To increase the oxytetracycline (OTC) production in Streptomyces rimosus, we investigated the cooperative effect of three co-overexpressing OTC resistance genes: one gene encodes a ribosomal protection protein (otrA) and the other two express efflux proteins (otrB and otrC). Results indicated that combinational overexpression of otrA, otrB, and otrC (MKABC) exerted a synergetic effect. OTC production increased by 179% in the recombinant strain compared with that of the wild-type strain M4018. The resistance level to OTC was increased by approximately two-fold relative to the parental strain, thereby indicating that applying the cooperative effect of self-resistance genes is useful to improve OTC production. Furthermore, the previously identified cluster-situated activator OtcR was overexpressed in MKABC in constructing the recombinant strain MKRABC; such strain can produce OTC of approximately 7.49 g L -1 , which represents an increase of 19% in comparison with that of the OtcR-overexpressing strain alone. Our work showed that the cooperative overexpression of self-resistance genes is a promising strategy to enhance the antibiotics production in Streptomyces.

  17. Vaginal oxytetracycline concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thin, R N; Al Rawi, Z H; Simmons, P D; Treharne, J; Tabaqchali, S

    1979-01-01

    Although tetracycline preparations are widely used in departments of genitourinary medicine, or sexually transmitted diseases clinics, little is known of the concentrations of these preparations in genital secretions. For this reason a microbiological method was used for estimating oxytetracycline concentrations in vaginal secretions. These concentrations varied from 0.6 to 6.5 microgram/ml in 19 women who had had sexual contact with a man with non-specific urethritis and who were taking oxytetracycline dihydrate 250 mg four times daily. They were well in excess of the minimum inhibitory concentration of oxytetracycline (0.2 microgram/ml) for the strains of Chlamydia trachomatis isolated from the patients with positive culture results. Thus, oxytetracycline 250 mg four times daily appears to be a satisfactory regimen for the treatment of chlamydial genital infection in women. PMID:509190

  18. Detection and determination of Oxytetracycline and Penicillin G ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic residues are small amounts of drugs or their active metabolites ... able daily intake and maximum residue limits in foods (FAO and WHO, 1995). Regulatory limits for antibiotic residues have been imposed on the dairy in- dustry in many ... Methods for oxytetracycline and penicillin G residue analysis. The milk ...

  19. The effect of aging on sequestration and bioaccessibility of oxytetracycline in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuxia; Bao, Yanyu; Cai, Zhang; Zhang, Zhenzihao; Cao, Peilin; Li, Xinqian; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-07-01

    Veterinary antibiotics introduced into soil environment may change the composition and functioning of soil microbial communities and promote the spreading of antibiotic resistance. Actual risks depend on the antibiotic's bioaccessibility and sequestration in soils, which may vary with contact time and soil properties. We elucidated changes in the horsebean plant's bioaccessible oxytetracycline with increasing contact time in three different soils (cinnamon, red, and brown soil) and observed discrepancy in oxytetracycline dissipation using sequential extractions with H2O-, 0.01 M CaCl2-, and Mcllvaine- in the same three soils. The results showed lower quantities of oxytetracycline with increasing contact time over 20 days than the level in freshly contaminated soils but hugely discrepant quantities among the three tested soils. In addition, aging largely reduced dissipation of H2O-, 0.01 M CaCl2-, and Mcllvaine- extracted oxytetracycline in soils before planting. However, bioturbation helped increase the H2O-, CaCl2-, and Mcllvaine- extracted oxytetracyline from cinnamon and brown soils with aging. Lastly, correlation analysis indicated that bioaccessibility of oxytetracycline significantly correlates with the total of H2O-, CaCl2-, and Mcllvaine- extracted oxytetracycline (0.676**, p oxytetracycline with aging. Overall, this study provides some basic understanding of the aging effect on sequestration and bioaccessibility of veterinary antibiotics in soils.

  20. 21 CFR 556.500 - Oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline. 556.500 Section 556.500 Food and... Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.500 Oxytetracycline. (a) Acceptable daily intake (ADI). The ADI for total tetracycline residues (chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline) is 25 micrograms per...

  1. 21 CFR 529.1660 - Oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline. 529.1660 Section 529.1660 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS CERTAIN OTHER DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 529.1660 Oxytetracycline. (a) Specifications—(1) Each gram of powder contains 366 milligrams (mg) oxytetracycline hydrochloride...

  2. 21 CFR 558.450 - Oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline. 558.450 Section 558.450 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.450 Oxytetracycline. (a) Approvals. Type A medicated articles: (1) 10, 20, 30...-alkyl (C8-C18) trimethylammonium oxytetracycline expressed in terms of an equivalent amount of...

  3. 21 CFR 558.455 - Oxytetracycline and neomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline and neomycin. 558.455 Section 558... Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.455 Oxytetracycline and neomycin. (a) Specifications. Type A medicated articles containing oxytetracycline equivalent to 50 grams per pound (g/lb) oxytetracycline...

  4. Integrated Control of Fire Blight with Antagonists and Oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, the antibiotic streptomycin provided excellent control of fire blight until resistant isolates of Erwinia amylovora arose. Oxytetracycline (Mycoshield) is now sprayed as an alternative antibiotic. We found that the duration of inhibitory activity of o...

  5. Incidence, distribution, and spread of tetracycline resistance determinants and integron-associated antibiotic resistance genes among motile aeromonads from a fish farming environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anja S.; Bruun, Morten Sichlau; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2001-01-01

    . Microbiol. 66:4908-4915, 2000), the predominant resistance phenotype (37%) being a combined oxytetracycline (OTC) and sulphadiazine/trimethoprim resistance. Combined sulphonamide/trimethoprim resistance (135 isolates) appeared closely related to the presence of a class 1 integron (141 strains). Among...

  6. Effect of irradiation on oxytetracycline residues in poultry meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurowski, P [Warsaw Agricultural University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Food Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of the study was an evaluation of the effect of ionizing radiation on detection of oxytetracycline residues in poultry meat. Oxytetracycline was chosen as a representative of tetracyclines which are often applied in poultry for therapeutical reasons. The experiment was conducted using both broiler meat treated by oxytetracycline and slurry of broiler meat containing appropriate concentration of this antibiotic. A traditional microbiological method for determination of antibiotics antimicrobial activity was used. A significant decrease of oxytetracycline concentration in meat slurry as a result of irradiation was noted. A dose of 1 kGy reduced concentration of tetracycline to ca 40% and a dose of 3 kGy reduced it to ca 3%. In ground poultry meat a dose of 1 kGy reduced this antibiotic concentration to 70%, a dose of 3 kGy reduced oxytetracycline concentration to 35% and a 5 kGy dose reduced it up to ca 18% of initial concentration. It can be concluded that irradiation of poultry meat with radurization doses can cause some difficulties in detection of tetracycline residues in meat using traditional microbiological methods of detection. (author).

  7. Effect of irradiation on oxytetracycline residues in poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurowski, P.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the study was an evaluation of the effect of ionizing radiation on detection of oxytetracycline residues in poultry meat. Oxytetracycline was chosen as a representative of tetracyclines which are often applied in poultry for therapeutical reasons. The experiment was conducted using both broiler meat treated by oxytetracycline and slurry of broiler meat containing appropriate concentration of this antibiotic. A traditional microbiological method for determination of antibiotics antimicrobial activity was used. A significant decrease of oxytetracycline concentration in meat slurry as a result of irradiation was noted. A dose of 1 kGy reduced concentration of tetracycline to ca 40% and a dose of 3 kGy reduced it to ca 3%. In ground poultry meat a dose of 1 kGy reduced this antibiotic concentration to 70%, a dose of 3 kGy reduced oxytetracycline concentration to 35% and a 5 kGy dose reduced it up to ca 18% of initial concentration. It can be concluded that irradiation of poultry meat with radurization doses can cause some difficulties in detection of tetracycline residues in meat using traditional microbiological methods of detection. (author)

  8. Occurrence of tetracycline resistance genes in aquaculture facilities with varying use of oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfried, Erin E.; Newton, Ryan J.; Rubert, Kennedy F.; Pedersen, Joel A.; McMahon, Katherine D.

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of human activities to environmental reservoirs of antibiotic resistance is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine if oxytetracycline (OTC) use in aquaculture facilities increased the detection frequency (i.e. prevalence) of tetracycline resistance genes relative to facilities with no recent OTC treatment. We used PCR to screen water and sediment from four non-commercial fish farms in northwestern Wisconsin for the presence of ten tetracycline resistance determinants (tetR): tet(A), tet(B), tet(D), tet(E), tet(G), tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), tet(S) and tet(W). Water from farms with recent OTC use had significantly higher tetR detection frequencies than did water from farms without recent OTC use, with prevalence in raceways and rearing ponds of farms with recent OTC use exceeded by more than two-fold that of farms not using OTC. Effluent from all farms, regardless of treatment regime, had higher tetR detection frequencies than their corresponding influent for all genes, but the specific combinations of tetR genes detected in a sample were not different from their corresponding influent. Although OTC use was associated with the increased occurrence and diversity of tetR genes in water samples, it was not found to relate to tetR gene occurrence in sediment samples. Sediment samples from facilities with no recent OTC use had significantly higher frequencies of tetR gene detection than did samples from facilities with recent OTC use. All of the tetR genes were detected in both the medicated and non-medicated feed samples analyzed in this study. These findings suggest that both OTC treatment in aquaculture facilities, and the farms themselves, may be sources of tetR gene introduction to the environment. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use genotypic and cultivation-independent methods to examine tetR gene occurrence associated with OTC use in aquaculture. PMID:20217406

  9. Influence of oxytetracycline on carprofen pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentnall, C; Cheng, Z; McKellar, Q A; Lees, P

    2013-08-01

    A tissue cage model of inflammation in calves was used to determine the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of individual carprofen enantiomers, following the administration of the racemate. RS(±) carprofen was administered subcutaneously both alone and in combination with intramuscularly administered oxytetracycline in a four-period crossover study. Oxytetracycline did not influence the pharmacokinetics of R(-) and S(+) carprofen enantiomers, except for a lower maximum concentration (Cmax ) of S(+) carprofen in serum after co-administration with oxytetracycline. S(+) enantiomer means for area under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC0-96 h were 136.9 and 128.3 μg·h/mL and means for the terminal half-life (T(1/2) k10 ) were = 12.9 and 17.3 h for carprofen alone and in combination with oxytetracycline, respectively. S(+) carprofen AUC0-96 h in both carprofen treatments and T(1/2) k10 for carprofen alone were lower (P oxytetracycline in calves and indicate that no alteration to carprofen dosage is required when the drugs are co-administered. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. 21 CFR 520.1660b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules. 520.1660b... Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules. (a) Specifications. The drug is in capsule form with each capsule containing 125 or 250 milligrams of oxytetracycline hydrochloride. Oxytetracycline is the antibiotic...

  11. Integrated Control of Fire Blight with Bacterial Antagonists and Oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, the antibiotic streptomycin provided excellent control of fire blight until resistant isolates of Erwinia amylovora were prevalent. Oxytetracycline (Mycoshield) is now sprayed as an alternative antibiotic. We found that the duration of inhibitory acti...

  12. Assessment of oxytetracycline and tetracycline antibiotics in manure samples in different cities of Khuzestan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Nadali; Babaei, Ali Akbar; Shirmardi, Mohammad; Naimabadi, Abolfazl; Goudarzi, Gholamreza

    2015-11-01

    Tetracyclines (TCs), a class of antibiotics with a broad spectrum, are the most frequently used antibiotics in animal production. The major concern is that the widespread use of the antibiotics may lead to the emergence of new strains of bacteria that are resistant to these antibiotics. The objective of this study was to determine the residual levels of oxytetracycline and tetracycline in 80 animal manure samples that were collected from the livestock and poultry feedlots in Khuzestan Province. The residual levels of the antibiotics in the samples were extracted by using solid-phase extraction (SPE) method and subsequently were measured by liquid chromatography. Recoveries from the spiked poultry manure samples ranged from 65 to 113% for tetracycline and 86 to 132% for oxytetracycline. Relative standard deviations of the recoveries were less than 5.7% within the same day. Method detection limit (MDL) measured for oxytetracycline and tetracycline in the manure were 0.011 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. Analysis of the collected 50 chickens and 30 cow manure samples showed that the highest concentration of tetracycline was related to Behbahan City (5.36 mg/kg) and the lowest concentration was detected for Ramhormoz (0.05 mg/kg). The highest and lowest concentrations of oxytetracycline were respectively observed for Behbahan (13.77 mg/kg) and Ramhormoz (0.047 mg/kg). Based on the results, in chicken manure, there was significant statistical difference between the residual TC concentrations among five cities (p(value) oxytetracyclin (OTC) residual concentrations among five cities (p(value) > 0.05).

  13. Pharmacodynamics of oxytetracycline administered alone and in combination with carprofen in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentnall, C; Cheng, Z; McKellar, Q A; Lees, P

    2012-09-15

    The pharmacodynamics (PD) of oxytetracycline was investigated against a strain of Mannheimia haemolytica. In vitro measurements, comprising minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration and time-kill curves, were conducted in five matrices; Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB), cation-adjusted MHB (CAMHB) and calf serum, exudate and transudate. MICs were much higher in the biological fluids than in MHB and CAMHB. Ratios of MIC were, serum: CAMHB 19 : 1; exudate:CAMHB 16.1; transudate:CAMHB 14 : 1. Ex vivo data, generated in the tissue cage model of inflammation, demonstrated that oxytetracycline, administered to calves intramuscularly at a dose rate of 20 mg/kg, did not inhibit the growth of M haemolytica in serum, exudate and transudate, even at peak concentration. However, using in vitro susceptibility in CAMHB and in vivo-determined pharmacokinetic (PK) variables, average and minimum oxytetracycline concentrations relative to MIC (C(av)/MIC and C(min)/MIC) predicted achievement of efficacy for approximately 48 hours after dosing. Similar C(av)/MIC and C(min)/MIC data were obtained when oxytetracycline was administered in the presence of carprofen. PK-PD integration of data for oxytetracycline, based on MICs determined in the three biological fluids, suggests that it possesses, at most, limited direct killing activity against M haemolytica. These data raise questions concerning the mechanism(s) of action of oxytetracycline, when administered at clinically recommended dose rates.

  14. A Novel and Validated Protocol for Performing MIC Tests to Determine the Susceptibility of Piscirickettsia salmonis Isolates to Florfenicol and Oxytetracycline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Contreras-Lynch

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a validated protocol, using a novel, specifically formulated medium, to perform broth microdilution antimicrobial susceptibility assays of the salmonid bacterial pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC for florfenicol and oxytetracycline against 58 P. salmonis isolates recovered from various outbreaks occurred in Chilean salmonid farms were determined using this protocol. Normalized resistance interpretation (NRI analysis was applied to these data to calculate appropriate protocol-specific epidemiological cut-off values. These cut-off values allow the isolates to be categorized as either fully susceptible wild type (WT members of this species, or as manifesting reduced susceptibility non-wild type (NWT. The distribution of MIC values of florfenicol was bimodal and the distribution of the normalized values for the putative WT observation had a standard deviation of 0.896 log2 μg mL-1. This analysis calculated a cut-off value of ≤0.25 μg mL-1 and categorized 33 (56% of the isolates as manifesting reduced susceptibility to florfenicol. For the oxytetracycline MIC data the NRI analysis also treated the distribution as bimodal. The distribution of the normalized values for the putative WT observation had a standard deviation of 0.951 log2 μg mL-1. This analysis gave a cut-off value of ≤0.5 μg mL-1 and categorized five isolates (9% as manifesting reduced susceptibility to oxytetracycline. The susceptibility testing protocol developed in this study was capable of generating MIC data from all the isolates tested. On the basis of the precision of the data it generated, and the degree of separation of values for WT and NWT it achieved, it is argued that this protocol has the performance characteristics necessary for it to be considered as a standard protocol.

  15. 76 FR 17025 - New Animal Drugs; Oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0003] New Animal Drugs; Oxytetracycline AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... Pennfield Oil Co. The supplemental ANADA provides for use of oxytetracycline hydrochloride soluble powder... use of PENNOX 343 (oxytetracycline HCl) Soluble Powder for control of American and European foulbrood...

  16. Oxytetracycline does not cause growth promotion in finfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushenski, Jesse T; Aardsma, Matthew P; Barry, Kelli J; Bowker, James D; Jackson, Christopher J; Jakaitis, Michelle; McClure, Rebecca L; Rombenso, Artur N

    2018-05-04

    Until recently, use of antibiotics to enhance terrestrial animal growth performance was a common, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved, but controversial practice. There are no FDA-approved production claims for antibiotic drug use in fish, but it is a common misconception that antibiotics are widely used for this purpose in U.S. aquaculture. Antibiotics are not thought to be effective growth promoters in fish, but there is little quantitative data available to address whether there are growth-promoting effects that might incentivize the use of antibiotics in this way, despite legal prohibitions. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine if oral administration of oxytetracycline, an antibiotic with known growth-promoting effects in terrestrial livestock, has a similar effect when applied to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis, Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, or rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Oxytetracycline products with production claims are typically applied at doses substantially lower than the approved therapeutic doses for the same products. Medication (0, 0.24, or 1.2 g oxytetracycline dihydrate kg-1 feed) and feeding rates (3% BW d-1) were selected to achieve target daily doses of 0, 16, or 80 mg kg-1 fish representing control, subtherapeutic, and therapeutic treatments. Replicate groups of fish (N = 4) were fed accordingly for 8 wk. Overall, oral administration of oxytetracycline did not affect survival or promote growth of the selected taxa, with no significant differences observed for weight gain, feed conversion ratio, or specific growth rate (P > 0.05 in all cases). Few differences were observed in organosomatic indices and in the frequency of tissue abnormalities; where present, these differences tended to suggest a negative effect of long-term dietary exposure to oxytetracycline. These data demonstrate that there is no benefit to dietary supplementation with

  17. Oxytetracycline as a new analytical reagent for the spectrophotometric determination of boron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayana, G L

    1984-05-01

    Oxytetracycline hydrochloride, Terramycin, is introduced as a new reagent for the spectrophotometric determination of trace quantities of boron in concentrated sulphuric acid medium. The reagent has an absorption maximum at 430 nm, and that of the boron complex at 520 nm. The colored system conformed to Beer's law between 2 and 10 ..mu..g of boron at 520 nm. The molar absorptivity calculated on the basis of boron is 10,800 1 mol/sup -1/ cm/sup -1/. The composition of the complex has been shown to be 1:1 both by the slope ratio and molar ratio methods. 16 references.

  18. Oxytetracycline as a new analytical reagent for the spectrophotometric determination of boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayana, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    Oxytetracycline hydrochloride, Terramycin, is introduced as a new reagent for the spectrophotometric determination of trace quantities of boron in concentrated sulphuric acid medium. The reagent has an absorption maximum at 430 nm, and that of the boron complex at 520 nm. The coloured system conformed to Beer's law between 2 and 10 μg of boron at 520 nm. The molar absorptivity calculated on the basis of boron is 10,800 1 mol -1 cm -1 . The composition of the complex has been shown to be 1:1 both by the slope ratio and molar ratio methods. (author)

  19. 21 CFR 520.1660d - Oxytetracycline powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline powder. 520.1660d Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1660d Oxytetracycline... concentrations of oxytetracycline hydrochloride (independent of the various net weights) as follows: (1) Each 18...

  20. Dissipation of oxytetracycline in soils under different redox conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jigeng; Ying Guangguo; Zhou Lijun; Liu Shan; Zhao Jianliang

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the dissipation kinetics of oxytetracycline in soils under aerobic and anoxic conditions. Laboratory experiments showed that the dissipation of oxytetracycline in soil followed first-order reaction kinetics and its dissipation rates decreased with increasing concentration. Oxytetracycline dissipated faster in soil under aerobic conditions than under anoxic conditions. The half-lives for oxytetracycline in soil under aerobic conditions ranged between 29 and 56 days for non-sterile treatments and 99-120 days for sterile treatments, while under anoxic conditions the half-lives of oxytetracycline ranged between 43 and 62 days in the non-sterile soil and between 69 and 104 days in the sterile soil. This suggests microbes can degrade oxytetracycline in agricultural soil. Abiotic factors such as strong sorption onto soil components also played a role in the dissipation of oxytetracycline in soil. - Oxytetracycline dissipation in soils is influenced by redox conditions and soil properties.

  1. Dissipation of oxytetracycline in soils under different redox conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jigeng, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 511 Kehua Street, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University of Arts and Sciences, Changde 415000 (China); Ying Guangguo, E-mail: guangguo.ying@gmail.co [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 511 Kehua Street, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Lijun, Zhou; Shan, Liu; Jianliang, Zhao [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 511 Kehua Street, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2009-10-15

    This study investigated the dissipation kinetics of oxytetracycline in soils under aerobic and anoxic conditions. Laboratory experiments showed that the dissipation of oxytetracycline in soil followed first-order reaction kinetics and its dissipation rates decreased with increasing concentration. Oxytetracycline dissipated faster in soil under aerobic conditions than under anoxic conditions. The half-lives for oxytetracycline in soil under aerobic conditions ranged between 29 and 56 days for non-sterile treatments and 99-120 days for sterile treatments, while under anoxic conditions the half-lives of oxytetracycline ranged between 43 and 62 days in the non-sterile soil and between 69 and 104 days in the sterile soil. This suggests microbes can degrade oxytetracycline in agricultural soil. Abiotic factors such as strong sorption onto soil components also played a role in the dissipation of oxytetracycline in soil. - Oxytetracycline dissipation in soils is influenced by redox conditions and soil properties.

  2. [Binding of tylosin, tilmicosin and oxytetracycline to proteins from honeybees, larvae and beehive products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaldi, F J; Lacunza, J; Alippi, A M; Rule, R

    2010-01-01

    American Foulbrood (AFB) caused by the spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae is the most serious disease of bacterial origin affecting larvae and pupae of honeybees. Antibiotics are used in many countries for the control of AFB in high incidence areas, but their misuse may lead to antibiotic resistance of bacterial strains and honey contamination. The objective of the present work was to determine, through a biological method, the protein binding of tylosin, tilmicosin and oxytetracycline to worker jelly; honey; pollen; adult bees and larvae in order to propose their kinetic routes. The sensitivity limit of the technique used was 0.05 μg/ml for tylosin and tilmicosin and 0.01 μg/ml for oxytetracycline, respectively. The method had intra and inter-assay correlation coefficients over 0.90, respectively and a coefficient variation of intra-and inter-assay for all antibiotics and processed samples under 5%. Tylosin and oxytetracycline presented lower percentages of protein binding in tissues and hive products (average 15%) in relation to those observed for tilmicosin (29%). In conclusion, tylosin is useful for AFB control in honey bee colonies due to its chemical characteristics, antimicrobial activity and levels of protein binding in bees, larvae, and beehive products.

  3. Extraction of oxytetracycline starting from the meats of chickens and identifications by thin layer chromatography; Extraction de l'oxytetracycline dans les viandes des poulet et identification par chromatographie sur couche mince

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elghozzi, Amira [Institut Superieur de Biotechnologie de Sidi Thabet (Tunisia)

    2007-07-01

    Use of antibiotics in the poultry also suspected as one of the cause of the emergence of resistance to antibiotics of some bacteria what causes risks on human health continuation of persistence of the residues in the foodstuffs. We were interested in detected the presence qualitatively of oxytetracyclin in samples of muscle and liver of chicken by the use of the techniques of thin layer chromatography. Although, These results are satisfactory, it is always necessary to prevent the dangers which cause the risks of the residues of oxytetracycline on health. (Author). 20 refs.

  4. Determination of optimal conditions of oxytetracyclin production from streptomyces rimosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouaghi, Atef

    2007-01-01

    Streptomyces rimosus is an oxytetracycline (OTC) antibiotic producing bacteria that exhibited activities against gram positive and negative bacteria. OTC is used widely not only in medicine but also in production industry. The antibiotic production of streptomyces covers a very wide range of condition. However, antibiotic producers are particularly fastidious cultivated by proper selection of media such as carbon source. In present study we have optimised conditions of OTC production (Composition of production media, p H, shaking and temperature). The results have been shown that bran barley is the optimal media for OTC production at 28C pH5.8 at 150rpm for 5 days. For antibiotic determination, OTC was extracted with different organic solvent. Thin-layer chromatography system was used for separation and identification of OTC antibiotic. High performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with ultraviolet detection for the analysis of OTC is applied to the determination of OTC purification. (Author). 24 refs

  5. 21 CFR 520.1660 - Oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline. 520.1660 Section 520.1660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1660 Oxytetracycline. ...

  6. 40 CFR 180.337 - Oxytetracycline; tolerance for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxytetracycline; tolerance for... § 180.337 Oxytetracycline; tolerance for residues. Tolerances are established for residues of the pesticide oxytetracycline in or on the following raw agricultural commodities: Commodity Parts per million...

  7. Stability studies of oxytetracycline in methanol solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wu, Nan; Yang, Jinghui; Zeng, Ming; Xu, Chenshan; Li, Lun; Zhang, Meng; Li, Liting

    2018-02-01

    As one kind of typical tetracycline antibiotics, antibiotic residues of oxytetracycline have been frequently detected in many environmental media. In this study, the stability of oxytetracycline in methanol solution was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with UV-vis (HPLC-UV). The results show that the stability of oxytetracycline in methanol solution is highly related to its initial concentration and the preserved temperature. Under low temperature condition, the solution was more stable than under room temperature preservation. Under the same temperature preservation condition, high concentrations of stock solutions are more stable than low concentrations. The study provides a foundation for preserving the oxytetracycline-methanol solution.

  8. 21 CFR 522.1662a - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride injection. 522.1662a... § 522.1662a Oxytetracycline hydrochloride injection. (a)(1) Specifications. The drug contains 50 milligrams of oxytetracycline hydrochloride in each milliliter of sterile solution. (2) Sponsor. See No...

  9. Determination of optimal conditions of oxytetracyclin production from streptomyces rimosus; Optimisation de la production de l'oxytetracycline par Streptomyces rimosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zouaghi, Atef [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees et de Technologie (Tunisia)

    2007-07-01

    Streptomyces rimosus is an oxytetracycline (OTC) antibiotic producing bacteria that exhibited activities against gram positive and negative bacteria. OTC is used widely not only in medicine but also in production industry. The antibiotic production of streptomyces covers a very wide range of condition. However, antibiotic producers are particularly fastidious cultivated by proper selection of media such as carbon source. In present study we have optimised conditions of OTC production (Composition of production media, p H, shaking and temperature). The results have been shown that bran barley is the optimal media for OTC production at 28C pH5.8 at 150rpm for 5 days. For antibiotic determination, OTC was extracted with different organic solvent. Thin-layer chromatography system was used for separation and identification of OTC antibiotic. High performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with ultraviolet detection for the analysis of OTC is applied to the determination of OTC purification. (Author). 24 refs.

  10. 21 CFR 520.1660a - Oxytetracycline and carbomycin in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline and carbomycin in combination. 520....1660a Oxytetracycline and carbomycin in combination. (a) Specifications. (1) Oxytetracycline: The....600(c) of this chapter. (c) Special considerations. The quantities of oxytetracycline in paragraph (e...

  11. Reactivities of tetracycline and oxytetracycline with OH radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziegielewski, J.O.; Glowacki, P.

    1982-01-01

    Decomposition yields of tetracycline sulphate and oxytetracycline sulphate were determined in argon saturated 0.1N H 2 SO 4 solutions. The decomposition yields of teracyclines decrease in the presence of the Cl - ions. The reaction rate constants of the OH radicals with tetracyclines were also determined. (author)

  12. Extraction of oxytetracycline starting from the meats of chickens and identifications by thin layer chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elghozzi, Amira

    2007-01-01

    Use of antibiotics in the poultry also suspected as one of the cause of the emergence of resistance to antibiotics of some bacteria what causes risks on human health continuation of persistence of the residues in the foodstuffs. We were interested in detected the presence qualitatively of oxytetracyclin in samples of muscle and liver of chicken by the use of the techniques of thin layer chromatography. Although, These results are satisfactory, it is always necessary to prevent the dangers which cause the risks of the residues of oxytetracycline on health. (Author). 20 refs

  13. Reactivities of tetracycline and oxytetracycline with OH radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziegielewski, J O; Glowacki, P [Uniwersytet Slaski, Katowice (Poland)

    1982-05-03

    Decomposition yields of tetracycline sulphate and oxytetracycline sulphate were determined in argon saturated 0.1N H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ solutions. The decomposition yields of teracyclines decrease in the presence of the Cl/sup -/ ions. The reaction rate constants of the OH radicals with tetracyclines were also determined.

  14. 21 CFR 520.1660c - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride tablets/boluses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride tablets/boluses. 520....1660c Oxytetracycline hydrochloride tablets/boluses. (a) Specifications. Each tablet or bolus contains 250, 500, or 1,000 milligrams of oxytetracycline hydrochloride. (b) Sponsors. For sponsors in § 510...

  15. Removal of oxytetracycline and determining its biosorption properties on aerobic granular sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihciokur, Hamdi; Oguz, Merve

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates biosorption of Oxytetracycline, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, using aerobic granular sludge as an adsorbent in aqueous solutions. A sequencing batch reactor fed by a synthetic wastewater was operated to create aerobic granular sludge. Primarily, the pore structure and surface area of granular sludge, the chemical structure and the molecular sizes of the pharmaceutical, operating conditions, such as pH, stirring rate, initial concentration of Oxytetracycline, during adsorption process was verified. Subsequently, thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the adsorption were examined and adsorption isotherm studies were carried out. It was shown that the aerobic granular sludge was a good alternative for biosorption of this pharmaceutical. The pharmaceutical was adsorbed better at pH values of 6-8. The adsorption efficiency increased with rising ionic strength. Also, it was seen that the adsorption process was an exothermic process in terms of thermodynamics. The adsorption can be well explained by Langmuir isotherm model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantitative analysis of oxytetracycline and its impurities by LC-MS-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkeberg, Anne Kruse; Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Cornett, Claus

    2004-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method using an Xterra MS C(18) chromatographic column ( 100 mm x 2.1 mm i.d., 3.5microm) that allows complete separation of oxytetracycline (OTC) and the impurities: 4-epi-oxytetracycline (EOTC), tetracycline (TC), 4-epi-tetracycline (ETC), 2......-acetyl-2-decarboxamido-oxytetracycline (ADOTC), alpha-apo-oxytetracycline (alpha-AOTC) and beta-apo-oxytetracycline (beta-AOTC) was developed. Gradient elution was used and calibration curves were obtained using the scan mode selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Acceptable correlations were obtained...

  17. 21 CFR 524.1662a - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride and hydrocortisone spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride and hydrocortisone... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1662a Oxytetracycline hydrochloride and hydrocortisone spray. (a) Specifications. Each 3-ounce unit of oxytetracycline hydrochloride and hydrocortisone spray contains 300...

  18. Pharmacokinetics and tissue residues of an oxytetracycline/diclofenac combination in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestorino, N; Mariño Hernández, E; Marchetti, L; Errecalde, J O

    2007-12-01

    Eight male cattle were given a combined dose containing 20 mg/kg oxytetracycline and 0.5 mg/kg diclofenac intramuscularly. Blood samples were drawn at different times until 168 h after administration. Two experimental animals were slaughtered by humane means at weekly intervals up to 28 days after administration. Samples of muscle, injection zone tissue, liver, kidney and fat were obtained. Oxytetracycline and diclofenac concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Kinetic analysis was performed by linear regression using the CSTRIP programme. Plasma oxytetracycline concentration showed a maximum (Cmax) of 3.89 +/- 1.48 microg/ml and a prolonged elimination half-life (T1/2beta: 47.73 +/- 18.33 h). The diclofenac plasma profile showed high Cmax (577.62 +/- 238.40 ng/ml), and its T1/2beta was also prolonged (30.48 +/- 9.42 h). Oxytetracycline concentrations were measurable in liver and adipose tissue until day 21 after administration, but all tissue samples were negative for diclofenac at 21 days. The long elimination half-life of diclofenac was an unexpected finding; its T1/2beta in humans is 1.1 h.

  19. Isolation, structural elucidation and in vitro activity of 2-acetyl-2-decarboxamido-oxytetracycline against environmental relevant bacteria, including tetracycline-resistant bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkeberg, Anne Kruse; Sengeløv, Gitte; Cornett, Claus

    2004-01-01

    2-Acetyl-2-decarboxamido-oxytetracycline (ADOTC) is a major impurity of oxytetracycline (OTC) produced as a side product during fermentation. ADOTC was isolated from OTC and other impurities using preparative HPLC. The preparative column was an Xterra MS. C-18 chromatographic column (100 mm x 19...

  20. 21 CFR 522.1660a - Oxytetracycline solution, 200 milligrams/milliliter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline solution, 200 milligrams... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1660a Oxytetracycline solution, 200 milligrams/milliliter. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile solution contains 200 milligrams of oxytetracycline base. (b) Sponsors...

  1. 21 CFR 522.1660b - Oxytetracycline solution, 300 milligrams/milliliter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline solution, 300 milligrams... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1660b Oxytetracycline solution, 300 milligrams/milliliter. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains 300 milligrams (mg) oxytetracycline base. (b) Sponsor...

  2. 21 CFR 522.1662b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride with lidocaine injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride with lidocaine... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1662b Oxytetracycline hydrochloride with lidocaine injection. (a) Specifications. The drug contains 50 or 100 milligrams of oxytetracycline hydrochloride and 2 percent lidocaine...

  3. 21 CFR 522.1660 - Oxytetracycline injectable dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline injectable dosage forms. 522.1660 Section 522.1660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 522.1660 Oxytetracycline injectable dosage forms. ...

  4. Oxytetracycline Inhibits Mucus Secretion and Inflammation in Human Airway Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Said Ahmad; Ishinaga, Hajime; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Oxytetracycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, but its nonantibacterial effects in the human respiratory tract are unknown. In this study, the effects of oxytetracycline on mucus secretion and inflammation were examined by PCR and ELISA in the human airway epithelial cell line NCI-H292. Oxytetracycline (10 μg/mL) significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced MUC5AC gene expression and MUC5AC protein levels in NCI-H292 cells. It also downregulated IL-8 and IL-1β gene expression and IL-1β protein levels. Our findings demonstrated that oxytetracycline suppressed mucus production and inflammation in human respiratory epithelial cells, providing further evidence for the usefulness of oxytetracycline for human airway inflammatory diseases. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Applicability of Screening Tests for Oxytetracycline in the Milk of Three Breeds of Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaie, Rahmat; Bsharat, Mohammed; Mora-Gutierrez, Adela

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotics are widely used in animal husbandry, and the presence of antibiotic residues in milk is a health hazard. The objectives of this study were to determine residual amounts of oxytetracycline in the milk of three breeds of goats using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and screening tests. It was also essential to explore the safe withdrawal period of oxytetracycline in lactating goats and examine the applicability of Charm ROSA and SNAP screening tests. The qualitative results of these tests were compared with the quantitative results of the HPLC method. Fifteen milking does, five each from the Alpine, LaMancha, and Nubian breeds, were selected from the herd at Prairie View A&M University. Milk samples containing antibiotic residues were deproteinized by HCl and acetonitrile, and then oxytetracycline was extracted from the supernatant. The residues of oxytetracycline in goat's milk up to 110 h after injection were qualitatively detected using the Charm ROSA test. Similarly, the SNAP test detected the antibiotic residues in milk up to 110 h after treatment. The HPLC results indicated that oxytetracycline residues in milk from Alpine goats were below the tolerance level (300 ng/ml) 82 h after drug treatment (72 h for LaManchas, 58 h for Nubians); however, the results of the screening tests would indicate longer withdrawal periods for milk from the breeds of goats studied, which would result in economic losses to goat's milk producers. The results of this study also indicated that oxytetracycline was not stable in raw goat's milk at refrigeration temperature or during pasteurization and that the concentrations decreased significantly. Commercial goat's milk is usually exposed to several hours of refrigeration and then to pasteurization. The results of this study indicated that, if oxytetracycline was present in raw goat's milk, the concentration would decrease significantly before it was marketed.

  6. Kinetics of tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline adsorption and desorption on two acid soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Calviño, David; Bermúdez-Couso, Alipio; Arias-Estévez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to quantify retention/release of tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline on two soils, paying attention to sorption kinetics and to implications of the adsorption/desorption processes on transfer of these pollutants to the various environmental compartments...... tetracycline > oxytetracycline > chlortetracycline in soil 1, with similar values for the three antibiotics and the sequence tetracycline > chlortetracycline > oxytetracycline in soil 2. The desorption sequences were oxytetracycline > tetracycline > chlortetracycline in soil 1 and oxytetracycline...... > chlortetracycline > tetracycline in soil 2. In conclusion, the SFC technique has yielded new kinetic data regarding tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline adsorption/desorption on soils, indicating that it can be used to shed further light on the retention and transport processes affecting antibiotics...

  7. Operating conditions influence microbial community structures, elimination of the antibiotic resistance genes and metabolites during anaerobic digestion of cow manure in the presence of oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turker, Gokhan; Akyol, Çağrı; Ince, Orhan; Aydin, Sevcan; Ince, Bahar

    2018-01-01

    The way that antibiotic residues in manure follow is one of the greatest concerns due to its potential negative impacts on microbial communities, the release of metabolites and antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) into the nature and the loss of energy recovery in anaerobic digestion (AD) systems. This study evaluated the link between different operating conditions, the biodegradation of oxytetracycline (OTC) and the formation of its metabolites and ARGs in anaerobic digesters treating cow manure. Microbial communities and ARGs were determined through the use of quantitative real-time PCR. The biodegradation of OTC and occurrence of metabolites were determined using UV-HPLC and LC/MS/MS respectively. The maximum quantity of resistance genes was also examined at the beginning of AD tests and concentration was in the order of: tetM >tetO. The numbers of ARGs were always higher at high volatile solids (VS) content and high mixing rate. The results of the investigation revealed that relationship between mixing rate and VS content plays a crucial role for elimination of ARGs, OTC and metabolites. This can be attributed to high abundance of microorganisms due to high VS content and their increased contact with elevated mixing rate. An increased interaction between microorganisms triggers the promotion of ARGs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of oxytetracycline and amoxicillin on development and biomarkers activities of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rhaul; McDonough, Sakchai; Ladewig, Jessica C L; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Nogueira, António J A; Domingues, Inês

    2013-11-01

    Antibiotics have been widely used in human and veterinary medicine to treat or prevent diseases. Residues of antibiotics have been found in aquatic environments, but their effects on fish have been not properly investigated. This work aimed to assess the sub-lethal effects of oxytetracycline and amoxicillin on zebrafish development and biomarkers. Embryos and adults were exposed during 96 h to amoxicillin and oxytetracycline following OECD guidelines. Tissues of adults and pools of embryos were used for catalase, glutathione-S-transferases and lactate dehydrogenase determinations. Amoxicillin caused premature hatching (48 h-EC50=132.4 mg/l) whereas oxytetracycline cause delayed hatching of embryos (72 h-EC50=127.6 mg/l). Moreover, both antibiotics inhibited catalase and induced glutathione-S-transferases in zebrafish adults. However, only oxytetracycline induced lactate dehydrogenase. Short-term effects of antibiotics were observed at high doses (mg/l) indicating that physiological impairment in fish populations is unlike to occur. However, effects of chronic exposures to low doses of ABs must be investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Marine fungi isolated from Chilean fjord sediments can degrade oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada-Rudolph, R; Novoa, V; Sáez, K; Martínez, M; Rudolph, A; Torres-Diaz, C; Becerra, J

    2016-08-01

    Salmon farming is the main economic activity in the fjords area of Southern Chile. This activity requires the use of antibiotics, such as oxytetracycline, for the control and prevention of diseases, which have a negative impact on the environment. We analyzed the abilities of endemic marine fungi to biodegrade oxytetracycline, an antibiotic used extensively in fish farming. We isolated marine fungi strains from sediment samples obtained from an area of fish farming activity. The five isolated strains showed an activity on oxytetracycline and were identified as Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma deliquescens, Penicillium crustosum, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and Talaromyces atroroseus by a scanning electron microscopy and characterized by molecular techniques. Results showed significant degradation in the concentration of oxytetracycline at the first 2 days of treatment for all strains analyzed. At 21 days of treatment, the concentration of oxytetracycline was decreased 92 % by T. harzianum, 85 % by T. deliquescens, 83 % by P. crustosum, 73 % by R. mucilaginosa, and 72 % by T. atroroseus, all of which were significantly higher than the controls. Given these results, we propose that fungal strains isolated from marine sediments may be useful tools for biodegradation of antibiotics, such as oxytetracycline, in the salmon industry.

  10. 21 CFR 524.1662b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride, polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride, polymyxin B sulfate... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1662b Oxytetracycline hydrochloride, polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram of the ointment contains oxytetracycline hydrochloride equivalent...

  11. Anodic oxidation of oxytetracycline: Influence of the experimental conditions on the degradation rate and mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel Fernandes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The anodic oxidation of oxytetracycline was performed with success using as anode a boron-doped diamond electrode. The experiments were conducted in batch mode, using two different electrochemical cells: an up-flow cell, with recirculation, that was used to evaluate the influence of recirculation flow rate; and a stirred cell, used to determine the influence of the applied current density. Besides oxytetracyclin electrodegradation rate and mineralization extent, oxidation by-products were also assessed. Both the flow rate and the applied current density have shown positive influence on the oxytetracycline oxidation rate. On the other hand, the mineralization degree presented the highest values at the lowest flow rate and the lowest current density tested. The main oxidation by-products detected were oxalic, oxamic and maleic acids.

  12. Efficacy of three-week oxytetracycline or rifampin monotherapy compared with a combination regimen against the filarial nematode Onchocerca ochengi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bah, Germanus S; Ward, Emma L; Srivastava, Abhishek; Trees, Alexander J; Tanya, Vincent N; Makepeace, Benjamin L

    2014-01-01

    Onchocerciasis (river blindness), caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus, is a major cause of visual impairment and dermatitis in sub-Saharan Africa. As O. volvulus contains an obligatory bacterial symbiont (Wolbachia), it is susceptible to antibiotic chemotherapy, although current regimens are considered too prolonged for community-level control programs. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacies of oxytetracycline and rifampin, administered separately or in combination, against a close relative of O. volvulus (Onchocerca ochengi) in cattle. Six animals per group were treated with continuous or intermittent oxytetracycline regimens, and effects on adult worm viability, dermal microfilarial loads, and Wolbachia density in worm tissues were assessed. Subsequently, the efficacies of 3-week regimens of oxytetracycline and rifampin alone and a combination regimen were compared, and rifampin levels in plasma and skin were quantified. A 6-month regimen of oxytetracycline with monthly dosing was strongly adulticidal, while 3-week and 6-week regimens exhibited weaker adulticidal effects. However, all three regimens achieved >2-log reductions in microfilarial load. In contrast, rifampin monotherapy and oxytetracycline-rifampin duotherapy failed to induce substantive reductions in either adult worm burden or microfilarial load, although a borderline effect on Wolbachia density was observed following duotherapy. Dermal rifampin levels were maintained above the MIC for >24 h after a single intravenous dose. We conclude that oxytetracycline-rifampin duotherapy is less efficacious against O. ochengi than oxytetracycline alone. Further studies will be required to determine whether rifampin reduces oxytetracycline bioavailability in this system, as suggested by human studies using other tetracycline-rifampin combinations.

  13. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic integration and modelling of oxytetracycline administered alone and in combination with carprofen in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentnall, C; Cheng, Z; McKellar, Q A; Lees, P

    2013-06-01

    The pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profiles of oxytetracycline were investigated, when administered both alone and in the presence of carprofen, in healthy calves. The study comprised a four treatment, four sequences, and four period cross-over design and used a tissue cage model, which permitted the collection of serum, inflamed tissue cage fluid (exudate) and non-inflamed tissue cage fluid (transudate). There were no clinically relevant differences in the PK profile of oxytetracycline when administered alone and when administered with carprofen. PK-PD integration was undertaken for a pathogenic strain of Mannheimia haemolytic (A1 76/1), by correlating in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and time-kill data with in vivo PK data obtained in the cross-over study. Based on in vitro susceptibility in cation adjusted Mueller Hinton Broth (CAMHB) and in vivo determined PK variables, ratios of maximum concentration (Cmax) and area under curve (AUC) to MIC and time for which concentration exceeded MIC (T>MIC) were determined. The CAMHB MIC data satisfied integrated PK/PD relationships predicted to achieve efficacy for approximately 48 h after dosing; mean values for serum were 5.13 (Cmax/MIC), 49.3 h (T>MIC) and 126.6 h (AUC(96h)/MIC). Similar findings were obtained when oxytetracycline was administered in the presence of carprofen, with PK-PD indices based on MIC determined in CAMHB. However, PK-PD integration of data, based on oxytetracycline MICs determined in the biological fluids, serum, exudate and transudate, suggest that it possesses, at most, limited direct killing activity against the M. haemolytica strain A1 76/1; mean values for serum were 0.277 (Cmax/MIC), 0 h (T>MIC) and 6.84 h (AUC(96h)/MIC). The data suggest that the beneficial therapeutic effects of oxytetracycline may depend, at least in part, on actions other than direct inhibition of bacterial growth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of oxytetracycline imprinted magnetic polymer for application in food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Sneha; Rajput, Yudhishthir Singh; Singh, Gulab; Sharma, Rajan

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic imprinted polymer was prepared by polymerization of methacrylate and ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate in the presence of oxytetracycline on the surface of iron magnetite. Selectivity of prepared polymer was calculated from ratio of partition coefficient of oxytetracycline for imprinted and non- imprinted polymer in water, acetonitrile, methanol and at different pH in aqueous buffer. pH of solvent exhibited pronounced effect on selectivity. Selectivity at pH 7.0, 6.0 and 5.0 was 36.0, 2.25 and 1.61 fold higher than at pH 4.0. Imprinted polymer was not selective for oxytetracycline in methanol. However, selectivity in water and acetonitrile was 19.42 and 2.86, respectively. Oxytetracycline did bind to imprinted polymer in water or aqueous buffer (pH 7.0) and could be eluted with methanol. Prepared polymer extracted 75-80 % oxytetracycline from water, honey and egg white.

  15. Determination of Oxytetracycline and 4-Epi-Oxytetracycline Residues in Feathers and Edible Tissues of Broiler Chickens Using Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, Javiera; Pokrant, Ekaterina; Krogh, Magdalena; Briceño, Cristóbal; Hidalgo, Héctor; Maddaleno, Aldo; Araya-Jordán, Carolina; Martín, Betty San

    2017-04-01

    Antibiotics have been widely used in poultry production for the treatment of bacterial diseases. However, drug residues can remain in products derived from animals after the cessation of the drug therapies. Feathers, in particular, have shown an affinity for antibiotics such as tetracycline, suggesting the persistence of these drugs in nonedible tissue. After the birds are slaughtered, feathers are ground into feather meals, which are used as organic fertilizer or an ingredient in animal diets, thereby entering into the food chain and becoming a potential risk for public health. To evaluate the depletion of oxytetracycline (OTC) and its metabolite 4-epi-oxytetracycline (4-epi-OTC) in the muscles, liver, and feathers, 64 broiler chickens, bred under controlled conditions, were treated orally with a commercial formulation of 10% OTC for 7 days. The analytes were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. OTC and 4-epi-OTC were found in the feathers for 46 days, whereas they were found in the muscle and liver for only 12 and 6 days, respectively. These results prove that the analytes remain in feathers in higher concentrations than they do in edible tissues after treatment with tetracyclines. Thus, feather meals represent a potential source of antimicrobial residue contamination in the food chain.

  16. 76 FR 3488 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Oxytetracycline and Flunixin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    .... FDA-2010-N-0002] Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Oxytetracycline and Flunixin... combination drug injectable solution containing oxytetracycline and flunixin meglumine in cattle. [[Page 3489... veterinary prescription use of HEXASOL (oxytetracycline and flunixin meglumine) Injection for the treatment...

  17. Use of a portable time-resolved fluorometer to determine oxytetracycline residue in four fruit crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worldwide, oxytetracycline (OTC) is used in fruit and vegetable crops to prevent and treat bacteria diseases. In the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency approved its use in apple, pear, peach, and nectarine, and set tolerance at 350 ng/g. OTC residues in 12 varieties of these fruits are determ...

  18. Comparison of side effects of oxytetracycline and talc pleurodesis: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Chemical pleurodesis is widely recommended in the treatment of refractory pleural effusion or pulmonary air leak of different etiologies. Although several agents have been used, many questions have remained unanswered about their toxicity. Talc is the most commonly used agent for the treatment, with rare, serious complications reported. Oxytetracycline pleurodesis in clinical practice has been described in a few studies, but literature reveals no experimental studies using this agent. We performed a prospective, randomized, observer-blinded, controlled study to evaluate the changes in lung histology and systemic response to pleurodesis with oxytetracycline and talc in acute and subacute phases in a rat model. Methods Forty-two male albino Wistar rats were divided into three groups and 3 subgroups with 7 animals in each. Group 1 was given oxytetracycline, 35 mg/kg; Group 2 was given talc slurry, 60 mg/kg in 0.5 mL saline solution, and Group 3 was given only 0.5 mL saline intrapleurally. In subgroups "a" the nimls were sacrificed at the postoperative 72nd hour and, in subgroups "b", on the postoperative day 7. The surfaces were graded by microscopic examination. Results Oxytetracycline produced alveolar collapse, hemorrhage, edema, inflammation at the postoperative 72nd hour and hemorrhage on the postoperative day 7, while talc produced significant edema, inflammation, proliferation, fibrosis at the postoperative 72nd hour and hemorrhage, edema, inflammation, proliferation, and fibrosis on the postoperative day 7 (p oxytetracycline on the postoperative day 7. On contralateral side, oxytetracycline and talc produced significant hemorrhage on the postoperative day 7 (p oxytetracycline were more pronounced, whereas the side effects of talc were prolonged to subacute phase. We propose that the occasional side effects in humans may be related to these changes as were observed in our rat model, and like talc, oxytetracycline must be used cautiously in patients

  19. Effect of different oral oxytetracycline treatment regimes on selection of antimicrobial resistant coliforms in nursery pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Zachariasen, Camilla; Nørholm, Nanna; Holm, Anders; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2017-09-01

    A major concern derived from using antimicrobials in pig production is the development of resistance. This study aimed to assess the impact of selected combinations of oral dose and duration of treatment with oxytetracycline (OTC) on selection of tetracycline resistant (TET-R) coliforms recovered from swine feces. The work encompassed two studies: 1) OTC 5mg/kg and 20mg/kg were administered to nursery pigs for 3 and 10days, respectively, under controlled experimental conditions, and 2) 10mg/kg, 20mg/kg and 30mg/kg OTC were given to a higher number of pigs for 6, 3 and 2days, respectively, under field conditions. Statistical modeling was applied to analyze trends in the proportion of TET-R coliforms. In the experimental study, no statistical difference in proportion of TET-R coliforms was observed between treatments at the end of the trial (day 18) and compared to day 0. In the field study, treatment had a significant effect on the proportion of TET-R bacteria two days after the end of treatment (2dAT) with the regimes "low dose-six days" and "medium dose-three days" yielding the highest and lowest proportions of TET-R strains, respectively. No indication of co-selection for ampicillin- and sulphonamide -R bacteria was observed for any treatment at 2dAT. By the end of the nursery period, the proportion of TET-R bacteria was not significantly different between treatments and compared to day 0. Our results suggest that similar resistance levels might be obtained by using different treatment regimes regardless of the combinations of oral dose-duration of treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Safety of oxytetracycline (Terramycin TM-100F) administered in feed to hybrid striped bass, walleyes, and yellow perch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Wolf, J.C.; Schleis, S.M.; Gingerich, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (Terramycin TM-100F, a medicated premix containing oxytetracycline at 220 g/kg) is approved in the United States to control certain systemic bacterial diseases of salmon and catfish when fed at a rate of 55-82.5 mg per kilogram of bodyweight per day for 10 d. Although oxytetracycline may also control certain systemic bacterial infections in coolwater or scaled warmwater fish, no safety data for such species are available. Our objective was to determine the safety of oxytetracycline administered in feed at nominal doses of 0, 82.5, 248, or 413 mg??kg-1??d-1 to yellow perch Perca flavescens and hybrid striped bass (striped bass Morone saxatilis x white bass M. chrysops) for 10 d and to walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) for 20 d. Yellow perch and hybrid striped bass consumed 50% to 100% of the diet, whereas walleye feed consumption was occasionally less than 50% of the diet. Feed or fecal material was present in the gastrointestinal tract of all necropsied walleyes except for one control fish. The single growth effect was that hybrid striped bass offered a nominal dose of 413 mg??kg-1??d-1 were significantly smaller than untreated controls. Oxytetracycline-related histopathological findings were limited to walleyes and were of low severity. The histopathological findings included decreased hematopoietic-lymphopoietic (H&L) tissue in the anterior kidneys, diffuse hyperplasia of the gill filament epithelium, and a decreased prevalence of fish with eosinophilic droplets in their renal tubular epithelial cells. Although the incidence of decreased H&L tissue tended to increase in proportion to oxytetracycline dose, this finding was statistically significant only for fish that received a nominal dose of 413 mg??kg-1??d-1. Given the pathogenicity of the types of bacteria that are controlled by oxytetracycline treatment and the long history of its use in major aquaculture species, the relative risk of the minor oxytetracycline

  1. 21 CFR 522.1662 - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage forms. 522.1662 Section 522.1662 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1662 Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable...

  2. Simple colorimetric detection of doxycycline and oxytetracycline using unmodified gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Fan, Shumin; Li, Zhigang; Xie, Yuanzhe; Wang, Rui; Ge, Baoyu; Wu, Jing; Wang, Ruiyong

    2014-08-01

    The interaction between tetracycline antibiotics and gold nanoparticles was studied. With citrate-coated gold nanoparticles as colorimetric probe, a simple and rapid detection method for doxycycline and oxytetracycline has been developed. This method relies on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles. In weakly acidic buffer medium, doxycycline and oxytetracycline could rapidly induce the aggregation of gold nanoparticles, resulting in red-to-blue (or purple) colour change. The experimental parameters were optimized with regard to pH, the concentration of the gold nanoparticles and the reaction time. Under optimal experimental conditions, the linear range of the colorimetric sensor for doxycycline/oxytetracycline was 0.06-0.66 and 0.59-8.85 μg mL-1, respectively. The corresponding limit of detection for doxycycline and oxytetracycline was 0.0086 and 0.0838 μg mL-1, respectively. This assay was sensitive, selective, simple and readily used to detect tetracycline antibiotics in food products.

  3. 21 CFR 524.1662 - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. 524.1662 Section 524.1662 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1662 Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. ...

  4. Effect of tetracycline dose and treatment-mode on selection of resistant coliform bacteria in nursery pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Damborg, Peter; Mellerup, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This study describes results of a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of oxytetracycline treatment dose and mode of administration on selection of antibiotic resistant coliform bacteria in fecal samples from nursery pigs. Nursery pigs (pigs of 4-7 weeks of age) were treated...... with oxytetracycline against Lawsonia intracellularis induced diarrhea in five pig herds. Each group was randomly allocated to one of five treatment groups: oral flock treatment with (i) high (20 mg/kg), (ii) medium (10 mg/kg) and (iii) low (5 mg/kg) dosage, (iv) oral-pen-wise (small group) treatment (10 mg...... significant changes in number or proportion of tetracycline resistant coliforms. Selection for tetracycline-resistant coliforms was significantly correlated to selection for ampicillin- and sulfonamide-resistant, but not to cefotaxime-resistant strains. In conclusion, difference in dose of oxytetracycline...

  5. COMPARATIVE PHARMACOKINETIC STUDIES ON OXYTETRACYCLINE IN CAMELS, SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Al-Nazawi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of long-acting oxytetracycline (OTC injected intravenously (IV at a dose of 5 mg/kg was determined in each of eight camels, sheep and goats. The disposition of OTC was described by two-compartment open model. Two elimination half-lives were recorded for the camel (81 min and 46.1 h, whereas in sheep and goats these were 3.2 and 3.4 h, respectively. The peak plasma concentration was 10.2, 850 and 780 g/ml at 5 minutes in camel, sheep and goats, respectively. The values of volume of distribution were 1.4, 13.4 and 12.1 litre/kg for the camels, sheep and goats, respectively. In sheep and goats, values of t1/2, Vd and clearance were found similar but different from camel, indicating exclusive distribution and substantial storage which were consistent with oxytetracycline lipophilicity and the large fat content of camel body.

  6. Field assessment of oxytetracycline exposure to the freshwater macrophytes Egeria densa Planch. and Ceratophyllum demersum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, M.L.; Knapp, C.W.; Graham, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    In a microcosm study, two aquatic macrophytes, Egeria densa and Ceratophyllum demersum were exposed to nominal concentrations of 0, 5, 20, 50, and 250 μg/L oxytetracycline (n = 3), plus 20 μg/L oxytetracycline amended with additional nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Responses were monitored bi-weekly over a six-week exposure period. Both plant species exhibited a significant decline in growth in the 250 μg/L oxytetracycline and the N- and P-amended units. Decreased light penetration resulting from accumulating oxytetracycline by-products appears to be the primary modifier in the growth of these plants. Increased susceptibility to oxytetracycline exposure was noted in some paired plantings (e.g., E. densa root development), relative to individual plants in these treatments, however, no clear explanation for this response is available. Based on the toxicity data generated in this study, we estimate that current concentrations of oxytetracycline in freshwater environments do not pose a direct risk to E. densa and C. demersum. - Oxytetracycline did not pose a risk for two freshwater macrophytes

  7. Field assessment of oxytetracycline exposure to the freshwater macrophytes Egeria densa Planch. and Ceratophyllum demersum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, M L [Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, 118 Isbister Building, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Knapp, C W [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Graham, D W [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    In a microcosm study, two aquatic macrophytes, Egeria densa and Ceratophyllum demersum were exposed to nominal concentrations of 0, 5, 20, 50, and 250 {mu}g/L oxytetracycline (n = 3), plus 20 {mu}g/L oxytetracycline amended with additional nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Responses were monitored bi-weekly over a six-week exposure period. Both plant species exhibited a significant decline in growth in the 250 {mu}g/L oxytetracycline and the N- and P-amended units. Decreased light penetration resulting from accumulating oxytetracycline by-products appears to be the primary modifier in the growth of these plants. Increased susceptibility to oxytetracycline exposure was noted in some paired plantings (e.g., E. densa root development), relative to individual plants in these treatments, however, no clear explanation for this response is available. Based on the toxicity data generated in this study, we estimate that current concentrations of oxytetracycline in freshwater environments do not pose a direct risk to E. densa and C. demersum. - Oxytetracycline did not pose a risk for two freshwater macrophytes.

  8. A novel reflectance-based aptasensor using gold nanoparticles for the detection of oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ho Bin; Kwon, Young Seop; Lee, Ji-eun; Cullen, David; Noh, Hongseok Moses; Gu, Man Bock

    2015-10-07

    We present a novel reflectance-based colorimetric aptasensor using gold nanoparticles for the detection of oxytetracycline for the first time. It was found that the reflectance-based measurement at two wavelengths (650 and 520 nm) can generate more stable and sensitive signals than absorbance-based sensors to determine the aggregation of AuNPs, even at high AuNP concentrations. One of the most common antibacterial agents, oxytetracycline (OTC), was detected at concentrations as low as 1 nM in both buffer solution and tap water, which was 25-fold more sensitive, compared to the previous absorbance-based colorimetric aptasensors. This reflectance-based colorimetric aptasensor using gold nanoparticles is considered to be a better platform for portable sensing of small molecules using aptamers.

  9. Persistent Oxytetracycline Exposure Induces an Inflammatory Process That Improves Regenerative Capacity in Zebrafish Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Becker, Francisco; Romero, Jaime; Pulgar, Alvaro; Feijóo, Carmen G.

    2012-01-01

    Background The excessive use of antibiotics in aquaculture can adversely affect not only the environment, but also fish themselves. In this regard, there is evidence that some antibiotics can activate the immune system and reduce their effectiveness. None of those studies consider in detail the adverse inflammatory effect that the antibiotic remaining in the water may cause to the fish. In this work, we use the zebrafish to analyze quantitatively the effects of persistent exposure to oxytetracycline, the most common antibiotic used in fish farming. Methodology We developed a quantitative assay in which we exposed zebrafish larvae to oxytetracycline for a period of 24 to 96 hrs. In order to determinate if the exposure causes any inflammation reaction, we evaluated neutrophils infiltration and quantified their total number analyzing the Tg(mpx:GFP)i114 transgenic line by fluorescence stereoscope, microscope and flow cytometry respectively. On the other hand, we characterized the process at a molecular level by analyzing several immune markers (il-1β, il-10, lysC, mpx, cyp1a) at different time points by qPCR. Finally, we evaluated the influence of the inflammation triggered by oxytetracycline on the regeneration capacity in the lateral line. Conclusions Our results suggest that after 48 hours of exposure, the oxytetracycline triggered a widespread inflammation process that persisted until 96 hours of exposure. Interestingly, larvae that developed an inflammation process showed an improved regeneration capacity in the mechanosensory system lateral line. PMID:22590621

  10. Pharmacokinetics of Short- and Long-acting Formulations of Oxytetracycline After Intramuscular Administration in Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gberindyer, Aondover F; Okpeh, Ene R; Semaka, Asaaga A

    2015-12-01

    Both short- and long-acting formulations of oxytetracycline are commonly used in veterinary medicine to treat animals infected with gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, rickettsiae, mycoplasma, and chlamydiae. To compare pharmacokinetics of short- and long-acting oxytetracycline in chickens, injectable formulations from the same pharmaceutical company were administered to healthy 6-week-old broiler chickens in accordance to the labeled instructions. Fourteen chickens were separated into 2 groups: chickens in group A (n = 7) were administered the short-acting formulation (10 mg/kg IM q24h) for 4 consecutive days, whereas those in group B (n = 7) were treated with a single dose (20 mg/kg IM) of the long-acting formulation. Blood samples were collected into heparinized tubes before and at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 24 hours after initial treatment. Thereafter, blood samples were taken every 24 hours up to 120 hours. Plasma concentrations of oxytetracycline were determined by competitive enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay, and pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained. Both formulations delivered therapeutic plasma concentrations of oxytetracycline for approximately 100% of their respective dosing intervals as recommended. However, considering the additional labor, patient stress, and mortalities associated with handling, in addition to rejection of the carcass due to tissue necrosis resulting from multiple injections, we recommend use of the long-acting instead of the short-acting injectable formulation in broiler chickens.

  11. Removal of oxytetracycline from aqueous solutions by hydroxyapatite as a low-cost adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harja, Maria; Ciobanu, Gabriela

    2017-11-01

    The present paper involved a study of the adsorption process of the oxytetracycline drug from aqueous medium by using the hydroxyapatite nanopowders as adsorbent materials. The batch adsorption experiments were performed by monitoring the solution pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage and drug solution concentration. At pH 8 and ambient temperature, high oxytetracycline removal rates of about 97.58% and 89.95% for the uncalcined and calcined nanohydroxyapatites, respectively, were obtained. The kinetic studies indicate that the oxytetracycline adsorption onto nanohydroxyapatite samples follows a pseudo-second order kinetic model. The maximum adsorption capacities of 291.32 mg/g and 278.27 mg/g for uncalcined and calcined nanohydroxyapatite samples, respectively, have been found. So, the conclusion can be drawn that the hydroxyapatite shows good adsorption ability towards oxytetracycline.

  12. Removal of oxytetracycline from aqueous solutions by hydroxyapatite as a low-cost adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harja Maria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper involved a study of the adsorption process of the oxytetracycline drug from aqueous medium by using the hydroxyapatite nanopowders as adsorbent materials. The batch adsorption experiments were performed by monitoring the solution pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage and drug solution concentration. At pH 8 and ambient temperature, high oxytetracycline removal rates of about 97.58% and 89.95% for the uncalcined and calcined nanohydroxyapatites, respectively, were obtained. The kinetic studies indicate that the oxytetracycline adsorption onto nanohydroxyapatite samples follows a pseudo-second order kinetic model. The maximum adsorption capacities of 291.32 mg/g and 278.27 mg/g for uncalcined and calcined nanohydroxyapatite samples, respectively, have been found. So, the conclusion can be drawn that the hydroxyapatite shows good adsorption ability towards oxytetracycline.

  13. Production of oxytetracycline by Streptomyces rimosus 12,907 as an animal feed supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghlaf, A O; Abou-Zeid, A; El-Dewany, A I; Eissa, I; Fouad, M; Yassein, M

    1980-01-01

    Production of oxytetracycline by S. rimosus 12,907 as an animal feed supplement was achieved with a fermentation medium containing the following ingredients: blackstrap molasses 30, fodder yeast 20, rice bran 10, KH2PO4 0.2%, and water to 1000 mL. The dry mash, containing oxytetracycline, was 50 g/L of fermentation medium. The amount of oxytetracycline, present in the dry mash, was approximately 4.0%. The dry mash, also contained the following amino acids: L-arginine, L-histidine, L-lysine, L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-phenylalanine, DL-methionine, and L-tryptophan.

  14. Effects of oxytetracycline on archaeal community, and tetracycline resistance genes in anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure and wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Pan, Hongjia; Gu, Jie; Qian, Xun; Gao, Hua; Qin, Qingjun

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the effects of different concentrations of oxytetracycline (OTC) on biogas production, archaeal community structure, and the levels of tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) were investigated in the anaerobic co-digestion products of pig manure and wheat straw. PCR denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) (PCR) were used to detect the archaeal community structure and the levels of four TRGs: tet(M), tet(Q), tet(W), and tet(C). The results showed that anaerobic co-digestion with OTC at concentrations of 60, 100, and 140 mg/kg (dry weight of pig manure) reduced the cumulative biogas production levels by 9.9%, 10.4%, and 14.1%, respectively, compared with that produced by the control, which lacked the antibiotic. The addition of OTC substantially modified the structure of the archaeal community. Two orders were identified by phylogenetic analysis, that is, Pseudomonadales and Methanomicrobiales, and the methanogen present during anaerobic co-digestion with OTC may have been resistant to OTC. The abundances of tet(Q) and tet(W) genes increased as the OTC concentration increased, whereas the abundances of tet(M) and tet(C) genes decreased as the OTC concentration increased.

