WorldWideScience

Sample records for oxygen systems survey

  1. Integral Field Spectroscopy Surveys: Oxygen Abundance Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.

    2017-07-01

    We present here the recent results on our understanding of oxygen abundance gradients derived using Integral Field Spectroscopic surveys. In particular we analyzed more than 2124 datacubes corresponding to individual objects observed by the CALIFA (˜ 734 objects) and the public data by MaNGA (˜ 1390 objects), deriving the oxygen abundance gradient for each galaxy. We confirm previous results that indicate that the shape of this gradient is very similar for all galaxies with masses above 109.5M⊙, presenting in average a very similar slope of ˜ -0.04 dex within 0.5-2.0 re, with a possible drop in the inner regions (r109.5M⊙) the gradient seems to be flatter than for more massive ones. All these results agree with an inside-out growth of massive galaxies and indicate that low mass ones may still be growing in an outside in phase.

  2. Mars oxygen production system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Charles E.; Pillow, Linda K.; Perkinson, Robert C.; Brownlie, R. P.; Chwalowski, P.; Carmona, M. F.; Coopersmith, J. P.; Goff, J. C.; Harvey, L. L.; Kovacs, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    The design and construction phase is summarized of the Mars oxygen demonstration project. The basic hardware required to produce oxygen from simulated Mars atmosphere was assembled and tested. Some design problems still remain with the sample collection and storage system. In addition, design and development of computer compatible data acquisition and control instrumentation is ongoing.

  3. Advanced Oxygen Systems for Aircraft (Systemes d’Oxygene Avances)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Oxygen Generating System (NAOGS), SAM-TR-80-12, Brooks AFB TX 78235, 1980. 11. Horch TC, Miller RL, Bomar JB, Tedor JB, Holden RD, Ikels KG, and...sieve oxygen generation sys- tem. Data from Horch et al (15). cabin altitude. The minimum and maximum oxygen concen- tration lines depict the...an AV-8A Aircraft; Naval Air Test Center Report No. SY-136R-81, 1981. 15. Horch TC, Miller RL, Bomar JB Jr, Tedor JB, Holden RD, Ikels KG, and

  4. The indium-oxygen system, ch. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillen, A.J. van

    1977-01-01

    This chapter is divided into three sections: 1) a survey of the literature concerning the indiumoxygen system, 2) the adsorption of oxygen at pure and partially oxidized indium surfaces in the temperature range 20-180degC, and 3) the oxidation of indium at temperatures above 180degC. The oxygen uptake is determined volumetrically and gravimetrically. The influence of the melting point is considered and the results are compared with data from the literature. The oxide layer is amorphous at lower temperatures but above 350degC, crystallisation of In 2 O 3 takes place

  5. Oxygen-hydrogen recombination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shuichiro; Takejima, Masaki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To avoid reduction in the performance of catalyst used for an oxygen-hydrogen recombiner in the off gas processing system of a nuclear reactor. Constitution: A thermometer is provided for the detection of temperature in an oxygen-hydrogen recombiner. A cooling pipe is provided in the recombiner and cooling medium is introduced externally. The cooling medium may be water or air. In accordance with the detection value from the thermometer, ON-OFF control is carried out for a valve to control the flow rate of the cooling medium thereby rendering the temperature in the recombiner to a predetermined value. This can prevent the catalyst from being exposed to high temperature and avoid the reduction in the performance of the catalyst. (Ikeda, J.)

  6. [Recent technical advances in portable oxygen delivery systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, K; Kawabe, Y; Mori, M; Haga, T

    1992-08-01

    According to a Japanese national survey (June 30, 1990), the number of patients receiving home oxygen therapy (HOT) has been greater than 18,000 since March 1985, when HOT was first covered by health insurance. The oxygen concentrator, especially the molecular sieve type, is the most common method of delivery (more than 90%). In April 1988, the portable oxygen cylinder was acknowledged by health insurance, and the liquid oxygen supply system in April 1990. Three types of portable oxygen delivery systems are available; oxygen cyclinder, liquid oxygen system, and oxygen concentrator (membrane type), of which the oxygen cylinder is most commonly used. In our hospital, portable oxygen supply systems were used in 80% of 168 HOT cases in 1990, and the use of 400 L aluminum oxygen cylinders at a flow rate of 1-2 L/min has been most popular. There is an strong desire from patients for lighter portable oxygen supply system of longer duration. In 19 patients with chronic respiratory failure, we evaluated a newly designed demand oxygen delivery system (DODS), which weighs 2.4 kg including the DOD device (TER-20 Teijin), 1.1 L oxygen cylinder made of ultressor, nasal cannula, and carrier. Arterial blood gases at rest (room air) were PaO2 61.9 +/- 6.3 torr, PaCO2 63.8 +/- 9.4 torr and pH 7.40 +/- 0.04. A crossover trial was performed under three conditions; breathing room air with no weight, and pulse oxygen flow and continuous oxygen flow each carrying 2.4 kg of weight. Both 6 minute walking (E1) and walking on a slow speed treadmill (E2) were studied.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Life Support Systems: Oxygen Generation and Recovery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems project Oxygen Generation and Recovery technology development area encompasses several sub-tasks in an...

  8. Survey of photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    In developing this survey of photovoltaic systems, the University of Alabama in Huntsville assembled a task team to perform an extensive telephone survey of all known photovoltaic manufacturers. Three US companies accounted for 77% of the total domestic sales in 1978. They are Solarex Corporation, Solar Power Croporation, and ARCO Solar, Inc. This survey of solar photovoltaic (P/V) manufacturers and suppliers consists of three parts: a catalog of suppliers arranged alphabetically, data sheets on specific products, and typical operating, installation, or maintenance instructions and procedures. This report does not recommend or endorse any company product or information presented within as the results of this survey.

  9. Solar Energy Systems for Lunar Oxygen Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Heller, Richard S.; Wong, Wayne A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2010-01-01

    An evaluation of several solar concentrator-based systems for producing oxygen from lunar regolith was performed. The systems utilize a solar concentrator mirror to provide thermal energy for the oxygen production process. Thermal energy to power a Stirling heat engine and photovoltaics are compared for the production of electricity. The electricity produced is utilized to operate the equipment needed in the oxygen production process. The initial oxygen production method utilized in the analysis is hydrogen reduction of ilmenite. Utilizing this method of oxygen production a baseline system design was produced. This baseline system had an oxygen production rate of 0.6 kg/hr with a concentrator mirror size of 5 m. Variations were performed on the baseline design to show how changes in the system size and process (rate) affected the oxygen production rate. An evaluation of the power requirements for a carbothermal lunar regolith reduction reactor has also been conducted. The reactor had a total power requirement between 8,320 to 9,961 W when producing 1000 kg/year of oxygen. The solar concentrator used to provide the thermal power (over 82 percent of the total energy requirement) would have a diameter of less than 4 m.

  10. Safety Standard for Oxygen and Oxygen Systems: Guidelines for Oxygen System Design, Materials Selection, Operations, Storage, and Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's standard for oxygen system design, materials selection, operation, and transportation is presented. Minimum guidelines applicable to NASA Headquarters and all NASA Field Installations are contained.

  11. PEP Laser Surveying System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, T.; Sah, R.C.

    1979-03-01

    A Laser Surveying System has been developed to survey the beam elements of the PEP storage ring. This system provides automatic data acquisition and analysis in order to increase survey speed and to minimize operator error. Two special instruments, the Automatic Readout Micrometer and the Small Automatic Micrometer, have been built for measuring the locations of fiducial points on beam elements with respect to the light beam from a laser. These instruments automatically encode offset distances and read them into the memory of an on-line computer. Distances along the beam line are automatically encoded with a third instrument, the Automatic Readout Tape Unit. When measurements of several beam elements have been taken, the on-line computer analyzes the measured data, compared them with desired parameters, and calculates the required adjustments to beam element support stands

  12. A high reliability oxygen deficiency monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, R.; Claborn, G.; Haas, A.; Landis, R.; Page, W.; Smith, J.

    1993-01-01

    The escalating use of cryogens at national laboratories in general and accelerators in particular, along with the increased emphasis placed on personnel safety, mandates the development and installation of oxygen monitoring systems to insure personnel safety in the event of a cryogenic leak. Numerous vendors offer oxygen deficiency monitoring systems but fail to provide important features and/or flexibility. This paper describes a unique oxygen monitoring system developed for the Magnet Test Laboratory (MTL) at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL). Features include: high reliability, oxygen cell redundancy, sensor longevity, simple calibration, multiple trip points, offending sensor audio and visual indication, global alarms for building evacuation, local and remote analog readout, event and analog data logging, EMAIL event notification, phone line voice status system, and multi-drop communications network capability for reduced cable runs. Of particular importance is the distributed topology of the system which allows it to operate in a stand-alone configuration or to communicate with a host computer. This flexibility makes it ideal for small applications such as a small room containing a cryogenic dewar, as well as larger systems which monitor many offices and labs in several buildings

  13. A high reliability oxygen deficiency monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, R.; Claborn, G.; Haas, A.; Landis, R.; Page, W.; Smith, J.

    1993-05-01

    The escalating use of cryogens at national laboratories in general and accelerators in particular, along with the increased emphasis placed on personnel safety, mandates the development and installation of oxygen monitoring systems to insure personnel safety in the event of a cryogenic leak. Numerous vendors offer oxygen deficiency monitoring systems but fail to provide important features and/or flexibility. This paper describes a unique oxygen monitoring system developed for the Magnet Test Laboratory (MTL) at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL). Features include: high reliability, oxygen cell redundancy, sensor longevity, simple calibration, multiple trip points, offending sensor audio and visual indication, global alarms for building evacuation, local and remote analog readout, event and analog data logging, EMAIL event notification, phone line voice status system, and multi-drop communications network capability for reduced cable runs. Of particular importance is the distributed topology of the system which allows it to operate in a stand-alone configuration or to communicate with a host computer. This flexibility makes it ideal for small applications such as a small room containing a cryogenic dewar, as well as larger systems which monitor many offices and labs in several buildings

  14. High temperature microcalorimetry. Study of metal-oxygen systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetot, R.; Picard, C.; Boureau, G.; Gerdanian, P.

    1981-01-01

    Determination of partial molar enthalpy in metal-oxygen systems at 1050 0 C. Three representative systems are studied: the solution of oxygen in titanium, the titanium-oxygen system and the uranium-oxygen system from UOsub(2.00) to UOsub(2.60) [fr

  15. Mechanical ventilation during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. An international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhong, Jonathan D; Telesnicki, Teagan; Munshi, Laveena; Del Sorbo, Lorenzo; Detsky, Michael; Fan, Eddy

    2014-07-01

    In patients with severe, acute respiratory failure undergoing venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO), the optimal strategy for mechanical ventilation is unclear. Our objective was to describe ventilation practices used in centers registered with the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO). We conducted an international cross-sectional survey of medical directors and ECMO program coordinators from all ELSO-registered centers. The survey was distributed using a commercial website that collected information on center characteristics, the presence of a mechanical ventilator protocol, ventilator settings, and weaning practices. E-mails were sent out to medical directors or coordinators at each ELSO center and their responses were pooled for analysis. We analyzed 141 (50%) individual responses from the 283 centers contacted across 28 countries. Only 27% of centers reported having an explicit mechanical ventilation protocol for ECMO patients. The majority of these centers (77%) reported "lung rest" to be the primary goal of mechanical ventilation, whereas 9% reported "lung recruitment" to be their ventilation strategy. A tidal volume of 6 ml/kg or less was targeted by 76% of respondents, and 58% targeted a positive end-expiratory pressure of 6-10 cm H2O while ventilating patients on VV-ECMO. Centers prioritized weaning VV-ECMO before mechanical ventilation. Although ventilation practices in patients supported by VV-ECMO vary across ELSO centers internationally, the majority of centers used a strategy that targeted lung-protective thresholds and prioritized weaning VV-ECMO over mechanical ventilation.

  16. Precision surveying system for PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, J.; Lauritzen, T.; Sah, R.; Pellisier, P.F.

    1977-01-01

    A semi-automatic precision surveying system is being developed for PEP. Reference elevations for vertical alignment will be provided by a liquid level. The short range surveying will be accomplished using a Laser Surveying System featuring automatic data acquisition and analysis

  17. Spatially monitoring oxygen level in 3D microfabricated cell culture systems using optical oxygen sensing beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Acosta, Miguel A; Leach, Jennie B; Carrier, Rebecca L

    2013-04-21

    Capability of measuring and monitoring local oxygen concentration at the single cell level (tens of microns scale) is often desirable but difficult to achieve in cell culture. In this study, biocompatible oxygen sensing beads were prepared and tested for their potential for real-time monitoring and mapping of local oxygen concentration in 3D micro-patterned cell culture systems. Each oxygen sensing bead is composed of a silica core loaded with both an oxygen sensitive Ru(Ph2phen3)Cl2 dye and oxygen insensitive Nile blue reference dye, and a poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) shell rendering biocompatibility. Human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells were cultivated on a series of PDMS and type I collagen based substrates patterned with micro-well arrays for 3 or 7 days, and then brought into contact with oxygen sensing beads. Using an image analysis algorithm to convert florescence intensity of beads to partial oxygen pressure in the culture system, tens of microns-size oxygen sensing beads enabled the spatial measurement of local oxygen concentration in the microfabricated system. Results generally indicated lower oxygen level inside wells than on top of wells, and local oxygen level dependence on structural features of cell culture surfaces. Interestingly, chemical composition of cell culture substrates also appeared to affect oxygen level, with type-I collagen based cell culture systems having lower oxygen concentration compared to PDMS based cell culture systems. In general, results suggest that oxygen sensing beads can be utilized to achieve real-time and local monitoring of micro-environment oxygen level in 3D microfabricated cell culture systems.

  18. Nearshore Survey System Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    environmental challenges. ERDC develops innovative solutions in civil and military engineering , geospatial sciences, water resources, and environmental...CRAB: A Unique Nearshore Surveying Vehicle.” American Society of Civil Engineers , Journal of Surveying Engineering 110(1): 1–7. Clausner, J. E., W...unlimited. The U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) solves the nation’s toughest engineering and

  19. Spatially monitoring oxygen level in 3D microfabricated cell culture systems using optical oxygen sensing beads

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lin; Acosta, Miguel A.; Leach, Jennie B.; Carrier, Rebecca L.

    2013-01-01

    Capability of measuring and monitoring local oxygen concentration at the single cell level (tens of microns scale) is often desirable but difficult to achieve in cell culture. In this study, biocompatible oxygen sensing beads were prepared and tested for their potential for real-time monitoring and mapping of local oxygen concentration in 3D micro-patterned cell culture systems. Each oxygen sensing bead is composed of a silica core loaded with both an oxygen sensitive Ru(Ph2phen3)Cl2 dye and ...

  20. Geophex airborne unmanned survey system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, I.J.; Taylor, D.W.A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This nonintrusive system will provide open-quotes stand-offclose quotes capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits two operators to rapidly conduct geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance, of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak anomalies can be detected

  1. Geophex airborne unmanned survey system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, I.J.; Taylor, D.W.A.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This nonintrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits two operators to rapidly conduct geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance, of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak anomalies can be detected.

  2. VASCULAR PLANTS AS ENGINEERS OF OXYGEN IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of organisms on oxygen is one of the most dramatic examples of ecosystem engineering on Earth. In aquatic systems, which have much lower oxygen concentrations than the atmosphere, vascular aquatic plants can affect oxygen concentrations significantly not only on long t...

  3. Medical Expert Systems Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Nasser, Bassem S.

    2017-01-01

    International audience; There is an increased interest in the area of Artificial Intelligence in general and expert systems in particular. Expert systems are rapidly growing technology. Expert systems are a branch of Artificial Intelligence which is having a great impact on many fields of human life. Expert systems use human expert knowledge to solve complex problems in many fields such as Health, science, engineering, business, and weather forecasting. Organizations employing the technology ...

  4. Comparison of airline passenger oxygen systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, N J

    1995-08-01

    The principal sources of oxygen for inflight passenger use, scheduled and unscheduled, are examined. Present practices of assessment of the passenger's "fitness to fly" are described. Three partner airlines, British Airways, U.S. Air, and Qantas, catering for more than 8000 oxygen requests annually, are compared. Analysis of customer use suggests that medical oxygen requests are frequently not clinically justified. The growth in demand, for both scheduled and unscheduled use of an expensive resource, supports the need for a "recommended best practice" among carriers. Passengers with respiratory disorders who will most benefit from inflight oxygen are vulnerable either to hypoxia or asthma.

  5. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, I.L.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-01-01

    Ground-based surveys place personnel at risk due to the proximity of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) items or by exposure to radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide stand-off capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected. The Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) is designed to detect and locate small-scale anomalies at hazardous sites using magnetic and electromagnetic survey techniques. The system consists of a remotely-piloted, radio-controlled, model helicopter (RCH) with flight computer, light-weight geophysical sensors, an electronic positioning system, a data telemetry system, and a computer base-station. The report describes GAUSS and its test results

  6. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, I.L.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-12-31

    Ground-based surveys place personnel at risk due to the proximity of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) items or by exposure to radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide stand-off capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected. The Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) is designed to detect and locate small-scale anomalies at hazardous sites using magnetic and electromagnetic survey techniques. The system consists of a remotely-piloted, radio-controlled, model helicopter (RCH) with flight computer, light-weight geophysical sensors, an electronic positioning system, a data telemetry system, and a computer base-station. The report describes GAUSS and its test results.

  7. A Low-Pressure Oxygen Storage System for Oxygen Supply in Low-Resource Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassool, Roger P; Sobott, Bryn A; Peake, David J; Mutetire, Bagayana S; Moschovis, Peter P; Black, Jim Fp

    2017-12-01

    Widespread access to medical oxygen would reduce global pneumonia mortality. Oxygen concentrators are one proposed solution, but they have limitations, in particular vulnerability to electricity fluctuations and failure during blackouts. The low-pressure oxygen storage system addresses these limitations in low-resource settings. This study reports testing of the system in Melbourne, Australia, and nonclinical field testing in Mbarara, Uganda. The system included a power-conditioning unit, a standard oxygen concentrator, and an oxygen store. In Melbourne, pressure and flows were monitored during cycles of filling/emptying, with forced voltage fluctuations. The bladders were tested by increasing pressure until they ruptured. In Mbarara, the system was tested by accelerated cycles of filling/emptying and then run on grid power for 30 d. The low-pressure oxygen storage system performed well, including sustaining a pressure approximately twice the standard working pressure before rupture of the outer bag. Flow of 1.2 L/min was continuously maintained to a simulated patient during 30 d on grid power, despite power failures totaling 2.9% of the total time, with durations of 1-176 min (mean 36.2, median 18.5). The low-pressure oxygen storage system was robust and durable, with accelerated testing equivalent to at least 2 y of operation revealing no visible signs of imminent failure. Despite power cuts, the system continuously provided oxygen, equivalent to the treatment of one child, for 30 d under typical power conditions for sub-Saharan Africa. The low-pressure oxygen storage system is ready for clinical field trials. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  8. Probabilistic systems coalgebraically: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Ana

    2011-01-01

    We survey the work on both discrete and continuous-space probabilistic systems as coalgebras, starting with how probabilistic systems are modeled as coalgebras and followed by a discussion of their bisimilarity and behavioral equivalence, mentioning results that follow from the coalgebraic treatment of probabilistic systems. It is interesting to note that, for different reasons, for both discrete and continuous probabilistic systems it may be more convenient to work with behavioral equivalence than with bisimilarity. PMID:21998490

  9. 77 FR 11385 - Security Considerations for Lavatory Oxygen Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... considerations for lavatory oxygen systems (77 FR 12550). The interim final rule addresses a security... and taken to restore the oxygen system with a design that would consider the security risk. Boeing... [Docket No. FAA-2011-0186; Amdt. Nos. 21-94, 25-133, 121-354, 129-50; SFAR 111] RIN 2120-AJ92 Security...

  10. Survey of foreign maglev systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, J.L.; Rote, D.M.; Coffey, H.T.

    1992-07-01

    Magnetic levitation (maglev) transportation systems represent an innovative technology that promises to provide pollution-free, contact-free, high-speed ground transportation for the twenty-first century. Great interest in maglev systems has been developing in the United States over the past two years under the auspices of the US National Maglev Initiative. The objective of the survey presented in this report is to provide the US maglev community with information on various maglev concepts that were developed in foreign countries over the past two decades. The main maglev systems included in the survey are the German Transrapid series and the M-Bahn, the Japanese HSST and MLU series, and the British Birmingham. Each maglev system is introduced and discussed according to its type, historical development, unique features, current status, and future prospects. Advantages and disadvantages of each system are briefly noted.

  11. Fast removal of oxygen from biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewey, D.L.; Michael, B.D.

    1975-01-01

    Reference is made to the fact that if radiation is given at a high enough dose rate, the biological effect of oxygen is less than at low dose rates. Examples are given of 'break-point' experiments showing the effect. It is stated that the rapid removal of a substance by radiation is not confined to oxygen: the only criterion required to demonstrate the effect is that the chemical causes a measurable sensitization or protection at a concentration small enough so that it can be depleted at a relatively low dose of radiation. Sufficient confidence is now placed in the effect that it can be used the other way round; that is, to measure the position of the break-point and from this measurement determine the oxygen concentration at the target site at the instant before irradiation. Examples are given of the use of the high dose rate technique for measuring the oxygen concentration inside mammalian cells (Chinese hamster cells). The effects of partial pressures of inert gases, and the effect of elevated gas pressures, are discussed. (U.K.)

  12. 76 FR 12550 - Lavatory Oxygen Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... emergency situation, which makes it imperative that the provisions of this rule be implemented immediately... action qualifies for the categorical exclusion identified in paragraph 4j and involves no extraordinary... related to the provisioning of supplemental oxygen inside lavatories. This action is necessitated by other...

  13. The vanadium/oxygen system in the analysis of sodium for oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.A.J.; Price, W.B.

    1981-05-01

    An investigation of the V-O-Na system at 1023 K is described for oxygen in sodium contents of 5 to 25 ppm. Electron spectroscopy combined with depth profiling is used to determine the vanadium/oxygen ratios inwards from the surface of vanadium foil and these ratios are compared with theoretical predictions. The validity of the vanadium wire technique as an analytical method is examined and a model for the vanadium oxidation is suggested. (author)

  14. Oxygen Compatibility of Brass-Filled PTFE Compared to Commonly Used Fluorinated Polymers for Oxygen Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herald, Stephen D.; Frisby, Paul M.; Davis, Samuel Eddie

    2009-01-01

    Safe and reliable seal materials for high-pressure oxygen systems sometimes appear to be extinct species when sought out by oxygen systems designers. Materials that seal well are easy to find, but these materials are typically incompatible with oxygen, especially in cryogenic liquid form. This incompatibility can result in seals that leak, or much worse, seals that easily ignite and burn during use. Materials that are compatible with oxygen are easy to find, such as the long list of compatible metals, but these metallic materials are limiting as seal materials. A material that seals well and is oxygen compatible has been the big game in the designer's safari. Scientists at the Materials Combustion Research Facility (MCRF), part of NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), are constantly searching for better materials and processes to improve the safety of oxygen systems. One focus of this effort is improving the characteristics of polymers used in the presence of an oxygen enriched environment. Very few systems can be built which contain no polymeric materials; therefore, materials which have good impact resistance, low heat of combustion, high auto-ignition temperature and that maintain good mechanical properties are essential. The scientists and engineers at the Materials Combustion Research Facility, in cooperation with seal suppliers, are currently testing a new formulation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) with Brass filler. This Brass-filled PTFE is showing great promise as a seal and seat material for high pressure oxygen systems. Early research has demonstrated very encouraging results, which could rank this material as one of the best fluorinated polymers ever tested. This paper will compare the data obtained for Brass-filled PTFE with other fluorinated polymers, such as TFE-Teflon (PTFE) , Kel-F 81, Viton A, Viton A-500, Fluorel , and Algoflon . A similar metal filled fluorinated polymer, Salox-M , was tested in comparison to Brass-filled PTFE to

  15. Hybrid membrane--PSA system for separating oxygen from air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiger, Chad L [Albuquerque, NM; Vaughn, Mark R [Albuquerque, NM; Miller, A Keith [Albuquerque, NM; Cornelius, Christopher J [Blackburg, VA

    2011-01-25

    A portable, non-cryogenic, oxygen generation system capable of delivering oxygen gas at purities greater than 98% and flow rates of 15 L/min or more is described. The system consists of two major components. The first component is a high efficiency membrane capable of separating argon and a portion of the nitrogen content from air, yielding an oxygen-enriched permeate flow. This is then fed to the second component, a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit utilizing a commercially available, but specifically formulated zeolite compound to remove the remainder of the nitrogen from the flow. The system is a unique gas separation system that can operate at ambient temperatures, for producing high purity oxygen for various applications (medical, refining, chemical production, enhanced combustion, fuel cells, etc . . . ) and represents a significant advance compared to current technologies.

  16. Experimental and thermodynamic study of the erbium-oxygen-zirconium and gadolinium-oxygen-zirconium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jourdan, J.

    2009-11-01

    This work is a contribution to the development of innovative concepts for fuel cladding in pressurized water nuclear reactors. This concept implies the insertion of rare earth (erbium and gadolinium) in the zirconium fuel cladding. The determination of phase equilibria in the systems is essential prior to the implementation of such a promising solution. This study consisted in an experimental determination of the erbium-zirconium phase diagram. For this, we used many different techniques in order to obtain diagram data such as solubility limits, solidus, liquidus or invariant temperatures. These data allowed us to present a new diagram, very different from the previous one available in the literature. We also assessed the diagram using the CALPHAD approach. In the gadolinium-zirconium system, we determined experimentally the solubility limits. Those limits had never been determined before, and the values we obtained showed a very good agreement with the experimental and assessed versions of the diagram. Because these alloys are subjected to oxygen diffusion throughout their life, we focused our attention on the erbium-oxygen-zirconium and gadolinium-oxygen-zirconium systems. The first system has been investigated experimentally. The alloys fabrication has been performed using powder metallurgy. In order to obtain pure raw materials, we fabricated powder from erbium and zirconium bulk metals using hydrogen absorption/desorption. The characterisation of the ternary pellets allowed the determination of two ternary isothermal sections at 800 and 1100 C. For the gadolinium-oxygen-zirconium system, we calculated the phase equilibria at temperatures ranging from 800 to 1100 C, using a homemade database compiled from literature assessments of the oxygen-zirconium, gadolinium-zirconium and gadolinia-zirconia systems. Finally, we determined the mechanical properties, in connexion with the microstructure, of industrial quality alloys in order to identify the influence of

  17. Sorbent-based Oxygen Production for Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, Vijay [Western Research Inst. (WRI), Laramie, WY (United States)

    2017-01-31

    Project DE-FE0024075 deals with the development of a moderate-temperature sorbent-based oxygen production technology. Sorbent-based oxygen production process utilizes oxygen-storage properties of Perovskites to (1) adsorb oxygen from air in a solid sorbent, and (2) release the adsorbed oxygen into a sweep gas such as CO2 and/or steam for gasification systems or recycled flue gas for oxy-combustion systems. Pure oxygen can be produced by the use of vacuum instead of a sweep gas to affect the pressure swing. By developing more efficient and stable, higher sorption capacity, newer class of materials operating at moderate temperatures this process represents a major advancement in air separation technology. Newly developed perovskite ceramic sorbent materials with order-disorder transition have a higher O2 adsorption capacity, potentially 200 °C lower operating temperatures, and up to two orders of magnitude faster desorption rates than those used in earlier development efforts. The performance advancements afforded by the new materials lead to substantial savings in capital investment and operational costs. Cost of producing oxygen using sorbents could be as much as 26% lower than VPSA and about 13% lower than a large cryogenic air separation unit. Cost advantage against large cryogenic separation is limited because sorbent-based separation numbers up sorbent modules for achieving the larger capacity.

  18. A system for oxygen-15 labeled blood for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanyam, R.; Bucelewicz, W.M.; Hoop, B. Jr.; Jones, S.C.

    1977-01-01

    Oxygen-15 labeled compounds in blood have been used successfully for cerebral circulation and cerebral oxygen metabolism measurements. The present paper describes a system for the rapid sequential production of 15 O-HgB, C 15 O-Hgb and H 2 15 O in blood under sterile and pyrogen-free conditions. A tonometer has been adopted for labeling blood without hemolysis and foam production. (author)

  19. PHOTOINDUCED TRANSFER OF OXYGEN FROM WATER: AN ARTIFICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willner, Itamar; Otvos, John W.; Ford, William E.; Mettee, Howard; Calvin, Melvin

    1979-11-01

    The photoinduced splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen has evoked great interest in recent years as a means for energy storag eand fuel production. Photoinduced reduction of water to hydrogen, using visible light, has been described using heterogeneous or homogeneous catalysts. However, the complementary part involving the oxidation of water to oxygen is required in order to create a cyclic artificial 'photosynthetic' fuel system. The major difficulty assocaited with the photooxidation of water involves the requirement for a four electron transfer to produce oxygen. A stepwise one-electron oxidation of water is unfavorable due to the implied formation of active hydroxyl radicals. Very recently, it has been reported that RuO{sub 2} can serve as a heterogeneous charge storage catalyst for oxygen production. On the basis of the limited knowledge about natural photosynthesis, in which manganese ions play an important role in oxygen evolution, synthetic manganese complexes, and in particular dimeric complexes, have been proposed as potential catalysts for oxygen production. So far, efforts directed toward this goal have been unsuccessful. Consequently, using a manganese complex, they attempted to perform a photoinduced oxidation of water whereby the active oxygen is transferred to a trapping substrate. In such a way, the requirement for a dimerization process to evolve molecular oxygen is avoided. They wish to report a photoinduced redox cycle sensitized by a manganese porphyrin, 5-(4{prime}-hexadecylpyridium)-10, 15, 20-tri (4{prime}-pyridyl)-porphinatomanganese(III) (abbreciated to Pn-Mn{sup III}) in which the resultant reaction is the oxidation of water and trapping of the single oxygen atom by a substrate (triphenylphosphine).

  20. The influence of systemic hemodynamics and oxygen transport on cerebral oxygen saturation in neonates after the Norwood procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Gencheng; Holtby, Helen; Guerguerian, Anne-Marie; Cai, Sally; Humpl, Tilman; Caldarone, Christopher A; Redington, Andrew N; Van Arsdell, Glen S

    2008-01-01

    Ischemic brain injury is an important morbidity in neonates after the Norwood procedure. Its relationship to systemic hemodynamic oxygen transport is poorly understood. Sixteen neonates undergoing the Norwood procedure were studied. Continuous cerebral oxygen saturation was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. Continuous oxygen consumption was measured by respiratory mass spectrometry. Pulmonary and systemic blood flow, systemic vascular resistance, oxygen delivery, and oxygen extraction ratio were derived with measurements of arterial, and superior vena cava and pulmonary venous gases and pressures at 2- to 4-hour intervals during the first 72 hours in the intensive care unit. Mean cerebral oxygen saturation was 66% +/- 12% before the operation, reduced to 51% +/- 13% on arrival in the intensive care unit, and remained low during the first 8 hours; it increased to 56% +/- 9% at 72 hours, still significantly lower than the preoperative level (P blood flow and oxygen delivery (P blood flow (P = .001) and hemoglobin (P = .02) and negatively correlated with systemic vascular resistance (P = .003). It was not correlated with oxygen consumption (P > .05). Cerebral oxygen saturation decreased significantly in neonates during the early postoperative period after the Norwood procedure and was significantly influenced by systemic hemodynamic and metabolic events. As such, hemodynamic interventions to modify systemic oxygen transport may provide further opportunities to reduce the risk of cerebral ischemia and improve neurodevelopmental outcomes.

  1. Survey of holographic security systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontnik, Lewis T.; Lancaster, Ian M.

    1990-04-01

    The counterfeiting of products and financial instruments is a major problem throughout the world today. The dimensions of the problem are growing, accelerated by the expanding availability of production technologies to sophisticated counterfeiters and the increasing capabilities of these technologies. Various optical techniques, including holography, are beingused in efforts to mark authentic products and to distinguish them from copies. Industry is recognizing that the effectiveness of these techniques depends on such factors as the economics of the counterfeiting process and the distribution channels for the products involved, in addition to the performance of the particular optical security technologies used. This paper surveys the nature of the growing counterfeit market place and reviews the utility of holographic optical security systems. In particular, we review the use of holograms on credit cards and other products; and outline certain steps the holography industry should take to promote these application.

  2. An evaluation of oxygen systems for treatment of childhood pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudan Igor

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxygen therapy is recommended for all of the 1.5 – 2.7 million young children who consult health services with hypoxemic pneumonia each year, and the many more with other serious conditions. However, oxygen supplies are intermittent throughout the developing world. Although oxygen is well established as a treatment for hypoxemic pneumonia, quantitative evidence for its effect is lacking. This review aims to assess the utility of oxygen systems as a method for reducing childhood mortality from pneumonia. Methods Aiming to improve priority setting methods, The Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI has developed a common framework to score competing interventions into child health. That framework involves the assessment of 12 different criteria upon which interventions can be compared. This report follows the proposed framework, using a semi-systematic literature review and the results of a structured exercise gathering opinion from experts (leading basic scientists, international public health researchers, international policy makers and representatives of pharmaceutical companies, to assess and score each criterion as their “collective optimism” towards each, on a scale from 0 to 100%. Results A rough estimate from an analysis of the literature suggests that global strengthening of oxygen systems could save lives of up to 122,000 children from pneumonia annually. Following 12 CHNRI criteria, the experts expressed very high levels of optimism (over 80% for answerability, low development cost and low product cost; high levels of optimism (60-80% for low implementation cost, likelihood of efficacy, deliverability, acceptance to end users and health workers; and moderate levels of optimism (40-60% for impact on equity, affordability and sustainability. The median estimate of potential effectiveness of oxygen systems to reduce the overall childhood pneumonia mortality was ~20% (interquartile range: 10-35%, min

  3. The Aro 1 mm Survey of the Oxygen-Rich Envelope of Supergiant Star NML Cygnus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jessica L.; Ziurys, L. M.; Woolf, N. J.

    2011-06-01

    Although a number of molecular line surveys of carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes (CSE) have been performed, only one oxygen-rich CSE, that of VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa), has been studied in depth. The Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO) 1 mm survey of VY CMa showed a very different and interesting chemistry dominated by sulfur- and silicon-bearing compounds as well as a number of more exotic species. A similar survey of the oxygen rich star NML Cygnus (NML Cyg) from 215 to 285 GHz is currently under way using the ARO Sub-millimeter Telescope. Initial observations show that this circumstellar envelope appears to be as chemically rich as that of VY CMa. Molecules including 12CO, 13CO, 12CN, 13CN, HCN, HCO+, CS, SO{_2}, SiO and 30SiO have been observed in NML Cyg. Line profiles of this source also suggest that there may be multiple outflows and that the circumstellar envelope is not spherically symmetric. Current results will be presented.

  4. Isotope anomalies in oxygen isotope exchange equilibrium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotaka, M.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to elucidate the isotope anomalies in oxygen isotope exchange equilibrium systems, according to the calculations of the equilibrium constants for oxygen isotopic exchange reactions, and the calculations of the oxygen isotope separation factors between two phases. The equilibrium constants (K65, K67, K68 and K69) of 16 O- 15 O, 16 O 17 O, 16 O- 18 O, and 16 O- 19 O exchange reactions between diatomic oxides were calculated in a wide temperature range on the basis of quantum statistical mechanics. Many equilibrium constants showed the anomalous mass effects, and then had the crossover temperatures and the mass independent fractionation (MIF) temperatures which held K67 = K65, K67 = K68, or K67 = K69, etc. For example, the equilibrium constants for the reactions between OH and the other diatomic oxides (MO) showed the anomalous mass effects, when M was Li, Na, Mg, K, Fe, Al, Ge, Zr, Pt, etc. The 16 O 15 O, 16 O 17 O, 16 O- 18 O, and 16 O- 19 O oxygen isotope separation factors (S65, S67, S68 and S69) between two phases were calculated, when OH and CO were in the first phase, and SiO was in the second phase. Although the oxygen isotopic exchange equilibria in the two phases had no MIF and crossover temperatures, the separation factors showed the anomalous mass effects and had the temperatures. According to what is called the normal mass effects for the equilibrium constant of isotopic exchange reaction, the value of InK68/InK67 is 1.885. Therefore, the value of InS68/InS67 should be 1.885 too. The value calculated, however, widely changed. It can be concluded from the results obtained in the present work that some oxygen isotopic exchange equilibria cause the anomalous mass effects, the anomalous oxygen isotope separation factors, and then isotope anomalies

  5. The transport of oxygen isotopes in hydrothermal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKibbin, R.; Absar, A.; Blattner, P.

    1986-01-01

    As groundwater passes through porous rocks, exchange of oxygen between the fluid and the solid matrix causes a change in the oxygen isotope concentrations in both water and rock. If the rate at which the exchange takes place can be estimated (as a function of the isotope concentrations and temperature) then the time taken for a rock/water system to come to equilibrium with respect to isotope concentration might be calculated. In this paper, the equation for isotope transport is derived using conservation laws, and a simple equation to describe the rate of isotope exchange is proposed. These are combined with the equations for fluid flow in a porous medium, to produce a general set of equations describing isotope transport in a hydrothermal system. These equations are solved numerically, using typical parameters, for the one-dimensional case. Oxygen isotope data from the basement rocks underlying Kawerau geothermal field are modelled. The results indicate that the time taken for exchange of 18 O to present-day values is less than the postulated age of hydrothermal alteration in that field. This suggests that, although controlled by similar parameters, oxygen isotope exchange, in felsic rocks at least, is much faster than hydrothermal alteration. This conclusion is consistent with the petrographic observations from the Kawerau system as well as other geothermal fields

  6. Survey on a compressed workweek system

    OpenAIRE

    堀, 忠雄; 林, 光緒; 服部, 敏

    1987-01-01

    A survey was performed on electronics workers with regard to the time - budget differences between permanent day shifts and permanent night shifts in the compressed workweek system. The collection of time - budget data was done in July 1985 and in February 1986. Of the 114 workers in the first survey, 13 were working a 3 night -4 off system (N3O4,), 22 a 3 day - 4 off system (D3O4) 15 a 4 night - 3 off system (N4O3)and 9 a 4 day - 3 off system(D4O3) . In the second survey, 21 of the 79 wo...

  7. NMFS Fishery-Independent Survey System (FINSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fishery Independent Survey System (FINSS) is a national system that characterizes NMFS ocean observation activities, stock and ecosystem data collections during...

  8. Hydrogen-Oxygen PEM Regenerative Fuel Cell Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.; Scullin, Vincent J.; Chang, Bei-Jiann; Johnson, Donald W.; Garcia, Christopher P.

    2005-01-01

    An introduction to the closed cycle hydrogen-oxygen polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell (RFC), recently constructed at NASA Glenn Research Center, is presented. Illustrated with explanatory graphics and figures, this report outlines the engineering motivations for the RFC as a solar energy storage device, the system requirements, layout and hardware detail of the RFC unit at NASA Glenn, the construction history, and test experience accumulated to date with this unit.

  9. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Special Session: Oxygen in the Solar System, I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The Special Session: Oxygen in the Solar System, I, included the following reports:Oxygen in the Solar System: Origins of Isotopic and Redox Complexity; The Origin of Oxygen Isotope Variations in the Early Solar System; Solar and Solar-Wind Oxygen Isotopes and the Genesis Mission; Solar 18O/17O and the Setting for Solar Birth; Oxygen Isotopes in Early Solar System Materials: A Perspective Based on Microbeam Analyses of Chondrules from CV Carbonaceous Chondrites; Insight into Primordial Solar System Oxygen Reservoirs from Returned Cometary Samples; Tracing Meteorites to Their Sources Through Asteroid Spectroscopy; Redox Conditions Among the Terrestrial Planets; Redox Complexity in Martian Meteorites: Implications for Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets; Implications of Sulfur Isotopes for the Evolution of Atmospheric Oxygen; Oxygen in the Outer Solar System; and On the Oxidation States of the Galilean Satellites: Implications for Internal Structures.

  10. Nitrogen Oxygen Recharge System for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Dick, Brandon; Cook, Tony; Leonard, Dan

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) requires stores of Oxygen (O2) and Nitrogen (N2) to provide for atmosphere replenishment, direct crew member usage, and payload operations. Currently, supplies of N2/O2 are maintained by transfer from the Space Shuttle. Following Space Shuttle is retirement in 2010, an alternate means of resupplying N2/O2 to the ISS is needed. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has determined that the optimal method of supplying the ISS with O2/N2 is using tanks of high pressure N2/O2 carried to the station by a cargo vehicle capable of docking with the ISS. This paper will outline the architecture of the system selected by NASA and will discuss some of the design challenges associated with this use of high pressure oxygen and nitrogen in the human spaceflight environment.

  11. Survey of thermal insulation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Izumi

    1983-01-01

    Better thermal insulations have been developed to meet the growing demands of industry, and studies on thermal insulation at both high temperature and low temperature have been widely performed. The purpose of this survey is to summarize data on the performances and characteristics of thermal insulation materials and thermal insulation structures (for instance, gas cooled reactors, space vehicles and LNG storage tanks), and to discuss ravious problems regarding the design of thermal insulation structures of pool-type LMFBRs. (author)

  12. Charge transfer mediator based systems for electrocatalytic oxygen reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Shannon S.; Gerken, James B.; Anson, Colin W.

    2017-07-18

    Disclosed are systems for the electrocatalytic reduction of oxygen, having redox mediator/redox catalyst pairs and an electrolyte solution in contact with an electrode. The redox mediator is included in the electrolyte solution, and the redox catalyst may be included in the electrolyte solution, or alternatively, may be in contact with the electrolyte solution. In one form a cobalt redox catalyst is used with a quinone redox mediator. In another form a nitrogen oxide redox catalyst is used with a nitroxyl type redox mediator. The systems can be used in electrochemical cells wherein neither the anode nor the cathode comprise an expensive metal such as platinum.

  13. Charge transfer mediator based systems for electrocatalytic oxygen reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, Shannon S.; Gerken, James B.; Anson, Colin W.

    2017-11-07

    Disclosed are systems for the electrocatalytic reduction of oxygen, having redox mediator/redox catalyst pairs and an electrolyte solution in contact with an electrode. The redox mediator is included in the electrolyte solution, and the redox catalyst may be included in the electrolyte solution, or alternatively, may be in contact with the electrolyte solution. In one form a cobalt redox catalyst is used with a quinone redox mediator. In another form a nitrogen oxide redox catalyst is used with a nitroxyl type redox mediator. The systems can be used in electrochemical cells wherein neither the anode nor the cathode comprise an expensive metal such as platinum.

  14. Degradable Systems: A Survey of Multistate System Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED C. O DEGRADABLE SYSTEMS: A SURVEY OF MULTISTATE TECHNICAL SYSTEM THEORY 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT...THIS PAGE(R7,en Date £nt.,.d) AEoS-T- 8- 9 2 0 Degradable Systems: A Survey of Multistate System Theory by 1 2Emad El-Neweihi and Frank Proschan

  15. Safety in wastewater treatment: the pure oxygen system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giagnoni, L.

    1998-01-01

    Though the active sludge process represent, nowadays, the main reference system referring to installations for wastewater treatments, nevertheless systems that exploit the pure oxygen properties constitute an alternative method to the traditional cycle. The following essay is divided into two parts: the first one deals with the fundamental concepts related to the active sludge process and to the alternative system proposed, mentioned before, and includes a short account of the functional characteristics and a brief comparison with traditional methods; the second part represents the head corpus of the work and deals with the problems related to the safety with particular reference to the risk of an explosion meanwhile the process. Moreover, it's drawn attention to the fundamental role of security systems that, nowadays, get frequently used in such kind of installations. On this subject, furthermore, it's pointed out the great importance of the whole preliminary treatments in the planning phase, with particular reference to the processes used for stripping [it

  16. ASRDI oxygen technology survey. Volume 5: Density and liquid level measurement instrumentation for the cryogenic fluids oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, H. M.

    1974-01-01

    Information is presented on instrumentation for density measurement, liquid level measurement, quantity gauging, and phase measurement. Coverage of existing information directly concerned with oxygen was given primary emphasis. A description of the physical principle of measurement for each instrumentation type is included. The basic materials of construction are listed if available from the source document for each instrument discussed. Cleaning requirements, procedures, and verification techniques are included.

  17. Survey of electronic payment methods and systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Helme, A.; Verbraeck, A.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper an overview of electronic payment methods and systems is given. This survey is done as part of the Moby Dick project. Electronic payment systems can be grouped into three broad classes: traditional money transactions, digital currency and creditdebit payments. Such payment systems have

  18. Electrode-electrolyte BIMEVOX system for moderate temperature oxygen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boivin, J.C.; Pirovano, C.; Nowogrocki, G.; Mairesse, G. [Laboratoire de Cristallochimie et Physicochimie du Solide, URA CNRS 452, USTL-ENSCL BP 108, 59652 Villeneuve d`Ascq (France); Labrune, Ph.; Lagrange, G. [Centre de recherches Claude Delorme, Air Liquide, Jouy en Josas (France)

    1998-12-01

    Electrochemical separation of oxygen from air is a promising application for oxide conductor solid electrolytes. However, several important specifications are required in order to obtain an efficient separation device. First of all, the electrolyte material must exhibit a high conductivity at moderate temperature. From this point of view, a new family of materials called BIMEVOX ideally fulfils this condition. Secondly, a typical separation device must comport two electrodes on opposite faces of the electrolyte. These electrodes must act as electronic collectors but also, at the cathodic side, as an oxygen dissociation catalyst. BIMEVOX electrolytes exhibit ionic conductivity values that can allow work at temperature below 500C. The classical electrode approach, like in solid oxide fuel cells, consists in using a specific mixed oxide, for instance strontium lanthanum manganite or cobaltite. However, the lower the temperature, the lower the efficiency of these electrodes which quickly appears as the limiting factor. In previous work on bismuth lead oxide electrolytes, we proposed a new approach that consists of using the surface of the bismuth-based electrolyte itself as the catalyst, the electron collection being then performed by a co-sintered metallic grid. This `in-situ` electrode system provides many advantages, particularly it eliminates the problem of the chemical compatibility between electrode and electrolyte materials. Taking into account the presence of both catalytic vanadium and bismuth cations in BIMEVOX, we checked under these conditions the separation of oxygen from air for different electrolytes (BICOVOX, BICUVOX, BIZNVOX) at various temperatures in the range 430-600C. For instance, using a BICOVOX pellet with a gold grid inserted on each side makes it possible to separate oxygen with nearly 100% efficiency for current density values up to 1000 mA/cm{sup -2}. For higher intensity values, the faradic efficiency progressively but reversibly decreases

  19. Sodium Hydroxide and Calcium Hydroxide Hybrid Oxygen Bleaching with System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doelle, K.; Bajrami, B.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the replacement of sodium hydroxide in the oxygen bleaching stage using a hybrid system consisting of sodium hydroxide calcium hydroxide. Commercial Kraft pulping was studied using yellow pine Kraft pulp obtained from a company in the US. The impact of sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide hybrid system in regard to concentration, reaction time and temperature for Kraft pulp was evaluated. The sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide dosage was varied between 0% and 15% based on oven dry fiber content. The bleaching reaction time was varied between 0 and 180 minutes whereas the bleaching temperature ranged between 70 °C and 110 °C. The ability to bleach pulp was measured by determining the Kappa number. Optimum bleaching results for the hybrid system were achieved with 4% sodium hydroxide and 2% calcium hydroxide content. Beyond this, the ability to bleach pulp decreased.

  20. An Advanced Radiological Survey and Mapping System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, J.; Rogers, D.; Waggoner, Ch.

    2009-01-01

    A variety of radiological surveying systems have been described in the literature. This paper describes relative performances of a system that can employ a variety of radiological sensors including NaI, LiI, and LaBr 3 units of various sizes. The system includes navigation and data collection software that facilitates surveying without the use of survey grid-lines. Parameters presented to the operator via a graphical user interface (GUI) for monitoring system performance and navigation are described. Radiological spectra are logged along with position data from three differential GPS sensors to enhance position accuracy by taking into account the pitch and roll as the survey vehicle moves over uneven terrain. Accuracy of position data increases the potential for, and value of, data fusion with other survey data such as electromagnetic induction images. The survey system described has been developed around a zero turn radius lawn mower equipped with on-board generator/inverter for powering electronic and data communication equipment to maximize surveying effectiveness. Detection limits for U-238 will be discussed for the NaI (FIDLER, 75x75 mm, and 100x100x400 mm) and LaBr 3 (75x75 mm) detectors. These parameters will be reported for a variety of survey speeds (stationary, 1, 2, and 3 m/s), with and without the use of advanced signal processing to increase detection sensitivity. A background subtraction algorithm evaluating each spectrum for the presence of naturally occurring radiological materials will also be described for correcting each datum prior to mapping using Geosoft Oasis montaj. (authors)

  1. Dissolved oxygen control in a coupled fluidized bed system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.M.; Melcer, H.

    1988-01-01

    The biological fluidized bed process is a modification of more conventional fixed film processes, such as the trickling filter, in which wastewater is passed upward through a bed of granular support medium, typically sand, at a sufficient velocity to expand or fluidize the medium. The granular medium provides a large surface area for the establishment of a biological film. The fluidized bed process was selected to investigate the treatment of coking plant wastewaters in view of the significant advantages offered in terms of reduced reactor volumes that result from the high biomass concentration maintained on the support medium. The technical feasibility of treating coal distillation condensates was evaluated during a 3-year study at Environment Canada's Wastewater Technology Centre (WTC). The feed to the pilot scale test system consisted of effluent from fixed and free leg ammonia stills at the by-product coke plant of Dofasco Inc. in Hamilton, Ontario. The pilot plant consisted of two fluidized bed reactors in series, coupled to provide carbon oxidation, nitrification and denitrification in the predenitrification operating mode. The anoxic denitrification reactor was 115 mm in diameter and the oxygenic nitrification reactor, 290 mm in diameter. The bed heights and reactor volumes were adjustable by relocation of the position of the sand/biomass wasting valve. The experimental objective of this research was to determine those operating conditions required to maintain stable nitrification and complete denitrification under both steady state and dynamic operating conditions. Details regarding operating, sampling and analytic procedures have been presented elsewhere. A specific operating problem existed relating to the control of the dissolved oxygen concentration in the oxygenic fluidized bed reactor, the solution of which forms the basis of the paper

  2. Total hydrocarbon content (THC) testing in liquid oxygen (LOX) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghelli, B. J.; Obregon, R. E.; Ross, H. R.; Hebert, B. J.; Sass, J. P.; Dirschka, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    The measured Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) levels in liquid oxygen (LOX) systems at Stennis Space Center (SSC) have shown wide variations. Examples of these variations include the following: 1) differences between vendor-supplied THC values and those obtained using standard SSC analysis procedures; and 2) increasing THC values over time at an active SSC test stand in both storage and run vessels. A detailed analysis of LOX sampling techniques, analytical instrumentation, and sampling procedures will be presented. Additional data obtained on LOX system operations and LOX delivery trailer THC values during the past 12-24 months will also be discussed. Field test results showing THC levels and the distribution of the THC's in the test stand run tank, modified for THC analysis via dip tubes, will be presented.

  3. Liquid Nitrogen (Oxygen Simulant) Thermodynamic Vent System Test Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayat, A.; Nelson, S. L.; Hastings, L. J.; Flachbart, R. H.; Tucker, S. P.

    2005-01-01

    In designing systems for the long-term storage of cryogens in low-gravity (space) environments, one must consider the effects of thermal stratification on tank pressure that will occur due to environmental heat leaks. During low-gravity operations, a Thermodynamic Vent System (TVS) concept is expected to maintain tank pressure without propellant resettling. A series of TVS tests was conducted at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) using liquid nitrogen (LN2) as a liquid oxygen (LO2) simulant. The tests were performed at tank til1 levels of 90%, 50%, and 25%, and with a specified tank pressure control band. A transient one-dimensional TVS performance program is used to analyze and correlate the test data for all three fill levels. Predictions and comparisons of ullage pressure and temperature and bulk liquid saturation pressure and temperature with test data are presented.

  4. Implementing oxygen control in chip-based cell and tissue culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomen, Pieter E; Skolimowski, Maciej D; Verpoorte, Elisabeth

    2016-09-21

    Oxygen is essential in the energy metabolism of cells, as well as being an important regulatory parameter influencing cell differentiation and function. Interest in precise oxygen control for in vitro cultures of tissues and cells continues to grow, especially with the emergence of the organ-on-a-chip and the desire to emulate in vivo conditions. This was recently discussed in this journal in a Critical Review by Brennan et al. (Lab Chip (2014). DOI: ). Microfluidics can be used to introduce flow to facilitate nutrient supply to and waste removal from in vitro culture systems. Well-defined oxygen gradients can also be established. However, cells can quickly alter the oxygen balance in their vicinity. In this Tutorial Review, we expand on the Brennan paper to focus on the implementation of oxygen analysis in these systems to achieve continuous monitoring. Both electrochemical and optical approaches for the integration of oxygen monitoring in microfluidic tissue and cell culture systems will be discussed. Differences in oxygen requirements from one organ to the next are a challenging problem, as oxygen delivery is limited by its uptake into medium. Hence, we discuss the factors determining oxygen concentrations in solutions and consider the possible use of artificial oxygen carriers to increase dissolved oxygen concentrations. The selection of device material for applications requiring precise oxygen control is discussed in detail, focusing on oxygen permeability. Lastly, a variety of devices is presented, showing the diversity of approaches that can be employed to control and monitor oxygen concentrations in in vitro experiments.

  5. Approaches for Intelligent Traffic System: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Pratishtha Gupta; G.N Purohit; Amrita Dadhich

    2012-01-01

    This survey presents various approaches for intelligent traffic systems. The potential research fields in which Intelligent Traffic System emerges as an important application area are highlighted andvarious issues have been identified which need to be handled while developing such a system for an urban area, where an efficient traffic management has become the need of hour.A model is also proposed capable of managing intelligent traffic system using CCTV cameras and WAN. The proposed model wi...

  6. Oxygen discharge and post-discharge kinetics experiments and modeling for the electric oxygen-iodine laser system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla, A D; Zimmerman, J W; Woodard, B S; Carroll, D L; Verdeyen, J T; Lim, T C; Solomon, W C

    2007-07-26

    Laser oscillation at 1315 nm on the I(2P1/2)-->I(2P3/2) transition of atomic iodine has been obtained by a near resonant energy transfer from O2(a1Delta) produced using a low-pressure oxygen/helium/nitric oxide discharge. In the electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser (ElectricOIL) the discharge production of atomic oxygen, ozone, and other excited species adds levels of complexity to the singlet oxygen generator (SOG) kinetics which are not encountered in a classic purely chemical O2(a1Delta) generation system. The advanced model BLAZE-IV has been introduced to study the energy-transfer laser system dynamics and kinetics. Levels of singlet oxygen, oxygen atoms, and ozone are measured experimentally and compared with calculations. The new BLAZE-IV model is in reasonable agreement with O3, O atom, and gas temperature measurements but is under-predicting the increase in O2(a1Delta) concentration resulting from the presence of NO in the discharge and under-predicting the O2(b1Sigma) concentrations. A key conclusion is that the removal of oxygen atoms by NOX species leads to a significant increase in O2(a1Delta) concentrations downstream of the discharge in part via a recycling process; however, there are still some important processes related to the NOX discharge kinetics that are missing from the present modeling. Further, the removal of oxygen atoms dramatically inhibits the production of ozone in the downstream kinetics.

  7. The development of a non-cryogenic nitrogen/oxygen supply system. [using hydrazine/water electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenough, B. M.; Mahan, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    A hydrazine/water electrolysis process system module design was fabricated and tested to demonstrate component and module performance. This module is capable of providing both the metabolic oxygen for crew needs and the oxygen and nitrogen for spacecraft leak makeup. The component designs evolved through previous R and D efforts, and were fabricated and tested individually and then were assembled into a complete module which was successfully tested for 1000 hours to demonstrate integration of the individual components. A survey was made of hydrazine sensor technology and a cell math model was derived.

  8. Oxygen enhancement of groundwater using an oxygen releasing compound in a funnel-and-gate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D G

    1994-01-01

    ORC is a fine white MgO[sub 2] powder treated with a patented process so that a slow, relatively steady release of oxygen occurs when the powder is in contact with water. Recent work suggests ORC could potentially be used to increase the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of ground water, thereby enhancing the biodegradation of dissolved phase contaminants such as benzene and toluene from gasoline spills. Field and laboratory tests were performed to evaluate the oxygen release characteristics of ORC when mixed with filter sand and exposed to groundwater from an aquifer in Ontario. Quasi steady state oxygen release rates of 0.013-0.030 and 0.030 mg O[sub 2]/d per g of ORC were determined from the column and field tests respectively. The column tests indicated that steady state oxygen release conditions from the ORC required ca 90 d after initial contact with water, but field data indicated that oxygen release rate may continue to decrease. Falling head permeameter tests indicated that a maximum drop in hydraulic conductivity occurred within the first 48 h of exposure of ORC to water. Both laboratory and field studies indicated that ORC-contacted water increased in pH. Field studies further suggested an inverse correlation between pH increases and the ability of ORC to enhance DO concentration of ground water. The use of ORC in a funnel-and-gate scheme appears to be an effective means of increasing the DO concentration in ground water, thereby stimulating the in-situ bioremediation of many organic contaminants. 30 refs., 17 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. Kinetic of the Oxygen Control System (OCS) for stagnant lead-bismuth systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefhalm, C.H.; Knebel, J.U.; Mack, K.J.

    2001-09-01

    Within the framework of the HGF strategy fund project 99/16 ''Thermalhydraulic and Material Specific Investigations into the Realization of an accelerator driven system (ADS) to Transmute Minor Actinides'' at the institute for nuclear and energy technology (IKET) investigations on the cooling of thermally high-loaded surfaces with liquid lead bismuth (Pb-Bi) are carried out. To operate a Pb-Bi loop safety, for example in order to cool a spallation target or a blanket of an accelerator driven system (ADS), the control of the oxygen concentration within the liquid metal is an inalienable prerequisite to prevent or minimize corrosion at the structure material. In this report the kinetic behaviour of the oxygen control system (OCS), which was developed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, is examined. The OCS controls the chemical potential of oxygen in the liquid metal by regulating the oxygen content in the gas phase which flows over the free surface of the liquid metal. In this work the experimental facility KOCOS (kinetics of oxygen control system) in the karlsruhe lead laboratory (KALLA) was built. A physical diffusion model was utilised and extended to describe the exchange of oxygen between the gas and the liquid metal. The theoretical calculations are in very good agreement to the experimental findings. The OCS allows to control reversibly the oxygen concentration in the liquid metal. According to the observed kinetics of the process one can extrapolate that the control of large volumes, as they are necessary to operate an ADS demonstrator, is possible. Therefore, further experiments in liquid metal loop systems are suggested. (orig.)

