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Sample records for oxygen separation equipment

  1. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 9: Mixed Alcohols From Syngas -- State of Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is for Task 9, Mixed Alcohols from Syngas: State of Technology, as part of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Task 9 supplements the work previously done by NREL in the mixed alcohols section of the 2003 technical report Preliminary Screening--Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas.

  2. Oxygen sensor equipped engine operation on methanol/gasoline blends and phase separation problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, A J; Lawson, A; Simmons, E W; Mackay, D; Tsang, M; Maund, G B

    1980-01-01

    A study was made to address problems related to Canadian utilization of methanol/gasoline blends. These problems are: (1) cold weather operation; (2) water sensitivity to phase separation in winter; (3) vehicle compatibility: fuel/air ratio control, flexibility for vehicle movement outside of areas where methanol might be available. Specifically, the operation of the HydroShear (an in-line hydraulic emulsifier) on the two separated phases of a methanol/gasoline/water blend was examined. Fuel maps, by engine dynamometer testing, were generated using methanol/gasoline blends containing 15% to 65% methanol. The capability of an oxygen sensor, located in the exhaust system, to control the fuel/air ratio was found to be adequate within the 15% to 65% methanol/gasoline blends. A fuel injected Volvo 244DL with lambda-sond emission control and a carburetted Chevrolet Monza with 3-way catalyst closed loop feedback emission control system were the two engines selected for this study.

  3. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 1: Cost Estimates of Small Modular Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is the Final Report for Task 1, Cost Estimates of Small Modular Systems, as part of NREL Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Subtask 1.1 looked into processes and technologies that have been commercially built at both large and small scales, with three technologies, Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) of refinery gas oil, Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) of Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) Expanders, chosen for further investigation. These technologies were chosen due to their applicability relative to other technologies being considered by NREL for future commercial applications, such as indirect gasification and fluidized bed tar cracking. Research in this subject is driven by an interest in the impact that scaling has on the cost and major process unit designs for commercial technologies. Conclusions from the evaluations performed could be applied to other technologies being considered for modular or skid-mounted applications.

  4. A Cabin Air Separator for EVA Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Presently, the Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) conducted from the Quest Joint Airlock on the International Space Station use high pressure, high purity oxygen that is delivered to the Space Station by the Space Shuttle. When the Space Shuttle retires, a new method of delivering high pressure, high purity oxygen to the High Pressure Gas Tanks (HPGTs) is needed. One method is to use a cabin air separator to sweep oxygen from the cabin air, generate a low pressure/high purity oxygen stream, and compress the oxygen with a multistage mechanical compressor. A main advantage to this type of system is that the existing low pressure oxygen supply infrastructure can be used as the source of cabin oxygen. ISS has two water electrolysis systems that deliver low pressure oxygen to the cabin, as well as chlorate candles and compressed gas tanks on cargo vehicles. Each of these systems can feed low pressure oxygen into the cabin, and any low pressure oxygen source can be used as an on-board source of oxygen. Three different oxygen separator systems were evaluated, and a two stage Pressure Swing Adsorption system was selected for reasons of technical maturity. Two different compressor designs were subjected to long term testing, and the compressor with better life performance and more favorable oxygen safety characteristics was selected. These technologies have been used as the basis of a design for a flight system located in Equipment Lock, and taken to Preliminary Design Review level of maturity. This paper describes the Cabin Air Separator for EVA Oxygen (CASEO) concept, describes the separator and compressor technology trades, highlights key technology risks, and describes the flight hardware concept as presented at Preliminary Design Review (PDR)

  5. 14 CFR 25.1441 - Oxygen equipment and supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oxygen equipment and supply. 25.1441... Oxygen equipment and supply. (a) If certification with supplemental oxygen equipment is requested, the... oxygen available in each source of supply. (d) The oxygen flow rate and the oxygen equipment for...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1441 - Oxygen equipment and supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oxygen equipment and supply. 23.1441... Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1441 Oxygen equipment and supply. (a) If certification with supplemental oxygen..., during the flight, the quantity of oxygen available in each source of supply. (d) Each required flight...

  7. Mixed oxygen ion/electron-conducting ceramics for oxygen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, T.R.; Armstrong, B.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Mixed oxygen ion and electron-conducting ceramics are unique materials that can passively separate high purity oxygen from air. Oxygen ions move through a fully dense ceramic in response to an oxygen concentration gradient, charge-compensated by an electron flux in the opposite direction. Compositions in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, perovskites where M=Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N=Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, have been prepared and their electrical, oxygen permeation, oxygen vacancy equilibria, and catalytic properties evaluated. Tubular forms, disks, and asymmetric membrane structures, a thin dense layer on a porous support of the same composition, have been fabricated for testing purposes. In an oxygen partial gradient, the passive oxygen flux through fully dense structures was highly dependent on composition. An increase in oxygen permeation with increased temperature is attributed to both enhanced oxygen vacancy mobility and higher vacancy populations. Highly acceptor-doped compositions resulted in oxygen ion mobilities more than an order of magnitude higher than yttria-stabilized zirconia. The mixed conducting ceramics have been utilized in a membrane reactor configuration to upgrade methane to ethane and ethylene. Conditions were established to balance selectivity and throughput in a catalytic membrane reactor constructed from mixed conducting ceramics.

  8. Ceria Based Composite Membranes for Oxygen Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurauskis, Jonas; Ovtar, Simona; Kaiser, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Mixed ionic-electronic conducting membranes for oxygen gas separation are attracting a lot of interest due to their promising potential for the pure oxygen and the syngas production. Apart from the need for a sufficiently high oxygen permeation fluxes, the prolonged stability of these membranes...... under the large oxygen potential gradients at elevated temperatures is decisive for the future applications. The gadolinium doped cerium oxide (CGO) based composite membranes are considered as promising candidates due to inherent stability of CGO phase. The CGO matrix is a main oxygen ion transporter......; meanwhile the primary role of a secondary phase in this membrane is to compensate the low electronic conductivity of matrix at intended functioning conditions. In this work thin film (15-20 μm) composite membranes based on CGO matrix and LSF electronic conducting phase were fabricated and evaluated...

  9. Ammonia producing engine utilizing oxygen separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Jr., William Lanier; Coleman, Gerald Nelson [Petersborough, GB; Robel, Wade James [Peoria, IL

    2008-12-16

    A power system is provided having a power source, a first power source section with a first intake passage and a first exhaust passage, a second power source section with a second intake passage and a second exhaust passage, and an oxygen separator. The second intake passage may be fluidly isolated from the first intake passage.

  10. Oxygen Equipment and Rapid Decompression Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-03-01

    at 45,000 ft, Final Report, Contract FA-3082, May 1963. 8. Noble, L. E., J. C. Davis, 1. Margolis, and K. D. Kable: Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in a...drasticallymodify these results. 113 ’i 1 Reference 1. Stork, R. L., and T. R. Morgan: Oxygen Accumulation in Hypobaric Chambers, USAF School of Aerospace

  11. Separation by electrostatic equipments; Separacion por medios electrostaticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, R.; Larrauri, E.; Arnaiz, S.; Cacho, S.; Robertson, C.; Smallwood, J.; Coilt, J.; Ufer, R.; Kohnlecher, R.

    2000-07-01

    Development of automated separation technologies is essential in increasing recovery rates, particularly from highly mixed sources such municipal solid wastes and wastes from electric and electronic equipment, and in reducing recycling costs. This frame moved GAIKER Technological Centre to look for new technologies that allow to recover materials such metals, plastics, papers from those waste sources. Electrostatic separation technology has been successfully applied to separate these materials collaborating to get the targets specified by legislation. (Author)

  12. Oxygen requirement of separated hybrid catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish egg masses require hatchery water with over 7.8 ppm dissolved oxygen at 80° F (95% air saturation) to maintain maximum oxygen consumption as they near hatching. This concentration is called the critical oxygen requirement by scientists but for the purpose of this article we will call...

  13. Crud separation from equipment drain of BWR atomic power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masaru; Yamaguchi, Hisashi; Moriya, Yasuhiro; Koshiba, Yukihiko; Ota, Yoshiharu.

    1977-01-01

    In the primary cooling systems of BWR nuclear power stations, radioactive crud is generated and accumulates in reactors and circulating systems, which causes the radiation exposure of workers at the time of the inspection and maintenance of reactors. The chemical composition and grain size distribution of crud differ largely according to the construction of primary systems, the operational conditions of reactors, and the process of operation. The study on the application of nuclear pore membrane filter NPMF to the separation of crud in the waste water from equipment drain systems has been carried out. With the NPMF, clarified filtrate can be obtained without any filter aid, therefore the secondary waste of filter sludge is not generated. When the filter is clogged, the filtration capability can be regenerated by reverse flow washing, and continuous filtration is possible actually because the regeneration takes only short time. The NPMF is the polycarbonate membrane of about 10 μm thick, to which charged particles are irradiated vertically, and the flight tracks are etched with alkali solution, thus the required pore treatment is applied. The basic investigation of waste liquid, the endurance test of actual filters, the filtration test with the pilot apparatus, the demonstration test with an actual equipment, and the design of the actual equipment have been carried out for three years. (Kako, I.)

  14. The development of zirconia membrane oxygen separation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiacchi, F.T.; Badwal, S.P.S.; Velizko, V.

    2000-01-01

    The oxygen separation technology based on ceramic membranes constructed from stabilised zirconia is currently under development for applications ranging from oxygen generation or air enrichment for medical use to control of oxygen concentration or oxygen removal from gas streams and enclosures for semiconductor, food packaging and process control instrumentation industries. The technology is based on a rugged tubular design with extensive thermal cycling capability. Several single and three tube devices have been operated for periods up to 5000h. An eight tube module, as a building block for larger scale oxygen production or removal devices, has been constructed and is being evaluated. In this paper, the construction of the device, oxygen generating capacity, life time tests and performance of the ceramic membrane device under development at CSIRO will be discussed. Copyright (2000) The Australian Ceramic Society

  15. Innovative oxide materials for electrochemical energy conversion and oxygen separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousov, V. V.

    2017-10-01

    Ion-conducting solid metal oxides are widely used in high-temperature electrochemical devices for energy conversion and oxygen separation. However, liquid metal oxides possessing unique electrochemical properties still remain of limited use. The review demonstrates the potential for practical applications of molten oxides. The transport properties of molten oxide materials are discussed. The emphasis is placed on the chemical diffusion of oxygen in the molten oxide membrane materials for electrochemical energy conversion and oxygen separation. The thermodynamics of these materials is considered. The dynamic polymer chain model developed to describe the oxygen ion transport in molten oxides is discussed. Prospects for further research into molten oxide materials are outlined. The bibliography includes 145 references.

  16. Hybrid membrane--PSA system for separating oxygen from air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiger, Chad L [Albuquerque, NM; Vaughn, Mark R [Albuquerque, NM; Miller, A Keith [Albuquerque, NM; Cornelius, Christopher J [Blackburg, VA

    2011-01-25

    A portable, non-cryogenic, oxygen generation system capable of delivering oxygen gas at purities greater than 98% and flow rates of 15 L/min or more is described. The system consists of two major components. The first component is a high efficiency membrane capable of separating argon and a portion of the nitrogen content from air, yielding an oxygen-enriched permeate flow. This is then fed to the second component, a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit utilizing a commercially available, but specifically formulated zeolite compound to remove the remainder of the nitrogen from the flow. The system is a unique gas separation system that can operate at ambient temperatures, for producing high purity oxygen for various applications (medical, refining, chemical production, enhanced combustion, fuel cells, etc . . . ) and represents a significant advance compared to current technologies.

  17. RECENT PROGRESS OF OXYGEN/NITROGEN SEPARATION USING MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. CHONG

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The oxygen-enriched air is highly demanded for various industrial applications such as medical, chemical and enhanced combustion processes. The conventional oxygen/nitrogen production is either cryogenic distillation or pressure swing adsorption (PSA. Both of these techniques possess the production capability of 20 to 300 tonnes of oxygen per day and oxygen purity of more than 95%. However, these techniques are energy intensive. Alternatively, membrane technology is an emerging technology in gas separation as it requires low energy consumption and relatively moderate production volume, if compared to the conventional gas production techniques. These advantages have spurred much interest from industries and academics to speed up the commercial viability of the O2/N2 separation via membrane technology. In this review, the conventional and membrane technologies in O2/N2 separation, as well as recent development of membrane fabrication techniques and materials are reviewed. The latest membrane performance in O2/N2 separation is also tabulated and discussed.

  18. Photoelectrochemical water splitting in separate oxygen and hydrogen cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, Avigail; Dotan, Hen; Shter, Gennady E.; Wullenkord, Michael; Houaijia, Anis; Maljusch, Artjom; Grader, Gideon S.; Rothschild, Avner

    2017-06-01

    Solar water splitting provides a promising path for sustainable hydrogen production and solar energy storage. One of the greatest challenges towards large-scale utilization of this technology is reducing the hydrogen production cost. The conventional electrolyser architecture, where hydrogen and oxygen are co-produced in the same cell, gives rise to critical challenges in photoelectrochemical water splitting cells that directly convert solar energy and water to hydrogen. Here we overcome these challenges by separating the hydrogen and oxygen cells. The ion exchange in our cells is mediated by auxiliary electrodes, and the cells are connected to each other only by metal wires, enabling centralized hydrogen production. We demonstrate hydrogen generation in separate cells with solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 7.5%, which can readily surpass 10% using standard commercial components. A basic cost comparison shows that our approach is competitive with conventional photoelectrochemical systems, enabling safe and potentially affordable solar hydrogen production.

  19. Electrode-electrolyte BIMEVOX system for moderate temperature oxygen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boivin, J.C.; Pirovano, C.; Nowogrocki, G.; Mairesse, G. [Laboratoire de Cristallochimie et Physicochimie du Solide, URA CNRS 452, USTL-ENSCL BP 108, 59652 Villeneuve d`Ascq (France); Labrune, Ph.; Lagrange, G. [Centre de recherches Claude Delorme, Air Liquide, Jouy en Josas (France)

    1998-12-01

    Electrochemical separation of oxygen from air is a promising application for oxide conductor solid electrolytes. However, several important specifications are required in order to obtain an efficient separation device. First of all, the electrolyte material must exhibit a high conductivity at moderate temperature. From this point of view, a new family of materials called BIMEVOX ideally fulfils this condition. Secondly, a typical separation device must comport two electrodes on opposite faces of the electrolyte. These electrodes must act as electronic collectors but also, at the cathodic side, as an oxygen dissociation catalyst. BIMEVOX electrolytes exhibit ionic conductivity values that can allow work at temperature below 500C. The classical electrode approach, like in solid oxide fuel cells, consists in using a specific mixed oxide, for instance strontium lanthanum manganite or cobaltite. However, the lower the temperature, the lower the efficiency of these electrodes which quickly appears as the limiting factor. In previous work on bismuth lead oxide electrolytes, we proposed a new approach that consists of using the surface of the bismuth-based electrolyte itself as the catalyst, the electron collection being then performed by a co-sintered metallic grid. This `in-situ` electrode system provides many advantages, particularly it eliminates the problem of the chemical compatibility between electrode and electrolyte materials. Taking into account the presence of both catalytic vanadium and bismuth cations in BIMEVOX, we checked under these conditions the separation of oxygen from air for different electrolytes (BICOVOX, BICUVOX, BIZNVOX) at various temperatures in the range 430-600C. For instance, using a BICOVOX pellet with a gold grid inserted on each side makes it possible to separate oxygen with nearly 100% efficiency for current density values up to 1000 mA/cm{sup -2}. For higher intensity values, the faradic efficiency progressively but reversibly decreases

  20. 14 CFR 25.1445 - Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... distributing system. 25.1445 Section 25.1445 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1445 Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system. (a) When oxygen is supplied to both crew and passengers, the distribution system must be designed for either— (1) A source of...

  1. Method and equipment of separation of gaseous and vaporous materials, particularly isotopes, with separation nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, E.W.; Eisenbeiss, G.; Ehrfeld, W.

    1975-01-01

    The invention improves on the already known separation nozzle method by the two following steps: 1) The partial flows produced within the cascade with various shares of additional gas are introduced into the separating nozzle systems in such a manner that with regard to the additional gas, a molar fraction gradient is created which is in the opposite direction to the gradient created by the separation process. 2) The partial flows produced within the cascade with various compositions of the mixture of substances to be separated are introduced into the separating nozzle systems in such a manner that regarding the substances to be separated, a molar fraction gradient is created which is in the same direction as the molar fraction gradient formed by the separation process. Both measures can be separately applied or in combination with one another; flowsheets of the invented cascade circuits and separating nozzle systems are given. (GG/LH) [de

  2. Development of thin film inorganic membranes for oxygen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Hyo Jeong

    2012-08-22

    Membrane-based gas separation systems are noteworthy among technological options for carbon capture and storage (CCS), which is an important strategy to reduce CO{sub 2} emitted from point sources, e.g. mainly fossil power plants. In Oxyfuel-Combustion and Pre-Combustion of CCS power plant concepts oxygen separation from air is required. To meet this requirement oxygen transport membranes (OTM) consisting of gastight mixed ionic electronic conductors (MIEC) are proposed, which are associated with significantly lower efficiency losses compared with conventional air separation technologies. For cost effective application a maximum oxygen flux has to be achieved to reduce the membrane area. This can be met by reduction of membrane thickness. Therefore, the reduction of the membrane thickness to the micrometer range or even below is aimed in the present thesis. Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-{delta}} (CGO) with fluorite crystal structure and La{sub 0.58}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCF) with perovskite crystal structure were developed as thin film membrane. CGO is expected to be more stable than other potential MIEC membranes in reducing atmospheres and to achieve sufficient oxygen permeation, e.g. in syngas production or petrol chemistry. LSCF is expected to be highly permeable with an acceptable chemical stability in Oxyfuel-combustion. Various porous ceramic substrates were prepared by vacuum-slip-casting and warm-pressing, and then characterized for porosity, gas-permeability and surface roughness. Subsequently, two approaches to fabrication of thin film membranes were investigated, which are wetchemical deposition (WCD) and physical vapor deposition (PVD). For WCD, nano-dispersions and colloidal sols were prepared for membrane top-layer and/or interlayer. When CGO nano-dispersion (NDCGO) was spin-coated as thin film membrane, the gastightness of sintered membranes was increased with decrease in spinning time and increase in concentration of

  3. Oxygen - Precautions to be taken in the preparation of plant and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The inadequate maintenance and cleanness of equipment for use with oxygen under pressure is a frequent cause of spontaneous combustion in valves and fittings. Such accidents are always serious and frequently result in loss of life. This study by the Working Party 'Safety-Oxygen' of the Steel Industry Safety and Health Commission provides the most up-to-date information on this hazard and puts forward a draft specification for firms in the steel industry (or others using oxygen gas under pressure) and engineering consultants. The aim being to make manufacturers of the equipment and assembly firms comply with the conditions laid down

  4. Oxygen permeation and thermo-chemical stability of oxygen separation membrane materials for the oxyfuel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellett, Anna Judith

    2009-07-01

    The reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions, generally held to be one of the most significant contributors to global warming, is a major technological issue. CO{sub 2} Capture and Storage (CCS) techniques applied to large stationary sources such as coal-fired power plants could efficiently contribute to the global carbon mitigation effort. The oxyfuel process, which consists in the burning of coal in an oxygen-rich atmosphere to produce a flue gas highly concentrated in CO{sub 2}, is a technology considered for zero CO{sub 2} emission coal-fired power plants. The production of this O{sub 2}-rich combustion gas from air can be carried out using high purity oxygen separation membranes. Some of the most promising materials for this application are mixed ionic-electronic conducting (MIEC) materials with perovskite and K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4} perovskite-related structures. The present work examines the selection of La{sub 0.58}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCF58), La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}}, Pr{sub 0.58}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (PSCF58) and Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} (BSCF50) as membrane materials for the separation of O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} in the framework of the oxyfuel process with flue gas recycling. Annealing experiments were carried out on pellets exposed to CO{sub 2}, water vapour, O{sub 2} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} in order to determine the thermo-chemical resistance to the atmospheres and the high temperature conditions present during membrane operation in a coal-fired power plant. The degradation of their microstructure was investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in combination with electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) as well as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Also, the oxygen permeation fluxes of selected membranes were investigated as a function of temperature. The membrane materials selected were characterised using thermo-analytical techniques such as precision thermogravimetric

  5. RECENT PROGRESS OF OXYGEN/NITROGEN SEPARATION USING MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    K. C. CHONG; S. O. LAI; H. S. THIAM; H. C. TEOH; S. L. HENG

    2016-01-01

    The oxygen-enriched air is highly demanded for various industrial applications such as medical, chemical and enhanced combustion processes. The conventional oxygen/nitrogen production is either cryogenic distillation or pressure swing adsorption (PSA). Both of these techniques possess the production capability of 20 to 300 tonnes of oxygen per day and oxygen purity of more than 95%. However, these techniques are energy intensive. Alternatively, membrane technology is an emerging technology...

  6. Determining the Source of Water Vapor in a Cerium Oxide Electrochemical Oxygen Separator to Achieve Aviator Grade Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, John; Taylor, Dale; Martinez, James

    2014-01-01

    More than a metric ton of water is transported to the International Space Station (ISS) each year to provide breathing oxygen for the astronauts. Water is a safe and compact form of stored oxygen. The water is electrolyzed on ISS and ambient pressure oxygen is delivered to the cabin. A much smaller amount of oxygen is used each year in spacesuits to conduct Extra Vehicular Activities (EVAs). Space suits need high pressure (>1000 psia) high purity oxygen (must meet Aviator Breathing Oxygen "ABO" specifications, >99.5% O2). The water / water electrolysis system cannot directly provide high pressure, high purity oxygen, so oxygen for EVAs is transported to ISS in high pressure gas tanks. The tanks are relatively large and heavy, and the majority of the system launch weight is for the tanks and not the oxygen. Extracting high purity oxygen from cabin air and mechanically compressing the oxygen might enable on-board production of EVA grade oxygen using the existing water / water electrolysis system. This capability might also benefit human spaceflight missions, where oxygen for EVAs could be stored in the form of water, and converted into high pressure oxygen on-demand. Cerium oxide solid electrolyte-based ion transport membranes have been shown to separate oxygen from air, and a supported monolithic wafer form of the CeO2 electrolyte membrane has been shown to deliver oxygen at pressures greater than 300 psia. These supported monolithic wafers can withstand high pressure differentials even though the membrane is very thin, because the ion transport membrane is supported on both sides (Fig 1). The monolithic supported wafers have six distinct layers, each with matched coefficients of thermal expansion. The wafers are assembled into a cell stack which allows easy air flow across the wafers, uniform current distribution, and uniform current density (Fig 2). The oxygen separation is reported to be "infinitely selective" to oxygen [1] with reported purity of 99.99% [2

  7. Subcooled Liquid Oxygen Cryostat for Magneto-Archimedes Particle Separation by Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, D. K.; Celik, D.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    2008-03-01

    An instrument for the separation of particles by density (sorting) is being developed that uses the magneto-archimedes effect in liquid oxygen. With liquid oxygen strongly paramagnetic, the magneto-archimedes effect is an extension of diamagnetic levitation in the sense of increasing the effective buoyancy of a particle. The instrument will be able to separate ensembles of particles from 100 μm to 100 nm in size, and vertically map or mechanically deliver the separated particles. The instrument requires a column of liquid oxygen that is nearly isothermal, free of thermal convection, subcooled to prevent nucleate boiling, and supported against the strong magnetic field used. Thus, the unique cryostat design that meets these requirements is described in the present article. It consists in part of a column of liquid nitrogen below for cooling the liquid oxygen, with the liquid oxygen pressurized by helium gas to prevent nucleate boiling.

  8. Construction and operation of an universal stopping equipment for the fragment separator of the GSI Darmstadt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weckenmann, J.; Hanelt, E.; Schmidt, K.H.

    1990-07-01

    The fragment separator is a magnetic spectrometer, in which an especially-shaped layer of matter is applied as ion-optical element. The energy loss occurring there is accompanied by a series of unwanted effects like nuclear reaction, elecromagnetic dissociation, energy and angle straggling. These effects reduce on the one hand the total resolution of the separator and on the other hand the number of the fragments, which reach the exit of the separator. In the present study it was stated that the influence of these effects exhibits in most of the cases only a weak dependence on the material of the stopper. The ideal stopper material has a mass number, which corresponds nearly to the mass number of the selected fragment. If only one single stopper material will be applied, a material with low mass number seems to be the best compromise. Therefore for the universal stopper equipment of the fragment separator aluminium was selected. A further object of this study was the profile of the stopper. In a symmetrically constructed magnet spectrometer as the fragment separator the highest resolution is then reached, when the required particles are stopped in the whole width of their momentum distribution by a constant factor. This requirement leads to a curved profile of the stopper. It was stated that the profile can be approached by a linear wedge shape without a disadvantageous change of the resolution of the separator. The technical realization of the universal stopping equipment for the fragment separator consists mainly of very accurately manufactured, shiftable, and rotatable wedge-shaped layers. By means of a step-motor guiding the profiles required for the isotope separation can thus be obtained in a wide range. (orig.) [de

  9. Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-13

    412TW-PA-15560 Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals...density storage of gases remains a major technological hurdle for many fields. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), for example, reduced their hydrogen

  10. Light dependence of quantum yields for PSII charge separation and oxygen evolution in eucaryotic algae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flameling, I.A.; Kromkamp, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Quantum yields of photosystem II (PSII) charge separation (Phi(P)) and oxygen production (Phi(O2)) were determined by simultaneous measurements of oxygen production and variable fluorescence in four different aquatic microalgae representing three different taxonomic groups: the freshwater alga

  11. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Plants and Equipment Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority N Appendix N to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Pt. 110, App. N Appendix N to Part 110—Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment...

  12. Low energy consumption method for separating gaseous mixtures and in particular for medium purity oxygen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jujasz, Albert J.; Burkhart, James A.; Greenberg, Ralph

    1988-01-01

    A method for the separation of gaseous mixtures such as air and for producing medium purity oxygen, comprising compressing the gaseous mixture in a first compressor to about 3.9-4.1 atmospheres pressure, passing said compressed gaseous mixture in heat exchange relationship with sub-ambient temperature gaseous nitrogen, dividing the cooled, pressurized gaseous mixture into first and second streams, introducing the first stream into the high pressure chamber of a double rectification column, separating the gaseous mixture in the rectification column into a liquid oxygen-enriched stream and a gaseous nitrogen stream and supplying the gaseous nitrogen stream for cooling the compressed gaseous mixture, removing the liquid oxygen-enriched stream from the low pressure chamber of the rectification column and pumping the liquid, oxygen-enriched steam to a predetermined pressure, cooling the second stream, condensing the cooled second stream and evaporating the oxygen-enriched stream in an evaporator-condenser, delivering the condensed second stream to the high pressure chamber of the rectification column, and heating the oxygen-enriched stream and blending the oxygen-enriched stream with a compressed blend-air stream to the desired oxygen concentration.

  13. Modification of pure oxygen absorption equipment for concurrent stripping of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watten, B.J.; Sibrell, P.L.; Montgomery, G.A.; Tsukuda, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    The high solubility of carbon dioxide precludes significant desorption within commercial oxygen absorption equipment. This operating characteristic of the equipment limits its application in recirculating water culture systems despite its ability to significantly increase allowable fish loading rates (kg/(L min)). Carbon dioxide (DC) is typically removed by air stripping. This process requires a significant energy input for forced air movement, air heating in cold climates and water pumping. We developed a modification for a spray tower that provides for carbon dioxide desorption as well as oxygen absorption. Elimination of the air-stripping step reduces pumping costs while allowing dissolved nitrogen to drop below saturation concentrations. This latter response provides for an improvement in oxygen absorption efficiency within the spray tower. DC desorption is achieved by directing head-space gases from the spray tower (O2, N2, CO2) through a sealed packed tower scrubber receiving a 2 N NaOH solution. Carbon dioxide is selectively removed from the gas stream, by chemical reaction, forming the product Na 2CO3. Scrubber off-gas, lean with regard to carbon dioxide but still rich with oxygen, is redirected through the spray tower for further stripping of DC and absorption of oxygen. Make-up NaOH is metered into the scrubbing solution sump on an as needed basis as directed by a feedback control loop programmed to maintain a scrubbing solution pH of 11.4-11.8. The spent NaOH solution is collected, then regenerated for reuse, in a batch process that requires relatively inexpensive hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2). A by-product of the regeneration step is an alkaline filter cake, which may have use in bio-solids stabilization. Given the enhanced gas transfer rates possible with chemical reaction, the required NaOH solution flow rate through the scrubber represents a fraction of the spray tower water flow rate. Further, isolation of the water being treated from the atmosphere (1

  14. GreenChill Store Certification Protocol for Sub-Cooling Contained on Racks Separate from Refrigeration Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Document describes the protocol used to determine the total load and refrigerant charge of stores that have placed all sub-cooling on a rack separate from all other commercial refrigeration equipment.

  15. Oxygen requirements of separated hybrid catfish female Ictalurus punctatus male I. furcatus eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus egg masses require ambient water with over 95% air saturation to maintain maximum oxygen consumption as they near hatch. Since hybrid catfish eggs (channel catfish ' X blue catfish I. furcatus ') are often kept separated after fertilization by the addition of full...

  16. Separation of krypton from carbon dioxide and oxygen with molecular sieves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    Molecular sieves were investigated to separate 1 percent mixtures of krypton in gas streams of a few percent oxygen and 90+ percent carbon dioxide. Such a system will be required to concentrate the krypton gas between radioactive krypton off-gas cleanup systems such as KALC (Krypton Absorption in Liquid Carbon Dioxide) and any krypton gas bottling station. Linde 5A molecular sieves were found capable of selectively removing the CO 2 from the gas stream while partially separating the oxygen from the krypton; i.e., effecting a three-component gas separation. This use of molecular sieves differs from standard practice in two respects. First, the bulk of the gas (greater than 90 percent) is removed by molecular sieves rather than the normal practice of using molecular sieves to remove trace impurities. Second, in a single bed two separations occur simultaneously, CO 2 from other gases and krypton from oxygen. The use of molecular sieves for separating krypton and carbon dioxide is superior to alternatives such as CO 2 freezeout and chemical traps when there are only moderate gas flows and there is a need for very high reliability and ease of maintenance

  17. Electrolytic separation factors for oxygen isotopes in light and heavy water solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulens, J.; Olmstead, W.J.; Longhurst, T.H.; Gale, K.L.; Rolston, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The electrolytic separation factor, α, has been measured for /sup 17/O and /sup 18/O at Pt and Ni anodes in both light and heavy water solutions of 6M KOH as a function of current density. For oxygen-17, isotopic separation effects were not observed, within the experimental uncertainty of +-2%, under all conditions studied. For oxygen-18, there is a small difference of 2% in α values between Pt and Ni in both light and heavy water solutions, but there is no significant difference in α values between light and heavy water solutions. In light waters solutions, the separation factor at Pt is small, α(/sup 18/O) ≤ 1.02 for i ≥ 0.1 A/cm/sub 2/. This value agrees reasonably well with theoretical estimates

  18. Enhancement of oxygen transfer and nitrogen removal in a membrane separation bioreactor for domestic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiemchaisri, C; Yamamoto, K

    2005-01-01

    Biological nitrogen removal in a membrane separation bioreactor developed for on-site domestic wastewater treatment was investigated. The bioreactor employed hollow fiber membrane modules for solid-liquid separation so that the biomass could be completely retained within the system. Intermittent aeration was supplied with 90 minutes on and off cycle to achieve nitrification and denitrification reaction for nitrogen removal. High COD and nitrogen removal of more than 90% were achieved under a moderate temperature of 25 degrees C. As the temperature was stepwise decreased from 25 to 5 degrees C, COD removal in the system could be constantly maintained while nitrogen removal was deteriorated. Nevertheless, increasing aeration supply could enhance nitrification at low temperature with benefit from complete retention of nitrifying bacteria within the system by membrane separation. At low operating temperature range of 5 degrees C, nitrogen removal could be recovered to more than 85%. A mathematical model considering diffusion resistance of limiting substrate into the bio-particle is applied to describe nitrogen removal in a membrane separation bioreactor. The simulation suggested that limitation of the oxygen supply was the major cause of inhibition of nitrification during temperature decrease. Nevertheless, increasing aeration could promote oxygen diffusion into the bio-particle. Sufficient oxygen was supplied to the nitrifying bacteria and the nitrification could proceed. In the membrane separation bioreactor, biomass concentration under low temperature operation was allowed to increase by 2-3 times of that of moderate temperature to compensate for the loss of bacterial activities so that the temperature effect was masked.

  19. The Impact of Firefighter Personal Protective Equipment and Treadmill Protocol on Maximal Oxygen Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Bakri, Ilham; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Son, Su-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of firefighter personal protective equipment (PPE) on the determination of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) while using two different treadmill protocols: a progressive incline protocol (PIP) and a progressive speed protocol (PSP), with three clothing conditions (Light-light clothing; Boots-PPE with rubber boots; Shoes-PPE with running shoes). Bruce protocol with Light was performed for a reference test. Results showed there was no difference in VO2max between Bruce Light, PIP Light, and PSP Light. However, VO2max was reduced in Boots and Shoes with shortened maximal performance time (7 and 6 min reduced for PIP Boots and Shoes, respectively; 11 and 9 min reduced for PSP Boots and Shoes, respectively), whereas the increasing rate of VO2 in Boots and Shoes during submaximal exercise was greater compared with Light. Wearing firefighter boots compared with wearing running shoes also significantly affected submaximal VO2 but not VO2max. These results suggest that firefighters’ maximal performance determined from a typical VO2max test without wearing PPE may overestimate the actual performance capability of firefighters wearing PPE. PMID:23668854

  20. Technical and economic aspects of oxygen separation for oxy-fuel purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chorowski Maciej

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxy combustion is the most promising technology for carbon dioxide, originated from thermal power plants, capture and storage. The oxygen in sufficient quantities can be separated from air in cryogenic installations. Even the state-of-art air separation units are characterized by high energy demands decreasing net efficiency of thermal power plant by at least 7%. This efficiency decrease can be mitigated by the use of waste nitrogen, e.g., as the medium for lignite drying. It is also possible to store energy in liquefied gases and recover it by liquid pressurization, warm-up to ambient temperature and expansion. Exergetic efficiency of the proposed energy accumulator may reach 85%.

  1. (Ce,Gd)O2−δ-based dual phase membranes for oxygen separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Alfred Junio; Søgaard, Martin; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2014-01-01

    and characterized with respect to sinterability, oxygen permeation rate, phase interaction, and microstructure. These factors are important when considering the development of composite membranes with CGO as the oxide ion conducting phase. Composite membranes with relative densities >91% were fabricated using....... The results indicate a promising prospect for further tailoring and optimization of CGO-based composites for application in oxygen separation....

  2. Equipment to separate liquid droplets from the cooling air stream of a liquid cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, S.E.; Schwinn, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    In order to separate off liquid droplets from the air stream of a cooling tower, one uses separator blades that are secured to the supporting construction. An improvement on this is proposed to make the repairs easier. According to the invention, the separator blades should be fabricated from springy material with self-supporting strength and can be fitted onto the supporting construction by means of slits and notches. (RW) [de

  3. A device for reduction of metal oxides generated in electrokinetic separation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gye-Nam; Kim, Seung-Soo; Kim, Il-Gook; Jeong, Jung-Whan; Choi, Jong-Won

    2015-01-01

    For a reduction of waste electrolyte volume and metal oxide volume, the reuse period of the waste electrolyte in the electrokinetic decontamination experiment and the method of a reduction of metal oxide volume in the cathode chamber were drawn out through several experiments with the manufactured 1.2 ton electrokinetic decontamination equipment. The optimum pH of electrolyte in cathode chamber for a reduction of volume of metal oxides was below 2.35. Indoor electrokinetic decontamination equipment for treatment of 1.2 tons of the contaminated soil per batch was manufactured to remove uranium from soil with high removal efficiency during a short time. For a reduction of waste electrolyte volume and metal oxide volume, the reuse period of waste electrolyte in the electrokinetic decontamination experiment and the method of a reduction of metal oxide volume in the cathode chamber were drawn out through several experiments with the manufactured electrokinetic equipment. Indoor electrokinetic decontamination equipment for treatment of 1.2 tons of the contaminated soil was manufactured to remove uranium from soil during a short time

  4. A device for reduction of metal oxides generated in electrokinetic separation equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gye-Nam; Kim, Seung-Soo; Kim, Il-Gook; Jeong, Jung-Whan; Choi, Jong-Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    For a reduction of waste electrolyte volume and metal oxide volume, the reuse period of the waste electrolyte in the electrokinetic decontamination experiment and the method of a reduction of metal oxide volume in the cathode chamber were drawn out through several experiments with the manufactured 1.2 ton electrokinetic decontamination equipment. The optimum pH of electrolyte in cathode chamber for a reduction of volume of metal oxides was below 2.35. Indoor electrokinetic decontamination equipment for treatment of 1.2 tons of the contaminated soil per batch was manufactured to remove uranium from soil with high removal efficiency during a short time. For a reduction of waste electrolyte volume and metal oxide volume, the reuse period of waste electrolyte in the electrokinetic decontamination experiment and the method of a reduction of metal oxide volume in the cathode chamber were drawn out through several experiments with the manufactured electrokinetic equipment. Indoor electrokinetic decontamination equipment for treatment of 1.2 tons of the contaminated soil was manufactured to remove uranium from soil during a short time.