  15. Comparison of standardised versus non-standardised methods for testing the in vitro potency of oxytetracycline against mannheimia haemolytica and pasteurella multocida

    OpenAIRE

    Lees, P; Illambas, J; Pelligand, L; Toutain, P L

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro pharmacodynamics of oxytetracycline was established for six isolates of each of the calf pneumonia pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and bacterial time-kill curves were determined in two matrices, Mueller Hinton broth (MHB) and calf serum. Geometric mean MIC ratios, serum:MHB, were 25.2:1 (M. haemolytica) and 27.4:1 (P. multocida). The degree of binding of oxytetracycline to...

  16. Identification and determination of oxytetracycline, tiamulin, lincomycin, and spectinomycin in veterinary preparations by thin-layer chromatography/densitometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzek, J; Kwiecień, A; Starek, M; Kierszniewska, A; Rzeszutko, W

    2000-01-01

    A thin-layer chromatographic/densitometric method was developed for the identification and quantitation of oxytetracycline, tiamulin, lincomycin, and spectinomycin in veterinary preparations. Silica gel-coated thin layer chromatography plates and 2 mobile phases were used to separate these constituents. The appropriate compositions of the suitable mobile phases were established: 10% citric acid solution-n-hexane-ethanol (80 + 1 + 1, v/v) and n-butanol-ethanol-chloroform-25% ammonia (4 + 5 + 2 + 5, v/v). Along with Rf values and spot colors, direct UV and visual densitometric measurements were used for identification. Similar measuring ranges were used for quantitative analysis to obtain repeatable and reliable results for the preparations examined. The results of the quantitative analysis are characterized by a small confidence interval and are close to the declared contents of active constituents: oxytetracycline 30.01 +/- 0.38 g at lambda = 350 nm and 30.24 +/- 0.86 g at lambda = 430 nm; tiamulin, 10.19 +/- 0.86 g at lambda = 450 nm; lincomycin, 2.27 +/- 0.08 g at lambda = 278 nm; and spectinomycin, 2.18 +/- 0.07 g at lambda = 421 nm. The recoveries for all antibiotics ranged from 100.01 to 102.54%.

  17. Salmon Aquaculture and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Alejandro H.; Tomova, Alexandra; López, Alejandra; Maldonado, Miguel A.; Henríquez, Luis A.; Ivanova, Larisa; Moy, Fred; Godfrey, Henry P.; Cabello, Felipe C.

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobials used in salmon aquaculture pass into the marine environment. This could have negative impacts on marine environmental biodiversity, and on terrestrial animal and human health as a result of selection for bacteria containing antimicrobial resistance genes. We therefore measured the numbers of culturable bacteria and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments in the Calbuco Archipelago, Chile, over 12-month period at a salmon aquaculture site approximately 20 m from a salmon farm and at a control site 8 km distant without observable aquaculture activities. Three antimicrobials extensively used in Chilean salmon aquaculture (oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol) were studied. Although none of these antimicrobials was detected in sediments from either site, traces of flumequine, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial also widely used in Chile, were present in sediments from both sites during this period. There were significant increases in bacterial numbers and antimicrobial-resistant fractions to oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol in sediments from the aquaculture site compared to those from the control site. Interestingly, there were similar numbers of presumably plasmid-mediated resistance genes for oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and florfenicol in unselected marine bacteria isolated from both aquaculture and control sites. These preliminary findings in one location may suggest that the current use of large amounts of antimicrobials in Chilean aquaculture has the potential to select for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments. PMID:22905164

  18. Salmon aquaculture and antimicrobial resistance in the marine environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro H Buschmann

    Full Text Available Antimicrobials used in salmon aquaculture pass into the marine environment. This could have negative impacts on marine environmental biodiversity, and on terrestrial animal and human health as a result of selection for bacteria containing antimicrobial resistance genes. We therefore measured the numbers of culturable bacteria and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments in the Calbuco Archipelago, Chile, over 12-month period at a salmon aquaculture site approximately 20 m from a salmon farm and at a control site 8 km distant without observable aquaculture activities. Three antimicrobials extensively used in Chilean salmon aquaculture (oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol were studied. Although none of these antimicrobials was detected in sediments from either site, traces of flumequine, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial also widely used in Chile, were present in sediments from both sites during this period. There were significant increases in bacterial numbers and antimicrobial-resistant fractions to oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol in sediments from the aquaculture site compared to those from the control site. Interestingly, there were similar numbers of presumably plasmid-mediated resistance genes for oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and florfenicol in unselected marine bacteria isolated from both aquaculture and control sites. These preliminary findings in one location may suggest that the current use of large amounts of antimicrobials in Chilean aquaculture has the potential to select for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments.

  19. Molecular characterization and determination of antimicrobial resistance of Mycoplasma gallisepticum isolated from chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakpinyo, Somsak; Sasipreeyajan, Jiroj

    2007-11-15

    In this study, three consecutive approaches of molecular characterization, determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and antimicrobial tested on Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) isolated from chicken farms were investigated. These approaches were conducted between 2004 and 2005 to 134 MG samples collected from five different regions of the intensive farming area of Thailand. Twenty MG isolates and four reference strains including S6, F, ts-11, and 6/85 were classified according to Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns prior to the antimicrobial tests. These isolates exhibited 5 different genotypes (A-E). Consequently, MG isolates representing each genotype were tested on 11 registered antibiotics. The levels of MIC were determined. Three antibiotics, doxycycline (0.20 microg/ml), tiamulin (0.10 microg/ml), and tylosin (0.33 microg/ml), gave the least MICs among all effective drugs. Break point comparisons of each antimicrobial suggested that the MG isolates were most sensitive to lincomycin, oxytetracycline, tiamulin, and tylosin. Some MG isolates had an intermediate effect on josamycin and were resistant to enrofloxacin and erythromycin. Our results also indicated that MG isolated and collected from the region and nearby districts had similar RAPD patterns showing properties of antimicrobial resistance. The RAPD patterns may imply the frequent use of antibiotics and a resistant strain of MG. This is the first report of genetic characterization using RAPD reflected by the levels of MIC against MG. The information is useful to plan for prophylactic and therapeutic impacts on the poultry industry especially in the area of intensive use of antibiotics.

  20. Development and validation of a reversed phase liquid chromatographic method for analysis of oxytetracycline and related impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahsay, Getu; Shraim, Fairouz; Villatte, Philippe; Rotger, Jacques; Cassus-Coussère, Céline; Van Schepdael, Ann; Hoogmartens, Jos; Adams, Erwin

    2013-03-05

    A simple, robust and fast high-performance liquid chromatographic method is described for the analysis of oxytetracycline and its related impurities. The principal peak and impurities are all baseline separated in 20 min using an Inertsil C₈ (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column kept at 50 °C. The mobile phase consists of a gradient mixture of mobile phases A (0.05% trifluoroacetic acid in water) and B (acetonitrile-methanol-tetrahydrofuran, 80:15:5, v/v/v) pumped at a flow rate of 1.3 ml/min. UV detection was performed at 254 nm. The developed method was validated for its robustness, sensitivity, precision and linearity in the range from limit of quantification (LOQ) to 120%. The limits of detection (LOD) and LOQ were found to be 0.08 μg/ml and 0.32 μg/ml, respectively. This method allows the separation of oxytetracycline from all known and 5 unknown impurities, which is better than previously reported in the literature. Moreover, the simple mobile phase composition devoid of non-volatile buffers made the method suitable to interface with mass spectrometry for further characterization of unknown impurities. The developed method has been applied for determination of related substances in oxytetracycline bulk samples available from four manufacturers. The validation results demonstrate that the method is reliable for quantification of oxytetracycline and its impurities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute and subacute toxicities effect of oxytetracycline pharmaceutical wastewater on Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pengpeng; Shen, Hong-Yan

    2018-02-01

    Oxytetracycline wastewater is a major category of pharmaceutical wastewater, and its toxic effects on aquatic organisms have aroused people’s attention. In this study, Zebrafish were separately exposed to four Oxytetracycline wastewater treatments (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%) and a control group were sampled on days 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities showed significant inhibition, but the highest SOD activity was found in 20% and 40% the treatment groups (195.12U/mgprot, 187.43U/mgprot, respectively) on the 12th day. MDA contents increased significantly compared with control group. MDA contents showed that the higher the volume concentration, the higher the contents of MDA with the increase of exposure time. The highest MDA content shown in 60% exposure group (5.49nmol/mgprot) on the 12th day. And SOD activities and MDA contents showed a trend of “Λ” type. In conclusion, Oxytetracycline wastewater induced oxidative stress and toxicity in Zebrafish muscle tissue.

  2. Reduced mortality among young endangered masked bobwhite quail fed oxytetracycline-supplemented diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of oxytetracycline-supplemented diets on mortality of young endangered masked bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi). Inclusion of oxytetracycline at 200 g per ton in the feed for 6 weeks resulted in a marked, significant reduction in mortality of young masked bobwhite quail raised in captivity. Including the antibiotic in feed during the first week of life reduced mortality as effectively as feeding it for a longer period.

  3. Prevalence of Sulfonamide Resistance Genes in Bacterial Isolates from Manured Agricultural Soils and Pig Slurry in the United Kingdom▿

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne-Bailey, K. G.; Gaze, W. H.; Kay, P.; Boxall, A. B. A.; Hawkey, P. M.; Wellington, E. M. H.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalences of three sulfonamide resistance genes, sul1, sul2, and sul3 and sulfachloropyridazine (SCP) resistance were determined in bacteria isolated from manured agricultural clay soils and slurry samples in the United Kingdom over a 2-year period. Slurry from tylosin-fed pigs amended with SCP and oxytetracycline was used for manuring. Isolates positive for sul genes were further screened for the presence of class 1 and 2 integrons. Phenotypic resistance to SCP was significantly higher...

  4. Spectrophotometric Methods for Simultaneous Determination of Oxytetracycline HCl and Flunixin Meglumine in Their Veterinary Pharmaceutical Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan A. Merey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Four precise, accurate, selective, and sensitive UV-spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of a binary mixture of Oxytetracycline HCl (OXY and Flunixin Meglumine (FLU. The first method, dual wavelength (DW, depends on measuring the difference in absorbance (ΔA 273.4–327 nm for the determination of OXY where FLU is zero while FLU is determined at ΔA 251.7–275.7 nm. The second method, first-derivative spectrophotometric method (1D, depends on measuring the peak amplitude of the first derivative selectively at 377 and 266.7 nm for the determination of OXY and FLU, respectively. The third method, ratio difference method, depends on the difference in amplitudes of the ratio spectra at ΔP 286.5–324.8 nm and ΔP 249.6–286.3 nm for the determination of OXY and FLU, respectively. The fourth method, first derivative of ratio spectra method (1DD, depends on measuring the amplitude peak to peak of the first derivative of ratio spectra at 296.7 to 369 nm and 259.1 to 304.7 nm for the determination of OXY and FLU, respectively. Different factors affecting the applied spectrophotometric methods were studied. The proposed methods were validated according to ICH guidelines. Satisfactory results were obtained for determination of both drugs in laboratory prepared mixture and pharmaceutical dosage form. The developed methods are compared favourably with the official ones.

  5. Waste to wealth: Production of oxytetracycline using streptomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-05-29

    May 29, 2012 ... used due to high risk of sensitization (Archer et al., 2001). However, ocular ... degree of aeration at the surface favours the production of antibiotics ... the near absence of water. Oxytetracycline, a quinone antibiotic commonly.

  6. Comparison of conventional and long-acting oxytetracyclines in prevention of induced Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae infection of growing swine.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiorpes, A L; Bäckström, L R; Collins, M T; Kruse, G O

    1989-01-01

    These experiments tested the hypothesis that long-acting oxytetracycline (oxytetracycline-LA) was more effective than regular oxytetracycline in preventing porcine pleuropneumonia when administered either 24 or 48 h prior to experimental challenge with virulent strains of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Two experiments (1 and 2) were conducted using growing pigs (average weight 12-15 kg). Antibiotic treatments were administered once intramuscularly at 20 mg/kg body weight; controls received ...

  7. Effects of biochar on reducing the abundance of oxytetracycline, antibiotic resistance genes, and human pathogenic bacteria in soil and lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Manli; Li, Haichao; Gu, Jie; Tuo, Xiaxia; Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Wang, Xiaojuan

    2017-05-01

    Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in soil can affect human health via the food chain. Biochar is a soil amendment but its impacts on ARGs and the microbial communities associated with soil and vegetables are unclear. Therefore, we established three lettuce pot culture experiments, i.e., O300: 300 mg/kg oxytetracycline (OTC), BO300: 300 mg/kg OTC + 2% biochar, and a control without OTC or biochar. We found that under BO300, the relative abundances of ARGs were reduced by 51.8%, 43.4%, and 44.1% in lettuce leaves, roots, and soil, respectively, compared with O300. intI1 was highly abundant in soil and lettuce, and it co-occurred with some ARGs (tetW, ermF, and sul1). Redundancy analysis and network analysis indicated that the bacterial community succession was the main mechanism that affected the variations in ARGs and intI1. The reduction of Firmicutes due to the biochar treatment of soil and lettuce was the main factor responsible for the removal of tetracycline resistance genes in leaves. Biochar application led to the disappearance of human pathogenic bacteria (HPB), which was significantly correlated with the abundances of ermF and ermX. In summary, biochar is an effective farmland amendment for reducing the abundances of antibiotics, ARGs, and HPB in order to ensure the safety of vegetables and protect human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biodegradation of oxytetracycline by Pleurotus ostreatus mycelium: a mycoremediation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliore, Luciana; Fiori, Maurizio; Spadoni, Anna; Galli, Emanuela

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Oxytetracycline uptake and degradation by Pleurotus ostreatus mycelium were measured. ► The role of extracellular laccase in degradation was evaluated. ► The almost complete OTC removal was obtained. ► A possible degradation product was identified in mycelia (ADOTC). ► The system can be considered the first step of an useful mycoremediation technique. - Abstract: Oxytetracycline (OTC) is administered in high doses to livestocks and enters the environmental compartments as a consequence of animal waste disposal. As a first step in setting up a useful mycoremediation technique, an OTC lab degradation test was performed in liquid medium using the ligninolytic fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. OTC disappearance in culture medium was clearly evident as early as the third day of exposure onwards, with an almost complete removal after 14 d. The drug removal was mediated by fungal absorption in the mycelia, where the OTC molecule underwent a degradation step, as demonstrated by mass spectrometry analyses. A putative degradation product, ADOTC (2-acetyl-2-decarboxamido-oxytetracycline) is proposed. Experimental conditions excluded OTC abiotic degradation; the degradation by extracellular laccase was also experimentally discarded.

  9. Biodegradation of oxytetracycline by Pleurotus ostreatus mycelium: a mycoremediation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migliore, Luciana [Dept. Biology, Tor Vergata University, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy); Fiori, Maurizio [Dept. Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Spadoni, Anna [Dept. Biology, Tor Vergata University, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy); Institute of Agro-Environment and Forest Biology, National Research Council, Research Area Rome 1, Via Salaria km 29.300, 00015 Monterotondo Rome (Italy); Galli, Emanuela [Institute of Agro-Environment and Forest Biology, National Research Council, Research Area Rome 1, Via Salaria km 29.300, 00015 Monterotondo Rome (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxytetracycline uptake and degradation by Pleurotus ostreatus mycelium were measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The role of extracellular laccase in degradation was evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The almost complete OTC removal was obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A possible degradation product was identified in mycelia (ADOTC). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The system can be considered the first step of an useful mycoremediation technique. - Abstract: Oxytetracycline (OTC) is administered in high doses to livestocks and enters the environmental compartments as a consequence of animal waste disposal. As a first step in setting up a useful mycoremediation technique, an OTC lab degradation test was performed in liquid medium using the ligninolytic fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. OTC disappearance in culture medium was clearly evident as early as the third day of exposure onwards, with an almost complete removal after 14 d. The drug removal was mediated by fungal absorption in the mycelia, where the OTC molecule underwent a degradation step, as demonstrated by mass spectrometry analyses. A putative degradation product, ADOTC (2-acetyl-2-decarboxamido-oxytetracycline) is proposed. Experimental conditions excluded OTC abiotic degradation; the degradation by extracellular laccase was also experimentally discarded.

  10. Effect of Oxytetracycline on In vitro Mineralization and Demineralization Reactions in the Absence and Presence of Collagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Kakkar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oxytetracycline and its derivatives are routinely used to treat various ailments have also been shown to inhibit embryonic bone formation, mineralization in pregnant female rats and parathyroid hormone induced demineralization of bones. Oxytetracycline has also been routinely used as bone fluorochrome to study bone metabolism. However, despite the above observations, its mechanism of action is not clearly understood. Some studies tend to suggest that it acts by inhibiting collagen biosynthesis while others indicate that it acts without influencing collagen metabolism. Aim: To study the mechanism by which oxytetracycline influences the mineralization and demineralization reactions. Materials and Methods: Homogeneous and heterogeneous systems of in vitro mineralization under physiological conditions of temperature, pH and ionic strength were used to investigate the effect of oxytetracycline not only on initial mineral phase formation but also on its subsequent growth or demineralization. In the Homogenous system, supersaturated conditions with respect to calcium and phosphate ions were employed to study their precipitation as mineral phase resembling hydroxyapatite in nature. However, in the heterogeneous system, collagen isolated from sheep tendons was used to induce identical mineral phases under saturated conditions with respect to calcium and phosphate ions prevailing in the body fluids. Results: The study demonstrated that in the homogeneous reaction system (mineralization in the absence of collagen oxytetracycline inhibited both the initial mineral phase formation and its subsequent growth without influencing its demineralization. However, in the heterogeneous system, oxytetracycline was found to inhibit not only the initial mineralization but also its subsequent growth or demineralization. Conclusion: Oxytetracycline acted like crystal poisons to inhibit the mineralization and demineralization reactions by tightly associating

  11. Monitoring of drug resistance amplification and attenuation with the use of tetracycline-resistant bacteria during wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnisz, Monika; Korzeniewska, Ewa; Niestępski, Sebastian; Osińska, Adriana; Nalepa, Beata

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor changes (amplification or attenuation) in antibiotic resistance during wastewater treatment based on the ecology of tetracycline-resistant bacteria. The untreated and treated wastewater were collected in four seasons. Number of tetracycline-(TETR) and oxytetracycline-resistant (OTCR) bacteria, their qualitative composition, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), sensitivity to other antibiotics, and the presence of tet (A, B, C, D, E) resistance genes were determined. TETR and OTCR counts in untreated wastewater were 100 to 1000 higher than in treated effluent. OTCR bacterial counts were higher than TETR populations in both untreated and treated wastewater. TETR isolates were not dominated by a single bacterial genus or species, whereas Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas sobria were the most common in OTCR isolates. The treatment process attenuated the drug resistance of TETR bacteria and amplified the resistance of OTCR bacteria. In both microbial groups, the frequency of tet(A) gene increased in effluent in comparison with untreated wastewater. Our results also indicate that treated wastewater is a reservoir of multiple drug-resistant bacteria as well as resistance determinants which may pose a health hazard for humans and animals when released to the natural environment.

  12. Sclerotic effect of oxytetracycline on the submandibular gland: An experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güçlü, Oğuz; Muratli, Asli; Arik, Deniz; Tekin, Kazım; Erdogan, Halil; Dereköy, Fevzi Sefa

    2016-12-01

    Oxytetracycline has been suggested as an alternate therapy for chronic recurrent sialadenitis and sialorrhea. We conducted an experimental study to investigate the sclerotic effect of this drug on the submandibular gland by histopathologic methods. Our subjects were 20 New Zealand white rabbits, which were divided into two groups of 10. The right submandibular gland of the rabbits in the active-treatment group was injected with 0.3 ml of oxytetracycline (100 mg/ml), and that of the controls was injected with saline. Four weeks after the injections, all the glands were removed. Histopathologic studies, including hematoxylin and eosin and Masson trichrome staining, were carried out. The glands were evaluated for tissue inflammation, congestion, fibrosis, edema, lipomatosis, and atrophy. To investigate apoptosis, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) immunohistochemical staining was used. In the study group, inflammation (n = 9), congestion (n = 9), fibrosis (n = 6), edema (n = 6), and lipomatosis (n = 4) were observed; in the sham group, only lipomatosis was seen (n = 5). The TUNEL assay results for acinar cells were 4.51 ± 1.41% in the oxytetracycline group and 2.08 ± 1.76% in the control group (p = 0.006); the corresponding figures for the duct cells were 7.05 ± 0.87% and 3.10 ± 2.26% (p = 0.001). Based on our findings, we conclude that oxytetracycline might be a viable alternative for the treatment of chronic recurrent sialadenitis and sialorrhea. However, more research in this area is needed.

  13. Characterization of microbial degradation of oxytetracycline in river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of microbial degradation of oxytetracycline in river water and sediment using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The present results have shown that microbial degradation plays a major role in the removal of OTC in natural environments.

  14. Waste to wealth: Production of oxytetracycline using streptomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production of oxytetracycline by Streptomyces speibonae OXS1 in solid-state fermentation from cocoyam peels (household kitchen wastes of agricultural produce) was investigated. The proximate analyses of peels of the two cocoyam species showed that Colocasia esculenta had higher protein (1.39%) and fibre ...

  15. Tumor induction in rats by feeding aminopyrine or oxytetracycline with nitrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, H W; Luinsky, W

    1975-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were given combinations of aminopyrine or oxytetracycline and sodium nitrite in drinking water. Of 30 animals receiving 0.1 percent (1,000 ppm) of aminopyrine and sodium nitrite for 30 weeks, 29 died with hemangioendothelial sarcomas of the liver. The same tumor caused death in 26 of 30 animals that received 0.025 percent (250 ppm) of both aminopyrine and sodium nitrite for 50 weeks. No animals in a control group of the same size that received 0.1 percent aminopyrine for 30 weeks developed this tumor, although one-half of them were still alive 2 years after the experiment was begun. After feeding a comparable dose (0.1 percent) of oxytetracycline and sodium nitrite for 60 weeks, liver tumors were present in 4 of 30 rats (3 hepatocellular tumors and 1 cholangioma). Since aminopyrine has been widely used for medicinal purposes in the human population, it is possible that many people have been exposed to a potent carcinogen (dimethylnitrosamine) by its formation in vivo. It is not certain whether the result of feeding oxytetracycline and sodium nitrite indicates significant carcinogenicity of this combination. (auth)

  16. Ethyl substituted β-cyclodextrin enhanced fluorimetric method for the determination of trace amounts of oxytetracycline in urine, serum, feed of chook and milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongjian; Hou Faju; Jiang Chongqiu

    2005-01-01

    A simple sensitive spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of oxytetracycline (OTC). Ethyl substituted β-cyclodextrin (DE-β-CD) can remarkably enhance the fluorescence intensity of the OTC-Eu 3+ complex at λ=612nm and the enhanced fluorescence intensity of Eu 3+ ion is in proportion to the concentration of OTC. Optimum conditions for the determination of OTC were also investigated. The linear range of this method for the determination of OTC is 8.28x10 -8 -1.73x10 -5 mol/L and the limit of detection is 6.76x10 -9 mol/L, respectively. The developed method is practical and relatively free interference from coexisting substances and can be successfully applied to determination of OTC in samples of urine, serum, feed of chook and milk. The enhancement of the fluorescence at λ em =612nm of Eu 3+ ion is because of the inclusion complex OTC-Eu 3+ -DE-β-CD

  17. Ethyl substituted {beta}-cyclodextrin enhanced fluorimetric method for the determination of trace amounts of oxytetracycline in urine, serum, feed of chook and milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongjian, Wang [Department of Chemistry, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Faju, Hou [Department of Chemistry, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Chongqiu, Jiang [Department of Chemistry, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China)

    2005-05-15

    A simple sensitive spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of oxytetracycline (OTC). Ethyl substituted {beta}-cyclodextrin (DE-{beta}-CD) can remarkably enhance the fluorescence intensity of the OTC-Eu{sup 3+} complex at {lambda}=612nm and the enhanced fluorescence intensity of Eu{sup 3+} ion is in proportion to the concentration of OTC. Optimum conditions for the determination of OTC were also investigated. The linear range of this method for the determination of OTC is 8.28x10{sup -8}-1.73x10{sup -5}mol/L and the limit of detection is 6.76x10{sup -9}mol/L, respectively. The developed method is practical and relatively free interference from coexisting substances and can be successfully applied to determination of OTC in samples of urine, serum, feed of chook and milk. The enhancement of the fluorescence at {lambda}{sub em}=612nm of Eu{sup 3+} ion is because of the inclusion complex OTC-Eu{sup 3+}-DE-{beta}-CD.

  18. Withdrawal times of oxytetracycline and tylosin in eggs of laying hens after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Rubén; Cornejo, Javiera; Maddaleno, Aldo; Araya-Jordán, Carolina; Iragüen, Daniela; Pizarro, Nicolás; San Martín, Betty

    2014-06-01

    Antimicrobials administered to laying hens may be distributed into egg white or yolk, indicating the importance of evaluating withdrawal times (WDTs) of the pharmaceutical formulations. In the present study, oxytetracycline and tylosin's WDTs were estimated. The concentration and depletion of these molecules in eggs were linked to their pharmacokinetic and physicochemical properties. Twenty-seven Leghorn hens were used: 12 treated with oxytetracycline, 12 treated with tylosin, and 3 remained as an untreated control group. After completion of therapies, eggs were collected daily and drug concentrations in egg white and yolk were assessed. The yolk was used as the target tissue to evaluate the WDT; the results were 9 and 3 days for oxytetracycline and tylosin, respectively. In particular, oxytetracycline has a good oral bioavailability, a moderate apparent volume of distribution, a molecular weight of 460 g/mol, and is lightly liposoluble. Tylosin, a hydrosoluble compound, with a molecular weight of 916 g/mol, has a low oral bioavailability and a low apparent volume of distribution, too. Present results suggest that the WDTs of the studied antimicrobials are strongly influenced by their oral bioavailability, the distribution, and the molecular weight and solubility, and that these properties also influence the distribution between the egg yolk and white.

  19. Liquid chromatographic determination of oxytetracycline in edible fish fillets from six species of fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, J.R.; Stehly, G.R.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The approved use of oxytetracycline (OTC) in U.S. Aquaculture is limited to specific diseases in salmonids and channel catfish. OTC may also be effective in controlling diseases in other fish species important to public aquaculture, but before approved use of OTC can be augmented, an analytical method for determining OTC in fillet tissue from multiple species of fish will be required to support residue depletion studies. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a liquid chromatographic (LC) method that is accurate, precise, and sensitive for OTC in edible fillets from multiple species of fish. Homogenized fillet tissues from walleye, Atlantic salmon, striped bass, white sturgeon, rainbow trout, and channel catfish were fortified with OTC at nominal concentrations of 10, 20, 100, 1000, and 5000 ng/g. In tissues fortified with OTC at 100, 1000, and 5000 ng/g, mean recoveries ranged from 83 to 90%, and relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 0.9 to 5.8%. In all other tissues, mean recoveries ranged from 59 to 98%, and RSDs ranged from 3.3 to 20%. Method quantitation limits ranged from 6 to 22 ng/g for the 6 species. The LC parameters produced easily integratable OTC peaks without coelution of endogenous compounds. The method is accurate, precise, and sensitive for OTC in fillet tissue from 6 species of fish from 5 phylogenetically diverse groups.

  20. The oxidative stress response of oxytetracycline in the ciliate Pseudocohnilembus persalinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chongnv; Pan, Xuming; Fan, Yawen; Chen, Ying; Mu, Weijie

    2017-12-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) is commonly employed in fish farms to prevent bacterial infections in China, and because of their widely and intensive use, the potential harmful effects on organisms in aquatic environment are of great concern. Ciliates play an important role in aquatic food webs as secondary producers, and Pseudocohnilembus persalinus, is one kind of them which are easily found in fish farms, surviving in polluted water. Therefore, using P. persalinus as experimental models, this study investigated the effects of oxytetracycline (OTC) on the growth, antioxidant system and morphological damage in pollution-resistant ciliates species. Our results showed that the 96-h EC 50 values for OTC of P. persalinus was 21.38mgL -1 . The increased level of SOD and GSH during 96h OTC stress was related to an adaptive response under oxidative stress induced in ciliates. Additionally, sod1, sod2 and sod3 exhibited a significant increased expression level compared to control group at 24h treatment, indicating a promoting of dense system in ciliates at this exposure time. However, only sod1 and sod2 showed raised expression level at 48h stress, showing the different sensitive of gene isoforms to some extent. With OTC treatment, damage of regular wrinkles, shrunk, twisted on the cell surface, even forming cyst of scuticociliatid ciliate cells were firstly observed by SEM (scanning electron microscope) in this study. Overall, physiological, molecular and morphological information on the toxicological studies of ciliates and more information on possibility of ciliates as indicators of contamination were provided in this study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Quantitative aspects of recognition of the antibiotic drug oxytetracycline by bovine serum albumin: Calorimetric and spectroscopic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keswani, Neelam; Choudhary, Sinjan [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Kishore, Nand [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Thermodynamics of oxytetracycline (OTC)-bovine serum albumin (BSA) binding addressed. ► ITC and fluorescence spectroscopic analysis provide values of binding constant. ► Binding is mainly ionic, hydrophobic with minor hydrogen bonding contribution. ► Quantitative effects of OTC on BSA stability provided by DSC. ► Preferential complexation of one domain of BSA by OTC at site II is suggested. -- Abstract: A quantitative understanding of the mode of interaction of drugs with target proteins provides a guide for the synthesis of new drug molecules. The binding of the antibiotic drug oxytetracycline with serum albumin has been studied by a combination of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The values of the binding constant (K), enthalpy change (ΔH), entropy (ΔS), and stoichiometry of binding have been determined along with the associated conformational changes in the protein. Oxytetracycline binds to bovine serum albumin with a 1:1 stoichiometry and with a weakly temperature dependent association constant of 1.8 · 10{sup 4} at T = 298.15 K. The effect of ionic strength, tetrabutylammonium bromide, and sucrose on the thermodynamic parameters obtained from ITC and DSC measurements indicate involvement of predominantly ionic and hydrophobic interactions with a minor hydrogen bonding contribution in the drug-protein complexation. The DSC results on the binding of oxytetracycline with bovine serum albumin in the absence and presence of these additives provide quantitative information on the effect of drugs on the stability of bovine serum albumin, and suggest preferential complexation of one of the domains of the protein. The results further indicate that the drug occupies binding site II on bovine serum albumin.

  2. Quantitative aspects of recognition of the antibiotic drug oxytetracycline by bovine serum albumin: Calorimetric and spectroscopic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keswani, Neelam; Choudhary, Sinjan; Kishore, Nand

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thermodynamics of oxytetracycline (OTC)-bovine serum albumin (BSA) binding addressed. ► ITC and fluorescence spectroscopic analysis provide values of binding constant. ► Binding is mainly ionic, hydrophobic with minor hydrogen bonding contribution. ► Quantitative effects of OTC on BSA stability provided by DSC. ► Preferential complexation of one domain of BSA by OTC at site II is suggested. -- Abstract: A quantitative understanding of the mode of interaction of drugs with target proteins provides a guide for the synthesis of new drug molecules. The binding of the antibiotic drug oxytetracycline with serum albumin has been studied by a combination of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The values of the binding constant (K), enthalpy change (ΔH), entropy (ΔS), and stoichiometry of binding have been determined along with the associated conformational changes in the protein. Oxytetracycline binds to bovine serum albumin with a 1:1 stoichiometry and with a weakly temperature dependent association constant of 1.8 · 10 4 at T = 298.15 K. The effect of ionic strength, tetrabutylammonium bromide, and sucrose on the thermodynamic parameters obtained from ITC and DSC measurements indicate involvement of predominantly ionic and hydrophobic interactions with a minor hydrogen bonding contribution in the drug-protein complexation. The DSC results on the binding of oxytetracycline with bovine serum albumin in the absence and presence of these additives provide quantitative information on the effect of drugs on the stability of bovine serum albumin, and suggest preferential complexation of one of the domains of the protein. The results further indicate that the drug occupies binding site II on bovine serum albumin

  3. Impact of integrated fish farming on antimicrobial resistance in a pond environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Andreas; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Kaewmak, T.

    2002-01-01

    different antimicrobials was found for the indicator organism Acinetobacter spp. isolated from composite water-sediment samples. The initial resistance levels prior to the new production cycle were 1. to 5%. After 2 months the levels of resistance to oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole reached 100...

  4. Oxytetracycline and penicillin-G residues in cattle slaughtered in south-western Nigeria: implications for livestock disease management and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Agada, Charity A; Adetunji, Victoria O; Akanbi, Ibikunle M

    2013-01-01

    After the discovery of indiscriminate antibiotic use in ready-for-slaughter cattle in south-western Nigeria, 90 tissue samples from randomly selected slaughtered cattle were evaluated for oxytetracycline and penicillin-G residues using high performance liquid chromatography and the data analysed by one-way Analysis of variance (ANOVA). The findings revealed residues of oxytetracycline (kidney: 9.47 µ/kg ± 3.24 µ/kg; liver: 12.73 µ/kg ± 4.39 µ/kg; muscle: 16.17 µ/kg ± 5.52 µ/kg) and penicillin-G (kidney: 6.27 µ/kg ± 2.46 µ/kg; liver: 8.5 µ/kg ± 2.80 µ/kg; muscle: 11.67 µ/kg ± 2.94 µ/kg) in all tissues screened. Significantly high levels (oxytetracycline: F = 16.77; penicillin-G: F = 29.38) were, however, found in muscles, followed by liver and then kidney – findings confirming recent antibiotic administration to the animals before slaughter. The dietary intakes through the tissues screened were 0.024% (oxytetracycline) and 0.017% (penicillin-G) of the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Although the concentrations in the tissues screened were below the maximum residue limits despite recent administration of these antibiotics before slaughter, the lower concentrations are suggestive of the probable low dosages often administered by those involved in indiscriminate use of antibiotics. This therefore raises serious concerns for the livestock industry as well as human health, given the resultant emergence and spread of resistant strains of bacterial pathogens that could ensue from prolonged use of low dosages of antibiotics. Additionally, the lower concentrations of the daily intakes notwithstanding, the plausible exposure to these antibiotics from other food sources is a cause for concern. Since antimicrobial misuse and its consequent effects are not just a problem limited to Nigeria but also a concern in sub-Saharan Africa, the need for national and international stakeholder intervention is emphasised.

  5. Oxytetracycline and penicillin-G residues in cattle slaughtered in south-western Nigeria: Implications for livestock disease management and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezekiah K. Adesokan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available After the discovery of indiscriminate antibiotic use in ready-for-slaughter cattle in south-western Nigeria, 90 tissue samples from randomly selected slaughtered cattle were evaluated for oxytetracycline and penicillin-G residues using high performance liquid chromatography and the data analysed by one-way Analysis of variance (ANOVA. The findings revealed residues of oxytetracycline (kidney: 9.47 µ/kg ± 3.24 µ/kg; liver: 12.73 µ/kg ± 4.39 µ/kg; muscle: 16.17 µ/kg ± 5.52 µ/kg and penicillin-G (kidney: 6.27 µ/kg ± 2.46 µ/kg; liver: 8.5 µ/kg ± 2.80 µ/kg; muscle: 11.67 µ/kg ± 2.94 µ/kg in all tissues screened. Significantly high levels (oxytetracycline: F = 16.77; penicillin-G: F = 29.38 were, however, found in muscles, followed by liver and then kidney – findings confirming recent antibiotic administration to the animals before slaughter. The dietary intakes through the tissues screened were 0.024% (oxytetracycline and 0.017% (penicillin-G of the acceptable daily intake (ADI. Although the concentrations in the tissues screened were below the maximum residue limits despite recent administration of these antibiotics before slaughter, the lower concentrations are suggestive of the probable low dosages often administered by those involved in indiscriminate use of antibiotics. This therefore raises serious concerns for the livestock industry as well as human health, given the resultant emergence and spread of resistant strains of bacterial pathogens that could ensue from prolonged use of low dosages of antibiotics. Additionally, the lower concentrations of the daily intakes notwithstanding, the plausible exposure to these antibiotics from other food sources is a cause for concern. Since antimicrobial misuse and its consequent effects are not just a problem limited to Nigeria but also a concern in sub-Saharan Africa, the need for national and international stakeholder intervention is emphasised.

  6. Effect of tetracycline residues in pig manure slurry on tetracycline-resistant bacteria and resistance gene tet(M) in soil microcosms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Wulff, Gitte; Vaclavik, Elvira

    2006-01-01

    and oxytetracycline were almost stable through out the experimental period, but the tetracycline concentrations had no effect on prevalence of tetracycline-resistant bacteria. The presented microcosm approach simulated natural farmland conditions well and supported results from previous field studies. (c) 2006...

  7. Radiological examination of the spinal column in farmed rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum): experiments with Flavobacterium psychrophilum and oxytetracycline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone; Arnbjerg, J.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2001-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum and oxytetracycline have both been associated with spinal deformities in salmonids. Experiments were carried out to investigate whether infection with F, psychrophilum or medication with oxytetracycline (OTC) at the fry stage would result in an increased occurrence...... of infected fish. OTC treatments of up to 200 mg of OTC(kgfish)(-1) day(-1) for 10 days and repeated three times did not result in increased spinal deformities relative to untreated control groups; therefore, medication of rainbow trout with oxytetracycline did not cause deformities of the spinal column under...

  8. Spectroscopic investigation of the pH controlled inclusion of doxycycline and oxytetracycline antibiotics in cationic micelles and their magnesium driven release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaretti, Alessio; Carlotti, Benedetta; Gentili, Pier Luigi; Clementi, Catia; Germani, Raimondo; Elisei, Fausto

    2014-07-24

    This work presents a steady-state and time-resolved UV-visible spectroscopic investigation of two antibiotics belonging to the family of tetracyclines (doxycycline and oxytetracycline) in the micellar medium provided by p-dodecyloxybenzyltrimethylammonium bromide (pDoTABr). The spectroscopic analysis has been performed in absorption and emission with femtosecond time resolution, and at pH 5.0 and 8.7 where doxycycline and oxytetracycline are present in their neutral-zwitterionic and monoanionic forms, respectively. The experimental data have been processed by sophisticated data mining methods such as global/target analysis and the maximum entropy method. The results unambiguously indicate that, when doxycycline and oxytetracycline are in their zwitterionic form, they are entrapped within the micelle, while when they are in their monoanionic form, they preferentially show a strong one-to-one interaction with the positively charged surfactant heads. Thus, the pH of the solution controls the inclusion of the investigated drugs into the micelle. When the drugs are entrapped inside the micelles, their spectroscopic and dynamical properties after photoexcitation change appreciably. Interestingly, the entrapped drugs are still able to strongly bind Mg(2+) cations, crucial in determining the biological functioning of tetracyclines. The femtosecond resolved measurements reveal that the drugs are efficiently pulled out of the micelles by Mg(2+). In fact, magnesium-tetracycline complexes are detected in the aqueous phase. The present study suggests the potential promising use of ammonium surfactant micelles embedding doxycycline and oxytetracycline as "smart" drug delivery systems allowing their pH controlled inclusion and Mg(2+) induced release.

  9. Comparison of Vibrio harveyi strains isolated from shrimp farms and from culture collection in terms of toxicity and antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tatsuya; Ito, Emi; Nomura, Nakao; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Matsumura, Masatoshi

    2006-05-01

    Vibrio harveyi strains isolated from shrimp farms (wild strains) were compared with those from culture collections in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and toxicity. Wild strains had higher MIC values for four antibiotics (kanamycin, carbenicillin, oxytetracycline and ampicillin) and also showed higher toxicity compared with culture collection strains. Vibrio harveyi with the lowest antibacterial resistance was chosen to test if a gradual increase in antibiotic concentration and frequent subculture would enhance its antibiotic resistance. Results showed that V. harveyi was able to develop resistance to oxytetracycline. The MIC value was 250 times higher compared with the MIC before subculturing. Moreover, the V. harveyi strain developed slightly higher toxicity. Therefore, it is possible that there is a relationship between antibiotic resistance and toxicity in V. harveyi.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance patterns in Danish isolates of Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Morten Sichlau; Schmidt, A.S.; Madsen, Lone

    2000-01-01

    were tested and the resulting antibiograms were used to predict the theoretical therapeutic efficacy and to evaluate if resistance had changed as a course of time. Antimicrobial agents included in this investigation were oxolinic acid (OXA), amoxicillin (AMX), potentiated sulfadiazine, oxytetracycline...

  11. Multivariable Analysis of the Association Between Antimicrobial Use and Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolated from Apparently Healthy Pigs in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita, Kohei; Goto, Masaki; Ozawa, Manao; Kawanishi, Michiko; Koike, Ryoji; Asai, Tetsuo; Tamura, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between antimicrobial agent use and antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from healthy pigs using data from 2004 to 2007 in the Japanese Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (JVARM). Fecal E. coli isolates from 250 pigs (one isolate each from a pig per farm) were examined for antimicrobial resistance. Information on the use of antimicrobials within preceding 6 months and types of farms recorded in JVARM was collected and statistically analyzed against the resistance patterns. In the univariate analysis, associations between both therapeutic and feed additive use of antimicrobials, and resistance to dihydrostreptomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, ampicillin, cefazolin, ceftiofur, oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, nalidixic acid, enrofloxacin, colistin, and bicozamycin, and husbandry factors were investigated. In multivariable analysis, generalized estimating equations were used to control geographical intraclass correlation. Confounding for structurally unrelated associations was tested using generalized linear models. The results suggested direct and cross selections in the associations between use of aminoglycosides in reproduction farms and resistance to kanamycin, use of tetracyclines in larger farms and resistance to oxytetracycline, use of beta-lactams and resistance to ampicillin, use of phenicols and resistance to chloramphenicol, and use of fluoroquinolones and resistance to nalidixic acid and enrofloxacin. Coselection was suggested in the use of tetracyclines and chloramphenicol resistance. The associations between use of beta-lactams and dihydrostreptomycin resistance, use of macrolides and ampicillin and oxytetracycline resistance, and use of colistin and kanamycin resistance were significant, but were confounded by the simultaneous use of homologous antimicrobials.

  12. Kinetics of tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline adsorption and desorption on two acid soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Calviño, David; Bermúdez-Couso, Alipio; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Fernández-Sanjurjo, Maria J; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to quantify retention/release of tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline on two soils, paying attention to sorption kinetics and to implications of the adsorption/desorption processes on transfer of these pollutants to the various environmental compartments. We used the stirred flow chamber (SFC) procedure to achieve this goal. All three antibiotics showed high affinity for both soils, with greater adsorption intensity for soil 1, the one with the highest organic matter and Al and Fe oxides contents. Desorption was always  oxytetracycline > chlortetracycline in soil 1, with similar values for the three antibiotics and the sequence tetracycline > chlortetracycline > oxytetracycline in soil 2. The desorption sequences were oxytetracycline > tetracycline > chlortetracycline in soil 1 and oxytetracycline > chlortetracycline > tetracycline in soil 2. In conclusion, the SFC technique has yielded new kinetic data regarding tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline adsorption/desorption on soils, indicating that it can be used to shed further light on the retention and transport processes affecting antibiotics on soils and other media, thus increasing knowledge on the behavior and evolution of these pharmaceutical residues in the environment.

  13. Variable effects of oxytetracycline on antibiotic resistance gene abundance and the bacterial community during aerobic composting of cow manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xun; Sun, Wei; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Sun, Jia-Jun; Yin, Ya-Nan; Duan, Man-Li

    2016-09-05

    Livestock manure is often subjected to aerobic composting but little is known about the variation in antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during the composting process under different concentrations of antibiotics. This study compared the effects of three concentrations of oxytetracycline (OTC; 10, 60, and 200mg/kg) on ARGs and the succession of the bacterial community during composting. Very similar trends were observed in the relative abundances (RAs) of each ARG among the OTC treatments and the control during composting. After composting, the RAs of tetC, tetX, sul1, sul2, and intI1 increased 2-43 times, whereas those of tetQ, tetM, and tetW declined by 44-99%. OTC addition significantly increased the absolute abundances and RAs of tetC and intI1, while 200mg/kg OTC also enhanced those of tetM, tetQ, and drfA7. The bacterial community could be grouped according to the composting time under different treatments. The highest concentration of OTC had a more persistent effect on the bacterial community. In the present study, the succession of the bacterial community appeared to have a greater influence on the variation of ARGs during composting than the presence of antibiotics. Aerobic composting was not effective in reducing most of the ARGs, and thus the compost product should be considered as an important reservoir for ARGs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Antibiotic Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Goats with Subclinical Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Virdis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance patterns and gene coding for methicillin resistance (mecA were determined in 25 S. aureus and 75 Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS strains isolates from half-udder milk samples collected from goats with subclinical mastitis. Fourteen (56.0% S. aureus and thirty-one (41.3% CNS isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. S. aureus showed the highest resistance rate against kanamycin (28.0%, oxytetracycline (16.0%, and ampicillin (12.0%. The CNS tested were more frequently resistant to ampicillin (36.0% and kanamycin (6.7%. Multiple antimicrobial resistance was observed in eight isolates, and one Staphylococcus epidermidis was found to be resistant to six antibiotics. The mecA gene was not found in any of the tested isolates. Single resistance against β-lactamics or aminoglicosides is the most common trait observed while multiresistance is less frequent.

  15. Hydrolysis and photolysis of oxytetracycline in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxytetracycline ((2Z,4S,4aR,5S,5aR,6S,12aS)-2-(amino-hydroxy-methylidene)-4-dimethylamino-5,6,10,11,12a-pentahydroxy-6-methyl-4,4a,5,5a-tetrahydrotetracene-1,3,12-trione) is a member of tetracycline antibiotics family and is widely administered to farm animals for the purpose of therapeutical treatm...

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae isolated from pigs with swine erysipelas in Japan, 1988-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K; Kijima, M; Yoshimura, H; Takahashi, T

    2001-03-01

    The susceptibility to 21 antimicrobial agents of 214 strains of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae isolated from pigs affected with swine erysipelas in Japan between 1988 and 1998 was determined. Ampicillin, cloxacillin, benzylpenicillin, ceftiofur, tylosin, enrofloxacin and danofloxacin were the most active agents [minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs); doxycycline were detected. The susceptibilities to dihydrostreptomycin and oxytetracycline tended to decrease. Investigation of the differences in antimicrobial susceptibility of the 214 strains according to their serotypes, sources, isolation years and regions, showed that the strains resistant to dihydrostreptomycin were most frequently found in the strains of serotype 1a and in strains from septicaemic cases. Strains resistant to oxytetracycline were detected in all serotypes and all sources, and most of the strains resistant to erythromycin were detected in the strains of serotype 2. The frequency of strains resistant to dihydrostreptomycin gradually increased from 1988 to 1996, but then decreased between 1997 and 1998. The frequency of strains resistant to oxytetracycline was remained more than 38% from 1988 to 1998. It was suggested that the strains resistant to dihydrostreptomycin and oxytetracycline were distributed over almost all districts of Japan.

  17. Molecular Basis of Resistance to Selected Antimicrobial Agents in the Emerging Zoonotic Pathogen Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Mamata; Tamang, Migma Dorji; Moon, Dong Chan; Kim, Su-Ran; Jeong, Jin-Ha; Jang, Geum-Chan; Jung, Suk-Chan; Park, Yong-Ho; Lim, Suk-Kyung

    2015-07-01

    Characterization of 227 Streptococcus suis strains isolated from pigs during 2010 to 2013 showed high levels of resistance to clindamycin (95.6%), tilmicosin (94.7%), tylosin (93.8%), oxytetracycline (89.4%), chlortetracycline (86.8%), tiamulin (72.7%), neomycin (70.0%), enrofloxacin (56.4%), penicillin (56.4%), ceftiofur (55.9%), and gentamicin (55.1%). Resistance to tetracyclines, macrolides, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolone was attributed to the tet gene, erm(B), erm(C), mph(C), and mef(A) and/or mef(E) genes, aph(3')-IIIa and aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia genes, and single point mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of ParC and GyrA, respectively. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Toxicity of tetracyclines and tetracycline degradation products to environmentally relevant bacteria, including selected tetracycline-resistant bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Sørensen, B.; Sengeløv, G.; Tjørnelund, J.

    2002-01-01

    Tetracyclines used in veterinary therapy invariably will find their way as parent compound and degradation products to the agricultural field. Major degradation products formed due to the limited stability of parent tetracyclines (tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline) in aqueous...... at the same concentration level as tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline on both the sludge and the tetracycline-sensitive soil bacteria. Further, both 5a,6-anhydrotetracychne and 5a,6-anhydrochlortetracycline had potency on tetracycline-resistant bacteria supporting a mode of action different...

  19. The veterinary antibiotic oxytetracycline and Cu influence functional diversity of the soil microbial community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, W -D [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Soil Environment of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhu, Y -G [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Soil Environment of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Fu, B -J [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Soil Environment of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Marschner, P [Soil and Land Systems, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, DP 636, 5005 (Australia); He, J -Z [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Soil Environment of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2006-09-15

    There are increasing concerns over the effects of veterinary antibiotics and heavy metals in agricultural soils. The widely used veterinary antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC), Cu and their combination on soil microbial community function were assessed with the Biolog method. The microbial community was extracted from the soil and exposed to a 0.85% sodium chloride solution containing OTC (0, 1, 5, 11, 43, 109 and 217 {mu}M), or Cu (0, 10, 20, 100 and 300 {mu}M), or combination of the two pollutants (OTC 0, 5, 11 {mu}M and Cu 0, 20 {mu}M). Functional diversity, evenness, average well color development (AWCD) and substrate utilization decreased significantly with increasing concentrations of OTC or Cu (p < 0.005). The critical concentrations were 11 {mu}M for OTC and 20 {mu}M for Cu. The combination of OTC and Cu significantly decreased Shannon's diversity, evenness and utilization of carbohydrates and carboxylic acids compared to individual one of the contaminants. The antibiotic OTC and Cu had significant negative effects on soil microbial community function, particularly when both pollutants were present. - Oxytetracycline reduces the functional diversity of soil microbial community, and the combination of Cu and oxytetracycline leads to a further reduction.

  20. The veterinary antibiotic oxytetracycline and Cu influence functional diversity of the soil microbial community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, W.-D.; Zhu, Y.-G.; Fu, B.-J.; Marschner, P.; He, J.-Z.

    2006-01-01

    There are increasing concerns over the effects of veterinary antibiotics and heavy metals in agricultural soils. The widely used veterinary antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC), Cu and their combination on soil microbial community function were assessed with the Biolog method. The microbial community was extracted from the soil and exposed to a 0.85% sodium chloride solution containing OTC (0, 1, 5, 11, 43, 109 and 217 μM), or Cu (0, 10, 20, 100 and 300 μM), or combination of the two pollutants (OTC 0, 5, 11 μM and Cu 0, 20 μM). Functional diversity, evenness, average well color development (AWCD) and substrate utilization decreased significantly with increasing concentrations of OTC or Cu (p < 0.005). The critical concentrations were 11 μM for OTC and 20 μM for Cu. The combination of OTC and Cu significantly decreased Shannon's diversity, evenness and utilization of carbohydrates and carboxylic acids compared to individual one of the contaminants. The antibiotic OTC and Cu had significant negative effects on soil microbial community function, particularly when both pollutants were present. - Oxytetracycline reduces the functional diversity of soil microbial community, and the combination of Cu and oxytetracycline leads to a further reduction

  1. Evaluation of Petrifilm™ Select E. coli Count Plate medium to discriminate antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Lars

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening and enumeration of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli directly from samples is needed to identify emerging resistant clones and obtain quantitative data for risk assessment. Aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of 3M™ Petrifilm™ Select E. coli Count Plate (SEC plate supplemented with antimicrobials to discriminate antimicrobial-resistant and non-resistant E. coli. Method A range of E. coli isolates were tested by agar dilution method comparing the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC for eight antimicrobials obtained by Mueller-Hinton II agar, MacConkey agar and SEC plates. Kappa statistics was used to assess the levels of agreement when classifying strains as resistant, intermediate or susceptible. Results SEC plate showed that 74% of all strains agreed within ± 1 log2 dilution when comparing MICs with Mueller-Hinton II media. High agreement levels were found for gentamicin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and cefotaxime, resulting in a kappa value of 0.9 and 100% agreement within ± 1 log2 dilution. Significant variances were observed for oxytetracycline and sulphamethoxazole. Further tests showed that the observed discrepancy in classification of susceptibility to oxytetracycline by the two media could be overcome when a plate-dependent breakpoint of 64 mg/L was used for SEC plates. For sulphamethoxazole, SEC plates provided unacceptably high MICs. Conclusion SEC plates showed good agreement with Mueller-Hinton II agar in MIC studies and can be used to screen and discriminate resistant E. coli for ampicillin, cephalothin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime and gentamicin using CLSI standardized breakpoints, but not for sulphamethoxazole. SEC plates can also be used to discriminate oxytetracycline-resistant E. coli if a plate-dependent breakpoint value of 64 mg/L is used.

  2. Uptake of oxytetracycline and its phytotoxicity to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, W.D.; Zhu, Y.G.; Liang, Y.C.; Zhang, J.; Smith, F.A.; Yang, M.

    2007-01-01

    A series of experiments were conducted in a hydroponic system to investigate the uptake of oxytetracycline (OTC) and its toxicity to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). OTC inhibited alfalfa shoot and root growth by up to 61% and 85%, respectively. The kinetics of OTC uptake could be well described by Michaelis-Menten equation with V max of 2.25 μmol g -1 fresh weight h -1 , and K m of 0.036 mM. The uptake of OTC by alfalfa was strongly inhibited by the metabolic inhibitor, 2,4-DNP (2,4-dinitrophenol), at pH 3.5 and 6.0, but not by the aquaporin competitors, glycerol and Ag + . OTC uptake, however, was significantly inhibited by Hg 2+ , suggesting that the inhibition of influx was due to general cellular stress rather than the specific action of Hg 2+ on aquaporins. Results from the present study suggested that OTC uptake into alfalfa is an energy-dependent process. - Plant uptake of antibiotic oxytetracycline is energy-dependent

  3. Adsorption and oxidation of SO₂in a fixed-bed reactor using activated carbon produced from oxytetracycline bacterial residue and impregnated with copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Baohua; Yu, Lei; Song, Hanning; Li, Yaqi; Zhang, Peng; Guo, Bin; Duan, Erhong

    2015-02-01

    The SO₂removal ability (including adsorption and oxidation ability) of activated carbon produced from oxytetracycline bacterial residue and impregnated with copper was investigated. The activated carbon produced from oxytetracycline bacterial residue and modified with copper was characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The effects of the catalysts, SO₂concentration, weight hourly space velocity, and temperature on the SO₂adsorption and oxidation activity were evaluated. Activated carbon produced from oxytetracycline bacterial residue and used as catalyst supports for copper oxide catalysts provided high catalytic activity for the adsorbing and oxidizing of SO₂from flue gases.

  4. Aptamer-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for simultaneous fluorometric determination of oxytetracycline and kanamycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Changbin; Lu, Chunxia; Tang, Zonggui; Chen, Xia; Wang, Guohong; Sun, Fengxia

    2015-01-01

    This work describes a method for the simultaneous detection of oxytetracycline (OTC) and kanamycin (KMY) using aptamers acting as both recognition and separation elements, and complementary oligonucleotides labeled with a green emitting fluorophore (carboxyfluorescein, FAM) and a yellow emitting fluorophore (carboxy-X-rhodamine, ROX), respectively, as signal labels. An OTC aptamer and a KMY aptamer were immobilized on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) via avidin-biotin chemistry. The aptamers preferentially bind their respective targets and thereby cause the upconcentration of analytes. However, in their absence they bind fluorescently-tagged complementary oligonucleotide later added to the reaction system. This cause the NPs to become fluorescent, with emission peaks located at 520 and 608 nm, respectively. The effects of the concentration of avidin, aptamer, complementary oligonucleotide, incubation temperature and incubation time were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, linear relationships were obtained in the range of 1–50 ng∙mL −1 for OTC and KMY, with limits of detection of 0.85 ng∙mL −1 and 0.92 ng∙mL −1 , respectively. The method was applied to the analysis of pork, milk, and honey samples spiked with OTC and MKY. Recoveries ranged from 76.5 to 94.7 % and 77.8 to 93.1 %, respectively, and the relative standard deviation was <10.0 %. (author)

  5. Age-dependent effects of systemic administration of oxytetracycline on the viscoelastic properties of rat tail tendons as a mechanistic basis for pharmacological treatment of flexural limb deformities in foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintz, Leslie R; Lavagnino, Michael; Gardner, Keri L; Sedlak, Aleksa M; Arnoczky, Steven P

    2012-12-01

    To describe the effect of systemically administered oxytetracycline on the viscoelastic properties of rat tail tendon fascicles (TTfs) to provide a mechanistic rationale for pharmacological treatment of flexural limb deformities in foals. TTfs from ten 1-month-old and ten 6-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. 5 rats in each age group were administered oxytetracycline (50 mg/kg, IP, q 24 h) for 4 days. The remaining 5 rats in each age group served as untreated controls. Five days after initiation of oxytetracycline treatment, TTfs were collected and their viscoelastic properties were evaluated via a stress-relaxation protocol. Maximum modulus and equilibrium modulus were compared via a 2-way ANOVA. Collagen fibril size, density, and orientation in TTfs were compared between treated and control rats. Viscoelastic properties were significantly decreased in TTfs from 1-month-old oxytetracycline-treated rats, compared with those in TTfs from 1-month-old control rats. Oxytetracycline had no effect on the viscoelastic properties of TTfs from 6-month-old rats. Collagen fibril size, density, and orientation in TTfs from 1-month-old rats did not differ between oxytetracycline-treated and control rats. Results confirmed that systemically administered oxytetracycline decreased the viscoelastic properties of TTfs from 1-month-old rats but not those of TTfs from 6-month-old rats. The decrease in viscoelastic properties associated with oxytetracycline treatment does not appear to be caused by altered collagen fibril diameter or organization. The age-dependent effect of oxytetracycline on the viscoelastic properties of tendons may be related to its effect on the maturation of the extracellular matrix of developing tendons.

  6. Genotypes, Virulence Factors and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated in Bovine Subclinical Mastitis from Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Memon§, Yongchun Yang§, Jam Kashifa, Muhammad Yaqoob, Rehana Buriroa, Jamila Soomroa, Wang Liping and Fan Hongjie*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the genotypes, virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance traits of 34 Staphylococcus aureus isolated from subclinical mastitis in Eastern China. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC results showed resistance to erythromycin in all isolates. A high frequency of Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA; 29% was observed and these isolates were also highly resistant to penicillin, oxacillin, oxytetracycline and chloramphenicol than methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA isolates. Thirteen pathogenic factors and seven resistance genes including mecA and blaZ gene were checked through PCR. The spaX gene was found in all isolates, whereas cna, spaIg, nuc, clfA, fnbpB, hlA, hlB and seA were present in 35, 79, 85, 59, 35, 85, 71 and 38% isolates, respectively. Nine isolates carried a group of 8 different virulence genes. Moreover, macrolide resistance genes ermB and ermC were present in all isolates. High resistance rate against methicillin was found but no isolate was positive for mecA gene, whereas blaZ and tetK were detected in 82 and 56% isolates, respectively. Genes; fnbpA, seB, seC, seD, dfrK and tetM were not found in any isolate. The statistical association between phenotypic resistance and virulence genes showed, clfA, fnbpB, hlB and seA, were potentially associated with penicillin G, ciprofloxacin, methicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim and oxytetracycline resistance (P≤0.05. REP-PCR based genotyping showed seven distinct genotypes (A-G prevalent in this region. This study reports the presence of multidrug resistant S. aureus in sub-clinical mastitis which were also highly virulent that could be a major obstacle in the treatment of mastitis in this region of China.

  7. Development and validation of a method for the simultaneous extraction and separate measurement of oxytetracycline, florfenicol, oxolinic acid and flumequine from marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norambuena, Luis; Gras, Nuri; Contreras, Sergio

    2013-08-15

    A simple and rapid method for the detection and extraction of oxolinic acid, flumequine, florfenicol and oxytetracycline from marine sediments was developed and validated. The analytes were extracted from the marine sediment using a solution of oxalic acid diluted in methanol with sonication before detection by HPLC using a diode-array detector (florfenicol and oxytetracycline) and fluorescence (oxolinic acid and flumequine). The quantification limits (QL) were 100 ng/g for oxytetracycline and florfenicol and 5 ng/g for oxolinic acid and flumequine. The coefficients of variation of the repeatability and intermediate precision were less than 10% in all of the analytes. The calibration curves were linear between 50 and 500 ng/ml for oxytetracycline and florfenicol and 1 and 20 ng/ml for oxolinic acid and flumequine. The recuperation rate for the analytes was above 86%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antibiotic resistance profiling and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from aquatic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumide A. Odeyemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate antibiotics resistance pattern and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from different aquatic sources in Melaka, Malaysia. A total of 53 Aeromonas species were isolated from the following sources: sediment (n = 13, bivalve (n = 10, sea cucumber (n = 16 and sea water (n = 14 and resistance to 12 antibiotics – Tetracycline (30 μg, Kanamycin (30 μg, Oxytetracycline (30 μg, Ampicillin (10 μg, Streptomycin (10 μg, Gentamicin (10 μg, Sulphamethoxazole (25 μg, Nalixidic acid (30 μg, Trimethoprim (1.25 μg, Novobiocin (5 μg, Penicilin (10 μg and Chloramphenicol (10 μg was tested. The results obtained from this study reveal multi drug resistance pattern among the isolates. All the isolates were completely resistant to Ampicillin, Novobiocin, Sulphamethoxazole and Trimethoprim, respectively but susceptible to Tetracycline (100%, Kanamycin (5.7%, Gentamicin (5.7% and Oxytetracycline (24.5%. Antibiotics phenotyping of the bacteria revealed 21 different phenotypes among the isolates.

  9. What is the true in vitro potency of oxytetracycline for the pig pneumonia pathogens Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorey, L; Hobson, S; Lees, P

    2017-10-01

    The pharmacodynamics of oxytetracycline was determined for pig respiratory tract pathogens, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida. Indices of potency were determined for the following: (i) two matrices, broth and pig serum; (ii) five overlapping sets of twofold dilutions; and (iii) a high strength starting culture. For A. pleuropneumoniae, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was similar for the two matrices, but for P. multocida, differences were marked and significantly different. MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) serum: broth ratios for A. pleuropneumoniae were 0.83:1 and 1.22:1, respectively, and corresponding values for P. multocida were 22.0:1 and 7.34:1. For mutant prevention concentration (MPC) serum: broth ratios were 0.79:1 (A. pleuropneumoniae) and 20.9:1 (P. multocida). These ratios were corrected for serum protein binding to yield fraction unbound (fu) serum: broth MIC ratios of 0.24:1 (A. pleuropneumoniae) and 6.30:1 (P. multocida). Corresponding fu serum: broth ratios for MPC were almost identical, 0.23:1 and 6.08:1. These corrections for protein binding did not account for potency differences between serum and broth for either species; based on fu serum MICs, potency in serum was approximately fourfold greater than predicted for A. pleuropneumoniae and sixfold smaller than predicted for P. multocida. For both broth and serum and both bacterial species, MICs were also dependent on initial inoculum strength. The killing action of oxytetracycline had the characteristics of codependency for both A. pleuropneumoniae and P. multocida in both growth media. The in vitro potency of oxytetracycline in pig serum is likely to be closer to the in vivo plasma/serum concentration required for efficacy than potency estimated in broths. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of MTAD, oxytetracycline, sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis: An ex-vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Mittal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate and compare the antibacterial efficiency of MTAD, Oxytetracycline, 5% NaOCl, and 2% chlorhexidine when used as root canal irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: Fifty extracted human single rooted anterior teeth were selected. The decoronated sterilized root samples were infected with 10μl of 24 hours pure culture suspension of E. faecalis for 48 hours except for 10 teeth in negative control group (Group V. The test samples were divided into four groups (n = 10 as: Group I- 5% Sodium Hypochlorite, Group II- MTAD, Group III- Oxytetracycline and Group IV- 2% Chlorhexidine. The root canals were instrumented while using respective root canal irrigant solution. The bacterial cultures were taken from each root canal and colony forming units were counted on agar plates. The data was statistically analyzed. Results: It was observed that Group-III (Oxytetracycline showed the maximum antibacterial efficacy against E. faecalis followed by Group II (MTAD, Group IV (2% Chlorhexidine, Group I (5% Sodium hypochlorite. Conclusion: Oxytetracycline has a great potential as a root canal irrigating agent because of its superior antimicrobial efficacy against E. faecalis, easy availability and cost effectiveness.

  11. Therapeutic response of West African Dwarf goats infected with Peste des Petits Ruminants whose oral lesions were treated with oxytetracycline long acting and gentian violet topical spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iniobong Chukwuebuka Ikenna Ugochukwu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the therapeutic response of West African Dwarf (WAD goats infected with Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR virus treated with Amantidine hydrochloride. Methods: Apart from the presence of the characteristic clinical signs, complement ELISA and haemagglutination inhibition (HI tests were used to confirm PPR infection in the WAD goats. The oral lesions in one group were cleaned with 70% alcohol and treated with oxytetracycline long acting (LA intramuscularly (IM and topically treated with gentian violet spray which also contained oxytetracycline, and in another group WAD goats infected with PPR virus were only treated with oxytetracycline LA intramuscularly. Results: The oral lesions in the group cleaned with 70% alcohol, treated with oxyteteracycline LA intramuscularly and gentian violet spray which also contained oxytetracycline topically healed appreciably within 3 weeks before the termination of the experiment, while the group that was treated with oxyteteracycline LA intramuscularly only healed poorly. The mortality of the WAD goats with PPR whose oral lesions were not treated with gentian violet topical spray was 100%, while the mortality of WAD goats treated with oxytetracycline LA intramuscularly and gentian violet topical spray was 71.42%. Conclusions: The results of this present study suggest that in addition to antiviral therapy, cleaning with 70% alcohol, combination of oxytetracycline LA and topical spraying of the oral lesions with gentian violet spray which also contains oxytetracycline reduced the morbidity and mortality considerably.