  10. U.S. Army Oxygen Generation System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    cathode. This method is used to produce breathing oxygen onboard nuclear submarines. The other electrochemical method uses a hot ceramic membrane that...This program uses a ceramic membrane supported by a nickel superalloy matrix, making the oxygen generator cells much less prone to cracking. The...challenge of this process is the same as those of fuel cells. The environment in electrochemical oxygen generators is extremely aggressive; the ceramic

  11. Evaluation of a Gentex (registered trademark) ORO-NASAL Oxygen Mask for Integration with the Aqualung (registered trademark) Personal Helicopter Oxygen Delivery System (PHODS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roller, Richard A; Curry, Ian P

    2008-01-01

    .... The United States Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory (USAARL) was tasked by the Product Manager Air Warrior to evaluate an oxygen mask for use with the Personal Helicopter Oxygen Delivery System (PHODS...

  12. The Dark Energy Survey Data Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, Joseph J.; Darnell, J.Anthony; Beldica, Cristina; Barkhouse, Wayne; Bertin, Emmanuel; Dora Cai, Y.; Daues, Gregory E.; Gower, Michelle; Nicolaci da Costa, Luiz A.; Jarvis, Michael; Lin, Huan

    2008-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaboration will study cosmic acceleration with a 5000 deg2 griZY survey in the southern sky over 525 nights from 2011-2016. The DES data management (DESDM) system will be used to process and archive these data and the resulting science ready data products. The DESDM system consists of an integrated archive, a processing framework, an ensemble of astronomy codes and a data access framework. We are developing the DESDM system for operation in the high performance computing (HPC) environments at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) and Fermilab. Operating the DESDM system in an HPC environment offers both speed and flexibility. We will employ it for our regular nightly processing needs, and for more compute-intensive tasks such as large scale image coaddition campaigns, extraction of weak lensing shear from the full survey dataset, and massive seasonal reprocessing of the DES data. Data products will be available to the Collaboration and later to the public through a virtual-observatory compatible web portal. Our approach leverages investments in publicly available HPC systems, greatly reducing hardware and maintenance costs to the project, which must deploy and maintain only the storage, database platforms and orchestration and web portal nodes that are specific to DESDM. In Fall 2007, we tested the current DESDM system on both simulated and real survey data. We used TeraGrid to process 10 simulated DES nights (3TB of raw data), ingesting and calibrating approximately 250 million objects into the DES Archive database. We also used DESDM to process and calibrate over 50 nights of survey data acquired with the Mosaic2 camera. Comparison to truth tables in the case of the simulated data and internal crosschecks in the case of the real data indicate that astrometric and photometric data quality is excellent

  13. The Dark Energy Survey Data Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, Joseph J.; /Illinois U., Urbana, Astron. Dept. /Illinois U., Urbana; Barkhouse, Wayne; /North Dakota U.; Beldica, Cristina; /Illinois U., Urbana; Bertin, Emmanuel; /Paris, Inst. Astrophys.; Dora Cai, Y.; /NCSA, Urbana; Nicolaci da Costa, Luiz A.; /Rio de Janeiro Observ.; Darnell, J.Anthony; /Illinois U., Urbana, Astron. Dept.; Daues, Gregory E.; /NCSA, Urbana; Jarvis, Michael; /Pennsylvania U.; Gower, Michelle; /NCSA, Urbana; Lin, Huan; /Fermilab /Rio de Janeiro Observ.

    2008-07-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaboration will study cosmic acceleration with a 5000 deg2 griZY survey in the southern sky over 525 nights from 2011-2016. The DES data management (DESDM) system will be used to process and archive these data and the resulting science ready data products. The DESDM system consists of an integrated archive, a processing framework, an ensemble of astronomy codes and a data access framework. We are developing the DESDM system for operation in the high performance computing (HPC) environments at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) and Fermilab. Operating the DESDM system in an HPC environment offers both speed and flexibility. We will employ it for our regular nightly processing needs, and for more compute-intensive tasks such as large scale image coaddition campaigns, extraction of weak lensing shear from the full survey dataset, and massive seasonal reprocessing of the DES data. Data products will be available to the Collaboration and later to the public through a virtual-observatory compatible web portal. Our approach leverages investments in publicly available HPC systems, greatly reducing hardware and maintenance costs to the project, which must deploy and maintain only the storage, database platforms and orchestration and web portal nodes that are specific to DESDM. In Fall 2007, we tested the current DESDM system on both simulated and real survey data. We used TeraGrid to process 10 simulated DES nights (3TB of raw data), ingesting and calibrating approximately 250 million objects into the DES Archive database. We also used DESDM to process and calibrate over 50 nights of survey data acquired with the Mosaic2 camera. Comparison to truth tables in the case of the simulated data and internal crosschecks in the case of the real data indicate that astrometric and photometric data quality is excellent.

  14. Liquid Nitrogen (Oxygen Simulent) Thermodynamic Venting System Test Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayat, A.; Nelson, S. L.; Hastings, L. J.; Flachbart, R. H.; Tucker, S. P.

    2005-01-01

    In designing systems for the long-term storage of cryogens in low gravity space environments, one must consider the effects of thermal stratification on excessive tank pressure that will occur due to environmental heat leakage. During low gravity operations, a Thermodynamic Venting System (TVS) concept is expected to maintain tank pressure without propellant resettling. The TVS consists of a recirculation pump, Joule-Thomson (J-T) expansion valve, and a parallel flow concentric tube heat exchanger combined with a longitudinal spray bar. Using a small amount of liquid extracted by the pump and passing it though the J-T valve, then through the heat exchanger, the bulk liquid and ullage are cooled, resulting in lower tank pressure. A series of TVS tests were conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center using liquid nitrogen as a liquid oxygen simulant. The tests were performed at fill levels of 90%, 50%, and 25% with gaseous nitrogen and helium pressurants, and with a tank pressure control band of 7 kPa. A transient one-dimensional model of the TVS is used to analyze the data. The code is comprised of four models for the heat exchanger, the spray manifold and injector tubes, the recirculation pump, and the tank. The TVS model predicted ullage pressure and temperature and bulk liquid saturation pressure and temperature are compared with data. Details of predictions and comparisons with test data regarding pressure rise and collapse rates will be presented in the final paper.

  15. 14 CFR 25.1445 - Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... distributing system. 25.1445 Section 25.1445 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1445 Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system. (a) When oxygen is supplied to both crew and passengers, the distribution system must be designed for either— (1) A source of...

  16. A SEARCH FOR OXYGEN IN THE LOW-DENSITY Lyα FOREST USING THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieri, Matthew M.; Frank, Stephan; Mathur, Smita; Weinberg, David H.; York, Donald G.; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.

    2010-01-01

    We use 2167 Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasar spectra to search for low-density oxygen in the intergalactic medium (IGM). Oxygen absorption is detected on a pixel-by-pixel basis by its correlation with Lyα forest absorption. We have developed a novel locally calibrated pixel (LCP) search method that uses adjacent regions of the spectrum to calibrate interlopers and spectral artifacts, which would otherwise limit the measurement of O VI absorption. Despite the challenges presented by searching for weak O VI within the Lyα forest in spectra of moderate resolution and signal-to-noise, we find a highly significant detection of absorption by oxygen at 2.7 2 = 80 for nine data points). We interpret our results using synthetic spectra generated from a log-normal density field assuming a mixed quasar-galaxy photoionizing background and that it dominates the ionization fraction of detected O VI. The LCP search data can be fit by a constant metallicity model with [O/H] = -2.15 +0.07 -0.09 but also by models in which low-density regions are unenriched and higher density regions have a higher metallicity. The density-dependent enrichment model by Aguirre et al. is also an acceptable fit. All our successful models have similar mass-weighted oxygen abundance, corresponding to [(O/H) MW ] = -2.45 ± 0.06. This result can be used to find the cosmic oxygen density in the Lyα forest, Ω Oxy,IGM = 1.4(±0.2) x 10 -6 ∼ 3 x 10 -4 Ω b . This is the tightest constraint on the mass-weighted mean oxygen abundance and the cosmic oxygen density in the Lyα forest to date and indicates that it contains ∼16% of the total expected metal production by star formation up to z = 3.

  17. Determination of the Minimal Fresh Gas Flow to Maintain a Therapeutic Inspired Oxygen Concentration in a Semi-Closed Anesthesia Circle System Using an Oxygen Concentrator as the Oxygen Source

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grano, Joan

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of oxygen dilution, resulting from argon accumulation, using 3 low fresh gas flow rates using an oxygen concentrator in a semi-closed anesthesia circle system...

  18. System and method for air temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean M

    2016-09-27

    A system and method for air temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor is provided. The system and method involves introducing a specific quantity of cooling air or trim air in between stages in a multistage oxygen transport membrane based reactor or furnace to maintain generally consistent surface temperatures of the oxygen transport membrane elements and associated reactors. The associated reactors may include reforming reactors, boilers or process gas heaters.

  19. The MOSDEF Survey: First Measurement of Nebular Oxygen Abundance at z > 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapley, Alice E.; Sanders, Ryan L.; Reddy, Naveen A.; Kriek, Mariska; Freeman, William R.; Mobasher, Bahram; Siana, Brian; Coil, Alison L.; Leung, Gene C. K.; deGroot, Laura; Shivaei, Irene; Price, Sedona H.; Azadi, Mojegan; Aird, James

    2017-09-01

    We present the first spectroscopic measurement of multiple rest-frame optical emission lines at z > 4. During the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field survey, we observed the galaxy GOODSN-17940 with the Keck I/MOSFIRE spectrograph. The K-band spectrum of GOODSN-17940 includes significant detections of the [O II]λλ3726,3729, [Ne III]λ3869, and Hγ emission lines and a tentative detection of Hδ, indicating z spec = 4.4121. GOODSN-17940 is an actively star-forming z > 4 galaxy based on its K-band spectrum and broadband spectral energy distribution. A significant excess relative to the surrounding continuum is present in the Spitzer/IRAC channel 1 photometry of GOODSN-17940, due primarily to strong Hα emission with a rest-frame equivalent width of EW(Hα) = 1200 Å. Based on the assumption of 0.5 Z ⊙ models and the Calzetti attenuation curve, GOODSN-17940 is characterized by {M}* ={5.0}-0.2+4.3× {10}9 {M}⊙ . The Balmer decrement inferred from Hα/Hγ is used to dust correct the Hα emission, yielding {{SFR(H}}α )={320}-140+190 {M}⊙ {{{yr}}}-1. These M * and star formation rate (SFR) values place GOODSN-17940 an order of magnitude in SFR above the z ˜ 4 star-forming “main sequence.” Finally, we use the observed ratio of [Ne III]/[O II] to estimate the nebular oxygen abundance in GOODSN-17940, finding O/H ˜ 0.2 (O/H)⊙. Combining our new [Ne III]/[O II] measurement with those from stacked spectra at z ˜ 0, 2, and 3, we show that GOODSN-17940 represents an extension to z > 4 of the evolution toward higher [Ne III]/[O II] (I.e., lower O/H) at fixed stellar mass. It will be possible to perform the measurements presented here out to z ˜ 10 using the James Webb Space Telescope. Based on data obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and was made possible by the generous financial support of

  20. Bottom Dissolved Oxygen Maps From SEAMAP Summer Groundfish/Shrimp Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bottom dissolved oxygen (DO) data was extracted from environmental profiles acquired during the Southeast Fisheries Science Center Mississippi Laboratories summer...

  1. Oxygen defects in Fe-substituted Tl-system superconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阳; 曹国辉; 王耘波; 马庆珠; 熊小涛; 陈宁; 马如璋; 郭应焕; 许祝安; 王劲松; 张小俊; 焦正宽; 彭获田; 周思海

    1996-01-01

    For Fe-doped T1-1223 phase,the excess oxygen defects induced by Fe dopants are studied by means of Hall coefficient,thermogravimetric measurements,Mossbauer spectroscopy,and the model calculation of the effective bond valence.The extra oxygen defects have effects on carrier density and microstructure of the superconductors.In the light doping level of Fe (x=0-0.05),the superconducting transition and carrier density have significant corresponding relation--the zero resistance temperature Tco and carrier densities decrease linearly with Fe dopants increasing.The thermogravimetric measurements show that the Fe3+ ions’ substituting for Cu2+ ions can bring the extra oxygen into the lattice to form extra oxygen defects.The calculation of the effective bond valence shows that the decrease of carrier density originates the strongly localized binding of the extra oxygen defects.The distortion of Cu-O layer induced by the extra oxygen defects decreases the superconductive transition temperature.The microstructure

  2. Ambulatory oxygen: why do COPD patients not use their portable systems as prescribed? A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenwick Angela

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with COPD on long term oxygen therapy frequently do not adhere to their prescription, and they frequently do not use their ambulatory oxygen systems as intended. Reasons for this lack of adherence are not known. The aim of this study was to obtain in-depth information about perceptions and use of prescribed ambulatory oxygen systems from patients with COPD to inform ambulatory oxygen design, prescription and management. Methods A qualitative design was used, involving semi-structured face-to-face interviews informed by a grounded theory approach. Twenty-seven UK community-dwelling COPD patients using NHS prescribed ambulatory systems were recruited. Ambulatory oxygen systems comprised cylinders weighing 3.4 kg, a shoulder bag and nasal cannulae. Results Participants reported that they: received no instruction on how to use ambulatory oxygen; were uncertain of the benefits; were afraid the system would run out while they were using it (due to lack of confidence in the cylinder gauge; were embarrassed at being seen with the system in public; and were unable to carry the system because of the cylinder weight. The essential role of carers was also highlighted, as participants with no immediate carers did not use ambulatory oxygen outside the house. Conclusions These participants highlighted previously unreported problems that prevented them from using ambulatory oxygen as prescribed. Our novel findings point to: concerns with the lack of specific information provision; the perceived unreliability of the oxygen system; important carer issues surrounding managing and using ambulatory oxygen equipment. All of these issues, as well as previously reported problems with system weight and patient embarrassment, should be addressed to improve adherence to ambulatory oxygen prescription and enhance the physical and social benefits of maintaining mobility in this patient group. Increased user involvement in both system development

  3. Underground Water Distribution System, Fort Belvoir, Virginia. Leak Detection Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    .... The survey was conducted by myself, Donald Muir, Operations Coordinator, and required 12.25 working days. This was not a survey of the entire water distribution system but instead a survey of water mains 8 inch and larger...

  4. The Modular Optical Underwater Survey System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhul Amin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center deploys the Modular Optical Underwater Survey System (MOUSS to estimate the species-specific, size-structured abundance of commercially-important fish species in Hawaii and the Pacific Islands. The MOUSS is an autonomous stereo-video camera system designed for the in situ visual sampling of fish assemblages. This system is rated to 500 m and its low-light, stereo-video cameras enable identification, counting, and sizing of individuals at a range of 0.5–10 m. The modular nature of MOUSS allows for the efficient and cost-effective use of various imaging sensors, power systems, and deployment platforms. The MOUSS is in use for surveys in Hawaii, the Gulf of Mexico, and Southern California. In Hawaiian waters, the system can effectively identify individuals to a depth of 250 m using only ambient light. In this paper, we describe the MOUSS’s application in fisheries research, including the design, calibration, analysis techniques, and deployment mechanism.

  5. A Survey of Phase Change Memory Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏飞; 蒋德钧; 熊劲; 孙凝晖

    2015-01-01

    As the scaling of applications increases, the demand of main memory capacity increases in order to serve large working set. It is difficult for DRAM (dynamic random access memory) based memory system to satisfy the memory capacity requirement due to its limited scalability and high energy consumption. Compared to DRAM, PCM (phase change memory) has better scalability, lower energy leakage, and non-volatility. PCM memory systems have become a hot topic of academic and industrial research. However, PCM technology has the following three drawbacks: long write latency, limited write endurance, and high write energy, which raises challenges to its adoption in practice. This paper surveys architectural research work to optimize PCM memory systems. First, this paper introduces the background of PCM. Then, it surveys research efforts on PCM memory systems in performance optimization, lifetime improving, and energy saving in detail, respectively. This paper also compares and summarizes these techniques from multiple dimensions. Finally, it concludes these optimization techniques and discusses possible research directions of PCM memory systems in future.

  6. A microprocessor based mobile radiation survey system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.W.; McCormack, W.D.

    1984-01-01

    A microprocessor-based system has been designed and constructed to enhance the performance of routine radiation surveys on roads within the Hanford site. This device continually monitors system performance and output from four sodium iodide detectors mounted on the rear bumper of a 4-wheel drive truck. The gamma radiation count rate in counts-per-second is monitored, and a running average computed, with the results compared to predefined limits. If an abnormal instantaneous or average count rate is detected, an alarm is sounded with responsible data displayed on a liquid crystal panel in the cab of the vehicle. The system also has the capability to evaluate detector output using multiple time constants and to perform more complex tests and comparison of the data. Data can be archived for later analysis on conventional chart recorders or stored in digital form on magnetic tape or other digital storage media

  7. Microprocessor based mobile radiation survey system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.W.; McCormack, W.D.

    1983-12-01

    A microprocessor-based system has been designed and constructed to enhance the performance of routine radiation surveys on roads within the Hanford site. This device continually monitors system performance and output from four sodium iodide detectors mounted on the rear bumper of a 4-wheel drive truck. The gamma radiation count rate in counts-per-second is monitored, and a running average computed, with the results compared to predefined limits. If an abnormal instantaneous or average count rate is detected, an alarm is sounded with responsible data displayed on a liquid crystal panel in the cab of the vehicle. The system also has the capability to evaluate detector output using multiple time constants and to perform more complex tests and comparison of the data. Data can be archived for later analysis on conventional chart recorders or stored in digital form on magnetic tape or other digital storage media. 4 figures

  8. Reactions of oxygen and hydrogen with liquid sodium - a critical survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullmann, H.

    1982-01-01

    The fundamentals of solvation chemistry are presented with appropriate components formulated. Methods of investigation and kinetics of the reactions are described. The hydrogen equilibrium pressure and saturation solubilities are described. The chemical equilibrium between O and H in solution is presented with detailed tabulation of the saturation solutions of oxygen, hydrogen and hydroxide in liquid sodium. Agreements and differences with the literature are presented

  9. A survey of the reaction rate constants for the thermal dissociation and recombination of nitrogen and oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marraffa, Lionel; Dulikravich, George S.; Keeney, Timothy C.; Deiwert, George S.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the present report is to survey the various values of forward and backward reaction rate constants used by investigators in the field of high-temperature (T greater than 2000 K) gas reactions involving nitrogen and oxygen only. The objective is to find those values that correlate well so that they can be used for the studies of hypersonic flow and supersonic combustion with reasonable confidence. Relatively good agreement among these various values is observed for temperatures lower than 10,000 K.

  10. Calculations of oscillation spectra of disordered interstitial solid solutions of vanadium-oxygen system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilkin, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    The frequency spectra calculation of disordered solid interstitial solutions of a vanadium-oxygen system for oxygen concentration of 5.9% and 15.8% (V 16 O and V 16 O 3 ) is carried out. The axially-symmetric model of crystal lattice dinamics with consideration of vanadium-oxygen and vanadium-vanadium interactions up to the second coordination sphere is used. On the whole, the obtained spectra are in qualitative agreement with experiment and reflect correctly all the changes in frequency spectra of pure vanadium on doping with oxygen

  11. Oxygen transport as a structure probe for heterogeneous polymeric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yushan

    Although permeability of small molecules is often measured as an important performance property, deeper analysis of the transport characteristics provides insight into polymer structure, especially if used in combination with other characterization techniques. Transport of small gas molecules senses the permeable amorphous structure and probes the nature of free volume. This work focuses on oxygen transport, supplemented with other methods of physical analysis, as a probe for: (1) the nature of free volume and crystalline morphology in the crystallized glassy state, (2) the nature of free volume and hierarchical structure in liquid crystalline polymers, and (3) the role of dispersed polyamide phase geometry on oxygen barrier properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/polyamide blends. In the first part, the improvement in oxygen-barrier properties of glassy polyesters by crystallization was examined. Examples included poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN), and a copolymer based on PET in which 55 mol% terephthalate was replaced with 4,4'-bibenzoate. Explanation of the unexpectedly high solubility of crystallized PEN required a two-phase transport model consisting of an impermeable crystalline phase of constant density and a permeable amorphous phase of variable density. The resulting relationship between oxygen solubility and amorphous phase density was consistent with free volume concepts of gas sorption. In the second part, oxygen barrier properties of liquid crystalline (LC) polyesters based on poly(diethylene glycol 4,4'-bibenzoate) (PDEGBB) were studied. This study extended the 2-phase transport model for oxygen transport of non-LC crystalline polymers to a smectic LCP. It was possible to systematically vary the solid state structure of (PDEGBB) from LC glass to crystallized LC glass. The results were consistent with a liquid crystalline state intermediate between the permeable amorphous glass and the impermeable 3-dimensional crystal. In this interpretation

  12. Extracorporeal Circulation Using an Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation System and an Autotransfusion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Bakhareva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors draw attention to the fact that complete cardiopulmonary bypass can be made in the emergency situation in order to perform an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO procedure in a 5-year-old boy weighing 15 kg, diagnosed as having Fallot tetrad. By taking into account the technological features of the system for ECMO, there is an additional need for a blood cell separator to be applied.

  13. Evaluation of Additively Manufactured Metals for Use in Oxygen Systems Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Jonathan; Cooper, Ken; Peralta, Stephen; Wilcutt, Terrence; Hughitt, Brian; Generazio, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Space Launch System, Commercial Resupply, and Commercial Crew programs have published intent to use additively manufactured (AM) components in propulsion systems and are likely to include various life support systems in the future. Parts produced by these types of additive manufacturing techniques have not been fully evaluated for use in oxygen systems and the inherent risks have not been fully identified. Some areas of primary concern in the SLS process with respect to oxygen compatibility may be the porosity of the printed parts, fundamental differences in microstructure of an AM part as compared to traditional materials, or increased risk of shed metal particulate into an oxygen system. If an ignition were to occur the printed material could be more flammable than components manufactured from a traditional billet of raw material and/or present a significant hazards if not identified and rigorously studied in advance of implementation into an oxygen system.

  14. Air sampling system for airborne surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jupiter, C.; Tipton, W.J.

    1975-01-01

    An air sampling system has been designed for installation on the Beechcraft King Air A-100 aircraft as a part of the Aerial Radiological Measuring System (ARMS). It is intended for both particle and whole gas sampling. The sampling probe is designed for isokinetic sampling and is mounted on a removable modified escape hatch cover, behind the co-pilot's seat, and extends about two feet forward of the hatch cover in the air stream lines. Directly behind the sampling probe inside the modified hatch cover is an expansion chamber, space for a 5-inch diameter filter paper cassette, and an optional four-stage cascade impactor for particle size distribution measurements. A pair of motors and blower pumps provide the necessary 0.5 atmosphere pressure across the type MSA 1106 B glass fiber filter paper to allow a flow rate of 50 cfm. The MSA 1106 B filter paper is designed to trap sub-micrometer particles with a high efficiency; it was chosen to enable a quantitative measurement of airborne radon daughters, one of the principal sources of background signals when radiological surveys are being performed. A venturi section and pressure gauges allow air flow rate measurements so that airborne contaminant concentrations may be quantified. A whole gas sampler capable of sampling a cubic meter of air is mounted inside the aircraft cabin. A nuclear counting system on board the aircraft provides capability for α, β and γ counting of filter paper samples. Design data are presented and types of survey missions which may be served by this system are described

  15. The plutonium-oxygen and uranium-plutonium-oxygen systems: A thermochemical assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The report of a panel of experts convened by the IAEA in Vienna in March 1964. It reviews the structural and thermodynamic data for the Pu-O and U-Pu-O systems and presents the conclusions of the panel. The report gives information on preparation, phase diagrams, thermodynamic and vaporization behaviour of plutonium oxides, uranium-plutonium oxides and PuO 2 -MeO x (Me=Be, Mg, Al, Si, W, Th, Eu, Zr, Ce) systems. 167 refs, 27 figs, 17 tabs

  16. Discussion on emergency aerial survey system for practical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriuchi, Shigeru; Nagaoka, Toshi; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Satio, Kimiaki; Amano, Hikaru; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Yanase, Nobuyuki; Kasai, Atsushi

    1989-02-01

    In 1980, after the occurrence of the TMI-2 accident in the United States, JAERI started the research and development of aerial survey techniques, and completed two prototype aerial survey systems in 1985 for gamma ray survey and for radioactivity monitoring. Following the Chernobyl reactor accident which occured in Soviet Union in 1986, European countries experienced environmental radiological monitoring using their aerial survey systems, and proved the effectiveness of aerial survey in the emergency. This report describes the outline of the prototype survey systems developed at JAERI, and showed the practical survey systems data processing, data analysis and the techniques including data processing, data analysis and the example outputs. Also, this report made some proposals concerning practical construction and the arrangement of the aerial survey equipments and the establishment of organization which takes charge of the practical emergency survey and the routine maintenance, based on our past experience. (author)

  17. Development of an oxygen saturation measuring system by using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, K.; Nakamachi, E.; Morita, Y.

    2017-08-01

    Recently, the hypoxia imaging has been recognized as the advanced technique to detect cancers because of a strong relationship with the biological characterization of cancer. In previous studies, hypoxia imaging systems for endoscopic diagnosis have been developed. However, these imaging technologies using the visible light can observe only blood vessels in gastric mucous membrane. Therefore, they could not detect scirrhous gastric cancer which accounts for 10% of all gastric cancers and spreads rapidly into submucous membrane. To overcome this problem, we developed a measuring system of blood oxygen saturation in submucous membrane by using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. NIR, which has high permeability for bio-tissues and high absorbency for hemoglobin, can image and observe blood vessels in submucous membrane. NIR system with LED lights and a CCD camera module was developed to image blood vessels. We measured blood oxygen saturation using the optical density ratio (ODR) of two wavelengths, based on Lambert-Beer law. To image blood vessel clearly and measure blood oxygen saturation accurately, we searched two optimum wavelengths by using a multilayer human gastric-like phantom which has same optical properties as human gastric one. By using Monte Carlo simulation of light propagation, we derived the relationship between the ODR and blood oxygen saturation and elucidated the influence of blood vessel depth on measuring blood oxygen saturation. The oxygen saturation measuring methodology was validated with experiments using our NIR system. Finally, it was confirmed that our system can detect oxygen saturation in various depth blood vessels accurately.

  18. [Design of Oxygen Saturation, Heart Rate, Respiration Rate Detection System Based on Smartphone of Android Operating System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingshan; Zeng, Bixin

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we designed an oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiration rate monitoring system based on smartphone of android operating system, physiological signal acquired by MSP430 microcontroller and transmitted by Bluetooth module.

  19. Semi-automatic drawings surveying system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriamampianina, Lala

    1983-01-01

    A system for the semi-automatic survey of drawings is presented. Its design has been oriented to the reduction of the stored information required for the drawing reproduction. This equipment consists mainly of a plotter driven by a micro-computer, but the pen of the plotter is replaced by a circular photodiode array. Line drawings are first viewed as a concatenation of vectors, with constant angle between the two vectors, and then divided in arcs of circles and line segments. A dynamic analysis of line intersections with the circular sensor permits to identify starting points and end points in a line, for the purpose of automatically following connected lines in drawing. The advantage of the method described is that precision practically depends only on the plotter performance, the sensor resolution being only considered for the thickness of strokes and the distance between two strokes. (author) [fr

  20. Reference Concepts for a Space-Based Hydrogen-Oxygen Combustion, Turboalternator, Burst Power System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edenburn, Michael

    1990-01-01

    This report describes reference concepts for a hydrogen-oxygen combustion, turboalternator power system that supplies power during battle engagement to a space-based, ballistic missile defense platform...

  1. Microcomputer-based system for registration of oxygen tension in peripheral muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odman, S; Bratt, H; Erlandsson, I; Sjögren, L

    1986-01-01

    For registration of oxygen tension fields in peripheral muscle a microcomputer based system was designed on the M6800 microprocessor. The system was designed to record the signals from a multiwire oxygen electrode, MDO, which is a multiwire electrode for measuring oxygen on the surface of an organ. The system contained patient safety isolation unit built on optocopplers and the upper frequency limit was 0.64 Hz. Collected data were corrected for drift and temperature changes during the measurement by using pre- and after calibrations and a linear compensation technique. Measure drift of the electrodes were proved to be linear and thus the drift could be compensated for. The system was tested in an experiment on pig. To study the distribution of oxygen statistically mean, standard deviation, skewness and curtosis were calculated. To see changes or differences between histograms a Kolmogorv-Smirnov test was used.

  2. Expert systems for automated maintenance of a Mars oxygen production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Kuang; Ho, Ming-Tsang; Ash, Robert L.

    1992-08-01

    Application of expert system concepts to a breadboard Mars oxygen processor unit have been studied and tested. The research was directed toward developing the methodology required to enable autonomous operation and control of these simple chemical processors at Mars. Failure detection and isolation was the key area of concern, and schemes using forward chaining, backward chaining, knowledge-based expert systems, and rule-based expert systems were examined. Tests and simulations were conducted that investigated self-health checkout, emergency shutdown, and fault detection, in addition to normal control activities. A dynamic system model was developed using the Bond-Graph technique. The dynamic model agreed well with tests involving sudden reductions in throughput. However, nonlinear effects were observed during tests that incorporated step function increases in flow variables. Computer simulations and experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of expert systems utilizing rule-based diagnosis and decision-making algorithms.

  3. Spacewatch Survey of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Robert S.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the Spacewatch project is to explore the various populations of small objects throughout the solar system. Statistics on all classes of small bodies are needed to infer their physical and dynamical evolution. More Earth Approachers need to be found to assess the impact hazard. (We have adopted the term "Earth Approacher", EA, to include all those asteroids, nuclei of extinct short period comets, and short period comets that can approach close to Earth. The adjective "near" carries potential confusion, as we have found in communicating with the media, that the objects are always near Earth, following it like a cloud.) Persistent and voluminous accumulation of astrometry of incidentally observed main belt asteroids MBAs will eventually permit the Minor Planet Center (MPQ to determine the orbits of large numbers (tens of thousands) of asteroids. Such a large body of information will ultimately allow better resolution of orbit classes and the determinations of luminosity functions of the various classes, Comet and asteroid recoveries are essential services to planetary astronomy. Statistics of objects in the outer solar system (Centaurs, scattered-disk objects, and Trans-Neptunian Objects; TNOs) ultimately will tell part of the story of solar system evolution. Spacewatch led the development of sky surveying by electronic means and has acted as a responsible interface to the media and general public on this discipline and on the issue of the hazard from impacts by asteroids and comets.

  4. Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment on Renal System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcan, Orhan; Caliskan, Ahmet; Demirtas, Sinan; Yavuz, Celal; Kuyumcu, Mahir; Nergiz, Yusuf; Guzel, Abdulmenap; Karahan, Oguz; Ari, Seyhmus; Soker, Sevda; Yalinkilic, Ibrahim; Turkdogan, Kenan Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment is steadily increasing as a therapeutic modality for various types of diseases. Although good clinical outcomes were reported with HBO treatment for various diseases, the multisystemic effects of this modality are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the renal effects of HBO experimentally. Fourteen New Zealand White rabbits were divided into 2 groups randomly as the control group and the study group. The study group received HBO treatment for 28 days (100% oxygen at 2.5 atmospheres for 90 minutes daily) and the control group was used to obtain normal renal tissue of the animal genus. After the intervention period, venous blood samples were obtained, and renal tissue samples were harvested for comparisons. Normal histological morphology was determined with Masson trichrome staining and periodic acid-Schiff staining in the control group. Atrophic glomerular structures, vacuolated tubule cells, and degeneration were detected in the renal samples of the study group with Masson trichrome staining. Additionally, flattening was observed on the brush borders of the proximal tubules, and tubular dilatation was visualized with periodic acid-Schiff staining. The histopathologic disruption of renal morphology was verified with detection of significantly elevated kidney function laboratory biomarkers in the study group. Our findings suggests that HBO has adverse effects on renal glomerulus and proximal tubules. However, the functional effects of this alteration should be investigated with further studies.

  5. Calculation on uranium carbon oxygen system molecular structure by DFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guangfeng; Wang Xiaolin; Zou Lexi; Sun Ying; Xue Weidong; Zhu Zhenghe; Wang Hongyan

    2001-01-01

    The authors study on the possible molecular structures U-C-O, U-O-C, C-U-O (angular structure C a nd linear structure C ∞υ ) of carbon monoxide interacting on uranium metal surface by Density functional theory (DFT). The uranium atom is used RECP (Relativistic Effective Core Potential) and contracted valence basis sets (6s5p2d4f)/[3s3p2d2f], and for carbon and oxygen atoms all are 6-311G basis sets. The author presents the results of energy optimum which shows that triple and quintuple state are more stable. The authors get the electronic state, geometry structure, energy, harmonic frequency, mechanical property, etc. of these twelve triple and quintuple state relative stable structures. The normal vibrational analytical figure of angular structure (C s ) and linear structure (C ∞υ ) is given at the same time. It is indicated that angular structure has lower energy than linear structure, moreover the angular structure of U-C-O( 3 A ) has the lowest energy. The bond strength between uranium atom and carbon monoxide is weak and between uranium atom and oxygen atom is slightly stronger than between uranium atom and carbon atom which the authors can know by superposition population and bond energy analysis among atoms

  6. Public Land Survey System - Sections on USDA Forest Service Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This feature class depicts the boundaries of Land Survey features called sections, defined by the Public Lands Survey System Grid. Normally, 36 sections make up a...

  7. First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioux, Sylvain; Mazhar, Amaan; Lee, Bernard T.; Lin, Samuel J.; Tobias, Adam M.; Cuccia, David J.; Stockdale, Alan; Oketokoun, Rafiou; Ashitate, Yoshitomo; Kelly, Edward; Weinmann, Maxwell; Durr, Nicholas J.; Moffitt, Lorissa A.; Durkin, Anthony J.; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Frangioni, John V.

    2011-08-01

    Oxygenation measurements are widely used in patient care. However, most clinically available instruments currently consist of contact probes that only provide global monitoring of the patient (e.g., pulse oximetry probes) or local monitoring of small areas (e.g., spectroscopy-based probes). Visualization of oxygenation over large areas of tissue, without a priori knowledge of the location of defects, has the potential to improve patient management in many surgical and critical care applications. In this study, we present a clinically compatible multispectral spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) system optimized for surgical oxygenation imaging. This system was used to image tissue oxygenation over a large area (16×12 cm) and was validated during preclinical studies by comparing results obtained with an FDA-approved clinical oxygenation probe. Skin flap, bowel, and liver vascular occlusion experiments were performed on Yorkshire pigs and demonstrated that over the course of the experiment, relative changes in oxygen saturation measured using SFDI had an accuracy within 10% of those made using the FDA-approved device. Finally, the new SFDI system was translated to the clinic in a first-in-human pilot study that imaged skin flap oxygenation during reconstructive breast surgery. Overall, this study lays the foundation for clinical translation of endogenous contrast imaging using SFDI.

  8. Control of oxygen tension recapitulates zone-specific functions in human liver microphysiology systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Montiel, Felipe T; George, Subin M; Gough, Albert H; Sharma, Anup D; Wu, Juanfang; DeBiasio, Richard; Vernetti, Lawrence A; Taylor, D Lansing

    2017-10-01

    This article describes our next generation human Liver Acinus MicroPhysiology System (LAMPS). The key demonstration of this study was that Zone 1 and Zone 3 microenvironments can be established by controlling the oxygen tension in individual devices over the range of ca. 3 to 13%. The oxygen tension was computationally modeled using input on the microfluidic device dimensions, numbers of cells, oxygen consumption rates of hepatocytes, the diffusion coefficients of oxygen in different materials and the flow rate of media in the MicroPhysiology System (MPS). In addition, the oxygen tension was measured using a ratiometric imaging method with the oxygen sensitive dye, Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) dichlororuthenium(II) hexahydrate (RTDP) and the oxygen insensitive dye, Alexa 488. The Zone 1 biased functions of oxidative phosphorylation, albumin and urea secretion and Zone 3 biased functions of glycolysis, α1AT secretion, Cyp2E1 expression and acetaminophen toxicity were demonstrated in the respective Zone 1 and Zone 3 MicroPhysiology System. Further improvements in the Liver Acinus MicroPhysiology System included improved performance of selected nonparenchymal cells, the inclusion of a porcine liver extracellular matrix to model the Space of Disse, as well as an improved media to support both hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cells. In its current form, the Liver Acinus MicroPhysiology System is most amenable to low to medium throughput, acute through chronic studies, including liver disease models, prioritizing compounds for preclinical studies, optimizing chemistry in structure activity relationship (SAR) projects, as well as in rising dose studies for initial dose ranging. Impact statement Oxygen zonation is a critical aspect of liver functions. A human microphysiology system is needed to investigate the impact of zonation on a wide range of liver functions that can be experimentally manipulated. Because oxygen zonation has such diverse physiological effects in the liver, we

  9. System Li2O-MoO3 as a catalyst of oxygen (air) electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavdzik, A.; Gajda, S.; Sofronkov, A.

    2000-01-01

    Potential of electrode on the basis of system Li x Mo 2-x O 6 (x 0.1-0.5) in alkaline solution saturated by oxygen was studied by the method of polarization curves recording. It is ascertained that the value of stationary potential characteristic of the electrode described under the conditions mentioned is determined by reversible reaction between oxygen and water molecules, resulting in formation of hydroxyl and hydrogen peroxide anions. Practicability of using the solid solutions on the basis of molybdenum oxide with additions of lithium oxide as a catalyst of oxygen (air) electrode in electrochemical current sources is demonstrated [ru

  10. U.S. Geological Survey laboratory method for methyl tert-Butyl ether and other fuel oxygenates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raese, Jon W.; Rose, Donna L.; Sandstrom, Mark W.

    1995-01-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was found in shallow ground-water samples in a study of 8 urban and 20 agricultural areas throughout the United States in 1993 and 1994 (Squillace and others, 1995, p. 1). The compound is added to gasoline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase the octane level and to reduce carbon monoxide and ozone levels in the air. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL), near Denver, uses state-of-the-art technology to analyze samples for MTBE as part of the USGS water-quality studies. In addition, the NWQL offers custom analyses to determine two other fuel oxygenates--ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME). The NWQL was not able to obtain a reference standard for tert-amyl ethyl ether (TAEE), another possible fuel oxygenate (Shelley and Fouhy, 1994, p. 63). The shallow ground-water samples were collected as part of the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These samples were collected from 211 urban wells or springs and 562 agricultural wells sampled by the USGS in 1993 and 1994. The wells were keyed to specific land-use areas to assess the effects of different uses on ground-water quality (Squillace and others, 1995, p. 2). Ground-water samples were preserved on site to pH less than or equal to 2 with a solution of 1:1 hydrochloric acid. All samples were analyzed at the NWQL within 2 weeks after collection. The purpose of this fact sheet is to explain briefly the analytical method implemented by the USGS for determining MTBE and other fuel oxygenates. The scope is necessarily limited to an overview of the analytical method (instrumentation, sample preparation, calibration and quantitation, identification, and preservation of samples) and method performance (reagent blanks, accuracy, and precision).

  11. LUMOS - A Sensitive and Reliable Optode System for Measuring Dissolved Oxygen in the Nanomolar Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehner, Philipp; Larndorfer, Christoph; Garcia-Robledo, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Most commercially available optical oxygen sensors target the measuring range of 300 to 2 mu mol L-1. However these are not suitable for investigating the nanomolar range which is relevant for many important environmental situations. We therefore developed a miniaturized phase fluorimeter based...... for read out of less sensitive optical oxygen sensors based on the same or similar indicator dyes, for example for monitoring oxygen at physiological conditions. The presented sensor system exhibits lower noise, higher resolution and higher sensitivity than the electrochemical STOX sensor previously used...... measurement system called the LUMOS (Luminescence Measuring Oxygen Sensor). It consists of a readout device and specialized "sensing chemistry" that relies on commercially available components. The sensor material is based on palladium(II)-5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorphenyl)-porphyrin embedded...

  12. Applicability of oxygenated water chemistry for PWR secondary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermansson, H.P. [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Takiguchi, H.; Otoha, K. [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Introduction of oxygenated water chemistry (OWC) in PWR secondary side is considered as a means to reduce the transportation of corrosion products into the steam generator and thus also minimizing crevice deposits and subsequent materials problems. One main concern, however, is the risk of inter-granular attack (IGA) in crevices. In order to study effects on crevice tube IGA by OWC, a series of experiments were performed in a steam generator (SG) simulating loop. This comprised a SG tube and a tube support plate (TSP) together forming the crevice. The over-all objective of the work accounted here was to demonstrate that it is possible to operate the steam generator secondary side with OWC without causing intolerable IGA or other types of attack on the tube in the crevice area. Tubes of sensitized Alloy 600 were exposed during a total of nine experiments in an autoclave using a TSP/tube arrangement with an asymmetric crevice design. Experiments were performed at high and low pH and potential under open and packed crevice conditions. The aggressiveness of the crevice environment was also further increased by addition of carbonate and chloride. Furthermore the tube was pressurized. Experimental parameters were monitored on the primary side as well as in the secondary bulk phase and in the crevice. (authors)

  13. Material Usage in High Pressure Oxygen Systems for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Michael; Sievers, D. Elliott

    2014-01-01

    The Nitrogen/Oxygen Recharge System (NORS) for the International Space Station (ISS) Program was required as part of the Space Shuttle retirement efforts to sustain the ISS life support systems. The system is designed around a 7000 psia Oxygen or Nitrogen Recharge Tank Assembly which is able to be utilized both internally and externally to the ISS. Material selection and usage were critical to ensure oxygen compatibility for the design, while taking into consideration toxicity, weldability, brazability and general fabrication and assembly techniques. The system uses unique hardware items such a composite overwrap pressure vessel (COPV), high pressure mechanical gauges, compact regulators and valves, quick disconnects, metal tubing and flexhoses. Numerous challenges and anomalies were encountered due to the exotic nature of this project which will be discussed in detail. The knowledge gained from these anomalies and failure resolutions can be applied to more than space applications, but can also be applicable to industry pressurized systems.

  14. Hypothesis: the regulation of the partial pressure of oxygen by the serotonergic nervous system in hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, Diana; Ikomi-Kumm, Julie

    2013-03-01

    The regulation of the partial pressure of oxygen by the serotonergic nervous system in hypoxia is a hypothesis, which proposes an inherent operative system in homo sapiens that allows central nervous system and endocrine-mediated vascular system adaption to variables in partial pressure of oxygen, pH and body composition, while maintaining sufficient oxygen saturation for the immune system and ensuring protection of major organs in hypoxic and suboptimal conditions. While acknowledging the importance of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation in the regulation of acid base balance, the hypothesis seeks to define the specific neuroendocrine/vascular mechanisms at work in regulating acid base balance in hypoxia and infection. The SIA (serotonin-immune-adrenergic) system is proposed as a working model, which allows central nervous system and endocrine-mediated macro- and micro vascular 'fine tuning'. The neurotransmitter serotonin serves as a 'hypoxic sensor' in concert with other operators to orchestrate homeostatic balance in normal and pathological states. The SIA system finely regulates oxygen, fuel and metabolic buffering systems at local sites to ensure optimum conditions for the immune response. The SIA system is fragile and its operation may be affected by infection, stress, diet, environmental toxins and lack of exercise. The hypothesis provides new insight in the area of neuro-gastroenterology, and emphasizes the importance of diet and nutrition as a complement in the treatment of infection, as well as the normalization of intestinal flora following antibiotic therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Energy Systems Training Programs and Certifications Survey White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Daryl [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nimbalkar, Sachin U. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wenning, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thirumaran, Kiran [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Guo, Wei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Compressed air system, industrial refrigeration system, chilled water system, pump system, fan system, steam system, process heating system, and combined heat and power system are the major industrial energy systems. By helping enhance knowledge and skills of workforce, training and certification programs on these systems are essential to improve energy efficiency of manufacturing facilities. A literature survey of currently available training and certification programs on these systems was conducted.

  16. Control systems for the dissolved oxygen concentration in condensate- and feed-water systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikajiri, Motohiko; Hosaka, Seiichi.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To surely prevent the generation of corrosion products and contaminations in the systems thereby decreasing the exposure dose to operators in BWR type nuclear power plants. Constitution: Dissolved oxygen concentration in condensates is measured by a dissolved oxygen concentration meter disposed to the pipeway down stream of the condensator and the measured value is sent to an injection amount control mechanism for heater drain water. The control mechanism controls the injection amount from the injection mechanism that injection heater drain water from a feed-water heater to the liquid phase in the hot wall of the condensator. Thus, heater drawin water at high dissolved oxygen is injected to the condensates in the condensator which is de-airated and reduced with dissolved oxygen concentration, to maintain the dissolved oxygen concentration at a predetermined level, whereby stable oxide films are formed to the inner surface of the pipeways to prevent the generation of corrosion products such as rusts. (Furukawa, Y.)

  17. Oxygen Consumption of Tilapia and Preliminary Mass Flows through a Prototype Closed Aquaculture System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Matthew S.; Bauer, Clarence F.

    1994-01-01

    Performance of NASA's prototype CELSS Breadboard Project Closed Aquaculture System was evaluated by estimating gas exchange quantification and preliminary carbon and nitrogen balances. The total system oxygen consumption rate was 535 mg/hr kg/fish (cv = 30%) when stocked with Tilapia aurea populations (fresh weights of 97 +/- 19 to 147 +/- 36 g/fish for various trials). Oxygen consumption by T. aurea (260 mg/hr kg/fish) contributed to approximately one-half of total system demand. Continuous carbon dioxide quantification methods were analyzed using the,relation of carbon dioxide to oxygen consumption. Overall food conversion rates averaged 18.2 +/- 3.2%. Major pathways for nitrogen and carbon in the system were described with preliminary mass closure of 60-80% and 60% for nitrogen and carbon.

  18. The equilibrium hydrogen pressure-temperature diagram for the liquid sodium-hydrogen-oxygen system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knights, C.F.; Whittingham, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    The underlying equilibria in the sodium-hydrogen-oxygen system are presented in the form of a completmentary hydrogen equilibrium pressure-temperature diagram, constructed by using published data and supplemented by experimental measurements of hydrogen equilibrium pressures over condensed phases in the system. Possible applications of the equilibrium pressure-temperature phase diagram limitations regarding its use are outlined

  19. Replacement of HCFC-225 Solvent for Cleaning NASA Propulsion Oxygen Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mark A.; Lowrey, Nikki M.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990's, when the Class I Ozone Depleting Substance (ODS) chlorofluorocarbon-113 (CFC-113) was banned, NASA's rocket propulsion test facilities at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Stennis Space Center (SSC) have relied upon hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225 (HCFC-225) to safely clean and verify the cleanliness of large scale propulsion oxygen systems. Effective January 1, 2015, the production, import, export, and new use of HCFC-225, a Class II ODS, was prohibited by the Clean Air Act. In 2012 through 2014, leveraging resources from both the NASA Rocket Propulsion Test Program and the Defense Logistics Agency - Aviation Hazardous Minimization and Green Products Branch, test labs at MSFC, SSC, and Johnson Space Center's White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) collaborated to seek out, test, and qualify a replacement for HCFC-225 that is both an effective cleaner and safe for use with oxygen systems. Candidate solvents were selected and a test plan was developed following the guidelines of ASTM G127, Standard Guide for the Selection of Cleaning Agents for Oxygen Systems. Solvents were evaluated for materials compatibility, oxygen compatibility, cleaning effectiveness, and suitability for use in cleanliness verification and field cleaning operations. Two solvents were determined to be acceptable for cleaning oxygen systems and one was chosen for implementation at NASA's rocket propulsion test facilities. The test program and results are summarized. This project also demonstrated the benefits of cross-agency collaboration in a time of limited resources.

  20. Optimizing oxygenation and intubation conditions during awake fibre-optic intubation using a high-flow nasal oxygen-delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiger, S; John, M; Fearnley, R A; Ahmad, I

    2015-10-01

    Awake fibre-optic intubation is a widely practised technique for anticipated difficult airway management. Despite the administration of supplemental oxygen during the procedure, patients are still at risk of hypoxia because of the effects of sedation, local anaesthesia, procedural complications, and the presence of co-morbidities. Traditionally used oxygen-delivery devices are low flow, and most do not have a sufficient reservoir or allow adequate fresh gas flow to meet the patient's peak inspiratory flow rate, nor provide an adequate fractional inspired oxygen concentration to prevent desaturation should complications arise. A prospective observational study was conducted using a high-flow humidified transnasal oxygen-delivery system during awake fibre-optic intubation in 50 patients with anticipated difficult airways. There were no episodes of desaturation or hypercapnia using the high-flow system, and in all patients the oxygen saturation improved above baseline values, despite one instance of apnoea resulting from over-sedation. All patients reported a comfortable experience using the device. The high-flow nasal oxygen-delivery system improves oxygenation saturation, decreases the risk of desaturation during the procedure, and potentially, optimizes conditions for awake fibre-optic intubation. The soft nasal cannulae uniquely allow continuous oxygenation and simultaneous passage of the fibrescope and tracheal tube. The safety of the procedure may be increased, because any obstruction, hypoventilation, or periods of apnoea that may arise may be tolerated for longer, allowing more time to achieve ventilation in an optimally oxygenated patient. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs

  2. Californium oxygen system for 1.50 < O/Cf < 1.72

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, R.P.; Haire, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    The californium-oxygen system was studied as a function of temperature, oxygen pressure, and stoichiometry by manometric and x-ray diffraction methods. The results establish rhombohedral Cf 7 O 12 as the stable compound obtained by heating Cf 2 O 3 in air. The isobaric oxidation-reduction cycles Cf 2 O 3 → Cf 7 O 12 → Cf 2 O 3 , observed in constant rate of heating (cooling) experiments, occur with large hysteresis. A close parallel to other fluorite related lanthanide and actinide oxide systems is established. (auth)

  3. Security of Electronic Payment Systems: A Comprehensive Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Solat , Siamak

    2017-01-01

    This comprehensive survey deliberated over the security of electronic payment systems. In our research, we focused on either dominant systems or new attempts and innovations to improve the level of security of the electronic payment systems. This survey consists of the Card-present (CP) transactions and a review of its dominant system i.e. EMV including several researches at Cambridge university to designate variant types of attacks against this standard which demonstrates lack of a secure "o...

  4. Oxygen enriched combustion system performance study. Phase 2: 100 percent oxygen enriched combustion in regenerative glass melters, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuson, G.B.; Kobayashi, H.; Campbell, M.J.

    1994-08-01

    The field test project described in this report was conducted to evaluate the energy and environmental performance of 100% oxygen enriched combustion (100% OEC) in regenerative glass melters. Additional objectives were to determine other impacts of 100% OEC on melter operation and glass quality, and to verify on a commercial scale that an on-site Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant can reliably supply oxygen for glass melting with low electrical power consumption. The tests constituted Phase 2 of a cooperative project between the United States Department of Energy, and Praxair, Inc. Phase 1 of the project involved market and technical feasibility assessments of oxygen enriched combustion for a range of high temperature industrial heating applications. An assessment of oxygen supply options for these applications was also performed during Phase 1, which included performance evaluation of a pilot scale 1 ton per day PSA oxygen plant. Two regenerative container glass melters were converted to 100% OEC operation and served as host sites for Phase 2. A 75 ton per day end-fired melter at Carr-Lowrey Glass Company in Baltimore, Maryland, was temporarily converted to 100% OEC in mid- 1990. A 350 tpd cross-fired melter at Gallo Glass Company in Modesto, California was rebuilt for permanent commercial operation with 100% OEC in mid-1991. Initially, both of these melters were supplied with oxygen from liquid storage. Subsequently, in late 1992, a Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant was installed at Gallo to supply oxygen for 100% OEC glass melting. The particular PSA plant design used at Gallo achieves maximum efficiency by cycling the adsorbent beds between pressurized and evacuated states, and is therefore referred to as a Vacuum/Pressure Swing Adsorption (VPSA) plant.

  5. Modelling Ecosystem Dynamics of the Oxygen Minimum Zones in the Angola Gyre and the Northern Benguela Upwelling System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M.; Eggert, A.

    2016-02-01

    The Angola Gyre and the Northern Benguela Upwelling System are two major oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) of different kind connected by the system of African Eastern Boundary Currents. We discuss results from a 3-dimensional coupled biogeochemical model covering both oxygen-deficient systems. The biogeochemical model component comprises trophic levels up to zooplankton. Physiological properties of organisms are parameterized from field data gained mainly in the course of the project "Geochemistry and Ecology of the Namibian Upwelling System" (GENUS). The challenge of the modelling effort is the different nature of both systems. The Angola Gyre, located in a "shadow zone" of the tropical Atlantic, has a low productivity and little ventilation, hence a long residence time of water masses. In the northern Benguela Upwelling System, trade winds drive an intermittent, but permanent nutrient supply into the euphotic zone which fuels a high coastal productivity, large particle export and high oxygen consumption from dissimilatory processes. In addition to the local processes, oxygen-deficient water formed in the Angola Gyre is one of the source water masses of the poleward undercurrent, which feeds oxygen depleted water into the Benguela system. In order to simulate the oxygen distribution in the Benguela system, both physical transport as well as local biological processes need to be carefully adjusted in the model. The focus of the analysis is on the time scale and the relative contribution of the different oxygen related processes to the oxygen budgets in both the oxygen minimum zones. Although these are very different in both the OMZ, the model is found as suitable to produce oxygen minimum zones comparable with observations in the Benguela and the Angola Gyre as well. Variability of the oxygen concentration in the Angola Gyre depends strongly on organismic oxygen consumption, whereas the variability of the oxygen concentration on the Namibian shelf is governed mostly by

  6. Survey of aircraft electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. H.; Brandner, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    Areas investigated include: (1) load analysis; (2) power distribution, conversion techniques and generation; (3) design criteria and performance capabilities of hydraulic and pneumatic systems; (4) system control and protection methods; (5) component and heat transfer systems cooling; and (6) electrical system reliability.

  7. Kinetics and mechanism of oxygen reduction reaction at CoPd system synthesized on XC72

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasevich, M.R.; Chalykh, A.E.; Bogdanovskaya, V.A.; Kuznetsova, L.N.; Kapustina, N.A.; Efremov, B.N.; Ehrenburg, M.R.; Reznikova, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    Studies are presented of the kinetics and mechanism of oxygen electroreduction reaction on CoPd catalysts synthesized on carbon black XC72. As shown both in model conditions and in the tests within the cathodes of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells with proton conducting electrolyte, CoPd/C system features a higher activity, as compared to Co/C. The highest activity in the oxygen reduction reaction is demonstrated by the catalysts with the Pd:Co atomic ratio being 7:3 and 4:1. The structural studies (XPS and XRD, and also the data of CO desorption measurements) evidence the CoPd alloy formation, which is reflected in the negative shift of the bonding energy maximum as compared to Pd/C and in the appearance of the additional CO desorption maximums on the voltammograms. It is found by means of structural research that CoPd alloy is formed in the course of the catalyst synthesis which features a higher catalytic activity of the binary systems. Besides, CoPd/C catalyst is more stable in respect to corrosion than Pd supported on carbon black. The measurements on the rotating disc electrode and rotating ring-disc electrode evidence that CoPd/C system provides the predominant oxygen reduction to water in the practically important range of potentials (E > 0.7 V). The proximity of kinetic parameters of the oxygen reduction reaction on CoPd/C and Pt/C catalysts points to the similar reaction mechanism. The slow step of the reaction is the addition of the first electron to the adsorbed and previously protonated O 2 molecule. The assumptions are offered about the reasons causing the higher activity and selectivity of the binary catalyst towards oxygen reduction to water, as compared to Co/C. The studies of the most active catalysts within the fuel cell cathodes are performed

  8. DISSOLVED OXYGEN REDUCTION IN THE DIII-D NEUTRAL BEAM ION SOURCE COOLING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YIP, H.; BUSATH, J.; HARRISON, S.

    2004-03-01

    OAK-B135 Neutral beam ion sources (NBIS) are critical components for the neutral beam injection system supporting the DIII-D tokamak. The NBIS must be cooled with 3028 (ell)/m (800 gpm) of de-ionized and de-oxygenated water to protect the sources from overheating and failure. These ions sources are currently irreplaceable. Since the water cooled molybdenum components will oxidize in water almost instantaneously in the presence of dissolved oxygen (DO), de-oxygenation is extremely important in the NBIS water system. Under normal beam operation the DO level is kept below 5 ppb. However, during weeknights and weekends when neutral beam is not in operation, the average DO level is maintained below 10 ppb by periodic circulation with a 74.6 kW (100 hp) pump, which consumes significant power. Experimental data indicated evidence of continuous oxygen diffusion through non-metallic hoses in the proximity of the NBIS. Because of the intermittent flow of the cooling water, the DO concentration at the ion source(s) could be even higher than measured downstream, and hence the concern of significant localized oxidation/corrosion. A new 3.73 kW (5 hp) auxiliary system, installed in the summer of 2003, is designed to significantly reduce the peak and the time-average DO levels in the water system and to consume only a fraction of the power

  9. Development of metal catalyst impregnation technology for membrane-based oxygen removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mun Soo; Lee, Doo Ho; Kang, Duk Won

    2005-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen(DO) is a primary cause of PWSCC and its content in reactor coolant system in NPPs has been strictly controlled by various DO removal methods. There are several removal methods of DO, such as vacuum degasification, thermal deaeration, and reductive removal by oxygen scavengers. Although the operation principles of vacuum degasification and thermal deaeration are simple, these methods require a lot of energy for operation and show lower efficiency. And these methods have a few handicaps such as temperature, pH, toxicity, high cost of installation and so on. For the purpose of developing the best method for DO removal from make-up water storage tank, it is necessary to overcome the disadvantages of hydrazine treatment. From this point of view, membrane-based oxygen removal system (MORS) has many advantages than other methods for example, friendly environmental process, versatility of operation conditions with high temperature and low pressure, small space, low cost, etc. Recently de-gassing membrane is widely used in power plant's feed water system for DO removal. De-gassing membrane has some advantages; it removes other dissolved gases such as CO2, N2, as well as O2, and is more economical than Catalytic resin-based Oxygen Removal System. In this study, to obtain better efficiency of MORS, we modified the polypropylene (PP) hollow fiber membrane by plasma treatment and ion beam irradiation supported platinum(Pt), palladium(Pd) as metal catalyst on the surface of the membrane

  10. Evaluation of the dual digestion system 2: operation and performance of the pure oxygen aerobic reactor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Messenger, JR

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available In a comprehensive study of the performance of a full-scale (45 m3) pure oxygen autothermal thermophilic aerobic reactor of a sewage sludge dual digestion system, it was found that: Biological heat generation rate was directly proportional...

  11. Oxygen auroral transition laser system excited by collisional and photolytic energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.R.; Powell, H.T.; Rhodes, C.K.

    1975-06-01

    The properties of laser media involving the auroral transition of atomic oxygen and analogous systems are examined. A discussion of the atomic properties, collisional mechanisms, excitation processes, and collisionally induced radiative phenomena is given. Crossing phenomena play a particularly important role in governing the dynamics of the medium

  12. Photoirradiation system with depth optical dosimetry control in initial oxygen saturation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintanar, L.; Stolik, S.; Rosa, J. de la; Moreno, E.