  5. Equipment for the enrichment of uranium isotopes according to the separation nozzle method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, W.

    1979-01-01

    Several separation elements in a container are brought to a separation cascade. It is braced as spherical container with radial separation wall (sectors) and is placed on a crosspiece support having four outlining regions. Coolers are arranged within the sectors. The compressors are released into four constructionally independent compressor aggregates and are placed under the spherical container in the four outlined regions. The central gas channels and the connecting channels between the compressors and the coolers lead out of the spherical container and all end up at the same level with the conduit supports. The spherical container is also suitable for a large throughput of gas. (DG) [de

  6. Oxygen reduction at platimun/ionomer interface: effects of phase separation of ionomer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chlistunoff, Jerzy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the interface between platinum and recast ionomers (Nafion EW 1100 and 950 and 6F-40) was studied at different temperatures (20--80{sup o}C) and humidities (10--100%) employing smooth Pt and Pt-black-covered ultramicroelectrodes. ORR was strongly inhibited on smooth electrodes. The inhibition increased with the reduction time, temperature and humidity, but was absent for Nafion EW 1100 in contact with liquid water. It was attributed to the hydrophobic component of ionomer blocking both active sites and oxygen transport. It was postulated that the dynamic changes in interfacial phase separation of ionomer are facilitated by the attractive interactions between the hydrophobic component of ionomer and bare platinum and between oxide-covered Pt and the hydrophilic component of ionomer. These interactions were also proposed to be responsible for the differences in ORR voltammetry for films prepared and equilibrated under different conditions. The decrease in ORR inhibition, Nafion EW 950> Nafion EW 1100> 6F-40, was correlated with physical and molecular properties of the ionomers. The lack of inhibition for Pt-black-covered electrodes was attributed to the more random distribution of ionomer chains and the high activation barriers for the ionomer restructuring at rough interfaces.

  7. Separation of isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen by low temperature distillation of nitrogen oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isomura, Shohei; Tonooka, Yasuhiko; Kaetsu, Hayato

    1987-02-01

    In general, the distillation parameters, such as the number of theoretical plate (NTP) and the height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP), can be obtained from the operation at the steady state. However, it is time-consuming to achieve the steady state especially in the case of isotope separation. In this paper, with the purpose of simultaneous separation of isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen by NO distillation, we tried to determine the distillation parameters by an analytical method through the transient-state operation. It was confirmed that the results from the analysis were in good agreement with those observed for the operation at the steady state. Enrichment of the isotopes was carried out using a distillation column with a height of 1 m and inside diameter of 12 mm. The dependence of HETP on liquid flow rate was measured by the proposed method. The obtained HETP values were from 2 to 4 cm. The operation time of about 5 h was found to be long enough to determine the distillation parameters.

  8. Separation of isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen by low temperature distillation of nitrogen oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isomura, Shohei; Tonooka, Yasuhiko; Kaetsu, Hayato

    1987-01-01

    In general, the distillation parameters, such as the number of theoretical plate (NTP) and the height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP), can be obtained from the operation at the steady state. However, it is time-consuming to achieve the steady state especially in the case of isotope separation. In this paper, with the purpose of simultaneous separation of isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen by NO distillation, we tried to determine the distillation parameters by an analytical method through the transient-state operation. It was confirmed that the results from the analysis were in good agreement with those observed for the operation at the steady state. Enrichment of the isotopes was carried out using a distillation column with a height of 1 m and inside diameter of 12 mm. The dependence of HETP on liquid flow rate was measured by the proposed method. The obtained HETP values were from 2 to 4 cm. The operation time of about 5 h was found to be long enough to determine the distillation parameters. (author)

  9. Equipment, operation and some results from a hot test of the CTH actinide separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljenzin, J.O.; Persson, G.

    1981-01-01

    The CTH actinide separation process has been tested by treating 16 l of 10 year old waste solution from PUREX reprocessing of metallic fuel. It was in general found to operate well and, in some respects, slightly better than design specifications. The extraction process removed more than 99.995% of initial alpha activity. After the sorption steps 5 Bq/l β-activity remained in solution. The modified reversed TALSPEAK process used to separate Am and Cm from the lanthanides gave an Am-Cm product with less than 0.7% of the lanthanides and vice versa. This result can probably be somewhat improved by continuous addition of lactic acid and closer pH control. (orig.)

  10. Procedure and equipment for the separation of isotopes for deuterium upgrading and for the production of heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoell, M.

    1981-01-01

    The invention concerns a simple procedure for the separation of isotopes for the enrichment of deuterium and for the production of heavy water as well as the equipment necessary for carrying out the process. Methane is conducted over bacterial cultures oxidizing methane to water and carbon dioxide. An enrichment of deuterium takes place in non-oxidized methane. The bacterial cultures are placed on carriers that are arranged in oxidation columns as baffle plates. Several oxidation towers of this kind can be arranged in series. (orig./RW) [de

  11. Evaluation of the air quality in pig housing facilities equipped with a liquid-solid separation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavoie, J.; Beaudet, Y.; Letourneau, C.; Godbout, S.; Lemay, S.; Belzile, M.; Lachance, I.; Pouliot, F.

    2006-01-01

    A new regulation regarding agricultural operations in Quebec was passed in June 2002. It stated the new standards for managing phosphorous generated from animal livestock. The regulation is intended to protect the environment, more specifically, water, soil and air quality. This new regulation stipulates that agricultural producers acquire a balanced phosphorous assessment by 2010. In order to achieve this, a system is needed to separate solid and liquid pig manure on a daily basis. Producers must also comply with environmental requirements on odour elimination and atmospheric control. The proposed solid-liquid separation system would improve the indoor and outdoor air quality at pig housing facilities by reducing toxic gas and bioaerosol formation. In addition, it would contribute to stream purification. The solid-liquid separation technique was successfully tested in a pilot project at a mini pig housing facility. It was concluded that type of separation equipment system could readily used for other types of animal farming, such as cattle raising. 41 refs., 13 tabs., 12 figs

  12. Property-close source separation of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment - A Swedish case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstad, Anna; Cour Jansen, Jes la; Aspegren, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Through an agreement with EEE producers, Swedish municipalities are responsible for collection of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). In most Swedish municipalities, collection of these waste fractions is concentrated to waste recycling centres where households can source-separate and deposit hazardous waste and WEEE free of charge. However, the centres are often located on the outskirts of city centres and cars are needed in order to use the facilities in most cases. A full-scale experiment was performed in a residential area in southern Sweden to evaluate effects of a system for property-close source separation of hazardous waste and WEEE. After the system was introduced, results show a clear reduction in the amount of hazardous waste and WEEE disposed of incorrectly amongst residual waste or dry recyclables. The systems resulted in a source separation ratio of 70 wt% for hazardous waste and 76 wt% in the case of WEEE. Results show that households in the study area were willing to increase source separation of hazardous waste and WEEE when accessibility was improved and that this and similar collection systems can play an important role in building up increasingly sustainable solid waste management systems.

  13. Effective solutions for monitoring the electrostatic separation of metal and plastic granular waste from electric and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senouci, Khouira; Medles, Karim; Dascalescu, Lucian

    2013-02-01

    The variability of the quantity and purity of the recovered materials is a serious drawback for the application of electrostatic separation technologies to the recycling of granular wastes. In a series of previous articles we have pointed out how capability and classic control chart concepts could be employed for better mastering the outcome of such processes. In the present work, the multiple exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) control chart is introduced and shown to be more effective than the Hotelling T2 chart for monitoring slow varying changes in the electrostatic separation of granular mixtures originating from electric and electronic equipment waste. The operation of the industrial process was simulated by using a laboratory roll-type electrostatic separator and granular samples resulting from shredded electric cable wastes. The 25 tests carried out during the observation phase enabled the calculation of the upper and lower control limits for the two control charts considered in the present study. The 11 additional tests that simulated the monitoring phase pointed out that the MEWMA chart is more effective than Hotelling's T(2) chart in detecting slow varying changes in the outcome of a process. As the reverse is true in the case of abrupt alterations of monitored process performances, simultaneous usage of the two control charts is strongly recommended. While this study focused on a specific electrostatic separation process, using the MEWMA chart together with the well known Hotelling's T(2) chart should be applicable to the statistical control of other complex processes in the field of waste processing.

  14. Cryogenic separation of an oxygen-argon mixture in natural air samples for the determination of isotope and molecular ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keedakkadan, Habeeb Rahman; Abe, Osamu

    2015-04-30

    The separation and purification of oxygen-argon mixtures are critical in the high-precision analysis of Δ(17) O and δ(O2 /Ar) for geochemical applications. At present, chromatographic methods are used for the separation and purification of oxygen-argon mixtures or pure oxygen, but these methods require the use of high-purity helium as a carrier gas. Considerable interest has been expressed in the development of a helium-free cryogenic separation of oxygen-argon mixtures in natural air samples. The precise and simplified cryogenic separation of oxygen-argon mixtures from natural air samples presented here was made possible using a single 5A (30/60 mesh) molecular sieve column. The method involves the trapping of eluted gases using molecular sieves at liquid nitrogen temperature, which is associated with isotopic fractionation. We tested the proposed method for the determination of isotopic fractionations during the gas exchange between water and atmospheric air at equilibrium. The dependency of fractionation was studied at different water temperatures and for different methods of equilibration (bubbling and stirring). Isotopic and molecular fractionations during gas desorption from molecular sieves were studied for different amounts and types of molecular sieves. Repeated measurements of atmospheric air yielded a reproducibility (±SD) of 0.021 ‰, 0.044 ‰, 15 per meg and 1.9 ‰ for δ(17) O, δ(18) O, Δ(17) O and δ(O2 /Ar) values, respectively. We applied the method to determine equilibrium isotope fractionation during gas exchange between air and water. Consistent δ(18) O and Δ(17) O results were obtained with the latest two studies, whereas there was a significant difference in δ(18) O values between seawater and deionized water. We have revised a helium-free, cryogenic separation of oxygen-argon mixtures in natural air samples for isotopic and molecular ratio analysis. The use of a single 13X (1/8" pellet) molecular sieve yielded the smallest isotopic

  15. A simple alkali-metal and noble gas ion source for SIMS equipments with mass separation of the primary ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duesterhoeft, H.; Pippig, R.

    1986-01-01

    An alkali-metal ion source working without a store of alkali-metals is described. The alkali-metal ions are produced by evaporation of alkali salts and ionization in a low-voltage arc discharge stabilized with a noble gas plasma or in the case of small alkali-metal ion currents on the base of the well known thermic ionization at a hot tungsten wire. The source is very simple in construction and produces a stable ion current of 0.3 μA for more than 100 h. It is possible to change the ion species in a short time. This source is applicable to all SIMS equipments using mass separation for primary ions. (author)

  16. Mitigating an increase of specific power consumption in a cryogenic air separation unit at reduced oxygen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Rohit; Chowdhury, Kanchan

    2017-02-01

    Specific power consumed in a Linde double column air separation unit (ASU) increases as the quantity of oxygen produced at a given purity is decreased due to the changes of system requirement or market demand. As the plant operates in part load condition, the specific power consumption (SPC) increases as the total power consumption remains the same. In order to mitigate the increase of SPC at lower oxygen production, the operating pressure of high pressure column (HPC) can be lowered by extending the low pressure column (LPC) by a few trays and adding a second reboiler. As the duty of second reboiler in LPC is increased, the recovery of oxygen decreases with a lowering of the HPC pressure. This results in mitigation of the increase of SPC of the plant. A Medium pressure ASU with dual reboiler that produces pressurised gaseous and liquid products of oxygen and nitrogen is simulated in Aspen Hysys 8.6®, a commercial process simulator to determine SPC at varying oxygen production. The effects of reduced pressure of air feed into the cold box on the size of heat exchangers (HX) are analysed. Operation strategy to obtain various oxygen production rates at varying demand is also proposed.

  17. Novel CO2 Separation and Methanation for Oxygen and Fuel Production, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) proposes a novel efficient, compact, and lightweight MicrolithREG-based CO2 separator and methanation reactor to separate CO2 from...

  18. A Water-/Fireproof Flexible Lithium-Oxygen Battery Achieved by Synergy of Novel Architecture and Multifunctional Separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yan-Bin; Yang, Xiao-Yang; Chang, Zhi-Wen; Zhu, Yun-Hai; Liu, Tong; Yan, Jun-Min; Jiang, Qing

    2018-01-01

    To meet the increasing demands for portable and flexible devices in a rapidly developing society, it is urgently required to develop highly safe and flexible electrochemical energy-storage systems. Flexible lithium-oxygen batteries with high theoretical specific energy density are promising candidates; however, the conventional half-open structure design prevents it from working properly under water or fire conditions. Herein, as a proof-of-concept experiment, a highly safe flexible lithium-oxygen battery achieved by the synergy of a vital multifunctional structure design and a unique composite separator is proposed and fabricated. The structure can effectively prevent the invasion of water from the environment and combustion, which is further significantly consolidated with the help of a polyimide and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) composite separator, which holds good water resistance, thermal stability, and ionic conductivity. Unexpectedly, the obtained lithium-oxygen battery exhibits superior flexibility, water resistance, thermal resistance, and cycling stability (up to 218 cycles; at a high current of 1 mA and capacity of 4 mA h). This novel water/fireproof, flexible lithium-oxygen battery is a promising candidate to power underwater flexible electronics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. A novel CO>2- and SO>2-tolerant dual phase composite membrane for oxygen separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Shiyang; Søgaard, Martin; Han, Li

    2015-01-01

    A novel dual phase composite oxygen membrane (Al0.02Ga0.02Zn0.96O1.02 – Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95-δ) was successfully prepared and tested. The membrane shows chemical stability against CO2 and SO2, and a stable oxygen permeation over 300 hours in CO2 was demonstrated. ZnO is cheap and non-toxic...... and is therefore highly advantageous compared to other common materials used for the purpose....

  20. A novel zincum-doped perovskite-type ceramic membrane for oxygen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xinzhi; Liu Hongfei; Wei Yanying [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, No. 381 Wushan Road, 510640 Guangzhou (China); Caro Juergen [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Leibniz University Hannover, Callinstr. 3-3A D-30179 Hannover (Germany); Wang Haihui, E-mail: hhwang@scut.edu.c [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, No. 381 Wushan Road, 510640 Guangzhou (China)

    2009-09-18

    Zincum-doped ceramic membrane materials based on BaCo{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 0.4}Zn{sub x}Zr{sub (0.2-x)}O{sub 3-delta} with 0 <= x <= 0.2 were synthesized by combining citric acid and ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) complexing method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns show that the BaCo{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 0.4}Zn{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-delta} ceramic oxide exhibits a pure cubic perovskite structure. Oxygen temperature-programmed desorption (O{sub 2}-TPD) profile indicates that BaCo{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 0.4}Zn{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-delta} possesses a good phase reversibility. An oxygen permeation flux of 0.65 ml/min cm{sup 2} was obtained at 950 deg. C and a single activation energy of 67 kJ/mol was observed for the oxygen permeation in the temperature range of 600-950 deg. C. No decline was found during more than 100 h oxygen permeation.

  1. Hydrate-based methane separation from coal mine methane gas mixture by bubbling using the scale-up equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Jing; Xu, Chun-Gang; Xia, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Zhao-Yang; Li, Xiao-Sen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Hydrate-based methane separation was achieved in the large scale using SHW-II. •Bubbling method was beneficial to reduce energy consumption. •The optimal conditions were determined. •The morphology and flow characteristic of hydrate formation were filmed. -- Abstract: In this work, the hydrate-based methane (CH 4 ) separation from coal mine methane (CMM) gas mixture was carried out by bubbling with a scale-up equipment (SHW-II). The influences of gas/liquid volume ratios (0.25 and 0.60), gas bubble sizes (diameter: 20, 50 and 100 μm) and gas flow rates (7.50, 16.13 and 21.50 mL/min/L) on gas consumption and CH 4 recovery were systematically investigated at 277.15 K and 1.50 MPa. The hydrate formation morphology was filmed by a camera and the hydrate structure was determined by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). Gas bubbles generated when gas mixture flowed into bulk solution through a bubble plate from the bottom of SHW-II. Initially, the gas hydrates formed at the bubble boundary and grew up as the shell around the bubble with the continuously rising of the gas bubble, and finally accumulated in the interface between the gaseous phase and solution. The experimental results showed that the THF/CH 4 /N 2 hydrate in SHW-II presented structure II (sII). The gas/liquid volume ratio, gas bubble size and gas flow rate had influences on gas consumption and CH 4 recovery. The increase of gas/liquid volume ratio resulted in the decrease of gas consumption and CH 4 recovery, while the increase of gas flow rate caused the decrease of gas consumption. Both the maximum gas consumption and CH 4 recovery were achieved at the gas bubble with diameter of 50 μm. The optimal operating condition for large-scale CH 4 separation via clatharate hydrate was comprehensively defined as the gas/liquid volume ratio of 0.25, the gas bubble diameter of 50 μm and the gas flow rate of 16.13 mL/min/L at 277.15 K and 1.50 MPa.

  2. Separating the effects of partial submergence and soil oxygen demand on plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bodegom, Peter M; Sorrell, Brian K; Oosthoek, Annelies; Bakker, Chris; Aerts, Rien

    2008-01-01

    In wetlands, a distinct zonation of plant species composition occurs along moisture gradients, due to differential flooding tolerance of the species involved. However, "flooding" comprises two important, distinct stressors (soil oxygen demand [SOD] and partial submergence) that affect plant survival and growth. To investigate how these two flooding stressors affect plant performance, we executed a factorial experiment (water depth x SOD) for six plant species of nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor conditions, occurring along a moisture gradient in Dutch dune slacks. Physiological, growth, and biomass responses to changed oxygen availability were quantified for all species. The responses were consistent with field zonation, but the two stressors affected species differently. Increased SOD increased root oxygen deprivation, as indicated by either raised porosity or increased alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity in roots of flood-intolerant species (Calamagrostis epigejos and Carex arenaria). While SOD affected root functioning, partial submergence tended more to reduce photosynthesis (as shown both by gas exchange and 13C assimilation), leaf dark respiration, 13C partitioning from shoots to roots, and growth of these species. These processes were especially affected if the root oxygen supply was depleted by a combination of flooding and increased SOD. In contrast, the most flood-tolerant species (Juncus subnodulosus and Typha latifolia) were unaffected by any treatment and maintained high internal oxygen concentrations at the shoot : root junction and low root ADH activity in all treatments. For these species, the internal oxygen transport capacity was well in excess of what was needed to maintain aerobic metabolism across all treatments, although there was some evidence for effects of SOD on their nitrogen partitioning (as indicated by 865N values) and photosynthesis. Two species intermediate in flooding tolerance (Carex nigra and Schoenus nigricans) responded more

  3. VUV Pump and Probe of Phase Separation and Oxygen Interstitials in La2NiO4+y Using Spectromicroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bianconi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available While it is known that strongly correlated transition metal oxides described by a multi-band Hubbard model show microscopic multiscale phase separation, little is known about the possibility to manipulate them with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, 27 eV lighting. We have investigated the photo-induced effects of VUV light illumination of a super-oxygenated La2NiO4+y single crystal by means of scanning photoelectron microscopy. VUV light exposure induces the increase of the density of states (DOS in the binding energy range around Eb = 1.4 eV below EF. The photo-induced states in this energy region have been predicted due to clustering of oxygen interstitials by band structure calculations for large supercell of La2CuO4.125. We finally show that it is possible to generate and manipulate oxygen rich domains by VUV illumination as it was reported for X-ray illumination of La2CuO4+y. This phenomenology is assigned to oxygen-interstitials ordering and clustering by photo-illumination forming segregated domains in the La2NiO4+y surface.

  4. Separating hydrogen and oxygen evolution in alkaline water electrolysis using nickel hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Dong, Xiaoli; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2016-01-01

    Low-cost alkaline water electrolysis has been considered a sustainable approach to producing hydrogen using renewable energy inputs, but preventing hydrogen/oxygen mixing and efficiently using the instable renewable energy are challenging. Here, using nickel hydroxide as a redox mediator, we decouple the hydrogen and oxygen production in alkaline water electrolysis, which overcomes the gas-mixing issue and may increase the use of renewable energy. In this architecture, the hydrogen production occurs at the cathode by water reduction, and the anodic Ni(OH)2 is simultaneously oxidized into NiOOH. The subsequent oxygen production involves a cathodic NiOOH reduction (NiOOH→Ni(OH)2) and an anodic OH− oxidization. Alternatively, the NiOOH formed during hydrogen production can be coupled with a zinc anode to form a NiOOH-Zn battery, and its discharge product (that is, Ni(OH)2) can be used to produce hydrogen again. This architecture brings a potential solution to facilitate renewables-to-hydrogen conversion. PMID:27199009

  5. The obtaining and properties of asymmetric ion transport membrane for separating of oxygen from air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovieva, A. A.; Kulbakin, I. V.

    2018-04-01

    The bilayer oxygen-permeable membrane, consisting of a thin-film dense composite based on Co3O4 - 36 wt. % Bi2O3, and of a porous ceramic substrate of Co2SiO4, was synthesized and characterized. The way for obtaining of porous ceramic based on cobalt silicate was found, while the microstructure and the mechanical properties of porous ceramic were studied. Layered casting with post-pressing was used to cover the surface of porous support of Co2SiO4 by the Co3O4 - 36 wt. % Bi2O3 - based film. Transport properties of the asymmetric membrane have been studied, the kinetic features of oxygen transport have been established, and the characteristic thickness of the membrane has been estimated. The methods to prevent the high-temperature creep of ion transport membranes based on solid/molten oxides, which are the promising ones for obtaining of pure oxygen from air, are proposed and discussed.

  6. Comparing Methods of Separating Bacterial Biofilms on the Surface of Water Transportation Pipes and Equipment of Milking in the Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    setareh nabizadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Bacterial biofilms can be both useful and harmful based on their combination and locations. Biofilm formation occurs as a stepwise process. Their formation in liquid transportation pipes used for milking system and drinking water in animal farms may create some problems and is a potential source of pollution. Speed of biofilm formation depends on many factors including: construction and functional characteristics of bacteria, the composition and culture conditions such as temperature and substratum. In this research the Bacillus subtillis bacteria with special characteristics was selected due to its capability for biofilm creation. Bacillus subtillis bacteria is mobility and a stronger connection than other bacteria levels are created. In the research conducted in the biofilm there are many resources on biofilm formation by Bacillus subtillis bacteria. Bacillus subtillis is saprophytic in the soil, water and air. There is also the ability to form spores of Bacillus subtillis. Materials and Methods Firstly the possibility of creating biofilms on different Plastic (polyvinilchlorid, polypropylene, polyethylengelycole, alluminum and glass surfaces in three temperatures of 4°C, 30°C and 37°C were studied. Two different methods of biofilms separation including separating swap and vortex were tested and their efficienceies were calculated. After biofilm formation on parts of the vortex separation method after washing parts in sterile conditions in a tube containing normal saline for 4 minutes was vortex. The bacterial suspension decreasing dilution series was created. Pour plate in medium using agar plate count agar and was cultured at 30°C for 24-48 hours. Numbers of colonies were counted. The numbers of biofilm cells were calculated. In swap method after biofilm formation on parts using a cotton swap was isolated biofilms. The swap was transferred to tube containing normal saline and the bacterial suspension decreasing dilution

  7. Oxygen isotope separation by isotopically selective infrared multiphoton dissociation of 2,3-dihydropyran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Atsushi; Ohba, Hironori; Akagi, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Keiichi; Saeki, Morihisa; Katsumata, Keiichi

    2008-01-01

    Oxygen isotopic selectivity on infrared multiphoton dissociation of 2,3-dihydropyran has been studied by the examination of the effects of excitation frequency, laser fluence, and gas pressure on the dissociation probability of 2,3-dihydropyran and isotopic composition of products. Oxygen-18 was enriched in a dissociation product: 2-propenal. The enrichment factor of 18 O and the dissociation probability were measured at laser frequency between 1033.5 and 1057.3 cm -1 ; the laser fluence of 2.2 - 2.3 J/cm 2 ; and the 2,3-dihydropyran pressure of 0.27 kPa. The dissociation probability decreases as the laser frequency being detuned from the absorption peak of 2,3-dihydropyran around 1081 cm -1 . On the other hand, the enrichment factor increases with detuning the frequency. The enrichment factor of 18 O increases with increasing the 2,3-dihydropyran pressure at the laser fluence below 3 J/cm 2 and the laser frequency of 1033.5 cm -1 , whereas the yield of 2-propenal decreases with increasing the pressure. Very high enrichment factor of 751 was obtained by the irradiation of 0.53 kPa of 2,3-dihydropyran at 2.1 J/cm 2 . (author)

  8. A continuous-flow system for measuring in vitro oxygen and nitrogen metabolism in separated stream communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prahl, C.; Jeppesen, E.; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    1991-01-01

    on the stream bank, consists of several macrophyte and sediment chambers equipped with a double-flow system that ensures an internal water velocity close to that in the stream and which, by continuously renewing the water, mimics diel fluctuation in stream temperature and water chemistry. Water temperature...... production and dark respiration occurred at similar rates (6-7g O2 m-2 day-1), net balance being about zero. Inorganic nitrogen was consumed both by the sediment and to a greater extent by the macrophytes, the diel average consumption being 1g N m-2 day-1. 3. The sum of the activity in the macrophyte...... and sediment chambers corresponded to the overall activity of the stream section as determined by upstream/downstream mass balance. This indicates that the results obtained with the continuous-flow chambers realistically describe the oxygen and the nitrogen metabolism of the stream....

  9. Separation of radioactive krypton from carbon dioxide and oxygen with molecular sieves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1977-10-01

    In the reprocessing of HTGR nuclear fuels, the off-gas cleanup system generates a stream containing about 1 percent krypton, 90+ percent CO 2 , and various amounts of O 2 , N 2 , and xenon. The krypton is radioactive and must be separated from the CO 2 before it is bottled or zeolite-encapsulated for final disposal. A series of theoretical and experimental investigations to find the best method for separating CO 2 and krypton under the required conditions showed that 5A molecular sieves near O 0 C and 1.01 x 10 5 Pa (1 atm) provided the most effective separation. Molecular sieves are powerful solid adsorbents for CO 2 but weak adsorbents for krypton. For a typical expected CO 2 -O 2 -krytpon gas mixture, a molecular sieve bed adsorbs the CO 2 , allows the O 2 to pass freely through the bed, and concentrates the krypton before it exits the bed. The process selected and investigated is called frontal analysis gas chromatography

  10. Design of a formaldehyde photodissociation process for carbon and oxygen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, R.C.; Scheibner, K.F.

    1993-01-01

    The current shortage of 18 O has revived interest in using one step UV photodissociation of formaldehyde to enrich 13 C, 17 O and 18 O. The frequency doubled output of the copper laser pumped dye laser system currently in operation at LLNL can be used to drive this dissociation. The authors use a simple kinetics model and their experience with Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) process design to examine the relative merits of different designs for a formaldehyde photodissociation process. Given values for the molecular photoabsorption cross section, partition function, spectroscopic selectivity, collisional exchange and quenching cross sections (all as parameters), they perform a partial optimization in the space of illuminated area, formaldehyde pressure in each stage, and formaldehyde residence time in each stage. They examine the effect of cascade design (heads and tails staging) on molecule and photon utilization for each of the three isotope separation missions, and look in one case at the system's response to different ratios of laser to formaldehyde costs. Finally, they examine the relative cost of enrichment as a function of isotope and product assay. Emphasis is as much on the process design methodology, which is general, as on the specific application to formaldehyde

  11. Hybrid membrane using polyethersulfone-modification of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with silane agent to enhance high performance oxygen separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutuk Djoko Kusworo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mixed matrix membrane comprising carbon nanotubes embedded in polymer matrix have become one of the emerging technologies. This study was investigated in order to study the effect of silane agent modification towards carbon nanotubes (CNT surface at different concentration on oxygen enrichment performances of asymmetric mixed matrix membrane. The modified carbon nanotubes were prepared by treating the carbon nanotubes with chemical modification using Dynasylan Ameo (DA silane agent to allow PES chains to be grafted on carbon nanotubes surface. The results from the FESEM, DSC and FTIR analysis confirmed that chemical modification on carbon nanotubes surface had taken place. Sieve-in-a-cage’ morphology observed shows the poor adhesion between polymer and unmodified CNT. The gas separation performance of the asymmetric flat sheet mixed matrix membranes with modified CNT were relatively higher compared to the unmodified CNT. Hence, coated hollow fiber mixed matrix membrane with chemical modification on CNT surface using (3-aminopropyl-triethoxy methyl silane agent can potentially enhance the gas separation performance of O2 and N2.

  12. The oxidation of stainless steels in water vapour-oxygen mixtures. Design and development of an original equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uller, Leonardo.

    1981-02-01

    A device including a thermobalance placed in a tight housing has been conceived and built. This apparatus is suitable to submit metallic samples to the action of dry oxygen, deoxygenated water vapour or mixtures of water vapour and oxygen. The first results obtained with this device, at 600 0 C, and for a 18-10 stainless steel are: - in the presence of deoxygenated water vapour, one observes very fast oxidation kinetics, with a roughly parabolic law (K approximately equal to 3x10 -2 mg 2 .cm -4 .h -1 ); - the addition of oxygen from about 10 vpm onwards, induces an important initial slowing down of the kinetics; - the duration of this 'induction' period rises with increasing the oxygen content of the water vapour, but the protection of the alloy due to the action of oxygen remains temporary; - in another way, experiments begun with water vapour, were continued with pure oxygen, and reciprocally. During these 'mixed' experiments, the weight increases were continually recorded. A swift slowing down has been observed in the first case and an important acceleration in the second one [fr

  13. The influence of selected parameters on the efficiency and economic charactersistics of the oxy-type coal unit with a membrane-cryogenic oxygen separator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotowicz Janusz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a 600 MW oxy-type coal unit with a pulverized bed boiler and a membrane-cryogenic oxygen separator and carbon capture installation was analyzed. A membrane-cryogenic oxygen separation installation consists of a membrane module and two cryogenic distillation columns. In this system oxygen is produced with the purity equal to 95%. Installation of carbon capture was based on the physical separation method and allows to reduce the CO2 emission by 90%. In this work the influence of the main parameter of the membrane process – the selectivity coefficient, on the efficiency of the coal unit was presented. The economic analysis with the use of the break-even point method was carried out. The economic calculations were realized in view of the break-even price of electricity depending on a coal unit availability.

  14. Gas turbine engine adapted for use in combination with an apparatus for separating a portion of oxygen from compressed air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Robert J [Oviedo, FL; Horazak, Dennis A [Orlando, FL

    2012-03-06

    A gas turbine engine is provided comprising an outer shell, a compressor assembly, at least one combustor assembly, a turbine assembly and duct structure. The outer shell includes a compressor section, a combustor section, an intermediate section and a turbine section. The intermediate section includes at least one first opening and at least one second opening. The compressor assembly is located in the compressor section to define with the compressor section a compressor apparatus to compress air. The at least one combustor assembly is coupled to the combustor section to define with the combustor section a combustor apparatus. The turbine assembly is located in the turbine section to define with the turbine section a turbine apparatus. The duct structure is coupled to the intermediate section to receive at least a portion of the compressed air from the compressor apparatus through the at least one first opening in the intermediate section, pass the compressed air to an apparatus for separating a portion of oxygen from the compressed air to produced vitiated compressed air and return the vitiated compressed air to the intermediate section via the at least one second opening in the intermediate section.

  15. Thermal separation method of preparing apyrogenic and sterile sup(99m)Tc2O7 and equipment for this method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machan, V.; Rusek, V.; Vlcek, J.; Kokta, L.; Smejkal, Z.; Rohacek, J.

    1978-01-01

    Pure apyrogenic and sterile sup(99m)Tc 2 O 7 is prepared from a mixture of technetium and molybdenum or their compounds, e.g., MoO 3 and Tc 2 O 7 . The mixture is mixed with a granular low-melting material and during separation is heated to 650 to 1000 degC for a time necessary for Tc 2 O 7 liberation. While cooling to room temperature Tc 2 O 7 is condensed outside the molybdenum region. The separation equipment consists of an outer tube with a ground surface extending into the heating system, a removable vessel, a replaceable cartridge for storing the mother nuclide, and a bacteriological filter. (H.S.)

  16. Experimental study of a separated jets burner: application to the natural gas-pure oxygen combustion; Etude experimentale du comportement de bruleurs a jets separes: application a la combustion gaz naturel-oxygene pur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salentey, L.

    2002-04-15

    The evolution of pollution standards and the optimisation of furnaces performances require a development of new burner generation and also the improvement of combustion techniques. Actually, the use of oxy-combustion in separated jets burners offers interesting prospects for NO{sub x} emission reduction and on the modularity of flames properties (lift off, flame front topology, flame length). The complex geometry of those burners leads to several problems like the three-dimensional character of the flow, which may sometimes disturb the flame stability as flames are lifted above the burner. This experimental study deals with a simplified version of that kind of burner constituted with a central natural gas jet surrounded by two oxygen jets. Primary, the study of non-reactive jet was planned in order to understand dynamic and mixture phenomena involved between jets and to provide a database useful for the computer code validation. The reactive flow developed in a furnace, which simulates the real conditions, had been characterised. The studies of the dynamic field using Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) and of the turbulent mixture by conditional Laser tomography were supplemented in combustion by the visualisation of the spontaneous emission of radical OH, in the initial and final zone of the oxy-flames, like by the measurement of pollutants like NO{sub x} and soot. The measurements carried out while varying speeds of injection as well as the gap between the jets made possible the highlight of the influence of these parameters upon the stabilisation of the oxy-flames as well as the modification of the topology and the characteristics of the flows. The comparison of the measurements made in non-reactive and reactive flow shows the influence of oxy-combustion on the dynamic and scalar development of the flow for this type of burners. (author)

  17. Modernization of Unit 2 at Oskarshamn NPP- Main Objectives, Experience from Design, Separation of Operational and Nuclear Safety Equipment - Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaan, Salah K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to give a picture of Oskarshamn Nuclear Power Plant (OKG) experience from design for one of the biggest modernization project in the world and focuses on what was learned that is specific to robustness of electrical power systems, especially through Fukushima Station Blackout (SBO). The planning for unit 2 at OKG was initiated in 1967 and the plant was completed on time and was synchronized to the grid October 2, 1974 and is of type BWR. Unit 2 was originally on 580 MW. In 1982 a thermal power up-rate was performed, from 1700 MWh to 1800 MWh (106% reactor output). A decision was made to perform a modernization and a new power up-rate to 850 MW and there were several reasons for this decision; New safety regulations from Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM), Ageing of important components and the initial focus was on safety and availability - Project Plant Life Extension (Plex) was established and became the largest nuclear power modernization in the world. The modernization will lead to: - New safety concept with 4 divisions instead for existing 2 with 2 new buildings South Electrical Building (SEB) and North Electrical Building (NEB); - Completely new software - based equipments for monitoring, control and I and C; - New Low Pressure Turbine, new generator and main transformer; - New MCR and simulator; - Compliance with modern reactor safety requirements; - Redundancy, Separation, Diversification, Earthquake; - Reinforcement of existing safety functions; - New Electricity - I and C (electric power incl. reinforced emergency power and control systems); - New buildings for Electricity - I and C; - Reinforcement of existing process systems as well as installation of new ones. Based on studies and good experiences on how to separate the operational and the safety equipment, the project led to a completely new safety concept. The safety concept is based on fully understanding the safety system that shall encompass all of the elements required to

  18. Tailoring the porosity and shrinkage of extruded MgO support tubes for oxygen separation membranes by thermoplastic feedstock development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothanda Ramachandran, Dhavanesan; Kaiser, Andreas; Glasscock, Julie

    for co-extrusion and co-sintering of a porous Magnesium oxide (MgO) support with a thin film of cerium gadolinium oxide (Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95-δ, CGO) as active oxygen transport membrane layer has been developed using a thermoplastic ceramic system and graphite as pore former. The feedstocks have been...

  19. Tailoring the microstructure of porous MgO supports for asymmetric oxygen separation membranes: Optimization of thermoplastic feedstock systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothanda Ramachandran, Dhavanesan; Clemens, F.; Glasscock, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Porous magnesium oxide (MgO) structures were prepared by thermoplastic processing for use as supports in asymmetric thin film oxygen transport membranes (OTMs). The open porosity, pore size distribution, and resulting gas permeability of the MgO structures were measured for different feedstock...