  12. Effect of Tetracycline Dose and Treatment Mode on Selection of Resistant Coliform Bacteria in Nursery Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Damborg, Peter; Mellerup, Anders; Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Larsen, Inge; Holm, Anders; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Angen, Øystein; Ahmed, Shahana

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study describes the results of a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of oxytetracycline treatment dose and mode of administration on the selection of antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria in fecal samples from nursery pigs. Nursery pigs (pigs of 4 to 7 weeks of age) in five pig herds were treated with oxytetracycline for Lawsonia intracellularis-induced diarrhea. Each group was randomly allocated to one of five treatment groups: oral flock treatment with a (i) high (20 mg/kg of body weight), (ii) medium (10 mg/kg), or (iii) low (5 mg/kg) dose, (iv) oral pen-wise (small-group) treatment (10 mg/kg), and (v) individual intramuscular injection treatment (10 mg/kg). All groups were treated once a day for 5 days. In all groups, treatment caused a rise in the numbers and proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliform bacteria right after treatment, followed by a significant drop by the time that the pigs left the nursery unit. The counts and proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliforms did not vary significantly between treatment groups, except immediately after treatment, when the highest treatment dose resulted in the highest number of resistant coliforms. A control group treated with tiamulin did not show significant changes in the numbers or proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliforms. Selection for tetracycline-resistant coliforms was significantly correlated to selection for ampicillin- and sulfonamide-resistant strains but not to selection for cefotaxime-resistant strains. In conclusion, the difference in the dose of oxytetracycline and the way in which the drug was applied did not cause significantly different levels of selection of tetracycline-resistant coliform bacteria under the conditions tested. IMPORTANCE Antimicrobial resistance is a global threat to human health. Treatment of livestock with antimicrobials has a direct impact on this problem, and there is a need to improve the ways that we use antimicrobials in

  13. Effect of Tetracycline Dose and Treatment Mode on Selection of Resistant Coliform Bacteria in Nursery Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Damborg, Peter; Mellerup, Anders; Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Larsen, Inge; Holm, Anders; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Angen, Øystein; Ahmed, Shahana; Folkesson, Anders; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2017-06-15

    This study describes the results of a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of oxytetracycline treatment dose and mode of administration on the selection of antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria in fecal samples from nursery pigs. Nursery pigs (pigs of 4 to 7 weeks of age) in five pig herds were treated with oxytetracycline for Lawsonia intracellularis -induced diarrhea. Each group was randomly allocated to one of five treatment groups: oral flock treatment with a (i) high (20 mg/kg of body weight), (ii) medium (10 mg/kg), or (iii) low (5 mg/kg) dose, (iv) oral pen-wise (small-group) treatment (10 mg/kg), and (v) individual intramuscular injection treatment (10 mg/kg). All groups were treated once a day for 5 days. In all groups, treatment caused a rise in the numbers and proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliform bacteria right after treatment, followed by a significant drop by the time that the pigs left the nursery unit. The counts and proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliforms did not vary significantly between treatment groups, except immediately after treatment, when the highest treatment dose resulted in the highest number of resistant coliforms. A control group treated with tiamulin did not show significant changes in the numbers or proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliforms. Selection for tetracycline-resistant coliforms was significantly correlated to selection for ampicillin- and sulfonamide-resistant strains but not to selection for cefotaxime-resistant strains. In conclusion, the difference in the dose of oxytetracycline and the way in which the drug was applied did not cause significantly different levels of selection of tetracycline-resistant coliform bacteria under the conditions tested. IMPORTANCE Antimicrobial resistance is a global threat to human health. Treatment of livestock with antimicrobials has a direct impact on this problem, and there is a need to improve the ways that we use antimicrobials in livestock

  14. Uptake of oxytetracycline and its phytotoxicity to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, W D [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhu, Y G [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Liang, Y C [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Nutrient Cycling, Institute of Soils and Fertilizers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, J [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Smith, F A [Soil and Land Systems, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, DP 636, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Yang, M [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2007-05-15

    A series of experiments were conducted in a hydroponic system to investigate the uptake of oxytetracycline (OTC) and its toxicity to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). OTC inhibited alfalfa shoot and root growth by up to 61% and 85%, respectively. The kinetics of OTC uptake could be well described by Michaelis-Menten equation with V {sub max} of 2.25 {mu}mol g{sup -1} fresh weight h{sup -1}, and K {sub m} of 0.036 mM. The uptake of OTC by alfalfa was strongly inhibited by the metabolic inhibitor, 2,4-DNP (2,4-dinitrophenol), at pH 3.5 and 6.0, but not by the aquaporin competitors, glycerol and Ag{sup +}. OTC uptake, however, was significantly inhibited by Hg{sup 2+}, suggesting that the inhibition of influx was due to general cellular stress rather than the specific action of Hg{sup 2+} on aquaporins. Results from the present study suggested that OTC uptake into alfalfa is an energy-dependent process. - Plant uptake of antibiotic oxytetracycline is energy-dependent.

  15. Degradation of oxytetracycline and its impacts on biogas-producing microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Halil; Ertekin, Emine; Ince, Orhan; Turker, Gokhan; Akyol, Çağrı; Ince, Bahar

    2016-07-01

    The effect of veterinary antibiotics in anaerobic digesters is a concern where methane production efficiency is highly dependent on microbial community structure. In this study, both anaerobic degradation of a common veterinary antibiotic, oxytetracycline (OTC), and its effects on an anaerobic digester microbial community were investigated. Qualitative and quantitative molecular tools were used to monitor changes in microbial community structure during a 60-day batch incubation period of cow manure with the addition of different concentrations of the antibiotic. Molecular data were interpreted by a further redundancy analysis as a multivariate statistics approach. At the end of the experiment, approximately 48, 33, and 17 % of the initially added 50, 100, and 200 mg l(-1) of OTC was still present in the serum bottles which reduced the biogas production via accumulation of some of the volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Biogas production was highly correlated with Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales gene copy numbers, and those parameters were negatively affected with oxytetracycline and VFA concentrations.

  16. SCC mec typing and antimicrobial resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from pigs of Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkhowa, S; Sarma, D K; Pegu, S R

    2016-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogens of both humans and animal. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important human pathogen that causes serious infections both in hospitals and communities due to its multidrug resistance tendency. This study was undertaken to characterize the MRSA isolates from pigs and to determine the antimicrobial resistance of these isolates. Forty nine MRSA strains (one strain per positive pig) isolated from pigs of Northeast India were characterized by SCCmec typing and antimicrobial resistance. The overall prevalence of MRSA was 7.02 % with the highest prevalence recorded in pigs aged 1-3 months (P = 0.001) and in nasal samples (P = 0.005). Two SCC mec types (type III and V) were found in Indian pigs with predominance of type V. All isolates were resistant to penicillin. Seventeen resistance groups were observed where 87.75 % isolates showed multidrug resistance (showed resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobials). The most predominant resistance pattern observed was Oxytetracycline + Penicillin + Sulfadiazine + Tetracycline accounting 12.24 % of the isolates. The present study contributes to the understanding of characteristics and antimicrobial resistance of porcine MRSA isolates which in turn will help in devising strategy for the control of this pathogen. Findings of the study also throw light on multidrug resistance MRSA and emphasize the need for judicious use of antimicrobials in animal practice.

  17. Potentiometric studies on the complexes of tetracycline (TC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) with some metal ions. Potentiometrische Untersuchungen der Komplexe von Tetracyclin (TC) und Oxytetracyclin (OTC) mit einigen Metall-Ionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghandour, M A; Azab, H A; Hassan, A; Ali, A M [Assiut Univ. (Egypt)

    1992-01-01

    The interaction of Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Pb(II), Al(III), and UO[sub 2](II) ions with tetracycline (TC) were studied by potentiometric pH titrations. The formation constants of the different binary complexes formed in such systems have been determined at 25[+-]0.1 deg C and [mu]=0.1 moll[sup -1] (NaNO[sub 3]). Potentiometric pH equilibrium measurements have been made under the same conditions for the interaction of oxytetracycline (OTC) and Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), and UO[sub 2](II). The formation of (1:1) binary complexes are inferred from the potentiometric pH titration curves. The protonation constants of TC and OTC were also determined under the same conditions and refined (ESAB2M computer program). The transition metal stability constants are consistent with the Irving-Williams series. (authors).

  18. The effect of oxytetracycline on the amount of calcium and phosphorus of blood and density of bone tissue in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aziz Norouzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effects of oxytetracycline on the amount of calcium and phosphorus of blood and bone tissue density in broiler chickens. For this purpose, 72 day-old Ross chicks of, 308 strain in a completely randomized design in two groups: the control group (without dietary antibiotic and the treatment group (with a diet containing oxytetracycline 50%, 3 gr per kg of diet with 6 replicates in the same environmental conditions and management were studied for 42 days. In this experiment, the diameter of femoral shaft and ratio of various tissues of the femur and skull were studied. Blood parameters included calcium and phosphorus. In the group treated with oxytetracycline, femur shaft diameter was significantly decreased with the addition of drug to diet (p

  19. The determinants of the antibiotic resistance process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Beatriz Espinosa; Altagracia Martínez, Marina; Sánchez Rodríguez, Martha A; Wertheimer, Albert I

    2009-01-01

    The use of antibiotic drugs triggers a complex interaction involving many biological, sociological, and psychological determinants. Resistance to antibiotics is a serious worldwide problem which is increasing and has implications for morbidity, mortality, and health care both in hospitals and in the community. To analyze current research on the determinants of antibiotic resistance and comprehensively review the main factors in the process of resistance in order to aid our understanding and assessment of this problem. We conducted a MedLine search using the key words "determinants", "antibiotic", and "antibiotic resistance" to identify publications between 1995 and 2007 on the determinants of antibiotic resistance. Publications that did not address the determinants of antibiotic resistance were excluded. The process and determinants of antibiotic resistance are described, beginning with the development of antibiotics, resistance and the mechanisms of resistance, sociocultural determinants of resistance, the consequences of antibiotic resistance, and alternative measures proposed to combat antibiotic resistance. Analysis of the published literature identified the main determinants of antibiotic resistance as irrational use of antibiotics in humans and animal species, insufficient patient education when antibiotics are prescribed, lack of guidelines for treatment and control of infections, lack of scientific information for physicians on the rational use of antibiotics, and lack of official government policy on the rational use of antibiotics in public and private hospitals.

  20. Potential enzyme toxicity of oxytetracycline to catalase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhenxing, Chi; Rutao, Liu; Zhang Hao, E-mail: Trutaoliu@sdu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, China-America CRC for Environment and Health, Shandong Province, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) is a kind of widely used veterinary drugs. The residue of OTC in the environment is potentially harmful. In the present work, the non-covalent toxic interaction of OTC with catalase was investigated by the fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy at physiological pH 7.4. OTC can interact with catalase to form a complex mainly by van der Waals' interactions and hydrogen bonds with one binding site. The association constants K were determined to be K{sub 293K} = 7.09 x 10{sup 4} L mol{sup -1} and K{sub 311K} = 3.31 x 10{sup 4} L mol{sup -1}. The thermodynamic parameters ({Delta}H{sup o}, {Delta}G{sup o} and {Delta}S{sup o}) of the interaction were calculated. Based on the Foerster theory of non-radiative energy transfer, the distance between bound OTC and the tryptophan residues of catalase was determined to be 6.48 nm. The binding of OTC can result in change of the micro-environment of the tryptophan residues and the secondary structure of catalase. The activity of catalase was also inhibited for the bound OTC. This work establishes a new strategy to probe the enzyme toxicity of veterinary drug residues and is helpful for clarifying the molecular toxic mechanism of OTC in vivo. The established strategy can be used to investigate the potential enzyme toxicity of other small organic pollutants and drugs.

  1. Potential enzyme toxicity of oxytetracycline to catalase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi Zhenxing; Liu Rutao; Zhang Hao

    2010-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) is a kind of widely used veterinary drugs. The residue of OTC in the environment is potentially harmful. In the present work, the non-covalent toxic interaction of OTC with catalase was investigated by the fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy at physiological pH 7.4. OTC can interact with catalase to form a complex mainly by van der Waals' interactions and hydrogen bonds with one binding site. The association constants K were determined to be K 293K = 7.09 x 10 4 L mol -1 and K 311K = 3.31 x 10 4 L mol -1 . The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH o , ΔG o and ΔS o ) of the interaction were calculated. Based on the Foerster theory of non-radiative energy transfer, the distance between bound OTC and the tryptophan residues of catalase was determined to be 6.48 nm. The binding of OTC can result in change of the micro-environment of the tryptophan residues and the secondary structure of catalase. The activity of catalase was also inhibited for the bound OTC. This work establishes a new strategy to probe the enzyme toxicity of veterinary drug residues and is helpful for clarifying the molecular toxic mechanism of OTC in vivo. The established strategy can be used to investigate the potential enzyme toxicity of other small organic pollutants and drugs.

  2. Multidrug resistance in Clostridium perfringens isolated from diarrheal neonatal piglets in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamwongsatit, Bhinyada; Tanomsridachchai, Wimonrat; Suthienkul, Orasa; Urairong, Supanee; Navasakuljinda, Wichian; Janvilisri, Tavan

    2016-04-01

    Clostridium perfringens causes diarrhea in neonatal piglets, thereby affecting commercial swine farming. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and characterize antimicrobial resistance in C. perfringens isolated from diarrheal neonatal piglets in Thailand. A total of 260 rectal swab samples were collected from 13 farms and were subjected to C. perfringens isolation. A total of 148 samples were PCR-positive for C. perfringens toxin genes, from which 122 were recovered. All isolates were cpb2-encoding C. perfringens type A and enterotoxin gene negative. Most of the isolates were susceptible to ampicillin, bacitracin, chlorotetracycline, doxycycline, and oxytetracycline with MIC50 values ranging from 0.32 to 8 μg/ml. The high resistance rates were observed for ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, lincomycin, and tylosin. Among resistant isolates, 82% were resistant to more than one type of antibiotics. The distinct pattern of multiple drug resistance in C. perfringens was observed in different regions, potentially reflecting the farm specific usage of these agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficiency of oxytetracycline treatment in rainbow trout experimentally infected with Flavobacterium psychrophilum strains having different in vitro antibiotic susceptibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Morten Sichlau; Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2003-01-01

    The medication effect of oxytetracycline on groups of rainbow trout fry experimentally infected with three strains of Flavobacterium psychrophilum was investigated. The infection model was based on intraperitoneal injection of the pathogen and treatment was done using medicated feed resulting...... in 100 mg oxytetracycline/kg fish for 10 days. The three F. psychrophilum strains had different antimicrobial susceptibilities and successful treatment was only obtained in the trial using a strain with a MICOTC of 0.25 mug/ml. No effect of treatment was seen in the group infected with a strain having...

  4. Chlortetracycline and Oxytetracycline Residues in Poultry Tissues and Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, W. E.; Weiser, H. H.; Winter, A. R.

    1965-01-01

    A pad-plate method of assaying residual amounts of chlortetracycline (CTC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) using Bacillus cereus 213 was used to determine amounts of antibiotic left in tissues and eggs of poultry fed 1,000 and 200 ppm of CTC and OTC in basal feed mixtures. The effects of various methods of cooking the tissues and eggs and the potentiating effect of terephthalic acid (TPA) were studied. It was found that normal methods of roasting, frying, and autoclaving poultry tissue destroyed all residual CTC and OTC, even with the potentiating effect of TPA. The largest amounts of residual antibiotic were found in the liver, then breast, and then thigh tissue when assayed for CTC. Tissue assays for CTC revealed that it was not taken up as extensively as CTC and the largest amounts were found in the liver, then breast. OTC residue was seldom found in the thigh tissue. Terephthalic acid in 0.5% concentration increased the concentration found in all cases. Cooking by poaching and scrambling eggs did not destroy the antibiotic in all cases. PMID:14264853

  5. The determinants of the antibiotic resistance process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Espinosa Franco

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Beatriz Espinosa Franco1, Marina Altagracia Martínez2, Martha A Sánchez Rodríguez1, Albert I Wertheimer31Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza (UNAM, Mexico; 2Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Unidad Xochimilco, Mexico; 3Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USABackground: The use of antibiotic drugs triggers a complex interaction involving many biological, sociological, and psychological determinants. Resistance to antibiotics is a serious worldwide problem which is increasing and has implications for morbidity, mortality, and health care both in hospitals and in the community.Objectives: To analyze current research on the determinants of antibiotic resistance and comprehensively review the main factors in the process of resistance in order to aid our understanding and assessment of this problem.Methods: We conducted a MedLine search using the key words “determinants”, “antibiotic”, and “antibiotic resistance” to identify publications between 1995 and 2007 on the determinants of antibiotic resistance. Publications that did not address the determinants of antibiotic resistance were excluded.Results: The process and determinants of antibiotic resistance are described, beginning with the development of antibiotics, resistance and the mechanisms of resistance, sociocultural determinants of resistance, the consequences of antibiotic resistance, and alternative measures proposed to combat antibiotic resistance.Conclusions: Analysis of the published literature identified the main determinants of antibiotic resistance as irrational use of antibiotics in humans and animal species, insufficient patient education when antibiotics are prescribed, lack of guidelines for treatment and control of infections, lack of scientific information for physicians on the rational use of antibiotics, and lack of official government policy on the rational use of antibiotics in public and private hospitals.Keywords: antibiotic drug resistance

  6. In vitro activity of five tetracyclines and some other antimicrobial agents against four porcine respiratory tract pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijpers, A; Van Klingeren, B; Schoevers, E J; Verheijden, J H; Van Miert, A S

    1989-09-01

    The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of five tetracyclines and ten other antimicrobial agents were determined for four porcine bacterial respiratory tract pathogens by the agar dilution method. For the following oxytetracycline-susceptible strains, the MIC50 ranges of the tetracyclines were: P. multocida (n = 17) 0.25-0.5 micrograms/ml; B. bronchiseptica (n = 20) 0.25-1.0 micrograms/ml; H. pleuropneumoniae (n = 20) 0.25-0.5 micrograms/ml; S. suis Type 2 (n = 20) 0.06-0.25 micrograms/ml. For 19 oxytetracycline-resistant P. multocida strains the MIC50 of the tetracyclines varied from 64 micrograms/ml for oxytetracycline to 0.5 micrograms/ml for minocycline. Strikingly, minocycline showed no cross-resistance with oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chlortetracycline and doxycycline in P. multocida and in H. pleuropneumoniae. Moreover, in susceptible strains minocycline showed the highest in vitro activity followed by doxycycline. Low MIC50 values were observed for chloramphenicol, ampicillin, flumequine, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin against P. multocida and H. pleuropneumoniae. B. bronchiseptica was moderately susceptible or resistant to these compounds. As expected tiamulin, lincomycin, tylosin and spiramycin were not active against H. pleuropneumoniae. Except for flumequine, the MIC50 values of nine antimicrobial agents were low for S. suis Type 2. Six strains of this species showed resistance to the macrolides and lincomycin.

  7. Reduced antimicrobial potencies of Oxytetracycline, tylosin, sulfadiazine, streptomycin, ciprofloxacin and olaquindox due to environmental processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Sengeløv, G.; Ingerslev, Flemming

    2003-01-01

    The stability of oxytetracycline (OTC), tylosin (TYL), sulfadiazin (SDZ), streptomycin (ST), ciprofloxacin (CF) and olaquindox (O) was examined in environmentally relevant matrices, such as soil interstitial water and sewage sludge water. Compounds were assessed in both aerobic (OTC, TYL, SDZ, ST...

  8. Antibiotic Resistance of Gram Negatives isolates from loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the central Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, M; Giacopello, C; Bottari, Teresa; Fisichella, V; Rinaldo, D; Mammina, C

    2009-09-01

    Previous studies on fish and marine mammals support the hypothesis that marine species harbor antibiotic resistance and therefore may serve as reservoirs for antibiotic-resistance genetic determinants. The aim of this study was to assess the resistance to antimicrobial agents of Gram negative strains isolated from loggerhead sea turtles (Carettacaretta). Oral and cloacal swabs from 19 live-stranded loggerhead sea turtles, with hooks fixed into the gut, were analyzed. The antimicrobial resistance of the isolates to 31 antibiotics was assessed using the disk-diffusion method. Conventional biochemical tests identified Citrobacter spp., Proteus spp., Enterobacter spp., Escherichia spp., Providencia spp., Morganella spp., Pantoea spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Shewanella spp. Highest prevalences of resistance was detected to carbenicillin (100%), cephalothin (92.6%), oxytetracycline (81.3%) and amoxicillin (77.8%). The isolates showing resistance to the widest range of antibiotics were identified as Citrobacterfreundii, Proteusvulgaris, Providenciarettgeri and Pseudomonasaeruginosa. In this study, antibiotic resistant bacteria reflect marine contamination by polluted effluents and C.caretta is considered a bioindicator which can be used as a monitor for pollution.

  9. Antibacterial activity of oxytetracycline photoproducts in marine aquaculture's water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, J F; Henriques, I S; Correia, A; Santos, E B H; Esteves, V I

    2017-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) is one of the most used antibiotics in aquaculture. The main concern related to its use is the bacterial resistance, when ineffective treatments are applied for its removal or inactivation. OTC photo-degradation has been suggested as an efficient complementary process to conventional methods used in intensive fish production (e.g.: ozonation). Despite this, and knowing that the complete mineralization of OTC is difficult, few studies have examined the antibacterial activity of OTC photoproducts. Thus, the main aim of this work is to assess whether the OTC photoproducts retain the antibacterial activity of its parent compound (OTC) after its irradiation, using simulated sunlight. For that, three Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Vibrio sp. and Aeromonas sp.) and different synthetic and natural aqueous matrices (phosphate buffered solutions at different salinities, 0 and 21‰, and three different samples from marine aquaculture industries) were tested. The microbiological assays were made using the well-diffusion method before and after OTC has been exposed to sunlight. The results revealed a clear effect of simulated sunlight, resulting on the decrease or elimination of the antibacterial activity for all strains and in all aqueous matrices due to OTC photo-degradation. For E. coli, it was also observed that the antibacterial activity of OTC is lower in the presence of sea-salts, as demonstrated by comparison of halos in aqueous matrices containing or not sea-salts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance trends among Escherichia coli isolates obtained from dairy cattle in the northeastern United States, 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Kevin J; Aprea, Victor A; Altier, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring antimicrobial resistance trends among bacteria isolated from food animals and people is necessary to inform risk analyses and guide public policy regarding antimicrobial use. Our objectives were to describe the antimicrobial resistance status of Escherichia coli isolates from dairy cattle in the northeastern United States and to identify trends in resistance to selected antimicrobial agents over time. We collected data retrospectively for all bovine E. coli isolates that were obtained from samples submitted to Cornell University's Animal Health Diagnostic Center between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2011. We investigated temporal trends in the prevalence of resistant E. coli for each antimicrobial agent using the Cochran-Armitage trend test. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on 3373 bovine E. coli isolates from clinical samples submitted during the study period. Overall resistance to each antimicrobial agent ranged from 2.7% (enrofloxacin) to 91.3% (oxytetracycline). There was evidence of a significantly decreasing trend in prevalence of resistance to several agents: chlortetracycline, florfenicol, neomycin, oxytetracycline, spectinomycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. However, a significantly increasing trend in prevalence of resistance to enrofloxacin was also evident. These results do not support the idea that current antimicrobial use practices on dairy operations are driving a general increase in the emergence and dissemination of drug-resistant E. coli in the region served by the laboratory. However, resistance to some drugs remained consistently high during the study period, and increasing resistance to enrofloxacin is a key area of concern.

  11. Measurement of oxytetracycline and emamectin benzoate in freshwater sediments downstream of land based aquaculture facilities in the Atlantic Region of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Benoit A; Ernst, William; Greenwood, Lyndsay

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of oxytetracycline (OTC) and emamectin benzoate (EB) in sediments located near the effluent outfall from four freshwater aquaculture facilities in Atlantic Canada. While two facilities had no detectable concentrations of EB or OTC, two facilities had detectable concentrations of one or both of these chemicals. Concentrations ranged from <0.05-18 mg/kg to <0.01-2.5 mg/kg for OTC and EB respectively. Although these values could not be compared with freshwater toxicant values, some of the concentrations of EB and OTC detected were higher than LC(50) values calculated for marine invertebrates. OTC concentrations measured in this study are also of a magnitude which has been known to produce resistant bacteria.

  12. One pot synthesis of magnetic graphene/carbon nanotube composites as magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction adsorbent for rapid determination of oxytetracycline in sewage water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunyun; Tian, Jing; Wang, Lu; Yan, Hongyuan; Qiao, Fengxia; Qiao, Xiaoqiang

    2015-11-27

    A simple and time-saving one pot synthesis of magnetic graphene/carbon nanotube composites (M-G/CNTs) was developed that could avoid the tedious drying process of graphite oxide, and G/CNTs were modified by Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the reduction procedure. It contributed to a shorten duration of the synthesis process of M-G/CNTs. The obtained M-G/CNTs were characterized and the results indicated that CNTs and Fe3O4 nanoparticles were served as spacer distributing to the layers of graphene, which was beneficial for enlarging surface area and improving extraction efficiency. Moreover, M-G/CNTs showed good magnetic property and outstanding thermal stability. Then M-G/CNTs were applied as adsorbent of magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction for rapid extraction and determination of oxytetracycline in sewage water. Under the optimum conditions, good linearity was obtained in the range of 20-800ngmL(-1) and the recoveries were ranged from 95.5% to 112.5% with relative standard deviations less than 5.8%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Determining the specific electric resistance of rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad' ko, V.Ia.

    1982-01-01

    Data are presented on perfecting the method of laboratory determination of the specific electric resistance of a rock formation. The average error in determining the specific electric resistance of the core at various locations is no more than two percent with low resistance values (2-5 ohms).

  14. Potentiometric studies on the complexes of tetracycline (TC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) with some metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghandour, M.A.; Azab, H.A.; Hassan, A.; Ali, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The interaction of Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Pb(II), Al(III), and UO 2 (II) ions with tetracycline (TC) were studied by potentiometric pH titrations. The formation constants of the different binary complexes formed in such systems have been determined at 25±0.1 deg C and μ=0.1 moll -1 (NaNO 3 ). Potentiometric pH equilibrium measurements have been made under the same conditions for the interaction of oxytetracycline (OTC) and Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), and UO 2 (II). The formation of (1:1) binary complexes are inferred from the potentiometric pH titration curves. The protonation constants of TC and OTC were also determined under the same conditions and refined (ESAB2M computer program). The transition metal stability constants are consistent with the Irving-Williams series. (authors)

  15. The effect of polymorphism on powder compaction and dissolution properties of chemically equivalent oxytetracycline hydrochloride powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenberg, W; de Villiers, M M; Wurster, D E; Swanepoel, E; Dekker, T G; Lötter, A P

    1999-09-01

    In South Africa, oxytetracycline is identified as an essential drug; many generic products are on the market, and many more are being developed. In this study, six oxytetracycline hydrochloride powders were obtained randomly from manufacturers, and suppliers were compared. It was found that compliance to a pharmacopoeial monograph was insufficient to ensure the optimum dissolution performance of a simple tablet formulation. Comparative physicochemical raw material analysis showed no major differences with regard to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, powder dissolution, and particle size. However, the samples could be divided into two distinct types with respect to X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and thus polymorphism. The two polymorphic forms had different dissolution properties in water or 0.1 N hydrochloride acid. This difference became substantial when the dissolution from tablets was compared. The powders containing form A were less soluble than that containing form B.

  16. Specific detection of oxytetracycline using DNA aptamer-immobilized interdigitated array electrode chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon Seok; Niazi, Javed H [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Gu, Man Bock [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: mbgu@korea.ac.kr

    2009-02-23

    An electrochemical sensing system for oxytetracycline (OTC) detection was developed using ssDNA aptamer immobilized on gold interdigitated array (IDA) electrode chip. A highly specific ssDNA aptamer that bind to OTC with high affinity was employed to discriminate other tetracyclines (TCs), such as doxycycline (DOX) and tetracycline (TET). The immobilized thiol-modified aptamer on gold electrode chip served as a biorecognition element for the target molecules and the electrochemical signals generated from interactions between the aptamers and the target molecules was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). The current decrease due to the interference of bound OTC, DOX or TET was analyzed with the electron flow produced by a redox reaction between ferro- and ferricyanide. The specificity of developed EC-biosensor for OTC was highly distinguishable from the structurally similar antibiotics (DOX and TET). The dynamic range was determined to be 1-100 nM of OTC concentration in semi-logarithmic coordinates.

  17. Specific detection of oxytetracycline using DNA aptamer-immobilized interdigitated array electrode chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeon Seok; Niazi, Javed H.; Gu, Man Bock

    2009-01-01

    An electrochemical sensing system for oxytetracycline (OTC) detection was developed using ssDNA aptamer immobilized on gold interdigitated array (IDA) electrode chip. A highly specific ssDNA aptamer that bind to OTC with high affinity was employed to discriminate other tetracyclines (TCs), such as doxycycline (DOX) and tetracycline (TET). The immobilized thiol-modified aptamer on gold electrode chip served as a biorecognition element for the target molecules and the electrochemical signals generated from interactions between the aptamers and the target molecules was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). The current decrease due to the interference of bound OTC, DOX or TET was analyzed with the electron flow produced by a redox reaction between ferro- and ferricyanide. The specificity of developed EC-biosensor for OTC was highly distinguishable from the structurally similar antibiotics (DOX and TET). The dynamic range was determined to be 1-100 nM of OTC concentration in semi-logarithmic coordinates

  18. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides large colony and Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated from clinical cases of ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis in Dorper sheep in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kidanemariam

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro activities of enrofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline and spiramycin were determined against field isolates of Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides large colony (MmmLC by means of the broth microdilution technique. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of these antimicrobial drugs were determined for a representative number of 10 isolates and 1 type strain. The susceptibility of Arcanobacterium pyogenes to enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline and tilmicosin was determined by means of an agar disk diffusion test. The MICs of enrofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline and spiramycin were within the ranges of 0.125-0.5, 1.0-2.0, 2.0-4.0 and 4.0-8.0 µg / m , respectively. This study has shown that resistance of MmmLC against enrofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline and spiramycin was negligible. All the field strains of A. pyogenes that were tested were susceptible to enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline and tilmicosin with mean inhibition zones of 30.6, 42.3 and 35.8mm, respectively. Although there is lack of data on in vivo efficacy and in vitro MIC or inhibition zone diameter breakpoints of these antimicrobial drugs for MmmLC, the MIC results indicate that these 4 classes of antimicrobial drugs should be effective in the treatment of ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis in sheep in South Africa.

  19. Potential public health significance of faecal contamination and multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella serotypes in a lake in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhirosh, C; Sherin, V; Thomas, A P; Hatha, A A M; Mazumder, A

    2011-06-01

    To assess the prevalence of faecal coliform bacteria and multiple drug resistance among Escherichia coli and Salmonella serotypes from Vembanadu Lake. Systematic microbiological testing. Monthly collection of water samples were made from ten stations on the southern and northern parts of a salt water regulator constructed in Vembanadu Lake in order to prevent incursion of seawater during certain periods of the year. Density of faecal colifrom bacteria was estimated. E. coli and Salmonella were isolated and their different serotypes were identified. Antibiotic resistance analysis of E. coli and Salmonella serotypes was done and the MAR index of individual isolates was calculated. Density of faecal coliform bacteria ranged from mean MPN value 2900 -7100/100ml. Results showed multiple drug resistance pattern among the bacterial isolates. E. coli showed more than 50% resistance to amickacin, oxytetracycline, streptomycin, tetracycline and kanamycin while Salmonella showed high resistance to oxytetracycline, streptomycin, tetracycline and ampicillin. The MAR indexing of the isolates showed that they have originated from high risk source such as humans, poultry and dairy cows. The high density of faecal coliform bacteria and prevalence of multi drug resistant E. coli and Salmonella serotypes in the lake may pose severe public health risk through related water borne and food borne outbreaks. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antibiotic resistance of Clostridium perfringens isolates from broiler chickens in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, K M; Elhariri, M

    2013-12-01

    The use of antibiotic feed additives in broiler chickens results in a high prevalence of resistance among their enteric bacteria, with a consequent emergence of antibiotic resistance in zoonotic enteropathogens. Despite growing concerns about the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains, which show varying prevalences in different geographic regions, little work has been done to investigate this issue in the Middle East. This study provides insight into one of the world's most common and financially crippling poultry diseases, necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens. The study was designed to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in C. perfringens isolates from clinical cases of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens in Egypt. A total of 125 isolates were obtained from broiler flocks in 35 chicken coops on 17 farms and were tested using the disc diffusion method. All 125 isolates were resistant to gentamicin, streptomycin, oxolinic acid, lincomycin, erythromycin and spiramycin. The prevalence of resistance to other antibiotics was also high: rifampicin (34%), chloramphenicol (46%), spectinomycin (50%), tylosin-fosfomycin (52%), ciprofloxacin (58%), norfloxacin (67%), oxytetracycline (71%), flumequine (78%), enrofloxacin (82%), neomycin (93%), colistin (94%), pefloxacin (94%), doxycycline (98%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (98%). It is recommended that C. perfringens infections in Egypt should be treated with antibiotics for which resistant isolates are rare at present; namely, amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephradine, fosfomycin and florfenicol.

  1. Associations of antimicrobial use with antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter coli from grow-finish pigs in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, M; Makita, K; Tamura, Y; Asai, T

    2012-10-01

    To determine associations between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter coli, 155 isolates were obtained from the feces of apparently healthy grow-finish pigs in Japan. In addition, data on the use of antibiotics collected through the national antimicrobial resistance monitoring system in Japan were used for the analysis. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors to antimicrobial resistance in C. coli in pigs for the following antimicrobials: ampicillin, dihydrostreptomycin, erythromycin, oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, and enrofloxacin. The data suggested the involvement of several different mechanisms of resistance selection. The statistical relationships were suggestive of co-selection; use of macrolides was associated with enrofloxacin resistance (OR=2.94; CI(95%): 0.997, 8.68) and use of tetracyclines was associated with chloramphenicol resistance (OR=2.37; CI(95%): 1.08, 5.19). The statistical relationships were suggestive of cross-resistance: use of macrolides was associated with erythromycin resistance (OR=9.36; CI(95%): 2.96, 29.62) and the use of phenicols was associated with chloramphenicol resistance (OR=11.83; CI(95%): 1.41, 99.44). These data showed that the use of antimicrobials in pigs selects for resistance in C. coli within and between classes of antimicrobials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Immunotherapy with mutated onchocystatin fails to enhance the efficacy of a sub-lethal oxytetracycline regimen against Onchocerca ochengi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bah, Germanus S; Tanya, Vincent N; Makepeace, Benjamin L

    2015-08-15

    Human onchocerciasis (river blindness), caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus, has been successfully controlled by a single drug, ivermectin, for over 25 years. Ivermectin prevents the disease symptoms of severe itching and visual impairment by killing the microfilarial stage, but does not eliminate the adult parasites, necessitating repeated annual treatments. Mass drug administration with ivermectin does not always break transmission in forest zones and is contraindicated in individuals heavily co-infected with Loa loa, while reports of reduced drug efficacy in Ghana and Cameroon may signal the development of resistance. An alternative treatment for onchocerciasis involves targeting the essential Wolbachia symbiont with tetracycline or its derivatives, which are adulticidal. However, implementation of antibiotic therapy has not occurred on a wide scale due to the prolonged treatment regimen required (several weeks). In the bovine Onchocerca ochengi system, it has been shown previously that prolonged oxytetracycline therapy increases eosinophil counts in intradermal nodules, which kill the adult worms by degranulating on their surface. Here, in an "immunochemotherapeutic" approach, we sought to enhance the efficacy of a short, sub-lethal antibiotic regimen against O. ochengi by prior immunotherapy targeting onchocystatin, an immunomodulatory protein located in the adult female worm cuticle. A key asparagine residue in onchocystatin was mutated to ablate immunomodulatory activity, which has been demonstrated previously to markedly improve the protective efficacy of this vaccine candidate when used as an immunoprophylactic. The immunochemotherapeutic regimen was compared with sub-lethal oxytetracycline therapy alone; onchocystatin immunotherapy alone; a gold-standard prolonged, intermittent oxytetracycline regimen; and no treatment (negative control) in naturally infected Cameroonian cattle. Readouts were collected over one year and comprised adult

  3. Rapid screening of oxytetracycline residue in catfish muscle by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and europium-sensitized luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) residue in catfish muscle was screened by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and europium-sensitized luminescence (ESL). After extraction in EDTA, HCl, and acetonitrile, cleanup was carried out by DLLME, and ESL was measured at microgram = 385 nm and wavelength = ...

  4. Transport of oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, and ivermectin in surface runoff from irrigated pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Daniel A; Popova, Ina E; Tate, Kenneth W; Parikh, Sanjai J

    2017-09-02

    The transport of oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, and ivermectin from manure was assessed via surface runoff on irrigated pasture. Surface runoff plots in the Sierra Foothills of Northern California were used to evaluate the effects of irrigation water application rates, pharmaceutical application conditions, vegetative cover, and vegetative filter strip length on the pharmaceutical discharge in surface runoff. Experiments were designed to permit the maximum potential transport of pharmaceuticals to surface runoff water, which included pre-irrigation to saturate soil, trimming grass where manure was applied, and laying a continuous manure strip perpendicular to the flow of water. However, due to high sorption of the pharmaceuticals to manure and soil, less than 0.1% of applied pharmaceuticals were detected in runoff water. Results demonstrated an increase of pharmaceutical transport in surface runoff with increased pharmaceutical concentration in manure, the concentration of pharmaceuticals in runoff water remained constant with increased irrigation flow rate, and no appreciable decrease in pharmaceutical runoff was produced with the vegetative filter strip length increased from 30.5 to 91.5 cm. Most of the applied pharmaceuticals were retained in the manure or within the upper 5 cm of soil directly beneath the manure application sites. As this study evaluated conditions for high transport potential, the data suggest that the risk for significant chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, and ivermectin transport to surface water from cattle manure on irrigated pasture is low.

  5. Development of paper-based color test-strip for drug detection in aquatic environment: Application to oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Helena I A S; Sales, M Goreti F

    2015-03-15

    The wide use of antibiotics in aquaculture has led to the emergence of resistant microbial species. It should be avoided/minimized by controlling the amount of drug employed in fish farming. For this purpose, the present work proposes test-strip papers aiming at the detection/semi-quantitative determination of organic drugs by visual comparison of color changes, in a similar analytical procedure to that of pH monitoring by universal pH paper. This is done by establishing suitable chemical changes upon cellulose, attributing the paper the ability to react with the organic drug and to produce a color change. Quantitative data is also enabled by taking a picture and applying a suitable mathematical treatment to the color coordinates given by the HSL system used by windows. As proof of concept, this approach was applied to oxytetracycline (OXY), one of the antibiotics frequently used in aquaculture. A bottom-up modification of paper was established, starting by the reaction of the glucose moieties on the paper with 3-triethoxysilylpropylamine (APTES). The so-formed amine layer allowed binding to a metal ion by coordination chemistry, while the metal ion reacted after with the drug to produce a colored compound. The most suitable metals to carry out such modification were selected by bulk studies, and the several stages of the paper modification were optimized to produce an intense color change against the concentration of the drug. The paper strips were applied to the analysis of spiked environmental water, allowing a quantitative determination for OXY concentrations as low as 30ng/mL. In general, this work provided a simple, method to screen and discriminate tetracycline drugs, in aquaculture, being a promising tool for local, quick and cheap monitoring of drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Oxytetracycline Delivery in Adult Female Zebrafish by Iron Oxide Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemello, Giulia; Piccinetti, Chiara; Randazzo, Basilio; Carnevali, Oliana; Maradonna, Francesca; Magro, Massimiliano; Bonaiuto, Emanuela; Vianello, Fabio; Radaelli, Giuseppe; Fifi, Anna Paola; Gigliotti, Federica; Olivotto, Ike

    2016-12-01

    Recently, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics in the aquaculture sector has raised public concern because of possible toxic effects, development of bacterial resistance, and accumulation of residues in individual tissues. Even if several countries have developed regulations about their use, it is clear that long-term growth of the aquaculture industry requires both ecologically sound practices and sustainable resource management. Alternative strategies for better management of antibiotic administration are of primary interest to improve absorption rates and, as a consequence, to reduce their release into the aquatic environment. The present study investigates, for the first time to our knowledge, a new methodology for oxytetracycline (OTC) administration through the use of iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) (made of maghemite γ-Fe 2 O 3 ) in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Fish were divided into 4 experimental groups: control; group A exposed to 4 mg/L OTC (through water); group B exposed to the 100 mg/L SAMNs@OTC complex (equivalent to 4 mg/L OTC), and group C exposed to bare NPs. No detoxification processes or anatomical alterations were observed in fish exposed to bare NPs. Exposure of fish to the SAMNs@OTC complex resulted in a 10 times higher OTC accumulation with respect to using water exposure. This new OTC administration method seems much more efficient with respect to the traditional way of exposure and has the potentiality to reduce antibiotic utilization and possible environmental impacts. However, the dynamics related to OTC release from the SAMNs@OTC complex are still not clear and need further investigations.

  7. Antibiotic Resistance of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Shrimp Farming Freshwater Environment in Northeast Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima C. T. Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the presence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella spp. in a shrimp farming environment in Northeast Region of Brazil. Samples of water and sediments from two farms rearing freshwater-acclimated Litopenaeus vannamei were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Afterwards, Salmonella isolates were serotyped, the antimicrobial resistance was determined by a disk diffusion method, and the plasmid curing was performed for resistant isolates. A total of 30 (16.12% of the 186 isolates were confirmed to be Salmonella spp., belonging to five serovars: S. serovar Saintpaul, S. serovar Infantis, S. serovar Panama, S. serovar Madelia, and S. serovar Braenderup, along with 2 subspecies: S. enterica serovar houtenae and S. enterica serovar enterica. About twenty-three percent of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and twenty percent were resistant to at least two antibiotics. Three strains isolated from water samples (pond and inlet canal exhibited multiresistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and nitrofurantoin. One of them had a plasmid with genes conferring resistance to nitrofurantoin and ampicillin. The incidence of bacteria pathogenic to humans in a shrimp farming environment, as well as their drug-resistance pattern revealed in this study, emphasizes the need for a more rigorous attention to this area.

  8. Genome Sequences of the Oxytetracycline Production Strain Streptomyces rimosus R6-500 and Two Mutants with Chromosomal Rearrangements

    KAUST Repository

    Baranasic, Damir

    2014-07-17

    The genome sequence of Streptomyces rimosus R6-500, an industrially improved strain which produces high titers of the important antibiotic oxytetracycline, is reported, as well as the genome sequences of two derivatives arising due to the genetic instability of the strain.

  9. Genome Sequences of the Oxytetracycline Production Strain Streptomyces rimosus R6-500 and Two Mutants with Chromosomal Rearrangements

    KAUST Repository

    Baranasic, Damir; Zucko, Jurica; Nair, Mridul; Pain, Arnab; Long, Paul F.; Hranueli, Daslav; Cullum, John; Starcevic, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The genome sequence of Streptomyces rimosus R6-500, an industrially improved strain which produces high titers of the important antibiotic oxytetracycline, is reported, as well as the genome sequences of two derivatives arising due to the genetic instability of the strain.

  10. Evaluation of the Presence and Levels of Enrofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Sulfaquinoxaline and Oxytetracycline in Broiler Chickens after Drug Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis, Débora Cristina Sampaio; da Silva, Guilherme Resende; Lanza, Isabela Pereira; Ribeiro, Ana Cláudia Dos Santos Rossi; Lana, Ângela Maria Quintão; Lara, Leonardo José Camargos; de Figueiredo, Tadeu Chaves; Cançado, Silvana de Vasconcelos

    2016-01-01

    The depletion times of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin as well as sulfaquinoxaline and oxytetracycline were evaluated in broiler chickens that had been subjected to pharmacological treatment. The presence and residue levels of these drugs in muscle tissue were evaluated using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method that was validated in this work. The results showed the presence of all antimicrobial residues; however, the presence of residues at concentrations higher than the drugs' maximum residue limit (MRL) of 100 μg kg-1 was found only during the treatment period for oxytetracycline and until two days after discontinuation of the medication for enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and sulfaquinoxaline. It was concluded that the residues of all antimicrobials were rapidly metabolized from the broiler muscles; after four days of withdrawal, the levels were lower than the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method for the studied analytes.

  11. Convergent acquisition of antibiotic resistance determinants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Convergent acquisition of antibiotic resistance determinants amongst the Enterobacteriaceae isolates of the Mhlathuze River, KwaZulu-Natal (RSA) ... The possibility of transmission of resistant genes between bacteria (especially pathogenic) which invade human and animal populations within this river poses a health risk ...

  12. Production of a monoclonal antibody against oxytetracycline and its application for oxytetracycline residue detection in shrimp*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongtangprasert, Tossapon; Natakuathung, Wirongrong; Pimpitak, Umaporn; Buakeaw, Anumart; Palaga, Tanapat; Komolpis, Kittinan; Khongchareonporn, Nanthika

    2014-01-01

    A novel monoclonal antibody (MAb) against oxytetracycline (OTC) was generated and characterized. The MAb was used in the development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA)-based detection system. An OTC-bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugate was prepared and used in the immunization of mice. A conventional somatic cell fusion technique was used to generate MAb-secreting hybridomas denoted 2-4F, 7-3G, and 11-11A. An indirect competitive ELISA (icELISA) was applied to measure the sensitivity and specificity of each MAb in terms of its 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) and percentage of cross-reactivity, respectively. MAb 2-4F exhibited the highest sensitivity, with an IC50 of 7.01 ng/ml. This MAb showed strong cross-reactivity to rolitetracycline, but no cross-reactivity to other unrelated antibiotics. When MAb 2-4F was used to detect OTC from shrimp samples, the recoveries were in the range of 82%–118% for an intra-assay and 96%–113% for an inter-assay. The coefficients of variation of the assays were 3.9%–13.9% and 5.5%–14.9%, respectively. PMID:24510709

  13. Effects of oxytetracycline, tylosin, and amoxicillin antibiotics on specific methanogenic activity of anaerobic biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin; Hassan Hashemi; Afshin Ebrahimi; Asghar Ebrahimi

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to survey the antibiotics effects of oxytetracycline, tylosin, and amoxicillin on anerobic wastewater treatment process. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the inhibitory antibiotics amoxicillin, tetracycline, and tylosin on biomass activity, specific methanogenic activity (SMA) using anerobic biomass batch; into 120 ml vials: 30 ml biomass and 70 ml substrate including volatile fatty acids, mainly acetic acid and various concentrations of antibiotics we...

  14. Development of an efficient extraction method for oxytetracycline in animal manure for high performance liquid chromatography analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxytetracycline (2-(amino-hydroxy-methylidene)-4-dimethylamino-5,6,10,11,12a-pentahydroxy-6-methyl-4,4a,5,5a-tetrahydrotetracene- 1,3,12-trione) is a majormember of the tetracycline antibiotics family ofwhich are widely administered to animals in concentrated animal feeding operations for purposes o...

  15. Antimicrobial resistance determinant microarray for analysis of multi-drug resistant isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taitt, Chris Rowe; Leski, Tomasz; Stenger, David; Vora, Gary J.; House, Brent; Nicklasson, Matilda; Pimentel, Guillermo; Zurawski, Daniel V.; Kirkup, Benjamin C.; Craft, David; Waterman, Paige E.; Lesho, Emil P.; Bangurae, Umaru; Ansumana, Rashid

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of multidrug-resistant infections in personnel wounded in Iraq and Afghanistan has made it challenging for physicians to choose effective therapeutics in a timely fashion. To address the challenge of identifying the potential for drug resistance, we have developed the Antimicrobial Resistance Determinant Microarray (ARDM) to provide DNAbased analysis for over 250 resistance genes covering 12 classes of antibiotics. Over 70 drug-resistant bacteria from different geographic regions have been analyzed on ARDM, with significant differences in patterns of resistance identified: genes for resistance to sulfonamides, trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, rifampin, and macrolide-lincosamidesulfonamide drugs were more frequently identified in isolates from sources in Iraq/Afghanistan. Of particular concern was the presence of genes responsible for resistance to many of the last-resort antibiotics used to treat war traumaassociated infections.

  16. Effect of tetracycline dose and treatment mode on selection of resistant coliform bacteria in nursery pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Damborg, Peter; Mellerup, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This study describes the results of a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of oxytetracycline treatment dose and mode of administration on the selection of antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria in fecal samples from nursery pigs. Nursery pigs (pigs of 4 to 7 weeks of age) in five pig...... by the time that the pigs left the nursery unit. The counts and proportions of tetracyclineresistant coliforms did not vary significantly between treatment groups, except immediately after treatment, when the highest treatment dose resulted in the highest number of resistant coliforms. A control group treated...

  17. Complexação da tetraciclina, da oxitetraciclina e da clortetraciclina com o catião cobre (II. Estudo potenciométrico Tetracycline, oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline complexation with copper (II. Potentiometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. C. M. Couto

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Stability constants of complexes formed by copper (II with three different tetracyclines (tetracycline, oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline have been determined potentiometrically with an automatic system in aqueous medium at 25,0 ± 0,2 ºC and I = 0,1 mol L-1 NaNO3. The protonation constants of the three tetracyclines were also determined under the same conditions. The distribution of the complexes was then simulated at therapeutic levels of the drugs.

  18. Evaluation of the Presence and Levels of Enrofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Sulfaquinoxaline and Oxytetracycline in Broiler Chickens after Drug Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Guilherme Resende; Lanza, Isabela Pereira; Ribeiro, Ana Cláudia dos Santos Rossi; Lana, Ângela Maria Quintão; Lara, Leonardo José Camargos

    2016-01-01

    The depletion times of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin as well as sulfaquinoxaline and oxytetracycline were evaluated in broiler chickens that had been subjected to pharmacological treatment. The presence and residue levels of these drugs in muscle tissue were evaluated using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method that was validated in this work. The results showed the presence of all antimicrobial residues; however, the presence of residues at concentrations higher than the drugs’ maximum residue limit (MRL) of 100 μg kg-1 was found only during the treatment period for oxytetracycline and until two days after discontinuation of the medication for enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and sulfaquinoxaline. It was concluded that the residues of all antimicrobials were rapidly metabolized from the broiler muscles; after four days of withdrawal, the levels were lower than the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method for the studied analytes. PMID:27846314

  19. Production and Statistical Optimization of Oxytetracycline from Streptomyces rimosus NCIM 2213 using a New Cellulosic Substrate, Prosopis juliflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surjith Ramasamy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis juliflora is a drought-resistant evergreen spiny tree that grows in semi-arid and arid tracts of tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Dry pods of P. juliflora are a rich source of carbon (40% total sugar and nitrogen (15% of total nitrogen and so can be considered as a good substrate for the microbial growth. The present study was mainly focused on the utilization of these pods for the production and statistical optimization of oxytetracycline (OTC from Streptomyces rimosus NCIM 2213 under SSF. The spectral characterization and chemical color reactions of purified OTC by UV, FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and HPLC revealed that the structure was homologous to a standard sample. A central composite design with 26 trails yielded the following critical values of supplements to be added to the dry pods: maltose (0.125 g/gds, Inoculum size (0.617 mL/gds, CaCO3 (0.0026 g/gds, and moisture content (74.87% with the maximum OTC yield 5.02 mg/gds.

  20. Method of separate determination of high-ohmic sample resistance and contact resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim A. Golubiatnikov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A method of separate determination of two-pole sample volume resistance and contact resistance is suggested. The method is applicable to high-ohmic semiconductor samples: semi-insulating gallium arsenide, detector cadmium-zinc telluride (CZT, etc. The method is based on near-contact region illumination by monochromatic radiation of variable intensity from light emitting diodes with quantum energies exceeding the band gap of the material. It is necessary to obtain sample photo-current dependence upon light emitting diode current and to find the linear portion of this dependence. Extrapolation of this linear portion to the Y-axis gives the cut-off current. As the bias voltage is known, it is easy to calculate sample volume resistance. Then, using dark current value, one can determine the total contact resistance. The method was tested for n-type semi-insulating GaAs. The contact resistance value was shown to be approximately equal to the sample volume resistance. Thus, the influence of contacts must be taken into account when electrophysical data are analyzed.

  1. Heterologous expression of oxytetracycline biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces venezuelae WVR2006 to improve production level and to alter fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shouliang; Li, Zilong; Wang, Xuefeng; Wang, Huizhuan; Jia, Xiaole; Ai, Guomin; Bai, Zishang; Shi, Mingxin; Yuan, Fang; Liu, Tiejun; Wang, Weishan; Yang, Keqian

    2016-12-01

    Heterologous expression is an important strategy to activate biosynthetic gene clusters of secondary metabolites. Here, it is employed to activate and manipulate the oxytetracycline (OTC) gene cluster and to alter OTC fermentation process. To achieve these goals, a fast-growing heterologous host Streptomyces venezuelae WVR2006 was rationally selected among several potential hosts. It shows rapid and dispersed growth and intrinsic high resistance to OTC. By manipulating the expression of two cluster-situated regulators (CSR) OtcR and OtrR and precursor supply, the OTC production level was significantly increased in this heterologous host from 75 to 431 mg/l only in 48 h, a level comparable to the native producer Streptomyces rimosus M4018 in 8 days. This work shows that S. venezuelae WVR2006 is a promising chassis for the production of secondary metabolites, and the engineered heterologous OTC producer has the potential to completely alter the fermentation process of OTC production.

  2. Genetic Determinants of High-Level Oxacillin Resistance in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardos de la Gandara, Maria; Borges, Vitor; Chung, Marilyn; Milheiriço, Catarina; Gomes, João Paulo; de Lencastre, Herminia; Tomasz, Alexander

    2018-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains carry either a mecA - or a mecC -mediated mechanism of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, and the phenotypic expression of resistance shows extensive strain-to-strain variation. In recent communications, we identified the genetic determinants associated with the stringent stress response that play a major role in the antibiotic resistant phenotype of the historically earliest "archaic" clone of MRSA and in the mecC -carrying MRSA strain LGA251. Here, we sought to test whether or not the same genetic determinants also contribute to the resistant phenotype of highly and homogeneously resistant (H*R) derivatives of a major contemporary MRSA clone, USA300. We found that the resistance phenotype was linked to six genes ( fruB , gmk , hpt , purB , prsA , and relA ), which were most frequently targeted among the analyzed 20 H*R strains (one mutation per clone in 19 of the 20 H*R strains). Besides the strong parallels with our previous findings (five of the six genes matched), all but one of the repeatedly targeted genes were found to be linked to guanine metabolism, pointing to the key role that this pathway plays in defining the level of antibiotic resistance independent of the clonal type of MRSA. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Bacterial pathogens in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), reared at Danish freshwater farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Inger; Madsen, Lone

    2000-01-01

    of fry and larger fish. All isolates of F. psychrophilum showed proteolytic activities; however, a few isolates, belonging to serotype Fp(T) did not degrade elastin and were not associated with mortality. Increasing resistance problems to oxytetracycline were demonstrated. More than half of the F....... psychrophilum isolates showed resistance to oxolinic acid and oxytetracycline. No antibiotic resistant isolates were found among Y. ruckeri and A. salmonicida....

  4. Pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline in broiler chickens following different routes of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowski, Hubert; Grabowski, Tomasz; Jasiecka, Agnieszka; Zuśka-Prot, Monika; Barski, Dariusz; Jaroszewski, Jerzy J

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline (OTC) in broiler chickens following intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), subcutaneous (SC) and oral (PO) administrations at a dose of 15 mg/kg bodyweight. Plasma concentrations of OTC were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was then conducted. The absorption half-life time was 1.23 ± 0.36 h, 1.19 ± 0.52 h, and 0.49 ± 0.38 h after IM, SC and PO administration, respectively. The elimination half-life time was 27.41 ± 6.06 h, 10.23 ± 4.20 h, 7.83 ± 0.56 h, and 14.86 ± 9.23 h, and the mean residence time was 9.67 ± 1.7 h, 11.45 ± 1.76 h, 11.38 ± 0.59 h, and 10.37 ± 3.91 h after IV, IM, SC and PO administration, respectively. Bioavailability was 76.88 ± 12.90%, 92.20 ± 10.53% and 12.13 ± 4.56% after IM, SC and PO administration, respectively, which indicated that OTC is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract in broiler chickens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Rejection of Tetracycline and Oxytetracycline in Water by a Nanofiltration Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiying; Sun, Xiuli; Wang, Qing; Xu, Jingjing; Lu, Junyu

    2010-11-01

    The removal of tetracycline (TC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) by a nanofiltration (NF) membrane was studied using synthetic solutions. The effects of operation parameters (recovery and flux), feed concentration and salinity on the rejection of tetracyclines and their adsorption on membranes were investigated. TC was observed to show a high adsorptive affinity for the membrane. Almost 80% of TC and 70% of OTC were adsorbed on the membrane surface after stirring for 2000 min and over 50% of them had been adsorbed just 120 min after stir. High removal efficiencies (>90%) were observed for TC and OTC with NF membrane. Rejection ratio of OTC by NF was slightly higher than that of TC.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance prevalence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates from motile Aeromonas septicemia disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusdarwati, R.; Rozi; Dinda, N. D.; Nurjanah, I.

    2018-04-01

    Fish suffer, from bacteria, fungi, virus and parasites or by physical ailments. Gurami (Osphronemus gouramy), nila (Oreochromis niloticus), carp (Cyprinus carpio), catfish (Clarias sp.) were the most reported infections caused by Aeromonas are bacterial hemorrhagic septicemia or Motile Aeromonas Septicemia (MAS). Antibiotics are drugs of natural or synthetic origin that have the capacity to kill or to inhibit the growth of micro-organisms included MAS. However, the use of antibiotics in the long term can cause negative impacts, among others, feared the occurrence of bacterial resistance in certain antibiotics. The results showed five of isolates were sensitive to antibiotics of chloramphenicol, gentamycin, oxytetracycline, cefradoxil and nalidixic acid but resistant to vancomycin colistin sulphate, rifampisin, cephalosporin and novobiocin.

  7. Distribution of quinolones, sulfonamides, tetracyclines in aquatic environment and antibiotic resistance in Indochina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru eSuzuki

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia has become the center of rapid industrial development and economic growth. However, this growth has far outpaced investment in public infrastructure, leading to the unregulated release of many pollutants, including wastewater-related contaminants such as antibiotics. Antibiotics are of major concern because they can easily be released into the environment from numerous sources, and can subsequently induce development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Recent studies have shown that for some categories of drugs this source-to-environment antibiotic resistance relationship is more complex. This review summarizes current understanding regarding the presence of quinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines in aquatic environments of Indochina and the prevalence of bacteria resistant to them. Several noteworthy findings are discussed: 1 quinolone contamination and the occurrence of quinolone resistance are not correlated; 2 occurrence of the sul sulfonamide resistance gene varies geographically; and 3 microbial diversity might be related to the rate of oxytetracycline resistance.

  8. Chemosensitization of Trypanosoma congolense strains resistant to isometamidium chloride by tetracyclines and enrofloxacin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Delespaux

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Because of the development of resistance in trypanosomes to trypanocidal drugs, the livelihood of millions of livestock keepers in sub-Saharan Africa is threatened now more than ever. The existing compounds have become virtually useless and pharmaceutical companies are not keen on investing in the development of new trypanocides. We may have found a breakthrough in the treatment of resistant trypanosomal infections, through the combination of the trypanocide isometamidium chloride (ISM with two affordable veterinary antibiotics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a first experiment, groups of mice were inoculated with Trypanosoma congolense strains resistant to ISM and either left untreated or treated with (i tetracycline, (ii ISM or (iii the combination of the antibiotic and the trypanocide. Survival analysis showed that there was a significant effect of treatment and resistance to treatment on the survival time. The groups treated with ISM (with or without antibiotic survived significantly longer than the groups that were not treated with ISM (P<0.01. The group treated with the combination trypanocide/antibiotic survived significantly longer than the group treated with ISM (P<0.01. In a second experiment, groups of cattle were inoculated with the same resistant trypanosome strain and treated with (i ISM, (ii ISM associated with oxytetracycline or (iii ISM associated with enrofloxacine. All animals treated with ISM became parasitaemic. In the groups treated with ISM-oxytetracycline and ISM-enrofloxacine, 50% of the animals were cured. Animals from the groups treated with a combination trypanocide/antibiotic presented a significantly longer prepatent period than animals treated with ISM (p<0.001. The impact of the disease on the haematocrit was low in all ISM treated groups. Yet, it was lower in the groups treated with the combination trypanocide/antibiotic (p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: After optimization of the administration

  9. Chronic impacts of oxytetracycline on mesophilic anaerobic digestion of excess sludge: Inhibition of hydrolytic acidification and enrichment of antibiotic resistome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhe; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min

    2018-07-01

    We evaluated the chronic impact of oxytetracycline (OTC) on performance and antibiotic resistance development during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) of antibiotic-containing biomass. Mesophilic AD was conducted in a completely stirred tank reactor by constantly feeding municipal excess sludge spiked with increasing concentrations of OTC (0-1000 mg L -1 ) under a solid retention time of 20 days over a period of 265 days. Results showed that methane generation of mesophilic AD was inhibited when the OTC concentration in digested sludge was increased to around 18,000 mg kg -1 (OTC dose, 1000 mg L -1 ), due to the inhibition of fermenting and acidogenic bacteria. Metagenomic sequencing and high-throughput quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated that tetracycline resistance genes were the most dominant type (38.47-43.76%) in the resistome, with tetG, tetX, tetM, tetR, tetQ, tetO, and tetL as the dominant resistant subtypes throughout the whole experimental period. The relative abundance of these tet genes increased from 2.10 × 10 -1 before spiking OTC (OTC concentration in digested sludge, 8.97 mg kg -1 ) to 2.83 × 10 -1 (p resistome variation were 29.35% and 21.51%, respectively. Thus, considering the inhibition of hydrolytic acidification and enrichment of antibiotic resistome, mesophilic AD is not suggested to directly treat the biomass containing OTC concentration higher than 200 mg L -1 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Growth promotion in pigs by oxytetracycline coincides with down regulation of serum inflammatory parameters and of hibernation-associated protein HP-27

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soler, Laura; Miller, Ingrid; Hummel, Karin

    2016-01-01

    to explore the systemic molecular effect of feed supplementation with sub therapeutic levels of oxytetracycline (OTC) by analysis of serum proteome changes. Results showed that OTC promoted growth, coinciding with a significant down regulation of different serum proteins related to inflammation, oxidation...

  11. Impact of 4-epi-oxytetracycline on the gut microbiota and blood metabolomics of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hongxing; Xiao, Hailong; Zhang, Kai; Lu, Zhenmei

    2016-03-15

    The impact of 4-epi-oxytetracycline (4-EOTC), one of the main oxytetracycline (OTC) metabolites, on the gut microbiota and physiological metabolism of Wistar rats was analyzed to explore the dynamic alterations apparent after repeated oral exposure (0.5, 5.0 or 50.0 mg/kg bw) for 15 days as shown by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing and UPLC-Q-TOF/MS analysis. Both principal component analysis and cluster analysis showed consistently altered patterns with distinct differences in the treated groups versus the control groups. 4-EOTC treatment at 5.0 or 50.0 mg/kg increased the relative abundance of the Actinobacteria, specifically Bifidobacteriaceae, and improved the synthesis of lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC), as shown by the lipid biomarkers LysoPC(16:0), LysoPC(18:3), LysoPC(20:3), and LysoPC(20:4). The metabolomic analysis of urine samples also identified four other decreased metabolites: diacylglycerol, sphingomyelin, triacylglycerol, and phosphatidylglycerol. Notably, the significant changes observed in these biomarkers demonstrated the ongoing disorder induced by 4-EOTC. Blood and urine analysis revealed that residual 4-EOTC accumulated in the rats, even two weeks after oral 4-EOTC administration, ceased. Thus, through thorough analysis, it can be concluded that the alteration of the gut microbiota and disorders in blood metabolomics are correlated with 4-EOTC treatment.

  12. Forced degradation of metronidazole, oxytetracycline and furazolidone studies using High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Tauber (Giugiu,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study describes the development of a HPLC -DAD method for the estimation of oxytetracycline and furazolidone in Enteroguard M - powder. The proposed method utilizes a Betasil C 18 column, (4.6 x 250 mm, 5 µm, at 300 C, optimum mobile phase consisted of 40 mM phosphate buffer (pH=7.5: methanol in gradient elution. The flow rate was optimized to 1mL/min and the detection was carried at 254 nm. The drug substance was exposed to temperature, light, oxidants, acid and basic hydrolysis, and the resultant samples were analyzed by the proposed method.

  13. Isolation, Functional Characterization and Transmissibility of p3PS10, a Multidrug Resistance Plasmid of the Fish Pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Saavedra

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is a major public health concern due to its association with the loss of efficacy of antimicrobial therapies. Horizontal transfer events may play a significant role in the dissemination of resistant bacterial phenotypes, being mobilizable plasmids a well-known mechanism. In this study, we aimed to gain insights into the genetics underlying the development of antibiotic resistance by Piscirickettsia salmonis isolates, a bacterial fish pathogen and causative agent of salmonid piscirickettsiosis, and the main target of antibiotics used in Chilean salmon farming. We provide experimental evidence that the plasmid p3PS10, which harbors multidrug resistance genes for chloramphenicol (cat2, tetracyclines [tet(31], aminoglycosides (sat1 and aadA1, and sulfonamides (sul2, is carried by a group of P. salmonis isolates exhibiting a markedly reduced susceptibility to oxytetracycline in vitro (128–256 μg/mL of minimal inhibitory concentration, MIC. Antibiotic susceptibility analysis extended to those antibiotics showed that MIC of chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim were high, but the MIC of florfenicol remained at the wild-type level. By means of molecular cloning, we demonstrate that those genes encoding putative resistance markers are indeed functional. Interestingly, mating assays clearly show that p3PS10 is able to be transferred into and replicate in different hosts, thereby conferring phenotypes similar to those found in the original host. According to epidemiological data, this strain is distributed across aquaculture settings in southern Chile and is likely to be responsible for oxytetracycline treatment failures. This work demonstrates that P. salmonis is more versatile than it was thought, capable of horizontally transferring DNA, and probably playing a role as a vector of resistance traits among the seawater bacterial population. However, the low transmission frequency of p3PS10 suggests a

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium difficile isolated from animals and humans in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility in Clostridium difficile strains isolated from animals and humans in Brazil. The 54 C. difficile strains used were isolated from stool samples from piglets (n=16, dogs (n=13, humans (n=13, foals (n=8 calves (n=2, an ocelot (n=1 and a maned wolf (n=1. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using the serial plate agar dilution method for penicillin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline, erythromycin, vancomycin, metronidazole and tylosin. The C. difficile strains assessed were susceptible to metronidazole and vancomycin. Florfenicol resistance was rarely observed; 52 (96.4% strains were sensitive to this antimicrobial. Five (9.3%, five (9.3%, 14 (25.9% and 20 (37.0% strains were resistant to oxytetracycline, penicillin, tylosin and erythromycin respectively.