    2012-01-01

    Photodynamic Therapy is a technique in which a photosensitizing substance is applied that is activated by light and it generates reactive oxygen species which cause selective cell destruction. The efficiency of the therapy is affected by the parameters dose. In this work it is shown a photo-irradiation system for superficial Photodynamic Therapy, using as a light source a light emitting diode with an automatic control of optical power based on a model of the distribution of light in depth that was tested in tissue phantoms. It also has a reflective pulse oximeter for the measurement of the initial oxygen saturation. (Author)

  13. SURVEY OF BIOMETRIC SYSTEMS USING IRIS RECOGNITION

    OpenAIRE

    S.PON SANGEETHA; DR.M.KARNAN

    2014-01-01

    The security plays an important role in any type of organization in today’s life. Iris recognition is one of the leading automatic biometric systems in the area of security which is used to identify the individual person. Biometric systems include fingerprints, facial features, voice recognition, hand geometry, handwriting, the eye retina and the most secured one presented in this paper, the iris recognition. Biometric systems has become very famous in security systems because it is not possi...

  14. 49 CFR 192.723 - Distribution systems: Leakage surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... following minimum requirements: (1) A leakage survey with leak detector equipment must be conducted in business districts, including tests of the atmosphere in gas, electric, telephone, sewer, and water system... survey with leak detector equipment must be conducted outside business districts as frequently as...

  15. The evaluation of secondary system oxygen-scavenging chemicals using a water-circulating rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, M.W. [Nuclear Dept., HMS Sultan (United Kingdom)

    2002-07-01

    To assess the efficiency, mode of action and possible by-products of chemical dosing agents, e.g. oxygen scavengers, a circulating water rig was constructed. The rig uses a demineralized water supply as a source of make-up water to fill a recirculating loop of approx. 10 litres volume. The rig pipework is made of polythene with standard off-the shelf pipe fittings and connectors. The following parameters can be measured within the rig: pH and conductivity measured by in-line monitor, dissolved oxygen level, temperature. The system has already been used for some preliminary testing. The following oxygen scavengers have been used for tests: ascorbic acid (vitamin C), N,N-diethyl-hydroxylamine (DEHA), Hydroquinone, hydrazine hydrate and anhydrous sodium sulfite. (authors)

  16. The evaluation of secondary system oxygen-scavenging chemicals using a water-circulating rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, M.W.

    2002-01-01

    To assess the efficiency, mode of action and possible by-products of chemical dosing agents, e.g. oxygen scavengers, a circulating water rig was constructed. The rig uses a demineralized water supply as a source of make-up water to fill a recirculating loop of approx. 10 litres volume. The rig pipework is made of polythene with standard off-the shelf pipe fittings and connectors. The following parameters can be measured within the rig: pH and conductivity measured by in-line monitor, dissolved oxygen level, temperature. The system has already been used for some preliminary testing. The following oxygen scavengers have been used for tests: ascorbic acid (vitamin C), N,N-diethyl-hydroxylamine (DEHA), Hydroquinone, hydrazine hydrate and anhydrous sodium sulfite. (authors)

  17. Hydrogen Purification and Recycling for an Integrated Oxygen Recovery System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary; Wall, Terry; Miller, Lee; Wheeler, Ray

    2016-01-01

    The United States Atmosphere Revitalization life support system on the International Space Station (ISS) performs several services for the crew including oxygen generation, trace contaminant control, carbon dioxide (CO2) removal, and oxygen recovery. Oxygen recovery is performed using a Sabatier reactor developed by Hamilton Sundstrand, wherein CO2 is reduced with hydrogen in a catalytic reactor to produce methane and water. The water product is purified in the Water Purification Assembly and recycled to the Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) to provide O2 to the crew. This architecture results in a theoretical maximum oxygen recovery from CO2 of approximately 54% due to the loss of reactant hydrogen in Sabatier-produced methane that is currently vented outside of ISS. Plasma Methane Pyrolysis technology (PPA), developed by Umpqua Research Company, provides the capability to further close the Atmosphere Revitalization oxygen loop by recovering hydrogen from Sabatier-produced methane. A key aspect of this technology approach is to purify the hydrogen from the PPA product stream which includes acetylene, unreacted methane and byproduct water and carbon monoxide. In 2015, four sub-scale hydrogen separation systems were delivered to NASA for evaluation. These included two electrolysis single-cell hydrogen purification cell stacks developed by Sustainable Innovations, LLC, a sorbent-based hydrogen purification unit using microwave power for sorbent regeneration developed by Umpqua Research Company, and a LaNi4.6Sn0.4 metal hydride produced by Hydrogen Consultants, Inc. Here we report the results of these evaluations, discuss potential architecture options, and propose future work.

  18. System analysis of dry black liquor gasification based synthetic gas production comparing oxygen and air blown gasification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, Muhammad; Yan, Jinyue; Dahlquist, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Circulating fluidized bed system for black liquor gasification with direct causticization. ► Effects of gasifying medium i.e. oxygen or air, on gasification are studied. ► Direct causticization eliminates energy intensive limekiln reducing biomass use. ► Results show 10% higher SNG production from O 2 blown system than air blown system. ► SNG production is higher in O 2 blown system than air blown system. - Abstract: The black liquor gasification based bio-fuel production at chemical pulp mill is an attractive option to replace conventional recovery boilers increasing system energy efficiency. The present paper studies circulating fluidized bed system with direct causticization using TiO 2 for the gasification of the black liquor to the synthesis gas. The advantage of using direct causticization is the elimination of energy-intensive lime kiln which is an integral part of the conventional black liquor recovery system. The study evaluates the effects of gasifying medium i.e. oxygen or air, on the fluidized bed gasification system, the synthesis gas composition, and the downstream processes for the synthesis gas conversion to the synthetic natural gas (SNG). The results showed higher synthetic natural gas production potential with about 10% higher energy efficiency using oxygen blown gasification system than the air blown system. From the pulp mill integration perspective, the material and energy balance results in better integration of air blown system than the oxygen blown system, e.g. less steam required to be generated in the power boiler, less electricity import, and less additional biomass requirement. However, the air blown system still requires a significant amount of energy in terms of the synthesis gas handling and gas upgrading using the nitrogen rejection system

  19. Evaluation of New Fluid Mud Survey System at Field Sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Engler

    1992-01-01

    This technical note presents an intermediate evaluation of a fluid mud survey system with respect to operability, practicability, and repeatability based on field tests conducted at Calcasieu River, Louisiana...

  20. Natural Language Generation for dialogue: system survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theune, Mariet

    Many natural language dialogue systems make use of `canned text' for output generation. This approach may be su±cient for dialogues in restricted domains where system utterances are short and simple and use fixed expressions (e.g., slot filling dialogues in the ticket reservation or travel

  1. An Informal Survey of the CTI Backup System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Covino

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to help decide whether or not to purchase computer backup systems from Computer Translation, Inc. (CTI, for use when the CLSI LIBS 100 automated circulation system is not operating, Great Neck Library conducted an informal survey of libraries using both systems

  2. Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) for hospitals, a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haar Romeny, B.M. ter; Graaf, C.N. de; Waes, P.F.G.M. van; Rijk, P.P. van; Helder, J.C.; Valk, J.P.J. de

    1985-01-01

    In this article a survey is given for Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS). Several aspects of PACS are treated, as image management, the introduction of the system, expenses etc. Special reference is made to the component parts of PACS: image stations, memory, network, software and coupling to the hospital information system. The introduction of PACS in Dutch hospitals is described. (Auth.)

  3. Development of carborne gamma-ray survey system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Tsutsumi, Masahiro

    1999-01-01

    A carborne γ-ray survey system was developed aiming at implementation of environmental radiation investigation in and around Chernobyl area after the accident. This system consists of a dose rate meter, a GPS and a personal computer, and acquires γ-ray dose rates and positional data using two serial ports of the computer. It is indispensable to acquire these two kinds of data simultaneously for carborne γ-ray survey in a large area. A feature of the system is to be able to get these data continuously by means of a simple programming. This system has been used in and around Chernobyl area for a few years, and it has worked without any troubles. The outline of this survey system, which is applicable for configuration of environmental radiation data acquisition system is reported with some results in Chernobyl. (author)

  4. Survey and comparison of automated UT systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neeley, V.I.; Avioli, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    In the past decade, the limitations of manual UT inspections have become more severe and adverse. Perhaps the best evidence of this has been the problem of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in boiling water reactors (BWR). The onset of this problem clearly showed that better and more sophisticated UT inspection methods must be developed to assure the industry that an appropriate level of inspection integrity could be maintained. While automated UT inspection systems have been under development for some time, this event certainly spurred this activity and has resulted in a variety of commercial systems. The intent of this project, sponsored by EPRI, is to develop a utility engineer's 'Buyer guide' to automated UT systems. Comparison of different automated UT systems along with results of questionnaires on manual UT versus automated UT costs and effectiveness are reviewed. (author)

  5. Resource Survey Relational Database Management System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Mississippi Laboratories employ both enterprise and localized data collection systems for recording data. The databases utilized by these applications range from...

  6. A Survey on Password Security Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. A. G. Khairnar; Prof. N. L. Bhale

    2013-01-01

    Password security is essential for user authentication on small networking system as well large networking system. Till today many researchers introduced various methods to protect passwords on network. Passwords are prone to various types of attacks like brute force attack, password reuse attack, password stealing attack, password cracking attack, etc. This paper gives review on different methods which were introduced for protection of password on a network. This paper also includes work don...

  7. Medical cyber-physical systems: A survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Nilanjan; Ashour, Amira S; Shi, Fuqian; Fong, Simon James; Tavares, João Manuel R S

    2018-03-10

    Medical cyber-physical systems (MCPS) are healthcare critical integration of a network of medical devices. These systems are progressively used in hospitals to achieve a continuous high-quality healthcare. The MCPS design faces numerous challenges, including inoperability, security/privacy, and high assurance in the system software. In the current work, the infrastructure of the cyber-physical systems (CPS) are reviewed and discussed. This article enriched the researches of the networked Medical Device (MD) systems to increase the efficiency and safety of the healthcare. It also can assist the specialists of medical device to overcome crucial issues related to medical devices, and the challenges facing the design of the medical device's network. The concept of the social networking and its security along with the concept of the wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are addressed. Afterward, the CPS systems and platforms have been established, where more focus was directed toward CPS-based healthcare. The big data framework of CPSs is also included.

  8. Design and control of the oxygen partial pressure of UO2 in TGA using the humidification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.; Knight, T.W.; Roberts, E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We focus on measurement of oxygen partial pressure and change of O/M ratio under specific conditions produced by the humidification system. • This shows that the humidification system is stable, accurate, and reliable enough to be used for experiments of the oxygen partial pressure measurement for the oxide fuels. • The humidification system has benefits of easy control and flexibility for producing various oxygen partial pressures with fixed hydrogen gas flow rate. - Abstract: The oxygen to uranium (O/U) ratio of UO 2±x is determined by the oxygen content of the sample and is affected by oxygen partial pressure (pO 2 ) of the surrounding gas. Oxygen partial pressure is controllable by several methods. A common method to produce different oxygen partial pressures is the use of equilibria of different reaction gases. There are two common methods: H 2 O/H 2 reaction and CO 2 /CO reaction. In this work, H 2 O/H 2 reaction using a humidifier was employed and investigated to ensure that this humidification system for oxygen partial pressure is stable and accurate for use in Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA) experiments with UO 2 . This approach has the further advantage of flexibility to make a wide range of oxygen partial pressure with fixed hydrogen gas flow rate only by varying temperature of water in the humidifier. The whole system for experiments was constructed and includes the humidification system, TGA, oxygen analyzer, and gas flow controller. Uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) samples were used for experiments and oxygen partial pressure was measured at the equilibrium state of stoichiometric UO 2.0 . Oxygen partial pressures produced by humidification (wet gas) system were compared to the approach using mixed dry gases (without humidification system) to demonstrate that the humidification system provides for more stable and accurate oxygen partial pressure control. This work provides the design, method, and analysis of a humidification system for

  9. A foundational methodology for determining system static complexity using notional lunar oxygen production processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Nicholas James

    This thesis serves to develop a preliminary foundational methodology for evaluating the static complexity of future lunar oxygen production systems when extensive information is not yet available about the various systems under consideration. Evaluating static complexity, as part of a overall system complexity analysis, is an important consideration in ultimately selecting a process to be used in a lunar base. When system complexity is higher, there is generally an overall increase in risk which could impact the safety of astronauts and the economic performance of the mission. To evaluate static complexity in lunar oxygen production, static complexity is simplified and defined into its essential components. First, three essential dimensions of static complexity are investigated, including interconnective complexity, strength of connections, and complexity in variety. Then a set of methods is developed upon which to separately evaluate each dimension. Q-connectivity analysis is proposed as a means to evaluate interconnective complexity and strength of connections. The law of requisite variety originating from cybernetic theory is suggested to interpret complexity in variety. Secondly, a means to aggregate the results of each analysis is proposed to create holistic measurement for static complexity using the Single Multi-Attribute Ranking Technique (SMART). Each method of static complexity analysis and the aggregation technique is demonstrated using notional data for four lunar oxygen production processes.

  10. Ontologies and Information Systems: A Literature Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Falcon-AO (LMO + GMO ) [146], and RiMOM [317]. Meta-matching systems include APFEL [76] and eTuner [286]. There also exist frameworks that provide a set...Jian, N., Qu, Y. and Wang, Q. 2005. GMO : A graph matching for ontologies. In Proceedings of the K-CAPWorkshop on Integrating Ontologies, Banff

  11. Dependence of Initial Oxygen Concentration on Ozone Yield Using Inductive Energy Storage System Pulsed Power Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Tomio; Tanaka, Yasushi; Yamazaki, Nobuyuki; Mukaigawa, Seiji; Takaki, Koichi; Fujiwara, Tamiya

    Dependence of initial oxygen concentration on ozone yield using streamer discharge reactor driven by an inductive energy storage system pulsed power generator is described in this paper. Fast recovery type diodes were employed as semiconductor opening switch to interrupt a circuit current within 100 ns. This rapid current change produced high-voltage short pulse between a secondary energy storage inductor. The repetitive high-voltage short pulse was applied to a 1 mm diameter center wire electrode placed in a cylindrical pulse corona reactor. The streamer discharge successfully occurred between the center wire electrode and an outer cylinder ground electrode of 2 cm inner diameter. The ozone was produced with the streamer discharge and increased with increasing pulse repetition rate. The ozone yield changed in proportion to initial oxygen concentration contained in the injected gas mixture at 800 ns forward pumping time of the current. However, the decrease of the ozone yield by decreasing oxygen concentration in the gas mixture at 180 ns forward pumping time of the current was lower than the decrease at 800 ns forward pumping time of the current. This dependence of the initial oxygen concentration on ozone yield at 180 ns forward pumping time is similar to that of dielectric barrier discharge reactor.

  12. Multi-Use Solar Thermal System for Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith [7227-570], Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an innovative solar thermal system for oxygen production from lunar regolith. In this system solar radiation is collected by the concentrator...

  13. Measurement of infiltration rates in urban sewer systems by use of oxygen isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bénédittis, J; Bertrand-Krajewski, J L

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the principle of a method to measure infiltration rates in sewer systems based on the use of oxygen isotopes and its application in Lyon (France). In the urban area of Lyon, significant differences in delta 18O that can reach 3 per thousand are observed between the oxygen isotopic compositions of groundwater originating from Rhone, Saone and from their associated alluvial aquifers. Drinking water supplying Lyon results mainly from pumping in the Rhone alluvial aquifer. Therefore, in some areas, the difference of isotopic composition between wastewater resulting from the consumption of drinking water and local groundwater can be used to measure infiltration in sewer systems. The application in the catchment of Ecully shows that the infiltration flow rate presents strong fluctuations at an hourly scale: it varies between 15 and 40 m3/h. This variability could be explained by non-constant discharges of pumping and by variations of the water level in the sewer.

  14. Relations between oxygen and hydrogen generated by radiolysis in the systems of a CANDU 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Christian; Chocron, Mauricio; Urrutia, Guillermo

    1999-01-01

    The water that constitutes the coolant of the primary heat transport system, the moderator and the liquid control zones, decomposed under radiation producing as stable products oxygen, hydrogen and hydrogen peroxide throughout a complex mechanisms of radiolysis that involves ions and free radicals. These compound formed in different proportions alters the chemical control established for each system which purpose is to minimize the corrosion of the structural materials. In the present paper have been presented results of the modelling of the mentioned processes and it has been found that in the absence of a vapor phase, a relatively low concentration of hydrogen added to the water would be sufficient to control the formation of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The last species however, would remain in relatively high values inside a coolant fuel channel in the reactor core. (author)

  15. A survey of Framatome's expert systems activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaigue, D.; Grundstein, M.

    1987-01-01

    The French multinational nuclear energy world leader, Framatome, has designed and installed more than 40000 MWe of power in both France and abroad using Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) technology. The French nuclear program ranks as one of the most successful in the world. In 1983, Framatome entered the Applied Artificial Intelligence (A.I.) field by setting up FRAMENTEC S.A., a joint venture with TEKNOWLEDGE Inc. Today, Framentec is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Framatome and is among the leading European companies specializing in Applied Artificial Intelligence. Framatome now has a 7.5% stake in Teknowledge Inc. The main applications in the nuclear industry can be summarized as follows: quality assurance; design of systems subject to extreme operating conditions; maintenance of complex systems; control of complex phenomenon producing high velocity transients; expert advice in multiple fields; compliance with complex regulations; high-skill personnel requirements; heavy financial investments

  16. A Survey of Intelligent Car Parking System

    OpenAIRE

    Faheem; S.A. Mahmud; G.M. Khan; M. Rahman; H. Zafar

    2013-01-01

    The industrialization of the world, increase in population, slow paced city development and mismanagement of the available parking space has resulted in parking related problems. There is a dire need for a secure, intelligent, efficient and reliable system which can be used for searching the unoccupied parking facility, guidance towards the parking facility, negotiation of the parking fee, along with the proper management of the parking facility. Intelligent Parking Service is a part of Intel...

  17. Synthesis of Heteroaromatic Compounds by Oxidative Aromatization Using an Activated Carbon/Molecular Oxygen System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Hayashi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A variety of heteroaromatic compounds, such as substituted pyridines, pyrazoles, indoles, 2-substituted imidazoles, 2-substituted imidazoles, 2-arylbenzazoles and pyrimidin-2(1H-ones are synthesized by oxidative aromatization using the activated carbon and molecular oxygen system. Mechanistic study focused on the role of activated carbon in the synthesis of 2-arylbenzazoles is also discussed. In the final section, we will disclose the efficient synthesis of substituted 9,10-anthracenes via oxidative aromatization.

  18. Indoor and Outdoor Mobile Mapping Systems for Architectural Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campi, M.; di Luggo, A.; Monaco, S.; Siconolfi, M.; Palomba, D.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents the results of architectural surveys carried out with mobile mapping systems. The data acquired through different instruments for both indoor and outdoor surveying are analyzed and compared. The study sample shows what is required for an acquisition in a dynamic mode indicating the criteria for the creation of a georeferenced network for indoor spaces, as well as the operational processes concerning data capture, processing, and management. The differences between a dynamic and static scan have been evaluated, with a comparison being made with the aerial photogrammetric survey of the same sample.

  19. Application of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes of waters in Tengchong hydrothermal systems of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Minzi; Hou Fagao; Lin Ruifen; Ni Baoling

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results obtained for hydrothermal systems in Tengchong by using deuterium, oxygen-18 and tritium as natural tracers. On the basis of deuterium and oxygen-18 analyses of 69 thermal springs and some other meteoric, surface and underground water samples it has been confirmed that all geothermal waters are originally meteoric, but the δD of hot spring waters is often lighter than that of local surface and underground waters. It seems that the recharging water is from higher elevations and far from the thermal areas. The differences in oxygen-18 and deuterium contents between thermal springs and deep thermal waters have been calculated for single-stage steam separation from 276 deg. C to 96 deg. C. The oxygen isotope shift of deep thermal water produced by water-rock reactions is of 1.57 per mille and part of the observed oxygen isotope shift of thermal springs seems to have occurred due to subsurface boiling. The tritium content ( 18 O three subsurface processes would have been distinguished, they are subsurface boiling, mixing-subsurface boiling and subsurface boiling-mixing. The springs formed by subsurface boiling have tritium content of less than 5 TU. The tritium content of 5-10 TU is for springs formed by mixing-subsurface boiling and 10-20 TU is for subsurface boiling-mixing. The tritium content of geothermal water in Hot Sea, geothermal field seems higher than that of the Geysers U.S.A. and Wairakei N.Z. It would show that the circulation time of the thermal water in Hot Sea geothermal system is not so long, the reservoir is quite good with percolation and the recharging water is sufficiently enough. The most important applications of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes of water in geothermal study are in two ways, as tracers of water origins and as tracers of reservoir processes. This paper discussed these two aspects of Tengchong hydrothermal systems. 6 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  20. Oxygen control systems and impurity purification in LBE: Learning from DEMETRA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brissonneau, L., E-mail: laurent.brissonneau@cea.fr [CEA/DEN, Cadarache, DTN/STPA/LIPC, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Beauchamp, F.; Morier, O. [CEA/DEN, Cadarache, DTN/STPA/LIPC, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Schroer, C.; Konys, J. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Institut fuer Materialforschung III, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Kobzova, A.; Di Gabriele, F. [NRI, UJV Husinec-Rez 130, Rez 25068 (Czech Republic); Courouau, J.-L. [CEA/DEN, Saclay, DPC/SCCME/LECNA, F-919191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-08-31

    Operating a system using Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) requires a control of the dissolved oxygen concentration to avoid corrosion of structural materials and oxide build-up in the coolant. Reliable devices are therefore needed to monitor and adjust the oxygen concentration and to remove impurities during operation. In this article, we describe the learning gained from experiments run in the framework of the DEMETRA project (IP-EUROTRANS 6th FP contract) on the oxygen supply in LBE and on impurity filtration and management in different European facilities. An oxygen control device should supply oxygen in LBE at sufficient rate to compensate loss by surface oxidation, otherwise local dissolution of oxide layers might lead to the loss of steel protection against dissolution. Oxygen can be supplied by gas phase H{sub 2}O or O{sub 2}, or by solid phase, PbO dissolution. Each of these systems has substantial advantages and drawbacks. Considerations are given on devices for large scale facilities. The management of impurities (lead oxides and corrosion products) is also a crucial issue as their presence in the liquid phase or in the aerosols is likely to impair the facility, instrumentation and mechanical devices. To avoid impurity build-up on the long-term, purification of LBE is required to keep the impurity inventory low by trapping oxide and metallic impurities in specific filter units. On the basis of impurities characterisation and experimental results gained through filtration tests in different loops, this paper gives a description of the state-of-art knowledge of LBE purification with different filter media. It is now understood that the nature and behaviour of impurities formed in LBE will change according to the operating modes as well as the method to propose to remove impurities. This experience can be used to validate the basis filtration process, define the operating procedures and evaluate perspectives for the design of purification units for long

  1. The Dark Energy Survey Data Processing and Calibration System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, Joseph J. [Munich U.; Armstrong, Robert [Penn State U.; Bertin, Emmanuel [Paris, Inst. Astrophys.; Daues, Gregory E. [NCSA, Urbana; Desai, Shantanu [Munich U.; Gower, Michelle [NCSA, Urbana; Gruendl, Robert [Illinois U., Urbana (main); Hanlon, William [Illinois U., Urbana (main); Kuropatkin, Nikolay [Fermilab; Lin, Huan [Fermilab; Marriner, John [Fermilab; Petravick, Don; Sevilla, Ignacio [Madrid, CIEMAT; Swanson, Molly [Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Tomashek, Todd [NCSA, Urbana; Tucker, Douglas [Fermilab; Yanny, Brian [Fermilab

    2012-09-24

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a 5000 deg2 grizY survey reaching characteristic photometric depths of 24th magnitude (10 sigma) and enabling accurate photometry and morphology of objects ten times fainter than in SDSS. Preparations for DES have included building a dedicated 3 deg2 CCD camera (DECam), upgrading the existing CTIO Blanco 4m telescope and developing a new high performance computing (HPC) enabled data management system (DESDM). The DESDM system will be used for processing, calibrating and serving the DES data. The total data volumes are high (~2PB), and so considerable effort has gone into designing an automated processing and quality control system. Special purpose image detrending and photometric calibration codes have been developed to meet the data quality requirements, while survey astrometric calibration, coaddition and cataloging rely on new extensions of the AstrOmatic codes which now include tools for PSF modeling, PSF homogenization, PSF corrected model fitting cataloging and joint model fitting across multiple input images. The DESDM system has been deployed on dedicated development clusters and HPC systems in the US and Germany. An extensive program of testing with small rapid turn-around and larger campaign simulated datasets has been carried out. The system has also been tested on large real datasets, including Blanco Cosmology Survey data from the Mosaic2 camera. In Fall 2012 the DESDM system will be used for DECam commissioning, and, thereafter, the system will go into full science operations.

  2. Survey of the home sewage disposal systems in northeast Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumeo, Mark A; Newland, Juliet

    2009-09-01

    This article reports on failure rates in onsite sewage treatment systems (STS) that were found as part of a comprehensive seven-county survey that was performed under the auspices of the Northeast Ohio Areawide Coordinating Agency (NOACA) during the summer of 2000. The goal was to determine the percentage of onsite, individual home wastewater systems that were "failing." A system was identified as "failing" if, upon inspection, it had observable surfacing of effluent from the treatment system. A certified soil scientist conducted each on-site investigation to ensure consistency in methodology and to provide verification of soil types for each installation. The survey revealed that between 12.7% and 19.7% of the onsite wastewater treatment systems are allowing wastewater to surface as opposed to infiltrate (at the 95% confidence interval). The rate of failure does not vary significantly between aerobic and septic systems or between systems with or without filters.

  3. Influence of oxygen on NADH recycling and oxidative stress resistance systems in Lactobacillus panis PM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae Sun; Korber, Darren R; Tanaka, Takuji

    2013-01-31

    Lactobacillus panis strain PM1 is an obligatory heterofermentative and aerotolerant microorganism that also produces 1,3-propanediol from glycerol. This study investigated the metabolic responses of L. panis PM1 to oxidative stress under aerobic conditions. Growth under aerobic culture triggered an early entrance of L. panis PM1 into the stationary phase along with marked changes in end-product profiles. A ten-fold higher concentration of hydrogen peroxide was accumulated during aerobic culture compared to microaerobic culture. This H2O2 level was sufficient for the complete inhibition of L. panis PM1 cell growth, along with a significant reduction in end-products typically found during anaerobic growth. In silico analysis revealed that L. panis possessed two genes for NADH oxidase and NADH peroxidase, but their expression levels were not significantly affected by the presence of oxygen. Specific activities for these two enzymes were observed in crude extracts from L. panis PM1. Enzyme assays demonstrated that the majority of the H2O2 in the culture media was the product of NADH: H2O2 oxidase which was constitutively-active under both aerobic and microaerobic conditions; whereas, NADH peroxidase was positively-activated by the presence of oxygen and had a long induction time in contrast to NADH oxidase. These observations indicated that a coupled NADH oxidase - NADH peroxidase system was the main oxidative stress resistance mechanism in L. panis PM1, and was regulated by oxygen availability. Under aerobic conditions, NADH is mainly reoxidized by the NADH oxidase - peroxidase system rather than through the production of ethanol (or 1,3-propanediol or succinic acid production if glycerol or citric acid is available). This system helped L. panis PM1 directly use oxygen in its energy metabolism by producing extra ATP in contrast to homofermentative lactobacilli.

  4. Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in plant mitochondria: origin and redundant regulatory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokhina, Olga; Fagerstedt, Kurt V

    2010-04-01

    Plant mitochondria differ from their mammalian counterparts in many respects, which are due to the unique and variable surroundings of plant mitochondria. In green leaves, plant mitochondria are surrounded by ample respiratory substrates and abundant molecular oxygen, both resulting from active photosynthesis, while in roots and bulky rhizomes and fruit carbohydrates may be plenty, whereas oxygen levels are falling. Several enzymatic complexes in mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) are capable of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation under physiological and pathological conditions. Inherently connected parameters such as the redox state of electron carriers in the ETC, ATP synthase activity and inner mitochondrial membrane potential, when affected by external stimuli, can give rise to ROS formation via complexes I and III, and by reverse electron transport (RET) from complex II. Superoxide radicals produced are quickly scavenged by superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), and the resulting H(2)O(2) is detoxified by peroxiredoxin-thioredoxin system or by the enzymes of ascorbate-glutathione cycle, found in the mitochondrial matrix. Arginine-dependent nitric oxide (NO)-releasing activity of enzymatic origin has been detected in plant mitochondria. The molecular identity of the enzyme is not clear but the involvement of mitochondria-localized enzymes responsible for arginine catabolism, arginase and ornithine aminotransferase has been shown in the regulation of NO efflux. Besides direct control by antioxidants, mitochondrial ROS production is tightly controlled by multiple redundant systems affecting inner membrane potential: NAD(P)H-dependent dehydrogenases, alternative oxidase (AOX), uncoupling proteins, ATP-sensitive K(+) channel and a number of matrix and intermembrane enzymes capable of direct electron donation to ETC. NO removal, on the other hand, takes place either by reactions with molecular oxygen or superoxide resulting in peroxynitrite, nitrite or nitrate

  5. Bottom Dissolved Oxygen Maps From SEAMAP Summer and Fall Groundfish/Shrimp Surveys from 1982 to 1998 (NCEI Accession 0155488)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bottom dissolved oxygen (DO) data was extracted from environmental profiles acquired during the Southeast Fisheries Science Center Mississippi Laboratories summer...

  6. THE ELM SURVEY. IV. 24 WHITE DWARF MERGER SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, S. J.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Heinke, Craig O.; Agüeros, M. A.; Kleinman, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present new radial velocity and X-ray observations of extremely low mass (ELM, ∼0.2 M ☉ ) white dwarf (WD) candidates in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 area. We identify seven new binary systems with 1-18 hr orbital periods. Five of the systems will merge due to gravitational wave radiation within 10 Gyr, bringing the total number of merger systems found in the ELM Survey to 24. The ELM Survey has now quintupled the known merger WD population. It has also discovered the eight shortest period detached binary WD systems currently known. We discuss the characteristics of the merger and non-merger systems observed in the ELM Survey, including their future evolution. About half of the systems have extreme mass ratios. These are the progenitors of the AM Canum Venaticorum systems and Type Ia supernovae. The remaining targets will lead to the formation of extreme helium stars, subdwarfs, or massive WDs. We identify three targets that are excellent gravitational wave sources. These should be detected by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna like missions within the first year of operation. The remaining targets are important indicators of what the Galactic foreground may look like for gravitational wave observatories.

  7. THE ELM SURVEY. IV. 24 WHITE DWARF MERGER SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, Mukremin [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, S. J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Allende Prieto, Carlos [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Heinke, Craig O. [Department of Physics, CCIS 4-183, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2E1 (Canada); Agueeros, M. A. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Kleinman, S. J., E-mail: kilic@ou.edu [Gemini Observatory, 670 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2012-06-01

    We present new radial velocity and X-ray observations of extremely low mass (ELM, {approx}0.2 M{sub Sun }) white dwarf (WD) candidates in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 area. We identify seven new binary systems with 1-18 hr orbital periods. Five of the systems will merge due to gravitational wave radiation within 10 Gyr, bringing the total number of merger systems found in the ELM Survey to 24. The ELM Survey has now quintupled the known merger WD population. It has also discovered the eight shortest period detached binary WD systems currently known. We discuss the characteristics of the merger and non-merger systems observed in the ELM Survey, including their future evolution. About half of the systems have extreme mass ratios. These are the progenitors of the AM Canum Venaticorum systems and Type Ia supernovae. The remaining targets will lead to the formation of extreme helium stars, subdwarfs, or massive WDs. We identify three targets that are excellent gravitational wave sources. These should be detected by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna like missions within the first year of operation. The remaining targets are important indicators of what the Galactic foreground may look like for gravitational wave observatories.

  8. EFFECTS OF OXYGEN AND AIR MIXING ON VOID FRACTIONS IN A LARGE SCALE SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leishear, R; Hector Guerrero, H; Michael Restivo, M

    2008-01-01

    Oxygen and air mixing with spargers was performed in a 30 foot tall by 30 inch diameter column, to investigate mass transfer as air sparged up through the column and removed saturated oxygen from solution. The mixing techniques required to support this research are the focus of this paper. The fluids tested included water, water with an antifoam agent (AFA), and a high, solids content, Bingham plastic, nuclear waste simulant with AFA, referred to as AZ01 simulant, which is non-radioactive. Mixing of fluids in the column was performed using a recirculation system and an air sparger. The re-circulation system consisted of the column, a re-circulating pump, and associated piping. The air sparger was fabricated from a two inch diameter pipe concentrically installed in the column and open near the bottom of the column. The column contents were slowly re-circulated while fluids were mixed with the air sparger. Samples were rheologically tested to ensure effective mixing, as required. Once the fluids were adequately mixed, oxygen was homogeneously added through the re-circulation loop using a sintered metal oxygen sparger followed by a static mixer. Then the air sparger was re-actuated to remove oxygen from solution as air bubbled up through solution. To monitor mixing effectiveness several variables were monitored, which included flow rates, oxygen concentration, differential pressures along the column height, fluid levels, and void fractions, which are defined as the percent of dissolved gas divided by the total volume of gas and liquid. Research showed that mixing was uniform for water and water with AFA, but mixing for the AZ101 fluid was far more complex. Although mixing of AZ101 was uniform throughout most of the column, gas entrapment and settling of solids significantly affected test results. The detailed test results presented here provide some insight into the complexities of mixing and void fractions for different fluids and how the mixing process itself

  9. EFFECTS OF OXYGEN AND AIR MIXING ON VOID FRACTIONS IN A LARGE SCALE SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leishear, R; Hector Guerrero, H; Michael Restivo, M

    2008-09-11

    Oxygen and air mixing with spargers was performed in a 30 foot tall by 30 inch diameter column, to investigate mass transfer as air sparged up through the column and removed saturated oxygen from solution. The mixing techniques required to support this research are the focus of this paper. The fluids tested included water, water with an antifoam agent (AFA), and a high, solids content, Bingham plastic, nuclear waste simulant with AFA, referred to as AZ01 simulant, which is non-radioactive. Mixing of fluids in the column was performed using a recirculation system and an air sparger. The re-circulation system consisted of the column, a re-circulating pump, and associated piping. The air sparger was fabricated from a two inch diameter pipe concentrically installed in the column and open near the bottom of the column. The column contents were slowly re-circulated while fluids were mixed with the air sparger. Samples were rheologically tested to ensure effective mixing, as required. Once the fluids were adequately mixed, oxygen was homogeneously added through the re-circulation loop using a sintered metal oxygen sparger followed by a static mixer. Then the air sparger was re-actuated to remove oxygen from solution as air bubbled up through solution. To monitor mixing effectiveness several variables were monitored, which included flow rates, oxygen concentration, differential pressures along the column height, fluid levels, and void fractions, which are defined as the percent of dissolved gas divided by the total volume of gas and liquid. Research showed that mixing was uniform for water and water with AFA, but mixing for the AZ101 fluid was far more complex. Although mixing of AZ101 was uniform throughout most of the column, gas entrapment and settling of solids significantly affected test results. The detailed test results presented here provide some insight into the complexities of mixing and void fractions for different fluids and how the mixing process itself

  10. Mechanical properties and biocompatibility in alloy Ti-Ta system containing oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, S.L.M.; Grandini, C.R.; Claro, A.P.R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Due to the excellent properties such as corrosion resistance, good mechanical strength/density, good performance at high temperatures, Ti is very useful in the chemical industry and aerospace. Currently, their use has expanded to the field of biomaterials, due to its excellent biocompatibility and reduced elasticity modulus, favouring the production of orthopaedic and dental prostheses. Promising alloys are the Ti-Ta system and researches have been directed to describe and understand the behavior of this system. In this paper, samples of Ti-Ta alloys containing 8 and 16% (wt%) containing interstitial oxygen were prepared and characterized by density, xray diffraction, hardness, elasticity modulus measurements and in vitro cytotoxicity tests. (author)

  11. Information systems security policies: a survey in Portuguese public administration

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Isabel Maria; Sá-Soares, Filipe de

    2010-01-01

    Information Systems Security is a relevant factor for present organizations. Among the security measures, policies assume a central role in literature. However, there is a reduced number of empirical studies about the adoption of information systems security policies. This paper contributes to mitigate this flaw by presenting the results of a survey in the adoption of Information System Security Policies in Local Public Administration in Portugal. The results are discussed in light of literat...

  12. Oxygen transport membrane reactor based method and system for generating electric power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Chakravarti, Shrikar; Li, Juan

    2017-02-07

    A carbon capture enabled system and method for generating electric power and/or fuel from methane containing sources using oxygen transport membranes by first converting the methane containing feed gas into a high pressure synthesis gas. Then, in one configuration the synthesis gas is combusted in oxy-combustion mode in oxygen transport membranes based boiler reactor operating at a pressure at least twice that of ambient pressure and the heat generated heats steam in thermally coupled steam generation tubes within the boiler reactor; the steam is expanded in steam turbine to generate power; and the carbon dioxide rich effluent leaving the boiler reactor is processed to isolate carbon. In another configuration the synthesis gas is further treated in a gas conditioning system configured for carbon capture in a pre-combustion mode using water gas shift reactors and acid gas removal units to produce hydrogen or hydrogen-rich fuel gas that fuels an integrated gas turbine and steam turbine system to generate power. The disclosed method and system can also be adapted to integrate with coal gasification systems to produce power from both coal and methane containing sources with greater than 90% carbon isolation.

  13. First report of the successful operation of a side stream supersaturation hypolimnetic oxygenation system in a eutrophic, shallow reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerling, Alexandra B; Browne, Richard G; Gantzer, Paul A; Mobley, Mark H; Little, John C; Carey, Cayelan C

    2014-12-15

    Controlling hypolimnetic hypoxia is a key goal of water quality management. Hypoxic conditions can trigger the release of reduced metals and nutrients from lake sediments, resulting in taste and odor problems as well as nuisance algal blooms. In deep lakes and reservoirs, hypolimnetic oxygenation has emerged as a viable solution for combating hypoxia. In shallow lakes, however, it is difficult to add oxygen into the hypolimnion efficiently, and a poorly designed hypolimnetic oxygenation system could potentially result in higher turbidity, weakened thermal stratification, and warming of the sediments. As a result, little is known about the viability of hypolimnetic oxygenation in shallow bodies of water. Here, we present the results from recent successful tests of side stream supersaturation (SSS), a type of hypolimnetic oxygenation system, in a shallow reservoir and compare it to previous side stream deployments. We investigated the sensitivity of Falling Creek Reservoir, a shallow (Zmax = 9.3 m) drinking water reservoir located in Vinton, Virginia, USA, to SSS operation. We found that the SSS system increased hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen concentrations at a rate of ∼1 mg/L/week without weakening stratification or warming the sediments. Moreover, the SSS system suppressed the release of reduced iron and manganese, and likely phosphorus, from the sediments. In summary, SSS systems hold great promise for controlling hypolimnetic oxygen conditions in shallow lakes and reservoirs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pilot-scale incineration testing of an oxygen-enhanced combustion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterland, L.R.; Lee, J.W.; Staley, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses a series of demonstration tests of the American Combustion, Inc., Thermal Destruction System performed under the Superfund innovative technology evaluation (SITE) program. This oxygen-enhanced combustion system was retrofit to the pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator at EPA's Combustion Research Facility. This system's performance was tested firing contaminated soil from the Stringfellow Superfund Site, both alone and mixed with a hazardous coal tar waste (decanter tank tar sludge form coking operations - K087). Comparative performance with conventional incinerator operation was tested. Test results show that compliance with the hazardous waste incinerator performance standards of 99.99 percent principal organic hazardous constituent (POHC) destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) and particulate emissions of less than 180 mg/dscm at 7 percent O 2 was achieved for all tests. The Pyretron oxygen-enhanced combustion system allowed in-compliance operation at double the mixed waste feedrate possible with conventional incineration, and with a 60 percent increase in charge weight than possible with conventional incineration

  15. Development of aerial gamma radiation survey system, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Saito, Komei; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Nagaoka, Toshi; Moriuchi, Shigeru

    1986-05-01

    JAERI has started to develop an aerial gamma radiation survey system by a helicopter in 1980. The development of measuring instruments, the experiments in the field of natural and artificial radiation sources, and the imaginary emergency survey at a real site, were executed. This report describes mainly about the hardware and software of this system. The system consists of gamma-ray measuring instruments with NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors, microwave positioning instruments, and a data processing system for postflight data. A foreign-made geological survey system is improved on for radiation measurements. For covering the wide radiation range, detectors of various shapes and sizes are prepared, from a large volume detector, DET-1024 - four 4'' x 4'' x 16'' crystals assembly - to a 2'' diameter x 2'' NaI(Tl) crystal. Radiation and position data are recorded on a magnetic tape, and computer-processed afterwards. Moreover, scene below flight courses and internal communication are recorded on video tape with the information of clock and position superimposed. In consequence of field experiments carried out five times, basic radiation data for evaluating airborne acquired data are accumulated, and flight survey procedures are established. As more practical use, a system has been produced more compactly and functionally. Exposure rates (> 1 mR/h), energy distribution spectra, and energy window counts are obtained for radiation data. Using the Spectrum-Dose Conversion Method, the accurate exposure rates are directly calculated from pulse height spectra. Numerical tables of G(E) function converting pulse height spectra into exposures are shown in this report. As regards the analysis of survey data, process codes have been completed with either large-computer or mini-computer. (author)

  16. Contribution to the crystallographic study of the uranium-oxygenated system; Contribution a l'etude cristallographique du systeme uranium-oxygene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perio, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-04-15

    Three uranium oxides, UO{sub 2}, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and UO{sub 3} are known since a long time. The existence of a fourth, U{sub 2}O{sub 5}, is discussed. The mechanisms of decomposition between UO{sub 3} and U{sub 3}O{sub 8} have even some shadow zones. The aim of this report is the study of the phase relations in an uranium - oxygen system, from the metal until UO{sub 3}. We considered, on the one hand, the equilibrium relations, what should result in a diagram of phases in pressures and temperatures, on the other hand, the transformations bringing one oxide to the other, often by a continuous way and through intermediate of metastable phases. The introduction of the temperature and the consideration of the kinetics effects have permitted to raise the ambiguities. We adopted, to facilitate the presentation of the results, a partition a few arbitrary but convenient, in three chapters,: I - experimental Techniques II - Crystallographic species between U and UO{sub 3}. III - Kinetic of oxidisation of UO{sub 2}. (M.B.) [French] Trois oxydes d'uranium, UO{sub 2}, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} et UO{sub 3} sont connus depuis longtemps. L'existence d'un quatrieme, U{sub 2}O{sub 5}, est en suspend. Les mecanismes de decomposition entre UO{sub 3} et U{sub 3}O{sub 8} possedent encore quelques zones d mbres. Le but propose dans ce memoire est l'etude des relations de phase dans le systeme uranium - oxygene, du metal jusqu'a UO{sub 3}. Nous avons ete amene a considerer, d'une part, les relations a l'equilibre, ce qui devrait se traduire par un diagramme de phases en pressions et temperatures, d'autre part, les transformations amenant, souvent d'une facon continue et par l'intermediaire de phases metastables, d'un oxyde a l'autre. L'introduction de la temperature et la consideration des effets de cinetique ont le plus souvent permis de lever les ambiguites rencontrees. Nous avons adopte, pour faciliter la presentation des resultats, une division un peu arbitraire mais commode, en trois

  17. Mining the Kilo-Degree Survey for solar system objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahlke, M.; Bouy, H.; Altieri, B.; Verdoes Kleijn, G.; Carry, B.; Bertin, E.; de Jong, J. T. A.; Kuijken, K.; McFarland, J.; Valentijn, E.

    The search for minor bodies in the solar system promises insights into its formation history. Wide imaging surveys offer the opportunity to serendipitously discover and identify these traces of planetary formation and evolution. We aim to present a method to acquire position, photometry, and proper

  18. Survey On Management Systems And Gross Profit Analysis Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey On Management Systems And Gross Profit Analysis Of Muturu In Southern Cross River State. ... in muturu rearing for commercial purposes. Cost price of muturu within the study area was uniform due to the influence of market associations. The selling price of muturu cattle is however influenced by the location.

  19. Conducting Sanitary Surveys of Water Supply Systems. Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976

    This workbook is utilized in connection with a 40-hour course on sanitary surveys of water supply systems for biologists, chemists, and engineers with experience as a water supply evaluator. Practical training is provided in each of the 21 self-contained modules. Each module outlines the purpose, objectives and content for that section. The course…

  20. Baited remote underwater video system (BRUVs) survey of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is the first baited remote underwater video system (BRUVs) survey of the relative abundance, diversity and seasonal distribution of chondrichthyans in False Bay. Nineteen species from 11 families were recorded across 185 sites at between 4 and 49 m depth. Diversity was greatest in summer, on reefs and in shallow ...

  1. An automated locating and data logging system for geophysical surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyquist, J.E.; Blair, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed an Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS) and interfaced the system with a Geonics EM31 terrain conductivity meter. USRADS keeps track of a surveyor's position by measuring the time-of-flight of ultrasonic pulses from an transducer carried by the surveyor in a backpack to stationary receivers arrayed over the survey area. Also built into the backpack is a radio transmitter that sends the EM31 data to a base station (van or truck) where the surveyor's position and the EM31 quadrature and inphase data are automatically recorded once a second on a portable computer. We surveyed a 13-acre landfill at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory with three people, in three days, collecting over 25,000 EM31 quadrature and inphase readings. At a normal walking pace the average distance between measurement points along the surveyor's path was about 2 ft, with an overall positioning precision of about 0.5 ft for each point. USRADS offers several advantages over conventional EM31 surveys: (1) time and money are saved because it does not require a civil survey to lay a grid before the geophysical survey begins, (2) data are directly recorded by a portable computer and are available for analysis in the field, and (3) refining or expanding the grid about an anomaly does not require civil surveying to add extra grid points. USRADS can also be used with a gamma scintillometer for radiation surveys. Currently, we are working to interface USRADS with a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for detecting heavy metals in soil

  2. Survey of radiation damage effects in superconducting magnet components and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guess, J.F.; Boom, R.W.; Coltman, R.R. Jr.; Sekula, S.T.

    1975-12-01

    A study has been made of the published investigations of fast-particle irradiations at low temperatures on the properties of likely CTR magnet materials. The materials topics included in this survey are: (1) irradiation of Nb-Ti alloys with fast neutrons, protons, deuterons, and electrons; (2) irradiation of A-15 compounds (mainly Nb 3 Sn) with fast neutrons, deuterons, and oxygen ions; (3) irradiation of Cu and Al with fast and thermal neutrons; (4) irradiation of insulators with neutrons and gamma rays; and (5) irradiation of structural materials with neutrons. The study of the literature also included the available information on the effects of low-temperature irradiation on integrated components of the materials described above which might be envisaged in the construction of a CTR magnet system, since the ultimate problem is the operation of a magnet system in a radiation environment

  3. [Laser Tuning Performance Testing and Optimization in TDLAS Oxygen Measuring Systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun-feng; Hu, Jun; Kan, Rui-feng; Xu, Zhen-yu; Wang, Tao

    2015-03-01

    TDLAS (tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy) technology, with its unmatched advantages such as high selectivity molecular spectra, fast response, high sensitivity, non-contact measuring, become the preferred scheme for combustion process diagnosis, and can be effectively used for oxygen measuring. DFB (distributed feedback) laser diode with its small size, low power consumption, long service life, narrow linewidth, tunable wavelength has become the main choice of the TDLAS system. Performance of laser tuning characteristics is a key factor restricting TDLAS's measuring performance. According to TDLAS oxygen measuring system's working requirements, a simple experimental method was used to test and analyze tuning characteristics such as wavelength current, power current and wavelength temperature of a 764 nm DFB laser diode in the system. Nonlinear distortion of tuning curves was obvious, which affects oxygen measuring accuracy. The laser spectra's characteristics such as narrow linewidth, high side mode suppression ratio and wide wavelength tuning range are obvious, while its wavelength-current tuning curve with a tuning rate of about 0.023 nm x mA(-1) is not strictly linear. The higher the temperature the greater the threshold current, the PI curve is not strictly linear either. Temperature tuning curve is of good linearity, temperature-wave-length tuning rate keeps constant of about 0.056 nm/DEG C. Temperature tuning nonlinearity can be improved by high temperature control accuracy, and current power nonlinearity can be improved by setting the reference light path. In order to solve the wavelength current tuning nonlinear problems, the method of DA controlling injection current was considered to compensate for non-linear wavelength current tuning according to DFB laser diode tuning mechanism and polynomial fitting of test results. In view of different type of lasers, this method needs only one polynomial fitting process before the system's initial work. The

  4. Phase equilibria and thermodynamic studies in the titanium-nickel and titanium-nickel-oxygen systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, G.; Kleykamp, H.; Laumer, W.

    1983-01-01

    The isothermal section of the Ti-Ni-O system was examined at 1200 K in the regions between the Ni(Ti) solid solution and the binary oxides of titanium. The relative partial Gibbs energies of oxygen over the Ti 2 O 3 -Ti 3 O 5 region and of titanium in the Ni(Ti) solid solution as well as the Gibbs energies of formation of NiTiO 3 , Ti 3 O 5 and TiNi 3 were determined between 1100 and 1300 K by use of solid electrolyte galvanic cells. (orig.) [de

  5. Oxygen partial pressure: a key to alloying and discovery in metal oxide--metal eutectic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holder, J.D.; Clark, G.W.; Oliver, B.F.

    1978-01-01

    Control of oxygen partial pressure is essential in the directional solidification of oxide--metal eutectic composites by techniques involving gas-solid and gas-liquid interactions. The existence of end components in the eutectic composite is Po 2 sensitive as are melt stoichiometry, solid phase compositions, and vapor losses due to oxidation-volatilization. Simple criteria are postulated which can aid the experimentalist in selecting the proper gas mixture for oxide--metal eutectic composite growth. The Cr 2 O 3 --Mo--Cr systems was used to verify certain aspects of the proposed criteria

  6. Impact of reactive oxygen species on antioxidant capacity of male reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Muhammad; Mahmood, Zahed; Shahid, Muhammad; Saeed, M Usman Qamar; Tahir, Imtiaz Mahmood; Shah, Sm Ali; Munir, Naveed; El-Ghorab, Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    The present research work was aimed to study the mutual interaction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and basal cells antioxidant capacity in the male reproductive system and to further establish the association between selected heavy metals and stress markers. Total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) of serum and seminal plasma were determined by automated photometric methods. The concentrations of Selenium (Se), Lead (Pb), and Cadmium (Cd) were determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The TOS was increased significantly (P male infertility. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Development of a non-cryogenic nitrogen/oxygen supply system. [for spacecraft environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Modular components were refined or replaced to improve the performance of the electrolysis module in a system which generates both oxygen and hydrogen from hydrazine hydrate. Significant mechanical and electrical performance improvements were achieved in the cathode. Improvements were also made in the phase separation area but at considerable cost in time and money and to the detriment of other investigative areas. Only the pump/bubble separator failed in a manner necessitating redesign. Its failure was, however, due to its being operated above the temperature range for which it was designed. The basic electrolysis cell design was not changed.

  8. CAN GALACTIC CHEMICAL EVOLUTION EXPLAIN THE OXYGEN ISOTOPIC VARIATIONS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugaro, Maria; Liffman, Kurt; Ireland, Trevor R.; Maddison, Sarah T.

    2012-01-01

    A number of objects in primitive meteorites have oxygen isotopic compositions that place them on a distinct, mass-independent fractionation line with a slope of one on a three-isotope plot. The most popular model for describing how this fractionation arose assumes that CO self-shielding produced 16 O-rich CO and 16 O-poor H 2 O, where the H 2 O subsequently combined with interstellar dust to form relatively 16 O-poor solids within the solar nebula. Another model for creating the different reservoirs of 16 O-rich gas and 16 O-poor solids suggests that these reservoirs were produced by Galactic chemical evolution (GCE) if the solar system dust component was somewhat younger than the gas component and both components were lying on the line of slope one in the O three-isotope plot. We argue that GCE is not the cause of mass-independent fractionation of the oxygen isotopes in the solar system. The GCE scenario is in contradiction with observations of the 18 O/ 17 O ratios in nearby molecular clouds and young stellar objects. It is very unlikely for GCE to produce a line of slope one when considering the effect of incomplete mixing of stellar ejecta in the interstellar medium. Furthermore, the assumption that the solar system dust was younger than the gas requires unusual timescales or the existence of an important stardust component that is not theoretically expected to occur nor has been identified to date.

  9. Conceptual design of a lunar oxygen pilot plant Lunar Base Systems Study (LBSS) task 4.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The primary objective was to develop conceptual designs of two pilot plants to produce oxygen from lunar materials. A lunar pilot plant will be used to generate engineering data necessary to support an optimum design of a larger scale production plant. Lunar oxygen would be of primary value as spacecraft propellant oxidizer. In addition, lunar oxygen would be useful for servicing nonregenerative fuel cell power systems, providing requirements for life support, and to make up oxygen losses from leakage and airlock cycling. Thirteen different lunar oxygen production methods are described. Hydrogen reduction of ilmenite and extraction of solar-wind hydrogen from bulk lunar soil were selected for conceptual design studies. Trades and sensitivity analyses were performed with these models.

  10. Ventilation onset prior to umbilical cord clamping (physiological-based cord clamping improves systemic and cerebral oxygenation in preterm lambs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme R Polglase

    Full Text Available As measurement of arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2 is common in the delivery room, target SpO2 ranges allow clinicians to titrate oxygen therapy for preterm infants in order to achieve saturation levels similar to those seen in normal term infants in the first minutes of life. However, the influence of the onset of ventilation and the timing of cord clamping on systemic and cerebral oxygenation is not known.We investigated whether the initiation of ventilation, prior to, or after umbilical cord clamping, altered systemic and cerebral oxygenation in preterm lambs.Systemic and cerebral blood-flows, pressures and peripheral SpO2 and regional cerebral tissue oxygenation (SctO2 were measured continuously in apnoeic preterm lambs (126±1 day gestation. Positive pressure ventilation was initiated either 1 prior to umbilical cord clamping, or 2 after umbilical cord clamping. Lambs were monitored intensively prior to intervention, and for 10 minutes following umbilical cord clamping.Clamping the umbilical cord prior to ventilation resulted in a rapid decrease in SpO2 and SctO2, and an increase in arterial pressure, cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen extraction. Ventilation restored oxygenation and haemodynamics by 5-6 minutes. No such disturbances in peripheral or cerebral oxygenation and haemodynamics were observed when ventilation was initiated prior to cord clamping.The establishment of ventilation prior to umbilical cord clamping facilitated a smooth transition to systemic and cerebral oxygenation following birth. SpO2 nomograms may need to be re-evaluated to reflect physiological management of preterm infants in the delivery room.

  11. Solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis system development. [to generate oxygen for manned space station applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolyte technology used in a water electrolysis system (WES) to generate oxygen and hydrogen for manned space station applications was investigated. A four-man rated, low pressure breadboard water electrolysis system with the necessary instrumentation and controls was fabricated and tested. A six man rated, high pressure, high temperature, advanced preprototype WES was developed. This configuration included the design and development of an advanced water electrolysis module, capable of operation at 400 psig and 200 F, and a dynamic phase separator/pump in place of a passive phase separator design. Evaluation of this system demonstrated the goal of safe, unattended automated operation at high pressure and high temperature with an accumulated gas generation time of over 1000 hours.

  12. Fundamental roles of reactive oxygen species and protective mechanisms in the female reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okada Futoshi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Controlled oxidation, such as disulfide bond formation in sperm nuclei and during ovulation, plays a fundamental role in mammalian reproduction. Excess oxidation, however, causes oxidative stress, resulting in the dysfunction of the reproductive process. Antioxidation reactions that reduce the levels of reactive oxygen species are of prime importance in reproductive systems in maintaining the quality of gametes and support reproduction. While anti-oxidative enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and peroxidase, play a central role in eliminating oxidative stress, reduction-oxidation (redox systems, comprised of mainly glutathione and thioredoxin, function to reduce the levels of oxidized molecules. Aldo-keto reductase, using NADPH as an electron donor, detoxifies carbonyl compounds resulting from the oxidation of lipids and proteins. Thus, many antioxidative and redox enzyme genes are expressed and aggressively protect gametes and embryos in reproductive systems.

  13. A Bovine Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carrier as Pump Prime for Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Reduced Systemic Lactic Acidosis and Improved Cerebral Oxygen Metabolism During Low-flow in a Porcine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    1 A bovine hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier as pump prime for cardiopulmonary bypass: reduced systemic lactic acidosis and improved cerebral...2010 2. REPORT TYPE Final Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) June 2007 - November 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A bovine hemoglobin-based oxygen...carrier as pump prime for cardiopulmonary bypass: reduced systemic lactic acidosis and improved cerebral oxygen metabolism during low-flow in a

  14. Ocean (de)oxygenation from the Last Glacial Maximum to the twenty-first century: insights from Earth System models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, L.; Resplandy, L.; Untersee, A.; Le Mezo, P.; Kageyama, M.

    2017-08-01

    All Earth System models project a consistent decrease in the oxygen content of oceans for the coming decades because of ocean warming, reduced ventilation and increased stratification. But large uncertainties for these future projections of ocean deoxygenation remain for the subsurface tropical oceans where the major oxygen minimum zones are located. Here, we combine global warming projections, model-based estimates of natural short-term variability, as well as data and model estimates of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) ocean oxygenation to gain some insights into the major mechanisms of oxygenation changes across these different time scales. We show that the primary uncertainty on future ocean deoxygenation in the subsurface tropical oceans is in fact controlled by a robust compensation between decreasing oxygen saturation (O2sat) due to warming and decreasing apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) due to increased ventilation of the corresponding water masses. Modelled short-term natural variability in subsurface oxygen levels also reveals a compensation between O2sat and AOU, controlled by the latter. Finally, using a model simulation of the LGM, reproducing data-based reconstructions of past ocean (de)oxygenation, we show that the deoxygenation trend of the subsurface ocean during deglaciation was controlled by a combination of warming-induced decreasing O2sat and increasing AOU driven by a reduced ventilation of tropical subsurface waters. This article is part of the themed issue 'Ocean ventilation and deoxygenation in a warming world'.

  15. Ocean (de)oxygenation from the Last Glacial Maximum to the twenty-first century: insights from Earth System models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, L; Resplandy, L; Untersee, A; Le Mezo, P; Kageyama, M

    2017-09-13

    All Earth System models project a consistent decrease in the oxygen content of oceans for the coming decades because of ocean warming, reduced ventilation and increased stratification. But large uncertainties for these future projections of ocean deoxygenation remain for the subsurface tropical oceans where the major oxygen minimum zones are located. Here, we combine global warming projections, model-based estimates of natural short-term variability, as well as data and model estimates of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) ocean oxygenation to gain some insights into the major mechanisms of oxygenation changes across these different time scales. We show that the primary uncertainty on future ocean deoxygenation in the subsurface tropical oceans is in fact controlled by a robust compensation between decreasing oxygen saturation (O 2sat ) due to warming and decreasing apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) due to increased ventilation of the corresponding water masses. Modelled short-term natural variability in subsurface oxygen levels also reveals a compensation between O 2sat and AOU, controlled by the latter. Finally, using a model simulation of the LGM, reproducing data-based reconstructions of past ocean (de)oxygenation, we show that the deoxygenation trend of the subsurface ocean during deglaciation was controlled by a combination of warming-induced decreasing O 2sat and increasing AOU driven by a reduced ventilation of tropical subsurface waters.This article is part of the themed issue 'Ocean ventilation and deoxygenation in a warming world'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Moving base Gravity Gradiometer Survey System (GGSS) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfohl, Louis; Rusnak, Walter; Jircitano, Albert; Grierson, Andrew

    1988-04-01

    The GGSS program began in early 1983 with the objective of delivering a landmobile and airborne system capable of fast, accurate, and economical gravity gradient surveys of large areas anywhere in the world. The objective included the development and use of post-mission data reduction software to process the survey data into solutions for the gravity disturbance vector components (north, east and vertical). This document describes the GGSS equipment hardware and software, integration and lab test procedures and results, and airborne and land survey procedures and results. Included are discussions on test strategies, post-mission data reduction algorithms, and the data reduction processing experience. Perspectives and conclusions are drawn from the results.