  20. Promising monolayer membranes for CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} separation: Graphdiynes modified respectively with hydrogen, fluorine, and oxygen atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Lianming, E-mail: lmzhao@upc.edu.cn; Sang, Pengpeng; Guo, Sheng; Liu, Xiuping; Li, Jing; Zhu, Houyu; Guo, Wenyue, E-mail: wyguo@upc.edu.cn

    2017-05-31

    Graphical abstract: Graphdiyne monolayer membrane modified by fluorine or oxygen can effectively separate CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} mixtures. - Highlights: • Three graphdiyne-like membranes were designed and their stabilities were confirmed. • The DFT and MD results claimed a tunable gas separation property of the membranes. • Graphdiyne modified with F or O can effectively separate CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} mixtures. - Abstract: Three graphdiyne-like monolayers were designed by substituting one-third diacetylenic linkages with heteroatoms hydrogen, fluorine, and oxygen (GDY-X, X = H, F, and O), respectively. The CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} separation performance of the designed graphdiyne-like monolayers was investigated by using both first-principle density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. The stabilities of GDY-X monolayers were confirmed by the calculated cohesive energies and phonon dispersion spectra. Both the DFT and MD calculations demonstrated that although the GDY-H membrane has poor selectivity for CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} gases, the GDY-F and GDY-O membranes can excellently separate CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} from CH{sub 4} in a wide temperature range. Moreover, the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixture can be effectively separated by GDY-O at temperatures lower than 300 K. Based on the kinetic theory, extremely high permeances were found for CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} passing through the GDY-X membranes (10{sup −4}–10{sup −2} mol/m{sup 2} s Pa at 298 K). In addition, the influence of relative concentration on selectivity was also investigated for gases in the binary mixtures. This work provides an effective way to modify graphdiyne for the separation of large molecular gases, which is quite crucial in the gas separation industry.

  1. Effect of fuel oxygen on the energetic and exergetic efficiency of a compression ignition engine fuelled separately with palm and karanja biodiesels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jena, Jibanananda; Misra, Rahul Dev

    2014-01-01

    Exergy analysis of any thermodynamic system can take care of the limitations of energy analysis such as irreversible losses, their magnitude and the source of thermodynamic inefficiencies apart from energy losses. In the present study, both the analyses along with heat release analysis are conducted on a natural aspirated diesel engine fuelled separately with palm biodiesel (PB), karanja biodiesel (KB), and petrodiesel (PD) using the experimental data. Since the engine performs best at about 85% loading condition, the energetic and exergetic performance parameters of the engine are evaluated at 85% loading condition for each type of fuel. The aim of the study is to determine the effect of fuel oxygen on energy and exergy efficiencies of a CI (compression ignition) engine. Various exergy losses, exergy destruction and their ratios associated with the heat transfer through cooling water, radiation, exhaust gas, friction, and some uncounted exergy destruction are investigated. Apart from exergy loss due to heat transfer; the uncounted exergy destruction (due to combustion) also plays a major role in the system inefficiency. Based on the comparative assessment of the obtained results, it is concluded that a better combustion with less irreversibility is possible with the increase in O 2 content in the fuel. - Highlights: • Efficiency of a CI engine increases with the increase in oxygen quantity in the fuel. • Irreversibility of a CI engine decreases with increase in oxygen content in the fuel. • Palm biodiesel performs better than karanja biodiesel and petrodiesel for a CI engine

  2. Separation and determination of reduced vitamin C in polymerized hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers of the human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Mo, Ling; Li, Shen; Zhou, Wentao; Wang, Hong; Liu, Jiaxin; Yang, Chengmin

    2015-06-01

    The molybdenum blue method was used to determine the content of reduced vitamin C (Vc) in a solution of polymerized hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) of the human placenta. The conditions of absorption wavelength, HCl addition, and reaction time, were investigated. The results of validation experiments showed that under the optimized conditions, a standard curve was confirmed with good linearity of 0.9985, for the Vc amount ranging from 0-200 μg. The values for relative standard deviation (RSD) of the precision and repeatability were both below 5%. Vc recovery was in the range of 97-102%. The conclusion could be made that a reduction in Vc content could be tested effectively by the molybdenum blue method.

  3. Efficient operation of the liquid nitrogen supply station for the cryogenic equipment of the pilot plant for tritium and deuterium separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gherghinescu, Sorin; Popescu, Gheorghe

    2009-01-01

    Full text: At liquid nitrogen temperature the materials lose their elastic properties and become brittle. Protecting the personnel working with liquid nitrogen becomes difficult and to avoid accidents special equipment is used as helmets, gloves, goggles, special footwear, etc. The liquid nitrogen can destroy insulation of electrical cables, and so short circuits and electrocution can occur. Objects made of carbon steel (like pipes, props, containers, pillars, metal roofs, etc) when cooled by a sufficient amount of cryogenic liquid can break down to minimal mechanical stresses. Exceedingly dangerous is liquid nitrogen entered and retained into carbon steel ducts carrying pressured gas (even et low pressure values), since their cooling at extremely low temperatures can provoke their explosion. Resulting pieces and fragments are dangerous for both personnel and equipment around. The gas components of atmosphere (oxygen, nitrogen, argon) have critical parameters which allow liquefaction only at high pressure. For this reason they are called 'permanent gases'. Consequently, transformed in cryogenic liquids in closed precincts these gases will get totally vaporised when the precincts are not properly thermally isolated. The resulting raised pressure can lead to precinct destruction. For instance such event happens when an amount of liquid nitrogen is isolated into an external pipe between two closed taps while a relief valve is not in place. In such conditions isolation of liquid nitrogen ducts is absolutely necessary. This report reviews various solutions for obtaining an efficient isolation. All thermal isolations aim at reducing the heat transfer. In cryogenics the heat transfer from environment to the fluid in liquid phase is an important factor affecting the efficiency and yield of the liquefaction system. Choosing the type of isolation depends essentially on the specific application. The factors which must be considered are the cooling power, weight, the

  4. Replacement of Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) -225 Solvent for Cleaning and Verification Sampling of NASA Propulsion Oxygen Systems Hardware, Ground Support Equipment, and Associated Test Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mark A.; Lowrey, Nikki M.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990's, when the Class I Ozone Depleting Substance (ODS) chlorofluorocarbon-113 (CFC-113) was banned, NASA's rocket propulsion test facilities at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Stennis Space Center (SSC) have relied upon hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225 (HCFC-225) to safely clean and verify the cleanliness of large scale propulsion oxygen systems. Effective January 1, 2015, the production, import, export, and new use of HCFC-225, a Class II ODS, was prohibited by the Clean Air Act. In 2012 through 2014, leveraging resources from both the NASA Rocket Propulsion Test Program and the Defense Logistics Agency - Aviation Hazardous Minimization and Green Products Branch, test labs at MSFC, SSC, and Johnson Space Center's White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) collaborated to seek out, test, and qualify a replacement for HCFC-225 that is both an effective cleaner and safe for use with oxygen systems. Candidate solvents were selected and a test plan was developed following the guidelines of ASTM G127, Standard Guide for the Selection of Cleaning Agents for Oxygen Systems. Solvents were evaluated for materials compatibility, oxygen compatibility, cleaning effectiveness, and suitability for use in cleanliness verification and field cleaning operations. Two solvents were determined to be acceptable for cleaning oxygen systems and one was chosen for implementation at NASA's rocket propulsion test facilities. The test program and results are summarized. This project also demonstrated the benefits of cross-agency collaboration in a time of limited resources.

  5. Cryogenic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, L.; Javellaud, J.; Caro, C.; Gilguy, R.; Testard, O.

    1966-06-01

    The cryostats presented here were built from standard parts; this makes it possible to construct a great variety of apparatus at minimum cost. The liquid nitrogen and helium reservoirs were designed so as to reduce losses to a minimum, and so as to make the cryostats as autonomous as possible. The experimental enclosure which is generally placed in the lower part of the apparatus requires a separate study in every case. Furthermore, complete assemblies such as transfer rods, isolated traps and high vacuum valves, were designed with a similar regard for the economic aspects and for the need for standardization. This equipment thus satisfies a great variety of experimental needs; it is readily adaptable and the consumptions of helium and liquid nitrogen are very low. (authors) [fr

  6. A technical review of liquid/liquid and solid/liquid separation equipment in the field of nuclear-fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassallo, G.

    1981-01-01

    Liquid/liquid extraction is generally accepted as the preferred method in nuclear-fuel reprocessing. However, although many types of liquid/liquid contactors are available, only a few meet the stringent specifications set by the nuclear industry. This report discusses the criteria for contactor selection and then reviews the most important types, namely packed columns, pulsed columns, mixer-setters and centrifugal contactors. Finally, a short section concerned with solid/liquid separations is included because of the possible deleterious effects caused by solids in liquid/liquid contactors

  7. Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan

    2014-06-17

    An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.

  8. Environmentally-friendly oxygen-free roasting/wet magnetic separation technology for in situ recycling cobalt, lithium carbonate and graphite from spent LiCoO{sub 2}/graphite lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jia; Wang, Guangxu; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • The idea of “waste + waste → resources.” was used on this study. • Based on thermodynamic analysis, the possible reaction between LiCoO{sub 2} and graphite was obtained. • The residues of oxygen-free roasting are cobalt, lithium carbonate and graphite. • The recovery rate of Co and Li is 95.72% and 98.93% after wet magnetic separation. • It provides the rationale for environmental-friendly recycling spent LIBs in industrial-scale. - Abstract: The definite aim of the present paper is to present some novel methods that use oxygen-free roasting and wet magnetic separation to in situ recycle of cobalt, Lithium Carbonate and Graphite from mixed electrode materials. The in situ recycling means to change waste into resources by its own components, which is an idea of “waste + waste → resources.” After mechanical scraping the mixed electrode materials enrich powders of LiCoO{sub 2} and graphite. The possible reaction between LiCoO{sub 2} and graphite was obtained by thermodynamic analysis. The feasibility of the reaction at high temperature was studied with the simultaneous thermogravimetry analysis under standard atmospheric pressure. Then the oxygen-free roasting/wet magnetic separation method was used to transfer the low added value mixed electrode materials to high added value products. The results indicated that, through the serious technologies of oxygen-free roasting and wet magnetic separation, mixture materials consist with LiCoO{sub 2} and graphite powders are transferred to the individual products of cobalt, Lithium Carbonate and Graphite. Because there is not any chemical solution added in the process, the cost of treating secondary pollution can be saved. This study provides a theoretical basis for industrial-scale recycling resources from spent LIBs.

  9. Equipment considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Trace or ultratrace analyses require that the HPLC equipment used, including the detector, be optimal for such determinations. HPLC detectors are discussed at length in Chapter 4; discussion here is limited to the rest of the equipment. In general, commercial equipment is adequate for trace analysis; however, as the authors approach ultratrace analysis, it becomes very important to examine the equipment thoroughly and optimize it, where possible. For this reason they will review the equipment commonly used in HPLC and discuss the optimization steps. Detectability in HPLC is influenced by two factors (1): (a) baseline noise or other interferences that lead to errors in assigning the baseline absorbance; (b) peak width. 87 refs

  10. Demonstration of a Cylinder-Fill System Based on Solid Electrolyte Oxygen Separator (SEOS) Technology: One Year Early Field Assessment at a USAF Maintenance Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    governed by the Nernst equation : )ln( 4 , , 2 2 cathodeO anodeO N p p F RTV = (1) Removal of the oxygen product from the anode side of the...technology requires applied voltages higher than the Nernst voltage, VN. This overpotential increases the productivity per cell. However, the increased

  11. Demonstration of a Cylinder Fill System Based on Solid Electrolyte Oxygen Separator (SEOS) Technology: Early Field Assessment at a USAF Maintenance Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    is governed by the Nernst equation : )ln( 4 , , 2 2 cathodeO anodeO N p p F RT V  (1) Removal of the oxygen product from the anode side of the...requires applied voltages higher than the Nernst voltage, VN. This overpotential increases the productivity per cell. However, the increased

  12. 21 CFR 866.4500 - Immunoelectrophoresis equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents... clinical use with its electrical power supply is a device used for separating protein molecules...

  13. [Hydrotherapy equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibikov, V B; Ragozin, S I; Mikheeva, L V

    1985-01-01

    A flow-chart is developed demonstrating the relation between medical and prophylactic institutions within the organizational structure of the rehabilitation system and main types of rehabilitation procedures. In order to ascertain the priority in equipping rehabilitation services with adequate hardware the special priority criterion is introduced. The highest priority is assigned to balneotherapeutic and fangotherapeutic services. Based on the operation-by-operation analysis of clinical processes related to service and performance of balneologic procedures the preliminary set of clinical devices designed for baths, basins and showers in hospitals and rehabilitation departments is defined in a generalized form.

  14. Separations canyon decontamination facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershey, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    Highly radioactive process equipment is decontaminated at the Savannah River Plant in specially equipped areas of the separations canyon building so that direct mechanical repairs or alterations can be made. Using these facilities it is possible to decontaminate and repair equipment such as 10- x 11-ft storage tanks, 8- x 8-ft batch evaporator pots and columns, 40-in. Bird centrifuges, canyon pumps and agitators, and various canyon piping systems or ''jumpers.'' For example, centrifuge or evaporator pots can be decontaminated and rebuilt for about 60 percent of the 1974 replacement cost. The combined facilities can decontaminate and repair 6 to 10 pieces of major equipment per year. Decontamination time varies with type of equipment and radioactivity levels encountered

  15. Separations canyon decontamination facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershey, J.H.

    1975-05-01

    Highly radioactive process equipment is decontaminated at the Savannah River Plant in specially equipped areas of the separations canyon buildings so that direct mechanical repairs or alterations can be made. Using these facilities it is possible to decontaminate and repair equipment such as 10- x 11-ft storage tanks, 8- x 8-ft batch evaporator pots and columns, 40-in. Bird centrifuges, canyon pumps and agitators, and various canyon piping systems or ''jumpers.'' For example, centrifuge or evaporator pots can be decontaminated and rebuilt for about 60 percent of the 1974 replacement cost. The combined facilities can decontaminate and repair 6 to 10 pieces of major equipment per year. Decontamination time varies with type of equipment and radioactivity levels encountered. (U.S.)

  16. Lifetime of Mechanical Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leland, K.

    1999-07-01

    The gas plant at Kaarstoe was built as part of the Statpipe gas transport system and went on stream in 1985. In 1993 another line was routed from the Sleipner field to carry condensate, and the plant was extended accordingly. Today heavy additional supply- and export lines are under construction, and the plant is extended more than ever. The main role of the factory is to separate the raw gas into commercial products and to pump or ship it to the markets. The site covers a large number of well-known mechanical equipment. This presentation deals with piping, mechanical and structural disciplines. The lifetime of mechanical equipment is often difficult to predict as it depends on many factors, and the subject is complex. Mechanical equipment has been kept in-house, which provides detailed knowledge of the stages from a new to a 14 years old plant. The production regularity has always been very high, as required. The standard of the equipment is well kept, support systems are efficient, and human improvisation is extremely valuable.

  17. Yttrium doped BSCF membranes for oxygen separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haworth, P.; Smart, S.; Glasscock, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the partial substitution of yttrium in place of iron in BSCF to form Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2−xYxO3−δ, where x varied between 0 and 0.2. X-ray diffraction patterns showed the formation of a perovskite cubic phase structure up to x = 0.15, whilst the full substitution of yttrium...

  18. 46 CFR 197.326 - Oxygen safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oxygen safety. 197.326 Section 197.326 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.326 Oxygen safety. (a) Equipment used with...

  19. Medical Issues: Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At ... curesma.org > support & care > living with sma > medical issues > equipment Equipment Individuals with SMA often require a ...

  20. A fractionation of the physiological burden of the personal protective equipment worn by firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Lewis, Michael C; Notley, Sean R; Peoples, Gregory E

    2012-08-01

    Load carriage increases physiological strain, reduces work capacity and elevates the risk of work-related injury. In this project, the separate and combined physiological consequences of wearing the personal protective equipment used by firefighters were evaluated. The overall impact upon performance was first measured in 20 subjects during a maximal, job-related obstacle course trial and an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion (with and without protective equipment). The fractional contributions of the thermal protective clothing, helmet, breathing apparatus and boots were then separately determined during steady-state walking (4.8 km h(-1), 0% gradient) and bench stepping (20 cm at 40 steps min(-1)). The protective equipment reduced exercise tolerance by 56% on a treadmill, with the ambulatory oxygen consumption reserve (peak minus steady-state walking) being 31% lower. For the obstacle course, performance declined by 27%. Under steady-state conditions, the footwear exerted the greatest relative metabolic impact during walking and bench stepping, being 8.7 and 6.4 times greater per unit mass than the breathing apparatus. Indeed, the relative influence of the clothing on oxygen cost was at least three times that of the breathing apparatus. Therefore, the most efficient way to reduce the physiological burden of firefighters' protective equipment, and thereby increase safety, would be to reduce the mass of the boots and thermal protective clothing.

  1. Semiconductor Manufacturing equipment introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jong Sun

    2001-02-01

    This book deals with semiconductor manufacturing equipment. It is comprised of nine chapters, which are manufacturing process of semiconductor device, history of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, kinds and role of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, construction and method of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, introduction of various semiconductor manufacturing equipment, spots of semiconductor manufacturing, technical elements of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, road map of technology of semiconductor manufacturing equipment and semiconductor manufacturing equipment in the 21st century.

  2. Oxygen toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. van der Westhuizen

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen has been discovered about 200 years ago. Since then the vital physiological involvement of oxygen in various biologi­cal processes, mainly energy production, has been established. However, in the body molecular oxygen can be converted to toxic oxygen metabolites such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen. These toxic metabolites are produced mainly in the mitochondria, plasma membranes and endoplasmic reticulum.

  3. 14 CFR 121.337 - Protective breathing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.337... systems other than chemical oxygen generators, there must be a means to allow the crew to readily... fully charged. (iv) For each chemical oxygen generator, the supply system equipment must meet the...

  4. 47 CFR 36.126 - Circuit equipment-Category 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... separating property associated with special services, circuit equipment included in Categories 4.12 (other... Equipment Excluding Wideband—Category 4.13—The cost of Circuit Equipment associated with exchange line plant... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit equipment-Category 4. 36.126 Section 36...

  5. Selection of equipment for equipment qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torr, K.G.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the methodology applied in selecting equipment in the special safety systems for equipment qualification in the CANDU 600 MW nuclear generating stations at Gentilly 2 and Point Lepreau. Included is an explanation of the selection procedure adopted and the rationale behind the criteria used in identifying the equipment. The equipment items on the list have been grouped into three priority categories as a planning aid to AECB staff for a review of the qualification status of the special safety systems

  6. Oxygen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their breathing to dangerously low levels. Will I need oxygen when I sleep? Usually if you use supplemental oxygen during the ... your health care provider tells you you only need to use oxygen for exercise or sleep. Even if you feel “fine” off of your ...

  7. Status and prospects of isotope separation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safutin, V.D.; Verbin, Yu.V.; Tolstoj, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    The stages of the separation industry in the USSR and Russia are demonstrated. The current status of the separation industry and state of the equipment of the isotope separation plants are noted. The developed program for the modernization of the uranium isotope separation involves the production of perspective gas centrifuges, the improvements in the works of gas centrifuge plants and construction materials [ru

  8. Oxygen Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Solmes

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available LTOT is prescribed for people with chronic lung disease in whom there is a decrease in the ability of the lungs to supply enough oxygen to the body. The heart is obliged to pump faster to meet the body's oxygen requirements. This may place undue stress on the heart, resulting in palpitations, dizziness and fatigue. A low oxygen level in arterial blood is also harmful to the heart, the brain and the pulmonary blood vessels. Oxygen therapy is used to break this cycle. A person with low blood oxygen will often be able to accomplish more with less fatigue with the help of supplemental oxygen therapy. Shortness of breath is a mechanical problem resulting from the effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Oxygen therapy may or may not reduce shortness of breath, but it will help the lungs and heart to function with less stress.

  9. A separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopyuk, S.G.; Dyachenko, A.Ye.; Mukhametov, M.N.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1982-01-01

    A separator is proposed which contains separating slanted plates and baffle plates installed at a distance to them at an acute angle to them. To increase the effectiveness of separating a gas and liquid stream and the throughput through reducing the secondary carry away of the liquid drops and to reduce the hydraulic resistance, as well, openings are made in the plates. The horizontal projections of each opening from the lower and upper surfaces of the plate do not overlap each other.

  10. The use of cation exchange matrix separation coupled with ICP-MS to directly determine platinum group element (PGE) and other trace element emissions from passenger cars equipped with diesel particulate filters (DPF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, Warren R.L.; Cozzi, Giulio [Institute for the Dynamics of Environmental Processes-CNR, Venice (Italy); De Boni, Antonella; Gabrieli, Jacopo [University of Venice, Department of Environmental Science, Venice (Italy); Asti, Massimo; Merlone Borla, Edoardo; Parussa, Flavio [Centro Ricerche Fiat, Orbassano (Italy); Moretto, Ezio [FIAT Powertrain Technologies S.p.A, Turin (Italy); Cescon, Paolo; Barbante, Carlo [University of Venice, Department of Environmental Science, Venice (Italy); Institute for the Dynamics of Environmental Processes-CNR, Venice (Italy); Boutron, Claude [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, UMR CNRS 5183, B.P. 96, Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)

    2011-03-15

    Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry coupled with cation exchange matrix separation has been optimised for the direct determination of platinum group element (PGE) and trace element emissions from a diesel engine car. After matrix separation method detection limits of 1.6 ng g{sup -1} for Pd, 0.4 ng g{sup -1} for Rh and 4.3 ng g{sup -1} for Pt were achieved, the method was validated against the certified reference material BCR 723, urban road dust. The test vehicle was fitted with new and aged catalytic converters with and without diesel particulate filters (DPF). Samples were collected after three consecutive New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) of the particulate and ''soluble'' phases using a home-made sampler optimised for trace element analysis. Emission factors for the PGEs ranged from 0.021 ng km{sup -1} for Rh to 70.5 ng km{sup -1} for Pt; when a DPF was fitted, the emission factors for the PGEs actually used in the catalysts dropped by up to 97% (for Pt). Trace element emission factors were found to drop by a maximum of 92% for Ni to a minimum of 18% for Y when a DPF was fitted; a new DPF was also found to cause a reduction of up to 86% in the emission of particulate matter. (orig.)

  11. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    A method of isotope separation is described which involves the use of a laser photon beam to selectively induce energy level transitions of an isotope molecule containing the isotope to be separated. The use of the technique for 235 U enrichment is demonstrated. (UK)

  12. Efficient simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD) system equipped with a real-time dissolved oxygen (DO) intelligent control system and microbial community shifts of different substrate concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xin; Gong, Benzhou; Zhou, Jian; He, Qiang; Qing, Xiaoxia

    2017-08-01

    Simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD) process was studied in a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) fed with synthetic wastewater in a range of 2200 mgN/L ∼ 50 mgN/L. Important was an external real-time precision dissolved oxygen (DO) intelligent control system that consisted of feed forward control system and feedback control system. This DO control system permitted close control of oxygen supply according to influent concentration, effluent quality and other environmental factors in the reactor. In this study the operation was divided into six phases according to influent nitrogen applied. SNAD system was successfully set up after adding COD into a CANON system. And the presence of COD enabled the survival of denitrifiers, and made Thauera and Pseudomonas predominant as functional denitrifiers in this system. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing were used to analyze the microbial variations of different substrate concentrations. Results indicated that the relative population of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) members decreased when influent ammonia concentration decreased from 2200 mg/L to 50 mg/L, while no dramatic drop of the percent of anammox bacteria was seen. And Nitrosomonas europaea was the predominant AOB in SNAD system treating sewage, while Candidatus Brocadia was the dominant anammox bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Medical oxygen and air travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyznicki, J M; Williams, M A; Deitchman, S D; Howe, J P

    2000-08-01

    This report responds to a resolution that asked the American Medical Association (AMA) to take action to improve airport and airline accommodations for passengers requiring medical oxygen. Information for the report was derived from a search of the MEDLINE database and references listed in pertinent articles, as well as through communications with experts in aerospace and emergency medicine. Based on this information, the AMA Council on Scientific Affairs determined that commercial air travel exposes passengers to altitude-related hypoxia and gas expansion, which may cause some passengers to experience significant symptoms and medical complications during flight. Medical guidelines are available to help physicians evaluate and counsel potential passengers who are at increased risk of inflight hypoxemia. Supplemental oxygen may be needed for some passengers to maintain adequate tissue oxygenation and prevent hypoxemic complications. For safety and security reasons, federal regulations prohibit travelers from using their own portable oxygen system onboard commercial aircraft. Many U.S. airlines supply medical oxygen for use during flight but policies and procedures vary. Oxygen-dependent passengers must make additional arrangements for the use of supplemental oxygen in airports. Uniform standards are needed to specify procedures and equipment for the use of medical oxygen in airports and aboard commercial aircraft. Revision of federal regulations should be considered to accommodate oxygen-dependent passengers and permit them to have an uninterrupted source of oxygen from departure to destination.

  14. ITM oxygen for gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, P.A.; Foster, E.P. [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Gunardson, H.H. [Air Products Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2005-11-01

    This paper described a newly developed air separation technology called Ionic Transport Membrane (ITM), which reduces the overall cost of the gasification process. The technology is well suited for advanced energy conversion processes such as integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) that require oxygen and use heavy carbonaceous feedstocks such as residual oils, bitumens, coke and coal. It is also well suited for traditional industrial applications for oxygen and distributed power. Air Products Canada Limited developed the ceramic membrane air separation technology that can reduce the cost of pure oxygen by more than 30 per cent. The separation technology achieves a capital cost reduction of 30 per cent and an energy reduction of 35 per cent over conventional cryogenic air separation. ITM is an electrochemical process that integrates well with the gasification process and an IGCC option for producing electricity from the waste heat generated from gasification. This paper described the integration of ITM technology with both the gasification and IGCC processes and showed the attractive economics of ITM. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  15. CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.

    1959-03-10

    A centrifugal separator is described for separating gaseous mixtures where the temperature gradients both longitudinally and radially of the centrifuge may be controlled effectively to produce a maximum separation of the process gases flowing through. Tbe invention provides for the balancing of increases and decreases in temperature in various zones of the centrifuge chamber as the result of compression and expansions respectively, of process gases and may be employed effectively both to neutralize harmful temperature gradients and to utilize beneficial temperaturc gradients within the centrifuge.

  16. Microparticle Separation by Cyclonic Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karback, Keegan; Leith, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    The ability to separate particles based on their size has wide ranging applications from the industrial to the medical. Currently, cyclonic separators are primarily used in agriculture and manufacturing to syphon out contaminates or products from an air supply. This has led us to believe that cyclonic separation has more applications than the agricultural and industrial. Using the OpenFoam computational package, we were able to determine the flow parameters of a vortex in a cyclonic separator in order to segregate dust particles to a cutoff size of tens of nanometers. To test the model, we constructed an experiment to separate a test dust of various sized particles. We filled a chamber with Arizona test dust and utilized an acoustic suspension technique to segregate particles finer than a coarse cutoff size and introduce them into the cyclonic separation apparatus where they were further separated via a vortex following our computational model. The size of the particles separated from this experiment will be used to further refine our model. Metropolitan State University of Denver, Colorado University of Denver, Dr. Randall Tagg, Dr. Richard Krantz.

  17. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castle, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to molecular and atomic isotope separation and is particularly applicable to the separation of 235 U from other uranium isotopes including 238 U. In the method described a desired isotope is separated mechanically from an atomic or molecular beam formed from an isotope mixture utilising the isotropic recoil momenta resulting from selective excitation of the desired isotope species by radiation, followed by ionization or dissociation by radiation or electron attachment. By forming a matrix of UF 6 molecules in HBr molecules so as to collapse the V 3 vibrational mode of the UF 6 molecule the 235 UF 6 molecules are selectively excited to promote reduction of UF 6 molecules containing 235 U and facilitate separation. (UK)

  18. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    Isotopic species in an isotopic mixture including a first species having a first isotope and a second species having a second isotope are separated by selectively exciting the first species in preference to the second species and then reacting the selectively excited first species with an additional preselected radiation, an electron or another chemical species so as to form a product having a mass different from the original species and separating the product from the balance of the mixture in a centrifugal separating device such as centrifuge or aerodynamic nozzle. In the centrifuge the isotopic mixture is passed into a rotor where it is irradiated through a window. Heavier and lighter components can be withdrawn. The irradiated mixture experiences a large centrifugal force and is separated in a deflection area into lighter and heavier components. (UK)

  19. Separations chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Results of studies on the photochemistry of aqueous Pu solutions and the stability of iodine in liquid and gaseous CO 2 are reported. Progress is reported in studies on: the preparation of macroporous bodies filled with oxides and sulfides to be used as adsorbents; the beneficiation of photographic wastes; the anion exchange adsorption of transition elements from thiosulfate solutions; advanced filtration applications of energy significance; high-resolution separations; and, the examination of the separation agents, octylphenylphosphoric acid (OPPA) and trihexyl phosphate (THP)

  20. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described for separating isotopes in which photo-excitation of selected isotope species is used together with the reaction of the excited species with postive ions of predetermined ionization energy, other excited species, or free electrons to produce ions or ion fragments of the selected species. Ions and electrons are produced by an electrical discharge, and separation is achieved through radial ambipolar diffusion, electrostatic techniques, or magnetohydrodynamic methods

  1. Structural stability and oxygen permeability of BaCo{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 3−δ} ceramic membranes for air separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chengzhang, E-mail: wucz@shu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Metallurgy and Materials Processing, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Gai, Yongqian; Zhou, Jianfang; Tang, Xia; Zhang, Yunwen; Ding, Weizhong [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Metallurgy and Materials Processing, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Sun, Chenghua [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2015-07-25

    Highlights: • BCNx membranes with high oxygen permeation flux were prepared. • Oxygen permeability of BCNx membranes is stable at 900 °C. • Phase transition is governed by oxygen partial pressure and temperature. • Degradation mechanism of BCNx membrane is suggested. - Abstract: BaCo{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 3−δ} (BCNx, x = 0.1–0.2) membranes were synthesized through conventional solid-phase reactions. The introduction of niobium facilitates the formation of the cubic perovskite structure and decreases oxygen nonstoichiometry. BCNx membranes possess higher oxygen permeation flux compared with BaCo{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 0.2}Nb{sub 0.1}O{sub 3−δ} membrane at the same condition. A stable permeation flux as high as 2.61 ml cm{sup −2} min{sup −1} is obtained through BaCo{sub 0.9}Nb{sub 0.1}O{sub 3−δ} membrane at 900 °C under the Air/He gradient. Long-time permeation study shows that the oxygen fluxes of BCNx membranes are stable at 900 °C but degrade slowly with time at 850 °C. XRD and TG–DSC results indicate that the degradation behavior occured at 850 °C is due to the phase transition from the cubic perovskite to monoclinic or orthorhombic structure, which is governed by the oxygen partial pressure and temperature. The oxidation of cobalt ion is considered to be the nature for the phase transition, which makes the tolerance factor increasing and results in structural destabilization.

  2. Separation process for boron isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockwood, S D

    1975-06-12

    The method according to the invention is characterized by the steps of preparing a gaseous mixture of BCl/sub 3/ containing the isotopes of boron and oxygen as the extractor, irradiating that mixture in the tube of the separator device by means of P- or R-lines of a CO/sub 2/ laser for exciting the molecules containing a given isotope of boron, simultaneously irradiating the mixture with UV for photodissociating the excited BCl/sub 3/ molecules and separating BCl/sub 3/ from the reaction products of photodissociation and from oxygen. Such method is suitable for preparing boron used in nuclear reactors.

  3. Experimental study on ceramic membrane technology for onboard oxygen generation

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang Dongsheng; Bu Xueqin; Sun Bing; Lin Guiping; Zhao Hongtao; Cai Yan; Fang Ling

    2016-01-01

    The ceramic membrane oxygen generation technology has advantages of high concentration of produced oxygen and potential nuclear and biochemical protection capability. The present paper studies the ceramic membrane technology for onboard oxygen generation. Comparisons are made to have knowledge of the effects of two kinds of ceramic membrane separation technologies on oxygen generation, namely electricity driven ceramic membrane separation oxygen generation technology (EDCMSOGT) and pressure d...

  4. Separation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    A disposal container is described for use in disposal of radioactive waste materials consisting of: top wall structure, bottom wall structure, and circumferential side wall structure interconnecting the top and bottom wall structures to define an enclosed container, separation structure in the container adjacent the inner surface of the side wall structure for allowing passage of liquid and retention of solids, inlet port structure in the top wall structure, discharge port structure at the periphery of the container in communication with the outer surface of the separation structure for receiving liquid that passes through the separation structure, first centrifugally actuated valve structure having a normal position closing the inlet port structure and a centrifugally actuated position opening the inlet port structure, second centrifugally actuated valve structure having a normal position closing the discharge port structure and a centrifugally actuated position opening the discharge port structure, and coupling structure integral with wall structure of the container for releasable engagement with centrifugal drive structure

  5. Separable algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the theory of separable algebras over commutative rings. After a thorough introduction to the general theory, the fundamental roles played by separable algebras are explored. For example, Azumaya algebras, the henselization of local rings, and Galois theory are rigorously introduced and treated. Interwoven throughout these applications is the important notion of étale algebras. Essential connections are drawn between the theory of separable algebras and Morita theory, the theory of faithfully flat descent, cohomology, derivations, differentials, reflexive lattices, maximal orders, and class groups. The text is accessible to graduate students who have finished a first course in algebra, and it includes necessary foundational material, useful exercises, and many nontrivial examples.

  6. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, R.J.; Morrey, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for separating gas molecules containing one isotope of an element from gas molecules containing other isotopes of the same element in which all of the molecules of the gas are at the same electronic state in their ground state. Gas molecules in a gas stream containing one of the isotopes are selectively excited to a different electronic state while leaving the other gas molecules in their original ground state. Gas molecules containing one of the isotopes are then deflected from the other gas molecules in the stream and thus physically separated

  7. Shipboard and laboratory equipment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shyamprasad, M.; Ramaswamy, V.

    The polymetallic nodules occur at an average depth of 4500 m. Adequate equipment and techniques are required for the exploration at such depths. Shipboard and various laboratory equipments for the sampling of polymetallic nodules is described...

  8. Remote handling equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, G.

    1984-01-01

    After a definition of intervention, problems encountered for working in an adverse environment are briefly analyzed for development of various remote handling equipments. Some examples of existing equipments are given [fr

  9. Oxygen injection facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Masamoto; Hirose, Yuki

    1998-01-01

    A compressor introduces air as a starting material and sends it to a dust removing device, a dehumidifying device and an adsorption/separation system disposed downstream. The facility of the present invention is disposed in the vicinity of an injection point and installed in a turbine building of a BWR type reactor having a pipeline of a feedwater system to be injected. The adsorbing/separation system comprises an adsorbing vessel and an automatic valve, and the adsorbing vessel is filled with an adsorbent for selectively adsorbing nitrogen. Zeolite is used as the adsorbent. Nitrogen in the air passing through the adsorbing vessel is adsorbed and removed under a pressurized condition, and a highly concentrated oxygen gas is formed. The direction of the steam of the adsorbed nitrogen is changed by an opening/closing switching operation of an automatic valve and released to the atmosphere (the pressure is released). Generated oxygen gas is stored under pressure in a tank, and injected to the pipeline of the feedwater system by an oxygen injection conduit by way of a flow rate control valve. In the adsorbing vessel, steps of adsorption, separation and storage under pressure are repeated successively. (I.N.)

  10. 29 CFR 1910.104 - Oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...”, or an equivalent warning. (ix) Electrical wiring. Bulk oxygen installations are not hazardous... of electrical wiring and equipment are acceptable depending upon whether the installation is indoors... to the installation of bulk oxygen systems on industrial and institutional consumer premises. This...

  11. Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.

  12. BP volume reduction equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Yoshinori; Muroo, Yoji; Hamanaka, Isao

    2003-01-01

    A new type of burnable poison (BP) volume reduction system is currently being developed. Many BP rods, a subcomponent of spent fuel assemblies are discharged from nuclear power reactors. This new system reduces the overall volume of BP rods. The main system consists of BP rod cutting equipment, equipment for the recovery of BP cut pieces, and special transport equipment for the cut rods. The equipment is all operated by hydraulic press cylinders in water to reduce operator exposure to radioactivity. (author)

  13. Comparison of gas membrane separation cascades using conventional separation cell and two-unit separation cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Masayoshi; Morisue, Tetsuo; Ozaki, Osamu; Miyauchi, Terukatsu.

    1978-01-01

    The adoption of two-unit separation cells in radioactive rare gas membrane separation equipment enhances the separation factor, but increases the required membrane area and compressive power. An analytical economic evaluation was undertaken to compare the conventional separation cell with the two-unit separation cells, adopting as parameters the number of cascade stages, the membrane area and the operating power requirements. This paper describes the models used for evaluating the separation performance and the economics of cascade embodying these different concepts of separation cell taken up for study, and the results obtained for the individual concepts are mutually compared. It proved that, in respect of the number required of cascade stages, of operating power requirements and of the annual expenditure, better performance could always be expected of the two-unit separation cells as compared with the conventional separation cell, at least in the range of parameters adopted in this study. As regards the minimum membrane area, the conventional separation cell and the series-type separation cell yielded almost the same values, with the parallel-type separation cell falling somewhat behind. (auth.)