  15. Oxytetracycline removal from water by novel microbial embedding gel beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Pan, Peng; Zeng, Ming; Wang, Wei; Xu, Chenshan; Zhang, Zongpeng; Liu, Xinyuan; Wang, Yichao

    2018-01-01

    As a common antibiotic in aquatic environment, excessive oxytetracycline (OTC) is urgent to be removed due to its great biological toxicity. Compared with the traditional activated sludge, microbial embedding can enhance the treating efficiency. In this study, novel microbial embedding gel beads were produced with the additional agent of cyclodextrin (CD). Results show that CD could increase the mass transfer of OTC into gel beads, possibly because of its strong affinity for organic matters. In terms of OTC biodegradation, gel beads with CD were comparable to gel beads without CD, while the former’s sucrose removal efficiency was higher than the latter. The biodegradation of OTC only occurred in the presence of sucrose. The respiration test also confirmed these findings. Overall, the produced novel gel beads modified with CD could improve the removal performance of OTC.

  16. Prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants among oxyiminocephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Rincon Cruz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available High quinolone resistance rates were observed among oxyiminocephalosporin-resistant enterobacteria. In the present study, we searched for the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR genes within the 55 oxyiminocephalosporin-resistant enterobacteria collected in a previous survey. The main PMQR determinants were aac(6'-Ib-cr and qnrB, which had prevalence rates of 42.4% and 33.3%, respectively. The aac(6'-Ib-cr gene was more frequently found in CTX-M-15-producing isolates, while qnrB was homogeneously distributed among all CTX-M producers.

  17. The efficacy of mass-marking channel catfish fingerlings by immersion in oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) has been extensively used for marking a variety of fish species, but has never been successfully used to mark channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Channel catfish fingerlings (~ 25 mm TL) obtained from the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation at Byron Fish Hatchery were kept in Living Streams (791 to 1,018 L) equipped with recirculation units. Marking trials consisted of immersing channel catfish in one of three concentrations (250, 450, and 700 mg/L) OTC hydrochloride [HCl] for 6 hours. Samples of channel catfish were obtained from each group at 1-week and 4-week postimmersion. Lapilli otoliths and pectoral spines were removed to assess mark presence with an epi-fluorescent compound microscope. After one week, no marks were detected on pectoral spines for all treatments, mark detection on otoliths depended on concentration, but never exceeded 43% (700 mg/L). After four weeks, all otoliths and pectoral spines were determined marked for 700 mg/L OTC, 20% for fish immersed in 450 mg/L OTC, and 0% were marked after four weeks at the 250 mg/L OTC. Results show, channel catfish fingerlings can be successfully marked with immersion in OTC at 700 mg/L for at least 6 hours.

  18. Determination of internal series resistance of PV devices: repeatability and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trentadue, Germana; Pavanello, Diego; Salis, Elena; Field, Mike; Müllejans, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The calibration of photovoltaic devices requires the measurement of their current–voltage characteristics at standard test conditions (STC). As the latter can only be reached approximately, a curve translation is necessary, requiring among others the internal series resistance of the photovoltaic device as an input parameter. Therefore accurate and reliable determination of the series resistance is important in measurement and test laboratories. This work follows standard IEC 60891 ed 2 (2009) for the determination of the internal series resistance and investigates repeatability and uncertainty of the result in three aspects for a number of typical photovoltaic technologies. Firstly the effect of varying device temperature on the determined series resistance is determined experimentally and compared to a theoretical derivation showing agreement. It is found that the series resistance can be determined with an uncertainty of better than 5% if the device temperature is stable within  ±0.1 °C, whereas the temperature range of  ±2 °C allowed by the standard leads to much larger variations. Secondly the repeatability of the series resistance determination with respect to noise in current–voltage measurement is examined yielding typical values of  ±5%. Thirdly the determination of the series resistance using three different experimental set-ups (solar simulators) shows agreement on the level of  ±5% for crystalline Silicon photovoltaic devices and deviations up to 15% for thin-film devices. It is concluded that the internal series resistance of photovoltaic devices could be determined with an uncertainty of better than 10%. The influence of this uncertainty in series resistance on the electrical performance parameters of photovoltaic devices was estimated and showed a contribution of 0.05% for open-circuit voltage and 0.1% for maximum power. Furthermore it is concluded that the range of device temperatures allowed during determination of series

  19. Antagonistic Activities of Purple Non-sulfur Bacterial Extracts Against Antibiotic Resistant Vibrio sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekaran, R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Solvent extracts of native purple non-sulfur bacterial (PNSB isolates from the effluents of brackish shrimp culture ponds, near Nagapattinam coast (South India were evaluated for antibacterial activity by the disc diffusion method. Best results were shown by the chloroform extracts against oxytetracycline resistant Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio fischerii. Among the purple non-sulfur bacterial isolates, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, showed maximum antagonistic activity. The findings suggest that the antagonistic extracts from Rba. sphaeroides could be used as an effective antibiotic in controlling Vibrio spp., in aquaculture systems.

  20. Standardization of a broth microdilution susceptibility testing method to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations of aquatic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, R.A.; Walker, R.D.; Carson, J.

    2005-01-01

    (ampicillin, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, florfenicol, flumequine, gentamicin, ormetoprim/sulfadimethoxine, oxolinic acid, oxytetracycline and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) QC ranges were determined using dry- and frozen-form 96-well plates and cation-adjusted Mueller...

  1. Residue depletion of oxytetracycline (OTC) and 4-epi-oxytetracycline (4-epi-OTC) in broiler chicken's claws by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, J; Pokrant, E; Araya, D; Briceño, C; Hidalgo, H; Maddaleno, A; Araya-Jordán, C; San Martin, B

    2017-04-01

    Antibiotics are widely used in poultry production for the treatment of bacterial diseases. However, residues may remain in products and by-products destined for human consumption or animal feeding. The claws of chickens, which are a by-product of the poultry industry, can directly or indirectly enter the food chain as meals destined to feed other productive animals. Thus, it becomes necessary to determine and quantify antimicrobial residues present in this matrix. The objective of the study was to assess the depletion of oxytetracycline (OTC) and its metabolite 4-epi-OTC in broiler chicken's claws. Claws of 32 broilers treated with a therapeutic dosage of 10% OTC during 7 days were analysed. Samples were taken at days 3, 9, 15 and 19 post-treatment. As for the control group, eight broiler chickens were raised under the same conditions. Extraction was carried out through EDTA-McIlvaine buffer, and clean-up employed a SPE C-18 Sep-Pak®. Instrumental analysis was performed through LC-MS/MS. The concentrations of both analytes were determined in claw samples until day 19 post-treatment. Average concentrations were within the LOD (20 μg kg - 1 ) and LOQ (22 µg kg - 1 ) for OTC and 84 μg kg - 1 for 4-epi-OTC. Withdrawal times (WDTs) of 39 days for OTC and 54 days for 4-epi-OTC were established in claws based on 95% confidence. These findings demonstrate that claws can be a source of antimicrobial residue entry into the food chain, since the results showed that OTC and its metabolite can be found in chicken's claws for long periods, even exceeding the average lifespan of a broiler chicken.

  2. Effects of oxytetracycline on the abundance and community structure of nitrogen-fixing bacteria during cattle manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiajun; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiaojuan; Gao, Hua

    2016-09-01

    The effects of oxytetracycline (OTC) on nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities were investigated during cattle manure composting. The abundance and community structure of nitrogen-fixing bacteria were determined by qPCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), respectively. The matrix was spiked with OTC at four levels: no OTC, 10mg/kg dry weight (DW) OTC (L), 60mg/kg DW OTC (M), and 200mg/kg DW OTC (H). The high temperature period of composting was shorter with M and H, and the decline in temperature during the cooling stage was accelerated by OTC. OTC had a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the nitrogenase activity during early composting, and the nifH gene abundance declined significantly during the later composting stage. The DGGE profile and statistical analysis showed that OTC changed the nitrogen-fixing bacterial community succession and reduced the community richness and dominance. The nitrogen-fixing bacterial community structure was affected greatly by the high level of OTC. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. A novel fusidic acid resistance determinant, fusF, in Staphylococcus cohnii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiao-Jan; Hung, Wei-Chun; Lin, Yu-Tzu; Tsai, Jui-Chang; Chiu, Hao-Chieh; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Teng, Lee-Jene

    2015-02-01

    To determine MICs of fusidic acid for and identify genetic determinants of resistance in Staphylococcus cohnii isolates. Susceptibility to fusidic acid was determined by the standard agar dilution method in 24 S. cohnii subsp. urealyticus clinical isolates, 7 S. cohnii subsp. cohnii clinical isolates and 2 reference strains. Sequencing of a novel resistance determinant, fusF, and its flanking regions was performed by long and accurate PCR and inverse PCR. To evaluate the function of fusF, the MIC of fusidic acid was determined for recombinant Staphylococcus aureus carrying a plasmid expressing fusF. A total of 25 S. cohnii subsp. urealyticus (24 clinical isolates and 1 reference strain) and 2 S. cohnii subsp. cohnii displayed low-level resistance to fusidic acid (MICs 2-16 mg/L). Sequencing of a 4259 bp fragment from S. cohnii subsp. urealyticus ATCC 49330 revealed a novel resistance gene, designated fusF, which displayed 70.5% nucleotide and 67.3% amino acid identity to fusD. Expression of fusF in S. aureus confers resistance to fusidic acid. A novel FusB-family gene, fusF, was identified as a major resistance determinant in S. cohnii clinical isolates resistant to fusidic acid. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. On the validity of setting breakpoint minimum inhibition concentrations at one quarter of the plasma concentration achieved following oral administration of oxytetracycline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coyne, R.; Samuelsen, O.; Bergh, Ø.

    2004-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of oxytetracycline (OTC) were established in two Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) pre-smolts populations after they had received OTC medicated feed at a rate of 75 mg OTC/kg over 10 days. One population was experiencing an epizootic of furunculosis in a commercial freshwater farm...

  5. Effectiveness of oxytetracycline in reducing the bacterial load in rohu fish (Labeo rohita, Hamilton) under laboratory culture condition

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Ariful Haque; Md. Shaheed Reza; Md. Rajib Sharker; Md. Mokhlasur Rahman; Md. Ariful Islam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effectiveness of most widely used antibiotic, oxytetracycline (OTC) in reducing the bacterial load in rohu fish under artificial culture condition in the laboratory. Methods: The experiment was conducted in the Faculty Fisheries, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202. The fish were reared in 8 aquaria where fish in 5 aquaria were used for replication of the treatment (experimental group) and fish in remaining 3 aquaria were considered...

  6. Using Oxytetracycline, Amikacin and Erythromycin in Controlling Mycelial Growth and Spore Germination of Rhytisma acerinum as Pathogen in Tar Spot Disease at Acer velutinum Boiss in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Mehdi Karami

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : There are seven species and sub-species of Acer sp. in the Northern forest of Iran. One of the most important diseases of this tree in all over the world is tar spot. Two species of fungi, which cause this disease, are Rhytisma acerinum and R. punctatum from the category of Ascomycetidae. Studies on the Acer platinum sp. show that causative agent of this disease is R.punctatum which cause the early fall and make leaves turning yellow especially in the plant nurseries and forested areas. Therefore, investigating the use of antibiotics in treating this disease in the forest areas is necessary. The objective of the current research was to use Oxytetracycline, Amikacin and Erythromycin in Controlling mycelial growth and spore germination of R. acerinum as Pathogen in tar spot disease at Acer velutinum Boiss in vitro. Materials and methods: To control the disease of Maple tar spot in the condition of light and darkness, the medium containing oxytetracycline, Amikacin and Erythromycin were used. Four different dosage of 50, 100, 200, 500 microliter, of oxytetracycline 10% in the light and dark conditions in 100cc of distilled water and Amikacin 5% in four different dose of, 100, 200, 400 and 1000 microliter, light and dark conditions in 100 cc of distilled water and for erythromycin 5% four different dose of, 100, 200, 400 and 1000 microliter in 100 cc of distilled water in light and dark conditions each in three repetitions of medium were prepared. In this step, to evaluate the effect of light on the rate of the growth of mycelium and fungal colonies of R. acerinum, for each of the treatments with the different dosage, half of the repetitions were under the light condition and another half in dark condition (incubator. Then, after the growth, radiant growth was measured over one week. To investigate the fungi spore germination, above steps, were performed, as well. Results and Discussion: The results showed that among the mentioned

  7. Kinetics and mechanism investigation on the destruction of oxytetracycline by UV-254nm activation of persulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqing; He, Xuexiang; Fu, Yongsheng; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2016-03-15

    Oxytetracycline (OTC), an important broad-spectrum antibiotic, has been detected extensively in various environmental systems, which may have a detrimental impact on ecosystem and human health through the development of drug resistant bacteria and pathogens. In this study, the degradation of OTC was evaluated by UV-254nm activated persulfate (PS). The observed UV fluence based pseudo first-order rate constant (kobs) was found to be the highest at near neutral pH conditions (pH 5.5-8.5). Presence of various natural water constituents had different effects on OTC degradation, with a significant enhancement in the presence of bicarbonate or Cu(2+). Limited elimination of total organic carbon (TOC) and PS was observed during the mineralization of OTC. Transformation byproducts in the presence and absence of hydroxyl radical scavenging agent tert-butanol (t-BuOH) were identified using ultra-high definition accurate-mass quadrupole time-of-flight liquid chromatography/mass spectrometer (LC-QTOF/MS). Potential OTC degradation mechanism was subsequently proposed revealing four different reaction pathways by SO4(-) reaction including hydroxylation (+16Da), demethylation (-14Da), decarbonylation (-28Da) and dehydration (-18Da). This study suggests that UV-254nm/PS is a promising treatment technology for the control of water pollution caused by emerging contaminants such as OTC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli Isolated from Chickens in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebiyan, Reza; Kheradmand, Mehdi; Khamesipour, Faham; Rabiee-Faradonbeh, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents are used extremely in order to reduce the great losses caused by Escherichia coli infections in poultry industry. In this study, 318 pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains isolated from commercial broiler flocks with coli-septicemia were examined for antimicrobials of both veterinary and human significance by disc diffusion method. Multiple resistances to antimicrobial agents were observed in all the isolates. Resistance to the antibiotics was as follows: Tylosin (88.68%), Erythromycin (71.70%), Oxytetracycline (43.40%), Sulfadimethoxine-Trimethoprim (39.62%), Enrofloxacin (37.74%), Florfenicol (35.85%), Chlortetracycline (33.96%), Doxycycline (16.98%), Difloxacin (32.08%), Danofloxacin (28.30%), Chloramphenicol (20.75%), Ciprofloxacin (7.55%), and Gentamicin (5.66%). This study showed resistance against the antimicrobial agents that are commonly applied in poultry, although resistance against the antibiotics that are only applied in humans or less frequently used in poultry was significantly low. This study emphasizes on the occurrence of multiple drug resistant E. coli among diseased broiler chickens in Iran. The data revealed the relative risks of using antimicrobials in poultry industry. It also concluded that use of antibiotics must be limited in poultry farms in order to reduce the antibiotic resistances.

  9. Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli Isolated from Chickens in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Talebiyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial agents are used extremely in order to reduce the great losses caused by Escherichia coli infections in poultry industry. In this study, 318 pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC strains isolated from commercial broiler flocks with coli-septicemia were examined for antimicrobials of both veterinary and human significance by disc diffusion method. Multiple resistances to antimicrobial agents were observed in all the isolates. Resistance to the antibiotics was as follows: Tylosin (88.68%, Erythromycin (71.70%, Oxytetracycline (43.40%, Sulfadimethoxine-Trimethoprim (39.62%, Enrofloxacin (37.74%, Florfenicol (35.85%, Chlortetracycline (33.96%, Doxycycline (16.98%, Difloxacin (32.08%, Danofloxacin (28.30%, Chloramphenicol (20.75%, Ciprofloxacin (7.55%, and Gentamicin (5.66%. This study showed resistance against the antimicrobial agents that are commonly applied in poultry, although resistance against the antibiotics that are only applied in humans or less frequently used in poultry was significantly low. This study emphasizes on the occurrence of multiple drug resistant E. coli among diseased broiler chickens in Iran. The data revealed the relative risks of using antimicrobials in poultry industry. It also concluded that use of antibiotics must be limited in poultry farms in order to reduce the antibiotic resistances.

  10. Efficacy of a commercial probiotic relative to oxytetracycline as Gram-negative bacterial control agents in a rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis) batch culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two trials were conducted to evaluate two gram-negative bacterial control strategies in batch cultures of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. In the first trial, rotifers at an initial density of 47/mL were cultured for 5 d and dosed with a 10-mg/L solution of either oxytetracycline or a commercial p...

  11. Determination of the Drag Resistance Coefficients of Different Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahsl, Christoph; Vogt, Patrik

    2018-01-01

    While it has been demonstrated how air resistance could be analyzed by using mobile devices, this paper demonstrates a method of how to determine the drag resistance coefficient "c" of a commercial automobile by using the acceleration sensor of a smartphone or tablet. In an academic context, the drag resistance is often mentioned, but…

  12. Autosomal male determination in a spinosad-resistant housefly strain from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højland, Dorte H; Scott, Jeffrey G; Vagn Jensen, Karl-Martin

    2014-01-01

    males in this strain. The factor responsible for spinosad resistance in the strain is unknown, but previous studies suggest a role of cytochrome P450s for detoxification of spinosad. Sex determination in the housefly is controlled by a male-determining factor (M), either located on the Y chromosome......BACKGROUND The housefly, Musca domestica L., is a global pest and has developed resistance to most insecticides applied for its control. The insecticide spinosad plays an important role in housefly control. Females of the Danish housefly strain 791spin are threefold more resistant to spinosad than...... of resistance to spinosad. Sex determination in 791spin is due to a male factor on autosome 3. CONCLUSIONS The most likely explanation for the differentiation of spinosad resistance between males and females is a recessive spinosad resistance factor on autosome III. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry...

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility and tetracycline resistance determinant genotyping of Gallibacterium anatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Anders M.; Vazquez, Maria E.; Bager, Ragnhild J.

    2011-01-01

    no determinant was identified.This is the first study to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Gallibacterium anatis by MIC revealing that multidrug resistance is very common among G. anatis field isolates. tet(B) was by far the most common determinant identified but future work should aim at identifying......The present investigation was undertaken to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of a collection of 58 Gallibacterium isolates. All strains were tested by the broth dilution method using the veterinary fastidious medium. A total of 46 field strains were tested, whereof 23 were clinical isolates....... Multidrug resistance (resistance towards≥three drugs) was observed for 65% of the field strains and only two strains were susceptible to all compounds. Most prominently, resistance to tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole was observed in 92% and 97% of the field strains, respectively. For comparison...

  14. Occurrence and characterization of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pig industries of northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchanee, Prapas; Tadee, Pakpoom; Arjkumpa, Orapun; Love, David; Chanachai, Karoon; Alter, Thomas; Hinjoy, Soawapak; Tharavichitkul, Prasit

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in pigs, farm workers, and the environment in northern Thailand, and to assess LA-MRSA isolate phenotypic characteristics. One hundred and four pig farms were randomly selected from the 21,152 in Chiang Mai and Lamphun provinces in 2012. Nasal and skin swab samples were collected from pigs and farm workers. Environmental swabs (pig stable floor, faucet, and feeder) were also collected. MRSA was identified by conventional bacterial culture technique, with results confirmed by multiplex PCR and multi locus sequence typing (MLST). Herd prevalence of MRSA was 9.61% (10 of 104 farms). Among pigs, workers, and farm environments, prevalence was 0.68% (two of 292 samples), 2.53% (seven of 276 samples), and 1.28% (four of 312 samples), respectively. Thirteen MRSA isolates (seven from workers, four from environmental samples, and two from pigs) were identified as Staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec IV sequences type 9. Antimicrobial sensitivity tests found 100% of the MRSA isolates resistant to clindamycin, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline, while 100% were susceptible to cloxacillin and vancomycin. All possessed a multidrug-resistant phenotype. This is the first evidence of an LA-MRSA interrelationship among pigs, workers, and the farm environment in Thailand.

  15. 30 CFR 27.41 - Test to determine resistance to moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test to determine resistance to moisture. 27.41... determine resistance to moisture. Components, subassemblies, or assemblies, the normal functioning of which might be affected by moisture, shall be tested in atmospheres of high relative humidity (80 percent or...

  16. Determination of Flow Resistance Coefficient for Vegetation in Open Channel: Laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliza Ahmad, Noor; Ali, ZarinaMd; Arish, Nur Aini Mohd; Munirah Mat Daud, Azra; Fatin Amirah Alias, Nur

    2018-04-01

    This study focused on determination of flow resistances coefficient for grass in an open channel. Laboratory works were conducted to examine the effects of varying of roughness elements on the flume to determine flow resistance coefficient and also to determine the optimum flow resistance with five different flow rate, Q. Laboratory study with two type of vegetation which are Cow Grass and Pearl Grass were implementing to the bed of a flume. The roughness coefficient, n value is determine using Manning’s equation while Soil Conservation Services (SCS) method was used to determine the surface resistance. From the experiment, the flow resistance coefficient for Cow Grass in range 0.0008 - 0.0039 while Pearl Grass value for the flow resistance coefficient are in between 0.0013 - 0.0054. As a conclusion the vegetation roughness value in open channel are depends on density, distribution type of vegetation used and physical characteristic of the vegetation itself

  17. Oxytetracycline analysis in honey using a specific portable analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoying; Schwartz, Daniel; Braden, S.; Nunez, Alberto

    2007-09-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) residue in honey is detected using a portable analyzer designed to specifically target tetracycline (TC) drugs based on europium-sensitized luminescence (ESL). A 385 nm light emitting diode (LED) is used as the excitation source and a photomultiplier tube as the light detector. OTC is extracted from honey and cleaned up by solid phase extraction (SPE) using Strata X-WC weak cation exchange cartridges. To the eluate Eu(III) is added to form a Eu-TC chelate at pH 8.5. Efficient intrachelate energy transfer allows sensitive OTC detection at λ ex=385 nm and λ em=610 nm. After a 25-µs time delay, the ESL signal is integrated over a 25-1000 µs interval. The signal intensity reveals a linear relationship (R2=0.972) to OTC concentrations in the 10-200 ng/g range. The limit-of-detection is 6.7 ng/g with an average 5.8% relative standard deviation. The background signal corresponds to ~10 ppb. This instrumentation and method combination enables field analysis that is especially useful for beekeeping industry.

  18. Prevalence of sulfonamide resistance genes in bacterial isolates from manured agricultural soils and pig slurry in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne-Bailey, K G; Gaze, W H; Kay, P; Boxall, A B A; Hawkey, P M; Wellington, E M H

    2009-02-01

    The prevalences of three sulfonamide resistance genes, sul1, sul2, and sul3 and sulfachloropyridazine (SCP) resistance were determined in bacteria isolated from manured agricultural clay soils and slurry samples in the United Kingdom over a 2-year period. Slurry from tylosin-fed pigs amended with SCP and oxytetracycline was used for manuring. Isolates positive for sul genes were further screened for the presence of class 1 and 2 integrons. Phenotypic resistance to SCP was significantly higher in isolates from pig slurry and postapplication soil than in those from preapplication soil. Of 531 isolates, 23% carried sul1, 18% sul2, and 9% sul3 only. Two percent of isolates contained all three sul genes. Class 1 and class 2 integrons were identified in 5% and 11.7%, respectively, of sul-positive isolates. In previous reports, sul1 was linked to class 1 integrons, but in this study only 8% of sul1-positive isolates carried the intI1 gene. Sulfonamide-resistant pathogens, including Shigella flexneri, Aerococcus spp., and Acinetobacter baumannii, were identified in slurry-amended soil and soil leachate, suggesting a potential environmental reservoir. Sulfonamide resistance in Psychrobacter, Enterococcus, and Bacillus spp. is reported for the first time, and this study also provides the first description of the genotypes sul1, sul2, and sul3 outside the Enterobacteriaceae and in the soil environment.

  19. Prevalence of Sulfonamide Resistance Genes in Bacterial Isolates from Manured Agricultural Soils and Pig Slurry in the United Kingdom▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne-Bailey, K. G.; Gaze, W. H.; Kay, P.; Boxall, A. B. A.; Hawkey, P. M.; Wellington, E. M. H.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalences of three sulfonamide resistance genes, sul1, sul2, and sul3 and sulfachloropyridazine (SCP) resistance were determined in bacteria isolated from manured agricultural clay soils and slurry samples in the United Kingdom over a 2-year period. Slurry from tylosin-fed pigs amended with SCP and oxytetracycline was used for manuring. Isolates positive for sul genes were further screened for the presence of class 1 and 2 integrons. Phenotypic resistance to SCP was significantly higher in isolates from pig slurry and postapplication soil than in those from preapplication soil. Of 531 isolates, 23% carried sul1, 18% sul2, and 9% sul3 only. Two percent of isolates contained all three sul genes. Class 1 and class 2 integrons were identified in 5% and 11.7%, respectively, of sul-positive isolates. In previous reports, sul1 was linked to class 1 integrons, but in this study only 8% of sul1-positive isolates carried the intI1 gene. Sulfonamide-resistant pathogens, including Shigella flexneri, Aerococcus spp., and Acinetobacter baumannii, were identified in slurry-amended soil and soil leachate, suggesting a potential environmental reservoir. Sulfonamide resistance in Psychrobacter, Enterococcus, and Bacillus spp. is reported for the first time, and this study also provides the first description of the genotypes sul1, sul2, and sul3 outside the Enterobacteriaceae and in the soil environment. PMID:19064898

  20. Antimicrobial resistance and resistance gene determinants in clinical Escherichia coli from different animal species in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanz, Roland; Kuhnert, Peter; Boerlin, Patrick

    2003-01-02

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on a total of 581 clinical Escherichia coli isolates from diarrhea and edema disease in pigs, from acute mastitis in dairy cattle, from urinary tract infections in dogs and cats, and from septicemia in laying hens collected in Switzerland between 1999 and 2001. Among the 16 antimicrobial agents tested, resistance was most frequent for sulfonamides, tetracycline, and streptomycin. Isolates from swine presented significantly more resistance than those from the other animal species. The distribution of the resistance determinants for sulfonamides, tetracycline, and streptomycin was assessed by hybridization and PCR in resistant isolates. Significant differences in the distribution of resistance determinants for tetracycline (tetA, tetB) and sulfonamides (sulII) were observed between the isolates from swine and those from the other species. Resistance to sulfonamides could not be explained by known resistance mechanisms in more than a quarter of the sulfonamide-resistant and sulfonamide-intermediate isolates from swine, dogs and cats. This finding suggests that one or several new resistance mechanisms for sulfonamides may be widespread among E. coli isolates from these animal species. The integrase gene (intI) from class I integrons was detected in a large proportion of resistant isolates in association with the sulI and aadA genes, thus demonstrating the importance of integrons in the epidemiology of resistance in clinical E. coli isolates from animals.

  1. Determination of electrical resistivity of dry coke beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eidem, P.A.; Tangstad, M.; Bakken, J.A. [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway)

    2008-02-15

    The electrical resistivity of the coke bed is of great importance when producing FeMn, SiMn, and FeCr in a submerged arc furnace. In these processes, a coke bed is situated below and around the electrode tip and consists of metallurgical coke, slag, gas, and metal droplets. Since the basic mechanisms determining the electrical resistivity of a coke bed is not yet fully understood, this investigation is focused on the resistivity of dry coke beds consisting of different carbonaceous materials, i.e., coke beds containing no slag or metal. A method that reliably compares the electrical bulk resistivity of different metallurgical cokes at 1500{sup o} C to 1600{sup o}C is developed. The apparatus is dimensioned for industrial sized materials, and the electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, petroleum coke, and metallurgical coke has been measured. The resistivity at high temperatures of the Magnitogorsk coke, which has the highest resistivity of the metallurgical cokes investigated, is twice the resistivity of the Corus coke, which has the lowest electrical resistivity. Zdzieszowice and SSAB coke sort in between with decreasing resistivities in the respective order. The electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, and petroleum coke is generally higher than the resistivity of the metallurgical cokes, ranging from about two to about eight times the resistivity of the Corus coke at 1450{sup o}C. The general trend is that the bulk resistivity of carbon materials decreases with increasing temperature and increasing particle size.

  2. The efficacy of oxytetracycline treatment at batch, pen and individual level on Lawsonia intracellularis infection in nursery pigs in a randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Inge; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2016-01-01

    of LI-related diarrhoea and included daily treatment with 10mg oxytetracycline (OTC) per kilogram of bodyweight for 5 days, though the OTC was administered differently: either by oral treatment of all pigs in a batch, by oral treatment of pigs in diarrhoeic pens only, or by intramuscular treatment...

  3. Determination of rolling resistance coefficient based on normal tyre stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykov, S. P.; Tarasuyk, V. N.; Koval, V. S.; Ovchinnikova, N. I.; Fedotov, A. I.; Fedotov, K. V.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the article is to develop analytical dependence of wheel rolling resistance coefficient based on the mathematical description of normal tyre stiffness. The article uses the methods of non-holonomic mechanics and plane section methods. The article shows that the abscissa of gravity center of tyre stiffness expansion by the length of the contact area is the shift of normal road response. It can be used for determining rolling resistance coefficient. When determining rolling resistance coefficient using ellipsis and power function equations, one can reduce labor costs for testing and increase assessment accuracy.

  4. Multiple drug resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates from Chicken samples collected from Mhow and Indore city of Madhyapradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaskhedikar

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen antibacterial agents belonging to 9 different groups of antibiotics viz. aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, nitrofurantoin, fluroquinolones, chloramphenicol, sulphonamides, tetracyclines, penicillin and polymixin were used for in vitro sensitivity testing of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fifteen samples of chicken collected from retail shops in Mhow city. The sensitivity (100% was attributed to ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cephotaxime, chloramphenicol, gentamycin, kanamycin, nitrofurantoin, nalidixic acid and ofloxacin followed by oxytetracycline (50%. All the isolates were resistant to ampicillin and colistin antibiotics. That means, none of the isolates were found to be sensitive for penicillin and polymixin group of antibiotics. Multiple drug resistance was also observed in all A. hydrophila isolates. Out of total isolates, 100% were resistant to two antimicrobial drugs and 50% to three drugs. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 31-32

  5. Antimicrobial resistance determinants among anaerobic bacteria isolated from footrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, María; García, Nuria; Ayala, Juan Alfonso; Vadillo, Santiago; Píriz, Segundo; Quesada, Alberto

    2012-05-25

    Antibiotic resistance has been evaluated among 36 Gram negative and anaerobic bacilli (10 Bacteroides, 11 Prevotella, 7 Porphyromonas and 8 Fusobacterium strains) isolated from clinical cases of caprine and ovine footrot (necrotic pododermatitis). The initial analysis on this bacterial consortium evaluates the relationships existing among antimicrobial resistance determinants, phenotype expression and mobilization potential. The Bacteroides strains were generally resistant to penicillins, first-generation cephalosporins, tetracycline and erythromycin, and expressed low level of β-lactamase activity. The main determinants found among the Bacteroides strains were cepA and tetQ genes, conferring resistance to β-lactams and tetracycline, respectively. A general susceptibility to β-lactams was shown for most Prevotella, Porphyromonas and Fusobacterium strains, where none of the β-lactamase genes described in Bacteroides was detected. Resistance to tetracycline and/or erythromycin was found among the three bacterial groups. Although tetQ genes were detected for several Prevotella and Porphyromonas strains, a unique ermF positive was revealed among Prevotella strains. The expression of resistance markers was not related with the polymorphism of their coding sequences. However, the finding of sequence signatures for conjugative transposons in the vicinities of tetQ and ermF suggests a mobilization potential that might have contributed to the spread of antimicrobial resistance genes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Antibiotic and heavy metal resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda isolated from red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp. coinfected with motile aeromonas septicemia and edwardsiellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to identify antibiogram and heavy metal resistance pattern of Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda isolated from red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp. coinfected with motile aeromonas septicemia and edwardsiellosis in four commercial fish farms. Materials and Methods: A. hydrophila and E. tarda were isolated using glutamate starch phenol red and xylose lysine deoxycholate (Merck, Germany as a selective medium, respectively. All the suspected bacterial colonies were identified using conventional biochemical tests and commercial identification kit (BBL Crystal, USA. Susceptibility testing of present bacterial isolates to 16 types of antibiotics (nalidixic acid, oxolinic acid, compound sulfonamides, doxycycline, tetracycline, novobiocin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, sulfamethoxazole, flumequine, erythromycin, ampicillin, spiramycin, oxytetracycline, amoxicillin, and fosfomycin and four types of heavy metals (mercury, chromium, copper, and zinc were carried out using disk diffusion and two-fold agar dilution method, respectively. Results: Three hundred isolates of A. hydrophila and E. tarda were successfully identified by biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility testing results showed that 42.2% of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to compound sulfonamides, sulfamethoxazole, flumequine, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, and oxolinic acid. On the other hand, 41.6% of these isolates were resistant to novobiocin, ampicillin, spiramycin, and chloramphenicol, which resulted for multiple antibiotic resistance index values 0.416. Among tested heavy metals, bacterial isolates exhibited resistant pattern of Zn2+ > Cr6+ > Cu2+ > Hg2+. Conclusion: Results from this study indicated that A. hydrophila and E. tarda isolated from coinfected farmed red hybrid tilapia were multi-resistant to antibiotics and heavy metals. These resistant profiles could be useful information to fish farmers to avoid unnecessary use of

  7. Effects of tiamulin, neomycin, tetracycline, fluorophenicol, penicillin G, Linco-Spectin, erythromycin and oxytetracycline on controlling bacterial contaminations of the river buffalo (Buballus bubalis) semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi-Shoushtari, S M; Ahmadi, M; Shahvarpour, S; Kolahian, S

    2007-09-15

    In order to investigate the effects of tiamulin, neomycin, tetracycline, fluorophenicol, penicillin G, Linco-Spectin (0.15 mg mL(-1) lincomycin + 0.3 mg mL(-1) spectinomycin), erythromycin and oxytetracycline on controlling bacterial contaminations of the river buffalo semen, 120 mL diluted buffalo bull semen (diluted by tris-egg yolk extender) was divided into 5 mL tubes after initial evaluation and before (control sample) and at 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h after adding each of the above antibiotics at the recommended dose (D) and twice the recommended dose (Dx2) to the semen samples, each sample was cultured 4 times on Muller-Hinton agar medium and the results were recorded after 18 h incubation at 37 degrees C. Tiamulin, tetracycline, neomycin and fluorophenicol were ineffective. Oxytetracycline was effective in both D and Dx2 (p < 0.001). Penicillin G in both D and Dx2 was effective (p < 0.001). Linco-Spectin was effective, though not significant, in D at 2 h and in Dx2 at 0 h only. Erythromycin in D was not significantly effective, but, in Dx2 was effective (p < 0.001). Duration of the antibiotic exposure had no significant effect on the antibiotic potentials except for Linco-Spectin at 2 h (p < 0.014). The biochemical tests identified the contaminant bacteria as being a member of Arcanobacter (Corynebacterium) sp. In the next step, the semen sample of the same bull was taken, semen quality tests were carried out and the semen was diluted with the same extender (tris-egg yolk) + 7% glycerol, containing a double dose (Dx2) of these antibiotics and semen quality tests were carried out immediately after dilution, 18 h after storage at 4 degrees C and after the semen was packed in the straws, frozen in liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C) and later thawed in 37 degrees C water bath to investigate whether these antibiotics have any adverse effect on the spermatozoa during the process of freezing and thawing. The comparison of the results with those of the control group (the

  8. Comparative pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline in blunt-snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) with single and multiple-dose oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ru-Qin; Ren, Yu-Wei; Li, Jing; Huang, Can; Shao, Jun-Hui; Chen, Xiao-Xuan; Wu, Zhi-Xin

    2015-06-01

    Research into the pharmacokinetics and residue elimination of oxytetracycline (OTC) is important both to determine the optimal dosage regimens and to establish a safe withdrawal time in fish. A depletion study is presented here for OTC in Megalobrama amblycephala with a single-dose (100 mg/kg) and multiple-dose (100 mg/kg for five consecutive days) oral administration. The study was conducted at 25 °C. As a result, a one-compartment model was developed. For the single dose, the absorption half-life was 5.79, 9.40, 6.96, and 8.06 h in the plasma, liver, kidney, and muscle, respectively. However, the absorption half-life was 3.62, 7.33, 4.59, and 6.02 h with multiple-dose oral administration. The elimination half-time in the plasma, liver, kidney, and muscle was 58.63, 126.43, 65.1, and 58.85 h when M. amblycephala was treated with a single dose. However, the elimination half-time changed to 91.75, 214.87, 126.22, and 135.84 h with multiple-dose oral administration.

  9. Evaluation of the Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Oxytetracycline and Its Control Effect Against Citrus Huanglongbing via Trunk Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiahuai; Wang, Nian

    2016-12-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) or greening is a devastating bacterial disease that has destroyed millions of trees and is associated with phloem-residing 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las) in Florida. In this study, we evaluated the spatiotemporal dynamics of oxytetracycline in planta and its control effect against HLB via trunk injection. Las-infected 'Hamlin' sweet orange trees on 'Swingle' citrumelo rootstock at the early stage of decline were treated with oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC) using trunk injection with varying number of injection ports. Spatiotemporal distribution of OTC and dynamics of Las populations were monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography method and qPCR assay, respectively. Uniform distribution of OTC throughout tree canopies and root system was achieved 2 days postinjection. High levels of OTC (>850 µg/kg) were maintained in leaf and root for at least 1 month and moderate OTC (>500 µg/kg) persisted for more than 9 months. Reduction of Las populations in root system and leaves of OTC-treated trees were over 95% and 99% (i.e., 1.76 and 2.19 log reduction) between 2 and 28 days postinjection. Conditions of trees receiving OTC treatment were improved, fruit yield was increased, and juice acidity was lowered than water-injected control even though their differences were not statistically significant during the test period. Our study demonstrated that trunk injection of OTC could be used as an effective measure for integrated management of citrus HLB.

  10. Genetic determinants of heat resistance in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan eMercer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli AW1.7 is a heat resistant food isolate and the occurrence of pathogenic strains with comparable heat resistance may pose a risk to food safety. To identify the genetic determinants of heat resistance, 29 strains of E. coli that differed in their of heat resistance were analyzed by comparative genomics. Strains were classified as highly heat resistant strains, exhibiting a D60-value of more than 6 min; moderately heat resistant strains, exhibiting a D60-value of more than 1 min; or as heat sensitive. A ~14 kb genomic island containing 16 predicted open reading frames encoding putative heat shock proteins and proteases was identified only in highly heat resistant strains. The genomic island was termed the locus of heat resistance (LHR. This putative operon is flanked by mobile elements and possesses >99% sequence identity to genomic islands contributing to heat resistance in Cronobacter sakazakii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. An additional 41 LHR sequences with >87% sequence identity were identified in 11 different species of β- and γ-proteobacteria. Cloning of the full length LHR conferred high heat resistance to the heat sensitive E. coli AW1.7ΔpHR1 and DH5α. The presence of the LHR correlates perfectly to heat resistance in several species of Enterobacteriaceae and occurs at a frequency of 2% of all E. coli genomes, including pathogenic strains. This study suggests the LHR has been laterally exchanged among the β- and γ-proteobacteria and is a reliable indicator of high heat resistance in E. coli.

  11. Development of spinal deformities in Atlantic salmon and Arctic charr fed diets supplemented with oxytetracycline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toften, H.; Jobling, M.

    1996-01-01

    Some individuals within populations of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus fed diets supplemented with oxytetracycline (OTC) developed spinal deformations. Possible differences in feed intake and growth of spinally deformed fish relative to fish without any deformities were investigated. Amongst Atlantic salmon, 17% of the fish fed OTC-supplemented feed developed spinal fractures, whereas none of the fish receiving the basic feed did so. Despite deformation of the spinal column, the injured fish continued to feed and grow, but at lower rates than unaffected individuals. In contrast to Atlantic salmon, Arctic charr showed no signs of spinal fractures at any time during the 65-day experiment

  12. Development of spinal deformities in Atlantic salmon and Arctic charr fed diets supplemented with oxytetracycline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toften, H.; Jobling, M. [Norwegian Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture, N-9005 Tromsoe (Norway)

    1996-07-01

    Some individuals within populations of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus fed diets supplemented with oxytetracycline (OTC) developed spinal deformations. Possible differences in feed intake and growth of spinally deformed fish relative to fish without any deformities were investigated. Amongst Atlantic salmon, 17% of the fish fed OTC-supplemented feed developed spinal fractures, whereas none of the fish receiving the basic feed did so. Despite deformation of the spinal column, the injured fish continued to feed and grow, but at lower rates than unaffected individuals. In contrast to Atlantic salmon, Arctic charr showed no signs of spinal fractures at any time during the 65-day experiment.

  13. Adsorption Property and Mechanism of Oxytetracycline onto Willow Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the adsorption property and the mechanism of plant residues to reduce oxytetracycline (OTC, the adsorption of OTC onto raw willow roots (WR-R, stems (WS-R, leaves (WL-R, and adsorption onto desugared willow roots (WR-D, stems (WS-D, and leaves (WL-D were investigated. The structural characterization was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectra, and an elemental analyzer. OTC adsorption onto the different tissues of willow residues was compared and correlated with their structures. The adsorption kinetics of OTC onto willow residues was found to follow the pseudo-first-order model. The isothermal adsorption process of OTC onto the different tissues of willow residues followed the Langmuir and Freundlich model and the process was also a spontaneous endothermic reaction, which was mainly physical adsorption. After the willow residues were desugared, the polarity decreased and the aromaticity increased, which explained why the adsorption amounts of the desugared willow residues were higher than those of the unmodified residues. These observations suggest that the raw and modified willow residues have great potential as adsorbents to remove organic pollutants.

  14. Molecular Insights into the pH-Dependent Adsorption and Removal of Ionizable Antibiotic Oxytetracycline by Adsorbent Cyclodextrin Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Cai, Xiyun; Xiong, Weina; Jiang, Hao; Zhao, Haitong; Yang, Xianhai; Li, Chao; Fu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jingwen

    2014-01-01

    Effects of pH on adsorption and removal efficiency of ionizable organic compounds (IOCs) by environmental adsorbents are an area of debate, because of its dual mediation towards adsorbents and adsorbate. Here, we probe the pH-dependent adsorption of ionizable antibiotic oxytetracycline (comprising OTCH2 +, OTCH±, OTC−, and OTC2−) onto cyclodextrin polymers (CDPs) with the nature of molecular recognition and pH inertness. OTCH± commonly has high adsorption affinity, OTC− exhibits moderate affinity, and the other two species have negligible affinity. These species are evidenced to selectively interact with structural units (e.g., CD cavity, pore channel, and network) of the polymers and thus immobilized onto the adsorbents to different extents. The differences in adsorption affinity and mechanisms of the species account for the pH-dependent adsorption of OTC. The mathematical equations are derived from the multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis of quantitatively relating adsorption affinity of OTC at varying pH to adsorbent properties. A combination of the MLR analysis for OTC and molecular recognition of adsorption of the species illustrates the nature of the pH-dependent adsorption of OTC. Based on this finding, γ-HP-CDP is chosen to adsorb and remove OTC at pH 5.0 and 7.0, showing high removal efficiency and strong resistance to the interference of coexisting components. PMID:24465975

  15. Toxicological Implications and Inflammatory Response in Human Lymphocytes Challenged with Oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cerbo, A; Palatucci, A T; Rubino, V; Centenaro, S; Giovazzino, A; Fraccaroli, E; Cortese, L; Ruggiero, G; Guidetti, G; Canello, S; Terrazzano, G

    2016-04-01

    Antibiotics are widely used in zoo technical and veterinary practices as feed supplementation to ensure wellness of farmed animals and livestock. Several evidences have been suggesting both the toxic role for tetracyclines, particularly for oxytetracycline (OTC). This potential toxicity appears of great relevance for human nutrition and for domestic animals. This study aimed to extend the evaluation of such toxicity. The biologic impact of the drug was assessed by evaluating the proinflammatory effect of OTC and their bone residues on cytokine secretion by in vitro human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Our results showed that both OTC and OTC-bone residues significantly induced the T lymphocyte and non-T cell secretion of interferon (IFN)-γ, as cytokine involved in inflammatory responses in humans as well as in animals. These results may suggest a possible implication for new potential human and animal health risks depending on the entry of tetracyclines in the food-processing chain. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology Published Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Probing the In Vitro Cytotoxicity of the Veterinary Drug Oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Zhenxing; Liu, Rutao; You, Hong; Ma, Shanshan; Cui, Hao; Zhang, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of oxytetracycline (OTC) on the anti-oxidative defense system, the structure (hemolysis rate and morphology) and function (ATP enzyme activity) of human red blood cells (hRBCs) to investigate the possible toxic mechanism of OTC to hRBCs. The experimental results indicate that OTC can cause a decline in the function of the antioxidant defense system of hRBCs, resulting in oxidative stress. OTC can bring about morphological changes to hRBCs, and further leads to hemolysis, when the concentration of OTC is over 8×10−5 M (about 164 µg/ml). At a low OTC concentration, below 4×10−5 M (82 µg/ml), OTC can enhance the activity of ATP enzyme of hRBCs, known as hormesis. However, at a high concentration, above 4×10−5 M (about 82 µg/ml), the ATP enzymatic activity was inhibited, affecting the function of hRBCs. The estalished mechanism of toxicity of OTC to hRBCs can facilitate a deeper understanding of the toxicity of OTC in vivo. PMID:25019386

  17. Otolith marking of juvenile shortnose gar by immersion in oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Richard A.; Long, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) has been used to mark a variety of fish species at multiple developmental stages; however, there is little information on batch-marking Lepisosteidae. Juvenile Shortnose Gar Lepisosteus platostomus (53 ± 3 mm TL) were seined from an Oklahoma State University research pond and transported to the Oklahoma Fishery Research Lab. Juvenile Shortnose Gar were exposed to a range of OTC concentrations—0, 500, 600, and 700 mg/L—for 4, 5, or 6 h. Lapillus and sagitta otoliths were examined 14 d postexposure for mark presence and evaluation using fluorescent microscopy. Overall, 93.3% of otoliths exposed to OTC exhibited a mark. Concentration of OTC affected the mean mark quality, whereas duration and otolith type examined did not. However, as concentration increased, so did mortality, suggesting a balance is needed to achieve marking goals. Based on our findings, batch marking of Shortnose Gar can be successful at OTC concentrations from 500 to 700 mg/L for 4–6 h, although mark quality may vary and mortality rates increase at the higher concentrations and longer durations.

  18. Probing the in vitro cytotoxicity of the veterinary drug oxytetracycline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenxing Chi

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effect of oxytetracycline (OTC on the anti-oxidative defense system, the structure (hemolysis rate and morphology and function (ATP enzyme activity of human red blood cells (hRBCs to investigate the possible toxic mechanism of OTC to hRBCs. The experimental results indicate that OTC can cause a decline in the function of the antioxidant defense system of hRBCs, resulting in oxidative stress. OTC can bring about morphological changes to hRBCs, and further leads to hemolysis, when the concentration of OTC is over 8×10(-5 M (about 164 µg/ml. At a low OTC concentration, below 4×10(-5 M (82 µg/ml, OTC can enhance the activity of ATP enzyme of hRBCs, known as hormesis. However, at a high concentration, above 4×10(-5 M (about 82 µg/ml, the ATP enzymatic activity was inhibited, affecting the function of hRBCs. The estalished mechanism of toxicity of OTC to hRBCs can facilitate a deeper understanding of the toxicity of OTC in vivo.

  19. Determination of anthelmintic resistance in goats and sheep using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nematode parasites are known to pose a challenge to small ruminant production in Tanzania due to their fast development of resistance to the commonly used anthelmintics. The objective of this study was to determine the resistance of anthelmintics in small ruminants. A total of 30 sheep and 30 goats aged between 6 and ...

  20. Novel Cadmium Resistance Determinant in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Cameron; Lee, Sangmi; Jayeola, Victor; Kathariou, Sophia

    2017-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause severe disease (listeriosis) in susceptible individuals. It is ubiquitous in the environment and often exhibits resistance to heavy metals. One of the determinants that enables Listeria to tolerate exposure to cadmium is the cadAC efflux system, with CadA being a P-type ATPase. Three different cadA genes (designated cadA1 to cadA3 ) were previously characterized in L. monocytogenes A novel putative cadmium resistance gene ( cadA4 ) was recently identified through whole-genome sequencing, but experimental confirmation for its involvement in cadmium resistance is lacking. In this study, we characterized cadA4 in L. monocytogenes strain F8027, a cadmium-resistant strain of serotype 4b. By screening a mariner-based transposon library of this strain, we identified a mutant with reduced tolerance to cadmium and that harbored a single transposon insertion in cadA4 The tolerance to cadmium was restored by genetic complementation with the cadmium resistance cassette ( cadA4C ), and enhanced cadmium tolerance was conferred to two unrelated cadmium-sensitive strains via heterologous complementation with cadA4C Cadmium exposure induced cadA4 expression, even at noninhibitory levels. Virulence assessments in the Galleria mellonella model suggested that a functional cadA4 suppressed virulence, potentially promoting commensal colonization of the insect larvae. Biofilm assays suggested that cadA4 inactivation reduced biofilm formation. These data not only confirm cadA4 as a novel cadmium resistance determinant in L. monocytogenes but also provide evidence for roles in virulence and biofilm formation. IMPORTANCE Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular foodborne pathogen causing the disease listeriosis, which is responsible for numerous hospitalizations and deaths every year. Among the adaptations that enable the survival of Listeria in the environment are the abilities to persist in biofilms, grow in the cold, and

  1. Determination of ductile tearing resistance J-R curves in welded joints; Determination de courbes de resistance a la dechirure ductile dans les joints soudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles, Ph.; Ould, P. [AREVA NP, Tour AREVA, 92086 Paris La Defense (France); Marie, St. [CEA Saclay, DM2S, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)

    2010-05-15

    The ductile tearing resistance of steels is generally characterized in terms of resistance curves giving the increase of a resistance parameter such as the crack driving force J or a crack opening displacement as a function of the crack extension {Delta}a. Welded joints are often the weakest part of structures because of greater risk of defects, heterogeneity of the microstructure of the weld, strain concentration along mismatched interfaces. This paper recalls the transferability issues common to all integrity assessments based on tearing resistance curves and points out the difficulties of characterization specific to welds. Several recommendations are proposed for the experimental determination of tearing resistance of welded joints. (authors)

  2. Prevalence and determinants of resistant hypertension among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... Prevalence and determinants of resistant hypertension among hypertensive patients attending a cardiology clinic in ... Obese patients and those suffering from diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  3. Antimicrobial resistance in E. coli and Salmonella spp. isolates from calves in southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Hervé-Claude

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Description of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli and Salmonella spp. isolates from calves <30 days of age from southern Chile. Material and methods: Necropsy and microbiology reports of 107 calves <30 days of age received at the Animal Pathology Institute between 2002 and 2015 were considered. Additionally, an antimicrobial resistance score was generated to allow comparisons among isolates with different antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. Results: There was no clear trend in antimicrobial resistance during the study period, with similar levels of resistance for E. coli, β-hemolytic E. coli and Salmonella spp. Approximately 50% of isolates were sensitive to antimicrobials, and between 19 and 36% of samples showed possible extended- or pan- drug resistance. Multiple different antimicrobial resistance patterns were found, including 32 for E. coli, 17 for β-hemolytic E. coli and 10 for Salmonella spp. Conclusions: Overall, E. coli samples were most sensitive to ceftriaxone; β-hemolytic E. coli to florfenicol; and Salmonella spp. to gentamicin. In contrast, these agents were resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin and oxytetracycline respectively. This study is unique in its approach and provides useful information for veterinarians and producers on the antibiotic resistance patterns of bacteria posing a serious threat to calves. These results can help field veterinarians to control and treat bacterial diarrhea in calves.

  4. Total resistance of native bacteria as an indicator of changes in the water environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnisz, Monika [Department of Environmental Microbiology, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Prawocheńskiego 1, 10-957 Olsztyn (Poland)

    2013-03-15

    This study analyzes changes in the total (intrinsic and acquired) resistance of autochthonous bacteria in a river which is a receiver of treated wastewater. In the analyzed samples, tetracycline contamination levels were low and characteristic of surface water bodies. An increase in the populations of tetracycline-resistant and fluoroquinolone-resistant microorganisms was noted in downstream river water samples in comparison with upstream river water samples, but the above trend was not observed in bacteria resistant to macrolides and β-lactams. The counts of doxycycline-resistant bacteria (DOX{sup R}) were significantly correlated with doxycycline levels. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for doxycycline in DOX{sup R} isolates were higher in downstream river water than in upstream river water samples. The discharge of treated wastewater had no effect on the multi-drug resistance of oxytetracycline-resistant and doxycycline-resistant isolates. The results of the experiment indicate that the presence of doxycycline-resistant bacteria is a robust indicator of anthropogenic stress in river water. -- Highlights: ► The total resistance of native bacteria in river which is a receiver of treated wastewater was analyzed. ► Tetracyclines contamination levels were low. ► The counts of doxycycline-resistant bacteria were correlated with doxycycline levels. -- The presence of doxycycline-resistant bacteria in rivers can be a robust indicator of anthropogenic stress.

  5. Total resistance of native bacteria as an indicator of changes in the water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnisz, Monika

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes changes in the total (intrinsic and acquired) resistance of autochthonous bacteria in a river which is a receiver of treated wastewater. In the analyzed samples, tetracycline contamination levels were low and characteristic of surface water bodies. An increase in the populations of tetracycline-resistant and fluoroquinolone-resistant microorganisms was noted in downstream river water samples in comparison with upstream river water samples, but the above trend was not observed in bacteria resistant to macrolides and β-lactams. The counts of doxycycline-resistant bacteria (DOX R ) were significantly correlated with doxycycline levels. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for doxycycline in DOX R isolates were higher in downstream river water than in upstream river water samples. The discharge of treated wastewater had no effect on the multi-drug resistance of oxytetracycline-resistant and doxycycline-resistant isolates. The results of the experiment indicate that the presence of doxycycline-resistant bacteria is a robust indicator of anthropogenic stress in river water. -- Highlights: ► The total resistance of native bacteria in river which is a receiver of treated wastewater was analyzed. ► Tetracyclines contamination levels were low. ► The counts of doxycycline-resistant bacteria were correlated with doxycycline levels. -- The presence of doxycycline-resistant bacteria in rivers can be a robust indicator of anthropogenic stress

  6. Determining the resistance of X-pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Shen; Zhu Xin-Lei; Zhang Ran; Luo Hai-Yun; Zou Xiao-Bing; Wang Xin-Xin; Xue Chuang; Ning Cheng; Ding Ning; Shu Xiao-Jian

    2013-01-01

    The current and the voltage of an X-pinch were measured. The inductance of the X-pinch was assumed to be a constant and estimated by the calculation of the magnetic field based on the well-known Biot—Savart's Law. The voltage of the inductance was calculated with L · di/dt and subtracted from the measured voltage of the X-pinch. Then, the resistance of the X-pinch was determined and the following results were obtained. At the start of the current flow the resistance of the exploding wires is several tens of Ohms, one order of magnitude, higher than the metallic resistance of the wires at room temperature, and then it falls quickly to about 1 Ω, which reflects the physical processes occurring in the electrically exploding wires, i.e., a current transition from the highly resistive wire core to the highly conductive plasma. It was shown that the inductive contribution to the voltage of the X-pinch is less than the resistive contribution. For the wires we used, the wires' material and diameter have no strong influence on the resistance of the X-pinch, which may be explained by the fact that the current flows through the plasma rather than through the metallic wire itself. As a result, the current is almost equally divided between two parallel X-pinches even though the diameter and material of the wires used for these two X-pinches are significantly different. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  7. Electrical resistivity determination of subsurface layers, subsoil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrical resistivity determination of subsurface layers, subsoil competence and soil corrosivity at and engineering site location in Akungba-Akoko, ... The study concluded that the characteristics of the earth materials in the site would be favourable to normal engineering structures/materials that may be located on it.

  8. Antimicrobial Resistance of Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae: Epidemiology, Hypervirulence-Associated Determinants, and Resistance Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Ro Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the most clinically relevant species in immunocompromised individuals responsible for community-acquired and nosocomial infections, including pneumonias, urinary tract infections, bacteremias, and liver abscesses. Since the mid-1980s, hypervirulent K. pneumoniae, generally associated with the hypermucoviscosity phenotype, has emerged as a clinically significant pathogen responsible for serious disseminated infections, such as pyogenic liver abscesses, osteomyelitis, and endophthalmitis, in a generally younger and healthier population. Hypervirulent K. pneumoniae infections were primarily found in East Asia and now are increasingly being reported worldwide. Although most hypervirulent K. pneumoniae isolates are antibiotic-susceptible, some isolates with combined virulence and resistance, such as the carbapenem-resistant hypervirulent K. pneumoniae isolates, are increasingly being detected. The combination of multidrug resistance and enhanced virulence has the potential to cause the next clinical crisis. To better understand the basic biology of hypervirulent K. pneumoniae, this review will provide a summarization and discussion focused on epidemiology, hypervirulence-associated factors, and antibiotic resistance mechanisms of such hypervirulent strains. Epidemiological analysis of recent clinical isolates in China warns the global dissemination of hypervirulent K. pneumoniae strains with extensive antibiotic resistance in the near future. Therefore, an immediate response to recognize the global dissemination of this hypervirulent strain with resistance determinants is an urgent priority.

  9. Sensitivity of some local isolates of Mycoplasma gallisepticum against antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutiastuti Wahyuwardani

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of five local isolates ofMycoplasma gallisepticum (MG strain and two standard MG isolates obtained from Australia were tested against antibiotics of oxytetracycline, doxycycline, erythromycin, bacitracin, vancomycin, methicillin and penicillin using antibiogram disc method. The result showed that one, 2 and 3 local MG isolates were resistent to doxycycline, erythromycin and oxytetracycline respectively . MG isolate of ADA7 from Australia was found to be resistent to all antibiotics tested. None ofthe local MG isolates were sensitive against bacitracin, vancomycin, methicillin and penicillin.

  10. Determination of the electrical resistivity of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes by scanning probe microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageev, O. A.; Il'in, O. I.; Rubashkina, M. V.; Smirnov, V. A.; Fedotov, A. A.; Tsukanova, O. G.

    2015-07-01

    Techniques are developed to determine the resistance per unit length and the electrical resistivity of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA CNTs) using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). These techniques are used to study the resistance of VA CNTs. The resistance of an individual VA CNT calculated with the AFM-based technique is shown to be higher than the resistance of VA CNTs determined by the STM-based technique by a factor of 200, which is related to the influence of the resistance of the contact of an AFM probe to VA CNTs. The resistance per unit length and the electrical resistivity of an individual VA CNT 118 ± 39 nm in diameter and 2.23 ± 0.37 μm in height that are determined by the STM-based technique are 19.28 ± 3.08 kΩ/μm and 8.32 ± 3.18 × 10-4 Ω m, respectively. The STM-based technique developed to determine the resistance per unit length and the electrical resistivity of VA CNTs can be used to diagnose the electrical parameters of VA CNTs and to create VA CNT-based nanoelectronic elements.

  11. Sub-acute mastitis associated with Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a cow: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraisamy Chandrasekaran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A 5-year old Holstein Friesian cross breed cow was presented to Madras Veterinary College Teaching Hospital with the history of reduced milk yield. Clinical examination of udder revealed normal milk color and soft udder. The milk pH was 7.0, with California Mastitis Test score 3+, Electrical Conductivity 270U, and Somatic Cell Count as 328,000. Isolation and identification of causative agent revealed Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA from the sub-acute mastitis sample. Agar disc diffusion method for antimicrobial susceptibility revealed that the MRSA was sensitive to Enrofloxacin, Gentamicin, Oxytetracycline and Amoxicillin+Sulbactam. On the other hand, the isolate was resistance to Amoxicillin, Penicillin G, Ceftriaxone and Methicillin. The isolate was positive for β-lactamase resistance by Nitrocefin test. The MRSA was confirmed for the presence of mecA and blaZ target genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The cow was treated with Enrofloxacin, Vitamin E and inorganic Selenium, and was recovered after 5 days of post-treatment.

  12. Mini-Mu insertions in the tetracycline resistance determinant from Proteus mirabilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães V.D.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The inducible tetracycline resistance determinant isolated from Proteus mirabilis cloned into the plasmid pACYC177 was mutagenized by insertion of a mini-Mu-lac phage in order to define the regions in the cloned sequences encoding the structural and regulatory proteins. Three different types of mutants were obtained: one lost the resistance phenotype and became Lac+; another expressed the resistance at lower levels and constitutively; the third was still dependent on induction but showed a lower minimal inhibitory concentration. The mutant phenotypes and the locations of the insertions indicate that the determinant is composed of a repressor gene and a structural gene which are not transcribed divergently as are other known tetracycline determinants isolated from Gram-negative bacteria

  13. Molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance of enterotoxigenic and entero-aggregative Escherichia coli isolated from raw milk and unpasteurized cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Bonyadian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strains and antibiotic resistance of the isolates in raw milk and unpasteurized cheese. Out of 200 samples of raw milk and 50 samples of unpasteurized cheeses, 96 and 24 strains of E. coli were isolated, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to detect the genes encoding heat-stable enterotoxin a (STa, heat-stable enterotoxin b (STb, heat labile toxin (LT and enteroaggregative heat-stable toxin1 (EAST1. Twelve out of 120 (10.00% isolates harbored the gene for EAST1, 2(1.66% isolates were detected as producing STb and LT toxins and 12 (10.00% strains contained STb and EAST1 genes. None of the strains contain the STa gene. All of the strains were tested for antibiotic resistance by disk diffusion method. Disks included: ciprofloxacin (CFN, trimetoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TSX, oxytetracycline (OTC, gentamicin (GMN, cephalexin (CPN, nalidixic acid (NDA and nitrofurantoin (NFN, ampicillin (AMP, neomycin (NEO and streptomycin (STM. Among 120 isolated strains of E. coli, the resistance to each antibiotics were as follows: OTC100%, CPN 86.00%, NDA 56.00%, NFN 42.00%, GMN 30.00%, TSX 28.00%, CFN 20%, AM 23.40% and STM 4.25%. None of the isolates were resistant to NEO. The present data indicate that different resistant E. coli pathogens may be found in raw milk and unpasteurized cheese. It poses an infection risk for human and transferring the resistant factors to microflora of the consumers gut.

  14. Determination of Ductile Tearing Resistance Curve in Weld Joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, S.; Gilles, P.; Ould, P.

    2010-01-01

    Steels present in the ductile domain a tearing resistance which increase with the crack propagation up to the failure. This ductile tearing resistance is in general characterised with curves giving the variation of a global parameter (opening displacement at the crack tip delta, integral J) versus the crack extension Delta a. These global approaches depend more or less on the specimen geometry and on the type of the imposed loading. Local approaches based on the description of the ductile tearing mechanisms provide reliable solution to the transferability problem (from the lab specimen to the component) but are complex and costly to use and are not codified. These problems get worse in the case of a weld joint where no standard is available for the measurement of their ductile tearing resistance. But the welded joints are often the weak point of the structure because of greater risk of defects, the heterogeneity of the microstructure of the weld, deformation along the interface between two materials with different yield stress (mismatch).... After briefly recalling the problems of transferability of the ductile tearing resistance curves obtained on lab specimen to the case of components, this article identifies the factors complicating the determination of the toughness in the welded joints and gives recommendations for the experimental determination of ductile tearing resistance curves of welded joints

  15. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria monocytogenes isolated in chicken slaughterhouses in Northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaridis, I; Soultos, N; Iossifidou, E; Papa, A; Ambrosiadis, I; Koidis, P

    2011-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria monocytogenes recovered from chicken carcasses in slaughterhouses in Northern Greece. A total of 100 poultry samples (300 carcasses) were examined for Listeria spp. The samples were neck skin taken from four different slaughterhouses in Northern Greece. Forty samples were also taken from the environment of the slaughterhouses. Identification of L. monocytogenes was carried out by PCR and fingerprinting of the isolates by random amplified polymorphic DNA. L. monocytogenes strains isolated from chicken carcasses and from the environment of the slaughterhouses were also examined for antibiotic resistance. Fifty-five isolates of L. monocytogenes were tested for susceptibility to 20 antibiotics using the disk diffusion method. Listeria spp. were present in 99 of the poultry samples tested (99%), and 38 yielded L monocytogenes (38%). L. monocytogenes was also isolated in 80% of samples from the environment of a certain slaughterhouse, while the other slaughterhouses were found to be contaminated only with Listeria spp. All isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid and oxolinic acid, the majority of them to clindamycin, and only a few to tetracycline and oxytetracycline, whereas they were found to be susceptible to all other antimicrobials. The results of this study demonstrate a high prevalence of L. monocytogenes contamination in chicken carcasses, and all isolates were found to be sensitive to the antimicrobials most commonly used to treat human listeriosis.

  16. UV-vis, IR and 1H NMR spectroscopic studies and characterization of ionic-pair crystal violet-oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Sandra; Soto, César; Toral, M. Inés

    2010-01-01

    The present study shows the formation and characterization of the ionic-pair between the antibiotic oxytetracycline and the dye crystal violet in ammonia solution pH 9.0 ± 0.2 extracted into chloroform. The characterization was demonstrated using UV-vis spectrophotometry, 1H NMR, measurement of relaxation times T1 and IR spectroscopy, using a comparison between the signals of individual pure compounds with the signals with the mixture CV-OTC in different alkaline media. The formation of ionic-pair was also corroborated by new signals and chemical shifts. (2D) NMR spectroscopy experiments show that the interaction is electrostatic.

  17. Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from different parts of the digestive tract of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Afshari-Safavi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate differences in resistance patterns of Escherichia coli isolated from different parts of sheep digestive tract, the intestinal tracts of 24 sheep were sampled at various locations (duode-num, jejunum, caecum, colon and rectum after slaughter. Samples were cultured on MacConkey agar and obtained colonies were confirmed as E. coli based on the biochemical tests results. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial agent susceptibility to 10 antibiotics (colistin, gentamicin, oxytetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, enrofloxacin, ampicillin, cephotaxime, neomycin and florfenicol, using disc diffusion method. The tested E. coli resistant to colistin, ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid were isolated more frequently from large intestine (rectum than from small intestine (duodenum (P<0.05. In conclusion, antimicrobial resistance pattern of generic E. coli inhabiting the intestinal tract of sheep depends on sampling location, which should be considered in interpreting the results of antimicrobial resistance tests of E. coli isolated from the faecal samples and generalising results to bacteria colonised in other parts of the digestive tract

  18. Determination of resist parameters using the extended Nijboer-Zernike theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksen, P.; Braat, J.; Janssen, A.J.E.M.; Leeuwestein, A.; Kwinten, H.; Van Steenwinckel, D.