  17. Status of physical protection systems of nuclear facilities; survey report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, In Koo; Kwack, Eun Ho; Ahn, Jin Soo; Lee, Hyun Chul; Kim, Jung Soo

    2002-02-01

    This report presents a survey on the physical protection equipment for a nuclear power plant. This survey was conducted by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute as a part of the project, 'Development of Technologies for National Control of and Accountancy for Nuclear Material,' funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Korea. A physical protection system of a nuclear plant includes outer and inner fences, intrusion detection sensors, alarm generation system, illumination equipment, central monitoring and control station, entry control and management system, etc. The outermost fence indicates the boundary of the plant area and prevents a simple or unintentional intrusion. The inner fence area of each plant unit associated with intrusion detection sensors, illuminators, monitoring cameras, serves the key role for physical protection function for the nuclear plant

  18. A Survey on Anomaly Based Host Intrusion Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Shijoe; Malathi, D.; Reddy, Bharath; Jayaseeli, Dorathi

    2018-04-01

    An intrusion detection system (IDS) is hardware, software or a combination of two, for monitoring network or system activities to detect malicious signs. In computer security, designing a robust intrusion detection system is one of the most fundamental and important problems. The primary function of system is detecting intrusion and gives alerts when user tries to intrusion on timely manner. In these techniques when IDS find out intrusion it will send alert massage to the system administrator. Anomaly detection is an important problem that has been researched within diverse research areas and application domains. This survey tries to provide a structured and comprehensive overview of the research on anomaly detection. From the existing anomaly detection techniques, each technique has relative strengths and weaknesses. The current state of the experiment practice in the field of anomaly-based intrusion detection is reviewed and survey recent studies in this. This survey provides a study of existing anomaly detection techniques, and how the techniques used in one area can be applied in another application domain.

  19. THE ELM SURVEY. II. TWELVE BINARY WHITE DWARF MERGER SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, S. J.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Agueeros, M. A.; Heinke, Craig

    2011-01-01

    We describe new radial velocity and X-ray observations of extremely low-mass white dwarfs (ELM WDs, ∼0.2 M sun ) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4 and the MMT Hypervelocity Star survey. We identify four new short period binaries, including two merger systems. These observations bring the total number of short period binary systems identified in our survey to 20. No main-sequence or neutron star companions are visible in the available optical photometry, radio, and X-ray data. Thus, the companions are most likely WDs. Twelve of these systems will merge within a Hubble time due to gravitational wave radiation. We have now tripled the number of known merging WD systems. We discuss the characteristics of this merger sample and potential links to underluminous supernovae, extreme helium stars, AM CVn systems, and other merger products. We provide new observational tests of the WD mass-period distribution and cooling models for ELM WDs. We also find evidence for a new formation channel for single low-mass WDs through binary mergers of two lower mass objects.

  20. Survey on multisensory feedback virtual reality dental training systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D; Li, T; Zhang, Y; Hou, J

    2016-11-01

    Compared with traditional dental training methods, virtual reality training systems integrated with multisensory feedback possess potentials advantages. However, there exist many technical challenges in developing a satisfactory simulator. In this manuscript, we systematically survey several current dental training systems to identify the gaps between the capabilities of these systems and the clinical training requirements. After briefly summarising the components, functions and unique features of each system, we discuss the technical challenges behind these systems including the software, hardware and user evaluation methods. Finally, the clinical requirements of an ideal dental training system are proposed. Future research/development areas are identified based on an analysis of the gaps between current systems and clinical training requirements. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    Shonka Research Associates, Inc.`s (SRA) Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information management System (SCM/SIMS) is designed to perform alpha and beta radiation surveys of floors and surfaces and document the measured data. The SRA-SCM/SIMS technology can be applied to routine operational surveys, characterization surveys, and free release and site closure surveys. Any large nuclear site can make use of this technology. This report describes a demonstration of the SRA-SCM/SIMS technology. This demonstration is part of the chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology (ST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East`s (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor Facility. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that by using innovative and improved deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources, significant benefits can be achieved when compared to baseline D and D technologies.

  2. Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    Shonka Research Associates, Inc.'s (SRA) Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information management System (SCM/SIMS) is designed to perform alpha and beta radiation surveys of floors and surfaces and document the measured data. The SRA-SCM/SIMS technology can be applied to routine operational surveys, characterization surveys, and free release and site closure surveys. Any large nuclear site can make use of this technology. This report describes a demonstration of the SRA-SCM/SIMS technology. This demonstration is part of the chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology (ST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East's (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor Facility. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that by using innovative and improved deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources, significant benefits can be achieved when compared to baseline D and D technologies

  3. Colours of the Outer Solar System Origins Survey: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Fraser, Wesley C.; Pike, Rosemary E.; Bannister, Michele T.; Marsset, Michaël; Kavelaars, J. J.; Benecchi, Susan; Delsanti, Audrey C.; Lehner, Matthew J.; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Thirouin, Audrey; Nesvorný, David

    2018-01-01

    The vast majority of the known dwarf-planet sized bodies are bright enough to be studied through optical and infrared spectroscopy. As a result, we have an understanding of the surface properties for the largest Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) which retain their primordial inventory of volatile ices. For the typically smaller > 22 mag KBO, we must rely instead on what colors reveal by proxy; yet this picture remains incomplete. Most KBO physical property studies examine the hodgepodge set of objects discovered by various surveys with different and varying detection biases that make it difficult if not impossible to reliably estimate the sizes of the different surface color groupings (compositional classes) residing in the modern-day Kuiper belt.The Colours of the Outer Solar System Origins Survey (Col-OSSOS) probes the surface properties within the Kuiper belt primarily through near simultaneous g,r and J colors with the Gemini North Telescope and u-band with Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. The project aims to target ~100 KBOs brighter than 23.6 r‧ mag found by the Outer Solar System Origins Survey (OSSOS), a survey with a well-measured detection efficiency. Thus, Col-OSSOS provides the first brightness-complete, compositional-dynamical map of the Outer Solar System, probing in a new light the radial color distribution in the primordial planetesimal disk from which KBOs originated. We will provide an update on the current status of the program highlighting results from the first two years of the survey; including size estimates of the two color KBO subgroups (the red and neutral surfaces) within the dynamically excited Kuiper belt and implications for the early planetesimal disk composition based on neutral-colored binaries found in the cold classical Kuiper belt.

  4. A positioning and data logging system for surface geophysical surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyquist, J.E.; Blair, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS) developed at ORNL is being adapted to work with two commercially available geophysical instruments: a magnetometer and an EM31 terrain conductivity meter. Geophysical surveys have proven an important preliminary step in investigating hazardous waste sites. Magnetometers and terrain conductivity meters are used to locate buried drums, trenches, conductive contaminant plumes and map regional changes in geology. About half the field time of a typical geophysical investigation is spent surveying the position of the grid points at which the measurements will be made. Additional time is lost and errors may be made recording instrument values in field notebooks and transcribing the data to a computer. Developed for gamma radiation surveys, the USRAD system keeps track of the surveyor's position automatically by triangulating on an ultrasonic transmitter carried in a backpack. The backpack also contains a radio transmitter that sends the instrument's reading coincident with the ultrasonic pulse. The surveyor's position and the instrument's reading are recorded by a portable computer which can plot the data to check the survey's progress. Electronic files are stored in a form compatible with AutoCAD to speed report writing. 7 refs., 3 figs

  5. ATLAS: A High-cadence All-sky Survey System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonry, J. L.; Denneau, L.; Heinze, A. N.; Stalder, B.; Smith, K. W.; Smartt, S. J.; Stubbs, C. W.; Weiland, H. J.; Rest, A.

    2018-06-01

    Technology has advanced to the point that it is possible to image the entire sky every night and process the data in real time. The sky is hardly static: many interesting phenomena occur, including variable stationary objects such as stars or QSOs, transient stationary objects such as supernovae or M dwarf flares, and moving objects such as asteroids and the stars themselves. Funded by NASA, we have designed and built a sky survey system for the purpose of finding dangerous near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). This system, the “Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System” (ATLAS), has been optimized to produce the best survey capability per unit cost, and therefore is an efficient and competitive system for finding potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs) but also for tracking variables and finding transients. While carrying out its NASA mission, ATLAS now discovers more bright (m day cadence. ATLAS discovered the afterglow of a gamma-ray burst independent of the high energy trigger and has released a variable star catalog of 5 × 106 sources. This is the first of a series of articles describing ATLAS, devoted to the design and performance of the ATLAS system. Subsequent articles will describe in more detail the software, the survey strategy, ATLAS-derived NEA population statistics, transient detections, and the first data release of variable stars and transient light curves.

  6. The design of a PC-based real-time system for monitoring Methane and Oxygen concentration in biogas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yantidewi, M.; Muntini, M. S.; Deta, U. A.; Lestari, N. A.

    2018-03-01

    Limited fossil fuels nowadays trigger the development of alternative energy, one of which is biogas. Biogas is one type of bioenergy in the form of fermented gases of organic materials such as animal waste. The components of gases present in biogas and affect the biogas production are various, such as methane and oxygen. The biogas utilization will be more optimal if both gases concentration (in this case is methane and oxygen concentration) can be monitored. Therefore, this research focused on designing the monitoring system of methane and oxygen concentration in biogas production in real-time. The results showed that the instrument system was capable of monitoring and recording the data of gases (methane and oxygen) concentration in biogas production in every second.

  7. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with low and superatmospheric oxygen on the quality and antioxidant enzyme system of golden needle mushrooms (Flammulina velutipes) during postharvest storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Cheng T.; Wang, Chang T.; Cao, Y.P.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sun, B.G.; Liu, L.

    2011-01-01

    To quantify the effect of oxygen concentrations on the quality and antioxidant enzyme system of stored golden needle mushroom, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with low and initial superatmospheric oxygen was applied during mushroom storage, and physiological changes associated with postharvest

  8. [A toxicologic hygiene evaluation of electrolytic oxygen obtained from the water in a system with a solid polymeric electrolyte].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardov, V G; Koziarin, I P; Suk, V G; Maslenko, A A; Shmuter, G M

    1990-01-01

    The authors evaluated the problems of hygienic aspects of oxygen obtained by the method of electrolytic decomposition of water with a different content of chemical substances in the system with a hard polymere electrolyte. On the basis of sanitary-chemical qualities and toxicological properties electrolysis gaseous oxygen may be recommended for use in creating an artificial gaseous atmosphere in hermetically sealed compartments in mixture with gaseous nitrogen (ratio 1:4).

  9. Estimating oxygen needs for childhood pneumonia in developing country health systems: a new model for expecting the unexpected.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly D Bradley

    Full Text Available Planning for the reliable and cost-effective supply of a health service commodity such as medical oxygen requires an understanding of the dynamic need or 'demand' for the commodity over time. In developing country health systems, however, collecting longitudinal clinical data for forecasting purposes is very difficult. Furthermore, approaches to estimating demand for supplies based on annual averages can underestimate demand some of the time by missing temporal variability.A discrete event simulation model was developed to estimate variable demand for a health service commodity using the important example of medical oxygen for childhood pneumonia. The model is based on five key factors affecting oxygen demand: annual pneumonia admission rate, hypoxaemia prevalence, degree of seasonality, treatment duration, and oxygen flow rate. These parameters were varied over a wide range of values to generate simulation results for different settings. Total oxygen volume, peak patient load, and hours spent above average-based demand estimates were computed for both low and high seasons.Oxygen demand estimates based on annual average values of demand factors can often severely underestimate actual demand. For scenarios with high hypoxaemia prevalence and degree of seasonality, demand can exceed average levels up to 68% of the time. Even for typical scenarios, demand may exceed three times the average level for several hours per day. Peak patient load is sensitive to hypoxaemia prevalence, whereas time spent at such peak loads is strongly influenced by degree of seasonality.A theoretical study is presented whereby a simulation approach to estimating oxygen demand is used to better capture temporal variability compared to standard average-based approaches. This approach provides better grounds for health service planning, including decision-making around technologies for oxygen delivery. Beyond oxygen, this approach is widely applicable to other areas of

  10. A Survey on the Security of Blockchain Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Peng; Chen, Ting; Luo, Xiapu; Wen, Qiaoyan

    2018-01-01

    Since its inception, the blockchain technology has shown promising application prospects. From the initial cryptocurrency to the current smart contract, blockchain has been applied to many fields. Although there are some studies on the security and privacy issues of blockchain, there lacks a systematic examination on the security of blockchain systems. In this paper, we conduct a systematic study on the security threats to blockchain and survey the corresponding real attacks by examining popu...

  11. State of the art survey of network operating systems development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The results of the State-of-the-Art Survey of Network Operating Systems (NOS) performed for Goddard Space Flight Center are presented. NOS functional characteristics are presented in terms of user communication data migration, job migration, network control, and common functional categories. Products (current or future) as well as research and prototyping efforts are summarized. The NOS products which are revelant to the space station and its activities are evaluated.

  12. Cost-effective geophysical survey systems for uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasbrouck, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    When planning a uranium exploration survey the question always arises as to how to take advantage of the different exploration methods and equipment for maximum probability of success. Discussed here are the choice of radiometric geophysical equipment, its effectiveness in identifying targets, its limitations, and the criteria for selection. Particular attention is given to systems that are suitable for the exploration programmes of small size and on a small budget, that are common in Latin America. (author)

  13. Operating Systems for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Omer Farooq

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a survey on the current state-of-the-art in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN Operating Systems (OSs. In recent years, WSNs have received tremendous attention in the research community, with applications in battlefields, industrial process monitoring, home automation, and environmental monitoring, to name but a few. A WSN is a highly dynamic network because nodes die due to severe environmental conditions and battery power depletion. Furthermore, a WSN is composed of miniaturized motes equipped with scarce resources e.g., limited memory and computational abilities. WSNs invariably operate in an unattended mode and in many scenarios it is impossible to replace sensor motes after deployment, therefore a fundamental objective is to optimize the sensor motes’ life time. These characteristics of WSNs impose additional challenges on OS design for WSN, and consequently, OS design for WSN deviates from traditional OS design. The purpose of this survey is to highlight major concerns pertaining to OS design in WSNs and to point out strengths and weaknesses of contemporary OSs for WSNs, keeping in mind the requirements of emerging WSN applications. The state-of-the-art in operating systems for WSNs has been examined in terms of the OS Architecture, Programming Model, Scheduling, Memory Management and Protection, Communication Protocols, Resource Sharing, Support for Real-Time Applications, and additional features. These features are surveyed for both real-time and non-real-time WSN operating systems.

  14. Operating Systems for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad Omer; Kunz, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a survey on the current state-of-the-art in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) Operating Systems (OSs). In recent years, WSNs have received tremendous attention in the research community, with applications in battlefields, industrial process monitoring, home automation, and environmental monitoring, to name but a few. A WSN is a highly dynamic network because nodes die due to severe environmental conditions and battery power depletion. Furthermore, a WSN is composed of miniaturized motes equipped with scarce resources e.g., limited memory and computational abilities. WSNs invariably operate in an unattended mode and in many scenarios it is impossible to replace sensor motes after deployment, therefore a fundamental objective is to optimize the sensor motes’ life time. These characteristics of WSNs impose additional challenges on OS design for WSN, and consequently, OS design for WSN deviates from traditional OS design. The purpose of this survey is to highlight major concerns pertaining to OS design in WSNs and to point out strengths and weaknesses of contemporary OSs for WSNs, keeping in mind the requirements of emerging WSN applications. The state-of-the-art in operating systems for WSNs has been examined in terms of the OS Architecture, Programming Model, Scheduling, Memory Management and Protection, Communication Protocols, Resource Sharing, Support for Real-Time Applications, and additional features. These features are surveyed for both real-time and non-real-time WSN operating systems. PMID:22163934

  15. Operating systems for wireless sensor networks: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad Omer; Kunz, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a survey on the current state-of-the-art in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) Operating Systems (OSs). In recent years, WSNs have received tremendous attention in the research community, with applications in battlefields, industrial process monitoring, home automation, and environmental monitoring, to name but a few. A WSN is a highly dynamic network because nodes die due to severe environmental conditions and battery power depletion. Furthermore, a WSN is composed of miniaturized motes equipped with scarce resources e.g., limited memory and computational abilities. WSNs invariably operate in an unattended mode and in many scenarios it is impossible to replace sensor motes after deployment, therefore a fundamental objective is to optimize the sensor motes' life time. These characteristics of WSNs impose additional challenges on OS design for WSN, and consequently, OS design for WSN deviates from traditional OS design. The purpose of this survey is to highlight major concerns pertaining to OS design in WSNs and to point out strengths and weaknesses of contemporary OSs for WSNs, keeping in mind the requirements of emerging WSN applications. The state-of-the-art in operating systems for WSNs has been examined in terms of the OS Architecture, Programming Model, Scheduling, Memory Management and Protection, Communication Protocols, Resource Sharing, Support for Real-Time Applications, and additional features. These features are surveyed for both real-time and non-real-time WSN operating systems.

  16. Exploring the Outer Solar System with the ESSENCE Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, A.C.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Arraki, K.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Kaib, N.A.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Wood-Vasey, W.M.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Aguilera, C.; /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.; Blackman, J.W.; /Australian Natl. U., Canberra; Blondin, S.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Challis, P.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Clocchiatti, A.; /Rio de Janeiro, Pont. U. Catol.; Covarrubias, R.; /Kyushu Sangyo U.; Damke, G.; /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.; Davis, T.M.; /Bohr Inst. /Queensland U.; Filippenko, A.V.; /UC, Berkeley; Foley, R.J.; /UC, Berkeley; Garg, A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Harvard U.; Garnavich, P.M.; /Notre Dame U.; Hicken, M.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Harvard U.; Jha, S.; /Harvard U. /SLAC; Kirshner, R.P.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Krisciunas, K.; /Notre Dame U. /Texas A-M; Leibundgut, B.; /Munich, Tech. U. /UC, Berkeley /NOAO, Tucson /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Fermilab /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Harvard U. /Chile U., Santiago /Ohio State U. /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Harvard U. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Johns Hopkins U. /Australian Natl. U., Canberra /Australian Natl. U., Canberra /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Munich, Tech. U. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Harvard U. /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Texas A-M /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.

    2011-11-10

    We report the discovery and orbital determination of 14 trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) from the ESSENCE Supernova Survey difference imaging data set. Two additional objects discovered in a similar search of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey database were recovered in this effort. ESSENCE repeatedly observed fields far from the solar system ecliptic (-21{sup o} < {beta} < -5{sup o}), reaching limiting magnitudes per observation of I {approx} 23.1 and R {approx} 23.7. We examine several of the newly detected objects in detail, including 2003 UC{sub 414}, which orbits entirely between Uranus and Neptune and lies very close to a dynamical region that would make it stable for the lifetime of the solar system. 2003 SS{sub 422} and 2007 TA{sub 418} have high eccentricities and large perihelia, making them candidate members of an outer class of TNOs. We also report a new member of the 'extended' or 'detached' scattered disk, 2004 VN{sub 112}, and verify the stability of its orbit using numerical simulations. This object would have been visible to ESSENCE for only {approx}2% of its orbit, suggesting a vast number of similar objects across the sky. We emphasize that off-ecliptic surveys are optimal for uncovering the diversity of such objects, which in turn will constrain the history of gravitational influences that shaped our early solar system.

  17. Zolpidem reduces the blood oxygen level-dependent signal during visual system stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Stephanie C; Lowen, Steven B; Trksak, George H; Maclean, Robert R; Lukas, Scott E

    2011-08-15

    Zolpidem is a short-acting imidazopyridine hypnotic that binds at the benzodiazepine binding site on specific GABA(A) receptors to enhance fast inhibitory neurotransmission. The behavioral and receptor pharmacology of zolpidem has been studied extensively, but little is known about its neuronal substrates in vivo. In the present within-subject, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study, blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) at 3 Tesla was used to assess the effects of zolpidem within the brain. Healthy participants (n=12) were scanned 60 min after acute oral administration of zolpidem (0, 5, 10, or 20mg), and changes in BOLD signal were measured in the visual cortex during presentation of a flashing checkerboard. Heart rate and oxygen saturation were monitored continuously throughout the session. Zolpidem (10 and 20mg) reduced the robust visual system activation produced by presentation of this stimulus, but had no effects on physiological activity during the fMRI scan. Zolpidem's modulation of the BOLD signal within the visual cortex is consistent with the abundant distribution of GABA(A) receptors localized in this region, as well as previous studies showing a relationship between increased GABA-mediated neuronal inhibition and a reduction in BOLD activation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Zolpidem reduces the blood oxygen level-dependent signal during visual system stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Stephanie C.; Lowen, Steven B.; Trksak, George H.; MacLean, Robert R.; Lukas, Scott E.

    2011-01-01

    Zolpidem is a short-acting imidazopyridine hypnotic that binds at the benzodiazepine binding site on specific GABAA receptors to enhance fast inhibitory neurotransmission. The behavioral and receptor pharmacology of zolpidem has been studied extensively, but little is known about its neuronal substrates in vivo. In the present within-subject, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study, blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) at 3 Tesla was used to assess the effects of zolpidem within the brain. Healthy participants (n=12) were scanned 60 minutes after acute oral administration of zolpidem (0, 5, 10, or 20 mg), and changes in BOLD signal were measured in the visual cortex during presentation of a flashing checkerboard. Heart rate and oxygen saturation were monitored continuously throughout the session. Zolpidem (10 and 20 mg) reduced the robust visual system activation produced by presentation of this stimulus, but had no effects on physiological activity during the fMRI scan. Zolpidem’s modulation of the BOLD signal within the visual cortex is consistent with the abundant distribution of GABAA receptors localized in this region, as well as previous studies showing a relationship between increased GABA-mediated neuronal inhibition and a reduction in BOLD activation. PMID:21640782

  19. Formal methods for industrial critical systems a survey of applications

    CERN Document Server

    Margaria-Steffen, Tiziana

    2012-01-01

    "Today, formal methods are widely recognized as an essential step in the design process of industrial safety-critical systems. In its more general definition, the term formal methods encompasses all notations having a precise mathematical semantics, together with their associated analysis methods, that allow description and reasoning about the behavior of a system in a formal manner.Growing out of more than a decade of award-winning collaborative work within the European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics, Formal Methods for Industrial Critical Systems: A Survey of Applications presents a number of mainstream formal methods currently used for designing industrial critical systems, with a focus on model checking. The purpose of the book is threefold: to reduce the effort required to learn formal methods, which has been a major drawback for their industrial dissemination; to help designers to adopt the formal methods which are most appropriate for their systems; and to offer a panel of state-of...

  20. Survey of electronic safety systems in accelerator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results and analysis of a comprehensive survey of the implementation of accelerator safety interlock systems from over 30 international labs. At the present time there is not a self consistent means to evaluate both the experiences and level of protection provided by electronic safety interlock systems. This research is intended to analyze the strength and weaknesses of several different types of interlock system implementation methodologies. Research, medical, and industrial accelerators are compared. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) was one of the first large particle accelerators to implement a safety interlock system using programmable logic controllers. Since that time all of the major new U.S. accelerator construction projects plan to use some form of programmable electronics as part of a safety interlock system in some capacity

  1. Development of an airborne gamma radiation system for snow surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsche, A E [EG and G, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (USA)

    1979-01-01

    An airborne gamma-snow survey system requires detailed design to obtain maximum precision and accuracy. The use of NaI(Te) gamma detectors with a full gamma energy spectrum pulse height analyzer together with a small computer provide a self-contained and flexible system. The dual detector method determines atmospheric radon perturbations in the detection system. Detailed calibration experiments must be performed to determine twenty parameters that describe the physical nature of the system. Multiple high altitude and lake flights are used to obtain background components. Simulation pads, loaded with varying concentrations of /sup 40/K, /sup 232/Th and /sup 23/..gamma..U yield photopeak stripping coefficients and basic system sensitivity. Multiple altitude flights over land lines provide air attenuation coefficients which may converted to water attenuation coefficients.

  2. The ketogenic diet and hyperbaric oxygen therapy prolong survival in mice with systemic metastatic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Poff

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Abnormal cancer metabolism creates a glycolytic-dependency which can be exploited by lowering glucose availability to the tumor. The ketogenic diet (KD is a low carbohydrate, high fat diet which decreases blood glucose and elevates blood ketones and has been shown to slow cancer progression in animals and humans. Abnormal tumor vasculature creates hypoxic pockets which promote cancer progression and further increase the glycolytic-dependency of cancers. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO₂T saturates tumors with oxygen, reversing the cancer promoting effects of tumor hypoxia. Since these non-toxic therapies exploit overlapping metabolic deficiencies of cancer, we tested their combined effects on cancer progression in a natural model of metastatic disease. METHODS: We used the firefly luciferase-tagged VM-M3 mouse model of metastatic cancer to compare tumor progression and survival in mice fed standard or KD ad libitum with or without HBO₂T (2.5 ATM absolute, 90 min, 3x/week. Tumor growth was monitored by in vivo bioluminescent imaging. RESULTS: KD alone significantly decreased blood glucose, slowed tumor growth, and increased mean survival time by 56.7% in mice with systemic metastatic cancer. While HBO₂T alone did not influence cancer progression, combining the KD with HBO₂T elicited a significant decrease in blood glucose, tumor growth rate, and 77.9% increase in mean survival time compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: KD and HBO₂T produce significant anti-cancer effects when combined in a natural model of systemic metastatic cancer. Our evidence suggests that these therapies should be further investigated as potential non-toxic treatments or adjuvant therapies to standard care for patients with systemic metastatic disease.

  3. Design, fabrication, and analysis of miniature reflective oxygen monitoring system for use in PDT of esophageal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premasiri, Amaranath; Happawana, Gemunu

    2008-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective and minimally invasive treatment modality with relatively less side effects, which is approved by FDA for the treatment of esophageal cancer. Maximum therapeutic outcome of the PDT protocol for each individual patient requires optimization of the components of PDT operating at their highest efficacy. Tumor necrosis, the method of malignant tissue destruction by PDT, is carried out by the toxic singlet oxygen molecules that are being formed from the molecular oxygen in the tumor. The availability of molecular oxygen, hence being the rate limiting step for PDT plays a key role in the treatment protocol. Currently the PDT of esophageal carcinoma is rather a blind process since there is no method to monitor the tumor oxygen level during the treatment. In this paper we present an optical technique to monitor molecular oxygen level in the PDT milieu. The technique described herein is a reflection oximetry technique designed with small semiconductor lasers and a silicon photodiode. The light used for monitoring system comes from two semiconductor diode lasers of 650 nm and 940 nm wavelengths. The two lasers and the photodiode are mounted onto a small package which is to be imprinted onto a balloon catheter containing the PDT light delivery system. Lasers and the photodiode are powered and controlled by a control box that is connected via a cable. Light sources and the respective photodiode output are controlled by the LabVIEW virtual instrumentation. The sequential on and off light source and the respective reflective signal are processed with MATLAB. The latter code integrates with LabVIEW to make an automatic calculation of the corresponding light absorption by each chromophore and to calculate the change in oxygen level as well as the amount of blood and oxygen present in the treatment area. The designed system is capable of monitoring the change in oxygen level and the blood flow in any part of the human body where the

  4. Solar powered oxygen systems in remote health centers in Papua New Guinea: a large scale implementation effectiveness trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Trevor; Hwaihwanje, Ilomo; Kaupa, Magdalynn; Karubi, Jonah; Panauwe, Doreen; Sa'avu, Martin; Pulsan, Francis; Prasad, Peter; Maru, Freddy; Tenambo, Henry; Kwaramb, Ambrose; Neal, Eleanor; Graham, Hamish; Izadnegahdar, Rasa

    2017-06-01

    Pneumonia is the largest cause of child deaths in Papua New Guinea (PNG), and hypoxaemia is the major complication causing death in childhood pneumonia, and hypoxaemia is a major factor in deaths from many other common conditions, including bronchiolitis, asthma, sepsis, malaria, trauma, perinatal problems, and obstetric emergencies. A reliable source of oxygen therapy can reduce mortality from pneumonia by up to 35%. However, in low and middle income countries throughout the world, improved oxygen systems have not been implemented at large scale in remote, difficult to access health care settings, and oxygen is often unavailable at smaller rural hospitals or district health centers which serve as the first point of referral for childhood illnesses. These hospitals are hampered by lack of reliable power, staff training and other basic services. We report the methodology of a large implementation effectiveness trial involving sustainable and renewable oxygen and power systems in 36 health facilities in remote rural areas of PNG. The methodology is a before-and after evaluation involving continuous quality improvement, and a health systems approach. We describe this model of implementation as the considerations and steps involved have wider implications in health systems in other countries. The implementation steps include: defining the criteria for where such an intervention is appropriate, assessment of power supplies and power requirements, the optimal design of a solar power system, specifications for oxygen concentrators and other oxygen equipment that will function in remote environments, installation logistics in remote settings, the role of oxygen analyzers in monitoring oxygen concentrator performance, the engineering capacity required to sustain a program at scale, clinical guidelines and training on oxygen equipment and the treatment of children with severe respiratory infection and other critical illnesses, program costs, and measurement of processes and

  5. Oxygen isotope fractionation in the CaCO3-DIC-H2O system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devriendt, Laurent S.; Watkins, James M.; McGregor, Helen V.

    2017-10-01

    The oxygen isotope ratio (δ18O) of inorganic and biogenic carbonates is widely used to reconstruct past environments. However, the oxygen isotope exchange between CaCO3 and H2O rarely reaches equilibrium and kinetic isotope effects (KIE) commonly complicate paleoclimate reconstructions. We present a comprehensive model of kinetic and equilibrium oxygen isotope fractionation between CaCO3 and water (αc/w) that accounts for fractionation between both (a) CaCO3 and the CO32- pool (α c / CO32-) , and (b) CO32- and water (α CO32- / w) , as a function of temperature, pH, salinity, calcite saturation state (Ω), the residence time of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in solution, and the activity of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase. The model results suggest that: (1) The equilibrium αc/w is only approached in solutions with low Ω (i.e. close to 1) and low ionic strength such as in the cave system of Devils Hole, Nevada. (2) The sensitivity of αc/w to the solution pH and/or the mineral growth rate depends on the level of isotopic equilibration between the CO32- pool and water. When the CO32- pool approaches isotopic equilibrium with water, small negative pH and/or growth rate effects on αc/w of about 1-2‰ occur where these parameters covary with Ω. In contrast, isotopic disequilibrium between CO32- and water leads to strong (>2‰) positive or negative pH and growth rate effects on α CO32-/ w (and αc/w) due to the isotopic imprint of oxygen atoms derived from HCO3-, CO2, H2O and/or OH-. (3) The temperature sensitivity of αc/w originates from the negative effect of temperature on α CO32-/ w and is expected to deviate from the commonly accepted value (-0.22 ± 0.02‰/°C between 0 and 30 °C; Kim and O'Neil, 1997) when the CO32- pool is not in isotopic equilibrium with water. (4) The model suggests that the δ18O of planktic and benthic foraminifers reflects a quantitative precipitation of DIC in isotopic equilibrium with a high-pH calcifying fluid, leading

  6. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean M; Kromer, Brian R; Litwin, Michael M; Rosen, Lee J; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R; Kosowski, Lawrence W; Robinson, Charles

    2014-01-07

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the stream reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5.

  7. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.; Rosen, Lee J.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R.; Kosowski, Lawrence W.; Robinson, Charles

    2016-01-19

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production process is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the steam reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5

  8. Thermodinamic study the uranium-oxygen system within the composition range 2,61 < O/U < 2,67

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caneiro, Alberto.

    1983-01-01

    Oxygen partial pressures (Psub(O2)) as a function of composition and temperature were studied in order to determine the thermodynamic properties of the Uranium-Oxygen (U-O) system. To measure and control Psub(O2), an electrochemical system was used, consisting of an oxygen electrochemical pump and a zirconia gauge which allowed a very accurate determination of the CO + 1/2O 2 = CO 2 reaction. In order to determine oxygen composition, a symmetrical thermogravimetric system a Cahn 1000 electrobalance was constructed and coupled to the system for controlling and measuring Psub(O2) so as to constitute an experimental set-up, which is unique in its type at the present. This facility allowed to determine the thermodynamic properties of the (U-O) system within the composition-temperature range 2,61 3 O 8 ) and of a non-stoichiometric phase (U 8 Osub(21+x)), both being separated by a narrow region of coexistence. Analytical expressions were established for the oxygen chemical potential as a function of composition and temperature, for the stable equilibrium states of the U 8 Osub(21+x) phase and for the metastable ones obtained by oxidation of U 8 Osub(21+x). (M.E.L.) [es

  9. Violence Against Children Surveys (VACS): towards a global surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Laura F; Kress, Howard; Sumner, Steven A; Gleckel, Jessie; Kawemama, Philbert; Gordon, Rebecca N

    2016-04-01

    To describe the Violence Against Children Surveys (VACS). The survey is a national, household survey that systematically measures the prevalence, nature and consequences of sexual, physical and emotional violence against children. This report provides information about the history, implementation, ethical protections, utility, results, limitations, and future directions of the VACS work. The study has been implemented in 11 countries in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean, providing each of these countries with baseline data and momentum to address violence against children as a public health and human rights priority. These data are novel in each country, and VACS is well poised to contribute to an existing surveillance system or be used as the basis of a periodic surveillance system. Without ongoing surveillance to assess prevalence and the impact of policy, prevention and response programming, violence will likely continue to be overlooked as the linchpin public health crisis that it is, globally and in individual countries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Study and Development of a Fluorescence Based Sensor System for Monitoring Oxygen in Wine Production: The WOW Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivellin, Nicola; Barbisan, Diego; Badocco, Denis; Pastore, Paolo; Meneghesso, Gaudenzio; Meneghini, Matteo; Zanoni, Enrico; Belgioioso, Giuseppe; Cenedese, Angelo

    2018-04-07

    The importance of oxygen in the winemaking process is widely known, as it affects the chemical aspects and therefore the organoleptic characteristics of the final product. Hence, it is evident the usefulness of a continuous and real-time measurements of the levels of oxygen in the various stages of the winemaking process, both for monitoring and for control. The WOW project (Deployment of WSAN technology for monitoring Oxygen in Wine products) has focused on the design and the development of an innovative device for monitoring the oxygen levels in wine. This system is based on the use of an optical fiber to measure the luminescent lifetime variation of a reference metal/porphyrin complex, which decays in presence of oxygen. The developed technology results in a high sensitivity and low cost sensor head that can be employed for measuring the dissolved oxygen levels at several points inside a wine fermentation or aging tank. This system can be complemented with dynamic modeling techniques to provide predictive behavior of the nutrient evolution in space and time given few sampled measuring points, for both process monitoring and control purposes. The experimental validation of the technology has been first performed in a controlled laboratory setup to attain calibration and study sensitivity with respect to different photo-luminescent compounds and alcoholic or non-alcoholic solutions, and then in an actual case study during a measurement campaign at a renown Italian winery.

  11. Study and Development of a Fluorescence Based Sensor System for Monitoring Oxygen in Wine Production: The WOW Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivellin, Nicola; Barbisan, Diego; Badocco, Denis; Pastore, Paolo; Meneghini, Matteo; Zanoni, Enrico; Belgioioso, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    The importance of oxygen in the winemaking process is widely known, as it affects the chemical aspects and therefore the organoleptic characteristics of the final product. Hence, it is evident the usefulness of a continuous and real-time measurements of the levels of oxygen in the various stages of the winemaking process, both for monitoring and for control. The WOW project (Deployment of WSAN technology for monitoring Oxygen in Wine products) has focused on the design and the development of an innovative device for monitoring the oxygen levels in wine. This system is based on the use of an optical fiber to measure the luminescent lifetime variation of a reference metal/porphyrin complex, which decays in presence of oxygen. The developed technology results in a high sensitivity and low cost sensor head that can be employed for measuring the dissolved oxygen levels at several points inside a wine fermentation or aging tank. This system can be complemented with dynamic modeling techniques to provide predictive behavior of the nutrient evolution in space and time given few sampled measuring points, for both process monitoring and control purposes. The experimental validation of the technology has been first performed in a controlled laboratory setup to attain calibration and study sensitivity with respect to different photo-luminescent compounds and alcoholic or non-alcoholic solutions, and then in an actual case study during a measurement campaign at a renown Italian winery. PMID:29642468

  12. A survey on automated wheeze detection systems for asthmatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamimi Mardiah Shaharum

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present an evidence of automated wheeze detection system by a survey that can be very beneficial for asthmatic patients. Generally, for detecting asthma in a patient, stethoscope is used for ascertaining wheezes present. This causes a major problem nowadays because a number of patients tend to delay the interpretation time, which can lead to misinterpretations and in some worst cases to death. Therefore, the development of automated system would ease the burden of medical personnel. A further discussion on automated wheezes detection system will be presented later in the paper. As for the methodology, a systematic search of articles published as early as 1985 to 2012 was conducted. Important details including the hardware used, placement of hardware, and signal processing methods have been presented clearly thus hope to help and encourage future researchers to develop commercial system that will improve the diagnosing and monitoring of asthmatic patients.

  13. A survey of manufacturers of solar thermal energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, N.; Slonski, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    Sixty-seven firms that had received funding for development of solar thermal energy systems (STES) were surveyed. The effect of the solar thermal technology systems program in accelerating (STES) were assessed. The 54 firms still developing STES were grouped into a production typology comparing the three major technologies with three basic functions. It was discovered that large and small firms were developing primarily central receiver systems, but also typically worked on more than one technology. Most medium-sized firms worked only on distributed systems. Federal support of STES was perceived as necessary to allow producers to take otherwise unacceptable risks. Approximately half of the respondents would drop out of STES if support were terminated, including a disproportionate number of medium-sized firms. A differentiated view of the technology, taking into account differing firm sizes and the various stages of technology development, was suggested for policy and planning purposes.

  14. The MEDIDO Survey: Dark Matter in Low Dispersion Stellar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyola, Eva; Bustamante, Maria Jose

    2017-06-01

    We will present preliminary results of the Medido Survey. The Survey focuses on dwarf galaxies of various types, as well as Milky Way globular clusters. We have been gathering data at the McDonald Observatory using the VIRUS-W spectrograph, which is capable of resolving velocity dispersions slightly above 10 km/s. For the galaxies, our focus is to improve kinematics in the central regions in order to tackle the cusp/core discrepancy between observations and models. In the case of the globular clusters, we map kinematics out to about 2 half-light radii with the goal of testing if any dark matter content can be detected or if dark matter can be confidently ruled out for these systems.

  15. Solar System science with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lynne; Brown, Mike; Ivezić, Zeljko; Jurić, Mario; Malhotra, Renu; Trilling, David

    2015-11-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST; http://lsst.org) will be a large-aperture, wide-field, ground-based telescope that will survey half the sky every few nights in six optical bands from 320 to 1050 nm. It will explore a wide range of astrophysical questions, ranging from performing a census of the Solar System, to examining the nature of dark energy. It is currently in construction, slated for first light in 2019 and full operations by 2022.The LSST will survey over 20,000 square degrees with a rapid observational cadence, to typical limiting magnitudes of r~24.5 in each visit (9.6 square degree field of view). Automated software will link the individual detections into orbits; these orbits, as well as precisely calibrated astrometry (~50mas) and photometry (~0.01-0.02 mag) in multiple bandpasses will be available as LSST data products. The resulting data set will have tremendous potential for planetary astronomy; multi-color catalogs of hundreds of thousands of NEOs and Jupiter Trojans, millions of asteroids, tens of thousands of TNOs, as well as thousands of other objects such as comets and irregular satellites of the major planets.LSST catalogs will increase the sample size of objects with well-known orbits 10-100 times for small body populations throughout the Solar System, enabling a major increase in the completeness level of the inventory of most dynamical classes of small bodies and generating new insights into planetary formation and evolution. Precision multi-color photometry will allow determination of lightcurves and colors, as well as spin state and shape modeling through sparse lightcurve inversion. LSST is currently investigating survey strategies to optimize science return across a broad range of goals. To aid in this investigation, we are making a series of realistic simulated survey pointing histories available together with a Python software package to model and evaluate survey detections for a user-defined input population. Preliminary

  16. Mining the Kilo-Degree Survey for solar system objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlke, M.; Bouy, H.; Altieri, B.; Verdoes Kleijn, G.; Carry, B.; Bertin, E.; de Jong, J. T. A.; Kuijken, K.; McFarland, J.; Valentijn, E.

    2018-02-01

    Context. The search for minor bodies in the solar system promises insights into its formation history. Wide imaging surveys offer the opportunity to serendipitously discover and identify these traces of planetary formation and evolution. Aim. We aim to present a method to acquire position, photometry, and proper motion measurements of solar system objects (SSOs) in surveys using dithered image sequences. The application of this method on the Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS) is demonstrated. Methods: Optical images of 346 deg2 fields of the sky are searched in up to four filters using the AstrOmatic software suite to reduce the pixel to catalog data. The SSOs within the acquired sources are selected based on a set of criteria depending on their number of observation, motion, and size. The Virtual Observatory SkyBoT tool is used to identify known objects. Results: We observed 20 221 SSO candidates, with an estimated false-positive content of less than 0.05%. Of these SSO candidates, 53.4% are identified by SkyBoT. KiDS can detect previously unknown SSOs because of its depth and coverage at high ecliptic latitude, including parts of the Southern Hemisphere. Thus we expect the large fraction of the 46.6% of unidentified objects to be truly new SSOs. Conclusions: Our method is applicable to a variety of dithered surveys such as DES, LSST, and Euclid. It offers a quick and easy-to-implement search for SSOs. SkyBoT can then be used to estimate the completeness of the recovered sample. The tables of raw data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A21

  17. Survey of system responsibility in the Nordic countries. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    In September 2004 the Nordic Council of Ministers asked Nordel to perform some tasks and present the results to the Council on 1 March 2005. One of the tasks is to survey how system responsibility is defined and executed in the different Nordic countries. According to the Nordic Council of Ministers, the survey shall illuminate similarities and differences between the countries and assess the reasons for the differences. Nordel is asked to present a joint view system responsibility in the Nordic countries. Among other things, the responsibility for the system operators and the participants in the market shall be defined. The definition shall also include the distribution of costs between costs for network business and costs for business in competition. This shall be done in a way that creates a common platform for the further harmonisation work and continuous positive development of the Nordic electricity market. It is also important to identify the need for changes in e.g. legislation and guidelines in the different countries as a consequence of an implementation of a common definition in the Nordic countries. Areas to be included in the task are among others, balance settlement, security of supply, congestion management and system services. (BA)

  18. Survey of pedestrian detection for advanced driver assistance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerónimo, David; López, Antonio M; Sappa, Angel D; Graf, Thorsten

    2010-07-01

    Advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs), and particularly pedestrian protection systems (PPSs), have become an active research area aimed at improving traffic safety. The major challenge of PPSs is the development of reliable on-board pedestrian detection systems. Due to the varying appearance of pedestrians (e.g., different clothes, changing size, aspect ratio, and dynamic shape) and the unstructured environment, it is very difficult to cope with the demanded robustness of this kind of system. Two problems arising in this research area are the lack of public benchmarks and the difficulty in reproducing many of the proposed methods, which makes it difficult to compare the approaches. As a result, surveying the literature by enumerating the proposals one--after-another is not the most useful way to provide a comparative point of view. Accordingly, we present a more convenient strategy to survey the different approaches. We divide the problem of detecting pedestrians from images into different processing steps, each with attached responsibilities. Then, the different proposed methods are analyzed and classified with respect to each processing stage, favoring a comparative viewpoint. Finally, discussion of the important topics is presented, putting special emphasis on the future needs and challenges.

  19. Real time continuous oxygen concentration monitoring system during malaxation for the production of Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiello, G.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the mechanical extraction process of Virgin Olive Oil (VOO some important physical phenomena and enzymatic transformations occur which influence the quality of the final product. The control of process parameters is crucial to ensure the quality of VOO, therefore process monitoring and control is a fundamental requirement in the modern VOO processing industry. The present work proposes an innovative Real-Time Monitoring System (RTMS aimed at continuously measuring the oxygen concentration during the malaxation process in order to establish a correlation with the quality of the final product obtained. This monitoring system is based on an oxygen concentration sensor directly connected to the malaxation chamber and a data acquisition system to analyze and store the measured values in a process database. The experimental results obtained show that the use of oxygen during malaxation improves some qualitative parameters of VOO such as free fatty acids and total polyphenols while others (peroxide values and spectrophotometric indexes worsen. These results are similar to those obtained by employing nitrogen, which is the traditional technique to avoid the wellknown oxidation processes studied by several researchers, thus demonstrating that the presence of oxygen during the malaxation process can have beneficial effects on the quality of VOO when its concentration is properly controlled.

    Durante el proceso de extracción mecánica del aceite de oliva virgen ocurren importantes fenómenos físicos y transformaciones enzimáticas que influyen en la calidad del producto final. El control de los parámetros del proceso es crucial para garantizar la calidad del aceite de oliva virgen, por tanto la monitorización y el control del proceso son requisitos fundamentales en el moderno tratamiento industrial del aceite de oliva virgen. El presente trabajo propone un sistema de monitorización innovador en tiempo real dirigido a medir continuamente

  20. Microgradients of microbial oxygen consumption in a barley rhizosphere model system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Ole; Sorensen, J.

    1993-01-01

    A microelectrode technique was used to map the radial distribution of oxygen concentrations and oxygen consumption rates around single roots of 7- day-old barley seedlings. The seedlings were grown in gel-stabilized medium containing a nutrient solution, a soil extract, and an inert polymer. Oxygen...... consumption by microbial respiration in the rhizosphere (30 mm from the root) was determined by using Fick's laws of diffusion and an analytical approach with curve fitting to measured microprofiles of oxygen concentration. A marked increase of microbial respiration...... was observed in the inner 0- to 3-mm-thick, concentric zone around the root (rhizosphere). The volume-specific oxygen consumption rate (specific activity) was thus 30 to 60 times higher in the innermost 0 to 0.01 mm (rhizoplane) than in the bulk medium. The oxygen consumption rate in the root tissue...

  1. Aircraft Oxygen Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    An Oxygen Enriched Air System for the AV-8A Harrier (NADC-81198-60).” 70 Horch , T., et. al. “The F-16 Onboard Oxygen Generating System: Performance...Only and Safety Privileged). Horch , T., Miller, R., Bomar, J., Tedor, J., Holden, R., Ikels, K., & Lozano, P. (1983). The F-16 Onboard Oxygen

  2. Exploring with PAM: Prospecting ANTS Missions for Solar System Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P. E.; Rilee, M. L.; Curtis, S. A.

    2003-01-01

    ANTS (Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm), a large (1000 member) swarm of nano to picoclass (10 to 1 kg) totally autonomous spacecraft, are being developed as a NASA advanced mission concept. ANTS, based on a hierarchical insect social order, use an evolvable, self-similar, hierarchical neural system in which individual spacecraft represent the highest level nodes. ANTS uses swarm intelligence attained through collective, cooperative interactions of the nodes at all levels of the system. At the highest levels this can take the form of cooperative, collective behavior among the individual spacecraft in a very large constellation. The ANTS neural architecture is designed for totally autonomous operation of complex systems including spacecraft constellations. The ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm) concept has a number of possible applications. A version of ANTS designed for surveying and determining the resource potential of the asteroid belt, called PAM (Prospecting ANTS Mission), is examined here.

  3. Magnetometric and gravimetric surveys in fault detection over Acambay System

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Serrano, A.; Sanchez-Gonzalez, J.; Cifuentes-Nava, G.

    2013-05-01

    In commemoration of the centennial of the Acambay intraplate earthquake of November 19th 1912, we carry out gravimetric and magnetometric surveys to define the structure of faults caused by this event. The study area is located approximately 11 km south of Acambay, in the Acambay-Tixmadeje fault system, where we performed two magnetometric surveys, the first consisting of 17 lines with a spacing of 35m between lines and 5m between stations, and the second with a total of 12 lines with the same spacing, both NW. In addition to these two lines we performed gravimetric profiles located in the central part of each magnetometric survey, with a spacing of 25m between stations, in order to correlate the results of both techniques, the lengths of such profiles were of 600m and 550m respectively. This work describes the data processing including directional derivatives, analytical signal and inversion, by means of which we obtain results of magnetic variations and anomaly traits highly correlated with those faults. It is of great importance to characterize these faults given the large population growth in the area and settlement houses on them, which involves a high risk in the security of the population, considering that these are active faults and cannot be discard earthquakes associated with them, so it is necessary for the authorities and people have relevant information to these problem.

  4. Pipe Explorer{trademark} surveying system. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Chicago Operations Office and the DOE`s Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) developed a Large Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) at the Chicago Pile-5 Research Reactor (CP-5) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL). The objective of the LSDP is to demonstrate potentially beneficial decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies in comparison with current baseline technologies. The Pipe Explorer{trademark} system was developed by Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA), Albuquerque, NM as a deployment method for transporting a variety of survey tools into pipes and ducts. Tools available for use with the system include alpha, beta and gamma radiation detectors; video cameras; and pipe locator beacons. Different versions of this technology have been demonstrated at three other sites; results of these demonstrations are provided in an earlier Innovative Technology Summary Report. As part of a D and D project, characterization radiological contamination inside piping systems is necessary before pipes can be recycled, remediated or disposed. This is usually done manually by surveying over the outside of the piping only, with limited effectiveness and risk of worker exposure. The pipe must be accessible to workers, and embedded pipes in concrete or in the ground would have to be excavated at high cost and risk of exposure to workers. The advantage of the Pipe Explorer is its ability to perform in-situ characterization of pipe internals.

  5. Pipe Explorer surveying system. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Chicago Operations Office and the DOE's Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) developed a Large Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) at the Chicago Pile-5 Research Reactor (CP-5) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL). The objective of the LSDP is to demonstrate potentially beneficial decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies in comparison with current baseline technologies. The Pipe Explorer trademark system was developed by Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA), Albuquerque, NM as a deployment method for transporting a variety of survey tools into pipes and ducts. Tools available for use with the system include alpha, beta and gamma radiation detectors; video cameras; and pipe locator beacons. Different versions of this technology have been demonstrated at three other sites; results of these demonstrations are provided in an earlier Innovative Technology Summary Report. As part of a D and D project, characterization radiological contamination inside piping systems is necessary before pipes can be recycled, remediated or disposed. This is usually done manually by surveying over the outside of the piping only, with limited effectiveness and risk of worker exposure. The pipe must be accessible to workers, and embedded pipes in concrete or in the ground would have to be excavated at high cost and risk of exposure to workers. The advantage of the Pipe Explorer is its ability to perform in-situ characterization of pipe internals

  6. A Survey of the Hazards to Electrical Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a survey of severe accidents and the lessons learned that are important to the design of electrical power systems. This survey of historical accidents since 1952 identified 19 known incidents in which significant fuel melt occurred within a reactor core. In each of these incidents unexpected events or event sequences played an important role. In all cases the event sequences resulted in bypass of two or more levels of defense in depth. This study offers clear lessons for electrical power robustness: 1) Robust design must be based upon a clear understanding of what can go wrong, and 2) Robust design will reduce, but cannot eliminate, the potential for failure of electrical power systems. In order to better understand 'what is the worst that can happen' known hazards are reviewed to identify the challenges that they can present to electrical power systems. Recognizing that unexpected events cannot always be prevented the paper discusses the need for methods to restore plant power sources or provide for alternate power supplies when the plant power sources fail. (authors)

  7. Research on airborne comprehensive survey system of atmosphere quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhentao; Yu Yanbin

    1998-01-01

    The global atmosphere pollution is becoming more and more serious, affecting the human existence and development. Besides, the high spectrum resolution remote sensing technique, which has been applied to observe topographic features, identify military objectives and distinguish lithology and vegetation, has the relation to atmosphere quality and is influenced by atmosphere pollution (including radon pollution) and dust content in the atmosphere, it is imperative to monitor atmosphere quality. Based upon the selection of some main parameters evaluating atmospheric quality and necessary equipment, the author introduces the design of multiple airborne comprehensive survey system of atmosphere quality and how to deal with problems that crop up during the hardware designing and software programming

  8. [Impact of oxygen toxic action on the erythrocyte membrane and possibility of estimating central nervous system function disturbances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belić, Branislava; Cincović, Marko R

    2011-07-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM; Prolonged exposure to hyperbaric oxygen leads to changes of erythrocytes shape as a consequence of toxic effects of oxygen on the erythrocyte membrane. The aim of this study was to examine the association between occurance of pathological forms of erythrocytes at different time from the start of hyperbaric oxygenation and the moment of convulsions occurrence, an interrelationship of different pathological forms of erythrocytes during exposure to hyperbaric oxygenation, as well as the correlation between the presence of ruptured erythrocytes and function of central nervous system (CNS) after completion of hyperbaric treatment. Sixty laboratory mice, Mus musculus, were exposed to the wholly-oxygen pressure of 3.5 absolute atmospheres (ATA). Blood was collected at the 32nd, 34th, 36th, 38th and 40th minutes after the exposure to oxygen. Pathological forms of erythrocytes were examined by electron microscopy. A moment of convulsions occurrence was registered in all animals. After decompression neurological examinations of experimental animals were perfomed. The Pearson's coefficient of correlation, and linear regression equations for the parameters outlined in the aim of the study were calculated. Hyperbaric oxygen caused damages of erythrocytes at the 34th minute after beginning of the treatment. Various forms of abnormal red blood cells occured, and immediately before the occurrence of irreversible changes (erythrocyte membrane rupture) echinocyte shape was dominated. A significant correlation between the number of damaged red blood cells at 34th minute and their number at the 36th, 38th and 40th minute was found. Convulsions were diagnosed significantly earlier in mice with a greater number of damaged red blood cells (p potential burden of CNS after cessation of hyperbaric oxygenation.

  9. Physical Controls on Oxygen Distribution and Denitrification Potential in the North West Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queste, Bastien Y.; Vic, Clément; Heywood, Karen J.; Piontkovski, Sergey A.

    2018-05-01

    At suboxic oxygen concentrations, key biogeochemical cycles change and denitrification becomes the dominant remineralization pathway. Earth system models predict oxygen loss across most ocean basins in the next century; oxygen minimum zones near suboxia may become suboxic and therefore denitrifying. Using an ocean glider survey and historical data, we show oxygen loss in the Gulf of Oman (from 6-12 to water across the Gulf of Oman and waters exported to the wider Arabian Sea.

  10. A Survey of Wireless Communications for the Electric Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akyol, Bora A.; Kirkham, Harold; Clements, Samuel L.; Hadley, Mark D.

    2010-01-27

    A key mission of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) is to enhance the security and reliability of the nation’s energy infrastructure. Improving the security of control systems, which enable the automated control of our energy production and distribution, is critical for protecting the energy infrastructure and the integral function that it serves in our lives. The DOE-OE Control Systems Security Program provides research and development to help the energy industry actively pursue advanced security solutions for control systems. The focus of this report is analyzing how, where, and what type of wireless communications are suitable for deployment in the electric power system and to inform implementers of their options in wireless technologies. The discussions in this report are applicable to enhancing both the communications infrastructure of the current electric power system and new smart system deployments. The work described in this report includes a survey of the following wireless technologies: • IEEE 802.16 d and e (WiMAX) • IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi) family of a, b, g, n, and s • Wireless sensor protocols that use parts of the IEEE 802.15.4 specification: WirelessHART, International Society of Automation (ISA) 100.11a, and Zigbee • The 2, 3, and 4 generation (G )cellular technologies of GPRS/EDGE/1xRTT, HSPA/EVDO, and Long-Term Evolution (LTE)/HSPA+UMTS.

  11. Development of aerial gamma radiation survey system III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Toshi; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Saito, Kimiaki; Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Moriuchi, Shigeru; Miyasaka, Satoshi.

    1985-01-01

    An aerial gamma-ray survey system using a helicopter has been developed since 1980 in order to perform quick gamma-ray survey covering a wide area. To form a line in the chain of the development, a series of flight measurements were conducted in Watarase reservoir, Tochigi prefecture, in which artificial gamma-ray fields were realized using 60 Co (100 and 400 mCi) and 137 Cs (100 and 300 mCi) point sources located on the ground. For the purpose of obtaining gamma-ray pulse height spectra in the field, 6 sets of NaI(Tl) scientillation detectors were prepared. These sets of detectors consist of ones for evaluation with high accuracy as the standard, for intercomparison with other authors' results, and for practical use. Two sets of them were boarded for each flight considering the exposure rate level and detector's sensitivity. The flight measurements were performed in a space of 20 m to 500 m in altitude, and 0 m to 500 m in horizontal distance from the source. The experimental results of the spatial gamma-ray distribution for each gamma-ray field satisfactorily agreed with calculational results by Monte Carlo method. Throughout this experiment, characteristics of this survey system and detectors were clarified, and versatile data processing and analysis code was completed. Also, a method for subtraction of background exposure rate in a field including artificial radiation component was discussed using energy band information, and the coefficients for this method were determined. These data obtained are expected to be used as widely applicable data not only for the interpretation of measured value, but also for analysis of environmental gamma-ray field. (author)

  12. The epigenetic landscape related to reactive oxygen species formation in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kietzmann, Thomas; Petry, Andreas; Shvetsova, Antonina; Gerhold, Joachim M; Görlach, Agnes

    2017-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can act as damaging molecules but also represent central hubs in cellular signalling networks. Increasing evidence indicates that ROS play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, although the underlying mechanisms and consequences of pathophysiologically elevated ROS in the cardiovascular system are still not completely resolved. More recently, alterations of the epigenetic landscape, which can affect DNA methylation, post-translational histone modifications, ATP-dependent alterations to chromatin and non-coding RNA transcripts, have been considered to be of increasing importance in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. While it has long been accepted that epigenetic changes are imprinted during development or even inherited and are not changed after reaching the lineage-specific expression profile, it becomes more and more clear that epigenetic modifications are highly dynamic. Thus, they might provide an important link between the actions of ROS and cardiovascular diseases. This review will provide an overview of the role of ROS in modulating the epigenetic landscape in the context of the cardiovascular system. This article is part of a themed section on Redox Biology and Oxidative Stress in Health and Disease. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.12/issuetoc. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Discrepancies between measured changes of radiobiological hypoxic fraction and oxygen tension monitoring using two assay systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasai, K.; Brown, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the ability of computerized pO 2 histography to measure changes in tumor oxygenation produced by low oxygen breathing. Female syngeneic C3H/Km mice bearing SCC VII/St carcinomas were used in these experiments. Changes in tumor oxygenation produced by the mice breathing 10% oxygen were assessed with computerized pO2 histography, 3 H-misonidazole binding, and the paired survival curve assay of radiosensitivity. The hypoxic cell fraction of the tumors in mice breathing 10% oxygen was 3.1 times higher than that of tumors in mice breathing normal air determined by an in vivo-in vitro clonogenic assay. Binding of radiolabeled misonidazole to the tumors in mice breathing 10% oxygen was also significantly higher than that to tumors in mice breathing normal air (p 2 value for the tumor. The number of pO 2 readings lower than 5 mmHg in the tumor was not affected by the 10% oxygen breathing. These findings indicate that increases in radiobiological hypoxic fraction produced by lower blood oxygen levels may not correlate well with the results of polarographic measurements of tumor pO 2 levels. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  14. Use of a dissolved-gas measurement system for reducing the dissolved oxygen at St. Lucie Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, D.T.; Coit, R.L.