  14. Electrical equipment qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, W.S.

    1983-01-01

    Electrical equipment qualification research programs being carried out by CEA, JAERI, and Sandia Laboratories are discussed. Objectives of the program are: (1) assessment of accident simulation methods for electrical equipment qualification testing; lower coarse (2) evaluation of equipment aging and accelerated aging methods; (3) determine radiation dose spectrum to electrical equipment and assess simulation methods for qualification; (4) identify inadequacies in electrical equipment qualification procedures and standards and potential failure modes; and (5) provide data for verifying and improving standards, rules and regulatory guides

  15. Diagnostic x-ray equipment and its use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The guide contains the requirements for the use, structure and operation of diagnostic x-ray equipment necessary to ensure the radiation safety of workers and patients. The guide is intended for the party responsible for operating the x-ray units, the staff operating, installing and maintaining x-ray examination equipment, and companies manufacturing and selling such equipment. Special requirements for mammographic and dental x-ray equipments are given in separate ST guides. (5 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs.)

  16. Separation technology 2005; Separasjonsteknologi 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The conference comprises 13 presentations on the topics of separation technology aspects with emphasis on technology assessment. Some topics of particular interest are emulsion stabilization, sand technology and handling, water handling and reservoir injection, technical equipment and compression and pressure aspects.

  17. Space Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    The performance evaluation of space heating equipment for a geothermal application is generally considered from either of two perspectives: (a) selecting equipment for installation in new construction, or (b) evaluating the performance and retrofit requirements of an existing system. With regard to new construction, the procedure is relatively straightforward. Once the heating requirements are determined, the process need only involve the selection of appropriately sized hot water heating equipment based on the available water temperature. It is important to remember that space heating equipment for geothermal applications is the same equipment used in non-geothermal applications. What makes geothermal applications unique is that the equipment is generally applied at temperatures and flow rates that depart significantly from traditional heating system design. This chapter presents general considerations for the performance of heating equipment at non-standard temperature and flow conditions, retrofit of existing systems, and aspects of domestic hot water heating.

  18. Renewal of radiological equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    In this century, medical imaging is at the heart of medical practice. Besides providing fast and accurate diagnosis, advances in radiology equipment offer new and previously non-existing options for treatment guidance with quite low morbidity, resulting in the improvement of health outcomes and quality of life for the patients. Although rapid technological development created new medical imaging modalities and methods, the same progress speed resulted in accelerated technical and functional obsolescence of the same medical imaging equipment, consequently creating a need for renewal. Older equipment has a high risk of failures and breakdowns, which might cause delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient, and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff. The European Society of Radiology is promoting the use of up-to-date equipment, especially in the context of the EuroSafe Imaging Campaign, as the use of up-to-date equipment will improve quality and safety in medical imaging. Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or renewal. This plan should look forward a minimum of 5 years, with annual updates. Teaching points • Radiological equipment has a definite life cycle span, resulting in unavoidable breakdown and decrease or loss of image quality which renders equipment useless after a certain time period.• Equipment older than 10 years is no longer state-of-the art equipment and replacement is essential. Operating costs of older equipment will be high when compared with new equipment, and sometimes maintenance will be impossible if no spare parts are available.• Older equipment has a high risk of failure and breakdown, causing delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff.• Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or replacement. This plan should look forward a

  19. Oxygen isotope effect and phase separation in the optical conductivity of (La0.5Pr0.5)(0.7)Ca0.3MnO3 thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mena, FP; Kuzmenko, AB; Hadipour, A; van Mechelen, JLM; van der Marel, D; Babushkina, NA

    2005-01-01

    The optical conductivities of films of (La0.5Pr0.5)(0.7)Ca0.3MnO3 with different oxygen isotopes (O-16 and O-18) have been determined in the spectral range from 0.3 to 4.3 eV using a combination of transmission in the midinfrared and ellipsometry from the near-infrared to ultraviolet regions. We

  20. Experimental study on ceramic membrane technology for onboard oxygen generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Dongsheng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ceramic membrane oxygen generation technology has advantages of high concentration of produced oxygen and potential nuclear and biochemical protection capability. The present paper studies the ceramic membrane technology for onboard oxygen generation. Comparisons are made to have knowledge of the effects of two kinds of ceramic membrane separation technologies on oxygen generation, namely electricity driven ceramic membrane separation oxygen generation technology (EDCMSOGT and pressure driven ceramic membrane separation oxygen generation technology (PDCMSOGT. Experiments were conducted under different temperatures, pressures of feed air and produced oxygen flow rates. On the basis of these experiments, the flow rate of feed air, electric power provided, oxygen recovery rate and concentration of produced oxygen are compared under each working condition. It is concluded that the EDCMSOGT is the oxygen generation means more suitable for onboard conditions.

  1. Lunar Soil Particle Separator, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) is an innovative method to beneficiate soil prior to in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The LSPS improves ISRU oxygen...

  2. Lunar Soil Particle Separator, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) is an innovative method to beneficiate soil prior to in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The LSPS can improve ISRU oxygen...

  3. Controlled power supply for isotopes separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavaitte, A.; Pottier, J.

    1953-01-01

    This equipment is destined to equip the separator of isotopes who is the subject of the CEA report n 138. It includes: - a controlled power supply in voltage. - a controlled power supply in current. The spectra of fluctuations of these assembly is different in the two cases. (authors) [fr

  4. Gas separating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  5. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosevear, A.; Sims, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    sup(195m)Au for medical usage is separated from sup(195m)Hg in a solution containing ions of sup(195m)Hg by contacting the solution with an adsorbing agent to adsorb 195 Hgsup(H) thereon, followed by selective elution of sup(195m)Au generated by radioactive decay of the sup(195m)Hg. The adsorbing agent comprises a composite material in the form of an inert porous inorganic substrate (e.g. Kieselguhr),the pores of which are occupied by a hydrogel of a polysaccharide (e.g. agarose) carrying terminal thiol groups for binding Hgsup(H) ions. (author)

  6. Cryogenic equipment; Materiel cryogenique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leger, L; Javellaud, J; Caro, C; Gilguy, R; Testard, O

    1966-06-01

    The cryostats presented here were built from standard parts; this makes it possible to construct a great variety of apparatus at minimum cost. The liquid nitrogen and helium reservoirs were designed so as to reduce losses to a minimum, and so as to make the cryostats as autonomous as possible. The experimental enclosure which is generally placed in the lower part of the apparatus requires a separate study in every case. Furthermore, complete assemblies such as transfer rods, isolated traps and high vacuum valves, were designed with a similar regard for the economic aspects and for the need for standardization. This equipment thus satisfies a great variety of experimental needs; it is readily adaptable and the consumptions of helium and liquid nitrogen are very low. (authors) [French] De nombreuses experiences utilisant les basses temperatures, necessitent l'emploi d'un materiel cryogenique complexe n'existant pas dans le commerce. Les cryostats presentes ici ont ete realises a partir d'elements standard, ce qui permet, malgre la diversite des appareils, de realiser un ensemble a moindre frais. Les reservoirs d'azote et d'helium liquides ont ete concus de facon a limiter les pertes et a conferer au cryostat la plus grande autonomie possible. L'enceinte experimentale situee en general dans la partie inferieure de l'appareil necessite dans tous les cas une etude speciale. D'autre part des ensembles complets tels que les cannes de transfert, piege isole, robinet pour vide secondaire, ont ete concus dans le meme souci de rentabilite et de standardisation. Ce materiel peut donc repondre a un grand nombre d'exigences experimentales, il est facilement adaptable, et les consommations d'helium et d'azote liquide sont tres reduites. (auteurs)

  7. RETRIEVAL EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Steinhoff

    1997-01-01

    The objective and the scope of this document are to list and briefly describe the major mobile equipment necessary for waste package (WP) retrieval from the proposed subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Primary performance characteristics and some specialized design features of the equipment are explained and summarized in the individual subsections of this document. There are no quality assurance requirements or QA controls in this document. Retrieval under normal conditions is accomplished with the same fleet of equipment as is used for emplacement. Descriptions of equipment used for retrieval under normal conditions is found in Emplacement Equipment Descriptions, DI: BCAF00000-01717-5705-00002 (a document in progress). Equipment used for retrieval under abnormal conditions is addressed in this document and consists of the following: (1) Inclined Plane Hauler; (2) Bottom Lift Transporter; (3) Load Haul Dump (LHD) Loader; (4) Heavy Duty Forklift for Emplacement Drifts; (5) Covered Shuttle Car; (6) Multipurpose Vehicle; and (7) Scaler

  8. Oxygen safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sure you have working smoke detectors and a working fire extinguisher in your home. If you move around the house with your oxygen, you may need more than one fire extinguisher in different locations. Smoking can be very dangerous. No one should smoke ...

  9. Oxygen therapy - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathe increased amounts of oxygen to get normal levels of oxygen in their blood. Oxygen therapy provides babies with the extra oxygen. Information Oxygen is a gas that the cells in your body need to work properly. The ...

  10. Medical equipment management

    CERN Document Server

    Willson, Keith; Tabakov, Slavik

    2013-01-01

    Know What to Expect When Managing Medical Equipment and Healthcare Technology in Your Organization As medical technology in clinical care becomes more complex, clinical professionals and support staff must know how to keep patients safe and equipment working in the clinical environment. Accessible to all healthcare professionals and managers, Medical Equipment Management presents an integrated approach to managing medical equipment in healthcare organizations. The book explains the underlying principles and requirements and raises awareness of what needs to be done and what questions to ask. I

  11. Data communication equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hak Seon; Lee, Sang Mok

    1998-02-01

    The contents of this book are introduction of data communication on definition, purpose and history, information terminal about data communication system and data transmission system, data transmit equipment of summary, transmission cable, data port, concentrator and front-end processor, audio communication equipment like phones, radio communication equipment of summary on foundation of electromagnetic waves, AM transmitter, AM receiver, FM receiver and FM transmitter, a satellite and mobile communication equipment such as earth station, TT and C and Cellular phone, video telephone and new media apparatus.

  12. Cooling of electronic equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    Cooling of electronic equipment is studied. The design size of electronic equipment decrease causing the thermal density to increase. This affect the cooling which can cause for example failures of critical components due to overheating or thermal induced stresses. Initially a pin fin heat sink...

  13. Capital Equipment Replacement Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Batterham, Robert L.; Fraser, K.I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the optimal replacement of capital equipment, especially farm machinery. It also considers the influence of taxation and capital rationing on replacement decisions. It concludes that special taxation provisions such as accelerated depreciation and investment allowances are unlikely to greatly influence farmers' capital equipment replacement decisions in Australia.

  14. Novel nanostructured oxygen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Alan James

    New government regulations and industry requirements for medical oxygen sensors require the development of alternate materials and process optimization of primary sensor components. Current oxygen sensors are not compliant with the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive. This work focused on two areas. First, was finding suitable readily available materials for the sensor anodes. Second was optimizing the processing of the sensor cathode membrane for reduced delamination. Oxygen sensors were made using tin (Sn) and bismuth (Bi) electrodes, potassium hydroxide (KOH) and acetic acid (CH3COOH) electrolytes with platinum (Pt) and gold (Au) reference electrodes. Bi electrodes were fabricated by casting and pressing processes. Electrochemical characterization of the Sn and Bi electrodes was performed by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and sensing characterization per BSEN ISO 21647:2009 at various oxygen percentages, 0%, 20.9% and 100% oxygen levels with an automated test apparatus. The Sn anode with both electrolyte solutions showed good oxygen sensing properties and performance in a sensor. This system shows promise for replacement of Pb electrodes as required by the RoHS Directive. The Bi anode with Au cathode in both KOH and CH3COOH electrolytes showed acceptable performance and oxygen sensing properties. The Bi anodes fabricated by separate manufacturing methods demonstrated effectiveness for use in medical oxygen sensors. Gold thin films were prepared by magnetron sputtering on Flouroethylene Polymer (FEP) films. The FEP substrate temperature ranged from -77°C to 50°C. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and 4-point resistivity characterized the effects of substrate temperature to Au thin film particle size. XRD peak broadening and resistivity measurements showed a strong correlation of particle size to FEP substrate temperature. Particle size at 50°C was 594A and the -77°C particle size was 2.4 x 103A. Substrate

  15. Innovative Separations Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Tripp; N. Soelberg; R. Wigeland

    2011-05-01

    Reprocessing used nuclear fuel (UNF) is a multi-faceted problem involving chemistry, material properties, and engineering. Technology options are available to meet a variety of processing goals. A decision about which reprocessing method is best depends significantly on the process attributes considered to be a priority. New methods of reprocessing that could provide advantages over the aqueous Plutonium Uranium Reduction Extraction (PUREX) and Uranium Extraction + (UREX+) processes, electrochemical, and other approaches are under investigation in the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) Separations Campaign. In an attempt to develop a revolutionary approach to UNF recycle that may have more favorable characteristics than existing technologies, five innovative separations projects have been initiated. These include: (1) Nitrogen Trifluoride for UNF Processing; (2) Reactive Fluoride Gas (SF6) for UNF Processing; (3) Dry Head-end Nitration Processing; (4) Chlorination Processing of UNF; and (5) Enhanced Oxidation/Chlorination Processing of UNF. This report provides a description of the proposed processes, explores how they fit into the Modified Open Cycle (MOC) and Full Recycle (FR) fuel cycles, and identifies performance differences when compared to 'reference' advanced aqueous and fluoride volatility separations cases. To be able to highlight the key changes to the reference case, general background on advanced aqueous solvent extraction, advanced oxidative processes (e.g., volumetric oxidation, or 'voloxidation,' which is high temperature reaction of oxide UNF with oxygen, or modified using other oxidizing and reducing gases), and fluorination and chlorination processes is provided.

  16. Innovative Separations Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripp, J.; Soelberg, N.; Wigeland, R.

    2011-01-01

    Reprocessing used nuclear fuel (UNF) is a multi-faceted problem involving chemistry, material properties, and engineering. Technology options are available to meet a variety of processing goals. A decision about which reprocessing method is best depends significantly on the process attributes considered to be a priority. New methods of reprocessing that could provide advantages over the aqueous Plutonium Uranium Reduction Extraction (PUREX) and Uranium Extraction + (UREX+) processes, electrochemical, and other approaches are under investigation in the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR and D) Separations Campaign. In an attempt to develop a revolutionary approach to UNF recycle that may have more favorable characteristics than existing technologies, five innovative separations projects have been initiated. These include: (1) Nitrogen Trifluoride for UNF Processing; (2) Reactive Fluoride Gas (SF6) for UNF Processing; (3) Dry Head-end Nitration Processing; (4) Chlorination Processing of UNF; and (5) Enhanced Oxidation/Chlorination Processing of UNF. This report provides a description of the proposed processes, explores how they fit into the Modified Open Cycle (MOC) and Full Recycle (FR) fuel cycles, and identifies performance differences when compared to 'reference' advanced aqueous and fluoride volatility separations cases. To be able to highlight the key changes to the reference case, general background on advanced aqueous solvent extraction, advanced oxidative processes (e.g., volumetric oxidation, or 'voloxidation,' which is high temperature reaction of oxide UNF with oxygen, or modified using other oxidizing and reducing gases), and fluorination and chlorination processes is provided.

  17. Separations chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Infrared spectra of Pu(IV) polymer show effects of CO 2 adsorption and of aging. Uv light (300 nm) increases the rate of reduction of PuO 2 2+ and Pu 4+ to Pu 3+ and the Pu--U separation factor using TBP. Distribution ratios for Zr and Hf between Dowex 50W--X8 resin and H 2 SO 4 solutions were found to decrease sharply with H 2 SO 4 content. Octylphenyl acid phosphate, a mixture of monooctylphenyl and dioctylphenyl phosphoric acids, is being studied for U recovery from wet-process phosphoric acid. A study of HNO 3 leaching of Ra from U ores was completed. Effects of particle size of the packed bed on the dispersion of the boundary of the miscible phase used in oil recovery are being studied. Effects of sulfonates on toluene--n-butanol--water phase relations were determined, as were the effects of salts and solutes on the max water content of 1:1 toluene--alcohol solutions. A study was begun of hydrocarbon solubility in water--surfactant--alcohol. The mechanism of the formation of hydrous ZrO 2 --polyacrylate membranes and their use for sulfate rejection were studied. Salt rejection through hyperfiltration by clay membranes (bentonite and kaolin) was also investigated. Preliminary results are given for hyperfiltration of wood-pulping wastes by ZrO 2 membranes. 13 figures

  18. Hot conditioning equipment conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, F.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-06

    This report documents the conceptual design of the Hot Conditioning System Equipment. The Hot conditioning System will consist of two separate designs: the Hot Conditioning System Equipment; and the Hot Conditioning System Annex. The Hot Conditioning System Equipment Design includes the equipment such as ovens, vacuum pumps, inert gas delivery systems, etc.necessary to condition spent nuclear fuel currently in storage in the K Basins of the Hanford Site. The Hot Conditioning System Annex consists of the facility of house the Hot Conditioning System. The Hot Conditioning System will be housed in an annex to the Canister Storage Building. The Hot Conditioning System will consist of pits in the floor which contain ovens in which the spent nuclear will be conditioned prior to interim storage.

  19. Hot conditioning equipment conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, F.W.

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the conceptual design of the Hot Conditioning System Equipment. The Hot conditioning System will consist of two separate designs: the Hot Conditioning System Equipment; and the Hot Conditioning System Annex. The Hot Conditioning System Equipment Design includes the equipment such as ovens, vacuum pumps, inert gas delivery systems, etc.necessary to condition spent nuclear fuel currently in storage in the K Basins of the Hanford Site. The Hot Conditioning System Annex consists of the facility of house the Hot Conditioning System. The Hot Conditioning System will be housed in an annex to the Canister Storage Building. The Hot Conditioning System will consist of pits in the floor which contain ovens in which the spent nuclear will be conditioned prior to interim storage

  20. Auxiliary equipment cooling circuit in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Ko.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the propagation of bacterias that transform NO 2 into NO 3 in auxiliary equipment coolants using corrosion inhibitors of nitrite type in BWR type reactors. Method: In auxiliary equipments coolant systems, water quality is controlled by using purified water as supplement water and nitrite such as Na 2 NO 2 as the corrosion inhibitors. However, in the circumstance where dissolved oxygen is present, bacteria propagate to oxidize NO 2 into NO 3 . Thus, NO 2 at 200 ppm is reduced to 20 ppm. In view of the above, a surge tank supplied from water supplement line is connected in series and a deaeration device is disposed thereto. Since the presence of dissolved oxygen causes the bacteria to propagate it is desired that the dissolved oxygen density in the supplement water is less than 5 ppm. Deaeration and pressure reduction in the surge tank can remove the dissolved oxygen, prevent NO 3 increase and also prevent stress corrosion cracks in the system pipeways. (Horiuchi, T.)

  1. Methodology for the assessment of oxygen as an energy carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming Wei

    Due to the energy intensity of the oxygen generating process, the electric power grid would benefit if the oxygen generating process was consumed electric power only during low demand periods. Thus, the question to be addressed in this study is whether oxygen production and/or usage can be modified to achieve energy storage and/or transmission objectives at lower cost. The specific benefit to grid would be a leveling, over time, of the demand profile and thus would require less installation capacity. In order to track the availability of electricity, a compressed air storage unit is installed between the cryogenic distillation section and the main air compressor of air separation unit. A profit maximizing scheme for sizing storage inventory and related equipments is developed. The optimum scheme is capable of market responsiveness. Profits of steel maker, oxy-combustion, and IGCC plants with storage facilities can be higher than those plants without storage facilities, especially, at high-price market. Price tracking feature of air storage integration will certainly increase profit margins of the plants. The integration may push oxy-combustion and integrated gasification combined cycle process into economic viability. Since oxygen is used in consumer sites, it may generate at remote locations and transport to the place needed. Energy losses and costs analysis of oxygen transportation is conducted for various applications. Energy consumptions of large capacity and long distance GOX and LOX pipelines are lower than small capacity pipelines. However, transportation losses and costs of GOX and LOX pipelines are still higher than electricity transmission.

  2. HVAC systems and equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, S.T. (Linford Air and Refrigeration Company, Oakland, CA (US))

    1990-02-01

    The author discusses the section of the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1989 which addresses HVAC systems and equipment. New features of HVAC systems mandatory general requirements are described. New prescriptive requirements are detailed.

  3. Personal Protective Equipment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ... of personal protective equipment A safety program for new employees is a necessary part of any orientation program An on-going safety program should be used to motivate employees to continue to use...

  4. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  5. CV equipment responsibilities

    CERN Document Server

    Pirollet, B

    2008-01-01

    This document describes the limits of the responsibilities of the TS/CV for fire fighting equipment at the LHC. The various interfaces, providers and users of the water supply systems and clean water raising systems are described.

  6. Equipment for hydraulic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, L.; Norlander, H.

    1981-07-01

    Hydraulic testing in boreholes is one major task of the hydrogeological program in the Stripa Project. A new testing equipment for this purpose was constructed. It consists of a downhole part and a surface part. The downhole part consists of two packers enclosing two test-sections when inflated; one between the packers and one between the bottom packer and the bottom of the borehole. A probe for downhole electronics is also included in the downhole equipment together with electrical cable and nylon tubing. In order to perform shut-in and pulse tests with high accuracy a surface controlled downhole valve was constructed. The surface equipment consists of the data acquisition system, transducer amplifier and surface gauges. In the report detailed descriptions of each component in the whole testing equipment are given. (Auth.)

  7. Steam separator uprating by elimination of capacity-limiting mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, J.R.; Pruster, W.P.; Kidwell, J.H.; Schneider, W.G.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced steam/water separation equipment for nuclear steam generator application is required for new equipment manufacture and also for retrofit. For new equipment applications, the desire for higher capacity is driven by competitiveness which requires maximum throughput in the most compact package. For retrofit applications, which have arisen due to the poor performance of some of the original equipment, the need is for high capacity separators which can fit into the existing pressure vessel envelope and not only correct the performance problem, but also allow for uprated plant output. This paper describes the development of such advanced steam separators

  8. 47 CFR 2.925 - Identification of equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... common enclosure, but constructed on separate sub-units or circuit boards with independent frequency... grant of equipment authorization. (e) A software defined radio may be equipped with a means such as a... implanted within the body of a test animal or person would probably require an alternate method of...

  9. Purex: process and equipment performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Purex process is the solvent extraction system that uses tributyl phosphate as the extractant for separating uranium and plutonium from irradiated reactor fuels. Since the first flowsheet was proposed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1950, the process has endured for over 30 years with only minor modifications. The spread of the technology was rapid, and worldwide use or research on Purex-type processes was reported by the time of the 1955 Geneva Conference. The overall performance of the process has been so good that there are no serious contenders for replacing it soon. This paper presents: process description; equipment performance (mixer-settlers, pulse columns, rapid contactors); fission product decontamination; solvent effects (solvent degradation products); and partitioning of uranium and plutonium

  10. Equipment abnormality monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yasumasa

    1991-01-01

    When an operator hears sounds in a plantsite, the operator compares normal sounds of equipment which he previously heard and remembered with sounds he actually hears, to judge if they are normal or abnormal. According to the method, there is a worry that abnormal conditions can not be appropriately judged in a case where the number of objective equipments is increased and in a case that the sounds are changed gradually slightly. Then, the device of the present invention comprises a plurality of monitors for monitoring the operation sound of equipments, a recording/reproducing device for recording and reproducing the signals, a selection device for selecting the reproducing signals among the recorded signals, an acoustic device for converting the signals to sounds, a switching device for switching the signals to be transmitted to the acoustic device between to signals of the monitor and the recording/reproducing signals. The abnormality of the equipments can be determined easily by comparing the sounds representing the operation conditions of equipments for controlling the plant operation and the sounds recorded in their normal conditions. (N.H.)

  11. Prioritizing equipment for replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Mike

    2010-01-01

    It is suggested that clinical engineers take the lead in formulating evaluation processes to recommend equipment replacement. Their skill, knowledge, and experience, combined with access to equipment databases, make them a logical choice. Based on ideas from Fennigkoh's scheme, elements such as age, vendor support, accumulated maintenance cost, and function/risk were used.6 Other more subjective criteria such as cost benefits and efficacy of newer technology were not used. The element of downtime was also omitted due to the data element not being available. The resulting Periop Master Equipment List and its rationale was presented to the Perioperative Services Program Council. They deemed the criteria to be robust and provided overwhelming acceptance of the list. It was quickly put to use to estimate required capital funding, justify items already thought to need replacement, and identify high-priority ranked items for replacement. Incorporating prioritization criteria into an existing equipment database would be ideal. Some commercially available systems do have the basic elements of this. Maintaining replacement data can be labor-intensive regardless of the method used. There is usually little time to perform the tasks necessary for prioritizing equipment. However, where appropriate, a clinical engineering department might be able to conduct such an exercise as shown in the following case study.

  12. Musical Sound, Instruments, and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photinos, Panos

    2017-12-01

    'Musical Sound, Instruments, and Equipment' offers a basic understanding of sound, musical instruments and music equipment, geared towards a general audience and non-science majors. The book begins with an introduction of the fundamental properties of sound waves, and the perception of the characteristics of sound. The relation between intensity and loudness, and the relation between frequency and pitch are discussed. The basics of propagation of sound waves, and the interaction of sound waves with objects and structures of various sizes are introduced. Standing waves, harmonics and resonance are explained in simple terms, using graphics that provide a visual understanding. The development is focused on musical instruments and acoustics. The construction of musical scales and the frequency relations are reviewed and applied in the description of musical instruments. The frequency spectrum of selected instruments is explored using freely available sound analysis software. Sound amplification and sound recording, including analog and digital approaches, are discussed in two separate chapters. The book concludes with a chapter on acoustics, the physical factors that affect the quality of the music experience, and practical ways to improve the acoustics at home or small recording studios. A brief technical section is provided at the end of each chapter, where the interested reader can find the relevant physics and sample calculations. These quantitative sections can be skipped without affecting the comprehension of the basic material. Questions are provided to test the reader's understanding of the material. Answers are given in the appendix.

  13. Radioactive decontamination of equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    After a recall of some definitions relating to decontamination techniques and of the regulation into effect, the principles to be respected to arrange rationally work zones are quoted while insisting more particularly on the types of coatings which facilitate maintenance operations and the dismantling of these installations. Then, the processes and equipments to use in decontamination units for routine or particular operations are described; the list of recommended chemical products to decontaminate the equipment is given. The influence of these treatments on the state and the duration of life of equipments is studied, and some perfectible methods are quoted. In the appendix, are given: the limits of surface contamination accepted in the centers; a standard project which defines the criteria of admissible residual contamination in wastes considered as cold wastes; some remarks on the interest that certain special ventilation and air curtain devices for the protection of operators working on apparatus generating contaminated dusts [fr

  14. Equipment Operational Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

    2009-06-11

    The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

  15. Charging equipment. Ladegeraet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, E

    1981-09-17

    The invention refers to a charging equipment, particularly on board charging equipment for charging traction batteries of an electric vehicle from the AC mains supply, consisting of a DC converter, which contains a controlled power transistor, a switching off unloading circuit and a power transmitter, where the secondary winding is connected in series with a rectifier diode, and a smoothing capacitor is connected in parallel with this series circuit. A converter module is provided, which consists of two DC voltage converters, whose power transistors are controlled by a control circuit in opposition with a phase displacement of 180/sup 0/.

  16. Removal of Iron Oxide Scale from Feed-water in Thermal Power Plant by Using Magnetic Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Motohiro; Shibatani, Saori; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko; Nishijima, Shigehiro

    2017-09-01

    One of the factors of deterioration in thermal power generation efficiency is adhesion of the scale to inner wall in feed-water system. Though thermal power plants have employed All Volatile Treatment (AVT) or Oxygen Treatment (OT) to prevent scale formation, these treatments cannot prevent it completely. In order to remove iron oxide scale, we proposed magnetic separation system using solenoidal superconducting magnet. Magnetic separation efficiency is influenced by component and morphology of scale which changes their property depending on the type of water treatment and temperature. In this study, we estimated component and morphology of iron oxide scale at each equipment in the feed-water system by analyzing simulated scale generated in the pressure vessel at 320 K to 550 K. Based on the results, we considered installation sites of the magnetic separation system.

  17. Report on results of R and D of coal liquefaction technology under Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Development of direct hydro-liquefaction plant (research on liquefaction by bench scale equipment, and research on solid-liquid separation method); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, chokusetsu suiten ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Bench scale sochi ni yoru ekika kenkyu, koeki bunriho ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    This paper explains the results of development of direct hydro-liquefaction plant under the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. As element studies for supplementing and supporting a 2.4 t/day PDU (process development unit), in the research using a 0.1 t/day bench scale continuous type equipment of fiscal 1981, a hydrogenation experiment was conducted for anthracene oil and also, an examination was made on the reaction conditions of Taiheiyo coal and Horonai coal, as well as on the catalyst and reaction ratio and on the product material distribution. A medium oil equalizing test was performed using Taiheiyo coal in order to obtain knowledge about equalized medium oil. Liquefaction characteristics in the preheating process and reaction process were elucidated by means of a semi-batch device. Comparative studies were made between domestic and overseas coals, in coal properties and liquefaction characteristics using a shaking type autoclave. The performance of iron-sulfur based catalysts was also examined. In the research on a solid-liquid separation method, the basic properties of coal liquefied crude oil were measured such as general properties, solid grading distribution and distillation characteristics, with the basic tests carried out for standing separation, filtrating separation and centrifuging separation, providing selected materials of the solid-liquid separation method suitable for the crude oil produced by the direct hydro-liquefaction method. In addition, studies were conducted on the use of residual oil generated by solid-liquid separation, providing knowledge of the viscosity and thermal cracking. (NEDO)

  18. 49 CFR 1242.49 - Equipment damaged (account XX-27-48).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment damaged (account XX-27-48). 1242.49...-Equipment § 1242.49 Equipment damaged (account XX-27-48). Separate common expenses according to distribution... equipment and work and other non-revenue equipment accounts (accounts XX-27-40, XX-27-45, XX-27-46, and XX...

  19. Phosphazene membranes for gas separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Frederick F.; Harrup, Mason K.; Orme, Christopher J.; Luther, Thomas A.

    2006-07-11

    A polyphosphazene having a glass transition temperature ("T.sub.g") of approximately -20.degree. C. or less. The polyphosphazene has at least one pendant group attached to a backbone of the polyphosphazene, wherein the pendant group has no halogen atoms. In addition, no aromatic groups are attached to an oxygen atom that is bound to a phosphorus atom of the backbone. The polyphosphazene may have a T.sub.g ranging from approximately -100.degree. C. to approximately -20.degree. C. The polyphosphazene may be selected from the group consisting of poly[bis-3-phenyl-1-propoxy)phosphazene], poly[bis-(2-phenyl-1-ethoxy)phosphazene], poly[bis-(dodecanoxypolyethoxy)-phosphazene], and poly[bis-(2-(2-(2-.omega.-undecylenyloxyethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)phosphazene]- . The polyphosphazene may be used in a separation membrane to selectively separate individual gases from a gas mixture, such as to separate polar gases from nonpolar gases in the gas mixture.

  20. Experimental equipment, ch. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boomstra, F.; Hoogenboom, A.M.; Prins, C.M.; Strasters, B.A.; Vermeer, A.; Wit, P. de; Zwol, N.A. van.

    1977-01-01

    The experimental equipment in use at Utrecht university is discussed. Attention is paid to the tandem Van de Graaff accelerator and the 4MV and 1MV accelerators. The detection systems for gamma-ray spectroscopy are reviewed with emphasis on the compton-suppression spectrometer. The data-handling system used for experiments with the tandem is also briefly discussed

  1. Equipment gift to Monaco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    Research work at the Agency's Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity in Monaco, including that concerned with pollution of the sea, has been made more effective by its latest acquisition of equipment. This is a spectrophotometer donated by the Federal Republic of Germany. (author)

  2. Safeguards techniques and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The current booklet is intended to give a full and balanced description of the techniques and equipment used for both nuclear material accountancy and containment and surveillance measures, and for the new safeguards measure of environmental sampling. As new verification measures continue to be developed, the material in the booklet will be periodically reviewed and updated versions issued. (author)

  3. Equipping tomorrow's fire manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher A. Dicus

    2008-01-01

    Fire managers are challenged with an ever-increasing array of both responsibilities and critics. As in the past, fire managers must master the elements of fire behavior and ecology using the latest technologies. In addition, today’s managers must be equipped with the skills necessary to understand and liaise with a burgeoning group of vocal stakeholders while also...

  4. Electrical equipment design library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This book guides the design supervision, construction order for electrical equipment. The contents of this library are let's use electricity like this, leading-in-pole and casual power, electric pole install below 300KVA, electric pole install below 301∼1000KVA, electric pole install exceed 1000KVA, rooftop install exceed 1000KVA, CUBICLE type, 154KV services. It adds an appendix.

  5. Orphee reactor experimental equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Experimental equipment around the ORPHEE reactor is presented. The neutron source; and the spectrometers and sample environment (inelastic and quasi-elastic scattering, elastic scattering, spread scattering, small angle scattering) are described. An experiment proposal and reports guide is supplied [fr

  6. Seismic qualification of equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidebrecht, A.C.; Tso, W.K.

    1983-03-01

    This report describes the results of an investigation into the seismic qualification of equipment located in CANDU nuclear power plants. It is particularly concerned with the evaluation of current seismic qualification requirements, the development of a suitable methodology for the seismic qualification of safety systems, and the evaluation of seismic qualification analysis and testing procedures

  7. Underground coal equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, J.

    2002-12-01

    This paper reports on increasing automation and enhanced productivity on longwalls, new development cutting and bolting technologies and haulage systems. Amongst equipment discussed is DBT's Electra series EL3000 shearer, the Dosco LH1400 roadheader with onboard bolters, and Joy 12 CM30 continuous miners. 4 photos.

  8. Surface oxygen vacancy and oxygen permeation flux limits of perovskite ion transport membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Hunt, Anton; Dimitrakopoulos, Georgios; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. The mechanisms and quantitative models for how oxygen is separated from air using ion transport membranes (ITMs) are not well understood, largely due to the experimental complexity for determining surface exchange reactions

  9. Theory and Practice of a New Class of Equipment for Separation of Particulates from Gases: the Turbulent Flow Precipitator Le précipitateur turbulent : un nouveau type de dispositif de séparation de particules présentes dans un courant de gaz. Théorie et technologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dullien F. A. L.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The main classes of separators of particulates from gases comprise inertial separators, filters, (wet scrubbers and electrostatic precipitators, each of which technique has its proper niche and each has its advantages and its disadvantages. In the present paper a new class of equipment, the turbulent flow precipitator (TFP for gas cleaning is described that, though at the present only in its infancy, is rapidly gaining popularity because it has some advantages over each and every known type of separator and it has very few limitations. TFPs are far more efficient for the removal of fine particles than inertial separators, unlike filters they do not plug up, they do not present secondary disposal problems and they require less maintenance (and are less expensive than electrostatic precipitators. They can be very efficient also in the submicron range of particle size and there are no practical limitations as far as high temperatures and/or corrosive atmospheres are concerned. They are equally suitable for the removal of solid and liquid particles from gases. Turbulent flow precipitators work on the principle of turbulent eddy penetration into deep regions where there is no net flow, where the eddies die out and where the fine particulates carried by the eddies deposit on collector surfaces. TFPs comprise two well defined regions:- straight, uniform and unobstructed flow passages in which the gas carrying the suspended fine particulates is passed in turbulent flow;- and adjacent collection regions where there is no net gas flow and where all of the separation of particles from the gas takes place. Hence, a TFP is a filter in which the separation of the particulates from the gas takes place outside the passages where the gas flows. Les principaux séparateurs de particules dans un courant de gaz existants sur le marché sont les séparateurs par inertie, les filtres, les laveurs et les électrofiltres. Chaque type de séparateur est destiné à une

  10. Equipment specifications for an electrochemical fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemphill, Kevin P.

    2010-01-01

    Electrochemical reprocessing is a technique used to chemically separate and dissolve the components of spent nuclear fuel, in order to produce new metal fuel. There are several different variations to electrochemical reprocessing. These variations are accounted for by both the production of different types of spent nuclear fuel, as well as different states and organizations doing research in the field. For this electrochemical reprocessing plant, the spent fuel will be in the metallurgical form, a product of fast breeder reactors, which are used in many nuclear power plants. The equipment line for this process is divided into two main categories, the fuel refining equipment and the fuel fabrication equipment. The fuel refining equipment is responsible for separating out the plutonium and uranium together, while getting rid of the minor transuranic elements and fission products. The fuel fabrication equipment will then convert this plutonium and uranium mixture into readily usable metal fuel.

  11. Installation of an isotope separator in Debrecen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gacsi, Z.; Gulyas, J.; Vitez, A.; Csige, L.; Krasznahorkay, A.