    2004-01-01

    This study presents an experimental method to determine the resist parameters that are at the origin of a general blurring of the projected aerial image. The resist model includes the effects of diffusion in the horizontal plane and a second cause for image blur that originates from a stochastic

  19. Effects of oxytetracycline, tylosin, and amoxicillin antibiotics on specific methanogenic activity of anaerobic biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2012-01-01

    Materials and Methods: To evaluate the inhibitory antibiotics amoxicillin, tetracycline, and tylosin on biomass activity, specific methanogenic activity (SMA using anerobic biomass batch; into 120 ml vials: 30 ml biomass and 70 ml substrate including volatile fatty acids, mainly acetic acid and various concentrations of antibiotics were added. Methane gas production replacement through solution of KOH (2 N as an absorber of CO 2 and bromine thymol blue as indicator was measured. Each batch was tested for 10 days. Results: Based on the findings, inhibitory concentration of oxytetracycline, amoxicillin, and tylosin were 8000, 9000, and 9000 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: This study showed that with increasing concentrations of antibiotics, the produced biogas volume from biomass per unit weight is decreased. COD removal was 42-82 % due to long retention time and adsorption to flocks.

  20. Antibiotic Application and Emergence of Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) in Global Catfish Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Li-Oon; Effarizah, M E; Goni, Abatcha Mustapha; Rusul, Gulam

    2016-06-01

    Catfish is one of the most cultivated species worldwide. Antibiotics are usually used in catfish farming as therapeutic and prophylactic agents. In the USA, only oxytetracycline, a combination of sulfadimethoxine and ormetoprim, and florfenicol are approved by the Food Drug Administration for specific fish species (e.g., catfish and salmonids) and their specific diseases. Misuse of antibiotics as prophylactic agents in disease prevention, however, is common and contributes in the development of antibiotic resistance. Various studies had reported on antibiotic residues and/or resistance in farmed species, feral fish, water column, sediments, and, in a lesser content, among farm workers. Ninety percent of the world aquaculture production is carried out in developing countries, which lack regulations and enforcement on the use of antibiotics. Hence, efforts are needed to promote the development and enforcement of such a regulatory structure. Alternatives to antibiotics such as antibacterial vaccines, bacteriophages and their lysins, and probiotics have been applied to curtail the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria due to the imprudent application of antibiotics in aquaculture.

  1. Determination of the drag resistance coefficients of different vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahsl, Christoph; Vogt, Patrik

    2018-05-01

    While it has been demonstrated how air resistance could be analyzed by using mobile devices, this paper demonstrates a method of how to determine the drag resistance coefficient c of a commercial automobile by using the acceleration sensor of a smartphone or tablet. In an academic context, the drag resistance is often mentioned, but little attention is paid to quantitative measurements. This experiment was driven by the fact that this physical value is most certainly neglected because of its difficult measurability. In addition to that, this experiment gives insights on how the aerodynamic factor of an automobile affects the energy dissipation and thus how much power is required by automobile transportation.

  2. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin and nasal carriage isolates from bovines and its antibiogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in cattle and buffalo and to study their antibiotic resistance pattern. Materials and Methods: A total of 136 samples (skin and nasal swab from cattle and buffalo were collected. MRSA was identified by conventional bacterial culture techniques which were further confirmed by amplification of S. aureus-specific 16S rRNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The isolates were further analyzed for the presence of mecA gene by PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibility profiling was performed by disc diffusion method. Results: The prevalence of MRSA in the current study was 28.57% and 34.28% in cattle nasal and skin swab, respectively, with an overall prevalence of 31.43% MRSA among cattle. Buffalo nasal and skin sample showed MRSA prevalence of 54.55% and 39.4%, respectively, with 46.9% overall prevalence. PCR could detect mecA gene in 36.4% and 58% MRSA isolates from cattle and buffalo, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility test found MRSA resistant to penicillin and oxytetracycline (88% each, cefoxitin (75%, cotrimoxazole (62%, and amoxyclav (50%. 100% sensitivity was observed against ciprofloxacin, amikacin, chloramphenicol, and gentamicin. Three (16.7% MRSA isolates from buffalo were found resistant to vancomycin. Conclusion: Cattle and buffalo were identified as a potential carrier of MRSA in Bihar (India. The isolation of vancomycinresistant S. aureus (VRSA in the current study indicates the emergence of VRSA in animal population which may be transmitted to the human beings working in close contact to the animals.

  3. Chronological Change of Resistance to β-Lactams in Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis Isolated from Broilers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuma, Takehisa; Miyasako, Daisuke; Dahshan, Hesham; Takayama, Tomoko; Nakamoto, Yuko; Shahada, Francis; Akiba, Masato; Okamoto, Karoku

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic surveillance study was conducted in southern Japan to determine the antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and characterize the β-lactamase genes and the plasmids harboring these genes in Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis (S. Infantis) isolates from broilers. Between January, 2007 and December, 2008, a total of 1,472 fecal samples were collected and examined at the Laboratory of Veterinary Public Health, Kagoshima University, Japan. In 93 (6.3%) isolates recovered, 33 (35.5%) isolates showed resistance to cefotaxime, an extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC), conferred by TEM-20, TEM-52 and CTX-M-25 extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). In addition to ESC-resistance, eight (8.6%) isolates exhibited resistance to cefoxitin mediated by CMY-2 AmpC β-lactamase. Plasmid analysis and polymerase chain reaction replicon typing revealed the bla TEM-20 and bla CMY-2 genes were associated with IncP plasmids, bla TEM-52 was linked with a non-typable plasmid and bla CTX-M-25 was carried by an IncA/C plasmid. Non-β-lactam resistance to streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and oxytetracycline encoded by the aadA1, sul1, and tet(A) genes, respectively, was found in 86 (92.5%) isolates. Resistance to kanamycin and ofloxacin was exhibited in 12 (12.9%) and 11 (11.8%) isolates, respectively, the former was mediated by aphA1-Iab. These data indicate that S. Infantis isolates producing ESBLs and AmpC β-lactamase have spread among broiler farms in Japan. These data demonstrated that the incidence of ESC-resistant S. Infantis carrying bla TEM-52 remarkably increased and S. Infantis strains harboring bla CMY-2, bla TEM-20, or bla CTX-M-25 genes emerged from broilers in Japan for the first time in 2007 and 2008.

  4. Transferable chloramphenicol resistance determinant in luminous Vibrio harveyi from penaeid shrimp Penaeus monodon larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangapalam Jawahar Abraham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic-resistant luminous Vibrio harveyi strains isolated from Penaeus monodon larvae were screened for the possession of transferable resistance determinants. All the strains were resistant to chloramphenicol and the determinant coding for chloramphenicol resistance was transferred to Escherichia coli at frequencies of 9.50x10-4 to 4.20x10-4. The results probably suggest the excessive use of chloramphenicol in shrimp hatcheries to combat luminous vibriosis.

  5. Gevoeligheid van belgische Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae isolaten voor antimicrobiële middelen

    OpenAIRE

    Maes, Dominiek; Vicca, J.; STAKENBORG, T; Butaye, Patrick; de Kruif, Aart; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2007-01-01

    To control Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections, the use of antibiotics in feed or water is a common practice. Unfortunately, information concerning the susceptibility of M. hyopneumoniae to different antimicrobials is very scarce. The in vitro susceptibility of 21 M hyopneumoniae field isolates was determined in this study using a broth microdilution technique. Acquired resistance to spectinomycin, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, gentamicin, florfenicol and tiamulin was not observed. One isolat...

  6. Genome-Wide Identification of Antimicrobial Intrinsic Resistance Determinants in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Leng, Bingfeng; Haaber, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance severely threatens our ability to treat bacterial infections. While acquired resistance has received considerable attention, relatively little is known of intrinsic resistance that allows bacteria to naturally withstand antimicrobials. Gene products...... that confer intrinsic resistance to antimicrobial agents may be explored for alternative antimicrobial therapies, by potentiating the efficacy of existing antimicrobials. In this study, we identified the intrinsic resistome to a broad spectrum of antimicrobials in the human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus. We...... with the atpA mutant compared to wild type cells with gentamicin at a clinically relevant concentration. Our results demonstrate that many gene products contribute to the intrinsic antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus. Knowledge of these intrinsic resistance determinants provides alternative targets...

  7. Using Resistivity Measurements to Determine Anisotropy in Soil and Weathered Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Soto-Caban

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study uses electrical resistivity measurements of soils and weathered rock to perform a fast and reliable evaluation of field anisotropy. Two test sites at New Concord, Ohio were used for the study. These sites are characterized by different landform and slightly east dipping limestone and siltstone formations of Pennsylvanian age. The measured resistivity ranged from 19 Ω∙m to 100 ��∙m, and varied with depth, landform, and season. The anisotropy was determined by a comparison of resistance values along the directions of strike and the dip. Measurements showed that the orientation of electrical anisotropy in the shallow ground may vary due to fluid connection, which is determined by the pore geometry in soil and rock, as well as by the direction of fluid movement. Results from this study indicated that a portable electrical resistivity meter is sensitive and reliable enough to be used for shallow ground fluid monitoring.

  8. Haemophilus paragallinarum in chickens in Indonesia: III. Antimicrobial drug sensitivity test ofHaemophilus paragallinarum from chickens suffering of coryza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Poernomo

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available An agar disc diffusion method was used to examine the sensitivity of 27 Haemophilus paragallinarum (Hpg isolates consisted of 23 local isolates, 4 standard isolates (serotype A and Escherichia coli ATCC 24922 as a control to eight antimicrobial drugs (ampicillin, erythromycin, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, neomycin, streptomycin, colistine and sulphanlethoxazole-trimethoprim . Twenty one out of 23 local isolates of Hpg were sensitive to doxycycline, 19 isolates to ampsllin, 18 isolates to oxytetracycline, 17 isolates to sulphametoxazole-trimethoprim, 16 isolates to erythromycin, and 13 isolates to neomycin, while 13 isolates were resistance to colistine and 11 isolates were also resistance to streptomycin .

  9. Comparação entre as administrações tópica e sistêmica de oxitetraciclina no tratamento de vacas com dermatite digital papilomatosa Efficacy of topical and systemic treatments with oxytetracycline for papillomatous digital dermatitis in cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Loureiro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Comparou-se a eficiência dos tratamentos tópico e sistêmico com oxitetraciclina em vacas com dermatite digital papilomatosa (DDP e determinaram-se a presença de resíduos desse antimicrobiano no leite e sua concentração no líquido sinovial e no plasma. Utilizaram-se o tratamento tópico com oxitetraciclina em pó (grupo 1 e o sistêmico de longa ação (grupo 2 em 16 vacas holandesas em lactação, acometidas por DDP. Obtiveram-se amostras de plasma, líquido sinovial e leite nos momentos: M0, antes dos tratamentos; M1, seis horas após o tratamento e em intervalos de 12 horas até M23 (264 horas pós-tratamentos. Avaliaram-se o grau de claudicação, a extensão da lesão e a concentração da oxitetraciclina pela cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Nas vacas do grupo 1, ocorreu redução das lesões e da claudicação, quando comparadas com as do grupo 2. Nenhuma das amostras de leite, de líquido sinovial e de plasma nos animais do grupo 1 foi positiva para oxitetraciclina. As amostras de leite dos animais do grupo 2, entre M1 e M23, apresentaram valores acima do limite máximo residual permitido para esse antimicrobiano. O tratamento tópico foi eficiente no tratamento de DDP, sem produzir resíduos no leite ou concentrações no plasma e no líquido sinovial. O tratamento sistêmico foi ineficiente para DDP, resultando em resíduos no leite, durante a avaliação.The efficacy of topical versus systemic treatment with oxytetracycline for papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD in dairy cows was compared. Antimicrobial residues in milk and their concentrations in synovial fluid and plasma were analysed. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows with PDD lesions were topically treated with oxytetracycline powder (group 1 or long-acting oxytetracycline (group 2. Plasma, synovial fluid, and milk samples were collected in the following moments: M0 (before treatments; at six hours after treatments (M1, and at 12-hour intervals until 264 hours

  10. Prevalence of Genotypes That Determine Resistance of Staphylococci to Macrolides and Lincosamides in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Mišić

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramins (MLS resistance genes are responsible for resistance to these antibiotics in Staphylococcus infections. The purpose of the study was to analyze the distribution of the MLS resistance genes in community- and hospital-acquired Staphylococcus isolates. The MLS resistance phenotypes [constitutive resistance to macrolide–lincosamide–streptogramin B (cMLSb, inducible resistance to macrolide–lincosamide–streptogramin B (iMLSb, resistance to macrolide/macrolide–streptogramin B (M/MSb, and resistance to lincosamide–streptogramin A/streptogramin B (LSa/b] were determined by double-disc diffusion method. The presence of the MLS resistance genes (ermA, ermB, ermC, msrA/B, lnuA, lnuB, and lsaA were determined by end-point polymerase chain reaction in 179 isolates of staphylococci collected during 1-year period at the Center for Microbiology of Public Health Institute in Vranje. The most frequent MLS phenotype among staphylococcal isolates, both community-acquired and hospital-acquired, was iMLSb (33.4%. The second most frequent was M/MSb (17.6% with statistically significantly higher number of hospital-acquired staphylococcal isolates (p < 0.05. MLS resistance was mostly determined by the presence of msrA/B (35.0% and ermC (20.8% genes. Examined phenotypes were mostly determined by the presence of one gene, especially by msrA/B (26.3% and ermC (14.5%, but 15.6% was determined by a combination of two or more genes. M/MSb phenotype was the most frequently encoded by msrA/B (95.6% gene, LSa/b phenotype by lnuA (56.3% gene, and iMLSb phenotype by ermC (29.4% and ermA (25.5% genes. Although cMLSb phenotype was mostly determined by the presence of ermC (28.9%, combinations of two or more genes have been present too. This pattern was particularly recorded in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA (58.3% and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS (90.9% isolates with c

  11. Antibacterial activity of the soil-bound antimicrobials oxytetracycline and ofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Feng-Jiao; Zhou, Li-Jun; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, You-Sheng; Zhao, Jian-Liang

    2014-04-01

    Soil contamination of antimicrobials has become an increasing concern because of the potential risks to the soil microbial ecosystem and human health. The present study investigated sorption and desorption behaviors of oxytetracycline (OTC) and ofloxacin (OFL) in 3 typical soils (A, B, and C), and evaluated the antibacterial activity of soil-adsorbed compounds to a pure sensitive strain Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. The results showed different sorption and desorption behaviors of OTC and OFL in the 3 soils, behaviors that were mainly influenced by soil organic matter content and cation exchange capacity (CEC) as well as pH value. In addition, complexation and cation-exchange reactions were shown to be the main sorption mechanisms. Strong adsorption was found in soil B (with a high organic matter content) and in soil C (with high CEC), whereas enhanced desorption was observed in soil A (with low organic matter content). The results also demonstrated that soil-bound antimicrobials retained antibacterial activity toward E. coli. Opposite patterns of antibacterial activity were found for the 2 antimicrobials in the 3 soils: A>B>C for OFL; and C>B>A for OTC. This finding suggests that soil-bound antimicrobials could still exert selective pressure on soil bacteria although less effectively in comparison with the dissolved forms. © 2014 SETAC.

  12. Performance Assessment and Translation of Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models From acslX to Berkeley Madonna, MATLAB, and R Language: Oxytetracycline and Gold Nanoparticles As Case Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhoumeng; Jaberi-Douraki, Majid; He, Chunla; Jin, Shiqiang; Yang, Raymond S H; Fisher, Jeffrey W; Riviere, Jim E

    2017-07-01

    Many physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for environmental chemicals, drugs, and nanomaterials have been developed to aid risk and safety assessments using acslX. However, acslX has been rendered sunset since November 2015. Alternative modeling tools and tutorials are needed for future PBPK applications. This forum article aimed to: (1) demonstrate the performance of 4 PBPK modeling software packages (acslX, Berkeley Madonna, MATLAB, and R language) tested using 2 existing models (oxytetracycline and gold nanoparticles); (2) provide a tutorial of PBPK model code conversion from acslX to Berkeley Madonna, MATLAB, and R language; (3) discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each software package in the implementation of PBPK models in toxicology, and (4) share our perspective about future direction in this field. Simulation results of plasma/tissue concentrations/amounts of oxytetracycline and gold from different models were compared visually and statistically with linear regression analyses. Simulation results from the original models were correlated well with results from the recoded models, with time-concentration/amount curves nearly superimposable and determination coefficients of 0.86-1.00. Step-by-step explanations of the recoding of the models in different software programs are provided in the Supplementary Data. In summary, this article presents a tutorial of PBPK model code conversion for a small molecule and a nanoparticle among 4 software packages, and a performance comparison of these software packages in PBPK model implementation. This tutorial helps beginners learn PBPK modeling, provides suggestions for selecting a suitable tool for future projects, and may lead to the transition from acslX to alternative modeling tools. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Absence of diarrhoea in equidae treated with oxytetracycline/ Ausência de diarréia em eqüídeos medicados com oxitetraciclina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Augusto Naylor Lisbôa

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation and observation was carried out with 24 equidae put on oxytetracycline hydrochloride medication, a drug incriminated as potential cause of severe colitis with diarrhea manifestations for this species. The animals of this study were natural carriers of affections that required antimicrobial use. During 4 to 19 uninterrupted days intravenous doses of 7, 15 or 20mg/kg were administered, every 24 hours. No side effects were observed during the period of treatment or after it. Thus, at the doses and intervals described above, oxytetracycline showed to be safe for equidae.Foram avaliados e acompanhados 24 eqüídeos medicados com cloridrato de oxitetraciclina, fármaco incriminado como potencial causador de colite severa com manifestação de diarréia nesta espécie. Os eqüídeos estudados eram portadores naturais de afecções que requeriam o emprego de antimicrobianos. Administraram-se doses de 7, 15 ou 20mg/kg, a cada 24 horas, por via intravenosa, durante 4 a até 19 dias seguidos. Não se observou qualquer efeito colateral aparente durante o período de tratamento e após o seu término. A oxitetraciclina mostrou-se, portanto, segura para os eqüídeos, nas doses e intervalo entre doses utilizados.

  14. Determination and Application of Comprehensive Specific Frictional Resistance in Heating Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Tian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyze the deficiencies of specific frictional resistance in heating engineering. Based on economic specific frictional resistance, we put forward the concept of comprehensive specific frictional resistance, which considers the multiple factors of technology, economy, regulation modes, pipe segment differences, and medium pressure. Then, we establish a mathematical model of a heating network across its lifespan in order to develop a method for determining the comprehensive specific frictional resistance. Relevant conclusions can be drawn from the results. As an application, we have planned the heating engineering for Yangyuan County in China, which demonstrates the feasibility and superiority of the method.

  15. A randomised clinical trial on the efficacy of oxytetracycline dose through water medication of nursery pigs on diarrhoea, faecal shedding of Lawsonia intracellularis and average daily weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Inge-Lise; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Holm, Anders

    2016-01-01

    the efficacy of three oral dosage regimens (5, 10 and 20mg/kg body weight) of oxytetracycline (OTC) in drinking water over a five-day period on diarrhoea, faecal shedding of LI and average daily weight gain (ADG). A randomised clinical trial was carried out in four Danish pig herds. In total, 539 animals from...

  16. Determination of slope failure using 2-D resistivity method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muztaza, Nordiana Mohd; Saad, Rosli; Ismail, Nur Azwin; Bery, Andy Anderson

    2017-07-01

    Landslides and slope failure may give negative economic effects including the cost to repair structures, loss of property value and medical costs in the event of injury. To avoid landslide, slope failure and disturbance of the ecosystem, good and detailed planning must be done when developing hilly area. Slope failure classification and various factors contributing to the instability using 2-D resistivity survey conducted in Selangor, Malaysia are described. The study on landslide and slope failure was conducted at Site A and Site B, Selangor using 2-D resistivity method. The implications of the anticipated ground conditions as well as the field observation of the actual conditions are discussed. Nine 2-D resistivity survey lines were conducted in Site A and six 2-D resistivity survey lines with 5 m minimum electrode spacing using Pole-dipole array were performed in Site B. The data were processed using Res2Dinv and Surfer10 software to evaluate the subsurface characteristics. 2-D resistivity results from both locations show that the study areas consist of two main zones. The first zone is alluvium or highly weathered with the resistivity of 100-1000 Ωm at 20-70 m depth. This zone consists of saturated area (1-100 Ωm) and boulders with resistivity value of 1200-3000 Ωm. The second zone with resistivity values of > 3000 Ωm was interpreted as granitic bedrock. The study area was characterized by saturated zones, highly weathered zone, highly contain of sand and boulders that will trigger slope failure in the survey area. Based on the results obtained from the study findings, it can be concluded that 2-D resistivity method is useful method in determination of slope failure.

  17. Determination of Screw and Nail Withdrawal Resistance of Some Important Wood Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Aytekin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, screw and nail withdrawal resistance of fir (Abies nordmanniana, oak (Quercus robur L. black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold and Stone pine (Pinus pinea L. wood were determined and compared. The data represent the testing of withdrawal resistance of three types of screws as smart, serrated and conventional and common nails. The specimens were prepared according to TS 6094 standards. The dimensions of the specimens were 5x5x15cm and for all of the directions. Moreover, the specimens were conditioned at ambient room temperature and 65±2% relative humidity. The screws and nails were installed according to ASTM-D 1761 standards. Nail dimensions were 2.5mm diameter and 50 mm length, conventional screws were 4x50mm, serrated screws were 4x45mm and smart screws were 4x50mm. Results show that the maximum screw withdrawal resistance value was found in Stone pine for the serrated screw. There were no significant differences between Stone pine and oak regarding screw withdrawal resistance values. Conventional screw yielded the maximum screw withdrawal resistance value in oak, followed by Stone pine, black pine and fir. Oak wood showed the maximum screw withdrawal resistance value for the smart screw, followed by Stone pine, black pine, and fir. Oak wood showed higher nail withdrawal resistances than softwood species. It was also determined that oak shows the maximum nail withdrawal resistance in all types. The nail withdrawal resistances at the longitudinal direction are lower with respect to radial and tangential directions.

  18. Antibiotic resistance determinants in a Pseudomonas putida strain isolated from a hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Molina

    Full Text Available Environmental microbes harbor an enormous pool of antibiotic and biocide resistance genes that can impact the resistance profiles of animal and human pathogens via horizontal gene transfer. Pseudomonas putida strains are ubiquitous in soil and water but have been seldom isolated from humans. We have established a collection of P. putida strains isolated from in-patients in different hospitals in France. One of the isolated strains (HB3267 kills insects and is resistant to the majority of the antibiotics used in laboratories and hospitals, including aminoglycosides, ß-lactams, cationic peptides, chromoprotein enediyne antibiotics, dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors, fluoroquinolones and quinolones, glycopeptide antibiotics, macrolides, polyketides and sulfonamides. Similar to other P. putida clinical isolates the strain was sensitive to amikacin. To shed light on the broad pattern of antibiotic resistance, which is rarely found in clinical isolates of this species, the genome of this strain was sequenced and analysed. The study revealed that the determinants of multiple resistance are both chromosomally-borne as well as located on the pPC9 plasmid. Further analysis indicated that pPC9 has recruited antibiotic and biocide resistance genes from environmental microorganisms as well as from opportunistic and true human pathogens. The pPC9 plasmid is not self-transmissible, but can be mobilized by other bacterial plasmids making it capable of spreading antibiotic resistant determinants to new hosts.

  19. Fluorescent assay for oxytetracycline based on a long-chain aptamer assembled onto reduced graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Huimin; Gao, Sheng; Liu, Meng; Chang, Yangyang; Fan, Xinfei; Quan, Xie [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (Ministry of Education, China), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China)

    2013-07-15

    We report on a fluorescent assay for oxytetracycline (OTC) using a fluorescein-labeled long-chain aptamer assembled onto reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The π-π stacking interaction between aptamer and rGO causes the fluorescence of the label to be almost completely quenched via energy transfer so that the system has very low background fluorescence. The addition of OTC leads to the formation of G-quadruplex OTC complexes and prevents the adsorption of labeled aptamer on the surface of rGO. As a result, fluorescence is restored, and this effect allows for a quantitative assay of OTC over the 0.1–2 μM concentration range and with a detection limit of 10 nM. This method is simple, rapid, selective and sensitive. It may be applied to other small molecule analytes by applying appropriate aptamers. (author)

  20. Fluorescent assay for oxytetracycline based on a long-chain aptamer assembled onto reduced graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Huimin; Gao, Sheng; Liu, Meng; Chang, Yangyang; Fan, Xinfei; Quan, Xie

    2013-01-01

    We report on a fluorescent assay for oxytetracycline (OTC) using a fluorescein-labeled long-chain aptamer assembled onto reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The π-π stacking interaction between aptamer and rGO causes the fluorescence of the label to be almost completely quenched via energy transfer so that the system has very low background fluorescence. The addition of OTC leads to the formation of G-quadruplex OTC complexes and prevents the adsorption of labeled aptamer on the surface of rGO. As a result, fluorescence is restored, and this effect allows for a quantitative assay of OTC over the 0.1–2 μM concentration range and with a detection limit of 10 nM. This method is simple, rapid, selective and sensitive. It may be applied to other small molecule analytes by applying appropriate aptamers. (author)

  1. Prevalence of genetic determinants and phenotypic resistance to ciprofloxacin in Campylobacter jejuni from lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksomaitiene, Jurgita; Ramonaite, Sigita; Olsen, John E.

    2018-01-01

    Recently, the number of reports on isolation of ciprofloxacin resistant Campylobacter jejuni has increased worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin and its genetic determinants among C. jejuni isolated from humans (n = 100), poultry products (n...... = 96) and wild birds (n = 96) in Lithuania. 91.4% of the C. jejuni isolates were phenotypically resistant to ciprofloxacin. DNA sequence analyses of the gyrA gene from 292 isolates revealed that a change in amino acid sequence, Thr86Ile, was the main substition conferring resistance to ciprofloxacin...... forty-five C. jejuni isolates showed one or more silent mutations, and 32.4% of examined isolates possessed six silent mutations. In addition to the ciprofloxacin resistant isolates harboring only Thr86Ile point mutation (110 isolates), the current study identified resistant isolates (n = 101) harboring...

  2. Kinetics and mechanism investigation on the destruction of oxytetracycline by UV-254 nm activation of persulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yiqing [Faculty of Geosciences and Environmental Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 611756 (China); Environmental Engineering and Science Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); He, Xuexiang [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); Fu, Yongsheng [Faculty of Geosciences and Environmental Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 611756 (China); Dionysiou, Dionysios D., E-mail: dionysios.d.dionysiou@uc.edu [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • The most effective destruction of OTC by UV/PS was achieved at near neutral pH. • Deprotonated HOTC{sup −} had the highest second-order rate constant with SO{sub 4}·{sup −}. • Presence of HCO{sub 3}{sup −} or Cu{sup 2+} enhanced the removal of OTC in UV/PS system. • Total organic carbon was degraded slowly during the mineralization of OTC. • Studies on the degradation mechanism revealed four different reaction pathways. - Abstract: Oxytetracycline (OTC), an important broad-spectrum antibiotic, has been detected extensively in various environmental systems, which may have a detrimental impact on ecosystem and human health through the development of drug resistant bacteria and pathogens. In this study, the degradation of OTC was evaluated by UV-254 nm activated persulfate (PS). The observed UV fluence based pseudo first-order rate constant (k{sub obs}) was found to be the highest at near neutral pH conditions (pH 5.5–8.5). Presence of various natural water constituents had different effects on OTC degradation, with a significant enhancement in the presence of bicarbonate or Cu{sup 2+}. Limited elimination of total organic carbon (TOC) and PS was observed during the mineralization of OTC. Transformation byproducts in the presence and absence of hydroxyl radical scavenging agent tert-butanol (t-BuOH) were identified using ultra-high definition accurate-mass quadrupole time-of-flight liquid chromatography/mass spectrometer (LC-QTOF/MS). Potential OTC degradation mechanism was subsequently proposed revealing four different reaction pathways by SO{sub 4}·{sup −} reaction including hydroxylation (+16 Da), demethylation (−14 Da), decarbonylation (−28 Da) and dehydration (−18 Da). This study suggests that UV-254 nm/PS is a promising treatment technology for the control of water pollution caused by emerging contaminants such as OTC.

  3. Kinetics and mechanism investigation on the destruction of oxytetracycline by UV-254 nm activation of persulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yiqing; He, Xuexiang; Fu, Yongsheng; Dionysiou, Dionysios D.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The most effective destruction of OTC by UV/PS was achieved at near neutral pH. • Deprotonated HOTC"− had the highest second-order rate constant with SO_4·"−. • Presence of HCO_3"− or Cu"2"+ enhanced the removal of OTC in UV/PS system. • Total organic carbon was degraded slowly during the mineralization of OTC. • Studies on the degradation mechanism revealed four different reaction pathways. - Abstract: Oxytetracycline (OTC), an important broad-spectrum antibiotic, has been detected extensively in various environmental systems, which may have a detrimental impact on ecosystem and human health through the development of drug resistant bacteria and pathogens. In this study, the degradation of OTC was evaluated by UV-254 nm activated persulfate (PS). The observed UV fluence based pseudo first-order rate constant (k_o_b_s) was found to be the highest at near neutral pH conditions (pH 5.5–8.5). Presence of various natural water constituents had different effects on OTC degradation, with a significant enhancement in the presence of bicarbonate or Cu"2"+. Limited elimination of total organic carbon (TOC) and PS was observed during the mineralization of OTC. Transformation byproducts in the presence and absence of hydroxyl radical scavenging agent tert-butanol (t-BuOH) were identified using ultra-high definition accurate-mass quadrupole time-of-flight liquid chromatography/mass spectrometer (LC-QTOF/MS). Potential OTC degradation mechanism was subsequently proposed revealing four different reaction pathways by SO_4·"− reaction including hydroxylation (+16 Da), demethylation (−14 Da), decarbonylation (−28 Da) and dehydration (−18 Da). This study suggests that UV-254 nm/PS is a promising treatment technology for the control of water pollution caused by emerging contaminants such as OTC.

  4. Pattern of antibiotic resistant mastitis in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chandrasekaran

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of drug resistant mastitis and their pattern of antibiotic resistance in dairy cows from Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: Isolation and identification of resistant pathogens were performed from acute clinical mastitis samples. Based on culture, isolation and sensitivity tests, cows with resistant mastitis were grouped as; Group I: Escherichia coli (n=119, Group II: Staphylococcus aureus (n=104 and Group III: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal aureus (MRSA (n=12. The isolates were tested using agar disc diffusion method for their antimicrobial susceptibility and modified resazurin assay microdilution technique for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC to 8 antimicrobial drugs. The organisms were also confirmed for their identity by performing PCR on the bacterial pellet targeting the specific genes such as 16s-23s rRNA, mecA and blaZ respectively for the resistant pathogens and also confirmed by sequencing. Results: Antibiotic resistant mastitis was detected in 235 out of 401 cows accounting to 56.1%. The predominant resistant causative pathogen was E. coli (50.64% followed by S. aureus (44.25% and MRSA (5.11%. In vitro antibiotic sensitivity test and MIC breakpoints, E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA organisms showed more sensitivity to enrofloxacin, amoxicillin + sulbactam, gentamicin and ceftriaxone and had highest resistant to penicillin followed by amoxicillin, oxytetracycline and methicillin. E. coli and S. aureus isolates were found to be resistant to 1 or 2 antimicrobials, whereas most of the MRSA isolates were found to be multi-drug resistant i.e resistance to 3 or more of antimicrobials. Out of 235 milk samples, the specific target gene 16s-23s rRNA (E. coli , 16s-23s rRNA (S. aureus and MRSA (mecA and blaZ could be amplified from 119, 104 and 12 isolates with a percentage positivity of 50.64 (119/235, 89.64 (104/116 and 10.34 (12/116 respectively. Conclusion: Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR in

  5. Antimicrobial drug resistance evaluations and monitoring in Escherichia coli isolated from poultry environment at different time intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, R.; Khan, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    A high prevalence of multiple drug resistance was observed in population of E. coli isolated in 1992-93 from poultry carcasses, fluff, hatchery environment and water at different broiler farms in Karachi, Pakistan. Five hundred isolate of E. coli were made of which 375 were tested for their sensitivity of five antimicrobials using the tube dilution method. Similarly, during 1995-1996, 430 E. coli isolates were made (from the same farms) of which 315 were tested for their sensitivity to the same antimicrobials studied in 1992-93. E. coli isolates during 1992-93 and 1995-96 showed increase in resistance from 50 to 56% against amoxicillin, from 62 to 71% against neomycin, from 97 to 100% against oxytetracycline, from 95 to 100% against tetracycline and from 95 to 98% against trimethoprim. It appears that exposure of E. coli of poultry origin in Pakistan to the five studies antimicrobials could well be the cause of increasing antimicrobials resistance. This data supports the growing contention that subtherapeutic doses of antimicrobials should be eliminated as a means of promoting rapid growth. (author)

  6. Antimicrobial drug resistance evaluations and monitoring in Escherichia coli isolated from poultry environment at different time intervals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anwar, R; Khan, M A [University of Karachi (Pakistan). Inst. of Environmental Studies

    2004-06-01

    A high prevalence of multiple drug resistance was observed in population of E. coli isolated in 1992-93 from poultry carcasses, fluff, hatchery environment and water at different broiler farms in Karachi, Pakistan. Five hundred isolate of E. coli were made of which 375 were tested for their sensitivity of five antimicrobials using the tube dilution method. Similarly, during 1995-1996, 430 E. coli isolates were made (from the same farms) of which 315 were tested for their sensitivity to the same antimicrobials studied in 1992-93. E. coli isolates during 1992-93 and 1995-96 showed increase in resistance from 50 to 56% against amoxicillin, from 62 to 71% against neomycin, from 97 to 100% against oxytetracycline, from 95 to 100% against tetracycline and from 95 to 98% against trimethoprim. It appears that exposure of E. coli of poultry origin in Pakistan to the five studies antimicrobials could well be the cause of increasing antimicrobials resistance. This data supports the growing contention that subtherapeutic doses of antimicrobials should be eliminated as a means of promoting rapid growth. (author)

  7. Extraction of Oxytetracycline Hydrochloride in Aqueous Two-phase System of Acetone and Ammonium Sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) is an efficient implement for separation of various substrates, and extracted by an aqueous two-phase system has been successful ly applied in the downstream processing of various biological compounds. In this research, the extraction of oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC-HCl) was carried out in an aqueous two-phase system containing acetone and ammonium sulfate solution, which partitioned the antibiotic to the upper phase. The effects of some parameters on the extraction efficiency of OTC-HCl were studied in detail, including temperature, the volume of acetone, the pH value of ammonium sulfate solution, the concentrations of (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/ SO/sub 4/ and OTC-HCl. The results showed that the volume of acetone, the pH value of ammonium sulfate solution and the concentration of OTC-HCl in feed had significant effects on the extraction efficiency of OTC-HCl, but the effects of temperature on the extraction of OTC-HCl was not obvious. (author)

  8. Extraction of Oxytetracycline Hydrochloride in Aqueous Two-phase System of Acetone and Ammonium Sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, J. [Jiangsu Univ., Zhenjiang (China). Dept. of Food and Biological Engineering

    2013-02-15

    Summary: Aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) is an efficient implement for separation of various substrates, and extracted by an aqueous two-phase system has been successful ly applied in the downstream processing of various biological compounds. In this research, the extraction of oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC-HCl) was carried out in an aqueous two-phase system containing acetone and ammonium sulfate solution, which partitioned the antibiotic to the upper phase. The effects of some parameters on the extraction efficiency of OTC-HCl were studied in detail, including temperature, the volume of acetone, the pH value of ammonium sulfate solution, the concentrations of (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/ SO/sub 4/ and OTC-HCl. The results showed that the volume of acetone, the pH value of ammonium sulfate solution and the concentration of OTC-HCl in feed had significant effects on the extraction efficiency of OTC-HCl, but the effects of temperature on the extraction of OTC-HCl was not obvious. (author)

  9. Non-invasive determination of absolute lung resistivity in adults using electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jie; Patterson, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Lung resistivity is a physiological parameter that describes the electrical characteristics of the lungs. Lung composition changes due to changes in the lung tissues, fluid and air volume. Various diseases that can cause a change in lung composition may be monitored by measuring lung resistivity. Currently, there is no accepted non-invasive method to measure lung resistivity. In this study, we presented a method and framework to non-invasively determine lung resistivity using electrical impedance tomography (EIT). By comparing actual measurements from subjects with data from a 3D human thorax model, an EIT image can be reconstructed to show a resistivity difference between the model and the subject. By adjusting the lung resistivity in the model, the resistivity difference in the lung regions can be reduced to near zero. This resistivity value then is the estimation of the lung resistivity of the subject. Using the proposed method, the lung resistivities of four normal adult males (43 ± 13 years, 78 ± 10 kg) in the supine position at air volumes starting at functional residual capacity (FRC—end expiration) and increasing in 0.5 l steps to 1.5 l were studied. The averaged lung resistivity changes 12.59%, from 1406 Ω cm to 1583 Ω cm, following the inspiration of 1.5 l air from FRC. The coefficients of variation (CV) of precision for the four subjects are less than 10%. The experiment was repeated five times at each air volume on a subject to test the reproducibility. The CVs are less than 3%. The results show that it is feasible to determine absolute lung resistivity using an EIT-based method

  10. Non-invasive determination of absolute lung resistivity in adults using electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Patterson, Robert

    2010-08-01

    Lung resistivity is a physiological parameter that describes the electrical characteristics of the lungs. Lung composition changes due to changes in the lung tissues, fluid and air volume. Various diseases that can cause a change in lung composition may be monitored by measuring lung resistivity. Currently, there is no accepted non-invasive method to measure lung resistivity. In this study, we presented a method and framework to non-invasively determine lung resistivity using electrical impedance tomography (EIT). By comparing actual measurements from subjects with data from a 3D human thorax model, an EIT image can be reconstructed to show a resistivity difference between the model and the subject. By adjusting the lung resistivity in the model, the resistivity difference in the lung regions can be reduced to near zero. This resistivity value then is the estimation of the lung resistivity of the subject. Using the proposed method, the lung resistivities of four normal adult males (43 +/- 13 years, 78 +/- 10 kg) in the supine position at air volumes starting at functional residual capacity (FRC--end expiration) and increasing in 0.5 l steps to 1.5 l were studied. The averaged lung resistivity changes 12.59%, from 1406 Omega cm to 1583 Omega cm, following the inspiration of 1.5 l air from FRC. The coefficients of variation (CV) of precision for the four subjects are less than 10%. The experiment was repeated five times at each air volume on a subject to test the reproducibility. The CVs are less than 3%. The results show that it is feasible to determine absolute lung resistivity using an EIT-based method.

  11. The prevalence of pathogenic bacteria and antimicrobial resistance in milk of Ettawa Grade goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Andriani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ettawa Grade (PE are potentially developed goats to produce milk and meat. Milk is food of animal that is rich in nutrients, but it is a perishable food easily contaminated by microorganisms. Contaminated pathogenic bacteria in milk can decrease the quality and has an organoleptic effect on milk, as well as endangers human health. Milk contaminated with bacteria antimicrobial resistance (AMR in which is resistant to antibiotics, may adversely affect the response to treatment with antibiotics in humans when suffering from infectious diseases and using antibiotics in therapy. In this study Ettawa Grade's samples of fresh milk and other dairy products were taken from some of the goat farms in Yogyakarta Sleman district. The samples were tested for the presence of pathogenic bacteria and for its resistance to several kinds of antibiotics. In this study 35 Ettawa Grade's samples of fresh milk and other dairy products (fresh milk, milk powder, ice cream, and yoghurt were taken from some of the goat farms in Sleman district-Yogyakarta. The samples were tested for the presence of pathogenic bacteria and for its resistance to several kinds of antibiotics. The result of the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in goat fresh milk and other dairy products was 15% Escherichia coli and had multi resistance to multiple antibiotics, namely ampicillin, colistin sulphate, cefixime, kanamycin, oxytetracycline, tetracycline and sulfonamide.

  12. Translocation of integron-associated resistance in a natural system: Acquisition of resistance determinants by Inc P and Inc W Plasmids from Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT104

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvang, Dorthe; Diggle, M.; Platt, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    to determinate the genetic content. Translocation to R751 and R388 was associated with the loss of the indigenous trimethoprim cassette to both plasmids and also acquisition of sulfonamide resistance by R751 and RP4::Tn7, which indicated movement of the 3' terminus of one or both of the DT104 integrons......Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT104, 961368, a veterinary field isolate that encodes a chromosomal cluster of resistance genes as well as two integrons, was used to study the mobility of resistance cassettes (aadA2 and pse-1) and nonintegron-associated resistance determinants (chloramphenicol...... and tetracycline). A range of natural plasmids was used as targets for the translocation of resistance. Plasmids that acquired resistance from the DT104 chromosome were segregated by conjugation into Escherichia coli K12. Plasmids R751, R388, and RP4::Tn7 acquired several combinations of resistance determinant...

  13. Change in antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma gallisepticum field isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaibeh, Saad; Al-Rashdan, Mohammad

    2011-06-02

    This study compares the antimicrobial susceptibility over time between two groups of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) isolates from the same geographical area. Minimum inhibitory concentration of 13 antimicrobials was determined against two groups of MG isolates from chickens. Group 1 strains (n=22) were isolated in 2004-2005 while group 2 strains (n=7) were isolated in 2007-2008. Minimum inhibitory concentration 50 for group 1 versus group 2 was 4/4, 0.5/0.5, ≤ 0.031/≥ 64, ≤ 0.031/2, ≤ 0.031/0.125, 1/0.5, 1/1, ≤ 0.031/≤ 0.031, ≤ 0.031/2, ≤ 0.031/2, 1/4, ≤ 0.031/0.062, and 0.062/2 μg/ml against gentamicin, spectinomycin, erythromycin, tilmicosin, tylosin, florfenicol, thiamphenicol, tiamulin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, and oxytetracycline, respectively. There was a statistically significant increase in resistance of group 2 to erythromycin, tilmicosin, tylosin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, and oxytetracycline. This dramatic increase in resistance against 8 antimicrobials belonging to three different families of antimicrobials in a relatively short period of time appears to be rare and of concern. The cause of this increased resistance observed in group 2 of MG isolates was not determined and should be further investigated. Monitoring of MG field strain susceptibility is highly recommended to implement successful treatment and prophylaxis programs in endemic areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. CONTRIBUTION TO DETERMINING THE BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE WATER CHESTNUT TRAPA NATANS L. LAKE OUBEIRA EL-KALA AND DEVELOPMENT OF NUTRIENT AGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMED SAHLI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work is aims to determining the biochemical composition of the flour water chestnut seeds and the development of a nutrient agar for bacteria and fungi in the presence and absence of oxytetracycline. The culture medium consists of the filtrate recovered after dispersion of the flour of the seeds in distilled water and the agar. The results show in the absence of oxytetracycline, bacterial and fungal strains develop. In the presence of the antibiotic to 0.25 mg·mL-1 and 0.5 mg·mL-1 bacteria are completely inhibited whereas fungi evolve. Statistical analysis reveals the existence of a very highly significant difference (P ≤ 0.001 between the effects of different concentrations of the bactericide deploying Pyrenophora tritici and Septoria nodorum. There is no influence of antibacterial concentrations on the growth of Fusarium sp.

  15. Mutations inside rifampicin-resistance determining region of rpoB gene associated with rifampicin-resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaw, Myo T; Emran, Nor A; Lin, Zaw

    2018-04-26

    Rifampicin (RIF) plays a pivotal role in the treatment of tuberculosis due to its bactericidal effects. Because the action of RIF is on rpoB gene encoding RNA polymerase β subunit, 95% of RIF resistant mutations are present in rpoB gene. The majority of the mutations in rpoB gene are found within an 81bp RIF-resistance determining region (RRDR). Literatures on RIF resistant mutations published between 2010 and 2016 were thoroughly reviewed. The most commonly mutated codons in RRDR of rpoB gene are 531, 526 and 516. The possibilities of absence of mutation in RRDR of rpoB gene in MDR-TB isolates in few studies was due to existence of other rare rpoB mutations outside RRDR or different mechanism of rifampicin resistance. Molecular methods which can identify extensive mutations associated with multiple anti-tuberculous drugs are in urgent need so that the research on drug resistant mutations should be extended. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of the azimuthal resistivity technique for determination of regional azimuth of transmissivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, D.

    2010-01-01

    Many bedrock units contain joint sets that commonly act as preferred paths for the movement of water, electrical charge, and possible contaminants associated with production or transit of crude oil or refined products. To facilitate the development of remediation programs, a need exists to reliably determine regional-scale properties of these joint sets: azimuth of transmissivity ellipse, dominant set, and trend(s). The surface azimuthal electrical resistivity survey method used for local in situ studies can be a noninvasive, reliable, efficient, and relatively cost-effective method for regional studies. The azimuthal resistivity survey method combines the use of standard resistivity equipment with a Wenner array rotated about a fixed center point, at selected degree intervals, which yields an apparent resistivity ellipse from which joint-set orientation can be determined. Regional application of the azimuthal survey method was tested at 17 sites in an approximately 500 km2 (193 mi2) area around Milwaukee, Wisconsin, with less than 15m (50 ft) overburden above the dolomite. Results of 26 azimuthal surveys were compared and determined to be consistent with the results of two other methods: direct observation of joint-set orientation and transmissivity ellipses from multiple-well-aquifer tests. The average of joint-set trend determined by azimuthal surveys is within 2.5?? of the average of joint-set trend determined by direct observation of major joint sets at 24 sites. The average of maximum of transmissivity trend determined by azimuthal surveys is within 5.7?? of the average of maximum of transmissivity trend determined for 14 multiple-well-aquifer tests. Copyright ?? 2010 The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of long-term zinc pollution on soil microbial community resistance to repeated contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Beata

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of stress (contamination trials) on the microorganisms in zinc-polluted soil (5,018 mg Zn kg(-1) soil dry weight) and unpolluted soil (141 mg Zn kg(-1) soil dw), measured as soil respiration rate. In the laboratory, soils were subjected to copper contamination (0, 500, 1,500 and 4,500 mg kg(-1) soil dw), and then a bactericide (oxytetracycline) combined with a fungicide (captan) along with glucose (10 mg g(-1) soil dw each) were added. There was a highly significant effect of soil type, copper treatment and oxytetracycline/captan treatment. The initial respiration rate of chronically zinc-polluted soil was higher than that of unpolluted soil, but in the copper treatment it showed a greater decline. Microorganisms in copper-treated soil were more susceptible to oxytetracycline/captan contamination. After the successive soil contamination trials the decline of soil respiration was greater in zinc-polluted soil than in unpolluted soil.

  18. Standard test method for determination of resistance to stable crack extension under low-constraint conditions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This standard covers the determination of the resistance to stable crack extension in metallic materials in terms of the critical crack-tip-opening angle (CTOAc), ψc and/or the crack-opening displacement (COD), δ5 resistance curve (1). This method applies specifically to fatigue pre-cracked specimens that exhibit low constraint (crack-length-to-thickness and un-cracked ligament-to-thickness ratios greater than or equal to 4) and that are tested under slowly increasing remote applied displacement. The recommended specimens are the compact-tension, C(T), and middle-crack-tension, M(T), specimens. The fracture resistance determined in accordance with this standard is measured as ψc (critical CTOA value) and/or δ5 (critical COD resistance curve) as a function of crack extension. Both fracture resistance parameters are characterized using either a single-specimen or multiple-specimen procedures. These fracture quantities are determined under the opening mode (Mode I) of loading. Influences of environment a...

  19. Método de determinação e avaliação da depleção de oxitetraciclina em camarão marinho Method for the determination and evaluation of oxytetracycline depletion in marine shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Regina Brito de Oliveira Lavorante

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi validar um método para determinação de resíduos de oxitetraciclina (OTC em camarões, por meio de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, e avaliar, pelo método validado, a depleção de resíduos de OTC em camarões in vivo. Para a validação, foram utilizados camarões isentos de OTC e camarões adicionados de OTC in vitro. Foram estabelecidos: seletividade, tempo de retenção, linearidade (coeficiente de correlação, faixa de trabalho, recuperação relativa, limites de detecção e quantificação do método (LDM e LQM, respectivamente e repetibilidade. Para o experimento in vivo, rações com 200, 400 e 500 μg g-1 de OTC foram administradas aos camarões durante 14 dias. Foi avaliada a concentração do resíduo desse antibiótico no músculo e na carapaça até 22 dias após a suspensão da droga. O coeficiente de correlação linear foi de 0,9997 para o extrato fortificado da matriz, na faixa de trabalho de 0,02 a 0,4 μg g-1; a recuperação foi de 106±17,1% e os LDM e LQM foram de 0,006 e 0,019 μg g-1, respectivamente. O tempo de residência da droga na carapaça dos animais (de 10 a 13 dias foi maior em comparação ao tempo de residência no músculo (5 dias.This work aimed at validating a method for the determination of oxytetracycline (OTC residues in shrimp by means of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and at evaluating the OTC residue depletion in shrimps in vivo using the validated method. The shrimp used for validation were either not submitted or submitted to in vitro OTC addition. Selectivity, retention time, linearity (correlation coefficient, work range, relative recovery, detection and method quantification limits and repeatability were determined. For the in vivo experiment, shrimp were fed with feed medicated with OTC at 200, 400 and 500 μg g-1 for 14 days. Oxytetracycline residue concentration in the animals' muscle and carapace was assessed for up to 22 days

  20. Widespread distribution of a tet W determinant among tetracycline-resistant isolates of the animal pathogen Arcanobacterium pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billington, Stephen J; Songer, J Glenn; Jost, B Helen

    2002-05-01

    Tetracycline resistance is common among isolates of the animal commensal and opportunistic pathogen Arcanobacterium pyogenes. The tetracycline resistance determinant cloned from two bovine isolates of A. pyogenes was highly similar at the DNA level (92% identity) to the tet(W) gene, encoding a ribosomal protection tetracycline resistance protein, from the rumen bacterium Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. The tet(W) gene was found in all 20 tetracycline-resistant isolates tested, indicating that it is a widely distributed determinant of tetracycline resistance in this organism. In 25% of tetracycline-resistant isolates, the tet(W) gene was associated with a mob gene, encoding a functional mobilization protein, and an origin of transfer, suggesting that the determinant may be transferable to other bacteria. In fact, low-frequency transfer of tet(W) was detected from mob+ A. pyogenes isolates to a tetracycline-sensitive A. pyogenes recipient. The mobile nature of this determinant and the presence of A. pyogenes in the gastrointestinal tract of cattle and pigs suggest that A. pyogenes may have inherited this determinant within the gastrointestinal tracts of these animals.

  1. Determining resistance to mastitis in a bovine subject comprises detecting the presence or absence of a genetic marker that is linked to a trait indicative of mastitis resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for determining mastitis resistance in bovine subjects, wherein mastitis resistance comprise resistance to both sub-clinical and clinical mastitis. In particular, the method of the invention involves identification of genetic markers and/or Quantitative Trait Locus...... (QTL) for the determination of mastitis resistance in a bovine subject. The determination of mastitis resistance involves resolution of the specific microsatellite status. Furthermore, the invention relates to a diagnostic kit for detection of genetic marker(s) associated with mastitis resistance....... The method and kit of the present invention can be applied for selection of bovine subjects for breeding purposes. Thus, the invention provides a method of genetically selecting bovine subjects with mastitis resistance, thereby yielding cows less prone to mastitis...

  2. Cloning and DNA sequence of the mercuric- and organomercurial-resistance determinants of plasmid pDU1358

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, H.G.; Foster, T.J.; Silver, S.; Misra, T.K.

    1987-01-01

    The broad-spectrum mercurial-resistance plasmid pDU1358 was analyzed by cloning the resistance determinants and preparing a physical and genetic map of a 45-kilobase (kb) region of the plasmid that contains two separate mercurial-resistance operons that mapped about 20 kb apart. One encoded narrow-spectrum mercurial resistance to Hg 2+ and a few organomercurials; the other specified broad-spectrum resistance to phenylmercury and additional organomercurials. Each determinant governed mercurial transport functions. Southern DNA x DNA hybridization experiments using gene-specific probes from the plasmid R100 mer operon indicated close homology with the R100 deteminant. The 2153 base pairs of the promoter-distal part of the broad-spectrum Hg 2+ -resistance operon of pDU1358 were sequenced. This region included the 3'-terminal part of the merA gene, merD, unidentified reading frame URF1, and a part of URF2 homologous to previously sequenced determinants of plasmid R100. Between the merA and merD genes, an open reading frame encoding a 212 amino acid polypeptide was identified as the merB gene that determines the enzyme organomercurial lyase that cleaves the C-Hg bond of phenylmercury

  3. Socioeconomic Determinants of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Shigella Infections in Bangladeshi Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randon J. Gruninger

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shigella species (spp. are a leading cause of moderate to severe diarrhea in children worldwide. The recent emergence of quinolone-resistant Shigella spp. gives cause for concern, and South Asia has been identified as a reservoir for global spread. The influence of socioeconomic status on antimicrobial resistance in developing countries, such as those in South Asia, remains unknown. Methods: We used data collected from 2009 to 2014 from a hospital specializing in the treatment of diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh, to determine the relationship between ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella spp. isolates and measures of socioeconomic status in Bangladeshi children less than 5 years of age. Results: We found 2.7% (230/8, 672 of children who presented with diarrhea had Shigella spp. isolated from their stool, and 50% (115/230 had resistance to ciprofloxacin. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, we found that children from families where the father’s income was in the highest quintile had significantly higher odds of having ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella spp. compared to children in the lowest quintile (OR = 6.1, CI 1.9-19. Factors protective against the development of resistance included access to improved sanitation (OR = 0.27, CI 0.11-0.7, and improved water sources (OR = 0.48, CI 0.25-0.92. We did not find a relationship between ciprofloxacin resistance and other proxies for socioeconomic status, including the presence of animals in the home, nutritional status, paternal education level, and the number of family members in the home. Conclusions: Although the associations between wealth and antimicrobial resistance are not fully understood, possible explanations include increased access and use of antibiotics, greater access to healthcare facilities and thus resistant pathogens, or greater consumption of commercially produced foods prepared with antibiotics.

  4. Determination of Serotypes and Antibiotic Resistance in Streptococcus Pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Akgun Karapinar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, the distribution of serogroup/serotype and antibiotic susceptibility testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains, recovered from pediatric and adult patients were evaluated. Material and Method: A total of 80 clinical isolates recovered from 19 pediatric and 61 adult patients were performed by latex aglutination method and antibiotic susceptibility tests in Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Medical Microbiology Laboratories. Results: Sixty-two strains (76 %, were serogroup/serotyped and 18 (23 % strains couldn%u2019t serogroup/serotyped. The most frequent identified serogroups were 19, 14, 23, 6, 4 in pediatrics, and 3, 19, 23 and 9 in adults. In adults, serogroups 3, 9, 5, 8, 18, 1, 15 were determined, but these serogroups weren%u2019t found in pediatrics. Vaccine serotypes rates were found as 53 % in pediatric and as 85 % in adults. The serogroups 2, 7, 10, 11, 12, 17, 20, 22, 33 were not detected, which are available in vaccine serotypes. Only 1 (1 % strain was found to exhibit low level resistance to penicillin and high level resistance wasn%u2019t found in any strain. Resistant results for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, chloramphenicol and ofloxacin were found as 45 (56 %, 22 (27.5 %, 7 (9 %, 2 (2.5 %, respectively. All strains were found susceptible to vancomycin, linezolid and levofloxacin. The most resistant serogroups were 19, 23, 9 and 14 in the tested antibiotics. Multidrug resistance was found in 9 (11 % strains and these strains were found as serogroups 19, 23, 9, 6 and 14. Discussion: The epidemiological studies are important that the distribution of serotype and antibiotic resistance vary depending on many factors like age, and geographic region.

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens isolated from domestic and wild animal species in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto de Oliveira Júnior

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is a microorganism commonly found in the microbiota of humans and animals and a potential cause of enteric, muscle or nervous diseases. The treatment of these diseases is based on antimicrobial therapy and it is extremely important to know the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the strains present in the region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of C. perfringens isolated from domestic and wild animals in Brazil against seven different antimicrobials. Forty-one strains from the stool samples of cattle (n = 12, buffalo (n = 2, goat (n = 3, dogs (n = 12 and wild carnivores (n = 12 were examined. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the agar dilution method using Brucella agar supplemented with 5% of sheep blood, 0.1% of vitamin K, 0.1% of hemin and concentrations ranging from 0,25 to 256,0 mg L-1 of the following antibiotics: erythromycin, florfenicol, metronidazole, oxytetracycline, penicillin, tylosin, and vancomycin. All C. perfringens strains were susceptible to florfenicol, metronidazole, penicillin and vancomycin. Two strains (4.9% were resistant to erythromycin and tylosin, while five (12.2% were resistant to oxytetracycline, one of which (2.4% from an ocelot.

  6. The Effect of Water Hardness on Mortality of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) During Exposure to Oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundt, Matthias; Schreiber, Benjamin; Eckmann, Reiner; Lunestad, Bjørn Tore; Wünneman, Hannah; Schulz, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    Marking of fish otoliths with oxytetracycline and tetracycline is a widely used method to evaluate the effectiveness of stocking operations. Available protocols for the labeling of fish specify a number of factors influencing mark quality and potential risk for fish during marking. This study investigates the influence of water hardness on mortality of freshwater fish during marking with OTC. In order to pursue this question complexation of OTC with Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) cations was measured spectrophotometrically. Furthermore, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were immersed in OTC solutions (1200 mg/L; 48 h immersion) combined with varying levels of water hardness (5.5, 15.5, 25.5, 32.5°dH). The amount of OTC-Mg-Ca-complexes was positively correlated to water hardness. Moreover, it could be demonstrated that mortality of zebrafish during marking varied as a factor of water hardness. Highest mortalities occurred at the lowest (5.5°dH) and the highest (32.5°dH) tested levels during marking with OTC.

  7. Sorption of norfloxacin, sulfamerazine and oxytetracycline by KOH-modified biochar under single and ternary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiwei; Li, Xue; Ge, Chengjun; Müller, Karin; Yu, Huamei; Huang, Peng; Li, Jiatong; Tsang, Daniel C W; Bolan, Nanthi S; Rinklebe, Jörg; Wang, Hailong

    2018-05-08

    Pollution of water by single antibiotics has been investigated in depth. However, in reality, a wide range of different contaminants is often mixed in the aquatic environment (contaminant cocktail). Here, single and competitive sorption dynamics of ionizable norfloxacin (NOR), sulfamerazine (SMR) and oxytetracycline (OTC) by both pristine and modified biochars were investigated. Sorption kinetics of the three antibiotics was faster in ternary-solute than single-solute system. Sorption efficiency was enhanced in the competitive system for NOR by the pristine biochar, and for OTC by both the pristine biochar and the modified biochar, while SMR sorption by the pristine biochar and the KOH-modified biochar was inhibited. Sorption was governed by electrostatic interactions, π-π EDA and H-bonds for antibiotics sorption by biochar. SMR and OTC sorption by biochar was influenced by cation bridging and surface complexation, respectively. This research finding will guide the development of treatment procedures for water polluted by multiple antibiotics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Combinations of macrolide resistance determinants in field isolates of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desmolaize, Benoit; Rose, Simon; Wilhelm, Cornelia

    2011-01-01

    of these species exhibit resistance to veterinary macrolides with phenotypes that fall into three distinct classes. The first class has type I macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B antibiotic resistance and, consistent with this, the 23S rRNA nucleotide A2058 is monomethylated by the enzyme product......(E) genes within an isogenic Escherichia coli background to assess their individually contributions to resistance. Our findings indicate what types of compounds might have driven the selection for these resistance determinants....

  9. Implementación, validación y aplicación de un nuevo método para la determinación de oxitetraciclina por HPLC en tejido muscular de salmonídeos Implementation, validation, and application of a new HPLC method to determine oxytetracycline in salmonid muscle tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Aguilera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se implementa y valida un método para identificar y cuantificar la oxitetraciclina en músculo de salmón, cuantificar los niveles de recuperación de oxitetraciclina y estudiar su fármaco cinética en diferentes órganos de salmones. La implementación correspondió a la detección y cuantificación de residuos del antibiótico en el tejido muscular de salmonídeos. El principio de la metodología HPLC incluyó la determinación de una serie de soluciones representativas de los estándares utilizados en la fortificación de las muestras. El tiempo de retención fue de 5,7 min. La validación del método, busca confirmar y documentar que los resultados entregados por el método implementado sean confiables. Para esto se llevaron a cabo análisis de parámetros tales como: selectividad, precisión, exactitud, sensibilidad e incertidumbre. Los resultados obtenidos señalan que el porcentaje de recuperación, es de un 96%. El coeficiente de correlación (R de la curva de calibrado es 0,9946 y el coeficiente de variación 1,86%.A method for identifying and quantifying oxytetracycline in salmon muscle, for quantifying oxytetracycline recovery levels, and for studying its pharmacokinetic in different organs of salmonids was implemented and validated. During implementation, antibiotic residues were detected and quantified in salmon muscle tissue. The principle of the HPLC methodology included determining a series of representative solutions of the standards, used to fortify the samples. The retention time was 5.7 min. The validation of the method sought to confirm and document the reliability of the results obtained with this method. For this, several parameters (selectivity, precision, accuracy, sensitivity, uncertainty were analyzed. The results obtained indicated 96% recovery. The coefficient of correlation (R of the calibration curve was 0.9946 and the coefficient of variation was 1.86%.

  10. Determination of Soil Moisture Content using Laboratory Experimental and Field Electrical Resistivity Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Rosli, S.; Fauziah, A.; Wijeyesekera, D. C.; Ashraf, M. I. M.; Faizal, T. B. M.; Kamarudin, A. F.; Rais, Y.; Dan, M. F. Md; Azhar, A. T. S.; Hafiz, Z. M.

    2018-04-01

    The efficiency of civil engineering structure require comprehensive geotechnical data obtained from site investigation. In the past, conventional site investigation was heavily related to drilling techniques thus suffer from several limitations such as time consuming, expensive and limited data collection. Consequently, this study presents determination of soil moisture content using laboratory experimental and field electrical resistivity values (ERV). Field and laboratory electrical resistivity (ER) test were performed using ABEM SAS4000 and Nilsson400 soil resistance meter. Soil sample used for resistivity test was tested for characterization test specifically on particle size distribution and moisture content test according to BS1377 (1990). Field ER data was processed using RES2DINV software while laboratory ER data was analyzed using SPSS and Excel software. Correlation of ERV and moisture content shows some medium relationship due to its r = 0.506. Moreover, coefficient of determination, R2 analyzed has demonstrate that the statistical correlation obtain was very good due to its R2 value of 0.9382. In order to determine soil moisture content based on statistical correlation (w = 110.68ρ-0.347), correction factor, C was established through laboratory and field ERV given as 19.27. Finally, this study has shown that soil basic geotechnical properties with particular reference to water content was applicably determined using integration of laboratory and field ERV data analysis thus able to compliment conventional approach due to its economic, fast and wider data coverage.

  11. "Tissue oxygen tension, a determinant of resistance to infection and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    "Tissue oxygen tension, a determinant of resistance to infection and healing" - An Inaugural Lecture. K Jönsson. Abstract. An Inaugural Lecture Given in the University of Zimbabwe on 21 June 2001. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  12. Quantifying the Determinants of Evolutionary Dynamics Leading to Drug Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Chevereau

    Full Text Available The emergence of drug resistant pathogens is a serious public health problem. It is a long-standing goal to predict rates of resistance evolution and design optimal treatment strategies accordingly. To this end, it is crucial to reveal the underlying causes of drug-specific differences in the evolutionary dynamics leading to resistance. However, it remains largely unknown why the rates of resistance evolution via spontaneous mutations and the diversity of mutational paths vary substantially between drugs. Here we comprehensively quantify the distribution of fitness effects (DFE of mutations, a key determinant of evolutionary dynamics, in the presence of eight antibiotics representing the main modes of action. Using precise high-throughput fitness measurements for genome-wide Escherichia coli gene deletion strains, we find that the width of the DFE varies dramatically between antibiotics and, contrary to conventional wisdom, for some drugs the DFE width is lower than in the absence of stress. We show that this previously underappreciated divergence in DFE width among antibiotics is largely caused by their distinct drug-specific dose-response characteristics. Unlike the DFE, the magnitude of the changes in tolerated drug concentration resulting from genome-wide mutations is similar for most drugs but exceptionally small for the antibiotic nitrofurantoin, i.e., mutations generally have considerably smaller resistance effects for nitrofurantoin than for other drugs. A population genetics model predicts that resistance evolution for drugs with this property is severely limited and confined to reproducible mutational paths. We tested this prediction in laboratory evolution experiments using the "morbidostat", a device for evolving bacteria in well-controlled drug environments. Nitrofurantoin resistance indeed evolved extremely slowly via reproducible mutations-an almost paradoxical behavior since this drug causes DNA damage and increases the mutation

  13. Tutorial: Determination of thermal boundary resistance by molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhi; Hu, Ming

    2018-05-01

    Due to the high surface-to-volume ratio of nanostructured components in microelectronics and other advanced devices, the thermal resistance at material interfaces can strongly affect the overall thermal behavior in these devices. Therefore, the thermal boundary resistance, R, must be taken into account in the thermal analysis of nanoscale structures and devices. This article is a tutorial on the determination of R and the analysis of interfacial thermal transport via molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In addition to reviewing the commonly used equilibrium and non-equilibrium MD models for the determination of R, we also discuss several MD simulation methods which can be used to understand interfacial thermal transport behavior. To illustrate how these MD models work for various interfaces, we will show several examples of MD simulation results on thermal transport across solid-solid, solid-liquid, and solid-gas interfaces. The advantages and drawbacks of a few other MD models such as approach-to-equilibrium MD and first-principles MD are also discussed.

  14. Comparison of Several Methods for Determining the Internal Resistance of Lithium Ion Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Georg Schweiger

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The internal resistance is the key parameter for determining power, energy efficiency and lost heat of a lithium ion cell. Precise knowledge of this value is vital for designing battery systems for automotive applications. Internal resistance of a cell was determined by current step methods, AC (alternating current methods, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and thermal loss methods. The outcomes of these measurements have been compared with each other. If charge or discharge of the cell is limited, current step methods provide the same results as energy loss methods.