    1993-02-01

    When the dissolved oxygen in the condensate at St. Lucie Unit 2 could not be reduced below the administrative limit of 10 ppB, EPRI cooperated with Florida Power and Light to find the cause and develop remedies. Two problems were identified with the assistance of a dissolved gas measurement system (DGMS) that can detect leaks into condensate when used with argon blanketing. Drain piping from the air ejection system had flooded which decreased its performance, and leaks were found at a strainer flange and a couple expansion joints. Initially the dissolved oxygen content was reduced to about 9 ppB; owever, the dissolved oxygen from Condenser A was consistently higher than that from condenser B. Injection of about 0.4 cubic per minute (CFM) of argon above the hotwell considerably improved the ventilation of Condenser A, reducing the dissolved oxygen about 30% to about 6 ppB. The use of nitrogen was equally effective. While inert gas injection is helpful, it may be better to have separate air ejectors for each condenser. Several recommendations for improving oxygen removal are given

  15. System Architecture of the Dark Energy Survey Camera Readout Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Theresa; /FERMILAB; Ballester, Otger; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castilla, Javier; /Barcelona, IFAE; Chappa, Steve; /Fermilab; de Vicente, Juan; /Madrid, CIEMAT; Holm, Scott; Huffman, Dave; Kozlovsky, Mark; /Fermilab; Martinez, Gustavo; /Madrid, CIEMAT; Moore, Todd; /Madrid, CIEMAT /Fermilab /Illinois U., Urbana /Fermilab

    2010-05-27

    The Dark Energy Survey makes use of a new camera, the Dark Energy Camera (DECam). DECam will be installed in the Blanco 4M telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). DECam is presently under construction and is expected to be ready for observations in the fall of 2011. The focal plane will make use of 62 2Kx4K and 12 2kx2k fully depleted Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) for guiding, alignment and focus. This paper will describe design considerations of the system; including, the entire signal path used to read out the CCDs, the development of a custom crate and backplane, the overall grounding scheme and early results of system tests.

  16. Thermodynamic assessment of the rhodium-ruthenium-oxygen (Rh-Ru-O) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossé, S.; Bordier, S.; Guéneau, C.; Brackx, E.; Domenger, R.; Rogez, J.

    2018-03-01

    Ruthenium (Ru) and rhodium (Rh) are abundant platinum-group metals formed during burn-up of nuclear fuels. Under normal operating conditions, Rh and Ru accumulate and predominantly form metallic precipitates with other fission products like Mo, Pd and Tc. In the framework of vitrification of high-level nuclear waste, these fission products are poorly soluble in molten glasses. They precipitate as metallic particles and oxide phases. Moreover, these Ru and Rh rich phases strongly depend on temperature and the oxygen fugacity of the glass melt. In case of severe accidental conditions with air ingress, oxidation of the Ru and Rh is possible. At low temperatures (T 1422 K for rhodium sesquioxide and T > 1815 K for ruthenium dioxide), they may decompose into (Rh)-FCC or (Ru)-HCP metallic phases and radiotoxic volatile gaseous species. A thermodynamic assessment of the Rh-Ru-O system will enable the prediction of: (1) the metallic and oxide phases that form during the vitrification of high-level nuclear wastes and (2) the release of volatile gaseous species during a severe accident. The Calphad method developed herein employs a thermodynamic approach in the investigation of the thermochemistry of rhodium and ruthenium at high temperatures. Current literature on the thermodynamic properties and phase diagram data enables preliminary thermodynamic assessments of the Rh-O and Ru-O systems. Additionally, select compositions in the ternary Rh-Ru-O system underwent experimental tests to complement data found in literature and to establish the phase equilibria in the ternary system.

  17. High temperature thermodynamics and vaporization of the zirconium--niobium--oxygen system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinehart, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    The vaporization behavior of the Zr--Nb--O system was studied by means of successive vaporization, Knudsen effusion-target collection experiments, and mass spectrometric analysis of the vapors effusing from a Knudsen crucible. The successive vaporization experiments were performed on two ternary samples in open crucibles. X-ray powder diffraction patterns of the residues and x-ray fluorescence analysis of the condensates and residues indicated the preferential vaporization of niobium-containing species with the composition of the residue subsequently becoming closer to that of congruently vaporizing ZrO/sub 2-x/. The Knudsen effusion-target collection experiments were employed on two samples, pure NbO 2 (s) and a two-phase ZrO 2 --NbO 2 mixture, in order to obtain information on the activity of NbO 2 in the two-phase mixture. Second law enthalpies and entropies of sublimation as well as third law enthalpies were obtained for both systems. The vaporization behaviors of five compositions in the Zr--Nb--O system, NbO 2 , NbO, a ZrO 2 --NbO 2 two-phase mixture, Nb 2 O 5 , and Zr 6 Nb 2 O 17 , were investigated. Above Nb 2 O 5 and the fully oxidized Zr 6 Nb 2 O 17 oxygen is preferentially lost; over NbO 2 , the two-phase ZrO 2 --NbO 2 system, and NbO the principal gaseous species is NbO 2

  18. Impact of oxygen toxic action on the erythrocyte membrane and possibility of estimating central nervous system function disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belić Branislava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Prolonged exposure to hyperbaric oxygen leads to changes of erythrocytes shape as a consequence of toxic effects of oxygen on the erythrocyte membrane. The aim of this study was to examine the association between occurance of pathological forms of erythrocytes at different time from the start of hyperbaric oxygenation and the moment of convulsions occurrence, an interrelationship of different pathological forms of erythrocytes during exposure to hyperbaric oxygenation, as well as the correlation between the presence of ruptured erythrocytes and function of central nervous system (CNS after completion of hyperbaric treatment. Methods. Sixty laboratory mice, Mus musculus, were exposed to the wholly-oxygen pressure of 3.5 absolute atmospheres (ATA. Blood was collected at the 32nd, 34th, 36th, 38th and 40th minutes after the exposure to oxygen. Pathological forms of erythrocytes were examined by electron microscopy. A moment of convulsions occurrence was registered in all animals. After decompression neurological examinations of experimental animals were perfomed. The Pearson's coefficient of correlation, and linear regression equations for the parameters outlined in the aim of the study were calculated. Results. Hyperbaric oxygen caused damages of erythrocytes at the 34th minute after beginning of the treatment. Various forms of abnormal red blood cells occured, and immediately before the occurrence of irreversible changes (erythrocyte membrane rupture echinocyte shape was dominated. A significant correlation between the number of damaged red blood cells at 34th minute and their number at the 36th, 38th and 40th minute was found. Convulsions were diagnosed significantly earlier in mice with a greater number of damaged red blood cells (p < 0.01. There was a negative correlation between the number of irreversiblly damaged red blood cells (ruptured at the 40th minute and neurological score in the studied animals (p < 0.05. Conclusion

  19. An international survey and recommendations for modern hydrokinetic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Basnet, Bipin; Dunsmore, Ian

    2017-04-01

    This study presents the results of a survey on some of the advantages of the novel and uniquehydrokinetic energy generation systems over other technologies available today. Recently, a comprehensive assessment study for the application of internationally leading hydrokinetic technologies in water engineering has been conducted. The study was carried with the collaboration of the School of Engineering, University of Glasgow and Scottish Water Horizons Ltd. The assessment involved the information collection, critical analysis of various features and financial viability analysis of various hydrokinetic systems available at this time. The outcomes of the study are summarized below: - The preliminary assessment of the hydrokinetic system and their application were carried out. The technologies were divided into different categories as per their core theory, scope of application as well as positive and negatives effects of their application. - A variety of criteria were used to assess the technical, economical and ecological potential from the application of hydrokinetic systems. - A number of companies representing a wide range of technologies available worldwide were ranked considering the performance of these against the above criteria. - Only a couple of the companies could satisfy the selection condition to be adopted into select sites of low flow and low pressure head. - A more detailed assessment for specific sites and further testing of these technologies is recommended to further assess the advantages and optimal performance of the selected technologies. A preliminary evaluation of the best performing systems demonstrates its effectiveness, particularly over other existing hydrokinetic technologies, when ecology of the open water surface system is considered. Specifically it will be of interest to use the selected technology in combination with a fish passage, as compared with other technologies this system has a minimal amount of fast moving components.

  20. Contribution to the crystallographic study of the uranium-oxygenated system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perio, P.

    1955-04-01

    Three uranium oxides, UO 2 , U 3 O 8 and UO 3 are known since a long time. The existence of a fourth, U 2 O 5 , is discussed. The mechanisms of decomposition between UO 3 and U 3 O 8 have even some shadow zones. The aim of this report is the study of the phase relations in an uranium - oxygen system, from the metal until UO 3 . We considered, on the one hand, the equilibrium relations, what should result in a diagram of phases in pressures and temperatures, on the other hand, the transformations bringing one oxide to the other, often by a continuous way and through intermediate of metastable phases. The introduction of the temperature and the consideration of the kinetics effects have permitted to raise the ambiguities. We adopted, to facilitate the presentation of the results, a partition a few arbitrary but convenient, in three chapters,: I - experimental Techniques II - Crystallographic species between U and UO 3 . III - Kinetic of oxidisation of UO 2 . (M.B.) [fr

  1. Feedforward-feedback control of dissolved oxygen concentration in a predenitrification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Ma; Yongzhen, Peng; Shuying, Wang

    2005-07-01

    As the largest single energy-consuming component in most biological wastewater treatment systems, aeration control is of great interest from the point of view of saving energy and improving wastewater treatment plant efficiency. In this paper, three different strategies, including conventional constant dissolved oxygen (DO) set-point control, cascade DO set-point control, and feedforward-feedback DO set-point control were evaluated using the denitrification layout of the IWA simulation benchmark. Simulation studies showed that the feedforward-feedback DO set-point control strategy was better than the other control strategies at meeting the effluent standards and reducing operational costs. The control strategy works primarily by feedforward control based on an ammonium sensor located at the head of the aerobic process. It has an important advantage over effluent measurements in that there is no (or only a very short) time delay for information; feedforward control was combined with slow feedback control to compensate for model approximations. The feedforward-feedback DO control was implemented in a lab-scale wastewater treatment plant for a period of 60 days. Compared to operation with constant DO concentration, the required airflow could be reduced by up to 8-15% by employing the feedforward-feedback DO-control strategy, and the effluent ammonia concentration could be reduced by up to 15-25%. This control strategy can be expected to be accepted by the operating personnel in wastewater treatment plants.

  2. Iron- and ferritin-dependent reactive oxygen species distribution: impact on Arabidopsis root system architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyt, Guilhem; Boudouf, Soukaina; Boucherez, Jossia; Gaymard, Frédéric; Briat, Jean-Francois

    2015-03-01

    Iron (Fe) homeostasis is integrated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and distribution at the root tip participates in the control of root growth. Excess Fe increases ferritin abundance, enabling the storage of Fe, which contributes to protection of plants against Fe-induced oxidative stress. AtFer1 and AtFer3 are the two ferritin genes expressed in the meristematic zone, pericycle and endodermis of the Arabidopsis thaliana root, and it is in these regions that we observe Fe stained dots. This staining disappears in the triple fer1-3-4 ferritin mutant. Fe excess decreases primary root length in the same way in wild-type and in fer1-3-4 mutant. In contrast, the Fe-mediated decrease of lateral root (LR) length and density is enhanced in fer1-3-4 plants due to a defect in LR emergence. We observe that this interaction between excess Fe, ferritin, and root system architecture (RSA) is in part mediated by the H2O2/O2·- balance between the root cell proliferation and differentiation zones regulated by the UPB1 transcription factor. Meristem size is also decreased in response to Fe excess in ferritin mutant plants, implicating cell cycle arrest mediated by the ROS-activated SMR5/SMR7 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors pathway in the interaction between Fe and RSA. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Superconductivity, structure and oxygen deficiency in the Ba2YCu2WOY system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhimi, M.; Portilla, M.; Perez, R.; Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that the Ba-2YCu x WO y system with O≤x≤2 is composed of 2 phases, the first with composition Ba 2 YWO 6 with a small copper-solution replacing yttrium, it has cubic ordered perovskite structure with the space group Fm3m, the solution of the copper gives rise to a lattice contraction. The second phase corresponds to CuO, or Cu 2 O depending on sample preparation At large copper concentrations the first phase appears as small precipitates embedded in the second one. Reducing the samples at 1150 o C in H 2 gives rise to a separation of the phases, segregating the copper in the form of liquid metal. The reduction eliminates from the first phase the dissolved copper, and produces also some oxygen deficiency in the sample, both effects give origin to a lattice distortion in the ordered perovskite structure. Although the samples are black after the reduction, they are not electrical conductors. (author). 8 refs., 8 figs

  4. A system for removing both oxygen and nitrogen from a rare gas-hydrocarbon mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkman, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    A study has been made how to remove nitrogen from a mixture of a rare gas and a hydrocarbon in addition to the removal of oxygen, H 2 O and gaseous oxides. The purpose was to find a simple method for the purification of drift-chamber gases in a recirculation system. Such a method would reduce the operating costs of the large detectors presently constructed for LEP. A promising technique has been developed. First results of a chemical reactor using the novel technique are presented. The N 2 content of Ar/air mixtures containing up to 28% air could be reduced to a level of 20 ppm at a flow rate of 0.11 m 3 /h (200 ppm at 1.0 m 3 /h); and the O 2 content to 30 and 300 ppm respectively. Water and gaseous oxides concentrations were always below 5 ppm. Some of the practical problems still to be solved are discussed and suggestions are given for further development and applications. The method can in principle be of more general use. (orig.)

  5. Oxygen kinetics and mechanism at electrocatalysts on the base of palladium-iron system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasevich, M.R.; Zhutaeva, G.V.; Bogdanovskaya, V.A.; Radina, M.V.; Ehrenburg, M.R.; Chalykh, A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Binary nanodispersed carbon XC72 supported PdFe catalysts with different atomic palladium-to-iron ratios are synthesized and studied in oxygen reduction reaction in acid solution at 60 o C. The Pd:Fe ratio was well controlled by the initial concentrations of Pd and Fe in the precursor solutions. The nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The optimum Pd:Fe ratio for this reaction was determined to be 3:1. The comparison of activities of the catalysts with component ratios equaled 3:1 and 10:1 is shown that the activities are differed from each other by 10-15 times in advantage of catalyst with lesser content of palladium. This phenomenon can be related to the different particle size of both catalysts and different distribution of particles by size discovered by TEM method. The achievement of maximum activity near the ratio of Pd:Fe = 3:1 is due to as effect of alloy-forming and the influence of binary system component ratio and synthesis conditions on dispersity degree of metallic phase nanoparticles. Under optimal conditions of precursor mixture high-temperature pyrolysis, iron produces the stabilizing effect palladium. It gives rise to obtaining the uniform and finely divided (7-8 nm) metallic particles

  6. Survey of Clostridium difficile infection surveillance systems in Europe, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kola, Axel; Wiuff, Camilla; Akerlund, Thomas; van Benthem, Birgit H; Coignard, Bruno; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Weitzel-Kage, Doris; Suetens, Carl; Wilcox, Mark H; Kuijper, Ed J; Gastmeier, Petra

    2016-07-21

    To develop a European surveillance protocol for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), existing national CDI surveillance systems were assessed in 2011. A web-based electronic form was provided for all national coordinators of the European CDI Surveillance Network (ECDIS-Net). Of 35 national coordinators approached, 33 from 31 European countries replied. Surveillance of CDI was in place in 14 of the 31 countries, comprising 18 different nationwide systems. Three of 14 countries with CDI surveillance used public health notification of cases as the route of reporting, and in another three, reporting was limited to public health notification of cases of severe CDI. The CDI definitions published by the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) were widely used, but there were differing definitions to distinguish between community- and healthcare-associated cases. All CDI surveillance systems except one reported annual national CDI rates (calculated as number of cases per patient-days). Only four surveillance systems regularly integrated microbiological data (typing and susceptibility testing results). Surveillance methods varied considerably between countries, which emphasises the need for a harmonised European protocol to allow consistent monitoring of the CDI epidemiology at European level. The results of this survey were used to develop a harmonised EU-wide hospital-based CDI surveillance protocol. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  7. Geotherm: the U.S. geological survey geothermal information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, J.D.; Rapport, A.

    1983-01-01

    GEOTHERM is a comprehensive system of public databases and software used to store, locate, and evaluate information on the geology, geochemistry, and hydrology of geothermal systems. Three main databases address the general characteristics of geothermal wells and fields, and the chemical properties of geothermal fluids; the last database is currently the most active. System tasks are divided into four areas: (1) data acquisition and entry, involving data entry via word processors and magnetic tape; (2) quality assurance, including the criteria and standards handbook and front-end data-screening programs; (3) operation, involving database backups and information extraction; and (4) user assistance, preparation of such items as application programs, and a quarterly newsletter. The principal task of GEOTHERM is to provide information and research support for the conduct of national geothermal-resource assessments. The principal users of GEOTHERM are those involved with the Geothermal Research Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Information in the system is available to the public on request. ?? 1983.

  8. Oxygen Isotopes in Early Solar System Materials: A Perspective Based on Microbeam Analyses of Chondrules from CV Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. H.; Leshin, L. A.; Guan, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Some of the biggest challenges to understanding the early history of the solar system include determining the distribution of oxygen isotopes amongst materials that existed in the solar nebula, and interpreting the processes that might have resulted in the observed isotopic distributions. Oxygen isotope ratios in any individual mineral grain from a chondritic meteorite may be the cumulative product of a variety of processes, including stellar nucleosynthetic events, gas/solid interactions in the molecular cloud, mixing of independent isotopic reservoirs in the nebula, mass-independent processing in the nebula, and mass-dependent fractionation effects in various environments. It is not possible to unravel this complex isotopic record unless the distribution of oxygen isotope ratios in chondritic materials is fully understood.

  9. A study on the equilibrium relationships in the system Ni-U-O in air and in oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmasry, M.A.A.; Younis, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    The phase relationships for the ternary system Ni-U-O were established in air and in oxygen. Mixtures of Ni O and U 3 O 8 were found to oxidize to Ni U O 4 that was identical to that previously published for Ni U 3 O 1 0. The nickel uranate dissociates to Ni O, U 3 O 8 and oxygen at a temperature higher than that of the oxidation. The dissociation products go back to the uranate when they are cooled because of the difficulty of oxygen diffusion and uranate nucleation. Accordingly dissociation temperature. 966 degree C was taken to represent equilibrium and was used to calculate roughly H and S for the dissociation reaction. In presence of Ni O, U 3 O 8 melts partially at 1470 degree C and does not dissociate to the lower oxide. 4 figs

  10. Microgrid Controller and Advanced Distribution Management System Survey Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guodong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Starke, Michael R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Herron, Andrew N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    A microgrid controller, which serves as the heart of a microgrid, is responsible for optimally managing the distributed energy resources, energy storage systems, and responsive demand and for ensuring the microgrid is being operated in an efficient, reliable, and resilient way. As the market for microgrids has blossomed in recently years, many vendors have released their own microgrid controllers to meet the various needs of different microgrid clients. However, due to the absence of a recognized standard for such controllers, vendor-supported microgrid controllers have a range of functionalities that are significantly different from each other in many respects. As a result the current state of the industry has been difficult to assess. To remedy this situation the authors conducted a survey of the functions of microgrid controllers developed by vendors and national laboratories. This report presents a clear indication of the state of the microgrid-controller industry based on analysis of the survey results. The results demonstrate that US Department of Energy funded research in microgrid controllers is unique and not competing with that of industry.

  11. Oxygen Limited Bioreactors System For Nitrogen Removal Using Immobilized Mix Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, B. K.; Sumino, T.; Saiki, Y.; Kazama, F.

    2005-12-01

    Recently nutrients concentrations especially nitrogen in natural water is alarming in the world wide. Most of the effort is being done on the removal of high concentration of nitrogen especially from the wastewater treatment plants. The removal efficiency is targeted in all considering the effluent discharge standard set by the national environment agency. In many cases, it does not meet the required standard and receiving water is being polluted. Eutrophication in natural water bodies has been reported even if the nitrogen concentration is low and self purification of natural systems itself is not sufficient to remove the nitrogen due to complex phenomenon. In order to recover the pristine water environment, it is very essential to explore bioreactor systems for natural water systems using immobilized mix culture. Microorganism were entrapped in Polyethylene glycol (PEG) prepolymer gel and cut into 3mm cubic immobilized pellets. Four laboratory scale micro bio-reactors having 0.1 L volumes were packed with immobilized pellets with 50% compact ratio. RUN1, RUN2, RUN3 and RUN4 were packed with immobilized pellets from reservoirs sediments, activated sludge (AS), mixed of AS, AG and biodegradable plastic and anaerobic granules (AG) respectively. Water from Shiokawa Reservoirs was feed to all reactors with supplemental ammonia and nitrite nitrogen as specified in the results and discussions. The reactors were operated dark incubated room in continuous flow mode with hydraulic retention time of 12 hours under oxygen limiting condition. Ammonium, nitrate nitrite nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations were measured as described in APWA and AWWA (1998). Laboratory scale four bioreactors containing different combination of immobilized cell were monitored for 218 days. Influent NH4+-N and NO2--N concentration were 2.27±0.43 and 2.05±0.41 mg/l respectively. Average dissolved oxygen concentration and pH in the reactors were 0.40-2.5 mg/l and pH 6

  12. Oxygen evolution reaction catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, Joel A.; Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Jones, Ryan J.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Shinde, Aniketa A.

    2016-09-06

    An Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER) catalyst includes a metal oxide that includes oxygen, cerium, and one or more second metals. In some instances, the cerium is 10 to 80 molar % of the metals in the metal oxide and/or the catalyst includes two or more second metals. The OER catalyst can be included in or on an electrode. The electrode can be arranged in an oxygen evolution system such that the Oxygen Evolution Reaction occurs at the electrode.

  13. Computer vision in roadway transportation systems: a survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loce, Robert P.; Bernal, Edgar A.; Wu, Wencheng; Bala, Raja

    2013-10-01

    There is a worldwide effort to apply 21st century intelligence to evolving our transportation networks. The goals of smart transportation networks are quite noble and manifold, including safety, efficiency, law enforcement, energy conservation, and emission reduction. Computer vision is playing a key role in this transportation evolution. Video imaging scientists are providing intelligent sensing and processing technologies for a wide variety of applications and services. There are many interesting technical challenges including imaging under a variety of environmental and illumination conditions, data overload, recognition and tracking of objects at high speed, distributed network sensing and processing, energy sources, as well as legal concerns. This paper presents a survey of computer vision techniques related to three key problems in the transportation domain: safety, efficiency, and security and law enforcement. A broad review of the literature is complemented by detailed treatment of a few selected algorithms and systems that the authors believe represent the state-of-the-art.

  14. Oxygen optodes as fast sensors for eddy correlation measurements in aquatic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chipman, Lindsay; Huettel, Markus; Berg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The aquatic eddy-correlation technique can be used to noninvasively determine the oxygen exchange across the sediment-water interface by analyzing the covariance of vertical flow velocity and oxygen concentration in a small measuring volume above the sea bed. The method requires fast sensors...... that combine the advantages of noninvasive measurements and integration of fluxes over a large footprint area, using a relatively rugged and less expensive sensor....

  15. Thermodynamics of the hydrogen-carbon-oxygen-tungsten system, as applied to the manufacture of tungsten and tungsten carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenke, G.K.

    2001-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the quaternary hydrogen-carbon oxygen-tungsten system and its binary and ternary sub-systems are reviewed. Published thermodynamic data are evaluated, and expression for free energies of formation are chosen. These expressions are integrated with and equilibrium-calculating algorithm, producing a powerful tool for understanding and improving the manufacture of tungsten and tungsten carbide. Three examples are presented: reduction/carburization of tungstic oxide with hydrogen, carbon, and methane. (author)

  16. Robotic radiation survey and analysis system for radiation waste casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunborg, S.

    1987-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratories have been involved in the development of remote systems technology concepts for handling defense high-level waste (DHLW) shipping casks at the waste repository. This effort was demonstrated the feasibility of using this technology for handling DHLW casks. These investigations have also shown that cask design can have a major effect on the feasibility of remote cask handling. Consequently, SNL has initiated a program to determine cask features necessary for robotic remote handling at the waste repository. The initial cask handling task selected for detailed investigation was the robotic radiation survey and analysis (RRSAS) task. In addition to determining the design features required for robotic cask handling, the RRSAS project contributes to the definition of techniques for random selection of swipe locations, the definition of robotic swipe parameters, force control techniques for robotic swipes, machine vision techniques for the location of objects in 3-D, repository robotic systems requirements, and repository data management system needs

  17. Replacement of Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) -225 Solvent for Cleaning and Verification Sampling of NASA Propulsion Oxygen Systems Hardware, Ground Support Equipment, and Associated Test Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mark A.; Lowrey, Nikki M.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990's, when the Class I Ozone Depleting Substance (ODS) chlorofluorocarbon-113 (CFC-113) was banned, NASA's rocket propulsion test facilities at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Stennis Space Center (SSC) have relied upon hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225 (HCFC-225) to safely clean and verify the cleanliness of large scale propulsion oxygen systems. Effective January 1, 2015, the production, import, export, and new use of HCFC-225, a Class II ODS, was prohibited by the Clean Air Act. In 2012 through 2014, leveraging resources from both the NASA Rocket Propulsion Test Program and the Defense Logistics Agency - Aviation Hazardous Minimization and Green Products Branch, test labs at MSFC, SSC, and Johnson Space Center's White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) collaborated to seek out, test, and qualify a replacement for HCFC-225 that is both an effective cleaner and safe for use with oxygen systems. Candidate solvents were selected and a test plan was developed following the guidelines of ASTM G127, Standard Guide for the Selection of Cleaning Agents for Oxygen Systems. Solvents were evaluated for materials compatibility, oxygen compatibility, cleaning effectiveness, and suitability for use in cleanliness verification and field cleaning operations. Two solvents were determined to be acceptable for cleaning oxygen systems and one was chosen for implementation at NASA's rocket propulsion test facilities. The test program and results are summarized. This project also demonstrated the benefits of cross-agency collaboration in a time of limited resources.

  18. Investigation of the niobium-oxygen system under low pressure and between 550 K and 2350 K: solid solution, surface overlay and reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jupille, Jacques

    1974-09-01

    This research thesis addresses the behaviour of transition metals when interacting with oxygen, more particularly in the case of phase formation, but also adsorption and desorption which occur in the case of interaction with low pressure oxygen. It focuses on the case of niobium in solid solution. After a description of phases present in the niobium-oxygen system, and a discussion of reactivities of oxygen and water vapour, the author describes the experimental methods (apparatus and installations, samples, measured values), discusses the study of the surface-volume transfer constant of the niobium-oxygen solution, and the niobium-oxygen interaction mechanisms at high (superior to 1700 K) and low (inferior to 1000 K) temperatures: oxide desorption, oxygen reaction kinetics

  19. Public Land Survey System (PLSS) Township Range Polygons, California, 2015, Bureau of Land Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PLSSTownship: This dataset represents the GIS Version of the Public Land Survey System including both rectangular and non-rectangular surveys. The primary source for...

  20. Public Land Survey System (PLSS) Quarter Section Polygons, California, 2015, Bureau of Land Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PLSSSecondDivision: This data set represents the GIS Version of the Public Land Survey System including both rectangular and non-rectangular surveys. The primary...

  1. The influence of the oxygen partial pressure on the quasi-ternary system Cr-Mn-Ti-oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Rosales, C.; Schulze, H.A.; Naoumidis, A.; Nickel, H.

    1991-05-01

    The passivation layers formed by the oxidizing corrosion of high temperature alloys consist primarily of oxides and mixed oxides of the elements chromium, manganese and titanium. For a reproducible formation and characterization of such oxide layers it is necessary to know the phase equilibria of these oxide systems at temperature and oxygen partial pressure conditions which will be relevant during their application. For the investigation of the quasi-ternary system Cr-Mn-Ti-oxide, oxide powders were prepared and annealed at 1000deg C under different oxygen partial pressures ranging from 0.21 bar to 10 -21 bar. Phase identification and determination of lattice parameter using X-ray diffraction analysis as well as the direct measurement of phase boundaries as a function of oxygen partial pressure using the emf-methode were carried out for these investigations. In the quasi-ternary system Cr-Mn-Ti-oxide the spinels play a decisive role in the oxigen partial pressure range examined. The spinel MnCr 2 O 4 may be regarded as the most significant compound. Part of the chronium can be replaced by trivalent manganese at high oxygen partial pressures and by trivalent titanium at low pressures, and the formation of a solid solution with the spinel Mn 2 TiO 4 is possible in all cases. In this way a coherent single-phase spinel region is observed which extends over the entire oxygen partial pressure range form 0.21 bar to 10 -21 bar examined at 1000deg C. (orig.) [de

  2. An On-Line Oxygen Forecasting System for Waterless Live Transportation of Flatfish Based on Feature Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of forthcoming oxygen concentration during waterless live fish transportation plays a key role in reducing the abnormal occurrence, increasing the survival rate in delivery operations, and optimizing manufacturing costs. The most effective ambient monitoring techniques that are based on the analysis of historical process data when performing forecasting operations do not fully consider current ambient influence. This is likely lead to a greater deviation in on-line oxygen level forecasting in real situations. Therefore, it is not advisable for the system to perform early warning and on-line air adjustment in delivery. In this paper, we propose a hybrid method and its implementation system that combines a gray model (GM (1, 1 with least squares support vector machines (LSSVM that can be used effectively as a forecasting model to perform early warning effectively according to the dynamic changes of oxygen in a closed system. For accurately forecasting of the oxygen level, the fuzzy C-means clustering (FCM algorithm was utilized for classification according to the flatfish’s physical features—i.e., length and weight—for more pertinent training. The performance of the gray model-particle swarm optimization-least squares support vector machines (GM-PSO-LSSVM model was compared with the traditional modeling approaches of GM (1, 1 and LSSVM by applying it to predict on-line oxygen level, and the results showed that its predictions were more accurate than those of the LSSVM and grey model. Therefore, it is a suitable and effective method for abnormal condition forecasting and timely control in the waterless live transportation of flatfish.

  3. Performance evaluation of photoacoustic oximetry imaging systems using a dynamic blood flow phantom with tunable oxygen saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, William C.; Zhou, Xuewen; Andriani, Rudy; Wear, Keith A.; Garra, Brian S.; Pfefer, Joshua

    2018-02-01

    Photoacoustic Imaging (PAI) is an emerging technology with strong potential for broad clinical applications from breast cancer detection to cerebral monitoring due to its ability to compute maps of blood oxygen saturation (SO2) distribution in deep tissues using multispectral imaging. However, no well-validated consensus test methods currently exist for evaluating oximetry-specific performance characteristics of PAI devices. We have developed a phantombased flow system capable of rapid SO2 adjustment to serve as a test bed for elucidation of factors impacting SO2 measurement and quantitative characterization of device performance. The flow system is comprised of a peristaltic pump, membrane oxygenator, oxygen and nitrogen gas, and in-line oxygen, pH, and temperature sensors that enable real-time estimation of SO2 reference values. Bovine blood was delivered through breast-relevant tissue phantoms containing vessel-mimicking fluid channels, which were imaged using a custom multispectral PAI system. Blood was periodically drawn for SO2 measurement in a clinical-grade CO-oximeter. We used this flow phantom system to evaluate the impact of device parameters (e.g.,wavelength-dependent fluence corrections) and tissue parameters (e.g. fluid channel depth, blood SO2, spectral coloring artifacts) on oximetry measurement accuracy. Results elucidated key challenges in PAI oximetry and device design trade-offs, which subsequently allowed for optimization of system performance. This approach provides a robust benchtop test platform that can support PAI oximetry device optimization, performance validation, and clinical translation, and may inform future development of consensus test methods for performance assessment of photoacoustic oximetry imaging systems.

  4. The study of excited oxygen molecule gas species production and quenching on thermal protection system materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordine, Paul C.; Fujimoto, Gordon T.; Greene, Frank T.

    1987-01-01

    The detection of excited oxygen and ozone molecules formed by surface catalyzed oxygen atom recombination and reaction was investigated by laser induced fluorescence (LIF), molecular beam mass spectrometric (MBMS), and field ionization (FI) techniques. The experiment used partially dissociated oxygen flows from a microwave discharge at pressures in the range from 60 to 400 Pa or from an inductively coupled RF discharge at atmospheric pressure. The catalyst materials investigated were nickel and the reaction cured glass coating used for Space Shuttle reusable surface insulation tiles. Nonradiative loss processes for the laser excited states makes LIF detection of O2 difficult such that formation of excited oxygen molecules could not be detected in the flow from the microwave discharge or in the gaseous products of atom loss on nickel. MBMS experiments showed that ozone was a product of heterogeneous O atom loss on nickel and tile surfaces at low temperatures and that ozone is lost on these materials at elevated temperatures. FI was separately investigated as a method by which excited oxygen molecules may be conveniently detected. Partial O2 dissociation decreases the current produced by FI of the gas.

  5. In situ dc oxygen-discharge cleaning system for optical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, T.; Shidara, T.; Tanaka, K.; Yagishita, A.; Sato, S.

    1989-01-01

    In situ dc oxygen-discharge cleaning arrangements have been developed at the Photon Factory for the removal of carbon contamination from optical surfaces. A high cleaning rate could be achieved by producing an oxygen plasma close to the optical elements with special care taken to avoid any harmful effects from the discharge; contaminant carbon was completely removed within a few hours, at most. This short exposure time and the use of dry oxygen gas resulted in a restoration of the original ultrahigh vacuum without a bakeout. Results with a Seya-Namioka beamline for gas-phase experiments showed a flux enhancement amounting to a factor of 50, and results with a grasshopper beamline showed a nearly complete recovery of the light intensity, even at the carbon K edge

  6. Influence of partial pressure of oxygen in blood samples on measurement performance in glucose-oxidase-based systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumstark, Annette; Schmid, Christina; Pleus, Stefan; Haug, Cornelia; Freckmann, Guido

    2013-11-01

    Partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in blood samples can affect blood glucose (BG) measurements, particularly in systems that employ the glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme reaction on test strips. In this study, we assessed the impact of different pO2 values on the performance of five GOx systems and one glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) system. Two of the GOx systems are labeled by the manufacturers to be sensitive to increased blood oxygen content, while the other three GOx systems are not. Aliquots of 20 venous samples were adjusted to the following pO2 values: oxygen sensitive. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  7. US Decadal Survey Outer Solar System Missions: Trajectory Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, T. R.; Atkinson, D. H.; Strange, N. J.; Landau, D.

    2012-04-01

    The report of the US Planetary Science Decadal Survey (PSDS), released in draft form March 7, 2011, identifies several mission concepts involving travel to high-priority outer solar system (OSS) destinations. These include missions to Europa and Jupiter, Saturn and two of its satellites, and Uranus. Because travel to the OSS involves much larger distances and larger excursions out of the sun's gravitational potential well than inner solar system (ISS) missions, transfer trajectories for OSS missions are stronger drivers of mission schedule and resource requirements than for ISS missions. Various characteristics of each planet system, such as obliquity, radiation belts, rings, deep gravity wells, etc., carry ramifications for approach trajectories or trajectories within the systems. The maturity of trajectory studies for each of these destinations varies significantly. Europa has been the focus of studies for well over a decade. Transfer trajectory options from Earth to Jupiter are well understood. Current studies focus on trajectories within the Jovian system that could reduce the total mission cost of a Europa orbiter mission. Three missions to the Saturn system received high priority ratings in the PSDS report: two flagship orbital missions, one to Titan and one to Enceladus, and a Saturn atmospheric entry probe mission for NASA's New Frontiers Program. The Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) studies of 2007-2009 advanced our understanding of trajectory options for transfers to Saturn, including solar electric propulsion (SEP) trajectories. But SEP trajectories depend more on details of spacecraft and propulsion system characteristics than chemical trajectories, and the maturity of SEP trajectory search tools has not yet caught up with chemical trajectory tools, so there is still more useful research to be done on Saturn transfers. The TSSM studies revealed much about Saturn-orbiting trajectories that yield efficient and timely delivery to Titan or Enceladus

  8. National roadside survey of child restraint system use in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Roynard; Peter, Silverans; Yvan, Casteels; Philippe, Lesire

    2014-01-01

    In September 2011 the Belgian Road Safety Institute (BRSI) conducted its first roadside survey of child restraint system (CRS) use and misuse. The aim of this study was to obtain population-bases estimates of the prevalence of use and misuse of CRS and to identify predictors of misuse on the basis of observations in real traffic conditions. The survey was conducted on randomly selected sites across the country, stratified across various types of journeys. The principal parameters analysed were: the characteristics of the children and the car drivers, type of journey, types of CRS and types of misuse. The sample consisted of 1461 children (under 135cm) for whom the conditions of restraint were observed in detail and the driver was interviewed. At least 50% of the children were not correctly restrained and 10% were not restrained at all. The most significant factors associated with CRS use were the use of a seatbelt by the driver (31% of unrestrained children for unbelted drivers, compared to 7% for belted drivers - only 32% of correctly restrained children for unbelted drivers compared to 54% for belted drivers), whether the CRS was bought in a specialized shop (only 27% of misuse compared to 45% of misuse for CRS both in supermarkets) and the age of the children. The proportion of correctly restrained children (appropriate without misuse, the bottom category in the figure) has a roughly curvilinear relation with age; decreasing from 75% at age 0 to 24% at age 8 and going back up to 63% at age 10. Although the sample of ISOFIX users was small (n=76), it appears that the ISOFIX system reduced misuse significantly. Most of the drivers were ignorant of their own errors concerning the inappropriateness and/or misuse of the CRS or they were remiss and underestimated the risk. The three main reasons given by the drivers to explain or justify the misuse noticed were: low attention level to safety (inattention, time pressure, and short distance), the child's resistance to

  9. Noninvasive measurement of cerebral venous oxygenation in neonates with a multi-wavelength, fiber-coupled laser diode optoacoustic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Stephen; Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Fonseca, Rafael A.; Richardson, C. Joan; Shanina, Ekaterina; Prough, Donald S.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2018-03-01

    Noninvasive measurement of cerebral venous oxygenation in neonates could provide critical information for clinicians such as cerebral hypoxia without the risks involved with invasive catheterization. Evaluation of cerebral hypoxia is important in many clinical settings such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, perfusion monitoring in cardiovascular surgery or in traumatic brain injury. By probing the superior sagittal sinus (SSS), a large central cerebral vein, we can obtain stable signals with our recently developed multi-wavelength, fiber-coupled laser diode optoacoustic system for measurement of SSS blood oxygenation. The neonatal SSS oxygenation was measured in the reflection mode through open anterior and posterior fontanelles without obscuration by the overlying calvarium. In the transmission mode it was measured through the skull in the occipital area. Our device is lightweight, easily maneuverable, and user friendly for physicians. We monitored the SSS oxygenation in neonates admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of UTMB with varying gestation, birth weight and clinical histories to identify normal range and difference between neonates with and without risk factors for cerebral hypoxia.

  10. Oxygen control in solid fuel fired heating systems with zirconium oxide cells. Iltstyring af fastbraendselsfyrede anlaeg med zirkoniumoxidcelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielke, U.

    1988-10-15

    During the heating season 87-88 the Jutland Technological Institute has carried out investigations of the zirconium oxygen meters of solid fuel heating units. The aim was to investigate whether the combustion of inflammable flue gas components on the surface of the oxygen meter cell is of any importance to the running and emissions of the units. The used zirconium oxide oxygen meters normally measure lower concentrations of oxygen as the paramagnetic comparator of the laboratory. The relative deviation is lowest at coal fired units (5.5% and highest at straw fired units (20%)). At several units there is a clear tendency towards increasing development of CO at an increasing surplus of air. Because of too large a surplus of air, and in consequence of this the formation of CO, the chimney waste of the units is increased by up to 6%. Both the surplus of air and the concentration of CO have been included as long term average values. Especially at the straw fired units, periodically very high concentrations of non-inflammable flue gas components can be found, resulting in an undesirable influence on the environment. The development of improved control systems and regulation equipment is recommended.

  11. Nutrient utilization and oxygen production by Chlorella Vulgaris in a hybrid membrane bioreactor and algal membrane photobioreactor system

    KAUST Repository

    Najm, Yasmeen Hani Kamal

    2017-02-17

    This work studied oxygen production and nutrient utilization by Chlorella Vulgaris at different organic/inorganic carbon (OC/IC) and ammonium/nitrate (NH4+-N/NO3--N) ratios to design a hybrid aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) and membrane photobioreactor (MPBR) system. Specific oxygen production by C. vulgaris was enough to support the MBR if high growth is accomplished. Nearly 100% removal (or utilization) of PO43--P and IC was achieved under all conditions tested. Optimal growth was achieved at mixotrophic carbon conditions (0.353 d-1) and the highest NH4+-N concentration (0.357 d-1), with preferable NH4+-N utilization rather than NO3--N. The results indicate the potential of alternative process designs to treat domestic wastewater by coupling the hybrid MBR - MPBR systems.

  12. Nutrient utilization and oxygen production by Chlorella Vulgaris in a hybrid membrane bioreactor and algal membrane photobioreactor system

    KAUST Repository

    Najm, Yasmeen Hani Kamal; Jeong, Sanghyun; Leiknes, TorOve

    2017-01-01

    This work studied oxygen production and nutrient utilization by Chlorella Vulgaris at different organic/inorganic carbon (OC/IC) and ammonium/nitrate (NH4+-N/NO3--N) ratios to design a hybrid aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) and membrane photobioreactor (MPBR) system. Specific oxygen production by C. vulgaris was enough to support the MBR if high growth is accomplished. Nearly 100% removal (or utilization) of PO43--P and IC was achieved under all conditions tested. Optimal growth was achieved at mixotrophic carbon conditions (0.353 d-1) and the highest NH4+-N concentration (0.357 d-1), with preferable NH4+-N utilization rather than NO3--N. The results indicate the potential of alternative process designs to treat domestic wastewater by coupling the hybrid MBR - MPBR systems.

  13. Survey of systems safety analysis methods and their application to nuclear waste management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelto, P.J.; Winegardner, W.K.; Gallucci, R.H.V.

    1981-11-01

    This report reviews system safety analysis methods and examines their application to nuclear waste management systems. The safety analysis methods examined include expert opinion, maximum credible accident approach, design basis accidents approach, hazard indices, preliminary hazards analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, fault trees, event trees, cause-consequence diagrams, G0 methodology, Markov modeling, and a general category of consequence analysis models. Previous and ongoing studies on the safety of waste management systems are discussed along with their limitations and potential improvements. The major safety methods and waste management safety related studies are surveyed. This survey provides information on what safety methods are available, what waste management safety areas have been analyzed, and what are potential areas for future study

  14. Survey of systems safety analysis methods and their application to nuclear waste management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelto, P.J.; Winegardner, W.K.; Gallucci, R.H.V.

    1981-11-01

    This report reviews system safety analysis methods and examines their application to nuclear waste management systems. The safety analysis methods examined include expert opinion, maximum credible accident approach, design basis accidents approach, hazard indices, preliminary hazards analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, fault trees, event trees, cause-consequence diagrams, G0 methodology, Markov modeling, and a general category of consequence analysis models. Previous and ongoing studies on the safety of waste management systems are discussed along with their limitations and potential improvements. The major safety methods and waste management safety related studies are surveyed. This survey provides information on what safety methods are available, what waste management safety areas have been analyzed, and what are potential areas for future study.

  15. Hypoxia tolerance and antioxidant defense system of juvenile jumbo squids in oxygen minimum zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trübenbach, Katja; Teixeira, Tatiana; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui

    2013-10-01

    Jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) is a large oceanic squid endemic off the Eastern Tropical Pacific that undertakes diel vertical migrations into mesopelagic oxygen minimum zones. One of the expected physiological effects of such migration is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the surface, promoted by the transition between hypoxia and reoxygenation states. The aim of this study was to investigate the energy expenditure rates and the antioxidant stress strategies of juvenile D. gigas under normoxia and hypoxia, namely by quantifying oxygen consumption rates, antioxidant enzyme activities [including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)], heat shock protein expression (Hsp70/Hsc70), and lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels]. A high significant decrease (68%) in squid's metabolic rates was observed during hypoxia (p0.05), with the latter indicating no enhancement of lipid peroxidation (i.e. cellular damage) at the warmer and normoxic surface waters. The understanding of such physiological strategies that are linked to oxygen deprivation and reoxygenation phases may provide valuable information about how this species is quickly responding to the impacts of environmental stressors coupled with global climate change.

  16. The Campylobacter jejuni RacRS system regulates fumarate utilization in a low oxygen environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stel, Anne-Xander; van Mourik, Andries; Heijmen-van Dijk, Linda; Parker, Craig T; Kelly, David J; van de Lest, Chris H A; van Putten, Jos P M; Wosten, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The natural environment of the human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is the gastrointestinal tract of warm-blooded animals. In the gut, the availability of oxygen is limited; therefore, less efficient electron acceptors such as nitrate or fumarate are used by C. jejuni. The molecular mechanisms that

  17. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Rules for use of portable oxygen concentrator systems on board aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... products and is in good condition free from damage or other signs of excessive wear or abuse; (3) The user... planned flight. The user must carry on the flight a sufficient number of batteries to power the device for... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rules for use of portable oxygen...

  18. Oxygen toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. van der Westhuizen

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen has been discovered about 200 years ago. Since then the vital physiological involvement of oxygen in various biologi­cal processes, mainly energy production, has been established. However, in the body molecular oxygen can be converted to toxic oxygen metabolites such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen. These toxic metabolites are produced mainly in the mitochondria, plasma membranes and endoplasmic reticulum.

  19. Development of aerial gamma radiation survey system, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kimiaki; Nagaoka, Toshi; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Moriuchi, Shigeru

    1985-02-01

    Field experiments have been performed by JAERI since 1982 to obtain fundamental data required for development of aerial radiation survey system. In order to supplement the fundamental radiation data, theoretical calculations have been carried out. The utilized Monte Carlo transport program was verified by simulative calculations of the field experiments, and characteristics data on environmental gamma rays have been accumulated. In this report, the field experiments in 1981 and 1982 were simulated making use of the Monte Carlo transport calculation code YURI developed in JAERI. Comparisons were made between experimental and calculated results for exposure rate and flux density originated from terrestrial sources, and from a point source at height of 2.5 m above the ground. Good agreements between the data verified the transport program. As fundamental characteristics data on environmental gamma rays, spatial distributions of exposure, fluence, energy spectra, angular spectra and average energy were reported and discussed, for terrestrial sources of 40 K, 232 Th-series and 238 U-series, for a plane source on the ground and for a point source at 2.5 m above the ground. (author)

  20. Development of oxygen and pH sensors for aqueous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stvartak, C.; Alcock, C.B.; Li, B.; Wang, L.; Fergus, J.W.; Bakshi, N.

    1994-04-01

    Corrosion science has long recognized that two of the most important parameters in characterizing the corrosivity of an aqueous environment are oxygen chemical potential and pH. These parameters not only determine the thermodynamic driving forces for various corrosion reactions, but also characterize the rates of these reactions and hence the lifetime of a particular component. The primary goal of this project is to develop an electrochemical oxygen and pH sensor for continuous use in the cycle chemistry control of power plants. In the past year, electrochemical sensors with a metal/metal oxide or metal/metal hydride internal reference electrode and a fluoride-based electrolyte tube have been developed and tested in this laboratory. The corrosion tests showed that the LaF 3 -based solid electrolyte was very stable both chemically and physically in water. Furthermore, its electrical conductivity is 4 to 5 orders of magnitude higher than that of stabilized zirconia below 573 K (300 degree C), which is the main advantage of a fluoride-based electrolyte at low temperatures. With this electrolyte and the selected internal oxygen reference electrode (Ag/Ag 2 O), the electrochemical probe demonstrated Nernstian responses to the oxygen chemical potential and pH of the aqueous solution with good reproducibility. A similar cell with Zr/ZrH 1+x as the internal hydrogen reference electrode showed promising pH sensing characteristics. It is proposed that these two cells be combined to form a double-headed electrochemical probe to determine oxygen chemical potential and pH in the solution simultaneously

  1. Scaling laws for oxygen transport across the space-filling system of respiratory membranes in the human lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chen

    Space-filling fractal surfaces play a fundamental role in how organisms function at various levels and in how structure determines function at different levels. In this thesis, we develop a quantitative theory of oxygen transport to and across the surface of the highly branched, space-filling system of alveoli, the fundamental gas exchange unit (acinar airways), in the human lung. Oxygen transport in the acinar airways is by diffusion, and we treat the two steps---diffusion through the branched airways, and transfer across the alveolar membranes---as a stationary diffusion-reaction problem, taking into account that there may be steep concentration gradients between the entrance and remote alveoli (screening). We develop a renormalization treatment of this screening effect and derive an analytic formula for the oxygen current across the cumulative alveolar membrane surface, modeled as a fractal, space-filling surface. The formula predicts the current from a minimum of morphological data of the acinus and appropriate values of the transport parameters, through a number of power laws (scaling laws). We find that the lung at rest operates near the borderline between partial screening and no screening; that it switches to no screening under exercise; and that the computed currents agree with measured values within experimental uncertainties. From an analysis of the computed current as a function of membrane permeability, we find that the space-filling structure of the gas exchanger is simultaneously optimal with respect to five criteria. The exchanger (i) generates a maximum oxygen current at minimum permeability; (ii) 'wastes' a minimum of surface area; (iii) maintains a minimum residence time of oxygen in the acinar airways; (iv) has a maximum fault tolerance to loss of permeability; and (v) generates a maximum current increase when switching from rest to exercise.

  2. Effect of mechanical ventilation on systemic oxygen extraction and lactic acidosis during early septic shock in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffel, M I; Astiz, M E; Rackow, E C; Weil, M H

    1990-01-01

    We studied the effect of mechanical ventilation on systemic oxygen extraction and lactic acidosis in peritonitis and shock in rats. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and perforation. After tracheostomy, rats were randomized to spontaneous breathing (S) or mechanical ventilation with paralysis (V). Five animals were studied in each group. The V animals were paralyzed with pancuronium bromide to eliminate respiratory effort. Mechanical ventilation consisted of controlled ventilation using a rodent respirator with periodic adjustment of minute ventilation to maintain PaCO2 and pH within normal range. Arterial and central venous blood gases and thermodilution cardiac output were measured at baseline before abdominal surgery, and sequentially at 0.5, 3.5, and 6 h after surgery. At 6 h, cardiac output was 193 +/- 30 ml/kg.min in S animals and 199 +/- 32 ml/kg.min in V animals (NS). The central venous oxygen saturation was 27.4 +/- 4.7% in S animals and 30.0 +/- 6.4% in V animals (NS). Systemic oxygen extraction was 70 +/- 5% in S animals and 67 +/- 6% in V animals (NS). Arterial lactate was 2.4 +/- 0.4 mmol/L in S animals and 2.2 +/- 0.5 mmol/L in V animals (NS). The S animals developed lethal hypotension at 6.6 +/- 0.4 h compared to 6.8 +/- 0.4 h in V animals (NS). These data suggest that mechanical ventilation does not decrease systemic oxygen extraction or ameliorate the development of lactic acidosis during septic shock.

  3. Field test of two high-pressure direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume II. Oxygen/diesel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, J.B.

    1983-07-01

    A field test of an oxygen/diesel fuel, direct contact steam generator has been completed. The field test, which was a part of Project DEEP STEAM and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, involved the thermal stimulation of a well pattern in the Tar Zone of the Wilmington Oil Field. The activity was carried out in cooperation with the City of Long Beach and the Long Beach Oil Development Company. The steam generator was operated at ground level, with the steam and combustion products delivered to the reservoir through 2022 feet of calcium-silicate insulated tubing. The objectives of the test included demonstrations of safety, operational ease, reliability and lifetime; investigations of reservoir response, environmental impact, and economics; and comparison of those points with a second generator that used air rather than oxygen. The test was extensively instrumented to provide the required data. Excluding interruptions not attributable to the oxygen/diesel system, steam was injected 78% of the time. System lifetime was limited by the combustor, which required some parts replacement every 2 to 3 weeks. For the conditions of this particular test, the use of trucked-in LOX resulted in liess expense than did the production of the equivalent amount of high pressure air using on site compressors. No statistically significant production change in the eight-acre oxygen system well pattern occurred during the test, nor were any adverse effects on the reservoir character detected. Gas analyses during the field test showed very low levels of SOX (less than or equal to 1 ppM) in the generator gaseous effluent. The SOX and NOX data did not permit any conclusion to be drawn regarding reservoir scrubbing. Appreciable levels of CO (less than or equal to 5%) were measured at the generator, and in this case produced-gas analyses showed evidence of significant gas scrubbing. 64 figures, 10 tables.

  4. Foundational Report Series: Advanced Distribution Management Systems for Grid Modernization, DMS Industry Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ravindra [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Uluski, Robert [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Reilly, James T. [Reilly Associates, Pittston, PA (United States); Martino, Sal [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Lu, Xiaonan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Jianhui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this survey is to benchmark current practices for DMS implementation to serve as a guide for future system implementations. The survey sought information on current plans to implement DMS, DMS functions of interest, implementation challenges, functional benefits achieved, and other relevant information. These survey results were combined (where possible) with results of similar surveys conducted in the previous four years to observe trends over time.

  5. A Mathematical Model of Metabolism and Regulation Provides a Systems-Level View of How Escherichia coli Responds to Oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eEderer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficient redesign of bacteria for biotechnological purposes, such as biofuel production, waste disposal or specific biocatalytic functions, requires a quantitative systems-level understanding of energy supply, carbon and redox metabolism. The measurement of transcript levels, metabolite concentrations and metabolic fluxes per se gives an incomplete picture. An appreciation of the interdependencies between the different measurement values is essential for systems-level understanding. Mathematical modeling has the potential to provide a coherent and quantitative description of the interplay between gene expression, metabolite concentrations and metabolic fluxes. Escherichia coli undergoes major adaptations in central metabolism when the availability of oxygen changes. Thus, an integrated description of the oxygen response provides a benchmark of our understanding of carbon, energy and redox metabolism. We present the first comprehensive model of the central metabolism of E. coli that describes steady-state metabolism at different levels of oxygen availability. Variables of the model are metabolite concentrations, gene expression levels, transcription factor activities, metabolic fluxes and biomass concentration. We analyze the model with respect to the production capabilities of central metabolism of E. coli. In particular, we predict how precursor and biomass concentration are affected by product formation.

  6. Investigation of the Makeup, Source, and Removal Strategies for Total Organic Carbon in the Oxygen Generation System Recirculation Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Elizabeth M.; Carpenter, Joyce; Roy, Robert J.; Van Keuren, Steve; Wilson, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2007, the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) on board the International Space Station (ISS) has been producing oxygen for crew respiration via water electrolysis. As water is consumed in the OGS recirculating water loop, make-up water is furnished by the ISS potable water bus. A rise in Total Organic Carbon (TOC) was observed beginning in February, 2011, which continues through the present date. Increasing TOC is of concern because the organic constituents responsible for the TOC were unknown and had not been identified; hence their impacts on the operation of the electrolytic cell stack components and on microorganism growth rates and types are unknown. Identification of the compounds responsible for the TOC increase, their sources, and estimates of their loadings in the OGA as well as possible mitigation strategies are presented.

  7. Control of oxygen impurity and hydrogen recycling in the compact helical system (CHS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, N.; Okamura, S.; Aoki, T.; Yamada, H.; Tsuzuki, K.; Matsuoka, K.; Iguchi, H.; Hosokawa, M.; Kaneko, O.; Kubo, S.; Morita, S.; Nishimura, K.; Sagara, A.; Shoji, T.; Takahashi, C.; Takeiri, Y.; Takita, Y.; Amemiya, H.; Okazaki, K.; Oyama, Y.; Shimizu, K.; Yano, K.

    1990-01-01

    In order to reduce oxygen impurity and hydrogen recycling, ECR discharge cleaning with hydrogen, glow discharge with helium, and titanium gettering have been applied. The ECR discharge cleaning was found to be effective in reducing oxygen impurities in ECRH discharges. However, it was not sufficiently effective to give a wide operational density range in NBI heated discharges. Titanium gettering is essential for this purpose, and controllable discharges have been achieved in the density range 1-10x10 19 m -3 , with discharge length more than 850 ms with the aid of titanium gettering. Both helium-glow discharge and Ti gettering are useful to control hydrogen recycling even with a stainless steel wall. (orig.)

  8. Post-Flight Microbial Analysis of Samples from the International Space Station Water Recovery System and Oxygen Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmele, Michele N.

    2011-01-01

    The Regenerative, Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) on the International Space Station (ISS) includes the the Water Recovery System (WRS) and the Oxygen Generation System (OGS). The WRS consists of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) and Water Processor Assembly (WPA). This report describes microbial characterization of wastewater and surface samples collected from the WRS and OGS subsystems, returned to KSC, JSC, and MSFC on consecutive shuttle flights (STS-129 and STS-130) in 2009-10. STS-129 returned two filters that contained fluid samples from the WPA Waste Tank Orbital Recovery Unit (ORU), one from the waste tank and the other from the ISS humidity condensate. Direct count by microscopic enumeration revealed 8.38 x 104 cells per mL in the humidity condensate sample, but none of those cells were recoverable on solid agar media. In contrast, 3.32 x lOs cells per mL were measured from a surface swab of the WRS waste tank, including viable bacteria and fungi recovered after S12 days of incubation on solid agar media. Based on rDNA sequencing and phenotypic characterization, a fungus recovered from the filter was determined to be Lecythophora mutabilis. The bacterial isolate was identified by rDNA sequence data to be Methylobacterium radiotolerans. Additional UPA subsystem samples were returned on STS-130 for analysis. Both liquid and solid samples were collected from the Russian urine container (EDV), Distillation Assembly (DA) and Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (RFTA) for post-flight analysis. The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungus Chaetomium brasiliense were isolated from the EDV samples. No viable bacteria or fungi were recovered from RFTA brine samples (N= 6), but multiple samples (N = 11) from the DA and RFTA were found to contain fungal and bacterial cells. Many recovered cells have been identified to genus by rDNA sequencing and carbon source utilization profiling (BiOLOG Gen III). The presence of viable bacteria and fungi from WRS

  9. Zolpidem reduces the blood oxygen level-dependent signal during visual system stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Licata, Stephanie C.; Lowen, Steven B.; Trksak, George H.; MacLean, Robert R.; Lukas, Scott E.

    2011-01-01

    Zolpidem is a short-acting imidazopyridine hypnotic that binds at the benzodiazepine binding site on specific GABAA receptors to enhance fast inhibitory neurotransmission. The behavioral and receptor pharmacology of zolpidem has been studied extensively, but little is known about its neuronal substrates in vivo. In the present within-subject, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study, blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) at 3 Tesla was used to assess...