    2005-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. An isotope separator named OSIRIS was decommissioned in Studsvik, Sweden last July. Researchers there offered this equipment to us for dismantling and moving it over to ATOMKI in Debrecen for installation at the cyclotron lab and save and use it in nuclear physics and other sciences where stable and radioactive isotopes are used extensively for fundamental and applied research. Since the separator was used to separate radioactive isotopes, the ion source with its beam extracting, shaping, and transporting accessories, as well as the lining inside the bending magnet, furthermore the beam diagnostic and shaping elements in the 'switchyard' part of the separator had to stay in Studsvik because of the high radioactive contamination. In order to operate this equipment, first we have to design and manufacture these parts together with a new endstation for the collection and handling of the separated isotopes. Parallel with the installation, we also concentrate on different applications of an isotope separator, including separation of stable isotopes for labelling special compounds used in many branches of sciences, medical care, and industry, and on studying single ion implantation possibilities, as well as on the production of special targets for nuclear physics research. First we want to separate stable isotopes, and then, when we overcome all technical pitfalls, we will consider using this equipment to separate radioactive isotopes as well. Our intention is to have this equipment available to anyone at ATOMKI and elsewhere interested in using its capabilities in their own research fields. Consequently, all comments, suggestion, and ideas are welcome now and continuously, since the design and manufacture of parts can then be oriented by taking into account all the suggestions as much as possible. (author)

  12. Optimal oxygen saturation in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meayoung Chang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a delicate balance between too little and too much supplemental oxygen exposure in premature infants. Since underuse and overuse of supplemental oxygen can harm premature infants, oxygen saturation levels must be monitored and kept at less than 95% to prevent reactive oxygen species-related diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At the same time, desaturation below 80 to 85% must be avoided to prevent adverse consequences, such as cerebral palsy. It is still unclear what range of oxygen saturation is appropriate for premature infants; however, until the results of further studies are available, a reasonable target for pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2 is 90 to 93% with an intermittent review of the correlation between SpO2 and the partial pressure of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2. Because optimal oxygenation depends on individuals at the bedside making ongoing adjustments, each unit must define an optimal target range and set alarm limits according to their own equipment or conditions. All staff must be aware of these values and adjust the concentration of supplemental oxygen frequently.

  13. Quantification of photocatalytic oxygenation of human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, Aryasomayajula; Thangaraj, Paul R; Kanuru, Chandrasekhar; Jayakumar, Albert; Gopal, Jayashree

    2014-04-01

    Photocatalytic oxygenation of human blood is an emerging concept based on the principle of photocatalytic splitting of water into oxygen and hydrogen. This communication reports: (i) a design of a photocatalytic cell (PC) that separates the blood from UV (incident) radiation source, (ii) a pH, temperature and flow controlled circuit designed for quantifying the oxygenation of human blood by photocatalysis and (iii) measuring the current efficacy of ITO/TiO2 nano thin films in oxygenating human blood in a dynamic circuit in real time. The average increase in oxygen saturation was around 5% above baseline compared to control (p<0.0005). We believe this is one of the first attempts to quantify photocatalytic oxygenation of human blood under controlled conditions. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Visual communication and terminal equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Cheol Hui

    1988-06-01

    This book is divided two parts about visual communication and terminal equipment. The first part introduces visual communication, which deals with foundation of visual communication, technique of visual communication, equipment of visual communication, a facsimile and pictorial image system. The second part contains terminal equipment such as telephone, terminal equipment for data transmission on constitution and constituent of terminal equipment for data transmission, input device and output device, terminal device and up-to-date terminal device.

  15. Visual communication and terminal equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Cheol Hui

    1988-06-15

    This book is divided two parts about visual communication and terminal equipment. The first part introduces visual communication, which deals with foundation of visual communication, technique of visual communication, equipment of visual communication, a facsimile and pictorial image system. The second part contains terminal equipment such as telephone, terminal equipment for data transmission on constitution and constituent of terminal equipment for data transmission, input device and output device, terminal device and up-to-date terminal device.

  16. Test and Analysis of Metallurgical Converter Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Pang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen top-blow converter is the main equipment in steel making, and its work reliability decides the security and economy of steel production. Therefore, how to design and test analysis of convertor has been an important subject of industry research. Geometric modelling and structure analysis of converter tilting device by using Pro/E program .The design Principle, basic design structure were analyzed in detail. The computer simulation software of metallurgical converter equipment and how to use it were introduced .It developed by VC++ software. The position of barycentre and moment curve in No.3 and No.4 are calculated. The converter acceleration down dip can be resolved by comparing the moment curve and center curve.

  17. Mars Atmospheric Capture and Gas Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Gibson, Tracy; Devor, Robert; Captain, James

    2011-01-01

    The Mars atmospheric capture and gas separation project is selecting, developing, and demonstrating techniques to capture and purify Martian atmospheric gases for their utilization for the production of hydrocarbons, oxygen, and water in ISRU systems. Trace gases will be required to be separated from Martian atmospheric gases to provide pure C02 to processing elements. In addition, other Martian gases, such as nitrogen and argon, occur in concentrations high enough to be useful as buffer gas and should be captured as welL To achieve these goals, highly efficient gas separation processes will be required. These gas separation techniques are also required across various areas within the ISRU project to support various consumable production processes. The development of innovative gas separation techniques will evaluate the current state-of-the-art for the gas separation required, with the objective to demonstrate and develop light-weight, low-power methods for gas separation. Gas separation requirements include, but are not limited to the selective separation of: (1) methane and water from un-reacted carbon oxides (C02- CO) and hydrogen typical of a Sabatier-type process, (2) carbon oxides and water from unreacted hydrogen from a Reverse Water-Gas Shift process, (3) carbon oxides from oxygen from a trash/waste processing reaction, and (4) helium from hydrogen or oxygen from a propellant scavenging process. Potential technologies for the separations include freezers, selective membranes, selective solvents, polymeric sorbents, zeolites, and new technologies. This paper and presentation will summarize the results of an extensive literature review and laboratory evaluations of candidate technologies for the capture and separation of C02 and other relevant gases.

  18. Equipment cost optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, E.M.; Farias, M.A.; Dreyer, S.R.B.

    1995-01-01

    Considering the importance of the cost of material and equipment in the overall cost profile of an oil company, which in the case of Petrobras, represents approximately 23% of the total operational cost or 10% of the sales, an organization for the optimization of such costs has been established within Petrobras. Programs are developed aiming at: optimization of life-cycle cost of material and equipment; optimization of industrial processes costs through material development. This paper describes the methodology used in the management of the development programs and presents some examples of concluded and ongoing programs, which are conducted in permanent cooperation with suppliers, technical laboratories and research institutions and have been showing relevant results

  19. X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redmayne, I.G.B.

    1988-01-01

    The patent concerns a warning and protection system for mobile x-ray equipment used for 'on site' radiography, so that workers in the vicinity of such a working unit can be alerted to its presence. The invention is a local repeater warning system which gives a preliminary warning that energisation of the tubehead is imminent, as well as a switch near the tubehead to abort or inhibit energisation. The latter switch allows personnel caught in the vicinity of the tubehead to prevent energisation. The preliminary warning may be flashing lamps or by a klaxon. The control unit for the equipment may include a monitoring circuit to detect failure of the warning light or klaxon. (U.K.)

  20. X-ray equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmayne, I.G.B.

    1988-01-06

    The patent concerns a warning and protection system for mobile x-ray equipment used for 'on site' radiography, so that workers in the vicinity of such a working unit can be alerted to its presence. The invention is a local repeater warning system which gives a preliminary warning that energisation of the tubehead is imminent, as well as a switch near the tubehead to abort or inhibit energisation. The latter switch allows personnel caught in the vicinity of the tubehead to prevent energisation. The preliminary warning may be flashing lamps or by a klaxon. The control unit for the equipment may include a monitoring circuit to detect failure of the warning light or klaxon. (U.K.).

  1. Tube for irradiation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goehrich, K.; Vogt, H.

    1979-01-01

    This patent describes a tube for irradiation equipment for limiting an emergent beam, with a baseplate, possessing a central aperture, intended for attaching to the equipment, as well as four carrier plates, each of which possesses a limiting edge and a sliding edge located at right angles thereto. The carrier plates are located parallel to the baseplate, the limiting edge of each carrier plate resting against the sliding edge of the adjacent carrier plate and each of the two mutually opposite pairs of carrier plates being displaceable, parallel to the direction of its sliding edges and symmetrically to the center of the transmission aperture, for the purpose of continuously varying the transmission aperture defined by the limiting edges, during which displacement each of the displaced carrier plates carries with it the carrier plate, resting against the limiting edge of the former plate, parallel to the direction of the limiting edge of the latter plate. 8 claims

  2. Four-port gas separation membrane module assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Nicholas P.; Fulton, Donald A.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; Kaschemekat, Jurgen

    2010-07-20

    A gas-separation membrane assembly, and a gas-separation process using the assembly. The assembly incorporates multiple gas-separation membranes in an array within a single vessel or housing, and is equipped with two permeate ports, enabling permeate gas to be withdrawn from both ends of the membrane module permeate pipes.

  3. Equipment for isotope diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platz, W.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns an improvement of equipment for isotope diagnostics allowing to mark special intensity ranges of the recorded measurements by means of different colors. For undisturbed operation it is of advantage to avoid electric circuits between movable and unmovable parts of the color recorder. According to the invention, long gear wheels of glass fiber-reinforced polyamide are used for these connections. (ORU) [de

  4. Soviet equipment flies in

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    End of February 1977 a Soviet Ilyushin-76 heavy freight aircraft landed at Cointrin airport having on board fifty large wire proprtional chambers and associated apparatus, together weighing 10 tons, supplied by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, USSR. The equipment was for the CERN- Dubna-Munich-Saclay experiment NA4 on deep inelastic muon scattering being set up in the North Area of SPS. See Weekly Bulletin 11/78.

  5. Labelling of equipment dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D C

    1993-01-01

    A new labelling system for use on medical equipment dispensers is tested. This system uses one of the objects stored in each unit of the dispenser as the 'label', by attaching it to the front of the dispenser with tape. The new system was compared to conventional written labelling by timing subjects asked to select items from two dispensers. The new system was 27% quicker than the conventional system. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8110335

  6. Nosocomial transmission of Cupriavidus pauculus during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, S H; Wisdom, C; McKamie, W; Ware, W; Dedman, H; Fiser, R T

    2010-01-01

    Patients undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are at increased risk of infection. We present the first known report of nosocomial infection with Cupriavidus pauculus attributable to contamination from ECMO equipment and describe the measures taken to halt subsequent infections. A cluster of infections in ECMO patients should prompt team members to consider contamination of equipment with environmental pathogens as a possible cause.

  7. Equipment Obsolescence Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmond, J.

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Operators are challenged with securing reliable supply channels for safety related equipment due to equipment obsolescence. Many Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have terminated production of spare parts and product life-cycle support. The average component life cycles are much shorter than the NPP design life, which means that replacement components and parts for the original NPP systems are not available for the complete design life of the NPPs. The lack or scarcity of replacement parts adversely affects plant reliability and ultimately the profitability of the affected NPPs. This problem is further compounded when NPPs pursue license renewal and approval for plant-life extension. A reliable and predictable supply of replacement co components is necessary for NPPs to remain economically competitive and meet regulatory requirements and guidelines. Electrical and I and C components, in particular, have short product life cycles and obsolescence issues must be managed pro actively and not reactively in order to mitigate the risk to the NPP to ensure reliable and economic NPP operation. (Author)

  8. Personal protective equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Practical Radiation Technical Manual is one of a series that has been designed to provide guidance on radiological protection for employers, radiation protection officers, managers and other technically competent persons who have responsibility for ensuring the safety of employees working with ionizing radiation. The Manual may be used with the appropriate IAEA Practical Radiation Safety Manuals to provide training, instruction and information for all employees engaged in work with ionizing radiation. Personal protective equipment (PPE) includes clothing or other special equipment that is issued to individual workers to provide protection against actual or potential exposure to ionizing radiations. It is used to protect each worker against the prevailing risk of external or internal exposure in circumstances in which it is not reasonably practicable to provide complete protection by means of engineering controls or administrative methods. Adequate personal protection depends on PPE being correctly selected, fitted and maintained. Appropriate training for the users and arrangements to monitor usage are also necessary to ensure that PPE provides the intended degree of protection effectively. This Manual explains the principal types of PPE, including protective clothing and respiratory protective equipment (RPE). Examples of working procedures are also described to indicate how PPE should be used within a safe system of work. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of a more comprehensive training programme or is supplemented by the advice of a qualified expert in radiation protection. Some of the RPE described in this Manual should be used under the guidance of a qualified expert

  9. The CP 1 type separators-superheaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacio, G.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of the functionnement of the separators superheaters in the first French 900 MW PWR units (Fessenhein 1-2 and Bugey 2-3-4-5) and in the program CP 1 units: localization of the separators superheaters, design, tests and choice of the materials, description of the separators superheaters (shells, separators, superheater bundles, internal lagging, purging tank and condensate stank, steam line equipments); study of the various operation modes (nominals, transients, malfunctions, conservation during shutdowns) and the in service behaviour of the components; study of the modifications on the CP 1 equipments and their behaviour; description of the measures, tests and on site controls (controls during planned shutdowns and controls during service) [fr

  10. Evaluating oil/water separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdoch, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Four commercially available oil/water separators were tested at an oil refinery test facility. The separators were the Alfa-Laval OFPX 413 disk-stack centrifuge, the Conoco Vortoil hydrocyclone system, International Separation Technology's Intr-Septor 250, and a modified Flo Trend gravity separator. Each machine was tested against mixtures of salt water and crude oil, and mixtures of salt water and a water-in-oil emulsion. The impact on separator performance from simulated sea motion, and from the addition of emulsion breakers and debris to the influent, were also evaluated. The test equipment, instrumentation, analysis facilities, test plans, and procedures to conduct the tests are described, but test results are not reported. Recommendations for improved test procedures are included. The inability to accurately monitor flow rates was found to have the greatest negative impact on test performance and results. Aspects of the test program that worked well included the use of flexible and semi-rigid hoses for customizing the test setups, the use of modular and leased tanks, and the sea motion simulator swing table design. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Steam-water separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modrak, T.M.; Curtis, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The steam-water separator connected downstream of a steam generator consists of a vertical centrifugal separator with swirl blades between two concentric pipes and a cyclone separator located above. The water separated in the cyclone separator is collected in the inner tube of the centrifugal separator which is closed at the bottom. This design allows the overall height of the separator to be reduced. (DG) [de

  12. FCC riser quick separation system: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The riser reactor is the key unit in the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC process. As the FCC feedstocks become heavier, the product mixture of oil, gas and catalysts must be separated immediately at the outlet of the riser to avoid excessive coking. The quick separation system is the core equipment in the FCC unit. China University of Petroleum (Beijing has developed many kinds of separation system including the fender-stripping cyclone and circulating-stripping cyclone systems, which can increase the separation efficiency and reduce the pressure drop remarkably. For the inner riser system, a vortex quick separation system has been developed. It contains a vortex quick separator and an isolated shell. In order to reduce the separation time, a new type of separator called the short residence time separator system was developed. It can further reduce the separation time to less than 1 s. In this paper, the corresponding design principles, structure and industrial application of these different kinds of separation systems are reviewed. A system that can simultaneously realize quick oil gas separation, quick oil gas extraction and quick pre-stripping of catalysts at the end of the riser is the trend in the future.

  13. Sources of variation in oxygen consumption of aquatic animals demonstrated by simulated constant oxygen consumption and respirometers of different sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Bushnell, P.G.; Christensen, Emil Aputsiaq Flindt

    2016-01-01

    As intermittent-flow respirometry has become a common method for the determination of resting metabolism or standard metabolic rate (SMR), this study investigated how much of the variability seen in the experiments was due to measurement error. Experiments simulated different constant oxygen cons...... oxygen consumption rates of fishes in systems with reasonable RFRs mainly comes from the animal, not from the measuring equipment....

  14. Proceedings of DAE-BRNS biennial symposium on emerging trends in separation science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, P.N.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Goswami, A.

    2012-01-01

    The symposium on emerging trends in separation science and technology was held during 27 February -1 March, 2012. An attempt has been made to cover a wide range of topics in the symposium including design and synthesis of solvents/resins, development of separation equipment's, separation the nuclear fuel cycle, emerging separation technologies, electrochemical and pyrochemical separations, treatment of industrial effluents, isotope separations, membrane science and technology, radiochemical separations, water treatment and recycling, bioremediation and speciation. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  15. Fictional Separation Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Buhrkal; Birkedal, Lars

    2012-01-01

    , separation means physical separation. In this paper, we introduce \\emph{fictional separation logic}, which includes more general forms of fictional separating conjunctions P * Q, where "*" does not require physical separation, but may also be used in situations where the memory resources described by P and Q...

  16. Stable isotopes - separation and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockhart, I.M.

    1980-01-01

    In this review, methods used for the separation of stable isotopes ( 12 C, 13 C, 14 N, 15 N, 16 O, 17 O, 18 O, 34 S) will be described. The synthesis of labelled compounds, techniques for detection and assay, and areas of application will also be discussed. Particular attention will be paid to the isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen; to date, sulphur isotopes have only assumed a minor role. The field of deuterium chemistry is too extensive for adequate treatment; it will therefore be essentially excluded. (author)

  17. Scientific Equipment Division - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halik, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Scientific Equipment Division consists of the Design Group and the Mechanical Workshop. The activity of the Division includes the following: - designing of devices and equipment for experiments in physics, their mechanical construction and assembly. In particular, there are vacuum chambers and installations for HV and UHV; - maintenance and upgrading of the existing installations and equipment in our Institute; - participation of our engineers and technicians in design works, equipment assembly and maintenance for experiments in foreign laboratories. The Design Group is equipped with PC-computers and AutoCAD graphic software (release 2000 and Mechanical Desktop 4.0) and a AO plotter, what allows us to make drawings and 2- and 3-dimensional mechanical documentation to the world standards. The Mechanical Workshop can offer a wide range of machining and treatment methods with satisfactory tolerances and surface quality. It offers the following possibilities: - turning - cylindrical elements of a length up to 2000 mm and a diameter up to 400 mm, and also disc-type elements of a diameter up to 600 mm and a length not exceeding 300 mm; - milling - elements of length up to 1000 mm and gear wheels of diameter up to 300 mm; - grinding - flat surfaces of dimensions up to 300 mm x 1000 mm and cylindrical elements of a diameter up to 200 mm and a length up to 800 mm; - drilling - holes of a diameter up to 50 mm; - welding - electrical and gas welding, including TIG vacuum-tight welding; - soft and hard soldering; - mechanical works including precision engineering; - plastics treatment - machining and polishing using diamond milling, modelling, lamination of various shapes and materials, including plexiglas, scintillators and light-guides; - painting - paint spraying with possibility of using furnace-fred drier of internal dimensions of 800 mm x 800 mm x 800 mm. Our workshop posses CNC milling machine which can be used for machining of work-pieces up to 500 kg

  18. Hydrogen-Oxygen PEM Regenerative Fuel Cell at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has constructed a closed-cycle hydrogen-oxygen PEM regenerative fuel cell (RFC) to explore its potential use as an energy storage device for a high altitude solar electric aircraft. Built up over the last 2 years from specialized hardware and off the shelf components the Glenn RFC is a complete "brassboard" energy storage system which includes all the equipment required to (1) absorb electrical power from an outside source and store it as pressurized hydrogen and oxygen and (2) make electrical power from the stored gases, saving the product water for re-use during the next cycle. It consists of a dedicated hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell stack and an electrolyzer stack, the interconnecting plumbing and valves, cooling pumps, water transfer pumps, gas recirculation pumps, phase separators, storage tanks for oxygen (O2) and hydrogen (H2), heat exchangers, isolation valves, pressure regulators, nitrogen purge provisions, instrumentation, and other components. It specific developmental functions include: (1) Test fuel cells and fuel cell components under repeated closed-cycle operation (nothing escapes; everything is used over and over again). (2) Simulate diurnal charge-discharge cycles (3) Observe long-term system performance and identify degradation and loss mechanisms. (4) Develop safe and convenient operation and control strategies leading to the successful development of mission-capable, flight-weight RFC's.

  19. Solar Energy Systems for Lunar Oxygen Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Heller, Richard S.; Wong, Wayne A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2010-01-01

    An evaluation of several solar concentrator-based systems for producing oxygen from lunar regolith was performed. The systems utilize a solar concentrator mirror to provide thermal energy for the oxygen production process. Thermal energy to power a Stirling heat engine and photovoltaics are compared for the production of electricity. The electricity produced is utilized to operate the equipment needed in the oxygen production process. The initial oxygen production method utilized in the analysis is hydrogen reduction of ilmenite. Utilizing this method of oxygen production a baseline system design was produced. This baseline system had an oxygen production rate of 0.6 kg/hr with a concentrator mirror size of 5 m. Variations were performed on the baseline design to show how changes in the system size and process (rate) affected the oxygen production rate. An evaluation of the power requirements for a carbothermal lunar regolith reduction reactor has also been conducted. The reactor had a total power requirement between 8,320 to 9,961 W when producing 1000 kg/year of oxygen. The solar concentrator used to provide the thermal power (over 82 percent of the total energy requirement) would have a diameter of less than 4 m.

  20. Mining face equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G, Litvinskiy G; Babyuk, G V; Yakovenko, V A

    1981-01-07

    Mining face equipment includes drilling advance wells, drilling using explosives on the contour bore holes, loading and transporting the crushed mass, drilling reinforcement shafts, injecting reinforcement compounds and moving the timber. Camouflet explosives are used to form relaxed rock stress beyond the mining area to decrease costs of reinforcing the mining area by using nonstressed rock in the advance well as support. The strengthening solution is injected through advanced cementing wells before drilling the contour bores as well as through radial cementing wells beyond the timbers following loading and transport of the mining debris. The advance well is 50-80 m.

  1. Coal ash monitoring equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, C G; Wormald, M R

    1978-10-02

    The monitoring equipment is used to determine the remainder from combustion (ash slack) of coal in wagons designed for power stations. Next to the rails, a neutron source (252 Cf, 241 Am/Be) is situated, which irradiates the coal with neutrons at a known dose, which produces the reaction 27 Al (n ..gamma..) Al 28. The aluminium content is a measure of the remainder. The 1.78 MeV energy is measured downstream of the rail with a detector. The neutron source can only act in the working position of a loaded wagon.

  2. Management of Transportation Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    Record% % %. "jP -M -. M LIh TRANSPORTATION MAENTKENAI4CE SHOP WORKLOAD CONTROL WORK CENTER SADR A-OR .a’* tLR 4.,R53 8114LM 0 o 251 50 75 100 125 ISO ...PDBP 06 7 4892 TRACTOR, WHEEL, INDUST, 14001-20000 PDBP 06 7 4893 TRACTOR, WHEEL, INDUST, 20001-27000 PDBP 06 7 4894 TRACTOR, WHEEL, INDUST, 27001 PDBP...27K TRACTOR, WHEEL, INDUST, 27001 PDBP & UP P-i LINE ITEM 07 LIGHTING AND POWER GENERATION EQUIPMENT 5110 T FLOODLIGHT ELEC FLOODLIGHT, ELEC, TRUCK

  3. Artificial oxygen transport protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, P. Leslie

    2014-09-30

    This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

  4. Separation Anxiety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Separation Anxiety KidsHealth / For Parents / Separation Anxiety What's in this ... both of you get through it. About Separation Anxiety Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. Parents ...

  5. Californium-252 Program Equipment Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattin, Fred Rhea [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Kenton [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ezold, Julie G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-12-01

    To successfully continue the 252Cf production and meet the needs of the customers, a comprehensive evaluation of the Building 7920 processing equipment was requested to identify equipment critical to the operational continuity of the program.

  6. Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassano, Anthony A.

    1985-01-01

    A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs.

  7. Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassano, A.A.

    1985-07-02

    A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs. 3 figs.

  8. SPE (tm) regenerative hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells for extraterrestrial surface and microgravity applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcelroy, J. F.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on SPE regenerative hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells for extraterrestrial surface and microgravity applications are presented. Topics covered include: hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell energy storage system; electrochemical cell reactions; SPE cell voltage stability; passive water removal SPE fuel cell; fuel cell performance; SPE water electrolyzers; hydrophobic oxygen phase separator; hydrophilic/electrochemical hydrogen phase separator; and unitized regenerative fuel cell.

  9. Bilateral tension pneumothorax following equipment improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambricki, Christine; Schmidt, Carol; Vos, Karen

    2014-02-01

    This case report describes an unexpected event that took place as a result of using improvised equipment. The patient, a 16-year-old female undergoing complex oral surgery, suffered bilateral pneumothorax following the improper use of an airway support device. During the immediate postoperative period with the patient still intubated, oxygen tubing was attached to a right angle elbow connector with the port closed and 10 L/minute oxygen flow was administered to the patient in a manner that did not allow the patient to exhale. Within seconds, pneumothorax was apparent as the patient's vital signs deteriorated, visible swelling was noted in the shoulders and neck, and there was an absence of breath sounds on auscultation. This case study has application beyond the immediate discussion of bilateral pneumothorax, serving as a caution about the unintended consequences of equipment improvisation. In addition to highlighting the hazards of providing patient care with a non-standard device, this study also provides a powerful example of the human factors that can contribute to medical errors in the healthcare setting.

  10. Innovative developments in uranium separation and concentration technology abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Jinlong; Zhou Mingsheng; Fang Wei; Sun Yuxiang

    2014-01-01

    Significance of deeply study the innovative developments in Uranium separation and concentration technology abroad was discussed. Development history and innovativeness of eight species of key equipments for separation and concentration were summarized for the first time. Principle and application of seven Uranium separation and concentration technology were analyzed systematically. It is expounded in the paper that high parameter, intelligent and low carbon were three development trends of Uranium separation and concentration technology. (authors)

  11. 2006 equipment evolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArdle, D. [KMC Mining, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    KMC Mining is a privately-owned major mining contractor that was established in 1949. The company has a long history in construction of roads; railroads; dams; and other major earthworks. It is primarily involved in Alberta oilsands, although it has also performed elsewhere in northern and western Canada. This presentation provided a corporate overview of KMC Mining and discussed its fleet profile, operations and an overview of its South Tailings Pond Project. The company added 7 new 320 ton class haul trucks to its fleet in 2005 to match its shovel capacity. The presentation provided an overview of 3 separate incidents in 2005 that resulted in damage to the frame and steering linkage; tie-rod failure with both front struts separated from a truck; and tie-rod failure with left hand front strut separated from a truck. These incidents were described in detail and post-investigations were conducted. As a result of this investigation, some possible incident contributors were also discussed. Next, the presentation discussed mounting hardware and provided an overview of hardware failure and replacement hardware. Last, the presentation addressed incident reoccurrence mitigation. A reoccurrence prevention plan was developed, which included suspension mounting hardware; tie-rod inspection and re-design; and payload monitoring and operating practices. It was summarized that measures are still in place since the reoccurrence prevention plan and there have been no further incidents. figs.

  12. Structural integration of separation and reaction systems: I. Integration of stage-wise processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Milan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural integration of separation processes, using multifunctional equipment, has been studied on four stage-wise liquid-liquid separations extraction, absorption, distillation, adsorption and on some combinations of these processes. It was shown for stage - wise processes that the ultimate aim of equipment integration is 3-way integration (by components by steps and by stages and that membrane multiphase contactors present concerning the equipment optimal solutions in many cases. First, by using partially integrated equipment and, later by developing fully integrated systems it was experimentally confirmed that structural 3-way integration produces much higher degrees of component separations and component enrichments in compact and safe equipment.

  13. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2001-01-01

    Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals. This project has the following 6 main tasks: Task 1--Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. Task 2--Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. Task 3--Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. Task 4--Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. Task 5--Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. Task 6--Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques

  14. Characterization equipment essential drawing plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WILSON, G.W.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to list the Characterization equipment drawings that are classified as Essential Drawings. Essential Drawings: Are those drawings identified by the facility staff as necessary to directly support the safe operation of the facility or equipment (HNF 1997a). The Characterization equipment drawings identified in this report are deemed essential drawings as defined in HNF-PRO-242, Engineering Drawing Requirements (HNF 1997a). These drawings will be prepared, revised, and maintained per HNF-PRO-440, Engineering Document Change Control (HNF 1997b). All other Characterization equipment drawings not identified in this document will be considered Support drawings until the Characterization Equipment Drawing Evaluation Report is completed

  15. Coal mining equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, R.R.; Martin, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    The word in longwall components is big, and these larger components have price tags to match. The logic behind the greater investment is that it will yield high production rates and good uptime statistics. This is true in most cases. More important than single-shift tonnage records, average shift production continues to climb upwards. This paper reports on the quality, and more significantly, the quantity of service supplied for long-wall equipment, which has reached levels that would have been seen as unachievable when longwall mining was first introduced in the U.S. The school of thought then was that longwall would increase productivity in part by reducing the number of production units and thus reducing the number of personnel employed underground. The expectation of fewer employees turned out to be unrealistic. That was probably one reason that some early attempts to install longwall system looked more like failures than vision of the future

  16. Reactor fuel charging equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, Elman.

    1977-01-01

    In many types of reactor fuel charging equipment, tongs or a grab, attached to a trolley, housed in a guide duct, can be used for withdrawing from the core a selected spent fuel assembly or to place a new fuel assembly in the core. In these facilities, the trolley may have wheels that roll on rails in the guide duct. This ensures the correct alignment of the grab, the trolley and fuel assembly when this fuel assembly is being moved. By raising or lowering such a fuel assembly, the trolley can be immerged in the coolant bath of the reactor, whereas at other times it can be at a certain level above the upper surface of the coolant bath. The main object of the invention is to create a fuel handling apparatus for a sodium cooled reactor with bearings lubricated by the sodium coolant and in which the contamination of these bearings is prevented [fr

  17. New separation technique. Catalytically functionated separation membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgami, Tadashi [Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    1989-02-01

    This report introduces research examples, showing the fundamental principle of the membrane by separating the catalytically functionated separation membrane into enzyme fixing separation membrane, polymerized metal complex separation membrane and polymer catalyst separation membrane. This membrane can achieve both functions of separation and catalytic reaction simultaneously and has sufficient possibility to combine powerful functions. Enzyme fixing separation membrane is prepared by carrier combination method, bridging method or covering method and the enzyme fixing method with polymerized complex in which enzyme is controlled to prevent the activity lowering as much as possible and enzyme is fixed from an aqueous solution into polymer membrane. This membrane is applied to the continuous manufacturing of invert sugar from cane sugar and adsorption and removing of harmful substances from blood by utilizing both micro-capsuled urease and active carbon. Alginic acid-copper (II) complex membrane is used for the polymerized metal complex membrane and polystyrene sulfonate membrane is used for the polymer catalyst separation membrane. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tabs.

  18. Chapter 12. Space Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    The performance evaluation of space heating equipment for a geothermal application is generally considered from either of two perspectives: (a) selecting equipment for installation in new construction, or (b) evaluating the performance and retrofit requirements of an existing system. With regard to new construction, the procedure is relatively straightforward. Once the heating requirements are determined, the process need only involve the selection of appropriately sized hot water heating equipment based on the available water temperature. It is important to remember that space heating equipment for geothermal applications is the same equipment used in non-geothermal applications. What makes geothermal applications unique is that the equipment is generally applied at temperatures and flow rates that depart significantly from traditional heating system design. This chapter presents general considerations for the performance of heating equipment at non-standard temperature and flow conditions, retrofit of existing systems, and aspects of domestic hot water heating.

  19. 42 CFR 410.38 - Durable medical equipment: Scope and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or purchase of durable medical equipment, including iron lungs, oxygen tents, hospital beds, and wheelchairs, if the equipment is used in the patient's home or in an institution that is used as a home. (b... vehicle whose steering is operated by an electronic device or a joystick to control direction and turning...

  20. Controlling Separation in Turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Simon; Himmel, Christoph; Power, Bronwyn; Wakelam, Christian; Xu, Liping; Hynes, Tom; Hodson, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Four examples of flow control: 1) Passive control of LP turbine blades (Laminar separation control). 2) Aspiration of a conventional axial compressor blade (Turbulent separation control). 3) Compressor blade designed for aspiration (Turbulent separation control). 4.Control of intakes in crosswinds (Turbulent separation control).

  1. Design of a lunar oxygen production plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam

    1990-01-01

    To achieve permanent human presence and activity on the moon, oxygen is required for both life support and propulsion. Lunar oxygen production using resources existing on the moon will reduce or eliminate the need to transport liquid oxygen from earth. In addition, the co-products of oxygen production will provide metals, structural ceramics, and other volatile compounds. This will enable development of even greater self-sufficiency as the lunar outpost evolves. Ilmenite is the most abundant metal-oxide mineral in the lunar regolith. A process involving the reaction of ilmenite with hydrogen at 1000 C to produce water, followed by the electrolysis of this water to provide oxygen and recycle the hydrogen has been explored. The objective of this 1990 Summer Faculty Project was to design a lunar oxygen-production plant to provide 5 metric tons of liquid oxygen per year from lunar soil. The results of this study describe the size and mass of the equipment, the power needs, feedstock quantity and the engineering details of the plant.

  2. The analysis of irradiated nuclear fuel and cladding materials, determination of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen/metal ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, I.G.

    1976-02-01

    Equipment has been developed for the determination of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen/metal ratio on irradiated fuels, of carbon in stainless steel cladding materials and in graphite rich deposits, and of hydrogen in zircaloy. Carbon is determined by combustion to carbon dioxide which is collected and measured manometrically, hydrogen by vacuum extraction followed by diffusion through a palladium thimble, and oxygen/metal ratio by CO/CO 2 equilibration. A single set of equipment was devised in order to minimise the time and work involved in changing to a different set of equipment in a separate box, for each type of analysis. For each kind of analysis, alterations to the apparatus are involved but these can be carried out with the basic set in position in a shielded cell, although to do so it is necessary to obtain access via the gloves on the fibre-glass inner glove box. This requires a removal of samples emitting radiation, by transfer to an adjoining cell. A single vacuum system is employed. This is connected through a plug in the lead wall of the shielded cell, and couplings in the glove box wall to the appropriate furnaces. Carbon may be determined, in stainless steel containing 400 to 800 ppm C, with a coefficient of variation of +- 2%. On deposits containing carbon, the coefficient of variation is better than +- 1% for 2 to 30 mg of carbon. Hydrogen, at levels between 30 and 200 ppm in titanium can be determined with a coefficient of variation of better than +- 5%. Titanium has been used in lieu of zircaloy since standardised zircaloy specimens are not available. The precision for oxygen/metal ratio is estimated to be +- 0.001 Atoms oxygen. Sample weights of 200 mg are adequate for most analyses. (author)

  3. Traps in quality assurance of diagnostic X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, N.; Lenzen, H.; Fiebich, M.

    1992-01-01

    With the introduction of the German industrial protocol for quality assurance of X-ray equipment, everybody using X-ray machines fell into sort of trap or found some of the procedures misleading. Vigorous discussions were held on every conceivable aspect of this and other protocols, and are still in progress. This paper points out some of the common traps and considers a new type dosimeter, which allows a definite separation of quality assurance of X-ray equipment and of processing and which can also be used in future for quality assurance of digital radiography equipment. (orig.) [de

  4. Equipment repair in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S

    1982-01-01

    Most equipment in Chinese coal mines consists of machinery and equipment produced in the 1950s; the efficiency of 4-62, CTD-57 and 70B/sub 2/ ventilators is 15% lower than that of new ones; that of SSM and AYaP pumps, 10% lower than of modern ones. Equipment renovation is done in three ways: replacing obsolete equipment with new equipment of the same type; improving the performance of existing equipment by introducing efficiency and reconstruction; and replacing obsolete equipment with advanced equipment. It is indicated that the second way, for example, replacement of 4-62 ventilator blades with a maximum efficiency of 73% by 4-72 ventilator blades raises its efficiency to 90%. Replacing the 8DA-8x3 water pump, having a maximum efficiency of 63%, with the 200D 43x3 pump with a maximum efficiency of 78%, enables an electricity savings of 7000 yuan per year, which exceeds all replacement costs (600 yuan). The need to improve equipment maintenance and preventive work to increase equipment service life and to introduce new techniques and efficiency is noted.

  5. Alberta petroleum equipment and services directory, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A directory is presented of Alberta companies that provide equipment and services to the oil industry. In the main section, companies are listed alphabetically by name, along with their addresses, phone/fax numbers, contact personnel, and lists of products and/or services. A separate alphabetical name index and a product/service index are included. A section covering provincial and territorial government agencies and non-governmental associations and institutes is appended, giving name, address, phone/fax number, leading personnel, and a summary of activities

  6. Biogeochemistry: Oxygen burrowed away

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meysman, F.J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Multicellular animals probably evolved at the seafloor after a rise in oceanic oxygen levels. Biogeochemical model simulations suggest that as these animals started to rework the seafloor, they triggered a negative feedback that reduced global oxygen.

  7. Oxygen transport membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof.......The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof....

  8. 21 CFR 866.4540 - Immunonephelometer equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4540 Immunonephelometer equipment. (a) Identification. Immunonephelometer equipment for clinical use...

  9. 21 CFR 866.4520 - Immunofluorometer equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4520 Immunofluorometer equipment. (a) Identification. Immunofluorometer equipment for clinical use with...

  10. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2002-01-01

    Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals

  11. Equipment standards for interventional cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowling, A.; Gallagher, A.; Walsh, C.; Malone, J.