  15. Application of manure containing tetracyclines slowed down the dissipation of tet resistance genes and caused changes in the composition of soil bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wenguang; Wang, Mei; Dai, Jinjun; Sun, Yongxue; Zeng, Zhenling

    2018-01-01

    Manure application contributes to the increased environmental burden of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). We investigated the response of tetracycline (tet) resistance genes and bacterial taxa to manure application amended with tetracyclines over two months. Representative tetracyclines (oxytetracycline, chlorotetracycline and doxycycline), tet resistance genes (tet(M), tet(O), tet(W), tet(S), tet(Q) and tet(X)) and bacterial taxa in the untreated soil, +manure, and +manure+tetracyclines groups were analyzed. The abundances of all tet resistance genes in the +manure group were significantly higher than those in the untreated soil group on day 1. The abundances of all tet resistance genes (except tet(Q) and tet(X)) were significantly lower in the +manure group than those in the +manure+tetracyclines group on day 30 and 60. The dissipation rates were higher in the +manure group than those in the +manure+tetracyclines group. Disturbance of soil bacterial community composition imposed by tetracyclines was also observed. The results indicated that tetracyclines slowed down the dissipation of tet resistance genes in arable soil after manure application. Application of manure amended with tetracyclines may provide a significant selective advantage for species affiliated to the taxonomical families of Micromonosporaceae, Propionibacteriaceae, Streptomycetaceae, Nitrospiraceae and Clostridiaceae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. DETERMINING THE THERMAL RESISTANCE OF A VENTILATED HINGED FACADE SYSTEM LAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagarin Vladimir Gennad'evich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Enveloping structures with hinged façade systems are nowadays widely used for moisture control of enveloping structures, prevention of overheating of the structures by insolation, saving the constructions from atmospheric moisture and also for correspondence with the raised requirements to thermal protection of the enveloping structures, aimed also at reducing energy consumption. In the winter conditions the influence of air layer on the thermal insulation parameters is usually neglected. In the article the thermal resistance of an air gap and is considered and its effect in the calculation of the heat resistance of a building envelope with hinged facade system is analyzed in the conditions of cold weather. The thermal resistance of the air layer determines how the heat losses decrease.

  17. Distribution of resistance genetic determinants among Vibrio cholerae isolates of 2012 and 2013 outbreaks in IR Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, Niloofar; Bakhshi, Bita; Najar-Peerayeh, Shahin

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize antimicrobial resistance determinants in relation to antimicrobial susceptibility and genotyping profile in 20 clinical isolates of Vibrio cholerae. All of the isolates were resistant to streptomycin. The second most prevalent resistance was observed to trimethoprim (75%), co-trimoxazole (60%), tetracycline (50%), and minocycline (45%). About 50% of the isolates fulfilled the criteria of Multi Drug Resistance (MDR) phenotype. None of the isolates carried tet A, B, C, and, D determinants. This finding shows that tetracycline resistance determinants recognized so far, does not satisfactorily describe the 50% tetracycline resistance phenotype in this study, suggesting the possible contribution of other not yet characterized resistance mechanisms involved. Class 1 integron, widely distributed among enteric bacteria, was not detected among V. cholerae strains under study. Conversely, 100% of the isolates harbored SXT constin (int) , among which 70% were positive for dfrA1, strA, and strB genes. The sul1gene was present in 60% of the isolates while none of them contained floR gene. All the isolates uniformly appeared to be identical in fingerprinting profiles expected from outbreak strains. In conclusion, SXT element with its mosaic structure was the exclusive antimicrobial resistance determinant of clonal V. cholerae isolates taken from outbreaks of 2012 and 2013 in Iran. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biofilm processes in treating mariculture wastewater may be a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shuai; Zhang, Shenghua; Ye, Chengsong; Lin, Wenfang; Zhang, Menglu; Chen, Lihua; Li, Jinmei; Yu, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotics are heavily used in Chinese mariculture, but only a small portion of the added antibiotics are absorbed by living creatures. Biofilm processes are universally used in mariculture wastewater treatment. In this study, removal of antibiotics (norfloxacin, rifampicin, and oxytetracycline) from wastewater by moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) and the influence of antibiotics on reactor biofilm were investigated. The results demonstrated that there was no significant effect of sub-μg/L–sub-mg/L concentrations of antibiotics on TOC removal. Moreover, the relative abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and antibiotic resistance bacteria (ARB) in MBBR biofilm increased because of selective pressure of antibiotics. In addition, antibiotics decreased the diversity of the biofilm bacterial community and altered bacterial community structure. These findings provide an empirical basis for the development of appropriate practices for mariculture, and suggest that disinfection and advanced oxidation should be applied to eliminate antibiotics, ARGs, and ARB from mariculture wastewater. - Highlights: • The removal of antibiotics by Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors (MBBR) was investigated. • Biofilm process such as MBBR had little effect on the removal of the antibiotics. • The antibiotics decreased the diversity of biofilm bacterial community and altered bacterial community structure. • Biofilm processes in treating mariculture wastewater may be a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes.

  19. Susceptibilities of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum strains to antimicrobial agents in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Laak, E A; Noordergraaf, J H; Verschure, M H

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the susceptibility of various strains of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum, which are prevalent causes of pneumonia in calves, to 16 antimicrobial agents in vitro. The MICs of the antimicrobial agents were determined by a serial broth dilution method for 16 field strains and the type strain of M. bovis, for 19 field strains and the type strain of M. dispar, and for 17 field strains of U. diversum. Final MICs for M. bovis and M. dispar were read after 7 days and final MICs for U. diversum after 1 to 2 days. All strains tested were susceptible to tylosin, kitasamycin, and tiamulin but were resistant to nifuroquine and streptomycin. Most strains of U. diversum were intermediately susceptible to oxytetracycline but fully susceptible to chlortetracycline; most strains of M. bovis and M. dispar, however, were resistant to both agents. Strains of M. dispar and U. diversum were susceptible to doxycycline and minocycline, but strains of M. bovis were only intermediately susceptible. Susceptibility or resistance to chloramphenicol, spiramycin, spectinomycin, lincomycin, or enrofloxacin depended on the species but was not equal for the three species. The type strains of M. bovis and M. dispar were more susceptible to various antimicrobial agents, including tetracyclines, than the field strains. This finding might indicate that M. bovis and M. dispar strains are becoming resistant to these agents. Antimicrobial agents that are effective in vitro against all three mycoplasma species can be considered for treating mycoplasma infections in pneumonic calves. Therefore, tylosin, kitasamycin, and tiamulin may be preferred over oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline.

  20. Liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of ten tetracycline residues in muscle samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajda Anna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method for the determination of oxytetracycline (OTC, 4-epi oxytetracycline (4-epi OTC, tetracycline (TC, 4-epi tetracycline (4-epi TC, chlortetracycline (CTC, 4-epi chlortetracycline (4-epi CTC, doxycycline (DC, minocycline (MINO, methacycline (META and rolitetracycline (ROLI residues in muscles was developed. The procedure consisted of an oxalic acid extraction followed by protein removal with trichloroacetic acid. Further solid phase clean-up on polymeric (Strata X reversed phase columns was performed to obtain an extract suitable for LC-MS/MS analysis. The tetracyclines were separated on a C 18 analytical column with mobile phase consisting of 0.01% formic acid in acetonitrile and 0.01% formic acid in water in gradient mode. The method was validated according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The recoveries of all target compounds were 91.8% – 103.6%. The decision limits were from 109.0 to 119.8 μg/kg and detection capability varied within the range of 122.2 to 137.6 μg/kg, depending on the analyte.

  1. Fluoroquinolone Resistance Mechanisms in an Escherichia coli Isolate, HUE1, Without Quinolone Resistance-Determining Region Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyotaka eSato

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluoroquinolone resistance can cause major clinical problems. Here, we investigated fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms in a clinical Escherichia coli isolate, HUE1, which had no mutations quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. HUE1 demonstrated MICs that exceeded the breakpoints for ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and norfloxacin. HUE1 harbored oqxAB and qnrS1 on distinct plasmids. In addition, it exhibited lower intracellular ciprofloxacin concentrations and higher mRNA expression levels of efflux pumps and their global activators than did reference strains. The genes encoding AcrR (local AcrAB repressor and MarR (MarA repressor were disrupted by insertion of the transposon IS3-IS629 and a frameshift mutation, respectively. A series of mutants derived from HUE1 were obtained by plasmid curing and gene knockout using homologous recombination. Compared to the MICs of the parent strain HUE1, the fluoroquinolone MICs of these mutants indicated that qnrS1, oqxAB, acrAB, acrF, acrD, mdtK, mdfA, and tolC contributed to the reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolone in HUE1. Therefore, fluoroquinolone resistance in HUE1 is caused by concomitant acquisition of QnrS1 and OqxAB and overexpression of AcrAB−TolC and other chromosome-encoded efflux pumps. Thus, we have demonstrated that QRDR mutations are not absolutely necessary for acquiring fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli.

  2. Factors determining sensitivity or resistance of tumor cell lines towards artesunate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertel, Serkan; Eichhorn, Tolga; Sieber, Sebastian; Sauer, Alexandra; Weiss, Johanna; Plinkert, Peter K; Efferth, Thomas

    2010-04-15

    Clinical oncology is still challenged by the development of drug resistance of tumors that result in poor prognosis for patients. There is an urgent necessity to understand the molecular mechanisms of resistance and to develop novel therapy strategies. Artesunate (ART) is an anti-malarial drug, which also exerts profound cytotoxic activity towards cancer cells. We first applied a gene-hunting approach using cluster and COMPARE analyses of microarray-based transcriptome-wide mRNA expression profiles. Among the genes identified by this approach were genes from diverse functional groups such as structural constituents of ribosomes (RPL6, RPL7, RPS12, RPS15A), kinases (CABC1, CCT2, RPL41), transcriptional and translational regulators (SFRS2, TUFM, ZBTB4), signal transducers (FLNA), control of cell growth and proliferation (RPS6), angiogenesis promoting factors (ITGB1), and others (SLC25A19, NCKAP1, BST1, DBH, FZD7, NACA, MTHFD2). Furthermore, we applied a candidate gene approach and tested the role of resistance mechanisms towards established anti-cancer drugs for ART resistance. By using transfected or knockout cell models we found that the tumor suppressor p16(INK4A) and the anti-oxidant protein, catalase, conferred resistance towards ART, while the oncogene HPV-E6 conferred sensitivity towards ART. The tumor suppressor p53 and its downstream protein, p21, as well as the anti-oxidant manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase did not affect cellular response to ART. In conclusion, our pharmacogenomic approach revealed that response of tumor cells towards ART is multi-factorial and is determined by gene expression associated with either ART sensitivity or resistance. At least some of the functional groups of genes (e.g. angiogenesis promoting factors, cell growth and proliferation-associated genes signal transducers and kinases) are also implicated in clinical responsiveness of tumors towards chemotherapy. It merits further investigation, whether ART is responsive in

  3. A measurement method for determination of dc internal resistance of batteries and supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Shuhong; Wu, Feng [Department of Materials Science, Beijing Science and Technology University, Beijing 100081 (China); Yang, Liuxiang; Gao, Lijun [Department of Chemistry, NanChang University, JiangXi 330031 (China); Burke, Andrew F. [Institute of Transportation, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Internal resistance is an importance parameter determining the power performance of a battery or supercapacitor. An 8.5 Ah Li-ion battery and a 350 F supercapacitor were tested as examples to validate the measurement method of dc internal resistance. Voltage data were taken at 10 ms, 2 s and 30 s after the current interruption or pulse. The ac resistances at 1 kHz of the battery and supercapacitor were also measured for comparison with the dc values. Based on these tests, it is proposed that the dc internal resistance of the battery and supercapacitor be obtained from {delta}V/{delta}I where the {delta}V is the voltage change after the current interruption, and {delta}I means current change from I to 0. When the voltage change at 10 ms or less is selected, the resistance corresponds to the Ohmic resistance of the device. (author)

  4. Metal ion-oxytetracycline pharmacokinetic interactions after oral co-administration in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowski, H; Jasiecka, A; Zuśka-Prot, M; Przybysz, J; Grabowski, T; Jaroszewski, J J

    2016-08-01

    The influence of the composition of calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), and iron (Fe(3+)) ions in two concentration levels (low-500 mg/L of CaCl2, 125 mg/L of MgCl2, and 10 mg/L of FeCl3 and high-2,500 mg/L of CaCl2, 625 mg/L of MgCl2, and 50 mg/L of FeCl3) contained in water on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of oxytetracycline (OTC) was determined. OTC hydrochloride was administered at a dose of 25 mg/kg of body weight to broiler chickens divided into four groups of nine birds each, including 3 oral groups (in deionized water -control, in water with low ion concentration, and in water with high ion concentration) and 1 intravenous group. OTC concentrations in plasma were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, after which non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted.The absolute bioavailability of OTC in the group of birds exposed to higher ions concentration was reduced (8.68% ± 2.56) as compared to the control (13.71% ± 2.60). Additionally, in this group, decrease in PK parameters such as: area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to infinity (15.36 μg × h/mL ± 4.36), from 0 to t (14.78 μg × h/mL ± 4.37), area under the first moment of curve from 0 to t (107.54 μg × h/mL ± 36.48), and maximum plasma concentration (2.13 μg/mL ± 0.32) were also observed. It is noteworthy, all mentioned parameters demonstrated a downward trend with high correlation coefficient (P = 0.004, P = 0.002, P = 0.005, P = 0.004, P = 0.011, respectively), reflecting the influence of increasing concentrations of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Fe(3+) ions on the decreasing absorption rate of OTC.Based on the current research results, it can be assumed that high concentrations of several ions applied concomitantly are able to decrease the absorption of OTC from gastrointestinal tract in broiler chickens. This occurrence might impair the drug's clinical efficacy toward some pathogenic microorganisms. It implies that using OTC on a farm may require

  5. 76 FR 60448 - Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Lepidopteran-Resistant Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ...] Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Lepidopteran-Resistant Cotton AGENCY... our determination that a cotton line developed by Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc., designated as event... submitted by Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc., in its petition for a determination of nonregulated status, our...

  6. Molecular and Cellular Effects Induced in Mytilus galloprovincialis Treated with Oxytetracycline at Different Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banni, Mohamed; Sforzini, Susanna; Franzellitti, Silvia; Oliveri, Caterina; Viarengo, Aldo; Fabbri, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluatedthe interactive effects of temperature (16°C and 24°C) and a 4-day treatment with the antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC) at 1 and 100μg/L on cellular and molecular parameters in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Lysosomal membrane stability (LMS), a sensitive biomarker of impaired health status in this organism, was assessed in the digestive glands. In addition, oxidative stress markers and the expression of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in antioxidant defense (catalase (cat) and glutathione-S-transferase (gst)) and the heat shock response (hsp90, hsp70, and hsp27) were evaluated in the gills, the target tissue of soluble chemicals. Finally, cAMP levels, which represent an important cell signaling pathway related to oxidative stress and the response to temperature challenges, were also determined in the gills. Exposure to heat stress as well as to OTC rendered a decrease in LMS and an increase in malonedialdehyde accumulation (MDA). CAT activity was not significantly modified, whereas GST activity decreased at 24°C. Cat and gst expression levels were reduced in animals kept at 24°C compared to 16°C in the presence or absence of OTC. At 16°C, treatment with OTC caused a significant increase in cat and gst transcript levels. Hsp27 mRNA was significantly up-regulated at all conditions compared to controls at 16°C. cAMP levels were increased at 24°C independent of the presence of OTC. PCA analysis showed that 37.21% and 25.89% of the total variance was explained by temperature and OTC treatment, respectively. Interestingly, a clear interaction was observed in animals exposed to both stressors increasing LMS and MDA accumulation and reducing hsp27 gene expression regulation. These interactions may suggest a risk for the organisms due to temperature increases in contaminated seawaters. PMID:26067465

  7. [Identification of lactic acid bacteria in commercial yogurt and their antibiotic resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuxuan; Li, Jing; Wang, Qiuya; Gao, Kexin; Zhu, Baoli; Lv, Na

    2013-08-04

    To identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in commercial yogurts and investigate their antibiotic resistance. LABs were cultured from 5 yogurt brands and the isolates were identified at the species level by 16S rRNA sequence. Genotyping was performed by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR). The sensitivity to 7 antibiotics was tested for all LAB isolates by Kirby-Bauer paper diffusion (K-B method). Meanwhile, 9 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), including erythromycin resistance genes (ermA and ermB) and tetracycline resistance genes (tetM, tetK, tetS, tetQ, tetO, tetL and tetW), were detected by PCR amplification in the identified LAB isolates. The PCR products were confirmed by sequencing. Total 100 LABs were isolated, including 23 Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, 26 Lactobacillus casei, 30 Streptococcus thermophilus, 5 Lactobacillus acidophilus, 6 Lactobacillus plantarum, and 10 Lactobacillus paracasei. The drug susceptibility test shows that all 100 isolates were resistant to gentamicin and streptomycin, 42 isolates were resistant to vancomycin, and on the contrary all were sensitive to cefalexin, erythromycin, tetracycline and oxytetracycline. Moreover, 5 ARGs were found in the 28 sequencing confirmed isolates, ermB gene was detected in 8 isolates, tet K in 4 isolates, tetL in 2 isolates, tetM in 4 isolates, tetO in 2 isolates. erm A, tet S, tet Q and tet W genes were not detected in the isolates. Antibiotic resistance genes were found in 53.57% (15/28) sequenced isolates, 2 -3 antibiotic resistance genes were detected in 4 isolates of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus. Some LABs were not labeled in commercial yogurt products. Antibiotic resistance genes tend to be found in the starter culture of L. delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus and S. thermophilus. All the LAB isolates were sensitive to erythromycin and tetracycline, even though some carried erythromycin and/or tetracycline resistance genes. We proved again that LAB could carry antibiotic

  8. Antibiotic Resistance Determinant-Focused Acinetobacter baumannii Vaccine Designed Using Reverse Vaccinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhaohui; Chen, Yan; Ong, Edison; He, Yongqun

    2017-02-21

    As one of the most influential and troublesome human pathogens, Acinetobacter baumannii ( A. baumannii ) has emerged with many multidrug-resistant strains. After collecting 33 complete A. baumannii genomes and 84 representative antibiotic resistance determinants, we used the Vaxign reverse vaccinology approach to predict classical type vaccine candidates against A. baumannii infections and new type vaccine candidates against antibiotic resistance. Our genome analysis identified 35 outer membrane or extracellular adhesins that are conserved among all 33 genomes, have no human protein homology, and have less than 2 transmembrane helices. These 35 antigens include 11 TonB dependent receptors, 8 porins, 7 efflux pump proteins, and 2 fimbrial proteins (FilF and CAM87009.1). CAM86003.1 was predicted to be an adhesin outer membrane protein absent from 3 antibiotic-sensitive strains and conserved in 21 antibiotic-resistant strains. Feasible anti-resistance vaccine candidates also include one extracellular protein (QnrA), 3 RND type outer membrane efflux pump proteins, and 3 CTX-M type β-lactamases. Among 39 β-lactamases, A. baumannii CTX-M-2, -5, and -43 enzymes are predicted as adhesins and better vaccine candidates than other β-lactamases to induce preventive immunity and enhance antibiotic treatments. This report represents the first reverse vaccinology study to systematically predict vaccine antigen candidates against antibiotic resistance for a microbial pathogen.

  9. Role of wild birds as carriers of multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli and Escherichia vulneris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Y. Shobrak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Emergence and distribution of multi-drug resistant (MDR bacteria in environments pose a risk to human and animal health. A total of 82 isolates of Escherichia spp. were recovered from cloacal swabs of migrating and non-migrating wild birds. All bacterial isolates were identified and characterized morphologically and biochemically. 72% and 50% of isolates recovered from non-migrating and migrating birds, respectively, showed positive congo red dye binding (a virulence factor. Also, hemolysin production (a virulence factor was showed in 8% of isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and 75% of isolates recovered from migrating birds. All isolates recovered from non-migrating birds were found resistant to Oxacillin while all isolates recovered from migrating birds demonstrated resistance to Oxacillin, Chloramphenicol, Oxytetracycline and Lincomycin. Some bacterial isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and migrating birds exhibited MDR phenotype. The MDR isolates were further characterized by API 20E and 16S rRNA as E. coli and E. vulneris. MDR Escherichia isolates contain ~1-5 plasmids of high-molecular weights. Accordingly, wild birds could create a potential threat to human and animal health by transmitting MDR bacteria to water streams and other environmental sources through their faecal residues, and to remote regions by migration.

  10. Role of wild birds as carriers of multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli and Escherichia vulneris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobrak, Mohammed Y.; Abo-Amer, Aly E.

    2014-01-01

    Emergence and distribution of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria in environments pose a risk to human and animal health. A total of 82 isolates of Escherichia spp. were recovered from cloacal swabs of migrating and non-migrating wild birds. All bacterial isolates were identified and characterized morphologically and biochemically. 72% and 50% of isolates recovered from non-migrating and migrating birds, respectively, showed positive congo red dye binding (a virulence factor). Also, hemolysin production (a virulence factor) was showed in 8% of isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and 75% of isolates recovered from migrating birds. All isolates recovered from non-migrating birds were found resistant to Oxacillin while all isolates recovered from migrating birds demonstrated resistance to Oxacillin, Chloramphenicol, Oxytetracycline and Lincomycin. Some bacterial isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and migrating birds exhibited MDR phenotype. The MDR isolates were further characterized by API 20E and 16S rRNA as E. coli and E. vulneris. MDR Escherichia isolates contain ~1–5 plasmids of high-molecular weights. Accordingly, wild birds could create a potential threat to human and animal health by transmitting MDR bacteria to water streams and other environmental sources through their faecal residues, and to remote regions by migration. PMID:25763023

  11. System and method for determining stator winding resistance in an AC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin [Kenosha, WI; Habetler, Thomas G [Snellville, GA; Zhang, Pinjia [Atlanta, GA; Theisen, Peter J [West Bend, WI

    2011-05-31

    A system and method for determining stator winding resistance in an AC motor is disclosed. The system includes a circuit having an input connectable to an AC source and an output connectable to an input terminal of an AC motor. The circuit includes at least one contactor and at least one switch to control current flow and terminal voltages in the AC motor. The system also includes a controller connected to the circuit and configured to modify a switching time of the at least one switch to create a DC component in an output of the system corresponding to an input to the AC motor and determine a stator winding resistance of the AC motor based on the injected DC component of the voltage and current.

  12. Nickel-resistance determinants in Acidiphilium sp. PM identified by genome-wide functional screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patxi San Martin-Uriz

    Full Text Available Acidiphilium spp. are conspicuous dwellers of acidic, metal-rich environments. Indeed, they are among the most metal-resistant organisms; yet little is known about the mechanisms behind the metal tolerance in this genus. Acidiphilium sp. PM is an environmental isolate from Rio Tinto, an acidic, metal-laden river located in southwestern Spain. The characterization of its metal resistance revealed a remarkable ability to tolerate high Ni concentrations. Here we report the screening of a genomic library of Acidiphilium sp. PM to identify genes involved in Ni resistance. This approach revealed seven different genes conferring Ni resistance to E. coli, two of which form an operon encoding the ATP-dependent protease HslVU (ClpQY. This protease was found to enhance resistance to both Ni and Co in E. coli, a function not previously reported. Other Ni-resistance determinants include genes involved in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and the synthesis of branched amino acids. The diversity of molecular functions of the genes recovered in the screening suggests that Ni resistance in Acidiphilium sp. PM probably relies on different molecular mechanisms.

  13. Unión de los antibióticos tilosina, tilmicosina y oxitetraciclina a proteínas presentes en abejas, larvas y productos de la colmena de Apis mellifera L Binding of tylosin, tilmicosin and oxytetracycline to proteins from honeybees, larvae and beehive products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Reynaldi

    2010-12-01

    misuse may lead to antibiotic resistance of bacterial strains and honey contamination. The objective of the present work was to determine, through a biological method, the protein binding of tylosin, tilmicosin and oxytetracycline to worker jelly; honey; pollen; adult bees and larvae in order to propose their kinetic routes. The sensitivity limit of the technique used was 0.05 μg/ml for tylosin and tilmicosin and 0.01 μg/ml for oxytetracycline, respectively. The method had intra and inter-assay correlation coefficients over 0.90, respectively and a coefficient variation of intra-and inter-assay for all antibiotics and processed samples under 5%. Tylosin and oxytetracycline presented lower percentages of protein binding in tissues and hive products (average 15% in relation to those observed for tilmicosin (29%. In conclusion, tylosin is useful for AFB control in honey bee colonies due to its chemical characteristics, antimicrobial activity and levels of protein binding in bees, larvae, and beehive products.

  14. TiO2-BASED Composite Films for the Photodegradation of Oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Guan, Ling-Xiao; Feng, Ji-Jun; Li, Fang; Yao, Ming-Ming

    2015-02-01

    The spread of the antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC) has been thought as a threat to the safety of drinking water. In this paper, the photocatalytic activity of the nanocrystalline Fe/Ca co-doped TiO2-SiO2 composite film for the degradation of OTC was studied. The films were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, photoluminescence (PL) spectra, and UV-Vis diffraction reflectance absorption spectra (DRS). The FE-SEM results indicated that the Fe/Ca co-doped TiO2-SiO2 film was composed of smaller nanoparticles compared to pure TiO2 or TiO2-SiO2 film. The BET surface area results showed that the specific surface area of the pure TiO2, TiO2-SiO2 and Ca2+/Fe3+ co-doped TiO2-SiO2 is 118.3 m2g-1, 294.3 m2g-1 and 393.7 m2g-1, respectively. The DRS and PL spectra revealed that the Fe/Ca co-doped TiO2-SiO2 film had strong visible light adsorption and diminished electrons/holes recombination. Experimental results showed that the Fe/Ca co-doped TiO2-SiO2 film is effective in the degradation of OTC under both UV and visible light irradiation.

  15. Oxytetracycline recovery from aqueous media using computationally designed molecularly imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Dorado, Rosalía; Carro, Antonia M; Chianella, Iva; Karim, Kal; Concheiro, Angel; Lorenzo, Rosa A; Piletsky, Sergey; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2016-09-01

    Polymers for recovery/removal of the antimicrobial agent oxytetracycline (OTC) from aqueous media were developed with use of computational design and molecular imprinting. 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate, 2-acrylamide-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS), and mixtures of the two were chosen according to their predicted affinity for OTC and evaluated as functional monomers in molecularly imprinted polymers and nonimprinted polymers. Two levels of AMPS were tested. After bulk polymerization, the polymers were crushed into particles (200-1000 μm). Pressurized liquid extraction was implemented for template removal with a low amount of methanol (less than 20 mL in each extraction) and a few extractions (12-18 for each polymer) in a short period (20 min per extraction). Particle size distribution, microporous structure, and capacity to rebind OTC from aqueous media were evaluated. Adsorption isotherms obtained from OTC solutions (30-110 mg L(-1)) revealed that the polymers prepared with AMPS had the highest affinity for OTC. The uptake capacity depended on the ionic strength as follows: purified water > saline solution (0.9 % NaCl) > seawater (3.5 % NaCl). Polymer particles containing AMPS as a functional monomer showed a remarkable ability to clean water contaminated with OTC. The usefulness of the stationary phase developed for molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction was also demonstrated. Graphical Abstract Selection of functional monomers by molecular modeling renders polymer networks suitable for removal of pollutants from contaminated aqueous environments, under either dynamic or static conditions.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Three Methods for Determination of Imipenem Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaz Zabihi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available "> Background: These days, the antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates toimipenem has significantly increased. Therefore the study of resistance to imipenem in thisorganism to imipenem in determining the appropriate treatment is crucial and necessary. The goalof this study is to compare three phenotypic methods of E-test, disk diffusion and micro brothdilution in the study of resistance to imipenem in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa.Methods: Within a 6-month interval, 120 clinical specimens were collected and evaluated. Allisolates were identified as P. aeruginosa by standard biochemical tests and amplification of 16SrRNA gene. Three phenotypic methods of E-test, disk diffusion, and micro broth dilution wereused to determine imipenem resistance in P. aeruginosa isolates.Results: Of the 96 P. aeruginosa isolates studied for their resistance to imipenem by the use ofE-test, disk diffusion and micro broth dilution methods, 38.5% of the strains in micro broth dilutionmethod and 33.3% in the two methods of E-test and disk diffusion were resistant to imipenem. Therate of sensitivity and specificity of disk diffusion and E-test methods were 100%, 90.1%, and theywere 100% and 83.1% for micro broth dilution, respectively.Conclusions: With regard to the results obtained from the comparison of the three methods100% agreement were observed among the antimicrobial susceptibility results obtained by the Etest and disk diffusion methods (P ≥ 0.05. Therefore, the use of disk diffusion method can bean appropriate replacement for E-test method with regard to its being easy and cost-effective.

  17. Hairy roots of Helianthus annuus: a model system to study phytoremediation of tetracycline and oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujarathi, Ninad P; Haney, Bryan J; Park, Heidi J; Wickramasinghe, S Ranil; Linden, James C

    2005-01-01

    The release of antibiotics to the environment has to be controlled because of serious threats to human health. Hairy root cultures of Helianthus annuus (sunflower), along with their inherent rhizospheric activity, provide a fast growing, microbe-free environment for understanding plant-pollutant interactions. The root system catalyzes rapid disappearance of tetracycline (TC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) from aqueous media, which suggests roots have potential for phytoremediation of the two antibiotics in vivo. In addition, in vitro modifications of the two antibiotics by filtered, cell- and microbe-free root exudates suggest involvement of root-secreted compounds. The modification is confirmed from changes observed in UV spectra of exudate-treated OTC. Modification appears to be more dominant at the BCD chromophore of the antibiotic molecule. Kinetic analyses dismiss direct enzyme catalysis; the modification rates decrease with increasing OTC concentrations. The rates increase with increasing age of cultures from which root exudates are prepared. The decrease in modification rates upon addition of the antioxidant ascorbic acid (AA) suggests involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the antibiotic modification process.

  18. Characterization of multiple antibiotic resistant clinical strains of Staphylococcus isolated from pregnant women vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetsa, Bakwena Ashton; Kumar, Ajay; Ateba, Collins Njie

    2018-03-29

    Vagina which is one of the important reservoirs for Staphylococcus and in pregnant women pathogenic strains may infect the child during the birth or by vertical transmission. A total of 68 presumptive Staphylococcus strains isolated from human vagina were found to be gram-positive cocci, and only 32 (47%) isolates were found beta-hemolytic. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) results confirmed 33 isolates belonged to Staphylococcus which consisting of 6 species, i.e., S. aureus (14), S. vitulinus (7), S. epidermidis (4), S cohnii (3), S. equorum (3), and S. succinus (2). Further, the result of antibiotic susceptibility tests showed that large proportions (76%-100%) of the isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics and more often resistant to penicillin (100%), ampicillin (100%), oxacillin (97%), oxytetracycline (97%), vancomycin (97%), rifampin (85%), erythromycin (82%), and streptomycin (76%). In the present study, only the sec enterotoxin gene was detected in four S. aureus strains. DNA fingerprints of the 33 isolates that were generated using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) PCR analysis revealed great genetic relatedness of isolates. High prevalence of vaginal colonization with multiple antibiotic-resistant staphylococci among pregnant women was observed which were emerged from the single respective species clones that underwent evolution. The vertical transmission of these multiple antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus species to the infant is possible; therefore, the findings of this study emphasize the need for regular surveillance of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains in pregnant women in this area.

  19. The effect of oyster mushroom β-1.3/1.6-D-glucan and oxytetracycline antibiotic on biometrical, haematological, biochemical, and immunological indices, and histopathological changes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobšíková, Radka; Blahová, Jana; Mikulíková, Ivana; Modrá, Helena; Prášková, Eva; Svobodová, Zdeňka; Skorič, Mišo; Jarkovský, Jiří; Siwicki, Andrzej-Krzysztof

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of micronized β-1.3/1.6-D-glucan (BG) derived from the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus Hiratake and tetracycline antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC) on biometrical, haematological, biochemical, and immunological indices, and histopathological changes in tissues of one- to two-year-old common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The fish tested were divided into five experimental groups and one control. Carp in the control group were fed commercial carp feed pellets. Fish in the five experimental groups were fed the same pellets supplemented with either OTC, a combination of OTC and BG, or BG as follows: 75 mg oxytetracycline kg(-1) bw (OTC group), 75 mg oxytetracycline kg(-1) bw and 0.5% β-glucan (OTC + 0.5% BG group), 75 mg oxytetracycline kg(-1) bw and 2.0% β-glucan (OTC + 2.0% BG group), 0.5% β-glucan (0.5% BG group), and 2.0% β-glucan (2.0% BG group). OTC- and BG-supplemented diets and the control diet were administered to experimental and control carp for 50 days (i.e. samplings 1-3, the exposure period); for the following 14 days, fish were fed only control feed pellets with no OTC or BG supplementation (i.e. sampling 4, the recovery period). Blood and tissue samples were collected both during, and at the end of the study. No significant changes in biometrical indices (i.e. total length, standard length, total weight, hepatosomatic and spleen somatic index, and Fulton's condition factor) were found in experimental carp compared to control in any sampling. In haematological indices, significant changes were found only in sampling 2, in which shifts in PCV (P < 0.01), Hb (P < 0.01), and WBC (P < 0.01), and in the counts of lymphocytes (P < 0.01), monocytes (P < 0.01), and neutrophil granulocytes-segments (P < 0.05) were revealed. As for biochemical profiling, plasma concentrations of glucose, albumins, cholesterol, natrium, and chlorides (all P < 0.01), and total proteins, lactate, phosphorus, and potassium (all P < 0

  20. Interactions of oxytetracycline with a smectite clay: a spectroscopic study with molecular simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristilde, Ludmilla; Marichal, Claire; Miéhé-Brendlé, Jocelyne; Lanson, Bruno; Charlet, Laurent

    2010-10-15

    Binding of antibiotics to clay minerals can decrease both their physical and biological availability in soils. To elucidate the binding mechanisms of tetracycline antibiotics on smectite clays as a function of pH, we probed the interactions of oxytetracycline (OTC) with Na-montmorillonite (MONT) using X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR), and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, and Monte Carlo molecular simulations. The XRD patterns demonstrate the presence of OTC in the MONT interlayer space at acidic pH whereas complexation of OTC by external basal and edge sites seems to prevail at pH 8. At both pH, the (1)H-(13)C NMR profile indicates restricted mobility of the adsorbed OTC species; and, -CH(3) deformation and C-N stretching IR vibration bands confirm a binding mechanism involving the protonated dimethylamino group of OTC. Changes in the (23)Na NMR environments are consistent with cation-exchange and cation complexation reactions at the different sites of adsorption. Molecular simulations indicate that MONT interlayer spacing and structural charge localization dictate favorable binding conformations of the intercalated OTC, facilitating multiple interactions in agreement with the spectroscopic data. Our results present complementary insights into the mechanisms of adsorption of TETs on smectites important for their retention in natural and engineered soil environments.

  1. Upconversion luminescence resonance energy transfer-based aptasensor for the sensitive detection of oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Fang, Congcong; Wu, Shijia; Duan, Nuo; Wang, Zhouping

    2015-11-15

    In this work, a biosensor based on luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) from NaYF4:Yb,Tm upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) to SYBR Green I has been developed. The aptamers are covalently linked to UCNPs and hybridized with their complementary strands. The subsequent addition of SYBR Green allows SYBR Green I to insert into the formed double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) duplex and brings the energy donor and acceptor into close proximity, leading to the fluorescence of UCNPs transferred to SYBR Green I. When excited at 980 nm, the UCNPs emit luminescence at 477 nm, and this energy is transferred to SYBR Green I, which emits luminescence at 530 nm. In the presence of oxytetracycline (OTC), the aptamers prefer to bind to its corresponding analyte and dehybridize with the complementary DNA. This dehybridization leads to the liberation of SYBR Green I, which distances SYBR Green I from the UCNPs and recovers the UCNPs' luminescence. Under optimal conditions, a linear calibration is obtained between the ratio of I530 to I477 nm (I530/I477) and the OTC concentration, which ranges from 0.1 to 10 ng/ml with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.054 ng/ml. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Metagenomic profiling of microbial composition and antibiotic resistance determinants in Puget Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, Jesse A; Wallace, James C; Griffith, William C; Faustman, Elaine M

    2012-01-01

    Human-health relevant impacts on marine ecosystems are increasing on both spatial and temporal scales. Traditional indicators for environmental health monitoring and microbial risk assessment have relied primarily on single species analyses and have provided only limited spatial and temporal information. More high-throughput, broad-scale approaches to evaluate these impacts are therefore needed to provide a platform for informing public health. This study uses shotgun metagenomics to survey the taxonomic composition and antibiotic resistance determinant content of surface water bacterial communities in the Puget Sound estuary. Metagenomic DNA was collected at six sites in Puget Sound in addition to one wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) that discharges into the Sound and pyrosequenced. A total of ~550 Mbp (1.4 million reads) were obtained, 22 Mbp of which could be assembled into contigs. While the taxonomic and resistance determinant profiles across the open Sound samples were similar, unique signatures were identified when comparing these profiles across the open Sound, a nearshore marina and WWTP effluent. The open Sound was dominated by α-Proteobacteria (in particular Rhodobacterales sp.), γ-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes while the marina and effluent had increased abundances of Actinobacteria, β-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. There was a significant increase in the antibiotic resistance gene signal from the open Sound to marina to WWTP effluent, suggestive of a potential link to human impacts. Mobile genetic elements associated with environmental and pathogenic bacteria were also differentially abundant across the samples. This study is the first comparative metagenomic survey of Puget Sound and provides baseline data for further assessments of community composition and antibiotic resistance determinants in the environment using next generation sequencing technologies. In addition, these genomic signals of potential human impact can be used to guide initial

  3. Metagenomic profiling of microbial composition and antibiotic resistance determinants in Puget Sound.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse A Port

    Full Text Available Human-health relevant impacts on marine ecosystems are increasing on both spatial and temporal scales. Traditional indicators for environmental health monitoring and microbial risk assessment have relied primarily on single species analyses and have provided only limited spatial and temporal information. More high-throughput, broad-scale approaches to evaluate these impacts are therefore needed to provide a platform for informing public health. This study uses shotgun metagenomics to survey the taxonomic composition and antibiotic resistance determinant content of surface water bacterial communities in the Puget Sound estuary. Metagenomic DNA was collected at six sites in Puget Sound in addition to one wastewater treatment plant (WWTP that discharges into the Sound and pyrosequenced. A total of ~550 Mbp (1.4 million reads were obtained, 22 Mbp of which could be assembled into contigs. While the taxonomic and resistance determinant profiles across the open Sound samples were similar, unique signatures were identified when comparing these profiles across the open Sound, a nearshore marina and WWTP effluent. The open Sound was dominated by α-Proteobacteria (in particular Rhodobacterales sp., γ-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes while the marina and effluent had increased abundances of Actinobacteria, β-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. There was a significant increase in the antibiotic resistance gene signal from the open Sound to marina to WWTP effluent, suggestive of a potential link to human impacts. Mobile genetic elements associated with environmental and pathogenic bacteria were also differentially abundant across the samples. This study is the first comparative metagenomic survey of Puget Sound and provides baseline data for further assessments of community composition and antibiotic resistance determinants in the environment using next generation sequencing technologies. In addition, these genomic signals of potential human impact can be used

  4. Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated from Lebanese Patients: Phenotypes and Genotypes of Resistance, Clonality, and Determinants of Pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdouh, Elias; Hajjar, Micheline; Suarez, Monica; Daoud, Ziad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen that usually affects critically ill patients. High mortality rates have been associated with MDR A. baumannii infections. Carbapenem resistance among these isolates is increasing worldwide and is associated with certain International Clones (ICs) and oxacillinases (OXAs). Moreover, this organism possesses a wide range of virulence factors, whose expression is not yet fully understood. In this study, clinical A. baumannii isolates are characterized in terms of antibiotic resistance, mechanisms of carbapenem resistance, clonality, and virulence. Materials and Methods: A. baumannii clinical isolates ( n = 90) where obtained from a tertiary care center in Beirut, Lebanon. API 20NE strips in addition to the amplification of bla OXA-51-like were used for identification. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by disk diffusion was then performed in addition to PCRs for the detection of the most commonly disseminated carbapenemases. Clonality was determined by tri-locus PCR typing and doubling times were determined for isolates with varying susceptibility profiles. Biofilm formation, hemolysis, siderophore production, proteolytic activity, and surface motility was then determined for all the isolates. Statistical analysis was then performed for the determination of associations. Results and Discussion: 81 (90%) of the isolates were resistant to carbapenems. These high rates are similar to other multi-center studies in the country suggesting the need of intervention on a national level. 74 (91.3%) of the carbapenem resistant isolates harbored bla OXA-23-like including two that also harbored bla OXA-24-like . 88.9% of the A. baumannii isolates pertained to ICII and three other international clones were detected, showing the wide dissemination of clones into geographically distinct locations. Virulence profiles were highly diverse and no specific pattern was observed. Nevertheless, an association between motility

  5. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic integration and modelling of oxytetracycline for the porcine pneumonia pathogens Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorey, L; Pelligand, L; Cheng, Z; Lees, P

    2017-10-01

    Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) integration and modelling were used to predict dosage schedules of oxytetracycline for two pig pneumonia pathogens, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and mutant prevention concentration (MPC) were determined in broth and porcine serum. PK/PD integration established ratios of average concentration over 48 h (C av0-48 h )/MIC of 5.87 and 0.27 μg/mL (P. multocida) and 0.70 and 0.85 μg/mL (A. pleuropneumoniae) for broth and serum MICs, respectively. PK/PD modelling of in vitro time-kill curves established broth and serum breakpoint values for area under curve (AUC 0-24 h )/MIC for three levels of inhibition of growth, bacteriostasis and 3 and 4 log 10 reductions in bacterial count. Doses were then predicted for each pathogen, based on Monte Carlo simulations, for: (i) bacteriostatic and bactericidal levels of kill; (ii) 50% and 90% target attainment rates (TAR); and (iii) single dosing and daily dosing at steady-state. For 90% TAR, predicted daily doses at steady-state for bactericidal actions were 1123 mg/kg (P. multocida) and 43 mg/kg (A. pleuropneumoniae) based on serum MICs. Lower TARs were predicted from broth MIC data; corresponding dose estimates were 95 mg/kg (P. multocida) and 34 mg/kg (A. pleuropneumoniae). © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Characterization of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Genes on an Ecological Farm System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songhe Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern worldwide about the prevalence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs on the farm. In this study, we investigated the distribution of seven antibiotics and ten ARGs in fresh and dried pig feces, in biogas slurry, and in grape-planting soil from an ecological farm. Antibiotics including sulfamethazine, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline were detected in these samples (except for sulfamethoxazole in dried feces. In general, antibiotics levels in samples were in the sequence: biogas slurry > fresh feces > soil or dried feces. Results of ecological risk assessments revealed that among the seven antibiotics chlortetracycline showed the highest ecological risk. Among the ten ARGs, sulI and tetO were the most prevalent on this ecological farm. There were positive correlations between certain ARGs and the corresponding antibiotics on this ecological farm. Therefore, continuous monitoring of antibiotics and their corresponding ARGs should be conducted in the agroecosystem near the concentrated animal farming operation systems.

  7. Determinants of Intravascular Resistance in Indian Diabetic Nephropathy Patients: A Hospital-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav Thukral

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives. Metabolic dysregulation has failed to explain clinical variability of patients with diabetic nephropathy and hence a renewed interest emerged in haemodynamic factors as determinant of progression and development of diabetic nephropathy. We therefore studied for various factors which can correlate with raised renal vascular resistance in diabetic nephropathy. Material and Methods. Renal vascular resistance was measured in patients with established and incipient diabetic nephropathy and compared with controls using noninvasive color Doppler examinations of intrarenal vasculature. Results. Renal vascular resistance correlated with age, duration of disease, GFR, serum creatinine, and stage of retinopathy. Renal vascular resistance was significantly reduced in patients on treatment with RAAS inhibitors and insulin, than those on OHA and antihypertensives other than RAAS inhibitors. Conclusion. The study implies that renal vascular resistance may help identify diabetics at high risk of developing nephropathy, and these set of patients could be candidates for RAAS inhibition and early insulin therapy even in patients without albuminuria.

  8. Otimização e validação de método para determinação de resíduos de oxitetraciclina, tetraciclina e clortetraciclina em leite por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência Optimization and validation of a method for determination of oxytetracycline, tetracycline and chlortetracycline residues in milk by high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara C. A. Ruela

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Um método para determinação de resíduos de oxitetraciclina, tetraciclina e clortetraciclina em leite por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência foi otimizado e validado. Ensaios intralaboratoriais empregando soluções padrão, brancos de amostras e amostras adicionadas de soluções padrão dos antimicrobianos foram realizados para avaliação da linearidade, seletividade, exatidão, precisão, limites de detecção e de quantificação do método. As amostras foram homogeneizadas, tratadas com solução tampão de succinato de sódio pH 4,0 e centrifugadas, descartando-se o precipitado. As tetraciclinas foram removidas do sobrenadante por quelação com íons cobre reversivelmente ligados à resina quelante e eluídas com tampão McIlvaine-EDTA pH 4,0. As médias de recuperação para as tetraciclinas foram de 76,2 a 104,9% com coeficiente de variação na faixa de 1,4 a 18,9%. Limites de detecção de 10, 15 e 40ng/mL e limites de quantificação de 10, 20 e 50ng/mL foram determinados para oxitetraciclina, tetraciclina e clortetraciclina, respectivamente.A method for determination of oxytetracycline, tetracycline and chlortetracycline residues in milk by high performance liquid chromatography was optimized and validated. Linearity, selectivity, trueness, precision, limits of detection and quantitation were evaluated by in-house validation procedures employing reference materials, sample blanks and spiked samples. Milk samples were homogenized, treated with sodium succinate pH 4.0 buffer and centrifuged, discarding the precipitate. Tetracyclines were removed from the supernatant by chelating with metal ions bound to a chelating resin and eluted with McIlvaine-EDTA pH 4.0 buffer. Mean recoveries for tetracyclines ranged from 76.2 to 104.9% with coefficients of variation from 1.4 to 18.9%. Detection limits of 10, 15 and 40ng/mL and quantitation limits of 10, 20 and 50ng/mL were determined for oxytetracycline, tetracycline and

  9. Crystal Structure of the Substrate-Binding Domain from Listeria monocytogenes Bile-Resistance Determinant BilE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz, Stephanie J.; Schuurman-Wolters, Gea K.; Poolman, Bert

    2016-01-01

    BilE has been reported as a bile resistance determinant that plays an important role in colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by Listeria monocytogenes, the causative agent of listeriosis. The mechanism(s) by which BilE mediates bile resistance are unknown. BilE shares significant sequence

  10. GenoType HelicoDR test in the determination of antimicrobial resistance of Helicobacter pylori in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Won; Kim, Nayoung; Nam, Ryoung Hee; Park, Ji Hyun; Choi, Yoon Jin; Kim, Jung Mogg; Kim, Joo Sung; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2014-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of Helicobacter pylori is most important factor in eradication success. GenoType HelicoDR test has been developed for rapid detection of antimicrobial resistance. The present study evaluated the clinical usefulness of GenoType HelicoDR test in Korea. To detect 23S rRNA for clarithromycin resistance and gyrA mutations for fluoroquinolone resistance, both DNA sequencing after minimal inhibitory test (MIC) and GenoType HelicoDR test were performed in H. pylori isolates from the gastric mucosa of 101 patients. The eradication results of clarithromycin and moxifloxacin-containing triple therapy were evaluated by the 23S rRNA and gyrA mutations. For 42 isolates with A2143G mutation by GenoType HelicoDR, 83.3% (35/42) of concordance rate was estimated with DNA sequencing method and 85.7% (36/42) for MIC test. For 43 isolates with N87K mutation by GenoType HelicoDR, 71.1% (31/43) of concordance rate was estimated with DNA sequencing and 88.4% (38/43) for MIC test. The sensitivity and specificity of GenoType HelicoDR test in determination of 23S rRNA mutation were 94.9% and 87.1%, and those of gyrA 98.2% and 80.0%. The sensitivity and specificity of GenoType HelicoDR test in determination of clarithromycin resistance based on MIC test were 55.0% and 80.0%, for fluoroquinolone 74.4% and 70.0%. GenoType HelicoDR test is useful to determine mutations responsible for clarithromycin or fluoroquinolone-containing eradication failure but has a limitation for the clinical applicability in determination of resistance.

  11. A novel sandwich-type electrochemical aptasensor based on GR-3D Au and aptamer-AuNPs-HRP for sensitive detection of oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su; Wang, Yu; Xu, Wei; Leng, Xueqi; Wang, Hongzhi; Guo, Yuna; Huang, Jiadong

    2017-02-15

    In this paper, a novel sandwich-type electrochemical aptasensor has been fabricated and applied for sensitive and selective detection of antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC). This sensor was based on graphene-three dimensional nanostructure gold nanocomposite (GR-3D Au) and aptamer-AuNPs-horseradish peroxidase (aptamer-AuNPs-HRP) nanoprobes as signal amplification. Firstly, GR-3D Au film was modified on glassy carbon electrode only by one-step electrochemical coreduction with graphite oxide (GO) and HAuCl 4 at cathodic potentials, which enhanced the electron transfer and loading capacity of biomolecules. Then the aptamer and HRP modified Au nanoparticles provide high affinity and ultrasensitive electrochemical probe with excellent specificity for OTC. Under the optimized conditions, the peak current was linearly proportional to the concentration of OTC in the range of 5×10 -10 -2×10 -3 gL -1 , with a detection limit of 4.98×10 -10 gL -1 . Additionally, this aptasensor had the advantages in high sensitivity, superb specificity and showed good recovery in synthetic samples. Hence, the developed sandwich-type electrochemical aptasensor might provide a useful and practical tool for OTC determination and related food safety analysis and clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Continuous-flow chemiluminometric determination of some tetracyclines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syropoulos, A.B.; Calokerinos, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Chemiluminescence is found to be generated by action of lucigenin or hexacyanoferrate(III) on tetracyclines. The reaction with lucigenin exhibits chemiluminescence after alkaline degradation of tetracyclines to the corresponding iso derivatives. The reaction with hexacyanoferrate (III) occurs after acidic degradation of tetracyclines to corresponding anhydro derivatives. The chemiluminescence reaction takes place in alkaline medium, and allows the development of a continuous-flow method for the determination of 1.00-10.0 μgml -1 oxytetracycline and doxycycline. When applied to commercial formulations, the procedure was relatively free from interferences from common excipients. The results obtained for the assay of dosage forms compared well with those obtained by the official methods and demonstrated good accuracy and precision. (author). 32 refs.; 5 figs.; 6 tabs

  13. Continuous-flow chemiluminometric determination of some tetracyclines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syropoulos, A B; Calokerinos, A C [University of Athens (greece). Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry

    1991-12-24

    Chemiluminescence is found to be generated by action of lucigenin or hexacyanoferrate(III) on tetracyclines. The reaction with lucigenin exhibits chemiluminescence after alkaline degradation of tetracyclines to the corresponding iso derivatives. The reaction with hexacyanoferrate (III) occurs after acidic degradation of tetracyclines to corresponding anhydro derivatives. The chemiluminescence reaction takes place in alkaline medium, and allows the development of a continuous-flow method for the determination of 1.00-10.0 {mu}gml{sup -1} oxytetracycline and doxycycline. When applied to commercial formulations, the procedure was relatively free from interferences from common excipients. The results obtained for the assay of dosage forms compared well with those obtained by the official methods and demonstrated good accuracy and precision. (author). 32 refs.; 5 figs.; 6 tabs.

  14. On the difference between optically and electrically determined resistivity of ultra-thin titanium nitride films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hao, B.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This work reports on the determination and comparison of the resistivity of ultra-thin atomic layer deposited titanium nitride films in the thickness range 0.65–20 nm using spectroscopic ellipsometry and electrical test structures. We found that for films thicker than 4 nm, the resistivity values

  15. Exploration of genetically determined resistance against hepatitis C infection in high-risk injecting drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, P B; Cameron, B; Luciani, F; Lloyd, A R

    2014-08-01

    Genetic resistance to specific infections is well recognized. In hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, genetic polymorphisms in IL-28B and the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and their HLA class I ligands have been shown to affect clearance of the virus following infection. There are limited data regarding resistance to established HCV infection. Reliable quantification of repeated exposure in high-risk populations, such as injecting drug users (IDU), is a key limitation of previous studies of resistance. Behavioural data and DNA from IDU (n = 210) in the Hepatitis C Incidence and Transmission Study in prisons (HITS-p) cohort were genotyped for polymorphisms in: IL-28B, peptidyl-prolyl isomerase A (PPIA), HLA-C and KIR2. To quantify risk, a composite risk index based on factors predictive of incident HCV infection was derived. Logistic regression analysis revealed the risk index was strongly associated with incident HCV infection (P C1, or their combination. A framework for the investigation of genetic determinants of resistance to HCV infection has been developed. Several candidate gene associations were investigated and excluded. Further investigation of genetic determinants of resistance to HCV infection is warranted. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Simultaneous determination of several veterinary pharmaceuticals in effluents from urban, livestock and slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plants using a simple chromatographic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavenati, Simone; Carvalho, Pedro N; Almeida, C Marisa R; Basto, M Clara P; Vasconcelos, M Teresa S D

    2012-01-01

    Minocycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, enrofloxacin and ceftiofur, commonly used veterinary pharmaceuticals, were searched in four urban, two livestock and two slaughterhouse effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the north of Portugal. A simple method that includes solid-phase extraction followed with analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector was established and applied to the simultaneous determination of the five pharmaceuticals in WWTP effluents. This method, which is expeditious, inexpensive and available in most laboratories, showed to be useful for screening for problematic levels of drugs in WWTP effluents. It is known that several livestock and slaughterhouse effluents (pre-treated or treated) are discharged to the urban network before discharge into the environment. The presence of these drugs in such effluents can constitute a significant environmental problem that should be addressed, by the monitoring of these drugs and by implementation of methodologies that contribute to their decrease/elimination from wastewaters. Minocycline (≤6 μg L(-1)), oxytetracycline (≤7 μg L(-1)), tetracycline (≤6 μg L(-1)) and enrofloxacin (effluents. Detectable levels of enrofloxacin (effluents.

  17. Standard practice for determining rail-to-Earth resistance

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the procedures necessary to follow for measuring resistance-to-earth of the running rails which are used as the conductors for returning the train operating current to the substation in electric mass transit systems. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  18. The determination of multiple resistance, inheritance and cytochrome P450 activity in bifenthrinresistant Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    OpenAIRE

    AY, Recep; YORULMAZ, Sibel

    2010-01-01

    In this study, multiple resistance, inheritance and cytochrome P450 enzyme activity were determined in Tetranychus urticae Koch (SAK) population after 20 selections for bifenthrin resistance. Selection study and LC50, 60 levels of SAK population of T. urticae were determined by dry film method. LC50 level of the SAK population selected twenty times with bifenthrin was increased from 984.49 to 11914.40 µl l-1 distiled water. Selected population showing 21.84 fold resistances was named ...

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility and serotypes of Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae recovered from Missouri swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fales, W H; Morehouse, L G; Mittal, K R; Bean-Knudsen, C; Nelson, S L; Kintner, L D; Turk, J R; Turk, M A; Brown, T P; Shaw, D P

    1989-01-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibility of 73 Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae isolates from swine in Missouri was determined with a microdilution minimal inhibitory concentration test system. Serotyping was accomplished by means of co-agglutination. Serotype 1 (39/73) and serotype 5 (30/73) were commonly found, whereas serotype 7 (4/73) was infrequently encountered. Most isolates (MIC90) were found susceptible to ampicillin (amoxicillin), cephalothin, penicillin, erythromycin, gentamicin, and kanamycin. Marked resistance was found with oxytetracycline, tylosin, and sulfadimethoxine. The data indicate that use of ampicillin (amoxicillin) or penicillin may correlate well with the favorable outcome of treatment.

  20. Genome-wide identification of antimicrobial intrinsic resistance determinants in Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vestergaard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of antimicrobial resistance severely threatens our ability to treat bacterial infections. While acquired resistance has received considerable attention, relatively little is known of intrinsic resistance that allows bacteria to naturally withstand antimicrobials. Gene products that confer intrinsic resistance to antimicrobial agents may be explored for alternative antimicrobial therapies, by potentiating the efficacy of existing antimicrobials. In this study, we identified the intrinsic resistome to a broad spectrum of antimicrobials in the human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus. We screened the Nebraska Transposon Mutant Library of 1920 single-gene inactivations in S. aureus strain JE2, for increased susceptibility to the anti-staphylococcal antimicrobials (ciprofloxacin, oxacillin, linezolid, fosfomycin, daptomycin, mupirocin, vancomycin and gentamicin. 68 mutants were confirmed by E-test to display at least two-fold increased susceptibility to one or more antimicrobial agents. The majority of the identified genes have not previously been associated with antimicrobial susceptibility in S. aureus. For example, inactivation of genes encoding for subunits of the ATP synthase, atpA, atpB, atpG and atpH, reduced the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of gentamicin 16-fold. To elucidate the potential of the screen, we examined treatment efficacy in the Galleria mellonella infection model. Gentamicin efficacy was significantly improved, when treating larvae infected with the atpA mutant compared to wild type cells with gentamicin at a clinically relevant concentration. Our results demonstrate that many gene products contribute to the intrinsic antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus. Knowledge of these intrinsic resistance determinants provides alternative targets for compounds that may potentiate the efficacy of existing antimicrobial agents against this important pathogen.

  1. Determination Pattern of Antibiotic Resistance in Entropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Children with Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Karami

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diarrheal diseases are considered a major health problem, especially in children. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC strains are the common cause of diarrhea in children especially in developing countries. Because of undesirable effects of diarrhea and its interference with children's growth, in some cases antibiotic treatment is recommended. In recent years, resistance toward common and effective antibiotics in the treatment of infectious diseases became one of the most important challenges in medical society, for this purpose, antibiotic sensitivity and resistance of strains in every geographical zone must be determined. So in this study, of antibiotic patterns of these bacteria were examined.Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 192 strains of Enteropathogen Escherichia coli isolated from children who were suffering from diarrhea in 1389-1390 in the microbiology laboratory of Hamadan University of medical sciences. To identify these strains, standard biochemical and serology tests were used. The antibiotic sensitivity test of these isolates was carried out with disc diffusion agar method according to the CLSI standards for 14 different antibiotics disc. Resistance toward 3 or more than 3 classes of antibiotics were defined as multidrug resistance.Results: The result of this study shows EPEC strains had the highest resistance to cefpodoxime (97%, trimethoprim (60.7%, tetracycline (58.4% and ampicillin (45.8%. Multidrug resistance was 68.7 percent. These strains also showed the highest sensitivity against imipenem, ceftriaxone, and ciprofloxacin antibiotics.Conclusion: EPEC strains that were studied with resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline and convenient sensitivity against fluoroquinolones are one of the major factors in children’s diarrhea. A result of this research suggests that antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli strains are high and prescribing and antibiotic is not

  2. Determination of response time of resistance thermometers by in situ measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, I.M.P.; Soares, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    The loop-current-step-response test provides a mean for determining the time constant of resistance thermometers. The test consists in heating the sensor a few degrees above ambient temperature by causing a step perurbation in the electric current that flows through the sensor leads. The developed mathematical transformation permits to use data collected during the internal heating transient to predict the sensor response to perturbations in fluid temperature. Experimental data obtained show that time constant determined by this method is within 15 percent of the true value. (Author) [pt

  3. Distribution of extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance determinants in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli isolated from broilers in southern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahada, F; Chuma, T; Kosugi, G; Kusumoto, M; Iwata, T; Akiba, M

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the distribution and diversity of extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC) resistance determinants in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli obtained from the same cecal samples and to provide evidence of transmission of the resistance determinants among these bacteria in broiler farms in southern Japan. Salmonella enterica and E. coli were characterized by serotyping and multilocus sequence typing, respectively. An antimicrobial susceptibility test, plasmid analysis, and identification and localization of resistance genes were performed to determine the relatedness of ESC resistance determinants among the isolates. Of 48 flocks examined, 14 had S. enterica. In total, 57 S. enterica isolates were obtained, 45 of which showed ESC resistance. Extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E. coli were also obtained from all of these ESC-resistant Salmonella-positive samples. β-Lactamase genes, blaTEM-52 (38 isolates), blaCTX-M-14 (1 isolate), and blaCMY-2 (6 isolates), were carried by conjugative untypable or IncP plasmids detected in the S. enterica serovars Infantis and Manhattan. The β-lactamase genes blaCTX-M-14 (3 isolates), blaCTX-M-15 (3 isolates), blaSHV-2 (1 isolate), blaSHV-12 (2 isolates), and blaCMY-2 (32 isolates) associated with IncI1-Iγ, IncFIB, IncFIC, IncK, IncB/O, and IncY plasmids were detected in E. coli co-isolates. Restriction mapping revealed similar plasmids in Salmonella Infantis and Salmonella Manhattan and in different sequence types of E. coli. Intraspecies transmission of plasmids was suggested within S. enterica and E. coli populations, whereas interspecies transmission was not observed. This study highlights the importance of plasmids as carriers of ESC resistance determinants.

  4. Insulin Sensitivity Determines Effects of Insulin and Meal Ingestion on Systemic Vascular Resistance in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woerdeman, Jorn; Meijer, Rick I; Eringa, Etto C; Hoekstra, Trynke; Smulders, Yvo M; Serné, Erik H

    2016-01-01

    In addition to insulin's metabolic actions, insulin can dilate arterioles which increase blood flow to metabolically active tissues. This effect is blunted in insulin-resistant subjects. Insulin's effect on SVR, determined by resistance arterioles, has, however, rarely been examined directly. We determined the effects of both hyperinsulinemia and a mixed meal on SVR and its relationship with insulin sensitivity. Thirty-seven lean and obese women underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and 24 obese volunteers underwent a mixed-meal test. SVR was assessed using CPP before and during hyperinsulinemia as well as before and 60 and 120 minutes after a meal. SVR decreased significantly during hyperinsulinemia (-13%; p Insulin decreased SVR more strongly in insulin-sensitive individuals (standardized β: -0.44; p = 0.01). In addition, SVR at 60 minutes after meal ingestion was inversely related to the Matsuda index (β: -0.39; p = 0.04) and the change in postprandial SVR was directly related to postprandial glycemia (β: 0.53; p insulin resistance. This suggests that resistance to insulin-induced vasodilatation contributes to regulation of vascular resistance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Measurement of Dynamic Resistance in Resistance Spot Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Pei; Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    Through years, the dynamic resistance across the electrodes has been used for weld quality estimation and contact resistance measurement. However, the previous methods of determining the dynamic resistance were mostly based on measuring the voltage and current on the secondary side of the transfo......Through years, the dynamic resistance across the electrodes has been used for weld quality estimation and contact resistance measurement. However, the previous methods of determining the dynamic resistance were mostly based on measuring the voltage and current on the secondary side...... of the transformer in resistance welding machines, implying defects from induction noise and interference with the leads connected to the electrodes for measuring the voltage. In this study, the dynamic resistance is determined by measuring the voltage on the primary side and the current on the secondary side...

  6. Tests for determining impact resistance and strength of glass used for nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunnell, L.R.

    1979-05-01

    Tests are described for determining the impact resistance (Section A) and static tensile strength (Section B) of glasses containing simulated or actual nuclear wastes. This report describes the development and use of these tests to rank different glasses, to assess effects of devitrification, and to examine the effect of impact energy on resulting surface area. For clarity this report is divided into two sections, Impact Resistance and Tensile Strength

  7. Comparison of oxytetracycline degradation behavior in pig manure with different antibiotic addition methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Chen, Guixiu; Liang, Juanboo; Zou, Yongde; Wen, Xin; Liao, Xindi; Wu, Yinbao

    2015-12-01

    Using manure collected from swine fed with diet containing antibiotics and antibiotic-free swine manure spiked with antibiotics are the two common methods of studying the degradation behavior of veterinary antibiotic in manure in the environment. However, few studies had been conducted to co-compare these two different antibiotic addition methods. This study used oxytetracycline (OTC) as a model antibiotic to study antibiotic degradation behavior in manure under the above two OTC addition methods. In addition, the role of microorganisms present in the manure on degradation behavior was also examined. The results showed that degradation half-life of OTC in manure from swine fed OTC (9.04 days) was significantly shorter than that of the manure directly treated with OTC (9.65 days). Concentration of 4-epi-OTC in manure from swine fed OTC peaked earlier than that in manure spiked with OTC, and the degradation rates of 4-epi-OTC and α-apo-OTC in the manure from swine fed OTC were faster, but the peak concentrations were lower, than those in manure spiked with OTC. Bacterial diversity and relative abundance of Bacillus cereus data demonstrated that sterilization of the manure before experiment significantly decreased OTC degradation rate in both of the addition methods. Results of the present study demonstrated that the presence of the metabolites (especially 4-epi-OTC) and microorganisms had significant influence on OTC degradation.

  8. [Antimicrobial susceptibility of animal and food isolates of Salmonella enterica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, Tania; López-Martin, Juana; Gädicke, Paula

    2013-03-01

    Bacterial resistance to one or more antimicrobiak is worrisome. To determine the susceptibility to antimicrobials of Salmonella entérica isolates from animáis and food, from the Laboratory of Veterinary Microbiology at the University of Concepción. The samples were isolated according to traditional microbiological methods standardized protocols. Resistance was determined by the Kirby-Bauer method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), following Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations (2008). Nine serotypes were identified among the 68 isolates. Strains were resistant to one or more antibiotics and 11 patterns of resistance were identified. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was observed in 20.5% of the strains tested. The most common was Oxytetracycline resistance (69.1%). Infood, the predominant serotype was S. Derby (2.9%) and S. Senftenberg (2.9%), which is commonly found infood intended for animal consumption. In samples of animal origin, the predominant serotypes were S. infantis (33.8%) and S. Group E (3.9;-;-) (23.5%). The frequeney of resistance found and the impending risk that these strains could reach humans through the food chain, should prompt a follow-up study of this pathogen.

  9. Determining the Resistivity of Resistive Sheets Using Transmission Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hyde, IV, Milo W

    2006-01-01

    In September 2005, radar cross section (RCS) measurements were made of resistive sheets, or R-cards, wrapped around a polystyrene foam cylinder to compare with a newly developed theoretical RCS prediction technique...