  10. Mobile geographic information system (GIS) solution for pavement condition surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    This report discusses the design and implementation of a software-based solution that will improve the data collection processes during the Pavement Condition Surveys (PCS) conducted by the State Materials Office (SMO) of the Florida Department of Tr...

  11. Mobile geographic information system solution for pavement condition surveys [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The State Materials Office (SMO) of the Florida : Department of Transportation (FDOT) performs : annual Pavement Condition Surveys (PCS) of : the Departments extensive pavement network. : This work is performed by single-person crews in : inertial...

  12. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2011. The GYTS is a school-based survey that collects data on students aged 13–15 years using a standardized methodology for constructing the sample frame,...

  13. Direct Measurements of Oxygen Gradients in Spheroid Culture System Using Electron Parametric Resonance Oximetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Langan

    Full Text Available Advanced in vitro culture from tissues of different origin includes three-dimensional (3D organoid micro structures that may mimic conditions in vivo. One example of simple 3D culture is spheroids; ball shaped structures typically used as liver and tumour models. Oxygen is critically important in physiological processes, but is difficult to quantify in 3D culture: and the question arises, how small does a spheroid have to be to have minimal micro-environment formation? This question is of particular importance in the growing field of 3D based models for toxicological assessment. Here, we describe a simple non-invasive approach modified for the quantitative measurement and subsequent evaluation of oxygen gradients in spheroids developed from a non-malignant fish cell line (i.e. RTG-2 cells using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR oximetry. Sonication of the paramagnetic probe Lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc allows for incorporation of probe particulates into spheroid during its formation. Spectra signal strength after incorporation of probe into spheroid indicated that a volume of 20 μl of probe (stock solution: 0.10 mg/mL is sufficient to provide a strong spectra across a range of spheroid sizes. The addition of non-toxic probes (that do not produce or consume oxygen report on oxygen diffusion throughout the spheroid as a function of size. We provide evidence supporting the use of this model over a range of initial cell seeding densities and spheroid sizes with the production of oxygen distribution as a function of these parameters. In our spheroid model, lower cell seeding densities (∼2,500 cells/spheroid and absolute size (118±32 μm allow control of factors such as pre-existing stresses (e.g. ∼ 2% normoxic/hypoxic interface for more accurate measurement of treatment response. The applied methodology provides an elegant, widely applicable approach to directly characterize spheroid (and other organoid cultures in biomedical and

  14. A flowing liquid test system for assessing the linearity and time-response of rapid fibre optic oxygen partial pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R; Hahn, C E W; Farmery, A D

    2012-08-15

    The development of a methodology for testing the time response, linearity and performance characteristics of ultra fast fibre optic oxygen sensors in the liquid phase is presented. Two standard medical paediatric oxygenators are arranged to provide two independent extracorporeal circuits. Flow from either circuit can be diverted over the sensor under test by means of a system of rapid cross-over solenoid valves exposing the sensor to an abrupt change in oxygen partial pressure, P O2. The system is also capable of testing the oxygen sensor responses to changes in temperature, carbon dioxide partial pressure P CO2 and pH in situ. Results are presented for a miniature fibre optic oxygen sensor constructed in-house with a response time ≈ 50 ms and a commercial fibre optic sensor (Ocean Optics Foxy), when tested in flowing saline and stored blood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Design and implementation of information management system for Chinese materia medica resources survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Ge, Xiao-Guang; Jin, Yan; Jing, Zhi-Xian; Wang, Ling; Zhao, Yu-Ping; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2017-11-01

    By means of the established Information Management System for Chinese materia medica resources survey, the national, provincial and county level organization, personnel and the implementation of the program of Chinese materia medica resources survey, and the survey team of medicinal plant investigation, photos, Chinese herbal medicine market survey, the traditional Chinese materia medica resources knowledge survey, germplasm resources investigation and the data collation and summary specimen have been realised. Throughout the whole working process of the fourth national Chinese materia medica resources survey, it is ensured that all data were no missing, no repeat, and well stored and managed. The Information Management System can improve the standardization degree of Chinese materia medica resources survey, and maintain the continuity. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. Prompt meningeal reconstruction mediated by oxygen-sensitive AKAP12 scaffolding protein after central nervous system injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jong-Ho; Wee, Hee-Jun; Seo, Ji Hae; Ahn, Bum Ju; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Yang, Jun-Mo; Lee, Sae-Won; Lee, Ok-Hee; Lee, Hyo-Jong; Gelman, Irwin H.; Arai, Ken; Lo, Eng H.; Kim, Kyu-Won

    2015-01-01

    The meninges forms a critical epithelial barrier, which protects the central nervous system (CNS), and therefore its prompt reconstruction after CNS injury is essential for reducing neuronal damage. Meningeal cells migrate into the lesion site after undergoing an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and repair the impaired meninges. However, the molecular mechanisms of meningeal EMT remain largely undefined. Here we show that TGF-β1 and retinoic acid (RA) released from the meninges, together with oxygen tension, could constitute the mechanism for rapid meningeal reconstruction. AKAP12 is an effector of this mechanism, and its expression in meningeal cells is regulated by integrated upstream signals composed of TGF-β1, RA and oxygen tension. Functionally, AKAP12 modulates meningeal EMT by regulating the TGF-β1-non-Smad-SNAI1 signalling pathway. Collectively, TGF-β1, RA and oxygen tension can modulate the dynamic change in AKAP12 expression, causing prompt meningeal reconstruction after CNS injury by regulating the transition between the epithelial and mesenchymal states of meningeal cells. PMID:25229625

  17. Oxygen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their breathing to dangerously low levels. Will I need oxygen when I sleep? Usually if you use supplemental oxygen during the ... your health care provider tells you you only need to use oxygen for exercise or sleep. Even if you feel “fine” off of your ...

  18. Space Shuttle Orbiter oxygen partial pressure sensing and control system improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, Robert F.; Hoy, Dennis M.; Kelly, Kevin J.; Walleshauser, James J.

    1992-01-01

    A program aimed at developing a new PPO2 oxygen sensor and a replacement amplifier for the Space Shuttle Orbiter is described. Experimental design methodologies used in the test and modeling process made it possible to enhance the effectiveness of the program and to reduce its cost. Significant cost savings are due to the increased lifetime of the basic sensor cell, the maximization of useful sensor life through an increased amplifier gain adjustment capability, the use of streamlined production processes for the manufacture of the assemblies, and the refurbishment capability of the replacement sensor.

  19. The F-16 Onboard Oxygen Generating System: Performance Evaluation and Man Rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    OXYGEN GENERATING , YSTEM: PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND MAN RATING Thomas C. Horch , Captain, USAF Richard L. Miller, Ph.D. John B. Bomar, Jr...C. Horch , Capt, USAF; R. L. Miller, 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(i) Ph.D.; J. B. Bomar, Jr., Lt Col, IJSAF, BSC; J. B. Tedor, Maj, USAF, BSC; R. D...limitation (as of 1983); however, the information may no longer need protection since it is 14 years. At the time of its publication, Capt Thomas Horch

  20. The CEGB programme on comparative assessment of alternatives to hydrazine for oxygen removal from aqueous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, B.; Wall, K.H.; Wates, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    The principal conclusion from the programme of work carried out by the CEGB was that Carbohydrazide appeared to be the most promising alternative to hydrazine for boiler feedwater conditioning. It is an effective oxygen scavenger at higher feedwater temperatures, its breakdown products are not a serious threat to circuit materials and it is safer to handle than hydrazine. The main disadvantages, at the time of the study, appeared to be the lack of a simple reliable method for measuring residual carbohydrazide in feedwater and a cost for the alternative chemical of up to 20 times that of hydrazine. (orig.)

  1. Differences in mortality based on worsening ratio of partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen corrected for immune system status and respiratory support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Lachlan F; Bailey, Michael; Young, Paul; Pilcher, David V

    2012-03-01

    To define the relationship between worsening oxygenation status (worst PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio in the first 24 hours after intensive care unit admission) and mortality in immunosuppressed and immunocompetent ICU patients in the presence and absence of mechanical ventilation. Retrospective cohort study. Data were extracted from the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database. Adult patients admitted to 129 ICUs in Australasia, 2000-2010. In hospital and ICU mortality; relationship between mortality and declining PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio by ventilation status and immune status. 457 750 patient records were analysed. Worsening oxygenation status was associated with increasing mortality in all groups. Higher mortality was seen in immunosuppressed patients than immunocompetent patients. After multivariate analysis, in mechanically ventilated patients, declining PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio in the first 24 hours of ICU admission was associated with a more rapidly rising mortality rate in immunosuppressed patients than non-immunosuppressed patients. Immunosuppression did not affect the relationship between oxygenation status and mortality in non-ventilated patients. Immunosuppression increases the risk of mortality with progressively worsening oxygenation status, but only in the presence of mechanical ventilation. Further research into the impact of mechanical ventilation in immunosuppressed patients is required.

  2. Distributed Cooperative Regulation for Multiagent Systems and Its Applications to Power Systems: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaping; Yong, Taiyou; Yu, Jie; Mao, Wenbo

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative regulation of multiagent systems has become an active research area in the past decade. This paper reviews some recent progress in distributed coordination control for leader-following multiagent systems and its applications in power system and mainly focuses on the cooperative tracking control in terms of consensus tracking control and containment tracking control. Next, methods on how to rank the network nodes are summarized for undirected/directed network, based on which one can determine which follower should be connected to leaders such that partial followers can perceive leaders' information. Furthermore, we present a survey of the most relevant scientific studies investigating the regulation and optimization problems in power systems based on distributed strategies. Finally, some potential applications in the frequency tracking regulation of smart grids are discussed at the end of the paper. PMID:25243199

  3. Distributed cooperative regulation for multiagent systems and its applications to power systems: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianqiang; Li, Yaping; Yong, Taiyou; Cao, Jinde; Yu, Jie; Mao, Wenbo

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative regulation of multiagent systems has become an active research area in the past decade. This paper reviews some recent progress in distributed coordination control for leader-following multiagent systems and its applications in power system and mainly focuses on the cooperative tracking control in terms of consensus tracking control and containment tracking control. Next, methods on how to rank the network nodes are summarized for undirected/directed network, based on which one can determine which follower should be connected to leaders such that partial followers can perceive leaders' information. Furthermore, we present a survey of the most relevant scientific studies investigating the regulation and optimization problems in power systems based on distributed strategies. Finally, some potential applications in the frequency tracking regulation of smart grids are discussed at the end of the paper.

  4. Data acquisition and control system with a programmable logic controller (PLC) for a pulsed chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haijun; Li, Guofu; Duo, Liping; Jin, Yuqi; Wang, Jian; Sang, Fengting; Kang, Yuanfu; Li, Liucheng; Wang, Yuanhu; Tang, Shukai; Yu, Hongliang

    2015-02-01

    A user-friendly data acquisition and control system (DACS) for a pulsed chemical oxygen -iodine laser (PCOIL) has been developed. It is implemented by an industrial control computer,a PLC, and a distributed input/output (I/O) module, as well as the valve and transmitter. The system is capable of handling 200 analogue/digital channels for performing various operations such as on-line acquisition, display, safety measures and control of various valves. These operations are controlled either by control switches configured on a PC while not running or by a pre-determined sequence or timings during the run. The system is capable of real-time acquisition and on-line estimation of important diagnostic parameters for optimization of a PCOIL. The DACS system has been programmed using software programmable logic controller (PLC). Using this DACS, more than 200 runs were given performed successfully.

  5. Investigation of spatial resolution dependent variability in transcutaneous oxygen saturation using point spectroscopy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philimon, Sheena P.; Huong, Audrey K. C.; Ngu, Xavier T. I.

    2017-08-01

    This paper aims to investigate the variation in one’s percent mean transcutaneous oxygen saturation (StO2) with differences in spatial resolution of data. This work required the knowledge of extinction coefficient of hemoglobin derivatives in the wavelength range of 520 - 600 nm to solve for the StO2 value via an iterative fitting procedure. A pilot study was conducted on three healthy subjects with spectroscopic data collected from their right index finger at different arbitrarily selected distances. The StO2 value estimated by Extended Modified Lambert Beer (EMLB) model revealed a higher mean StO2 of 91.1 ± 1.3% at a proximity distance of 30 mm compared to 60.83 ± 2.8% at 200 mm. The results showed a high correlation between data spatial resolution and StO2 value, and revealed a decrease in StO2 value as the sampling distance increased. The preliminary findings from this study contribute to the knowledge of the appropriate distance range for consistent and high repeatability measurement of skin oxygenation.

  6. Optimal BRUVs (baited remote underwater video system) survey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) play an important role in coastal conservation, but there is presently no uniformly applied methodology for monitoring the efficacy of coastal fish protection. Whereas underwater visual census and controlled angling surveys have been used, their skilled-labour requirements and environmental ...

  7. Using tensorial electrical resistivity survey to locate fault systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro Santos, Fernando A; Plancha, João P; Marques, Jorge; Perea, Hector; Cabral, João; Massoud, Usama

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of the tensorial resistivity method for fault orientation and macroanisotropy characterization. The rotational properties of the apparent resistivity tensor are presented using 3D synthetic models representing structures with a dominant direction of low resistivity and vertical discontinuities. It is demonstrated that polar diagrams of the elements of the tensor are effective in delineating those structures. As the apparent resistivity tensor shows great inefficacy in investigating the depth of the structures, it is advised to accomplish tensorial surveys with the application of other geophysical methods. An experimental example, including tensorial, dipole–dipole and time domain surveys, is presented to illustrate the potentiality of the method. The dipole–dipole model shows high-resistivity contrasts which were interpreted as corresponding to faults crossing the area. The results from the time domain electromagnetic (TEM) sounding show high-resistivity values till depths of 40–60 m at the north part of the area. In the southern part of the survey area the soundings show an upper layer with low-resistivity values (around 30 Ω m) followed by a more resistive bedrock (resistivity >100 Ω m) at a depth ranging from 15 to 30 m. The soundings in the central part of the survey area show more variability. A thin conductive overburden is followed by a more resistive layer with resistivity in the range of 80–1800 Ω m. The north and south limits of the central part of the area as revealed by TEM survey are roughly E–W oriented and coincident with the north fault scarp and the southernmost fault detected by the dipole–dipole survey. The pattern of the polar diagrams calculated from tensorial resistivity data clearly indicates the presence of a contact between two blocks at south of the survey area with the low-resistivity block located southwards. The presence of other two faults is not so clear from the polar diagram patterns, but

  8. Oxygen Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Solmes

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available LTOT is prescribed for people with chronic lung disease in whom there is a decrease in the ability of the lungs to supply enough oxygen to the body. The heart is obliged to pump faster to meet the body's oxygen requirements. This may place undue stress on the heart, resulting in palpitations, dizziness and fatigue. A low oxygen level in arterial blood is also harmful to the heart, the brain and the pulmonary blood vessels. Oxygen therapy is used to break this cycle. A person with low blood oxygen will often be able to accomplish more with less fatigue with the help of supplemental oxygen therapy. Shortness of breath is a mechanical problem resulting from the effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Oxygen therapy may or may not reduce shortness of breath, but it will help the lungs and heart to function with less stress.

  9. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. Survey on energy use evaluation systems; 1999 nendo energy shiyo hyoka system chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The present survey and study relate to the medium to long term policies for technological development of energy and environment related technologies, and are intended to develop a system that can evaluate the importance, feasibility, expected realization time, and expected cost of the technologies, including their synergetic effects. The survey and study are intended to provide clear guidelines for planning the technological development policies on which of the technological development should be promoted in what ways, based on the evaluation given by the use of the system. The report describes in Section 1 to adopt two types of approaches of a 'technology map' and a 'network chart evaluation system' to achieve the goal. Section 2, after describing the results of surveys on the past study cases of technology evaluation, describes that the present approach has new features that are different from conventional ones. Section 3 states the results of surveys on the basic technologies to prevent global warming, and shows cases of preparing maps that notice on energy flows. Section 4 relates to network chart evaluating methods. Section 5 describes the results of surveys that have been made in relation with chronological progress of the technological development, in preparation for surveys to be made in the coming fiscal years. (NEDO)

  10. Refractory Materials for Flame Deflector Protection System Corrosion Control: Coatings Systems Literature Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Coffman, Brekke E.; Coffman, Brekke E.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark R.; Whitten, Mary; Perisich, Steven; hide

    2009-01-01

    When space vehicles are launched, extreme heat, exhaust, and chemicals are produced and these form a very aggressive exposure environment at the launch complex. The facilities in the launch complex are exposed to this aggressive environment. The vehicle exhaust directly impacts the flame deflectors, making these systems very susceptible to high wear and potential failure. A project was formulated to develop or identify new materials or systems such that the wear and/or damage to the flame deflector system, as a result of the severe environmental exposure conditions during launches, can be mitigated. This report provides a survey of potential protective coatings for the refractory concrete lining on the steel base structure on the flame deflectors at Kennedy Space Center (KSC).

  11. Reformation of Pretreatment System of Oxygen Analyzer%氧分仪预处理系统改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑友军

    2016-01-01

    In the process of acrylonitrile unit, oxygen content in the process materials at the outlet of the reactor is a very important parameter. It is both a measure of propylene, ammonia and air ratio in the reactor and an important indicator of the reaction rate. It is also an important index of whether the reaction is normal or not in the reaction section, so from both process and safety aspects, online analysis and monitoring oxygen concentration is required. This paper is mainly about application problem analysis of on line oxygen analyzer in acrylonitrile plant reaction section. Based on the problems, reformed the pretreatment system of oxygen analyzer. After the completion of the transformation, fault rate of oxygen analyzer is greatly reduced, the instrument's precision and stability is greatly improved, the transformation also improve the acrylonitrile plant startup speed, reduces the waste of the material. It is played an important role in the aspect of process and safety of acrylonitrile plant, economic effect is very obvious.%丙烯腈联合装置中,反应器出口处工艺物料中的氧气含量是十分关键的工艺参数指标。它是衡量反应器内丙烯、氨及空气的配比关系,反应速率安全等重要指标,也是丙烯腈装置反应工段生产是否正常的一项重要指标,从安全、工艺上都要求对氧浓度进行在线分析和监测。本文主要分析丙烯腈反应工段氧浓度在线分析仪表在应用中出现的问题,并针对出现的问题由氧分析仪预处理系统进行改造。在氧分仪预处理系统投用后,氧分析仪的故障率大大降低,仪表检测精度和运行稳定性大大提高,而且提高了丙烯腈装置开车速度,降低了物料的浪费,且对保证丙烯腈生产和安全起了重要作用,经济效果非常明显。

  12. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates the renin–angiotensin system and proinflammatory cytokines in hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Qing; Qin, Da-Nian; Wang, Fu-Xin; Ren, Jun; Li, Hong-Bao; Zhang, Meng; Yang, Qing; Miao, Yu-Wang; Yu, Xiao-Jing; Qi, Jie; Zhu, Zhiming; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Kang, Yu-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To explore whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger (tempol) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates renin–angiotensin system (RAS) and proinflammatory cytokines (PICs), and decreases the blood pressure and sympathetic activity in angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension. Methods and results: Male Sprague–Dawley rats were infused intravenously with ANG II (10 ng/kg per min) or normal saline (NS) for 4 weeks. These rats were treated with bilateral PVN infusion of oxygen free radical scavenger tempol (TEMP, 20 μg/h) or vehicle (artificial cerebrospinal fluid, aCSF) for 4 weeks. ANG II infusion resulted in increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). These ANG II-infused rats also had higher levels of gp91 phox (a subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in the PVN than the control animals. Treatment with PVN infusion of TEMP attenuated the overexpression of gp91 phox , ACE and IL-1β within the PVN, and decreased sympathetic activity and MAP in ANG II-infused rats. Conclusion: These findings suggest that ANG II infusion induces elevated PICs and oxidative stress in the PVN, which contribute to the sympathoexcitation in hypertension. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates the renin–angiotensin system, proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in ANG II-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • The effect of chronic inhibiting PVN superoxide on hypertension was investigated. • ANG II infusion induced increased proinflammatory cytokines and superoxide in PVN. • ANG II infusion resulted in oxidative stress, sympathoexcitation and hypertension. • Chronic inhibiting PVN superoxide attenuates RAS and cytokines in hypertension

  13. Quantitative measurement of trace amounts of dissolved oxygen in the primary and secondary systems of PWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, H.B.; Neale, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    Establishing and maintaining the correct water chemistry conditions in the primary and secondary systems of pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants is essential in order to maximize the operating life and guarantee the uninterrupted availability of the major components of each PWR unit. The exact specifications for maintaining the correct water chemistry are well established. One of the most important parameters that must be closely monitored in a modern power generation plant is the level of dissolved oxygen (DO) present in the system. Because of the high temperatures and pressures involved, even minute traces of DO---on the order of a few parts per billion (ppb)---can be detrimental to the heat transfer surfaces in steam generators, heaters, etc. The authors argue that the method of determining trace levels of DO presented here is a modification of the original method that has greatly increased the detection level obtainable with Rhodazine-D. Measurements down to less than 1 ppb (μg/Liter), with a resolution of 0.5 ppb (μ/Liter), are now easily obtainable. No calibration procedures are required and no maintenance of critical components is needed. This quantitative method is based on the instantaneous stoichiometric reaction of Rhodazine-D with oxygen. After less than one minute the oxidation reaction is complete and the fully developed color is compared with a set of stable liquid color standards. The color standards are formulated using the oxidized form of Rhodazine-D, thus providing an exact color match for the reacted sample-reagent. Supporting data are presented that confirm the relative accuracy and sensitivity of the new method, as well as results of a comparative evaluation of the method versus in-line dissolved oxygen analyzers

  14. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates the renin–angiotensin system and proinflammatory cytokines in hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Qing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Qin, Da-Nian, E-mail: dnqin@stu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Wang, Fu-Xin [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jiamusi University, Jiamusi 154002 (China); Ren, Jun [Center for Cardiovascular Research and Alternative Medicine, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Li, Hong-Bao; Zhang, Meng; Yang, Qing; Miao, Yu-Wang; Yu, Xiao-Jing; Qi, Jie [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhu, Zhiming [Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Daping Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing Institute of Hypertension, Chongqing 400042 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2014-04-15

    Aims: To explore whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger (tempol) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates renin–angiotensin system (RAS) and proinflammatory cytokines (PICs), and decreases the blood pressure and sympathetic activity in angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension. Methods and results: Male Sprague–Dawley rats were infused intravenously with ANG II (10 ng/kg per min) or normal saline (NS) for 4 weeks. These rats were treated with bilateral PVN infusion of oxygen free radical scavenger tempol (TEMP, 20 μg/h) or vehicle (artificial cerebrospinal fluid, aCSF) for 4 weeks. ANG II infusion resulted in increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). These ANG II-infused rats also had higher levels of gp91{sup phox} (a subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in the PVN than the control animals. Treatment with PVN infusion of TEMP attenuated the overexpression of gp91{sup phox}, ACE and IL-1β within the PVN, and decreased sympathetic activity and MAP in ANG II-infused rats. Conclusion: These findings suggest that ANG II infusion induces elevated PICs and oxidative stress in the PVN, which contribute to the sympathoexcitation in hypertension. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates the renin–angiotensin system, proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in ANG II-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • The effect of chronic inhibiting PVN superoxide on hypertension was investigated. • ANG II infusion induced increased proinflammatory cytokines and superoxide in PVN. • ANG II infusion resulted in oxidative stress, sympathoexcitation and hypertension. • Chronic inhibiting PVN superoxide attenuates RAS and cytokines in hypertension.

  15. Outcome of mass transfer in a carbon-oxygen white dwarf binary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhlov, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The hydrostatic evolution of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf (COWD) experiencing accretion of matter from its companion, a second COWD, is calculated for accretion rates ranging from 10 to the -8th to 10 to the -5th solar masses per year. It is shown that, for accretion rates less than (3.3 + or - 1.5) x 10 to the -6th M/yr, the accretion of a C+O mixture by a COWD will ultimately lead to ignition of carbon at the center of the star, producing a thermonuclear explosion. For accretion rates greater than that value, the C-12 can be ignited near the white dwarf surface, followed by propagation of the thermonuclear burning front toward the center. It is concluded that a COWD accreting a C+O mixture is a highly plausible candidate for a type I presupernova. 18 references

  16. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the uranium/oxygen system: Part 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, G.C.; Stevens, J.C.H.

    1987-02-01

    The reaction between commercial H 2 and uranium metal leads to the formation of UO 2 due to traces of water vapour or oxygen. When extremely pure H 2 is used uranium hydride may be formed but, even with 99.9999% H 2 , uranium dioxide forms preferentially. The present work identifies the presence of UH 3 in the X-ray photoelectron spectrum of a uranium sample which has been exposed to ∼ 5 mbar H 2 at ∼ 200 0 C for 1 hour. This spectrum indicates that the hydride possesses a high degree of covalency, since the oxidation state of uranium in UH 3 appears to be ∼ 1.4. (U.K.)

  17. The Army Communications Objectives Measurement System (ACOMS): Survey Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    tiveness, assessments of advertising strategy efficiencies, management of the advertising program, and planning and development of new marketing strategies... advertising strategy and market segmentation. The ACOMS development effort has focused on specifying the design and analysis plan for the survey...second set of goals involves the use of ACOMS data to assess the Army’s advertising strategy . ACOMS is examining the extent to which the Army’s in

  18. Development and Integration of the Janus Robotic Lander: A Liquid Oxygen-Liquid Methane Propulsion System Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Raul

    Initiatives have emerged with the goal of sending humans to other places in our solar system. New technologies are being developed that will allow for more efficient space systems to transport future astronauts. One of those technologies is the implementation of propulsion systems that use liquid oxygen and liquid methane (LO2-LCH4) as propellants. The benefits of a LO2-LCH4 propulsion system are plenty. One of the main advantages is the possibility of manufacturing the propellants at the destination body. A space vehicle which relies solely on liquid oxygen and liquid methane for its main propulsion and reaction control engines is necessary to exploit this advantage. At the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) MIRO Center for Space Exploration Technology Research (cSETR) such a vehicle is being developed. Janus is a robotic lander vehicle with the capability of vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) which integrates several LO2-LCH 4 systems that are being devised in-house. The vehicle will serve as a testbed for the parallel operation of these propulsion systems while being fed from common propellant tanks. The following work describes the efforts done at the cSETR to develop the first prototype of the vehicle as well as the plan to move forward in the design of the subsequent prototypes that will lead to a flight vehicle. In order to ensure an eventual smooth integration of the different subsystems that will form part of Janus, requirements were defined for each individual subsystem as well as the vehicle as a whole. Preliminary testing procedures and layouts have also been developed and will be discussed to detail in this text. Furthermore, the current endeavors in the design of each subsystem and the way that they interact with one another within the lander will be explained.

  19. Effect of systemic nitric oxide synthase inhibition on optic disc oxygen partial pressure in normoxia and in hypercapnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Ioannis K; Pournaras, Jean-Antoine C; Stangos, Alexandros N; Pournaras, Constantin J

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effect of systemic nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition on optic disc oxygen partial pressure (PO(2)) in normoxia and hypercapnia. Intervascular optic disc PO(2) was measured in 12 anesthetized minipigs by using oxygen-sensitive microelectrodes placed 0.1), despite a 21% increase of mean arterial pressure. Optic disc PO(2) increase under hypercapnia was blunted after L-NAME injection (DeltaPO(2) = 0.6 +/- 1.1 mm Hg; 3%; P > 0.1), and this effect was reversible by L-arginine. Moreover, L-NAME reduced the response to carbogen by 29% (DeltaPO(2) = 9.1 +/- 4.4 mm Hg; 49%; P = 0.01 versus before L-NAME). The response to hyperoxia was not affected. Whereas systemic NOS inhibition did not affect optic disc PO(2) in normoxia, a blunting effect was noted on the CO(2)-induced optic disc PO(2) increase. Nitric oxide appears to mediate the hypercapnic optic disc PO(2) increase.

  20. Quantum dots assisted photocatalysis for the chemiluminometric determination of chemical oxygen demand using a single interface flow system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre, Cristina I.C.; Frigerio, Christian [Requimte, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Porto University, Rua Anibal Cunha 164, 4099-030, Porto (Portugal); Santos, Joao L.M., E-mail: joaolms@ff.up.pt [Requimte, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Porto University, Rua Anibal Cunha 164, 4099-030, Porto (Portugal); Lima, Jose L.F.C. [Requimte, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Porto University, Rua Anibal Cunha 164, 4099-030, Porto (Portugal)

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} A novel flow method for the determination of chemical oxygen demand is proposed. {yields} CdTe nanocrystals are irradiated with UV light to generate strong oxidizing species. {yields} Reactive species promote a fast catalytic degradation of organic matter. {yields} Luminol is used as a chemiluminescence probe for indirect COD assessment. {yields} A single interface flow system was implemented to automate the assays. - Abstract: A novel flow method for the determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) is proposed in this work. It relies on the combination of a fully automated single interface flow system, an on-line UV photocatalytic unit and quantum dot (QD) nanotechnology. The developed approach takes advantage of CdTe nanocrystals capacity to generate strong oxidizing species upon irradiation with UV light, which fostered a fast catalytic degradation of the organic compounds. Luminol was used as a chemiluminescence (CL) probe for indirect COD assessment, since it is easily oxidized by the QD generated species yielding a strong CL emission that is quenched in the presence of the organic matter. The proposed methodology allowed the determination of COD concentrations between 1 and 35 mg L{sup -1}, with good precision (R.S.D. < 1.1%, n = 3) and a sampling frequency of about 33 h{sup -1}. The procedure was applied to the determination of COD in wastewater certified reference materials and the obtained results showed an excellent agreement with the certified values.

  1. Results of the Test Program for Replacement of AK-225G Solvent for Cleaning NASA Propulsion Oxygen Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, Nikki M.; Mitchell, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1990's, when the Class I Ozone Depleting Substance (ODS) chlorofluorocarbon-113 (CFC-113) was banned, NASA's propulsion test facilities at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Stennis Space Center (SSC) have relied upon the solvent AsahiKlin AK-225 (hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225ca/cb or HCFC-225ca/cb) and, more recently AK-225G (the single isomer form, HCFC-225cb) to safely clean and verify the cleanliness of large scale propulsion oxygen systems. Effective January 1, 2015, the production, import, export, and new use of Class II Ozone Depleting Substances, including AK-225G, was prohibited in the United States by the Clean Air Act. In 2012 through 2014, NASA test labs at MSFC, SSC, and Johnson Space Center's White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) collaborated to seek out, test, and qualify a solvent replacement for AK-225G that is both an effective cleaner and safe for use with oxygen systems. This paper summarizes the tests performed, results, and lessons learned.

  2. User's manual of BISHOP. A Bi-Phase, Sodium-Hydrogen-Oxygen system, chemical equilibrium calculation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2001-07-01

    In an event of sodium leakage in liquid metal fast breeder reactors, liquid sodium flows out of piping, and droplet combustion might occur under a certain environmental condition. The combustion heat and reaction products should be evaluated in the sodium fire analysis codes for investigating the influence of the sodium leak age and fire incident. In order to analyze the reaction heat and products, the multi-phase chemical equilibrium calculation program for a sodium, oxygen and hydrogen system has been developed. The developed numerical program is named BISHOP, which denotes 'Bi-Phase, Sodium-Hydrogen-Oxygen, Chemical Equilibrium Calculation Program'. The Gibbs free energy minimization method is used because of the following advantages. Chemical species are easily added and changed. A variety of thermodynamic states, such as isothermal and isentropic changes, can be dealt with in addition to constant temperature and pressure processes. In applying the free energy minimization method to solve the multi-phase sodium reaction system, three new numerical calculation techniques are developed. One is theoretical simplification of phase description in equation system, the other is to extend the Gibbs free energy minimization method to a multi-phase system, and the last is to establish the efficient search for the minimum value. The reaction heat and products at the equilibrium state can be evaluated from the initial conditions, such as temperature, pressure and reactants, using BISHOP. This report describes the thermochemical basis of chemical equilibrium calculations, the system of equations, simplification models, and the procedure to prepare input data and usage of BISHOP. (author)

  3. Survey of computer systems usage in southeastern Nigeria | Opara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The shift from industrial age (17th Century) to information age (21st Century) has ... Systems Technology (CST), software engineering and telecommunications. ... System (CS) to every sector in Nigeria, Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) ...

  4. Acquisition Information Management system telecommunication site survey results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hake, K.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Key, B.G. [COR, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The Army acquisition community currently uses a dedicated, point-to-point secure computer network for the Army Material Plan Modernization (AMPMOD). It must transition to the DOD supplied Defense Secure Network 1 (DSNET1). This is one of the first networks of this size to begin the transition. The type and amount of computing resources available at individual sites may or may not meet the new network requirements. This task surveys these existing telecommunications resources available in the Army acquisition community. It documents existing communication equipment, computer hardware, associated software, and recommends appropriate changes.

  5. Hydrographic surveys of four narrows within the Namakan reservoir system, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Brenda K.; Strauch, Kellan R.; Ziegeweid, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey performed multibeam echosounder hydrographic surveys of four narrows in the Namakan reservoir system in August 2011, in cooperation with the International Joint Commission and Environment Canada. The data-collection effort was completed to provide updated and detailed hydrographic data to Environment Canada for inclusion in a Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System hydraulic model. The Namakan reservoir system is composed of Namakan, Kabetogama, Sand Point, Crane, and Little Vermilion Lakes. Water elevations in the Namakan reservoir system are regulated according to rule curves, or guidelines for water-level management based on the time of year, established by the International Joint Commission. Water levels are monitored by established gages on Crane Lake and the outlet of Namakan Lake at Kettle Falls, but water elevations throughout the system may deviate from these measured values by as much as 0.3 meters, according to lake managers and residents. Deviations from expected water elevations may be caused by between-lake constrictions (narrows). According to the 2000 Rule Curve Assessment Workgroup, hydrologic models of the reservoir system are needed to better understand the system and to evaluate the recent changes made to rule curves in 2000. Hydrographic surveys were performed using a RESON SeaBat™7125 multibeam echosounder system. Surveys were completed at Namakan Narrows, Harrison Narrows, King Williams Narrows, and Little Vermilion Narrows. Hydrographic survey data were processed using Caris HIPSTM and SIPSTM software that interpolated a combined uncertainty and bathymetric estimator (CUBE) surface. Quality of the survey results was evaluated in relation to standards set by the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) for describing the uncertainty of hydrographic surveys. More than 90 percent of the surveyed areas at the four narrows have resulting bed elevations that meet the IHO “Special Order” quality

  6. Evaluating Recommender Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning: A Quantitative Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdt, Mojisola; Fernandez, Alejandro; Rensing, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The increasing number of publications on recommender systems for Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) evidence a growing interest in their development and deployment. In order to support learning, recommender systems for TEL need to consider specific requirements, which differ from the requirements for recommender systems in other domains like…

  7. Productivity Implications of Employee Performance Appraisal System : A Critical Survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. VSR Subramaniam

    2004-01-01

    The Productivity of any organisation is directly correlated to the Effectiveness of the Employee Performance Appraisal System, subject to the Effectiveness of the Support Systems, depending upon the type of organizational business. INFERENCE : Technology, Systems and Manpower are linked in an inter- related circle focusing towards Productivity =============================================================== DOCTORAL (Ph.D) RESEARCH WORK OF DR.VSR.SUBRAMANIAM IN JAMNALAL BAJAJ INSTITUTE OF MANA...

  8. Surveying the critical success factors of BPM-systems implementation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravesteyn, P.; Batenburg, R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore if there is a common ground for the definition of business process management (BPM) and BPM-systems, as well as the critical success factors (CSFs) for BPM-system implementation. A BPM-system implementation framework is validated that classifies the

  9. Meteoric water in normal fault systems: Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic measurements on authigenic phases in brittle fault rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, S. H.; Anderson, R.; Mulch, A.; Solum, J. G.; Valley, J. W.; van der Pluijm, B. A.

    2009-12-01

    The nature of fluid circulation systems in normal fault systems is fundamental to understanding the nature of fluid movement within the upper crust, and has important implications for the on-going controversy about the strength of faults. Authigenic phases in clay gouges and fault breccias record the isotopic signature of the fluids they formed in equilibrium with, and can be used to understand the ‘plumbing system’ of brittle fault environments. We obtained paired oxygen and hydrogen isotopic measurements on authigenic illite and/or smectite in clay gouge from normal faults in two geologic environments, 1.) low-angle normal faults (Ruby Mountains detachment, NV; Badwater Turtleback, CA; Panamint range-front detachment; CA; Amargosa detachment; CA; Waterman Hills detachment, CA), and 2.) An intracratonic high-angle normal fault (Moab Fault, UT). All authigenic phases in these clay gouges are moderately light isotopically with respect to oxygen (illite δ18O -2.0 - + 11.5 ‰ SMOW, smectite δ18O +3.6 and 17.9 ‰) and very light isotopically with respect to hydrogen (illite δD -148 to -98 ‰ SMOW, smectite δD -147 to -92 ‰). Fluid compositions calculated from the authigenic clays at temperatures of 50 - 130 ○C (as indicated by clay mineralogy) indicate that both illite and smectite in normal fault clay gouge formed in the presence of near-pristine to moderately-evolved meteoric fluids and that igneous or metamorphic fluids are not involved in clay gouge formation in these normal fault settings. We also obtained paired oxygen and hydrogen isotopic measurements on chlorites derived from footwall chlorite breccias in 4 low-angle normal fault detachment systems (Badwater and Mormon Point Turtlebacks, CA, the Chemehuevi detachment, CA, and the Buckskin-Rawhide detachment, AZ). All chlorites are isotopically light to moderately light with respect to oxygen (δ18O +0.29 to +8.1 ‰ SMOW) and very light with respect to hydrogen (δD -97 to -113 ‰) and indicate

  10. 75 FR 12713 - Airworthiness Directives; AVOX Systems and B/E Aerospace Oxygen Cylinders as Installed on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... proposed AD was prompted by the reported rupture of a high-pressure gaseous oxygen cylinder, which had...) This AD was prompted by the reported rupture of a high- pressure gaseous oxygen cylinder, which had... necessary oxygen supply for the flightcrew, and injury to cabin occupants or other support personnel. DATES...

  11. Operating System Concepts for Reconfigurable Computing: Review and Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Eckert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key future challenges for reconfigurable computing is to enable higher design productivity and a more easy way to use reconfigurable computing systems for users that are unfamiliar with the underlying concepts. One way of doing this is to provide standardization and abstraction, usually supported and enforced by an operating system. This article gives historical review and a summary on ideas and key concepts to include reconfigurable computing aspects in operating systems. The article also presents an overview on published and available operating systems targeting the area of reconfigurable computing. The purpose of this article is to identify and summarize common patterns among those systems that can be seen as de facto standard. Furthermore, open problems, not covered by these already available systems, are identified.

  12. Integrated management systems: survey results from Portuguese companies and experts

    OpenAIRE

    Domingues, Pedro; Sampaio, Paulo; Arezes, P.

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation of several certifiable sub-systems among different type of organizations lead companies to excessive departmentalization. This fact turned out to be, due to several reasons pointed out by numerous authors, disadvantageous. Hence, organizations optioned by integration of their management sub-systems. Academic awareness to this sociological event is mainly related with the fact of integration of management systems (IMS) had been performed empirically, that is, by each organiza...

  13. A Survey on Forced Oscillations in Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorbaniparvar, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Oscillations in a power system can be categorized into free oscillations and forced oscillations. Many algorithms have been developed to estimate the modes of free oscillations in a power system. Recently, forced oscillations caught many attentions. Techniques are proposed to detect forced oscillations and locate their sources. In addition, forced oscillations may have negative impact on the estimation of mode and mode-shape if they are not properly accounted for. To improve the power system ...

  14. Operating System Concepts for Reconfigurable Computing: Review and Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Eckert; Dominik Meyer; Jan Haase; Bernd Klauer

    2016-01-01

    One of the key future challenges for reconfigurable computing is to enable higher design productivity and a more easy way to use reconfigurable computing systems for users that are unfamiliar with the underlying concepts. One way of doing this is to provide standardization and abstraction, usually supported and enforced by an operating system. This article gives historical review and a summary on ideas and key concepts to include reconfigurable computing aspects in operating systems. The arti...

  15. Ion Microprobe Measurements of Comet Dust and Implications for Models of Oxygen Isotope Heterogeneity in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, C. J.; McKeegan, K. D.; Keller, L. P.; Messenger, S.

    2017-01-01

    ]. These studies have been largely focused on the coarse-grained terminal particles extracted from aerogel collectors; hypervelocity capture into aerogel resulted in fine-grained material that was melted and intimately mixed with the SiO2 capture medium. Hypervelocity impacts into Al foils surrounding the aerogel tiles produced impact craters that captured material from the impactor without significant oxygen contamination, allowing for analysis of both the coarse and fine-grained components of the Wild 2 dust. To date, no particles with definitive hydrated mineralogy have been observed in Stardust samples, though this may be a result of alteration due to hypervelocity capture. High-carbon hydrated CS-IDPs have been suggested as resulting from the aqueous alteration of CP-IDPs [7], and may retain evidence for interaction with O-17, O-18-enriched "cometary" water predicted by CO self-shielding. Here we present results of oxygen isotope measurements of twelve Stardust foil craters and four C-rich hydrated IDPs [8, 9], and discuss implications for models of oxygen isotope heterogeneity in the early solar system.

  16. Treatment of swine wastewater in continuous activated sludge systems under different dissolved oxygen conditions: Reactor operation and evaluation using modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waki, Miyoko; Yasuda, Tomoko; Fukumoto, Yasuyuki; Béline, Fabrice; Magrí, Albert

    2018-02-01

    Swine wastewater was treated in two continuously aerated activated sludge (AS) systems at high (AS1: 1.7-2.6 mg/L) and low (AS2: 0.04-0.08 mg/L) dissolved oxygen (DO), and at three temperatures (10, 20, and 30 °C). Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) removal was >94.8%. Meanwhile, total nitrogen (N) removal was significantly higher in AS2, at 64, 89, and 88%, than in AS1, at 12, 24, and 46%, for 10, 20, and 30 °C, respectively. The experimental data were considered in a simulation study using an AS model for BOD and N removal, which also included nitrite, free ammonia, free nitrous acid, and temperature. Simulations at high-DO showed that ammonium was partly oxidized into nitrate but not removed, whereas at low-DO ammonium was removed mainly through the nitrite shortcut in simultaneous nitrification-denitrification. This study demonstrates that treatment at low-DO is an effective method for removing N, and modelling a helpful tool for its optimization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Context-aware Recommender Systems for Learning: a Survey and Future Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbert, Katrien; Manouselis, Nikos; Xavier, Ochoa; Wolpers, Martin; Drachsler, Hendrik; Ivana, Bosnic; Erik, Duval

    2011-01-01

    Verbert, K., Manouselis, N., Xavier, O., Wolpers, M., Drachsler, H., Bosnic, I., & Duval, E. (accepted). Context-aware Recommender Systems for Learning: a Survey and Future Challenges. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies (TLT).

  18. [Design and implementation of data checking system for Chinese materia medica resources survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Ge, Xiao-Guang; Jin, Yan; Jing, Zhi-Xian; Qi, Yuan-Hua; Wang, Ling; Zhao, Yu-Ping; Wang, Wei; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2017-11-01

    The Chinese material medica resources (CMMR) national survey information management system has collected a large amount of data. To help dealing with data recheck, reduce the work of inside, improve the recheck of survey data from provincial and county level, National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medical has designed a data checking system for Chinese material medica resources survey based on J2EE technology, Java language, Oracle data base in accordance with the SOA framework. It includes single data check, check score, content manage, check the survey data census data with manual checking and automatic checking about census implementation plan, key research information, general survey information, cultivation of medicinal materials information, germplasm resources information the medicine information, market research information, traditional knowledge information, specimen information of this 9 aspects 20 class 175 indicators in two aspects of the quantity and quality. The established system assists in the completion of the data consistency and accuracy, pushes the county survey team timely to complete the data entry arrangement work, so as to improve the integrity, consistency and accuracy of the survey data, and ensure effective and available data, which lay a foundation for providing accurate data support for national survey of the Chinese material medica resources (CMMR) results summary, and displaying results and sharing. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  19. Software and control system for the VLT Survey Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schipani, P; Marty, L; Dall'Ora, M; D'Orsi, S; Argomedo, J; Arcidiacono, C; Farinato, J; Magrin, D; Ragazzoni, R; Umbriaco, G

    2013-01-01

    The VLT Survey Telescope (VST) has started the regular operations in 2011 after a successful commissioning at Cerro Paranal (Chile), the site which hosts the best facilities for optical astronomy operated by the European Southern Observatory (ESO). After a short description of the instrument, this paper mainly focuses on the telescope control software, which is in charge of the real-time control of the hardware and of the overall coordination of the operations, including pointing and tracking, active optics and presets. We describe the main features of the software implementation in the context of the ESO observatory standards, and the goals reached during the commissioning phase and in the first year of operations.

  20. Preliminary observations in systemic oxygen consumption during targeted temperature management after cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uber, Amy; Grossestreuer, Anne V; Ross, Catherine E; Patel, Parth V; Trehan, Ambica; Donnino, Michael W; Berg, Katherine M

    2018-06-01

    Limited data suggests low oxygen consumption (VO 2 ), driven by mitochondrial injury, is associated with mortality after cardiac arrest. Due to the challenges of measurement in the critically ill, post-arrest metabolism remains poorly characterized. We monitored VO 2 , carbon dioxide production (VCO 2 ) and the respiratory quotient (RQ) in post-arrest patients and explored associations with outcome. Using a gas exchange monitor, we measured continuous VO 2 and VCO 2 in post- arrest patients treated with targeted temperature management. We used area under the curve and medians over time to evaluate the association between VO 2 , VCO 2 , RQ and the VO 2 :lactate ratio with survival. In 17 patients, VO 2 in the first 12 h after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was associated with survival (median in survivors 3.35 mL/kg/min [2.98,3.88] vs. non-survivors 2.61 mL/kg/min [2.21,2.94], p = .039). This did not persist over 24 h. The VO 2 :lactate ratio was associated with survival (median in survivors 1.4 [IQR: 1.1,1.7] vs. non-survivors 0.8 [IQR: 0.6,1.2] p  0.7 (p = .131). VCO 2 was not associated with survival. There was a significant association between VO 2 and mortality in the first 12 h after ROSC, but not over 24 h. Lower VO 2: lactate ratio was associated with mortality. A large percentage of patients had RQs below physiologic norms. Further research is needed to explore whether these parameters could have true prognostic value or be a potential treatment target. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Trends in probabilistic power system reliability analysis - a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinema, B.W.; Gibescu, M.; vd Meijden, M.A.M.M.; Kling, W.L.; Sluis, van der L.

    2011-01-01

    The electric power system is continually in development. Many of the developments will lead to an increase in the stress on the power system. For example, the increasing need for electrical energy, the transition to a sustainable energy supply and the liberalization of the electricity market all put

  2. Zooplankton associated with the oxygen minimum zone system in the northern upwelling region of Chile during March 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano, Ruben; Hidalgo, Pamela; Krautz, Cristina

    2009-07-01

    Zooplankton in the coastal upwelling region off northern Chile may play a significant biogeochemical role by promoting carbon flux into the subsurface OMZ (oxygen minimum zone). This work identifies the dominant zooplankton species inhabiting the area influenced by the OMZ in March 2000 off Iquique (20°S, northern Chile). Abundance and vertical distribution studies revealed 17 copepod and 9 euphausiid species distributed between the surface and 600 m at four stations sampled both by day and by night. Some abundant species remained in the well-oxygenated upper layer (30 m), with no evidence of diel vertical migration, apparently restricted by a shallow (40-60 m) oxycline. Other species, however, were found closely associated with the OMZ. The large-sized copepod Eucalanus inermis was found below the oxycline and performed diel vertical migrations into the OMZ, whereas the very abundant Euphausia mucronata performed extensive diel vertical migrations between the surface waters and the core of the OMZ (200 m), even crossing it. A complete assessment of copepods and euphausiids revealed that the whole sampled water column (0-600 m) is occupied by distinct species having well-defined habitats, some of them within the OMZ. Ontogenetic migrations were evident in Eucalanidae and E. mucronata. Estimates of species biomass showed a substantial (>75% of total zooplankton biomass) daily exchange of C between the photic layer and the OMZ. Both E. inermis and E. mucronata can actively exchange about 37.8 g C m -2 d -1 between the upper well-oxygenated (0-60 m) layer and the deeper (60-600 m) OMZ layer. This migrant biomass may contribute about 7.2 g C m -2 d -1 to the OMZ system through respiration, mortality, and production of fecal pellets within the OMZ. This movement of zooplankton in and out of the OMZ, mainly as a result of the migratory behavior of E. mucronata, suggests a very efficient mechanism for introducing large amounts of freshly produced carbon into the OMZ

  3. ResDE Two-Component Regulatory System Mediates Oxygen Limitation-Induced Biofilm Formation by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuan; Zhang, Nan; Xia, Liming; Li, Qing; Shao, Jiahui; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2018-04-15

    Efficient biofilm formation and root colonization capabilities facilitate the ability of beneficial plant rhizobacteria to promote plant growth and antagonize soilborne pathogens. Biofilm formation by plant-beneficial Bacillus strains is triggered by environmental cues, including oxygen deficiency, but the pathways that sense these environmental signals and regulate biofilm formation have not been thoroughly elucidated. In this study, we showed that the ResDE two-component regulatory system in the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain SQR9 senses the oxygen deficiency signal and regulates biofilm formation. ResE is activated by sensing the oxygen limitation-induced reduction of the NAD + /NADH pool through its PAS domain, stimulating its kinase activity, and resulting in the transfer of a phosphoryl group to ResD. The phosphorylated ResD directly binds to the promoter regions of the qoxABCD and ctaCDEF operons to improve the biosynthesis of terminal oxidases, which can interact with KinB to activate biofilm formation. These results not only revealed the novel regulatory function of the ResDE two-component system but also contributed to the understanding of the complicated regulatory network governing Bacillus biofilm formation. This research may help to enhance the root colonization and the plant-beneficial efficiency of SQR9 and other Bacillus rhizobacteria used in agriculture. IMPORTANCE Bacillus spp. are widely used as bioinoculants for plant growth promotion and disease suppression. The exertion of their plant-beneficial functions is largely dependent on their root colonization, which is closely related to their biofilm formation capabilities. On the other hand, Bacillus is the model bacterium for biofilm study, and the process and molecular network of biofilm formation are well characterized (B. Mielich-Süss and D. Lopez, Environ Microbiol 17:555-565, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.12527; L. S. Cairns, L. Hobley, and

  4. Influence of an oxygen-inhibited layer on enamel bonding of dental adhesive systems: surface free-energy perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueta, Hirofumi; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Oouchi, Hajime; Sai, Keiichi; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2016-02-01

    The influence of an oxygen-inhibited layer (OIL) on the shear bond strength (SBS) to enamel and surface free-energy (SFE) of adhesive systems was investigated. The adhesive systems tested were Scotchbond Multipurpose (SM), Clearfil SE Bond (CS), and Scotchbond Universal (SU). Resin composite was bonded to bovine enamel surfaces to determine the SBS, with and without an OIL, of adhesives. The SFE of cured adhesives with and without an OIL were determined by measuring the contact angles of three test liquids. There were no significant differences in the mean SBS of SM and CS specimens with or without an OIL; however, the mean SBS of SU specimens with an OIL was significantly higher than that of SU specimens without an OIL. For all three systems, the mean total SFE (γS), polarity force (γSp), and hydrogen bonding force (γSh) values of cured adhesives with an OIL were significantly higher than those of cured adhesives without an OIL. The results of this study indicate that the presence of an OIL promotes higher SBS of a single-step self-etch adhesive system, but not of a three-step or a two-step self-etch primer system. The SFE values of cured adhesives with an OIL were significantly higher than those without an OIL. The SFE characteristics of the OIL of adhesives differed depending on the type of adhesive. © 2015 Eur J Oral Sci.

  5. [Measurement and analysis of micropore aeration system's oxygenating ability under operation condition in waste water treatment plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Shi, Han-Chang; Qiu, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Using the aeration pool in the fourth-stage at Wuxi Lucun Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) as experimental setup, off-gas method was selected to measure the oxygenating ability parameters of micropore aerators in a real WWTP operating condition and these values were compared with those in fresh water to evaluate the performance of the micropore aerators. Results showed that the micropore aerators which were distributed in different galleries of the aeration pool had significantly different oxygenating abilities under operation condition. The oxygenating ability of the micropore aerators distributed in the same gallery changed slightly during one day. Comparing with the oxygenating ability in fresh water, it decreased a lot in the real aeration pool, in more details, under the real WWTP operating condition, the values of oxygen transfer coefficient K(La) oxygenation capacity OC and oxygen utilization E(a) decreased by 43%, 57% and 76%, respectively.

  6. Photovoltaic battery & charge controller market & applications survey. An evaluation of the photovoltaic system market for 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, R.L.; Turpin, J.F.; Corey, G.P. [and others

    1996-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Battery Analysis and Evaluation Department and the Photovoltaic System Assistance Center of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) initiated a U.S. industry-wide PV Energy Storage System Survey. Arizona State University (ASU) was contracted by SNL in June 1995 to conduct the survey. The survey included three separate segments tailored to: (a) PV system integrators, (b) battery manufacturers, and (c) PV charge controller manufacturers. The overall purpose of the survey was to: (a) quantify the market for batteries shipped with (or for) PV systems in 1995, (b) quantify the PV market segments by battery type and application for PV batteries, (c) characterize and quantify the charge controllers used in PV systems, (d) characterize the operating environment for energy storage components in PV systems, and (e) estimate the PV battery market for the year 2000. All three segments of the survey were mailed in January 1996. This report discusses the purpose, methodology, results, and conclusions of the survey.

  7. An integrated system for conducting radiological surveys of contaminated sites - 16312

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, Jay P.; Rogers, Donna M.; Waggoner, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated detection system that has been developed to conduct radiological surveys of sites suspected of contamination of materials such as depleted uranium. This system utilizes cerium activated lanthanum bromide and thallium activated sodium iodide gamma detectors and can be easily adapted to include units for detecting neutrons. The detection system includes software controlling the collection of radiological spectra and GPS data. Two different platforms are described for conducting surveys, a modified zero turn radius (ZTR) mower and a three-wheeled cart that is manually pushed. The detection system software controlling data collection has components that facilitate completing a grid-less survey on user specified spacings. Another package confirms that all data quality activities (calibrations, etc.) are conducted prior to beginning the survey and also reviews data to identify areas that have been missed for which data quality falls below user designated parameters. Advanced digital signal processing algorithms are used to enhance the interpretation of spectra for conducting background subtractions and for mapping. Data from radiation detection instruments and GPS antennae are merged and made compatible with mapping using Geosoft Oasis montaj software. A summary of system performance during field-testing is included in the paper. This includes survey rate, detection limits, duty cycle, supporting ancillary equipment/material, and manpower requirements. The rate of false positives and false negatives is discussed with the benefits of surveys conducted using synergetic detection systems such as electromagnetic induction imaging. (authors)

  8. Controllability Problem of Fractional Neutral Systems: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Babiarz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article presents recent results of controllability problem of dynamical systems in infinite-dimensional space. Generally speaking, we describe selected controllability problems of fractional order systems, including approximate controllability of fractional impulsive partial neutral integrodifferential inclusions with infinite delay in Hilbert spaces, controllability of nonlinear neutral fractional impulsive differential inclusions in Banach space, controllability for a class of fractional neutral integrodifferential equations with unbounded delay, controllability of neutral fractional functional equations with impulses and infinite delay, and controllability for a class of fractional order neutral evolution control systems.

  9. Library Systems: FY 2013 Public Libraries Survey (Administrative Entity)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Find key information on library systems around the United States.These data include imputed values for libraries that did not submit information in the FY 2013 data...

  10. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...

  11. Library Systems: FY 2012 Public Libraries Survey (Administrative Entity)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Find key information on library systems around the United States.These data include imputed values for libraries that did not submit information in the FY 2012 data...

  12. Library Systems: FY 2014 Public Libraries Survey (Administrative Entity Data)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Find key information on library systems around the United States.These data include imputed values for libraries that did not submit information in the FY 2014 data...

  13. Office of Coast Survey's Automated Wreck and Obstruction Information System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Automated Wreck and Obstruction Information System (AWOIS) is an automated file that contains information on wrecks and obstructions, and other significant...

  14. SDDOT'S enhanced pavement management system : visual distress survey manual [2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-11

    In 1993, the South Dakota Department of Transportation initiated the Research Project SD93-14, Enhancement of South Dakotas Pavement Management System. As the Research Project progressed, it was determined that to better evaluate the condition of ...

  15. A LITERATURE SURVEY ON RECOMMENDATION SYSTEM BASED ON SENTIMENTAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Achin Jain; Vanita Jain; Nidhi Kapoor

    2016-01-01

    Recommender systems have grown to be a critical research subject after the emergence of the first paper on collaborative filtering in the Nineties. Despite the fact that educational studies on recommender systems, has extended extensively over the last 10 years, there are deficiencies in the complete literature evaluation and classification of that research. Because of this, we reviewed articles on recommender structures, and then classified those based on sentiment analysis. The articles are...

  16. A Survey Of Top 10 Open Source Learning Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed R. Elabnody

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Open Source LMSs are fully flexible and customizable so they can be designed in line with your schoolorganizations brand image. Open Source LMSs can also be converted to social learning platforms. You can create an online community through your LMS. This paper describes the most important features in learning management systems LMS that are critical to compare and contrast depend on your system requirements. Also represents a multiple LMS providers that are designed to use in university environment.

  17. A survey of systems for massive stream analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Maninder Pal; Hoque, Mohammad A.; Tarkoma, Sasu

    2016-01-01

    The immense growth of data demands switching from traditional data processing solutions to systems, which can process a continuous stream of real time data. Various applications employ stream processing systems to provide solutions to emerging Big Data problems. Open-source solutions such as Storm, Spark Streaming, and S4 are the attempts to answer key stream processing questions. The recent introduction of real time stream processing commercial solutions such as Amazon Kinesis, IBM Infospher...

  18. Development of a Robust, Highly Efficient Oxygen-Carbon Monoxide Cogeneration System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This small business innovation research is intended to develop a long-life, highly efficient O2-CO cogeneration system to support NASA's endeavors to pursue...

  19. Dissolved Oxygen and Temperature - Optimization of High Intensity Flow-Through Systems for Marine Fish Production

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Land-based marine culture systems offer many advantages over netpens. This includes reduced siting problems, ability to disinfect the influent water, and better...

  20. Design considerations for a 10-kW integrated hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberecht, M. A.; Miller, T. B.; Rieker, L. L.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D.

    1984-01-01

    Integration of an alkaline fuel cell subsystem with an alkaline electrolysis subsystem to form a regenerative fuel cell (RFC) system for low earth orbit (LEO) applications characterized by relatively high overall round trip electrical efficiency, long life, and high reliability is possible with present state of the art technology. A hypothetical 10 kW system computer modeled and studied based on data from ongoing contractual efforts in both the alkaline fuel cell and alkaline water electrolysis areas. The alkaline fuel cell technology is under development utilizing advanced cell components and standard Shuttle Orbiter system hardware. The alkaline electrolysis technology uses a static water vapor feed technique and scaled up cell hardware is developed. The computer aided study of the performance, operating, and design parameters of the hypothetical system is addressed.