    2005-01-01

    Interventional radiology has seen rapid growth in cardiology and represents an alternative to hazardous surgery. Recently there has been a substantial growth in the number of procedures being performed and interventional cardiology (IC) procedures are the most common interventional procedures in Europe. Advances in imaging technology have facilitated the development of increasingly complex radiological IC equipment. Currently, the technology is developing at a rate ahead of supporting research, equipment standards and a regulatory framework. International standards play a key role in the design, manufacture and performance of radiological IC equipment. A survey of 12 IC systems (15 imaging chains) was conducted in Irish hospitals. The aim of the study was to assess the imbalance between rapidly advancing technology and existing standards and to propose recommendations for new IC equipment standards. The results demonstrate the need for definitive equipment requirements and standardisation in the design, manufacture, acceptance and maintenance of IC equipment. (authors)

  12. Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2014-01-01

    This article is concerned with the evolution of atmospheric oxygen concentrations through the Proterozoic Eon. In particular, this article will seek to place the history of atmospheric oxygenation through the Proterozoic Eon in the context of the evolving physical environment including the history...... of continental growth and volcanic outgassing, as well as biogeochemical processing of elements within the oceans. The author will seek to explore constraints on the history of oxygenation and understand which processes have regulated oxygen through this eon....

  13. Oxygen evolution reaction catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, Joel A.; Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Jones, Ryan J.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Shinde, Aniketa A.

    2016-09-06

    An Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER) catalyst includes a metal oxide that includes oxygen, cerium, and one or more second metals. In some instances, the cerium is 10 to 80 molar % of the metals in the metal oxide and/or the catalyst includes two or more second metals. The OER catalyst can be included in or on an electrode. The electrode can be arranged in an oxygen evolution system such that the Oxygen Evolution Reaction occurs at the electrode.

  14. Generation of equipment response spectrum considering equipment-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Yoo, Kwang Hoon

    2005-01-01

    Floor response spectra for dynamic response of subsystem such as equipment, or piping in nuclear power plant are usually generated without considering dynamic interaction between main structure and subsystem. Since the dynamic structural response generally has the narrow-banded shapes, the resulting floor response spectra developed for various locations in the structure usually have high spectral peak amplitudes in the narrow frequency bands corresponding to the natural frequencies of the structural system. The application of such spectra for design of subsystems often leads to excessive design conservatisms, especially when the equipment frequency and structure are at resonance condition. Thus, in order to provide a rational and realistic design input for dynamic analysis and design of equipment, dynamic equipment-structure interaction (ESI) should be considered in developing equipment response spectrum which is particularly important for equipment at the resonance condition. Many analytical methods have been proposed in the past for developing equipment response spectra considering ESI. However, most of these methods have not been adapted to the practical applications because of either the complexities or the lack of rigorousness of the methods. At one hand, mass ratio among the equipment and structure was used as an important parameter to obtain equipment response spectra. Similarly, Tseng has also proposed the analytical method for developing equipment response spectra using mass ratio in the frequency domain. This method is analytically rigorous and can be easily validated. It is based on the dynamic substructuring method as applied to the dynamic soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis, and can relatively easily be implemented for practical applications without to change the current dynamic analysis and design practice for subsystems. The equipment response spectra derived in this study are also based on Tseng's proposed method

  15. Overall Equipment Effectiveness Implementation Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramova, I. G.; Abramov, D. A.

    2018-01-01

    This article documents the methods applied in production control technics specifically focused on commonly used parameter OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness). The indicators of extensive and intensive use of equipment are considered. Their appointment this is comparison in the same type of production within the industry and comparison of single-type and / or different types of equipment in terms of capacity. However, it is shown that there is no possibility of revealing the reasons for the machine’s operation: productive / unproductive, with disturbances. Therefore, in the article reveals the approaches to calculating the indicator characterizing the direct operation of the equipment. The Machine Load coefficient is approaching closely to the indicator of the efficiency of the use of equipment. Methods analysis is proceeded through the historically applied techniques such as “Stopwatch” and “Motion” studies. Was performed the analysis of the efficiency index of OEE equipment using the comparable indexes performance of equipment in the Russian practice. An important indicator of OEE contains three components. The meaning of each of them reflects historically applicable indicators. The value of the availability of equipment indicator is close to the value of the equipment extensibility index. The value of the indicator of the efficiency of work can be compared with the characteristic of the capacity of the equipment and the indicator of the quality level can meet the requirements for compliance with the manufacturing technology. Shown that the sum of the values of the coefficient of “Availability” of the equipment and the value of the “Factor of compaction of working hours” are one. As well as the total value of the indicator “level of quality” and the coefficient of marriage given in the result unit. The measurability of the indicators makes it possible to make a prediction about efficiency of the equipment.

  16. [Domiciliary oxygen therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Kafi, S

    2010-09-01

    In Belgium, oxygen therapy is becoming more and more accessible. When oxygen is needed for short periods or for special indications as palliative care, an agreement between mutual insurance companies and pharmacists allows the practitioner the home installation of gazeous oxygen cylinder or of oxygen concentrator. When long term oxygen therapy (LTOT) is indicated for patients with respiratory insufficiency, the pneumologist must first ask the INAMI the authorization to install one of the following modalities: oxygen concentrator with or without demand oxygen delivery cylinder and liquid oxygen. The goal of LTOT is to increase survival and quality of life. The principal and well accepted indication for LTOT is severe hypoxemia. The beneficial effects of oxygen therapy limited at night or on exertion are controversial. In order to increase patient's autonomy, oxygen can be prescribed for ambulation, respecting prescription's rules. At each step of oxygen therapy implementing (indication, choice of the device and follow-up) the patient under oxygen may benefit from a joint approach between the general practitioner and the chest specialist.

  17. Aircraft Oxygen Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    An Oxygen Enriched Air System for the AV-8A Harrier (NADC-81198-60).” 70 Horch , T., et. al. “The F-16 Onboard Oxygen Generating System: Performance...Only and Safety Privileged). Horch , T., Miller, R., Bomar, J., Tedor, J., Holden, R., Ikels, K., & Lozano, P. (1983). The F-16 Onboard Oxygen

  18. Enhanced separation of rare earth elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Herbst, R. S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garn, T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Welty, A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Soderstrom, M. D. [Cytec Solvay Group, Tempe, AZ (United States); Jakovljevic, B. [Cytec Solvay Group, Niagara Falls, ON (Canada)

    2016-09-01

    Industrial rare earth separation processes utilize PC88A, a phosphonic acid ligand, for solvent extraction separations. The separation factors of the individual rare earths, the equipment requirements, and chemical usage for these flowsheets are well characterized. Alternative ligands such as Cyanex® 572 and the associated flowsheets are being investigated at the pilot scale level to determine if significant improvements to the current separation processes can be realized. These improvements are identified as higher separation factors, reduced stage requirements, or reduced chemical consumption. Any of these improvements can significantly affect the costs associated with these challenging separation proccesses. A mid/heavy rare earth element (REE) separations flowsheet was developed and tested for each ligand in a 30 stage mixer-settler circuit to compare the separation performance of PC88A and Cyanex® 572. The ligand-metal complex strength of Cyanex® 572 provides efficient extraction of REE while significantly reducing the strip acid requirements. Reductions in chemical consumption have a significant impact on process economics for REE separations. Partitioning results summarized Table 1 indicate that Cyanex® 572 offers the same separation performance as PC88A while reducing acid consumption by 30% in the strip section for the mid/heavy REE separation. Flowsheet Effluent Compositions PC88A Cyanex® 572 Raffinate Mid REE Heavy REE 99.40% 0.60% 99.40% 0.60% Rich Mid REE Heavy REE 2.20% 97.80% 0.80% 99.20% Liquor Strip Acid Required 3.4 M 2.3 M Table 1 – Flowsheet results comparing separation performance of PC88A and Cyanex® 572 for a mid/heavy REE separation.

  19. Information technology equipment cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2014-06-10

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools warm air generated by the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat from the rack of information technology equipment.

  20. Management methodology for pressure equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletchly, P. J.

    Pressure equipment constitutes a significant investment in capital and a major proportion of potential high-risk plant in many operations and this is particularly so in an alumina refinery. In many jurisdictions pressure equipment is also subject to statutory regulation that imposes obligations on Owners of the equipment with respect to workplace safety. Most modern technical standards and industry codes of practice employ a risk-based approach to support better decision making with respect to pressure equipment. For a management system to be effective it must demonstrate that risk is being managed within acceptable limits.

  1. Diffusion of oxygen in cork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequin, Sonia; Chassagne, David; Karbowiak, Thomas; Simon, Jean-Marc; Paulin, Christian; Bellat, Jean-Pierre

    2012-04-04

    This work reports measurements of effective oxygen diffusion coefficient in raw cork. Kinetics of oxygen transfer through cork is studied at 298 K thanks to a homemade manometric device composed of two gas compartments separated by a cork wafer sample. The first compartment contains oxygen, whereas the second one is kept under dynamic vacuum. The pressure decrease in the first compartment is recorded as a function of time. The effective diffusion coefficient D(eff) is obtained by applying Fick's law to transient state using a numerical method based on finite differences. An analytical model derived from Fick's law applied to steady state is also proposed. Results given by these two methods are in close agreement with each other. The harmonic average of the effective diffusion coefficients obtained from the distribution of 15 cork wafers of 3 mm thickness is 1.1 × 10(-9) m(2) s(-1) with a large distribution over four decades. The statistical analysis of the Gaussian distribution obtained on a 3 mm cork wafer is extrapolated to a 48 mm cork wafer, which length corresponds to a full cork stopper. In this case, the probability density distribution gives a mean value of D(eff) equal to 1.6 × 10(-9) m(2) s(-1). This result shows that it is possible to obtain the effective diffusion coefficient of oxygen through cork from short time (few days) measurements performed on a thin cork wafer, whereas months are required to obtain the diffusion coefficient for a full cork stopper. Permeability and oxygen transfer rate are also calculated for comparison with data from other studies.

  2. Kinetics of oxygen uncoupling of a copper based oxygen carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wenting; Donat, Felix; Scott, S.A.; Dennis, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The kinetics of a Cu-based oxygen carrier was determined using a TGA. • A diffusion model was applied to remove mass transfer effects from rate parameters. • Thermodynamics are separated from kinetics, usually difficult for the CLOU reaction. • The rate parameters correctly described the behaviour in a fluidised bed. • The rate parameters can be used to predict performance of large CLOU systems. - Abstract: Here, an oxygen carrier consisting of 60 wt% CuO supported on a mixture of Al_2O_3 and CaO (23 wt% and 17 wt% respectively) was synthesised by wet-mixing powdered CuO, Al(OH)_3 and Ca(OH)_2, followed by calcination at 1000 °C. Its suitability for chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) was investigated. After 25 repeated redox cycles in either a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) or a laboratory-scale fluidised bed, (with 5 vol% H_2 in N_2 as the fuel, and air as the oxidant) no significant change in either the oxygen uncoupling capacity or the overall oxygen availability of the carrier was found. In the TGA, it was found that the rate of oxygen release from the material was controlled by intrinsic chemical kinetics and external transfer of mass from the surface of the particles to the bulk gas. By modelling the various resistances, values of the rate constant for the decomposition were obtained. The activation energy of the reaction was found to be 59.7 kJ/mol (with a standard error of 5.6 kJ/mol) and the corresponding pre-exponential factor was 632 m"3/mol/s. The local rate of conversion within a particle was assumed to occur either (i) by homogeneous chemical reaction, or (ii) in uniform, non-porous grains, each reacting as a kinetically-controlled shrinking core. Upon cross validation against a batch fluidised bed experiment, the homogeneous reaction model was found to be more plausible. By accurately accounting for the various artefacts (e.g. mass transfer resistances) present in both TGA and fluidised bed experiments, it was

  3. Magnetic separation of algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  4. Separation anxiety in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001542.htm Separation anxiety in children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Separation anxiety in children is a developmental stage in which ...

  5. Chromatographic separations of stereoisomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souter, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This text covers both diastereomers and enantiomers; describes techniques for GC, HPLC, and other chromatographic methods; and tabulates results of various applications by both techniques and compound class. It provides current knowledge about separation mechanisms and interactions of asymmetric molecules, as well as experimental and commercial materials such as columns, instruments, and derivatization reagents. The contents also include stereoisomer separations by gas chromatography. Stereoisomer separations by high-performance liquid chromatography. Stereoisomer separations by other chromatographic techniques.

  6. Oxygen configurations in silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelikowsky, James R.; Chadi, D. J.; Binggeli, N.

    2000-01-01

    We propose a transition state for oxygen in silica. This state is produced by the insertion of an oxygen molecule into the Si-O-Si bond, i.e., it consists of producing a Si-O-O-O-Si bond. This state allows molecular oxygen diffusion in silica without breaking the molecular O 2 bond and it is energetically more stable than a peroxy configuration. This configuration may allow for exchange of molecular oxygen with the oxygen in the silica framework. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  7. 29 CFR 1926.952 - Mechanical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment that are not covered with insulating protective equipment. (c) Derrick trucks, cranes and other lifting equipment. (1) All derrick trucks, cranes and other lifting equipment shall comply with subpart N...

  8. 22 CFR 135.32 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... specifically permitted or contemplated by Federal statute. (4) When acquiring replacement equipment, the...) Management requirements. Procedures for managing equipment (including replacement equipment), whether... return. (e) Disposition. When original or replacement equipment acquired under a grant or subgrant is no...

  9. 21 CFR 1403.32 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... specifically permitted or contemplated by Federal statute. (4) When acquiring replacement equipment, the...) Management requirements. Procedures for managing equipment (including replacement equipment), whether... return. (e) Disposition. When original or replacement equipment acquired under a grant or subgrant is no...

  10. 45 CFR 602.32 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... specifically permitted or contemplated by Federal statute. (4) When acquiring replacement equipment, the...) Management requirements. Procedures for managing equipment (including replacement equipment), whether... return. (e) Disposition. When original or replacement equipment acquired under a grant or subgrant is no...

  11. 49 CFR 18.32 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... specifically permitted or contemplated by Federal statute. (4) When acquiring replacement equipment, the...) Management requirements. Procedures for managing equipment (including replacement equipment), whether... return. (e) Disposition. When original or replacement equipment acquired under a grant or subgrant is no...

  12. 34 CFR 80.32 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... specifically permitted or contemplated by Federal statute. (4) When acquiring replacement equipment, the...) Management requirements. Procedures for managing equipment (including replacement equipment), whether... return. (e) Disposition. When original or replacement equipment acquired under a grant or subgrant is no...

  13. 10 CFR 600.232 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... specifically permitted or contemplated by Federal statute. (4) When acquiring replacement equipment, the...) Management requirements. Procedures for managing equipment (including replacement equipment), whether... return. (e) Disposition. When original or replacement equipment acquired under a grant or subgrant is no...

  14. 45 CFR 1183.32 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... specifically permitted or contemplated by Federal statute. (4) When acquiring replacement equipment, the...) Management requirements. Procedures for managing equipment (including replacement equipment), whether... return. (e) Disposition. When original or replacement equipment acquired under a grant or subgrant is no...

  15. Wide angle isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantrowitz, A.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for particle separation. The method uses a wide angle radially expanding vapor of a particle mixture. In particular, selective ionization of one isotope type in the particle mixture is produced in a multichamber separator and the ionized isotope type is accelerated out of the path of the vapor expansion for separate collection

  16. Steam-water separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modrak, T.M.; Curtis, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    A two-stage steam-water separating device is introduced, where the second stage is made as a cyclone separator. The water separated here is collected in the first stage of the inner tube and is returned to the steam raising unit. (TK) [de

  17. Meniscus Membranes For Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C.; Jorgensen, Betty; Pesiri, David R.

    2005-09-20

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  18. Meniscus membranes for separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C [Irvine, CA; Jorgensen, Betty [Jemez Springs, NM; Pesiri, David R [Aliso Viejo, CA

    2004-01-27

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  19. Experimental equipment for an advanced ISOL facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baktash, C.; Lee, I.Y.; Rehm, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings and recommendations of the Workshop on the Experimental Equipment for an Advanced ISOL Facility which was held at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory on July 22--25, 1998. The purpose of this workshop was to discuss the performance requirements, manpower and cost estimates, as well as a schedule of the experimental equipment needed to fully exploit the new physics which can be studied at an advanced ISOL facility. An overview of the new physics opportunities that would be provided by such a facility has been presented in the White Paper that was issued following the Columbus Meeting. The reactions and experimental techniques discussed in the Columbus White Paper served as a guideline for the formulation of the detector needs at the Berkeley Workshop. As outlined a new ISOL facility with intense, high-quality beams of radioactive nuclei would provide exciting new research opportunities in the areas of: the nature of nucleonic matter; the origin of the elements; and tests of the Standard Model. After an introductory section, the following equipment is discussed: gamma-ray detectors; recoil separators; magnetic spectrographs; particle detectors; targets; and apparatus using non-accelerated beams

  20. STS-84 oxygen generator for Mir installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility, McDonnell Douglas- SPACEHAB technicians prepare a Russian-made oxygen generator for flight in a SPACEHAB Double Module. The oxygen generator, manufactured in Russia by RSC Energia, will be carried aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on Mission STS-84 for the Shuttles scheduled docking with the Russian Space Station Mir next month. The nearly 300-pound generator will replace one of two Mir units that have been malfunctioning recently. The generator functions by electrolysis, which separates water into its oxygen and hydrogen components. The hydrogen is vented and the oxygen is used for breathing by the Mir crew. The generator is 4.2 feet in length and 1.4 feet in diameter. STS-84, which is planned to include a Mir crew exchange of astronaut C. Michael Foale for Jerry M. Linenger, is targeted for a May 15 liftoff. It will be the sixth Shuttle-Mir docking.

  1. Food Service Equipment and Appurtenances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    Equipment design specifications are presented relating to tables of all kinds, counters, sinks and drainboards, bins, shelves, drawers, hoods and similar kitchen appurtenances, not including baking, roasting, toasting, broiling or frying equipment, food preparation machinery such as slicers, choppers, and cutters, mixers and grinders, steam…

  2. Equipe de trabalho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gerber Hornink

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available   Equipe de Trabalho 2014 1. Equipe editorial Editor-Chefe Bayardo Bapstista Torres, Instituto de Química - USP, Brasil Eduardo Galembeck, Departamento de Bioquímica Instituto de Biologia UNICAMP, Brasil   Editores Gabriel Gerber Hornink, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade - Federal de Alfenas - Unifal-MG, Brasil Vera Maria Treis Trindade, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil   Corpo Editorial Adriana Cassina, Departamento de Bioquímica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguai Angel Herráez, Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología molecular, Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Espanha André Amaral Gonçalves Bianco, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp, Brasil Denise Vaz de Macedo, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas - Unicamp, Brasil Eneida de Paula, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas - Unicamp, Brasil Guilherme Andrade Marson, Instituto de Química - USP, Brasil Jose Antonio Martinez Oyanedel, Universidad de Concepción, Chile Josep Maria Fernández Novell, Dept. Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular Universitat de Barcelona, Espanha Leila Maria Beltramini, Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade Estadual de São Paulo - USP, Brasil Manuel João da Costa, Escola de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade do Minho, Portugal Maria Lucia Bianconi, Instituto de Bioquímica Médica Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ, Brasil María Noel Alvarez, Departamento de Bioquímica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguai Miguel Ángel Medina Torres, Department of Molecular Biology & Biochemistry Faculty of Sciences University of Málaga, Espanha Nelma Regina Segnini Bossolan, Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo - USP, Brasil Paulo De Avila

  3. Safety shutdown separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Steven Allen; Anakor, Ifenna Kingsley; Farrell, Greg Robert

    2015-06-30

    The present invention pertains to electrochemical cells which comprise (a) an anode; (b) a cathode; (c) a solid porous separator, such as a polyolefin, xerogel, or inorganic oxide separator; and (d) a nonaqueous electrolyte, wherein the separator comprises a porous membrane having a microporous coating comprising polymer particles which have not coalesced to form a continuous film. This microporous coating on the separator acts as a safety shutdown layer that rapidly increases the internal resistivity and shuts the cell down upon heating to an elevated temperature, such as 110.degree. C. Also provided are methods for increasing the safety of an electrochemical cell by utilizing such separators with a safety shutdown layer.

  4. Steam generators: improvement of separator/dryer performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcblat, A.

    1985-10-01

    The first generation of steam generators built in France (model 51) experienced some moisture problems. As early as 1976, a large-scale development program was undertaken by Framatome, in collaboration with the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique and Electricite de France, to enhance design of SG separation equipment. The goal of this program was to enhance equipment operating efficiency by improving our understanding of separation phenomena. This paper presents an overview of the design and testing effort engaged within the framework of the separator development program, along with a summary of program results and forthcoming developments

  5. Oxygen partial pressure sensor for gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbero, J.A.; Azcona, M.A.; Orce, A.

    1997-01-01

    Precise measurement of very low oxygen partial pressure is important in both laboratories and industries. Particularly in nuclear industry, it is relevant in the different steps of the nuclear fuel fabrication. It is presented an instrument which is handy and of easy construction, suitable for the measurement of oxygen partial pressure of gases, in the range of 10 -6 -1 atm. It is based on a solid electrolyte galvanic cell, using Yttria doped zirconia as a ceramic membrane. Through an indirect measurement and calibration, the instrument can be used to measure the content of free oxygen in liquids. It is a import feature in NPP instrumentation. The equipment was calibrated with mixtures of special nonreactive gases. (author). 5 refs

  6. Oxygen partial pressure sensor for gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbero, J.A.; Azcona, M.A.; Orce, A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche

    1997-10-01

    Precise measurement of very low oxygen partial pressure is important in both laboratories and industries. Particularly in nuclear industry, it is relevant in the different steps of the nuclear fuel fabrication. It is presented an instrument which is handy and of easy construction, suitable for the measurement of oxygen partial pressure of gases, in the range of 10{sup -6}-1 atm. It is based on a solid electrolyte galvanic cell, using Yttria doped zirconia as a ceramic membrane. Through an indirect measurement and calibration, the instrument can be used to measure the content of free oxygen in liquids. It is a import feature in NPP instrumentation. The equipment was calibrated with mixtures of special nonreactive gases. (author). 5 refs.

  7. Information technology equipment cooling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2015-10-20

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools air utilized by the rack of information technology equipment to cool the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat generated by the rack of information technology equipment.

  8. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  9. Acoustofluidic bacteria separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sixing; Huang, Tony Jun; Ma, Fen; Zeng, Xiangqun; Bachman, Hunter; Cameron, Craig E

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial separation from human blood samples can help with the identification of pathogenic bacteria for sepsis diagnosis. In this work, we report an acoustofluidic device for label-free bacterial separation from human blood samples. In particular, we exploit the acoustic radiation force generated from a tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) field to separate Escherichia coli from human blood cells based on their size difference. Flow cytometry analysis of the E. coli separated from red blood cells shows a purity of more than 96%. Moreover, the label-free electrochemical detection of the separated E. coli displays reduced non-specific signals due to the removal of blood cells. Our acoustofluidic bacterial separation platform has advantages such as label-free separation, high biocompatibility, flexibility, low cost, miniaturization, automation, and ease of in-line integration. The platform can be incorporated with an on-chip sensor to realize a point-of-care sepsis diagnostic device. (paper)

  10. Acoustofluidic bacteria separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sixing; Ma, Fen; Bachman, Hunter; Cameron, Craig E.; Zeng, Xiangqun; Huang, Tony Jun

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial separation from human blood samples can help with the identification of pathogenic bacteria for sepsis diagnosis. In this work, we report an acoustofluidic device for label-free bacterial separation from human blood samples. In particular, we exploit the acoustic radiation force generated from a tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) field to separate Escherichia coli from human blood cells based on their size difference. Flow cytometry analysis of the E. coli separated from red blood cells shows a purity of more than 96%. Moreover, the label-free electrochemical detection of the separated E. coli displays reduced non-specific signals due to the removal of blood cells. Our acoustofluidic bacterial separation platform has advantages such as label-free separation, high biocompatibility, flexibility, low cost, miniaturization, automation, and ease of in-line integration. The platform can be incorporated with an on-chip sensor to realize a point-of-care sepsis diagnostic device.

  11. Use of exhaust gas as sweep flow to enhance air separation membrane performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutart, Charles H.; Choi, Cathy Y.

    2003-01-01

    An intake air separation system for an internal combustion engine is provided with purge gas or sweep flow on the permeate side of separation membranes in the air separation device. Exhaust gas from the engine is used as a purge gas flow, to increase oxygen flux in the separation device without increasing the nitrogen flux.

  12. Improved, low cost inorganic-organic separators for rechargeable silver-zinc batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    Several flexible, low-cost inorganic-organic separators with performance characteristics and cycle life equal to, or better than, the Lewis Research Center Astropower separator were developed. These new separators can be made on continuous-production equipment at about one-fourth the cost of the Astropower separator produced the same way. In test cells, these new separators demonstrate cycle life improvement, acceptable operating characteristics, and uniform current density. The various separator formulas, test cell construction, and data analysis are described.

  13. Selecting an oxygen plant for a copper smelter modernization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kenneth H.; Hutchison, Robert L.

    1994-10-01

    The selection of an oxygen plant for the Cyprus Miami smelter modernization project began with a good definition of the use requirements and the smelter process variables that can affect oxygen demand. To achieve a reliable supply of oxygen with a reasonable amount of capital, critical equipment items were reviewed and reliability was added through the use of installed spares, purchase of insurance spare parts or the installation of equipment design for 50 percent of the production design such that the plant could operate with one unit while the other unit is being maintained. The operating range of the plant was selected to cover variability in smelter oxygen demand, and it was recognized that the broader operating range sacrificed about two to three percent in plant power consumption. Careful consideration of the plant "design point" was important to both the capital and operating costs of the plant, and a design point was specified that allowed a broad range of operation for maximum flexibility.

  14. Proposal for implanting a magnetic stable isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, O.F.

    1988-07-01

    The implantation of an electromagnetic isotope separator able to separate elements of mass from 20 to 250 a.m.u., with an enrichment factor from 10 to 200 times the initial concentration, depending on the elements, is proposed. The most suitable separator type for Brazilian CNEN, considering building installations and minimum conditions for the equipment facilities, the retinue chronogram, the infrastructure, and the personnel training for operation is defined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  15. Sustainable development of gree solvent separation process

    OpenAIRE

    Lisickov, Kiril; Fidancevska, Emilija; Grujic, Radoslav; Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Kuvendziev, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Solvents defi ne a major part of the environmental performance of processes in the chemical industry and impact on cost, safety and health issues. The idea of green solvents expresses the goal to minimize the environmental impact resulting from the use of solvents in chemical production. In spite of conventional separation methods, precise process green technologies are based on the application of modern processes and process equipment as well as control and management...

  16. Development of manufacturing equipment and QC equipment for DUPIC fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Park, J.J.; Lee, J.W.; Kim, S.S.; Yim, S.P.; Kim, J.H.; Kim, K.H.; Na, S.H.; Kim, W.K.; Shin, J.M.; Lee, D.Y.; Cho, K.H.; Lee, Y.S.; Sohn, J.S.; Kim, M.J.

    1999-05-01

    In this study, DUPIC powder and pellet fabrication equipment, welding system, QC equipment, and fission gas treatment are developed to fabricate DUPIC fuel at IMEF M6 hot cell. The systems are improved to be suitable for remote operation and maintenance with the manipulator at hot cell. Powder and pellet fabrication equipment have been recently developed. The systems are under performance test to check remote operation and maintenance. Welding chamber and jigs are designed and developed to remotely weld DUPIC fuel rod with manipulators at hot cell. Remote quality control equipment are being tested for analysis and inspection of DUPIC fuel characteristics at hot cell. And trapping characteristics is analyzed for cesium and ruthenium released under oxidation/reduction and sintering processes. The design criteria and process flow diagram of fission gas treatment system are prepared incorporating the experimental results. The fission gas treatment system has been successfully manufactured. (Author). 33 refs., 14 tabs., 91 figs

  17. Ambient oxygen promotes tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Joong Sung

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen serves as an essential factor for oxidative stress, and it has been shown to be a mutagen in bacteria. While it is well established that ambient oxygen can also cause genomic instability in cultured mammalian cells, its effect on de novo tumorigenesis at the organismal level is unclear. Herein, by decreasing ambient oxygen exposure, we report a ∼50% increase in the median tumor-free survival time of p53-/- mice. In the thymus, reducing oxygen exposure decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage and RAG recombinase, both of which are known to promote lymphomagenesis in p53-/- mice. Oxygen is further shown to be associated with genomic instability in two additional cancer models involving the APC tumor suppressor gene and chemical carcinogenesis. Together, these observations represent the first report directly testing the effect of ambient oxygen on de novo tumorigenesis and provide important physiologic evidence demonstrating its critical role in increasing genomic instability in vivo.

  18. TRANSPORT AND EMPLACEMENT EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The objective and the scope of this document are to list and briefly describe the major mobile equipment necessary for waste package (WP) Transport and Emplacement in the proposed subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Primary performance characteristics and some specialized design features of the equipment are explained and summarized in the individual subsections of this document. The Transport and Emplacement equipment described in this document consists of the following: (1) WP Transporter; (2) Reusable Rail Car; (3) Emplacement Gantry; (4) Gantry Carrier; and (5) Transport Locomotive

  19. Containment and Surveillance Equipment Compendium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luetters, F.O.

    1980-02-01

    The Containment and Surveillance Equipment Compendium contains information sections describing the application and status of seals, optical surveillance systems, and monitors for international safeguards systems. The Compendium is a collection of information on equipment in use (generally by the IAEA) or under development in the US in diverse programs being conducted at numerous facilities under different sponsors. The Compendium establishes a baseline for the status and applications of C/S equipment and is a tool to assist in the planning of future C/S hardware development activities. The Appendix contains design concepts which can be developed to meet future goals

  20. Method for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepson, B.E.

    1976-01-01

    The invention comprises a method for separating different isotopes of elements from each other by contacting a feed solution containing the different isotopes with a macrocyclic polyether to preferentially form a macrocyclic polyether complex with the lighter of the different isotopes. The macrocyclic polyether complex is then separated from the lighter isotope depleted feed solution. A chemical separation of isotopes is carried out in which a constant refluxing system permits a continuous countercurrent liquid-liquid extraction. (LL)

  1. Exogenous vs. Endogenous Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Ramey, Garey

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses how various approaches to modelling the separation margin a¤ect the ability of the Mortensen-Pissarides job matching model to explain key facts about the aggregate labor market. Allowing for realistic time variation in the separation rate, whether exogenous or endogenous, greatly in- creases the unemployment variability generated by the model. Speci…cations with exogenous separation rates, whether constant or time-varying, fail to pro- duce realistic volatility and prod...

  2. Method for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    A vortex tube for separating isotopes is described. A gas mixture containing the isotopic molecules enters the vortex tube under pressure and is separated into a hot discharge flow stream and a cold discharge flow stream. The hot discharge is enriched in lighter isotopic molecules whereas the cold discharge flow stream is enriched in the heavier isotopic molecules. The vortex tube can be used in a single stage or multistage isotope separation apparatus

  3. Centrifugal gas separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, M

    1970-03-27

    A centrifugal gas separator of a highly endurable construction and with improved gas sealing qualities utilizes a cylincrical elastic bellows or similar system in cooperation with a system of dynamic pressure operable gas seals as means for removing separated gases from the interior of the rotor drum, collecting the separated gases in their respective separated gas chambers defined by the corresponding bellows and their supporting stationary wall members, gas seals and rotor end caps, and means for discharging to the exterior of the surrounding cylindrical wall member the gaseous components from their respective separated gas chambers. In the vicinity of the rotary drum motor is a mixed gas chamber and means for providing the gas mixture along a co-axial passage into the rotary drum chamber. Orifices are bored into the end caps of the rotary drum to direct the separated gases into the aforementioned separated gas chambers which, through the action of the gas seals, freely slide upon the rotating drum to collect and thereafter discharge the thus separated gases. Therefore, according to the present invention, helium gas used to prevent separated gas remixture is unnecessary and, furthermore, the gas seals and elastic bellows means provide an air-tight seal superior to that of the contact sealing system of the former art.

  4. Entrainment separator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, M.W.; Leith, D.

    1976-01-01

    Clean and dust-loaded ACS entrainment separators mounted upstream of HEPA filters were exposed to a combination of fine water mist and steam at about 70 0 C from one to four hours. In every trial, the ACS entrainment separator prevented measurable deterioration of performance in the following HEPA filter. Droplet size-efficiency evaluation of the ACS entrainment separators showed that, within the accuracy of the measurements, they meet all service requirements and are fully equal to the best separator units available for service on pressurized water reactors

  5. Centrifugal gas separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Mitsuo.

    1970-01-01

    A centrifugal gas separator of a highly endurable construction and with improved gas sealing qualities utilizes a cylincrical elastic bellows or similar system in cooperation with a system of dynamic pressure operable gas seals as means for removing separated gases from the interior of the rotor drum, collecting the separated gases in their respective separated gas chambers defined by the corresponding bellows and their supporting stationary wall members, gas seals and rotor end caps, and means for discharging to the exterior of the surrounding cylindrical wall member the gaseous components from their respective separated gas chambers. In the vicinity of the rotary drum motor is a mixed gas chamber and means for providing the gas mixture along a co-axial passage into the rotary drum chamber. Orifices are bored into the end caps of the rotary drum to direct the separated gases into the aforementioned separated gas chambers which, through the action of the gas seals, freely slide upon the rotating drum to collect and thereafter discharge the thus separated gases. Therefore, according to the present invention, helium gas used to prevent separated gas remixture is unnecessary and, furthermore, the gas seals and elastic bellows means provide an air-tight seal superior to that of the contact sealing system of the former art. (K.J. Owens)

  6. Separation of flow

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Paul K

    2014-01-01

    Interdisciplinary and Advanced Topics in Science and Engineering, Volume 3: Separation of Flow presents the problem of the separation of fluid flow. This book provides information covering the fields of basic physical processes, analyses, and experiments concerning flow separation.Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the flow separation on the body surface as discusses in various classical examples. This text then examines the analytical and experimental results of the laminar boundary layer of steady, two-dimensional flows in the subsonic speed range. Other chapt

  7. 47 CFR 36.352 - Other property plant and equipment expenses-Account 6510 (Class B telephone companies); Accounts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other property plant and equipment expenses... Plant Expenses-Other § 36.352 Other property plant and equipment expenses—Account 6510 (Class B... JURISDICTIONAL SEPARATIONS PROCEDURES; STANDARD PROCEDURES FOR SEPARATING TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROPERTY COSTS...

  8. Complete separation of the tube from the mask of a reusable classic laryngeal mask airway: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shahriari

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The laryngeal mask airway (LMA is an important addition to the anesthetist's equipments. However, its usage may involve some complications. We have encountered an unusual and potentially serious complication using this equipment. A 45-year old man underwent cataract surgery under general anesthesia. After the induction of anesthesia, a size 4 of the reusable classic LMA was inserted without any difficulties and the cuff was inflated. After a little manipulation, the proximal tube of the LMA was separated from the distal part, leaving the distal mask inside the pharynx. The exit of the remaining portion of the LMA was very difficult and made the ventilation of the patient impossible. The patient’s oxygen saturation decreased to 40%. The remaining portion of the LMA was removed by a great clamp and with an extreme effort. Then, an endotracheal tube was inserted and the patient was ventilated with 100% oxygen. After 6 hours, the patient was discharged with no apparent complications. The autoclave was used several times for the sterilization of the LMA.

    KEY WORDS: Laryngeal mask airway, autoclave.

  9. Data Center Equipment Location and Monitoring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Data center equipment location systems include hardware and software to provide information on the location, monitoring, and security of servers and other equipment in equipment racks. The systems provide a wired alternative to the wireless RFID tag system by using electronic ID tags...... connected to each piece of equipment, each electronic ID tag connected directly by wires to an equipment rack controller on the equipment rack. The equipment rack controllers link to a central control computer that provides an operator ...

  10. EAS Equipment Authorization Grantee Registrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission — EAS (Equipment Authorization System). Radio Frequency (RF) devices are required to be properly authorized under 47 CFR Part 2 prior to being marketed or imported...

  11. ENERGY STAR Certified Imaging Equipment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Imaging Equipment that are effective as of...

  12. EMR Measurements on NDA Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonell, Alexander Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Meierbachtol, Krista Cruse [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Evans, James Walter Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mayo, Douglas R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-10

    Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emission strength measurements were performed on a suite of passive non-destructive assay (NDA) radiation detection equipment. Data were collected from 9 kHz up to 6 GHz on each of the assembled systems.

  13. Mongolia - Vocational Education - Equipment Upgrades

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Evaluation design The impact evaluation sought to identify the causal impact of exposure to equipment upgrades on subsequent outcomes. Insofar as we were not able to...

  14. Origins of eponymous orthopaedic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meals, Clifton; Wang, Jeffrey

    2010-06-01

    Orthopaedists make great use of eponymous equipment, however the origins of these tools are unknown to many users. This history enriches, enlightens, and enhances surgical education, and may inspire modern innovation. We explored the origins of common and eponymous orthopaedic equipment. We selected pieces of equipment named for their inventors and in the broadest use by modern orthopaedists. We do not describe specialized orthopaedic implants and instruments owing to the overwhelming number of these devices. The history of this equipment reflects the coevolution of orthopaedics and battlefield medicine. Additionally, these stories evidence the primacy of elegant design and suggest that innovation is often a process of revision and refinement rather than sudden inspiration. Their history exposes surgical innovators as brilliant, lucky, hardworking, and sometimes odd. These stories amuse, enlighten, and may inspire modern orthopaedists to develop creative solutions of their own. The rich history of the field's eponymous instruments informs an ongoing tradition of innovation in orthopaedics.