  10. Genetically Determined Insulin Resistance is Characterized by Down-Regulation of Mitochondrial Oxidative Metabolism in Human Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jonas M; Skov, Vibe; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Transcriptional profiling of skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes and high-risk individuals have demonstrated a co-ordinated down-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) genes, suggesting a link between insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, whether...... mitochondrial dysfunction is a cause or consequence of insulin resistance remains to be clarified. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial oxidative metabolism was down-regulated in skeletal muscle of patients with genetically determined insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle biopsies.......02), and complex V (ATP5B; p=0.005). Our data demonstrate that genetically determined insulin resistance is associated with a co-ordinated down-regulation of OxPhos components both at the transcriptional and translational level. These findings suggest that an impaired biological response to insulin in skeletal...

  11. Molecular and Cellular Effects Induced in Mytilus galloprovincialis Treated with Oxytetracycline at Different Temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Banni

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the interactive effects of temperature (16°C and 24°C and a 4-day treatment with the antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC at 1 and 100 μg/L on cellular and molecular parameters in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Lysosomal membrane stability (LMS, a sensitive biomarker of impaired health status in this organism, was assessed in the digestive glands. In addition, oxidative stress markers and the expression of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in antioxidant defense (catalase (cat and glutathione-S-transferase (gst and the heat shock response (hsp90, hsp70, and hsp27 were evaluated in the gills, the target tissue of soluble chemicals. Finally, cAMP levels, which represent an important cell signaling pathway related to oxidative stress and the response to temperature challenges, were also determined in the gills. Exposure to heat stress as well as to OTC rendered a decrease in LMS and an increase in malonedialdehyde accumulation (MDA. CAT activity was not significantly modified, whereas GST activity decreased at 24°C. Cat and gst expression levels were reduced in animals kept at 24°C compared to 16°C in the presence or absence of OTC. At 16°C, treatment with OTC caused a significant increase in cat and gst transcript levels. Hsp27 mRNA was significantly up-regulated at all conditions compared to controls at 16°C. cAMP levels were increased at 24°C independent of the presence of OTC. PCA analysis showed that 37.21% and 25.89% of the total variance was explained by temperature and OTC treatment, respectively. Interestingly, a clear interaction was observed in animals exposed to both stressors increasing LMS and MDA accumulation and reducing hsp27 gene expression regulation. These interactions may suggest a risk for the organisms due to temperature increases in contaminated seawaters.

  12. In vitro susceptibilities of recent field isolates of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyosynoviae to valnemulin (Econor), tiamulin and enrofloxacin and the in vitro development of resistance to certain antimicrobial agents in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, P C; Windsor, H M; Ripley, P H

    1997-01-01

    The in vitro activities of valnemulin (Econor) and two other antimicrobial agents were determined against recent field strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyosynoviae using a broth microdilution method. Valnemulin showed exceptional activity against M hyopneumoniae (MIC90 0.0005 microgram ml-1) and M hyosynoviae (MIC range 0.0001 microgram ml-1 to 0.00025 microgram ml-1) field strains. Tiamulin was 100-fold less active (MIC90 0.05 microgram ml-1) and enrofloxacin 20-fold less active (MIC90 0.01 microgram ml-1) than valnemulin against M hyopneumoniae field isolates and 20-fold to 25-fold less active (MIC range 0.0025 microgram ml-1 to 0.005 microgram ml-1) and 400-fold to 500-fold less active (MIC range 0.05 microgram ml-1 to 0.1 microgram ml-1) respectively against M hyosynoviae field isolates. No significant resistance developed to valnemulin or tiamulin in the type strain of M hyopneumoniae (strain J) or in a recent field isolate (MEVT G23) exposed to 10 in vitro passages in broths containing these antibiotics. Only slight resistance to oxytetracycline was observed. High resistance to tylosin developed in both M hyopneumoniae strains within five to seven in vitro passages in tylosin-containing broth. Providing that similar results are obtained in vivo under field conditions, valnemulin may well prove to be effective in the treatment of enzootic pneumonia and acute polyarthritis in pigs.

  13. Chemiluminescence determination of tetracyclines using Fenton system in the presence europium(III) ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaczmarek, Malgorzata; Lis, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    A new simple chemiluminescent method for the determination of chlortetracycline (Chlor-TC), oxytetracycline (Oxy-TC) and doxycycline (Doxy-TC) is described. This method is based on the europium(III) emission as a result of the energy transfer process from the excited product of the tetracyclines oxidation to the uncomplexed Eu(III). Under the optimum conditions, calibration graphs were obtained for 4 x 10 -7 to 2 x 10 -5 mol L -1 of Chlor-TC; 2 x 10 -7 to 2 x 10 -5 mol L -1 of Oxy-TC and 1 x 10 -7 to 3 x 10 -5 mol L -1 of Doxy-TC. The method was successfully applied to the determination of these drugs in pharmaceutical and veterinary formulation and honey.

  14. Bovine salmonellosis in northeast of Iran: frequency, genetic fingerprinting and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimi, Hessam A; Seifi, Hesam A; Rad, Mehrnaz

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate serovar and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella spp isolated from healthy, diseased and necropsied cows and calves in this observational study. Nineteen isolates recovered from feces and tissues of salmonellosis-affected animals of two commercial farms in north-east of Iran. In second part of the study, the two farms were sampled 4 times with an interval of 2 month. The samples included calves' feces, adult cows' feces, feeds, water, milk filters, and milk fed to calves. Five Salmonella were isolated from 332 fecal samples collected from calves and peri-parturient cows. No Salmonella was recovered from water, feed, milk filers and milk fed to calves. Salmonella Typhimurium was the most frequently isolate among all sero-groups. S. Dublin was only accounted for 8% (two out of 24) of isolates. Isolated Salmonella strains were used for the ERIC PCR DNA fingerprinting assay. Our results grouped Salmonella isolates into 3 clusters, suggesting that specific genotypes were responsible for each sero-group of Salmonella. The results also revealed diversity among Salmonella isolates in cluster III (sero-group B). Eighteen out of 19 Salmonella spp. were resistant to oxytetracycline. Five isolates out of 19 showed more than one drug resistance. Multi-drug resistance was seen only among Salmonella Typhimurium isolates. Enrofloxacin was the most susceptible antibiotic against all isolates in this study. The emergence of multiple antibiotic-resistant strains of Salmonella Typhimurium should be of great concern to the public. No correlation between ERIC fingerprinting and resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates was found, which indicates resistance to antimicrobial agents was not related to specific genetic background. Copyright © 2014 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Determinants of Growth Hormone Resistance in Malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    States of under-nutrition are characterized by growth hormone resistance. Decreased total energy intake, as well as isolated protein-calorie malnutrition and isolated nutrient deficiencies result in elevated growth hormone levels and low levels of IGF-I. We review various states of malnutrition and a disease state characterized by chronic under-nutrition -- anorexia nervosa -- and discuss possible mechanisms contributing to the state of growth hormone resistance, including FGF-21 and SIRT1. We conclude by examining the hypothesis that growth hormone resistance is an adaptive response to states of under-nutrition, in order to maintain euglycemia and preserve energy. PMID:24363451

  16. Determinants of foamy virus envelope glycoprotein mediated resistance to superinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Angelika; Pietschmann, Thomas; Rethwilm, Axel; Lindemann, Dirk

    2003-01-01

    Little is known about the nature of foamy virus (FV) receptor molecules on target cells and their interaction with the viral glycoproteins. Similar to other viruses, cellular expression of the FV Env protein is sufficient to induce resistance to exogenous FV, a phenomenon called superinfection resistance (SIR). In this study we define determinants of the FV Env protein essential for mediating SIR. FV Env requires the extracellular domains of the SU and the TM subunits as well as membrane anchorage, efficient cell surface transport, and most probably correct subunit processing. This is in contrast to murine leukemia virus where secreted proteins comprising the receptor-binding domain in SU are sufficient to induce SIR. Furthermore, we demonstrate that cellular expression of the prototype FV envelope proteins induces SIR against pseudotypes with glycoproteins of other FV species, including of simian, feline, bovine, and equine origin. This implies that all of them use the same receptor molecules for viral entry

  17. Nanocrystalline TiO2 Composite Films for the Photodegradation of Formaldehyde and Oxytetracycline under Visible Light Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively photodegradate organic pollutants, ZnO composite and Co-B codoped TiO2 films were successfully deposited on glass substrates via a modified sol-gel method and a controllable dip-coating technique. Combining with UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS and photoluminescence spectra (PL analyses, the multi-modification could not only extend the optical response of TiO2 to visible light region but also decrease the recombination rate of electron-hole pairs. XRD results revealed that the multi-modified TiO2 film had an anatase-brookite biphase heterostructure. FE-SEM results indicated that the multi-modified TiO2 film without cracks was composed of smaller round-like nanoparticles compared to pure TiO2. BET surface area results showed that the specific surface area of pure TiO2 and the multi-modified TiO2 sample was 47.8 and 115.8 m2/g, respectively. By degradation of formaldehyde and oxytetracycline, experimental results showed that the multi-modified TiO2 film had excellent photodegradation performance under visible light irradiation.

  18. Antibiotic degradation and microbial community structures during acidification and methanogenesis of swine manure containing chlortetracycline or oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fubin; Dong, Hongmin; Zhang, Wanqin; Zhu, Zhiping; Shang, Bin

    2018-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) has been applied to animal manure stabilization, and antibiotics is frequently found in animal manure. However, antibiotic degradation and microbial community structures during two-stage AD (acidification and methanogenesis) remain poorly understood. This experiments on two-stage anaerobic swine manure digesters were performed to investigate the degradation mechanisms and effects of chlortetracycline (CTC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) on microbial community structures. Results showed that acidification and methanogenesis showed good degradation performance for manure containing CTC and OTC at 60 and 40 mg/kg·TS, respectively. CTC and OTC were degraded by 59.8% and 41.3% in the acidogenic stage and by 76.3% and 78.3% in the methanogenic stage, respectively. CTC and OTC negatively affected bacterial community in methanogenic and acidogenic stages, respectively. They also adversely influenced the archaeal species in the methanogenic stage. Two-stage AD was proposed to treat manure containing antibiotics and to reduce the negative effects of antibiotics on AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity factors in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from mastitic Sahiwal cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ravinder; Yadav, B R; Singh, R S

    2011-03-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious problem in dairy animals suffering from mastitis. In the present study, the distribution of mastitic MRSA and antibiotic resistance was studied in 107 strains of S. aureus isolated from milk samples from 195 infected udders. The characterizations pathogenic factors (adhesin and toxin genes) and antibiotic susceptibility of isolates were carried out using gene amplification and disc diffusion assays, respectively. A high prevalence of MRSA was observed in the tested isolates (13.1%). The isolates were also highly resistant to antibiotics, i.e. 36.4% were resistant to streptomycin, 33.6% to oxytetracycline, 29.9% to gentamicin and 26.2% each to chloramphenicol, pristinomycin and ciprofloxacin. A significant variation in the expression of pathogenic factors (Ig, coa and clf) was observed in these isolates. The overall distribution of adhesin genes ebp, fib, bbp, fnbB, cap5, cap8, map and cna in the isolates was found to be 69.1, 67.2, 6.5, 20.5, 60.7, 26.1, 81.3 and 8.4%, respectively. The presence of fib, fnbB, bbp and map genes was considerably greater in MRSA than in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates. The proportions of toxin genes, namely, hlb, seb, sec, sed, seg and sei, in the isolates were found to be 94.3, 0.9, 8.4, 0.9, 10.2 and 49.5%, respectively. The proportions of agr genes I, II, III and IV were found to be 39.2, 27.1, 21.5 and 12.1%, respectively. A few isolates showed similar antibiotic-resistance patterns, which could be due to identical strains or the dissemination of the same strains among animals. These findings can be utilized in mastitis treatment programmes and antimicrobials strategies in organized herd.

  20. Genetically determined differences in the resistance to myocardial infarction in Wistar and August rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkina, L M; Saltykova, V A; Pshennikova, M G

    2001-06-01

    In intact August rats, the cardiac contractile function at rest was by 76% higher than in Wistar rats, while their hearts, both intact and after acute myocardial infarction, were more resistant to isometric load than the hearts of Wistar rats. Postinfarction mortality in August rats was 18% vs. 70% in Wistar rats. Adrenoreactivity of the myocardium in August rats was decreased compared to that in Wistar rats. These peculiarities can determine high resistance of August rats to myocardial infarction.

  1. Molecular screening of antibiotic-resistant determinants among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Globally, and particularly in developing countries, the menace of anti-microbial resistance is an accelerating problem. In Nigeria, increase in bacterial resistance has been phenotypically established but due to high cost, few molecular studies have been reported. Objectives: This study screened for presence of ...

  2. Determinants of between-country differences in ambulatory antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance in Europe: a longitudinal observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blommaert, A; Marais, C; Hens, N; Coenen, S; Muller, A; Goossens, H; Beutels, P

    2014-02-01

    To identify key determinants explaining country-year variations in antibiotic use and resistance. Ambulatory antibiotic use data [in defined daily doses per 1000 inhabitants per day (DIDs)] for 19 European countries from 1999 to 2007 were collected, along with 181 variables describing countries in terms of their agriculture, culture, demography, disease burden, education, healthcare organization and socioeconomics. After assessing data availability, overlap and relevance, multiple imputation generalized estimating equations were applied with a stepwise selection procedure to select significant determinants of global antibiotic use (expressed in DIDs), relative use of subgroups (amoxicillin and co-amoxiclav) and resistance of Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Relative humidity, healthcare expenditure proportional to gross domestic product, feelings of distrust, proportion of population aged >65 years and availability of treatment guidelines were associated with higher total antibiotic use expressed in DIDs. Restrictions on marketing activities towards prescribers, population density, number of antibiotics, educational attainment and degree of atheism were associated with a lower number of total DIDs used. Relative prescribing of amoxicillin and co-amoxiclav was mainly determined by healthcare system choices [e.g. general practitioner (GP) registration and restricted marketing]. Specific antibiotic use was found to be a significant determinant of resistance for some but not all drug/organism combinations. Incentives to stimulate GP gatekeeping were associated with lower levels of resistance, and life expectancy at age 65+ and atheism were associated with more resistance. Myriad factors influence antibiotic use and resistance at the country level and an important part of these can be modified by policy choices.

  3. Adsorption in a Fixed-Bed Column and Stability of the Antibiotic Oxytetracycline Supported on Zn(II)-[2-Methylimidazolate] Frameworks in Aqueous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anceski Bataglion, Giovana; Nogueira Eberlin, Marcos; Machado Ronconi, Célia

    2015-01-01

    A metal-organic framework, Zn-[2-methylimidazolate] frameworks (ZIF-8), was used as adsorbent material to remove different concentrations of oxytetracycline (OTC) antibiotic in a fixed-bed column. The OTC was studied at concentrations of 10, 25 and 40 mg L-1. At 40 mg L-1, the breakthrough point was reached after approximately 10 minutes, while at 10 and 25 mg L-1 this point was reached in about 30 minutes. The highest removal rate of 60% for the 10 mg L-1 concentration was reached after 200 minutes. The highest adsorption capacity (28.3 mg g-1) was attained for 25 mg L-1 of OTC. After the adsorption process, a band shift was observed in the UV-Vis spectrum of the eluate. Additional studies were carried out to determine the cause of this band shift, involving a mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of the supernatant liquid during the process. This investigation revealed that the main route of adsorption consisted of the coordination of OTC with the metallic zinc centers of ZIF-8. The materials were characterized by thermal analysis (TA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and infrared spectroscopy (IR) before and after adsorption, confirming the presence of OTC in the ZIF-8 and the latter’s structural stability after the adsorption process. PMID:26057121

  4. Adsorption in a Fixed-Bed Column and Stability of the Antibiotic Oxytetracycline Supported on Zn(II-[2-Methylimidazolate] Frameworks in Aqueous Media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine dos Santos Ferreira da Silva

    Full Text Available A metal-organic framework, Zn-[2-methylimidazolate] frameworks (ZIF-8, was used as adsorbent material to remove different concentrations of oxytetracycline (OTC antibiotic in a fixed-bed column. The OTC was studied at concentrations of 10, 25 and 40 mg L(-1. At 40 mg L(-1, the breakthrough point was reached after approximately 10 minutes, while at 10 and 25 mg L(-1 this point was reached in about 30 minutes. The highest removal rate of 60% for the 10 mg L(-1 concentration was reached after 200 minutes. The highest adsorption capacity (28.3 mg g(-1 was attained for 25 mg L(-1 of OTC. After the adsorption process, a band shift was observed in the UV-Vis spectrum of the eluate. Additional studies were carried out to determine the cause of this band shift, involving a mass spectrometry (MS analysis of the supernatant liquid during the process. This investigation revealed that the main route of adsorption consisted of the coordination of OTC with the metallic zinc centers of ZIF-8. The materials were characterized by thermal analysis (TA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, and infrared spectroscopy (IR before and after adsorption, confirming the presence of OTC in the ZIF-8 and the latter's structural stability after the adsorption process.

  5. Graphene/TiO2/ZSM-5 composites synthesized by mixture design were used for photocatalytic degradation of oxytetracycline under visible light: Mechanism and biotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin-Yan; Zhou, Kefu; Chen, Bor-Yann; Chang, Chang-Tang

    2016-01-01

    This first-attempt study revealed mixture design of experiments to obtain the most promising composites of TiO2 loaded on zeolite and graphene for maximal photocatalytic degradation of oxytetracycline (OTC). The optimal weight ratio of graphene, titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zeolite was 1:8:1 determined via experimental design of simplex lattice mixture. The composite material was characterized by XRD, UV-vis, TEM and EDS analysis. The findings showed the composite material had a higher stability and a stronger absorption of the visible light. In addition, it was uniformly dispersed with promising adsorption characteristics. OTC was used as model toxicant to evaluate the photodegradation efficiency of the GTZ (1:8:1). At optimal operating conditions (i.e., pH 7 and 25 °C), complete degradation (ca. 100%) was achieved in 180 min. The biotoxicity of the degraded intermediates of OTC on cell growth of Escherichia coli DH5α were also assayed. After 180 min photocatalytic treatment, OTC solution treated by GTZ (1:8:1) showed insignificant biotoxicity to receptor DH5α cells. Furthermore, EDTA (hole scavengers) and t-BuOH (radical scavengers) were used to detect the main active oxidative species in the system. The results showed that the holes are the main oxidation species in the photocatalytic process.

  6. In vivo selection of resistant E. coli after ingestion of milk with added drug residues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Van Vleck Pereira

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance represents a major global threat to modern medicine. In vitro studies have shown that very low concentrations of drugs, as frequently identified in the environment, and in foods and water for human and animal consumption, can select for resistant bacteria. However, limited information is currently available on the in vivo impact of ingested drug residues. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effect of feeding preweaned calves milk containing antimicrobial drug residues (below the minimum inhibitory concentration, similar to concentrations detected in milk commonly fed to dairy calves, on selection of resistant fecal E. coli in calves from birth to weaning. At birth, thirty calves were randomly assigned to a controlled feeding trial where: 15 calves were fed raw milk with no drug residues (NR, and 15 calves were fed raw milk with drug residues (DR by adding ceftiofur, penicillin, ampicillin, and oxytetracycline at final concentrations in the milk of 0.1, 0.005, 0.01, and 0.3 µg/ml, respectively. Fecal samples were rectally collected from each calf once a week starting at birth prior to the first feeding in the trial (pre-treatment until 6 weeks of age. A significantly greater proportion of E. coli resistant to ampicillin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, streptomycin and tetracycline was observed in DR calves when compared to NR calves. Additionally, isolates from DR calves had a significant decrease in susceptibility to ceftriaxone and ceftiofur when compared to isolates from NR calves. A greater proportion of E. coli isolates from calves in the DR group were resistant to 3 or more antimicrobial drugs when compared to calves in the ND group. These findings highlight the role that low concentrations of antimicrobial drugs have on the evolution and selection of resistance to multiple antimicrobial drugs in vivo.

  7. Determination of resistance to salt crystallization on natural stone measured with ultrasonic wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alm, D.; Brix, S.; Kjærgaard, H. Howe

    2008-01-01

    and after salt exposure. Four different stones are investigated: the limestone Bateig Azul, the sandstone Oberkirchener, the limestone Perlatino, and the limestone Travertine. The procedure for the salt crystallization test is EN 12370 standard “Natural stone test methods – Determination of resistance...

  8. Contact-free sheet resistance determination of large area graphene layers by an open dielectric loaded microwave cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaforost, O.; Wang, K.; Adabi, M.; Guo, Z.; Hanham, S.; Klein, N.; Goniszewski, S.; Gallop, J.; Hao, L.

    2015-01-01

    A method for contact-free determination of the sheet resistance of large-area and arbitrary shaped wafers or sheets coated with graphene and other (semi) conducting ultrathin layers is described, which is based on an open dielectric loaded microwave cavity. The sample under test is exposed to the evanescent resonant field outside the cavity. A comparison with a closed cavity configuration revealed that radiation losses have no significant influence of the experimental results. Moreover, the microwave sheet resistance results show good agreement with the dc conductivity determined by four-probe van der Pauw measurements on a set of CVD samples transferred on quartz. As an example of a practical application, correlations between the sheet resistance and deposition conditions for CVD graphene transferred on quartz wafers are described. Our method has a high potential as measurement standard for contact-free sheet resistance measurement and mapping of large area graphene samples

  9. Photoproducts of tetracycline and oxytetracycline involving self-sensitized oxidation in aqueous solutions: Effects of Ca2+ and Mg2+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Chen; Hua Li; Zongping Wang; Tao Tao; Chun Hu

    2011-01-01

    Tetracyclines constitute one of the most important antibiotic families and represent a classic example of phototoxicity.The photoproducts of tetracyclines and their parent compounds have potentially adverse effects on natural ecosystem.In this study,the self-sensitized oxidation products of tetracycline (TC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) were determined and the effects of Ca2+ and Mg2+on self-sensitized degradation were investigated.The Ca2+ and Mg2+ in the natural water sample accounted for enhancement (pH 7.3)and inhibition (pH 9.0) of photodegradation of TC and OTC due to the formation of metal-ions complexes.The formation of Mg2+ complexes was unfavorable for the photodegradation of the tetracyclines at both pH values.In contrast,the Ca2+ complexes facilitated the attack of singlet oxygen (1O2) arising from self-sensitization at pH 7.3 and enhanced TC photodegradation.For the first time,selfsensitized oxidation products of TC and OTC were verified by quenching experiments and detected by LC/ESI-DAD-MS.The products had a nominal mass 14 Da higher than the parent drugs (designated M+14),which resulted from the 1O2 attack of the dimethylamino group on the C-4 atom of the tetracyclines.The presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+ also affected the generation of M+14 due to the formation of metal-ions complexes with TC and OTC.The findings suggest that the metal-ion complexation has significant impact on the selfsensitized oxidation processes and the photoproducts of tetracyclines.

  10. Overall decrease in the susceptibility of Mycoplasma bovis to antimicrobials over the past 30 years in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne V Gautier-Bouchardon

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma (M. bovis is frequently implicated in respiratory diseases of young cattle worldwide. Today, to combat M. bovis in Europe, only antimicrobial therapy is available, but often fails, leading to important economical losses. The antimicrobial susceptibility of M. bovis is not covered by antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks. The objectives of this study were to identify resistances that were acquired over the last 30 years in France and to determine their prevalence within contemporary strains. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC values of 12 antimicrobials, considered active on M. bovis, were compared, using an agar dilution method, between 27 and 46 M. bovis isolates respectively obtained in 1978-1979 and in 2010-2012 from 73 distinct respiratory disease outbreaks in young cattle all over France. For eight antimicrobials, resistances were proven to be acquired over the period and expressed by all contemporary strains. The increase of the MIC value that inhibited 50% of the isolates (MIC50 was: i substantial for tylosin, tilmicosin, tulathromycin and spectinomycin, from 2 to >64, 2 to >128, 16 to 128 and 4 to >64 µg/mL, respectively, ii moderate for enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, marbofloxacin and oxytetracycline, from 0.25 to 0.5, 0.25 to 0.5, 0.5 to 1, 32 to >32 µg/mL, respectively. No differences were observed for gamithromycin, tildipirosin, florfenicol and valnemulin with MIC50 of 128, 128, 8, <0.03 µg/mL, respectively. If referring to breakpoint MIC values published for respiratory bovine pathogens, all contemporary isolates would be intermediate in vivo for fluoroquinolones and resistant to macrolides, oxytetracycline, spectinomycin and florfenicol.

  11. Application for oxytetracycline wastewater pretreatment by Fenton iron mud based cathodic-anodic-electrolysis ceramic granular fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feilong; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Yuan; Gao, Baoyu; Xu, Xing; Ren, Zhongfei; Jin, Yang

    2017-09-01

    In this study, Fenton iron mud applied as main raw material of cathodic-anodic-electrolysis ceramic granular fillers (ICMF) in a continuous reactor, which were used to pretreat oxytetracycline (OTC) wastewater. The ICMF was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer analysis. The effects of pH value, hydraulic retention time, OTC concentrations and aeration on removal efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC) and OTC were studied. The degradation byproducts of OTC were analyzed by UV-2450, High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Liquid Chromatography-mass Spectrometry. The SEM images showed that the surface ICMF was porous. This system had a higher stability, and good removal efficiency of TOC of 80.5% and OTC of 98.5% under the optimal conditions, which were influent pH of 3, HRT of 4 h, and anaerobic condition. After running for 60 d, the removal efficiency of TOC was stable and the ICMF did not become hardened. The reactor was back washed by acid solution (pH: 1) in 20 d approximately. This paper provides useful information for approaching in wastewater pretreatment and recycling the Fenton iron mud. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Short communication: In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma bovis isolates identified in milk from dairy cattle in Belgium, Germany, and Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberio, A; Flaminio, B; De Vliegher, S; Supré, K; Kromker, V; Garbarino, C; Arrigoni, N; Zanardi, G; Bertocchi, L; Gobbo, F; Catania, S; Moroni, P

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of 73 isolates of Mycoplasma bovis isolated from milk of dairy cattle herds of Belgium, Germany, and Italy. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined by the microbroth dilution method for the following antimicrobials: erythromycin, spiramycin, tilmicosin, tylosin, lincomycin, enrofloxacin, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, florfenicol, and tiamulin. Macrolides, florfenicol, oxytetracycline, and enrofloxacin, were chosen because they represent antimicrobials families commonly used in several countries for treatment of M. bovis, and their MIC values in cattle population are reported in several studies, allowing a comparison with previous data. Doxycycline and tiamulin were selected to assess the susceptibility of M. bovis to new antimicrobials, because they are not registered in the European Union for the treatment of dairy cattle. Among the agents of the different antimicrobial classes, the macrolides showed the highest concentration to inhibit 90% of isolates (MIC90), all above the highest concentration tested: >8μg/mL for erythromycin, >16μg/mL for spiramycin, and >32μg/mL for tilmicosin and tylosin. Also the MIC90 of lincomycin was above the highest concentration tested (>32μg/mL), but the distribution of the MIC values was almost perfectly bimodal: 41 isolates had a MIC ≤0.5μg/mL and 30 isolates >32μg/mL. Oxytetracycline had a 2-fold higher concentration to inhibit 50% of isolates (2 vs. 0.5μg/mL) and 1-fold higher MIC90 (4 vs. 2μg/mL) than doxycycline. Enrofloxacin and florfenicol had both a MIC90 of 2μg/mL, whereas tiamulin had a MIC90 of 0.5μg/mL. Significant differences on the MIC values were found among the 3 countries for several antimicrobials: compared with Germany, Belgium and Italy showed significantly higher MIC for lincomycin, spiramycin, and tylosin, and lower for oxytetracycline and florfenicol. The Belgian isolates showed the lowest MIC

  13. Environmental Sciences Electrical resistivity soundings to determine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wood, leaves, newspaper, cloth, polythene bags, plastics, glass and metal refuse interspersed with soil exhibited resistivity of 11.6 ohm-m and layer thickness of 0.7 m as obtained from the inversion of the sounding. The unsaturated layer has a resistivity of 6.8 ohm-m and thickness of 0.6 m while leachate-saturated is ...

  14. Sulfonamide and tetracycline resistance genes in total- and culturable-bacterial assemblages in South African aquatic environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru eSuzuki

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB are ubiquitous in the natural environment. The introduction of effluent derived antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs into aquatic environments is of concern in the spreading of genetic risk. This study showed the prevalence of sulfonamide and tetracycline resistance genes, sul1, sul2, sul3 and tet(M, in the total bacterial assemblage and colony forming bacterial assemblage in river and estuarine water and sewage treatment plants (STP in South Africa. There was no correlation between antibiotic concentrations and ARGs, suggesting the targeted ARGs are spread in a wide area without connection to selection pressure. Among sul genes, sul1 and sul2 were major genes in the total (over 10-2 copies/16S and colony forming bacteria assemblages (approx 10-1 copies/16S. In urban waters, the sul3 gene was mostly not detectable in total and culturable assemblages, suggesting sul3 is not abundant. tet(M was found in natural assemblages with 10-3 copies/16S level in STP, but was not detected in colony forming bacteria, suggesting the non-culturable (yet-to-be cultured bacterial community in urban surface waters and STP effluent possess the tet(M gene. Sulfamethoxazole resistant (SMXr and oxytetracycline resistant (OTCr bacterial communities in urban waters possessed not only sul1 and sul2 but also sul3 and tet(M genes. These genes are widely distributed in SMXr and OTCr bacteria. In conclusion, urban river and estuarine water and STP effluent in the Durban area were highly contaminated with ARGs, and the yet-to-be cultured bacterial community may act as a non-visible ARG reservoir in certain situations.

  15. Determining resistance to mastitis in a bovine subject involves detecting presence or absence of genetic marker associated with trait indicative of mastitis resistance of the bovine subject and/or off-spring from it

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    NOVELTY - Determining (m1) resistance to mastitis in a bovine subject, involves detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of at least one genetic marker that is associated with at least one trait indicative of mastitis resistance of the bovine subject and/or off......-spring from it, where the genetic marker is located on the bovine chromosome BTA11 in the region flanked by and including the zeta-chain associated protein 70kD (ZAP70) and CD8B genes, where the presence or absence of the genetic marker is indicative of mastitis resistance. USE - For determining resistance...... to mastitis in a bovine subject for determining mastitis resistance in a bovine subject; for detecting the presence or absence in a bovine subject of at least one genetic marker associated with resistance to mastitis; and for estimating breeding value in respect of susceptibility to mastitis in a bovine...

  16. Antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk in the Mafikeng Area, North West province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modisane S. Moneoang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate Staphylococcus aureus from samples of cow’s milk obtained from different farm settings and to determine their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Gram staining, oxidase, catalase, DNase, haemolysis and the MASTASTAPHTM rapid agglutination tests were employed for bacterial identification. A total of 28 milk samples were collected and screened for the presence of S. aureus. All the samples were contaminated with S. aureus. A total of 240 S. aureus isolates were obtained during this study. The levels of contamination with S. aureus were higher in milk obtained from the communal farms in Lokaleng and Mogosane (24.6% and 35.4%, respectivelycompared to the commercial farms in Rooigrond and Molelwane (17.9% and 22.1%, respectively. A large percentage of the S. aureus isolates (39%–100% from both communal farms was resistant to methicillin (MT, ampicillin (AP, penicillin G (PG, sulphamethoxazole (Smx, oxytetracycline (OT, erythromycin (E, nitrofurantoin (NI and streptomycin (S, but not vancomycin (V. An even higher percentage (64.2% – 100% of the isolates from both commercial farms was resistant to sulphamethoxazole and nitrofurantoin. A comparably smaller percentage (3.4% – 4.7% of the isolates from both communal farms was resistant to vancomycin, but all isolates from commercial farm milk were susceptible to this drug. The predominant multiple antibiotic resistant phenotypes for isolates from the commercial farms were AP-Smx-NI and MT-AP-PG-OT-Smx-NI for Rooigrond and Molelwane farms, respectively, while those for isolates from the communal farms were MT-AP-PG-Smx-E-NI-S and MT-AP-PG-OT-Smx-NI-S for Lokaleng and Mogosane, respectively. When comparing the percentage of antibiotic resistance, a significant positive correlation was observed between the isolates from the commercial farms (r = 0.966, p < 0.01. S. aureus

  17. Characterization of CTX-M enzymes, quinolone resistance determinants, and antimicrobial residues from hospital sewage, wastewater treatment plant, and river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Danieli; Palmeiro, Jussara Kasuko; da Silva Nogueira, Keite; de Lima, Thiago Marenda Rosa; Cardoso, Marco André; Pontarolo, Roberto; Degaut Pontes, Flávia Lada; Dalla-Costa, Libera Maria

    2017-02-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are widespread in hospitals and have been increasingly isolated from aquatic environments. The aim of the present study was to characterize extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and quinolone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from a hospital effluent, sanitary effluent, inflow sewage, aeration tank, and outflow sewage within a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), as well as river water upstream and downstream (URW and DRW, respectively), of the point where the WWTP treated effluent was discharged. β-lactamase (bla) genes, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR), and quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) were assessed by amplification and sequencing in 55 ESBL-positive and/or quinolone-resistant isolates. Ciprofloxacin residue was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography. ESBL-producing isolates were identified in both raw (n=29) and treated (n=26) water; they included Escherichia coli (32), Klebsiella pneumoniae (22) and Klebsiella oxytoca (1). Resistance to both cephalosporins and quinolone was observed in 34.4% of E. coli and 27.3% of K. pneumoniae. Resistance to carbapenems was found in 5.4% of K. pneumoniae and in K. oxytoca. Results indicate the presence of bla CTX-M (51/55, 92.7%) and bla SHV (8/55, 14.5%) ESBLs, and bla GES (2/55, 3.6%) carbapenemase-encoding resistance determinants. Genes conferring quinolone resistance were detected at all sites, except in the inflow sewage and aeration tanks. Quinolone resistance was primarily attributed to amino acid substitutions in the QRDR of GyrA (47%) or to the presence of PMQR (aac-(6')-Ib-cr, oqxAB, qnrS, and/or qnrB; 52.9%) determinants. Ciprofloxacin residue was absent only from URW. Our results have shown strains carrying ESBL genes, PMQR determinants, and mutations in the gyrA QRDR genes mainly in hospital effluent, URW, and DRW samples. Antimicrobial use, and the inefficient removal of MDR bacteria and antibiotic residue during sewage treatment, may

  18. Prevalence and determinants of fecal colonization with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus in hospitalized patients in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Braak, N.; Ott, A.; van Belkum, A.; Kluytmans, J. A.; Koeleman, J. G.; Spanjaard, L.; Voss, A.; Weersink, A. J.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M.; Buiting, A. G.; Verbrugh, H. A.; Endtz, H. P.

    2000-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and determinants of fecal carriage of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in intensive care unit (ICU), hematology-oncology, and hemodialysis patients in The Netherlands. Descriptive, multicenter study, with yearly 1-week point-prevalence assessments between 1995 and

  19. Crack resistance curves determination of tube cladding material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertsch, J. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)]. E-mail: johannes.bertsch@psi.ch; Hoffelner, W. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2006-06-30

    Zirconium based alloys have been in use as fuel cladding material in light water reactors since many years. As claddings change their mechanical properties during service, it is essential for the assessment of mechanical integrity to provide parameters for potential rupture behaviour. Usually, fracture mechanics parameters like the fracture toughness K {sub IC} or, for high plastic strains, the J-integral based elastic-plastic fracture toughness J {sub IC} are employed. In claddings with a very small wall thickness the determination of toughness needs the extension of the J-concept beyond limits of standards. In the paper a new method based on the traditional J approach is presented. Crack resistance curves (J-R curves) were created for unirradiated thin walled Zircaloy-4 and aluminium cladding tube pieces at room temperature using the single sample method. The procedure of creating sharp fatigue starter cracks with respect to optical recording was optimized. It is shown that the chosen test method is appropriate for the determination of complete J-R curves including the values J {sub 0.2} (J at 0.2 mm crack length), J {sub m} (J corresponding to the maximum load) and the slope of the curve.

  20. Behavior of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in eco-agricultural system: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Weixiao; Li, Jianan; Wu, Ying; Xu, Like; Su, Chao; Qian, Yanyun; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • TetQ had the highest relative abundance and tetG was the most persistent gene. • The anaerobic digestion has no effective removal of most ARGs. • The abundance of ARGs in soils and fishpond was higher than that of control system. • Positive correlations were observed between the total ARGs and TN, TP and TOC. - Abstract: This study aims to determine abundance and persistence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in eco-agricultural system (EAS), which starts from swine feces to anaerobic digestion products, then application of anaerobic digestion solid residue (ADSR) and anaerobic digestion liquid residue (ADLR) to the soil to grow ryegrass, one of swine feed. Oxytetracycline had the highest concentration in manure reaching up to 138.7 mg/kg. Most of antibiotics could be effectively eliminated by anaerobic digestion and removal rates ranged from 11% to 86%. ARGs abundance fluctuated within EAS. TetQ had the highest relative abundance and the relative abundance of tetG had the least variation within the system, which indicates that tetG is persistent in the agricultural environment and requires more attention. Compared to the relative abundance in manure, tetC and tetM increased in biogas residue while three ribosomal protection proteins genes (tetO, tetQ, tetW) decreased (p 0.05). Most ARGs in downstream components (soils and fishpond) of EAS showed significantly higher relative abundance than the control agricultural system (p < 0.05), except for tetG and sulI.

  1. Crystal Structure of the Substrate-Binding Domain from Listeria monocytogenes Bile-Resistance Determinant BilE

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie J. Ruiz; Gea K. Schuurman-Wolters; Bert Poolman

    2016-01-01

    BilE has been reported as a bile resistance determinant that plays an important role in colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by Listeria monocytogenes, the causative agent of listeriosis. The mechanism(s) by which BilE mediates bile resistance are unknown. BilE shares significant sequence similarity with ATP-binding cassette (ABC) importers that contribute to virulence and stress responses by importing quaternary ammonium compounds that act as compatible solutes. Assays using related co...

  2. Chemiluminescence determination of tetracyclines using Fenton system in the presence europium(III) ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaczmarek, Malgorzata [Department of Rare Earths, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, 60 - 780 Poznan (Poland); Lis, Stefan [Department of Rare Earths, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, 60 - 780 Poznan (Poland)

    2009-04-20

    A new simple chemiluminescent method for the determination of chlortetracycline (Chlor-TC), oxytetracycline (Oxy-TC) and doxycycline (Doxy-TC) is described. This method is based on the europium(III) emission as a result of the energy transfer process from the excited product of the tetracyclines oxidation to the uncomplexed Eu(III). Under the optimum conditions, calibration graphs were obtained for 4 x 10{sup -7} to 2 x 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1} of Chlor-TC; 2 x 10{sup -7} to 2 x 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1} of Oxy-TC and 1 x 10{sup -7} to 3 x 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1} of Doxy-TC. The method was successfully applied to the determination of these drugs in pharmaceutical and veterinary formulation and honey.

  3. DETERMINATION OF THE SPECTRUM OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE GENES HAVE PHENOTYPIC RESISTANT STRAINS OF PARIETAL INTESTINAL MICROBIOTA IN RATS BY RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukina Y.V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The problem of formation of bacterial resistance to glycopeptides and beta-lactam antibiotics (cephalosporins and carbapenems are used worldwide for the treatment of severe community acquired and nosocomial infections, especially caused by polymicrobial flora has become global and is a major factor limiting the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy. In this regard, the study of genetic microbial resistance determinants allows not only to carry out an effective antibiotic therapy, but also to identify two main processes leading to the development of epidemiologically significant events: the introduction of the agent in the risk population from the outside and in situ pathogen (spontaneous genetic drift targeted restructuring of the population. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the resistance genes to carbapenems, cephalosporins, glycopeptides have clinically important phenotype of resistant strains of microorganisms families Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Enterococcaceae, Peptostreptococcaceae. Materials and methods. As a material for PCR studies 712 phenotypically resistant strains of microorganisms isolated from 80 rats "Wistar" line in microbiological study microflora of the wall were used. During the investigation 474 isolates of bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 39 - Pseudomonadaceae, 71 - Bacteroidaceae, 96 - Enterococcaceae, 32 - Peptostreptococcaceae were studied. Isolation of DNA from bacteria in the study was performed using reagents "DNA-Express" ("Litekh", Russia. For the detection of resistance genes by PCR in real time (RT-PCR reagent kits "FLUOROPOL-RV" ("Litekh", Russia were used. During the experiment, the VIM genes, OXA-48, NDM, KPC, responsible for the resistance of microorganisms to carbapenems, CTX-M - resistance to cephalosporins, as well as genes Van A and van B, the development of resistance to glycopeptides (vancomycin and teicoplanin were determined. Analysis

  4. Molecular mechanisms of plasmid-determined mercury and cadmium resistances in bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucifora, G.

    1989-01-01

    The structural basis for induction of the broad spectrum mercurial resistance operon of pDU1358 with inorganic mercury and with phenylmercury acetate was addressed by DNA sequencing analysis (that showed that a major difference occurred in the 3' 29 base pairs of the ital merR gene compared to the merR genes of Tn501 and R100) and by lac-fusion transcription experiments regulated by merR in trans. The lac-fusion results were compared with those from a narrow spectrum operon, and the pDU1358 merR deleted at the 3' end. A hybrid mer operon containing the merR gene from pDU1358 and lacking the merB gene was inducible by both phenylmercury and inorganic Hg 2+ , showing that organomercurial lyase is not needed for induction by organomercurials. A mutant form of pDU1358 merR missing the C-terminal 17 amino acids responded to inorganic Hg 2+ but not to phenylmercury, indicating that the C-terminal region of the MerR protein of the pDU1358 mer operon is required for the recognition of phenylmercury acetate. The down regulation of the mer operon by the merD gene was also measured in trans with complementing mer operons of pDU1358 or R100 or merD - mutants. In the presence of the merD gene, beta-galactosidase activity was lowered by 2 to 4 fold. The merD gene gene product was visualized by autoradiography. The Cd 2+ resistance determinant cadA of S. aureus was investigated. The nucleotide sequence of the DNA fragment containing the cadA determinant revealed two open reading frames the larger one of which is essential for expression of cadmium resistance

  5. Systematic errors of EIT systems determined by easily-scalable resistive phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, G; Just, A; Dittmar, J; Hellige, G

    2008-06-01

    We present a simple method to determine systematic errors that will occur in the measurements by EIT systems. The approach is based on very simple scalable resistive phantoms for EIT systems using a 16 electrode adjacent drive pattern. The output voltage of the phantoms is constant for all combinations of current injection and voltage measurements and the trans-impedance of each phantom is determined by only one component. It can be chosen independently from the input and output impedance, which can be set in order to simulate measurements on the human thorax. Additional serial adapters allow investigation of the influence of the contact impedance at the electrodes on resulting errors. Since real errors depend on the dynamic properties of an EIT system, the following parameters are accessible: crosstalk, the absolute error of each driving/sensing channel and the signal to noise ratio in each channel. Measurements were performed on a Goe-MF II EIT system under four different simulated operational conditions. We found that systematic measurement errors always exceeded the error level of stochastic noise since the Goe-MF II system had been optimized for a sufficient signal to noise ratio but not for accuracy. In time difference imaging and functional EIT (f-EIT) systematic errors are reduced to a minimum by dividing the raw data by reference data. This is not the case in absolute EIT (a-EIT) where the resistivity of the examined object is determined on an absolute scale. We conclude that a reduction of systematic errors has to be one major goal in future system design.

  6. Systematic errors of EIT systems determined by easily-scalable resistive phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, G; Just, A; Dittmar, J; Hellige, G

    2008-01-01

    We present a simple method to determine systematic errors that will occur in the measurements by EIT systems. The approach is based on very simple scalable resistive phantoms for EIT systems using a 16 electrode adjacent drive pattern. The output voltage of the phantoms is constant for all combinations of current injection and voltage measurements and the trans-impedance of each phantom is determined by only one component. It can be chosen independently from the input and output impedance, which can be set in order to simulate measurements on the human thorax. Additional serial adapters allow investigation of the influence of the contact impedance at the electrodes on resulting errors. Since real errors depend on the dynamic properties of an EIT system, the following parameters are accessible: crosstalk, the absolute error of each driving/sensing channel and the signal to noise ratio in each channel. Measurements were performed on a Goe-MF II EIT system under four different simulated operational conditions. We found that systematic measurement errors always exceeded the error level of stochastic noise since the Goe-MF II system had been optimized for a sufficient signal to noise ratio but not for accuracy. In time difference imaging and functional EIT (f-EIT) systematic errors are reduced to a minimum by dividing the raw data by reference data. This is not the case in absolute EIT (a-EIT) where the resistivity of the examined object is determined on an absolute scale. We conclude that a reduction of systematic errors has to be one major goal in future system design

  7. Identification and Determination of Drug Resistant of Candida species isolated from Hospital Acquired Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Diba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Currently, the use of antifungal azole group and yeasts resistant to these drugs is increasing. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the yeasts obtained from candidiasis patients and furthermore determining thier antifungal resistance. Methods: In the present descriptive study, infections samples were collected from 256 patients with suspected nosocomial candidiasis, then direct exam and culture were performed. Yeast colonies were identified using phenotypic methods, polymerase chain reaction method and enzyme digestion. Data were analyzed using Descriptive statistical tests. Results: Of sixty isolated yeast, thirty-seven cases of Candida albicans (61.6%, seven cases of C. krusei and C. glabrata (11.6% each, five cases of C. dubliniensis (8.3% and four cases of C. tropicalis (6.6% were indicated. The study showed that the sensitivity of C. albicans and C. cruise species to amphotericin B was negligible in disk diffusion and very sensitve in microdilution. Conclusion: Inspite of the results of antifungal susceptibility test of strains studied did not show high resistance, but screening for drug-resistant Candida isolates in Candida infection by disk diffusion and microdilution methods for new cases of drug resistance is reasonable.

  8. Efficiency determination of resistive plate chambers for fast quasi-monoenergetic neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, M.; Cowan, T.E.; Kempe, M.; Yakorev, D. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Elekes, Z. [MTA ATOMKI, Debrecen (Hungary); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Aumann, T.; Caesar, C. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Bemmerer, D.; Sobiella, M.; Stach, D.; Wagner, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Boretzky, K.; Hehner, J.; Heil, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Maroussov, V. [Universitaet zu Koeln, Koeln (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Nusair, O. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Al-Balqa Applied University, Salt (Jordan); Prokofiev, A.V. [Uppsala University, The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden); Reifarth, R. [Johann Wolfgang Goethe - Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Zilges, A. [Universitaet zu Koeln, Koeln (Germany); Zuber, K. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Collaboration: R3B Collaboration

    2014-07-15

    Composite detectors made of stainless-steel converters and multigap resistive plate chambers have been irradiated with quasi-monoenergetic neutrons with a peak energy of 175 MeV. The neutron detection efficiency has been determined using two different methods. The data are in agreement with the output of Monte Carlo simulations. The simulations are then extended to study the response of a hypothetical array made of these detectors to energetic neutrons from a radioactive ion beam experiment. (orig.)

  9. Determination of rust resistance genes in pakistani bread wheats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar, M.; Ahmad, S.D.; Rabbani, M.A.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2014-01-01

    Stripe and leaf rusts are the major constraints to bread wheat production in Pakistan. Molecular markers were used to investigate the presence of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance gene cluster Lr34/Yr18 and stem rust resistance gene Sr2 in 52 Pakistani bread wheat cultivars/lines. PCR amplification of DNA fragments using DNA marker csLV-34 showed that 13 of the studied cultivars/lines, namely 03FJ26, NR 337, NR 339, NR 347, NR 350, Manthar, Margalla 99, Iqbal 2000, Saleem 2000, Wafaq 2001, Marwat 2001, Pirsabak 2004 and Fareed 2006 carry leaf rust and stripe rust resistance genes Lr34/Yr18. Stem rust resistance gene Sr2 was observed in 36 Pakistani spring wheat cultivars/lines using stm560.3tgag marker. The slow rusting gene Sr2 needs to be combined with additional stem rust resistance genes to establish durable resistance against Ug99 in modern wheat cultivars. Low frequency of Lr34/Yr18 was found in Pakistani wheats. This gene cluster needs to be incorporated into Pakistani wheats for durable rust resistance. (author)

  10. Health prophylaxis in goat breeding in southern and central Côte d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 75.6 % did so occasionally. Veterinary drugs used are: Levamisole (6.7 %), Albendazole (71.2%), Ivermectin (13.3 %) and oxytetracycline (8.9 %). Incorrect use of these products by some breeders may cause the resistance of gastrointestinal parasites. Keywords: Investigation, health prophylaxis, dwarf goats, Ivory Coast ...

  11. Validation of the method for determination of the thermal resistance of fouling in shell and tube heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowski, Mariusz; Trafczynski, Marian; Urbaniec, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Heat recovery in a heat exchanger network (HEN). • A novel method for on-line determination of the thermal resistance of fouling is presented. • Details are developed for shell and tube heat exchangers. • The method was validated and sensibility analysis was carried out. • Developed approach allows long-term monitoring of changes in the HEN efficiency. - Abstract: A novel method for on-line determination of the thermal resistance of fouling in shell and tube heat exchangers is presented. It can be applied under the condition that the data on pressure, temperature, mass flowrate and thermophysical properties of both heat-exchanging media are continuously available. The calculation algorithm for use in the novel method is robust and ensures reliable determination of the thermal resistance of fouling even if the operating parameters fluctuate. The method was validated using measurement data retrieved from the operation records of a heat exchanger network connected with a crude distillation unit rated 800 t/h. Sensibility analysis of the method was carried out and the calculated values of the thermal resistance of fouling were critically reviewed considering the results of qualitative evaluation of fouling layers in the exchangers inspected during plant overhaul

  12. Determination of antibiotic resistance profile in Klebsiella pneumonia strains isolated from urinary tract infections of patients hospitalized in Peyambaran hospital (Tehran-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Tavakol

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI is the second prevalent infection in human mostly caused by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance profile and detect the prevalence of antibiotic resistance encoding genes in K .pneumoniae isolated from UTI. Materials and Methods: Fifty K. pneumonia strains isolated from 122 UTI samples of hospitalized patients in Payambaran Hospital (Tehran, Iran which were subjected to this study (2014 were confirmed by standard biochemical tests. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobial drugs by using disk diffusion method. Antibiotic resistance encoding genes frequently include the aadA1, aac(3-IV, sul1, blaSHV, Cat1, cmlA, tetA, tetB, dfrA1, CITM, qnr in isolates were determined by PCR. Results: The highest antibiotic resistance in K. pneumoniae isolates were for Tetracycline and the lowest resistance (2% for Gentamicin and Imipenem. To determine the frequency of antibiotic resistant genes, 64% and 4% of isolates had tetA and Gentamicin-(aac(3-IV resistant genes, respectively. Conclusion: Frequency of antibiotic resistance encoding genes may have important and basic role in the occurrence and transfer of antibiotic resistance which can be due to the indiscriminate use of antibiotics.

  13. Experimental determination of fuel-cladding thermal contact resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maglic, K.; Zivotic, Z.

    1968-01-01

    Thermal resistance of the UO 2 fuel - Zr-2 cladding was measure by the same experimental apparatus which was used for measuring the thermal conductivity of ceramic fuel. Thermal resistance was measure for a series of heat flux values and the dependence of thermal resistance on the flux is given within in the range from 0.66 W/cm 2 to 13.3 W/cm 2 . The temperature drop on the contact surface was between 39 deg C and 181.7 deg C, proportional to the increase of the heat flux [sr

  14. The rarely reported tet(31) tetracycline resistance determinant is common in Gallibacterium anatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Anders M.; Bager, Ragnhild J.; Ifrah, Dan

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to identify and characterize the tetracycline resistance determinant in 22 Gallibacterium anatis strains for which no determinant was identified using primers specific for tet(A, B, C, D, E, G, H, K, L, M, O). A recent study found tet(B) to be the most pre...... from very different production systems and localities. In addition, tet(31) was identified in strains isolated over a 30-year period. This is the first report on tet(31) since its original identification in Aeromonas salmonicida....

  15. Quantitative models for predicting adsorption of oxytetracycline, ciprofloxacin and sulfamerazine to swine manures with contrasting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dengmiao; Feng, Yao; Liu, Yuanwang; Li, Jinpeng; Xue, Jianming; Li, Zhaojun

    2018-09-01

    Understanding antibiotic adsorption in livestock manures is crucial to assess the fate and risk of antibiotics in the environment. In this study, three quantitative models developed with swine manure-water distribution coefficients (LgK d ) for oxytetracycline (OTC), ciprofloxacin (CIP) and sulfamerazine (SM1) in swine manures. Physicochemical parameters (n=12) of the swine manure were used as independent variables using partial least-squares (PLSs) analysis. The cumulative cross-validated regression coefficients (Q 2 cum ) values, standard deviations (SDs) and external validation coefficient (Q 2 ext ) ranged from 0.761 to 0.868, 0.027 to 0.064, and 0.743 to 0.827 for the three models; as such, internal and external predictability of the models were strong. The pH, soluble organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (SON), and Ca were important explanatory variables for the OTC-Model, pH, SOC, and SON for the CIP-model, and pH, total organic nitrogen (TON), and SOC for the SM1-model. The high VIPs (variable importance in the projections) of pH (1.178-1.396), SOC (0.968-1.034), and SON (0.822 and 0.865) established these physicochemical parameters as likely being dominant (associatively) in affecting transport of antibiotics in swine manures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Linezolid-resistant enterococci in Polish hospitals: species, clonality and determinants of linezolid resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawryszewska, I; Żabicka, D; Hryniewicz, W; Sadowy, E

    2017-07-01

    The significant increase of the linezolid-resistant enterococci (LRE) has been observed in Polish hospitals since 2012 and our study aimed at elucidating the possible reasons for this phenomenon. Polish LRE isolates were analysed by multilocus-sequence typing (MLST) and multiple locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) to establish clonal relatedness and mechanism of linezolid resistance, respectively. Fifty analysed LRE (2008-2015) included mostly Enterococcus faecium (82%) and Enterococcus faecalis (16%). Enterococcus faecium belonged to the hospital-adapted lineages 17/18 and 78, while E. faecalis isolates represented ST6, a hospital-associated type, and ST116, found in both humans and food-production animals. The G2576T 23S rRNA mutation was the most frequent (94%) mechanism of linezolid/tedizolid resistance of LRE. None of the isolates carried the plasmid-associated gene of Cfr methyltransferase, whereas optrA, encoding the ABC-type drug transporter, was identified in two E. faecalis isolates. In these isolates, optrA was located on a plasmid, transferable to both E. faecium and E. faecalis, whose partial (36.3 kb) sequence was 100% identical to the pE394 plasmid, identified previously in China in both clinical and farm animal isolates. The optrA-E. faecium transconjugant displayed a significant growth deficiency, in contrast to the optrA-E. faecalis. Our study indicates the role of mutation acquisition by hospital-adapted clones of enterococci as a major driver of increasing resistance to linezolid and tedizolid. Transferability and apparent lack of a biological cost of resistance suggest that E. faecalis may be a natural reservoir of optrA, an emerging mechanism of oxazolidinone resistance.

  17. Bioremediation of oxytetracycline in seawater by living and dead biomass of the microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaeufemia, Sergio; Torres, Enrique; Mera, Roi; Abalde, Julio

    2016-12-15

    Due to its use, a large amount of Oxytetracycline (OTC) is released into water, which has a detrimental impact on aquatic ecosystems and human health. Although there are different physicochemical methods (mainly photodegradation) to remove OTC, there is increasing interest in the use of bioremediation. The sorption characteristics of OTC using living and dead biomass of the microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum have been investigated in this study. Kinetics, isotherms and maximum elimination capacity were tested and discussed. Kinetic studies showed that the OTC removal by living biomass followed a sigmoidal model. However, the dead biomass followed a pseudo-first order model. The living biomass showed higher efficiency than the dead biomass with maximum sorption capacities of 29.18mgg -1 and 4.54mgg -1 , respectively. Combination of living biomass and photodegradation under the culture conditions eliminated 13.2mgL -1 of OTC during 11h of culture and with an initial OTC concentration of 15mgL -1 . With an initial OTC concentration of 2.5mgL -1 , 97% of OTC was removed. This removal was mainly caused by bioremediation than by photodegradation. The results proved the potential practical application of the living P. tricornutum biomass for a low-cost and efficient removal of OTC from seawater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Oxytetracycline induces DNA damage and epigenetic changes: a possible risk for human and animal health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Adriana; Landi, Rosaria; Rubino, Valentina; Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Giovazzino, Angela; Palatucci, Anna Teresa; Centenaro, Sara; Guidetti, Gianandrea; Canello, Sergio; Cortese, Laura; Ruggiero, Giuseppina; Alessandrini, Andrea; Terrazzano, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC), which is largely employed in zootechnical and veterinary practices to ensure wellness of farmed animals, is partially absorbed within the gastrointestinal tract depositing in several tissues. Therefore, the potential OTC toxicity is relevant when considering the putative risk derived by the entry and accumulation of such drug in human and pet food chain supply. Despite scientific literature highlights several OTC-dependent toxic effects on human and animal health, the molecular mechanisms of such toxicity are still poorly understood. Here, we evaluated DNA damages and epigenetic alterations by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, chromatin immuno-precipitation and Western blot analysis. We observed that human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) expressed DNA damage features (activation of ATM and p53, phosphorylation of H2AX and modifications of histone H3 methylation of lysine K4 in the chromatin) after the in vitro exposure to OTC. These changes are linked to a robust inflammatory response indicated by an increased expression of Interferon (IFN)- γ and type 1 superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Our data reveal an unexpected biological in vitro activity of OTC able to modify DNA and chromatin in cultured human PBMC. In this regard, OTC presence in foods of animal origin could represent a potential risk for both the human and animal health.

  19. Survey study: The antibacterial drugs used for treatment of the animals in the teaching veterinary hospital in Kirkuk province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.J. Mousa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this survey is to collect data relating to antibacterial drugs used to treat different animals in the veterinary teaching hospital in the province of Kirkuk, which is taking place for the first time at the province level for the purpose of knowing the types of drugs most commonly used and the outcome whether these drugs used are optimal. Data were collected from the veterinary teaching hospital in Kirkuk province for 6 consecutive months and for the period between 1/7/2016 and until 1/1/2017 period included both the summer and autumn and winter seasons. The results show that the most commonly used drugs were Oxytetracycline, Oxytetracycline, Doxycycline-Colistin compound by 26, 57 and 36% in cattle, sheep-goats and Poultry, respectively. While the least commonly used drugs were Tylosin, Gentamicin and Gentamicin-Tylosin compound by 10, 5 and 4% in cattle, sheep-goats and poultry, respectively. Based on the results obtained from this survey, we recommend the use of Penicillin-Streptomycin compound because it has a synergistic effect against most of the resistant bacteria and not to increase usage of Oxytetracycline because of its side effects and lack of effectiveness in recent times due to the abundance of resistant germs. Also, using antibacterial drugs, we would like to note the need for optimal scientific use of these drugs and to give attention to the period in which it takes the medicine to withdraw from the animal body before milking animals or slaughtering it, so that the bacterial resistance does not develop against these drugs in the future.

  20. A multicopy suppressor screening approach as a means to identify antibiotic resistance determinant candidates in Yersinia pestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moy Richard L

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of plague and a potential agent of bioterrorism and biowarfare. The plague biothreat and the emergence of multidrug-resistant plague underscore the need to increase our understanding of the intrinsic potential of Y. pestis for developing antimicrobial resistance and to anticipate the mechanisms of resistance that may emerge in Y. pestis. Identification of Y. pestis genes that, when overexpressed, are capable of reducing antibiotic susceptibility is a useful strategy to expose genes that this pathogen may rely upon to evolve antibiotic resistance via a vertical modality. In this study, we explored the use of a multicopy suppressor, Escherichia coli host-based screening approach as a means to expose antibiotic resistance determinant candidates in Y. pestis. Results We constructed a multicopy plasmid-based, Y. pestis genome-wide expression library of nearly 16,000 clones in E. coli and screened the library for suppressors of the antimicrobial activity of ofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic. The screen permitted the identification of a transcriptional regulator-encoding gene (robAYp that increased the MIC99 of ofloxacin by 23-fold when overexpressed from a multicopy plasmid in Y. pestis. Additionally, we found that robAYp overexpression in Y. pestis conferred low-level resistance to many other antibiotics and increased organic solvent tolerance. Overexpression of robAYp also upregulated the expression of several efflux pumps in Y. pestis. Conclusion Our study provides proof of principle for the use of multicopy suppressor screening based on the tractable and easy-to-manipulate E. coli host as a means to identify antibiotic resistance determinant candidates of Y. pestis.

  1. Characterization of Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Determinants in High-Level Quinolone-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Isolates from the Community: First Report of qnrD Gene in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanat, Betitera; Machuca, Jesús; Díaz-De-Alba, Paula; Mezhoud, Halima; Touati, Abdelaziz; Pascual, Álvaro; Rodríguez-Martínez, José-Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to assess the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR)-producing isolates in a collection of quinolone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae of community origin isolated in Bejaia, Algeria. A total of 141 nalidixic acid-resistant Enterobacteriaceae community isolates were collected in Bejaia (Northern Algeria) and screened for PMQR genes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For PMQR-positive strains, antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution and disk diffusion. Mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the target genes, gyrA and parC, were detected with a PCR-based method and sequencing. Southern blotting, conjugation and transformation assays and molecular typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multilocus sequence typing were also performed. The prevalence of PMQR-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates was 13.5% (19/141); 11 of these isolates produced Aac(6')-Ib-cr and 8 were qnr-positive (4 qnrB1-like, 2 qnrS1-like, and 2 qnrD1-like), including the association with aac(6')-Ib-cr gene in three cases. PMQR gene transfer by conjugation was successful in 6 of 19 isolates tested. PFGE revealed that most of the PMQR-positive Escherichia coli isolates were unrelated, except for two groups comprising two and four isolates, respectively, including the virulent multidrug-resistant clone E. coli ST131 that were clonally related. Our findings indicate that PMQR determinants are prevalent in Enterobacteriaceae isolates from the community studied. We describe the first report of the qnrD gene in Algeria.

  2. Genetic determinants of antifungal resistance in Candida species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the previous decades, it has been an increase in cases of resistance to antifungal agents used in the prophylaxis and treatment of infections caused by Candida species. The emergence of resistance to drug classes, it is usually explained by genome alterations ranging from point mutations to gain or loss of whole ...

  3. NOVEL ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE DETERMINANTS FROM AGRICULTURAL SOIL EXPOSED TO ANTIBIOTICS WIDELY USED IN HUMAN MEDICINE AND ANIMAL FARMING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Calvin Ho-Fung; van Engelen, Kalene; Gordon, Stephen; Renaud, Justin; Topp, Edward

    2017-06-16

    Antibiotic resistance has emerged globally as one of the biggest threats to human and animal health. Although the excessive use of antibiotics is recognized for accelerating the selection for resistance, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that natural environments are "hotspots" for the development of both ancient and contemporary resistance mechanisms. Given that pharmaceuticals can be entrained onto agricultural land through anthropogenic activities, this could be a potential driver for the emergence and dissemination of resistance in soil bacteria. Using functional metagenomics, we interrogated the "resistome" of bacterial communities found in a collection of Canadian agricultural soil, some of which had been receiving antibiotics widely used in human medicine (macrolides) or food animal production (sulfamethazine, chlortetracycline and tylosin) for up to 16 years. Of the 34 new antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) recovered, the majority were predicted to encode for (multi)drug efflux systems, while a few share little to no homology with established resistance determinants. We characterized several novel gene products, including putative enzymes that can confer high-level resistance against aminoglycosides, sulfonamides, and broad range of beta-lactams, with respect to their resistance mechanisms and clinical significance. By coupling high-resolution proteomics analysis with functional metagenomics, we discovered an unusual peptide, PPP AZI 4 , encoded within an alternative open-reading frame not predicted by bioinformatics tools. Expression of the proline-rich PPP AZI 4 can promote resistance against different macrolides but not other ribosomal-targeting antibiotics, implicating a new macrolide-specific resistance mechanism that could be fundamentally linked to the evolutionary design of this peptide. IMPORTANCE Antibiotic resistance is a clinical phenomenon with an evolutionary link to the microbial pangenome. Genes and protogenes encoding for

  4. Preliminary results of the empirical validation of daily increments in otoliths of jack mackerel Trachurus symmetricus murphyi (Nichols, 1920 marked with oxytetracycline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Araya

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of microincrement formation in sagittae otoliths of jack mackerel Trachurus symmetricus was validated using experiments on captive fish. Adult jack mackerel were injected with a dose of 100 mg of oxytetracycline/kg of fish. A second injection was performed 30 days later. The fish were then sacrificed and their sagittae otoliths were extracted. Thin sections of the otoliths were prepared and observed through an epifluorescent microscope using ultraviolet light. Two fluorescent marks corresponding to the two injections were clearly visible. The average number of microincrements between the two fluorescent marks was 29 (n=10; S.D.=1.63 and the median was 29.3. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test indicated that this value was not significantly different from 30. This result indicates that microincrements in otoliths of adult jack mackerel of between 28.4 and 37.7 cm fork length are formed with a daily frequency.

  5. DETERMINATION OF THE ISSUE CONCERNING THE LIFT RESISTANCE FACTOR OF LIGHTWEIGHT CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Shvets

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The analytical study of the connection between the longitudinal force, acting on the light-weight car, lateral and vertical forces of interaction in the contact zone «wheel – rail» with the lift resistance factor value is to provide a simple relationships between them. Methodology. Research was conducted by the method of mathematical modeling of loading the freight car when driving at different speeds on straight and curved sections of a track. Findings. Even in the absence of «lift» accordingly the classical train stability theory, as the hinge-rod system, the presence of the longitudinal compressive forces may become a factor provoking cars derailment. The main reason of wheel climbing on rails is the combination of processes of dynamic interaction between the hunting vehicle and the track with simultaneous action of longitudinal compressive forces, and not the destabilization of train as a hingedrod system. To assess the impact of the longitudinal forces value on the lift resistance factor there are presented the calculation results for the empty gondola car motion, model No. 12-532, on 250 m radius curve with 150 mm rise and cross starting of car underframe relating to the track axis in 50 mm guiding section. The calculations were made in such a curve excluding the inertial forces from outstanding acceleration and taking into account the unbalanced acceleration with the permissible speed of 65 km/h. Originality. This study provides the technique of determining the lift resistance factor by longitudinal forces, which is somewhat different from the standard one, as well as evaluates impact of rolling stock speed on this factor. Practical value. The authors clarify the current method of determining the lift resistance factor by longitudinal forces and assess the impact of rolling stock speed on the value of this factor. From these studies one can conclude that because of cars hunting their lift is possible even when the train as

  6. Tetracycline residues and tetracycline resistance genes in groundwater impacted by swine production facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, R.I.; Koike, S.; Krapac, I.; Chee-Sanford, J.; Maxwell, Susan; Aminov, R.I.