  1. A continuous-flow system for measuring in vitro oxygen and nitrogen metabolism in separated stream communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prahl, C.; Jeppesen, E.; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    1991-01-01

    on the stream bank, consists of several macrophyte and sediment chambers equipped with a double-flow system that ensures an internal water velocity close to that in the stream and which, by continuously renewing the water, mimics diel fluctuation in stream temperature and water chemistry. Water temperature...... production and dark respiration occurred at similar rates (6-7g O2 m-2 day-1), net balance being about zero. Inorganic nitrogen was consumed both by the sediment and to a greater extent by the macrophytes, the diel average consumption being 1g N m-2 day-1. 3. The sum of the activity in the macrophyte...... and sediment chambers corresponded to the overall activity of the stream section as determined by upstream/downstream mass balance. This indicates that the results obtained with the continuous-flow chambers realistically describe the oxygen and the nitrogen metabolism of the stream....

  2. Practical use of chemical probes for reactive oxygen species produced in biological systems by {gamma}-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Hee; Moon, Yu Ran; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jae-Sung [Radiation Research Division for Bio-technology, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang-Soo [Crop Production and Technology Major, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae-Young [Bio-environmental Science Major, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin-Hong [Radiation Research Division for Bio-technology, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jhongkim@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-05-15

    Application of chemical probes, for detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS), was tested during {gamma}-irradiation. The ethanol/{alpha}-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone (4-POBN) and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) were structurally stable enough to detect {sup {center_dot}}OH and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, increasingly generated by {gamma}-irradiation up to 1000 Gy. Interestingly, the production rate of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, but not {sup {center_dot}}OH, during {gamma}-irradiation, was significantly different between in vitro systems of lettuce and spinach. These results suggest that 4-POBN and DAB could be utilized as a semi-quantitative probe to quantify {sup {center_dot}}OH and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, produced by {gamma}-irradiation up to 1000 Gy.

  3. Elements of a decision support system for real-time management ofdissolved oxygen in the San Joaquin River deep water ship channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.; Jacobs, Karl; Chen, Carl W.; Stringfellow, WilliamT.

    2004-07-15

    A decision support system (DSS) has been designed and will be implemented over the next three years to assist in the control and management of episodes of low dissolved oxygen (DO) in a Deep Water Ship Channel (DWSC), located near Stockton, California. The DSS integrates three information technology functions. The first part is the collection and management of data on flow, pollution loads and water quality. The second part is the simulation model which can forecast the dissolved oxygen sag in the DWSC and determine management actions necessary to improve dissolved oxygen concentrations. The third part is the graphical user interface, which facilitates the computer simulations and posting of the forecasted dissolved oxygen and remedial measures to a stakeholder group for implementations.

  4. Survey on the virtual commissioning of manufacturing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi G. Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews and identifies issues in the application of virtual commissioning technology for automated manufacturing systems. While the real commissioning of a manufacturing system involves a real plant system and a real controller, the virtual commissioning deals with a virtual plant model and a real controller. The expected benefits of virtual commissioning are the reduction of debugging and correction efforts during the subsequent real commissioning stage. However, it requires a virtual plant model and hence still requires significant amount time and efforts. Two main issues are identified, the physical model construction of a virtual device, and the logical model construction of a virtual device. This paper reviews the current literature related to the two issues and proposes future research directions to achieve the full utilization of virtual commissioning technology.

  5. Survey of Digital Feedback Systems in High Current Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teytelman, Dmitry

    2003-01-01

    In the last decade demand for brightness in synchrotron light sources and luminosity in circular colliders led to construction of multiple high current storage rings. Many of these new machines require feedback systems to achieve design stored beam currents. In the same time frame the rapid advances in the technology of digital signal processing allowed the implementation of these complex feedback systems. In this paper I concentrate on three applications of feedback to storage rings: orbit control in light sources, coupled-bunch instability control, and low-level RF control. Each of these applications is challenging in areas of processing bandwidth, algorithm complexity, and control of time-varying beam and system dynamics. I will review existing implementations as well as comment on promising future directions

  6. CaMn0.875Ti0.125O3 as oxygen carrier for chemical-looping combustion with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU)—Experiments in a continuously operating fluidized-bed reactor system

    KAUST Repository

    Rydén, Magnus

    2011-03-01

    Particles of the perovskite material CaMn0.875Ti0.125O3 has been examined as oxygen carrier for chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling, and for chemical-looping combustion of natural gas, by 70h of experiments in a circulating fluidized-bed reactor system. For the oxygen uncoupling experiments, it was found that the particles released O2 in gas phase at temperatures above 720°C when the fuel reactor was fluidized with CO2. The effect increased with increased temperature, and with the O2 partial pressure in the air reactor. At 950°C, the O2 concentration in the outlet from the fuel reactor was in the order of 4.0vol%, if the particles were oxidized in air. For the chemical-looping combustion experiments the combustion efficiency with standard process parameters was in the order of 95% at 950°C, using 1000kg oxygen carrier per MW natural gas, of which about 30% was located in the fuel reactor. Reducing the fuel flow so that 1900kg oxygen carrier per MW natural gas was used improved the combustion efficiency to roughly 99.8%. The particles retained their physical properties, reactivity with CH4 and ability to release gas-phase O2 reasonably well throughout the testing period and there were no problems with the fluidization or formation of solid carbon in the reactor. X-ray diffraction showed that the particles underwent changes in their phase composition though. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Expert system verification and validation survey. Delivery 3: Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose is to determine the state-of-the-practice in Verification and Validation (V and V) of Expert Systems (ESs) on current NASA and Industry applications. This is the first task of a series which has the ultimate purpose of ensuring that adequate ES V and V tools and techniques are available for Space Station Knowledge Based Systems development. The strategy for determining the state-of-the-practice is to check how well each of the known ES V and V issues are being addressed and to what extent they have impacted the development of ESs.

  8. Statistical Physics of Economic Systems: a Survey for Open Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yong; Chen, Xun

    2012-05-01

    We extend the theoretical framework of an independent economy developed by Tao [Phys. Rev. E 82 (2010) 036118] so as to include multiple economies. Since the starting point of our framework is on the basis of the theory of the competitive markets of traditional economics, this framework shall be suitable for any free market. Our study shows that integration of world economies can decrease trade friction among economic systems, but may also cause a global economic crisis whenever economy disequilibrium occurs in any one of these economic systems.

  9. Design considerations for a 10-KW integrated hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoberecht, M.A.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O.D.; Miller, T.B.; Rieker, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    Integration of an alkaline fuel cell subsystem with an alkaline electrolysis subsystem to form a regenerative fuel cell (RFC) system for low-earth-orbit (LEO) applications characterized by relatively high overall round-trip electrical efficiency, long life, and high reliability is possible with present state-of-the-art technology. A hypothetical 10-kW system is being computer modeled and studied based on data from ongoing contractual efforts in both the alkaline fuel cell and alkaline water electrolysis areas. The alkaline fuel cell technology is being developed under an NASA-LeRC program with United Technologies Corporation (UTC), utilizing advanced cell components and standard Shuttle-Orbiter system hardware. The alkaline electrolysis technology is that of Life Systems, Inc. (LSI), which uses a static water vapor feed technique and scaled-up cell hardware being developed under an NASA-LeRC program. This paper addresses the computeraided study of the performance, operating, and design parameters of the hypothetical system

  10. Component and System Sensitivity Considerations for Design of a Lunar ISRU Oxygen Production Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linne, Diane L.; Gokoglu, Suleyman; Hegde, Uday G.; Balasubramaniam, Ramaswamy; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo

    2009-01-01

    Component and system sensitivities of some design parameters of ISRU system components are analyzed. The differences between terrestrial and lunar excavation are discussed, and a qualitative comparison of large and small excavators is started. The effect of excavator size on the size of the ISRU plant's regolith hoppers is presented. Optimum operating conditions of both hydrogen and carbothermal reduction reactors are explored using recently developed analytical models. Design parameters such as batch size, conversion fraction, and maximum particle size are considered for a hydrogen reduction reactor while batch size, conversion fraction, number of melt zones, and methane flow rate are considered for a carbothermal reduction reactor. For both reactor types the effect of reactor operation on system energy and regolith delivery requirements is presented.

  11. Control oriented modeling of ejector in anode gas recirculation solid oxygen fuel cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yinhai; Li Yanzhong; Cai Wenjian

    2011-01-01

    A one-equation model is proposed for fuel ejector in anode gas recirculation solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. Firstly, the fundamental governing equations are established by employing the thermodynamic, fluid dynamic principles and chemical constraints inside the ejector; secondly, the one-equation model is derived by using the parameter analysis and lumped-parameter method. Finally, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique is employed to obtain the source data for determining the model parameters. The effectiveness of the model is studied under a wide range of operation conditions. The effect of ejector performance on the anode gas recirculation SOFC system is also discussed. The presented model, which only contains four constant parameters, is useful in real-time control and optimization of fuel ejector in the anode gas recirculation SOFC system.

  12. A Survey of Indoor Positioning Systems for Wireless Personal Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Y.; Lo, A.; Niemegeers, I.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, indoor positioning systems (IPSs) have been designed to provide location information of persons and devices. The position information enables location-based protocols for user applications. Personal networks (PNs) are designed to meet the users' needs and interconnect users' devices

  13. Thematic survey of subsurface drainage systems in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tlapáková, L.; Žaloudík, J.; Kolejka, Jaromír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2016), s. 55-65 ISSN 1744-5647 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : subsurface drainage system * remote sensing * image interpretation * drainage recognition and mapping Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2016 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17445647.2016.1259129?scroll=top&needAccess=true

  14. Survey of computer systems usage in southeastern Nigeria | Opara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The shift from industrial age (17th Century) to information age (21st Century) has led to information explosion in this 21st century. Therefore, this has resulted in tremendous advancement in Computer Systems Technology (CST), software engineering and telecommunications. Also, the resultant radical changes as well as ...

  15. Traffic control and intelligent vehicle highway systems: a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baskar, L.D.; Schutter, B. de; Hellendoorn, J.; Papp, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic congestion in highway networks is one of the main issues to be addressed by today's traffic management schemes. Automation combined with the increasing market penetration of on-line communication, navigation and advanced driver assistance systems will ultimately result in intelligent vehicle

  16. A Framework to Survey the Energy Efficiency of Installed Motor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Prakash; Hasanbeigi, Ali; McKane, Aimee

    2013-08-01

    While motors are ubiquitous throughout the globe, there is insufficient data to properly assess their level of energy efficiency across regional boundaries. Furthermore, many of the existing data sets focus on motor efficiency and neglect the connected drive and system. Without a comprehensive survey of the installed motor system base, a baseline energy efficiency of a country or region’s motor systems cannot be developed. The lack of data impedes government agencies, utilities, manufacturers, distributers, and energy managers when identifying where to invest resources to capture potential energy savings, creating programs aimed at reducing electrical energy consumption, or quantifying the impacts of such programs. This paper will outline a data collection framework for use when conducting a survey under a variety of execution models to characterize motor system energy efficiency within a country or region. The framework is intended to standardize the data collected ensuring consistency across independently conducted surveys. Consistency allows for the surveys to be leveraged against each other enabling comparisons to motor system energy efficiencies from other regions. In creating the framework, an analysis of various motor driven systems, including compressed air, pumping, and fan systems, was conducted and relevant parameters characterizing the efficiency of these systems were identified. A database using the framework will enable policymakers and industry to better assess the improvement potential of their installed motor system base particularly with respect to other regions, assisting in efforts to promote improvements to the energy efficiency of motor driven systems.

  17. A SURVEY OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL RISK MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SETHI Narayan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rising global competition, increasing deregulation, and introduction of innovative products have pushed financial risk management to the forefront of today's financial landscape. Identification of different types of risks and effective management of these risks in the international financial system would help to alleviate crisis, financial losses and also helpful to the long term success of all the financial institutions. The present study aims to analyze different types of risk management strategies and throws some light on challenges and opportunities regarding implementation of Basel-II in international financial system. The present paper also attempts to discuss the different methods and techniques used to measure financial risk management. There are three types of risk faced by all financial institutions: market risk, credit risk and operational risk. In commercial banking, credit risk is the biggest risk; in investment banking, its market risk; and in asset management, it’s operational risk.

  18. A survey of visualization systems for network security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiravi, Hadi; Shiravi, Ali; Ghorbani, Ali A

    2012-08-01

    Security Visualization is a very young term. It expresses the idea that common visualization techniques have been designed for use cases that are not supportive of security-related data, demanding novel techniques fine tuned for the purpose of thorough analysis. Significant amount of work has been published in this area, but little work has been done to study this emerging visualization discipline. We offer a comprehensive review of network security visualization and provide a taxonomy in the form of five use-case classes encompassing nearly all recent works in this area. We outline the incorporated visualization techniques and data sources and provide an informative table to display our findings. From the analysis of these systems, we examine issues and concerns regarding network security visualization and provide guidelines and directions for future researchers and visual system developers.

  19. Thematic survey of subsurface drainage systems in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tlapáková, L.; Žaloudík, Jiří; Kolejka, Jaromír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2017), s. 55-65 ISSN 1744-5647 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:68145535 Keywords : subsurface drainage system * remote sensing * image interpretation * drainage recognition and mapping Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality; DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography (UGN-S) OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7); Physical geography (UGN-S) Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2016

  20. Survey of thorium utilization in power reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, M.H.; Schleifer, P.; Dahlberg, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    It is clear that thorium-fueled thermal power reactor systems based on current technology can play a vital role in serving present and long-term energy needs. Advanced thorium converters and thermal breeders can provide an expanded resource base from which the world's growing energy demands can be met. Utilization of a symbiotic system of fast breeders and thorium-fueled thermal reactors can be particularly effective in providing low cost power while conserving uranium resources. Breeder reactors are characterized by high capital costs and very low fuel costs since they produce more fuel than they consume. This excess fuel can be used to fuel thermal converter reactors whose capital costs are low. This symbiosis is optimized when 233 U is bred in the fast breeders and then used to fuel high-conversion-ratio thermal converter reactors operating on the thorium-uranium fuel cycle. The thorium-cycle HTGR, after undergoing more than fifteen years of development in both the United States and Europe, provides for the optimum utilization of our limited uranium resources. Other thermal reactor systems, previously operating on the uranium cycle, also show potential in their capability to utilize the thorium cycle effectively

  1. Shutter heating system of Antarctic bright star survey telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Dong, Shucheng; Jiang, Fengxin; Zhang, Hongfei; Wang, Jian

    2016-07-01

    A heat preservation system for mechanical shutter in Antarctic is introduced in the paper. The system consists of the heat preservation chamber, the host controller STM32F103C8T6 with peripheral circuit and the control algorithm. The whole design is carried out on the basis of the low temperature requirement, including the cavity structure and thermal insulation. The heat preservation chamber is used to keep the shutter warm and support the weight of the camera. Using PT100 as the temperature sensor, the signal processing circuit converts the temperature to the voltage which is then digitized by the 12 bit ADC in the STM32. The host controller transforms the voltage data into temperature, and through the tuning of the Fussy PID algorithm which controls the duty cycle of the MOSFET, the temperature control of chamber is realized. The System has been tested in the cryogenic environment for a long time, with characteristic of low temperature resistance, small volume, high accuracy of temperature control as well as remote control and detection.

  2. [Design and implementation of data reporting system for Chinese materia medica resources survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Ge, Xiao-Guang; Jing, Zhi-Xian; Wang, Ling; Zhao, Yu-Ping; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2017-11-01

    The collection, summary and sharing of all kinds of survey data are one of the main tasks and achievements in the national census of Chinese materia medica resources organized and implemented by the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine. It is a key link in the implementation of the national census of Chinese materia medica resources. Based on the client / server architecture, the data reporting system for Chinese materia medica resources survey has been established for reporting system application model of geospatial data service based on Web implementation, through the SOA framework, to achieve the data collection summary of the seven aspects of the local data configuration, data reporting, data verification, data reporting, PDA data import and export, APP data import, track instrument data import. The system services include the general investigation, the focus of investigation, specimen information, herbs sample information, market research, germplasm survey, traditional knowledge survey of these seven aspects of the 312 indicators of the report, serving the Chinese materia medica resource survey of field survey data collection and internal data collation. The system provides the technical support for the national census of Chinese materia medica resources, improves the efficiency of the census of Chinese materia medica resources, and is conducive to the long-term preservation of the data of Chinese materia medica resources census, the transformation and sharing of the results. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. The development and initial assessment of the strategy and leadership systems capability evaluation survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, Cheryl D; Bokowy, Kay L; Horblyuk, Ruslan; Zisman, Robert S; McLeod, Lori D; Brown, T Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Hospital management and leadership systems are associated with organizational success and quality care. The Strategy and Leadership Systems Capability Evaluation (CE) survey was developed by GE Healthcare to assess management and leadership systems at health care institutions, serve as a benchmark for improvement, and measure progress. To assess the psychometric properties of the 29-item CE survey, including the factor structure, scoring algorithm, reliability, and discriminant validity, an online survey was completed by 3450 employees at 15 US hospitals. Of these employees, 609 worked at a hospital where a leadership and management intervention occurred after the initial survey administration. Data were also collected on job level, number of hospital beds, hospital ownership, location, community type, and the implementation of hospital interventions. Item response frequencies showed no floor or ceiling effects and limited missing data. Interitem correlations were strong without obvious redundancies, and factor analysis suggested a unidimensional scale. The resulting scale had strong internal consistency and was able to discriminate among known groups. The CE survey was developed to evaluate management and leadership systems at health care institutions. This study provides psychometric evidence in support of the reliability, validity, and scoring structure of this survey.

  4. Tuning metal–graphene interaction by non-metal intercalation: a case study of the graphene/oxygen/Ni (1 1 1) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wei-Bing; Chen, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Epitaxial growth of graphene on transition metal surfaces has been proposed as one of the most promising methods for large-scale preparation of high-quality graphene. However, the presence of the substrate could significantly affect the intrinsic electronic structure of graphene and intercalation of metals is an established route for decoupling the graphene from the substrate. Taking a graphene/Ni(1 1 1) surface as an example, we suggest reactive oxygen as an effective intercalation element to recover the linear dispersion of graphene based on density functional theory calculation, in which vdW interactions are treated using the optB88-vdW functional. The possible intercalation configurations at different coverage are considered and the geometry and electronic structure are analyzed in detail. Our results indicate that the energy favorable structures change from top-fcc to bridge-top configuration after oxygen intercalation and the binding between the graphene and the O/Ni(1 1 1) substrate becomes stronger at high oxygen coverage even than pure Ni(1 1 1) substrate. Most interestingly, the electronic structure of pristine graphene is found to be almost restored, especially for the bridge-top configuration after oxygen intercalation, and the Dirac points move towards the high energy region relative to the Fermi level. A graphene/oxygen/Ni (1 1 1) system is thus suggested as a p-type doped strongly bound Dirac system. Detailed analysis using projected energy band and differential charge density indicates that the intercalated oxygen atoms react with the Ni (1 1 1) surface strongly, which not only blocks the strong interaction between Ni and graphene but also passivates oxygen 2p states. The intercalation mechanisms distinguished from the conventional metal intercalation will be useful to understand other complex intercalation systems. (paper)

  5. Development of bovine embryos cultured in CR1aa and IVD101 media using different oxygen tensions and culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somfai, Tamás; Inaba, Yasushi; Aikawa, Yoshio; Ohtake, Masaki; Kobayashi, Shuji; Konishi, Kazuyuki; Nagai, Takashi; Imai, Kei

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to optimise the culture conditions for the in vitro production of bovine embryos. The development of in vitro fertilised bovine oocytes in CR1aa supplemented with 5% calf serum and IVD101 culture media were compared using traditional microdrops and Well of the Well (WOW) culture systems either under 5% or 20% oxygen tension. After 7 days of culture, a significantly higher blastocyst formation rate was obtained for embryos cultured in CR1aa medium compared to those cultured in IVD101, irrespective of O2 tensions and culture systems. The blastocyst formation in IVD101 was suppressed under 20% O2 compared to 5% O2 . Despite their similar total cell numbers, higher rates of inner cell mass (ICM) cells were observed in blastocysts developed in IVD101 medium than in those developed in CR1aa, irrespective of O2 tensions. There was no significant difference in blastocyst formation, total, ICM and trophectoderm (TE) cell numbers between embryos obtained by microdrop and WOW culture systems irrespective of the culture media and O2 tensions used. In conclusion, CR1aa resulted in higher blastocyst formation rates irrespective of O2 tension, whereas IVD101 supported blastocyst formation only under low O2 levels but enhanced the proliferation of ICM cells.

  6. [Startup, stable operation and process failure of EBPR system under the low temperature and low dissolved oxygen condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Juan; Li, Lu; Yu, Xiao-Jun; Wei, Xue-Fen; Liu, Juan-Li

    2015-02-01

    A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was started up and operated with alternating anaerobic/oxic (An/O) to perform enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) under the condition of 13-16 degrees C. The results showed that under the condition of low temperature, the EBPR system was successfully started up in a short time (<6 d). The reactor achieved a high and stable phosphorus removal performance with an influent phosphate concentration of 20 mg x L(-1) and the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of 2 mg x L(-1). The effluent phosphate concentration was lower than 0.5 mg x L(-1). It was found that decreasing DO had an influence on the steady operation of EBPR system. As DO concentration of aerobic phase decreased from 2 mg x L(-1) to 1 mg x L(-1), the system could still perform EBPR and the phosphorus removal efficiency was greater than 97.4%. However, the amount of phosphate released during anaerobic phase was observed to decrease slightly compared with that of 2 mg x L(-1) DO condition. Moreover, the phosphorus removal performance of the system deteriorated immediately and the effluent phosphate concentration couldn't meet the national integrated wastewater discharge standard when DO concentration was further lowered to 0.5 mg x L(-1). The experiments of increasing DO to recover phosphorus removal performance of the EBPR suggested the process failure resulted from low DO was not reversible in the short-term. It was also found that the batch tests of anoxic phosphorus uptake using nitrite and nitrate as electron acceptors had an impact on the stable operation of EBPR system, whereas the resulting negative influence could be recovered within 6 cycles. In addition, the mixed liquid suspended solids (MLSS) of the EBPR system remained stable and the sludge volume index (SVI) decreased to a certain extend in a long run, implying long-term low temperature and low DO condition favored the sludge sedimentation.

  7. Oxygen diffusion in glasses and ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolitsch, A.; Richter, E.; Wolf, M.

    1978-10-01

    A survey is given on the published works to study oxygen diffusion in glasses and ceramic materials in the last years. In the first part methods are described for the measurement of oxygen diffusion coefficients and in the second part the published reports on oxygen diffusion in glasses, ceramic and other oxides are discussed. The most important results are summarized in different tables. (author)

  8. A survey of chemicals inducing lipid peroxidation in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, H

    1987-01-01

    A great number of drugs and chemicals are reviewed which have been shown to stimulate lipid peroxidation in any biological system. The underlying mechanisms, as far as known, are also dealt with. Lipid peroxidation induced by iron ions, organic hydroperoxides, halogenated hydrocarbons, redox cycling drugs, glutathione depleting chemicals, ethanol, heavy metals, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and a number of miscellaneous compounds, e.g. hydrazines, pesticides, antibiotics, are mentioned. It is shown that lipid peroxidation is stimulated by many of these compounds. However, quantitative estimates cannot be given yet and it is still impossible to judge the biological relevance of chemical-induced lipid peroxidation.

  9. A survey of core research in information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sidorova, Anna; Torres, Russell; Johnson, Vess

    2013-01-01

    The Information Systems (IS) discipline was founded on the intersection of computer science and organizational sciences, and produced a rich body of research on topics ranging from database design and the strategic role of IT to website design and online consumer behavior. In this book, the authors provide an introduction to the discipline, its development, and the structure of IS research, at a level that is appropriate for emerging and current IS scholars. Guided by a bibliometric study of all research articles published in eight premier IS research journals over a 20-year period, the author

  10. Real-Time Visualization System for Deep-Sea Surveying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote robotic exploration holds vast potential for gaining knowledge about extreme environments, which is difficult to be accessed by humans. In the last two decades, various underwater devices were developed for detecting the mines and mine-like objects in the deep-sea environment. However, there are some problems in recent equipment, like poor accuracy of mineral objects detection, without real-time processing, and low resolution of underwater video frames. Consequently, the underwater objects recognition is a difficult task, because the physical properties of the medium, the captured video frames, are distorted seriously. In this paper, we are considering use of the modern image processing methods to determine the mineral location and to recognize the mineral actually within a little computation complex. We firstly analyze the recent underwater imaging models and propose a novel underwater optical imaging model, which is much closer to the light propagation model in the underwater environment. In our imaging system, we remove the electrical noise by dual-tree complex wavelet transform. And then we solve the nonuniform illumination of artificial lights by fast guided trilateral bilateral filter and recover the image color through automatic color equalization. Finally, a shape-based mineral recognition algorithm is proposed for underwater objects detection. These methods are designed for real-time execution on limited-memory platforms. This pipeline is suitable for detecting underwater objects in practice by our experiences. The initial results are presented and experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed real-time visualization system.

  11. A Survey of Authentication Schemes in Telecare Medicine Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Umair; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Saleem, Kashif; Abbas, Haider; Orgun, Mehmet; Iqbal, Waseem; Aslam, Baber

    2017-01-01

    E-Healthcare is an emerging field that provides mobility to its users. The protected health information of the users are stored at a remote server (Telecare Medical Information System) and can be accessed by the users at anytime. Many authentication protocols have been proposed to ensure the secure authenticated access to the Telecare Medical Information System. These protocols are designed to provide certain properties such as: anonymity, untraceability, unlinkability, privacy, confidentiality, availability and integrity. They also aim to build a key exchange mechanism, which provides security against some attacks such as: identity theft, password guessing, denial of service, impersonation and insider attacks. This paper reviews these proposed authentication protocols and discusses their strengths and weaknesses in terms of ensured security and privacy properties, and computation cost. The schemes are divided in three broad categories of one-factor, two-factor and three-factor authentication schemes. Inter-category and intra-category comparison has been performed for these schemes and based on the derived results we propose future directions and recommendations that can be very helpful to the researchers who work on the design and implementation of authentication protocols.

  12. A survey on inspecting structures using robotic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randa Almadhoun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Advancements in robotics and autonomous systems are being deployed nowadays in many application domains such as search and rescue, industrial automation, domestic services and healthcare. These systems are developed to tackle tasks in some of the most challenging, labour intensive and dangerous environments. Inspecting structures (e.g. bridges, buildings, ships, wind turbines and aircrafts is considered a hard task for humans to perform and of critical importance since missing any details could affect the structure’s performance and integrity. Additionally, structure inspection is time and resource intensive and should be performed as efficiently and accurately as possible. Inspecting various structures has been reported in the literature using different robotic platforms to: inspect difficult to reach areas and detect various types of faults and anomalies. Typically, inspection missions involve performing three main tasks: coverage path planning, shape, model or surface reconstruction and the actual inspection of the structure. Coverage path planning ensures the generation of an optimized path that guarantees the complete coverage of the structure of interest in order to gather highly accurate information to be used for shape/model reconstruction. This article aims to provide an overview of the recent work and breakthroughs in the field of coverage path planning and model reconstruction, with focus on 3D reconstruction, for the purpose of robotic inspection.

  13. Impact of partial pressure of oxygen in blood samples on the performance of systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Christina; Baumstark, Annette; Pleus, Stefan; Haug, Cornelia; Tesar, Martina; Freckmann, Guido

    2014-03-01

    The partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in blood samples can affect glucose measurements with oxygen-sensitive systems. In this study, we assessed the influence of different pO2 levels on blood glucose (BG) measurements with five glucose oxidase (GOD) systems and one glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) system. All selected GOD systems were indicated by the manufacturers to be sensitive to increased oxygen content of the blood sample. Venous blood samples of 16 subjects (eight women, eight men; mean age, 52 years; three with type 1 diabetes, four with type 2 diabetes, and nine without diabetes) were collected. Aliquots of each sample were adjusted to the following pO2 values: ≤45 mm Hg, approximately 70 mm Hg, and ≥150 mm Hg. For each system, five consecutive measurements on each sample were performed using the same test strip lot. Relative differences between the mean BG value at a pO2 level of approximately 70 mm Hg, which was considered to be similar to pO2 values in capillary blood samples, and the mean BG value at pO2 levels ≤45 mm Hg and ≥150 mm Hg were calculated. The GOD systems showed mean relative differences between 11.8% and 44.5% at pO2 values ≤45 mm Hg and between -14.6% and -21.2% at pO2 values ≥150 mm Hg. For the GDH system, the mean relative differences were -0.3% and -0.2% at pO2 values ≤45 mm Hg and ≥150 mm Hg, respectively. The magnitude of the pO2 impact on BG measurements seems to vary among the tested oxygen-sensitive GOD systems. The pO2 range in which oxygen-sensitive systems operate well should be provided in the product information.

  14. Survey and evaluation of available thermal insulation materials for use on solar heating and cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    This is the final report of a survey and evaluation of insulation materials for use with components of solar heating and cooling systems. The survey was performed by mailing questionnaires to manufacturers of insulation materials and by conducting an extensive literature search to obtain data on relevant properties of various types of insulation materials. The study evaluated insulation materials for active and passive solar heating and cooling systems and for multifunction applications. Primary and secondary considerations for selecting insulation materials for various components of solar heating and cooling systems are presented.

  15. Regenerative Hydrogen-oxygen Fuel Cell-electrolyzer Systems for Orbital Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    Fuel cells have found application in space since Gemini. Over the years technology advances have been factored into the mainstream hardware programs. Performance levels and service lives have been gradually improving. More recently, the storage application for fuel cell-electrolyzer combinations are receiving considerable emphasis. The regenerative system application described here is part of a NASA Fuel Cell Program which was developed to advance the fuel cell and electrolyzer technology required to satisfy the identified power generation and energy storage need of the Agency for space transportation and orbital applications to the year 2000.

  16. Novel platform for ocean survey and autonomous sampling using multi-agent system

    OpenAIRE

    Taher, Tawfiq; Weymouth, G.D.; Varghese, Tony

    2013-01-01

    In-situ surveying and sampling of ocean environments provides critical data for laboratory work and oceanographic research. However, sampling a time-varying ocean field is often time and resource limited-meaning that samples often miss the features of interest. This paper presents a modular autonomous multi-agent robotic system which has been developed to accommodate a variety of research activities. This paper demonstrates the complementary capabilities of the agents by simultaneously survey...

  17. Linking a Medical User Survey to Management for Library Effectiveness: II, A Checkland Soft Systems Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brember, V. L.

    1985-01-01

    Presents Checkland's soft systems methodology, discusses it in terms of the systems approach, and illustrates how it was used to relate evidence of user survey to practical problems of library management. Difficulties in using methodology are described and implications for library management and information science research are presented. (8…

  18. Survey of real-time processing systems for big data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Lftikhar, Nadeem; Xie, Xike

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, real-time processing and analytics systems for big data–in the context of Business Intelligence (BI)–have received a growing attention. The traditional BI platforms that perform regular updates on daily, weekly or monthly basis are no longer adequate to satisfy the fast......-changing business environments. However, due to the nature of big data, it has become a challenge to achieve the real-time capability using the traditional technologies. The recent distributed computing technology, MapReduce, provides off-the-shelf high scalability that can significantly shorten the processing time...... for big data; Its open-source implementation such as Hadoop has become the de-facto standard for processing big data, however, Hadoop has the limitation of supporting real-time updates. The improvements in Hadoop for the real-time capability, and the other alternative real-time frameworks have been...

  19. A survey of camera error sources in machine vision systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatko, W. B.

    In machine vision applications, such as an automated inspection line, television cameras are commonly used to record scene intensity in a computer memory or frame buffer. Scene data from the image sensor can then be analyzed with a wide variety of feature-detection techniques. Many algorithms found in textbooks on image processing make the implicit simplifying assumption of an ideal input image with clearly defined edges and uniform illumination. The ideal image model is helpful to aid the student in understanding the principles of operation, but when these algorithms are blindly applied to real-world images the results can be unsatisfactory. This paper examines some common measurement errors found in camera sensors and their underlying causes, and possible methods of error compensation. The role of the camera in a typical image-processing system is discussed, with emphasis on the origination of signal distortions. The effects of such things as lighting, optics, and sensor characteristics are considered.

  20. Grid-connected photovoltaic power systems: survey of inverter and related protection equipments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, T

    2002-12-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 5 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme reports on a survey made on inverter and related protection equipment. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. Task 5 deals with issues concerning grid-interconnection and distributed PV power systems. This report summarises the data obtained from survey of recent inverter technology and inverter protection equipment for grid interconnected PV systems. The results are based on the surveys using a questionnaire to identify the current status of grid-interconnection inverters. This report is to serve as a reference for those interested in installing grid-connected PV systems, electric utility company personnel, manufacturers and researchers. The results of the survey are presented and discussed. Technical and financial data is reviewed and two appendices provide details on the results obtained and those institutions involved in the survey.

  1. Consumer assessment of healthcare providers and systems surgical care survey: benefits and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kristine A; Rhee, John S; Brereton, Jean M; Zema, Carla L; Witsell, David L

    2012-10-01

    To describe the feasibility and initial results of the implementation of a continuous quality improvement project using the newly available Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems Surgical Care Survey (S-CAHPS), in a small cohort of otolaryngology-head and neck surgery practices. Prospective observational study using a newly validated health care consumer survey. Two community-based and 2 university-based otolaryngology-head and neck surgery outpatient clinic practices. Fourteen board-certified otolaryngology, head and neck surgeons from 4 practice sites voluntarily participated in this project. All adult patients scheduled for surgery during a 12-month period were asked to complete the S-CAHPS survey through an electronic data capture (EDC) system 7 to 28 days after surgery. The surgeons were not directly involved in administration or collection of survey data. Three sites successfully implemented the S-CAHPS project. A 39.9% response rate was achieved for the cohort of surgical patients entered into the EDC system. While most patients rated their surgeons very high (mean of 9.5 or greater out of 10), subanalysis revealed there is variability among sites and surgeons in communication practices. From these data, a potential surgeon Quality Improvement report was developed that highlights priority areas to improve surgeon-patient rapport. The S-CAHPS survey can be successfully implemented in most otolaryngology practices, and our initial work holds promise for how the survey can be best deployed and analyzed for the betterment of both the surgeon and the patient.

  2. Implementation of New System for Oxygen Generation and Carbon Dioxide Removal =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavolos, Angelo Peter

    This research effort develops an integrated system for CO2 removal and O2 production. A unique material, dodeca-tungsto-phosphoric acid (H3PO4W12O3; henceforth referred to as DTPA) is mixed with tetra-ethyl-ortho-silicate Si(OC2H 5)4 or TEOS. This mixture exhibits unique properties of heat absorption and high electrical conductivity. In the system described herein, the DTPA resides within a cross linked arrangement of TEOS. The DTPA furnishes a source of O2, while the TEOS furnishes structural support for the large DTPA crystals. In addition, the large amount of H2O within the crystal also adsorbs CO2. It can also be cross-linked with other polymers such as polycarbonate, for different applications and properties such as flexible textiles. A set of isolated bench experiments were designed to test CO2 adsorption, O2 production, heat production, and voltage production were conducted to test the hypothesis that DTPA can provide CO2 adsorption, O2 generation, heat generation and electrical generation. Five experiments with this apparatus were conducted: (1) a mass balance experiment; (2) an X-ray diffraction experiment; (3) a photo spectroscopic experiment; (4) a calorimetric experiment; and (5) a dielectric experiment. Results illustrate that approximately 2880 grams of this material produces 576 grams of O2, and removes 1760 grams of CO2. The reaction also produces approximately 844 kJ/mole heat, and can supply 12.2 V potential over a period of 4.5 hours. The amount of unused material and the recycling ability suggests the usefulness of the technique to achieve between a 50-75% closed system. In addition, an experiment using 18O tracer demonstrated that approximately 20% of the O2 produced comes from processed CO2 adsorbed by the crystal, while the remaining 80% of the O2 produced comes from replaced O2 within the crystal itself. The device has multiple applications including environmental control and life support for aircraft cabins, space vehicle interiors

  3. Liquid Oxygen Rotating Friction Ignition Testing of Aluminum and Titanium with Monel and Inconel for Rocket Engine Propulsion System Contamination Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, S.; Rosales, Keisa R.; Stoltzfus, Joel M.

    2009-01-01

    Metallic contaminant was found in the liquid oxygen (LOX) pre-valve screen of the shuttle main engine propulsion system on two orbiter vehicles. To investigate the potential for an ignition, NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility performed (modified) rotating friction ignition testing in LOX. This testing simulated a contaminant particle in the low-pressure oxygen turbo pump (LPOTP) and the high-pressure oxygen turbo pump (HPOTP) of the shuttle main propulsion system. Monel(R) K-500 and Inconel(R) 718 samples represented the LPOTP and HPOTP materials. Aluminum foil tape and titanium foil represented the contaminant particles. In both the Monel(R) and Inconel(R) material configurations, the aluminum foil tape samples did not ignite after 30 s of rubbing. In contrast, all of the titanium foil samples ignited regardless of the rubbing duration or material configuration. However, the titanium foil ignitions did not propagate to the Monel and Inconel materials.

  4. Efficacy of oxygen-supplying capacity of Azolla in a controlled life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Deng, Sufang; Yang, Youquan; Huang, Yibing; Liu, Chongchu

    2012-02-01

    Azolla shows high growth and propagation rates, strong photosynthetic O2-releasing ability and high nutritional value. It is suitable as a salad vegetable and can be cultured on a multi-layered wet bed. Hence, it possesses potential as a fresh vegetable, and to release O2 and absorb CO2 in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System in space. In this study, we investigated the O2-providing characteristics of Azolla in a closed chamber under manned, controlled conditions to lay a foundation for use of Azolla as a biological component in ground simulation experiments for space applications. A closed test chamber, representing a Controlled Ecological Life Support System including an Azolla wet-culture device, was built to measure the changes in atmospheric O2 and CO2 concentrations inside the chamber in the presence of coexisting Azolla, fish and men. The amount of O2 consumed by fish was 0.0805-0.0831 L kg-1 h-1 and the level of CO2 emission was 0.0705-0.0736 L kg-1 h-1; O2 consumption by the two trial volunteers was 19.71 L h-1 and the volume of respiration-released CO2 was 18.90 L h-1. Under 7000-8000 Lx artificial light and Azolla wet-culture conditions, human and fish respiration and Azolla photosynthesis were complementary, thus the atmospheric O2 and CO2 concentrations inside chamber were maintained in equilibrium. The increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration in the closed chamber enhanced the net photosynthesis efficiency of the Azolla colony. This study showed that Azolla has strong photosynthetic O2-releasing ability, which equilibrates the O2 and CO2 concentrations inside the chamber in favor of human survival and verifies the potential of Azolla for space applications.

  5. A Survey on Content Adaptation Systems towards Energy Consumption Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Norasri Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability of heterogeneous devices has rapidly changed the way people access the World Wide Web that includes rich content applications such as video streaming, 3D games, video conferencing, and mobile TV. However, most of these devices' (i.e., mobile phone, PDA, smartphone, and tablet capabilities differ in terms of built-in software and library (what they can display, display size (how the content appears, and battery supply (how long the content can be displayed. In order for the digital contents to fit the target device, content adaptation is required. There have been many projects focused on energy-aware-based content adaptation that have been designed with different goals and approaches. This paper reviews some of the representative content adaptation solutions that have been proposed during the last few years, in relation to energy consumption focusing on wireless multimedia streaming in mobile devices. Also, this paper categorizes the research work according to different classifications of multimedia content adaptation requirements. In addition, we discuss some energy-related challenges content adaptation systems.

  6. New Advances and Challenges of Fall Detection Systems: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Xu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Falling, as one of the main harm threats to the elderly, has drawn researchers’ attentions and has always been one of the most valuable research topics in the daily health-care for the elderly in last two decades. Before 2014, several researchers reviewed the development of fall detection, presented issues and challenges, and navigated the direction for the study in the future. With smart sensors and Internet of Things (IoT developing rapidly, this field has made great progress. However, there is a lack of a review and discussion on novel sensors, technologies and algorithms introduced and employed from 2014, as well as the emerging challenges and new issues. To bridge this gap, we present an overview of fall detection research and discuss the core research questions on this topic. A total of 6830 related documents were collected and analyzed based on the key words. Among these documents, the twenty most influential and highly cited articles are selected and discussed profoundly from three perspectives: sensors, algorithms and performance. The findings would assist researchers in understanding current developments and barriers in the systems of fall detection. Although researchers achieve fruitful work and progress, this research domain still confronts challenges on theories and practice. In the near future, the new solutions based on advanced IoT will sustainably urge the development to prevent falling injuries.

  7. Study and development of a fluorescence based sensor system for monitoring oxygen in wine production : the WOW project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trivellin, Nicola; Barbisan, Diego; Badocco, Denis; Pastore, Paolo; Meneghesso, Gaudenzio; Meneghini, Matteo; Zanoni, Enrico; Belgioioso, Giuseppe; Cenedese, Angelo

    2018-01-01

    The importance of oxygen in the winemaking process is widely known, as it affects the chemical aspects and therefore the organoleptic characteristics of the final product. Hence, it is evident the usefulness of a continuous and real-time measurements of the levels of oxygen in the various stages of

  8. Awareness and implementation of tobacco dependence treatment guidelines in Arizona: Healthcare Systems Survey 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menke J Michael

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents findings from the Tobacco Control in Arizona Healthcare Systems Survey, conducted in 2000. The purpose of the survey was to assess the status of Arizona healthcare systems' awareness and implementation of tobacco cessation and prevention measures. Methods The 20-item survey was developed by The University of Arizona HealthCare Partnership in collaboration with the Arizona Department of Health Services Bureau of Tobacco Education and Prevention. It was mailed to representatives of Arizona's 40 healthcare systems, including commercial and Medicare managed care organizations, "managed Medicaid" organizations, Veterans Affairs Health Care Systems, and Indian Health Service Medical Centers. Thirty-three healthcare systems (83% completed the survey. Results The majority of healthcare systems reported awareness of at least one tobacco cessation and prevention clinical practice guideline, but only one third reported full guideline implementation. While a majority covered some form of behavioral therapy, less than half reported covering tobacco treatment medications. "Managed Medicaid" organizations administered through the Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System were significantly less likely to offer coverage for behavioral therapy and less likely to cover pharmacotherapy than were their non-Medicaid counterparts in managed care, Veterans Affairs Health Care Systems and Indian Health Service Medical Centers. Conclusion Arizona healthcare system coverage for tobacco cessation in the year 2000 was comparable to national survey findings of the same year. The findings that only 10% of "Managed Medicaid" organizations covered tobacco treatment medication and were significantly less likely to cover behavioral therapy were important given the nearly double smoking prevalence among Medicaid patients. Throughout the years of the program, the strategic plan of the Arizona Department of Health Services Bureau of Tobacco

  9. A survey on reliability and safety analysis techniques of robot systems in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, H S; Kim, J H; Lee, J C; Choi, Y R; Moon, S S

    2000-12-01

    The reliability and safety analysis techniques was surveyed for the purpose of overall quality improvement of reactor inspection system which is under development in our current project. The contents of this report are : 1. Reliability and safety analysis techniques suvey - Reviewed reliability and safety analysis techniques are generally accepted techniques in many industries including nuclear industry. And we selected a few techniques which are suitable for our robot system. They are falut tree analysis, failure mode and effect analysis, reliability block diagram, markov model, combinational method, and simulation method. 2. Survey on the characteristics of robot systems which are distinguished from other systems and which are important to the analysis. 3. Survey on the nuclear environmental factors which affect the reliability and safety analysis of robot system 4. Collection of the case studies of robot reliability and safety analysis which are performed in foreign countries. The analysis results of this survey will be applied to the improvement of reliability and safety of our robot system and also will be used for the formal qualification and certification of our reactor inspection system.

  10. A survey on reliability and safety analysis techniques of robot systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, H.S.; Kim, J.H.; Lee, J.C.; Choi, Y.R.; Moon, S.S.

    2000-12-01

    The reliability and safety analysis techniques was surveyed for the purpose of overall quality improvement of reactor inspection system which is under development in our current project. The contents of this report are : 1. Reliability and safety analysis techniques suvey - Reviewed reliability and safety analysis techniques are generally accepted techniques in many industries including nuclear industry. And we selected a few techniques which are suitable for our robot system. They are falut tree analysis, failure mode and effect analysis, reliability block diagram, markov model, combinational method, and simulation method. 2. Survey on the characteristics of robot systems which are distinguished from other systems and which are important to the analysis. 3. Survey on the nuclear environmental factors which affect the reliability and safety analysis of robot system 4. Collection of the case studies of robot reliability and safety analysis which are performed in foreign countries. The analysis results of this survey will be applied to the improvement of reliability and safety of our robot system and also will be used for the formal qualification and certification of our reactor inspection system

  11. Survey of faculty perceptions regarding a peer review system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Ronald L; Cunningham, Meredith L; Siewert, Bettina; Kruskal, Jonathan B

    2014-04-01

    Virtually all radiologists participate in peer review, but to our knowledge, this is the first detailed study of their opinions toward various aspects of the process. The study qualified for quality assurance exemption from the institutional review board. A questionnaire sent to all radiology faculty at our institution assessed their views about peer review in general, as well as case selection and scoring, consensus section review for rating and presentation of errors, and impact on radiologist performance. Of 52 questionnaires sent, 50 were completed (response rate, 96.2%). Of these, 44% agreed that our RADPEER-like system is a waste of time, and 58% believed it is done merely to meet hospital/regulatory requirements. Conversely, 46% agreed that peer review improves radiologist performance, 32% agreed that it decreases medical error, and 42% believed that peer review results are valuable to protect radiologists in cases referred to the medical board. A large majority perform all peer reviews close to the deadline, and substantial minorities frequently or almost always select more than one previous examination for a single medical record number (28%), consciously select "less time intensive" cases (22%), and intentionally avoid cases requiring more time to peer review (30%). Almost one-half of respondents agreed that peer review has value, but as currently performed is a waste of time. The method for selecting cases raises serious questions regarding selection bias. A new approach is needed that stresses education of all radiologists by learning from the mistakes of others. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical Computer Systems Survey (CLICS): learning about health information technology (HIT) in its context of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtner, Valentina; Cornford, Tony; Klecun, Ela

    2013-01-01

    Successful health information technology (HIT) implementations need to be informed on the context of use and on users' attitudes. To this end, we developed the CLinical Computer Systems Survey (CLICS) instrument. CLICS reflects a socio-technical view of HIT adoption, and is designed to encompass all members of the clinical team. We used the survey in a large English hospital as part of its internal evaluation of the implementation of an electronic patient record system (EPR). The survey revealed extent and type of use of the EPR; how it related to and integrated with other existing systems; and people's views on its use, usability and emergent safety issues. Significantly, participants really appreciated 'being asked'. They also reminded us of the wider range of administrative roles engaged with EPR. This observation reveals pertinent questions as to our understanding of the boundaries between administrative tasks and clinical medicine - what we propose as the field of 'administrative medicine'.

  13. 2008 HIMSS Survey results: best practices in implementing nursing/interdisciplinary documentation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, Susan K; Kimmel, Kathleen C; O'Steen, Randy; Morgan, Gina Sauls

    2008-11-06

    Health care organizations are increasingly using computer systems to support nursing care documentation; however, processes used to deploy such systems are widely varied. The purpose of this survey was to understand current practices related to implementation of computerized nursing and interdisciplinary documentation systems with the goal to establish best practice guidelines. In Spring 2007, members from the Healthcare Information Management and Systems Society Nursing Informatics Working Group interviewed a sample of 15 hospitals to solicit information regarding the following processes: leadership activities, clinical transformation processes, project management activities, implementation processes, evaluation metrics, terminology and other standards used, and methods used to facilitate end-user adoption. This poster will report the results of this survey. Implications for Nurses will be discussed. The results are valuable to nursing informatics professionals who plan to implement systems and to their nursing executives responsible for the systems that are implemented.

  14. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  15. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch

    2005-01-01

    The oxygen tension of the optic nerve is regulated by the intraocular pressure and systemic blood pressure, the resistance in the blood vessels and oxygen consumption of the tissue. The oxygen tension is autoregulated and moderate changes in intraocular pressure or blood pressure do not affect...... the optic nerve oxygen tension. If the intraocular pressure is increased above 40 mmHg or the ocular perfusion pressure decreased below 50 mmHg the autoregulation is overwhelmed and the optic nerve becomes hypoxic. A disturbance in oxidative metabolism in the cytochromes of the optic nerve can be seen...... at similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human...

  16. Determinants of Point-Of-Sale system adoption: a survey among small retailers in The Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Plomp, M.G.A.; Huiden, R.P.; Batenburg, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    Several threats affect the survival of small, independent retail companies. Adoption and use of Point-of-Sale (POS) systems may offer important benefits to counter these threats. POS systems are not widely used by these retailers, however. This research investigates the determinants of the adoption of POS systems using a conceptual model based on existing adoption theories. Based on this, a survey has been held among 37 Dutch small, independent retailers, to answer the question what the most ...

  17. Technical Update: Johnson Space Center system using a solid electrolytic cell in a remote location to measure oxygen fugacities in CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurewicz, A. J. G.; Williams, R. J.; Le, L.; Wagstaff, J.; Lofgren, G.; Lanier, A.; Carter, W.; Roshko, A.

    1993-01-01

    Details are given for the design and application of a (one atmosphere) redox-control system. This system differs from that given in NASA Technical Memorandum 58234 in that it uses a single solid-electrolytic cell in a remote location to measure the oxygen fugacities of multiple CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnaces. This remote measurement extends the range of sample-furnace conditions that can be measured using a solid-electrolytic cell, and cuts costs by extending the life of the sensors and by minimizing the number of sensors in use. The system consists of a reference furnace and an exhaust-gas manifold. The reference furnace is designed according to the redox control system of NASA Technical Memorandum 58234, and any number of CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnaces can be attached to the exhaust-gas manifold. Using the manifold, the exhaust gas from individual CO/CO2 controlled atmosphere furnaces can be diverted through the reference furnace, where a solid-electrolyte cell is used to read the ambient oxygen fugacity. The oxygen fugacity measured in the reference furnace can then be used to calculate the oxygen fugacity in the individual CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnace. A BASIC computer program was developed to expedite this calculation.

  18. The DES Bright Arcs Survey: Hundreds of Candidate Strongly Lensed Galaxy Systems from the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification and Year 1 Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, H. T.; Buckley-Geer, E. J.; Lindgren, K. A.; Nord, B.; Gaitsch, H.; Gaitsch, S.; Lin, H.; Allam, S.; Collett, T. E.; Furlanetto, C.; Gill, M. S. S.; More, A.; Nightingale, J.; Odden, C.; Pellico, A.; Tucker, D. L.; Costa, L. N. da; Neto, A. Fausti; Kuropatkin, N.; Soares-Santos, M.; Welch, B.; Zhang, Y.; Frieman, J. A.; Abdalla, F. B.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Evrard, A. E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; García-Bellido, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gschwend, J.; Gutierrez, G.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Menanteau, F.; Miquel, R.; Nichol, R. C.; Nugent, P.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.

    2017-09-01

    We report the results of our searches for strong gravitational lens systems in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verication and Year 1 observations. The Science Verication data spans approximately 250 sq. deg. with median i

  19. Detection and Characterization of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in Biological Systems by Monitoring Species-Specific Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Micael; Zielonka, Jacek; Karoui, Hakim; Sikora, Adam; Michalski, Radosław; Podsiadły, Radosław; Lopez, Marcos; Vasquez-Vivar, Jeannette; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Ouari, Olivier

    2018-05-20

    Since the discovery of the superoxide dismutase enzyme, the generation and fate of short-lived oxidizing, nitrosating, nitrating, and halogenating species in biological systems has been of great interest. Despite the significance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in numerous diseases and intracellular signaling, the rigorous detection of ROS and RNS has remained a challenge. Recent Advances: Chemical characterization of the reactions of selected ROS and RNS with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin traps and fluorescent probes led to the establishment of species-specific products, which can be used for specific detection of several forms of ROS and RNS in cell-free systems and in cultured cells in vitro and in animals in vivo. Profiling oxidation products from the ROS and RNS probes provides a rigorous method for detection of those species in biological systems. Formation and detection of species-specific products from the probes enables accurate characterization of the oxidative environment in cells. Measurement of the total signal (fluorescence, chemiluminescence, etc.) intensity does not allow for identification of the ROS/RNS formed. It is critical to identify the products formed by using chromatographic or other rigorous techniques. Product analyses should be accompanied by monitoring of the intracellular probe level, another factor controlling the yield of the product(s) formed. More work is required to characterize the chemical reactivity of the ROS/RNS probes, and to develop new probes/detection approaches enabling real-time, selective monitoring of the specific products formed from the probes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 1416-1432.

  20. Influence of Partial Pressure of Oxygen in Blood Samples on Measurement Performance in Glucose-Oxidase-Based Systems for Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumstark, Annette; Schmid, Christina; Pleus, Stefan; Haug, Cornelia; Freckmann, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Background Partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in blood samples can affect blood glucose (BG) measurements, particularly in systems that employ the glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme reaction on test strips. In this study, we assessed the impact of different pO2 values on the performance of five GOx systems and one glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) system. Two of the GOx systems are labeled by the manufacturers to be sensitive to increased blood oxygen content, while the other three GOx systems are not. Methods Aliquots of 20 venous samples were adjusted to the following pO2 values: pO2 ~70 mmHg, which is considered to be similar to pO2 in capillary blood samples, and the mean BG result at pO2 pO2 pO2 ≥150 mmHg. For both pO2 levels, relative differences of all tested GOx systems were significant (p pO2 values pO2 variations lead to clinically relevant BG measurement deviations in GOx systems, even in GOx systems that are not labeled as being oxygen sensitive. PMID:24351177

  1. Materials selection for long life in LEO: a critical evaluation of atomic oxygen testing with thermal atom systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, S.L.; Kuminecz, J.; Leger, L.; Nordine, P.

    1988-01-01

    The use of thermal atom test methods as a materials selection and screening technique for low-Earth orbit (LEO) spacecraft is critically evaluated. The chemistry and physics of thermal atom environments are compared with the LEO environment. The relative reactivities of a number of materials determined to be in thermal atom environments are compared to those observed in LEO and in high quality LEO simulations. Reaction efficiencies measured in a new type of thermal atom apparatus are one-hundredth to one-thousandth those observed in LEO, and many materials showing nearly identical reactivities in LEO show relative reactivities differing by as much as a factor of 8 in thermal atom systems. A simple phenomenological kinetic model for the reaction of oxygen atoms with organic materials can be used to explain the differences in reactivity in different environments. Certain specific thermal test environments can be used as reliable materials screening tools. Using thermal atom methods to predict material lifetime in LEO requires direct calibration of the method against LEO data or high quality simulation data for each material

  2. Influence of oxygen on the repair of direct radiation damage to DNA by thiols in model systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.; Summerfield, S.; Gillich, S.; Sevilla, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    Here the reactions of thiols with DNA primary radical intermediates formed after γ-irradiation of frozen (77K) anoxic and oxic solutions of DNA/thiol mixtures are investigated. Through analysis of the experimental composite spectra at each annealing temperature, the relative concentrations of individual radicals present are estimated and reaction sequences inferred. In all samples the primary DNA radical anions and cations (DNA · + and DNA · - ) are suggested to be the predominant radicals at low temperatures. In anoxic samples, TH · (5,6-dihydrothym-5-yl radical), RSSR · - and, in glutathione samples, · GSH [γ-glu-NHC(CH 2 SH) CO-gly] radicals are observed as the temperature is increased. The presence of oxygen efficiently suppresses the formation of RSSR · - and · GSH; instead, in oxic samples, O 2 · - , DNAOO · , RSOO · and RSO · are observed at higher temperatures. The photolytic conversion of RSOO · to RSO 2 · is used to verify the presence of RSOO · in γ-irradiated DNA/thiol systems and confirm that the computer analysis employed yields reasonable estimates of the relative DNAOO · and RSOO · concentrations. (Author)

  3. Oxygen isotope mapping and evaluation of paleo-hydrothermal systems associated with synvolcanic intrusion and VMS deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, B.E

    2001-01-01

    Whole-rock oxygen isotope mapping provides a useful method for the delineation and quantitative evaluation of paleo-hydrothermal systems associated with syn-volcanic intrusions and volcanic-associated massive sulfide (VMS) deposits. During the course of a four-year study of regional alteration systems associated with VMS Deposits, four syn-volcanic intrusive complexes in Canada were mapped using stable isotope techniques. The complexes included Noranda, Quebec; Clifford-Ben Nevis, Ontario; Snow Lake, Manitoba, and Sturgeon Lake, Ontario. This study was regional in extent, involving large areas and large numbers of whole-rock samples: Noranda (625 km 2 ;≥600 samples, plus others (total = 1198); Sturgeon Lake (525 km 2 ; 452 samples); Clifford-Ben Nevis (160 km 2 ; 251 samples); and Snow Lake (84 km 2 ; 575 samples). Isotopic data on whole-rock carbonates and hydrous minerals were also collected. The regional isotopic studies were carried out in concert with other studies on mineral assemblages and mineral composition, and on associated intrusive and extrusive rocks. The Clifford-Ben Nevis area was selected as a control area, in as much as it contains no known VMS deposits; all other areas are well-known, productive VMS districts. Oxygen isotope maps are, in a sense, thermal maps, illustrating the paleo-distribution of heat and fluids, and offering a potential aid to exploration. The isotopic data may be contoured to reveal zones of 18 O depletion and enrichment, relative to unaltered rocks. Zones of δ 18 O≤60% comprise rocks that have reacted with seawater at high (e.g., 300+ o C) temperatures. The volume of foot-wall rocks isotopically-depleted by water/rock interaction during the life of one or more episodes of submarine hydrothermal activity is proportional to the amount of heat available from the syn-volcanic intrusive center. These altered rocks comprise the reaction zone often inferred to have supplied metals and other constituents for the VMS deposits

  4. Generation and Role of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species Induced by Plasma, Lasers, Chemical Agents, and Other Systems in Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Nayansi; Ryu, Jae Jun

    2017-01-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) has been found to occur during inflammatory procedures, during cell ischemia, and in various crucial developmental processes such as cell differentiation and along cell signaling pathways. The most common sources of intracellular RONS are the mitochondrial electron transport system, NADH oxidase, and cytochrome P450. In this review, we analyzed the extracellular and intracellular sources of reactive species, their cell signaling pathways, the mechanisms of action, and their positive and negative effects in the dental field. In dentistry, ROS can be found—in lasers, photosensitizers, bleaching agents, cold plasma, and even resin cements, all of which contribute to the generation and prevalence of ROS. Nonthermal plasma has been used as a source of ROS for biomedical applications and has the potential for use with dental stem cells as well. There are different types of dental stem cells, but their therapeutic use remains largely untapped, with the focus currently on only periodontal ligament stem cells. More research is necessary in this area, including studies about ROS mechanisms with dental cells, along with the utilization of reactive species in redox medicine. Such studies will help to provide successful treatment modalities for various diseases. PMID:29204250

  5. Simultaneous Laser-induced Fluorescence of Nitric Oxide and Atomic Oxygen in the Hypersonic Materials Environment Test System Arcjet Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Craig; Lincoln, Daniel; Bathel, Brett; Inman, Jennifer; Danehy, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous nitric oxide (NO) and atomic oxygen (O) laser induced fluorescence (LIF) experiments were performed in the Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System (HYMETS) facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The data serves as an experimental database for validation for chemical and thermal nonequilibrium models used in hypersonic flows. Measurements were taken over a wide range of stagnation enthalpies (6.7 - 18.5 MJ/kg) using an Earth atmosphere simulant with a composition of 75% N2, 20% O2, and 5% Ar (by volume). These are the first simultaneous measurements of NO and O LIF to be reported in literature for the HYMETS facility. The maximum O LIF mean signal intensity was observed at a stagnation enthalpy of approximately 12 MJ/kg while the maximum NO LIF mean signal intensity was observed at a stagnation enthalpy of 6.7 MJ/kg. Experimental results were compared to simple fluorescence model that assumes equilibrium conditions in the plenum and frozen chemistry in the isentropic nozzle expansion (Mach 5). The equilibrium calculations were performed using CANTERA v2.1.1 with 16 species. The fluorescence model captured the correlation in mean O and NO LIF signal intensities over the entire range of stagnation enthalpies tested. Very weak correlations between single-shot O and NO LIF intensities were observed in the experiments at all of the stagnation enthalpy conditions.