  15. Operation monitor for plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Tetsufumi; Kanemoto, Shigeru.

    1991-01-01

    In a nuclear power plant, states of each of equipment in the plant are monitored accurately even under such a operation condition that the power is changed. That is, the fundamental idea is based on a model comparison method. A deviation between an output signal upon normal plant state obtained in a forecasting model device and that of the objective equipment in the plant are compared with a predetermined value. The result of the comparison is inputted to an alarm device to alarm the abnormality of the states of the equipment to an operator. The device of the present invention thus constituted can monitor the abnormality of the operation of equipment accurately even under such a condition that a power level fluctuates. As a result, it can remarkably contribute to mitigate operator's monitoring operation under the condition such as during load following operation. (I.S.)

  16. Analyzing the dependence of oxygen incorporation current density on overpotential and oxygen partial pressure in mixed conducting oxide electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zixuan; Chen, Di; Chueh, William C

    2017-08-30

    The oxygen incorporation reaction, which involves the transformation of an oxygen gas molecule to two lattice oxygen ions in a mixed ionic and electronic conducting solid, is a ubiquitous and fundamental reaction in solid-state electrochemistry. To understand the reaction pathway and to identify the rate-determining step, near-equilibrium measurements have been employed to quantify the exchange coefficients as a function of oxygen partial pressure and temperature. However, because the exchange coefficient contains contributions from both forward and reverse reaction rate constants and depends on both oxygen partial pressure and oxygen fugacity in the solid, unique and definitive mechanistic assessment has been challenging. In this work, we derive a current density equation as a function of both oxygen partial pressure and overpotential, and consider both near and far from equilibrium limits. Rather than considering specific reaction pathways, we generalize the multi-step oxygen incorporation reaction into the rate-determining step, preceding and following quasi-equilibrium steps, and consider the number of oxygen ions and electrons involved in each. By evaluating the dependence of current density on oxygen partial pressure and overpotential separately, one obtains the reaction orders for oxygen gas molecules and for solid-state species in the electrode. We simulated the oxygen incorporation current density-overpotential curves for praseodymium-doped ceria for various candidate rate-determining steps. This work highlights a promising method for studying the exchange kinetics far away from equilibrium.

  17. Single photon counting fluorescence lifetime detection of pericellular oxygen concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, Neveen A; Lee, David A; Knight, Martin M

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy offers a non-invasive method for quantifying local oxygen concentrations. However, existing methods are either invasive, require custom-made systems, or show limited spatial resolution. Therefore, these methods are unsuitable for investigation of pericellular oxygen concentrations. This study describes an adaptation of commercially available equipment which has been optimized for quantitative extracellular oxygen detection with high lifetime accuracy and spatial resolution while avoiding systematic photon pile-up. The oxygen sensitive fluorescent dye, tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) chloride hexahydrate [Ru(bipy)(3)](2+), was excited using a two-photon excitation laser. Lifetime was measured using a Becker & Hickl time-correlated single photon counting, which will be referred to as a TCSPC card. [Ru(bipy)(3)](2+) characterization studies quantified the influences of temperature, pH, cellular culture media and oxygen on the fluorescence lifetime measurements. This provided a precisely calibrated and accurate system for quantification of pericellular oxygen concentration based on measured lifetimes. Using this technique, quantification of oxygen concentrations around isolated viable chondrocytes, seeded in three-dimensional agarose gel, revealed a subpopulation of cells that exhibited significant spatial oxygen gradients such that oxygen concentration reduced with increasing proximity to the cell. This technique provides a powerful tool for quantifying spatial oxygen gradients within three-dimensional cellular models.

  18. Equipment improvements for performance enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaestel, P.; Guesnon, H.; Sauze, G.

    1994-01-01

    In order to enhance the reactor availability, several improvements on reactor equipment have been developed: design optimization for stator maintenance replacement in the main alternator; adjustment modification of stator coils in the main alternator for an easier maintenance; improvement of the fuel handling line (pole crane, transfer equipment, loading machine); development of a loose part trapping system in the steam generator secondary circuit. 1 tab

  19. Low level photoneutron detection equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong; Zhang Yuqin; Li Yuansui

    1991-01-01

    A low level photoneutron detection equipment has been developed. The photoneutrons produced by interaction of 226 Ra gamma quanta and deutron (D) target are detected with n-n discrimination detector made up of 3 He proportional counter array. The D-content information in the target can be obtained from the measured photoneutron counts. The equipment developed is mainly used for nondestructive D-content measurement of D-devices

  20. FUSRAP equipment concept development study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinerman, K.B.; Smith, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Under DOE contract, Dalton-Dalton-Newport, Inc. is performing an engineering evaluation of three selected FUSRAP sites in an effort to generate equipment concepts to perform remedial action for retrieval, packaging, storing, and transporting contaminated soil and other debris. Along with this engineering evaluation, an analysis of state and Federal regulations was made which had significant impact on the selected equipment and costs for each remedial action concept

  1. Remotely operated replaceable process equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westendorf, H.

    1987-01-01

    The coupling process of pneumatic and electrical auxiliary lines of a pneumatic control pressure line in a large cell of the reprocessing plant is carried out, together with the coupling process of the connecting flange of the process equipment. The coupling places of the auxiliary lines, such as control or supply lines, are laid in the flange parts of the flanges to be connected. The pipe flange on the frame side remains flush with the connecting flange of the process equipment. (DG) [de

  2. Partners in qualified equipment supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rygg, D.E.; O'Hare, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    Industry initiatives have been taken to improve procurement practices and commercial dedication programs, formation of procurement engineering groups, emphasis on product quality, and increased engineering involvement in procurement and maintenance of qualified equipment. This poses new challenges for many licensees in terms of resources, product knowledge, and access to information normally held proprietary by equipment suppliers. Alternative approaches to future licensee/Westinghouse relationships which will allow licensees to adapt to the changing environment are discussed. 2 figs

  3. Sorbent-based Oxygen Production for Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, Vijay [Western Research Inst. (WRI), Laramie, WY (United States)

    2017-01-31

    Project DE-FE0024075 deals with the development of a moderate-temperature sorbent-based oxygen production technology. Sorbent-based oxygen production process utilizes oxygen-storage properties of Perovskites to (1) adsorb oxygen from air in a solid sorbent, and (2) release the adsorbed oxygen into a sweep gas such as CO2 and/or steam for gasification systems or recycled flue gas for oxy-combustion systems. Pure oxygen can be produced by the use of vacuum instead of a sweep gas to affect the pressure swing. By developing more efficient and stable, higher sorption capacity, newer class of materials operating at moderate temperatures this process represents a major advancement in air separation technology. Newly developed perovskite ceramic sorbent materials with order-disorder transition have a higher O2 adsorption capacity, potentially 200 °C lower operating temperatures, and up to two orders of magnitude faster desorption rates than those used in earlier development efforts. The performance advancements afforded by the new materials lead to substantial savings in capital investment and operational costs. Cost of producing oxygen using sorbents could be as much as 26% lower than VPSA and about 13% lower than a large cryogenic air separation unit. Cost advantage against large cryogenic separation is limited because sorbent-based separation numbers up sorbent modules for achieving the larger capacity.

  4. Electrical and control equipment in nuclear power plants. Problems when replacing aging equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordling, Anna; Haakansson, Goeran

    2012-01-01

    Interoperability between different technical systems is more complicated when old and new technology meet, such as between analog and digital technology. New electrical and I and C equipment is selected with consideration to simplify and improve the compatibility and interoperability. The original construction of nuclear power plants with electricity and I and C equipment had more natural interfaces. Generally experienced guidance, to the management of interoperability and interfaces, feels insufficient. Skills transfer programs are identified as a major need, as more and more important personnel are retiring and important information is lost with them. Lack of appropriate skills directly affects the ability to produce accurate and complete requirements specification. Failure modes of newer electrical and I and C equipment are perceived as more complex than the older equipment. When choosing equipment, attempts are made to minimize unnecessary features, to reduce the number of potential failure modes. There is a lack of consistent understanding of the meaning of robustness in electrical technology and I and C technology, in the nuclear plant engineering departments. The overall picture is that the robustness has worsened since the facilities were built. The Swedish nuclear power plants have an internal organizational structure with separated client and support organization. This splits the nuclear organization into two distinct parts which threaten to separate the two entities focus. Engineering departments at the Swedish nuclear power plants express a need for increased expertise in the client organization (blocks). Competence requested is for example, system knowledge to facilitate and enhance the quality of the initial analysis performed in the blocks. Suppliers receive more recently larger turnkey projects, both to minimize costs but also to minimize the interfaces and co-function problems. This, however, heightens demands for knowledge transfer between

  5. Ceramic membranes for high temperature hydrogen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adcock, K.D.; Fain, D.E.; James, D.L.; Powell, L.E.; Raj, T.; Roettger, G.E.; Sutton, T.G. [East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The separative performance of the authors` ceramic membranes has been determined in the past using a permeance test system that measured flows of pure gases through a membrane at temperatures up to 275 C. From these data, the separation factor was determined for a particular gas pair from the ratio of the pure gas specific flows. An important project goal this year has been to build a Mixed Gas Separation System (MGSS) for measuring the separation efficiencies of membranes at higher temperatures and using mixed gases. The MGSS test system has been built, and initial operation has been achieved. The MGSS is capable of measuring the separation efficiency of membranes at temperatures up to 600 C and pressures up to 100 psi using a binary gas mixture such as hydrogen/methane. The mixed gas is fed into a tubular membrane at pressures up to 100 psi, and the membrane separates the feed gas mixture into a permeate stream and a raffinate stream. The test membrane is sealed in a stainless steel holder that is mounted in a split tube furnace to permit membrane separations to be evaluated at temperatures up to 600 C. The compositions of the three gas streams are measured by a gas chromatograph equipped with thermal conductivity detectors. The test system also measures the temperatures and pressures of all three gas streams as well as the flow rate of the feed stream. These data taken over a range of flows and pressures permit the separation efficiency to be determined as a function of the operating conditions. A mathematical model of the separation has been developed that permits the data to be reduced and the separation factor for the membrane to be determined.

  6. Improvements in the equipment for determination of Kr-85 with the reference method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heras Iniquez, M.C.; Perez Garcia, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    A new equipment for Kr-85 separation and their cryogenic chromatographic concentration is described, which presents some advantages respect the equipment used as reference. The new apparatus, made with metallic elements, is based on the method of concentration and separation previously described but presents easier control, faster chromatographic separations and without loosed of efficiency and reproducibility that the previous one. The concentration and separation procedure for Kr-85 and a comparative study between both apparatus is described. Also the efficiency of the method is obtained experimentally. (Author)

  7. High-Performance Microchanneled Asymmetric Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95-δ-La0.6Sr0.4FeO3-δ-Based Membranes for Oxygen Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Shiyang; Huang, Hua; Ovtar, Simona

    2016-01-01

    .00 (STP) ml cm(-2) min(-1) was observed between air/CO/CO2 over 200 h at 850 degrees C. Partial surface decomposition was observed on the permeate side exposed to CO, in line with predictions from thermodynamic calculations. In a mixture of CO, CO2, H-2, and H2O at similar oxygen activity the material...... surface. An increase of the 50 150 oxygen flux of-4.49 (STP) mL cm(-2) min(-1) at 900 degrees C was observed when catalyst is added for the air/He-case. Mass transfer polarization through the finger-like support was confirmed to be negligible, which benefits the overall performance. A stable flux of 7...... will according to the calculation not decompose. The microchanneled asymmetric CGO-LSF membranes show high oxygen permeability and chemical stability under a range of technologically relevant oxygen potential gradients....

  8. Separation of ionic solutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The conference proceedings contain 44 papers of which 19 were incorporated in INIS. The subject of these is the use of solvent extraction or emulsion membrane extraction for separation of fission products, rare earth compounds and actinide compunds; the sorption of radionuclides; and the use of adsorbents and chelating agents in separation processes. (J.P.)

  9. Process for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, E.; Kersting, A.; Gebauhr, W.

    1980-01-01

    Isotope separation in UF 6 gas takes place on the principle of selective excitation by laser irradiation and separation by chemical conversion with a partner in a reaction. Atomic H, N or O or the CH 3 or CHO radicals are suitable partners in the reaction. The recombination takes place by catalytic acceleration on leaving the reaction area. (DG) [de

  10. Separation of uranium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed for separation of uranium isotopes by selective isotopic excitation of photochemically reactive uranyl salt source material at cryogenic temperatures, followed by chemical separation of selectively photochemically reduced U+4 thereby produced from remaining uranyl source material

  11. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption after which more of the excited molecules than nonexcited molecules are converted to a chemically different form which may be separated by means known in the art. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium

  12. Separation anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.H.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Sturmey, P.; Hersen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is the only anxiety disorder that is specific to childhood; however, SAD has hardly ever been addressed as a separate disorder in clinical trials investigating treatment outcome. So far, only parent training has been developed specifically for SAD. This particular

  13. Method for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepson, B.E.

    1975-01-01

    Isotopes are separated by contacting a feed solution containing the isotopes with a cyclic polyether wherein a complex of one isotope is formed with the cyclic polyether, the cyclic polyether complex is extracted from the feed solution, and the isotope is thereafter separated from the cyclic polyether

  14. Skin Blood Perfusion and Oxygenation Colour Affect Perceived Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Ian D.; Coetzee, Vinet; Law Smith, Miriam; Perrett, David I.

    2009-01-01

    Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation depends upon cardiovascular, hormonal and circulatory health in humans and provides socio-sexual signals of underlying physiology, dominance and reproductive status in some primates. We allowed participants to manipulate colour calibrated facial photographs along empirically-measured oxygenated and deoxygenated blood colour axes both separately and simultaneously, to optimise healthy appearance. Participants increased skin blood colour, particularly oxygenated, above basal levels to optimise healthy appearance. We show, therefore, that skin blood perfusion and oxygenation influence perceived health in a way that may be important to mate choice. PMID:19337378

  15. 29 CFR 97.32 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) When acquiring replacement equipment, the grantee or subgrantee may use the equipment to be replaced as... equipment (including replacement equipment), whether acquired in whole or in part with grant funds, until... established to ensure the highest possible return. (e) Disposition. When original or replacement equipment...

  16. 44 CFR 13.32 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) When acquiring replacement equipment, the grantee or subgrantee may use the equipment to be replaced as... equipment (including replacement equipment), whether acquired in whole or in part with grant funds, until... established to ensure the highest possible return. (e) Disposition. When original or replacement equipment...

  17. 24 CFR 85.32 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) When acquiring replacement equipment, the grantee or subgrantee may use the equipment to be replaced as... equipment (including replacement equipment), whether acquired in whole or in part with grant funds, until... established to ensure the highest possible return. (e) Disposition. When original or replacement equipment...

  18. 41 CFR 105-71.132 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (4) When acquiring replacement equipment, the grantee or subgrantee may use the equipment to be... managing equipment (including replacement equipment), whether acquired in whole or in part with grant funds... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment. 105-71.132...

  19. 43 CFR 12.72 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) When acquiring replacement equipment, the grantee or subgrantee may use the equipment to be replaced as... equipment (including replacement equipment), whether acquired in whole or in part with grant funds, until... established to ensure the highest possible return. (e) Disposition. When original or replacement equipment...

  20. 1968 Listing of Swimming Pool Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI. Testing Lab.

    An up-to-date listing of swimming pool equipment including--(1) companies authorized to display the National Sanitation Foundation seal of approval, (2) equipment listed as meeting NSF swimming pool equipment standards relating to diatomite type filters, (3) equipment listed as meeting NSF swimming pool equipment standard relating to sand type…

  1. Production of an accelerated oxygen-14 beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.; O'Neil, J.P.; Cerny, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    BEARS is an ongoing project to provide a light-ion radioactive-beam capability at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL. Light radioactive isotopes are produced at a 10 MeV proton medical cyclotron, transported 350 m via a high-speed gas transport capillary, cryogenically separated, and injected into the 88-Inch Cyclotron's ion source. The first radioactive beam successfully accelerated was carbon-11 and beams of intensity more than 10 8 ions/s have been utilized for experiments. Development of oxygen-14 as the second BEARS beam presented considerable technical challenges, both due to its short half-life of 71 s and the radiation chemistry of oxygen in the target. The usual techniques developed for medical uses of oxygen-15 involve the addition of significant amounts of carrier oxygen, something that would overload the ion source. As a solution, oxygen-14 is produced as water in a carrier-free form, and is chemically converted in two steps to carbon dioxide, a form readily usable by the BEARS. This system has been built and is operational, and initial tests of accelerating an oxygen-14 beam have been performed

  2. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested

  3. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested.

  4. Gas separation by pressure swing adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.R.; Gottzman, C.F.; Notaro, F.; Stewart, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    Over the past twenty years separation processes based upon pressure swing adsorption have replaced cryogenic processes in a number of selected applications such as air separation for production of moderate quantities of nitrogen and oxygen and recovery of hydrogen from refinery and chemical plant gases. Key events contributing to the emergence of PSA as an important process option have been the development of synthetic zeolite molecular sieves by Union Carbide Corporation in the USA and of carbon molecular sieves by Bergbau-Forschung in Germany. Today PSA processes enjoy significant commercial use producing oxygen from 0.1 Nm 3 /h for medical application to 1500 Nm 3 /h for steel mill use, for making nitrogen up to 1000 Nm 3 /h for inerting and in purifying hydrogen streams of up to 100,000 Nm 3 /h for refinery use. In this paper some of the principles of adsorptive separations are reviewed. The history of the technology is traced briefly with emphasis on key material, process and application events. The major commercial processes in the application of adsorption to bulk separation of air and hydrogen purification are reviewed in more detail with comparisons made to cryogenic alternatives in terms of specific characteristics, advantages and disadvantages where appropriate. Information on performance, reliability and comparative economics are discussed where available

  5. Causal and causally separable processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreshkov, Ognyan; Giarmatzi, Christina

    2016-09-01

    The idea that events are equipped with a partial causal order is central to our understanding of physics in the tested regimes: given two pointlike events A and B, either A is in the causal past of B, B is in the causal past of A, or A and B are space-like separated. Operationally, the meaning of these order relations corresponds to constraints on the possible correlations between experiments performed in the vicinities of the respective events: if A is in the causal past of B, an experimenter at A could signal to an experimenter at B but not the other way around, while if A and B are space-like separated, no signaling is possible in either direction. In the context of a concrete physical theory, the correlations compatible with a given causal configuration may obey further constraints. For instance, space-like correlations in quantum mechanics arise from local measurements on joint quantum states, while time-like correlations are established via quantum channels. Similarly to other variables, however, the causal order of a set of events could be random, and little is understood about the constraints that causality implies in this case. A main difficulty concerns the fact that the order of events can now generally depend on the operations performed at the locations of these events, since, for instance, an operation at A could influence the order in which B and C occur in A’s future. So far, no formal theory of causality compatible with such dynamical causal order has been developed. Apart from being of fundamental interest in the context of inferring causal relations, such a theory is imperative for understanding recent suggestions that the causal order of events in quantum mechanics can be indefinite. Here, we develop such a theory in the general multipartite case. Starting from a background-independent definition of causality, we derive an iteratively formulated canonical decomposition of multipartite causal correlations. For a fixed number of settings and

  6. Causal and causally separable processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oreshkov, Ognyan; Giarmatzi, Christina

    2016-01-01

    The idea that events are equipped with a partial causal order is central to our understanding of physics in the tested regimes: given two pointlike events A and B , either A is in the causal past of B , B is in the causal past of A , or A and B are space-like separated. Operationally, the meaning of these order relations corresponds to constraints on the possible correlations between experiments performed in the vicinities of the respective events: if A is in the causal past of B , an experimenter at A could signal to an experimenter at B but not the other way around, while if A and B are space-like separated, no signaling is possible in either direction. In the context of a concrete physical theory, the correlations compatible with a given causal configuration may obey further constraints. For instance, space-like correlations in quantum mechanics arise from local measurements on joint quantum states, while time-like correlations are established via quantum channels. Similarly to other variables, however, the causal order of a set of events could be random, and little is understood about the constraints that causality implies in this case. A main difficulty concerns the fact that the order of events can now generally depend on the operations performed at the locations of these events, since, for instance, an operation at A could influence the order in which B and C occur in A ’s future. So far, no formal theory of causality compatible with such dynamical causal order has been developed. Apart from being of fundamental interest in the context of inferring causal relations, such a theory is imperative for understanding recent suggestions that the causal order of events in quantum mechanics can be indefinite. Here, we develop such a theory in the general multipartite case. Starting from a background-independent definition of causality, we derive an iteratively formulated canonical decomposition of multipartite causal correlations. For a fixed number of settings and

  7. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.M.; Maas, E.T.

    1982-01-01

    Processes are disclosed for the separation of isotopes of an element comprising vaporizing uranyl compounds having the formula (UO2a2)n, where a is a monovalent anion and n in an integer from 2 to 4, the compounds having an isotopically shifted infrared absorption spectrum associated with uranyl ions containing said element which is to be separated, and then irradiating the uranyl compound with infrared radiation which is preferentially absorbed by a molecular vibration of uranyl ions of the compound containing a predetermined isotope of that element so that excited molecules of the compound are provided which are enriched in the molecules of the compound containing that predetermined isotope, thus enabling separation of these excited molecules. The processes disclosed include separation of the excited molecules by irradiating under conditions such that the excited molecules dissociate, and also separating the excited molecules by a discrete separation step. The latter includes irradiating the excited molecules by a second infrared laser in order to convert the excited molecules into a separable product, or also by chemically converting the excited molecules, preferably by reaction with a gaseous reactant

  8. Deuterium isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    Deuterium-containing molecules are separated and enriched by exposing commercially available ethylene, vinyl chloride, 1,2-dichloroethane or propylene to the radiation of tuned infrared lasers to selectively decompose these compounds into enriched molecular products containing deuterium atoms. The deuterium containing molecules can be easily separated from the starting material by absorption, distillation or other simple chemical separation techniques and methods. After evaporation such deuterium containing molecules can be burned to form water with an enriched deuterium content or pyrolyzed to form hydrogen gas with an enriched deuterium content. (author)

  9. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, F.T.

    1983-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu5 type of crystal structure, particularly LaNiCo and CaNi5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation column. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale multi-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors

  10. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, F.T.

    1981-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu5 type of crystal structure , particularly LaNiCo and CaNi5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation colum. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale mutli-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors

  11. Magnetic separations in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlido, L; Azevedo, A M; Roque, A C A; Aires-Barros, M R

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic separations are probably one of the most versatile separation processes in biotechnology as they are able to purify cells, viruses, proteins and nucleic acids directly from crude samples. The fast and gentle process in combination with its easy scale-up and automation provide unique advantages over other separation techniques. In the midst of this process are the magnetic adsorbents tailored for the envisioned target and whose complex synthesis spans over multiple fields of science. In this context, this article reviews both the synthesis and tailoring of magnetic adsorbents for bioseparations as well as their ultimate application. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Performance monitoring of safeguards equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirisena, K.; Peltoranta, M.; Goussarov, V.; Vodrazka, P.

    1999-01-01

    SGTCS is responsible for monitoring and reporting the performance of the SG equipment. Performance monitoring (PM) has been implemented in most important safeguards equipment operating unattended in nuclear facilities. Inspectors acquire equipment performance data in facilities. After inspection, the data package is submitted to SGTCS for processing and analysis. The performance data is used for identification of systems or components, which should be changed in the field and for identification of modules which, should be diagnosed at HQ in order to determine the cause of failure. Moreover, the performance data is used for preventive maintenance and spares distribution planning, and to provide statistics for official reports and management decision making. An important part of the performance monitoring is reporting. Equipment performance reports contain information about equipment inventory, utilization, failure types, failure distribution, and reliability. Trends in performance are given in graphical form in cases, where past data is available. Reliability estimates such as expected times between failures are provided. The automated reporting tools are obtainable through EMIS database application. (author)

  13. AVM branch vibration test equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anne, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    An inventory of the test equipment of the AVM Branch ''Acoustic and Vibratory Mechanics Analysis Methods'' group has been undertaken. The purpose of this inventory is to enable better acquaintance with the technical characteristics of the equipment, providing an accurate definition of their functionalities, ad to inform potential users of the possibilities and equipment available in this field. The report first summarizes the various experimental surveys conduced. Then, using the AVM equipment database to draw up an exhaustive list of available equipment, it provides a full-scope picture of the vibration measurement systems (sensors, conditioners and exciters) and data processing resources commonly used on industrial sites and in laboratories. A definition is also given of a mobile test unit, called 'shelter', and a test bench used for the testing and performance rating of the experimental analysis methods developed by the group. The report concludes with a description of two fixed installations: - the calibration bench ensuring the requisite quality level for the vibration measurement systems ; - the training bench, whereby know-how acquired in the field in the field of measurement and experimental analysis processes is made available to others. (author). 27 refs., 15 figs., 2 appends

  14. 78 FR 25916 - Authorization of Radiofrequency Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ...] Authorization of Radiofrequency Equipment AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule... bodies, and measurement procedures used to determine RF equipment compliance. The Commission believes... Commission is responsible for an equipment authorization program for radiofrequency (RF) devices under part 2...

  15. Radiation hardened equipment and material data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumita, Kenji; Yamaoka, Hitoshi; Kakuta, Tsunemi; Shono, Yoshihiko; Nakamura, Tetsuo; Nakase, Yoshiaki; Furuta, Junichiro.

    1988-01-01

    In order to collect and put in order the results regarding radiation-withstanding equipment and materials, the Osaka Nuclear Science Association organized the committee composed of the experts in various fields in fiscal year 1986 for the purpose of building up the data base, and began the activity. From the trend of the research and development and the usefulness for the future, the fields of collecting data were decided as organic materials, optical fibers, semiconductor elements and compound semiconductors. By fiscal year 1987, the building-up of the prototype data base was aimed at, and system configuration, the making of the formats on the items and attributes of collected data, the action test of the system and so on were carried out. Under the background of the upgrading of LWRs, the development of FBRs and nuclear fusion reactors, the construction of a reprocessing plant and a low level waste storage facility, and the progress of various advanced technologies, the research on the equipment and materials having excellent radiation resistance and the development for heightening the performance have been carried out in many places separately, accordingly the activity for building up the prototype data base was begun, and about 600 cases were collected. (Kako, I.)

  16. Development and evaluation of separation elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, R.R.R.; Rocha, Z.

    1990-01-01

    For industrial testing of the uranium enrichment technology by the jet nozzle process, it is being erected in Resende the 'First Cascade' (FC) and it was built the Separation Element Plant (FES). For the development, optimization and quality control of the separation elements produced by FES, it was set up in CDTN a laboratorial infrastructure. As part of it, it was designed, built and assembled the Separation Slit Testing Equipment (ITRS), with several components developed and constructed in CDTN. The tests are being carried out in ITRS with the objective of adjusting the machine tools of FES used in the line production of the separation elements. From the satisfactory results obtained with these tests, FES will start the production of separation tubes to be installed in FC. The objective of this paper is to describe the operation and evaluation tests in ITRS, as well as to present their contribution to the development and quality control of the separation elements produced in FES. (author) [pt

  17. Strategic plan for the development of IAEA safeguards equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlebnikov, N.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The need for a top-down Safeguards Strategy to focus departmental objectives was recognized by the Programme Performance Appraisal System (PPAS) performed on the Equipment Development Project in 1999. The Department of Safeguards prepared at the end of 2000 a 5-year Strategic Plan to identify the changes and improvements expected to take place over the 2001-2005 period. Those Strategic Objectives were supposed to be used to properly plan IAEA Safeguards activities and define appropriate and coherent R and D programmes. The present paper describes the strategic directions that the IAEA will follow in the area of equipment development in order to meet the Safeguards Department long-term objectives for 2001-2005. The paper, which is derived from the IAEA Strategic Equipment Development Plan, prepared by the Division of Technical Support, includes two parts: general principles and policies applicable to all equipment development tasks; specific strategic guidance. The paper will not describe the detailed plans which are prepared based on the strategic plan on a biannual basis. Equipment development activities have been divided in five major projects (NDA, Seals, Surveillance, Unattended Monitoring and Remote Monitoring). Strategic directions for each of these projects will be described in the paper. Separate sections will deal with equipment development strategic guidance in the area of additional protocol inspections, JNFL projects, illicit trafficking and Trilateral Initiative. (author)

  18. Improved sample capsule for determination of oxygen in hemolyzed blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, W. M.

    1967-01-01

    Sample capsule for determination of oxygen in hemolyzed blood consists of a measured section of polytetrafluoroethylene tubing equipped at each end with a connector and a stopcock valve. This method eliminates errors from air entrainment or from the use of mercury or syringe lubricant.

  19. Separations by centrifugal phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, H.W.

    1981-01-01

    The technical information presented herein emphasizes the uniqueness of the centrifugal separations methodology and pertinent theory for various kinds of centrifugation. The topics are arranged according to gas, liquid, and solid phases, in the order of increasing densities. Much space is devoted to liquid centrifugation because of the importance of this technique in chemical and biological laboratories. Many separational and characterizational examples are illustrated in detail. The material has been divided into 7 chapters entitled: 1) Introduction, 2) Basic Theory of Centrifugation, 3) Gas Centrifuges, 4) Preparative Liquid Centrifuges, 5) Analytical Liquid Centrifuges, 6) Liquid Centrifuges in Practice, and 7) Mechanical Separations by Centrifuges. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each chapter except the introduction

  20. Partially separable t matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasakawa, T.; Okuno, H.; Ishikawa, S.; Sawada, T.

    1982-01-01

    The off-shell t matrix is expressed as a sum of one nonseparable and one separable terms so that it is useful for applications to more-than-two body problems. All poles are involved in this one separable term. Both the nonseparable and the separable terms of the kernel G 0 t are regular at the origin. The nonseparable term of this kernel vanishes at large distances, while the separable term behaves asymptotically as the spherical Hankel function. These properties make our expression free from defects inherent in the Jost or the K-matrix expressions, and many applications are anticipated. As the application, a compact expression of the many-level formula is presented. Also the application is suggested to the breakup threebody problem based on the Faddeev equation. It is demonstrated that the breakup amplitude is expressed in a simple and physically interesting form and we can calculate it in coordinate space

  1. Separation by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, C.H. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    In a process for separating fission product values from U and Pu values contained in an aqueous solution, an oxidizing agent is added to the solution to secure U and Pu in their hexavalent state. The aqueous solution is contacted with a substantially water-immiscible organic solvent with agitation while the temperature is maintained at from -1 to -2 0 C until the major part of the water present is frozen. The solid ice phase is continuously separated as it is formed and a remaining aqueous liquid phase containing fission product values and a solvent phase containing Pu and U values are separated from each other. The last obtained part of the ice phase is melted and added to the separated liquid phase. The resulting liquid is treated with a new supply of solvent whereby it is practically depleted of U and Pu

  2. CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION AND SPECTRO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four different fractions having colours yellow, grey, orange and ... Two different dyes vis a vis: methylene blue and malachite green dyes have been separated .... hydrogen carbonate of alkaline and alkaline earth metals in the samples.

  3. Another donation of computer equipment

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    On Thursday 27 February, CERN was pleased to donate computer equipment to a physics institute in the Philippines.   H.E. Leslie J. Baja and Rolf Heuer. Following donations of computer equipment to institutes in Morocco, Ghana, Bulgaria, Serbia and Egypt, CERN is to send 50 servers and 4 network switches to the National Institute of Physics at the University of the Philippines Diliman. CERN’s Director-General Rolf Heuer and the Ambassador of the Philippines to Switzerland and Lichtenstein, H.E. Leslie J. Baja, spoke of their enthusiasm for the project during an official ceremony. The equipment will be used for various high energy physics research programmes in the Philippines and for the University’s development of digital resources for science.

  4. Solid oxide fuel cell cathode with oxygen-reducing layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdoval, Wayne A.; Berry, David A.; Shultz, Travis

    2018-04-03

    The disclosure provides a SOFC comprised of an electrolyte, anode, and cathode, where the cathode comprises an MIEC and an oxygen-reducing layer. The oxygen-reducing layer is in contact with the MIEC, and the MIEC is generally between and separating the oxygen-reducing layer and the electrolyte. The oxygen-reducing layer is comprised of single element oxides, single element carbonates, or mixtures thereof, and has a thickness of less than about 30 nm. In a particular embodiment, the thickness is less than 5 nm. In another embodiment, the thickness is about 3 monolayers or less. The oxygen-reducing layer may be a continuous film or a discontinuous film with various coverage ratios. The oxygen-reducing layer at the thicknesses described may be generated on the MIEC surface using means known in the art such as, for example, ALD processes.

  5. First oxygen from lunar basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, M. A.; Knudsen, C. W.; Brueneman, D. J.; Kanamori, H.; Ness, R. O.; Sharp, L. L.; Brekke, D. W.; Allen, C. C.; Morris, R. V.; Keller, L. P.

    1993-01-01

    The Carbotek/Shimizu process to produce oxygen from lunar soils has been successfully demonstrated on actual lunar samples in laboratory facilities at Carbotek with Shimizu funding and support. Apollo sample 70035 containing approximately 25 percent ilmenite (FeTiO3) was used in seven separate reactions with hydrogen varying temperature and pressure: FeTiO3 + H2 yields Fe + TiO2 + H2O. The experiments gave extremely encouraging results as all ilmenite was reduced in every experiment. The lunar ilmenite was found to be about twice as reactive as terrestrial ilmenite samples. Analytical techniques of the lunar and terrestrial ilmenite experiments performed by NASA Johnson Space Center include iron Mossbauer spectroscopy (FeMS), optical microscopy, SEM, TEM, and XRD. The Energy and Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota performed three SEM techniques (point count method, morphology determination, elemental mapping), XRD, and optical microscopy.

  6. Hydrogen separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundschau, Michael [Longmont, CO; Xie, Xiaobing [Foster City, CA; Evenson, IV, Carl; Grimmer, Paul [Longmont, CO; Wright, Harold [Longmont, CO

    2011-05-24

    A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to an integrated water gas shift/hydrogen separation membrane system wherein the hydrogen separation membrane system comprises a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for pretreating a membrane, comprising: heating the membrane to a desired operating temperature and desired feed pressure in a flow of inert gas for a sufficient time to cause the membrane to mechanically deform; decreasing the feed pressure to approximately ambient pressure; and optionally, flowing an oxidizing agent across the membrane before, during, or after deformation of the membrane. A method of supporting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising selecting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising one or more catalyst outer layers deposited on a hydrogen transport membrane layer and sealing the hydrogen separation membrane system to a porous support.

  7. UWIS isotope separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojtasiewicz, A. [Warsaw Univ., Inst. of Experimental Physics, Nuclear Physics Div., Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Since 1995 the University of Warsaw Isotope Separator group has participated in the ISOL/IGISOL project at the Heavy Ion Cyclotron. This project consists in installation of an isotope separator (on line with cyclotron heavy ion beam) with a hot plasma ion source (ISOL system) and/or with an ion guide source (IGISOL system). In the report the short description of the present status of the project is presented. 2 figs, 10 refs.

  8. Separating oil from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, C

    1991-04-11

    The technology available to deal with oil spills has assumed many new faces in recent years. Methods of dealing with small-scale pollution in the process industries and vast oil slicks such as that in the Gulf have developed in parallel. The progress being made in finding new means of separating oil from water is reported and the relative merits of bioremediation, hydrocylones, horizontal separators and gas flotation are discussed. (author).

  9. On separable Pauli equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhalij, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    We classify (1+3)-dimensional Pauli equations for a spin-(1/2) particle interacting with the electro-magnetic field, that are solvable by the method of separation of variables. As a result, we obtain the 11 classes of vector-potentials of the electro-magnetic field A(t,x(vector sign))=(A 0 (t,x(vector sign)), A(vector sign)(t,x(vector sign))) providing separability of the corresponding Pauli equations. It is established, in particular, that the necessary condition for the Pauli equation to be separable into second-order matrix ordinary differential equations is its equivalence to the system of two uncoupled Schroedinger equations. In addition, the magnetic field has to be independent of spatial variables. We prove that coordinate systems and the vector-potentials of the electro-magnetic field providing the separability of the corresponding Pauli equations coincide with those for the Schroedinger equations. Furthermore, an efficient algorithm for constructing all coordinate systems providing the separability of Pauli equation with a fixed vector-potential of the electro-magnetic field is developed. Finally, we describe all vector-potentials A(t,x(vector sign)) that (a) provide the separability of Pauli equation, (b) satisfy vacuum Maxwell equations without currents, and (c) describe non-zero magnetic field

  10. Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Marianne Kristine Kjærgaard; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing special waste types with an estimated growth of 3–5% per year (Cui and Forssberg, 2003). WEEE is a very heterogeneous waste type that contains many compounds that are considered to be harmful to both humans and the env......Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing special waste types with an estimated growth of 3–5% per year (Cui and Forssberg, 2003). WEEE is a very heterogeneous waste type that contains many compounds that are considered to be harmful to both humans...