    2006-01-01

    Antibiotics are used at therapeutic levels to treat disease; at slightly lower levels as prophylactics; and at low, subtherapeutic levels for growth promotion and improvement of feed efficiency. Over 88% of swine producers in the United States gave antimicrobials to grower/finisher pigs in feed as a growth promoter in 2000. It is estimated that ca. 75% of antibiotics are not absorbed by animals and are excreted in urine and feces. The extensive use of antibiotics in swine production has resulted in antibiotic resistance in many intestinal bacteria, which are also excreted in swine feces, resulting in dissemination of resistance genes into the environment.To assess the impact of manure management on groundwater quality, groundwater samples have been collected near two swine confinement facilities that use lagoons for manure storage and treatment. Several key contaminant indicators-including inorganic ions, antibiotics, and antibiotic resistance genes-were analyzed in groundwater collected from the monitoring wells. Chloride, ammonium, potassium, and sodium were predominant inorganic constituents in the manure samples and served as indicators of groundwater contamination. Based on these analyses, shallow groundwater has been impacted by lagoon seepage at both sites. Liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) was used to measure the dissolved concentrations of tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline in groundwater and manure. Although tetracyclines were regularly used at both facilities, they were infrequently detected in manure samples and then at relatively trace concentrations. Concentrations of all tetracyclines and their breakdown products in the groundwater sampled were generally less than 0.5 ??g/L.Bacterial tetracycline resistance genes served as distinct genotypic markers to indicate the dissemination and mobility of antibiotic resistance genes that originated from the lagoons. Applying PCR to genomic DNA extracted from the lagoon and

  7. Buprofezin susceptibility survey, resistance selection and preliminary determination of the resistance mechanism in Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhua; Gao, Congfen; Xu, Zhiping; Zhu, Yu Cheng; Zhang, Jiushuang; Li, Wenhong; Dai, Dejiang; Lin, Youwei; Zhou, Weijun; Shen, Jinliang

    2008-10-01

    Buprofezin has been used for many years to control Nilaparvata lugens (Stål). Assessment of susceptibility change in the insect is essential for maintaining control efficiency and resistance management. Eleven-year surveys showed that most field populations were susceptible before 2004. However, substantially higher levels of resistance (up to 28-fold) were found in most of the rice fields in China after 2004. A field population was collected and periodically selected for buprofezin resistance in the laboratory. After 65 generations (56 were selected), the colony successfully obtained 3599-fold resistance to buprofezin. Synergism tests showed that O,O-diethyl-O-phenyl phosphorothioate (SV1), piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and diethyl maleate (DEM) increased buprofezin toxicity in the resistant strain by only 1.5-1.6 fold, suggesting that esterases, P450-monooxygenases and glutathione S-transferases had no substantial effect on buprofezin resistance development. The results from this study indicate that N. lugens has the potential to develop high resistance to buprofezin. A resistance management program with rotation of buprofezin and other pesticides may efficiently delay or slow down resistance development in the insect. Further investigation is also necessary to understand the resistance mechanisms in N. lugens.

  8. Antibiotic resistance determinants and genetic analysis of Salmonella enterica isolated from food in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Manuela; Bouchrif, Brahim; Timinouni, Mohammed; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N; Cappuccinelli, Pietro; Rubino, Salvatore; Paglietti, Bianca

    2015-12-23

    Antimicrobial-resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are an important cause of infection in Africa, but there is a lack of information on their molecular mechanisms of resistance and epidemiology. This study contributes to fill this gap through the characterization by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), plasmid profiling and analysis of antibiotic-resistance determinants of 94 Salmonella enterica strains isolated from food in Morocco. PFGE revealed considerable heterogeneity among the strains, showing 32 pulsotypes. MLST of strains representative of the different serovars evidenced 13 sequence types (STs), three of which were newly identified (ST1694, ST1768 and ST1818) and nine not previously reported in Morocco. Thirty-four strains harbored from one to four plasmids, of IncI1 group in S. Mbandaka, IncFIIA in S. Typhimurium, IncL/M in S. Hadar and S. Blockley. For the first time in Morocco an intact Salmonella Genomic Island 1 (SGI1) carrying the resistance genes aadA2, floR, tetG, blaPSE-1 and sul1 was detected in S. Typhimurium DT104. In serovar Hadar resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline and streptomycin was associated to blaTEM-1, tetA and strA genes respectively, whereas one mutation in gyrA (Asp87Asn) and one in parC (Thr54Ser) genes conferred resistance to nalidixic acid. These findings improve the information on foodborne Salmonella in Morocco, evidencing the presence of MDR strains potentially dangerous to humans, and provide useful data for future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Isolation and Determination of Antibiotic Resistance Patterns in Nontyphoid Salmonella spp isolated from chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedeh Hoorieh Fallah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salmonellosis is one of the most common food borne diseases in industrial and developing countries. In recent years, an increase in antimicrobial drug resistance, among non-typhoid Salmonella spp has been observed. Objectives: The aim of this study was to isolate and determine antibiotic resistance pattern in non-typhoid Salmonella spp. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was done on 100 samples of chickens collected from 196 retail markets and was examined for the presence of Salmonella using standard bacteriological procedures and stereotyping kit. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion methods according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (CLSI. The data were analyzed by using the SPSS software version 18. Result: Forty- four percent of samples were contaminated with Salmonella infection and 56% didn’t have any contamination. The stereotyping results showed that 34 of 44 isolates of Salmonella belonged to Salmonella infantis (79.5 %, one strain (2.3% of group C and 8 strain (18.2% of group D. However, all these strains were sensitive to Cefotaxime and Ciprofloxacin, and 100% were resistant to Nalidixic acid, Tetracyclin and Sterptomycin. The most common resistance pattern (34.1% was towards six antibiotics, and 6.8% of strains were resistant to at least three antibiotics. Conclusion: High levels of resistance to antibiotics that are used commonly for human and poultry can be a warning for our community health and this information must be used to form important strategies for improvement of infection control.

  10. Insertion sequence transposition determines imipenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Han-Yueh; Chang, Kai-Chih; Liu, Chih-Chin; Tang, Chuan Yi; Peng, Jhih-Hua; Lu, Chia-Wei; Tu, Chi-Chao; Liou, Ming-Li

    2014-10-01

    This study employed genomewide analysis to investigate potential resistance mechanisms in Acinetobacter baumannii following imipenem exposure. Imipenem-selected mutants were generated from the imipenem-susceptible strain ATCC 17978 by multistep selection resistance. Antibiotic susceptibilities were examined, and the selected mutants originated from the ATCC 17978 strain were confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The genomic sequence of a resistant mutant was analyzed using a next-generation sequencing platform, and genetic recombination was further confirmed by PCR. The result showed that phenotypic resistance was observed with carbapenem upon exposure to various concentrations of imipenem. Genomewide analysis showed that ISAba1 transposition was initiated by imipenem exposure at concentrations up to 0.5 mg/L. Transposition of ISAba1 upstream of blaOXA-95 was detected in all the selected mutants. The expression of blaOXA-95 was further analyzed by quantitative PCR, and the results demonstrated that a 200-fold increase in gene expression was required for resistance to imipenem. This study concluded that imipenem exposure at a concentration of 0.5 mg/L mediated the transposition of ISAba1 upstream of the blaOXA-95 gene and resulted in the overexpression of blaOXA-95 gene, which may play a major role in the resistance to imipenem in A. baumannii.

  11. Behavior of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in eco-agricultural system: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Weixiao; Li, Jianan; Wu, Ying; Xu, Like; Su, Chao; Qian, Yanyun [Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhu, Yong-Guan [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Chen, Hong, E-mail: chen_hong@zju.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2016-03-05

    Highlights: • TetQ had the highest relative abundance and tetG was the most persistent gene. • The anaerobic digestion has no effective removal of most ARGs. • The abundance of ARGs in soils and fishpond was higher than that of control system. • Positive correlations were observed between the total ARGs and TN, TP and TOC. - Abstract: This study aims to determine abundance and persistence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in eco-agricultural system (EAS), which starts from swine feces to anaerobic digestion products, then application of anaerobic digestion solid residue (ADSR) and anaerobic digestion liquid residue (ADLR) to the soil to grow ryegrass, one of swine feed. Oxytetracycline had the highest concentration in manure reaching up to 138.7 mg/kg. Most of antibiotics could be effectively eliminated by anaerobic digestion and removal rates ranged from 11% to 86%. ARGs abundance fluctuated within EAS. TetQ had the highest relative abundance and the relative abundance of tetG had the least variation within the system, which indicates that tetG is persistent in the agricultural environment and requires more attention. Compared to the relative abundance in manure, tetC and tetM increased in biogas residue while three ribosomal protection proteins genes (tetO, tetQ, tetW) decreased (p < 0.05), with other genes showing no significant change after anaerobic fermentation (p > 0.05). Most ARGs in downstream components (soils and fishpond) of EAS showed significantly higher relative abundance than the control agricultural system (p < 0.05), except for tetG and sulI.

  12. A technique for the determination of center of gravity and rolling resistance for tilt-seat wheelchairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, E D; Lamontagne, M; Barclay, H W; John, T; Martel, G

    1991-01-01

    A balance platform setup was defined for use in the determination of the center of gravity in the sagittal plane for a wheelchair and patient. Using the center of gravity information, measurements from the wheelchair and patient (weight, tire coefficients of friction), and various assumptions (constant speed, level-concrete surface, patient-wheelchair system is a rigid body), a method for estimating the rolling resistance for a wheelchair was outlined. The center of gravity and rolling resistance techniques were validated against criterion values (center of gravity error = 1 percent, rolling resistance root mean square error = 0.33 N, rolling resistance Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.995). Consistent results were also obtained from a test dummy and five subjects. Once the center of gravity is known, it is possible to evaluate the stability of a wheelchair (in terms of tipping over) and the interaction between the level of stability and rolling resistance. These quantitative measures are expected to be of use in the setup of wheelchairs with a variable seat angle and variable wheelbase length or when making comparisons between different wheelchairs.

  13. Bacterial Multidrug Efflux Pumps: Much More Than Antibiotic Resistance Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Paula; Hernando-Amado, Sara; Reales-Calderon, Jose Antonio; Corona, Fernando; Lira, Felipe; Alcalde-Rico, Manuel; Bernardini, Alejandra; Sanchez, Maria Blanca; Martinez, Jose Luis

    2016-02-16

    Bacterial multidrug efflux pumps are antibiotic resistance determinants present in all microorganisms. With few exceptions, they are chromosomally encoded and present a conserved organization both at the genetic and at the protein levels. In addition, most, if not all, strains of a given bacterial species present the same chromosomally-encoded efflux pumps. Altogether this indicates that multidrug efflux pumps are ancient elements encoded in bacterial genomes long before the recent use of antibiotics for human and animal therapy. In this regard, it is worth mentioning that efflux pumps can extrude a wide range of substrates that include, besides antibiotics, heavy metals, organic pollutants, plant-produced compounds, quorum sensing signals or bacterial metabolites, among others. In the current review, we present information on the different functions that multidrug efflux pumps may have for the bacterial behaviour in different habitats as well as on their regulation by specific signals. Since, in addition to their function in non-clinical ecosystems, multidrug efflux pumps contribute to intrinsic, acquired, and phenotypic resistance of bacterial pathogens, the review also presents information on the search for inhibitors of multidrug efflux pumps, which are currently under development, in the aim of increasing the susceptibility of bacterial pathogens to antibiotics.

  14. Comparative evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of sulfadiazine-trimethoprim, oxytetracycline, enrofloxacin and florfenicol on Staphylococcus aureus-induced arthritis in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosleh, N; Shomali, T; Namazi, F; Marzban, M; Mohammadi, M; Boroojeni, A Motamedi

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human and veterinary pathogen that causes economic loss in the poultry industry. This study aimed to compare therapeutic efficacy of 4 commonly used antibiotics in poultry on S. aureus-induced arthritis in broilers. Sixty broilers, 8 weeks of age, were assigned at random into 7 groups as follows: (1) negative control (n = 5); (2) vehicle control (n = 5); (3) sulfadiazine-trimethoprim, 250 ml/1000 l drinking water (n = 10); (4) oxytetracycline 20%, 1 mg/l drinking water (n = 10); (5) florfenicol 10%, 1/1000 v/v in drinking water (n = 10); (6) enrofloxacin 10%, 1/1000 v/v in drinking water (n = 10) and (7) positive control (n = 10). Birds in group 2 were injected with 1 ml of sterile TSB medium into the right tibiotarsal joint on d 0 while other birds (except group 1) were challenged with 1 ml of 1.2 × 10(10) CFU/ml suspension of S. aureus bacteria. Antibiotic therapy was started from d 4 post challenge and continued for 5 d. At the end, birds were weighed and clinical severity of arthritis was determined. After blood collection, birds were slaughtered and tibiotarsal and hip joints were evaluated grossly. The content of inflammatory exudates of tibiotarsal joint and the degree of femoral head necrosis were recorded. Mucin clot test and histopathological evaluation were performed on right tibiotarsal joint. Serum interleukin 6 was also assayed. Sulfadiazine-trimethoprim had higher therapeutic efficiency with regard to most of the assayed criteria, whereas none of the antibiotics significantly affected femoral head necrosis and body weight. These data will help clinicians to have better antibiotic choice in field conditions.

  15. Environmental pollution by antibiotics and by antibiotic resistance determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Jose Luis

    2009-01-01

    Antibiotics are among the most successful drugs used for human therapy. However, since they can challenge microbial populations, they must be considered as important pollutants as well. Besides being used for human therapy, antibiotics are extensively used for animal farming and for agricultural purposes. Residues from human environments and from farms may contain antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes that can contaminate natural environments. The clearest consequence of antibiotic release in natural environments is the selection of resistant bacteria. The same resistance genes found at clinical settings are currently disseminated among pristine ecosystems without any record of antibiotic contamination. Nevertheless, the effect of antibiotics on the biosphere is wider than this and can impact the structure and activity of environmental microbiota. Along the article, we review the impact that pollution by antibiotics or by antibiotic resistance genes may have for both human health and for the evolution of environmental microbial populations. - The article reviews the current knowledge on the effects that pollution by antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes may have for the microbiosphere.

  16. Environmental pollution by antibiotics and by antibiotic resistance determinants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Jose Luis, E-mail: jlmtnez@cnb.csic.e [Departamento de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Darwin 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, and CIBERESP (Spain)

    2009-11-15

    Antibiotics are among the most successful drugs used for human therapy. However, since they can challenge microbial populations, they must be considered as important pollutants as well. Besides being used for human therapy, antibiotics are extensively used for animal farming and for agricultural purposes. Residues from human environments and from farms may contain antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes that can contaminate natural environments. The clearest consequence of antibiotic release in natural environments is the selection of resistant bacteria. The same resistance genes found at clinical settings are currently disseminated among pristine ecosystems without any record of antibiotic contamination. Nevertheless, the effect of antibiotics on the biosphere is wider than this and can impact the structure and activity of environmental microbiota. Along the article, we review the impact that pollution by antibiotics or by antibiotic resistance genes may have for both human health and for the evolution of environmental microbial populations. - The article reviews the current knowledge on the effects that pollution by antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes may have for the microbiosphere.

  17. Antimicrobial resistance determinants in Staphylococcus spp. recovered from birds of prey in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Margarida; Silva, Nuno; Igrejas, Gilberto; Silva, Filipe; Sargo, Roberto; Alegria, Nuno; Benito, Daniel; Gómez, Paula; Lozano, Carmen; Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Torres, Carmen; Caniça, Manuela; Poeta, Patrícia

    2014-07-16

    Antibiotic resistance among wild animals represent an emerging public health concern. The objective of this study was to analyze the staphylococcal nasal microbiota in birds of prey and their content in antimicrobial resistance determinants. Nasal samples from 16 birds of prey were collected, swabs were dipped and incubated into BHI broth [6.5% NaCl] and later seeded on manitol salt agar and oxacillin-resistance screening agar base media. Staphylococcal colonies were isolated from both media and were identified by biochemical and molecular methods. Susceptibility testing to 18 antimicrobial agents was performed by disk-diffusion method. Six of the 16 tested animals carried staphylococci (37.5%) and 7 isolates of the following species were recovered: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus sciuri rodentium, Staphylococcus cohnii urealitycum, and Staphylococcus gallinarum. The S. aureus isolate was penicillin-resistant (with blaZ gene) but methicillin-susceptible and was ascribed to spa-type t012, sequence-type ST30 and agr-type III. The S. epidermidis isolate carried blaZ, mecA, mrs(A/B), mphC, tet(K), drfA, and fusC genes, ica operon, and was typed as ST35. The genes ant6'-Ia, tet(K), tet(L), dfrG, cat221, cat194, and cat223 were detected in S. saprophyticus or S. gallinarum isolates. Birds of prey seem to be a natural reservoir of S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci resistant to multiple antibiotics. Due to the convergence between habitats, the contact between wildlife, other animals and humans is now more common and this involves an increased possibility of interchange of these microorganisms in the different ecosystems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Isolation and identification of Staphylococcus aureus from milk and milk products and their drug resistance patterns in Anand, Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Brahmbhatt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was carried out with aim to isolate Staphylococcus aureus from milk and milk products (pedha and curd and determine antibiogram pattern of S. aureus isolates. Materials and Methods: During 9 months duration of study a total of 160 milk and milk product samples (pedha and curd were collected from different places in and around Anand city such as milk collection centre of Co-operative milk dairies, cattle farms, individual household, milk vendors and sweet shops. The samples were collected under aseptic precautions and were enriched in Peptone Water (PW followed by direct plating on selective media viz. Baird-Parker Agar. The presumptive S. aureus isolates were identified by biochemical tests. Antibiogram pattern of S. aureus to antimicrobial agents were evaluated by disk diffusion method. Results: Analysis of result revealed that out of total 160 samples of milk (100 and milk products i.e. curd (30 and pedha (30 resulted in the isolation of 10 isolates (6.25 % of S. aureus. In the present study S. aureus isolates were found variably resistant to the antibiotics tested. The S. aureus isolates showed highest sensitivity towards cephalothin (100.00 %, co-trimoxazole (100.00 %, cephalexin (100.00 % and methicillin (100.00 % followed by gentamicin (90.00 %, ciprofloxacin (80.00 %, oxacillin (70.00 %, streptomycin (60.00 % and ampicillin (60.00 %. The pattern clearly indicated that the overall high percent of S. aureus isolates were resistant to Penicillin-G (100.00 % followed by ampicillin (40.00 %, oxytetracycline and oxacillin (20.00 % and streptomycin and gentamicin (10.00 % Conclusions: Results clearly suggested a possibility of potential public health threat of S. aureus resulting from contamination of milk and milk products with pathogenic bacteria is mainly due to unhygienic processing, handling and unhygienic environment. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 10-13

  19. Detection of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Related Genes in E. coli Strains Belonging to B2 Phylogroup Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections in Combination with Antimicrobial Resistance Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Staji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:  This study was conducted to detect the prevalence of EHEC virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance profile of Escherichia coli strains belonging to B2 phylogroup implicated in Urinary tract infections in Semnan, Iran.Methods:   From 240 urine samples 160 E. coli strains were isolated, biochemically. Then, E. coli isolates were examined by Multiplex-PCR for phylogenetic typing and detection of virulence genes (hly, stx1, stx2, eae associated with Enterohemorrhagic E. coli. Finally, Antimicrobial resistance of E. coli isolates were characterized using Disk Diffusion method.  Results:  From 160 E. coli isolates, 75 strains (47% were assigned to B2 phylogenetic group and prevalence of virulence genes were as follow: hly (21.3%, stx1 (16%, stx2 (10.6% and eae (6.7%, subsequently.  Phenotypic antimicrobial resistance of B2 isolates showed that all isolates were sensitive to Meropenem and Furazolidone and then highest frequency of resistance was observed to Streptomycin, Oxytetracycline, Neomycin, Nalidixic acid and Ampicillin (98.7% to 49.3%. Also low resistance prevalence was observed in case of Ceftizoxime, Lincospectin, Imipenem, Chloramphenicol and flurefenicole (16% to 1.3%.Conclusion:   The data suggest a high prevalence of antibiotic resistance in UPEC strains belonging to B2 phylogroup even for the antimicrobials using in pet and farm animals and their potential to cause EHEC specific clinical symptoms which may represent a serious health risk since these strains can be transmitted to GI tract and act as a reservoir for other uropathogenic E. coli and commensal strains.

  20. Construction of an extended range whole-cell tetracycline biosensor by use of the tet(M) resistance gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Martin Iain; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2005-01-01

    protein gene. Tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline and minocycline all effectively induced the resulting Escherichia coli MC4100/pTGM biosensor and similar dose-response characteristics were recorded by flow cytometry for all four compounds. The novel tetracycline biosensor was responsive...

  1. Oxidative degradation of the antibiotic oxytetracycline by Cu@Fe3O4 core-shell nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Van Luan; Kim, Do-Gun; Ko, Seok-Oh

    2018-08-01

    A core-shell nanostructure composed of zero-valent Cu (core) and Fe 3 O 4 (shell) (Cu@Fe 3 O 4 ) was prepared by a simple reduction method and was evaluated for the degradation of oxytetracycline (OTC), an antibiotic. The Cu core and the Fe 3 O 4 shell were verified by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy. The optimal molar ratio of [Cu]/[Fe] (1/1) in Cu@Fe 3 O 4 created an outstanding synergic effect, leading to >99% OTC degradation as well as H 2 O 2 decomposition within 10min at the reaction conditions of 1g/L Cu@Fe 3 O 4 , 20mg/L OTC, 20mM H 2 O 2 , and pH3.0 (and even at pH9.0). The OTC degradation rate by Cu@Fe 3 O 4 was higher than obtained using single nanoparticle of Cu or Fe 3 O 4 . The results of the study using radical scavengers showed that OH is the major reactive oxygen species contributing to the OTC degradation. Finally, good stability, reusability, and magnetic separation were obtained with approximately 97% OTC degradation and no notable change in XRD patterns after the Cu@Fe 3 O 4 catalyst was reused five times. These results demonstrate that Cu@Fe 3 O 4 is a novel prospective candidate for the pharmaceutical and personal care products degradation in the aqueous phase. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Resistant plasmid profile analysis of multidrug resistant Escherichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli has become a major threat and cause of many urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the resistant plasmids of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from (Urinary tract infections)UTIs in Abeokuta.

  3. Evaluation of long-acting oxytetracycline and a commercial monovalent vaccine for the control of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis infection in beef bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Nathan E N; Lanigan, Emily; Waugh, Taryn; Gesy, Karen; Waldner, Cheryl

    2017-10-01

    A blinded randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate a multi-modal therapeutic regime for treatment of beef bulls infected with Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv) . Treatment included 2 doses of a commercially available monovalent vaccine and long-acting oxytetracycline applied twice at a 2-week interval with treatment completed 2 weeks before post-treatment observation. Fifteen confirmed Cfv infected bulls were randomly allocated to control ( n = 8) or treatment groups ( n = 7). Preputial scrapings were collected each week from before infection to 11 weeks following the last treatment. When the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results for both culture and preputial scrapings were interpreted in parallel, there were no significant differences between treated and untreated bulls. Regardless of the type of diagnostic testing considered, treatment with 2 label doses of this regime did not stop shedding of Cfv in all treated bulls and is, therefore, not recommended as an effective management strategy.

  4. Characterization of the etiological structure and genotypically determined phenotypic resistance to carbapenems of infectious complications leading pathogens in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Nazarchuk

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to investigate the genotypically determined phenotypic resistance to carbapenems of gram-negative microorganisms isolated from patients with critical states. Material and methods. Microbiological etiology of infectious complications in critically ill patients (n = 726 was investigated. In total, during the years 2011–2016, 933 clinical strains of infectious complications pathogens from patients with severe burns (n = 435 and from patients treated in intensive care units (n = 291 were isolated and identified. The sensitivity of microorganisms clinical isolates to antibiotics was investigated by means of the standard microbiological methods. In gram-negative bacteria resistant to carbapenems, a molecular genetic study of mechanisms of resistance, determined by the presence of VIM genes, was carried out using the method of real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results. Studies have shown that gram-negative microorganisms (Acinetobacter spp. – 36.3 %, P. aeruginosa – 31.7 %, Enterobacter spp. – 13.5 %, Proteus spp. – 7.9 %, E. coli – 3.8 %; K. pneumoniae – 3.6 %, etc. account for a significant part of infectious complications pathogens structure in critically ill patients. A. baumannii strains (67 % have expressed phenotypic resistance to most antibiotics, in particular to carbapenems (up to 63.2 %. Poly-antibiotic resistance was also found in P. aeruginosa (72 %, and above one the 3rd part of strains of this pathogen was found to have phenotypic resistance to carbapenems. In-depth study of molecular genetic determinants of the resistance mechanism to β-lactam antibiotics among clinical strains of gram-negative bacteria there was proved VIM-induced resistance to carbapenems in A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, P. mirabilis. Conclusions. Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenting gram-negative microorganisms (P. aeruginosa, P. mirabilis, A. baumannii, which are the leading causative agents of infectious complications in patients with

  5. Voltammetric studies on composition and stabilities of complexes of tetracycline and oxytetracycline with some metal ions in aqueous medium. Voltammetrische Untersuchungen zur Zusammensetzung und Stabilitaet von Komplexen von Tetracyclin und Oxytetracyclin mit einigen Metallionen in waessrigem Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghandour, M A; Azab, H A; Hassan, A; Ali, A M [Dept. of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Assiut Univ., Assiut (Egypt)

    1992-01-01

    The composition and stability of complexes of tetracycline and oxytetracycline with Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II) and UO[sub 2](II) have been studied polarographically (direct current and differential pulse polarographic techniques) at 25[+-]0.1 deg C. Differential pulse polarographic studies have been particularly helpful in deciding the nature of metal-drug interactions at low concentrations. The reduction of Cu(II)-tetracycline has been found to be irreversible and diffusion controlled with the presence of an adsorption component. In the system uranyl(II)-tetracycline the complex formed has a stoichiometry of 1:1 and log K[sub ox] = 4.04 which is very close to that obtained by potentiometric measurements. The peak half width W[sub 1/2] of the Pb(II)-OTC system is 60-70 mV indicating that the process is reversible and two electrons are consumed. The log [beta]' is 10.30 in 0.1 mol dm[sup -3] NaClO[sub 4]. In the Cu(II)-OTC system two complexes were formed with log [beta][sub 1]' = 8.50 and log [beta][sub 2]' = 14.10. Cyclic voltammograms were recorded using a hanging dropping mercury electrode for the systems Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II) and UO[sub 2](II)-OTC to examine the irregularities in both peak potentials and peak currents during the polarographic investigations. (authors).

  6. Measurement of Dynamic Resistance in Resistance Spot Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Pei; Lu, J.; Zhang, Wenqi

    2007-01-01

    is influenced by inductive noise caused by the high welding current. In this study, the dynamic resistance is determined by measuring the voltage at primary side and current at secondary side. This increases the accuracy of measurement because of higher signal-noise ratio, and allows to apply to in-process......The conventional methods of determining the dynamic resistance were mostly done by measuring the voltage and current at secondary side of transformer in resistance welding machines, in which the measuring set-up normally interferes with the movement of electrode, and the measuring precision...

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Strain NG_869 with Penicillin, Tetracycline and Ciprofloxacin Resistance Determinants Isolated from Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ang, Geik Yong; Yu, Choo Yee; Yong, Delicia Ann; Cheong, Yuet Meng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2016-01-01

    Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and the increasing reports of multidrug-resistant gonococcal isolates are a global public health care concern. Herein, we report the genome sequence of N. gonorrhoeae strain NG_869 isolated from Malaysia which may provide insights into the drug resistance determinants in gonococcal bacteria.

  8. Determination of the Resistance of Cone-Shaped Solid Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Hendriksen, Peter Vang; Koch, Søren

    2017-01-01

    during processing can be avoided. Newman's formula for current constriction in the electrolyte is then used to deduce the active contact area based on the ohmic resistance of the cell, and from this the surface specific electro-catalytic activity. However, for electrode materials with low electrical......A cone-shaped electrode pressed into an electrolyte can with advantage be utilized to characterize the electro-catalytic properties of the electrode, because it is less dependent on the electrode microstructure than e.g. thin porous composite electrodes, and reactions with the electrolyte occurring...... conductivity (like Ce1-xPrxO2-δ), the resistance of the cell is significantly influenced by the ohmic resistance of the cone electrode, wherefore it must be included. In this work the ohmic resistance of a cone is modelled analytically based on simplified geometries. The two analytical models only differ...

  9. Hazard prioritization and risk characterization of antibiotics in an irrigated Costa Rican region used for intensive crop, livestock and aquaculture farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Elba; Fournier, María Luisa; García, Fernando; Molina, Andrea; Chavarría, Guadalupe; Alfaro, Margarita; Ramírez, Fernando; Rodríguez, César

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics alter the homeostasis of microbial communities and select for antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the wild. Thus, the accumulation of unnaturally high concentration of these substances in the environment due to their use in human activities can be regarded as a neglected form of pollution, especially in countries with agricultural-based economies. Qualitative and quantitative information on antibiotic usage in Costa Rica is scarce, hence the design and enforcement of prevention strategies and corrective measures is difficult. To address this issue, and aiming in the long run to contribute with a more rational use of pharmaceuticals in the tropics, we characterized the hazard associated with the antibiotics used during 2008 in agriculture, aquaculture, pig farming, veterinary medicine and human medicine in the major irrigation district of Costa Rica. Hazard indicators were calculated based on antibiotic use and a weighted algorithm that also considered antibiotic fate, toxicity, and resistance. Moreover, hazard quotients were computed using maximum environmental concentrations reported for Costa Rican surface waters and predicted no effect concentrations for aquatic organisms. The number of antibiotics used in the ATID during the study were n = 38 from 15 families. Antibiotic consumption was estimated at 1169-109908 g ha(-1) year(-1) and, distinctively, almost half of this figure was traced back to phenicols. Tetracyclines, with a particular contribution of oxytetracycline, were the most widely used antibiotics in agriculture and veterinary medicine. Oxytetracycline, florfenicol, chlortetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sulfamethazine, trimethoprim and tylosin, in that order showed the highest hazard indicators. Moreover, hazard quotients greater than 1 were calculated for oxacillin, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, sulfamethazine, and ciprofloxacin. Studies dealing with the ecotoxicology of tetracyclines, sulfonamides

  10. Agentes bacterianos enteropatogênicos em suínos de diferentes faixas etárias e perfil de resistência a antimicrobianos de cepas de Escherichia coli e Salmonella spp Enteropathogenic bacterial agents in pigs of different age groups and profile of resistance in strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. to antimicrobial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Menin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available As enterites infecciosas bacterianas provocam severas perdas para a indústria suína em todo o mundo. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar os agentes bacterianos, associados com a ocorrência de diarréia em suínos, em diferentes faixas etárias, no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil, e verificar o perfil de resistência das cepas de Escherichia coli e Salmonella spp, frente aos principais antimicrobianos utilizados em granjas de suínos. Os principais gêneros/espécies bacterianos diagnosticados foram Escherichia coli, Clostridium spp, Salmonella spp Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, Brachyspira pilosicoli e Lawsonia intracellularis. Os fatores de virulência de E. coli mais prevalentes na fase de maternidade foram F5 / (K99 20%, F6 / (987P 16,3%, F42 6,8% e F41 5,7%, já nas fases de creche e terminação, predominaram cepas com fimbrias F4 (K88 11,2% e 5,4%, respectivamente. Para E. coli os maiores índices de resistência foram encontrados para oxitetraciclina (94% e tetraciclina (89,5% e os menores índices de resistência para neomicina (55%, ceftiofur (57,4%. Quanto às amostras de Salmonella spp, estas apresentaram maior resistência à oxitetraciclina (77%, e à tetraciclina (42,1% e menor à gentamicina (3,5% e amoxicilina (4,8%.Infectious bacterial enteritis causes severe losses to the swine industry worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiology of bacterial agents that are associated with the occurrence of diarrhea in pigs at different age groups, and to verify the profile of resistance of strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp to the main antimicrobial agents. The main bacterial species diagnosed were Escherichia coli, Clostridium spp, Salmonella spp, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, Brachyspira pilosicoli and Lawsonia intracellularis. The E. coli virulence factors of higher prevalence in preweaning piglets were F5 / (K99 20%, F6 / (987P 16.3%, F42 6.8% and F41 5.7%, whereas at the nursery and with

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolated from feces of wild cranes migrating to Kagoshima, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Noriyuki; Obi, Takeshi; Yamashita, Shogo; Murase, Toshiyuki; Takase, Kozo

    2012-03-01

    Susceptibility to 13 antimicrobial agents was examined for 138 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from 192 fecal samples of wild cranes that migrated for wintering to the Izumi plain, Kagoshima prefecture in Japan. The numbers of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobials used in this study are as follows: oxytetracycline (OTC), 22 isolates; minocycline, 7 isolates; ampicillin (ABPC), 4 isolates; nalidixic acid, 4 isolates; enrofloxacin, 2 isolates; kanamycin, one isolate. Multidrug resistant isolates exhibiting 2-4 drug resistances were obtained. All of the OTC-resistant isolates carried either the tet (A) or tet(B) gene. The bla(TEM) gene was found in all of the ABPC-resistant isolates.

  12. Determination of a Wear Initiation Cycle by using a Contact Resistance Measurement in Nuclear Fuel Fretting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Hyung Kyu

    2008-01-01

    In nuclear fuel fretting, the improving of the contact condition with a modified spring shape is a useful method for increasing the wear resistance of the nuclear fuel rod. This is because the fretting wear resistance between the fuel rod and grid spring is mainly affected by the grid spring shape rather than the environment, the contact modes, etc. In addition, the wear resistance is affected by the wear debris behavior between contact surfaces. So, it is expected that the wear initiation of each spring shape should be determined in order to evaluate a wear resistance. However, it is almost impossible to measure the wear behavior in contact surfaces on a real time basis because the contact surfaces are always hidden. Besides, the results of the worn surface observation after the fretting wear tests are restricted to archive the information on the wear debris behavior and the formation mechanism of the wear scar. In order to evaluate the wear behavior during the fretting wear tests, it is proposed that the contact resistance measurement is a useful method for examining the wear initiation cycle and modes. Generally, fretting wear damages are rapidly progressed by a localized plastic deformation between the contact surfaces, crack initiation and fracture of the deformed surface with a strain hardening difference between a surface and a subsurface and finally a detachment of wear debris. After this, wear debris is easily oxidized by frictional heat, test environment, etc. At this time, a small amount of electric current applied between the contact surfaces will be influenced by the wear debris, which could be an obstacle to an electric current flow. So, it is possible to archive the information on the wear behavior by measuring the contact resistance. In order to determine the wear initiation cycle during the fretting wear tests, in this study, fretting wear tests have been performed by applying a constant electric current in room temperature air

  13. Distribution of virulence determinants among antimicrobial-resistant and antimicrobial-susceptible Escherichia coli implicated in urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Sam; Brown, P D

    2016-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) rely on the correlation of virulence expression with antimicrobial resistance to persist and cause severe urinary tract infections (UTIs). We assessed the virulence pattern and prevalence among UPEC strains susceptible and resistant to multiple antimicrobial classes. A total of 174 non-duplicate UPEC strains from patients with clinically significant UTIs were analysed for susceptibility to aminoglycoside, antifolate, cephalosporin, nitrofuran and quinolone antibiotics for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases and for the presence of six virulence determinants encoding adhesins (afimbrial, Type 1 fimbriae, P and S-fimbriae) and toxins (cytotoxic necrotising factor and haemolysin). Relatively high resistance rates to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, cephalothin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (82%, 78%, 62% and 59%, respectively) were observed. Fourteen distinct patterns were identified for the virulence determinants such as afaBC, cnfI, fimH, hylA, papEF and sfaDE. The toxin gene, cnfI (75.3%), was the second most prevalent marker to the adhesin, fimH (97.1%). The significant association of sfaDE/hylA (P < 0.01) among antimicrobial resistant and susceptible strains was also observed notwithstanding an overall greater occurrence of virulence factors among the latter. This study provides a snapshot of UPEC complexity in Jamaica and highlights the significant clonal heterogeneity among strains. Such outcomes emphasise the need for evidence-based strategies in the effective management and control of UTIs.

  14. Detection of mutations in quinolone-resistant determining regions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-16

    Jan 16, 2012 ... Since the use of fluoroquinolone antibiotic in clinical practice was introduced about two decades ago, quinolone-resistant E. coli strains .... containing dehydrated antibiotics (Merlin Diagnostika, Germany) in two–fold dilution. .... alterations in parC play fundamental role in developing high level of resistance ...

  15. New test procedure to determine fuel's knock resistance; Neues Kraftstoffpruefverfahren zur Bestimmung der Klopffestigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Karl [Hochschule Ingolstadt (Germany). Thermodynamik und Verbrennungsmotoren; Hauber, Johann; Raba, Andreas [Hochschule Ingolstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Forschung; Nell, Robert [Rofa Laboratory and Process Analyzers, Kritzendorf (Austria). Bereich Produktentwicklung

    2013-07-15

    Knock resistance is one of the most important quality features of gasoline that is determined by standardised motor test procedures. These procedures were developed more than 80 years ago and have been used nearly unchanged since then. During a four-year research project at Ingolstadt University of Applied Sciences, the procedures for determination of octane numbers were analysed in order to develop a new engine-based test method. (orig.)

  16. Determination of Insulin Resistance and Beta Cell Function in Healthy Obese and Non-obese Individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazmi, A.; Sattar, A.; Tariq, K. M.; Najamussahar; Hashim, R.; Almani, M. I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine insulin resistance and beta cell function in healthy obese and nonobese individuals of the local population. Study Design: Case control study. Place and Duration of Study: AFIP Rawalpindi in collaboration with department of medicine military hospital(MH) Rawalpindi, from Aug 2008 to Mar 2009. Methods: Eighty obese(n=40) and non-obese(n=40) subjects were selected by non-probability convenience sampling. Plasma insulin, glucose, and serum total cholestrol were estimated in fasting state. Insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA-IR and beta cell function by HOMA- equation. Results: Significant differences were observed between obese and non-obese individuals regarding insulin resistance, beta cell function, and BMI and serum total cholesterol. Mean insulin resistance in obese group was found to be 11.1 +- 5.1(range 7.0-16.2) and in non-obese group it was 0.9+-0.4 (range 0.5-1.3). This difference was highly significant (p=0.001). There was a highly significant difference between the two groups in term of beta cell function with mean rank 60.1 for obese group and 20.9 non obese groups (Asym sig. 2 tailed 0.000). Also the correlation (r = 0.064) between insulin resistance and beta cell function in obese group is highly significant (p = 0.000). Mean serum leptin levels were lower (6.3 ng/ml) in non-obese, and high (57.2 ng/ml) in the obese group. Conclusions: Insulin resistance is found higher in obese individuals. Beta cell function is significantly different between obese and non-obese groups. (author)

  17. The efficacy of oxytetracycline treatment at batch, pen and individual level on Lawsonia intracellularis infection in nursery pigs in a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Inge; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Nielsen, Jens Peter

    2016-02-01

    Antimicrobial consumption in animal husbandry is of great scientific and political concern due to the risk of selection of resistant bacteria. Whilst a reduction in the use of antimicrobials is therefore preferable, the efficacy of treatment must be maintained in order to ensure animal welfare and profitability of pig production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three treatment strategies under field conditions against Lawsonia intracellularis (LI)-related diarrhoea. A randomised clinical trial was carried out in four Danish pig herds, including a total of 520 pigs from 36 nursery batches. A high prevalence of LI was demonstrated in all herds prior to the initiation of the study. Treatment efficacy was assessed by faecal shedding of LI, the occurrence of diarrhoea and average daily weight gain (ADG) after treatment. All strategies were implemented at batch level at presence of LI-related diarrhoea and included daily treatment with 10mg oxytetracycline (OTC) per kilogram of bodyweight for 5 days, though the OTC was administered differently: either by oral treatment of all pigs in a batch, by oral treatment of pigs in diarrhoeic pens only, or by intramuscular treatment of individual diarrhoeic pigs only. The treatment strategies were randomly allocated to batches and were initiated at the presence of diarrhoea. From the included batches, 100% of the trial pigs were medicated in the batch treatment strategy, 87% in the pen treatment strategy and 55% in the individual treatment strategy. All strategies reduced the occurrence of diarrhoea and faecal shedding of LI after treatment. However, batch treatment was found to be most efficient in reducing both high-level LI shedding and diarrhoea when compared to the treatment of diarrhoeic pens or individual diarrhoeic pigs. There was no significant difference identified in ADG between the treatment strategies. In conclusion, batch treatment of all pigs in a section resulted in the highest efficacy

  18. Chemical products induce resistance to Xanthomonas perforans in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Terumi Itako

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial spot of tomato, caused by Xanthomonas spp., is a very important disease, especially in the hot and humid periods of the year. The chemical control of the disease has not been very effective for a number of reasons. This study aimed to evaluate, under greenhouse conditions, the efficacy of leaf-spraying chemicals (acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM (0.025 g.L−1, fluazinam (0.25 g.L−1, pyraclostrobin (0.08 g.L−1, pyraclostrobin + methiran (0.02 g.L−1 + 2.2 g.L−1, copper oxychloride (1.50 g.L−1, mancozeb + copper oxychloride (0.88 g.L−1 + 0.60 g.L−1, and oxytetracycline (0.40 g.L−1 on control of bacterial spot. Tomatoes Santa Clara and Gisele cultivars were pulverized 3 days before inoculation with Xanthomonas perforans. The production of enzymes associated with resistance induction (peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, β-1,3-glucanase, and protease was quantified from leaf samples collected 24 hours before and 24 hours after chemical spraying and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 days after bacterial inoculation. All products tested controlled bacterial spot, but only ASM, pyraclostrobin, and pyraclostrobin + metiram increased the production of peroxidase in the leaves of the two tomato cultivars, and increased the production of polyphenol oxidase and β-1,3-glucanase in the Santa Clara cultivar.

  19. Chemical products induce resistance to Xanthomonas perforans in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itako, Adriana Terumi; Tolentino Júnior, João Batista; Silva Júnior, Tadeu Antônio Fernandes da; Soman, José Marcelo; Maringoni, Antonio Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial spot of tomato, caused by Xanthomonas spp., is a very important disease, especially in the hot and humid periods of the year. The chemical control of the disease has not been very effective for a number of reasons. This study aimed to evaluate, under greenhouse conditions, the efficacy of leaf-spraying chemicals (acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) (0.025 g.L(-1)), fluazinam (0.25 g.L(-1)), pyraclostrobin (0.08 g.L(-1)), pyraclostrobin + methiran (0.02 g.L(-1) + 2.2 g.L(-1)), copper oxychloride (1.50 g.L(-1)), mancozeb + copper oxychloride (0.88 g.L(-1) + 0.60 g.L(-1)), and oxytetracycline (0.40 g.L(-1))) on control of bacterial spot. Tomatoes Santa Clara and Gisele cultivars were pulverized 3 days before inoculation with Xanthomonas perforans. The production of enzymes associated with resistance induction (peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, β-1,3-glucanase, and protease) was quantified from leaf samples collected 24 hours before and 24 hours after chemical spraying and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 days after bacterial inoculation. All products tested controlled bacterial spot, but only ASM, pyraclostrobin, and pyraclostrobin + metiram increased the production of peroxidase in the leaves of the two tomato cultivars, and increased the production of polyphenol oxidase and β-1,3-glucanase in the Santa Clara cultivar.

  20. Molecular screening of antibiotic-resistant determinants among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, increase in bacterial resistance has been phenotypically established but due to high cost, few molecular studies ... ocomial opportunistic infections such as urinary tract .... Twelve (20%) of these MDR isolates were from children.

  1. Unique Determinants of Neuraminidase Inhibitor Resistance among N3, N7, and N9 Avian Influenza Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min-Suk; Marathe, Bindumadhav M; Kumar, Gyanendra; Wong, Sook-San; Rubrum, Adam; Zanin, Mark; Choi, Young-Ki; Webster, Robert G; Govorkova, Elena A; Webby, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    Human infections with avian influenza viruses are a serious public health concern. The neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (NAIs) are the frontline anti-influenza drugs and are the major option for treatment of newly emerging influenza. Therefore, it is essential to identify the molecular markers of NAI resistance among specific NA subtypes of avian influenza viruses to help guide clinical management. NAI-resistant substitutions in NA subtypes other than N1 and N2 have been poorly studied. Here, we identified NA amino acid substitutions associated with NAI resistance among influenza viruses of N3, N7, and N9 subtypes which have been associated with zoonotic transmission. We applied random mutagenesis and generated recombinant influenza viruses carrying single or double NA substitution(s) with seven internal genes from A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) virus. In a fluorescence-based NA inhibition assay, we identified three categories of NA substitutions associated with reduced inhibition by NAIs (oseltamivir, zanamivir, and peramivir): (i) novel subtype-specific substitutions in or near the enzyme catalytic site (R152W, A246T, and D293N, N2 numbering), (ii) subtype-independent substitutions (E119G/V and/or D and R292K), and (iii) substitutions previously reported in other subtypes (Q136K, I222M, and E276D). Our data show that although some markers of resistance are present across NA subtypes, other subtype-specific markers can only be determined empirically. The number of humans infected with avian influenza viruses is increasing, raising concerns of the emergence of avian influenza viruses resistant to neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (NAIs). Since most studies have focused on NAI-resistance in human influenza viruses, we investigated the molecular changes in NA that could confer NAI resistance in avian viruses grown in immortalized monolayer cells, especially those of the N3, N7, and N9 subtypes, which have caused human infections. We identified not only numerous NAI-resistant

  2. An NS5A single optimized method to determine genotype, subtype and resistance profiles of Hepatitis C strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Andre-Garnier

    Full Text Available The objective was to develop a method of HCV genome sequencing that allowed simultaneous genotyping and NS5A inhibitor resistance profiling. In order to validate the use of a unique RT-PCR for genotypes 1-5, 142 plasma samples from patients infected with HCV were analysed. The NS4B-NS5A partial region was successfully amplified and sequenced in all samples. In parallel, partial NS3 sequences were analyzed obtained for genotyping. Phylogenetic analysis showed concordance of genotypes and subtypes with a bootstrap >95% for each type cluster. NS5A resistance mutations were analyzed using the Geno2pheno [hcv] v0.92 tool and compared to the list of known Resistant Associated Substitutions recently published. In conclusion, this tool allows determination of HCV genotypes, subtypes and identification of NS5A resistance mutations. This single method can be used to detect pre-existing resistance mutations in NS5A before treatment and to check the emergence of resistant viruses while undergoing treatment in major HCV genotypes (G1-5 in the EU and the US.

  3. Improved annotation of antibiotic resistance determinants reveals microbial resistomes cluster by ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Molly K; Forsberg, Kevin J; Dantas, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a dire clinical problem with important ecological dimensions. While antibiotic resistance in human pathogens continues to rise at alarming rates, the impact of environmental resistance on human health is still unclear. To investigate the relationship between human-associated and environmental resistomes, we analyzed functional metagenomic selections for resistance against 18 clinically relevant antibiotics from soil and human gut microbiota as well as a set of multidrug-resistant cultured soil isolates. These analyses were enabled by Resfams, a new curated database of protein families and associated highly precise and accurate profile hidden Markov models, confirmed for antibiotic resistance function and organized by ontology. We demonstrate that the antibiotic resistance functions that give rise to the resistance profiles observed in environmental and human-associated microbial communities significantly differ between ecologies. Antibiotic resistance functions that most discriminate between ecologies provide resistance to β-lactams and tetracyclines, two of the most widely used classes of antibiotics in the clinic and agriculture. We also analyzed the antibiotic resistance gene composition of over 6000 sequenced microbial genomes, revealing significant enrichment of resistance functions by both ecology and phylogeny. Together, our results indicate that environmental and human-associated microbial communities harbor distinct resistance genes, suggesting that antibiotic resistance functions are largely constrained by ecology.

  4. Determination of the specific resistance of individual freestanding ZnO nanowires with the low energy electron point source microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Dirk Henning; Beyer, Andre; Voelkel, Berthold; Goelzhaeuser, Armin [Physik Supramolekularer Systeme, Universitaet Bielefeld (Germany); Schlenker, Eva; Bakin, Andrey; Waag, Andreas [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    A low energy electron point source (LEEPS) microscope is used to determine the electrical conductivity of individual freestanding ZnO nanowires in UHV. The nanowires were contacted with a manipulation tip and I-V curves were taken at different wire lengths. From those, the specific resistance was calculated and separated from the contact resistance. By comparing the specific resistances of ZnO nanowires with diameters between 1100 and 48 nm, a large surface contribution for the thin nanowires was found. A geometric model for separation between surface and bulk contributions is given. The results of electrical transport measurements on vapor phase grown ZnO nanowires are discussed, as well as the size dependence of the wire resistance.

  5. Exposure of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, to antimicrobial compounds affects associated Vibrio bacterial density and development of antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorenzo, M E; Brooker, J; Chung, K W; Kelly, M; Martinez, J; Moore, J G; Thomas, M

    2016-04-01

    Antimicrobial compounds are widespread, emerging contaminants in the aquatic environment and may threaten ecosystem and human health. This study characterized effects of antimicrobial compounds common to human and veterinary medicine, aquaculture, and consumer personal care products [erythromycin (ERY), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), oxytetracycline (OTC), and triclosan (TCS)] in the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. The effects of antimicrobial treatments on grass shrimp mortality and lipid peroxidation activity were measured. The effects of antimicrobial treatments on the bacterial community of the shrimp were then assessed by measuring Vibrio density and testing bacterial isolates for antibiotic resistance. TCS (0.33 mg/L) increased shrimp mortality by 37% and increased lipid peroxidation activity by 63%. A mixture of 0.33 mg/L TCS and 60 mg/L SMX caused a 47% increase in shrimp mortality and an 88% increase in lipid peroxidation activity. Exposure to SMX (30 mg/L or 60 mg/L) alone and to a mixture of SMX/ERY/OTC did not significantly affect shrimp survival or lipid peroxidation activity. Shrimp exposure to 0.33 mg/L TCS increased Vibrio density 350% as compared to the control whereas SMX, the SMX/TCS mixture, and the mixture of SMX/ERY/OTC decreased Vibrio density 78-94%. Increased Vibrio antibiotic resistance was observed for all shrimp antimicrobial treatments except for the mixture of SMX/ERY/OTC. Approximately 87% of grass shrimp Vibrio isolates displayed resistance to TCS in the control treatment suggesting a high level of TCS resistance in environmental Vibrio populations. The presence of TCS in coastal waters may preferentially increase the resistance and abundance of pathogenic bacteria. These results indicate the need for further study into the potential interactions between antimicrobials, aquatic organisms, and associated bacterial communities. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Effects of Soil Veterinary Antibiotics Pollution on Rice Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Qiu-tong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the potential effect of soil veterinary antibiotics pollution on the growth of rice, a main food crop in China, oxytetracycline which was used widely in livestock and poultry breeding was selected to test the effects of different levels of soil antibiotics pollution on growth and yield of rice plant at both seedling and growth periods. Relationship between oxytetracycline accumulated in different organs of rice plant and oxytetracycline pollution levels in the soil was characterized. The results showed that the effects of soil oxytetracycline pollution on rice growth mainly occurred at the seedling stage, and the effect on the underground part was obviously greater than the above-ground part of rice. Significant negative effects on biomass of the underground part of rice, root activity, and chlorophyll content and oxidase activity of the leave at the seedling stage were found when soil oxytetracycline pollution concentrations was over 30 mg·kg-1. The consequence from the impact of soil oxytetracycline pollution on rice seedling could be extended to the whole growth period of the plant, which could reduce the number of tiller and rice yield. Oxytetracycline accumulated in various organs of rice plant was in the sequence of root> leaf> stem> grain. Rice roots had low capacity to uptake oxytetracycline from the soil, the transfer capacity of oxytetracycline from the roots to leaf, stem, and grain was also weak. Considering the low oxytetracycline pollution levels in most of current actual farmland soils (less than 10 mg·kg-1 and lower accumulation character of oxytetracycline in the grain, it is thought that the direct damage of soil oxytetracycline pollution on rice production is small.

  7. Potential of Constructed Wetlands for Removal of Antibiotics from Saline Aquaculture Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bôto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the potential of constructed wetlands (CWs for removal of antibiotics (enrofloxacin and oxytetracycline and antibiotic resistant bacteria from saline aquaculture wastewaters. Removal of other contaminants (nutrients, organic matter and metals and toxicity reduction and the influence of antibiotics with these processes were evaluated. Thus, nine CWs microcosms, divided into three treatments, were assembled and used to treat wastewater (doped or not with the selected antibiotics between October and December of 2015. Each week treated wastewater was removed and new wastewater (doped or not was introduced in CWs. Results showed >99% of each antibiotic was removed in CWs. After three weeks of adaptation, removal percentages >95% were also obtained for total bacteria and for antibiotic resistant bacteria. Nutrients, organic matter and metal removal percentages in CWs treated wastewater were identical in the absence and in the presence of each antibiotic. Toxicity in treated wastewaters was significantly lower than in initial wastewaters, independently of antibiotics presence. Results showed CWs have a high efficiency for removing enrofloxacin or oxytetracycline as well as antibiotic resistant bacteria from saline aquaculture wastewaters. CWs can also remove other contaminants independently of drug presence, making the aquaculture wastewater possible to be reutilized and/or recirculated.

  8. A Simple and Sensitive Plant-Based Western Corn Rootworm Bioassay Method for Resistance Determination and Event Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhimou; Chen, Jeng Shong

    2018-05-26

    We report here a simple and sensitive plant-based western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), bioassay method that allows for examination of multiple parameters for both plants and insects in a single experimental setup within a short duration. For plants, injury to roots can be visually examined, fresh root weight can be measured, and expression of trait protein in plant roots can be analyzed. For insects, in addition to survival, larval growth and development can be evaluated in several aspects including body weight gain, body length, and head capsule width. We demonstrated using the method that eCry3.1Ab-expressing 5307 corn was very effective against western corn rootworm by eliciting high mortality and significantly inhibiting larval growth and development. We also validated that the method allowed determination of resistance in an eCry3.1Ab-resistant western corn rootworm strain. While data presented in this paper demonstrate the usefulness of the method for selection of events of protein traits and for determination of resistance in laboratory populations, we envision that the method can be applied in much broader applications.

  9. Multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms may determine Crohn's disease behavior in patients from Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa P. Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Conflicting data from studies on the potential role of multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms in inflammatory bowel disease may result from the analysis of genetically and geographically distinct populations. Here, we investigated whether multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms are associated with inflammatory bowel diseases in patients from Rio de Janeiro. METHODS: We analyzed 123 Crohn's disease patients and 83 ulcerative colitis patients to determine the presence of the multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms C1236T, G2677T and C3435T. In particular, the genotype frequencies of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients were analyzed. Genotype-phenotype associations with major clinical characteristics were established, and estimated risks were calculated for the mutations. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed in the genotype frequencies of the multidrug resistance 1 G2677T/A and C3435T polymorphisms between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients. In contrast, the C1236T polymorphism was significantly more common in Crohn's disease than in ulcerative colitis (p = 0.047. A significant association was also found between the multidrug resistance 1 C3435T polymorphism and the stricturing form of Crohn's disease (OR: 4.13; p = 0.009, whereas no association was found with penetrating behavior (OR: 0.33; p = 0.094. In Crohn's disease, a positive association was also found between the C3435T polymorphism and corticosteroid resistance/refractoriness (OR: 4.14; p = 0.010. However, no significant association was found between multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms and UC subphenotypic categories. CONCLUSION: The multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphism C3435T is associated with the stricturing phenotype and an inappropriate response to therapy in Crohn's disease. This association with Crohn's disease may support additional pathogenic roles for the multidrug resistance 1 gene in regulating gut

  10. Penentuan Efektifitas Oksitetrasiklin Melalui Parameter Farmakokinetik/farmakodinamik pada Plasma dan Jaringan Ayam Broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Dwi Wijayanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of oxytetracycline on the basis of itspharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD parameters in the plasma and tissues of broiler following a50 mg/kg single dose of intravenous administration. The male broiler were injected with oxytetracycline attarsal medial venous. The blood, liver, kidney and abdominal muscle were collected at 14 points of timesamplings. Blood was centrifuged to obtain plasma and all tissues were extracted with Mc Ilvine buffer.Drug concentration in samples was determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLCusing AOAC standard reference for tetracycline. The pharmacokinetic parameters of oxytetracycline werecalculated using non compartment method. The results were as follows. For plasma: the AUC was 790,615,5 ?g/mL minute , Clearance was 63,242 mL/min/kg bb, Tmax/Cmax was 1 minute/0,7 ?g/mL, T1/2elimination was 6,4, hours, Vd was 37 L/kg. For liver ; AUC was 36418,89, minute , Tmax/Cmax was 16hours/17,15 ?g/g, and T1/2 elimination was 24,5, hours. For kidney; AUC6808,41 ?g/g minute , Tmax/Cmax 1 minute/16,73 ?g/g, , T1/2 elimination was 11,55 hours. For muscle; AUC was 3502 ?g/g minute,Tmax/Cmax was 1 minute/2,58 ?g/g, T1/2 elimination was 167,39 hours. The ratio of AUC/MIC inplasma and tissues appeared to a good pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameter to determine theeffectiveness of oxytetracycline.

  11. Skid resistance determination for pavement management and wet-weather road safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.F. Fwa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Road accidents during wet weather have been a topic of major concern of road engineers in regions of wet-tropical climate and in other parts of the world during the wet season of the year. Road safety studies indicate that approximately 20% of all road accidents occurred during wet weather, and that the skid resistance of wet pavements have a major influence on the occurrences of wet-weather accidents. Monitoring of wet pavement skid resistance has been an integral part of a typical pavement management system. However, because of the lack of prediction capability of pavement skid resistance under various rainfall intensities, the minimum skid resistance threshold for safe wet-weather driving has been specified by highway agencies based on either engineering judgement or past experience. It is shown in this paper that the single-point minimum skid resistance threshold is inadequate to offer a complete description of the skid resistance performance of the pavement sections in question for effective management of a road network. It is unable to assess the risk involved in an actual wet-weather condition where the pavement surface water-film thickness and vehicle speed are different from standard test conditions. This limitation of the current system of specifying a minimum skid resistance threshold can be overcome by adopting a theoretically sound approach to represent pavement skid resistance under different conditions of water-film thickness and vehicle speed. This paper describes the theoretical basis of the approach and the development of a mechanistically derived three-dimensional finite-element skid resistance simulation model to predict skid resistance. The application of the proposed approach and the skid resistance prediction procedure in pavement management system and wet-weather driving safety assessment is presented.

  12. Anaerobic treatment of antibiotic production wastewater pretreated with enhanced hydrolysis: Simultaneous reduction of COD and ARGs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Qizhen; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Yingxin; Tian, Zhe; Yang, Min

    2017-03-01

    The presence of high concentration antibiotics in wastewater can disturb the stability of biological wastewater treatment systems and promote generation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during the treatment. To solve this problem, a pilot system consisting of enhanced hydrolysis pretreatment and an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor in succession was constructed for treating oxytetracycline production wastewater, and the performance was evaluated in a pharmaceutical factory in comparison with a full-scale anaerobic system operated in parallel. After enhanced hydrolysis under conditions of pH 7 and 85 °C for 6 h, oxytetracycline production wastewater with an influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 11,086 ± 602 mg L -1 was directly introduced into the pilot UASB reactor. With the effective removal of oxytetracycline and its antibacterial potency (from 874 mg L -1 to less than 0.61 mg L -1 and from 900 mg L -1 to less than 0.84 mg L -1 , respectively) by the enhanced hydrolysis pretreatment, an average COD removal rate of 83.2%, 78.5% and 68.9% was achieved at an organic loading rate of 3.3, 4.8 and 5.9 kg COD m -3  d -1 , respectively. At the same time, the relative abundances of the total tetracycline (tet) genes and a mobile element (Class 1 integron (intI1)) in anaerobic sludge on day 96 were one order of magnitude lower than those in inoculated sludge on day 0 (P anaerobic system treating oxytetracycline production wastewater with an influent COD of 3720 ± 128 mg L -1 after dilution exhibited a COD removal of 51 ± 4% at an organic loading rate (OLR) 1.2 ± 0.2 kg m -3  d -1 , and a total tet gene abundance in sludge was five times higher than the pilot-scale system (P anaerobic treatment of oxytetracycline production wastewater containing high concentrations of oxytetracycline with significantly lower generation of ARGs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Significance of Coexisting Mutations on Determination of the Degree of Isoniazid Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaratne, Galbokka Hewage Roshanthi Eranga; Wijesundera, Sandhya Sulochana; Vidanagama, Dhammika; Adikaram, Chamila Priyangani; Perera, Jennifer

    2018-04-23

    The emergence and spread of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) pose a threat to TB control in Sri Lanka. Isoniazid (INH) is a key element of the first-line anti-TB treatment regimen. Resistance to INH is mainly associated with point mutations in katG, inhA, and ahpC genes. The objective of this study was to determine mutations of these three genes in INH-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) strains in Sri Lanka. Complete nucleotide sequence of the three genes was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and subjected to DNA sequencing. Point mutations in the katG gene were identified in 93% isolates, of which the majority (78.6%) were at codon 315. Mutations at codons 212 and 293 of the katG gene have not been reported previously. Novel mutations were recognized in the promoter region of the inhA gene (C deletion at -34), fabG1 gene (codon 27), and ahpC gene (codon 39). Single S315T mutation in the katG gene led to a high level of resistance, while a low level of resistance with high frequency (41%) was observed when katG codon 315 coexisted with the mutation at codon 463. Since most of the observed mutations of all three genes coexisted with the katG315 mutation, screening of katG315 mutations will be a useful marker for molecular detection of INH resistance of MTb in Sri Lanka.

  14. Evaluation of the a.c. potential drop method to determine J-crack resistance curves for a pressure vessel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    An evaluation has been carried out of the a.c. potential drop technique for determining J-crack growth resistance curves for a pressure vessel steel. The technique involves passing an alternating current through the specimen and relating the changes in the potential drop across the crack mouth to changes in crack length occuring during the test. The factors investigated were the current and voltage probe positions, the a.c. frequency and the test temperature. In addition, by altering the heat treatment of the material, J-crack resistance curves were obtained under both contained and non-contained yielding conditions. In all situations, accurate J-R curves could be determined. (author)

  15. Microcontroller based Stator Winding Resistance Determination of Induction Motor Drive on Temperature Variations

    OpenAIRE

    Siraj Ahmed T; Sukhdeo Sao; K.S.R Anjaneyulu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper an experiment has been conducted to determine the online stator winding resistance of an induction motor, in industries as well as domestic purpose induction motors is largely utilized, as it has both applications of variable and constant torque operation nature. The major requirement of an electric drive system is its independent control of torque and speed; this is achieved in DC motor Drive but has more disadvantages. With the help of fast acting switching devices it is possi...

  16. Determination of Antimicrobial Activity and Resistance to Oxidation of Moringa peregrina Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Chinou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of the oil extracted with n-hexane from the seeds of Moringa peregrina was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. The oil proved effective against all of the tested microorganisms. Standard antibiotics (netilmycin, 5-flucytocine, intraconazole and 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin-3-acetic acid were used for comparison. The resistance to oxidation of the extracted seed oil was also determined.

  17. Electrical capacity and resistance determination of emitting electric transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alba Fernandez, J.; Ramis Soriano, J.

    2000-01-01

    In this work we calculate the electrical resistance and capacity of emitting electric transducer, which is mainly formed, in direct relationship with its properties, by a ceramic capacitor. Our aim is to motivate the students with an attractive element in order to carry out traditional measurements of the charge and discharge transients of a capacitor, implementing high resistance setups. (Author) 5 refs

  18. Identification of Tet 39, a novel class of tetracycline resistance determinant in Acinetobacter spp. of environmental and clinical origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Guardabassi, L.

    2005-01-01

    A novel tetracycline resistance determinant named Tet 39 was found in unrelated Acinetobacter strains isolated from freshwater trout farms (n=4) and sewage (n=6) in Denmark, and from a clinical specimen in the Netherlands (n=1). The determinant was located on transferable plasmids and consisted o...

  19. Molecular screening of antibiotic-resistant determinants among multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis from SouthWest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Olumuyiwa Samuel; Mendonça, Nuno; Adeleke, Olufemi Ezekiel; da Silva, Gabriela Jorge

    2017-06-01

    Globally, and particularly in developing countries, the menace of anti-microbial resistance is an accelerating problem. In Nigeria, increase in bacterial resistance has been phenotypically established but due to high cost, few molecular studies have been reported. This study screened for presence of transferable resistance genes and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) such as integron among multi-drug resistant (MDR) P. mirabilis . A total of 108 P. mirabilis strains collected from five tertiary hospitals in SouthWest Nigeria were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility study using disc-diffusion method. Transferable resistance genes and MGEs were amplified using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and amplicons sequenced. Varied resistance was observed against all the antibiotics tested. About 56% of the isolates were MDR including those from 0-12 years old children. PCR analysis revealed the presence of aac(6')-Ib (33.3%), plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes [qnrA (36.7%), acc(6')-Ib-cr (5%)], TEM (48.3%), CTX-M (6.7%) and integrons class 1 (58.3%) and class 2 (26.7%). Sequencing analysis revealed bla TEM-1 , bla CTX-M-15 associated with IS Ecp1 and eight different arrays of gene cassettes: aadA1, aadA1-qacH, aadB-aadA2, aadA5, dfrA7, dfrA15, dfrA17, dfrA17-aadA5 . Transferable resistance genes in association with MGEs are present in Nigerian P. mirabilis thus their potential in disseminating resistance.

  20. Antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulajić Snežana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria is still limited, possibly because of the large numbers of genera and species encountered in this group, as well as variances in their resistance spectra. The EFSA considers antibiotic resistances, especially transferable resistances, an important decision criterion for determining a strain's QPS status. There are no approved standards for the phenotypic or genotypic evaluation of antibiotic resistances in food isolates. Also, the choice of media is problematic, as well as the specification of MIC breakpoint values as a result of the large species variation and the possible resulting variation in MIC values between species and genera. The current investigations in this field showed that we might end up with a range of different species- or genus-specific breakpoint values that may further increase the current complexity. Another problem associated with safety determinations of starter strains is that once a resistance phenotype and an associated resistance determinant have been identified, it becomes difficult to show that this deter