  6. Can systemically generated reactive oxygen species help to monitor disease activity in generalized vitiligo? A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richeek Pradhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Generalized vitiligo is a disease with unpredictable bursts of activity, goal of treatment during the active phase being to stabilize the lesions. This emphasizes the need for a prospective marker for monitoring disease activity to help decide the duration of therapy. Aims and Objectives: In the present study, we examined whether reactive oxygen species (ROS generated in erythrocytes can be translated into a marker of activity in vitiligo. Materials and Methods: Level of intracellular ROS was measured flow cytometrically in erythrocytes from venous blood of 21 patients with generalized vitiligo and 21 healthy volunteers using the probe dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Results: The levels of ROS differed significantly between patients and healthy controls, as well as between active versus stable disease groups. In the active disease group, ROS levels were significantly lower in those being treated with systemic steroids than those that were not. ROS levels poorly correlated with disease duration or body surface area involved. Conclusion: A long-term study based on these findings can be conducted to further validate the potential role of ROS in monitoring disease activity vitiligo.

  7. An optical biosensing film for biochemical oxygen demand determination in seawater with an automatic flow sampling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Lingling; Wang, Xudong; Guo, Guangmei; Wang, Xiaoru; Chen, Xi

    2007-09-01

    An on-line roboticized apparatus, including an optical biosensing film with an automatic flow sampling system, has been developed for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) determination of seawater. The sensing film employed in the apparatus consisted of an organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) film embedded with tri(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) perchlorate. Three species of microorganism cultivated from seawater were immobilized in an ORMOSIL-polyvinyl alcohol matrix. Possible factors affecting BOD determination were studied, including sampling frequency, temperature, pH and sodium chloride concentration. Based on measurements of the linear fluctuant coefficients and the reproducibility of its response to seawater, the BOD apparatus showed the advantages of high veracity and short response time. Generally, the linear fluctuant coefficient (R2) in the BOD range 0.2-40 mg l-1 was 0.9945 when using a glucose/glutamate (GGA) BOD standard solution. A reproducible response for the BOD sensing film of within ±2.8% could be obtained in the 2 mg l-1 GGA solution. The BOD apparatus was applied to the BOD determination of seawater, and the values estimated by this biosensing apparatus correlated well with those determined by the conventional 5 day BOD (BOD5) test.

  8. Oxygen safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sure you have working smoke detectors and a working fire extinguisher in your home. If you move around the house with your oxygen, you may need more than one fire extinguisher in different locations. Smoking can be very dangerous. No one should smoke ...

  9. Implementation of an FPGA based system survey and diagnostic reader with the aim to increase system dependability

    CERN Document Server

    Alsdorf, M; Kwiatkowski, M; Vigano, W; Zamantzas, C

    2012-01-01

    The operation and machine protection of accelerators practically rely on their underlying instrumentation systems and a failure of any of those systems could pose a significant impact on the overall reliability and availability. In order to improve the detection and in some cases the prevention of failures, a survey mechanism could be integrated to the system that collects crucial information about the current system status through a number of acquisition modules. The implementation and integration of such a method is presented with the aim to standardize the implementation, where the acquisition modules share a common build and are connected through a standardized interface to a survey reader. The reader collects regularly data and controls the readout intervals. The information collected from these modules is used locally in the FPGA device to identify critical system failures and results in an immediate failsafe reaction with the data also transmitted and stored in external databases for offline analysis.

  10. Possible central nervous system oxygen toxicity seizures among US recreational air or enriched air nitrox open circuit diving fatalities 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzacott, P; Denoble, P J

    2017-01-01

    The first diver certification programme for recreational 'enriched air nitrox' (EAN) diving was released in 1985. Concerns were expressed that many EAN divers might suffer central nervous system (CNS) oxygen toxicity seizures and drown. US fatalities on open-circuit scuba occurring between 2004-2013, where the breathing gas was either air or EAN, were identified. Causes of death and preceding circumstances were examined by a medical examiner experienced in diving autopsies. Case notes were searched for witnessed seizures at elevated partial pressures of oxygen. The dataset comprised 344 air divers (86%) and 55 divers breathing EAN (14%). EAN divers' fatal dives were deeper than air divers' (28 msw vs 18 msw, p < 0.0001). Despite this, of the 249 cases where a cause of death was established, only three EAN divers were considered to have possibly died following CNS oxygen toxicity seizures at depth (ppO2 132, 142 and 193 kPa). The analysis of recreational diving fatalities in the US over 10 years found just one death likely from CNS oxygen toxicity among EAN divers. A further two possible, although unlikely, cases were also found. Fears of commonplace CNS oxygen toxicity seizures while EAN diving have not apparently been realized.

  11. Oxygen therapy - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathe increased amounts of oxygen to get normal levels of oxygen in their blood. Oxygen therapy provides babies with the extra oxygen. Information Oxygen is a gas that the cells in your body need to work properly. The ...

  12. Monitoring Distributed Real-Time Systems: A Survey and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodloe, Alwyn E.; Pike, Lee

    2010-01-01

    Runtime monitors have been proposed as a means to increase the reliability of safety-critical systems. In particular, this report addresses runtime monitors for distributed hard real-time systems. This class of systems has had little attention from the monitoring community. The need for monitors is shown by discussing examples of avionic systems failure. We survey related work in the field of runtime monitoring. Several potential monitoring architectures for distributed real-time systems are presented along with a discussion of how they might be used to monitor properties of interest.

  13. A survey on queues in machining system: Progress from 2010 to 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekhar C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to give a historical survey of some important research works related to queues in machining system since 2010. Queues of failed machines in machine repairing problem occur due to the failure of machines at random in the manufacturing industries, where different jobs are performed on machining stations. Machines are subject to failure what may result in significant loss of production, revenue, or goodwill. In addition to the references on queues in machining system, which is also called `Machine Repair Problem' (MRP or `Machine Interference Problem' (MIP, a meticulous list of books and survey papers is also prepared so as to provide a detailed catalog for understanding the research in queueing domain. We have classified the relevant literature according to a year of publishing, methodological, and modeling aspects. The author(s hope that this survey paper could be of help to learners contemplating research on queueing domain.

  14. Mixed oxygen ion/electron-conducting ceramics for oxygen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, T.R.; Armstrong, B.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Mixed oxygen ion and electron-conducting ceramics are unique materials that can passively separate high purity oxygen from air. Oxygen ions move through a fully dense ceramic in response to an oxygen concentration gradient, charge-compensated by an electron flux in the opposite direction. Compositions in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, perovskites where M=Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N=Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, have been prepared and their electrical, oxygen permeation, oxygen vacancy equilibria, and catalytic properties evaluated. Tubular forms, disks, and asymmetric membrane structures, a thin dense layer on a porous support of the same composition, have been fabricated for testing purposes. In an oxygen partial gradient, the passive oxygen flux through fully dense structures was highly dependent on composition. An increase in oxygen permeation with increased temperature is attributed to both enhanced oxygen vacancy mobility and higher vacancy populations. Highly acceptor-doped compositions resulted in oxygen ion mobilities more than an order of magnitude higher than yttria-stabilized zirconia. The mixed conducting ceramics have been utilized in a membrane reactor configuration to upgrade methane to ethane and ethylene. Conditions were established to balance selectivity and throughput in a catalytic membrane reactor constructed from mixed conducting ceramics.

  15. Maximum Plant Uptakes for Water, Nutrients, and Oxygen Are Not Always Met by Irrigation Rate and Distribution in Water-based Cultivation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, Chris; Jackson, Brian E; Guo, Xianfeng; de Visser, Pieter H B; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2017-01-01

    Growing on rooting media other than soils in situ -i.e., substrate-based growing- allows for higher yields than soil-based growing as transport rates of water, nutrients, and oxygen in substrate surpass those in soil. Possibly water-based growing allows for even higher yields as transport rates of water and nutrients in water surpass those in substrate, even though the transport of oxygen may be more complex. Transport rates can only limit growth when they are below a rate corresponding to maximum plant uptake. Our first objective was to compare Chrysanthemum growth performance for three water-based growing systems with different irrigation. We compared; multi-point irrigation into a pond (DeepFlow); one-point irrigation resulting in a thin film of running water (NutrientFlow) and multi-point irrigation as droplets through air (Aeroponic). Second objective was to compare press pots as propagation medium with nutrient solution as propagation medium. The comparison included DeepFlow water-rooted cuttings with either the stem 1 cm into the nutrient solution or with the stem 1 cm above the nutrient solution. Measurements included fresh weight, dry weight, length, water supply, nutrient supply, and oxygen levels. To account for differences in radiation sum received, crop performance was evaluated with Radiation Use Efficiency (RUE) expressed as dry weight over sum of Photosynthetically Active Radiation. The reference, DeepFlow with substrate-based propagation, showed the highest RUE, even while the oxygen supply provided by irrigation was potentially growth limiting. DeepFlow with water-based propagation showed 15-17% lower RUEs than the reference. NutrientFlow showed 8% lower RUE than the reference, in combination with potentially limiting irrigation supply of nutrients and oxygen. Aeroponic showed RUE levels similar to the reference and Aeroponic had non-limiting irrigation supply of water, nutrients, and oxygen. Water-based propagation affected the subsequent

  16. Deployable Oxygen System (DOS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robertson, Charles

    2001-01-01

    ...) is designated lead command for Aeromedical Evacuation (AE). As lead command, AMC provides evacuation of sick/injured patients, in peacetime and contingency operations, under the supervision of qualified medical crewmembers via fixed wing aircraft...

  17. Purge Procedures and Leak Testing for the Morgan Breathing System (MBS) 2000 Closed-Circuit Oxygen Rebreather

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fothergill, David

    2005-01-01

    .... Since purging accounts for most of the O2 used when breathing on the MBS 2000, optimizing the purge procedure will maximize the duration of the O2 supply and minimize oxygen leaks into the chamber atmosphere...

  18. On the Go with Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for both the patient and the oxygen supply company. There are two types of concentrators: Stationary concentrators plug into an electrical ... stationary unit. If your oxygen needs change, the type of system can ... supply company should explain and demonstrate whatever system you choose. ...

  19. Comparative study of activities in reactive oxygen species production/defense system in mitochondria of rat brain and liver, and their susceptibility to methylmercury toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, N.; Hirayama, K. [Kumamoto University, School of Health Science, Kumamoto (Japan); Yasutake, A. [National Institute for Minamata Disease, Minamata (Japan)

    2007-11-15

    The involvement of oxidative stress has been suggested as a mechanism for neurotoxicity caused by methylmercury (MeHg), but the mechanism for MeHg selective toxicity in the central nervous system is still unclear. In this research, to clarify the mechanism of selective neurotoxicity caused by MeHg, the oxygen consumption levels, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production rates and several antioxidant levels in mitochondria were compared among the cerebrum, cerebellum and liver of male Wistar rats. In addition, the alterations of these indexes were examined in MeHg-intoxicated rats (oral administration of 10 mg/kg day, for 5 days). Although the cerebrum and cerebellum in intact rats showed higher mitochondrial oxygen consumption levels and ROS production rates than the liver, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were much lower in the cerebrum and cerebellum than in the liver. Especially, the cerebellum showed the highest oxygen consumption and ROS production rate and the lowest mitochondrial glutathione (GSH) levels among the tissues examined. In the MeHg-treated rats, decrease in the oxygen consumption and increase in the ROS generation were found only in the cerebellum mitochondria, despite a lower Hg accumulation in the mitochondrial fraction compared to the liver. Since MeHg treatment produced an enhancement of ROS generation in cerebellum mitochondria supplemented with succinate substrates, MeHg-induced oxidative stress might affect the complex II-III mediated pathway in the electron transfer chain in the cerebellum mitochondria. Our study suggested that inborn factors, high production system activity and low defense system activity of ROS in the brain, would relate to the high susceptibility of the central nervous system to MeHg toxicity. (orig.)

  20. Wii, Kinect, and Move. Heart Rate, Oxygen Consumption, Energy Expenditure, and Ventilation due to Different Physically Active Video Game Systems in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Krista S; Siebrant, Sarah M; Brown, Gregory A; Shaw, Brandon S; Shaw, Ina

    Nintendo Wii, Sony Playstation Move , and Microsoft XBOX Kinect are home video gaming systems that involve player movement to control on-screen game play. Numerous investigations have demonstrated that playing Wii is moderate physical activity at best, but Move and Kinect have not been as thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare heart rate, oxygen consumption, and ventilation while playing the games Wii Boxing, Kinect Boxing, and Move Gladiatorial Combat. Heart rate, oxygen consumption, and ventilation were measured at rest and during a graded exercise test in 10 males and 9 females (19.8 ± 0.33 y, 175.4 ± 2.0 cm, 80.2 ± 7.7 kg,). On another day, in a randomized order, the participants played Wii Boxing, K inect Boxing, and Move Gladiatorial Combat while heart rate, ventilation, and oxygen consumption were measured. There were no differences in heart rate (116.0 ± 18.3 vs. 119.3 ± 17.6 vs. 120.1 ± 17.6 beats/min), oxygen consumption (9.2 ± 3.0 vs. 10.6 ± 2.4 vs. 9.6 ± 2.4 ml/kg/min), or minute ventilation (18.9 ± 5.7 vs. 20.8 ± 8.0 vs. 19.7 ± 6.4 L/min) when playing Wii boxing, Kinect boxing, or Move Gladiatorial Combat (respectively). Playing Nintendo Wii Boxing, XBOX Kinect Boxing, and Sony PlayStation Move Gladiatorial Combat all increase heart rate, oxygen consumption, and ventilation above resting levels but there were no significant differences between gaming systems. Overall, playing a "physically active" home video game system does not meet the minimal threshold for moderate intensity physical activity, regardless of gaming system.

  1. A Survey of Security Tools for the Industrial Control System Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, Carl M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McCarty, Michael V. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-12

    This report details the results of a survey conducted by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to identify existing tools which could be used to prevent, detect, mitigate, or investigate a cyber-attack in an industrial control system (ICS) environment. This report compiles a list of potentially applicable tools and shows the coverage of the tools in an ICS architecture.

  2. A Survey of Security Tools for the Industrial Control System Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurd, Carl M.; McCarty, Michael V.

    2017-01-01

    This report details the results of a survey conducted by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to identify existing tools which could be used to prevent, detect, mitigate, or investigate a cyber-attack in an industrial control system (ICS) environment. This report compiles a list of potentially applicable tools and shows the coverage of the tools in an ICS architecture.

  3. A New Measurement and Ranking System for the UK National Student Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, John

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous criticisms of the UK National Student Survey (NSS) institutional managers still strongly support its use in informing student choice, quality and assurance and quality enhancement activities. This article outlines a granular and nuanced benchmarking system for the NSS which provides both a "raw" score (weighted student…

  4. 2006 Automation Survey: The Systems Are Changing. But School Libraries Aren't

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the findings of the 2006 School Library Journal-San Jose State University Automation Survey. The study takes a close look at the systems that media specialists are using, how they are using them, and what librarians want from their future automation programs. The findings reveal that while respondents were satisfied with…

  5. On the Integration of Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) by Canadian Mathematicians: Results of a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buteau, Chantal; Jarvis, Daniel H.; Lavicza, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we outline the findings of a Canadian survey study (N = 302) that focused on the extent of computer algebra systems (CAS)-based technology use in postsecondary mathematics instruction. Results suggest that a considerable number of Canadian mathematicians use CAS in research and teaching. CAS use in research was found to be the…

  6. Global Positioning System (GPS) survey of Augustine Volcano, Alaska, August 3-8, 2000: data processing, geodetic coordinates and comparison with prior geodetic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauk, Benjamin A.; Power, John A.; Lisowski, Mike; Dzurisin, Daniel; Iwatsubo, Eugene Y.; Melbourne, Tim

    2001-01-01

    Between August 3 and 8,2000,the Alaska Volcano Observatory completed a Global Positioning System (GPS) survey at Augustine Volcano, Alaska. Augustine is a frequently active calcalkaline volcano located in the lower portion of Cook Inlet (fig. 1), with reported eruptions in 1812, 1882, 1909?, 1935, 1964, 1976, and 1986 (Miller et al., 1998). Geodetic measurements using electronic and optical surveying techniques (EDM and theodolite) were begun at Augustine Volcano in 1986. In 1988 and 1989, an island-wide trilateration network comprising 19 benchmarks was completed and measured in its entirety (Power and Iwatsubo, 1998). Partial GPS surveys of the Augustine Island geodetic network were completed in 1992 and 1995; however, neither of these surveys included all marks on the island.Additional GPS measurements of benchmarks A5 and A15 (fig. 2) were made during the summers of 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1996. The goals of the 2000 GPS survey were to:1) re-measure all existing benchmarks on Augustine Island using a homogeneous set of GPS equipment operated in a consistent manner, 2) add measurements at benchmarks on the western shore of Cook Inlet at distances of 15 to 25 km, 3) add measurements at an existing benchmark (BURR) on Augustine Island that was not previously surveyed, and 4) add additional marks in areas of the island thought to be actively deforming. The entire survey resulted in collection of GPS data at a total of 24 sites (fig. 1 and 2). In this report we describe the methods of GPS data collection and processing used at Augustine during the 2000 survey. We use this data to calculate coordinates and elevations for all 24 sites surveyed. Data from the 2000 survey is then compared toelectronic and optical measurements made in 1988 and 1989. This report also contains a general description of all marks surveyed in 2000 and photographs of all new marks established during the 2000 survey (Appendix A).

  7. Semi-automatic surface sediment sampling system - A prototype to be implemented in bivalve fishing surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, Marta M.; Baptista, Paulo; Pereira, Fábio; Gaspar, Miguel B.

    2018-01-01

    In the current work we propose a new method to sample surface sediment during bivalve fishing surveys. Fishing institutes all around the word carry out regular surveys with the aim of monitoring the stocks of commercial species. These surveys comprise often more than one hundred of sampling stations and cover large geographical areas. Although superficial sediment grain sizes are among the main drivers of benthic communities and provide crucial information for studies on coastal dynamics, overall there is a strong lack of this type of data, possibly, because traditional surface sediment sampling methods use grabs, that require considerable time and effort to be carried out on regular basis or on large areas. In face of these aspects, we developed an easy and un-expensive method to sample superficial sediments, during bivalve fisheries monitoring surveys, without increasing survey time or human resources. The method was successfully evaluated and validated during a typical bivalve survey carried out on the Northwest coast of Portugal, confirming that it had any interference with the survey objectives. Furthermore, the method was validated by collecting samples using a traditional Van Veen grabs (traditional method), which showed a similar grain size composition to the ones collected by the new method, on the same localities. We recommend that the procedure is implemented on regular bivalve fishing surveys, together with an image analysis system to analyse the collected samples. The new method will provide substantial quantity of data on surface sediment in coastal areas, using a non-expensive and efficient manner, with a high potential application in different fields of research.

  8. A robotic system to conduct radiation and contamination surveys on nuclear waste transport casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrigan, R.W.; Sanders, T.L.

    1990-06-01

    The feasibility of performing, numerous spent fuel cask operations using fully integrated robotic systems is under evaluation. Using existing technology, operational and descriptive software and hardware in the form of robotic end effectors are being designed in conjunction with interfacing cask components. A robotic radiation and contamination survey system has been developed and used on mock-up cask hardware to evaluate the impact of such fully automated operations on cask design features and productivity. Based on experience gained from the survey system, numerous health physics operations can be reliably performed with little human intervention using a fully automated system. Such operations can also significantly reduce time requirements for cask-receiving operations. 7 refs., 51 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Art of disaster preparedness in European union: a survey on the health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djalali, Ahmadreza; Della Corte, Francesco; Foletti, Marco; Ragazzoni, Luca; Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Lupescu, Olivera; Arculeo, Chris; von Arnim, Götz; Friedl, Tom; Ashkenazi, Michael; Fischer, Philipp; Hreckovski, Boris; Khorram-Manesh, Amir; Komadina, Radko; Lechner, Konstanze; Patru, Cristina; Burkle, Frederick M; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi

    2014-12-17

    Naturally occurring and man-made disasters have been increasing in the world, including Europe, over the past several decades. Health systems are a key part of any community disaster management system. The success of preparedness and prevention depends on the success of activities such as disaster planning, organization and training. The aim of this study is to evaluate health system preparedness for disasters in the 27 European Union member countries. A cross-sectional analysis study was completed between June-September 2012. The checklist used for this survey was a modified from the World Health Organization toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management. Three specialists from each of the 27 European Union countries were included in the survey. Responses to each survey question were scored and the range of preparedness level was defined as 0-100%, categorized in three levels as follows: Acceptable; Transitional; or Insufficient. Response rate was 79.1%. The average level of disaster management preparedness in the health systems of 27 European Union member states was 68% (Acceptable). The highest level of preparedness was seen in the United Kingdom, Luxemburg, and Lithuania. Considering the elements of disaster management system, the highest level of preparedness score was at health information elements (86%), and the lowest level was for hospitals, and educational elements (54%). This survey study suggests that preparedness level of European Union countries in 2012 is at an acceptable level but could be improved. Elements such as hospitals and education and training suffer from insufficient levels of preparedness. The European Union health systems need a collective strategic plan, as well as enough resources, to establish a comprehensive and standardized disaster management strategy plan. A competency based training curriculum for managers and first responders is basic to accomplishing this goal. Disaster medicine; Disaster preparedness

  10. Motivators, Barriers and Concerns in Adoption of Electronic Filing System: Survey Evidence from Malaysian Professional Accountants

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Ling Lai; Kwai-Fatt Choong

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Worldwide, electronic filing (e-filing) system and its' adoption has attracted much attention, however, scholarly study on accounting professionals' acceptance of e-filing system is scant. Approach: This study aimed (i) to examine factors that motivated professional accountants to use e-filing (ii) to solicit their usage experience and (iii) to assess the barriers to adoption and other compliance considerations. The questionnaire survey was administered on 700 professionals...

  11. Reversible uptake of molecular oxygen by heteroligand Co(II)-L-α-amino acid-imidazole systems: equilibrium models at full mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pająk, Marek; Woźniczka, Magdalena; Vogt, Andrzej; Kufelnicki, Aleksander

    2017-09-19

    The paper examines Co(II)-amino acid-imidazole systems (where amino acid = L-α-amino acid: alanine, asparagine, histidine) which, when in aqueous solutions, activate and reversibly take up dioxygen, while maintaining the structural scheme of the heme group (imidazole as axial ligand and O 2 uptake at the sixth, trans position) thus imitating natural respiratory pigments such as myoglobin and hemoglobin. The oxygenated reaction shows higher reversibility than for Co(II)-amac systems with analogous amino acids without imidazole. Unlike previous investigations of the heteroligand Co(II)-amino acid-imidazole systems, the present study accurately calculates all equilibrium forms present in solution and determines the [Formula: see text]equilibrium constants without using any simplified approximations. The equilibrium concentrations of Co(II), amino acid, imidazole and the formed complex species were calculated using constant data obtained for analogous systems under oxygen-free conditions. Pehametric and volumetric (oxygenation) studies allowed the stoichiometry of O 2 uptake reaction and coordination mode of the central ion in the forming oxygen adduct to be determined. The values of dioxygen uptake equilibrium constants [Formula: see text] were evaluated by applying the full mass balance equations. Investigations of oxygenation of the Co(II)-amino acid-imidazole systems indicated that dioxygen uptake proceeds along with a rise in pH to 9-10. The percentage of reversibility noted after acidification of the solution to the initial pH ranged within ca 30-60% for alanine, 40-70% for asparagine and 50-90% for histidine, with a rising tendency along with the increasing share of amino acid in the Co(II): amino acid: imidazole ratio. Calculations of the share of the free Co(II) ion as well as of the particular complex species existing in solution beside the oxygen adduct (regarding dioxygen bound both reversibly and irreversibly) indicated quite significant values for the

  12. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System for Hydrothermal Deposit Survey (2) - Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Mikada, H.; Takekawa, J.; Shimura, T.

    2010-12-01

    In 2009, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology(MEXT) started the survey system development for Hydrothermal deposit. We proposed the Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS), the reflection seismic survey with vertical cable above seabottom. VCS has the following advantages for hydrothermal deposit survey. . (1) VCS is an effective high-resolution 3D seismic survey within limited area. (2) It achieves high-resolution image because the sensors are closely located to the target. (3) It avoids the coupling problems between sensor and seabottom that cause serious damage of seismic data quality. (4) Various types of marine source are applicable with VCS such as sea-surface source (air gun, water gun etc.) , deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. (5) Autonomous recording system. Our first experiment of 2D/3D VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN. in November 2009. The 2D VCS data processing follows the walk-away VSP, including wave field separation and depth migration. The result gives clearer image than the conventional surface seismic. Prestack depth migration is applied to 3D data to obtain good quality 3D depth volume. Uncertainty of the source/receiver poisons in water causes the serious problem of the imaging. We used several transducer/transponder to estimate these positions. The VCS seismic records themselves can also provide sensor position using the first break of each trace and we calibrate the positions. We are currently developing the autonomous recording VCS system and planning the trial experiment in actual ocean to establish the way of deployment/recovery and the examine the position through the current flow in November, 2010. The second VCS survey will planned over the actual hydrothermal deposit with deep-towed source in February, 2011.

  13. Survey, Research And Prospect Of Signage Systems In National Parks In Yunnan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    wenjuan XU

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Signage System is essential to establishing a national park. The authors conducted surveys, analysis and research of identification signs, informational sign, directional signs and functional signs from the signage systems adopted by five national parks in Yunnan Province. Relying on the results, with reference to industry experience, years of research related to national park, successful cases of overseas national parks and the current signage systems across China’s national parks, the paper aims to explore future development strategies of national park signage systems that are suitable for China.

  14. In Situ Observation of Oxygen Vacancy Dynamics and Ordering in the Epitaxial LaCoO3 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae Hyuck; Kim, Young-Min; He, Qian; Mishra, Rohan; Qiao, Liang; Biegalski, Michael D; Lupini, Andrew R; Pantelides, Sokrates T; Pennycook, Stephen J; Kalinin, Sergei V; Borisevich, Albina Y

    2017-07-25

    Vacancy dynamics and ordering underpin the electrochemical functionality of complex oxides and strongly couple to their physical properties. In the field of the epitaxial thin films, where connection between chemistry and film properties can be most clearly revealed, the effects related to oxygen vacancies are attracting increasing attention. In this article, we report a direct, real-time, atomic level observation of the formation of oxygen vacancies in the epitaxial LaCoO 3 thin films and heterostructures under the influence of the electron beam utilizing scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). In the case of LaCoO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattice, the formation of the oxygen vacancies is shown to produce quantifiable changes in the interatomic distances, as well as qualitative changes in the symmetry of the Co sites manifested as off-center displacements. The onset of these changes was observed in both the [100] pc and [110] pc orientations in real time. Additionally, annular bright field images directly show the formation of oxygen vacancy channels along [110]pc direction. In the case of 15 u.c. LaCoO 3 thin film, we observe the sequence of events during beam-induced formation of oxygen vacancy ordered phases and find them consistent with similar processes in the bulk. Moreover, we record the dynamics of the nucleation, growth, and defect interaction at the atomic scale as these transformations happen. These results demonstrate that we can track dynamic oxygen vacancy behavior with STEM, generating atomic-level quantitative information on phase transformation and oxygen diffusion.

  15. Experience base for Radioactive Waste Thermal Processing Systems: A preliminary survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.; Geimer, R.; Gillins, R.; Steverson, E.M.; Dalton, D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-04-01

    In the process of considering thermal technologies for potential treatment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory mixed transuranic contaminated wastes, a preliminary survey of the experience base available from Radioactive Waste Thermal Processing Systems is reported. A list of known commercial radioactive waste facilities in the United States and some international thermal treatment facilities are provided. Survey focus is upon the US Department of Energy thermal treatment facilities. A brief facility description and a preliminary summary of facility status, and problems experienced is provided for a selected subset of the DOE facilities

  16. Measurements of partial oxygen pressure pO2 using the OxyLite system in R3327-AT tumors under isoflurane anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bixiu; Urano, Muneyasu; O'Donoghue, Joseph A; Ling, C Clifton

    2006-09-01

    The presence of oxygen-deficient tumor cells is a critical issue in cancer therapy. To identify tumor hypoxia, tissue partial oxygen pressure (pO2) can be measured directly. The OxyLite system allows determination of pO2 in tumors and permits continuous measurements of pO2 at a fixed point. In this study, this system was used to continuously measure pO2 in R3327-AT tumors in animals anesthetized with isoflurane. In addition, continuous pO2 measurement was performed in the muscle in non-tumor-bearing animals. In animals breathing isoflurane balanced by air, tumor pO2 at fixed positions decreased rapidly within 1-2 min of probe positioning but remained stable thereafter. In animals breathing isoflurane balanced by pure oxygen, tumor pO2 was higher and remained high. We also measured pO2 values at multiple positions in R3327-AT tumors of various sizes, with anesthetized animals breathing either air or pure oxygen. Our data showed that the frequency of pO2 measurements below 2.5 or 5.0 mmHg was significantly higher in animals breathing air than in animals breathing pure oxygen. Measurements in different-sized tumors showed that the mean pO2 value decreased as tumor volume increased, with the largest change occurring between tumor volumes of 100 and 200 mm3. Our data demonstrate that the OxyLite system, when used with isoflurane anesthesia, is a valuable tool in the study of tumor hypoxia.

  17. The Outer Solar System Origins Survey. I. ; Design and First-Quarter Discoveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, Michele T.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Petit, Jean-Marc; Gladman, Brett J.; Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Chen, Ying-Tung; Volk, Kathryn; Alexandersen, Mike; Benecchi, Susan D.; Delsanti, Audrey; hide

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery, tracking, and detection circumstances for 85 trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) from the first 42 square degrees of the Outer Solar System Origins Survey. This ongoing r-band solar system survey uses the 0.9 square degree field of view MegaPrime camera on the 3.6 meter Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Our orbital elements for these TNOs are precise to a fractional semimajor axis uncertainty of less than 0.1 percent. We achieve this precision in just two oppositions, as compared to the normal three to five oppositions, via a dense observing cadence and innovative astrometric technique. These discoveries are free of ephemeris bias, a first for large trans-Neptunian surveys. We also provide the necessary information to enable models of TNO orbital distributions to be tested against our TNO sample. We confirm the existence of a cold "kernel" of objects within the main cold classical Kuiper Belt and infer the existence of an extension of the "stirred" cold classical Kuiper Belt to at least several au beyond the 2:1 mean motion resonance with Neptune. We find that the population model of Petit et al. remains a plausible representation of the Kuiper Belt. The full survey, to be completed in 2017, will provide an exquisitely characterized sample of important resonant TNO populations, ideal for testing models of giant planet migration during the early history of the solar system.

  18. Influence of oxygen on the thermal behavior of the ZrO2-Fe2O3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanic, G.; Grzeta, B.; Music, S.

    2000-01-01

    Amorphous precursors of the ZrO 2 -Fe 2 O 3 system at the ZrO 2 -rich side of the concentration range were prepared by co-precipitation of the corresponding nitrates from aqueous solutions. The thermal behavior of the amorphous samples obtained was investigated using differential thermal analysis. It was found that amorphous precursors with Fe 2 O 3 content up to 30 mol% are single co-gels. In situ phase development during the calcination of the samples at low air pressure (∝4 x 10 -3 Pa) was investigated using X-ray diffraction at high temperature. The results were compared with the results of phase analysis after calcination and cooling in the presence of air at atmospheric pressure (∝10 5 Pa). The phase compositions of the samples at room temperature were determined using X-ray diffraction and laser Raman spectroscopy. The incorporation of Fe 3+ cations partially stabilized cubic ZrO 2 during the calcination in the presence of air at atmospheric pressure, but destabilized this polymorph during calcination at very low pressure. The observed differences in the phase development were attributed to the influence of oxygen vacancies introduced during calcination at very low pressure. The solubility of Fe 2 O 3 in ZrO 2 also depended on the calcination procedure. During calcination at atmospheric pressure, the solubility limits of Fe 2 O 3 in ZrO 2 decreased from more than 30 mol% at 600 C to ∝2 mol% at 1100 C. On the other hand, the solubility of Fe 2 O 3 in ZrO 2 was shown to be significantly higher during calcination at up to 1200 C at very low pressure. (orig.)

  19. A time series of prokaryote secondary production in the oxygen minimum zone of the Humboldt current system, off central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levipan, H. A.; Quiñones, R. A.; Urrutia, H.

    2007-11-01

    Because the marine picoplanktonic communities are made up of phylogenetically different microbial groups, the re-evaluation of key processes such as bacterial secondary production (BSP) has become an important contemporary issue. The difficulty of differentiating the metabolic processes of Bacteria from the rest of the microorganisms in the water column (i.e., Archaea and Eukarya) has made it difficult to estimate in situ BSP. This work presents the seasonal variability of the prokaryote secondary production (PSP) measured by the incorporation of 14C-leucine in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) off central-southern Chile. The BSP and potential archaeal secondary production (PASP) were determined through the combined use of 14C-leucine and N1-guanyl-1, 7-diaminoheptane (GC 7), an efficient inhibitor of archaeal and eukaryote cell growth. BSP accounted for the majority of the PSP (total average, 59 ± 7.5%); maximum values were ∼600 μg C m -3 h -1 and, on several dates, BSP represented 100% of the PSP. Similarly, PASP was also an important fraction of the PSP (total average, 42.4 ± 8.5%), although with levels that ranged from not detectable (on given dates) to levels that represented up to ∼97% of PSP (winter 2003). Our results showed that both Bacteria and Archaea accounted for almost equal portions of the prokaryote heterotrophic metabolism in the OMZ, and that PASP is notoriously enhanced through temporal pulses of heterotrophy. This indicates that, at least in marine systems with high abundance of Archaea (e.g., mesopelagic realm), the secondary production obtained through methods measuring the uptake of radiolabeled substrates should be considered as PSP and not as BSP. If the latter is the target measurement, then the use of an inhibitor of both archaeal and eukaryote cell growth such as GC 7 is recommended.

  20. Systemic oxidative-nitrosative-inflammatory stress during acute exercise in hypoxia; implications for microvascular oxygenation and aerobic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodside, John D S; Gutowski, Mariusz; Fall, Lewis; James, Philip E; McEneny, Jane; Young, Ian S; Ogoh, Shigehiko; Bailey, Damian M

    2014-12-01

    Exercise performance in hypoxia may be limited by a critical reduction in cerebral and skeletal tissue oxygenation, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We examined whether increased systemic free radical accumulation during hypoxia would be associated with elevated microvascular deoxygenation and reduced maximal aerobic capacity (V̇O2 max ). Eleven healthy men were randomly assigned single-blind to an incremental semi-recumbent cycling test to determine V̇O2 max in both normoxia (21% O2) and hypoxia (12% O2) separated by a week. Continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy was employed to monitor concentration changes in oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin in the left vastus lateralis muscle and frontal cerebral cortex. Antecubital venous blood samples were obtained at rest and at V̇O2 max to determine oxidative (ascorbate radical by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy), nitrosative (nitric oxide metabolites by ozone-based chemiluminescence and 3-nitrotyrosine by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and inflammatory stress biomarkers (soluble intercellular/vascular cell adhesion 1 molecules by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Hypoxia was associated with increased cerebral and muscle tissue deoxygenation and lower V̇O2 max (P exercise-induced increase in oxidative-nitrosative-inflammatory stress, hypoxia per se did not have an additive effect (P > 0.05 versus normoxia). Consequently, we failed to observe correlations between any metabolic, haemodynamic and cardiorespiratory parameters (P > 0.05). Collectively, these findings suggest that altered free radical metabolism cannot explain the elevated microvascular deoxygenation and corresponding lower V̇O2 max in hypoxia. Further research is required to determine whether free radicals when present in excess do indeed contribute to the premature termination of exercise in hypoxia. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  1. The roles of polycarboxylates in Cr(VI)/sulfite reaction system: Involvement of reactive oxygen species and intramolecular electron transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Bo, E-mail: bjiang86upc@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, Shandong (China); School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Qingdao University of Technology, Qingdao 266033 (China); Wang, Xianli; Liu, Yukun [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, Shandong (China); Wang, Zhaohui [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Southern Cross GeoScience, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW 2480 (Australia); Zheng, Jingtang, E-mail: jtzheng03@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, Shandong (China); Wu, Mingbo, E-mail: wumb@upc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, Shandong (China)

    2016-03-05

    Highlights: • The formations of SO{sub 4}·{sup −} and OH·, involve in Cr(VI) reduction induced by S(IV). • Affinity of polycarboxylate to Cr(VI) accelerates Cr(VI) reduction rate. • Polycarboxylates can act as electron donors for Cr(VI) reduction retrenching S(IV). • Only oxalate can enhance the formations of SO{sub 4}·{sup −} and OH· in Cr(VI)/S(IV) system. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of polycarboxylates on both Cr(VI) reduction and S(IV) consumption in Cr(VI)/S(IV) system was investigated in acidic solution. Under aerobic condition, the productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), i.e., SO{sub 4}·{sup −} and OH·, have been confirmed in S(IV) reducing Cr(VI) process by using electron spin resonance and fluorescence spectrum techniques, leading to the excess consumption of S(IV). However, when polycarboxylates (oxalic, citric, malic and tartaric acid) were present in Cr(VI)/S(IV) system, the affinity of polycarboxylates to CrSO{sub 6}{sup 2−} can greatly promote the reduction of Cr(VI) via expanding the coordination of Cr(VI) species from tetrahedron to hexahedron. Besides, as alternatives to S(IV), these polycarboxylates can also act as electron donors for Cr(VI) reduction via intramolecular electron transfer reaction, which is dependent on the energies of the highest occupied molecular orbital of these polycarboxylates. Notably, the variant electron donating capacity of these polycarboxylates resulted in different yield of ROS and therefore the oxidation efficiencies of other pollutants, e.g., rhodamine B and As(III). Generally, this study does not only shed light on the mechanism of S(IV) reducing Cr(VI) process mediated by polycarboxylates, but also provides an escalated, cost-effective and green strategy for the remediation of Cr(VI) using sulfite as a reductant.

  2. Performance of Regolith Feed Systems for Analog Field Tests of In-Situ Resource Utilization Oxygen Production Plants in Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Ivan I.; Mueller, Robert P.; Mantovani, James G.; Zacny, Kris A.; Craft, Jack

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on practical aspects of mechanical auger and pneumatic regolith conveying system feeding In-Situ Resource Utilization Oxygen production plants. The subsystems of these feedstock delivery systems include an enclosed auger device, pneumatic venturi educator, jet-lift regolith transfer, innovative electro-cyclone gas-particle separation/filtration systems, and compressors capable of dealing with hot hydrogen and/or methane gas re-circulating in the system. Lessons learned from terrestrial laboratory, reduced gravity and field testing on Mauna Kea Volcano in Hawaii during NASA lunar analog field tests will be discussed and practical design tips will be presented.

  3. Oxygen Deficit: The Bio-energetic Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABHAY KUMAR PANDEY

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Scarcity of oxygen in humans arises via three modes. The environment may have low oxygen to breath. There can be disease in respiratory system causing hindrance to uptake of oxygen from environment and the circulatory system may be sluggish to supply to body parts that starve for oxygen. Thirdly the chemico-cellular components of blood which carry oxygen may be lowered or defective. In reference to body cells several limiting sites and mechanisms affect the amount of oxygen delivered to them, and these are under regulatory control of several functional and metabolic systems.

  4. Web Health Monitoring Survey: A New Approach to Enhance the Effectiveness of Telemedicine Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Maria Francesca; Sardella, Maria Vittoria; Alboni, Fabrizio

    2016-06-06

    Aging of the European population and interest in a healthy population in western countries have contributed to an increase in the number of health surveys, where the role of survey design, data collection, and data analysis methodology is clear and recognized by the whole scientific community. Survey methodology has had to couple with the challenges deriving from data collection through information and communications technology (ICT). Telemedicine systems have not used patients as a source of information, often limiting them to collecting only biometric data. A more effective telemonitoring system would be able to collect objective and subjective data (biometric parameters and symptoms reported by the patients themselves), and to control the quality of subjective data collected: this goal be achieved only by using and merging competencies from both survey methodology and health research. The objective of our study was to propose new metrics to control the quality of data, along with the well-known indicators of survey methodology. Web questionnaires administered daily to a group of patients for an extended length of time are a Web health monitoring survey (WHMS) in a telemedicine system. We calculated indicators based on paradata collected during a WHMS study involving 12 patients, who signed in to the website daily for 2 months. The patients' involvement was very high: the patients' response rate ranged between 1.00 and 0.82, with an outlier of 0.65. Item nonresponse rate was very low, ranging between 0.0% and 7.4%. We propose adherence to the chosen time to connect to the website as a measure of involvement and cooperation by the patients: the difference from the median time ranged between 11 and 24 minutes, demonstrating very good cooperation and involvement from all patients. To measure habituation to the questionnaire, we also compared nonresponse rates to the items between the first and the second month of the study, and found no significant difference. We

  5. Field Surveys of Non-Residential Solar Water Heating Systems in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung-Ming Chung

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available To develop indigenous alternative and renewable energy resources, long-term subsidy programs (1986–1991 and 2000–present for solar water heaters have been enforced in Taiwan. By the end of 2010, the total installed area of solar collectors had exceeded 2 million square meters. However, over 98% of solar water heaters were used in residential systems for hot water production, with the areas of installed solar collector being less than 10 square meters. There were only 98 systems with area of solar collectors installed exceeding 100 square meters put into operation from 2001 to 2010. These systems were mainly installed for water heating in dormitories, swimming pools, restaurants, and manufacturing plants. In the present study, a comprehensive survey of these large-scale solar water heaters was conducted. The objectives of the survey were to assess the system performance and to collect feedback from individual users. It is found that lack of experience in system design and maintenance are the key factors affecting reliable operation of a system. Hourly, daily and long-term field measurements of a dormitory system were also examined to evaluate its thermal efficiencies. Results indicated that thermal efficiency of the system is associated with the daily solar radiation. Hot water use pattern and operation of auxiliary heater should be taken into account in system design.

  6. Precision and accuracy of the static GNSS system for surveying networks used in Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nixon Alexander Correa Muñoz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A field check was implemented for calibrating surveying equipment. It was geo-referenced with a Total Station Theodolite and by implementing procedures concerning repeatability and reproducibility. We carried out GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System static positioning with double frequency equipment, sensitizing occupation times, day times, uncorrected coordinates subjected to a differential correction procedure and type of coordinates obtained. This facilitated an evaluation of precision and accuracy for the GNSS positioning with the static method, which gave a global RMSE (root mean square error of 1 cm for conditions with no multipath effect and 4 cm for field calibration points close to buildings. Additionally, optimal results for occupation times of 30 minutes were found, and the need to use planar Cartesian coordinates to ensure compatibility with the surveys using electronic measurement of distances, which allows the use of the static GNSS positioning for geo-referencing precise surveying networks, and can be used in different applications in Civil Engineering.

  7. Combining users' activity survey and simulators to evaluate human activity recognition systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azkune, Gorka; Almeida, Aitor; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Chen, Liming

    2015-04-08

    Evaluating human activity recognition systems usually implies following expensive and time-consuming methodologies, where experiments with humans are run with the consequent ethical and legal issues. We propose a novel evaluation methodology to overcome the enumerated problems, which is based on surveys for users and a synthetic dataset generator tool. Surveys allow capturing how different users perform activities of daily living, while the synthetic dataset generator is used to create properly labelled activity datasets modelled with the information extracted from surveys. Important aspects, such as sensor noise, varying time lapses and user erratic behaviour, can also be simulated using the tool. The proposed methodology is shown to have very important advantages that allow researchers to carry out their work more efficiently. To evaluate the approach, a synthetic dataset generated following the proposed methodology is compared to a real dataset computing the similarity between sensor occurrence frequencies. It is concluded that the similarity between both datasets is more than significant.

  8. Combining Users’ Activity Survey and Simulators to Evaluate Human Activity Recognition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka Azkune

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating human activity recognition systems usually implies following expensive and time-consuming methodologies, where experiments with humans are run with the consequent ethical and legal issues. We propose a novel evaluation methodology to overcome the enumerated problems, which is based on surveys for users and a synthetic dataset generator tool. Surveys allow capturing how different users perform activities of daily living, while the synthetic dataset generator is used to create properly labelled activity datasets modelled with the information extracted from surveys. Important aspects, such as sensor noise, varying time lapses and user erratic behaviour, can also be simulated using the tool. The proposed methodology is shown to have very important advantages that allow researchers to carry out their work more efficiently. To evaluate the approach, a synthetic dataset generated following the proposed methodology is compared to a real dataset computing the similarity between sensor occurrence frequencies. It is concluded that the similarity between both datasets is more than significant.

  9. Combining Users' Activity Survey and Simulators to Evaluate Human Activity Recognition Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azkune, Gorka; Almeida, Aitor; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Chen, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating human activity recognition systems usually implies following expensive and time-consuming methodologies, where experiments with humans are run with the consequent ethical and legal issues. We propose a novel evaluation methodology to overcome the enumerated problems, which is based on surveys for users and a synthetic dataset generator tool. Surveys allow capturing how different users perform activities of daily living, while the synthetic dataset generator is used to create properly labelled activity datasets modelled with the information extracted from surveys. Important aspects, such as sensor noise, varying time lapses and user erratic behaviour, can also be simulated using the tool. The proposed methodology is shown to have very important advantages that allow researchers to carry out their work more efficiently. To evaluate the approach, a synthetic dataset generated following the proposed methodology is compared to a real dataset computing the similarity between sensor occurrence frequencies. It is concluded that the similarity between both datasets is more than significant. PMID:25856329

  10. Application for surveying technology for the alignment of large optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauke, W.

    1984-01-01

    Precise alignment of optical elements in large optical systems is difficult if many elements are positioned such that direct alignment or boresighting becomes impossible. A practical approach is to identify discrete optical path segments and align these using standard surveying or optical-tooling instrumentation. One simply has to develop an alignment theory in which the alignment optical path duplicates or closely approximates the optical path of the operational device. The surveying instruments can then be used to simulate the optical input beams to the system segments to be aligned. Auxiliary targets and reflectors may be added, and the alignment procedure may be augmented by standard optical test instrumentation and techniques. Examples are given using theodolites, transits, and levels with autocollimating capability and micrometer adaptors to perform boresighting and autocollimation techniques on segments of the optical train of the Antares Laser Fusion System at Los Alamos National Laboratory

  11. Study on the Road Traffic Survey System Based on Micro-ferromagnetic Induction Coil Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Tong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic information is the basis of road traffic management and control. Due to the special design of the sensor coil and ferromagnetic core, traffic survey system which uses micro ferromagnetic inductive coil vehicle detector, not only has the features of small size, simple installation and little road surface damage, but also has the advantages of output signal strength, simple signal processing circuit and obvious characteristics for output waveform corresponding vehicle feature. Based on the introduction of the sensor working principle, the construction of hardware and signal processing circuit for the traffic survey system is described in detail in the paper. Combined with the characteristics of the sensor output waveform, adaptive nearest neighbor clustering RBF neural network algorithm used to classify the vehicles is proposed and verified by experimental method. The result has a high vehicle classification rate and demonstrates the feasibility of the system.

  12. A survey of approaches combining safety and security for industrial control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriaa, Siwar; Pietre-Cambacedes, Ludovic; Bouissou, Marc; Halgand, Yoran

    2015-01-01

    The migration towards digital control systems creates new security threats that can endanger the safety of industrial infrastructures. Addressing the convergence of safety and security concerns in this context, we provide a comprehensive survey of existing approaches to industrial facility design and risk assessment that consider both safety and security. We also provide a comparative analysis of the different approaches identified in the literature. - Highlights: • We raise awareness of safety and security convergence in numerical control systems. • We highlight safety and security interdependencies for modern industrial systems. • We give a survey of approaches combining safety and security engineering. • We discuss the potential of the approaches to model safety and security interactions

  13. Systemic Approach to Elevation Data Acquisition for Geophysical Survey Alignments in Hilly Terrains Using UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, M. A. M.; Kumar, N. S.; Abidin, M. H. Z.; Madun, A.

    2018-04-01

    This study is about systematic approach to photogrammetric survey that is applicable in the extraction of elevation data for geophysical surveys in hilly terrains using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The outcome will be to acquire high-quality geophysical data from areas where elevations vary by locating the best survey lines. The study area is located at the proposed construction site for the development of a water reservoir and related infrastructure in Kampus Pauh Putra, Universiti Malaysia Perlis. Seismic refraction surveys were carried out for the modelling of the subsurface for detailed site investigations. Study were carried out to identify the accuracy of the digital elevation model (DEM) produced from an UAV. At 100 m altitude (flying height), over 135 overlapping images were acquired using a DJI Phantom 3 quadcopter. All acquired images were processed for automatic 3D photo-reconstruction using Agisoft PhotoScan digital photogrammetric software, which was applied to all photogrammetric stages. The products generated included a 3D model, dense point cloud, mesh surface, digital orthophoto, and DEM. In validating the accuracy of the produced DEM, the coordinates of the selected ground control point (GCP) of the survey line in the imaging area were extracted from the generated DEM with the aid of Global Mapper software. These coordinates were compared with the GCPs obtained using a real-time kinematic global positioning system. The maximum percentage of difference between GCP’s and photogrammetry survey is 13.3 %. UAVs are suitable for acquiring elevation data for geophysical surveys which can save time and cost.

  14. Information system evolution at the French National Network of Seismic Survey (BCSF-RENASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, F.; Grunberg, M.

    2013-12-01

    The aging information system of the French National Network of Seismic Survey (BCSF-RENASS), located in Strasbourg (EOST), needed to be updated to satisfy new practices from Computer science world. The latter means to evolve our system at different levels : development method, datamining solutions, system administration. The new system had to provide more agility for incoming projects. The main difficulty was to maintain old system and the new one in parallel the time to validate new solutions with a restricted team. Solutions adopted here are coming from standards used by the seismological community and inspired by the state of the art of devops community. The new system is easier to maintain and take advantage of large community to find support. This poster introduces the new system and choosen solutions like Puppet, Fabric, MongoDB and FDSN Webservices.

  15. Common catabolic enzyme patterns in a microplankton community of the Humboldt Current System off northern and central-south Chile: Malate dehydrogenase activity as an index of water-column metabolism in an oxygen minimum zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, R. R.; Quiñones, R. A.

    2009-07-01

    An extensive subsurface oxygen minimum zone off northern and central-south Chile, associated with the Peru-Chile undercurrent, has important effects on the metabolism of the organisms inhabiting therein. Planktonic species deal with the hypoxic and anoxic environments by relying on biochemical as well as physiological processes related to their anaerobic metabolisms. Here we characterize, for the first time, the potential enzymatic activities involved in the aerobic and anaerobic energy production pathways of microplanktonic organisms (oxygen concentration and microplanktonic biomass in the oxygen minimum zone and adjacent areas of the Humboldt Current System water column. Our results demonstrate significant potential enzymatic activity of catabolic pathways in the oxygen minimum zone. Malate dehydrogenase had the highest oxidizing activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced form) in the batch of catabolic enzymatic activities assayed, including potential pyruvate oxidoreductases activity, the electron transport system, and dissimilatory nitrate reductase. Malate dehydrogenase correlated significantly with almost all the enzymes analyzed within and above the oxygen minimum zone, and also with the oxygen concentration and microplankton biomass in the water column of the Humboldt Current System, especially in the oxygen minimum zone off Iquique. These results suggest a possible specific pattern for the catabolic activity of the microplanktonic realm associated with the oxygen minimum zone spread along the Humboldt Current System off Chile. We hypothesize that malate dehydrogenase activity could be an appropriate indicator of microplankton catabolism in the oxygen minimum zone and adjacent areas.

  16. Effect of NaN3 on oxygen-dependent lethality of UV-A in Escherichia coli mutants lacking active oxygen-defence and DNA-repair systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kazumasa; Ono, Tetsuyoshi; Nishioka, Hajime

    1996-01-01

    Escherichia coli mutants which lack defence systems against such active oxygen forms as OxyR (ΔoxyR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) (sodA and sodB) and catalase (katE and katG) are sensitive to UV-A lethality under aerobic conditions, whereas OxyR- and SOD-mutants have resistance under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of sodium azide (NaN 3 ) during irradiation. UV-A induces lipid peroxidation in the ΔoxyR mutant, which is suppressed by NaN 3 . These results suggest that UV-A generates 1 O 2 or the hydroxyl radical to produce lipid peroxides intracellularly in the ΔoxyR mutant and that O 2 - stress may be generated in the sodAB mutant after 8 hr of exposure to UV-A. The sensitivities of such DNA repair-deficient mutants as recA ind- and uvrA to UV-A also were examined and compared. These mutants are sensitive to UV-A lethality under aerobic conditions but show only slight resistance under anaerobic conditions or in the presence of NaN 3 during irradiation. We conclude that NaN 3 protects these mutant cells from oxygen-dependent UV-A lethality. (author)

  17. Application of an eddy correlation system for the estimation of oxygen benthic fluxes in coastal permeable sediments impacted by submarine groundwater discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donis, D.; Janssen, F.; Böttcher, M.; McGinnis, D.; Holtappels, M.; Wenzhöfer, F.

    2012-04-01

    Measurements of solute exchange across the sediment-water interface are crucial for marine environment monitoring. This interface has fundamental filter functions for the mass exchange between the seafloor and the water column. Being a non-invasive technique, the eddy correlation method, is probably the most accurate measurement for benthic fluxes. It does not interfere with local hydrodynamics and integrates over large areas, showing considerable advantages compared to traditional methods, i.e., microprofiles and benthic chambers. One of the most important exchange processes across the sediment-water interface is flux of oxygen, which is a predominant control factor for the biogeochemical activity in the sediment, carbon processing and the composition of benthic communities. The eddy correlation method performs simultaneous recordings of vertical velocities and oxygen concentrations at a specific distance to the seafloor and is becoming a standard method for resolving dissolved oxygen fluxes in aquatic systems. However, data treatment and interpretation, especially in shallow environments, is still challenging. One major concern in eddy correlation studies of coastal environments is how to consider surface wave motions that can dominate the turbulence range and that may bias flux calculations. A critical part of the data treatment thus is the removal of wave biases from the vertical velocity component, by separating the wave frequency oscillations (due to a tilted or miss-aligned sensor) from those containing meaningful flux contributions. Here we present in situ benthic oxygen exchange rates as determined by an eddy correlation system (ECS) and simultaneously deployed stirred benthic chambers. The study was carried out in a coastal ecosystem of the southern Baltic Sea that was impacted by low salinity groundwater discharge (Hel peninsula, Poland). Oxygen fluxes determined with ECS compared well with results from benthic chambers. Flux data and seepage rates are

  18. Post-Mission Quality Assurance Procedure for Survey-Grade Mobile Mapping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstinga, A. P.; Friess, P.

    2016-06-01

    Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) consist of terrestrial-based moving platforms that integrate a set of imaging sensors (typically digital cameras and laser scanners) and a Position and Orientation System (POS), designed to collect data of the surrounding environment. MMS can be classified as "mapping-grade" or "survey-grade" depending on the system's attainable accuracy. Mapping-grade MMS produce geospatial data suitable for GIS applications (e.g., asset management) while survey-grade systems should satisfy high-accuracy applications such as engineering/design projects. The delivered accuracy of an MMS is dependent on several factors such as the accuracy of the system measurements and calibration parameters. It is critical, especially for survey-grade systems, to implement a robust Quality Assurance (QA) procedure to ensure the achievement of the expected accuracy. In this paper, a new post-mission QA procedure is presented. The presented method consists of a fully-automated self-calibration process that allows for the estimation of corrections to the system calibration parameters (e.g., boresight angles and lever-arm offsets relating the lidar sensor(s) to the IMU body frame) as well as corrections to the system measurements (e.g., post-processed trajectory position and orientation, scan angles and ranges). As for the system measurements, the major challenge for MMS is related to the trajectory determination in the presence of multipath signals and GNSS outages caused by buildings, underpasses and high vegetation. In the proposed self-calibration method, trajectory position errors are properly modelled while utilizing an efficient/meaningful trajectory segmentation technique. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated using a dataset collected under unfavorable GNSS conditions.

  19. Experimental evaluation of the oxygen transfer in bubble aeration systems. Full scale experiences in lengthened activated sludge reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreottola, G.; Ragazzi, M.; Tatano, F.

    1999-01-01

    The results of some full-scale oxygen transfer measurements conduced at the lengthened activate sludge tanks of two WWTPs of Trentino Region, are presented and discussed. As far at the tests in clean water are concerned, the non-liner regression method seems non accurate; important conclusion on the correlation between oxygen transfer process and typical parameters (i.e., fine-bubble diffusers, specific air flux) are derived. As far as the test in the wastewater is concerned, an increase of α-value from the inlet to the end of aeration tanks has been observed in the 'Andalo' WWTP [it

  20. Medical oxygen and air travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyznicki, J M; Williams, M A; Deitchman, S D; Howe, J P

    2000-08-01

    This report responds to a resolution that asked the American Medical Association (AMA) to take action to improve airport and airline accommodations for passengers requiring medical oxygen. Information for the report was derived from a search of the MEDLINE database and references listed in pertinent articles, as well as through communications with experts in aerospace and emergency medicine. Based on this information, the AMA Council on Scientific Affairs determined that commercial air travel exposes passengers to altitude-related hypoxia and gas expansion, which may cause some passengers to experience significant symptoms and medical complications during flight. Medical guidelines are available to help physicians evaluate and counsel potential passengers who are at increased risk of inflight hypoxemia. Supplemental oxygen may be needed for some passengers to maintain adequate tissue oxygenation and prevent hypoxemic complications. For safety and security reasons, federal regulations prohibit travelers from using their own portable oxygen system onboard commercial aircraft. Many U.S. airlines supply medical oxygen for use during flight but policies and procedures vary. Oxygen-dependent passengers must make additional arrangements for the use of supplemental oxygen in airports. Uniform standards are needed to specify procedures and equipment for the use of medical oxygen in airports and aboard commercial aircraft. Revision of federal regulations should be considered to accommodate oxygen-dependent passengers and permit them to have an uninterrupted source of oxygen from departure to destination.