  11. The development of superconducting equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Ueda, T; Hiue, H

    2003-01-01

    Fuji Electric has been developing various types of superconducting equipment for over a quarter of a century. This paper describes the development results achieved for superconducting equipment and especially focuses on large-capacity current leads and superconducting transmission systems, the development of which is being promoted for application to the field of nuclear fusion. High temperature superconductor (HTS) is becoming the mainstream in the field of superconductivity, and the HTS floating coil and conduction-cooled HTS transformed are also introduced as recent developments for devices that utilize this technology. (author)

  12. Mechanical (turbines and auxiliary equipment)

    CERN Document Server

    Sherry, A; Cruddace, AE

    2013-01-01

    Modern Power Station Practice, Volume 3: Mechanical (Turbines and Auxiliary Equipment) focuses on the development of turbines and auxiliary equipment used in power stations in Great Britain. Topics covered include thermodynamics and steam turbine theory; turbine auxiliary systems such as lubrication systems, feed water heating systems, and the condenser and cooling water plants. Miscellaneous station services, and pipework in power plants are also described. This book is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of thermodynamics and steam turbine theory, paying particular attenti

  13. High-power generator of singlet oxygen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásek, Vít; Čenský, Miroslav; Špalek, Otomar; Kodymová, Jarmila

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 10 (2013), s. 1755-1763 ISSN 0930-7516 Grant - others:Laser Science and Technology Centre(IN) LASTEC/FE/RKT/54/10-11 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : high-pressure singlet oxygen generator * spray generator * centrifugal separation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.175, year: 2013

  14. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  15. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch

    2005-01-01

    The oxygen tension of the optic nerve is regulated by the intraocular pressure and systemic blood pressure, the resistance in the blood vessels and oxygen consumption of the tissue. The oxygen tension is autoregulated and moderate changes in intraocular pressure or blood pressure do not affect...... the optic nerve oxygen tension. If the intraocular pressure is increased above 40 mmHg or the ocular perfusion pressure decreased below 50 mmHg the autoregulation is overwhelmed and the optic nerve becomes hypoxic. A disturbance in oxidative metabolism in the cytochromes of the optic nerve can be seen...... at similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human...

  16. Pathology of oxygen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Autor, Anne Pomeroy

    1982-01-01

    This volume has been designed to provide those interested in oxygen toxicity with a working knowledge of advancement in the field with the intention that the topics described in each chapter will be immediately useful...

  17. Using oxygen at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at Home Tell your local fire department, electric company, and telephone company that you use oxygen in your home. They ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  18. Pathology of oxygen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Autor, Anne Pomeroy

    1982-01-01

    .... The book is divided into three general sections. The first and smallest section of the book explains the molecular and biochemical basis of our current understanding of oxygen radical toxicity as well as the means by which normal aerobic cells...

  19. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, M; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Eysteinsson, T

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide.......To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide....

  20. Ekstrakorporal oxygenering ved legionellapneumoni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uslu, Bülent; Steensen, Morten

    2009-01-01

    We present a case report with a 49-year-old woman with legionella pneumonia and fulminant respiratory failure. Despite maximal conventional respirator treatment with positive pressure ventilation, 100% oxygen and pharmacological treatment in an intensive care unit, further deterioration with hypo......We present a case report with a 49-year-old woman with legionella pneumonia and fulminant respiratory failure. Despite maximal conventional respirator treatment with positive pressure ventilation, 100% oxygen and pharmacological treatment in an intensive care unit, further deterioration...

  1. Intraportal islet oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszynski, Thomas M; Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S; Papas, Klearchos K

    2014-05-01

    Islet transplantation (IT) is a promising therapy for the treatment of diabetes. The large number of islets required to achieve insulin independence limit its cost-effectiveness and the number of patients who can be treated. It is believed that >50% of islets are lost in the immediate post-IT period. Poor oxygenation in the early post-IT period is recognized as a possible reason for islet loss and dysfunction but has not been extensively studied. Several key variables affect oxygenation in this setting, including (1) local oxygen partial pressure (pO(2)), (2) islet oxygen consumption, (3) islet size (diameter, D), and (4) presence or absence of thrombosis on the islet surface. We discuss implications of oxygen-limiting conditions on intraportal islet viability and function. Of the 4 key variables, the islet size appears to be the most important determinant of the anoxic and nonfunctional islet volume fractions. Similarly, the effect of thrombus formation on the islet surface may be substantial. At the University of Minnesota, average size distribution data from clinical alloislet preparations (n = 10) indicate that >150-µm D islets account for only ~30% of the total islet number, but >85% of the total islet volume. This suggests that improved oxygen supply to the islets may have a profound impact on islet survivability and function since most of the β-cell volume is within large islets which are most susceptible to oxygen-limiting conditions. The assumption that the liver is a suitable islet transplant site from the standpoint of oxygenation should be reconsidered. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  2. Singlet oxygen quenching by oxygen in tetraphenyl-porphyrin solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedic, Roman; Korinek, Miloslav; Molnar, Alexander; Svoboda, Antonin; Hala, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Time-resolved measurement of singlet oxygen infrared phosphorescence is a powerful tool for determination of quantum yields and kinetics of its photosensitization. This technique was employed to investigate in detail the previously observed effect of singlet oxygen quenching by oxygen. The question whether the singlet oxygen is quenched by oxygen in ground or in excited state was addressed by study of two complementary dependencies of singlet oxygen lifetimes: on dissolved oxygen concentration and on excitation intensity. Oxygen concentration dependence study of meso-tetra(4-sulphonato)phenylporphyrin (TPPS 4 ) phosphorescence kinetics showed linearity of the dependence of TPPS 4 triplet state rate-constant. Corresponding bimolecular quenching constant of (1.5±0.1)x10 9 l/mol s was obtained. On the other hand, rate constants of singlet oxygen depopulation exhibit nonlinear dependence on oxygen concentration. Comparison of zero oxygen concentration-extrapolated value of singlet oxygen lifetime of (6.5±0.4) μs to (3.7±0.1) μs observed under air-saturated conditions indicates importance of the effect of quenching of singlet oxygen by oxygen. Upward-sloping dependencies of singlet oxygen depopulation rate-constant on excitation intensity evidence that singlet oxygen is predominantly quenched by oxygen in excited singlet state

  3. Analysis of the effects of combining air separation with combustion in a zero emissions (ZEITMOP) cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foy, Kirsten; McGovern, Jim

    2007-01-01

    The ZEITMOP cycle is a zero emissions (oxyfuel) power plant cycle proposed by Evgeny Yantovski that uses oxygen ion transport membranes to extract the oxygen required for combustion from air. A current proposed configuration of the cycle requires an oxygen ion transport membrane air separation unit operating at 920 deg. C and a separate combustion chamber operating at 1400 deg. C. If oxygen is consumed by a chemical reaction on the permeate side of an oxygen transport membrane, the oxygen flux is larger, so the air separation unit can be physically smaller. In addition, if this reaction is exothermic, the air separation unit is heated by the reaction, requiring no additional heating. Combustion fulfils both of these requirements, so combustion in the oxygen transport membrane air separation unit would allow a smaller air separation unit, which would also act as a combustion chamber. Unfortunately, a combustion temperature of 1400 deg. C will damage most oxygen transport membranes available today. However, new materials are continually being developed and investigated, so it may be possible to have an oxygen transport membrane chamber operating at 1400 deg. C in the short to medium term future. Alternatively the combustion chamber may be cooled, allowing it to operate at more realistic temperatures for currently available oxygen transport membranes. Controlling the operation temperature of the combined unit requires changing the mass flow rates of various streams of fluid in the cycle. This will have an effect on the work and heat transfers in the cycle. It is possible to calculate the theoretical effects of these changes in temperature. This paper presents an analysis investigating the impact of combining the air separator and the combustion chamber. The efficiency of the cycle was calculated at various operation temperatures for the combined oxygen transport membrane combustion chamber. The results were compared to the efficiency of the current cycle. The changes

  4. Damage limits of accelerator equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Rosell, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    Beam losses occur in particle accelerators for various reasons. The effect of lost particles on accelerator equipment becomes more severe with the increasing energies and intensities. The present study is focused on the damage potential of the proton beam as a function of particle energy and beam size. Injection and extraction energies of different accelerators at CERN were considered.

  5. Pocket dictionary of laboratory equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junge, H.D.

    1987-01-01

    This pocket dictionary contains the 2500 most common terms for scientific and technical equipment in chemical laboratories. It is a useful tool for those who are used to communicating in German and English, but have to learn the special terminology in this field. (orig.) [de

  6. Using Gaming Equipment to Teach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Gaming equipment (such as Nintendo's Wii[TM]) is making its way to schools and classrooms. However, most of the discussion regarding how to use this technology and integrate it into lesson plans is happening in blogs on the Internet. An advocate of interactive media in the classroom, Dr. Dawn Hawkins, a faculty member for the Art Institute of…

  7. Isotope-equipped measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, Kazuo; Amano, Hiroshi

    1980-01-01

    In the steel industry, though the investment in isotope-equipped measuring instruments is small as compared with that in machinery, they play important role in the moisture measurement in sintering and blast furnaces, the thickness measurement in rolling process and others in automatic control systems. The economic aspect of the isotope-equipped measuring instruments is described on the basis of the practices in Kimitsu Works of Nippon Steel Corporation: distribution of such instruments, evaluation of economic effects, usefulness evaluation in view of raising the accuracy, and usefulness evaluation viewed from the failure of the isotope instruments. The evaluation of economic effects was made under the premise that the isotope-equipped measuring instruments are not employed. Then, the effects of raising the accuracy are evaluated for a γ-ray plate thickness gauge and a neutron moisture gauge for coke in a blast furnace. Finally, the usefulness was evaluated, assuming possible failure of the isotope-equipped measuring instruments. (J.P.N.)

  8. Hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Gaorong [Organization of the United Nations, Beijing (China). International Centre of Small Hydroelectric Power Plants

    1995-07-01

    This document presents a general overview on hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment, emphasizing the turbine classification, in accordance with the different types of turbines, standard turbine series in China, turbine selection based on the basic data required for the preliminary design, general hill model curves, chart of turbine series and the arrangement of application for hydraulic turbines, hydraulic turbine testing, and speed regulating device.

  9. Fuel Handling Equipment Maintenance for Critical Path Time Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saville, M.; Williams, A.

    2015-07-01

    By sharing lessons learned and operating experience gained by AREVA Stearns RogerTM Services from more than 45 years of servicing, maintaining, and upgrading Fuel Handling Equipment (FHE) and as the original equipment manufacturer to 56% of domestic U.S. FHE (PWR and BWR) as well as 19 units overseas, this paper presents trends and market forces that have led to the neglect of FHE, the risks of not adequately maintaining FHE, and the financial benefits of proactively maintaining FHE. The benefit to audiences is to come to a better understanding of how critical path delays can be avoided and thus reduce nuclear power plant operating costs. Note that statistics and monetary values given herein are based on recent typical experiences of AREVA Stearns RogerTM Services. Examples discussed are based on actual lessons learned. For the purposes of this paper, upgrades are considered a part of equipment maintenance unless specifically discussed separately. (Author)

  10. 40 CFR 60.692-3 - Standards: Oil-water separators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Oil-water separators. 60.692... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-3 Standards: Oil-water separators. (a) Each oil-water separator tank, slop oil tank, storage vessel, or other auxiliary equipment subject to the...

  11. Joseph Priestley, oxygen, and the enlightenment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B

    2014-01-01

    Joseph Priestley (1733–1804) was the first person to report the discovery of oxygen and describe some of its extraordinary properties. As such he merits a special place in the history of respiratory physiology. In addition his descriptions in elegant 18th-century English were particularly arresting, and rereading them never fails to give a special pleasure. The gas was actually first prepared by Scheele (1742–1786) but his report was delayed. Lavoisier (1743–1794) repeated Priestley's initial experiment and went on to describe the true nature of oxygen that had eluded Priestley, who never abandoned the erroneous phlogiston theory. In addition to oxygen, Priestley isolated and characterized seven other gases. However, most of his writings were in theology because he was a conscientious clergyman all his life. Priestley was a product of the Enlightenment and argued that all beliefs should be able to stand the scientific scrutiny of experimental investigations. As a result his extreme liberal views were severely criticized by the established Church of England. In addition he was a supporter of both the French and American Revolutions. Ultimately his political and religious attitudes provoked a riot during which his home and his scientific equipment were destroyed. He therefore emigrated to America in 1794 where his friends included Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin. He settled in Northumberland, Pennsylvania although his scientific work never recovered from his forced departure. But the descriptions of his experiments with oxygen will always remain a high point in the history of respiratory physiology.

  12. Production of an accelerated oxygen-14 beam

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, J; Cerny, J

    2003-01-01

    BEARS is an ongoing project to provide a light-ion radioactive-beam capability at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL. Light radioactive isotopes are produced at a 10 MeV proton medical cyclotron, transported 350 m via a high-speed gas transport capillary, cryogenically separated, and injected into the 88-Inch Cyclotron's ion source. The first radioactive beam successfully accelerated was carbon-11 and beams of intensity more than 10 sup 8 ions/s have been utilized for experiments. Development of oxygen-14 as the second BEARS beam presented considerable technical challenges, both due to its short half-life of 71 s and the radiation chemistry of oxygen in the target. The usual techniques developed for medical uses of oxygen-15 involve the addition of significant amounts of carrier oxygen, something that would overload the ion source. As a solution, oxygen-14 is produced as water in a carrier-free form, and is chemically converted in two steps to carbon dioxide, a form readily usable by the BEARS. This system has bee...

  13. Equipment recommendations for uniform work places for routine stomatological radiodiagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rother, U [Rostock Univ. (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik; Taschner, P [Staatliches Amt fuer Atomsicherheit und Strahlenschutz, Berlin (German Democratic Republic); Wiltschke, F; Tonne, E; Kuehling, U; Nenning, K

    1977-03-01

    Corresponding to the different objectives, the Working Group on Radiology of the Stomatological Society has designed 6 standardized work places for routine radiodiagnosis in stomatology. Apart from the objectives, the problems related to the division of rooms, equipment, radioprotection and film processing are dealt with separately and specifically. The work places for routine stomatological radiodiagnosis are intended for achieving an improvement in a sector of stomatological care.

  14. Gas separation with membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, G.; Michele, H.; Werner, U.

    1982-01-01

    Gas separation with membranes has already been tested in numerous fields of application, e.g. uranium enrichment of H 2 separation. In many of these processes the mass transfer units, so-called permeators, have to be connected in tandem in order to achieve high concentrations. A most economical operating method provides for each case an optimization of the cascades with regard to the membrane materials, construction and design of module. By utilization of the concentration gradient along the membrane a new process development has been accomplished - the continuously operating membrane rectification unit. Investment and operating costs can be reduced considerably for a number of separating processes by combining a membrane rectification unit with a conventional recycling cascade. However, the new procedure requires that the specifications for the module construction, flow design, and membrane properties be reconsidered. (orig.) [de

  15. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    The instant invention relates to a process for separating a material into two or more parts in each of which the abundances of the isotopes of a given element differ from the abundances of the isotopes of the same material in said material. More particularly, the invention relates to a method for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption followed by a step wherein more of the excited molecules than nonexcited molecules are converted to a chemically different form which may be separated by means known in the art. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium. 15 claims, 1 figure

  16. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The instant invention relates to an improved process for separating a material into two or more parts in each of which the abundances of the isotopes of a given element differ from the abundances of the isotopes of the same element in said material. More particularly, the invention relates to a method for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption followed by a step wherein more of the excited molecules than non-excited molecules are converted to a chemically different form which may be separated by means known in the art. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium

  17. Separable quadratic stochastic operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozikov, U.A.; Nazir, S.

    2009-04-01

    We consider quadratic stochastic operators, which are separable as a product of two linear operators. Depending on properties of these linear operators we classify the set of the separable quadratic stochastic operators: first class of constant operators, second class of linear and third class of nonlinear (separable) quadratic stochastic operators. Since the properties of operators from the first and second classes are well known, we mainly study the properties of the operators of the third class. We describe some Lyapunov functions of the operators and apply them to study ω-limit sets of the trajectories generated by the operators. We also compare our results with known results of the theory of quadratic operators and give some open problems. (author)

  18. Immunoassay separation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A method for effecting the immunoassay of a multiplicity of samples, each possibly containing an antigen or an antibody to be assayed, is discussed. Each sample is incubated with a solution containing a detectable antigen or antibody to form a multiplicity of mixtures, each mixture containing as components antigen-antibody, non-complexed antigen and non-complexed antibody. At least one of the components of the said mixture is separated by adsorption. There after, quantity of detectable antigen or antibody is detected in one of the non-adsorbed portions of the mixture. An improvement, compared to other techniques, is the continuous and sequential separation of at least one component, which is intended to be separated from each said multiplicity of mixtures

  19. Immobilized fluid membranes for gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Canfield, Nathan L; Zhang, Jian; Li, Xiaohong Shari; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-03-18

    Provided herein are immobilized liquid membranes for gas separation, methods of preparing such membranes and uses thereof. In one example, the immobilized membrane includes a porous metallic host matrix and an immobilized liquid fluid (such as a silicone oil) that is immobilized within one or more pores included within the porous metallic host matrix. The immobilized liquid membrane is capable of selective permeation of one type of molecule (such as oxygen) over another type of molecule (such as water). In some examples, the selective membrane is incorporated into a device to supply oxygen from ambient air to the device for electrochemical reactions, and at the same time, to block water penetration and electrolyte loss from the device.

  20. Light element thermodynamics related to actinide separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, I.; Johnson, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    The accumulation of waste from the last five decades of nuclear reactor development has resulted in large quantities of materials of very diverse chemical composition. An electrometallurgical (EM) method is being developed to separate the components of the waste into several unique streams suitable for permanent disposal and an actinide stream suitable for retrievable storage. The principal types of nuclear wastes are spent oxide or metallic fuel. Since the EM module requires a metallic feed, and oxygen interferes with its operation, the oxide fuel has to be reduced prior to EM treatment. Further, the wastes contain, in addition to oxygen, other light elements (first- and second-row elements) that may also interfere with the operation of the EM module. The extent that these light elements interfere with the operation of the EM module has been determined by chemical thermodynamic calculations. (orig.)

  1. Noble gas separation with the use of inorganic adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pence, D.T.; Chou, C.C.; Christian, J.D.; Paplawsky, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    A noble gas separation process is proposed for application to airborne nuclear fuel reprocessing plant effluents. The process involves the use of inorganic adsorbents for the removal of contaminant gases and noble gas separation through selective adsorption. Water and carbon dioxide are removed with selected zeolites that do not appreciably adsorb the noble gases. Xenon is essentially quantitatively removed with a specially developed adsorbent using conventional adsorption-desorption techniques. Oxygen is removed to low ppM levels by the use of a rapid cycle adsorption technique on a special adsorbent leaving a krypton-nitrogen mixture. Krypton is separated from nitrogen with a special adsorbent operated at about -80 0 C. Because the separation process does not require high pressures and oxygen is readily removed to sufficiently limit ozone formation to insignificant levels, appreciable capital and operating cost savings with this process are possible compared with other proposed processes. In addition, the proposed process is safer to operate

  2. Electromagnetic separator of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasilin, V.V.; Nezovibatko, Yu.N.; Poklepach, G.S.; Shvets, O.M.; Taran, V.S.; Tereshin, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    The progress in the widespread utilization of the PVD methods is determined in many respects by the plasma quality and, therefore, the necessity of an application of plasma separators, in particular magnetic separators. One needs to note that traditional magnetic separators have a number of problems their using, namely their unwieldiness, the presence of the isolated cameras and so on. We have proposed, manufactured and investigated the simple separator of plasma that doesn't require using additional cameras. As a source of metallic plasma the standard cathode vaporizer in the installation 'BULAT 6' was in use. Plasma stream from the cathode flowed through the not protected by isolation spiral solenoid. The solenoid input (from the cathode side) was under floating potential. The solenoid output was connected to the autonomous power supply system. The solenoid was prepared with stride winding and 90 degree turn. The solenoid current was 20-90 A and the solenoid voltage with respect to the vessel (earth) was +15 V. In this case drifting charged particles could freely fly out from the interior solenoid region to its boundary. The glow of the turned flow of plasma was observed during the supplying of the cathode and the solenoid. Plasma flow was separated from the coils and extended along the axis of solenoid. One can assume that this device ensures radial electric with respect to the bulk of plasma (the diameter of the bulk of plasma is comparable with the cathode diameter), the toroidal magnetic field, produced by solenoid, was of an order of 20 Oe. Magnetic field strength was sufficient for the magnetization of electrons, but it was rather small for magnetizing the ions and charged micro-droplets. The experiments carried out with aluminum cathode on the deposition of coatings at the stainless steel substrate have shown the high effectiveness of this separator operation. Coatings without droplets were obtained also on the glass substrate with HF- displacement

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Equipment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equipment Options to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Equipment Options on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Equipment Options on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Equipment Options on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels

  4. 40 CFR 792.61 - Equipment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equipment design. 792.61 Section 792.61...) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 792.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the... of appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall be...

  5. 40 CFR 160.61 - Equipment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment design. 160.61 Section 160... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 160.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the generation... appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall be suitably located...

  6. 21 CFR 58.61 - Equipment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment design. 58.61 Section 58.61 Food and... PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Equipment § 58.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the... of appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall be...

  7. 34 CFR 74.34 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... as program income. (e) When acquiring replacement equipment, the recipient may use the equipment to... replacement equipment subject to the approval of the Secretary. (f) The recipient's property management... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment. 74.34 Section 74.34 Education Office of the...

  8. 20 CFR 437.32 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contemplated by Federal statute. (4) When acquiring replacement equipment, the grantee or subgrantee may use.... Procedures for managing equipment (including replacement equipment), whether acquired in whole or in part... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment. 437.32 Section 437.32 Employees...

  9. 45 CFR 2541.320 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... replacement equipment, the grantee or subgrantee may use the equipment to be replaced as a trade-in or sell... replacement equipment), whether acquired in whole or in part with grant funds, until disposition takes place... ensure the highest possible return. (e) Disposition. When original or replacement equipment acquired...

  10. 45 CFR 1174.32 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contemplated by Federal statute. (4) When acquiring replacement equipment, the grantee or subgrantee may use... requirements. Procedures for managing equipment (including replacement equipment), whether acquired in whole or... original or replacement equipment acquired under a grant or subgrant is no longer needed for the original...

  11. 45 CFR 1157.32 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contemplated by Federal statute. (4) When acquiring replacement equipment, the grantee or subgrantee may use... requirements. Procedures for managing equipment (including replacement equipment), whether acquired in whole or... original or replacement equipment acquired under a grant or subgrant is no longer needed for the original...

  12. The Cost of Maintaining Educational Communications Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, David A.

    Tentative formulas for calculating the cost of maintaining educational communications equipment are proposed. The formulas are based on a survey of campuses of the State University of New York. The survey analyzed the types of equipment to be maintained, types of maintenance, who uses the equipment, who services the equipment, and the cost…

  13. Separations chemistry of toxic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.; Barr, M.; Barrans, R.

    1996-01-01

    Sequestering and removing toxic metal ions from their surroundings is an increasingly active area of research and is gaining importance in light of current environmental contamination problems both within the DOE complex and externally. One method of separating metal ions is to complex them to a molecule (a ligand or chelator) which exhibits specific binding affinity for a toxic metal, even in the presence of other more benign metals. This approach makes use of the sometimes subtle differences between toxic and non-toxic metals resulting from variations in size, charge and shape. For example, toxic metals such as chromium, arsenic, and technetium exist in the environment as oxyanions, negatively charged species with a characteristic tetrahedral shape. Other toxic metals such as actinides and heavy metals are positively charged spheres with specific affinities for particular donor atoms such as oxygen (for actinides) and nitrogen (for heavy metals). In most cases the toxic metals are found in the presence of much larger quantities of less toxic metals such as sodium, calcium and iron. The selectivity of the chelators is critical to the goal of removing the toxic metals from their less toxic counterparts. The approach was to build a ligand framework that complements the unique characteristics of the toxic metal (size, charge and shape) while minimizing interactions with non-toxic metals. The authors have designed ligands exhibiting specificity for the target metals; they have synthesized, characterized and tested these ligands; and they have shown that they exhibit the proposed selectivity and cooperative binding effects

  14. Separation surgery for total vertical craniopagus twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Keith Y C

    2004-08-01

    A pair of conjoined twins aged 11 months underwent investigations, followed by surgical separation in Singapore General Hospital in April 2001. They were joined at the skull vertex and facing in opposite directions. Radiological investigations including cerebral angiography, magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomographic scans were performed, leading to the diagnosis of total vertical craniopagus. There were two separate brains, with separate arterial circulations, but with a common superior sagittal sinus. Tissue expanders were inserted in the subgaleal space for 6 months of scalp expansion prior to surgery. Pre-operative planning involved the use of virtual reality equipment and life-sized polymer models of the conjoined skulls and brains. Surgical separation of the twins was achieved after approximately 100 h of operating time, using intraoperative image guidance, microsurgical techniques and intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring. Reconstruction of the dura, calvarium and scalp was performed with artificial dura, absorbable plates and split skin grafts. Postoperative complications included focal cortical infarction, meningitis, and hydrocephalus. Despite these complications, the twins recovered satisfactorily and were discharged to their home country within 6 months. The 3-month outcome was minor disability in one twin and severe developmental delays in the other. Separation surgery is possible for complex cranially-conjoined twins but requires detailed planning and extensive surgical management.

  15. Separation, storage and disposal of krypton-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Technical means available for the retention of 85 Kr and its immobilization, storage and disposal are reviewed. Cryogenic processes for the separation of krypton and xenon from diluting gases are discussed in more detail. Besides the cryogenic processes, a liquid adsorption process for reprocessing off-gases and charcoal adsorption and membrane processes for reactor off-gases are also dealt with. The retained krypton can be stored in pressurized containers with air or water cooling. The containers can be kept in engineered storage facilities for an intermediate period or until the 85 Kr has decayed. Alternatively, the krypton may be encapsulated in a solid. The injection of gases containing krypton into suitable geologic strata may also be possible. Much of the equipment required for the separation and storage of krypton, well known from ordinary technology, often needs some adaptation. Further R and D work is, however, needed to solve some problems which are specific to highly concentrated fission krypton. The subject is reviewed under the following headings: methods available for the separation of krypton from off-gases; separation of krypton from reactor off-gas; separation of krypton from reprocessing off-gas; conditioning methods; engineering storage; transportation; disposal

  16. Unity Through Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Hans B.

    This PhD thesis asks how we can conceptualize the current separation doctrine of religion and politics in a country like Denmark, where the structure of the established church and peoplehood overlap. In order to answer this question, Hans Bruun Dabelsteen maps the current discussion of secularism...... into the principle of treating everybody equally (with religious freedom, equality and Danish peoplehood as the most important principles adjacent to secularism). In a study of the historical roots of the separation doctrine and two current policy cases (same-sex marriage and reforms of church governance...

  17. Separation membrane development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.W. [Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    A ceramic membrane has been developed to separate hydrogen from other gases. The method used is a sol-gel process. A thin layer of dense ceramic material is coated on a coarse ceramic filter substrate. The pore size distribution in the thin layer is controlled by a densification of the coating materials by heat treatment. The membrane has been tested by permeation measurement of the hydrogen and other gases. Selectivity of the membrane has been achieved to separate hydrogen from carbon monoxide. The permeation rate of hydrogen through the ceramic membrane was about 20 times larger than Pd-Ag membrane.

  18. Gas separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, William J.

    1979-01-01

    A dry, fabric supported, polymeric gas separation membrane, such as cellulose acetate, is prepared by casting a solution of the polymer onto a shrinkable fabric preferably formed of synthetic polymers such as polyester or polyamide filaments before washing, stretching or calendering (so called griege goods). The supported membrane is then subjected to gelling, annealing, and drying by solvent exchange. During the processing steps, both the fabric support and the membrane shrink a preselected, controlled amount which prevents curling, wrinkling or cracking of the membrane in flat form or when spirally wound into a gas separation element.

  19. Separation techniques: Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    Chromatography is an important biophysical technique that enables the separation, identification, and purification of the components of a mixture for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Proteins can be purified based on characteristics such as size and shape, total charge, hydrophobic groups present on the surface, and binding capacity with the stationary phase. Four separation techniques based on molecular characteristics and interaction type use mechanisms of ion exchange, surface adsorption, partition, and size exclusion. Other chromatography techniques are based on the stationary bed, including column, thin layer, and paper chromatography. Column chromatography is one of the most common methods of protein purification. PMID:28058406

  20. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for separating a given material into two or more parts, in each of which the abundances of the isotopes of a given element differ from the abundances of the isotopes of the same material in the said material. More particularly, the invention relates to a method for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase UF 6 by infrared photon absorption followed by selective reaction of said excited UF 6 with atomic chlorine, bromine, or iodine to form a product which may be separated by means known in the art

  1. SEPARATION PHENOMENA LOGISTIC REGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikaro Daniel de Carvalho Barreto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an application of concepts about the maximum likelihood estimation of the binomial logistic regression model to the separation phenomena. It generates bias in the estimation and provides different interpretations of the estimates on the different statistical tests (Wald, Likelihood Ratio and Score and provides different estimates on the different iterative methods (Newton-Raphson and Fisher Score. It also presents an example that demonstrates the direct implications for the validation of the model and validation of variables, the implications for estimates of odds ratios and confidence intervals, generated from the Wald statistics. Furthermore, we present, briefly, the Firth correction to circumvent the phenomena of separation.

  2. Radiation gradient isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    A system is described for transporting, separating and storing charged particles, charged antiparticles and fully or partially ionized isotopes of any element comprising a laser beam generator, laser beam intensity profiler, a laser beam variable intensity attenuator, and means for injecting charged particles, charged antiparticles and ionized isotopes into the beam and extracting them from the system as required. The invention is particularly useful for channelling electrons and ions used for fuel pellet compression in inertial fusion systems, for separating the isotopes of elements and for the confinement of charged antiparticles and particle/antiparticle plasmas

  3. Organic separations with membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funk, E.W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of present and emerging applications of membrane technology for the separation and purification of organic materials. This technology is highly relevant for programs aimed at minimizing waste in processing and in the treatment of gaseous and liquid effluents. Application of membranes for organic separation is growing rapidly in the petrochemical industry to simplify processing and in the treatment of effluents, and it is expected that this technology will be useful in numerous other industries including the processing of nuclear waste materials

  4. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.

    1976-01-01

    The instant invention relates to a process for separating a material into two or more parts in each of which the abundances of the isotopes of a given element differ from the abundances of the isotopes of the same material in said material. In one embodiment, the invention relates to a method for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption followed by selective dissociation of said excited molecules by the absorption of a single photon of visible or ultraviolet light. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium. 11 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures

  5. The Daresbury On-Line Isotope Separator (DOLIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, I.S.; Eastham, D.A.; Groves, J.; Tolfree, D.W.L.; Walker, P.M.; Green, V.R.; Rikovska, J.; Stone, N.J.; Hamilton, W.D.

    1987-01-01

    The isotope separator DOLIS, which is on-line to the Daresbury Laboratory's 20-MV tandem accelerator, is used to measure nuclear moments and decay schemes. Separated beams may be collected on a tape and transported to a counting station, implanted directly into a host lattice at on-line temperatures down to less than 10 mK, or allowed to interact with a collinear laser beam. The present status of DOLIS and its ancillary equipment is described

  6. The Daresbury on-line isotope separator (DOLIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, I.S.; Eastham, D.A.; Groves, J.; Tolfree, D.W.L.; Walker, P.M.; Green, V.R.; Rikovska, J.; Stone, N.J.; Hamilton, W.D.

    1987-01-01

    The isotope separator DOLIS, which is on-line to the Daresbury Laboratory's 20-MV tandem accelerator, is used to measure nuclear moments and decay schemes. Separated beams may be collected on a tape and transported to a counting station, implanted directly into a host lattice at on-line temperatures down to less than 10 mK, or allowed to interact with a collinear laser beam. The present status of DOLIS and its ancillary equipment is described. (orig.)

  7. Thermal design of a Mars oxygen production plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Iyer, Venkatesh A.

    1991-01-01

    The optimal design of the thermal components of a system that uses carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere to produce oxygen for spacecraft propulsion and/or life support is discussed. The gases are pressurized, heated and passed through an electrochemical cell. Carbon dioxide is reduced to carbon monoxide and oxygen due to thermal dissociation and electrocatalysis. The oxygen thus formed is separated from the gas mixture by the electrochemical cell. The objective of the design is to optimize both the overall mass and the power consumption of the system. The analysis shows that at electrochemical cell efficiencies of about 50 percent and lower, the optimal system would require unspent carbon dioxide in the exhaust gases to be separated and recycled. Various methods of efficiently compressing the intake gases to system pressures of 0.1 MPa are investigated. The total power requirement for oxygen production rates of 1, 5, and 10 kg/day at various cell efficiencies are presented.

  8. Closed Loop Control of Oxygen Delivery and Oxygen Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    were used for this study and were connected via a USB cable to allow communication. The ventilator was modified to allow closed loop control of oxygen...connected via a USB cable to allow communication. The ventilator was modified to allow closed loop control of oxygen based on the oxygen saturation...2017-4119, 28 Aug 2017. oximetry (SpO2) and intermittent arterial blood sampling for arterial oxygen tension (partial pressure of oxygen [PaO2]) and

  9. X-RAYS SEPARATOR: FORWARD STEP IN TECHNOLOGY OF OPTICAL SEPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Potrakhov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently the X-ray separation is used not only for research program, but it is also elaborated and applied for different sectors of economy. The seeds as biological objects that possess the complicated microstructure are very difficult to be exanimated by x-ray technology. The application of x-rays and further elaboration of optical  separators, principle  of action, basic specifications, way of their use and their efficiency was shown in the article. The x-ray separator may distinguish all hidden seed defects as it was described by a programmer, where owing to the use of the optical separating block in visual range it is possible to add some more details as a shape, brightness and a color of object surface being exanimated. The elaboration of such separation equipment is scientifically hard work requiring time and expenses. Last year researchers of ‘LETI’ developed the working model of industrial x-ray separator for examination of grains and nuts in different crops. This model was made on the basis of photoseparator F-5 manufactured at OAO ‘Voronezhselmash’. The instrument state and its mechanism operation are highlighted on monitor. In the regime of processing (separation and examination of each controlled batch, the passport is produced with  following  information on identification  code,  time of material receiving, time of test passed, number of grains or seeds tested. The code of receiver of material is given to each of established characteristics when working the regime of separation, determination of number of objects with characteristics tested and number of unidentified objects. The application of x-ray separators constructed on the basis of photoseparator F-5 enables to carry out the complex estimation on seed quality and separation in only instrument with the development of electronic protocol with many characteristics.

  10. Fathering After Marital Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshet, Harry Finkelstein; Rosenthal, Kristine M.

    1978-01-01

    Deals with experiences of a group of separated or divorced fathers who chose to remain fully involved in the upbringing of their children. As they underwent transition from married parenthood to single fatherhood, these men learned that meeting demands of child care contributed to personal stability and growth. (Author)

  11. Isotope separator laoratory development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Significant improvements in the capability for collection of mass-separated ions are described. These improvements centered on the fabrication and installation of a more versatile collection-beam viewing system and the design, fabrication, installation and testing of a retardation lens. A summary description of this capability development is presented

  12. Separation of Powers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill of Rights in Action, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The dimensions of the separation of powers principle are explored through three lessons in the subject areas of U.S. history, U.S. government, and world history. In 1748, a French nobleman, Baron de Montesquieu, wrote a book called "The Spirit of the Laws," in which he argued that there could be no liberty when all government power was…

  13. Polymide gas separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yong; Bikson, Benjamin; Nelson, Joyce Katz

    2004-09-14

    Soluble polyamic acid salt (PAAS) precursors comprised of tertiary and quaternary amines, ammonium cations, sulfonium cations, or phosphonium cations, are prepared and fabricated into membranes that are subsequently imidized and converted into rigid-rod polyimide articles, such as membranes with desirable gas separation properties. A method of enhancing solubility of PAAS polymers in alcohols is also disclosed.

  14. Industrial separation processes : fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de A.B.; Bosch, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Separation processes on an industrial scale comprise well over half of the capital and operating costs. They are basic knowledge in every chemical engineering and process engineering study. This book provides comprehensive and fundamental knowledge of university teaching in this discipline,

  15. diffusive phase separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kenmochi

    1996-01-01

    w is constrained to have double obstacles σ*≤w≤σ* (i.e., σ* and σ* are the threshold values of w. The objective of this paper is to discuss the semigroup {S(t} associated with the phase separation model, and construct its global attractor.

  16. Separation of uranium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrfeld, W.; Ehrfeld, U.

    1977-01-01

    In the nuclear fuel cycle, uranium enrichment is not a principal problem of technological feasibility. Several processes exist for producing LWR fuel and the enrichment method can be selected in consideration of economical, environmental, and political aspects. To date, the gaseous diffusion process constitutes the major part of enrichment capacity. This process has been well demonstrated for over 30 years and, as a matter of fact, no major technological and economical progress is to be expected in the future. Because of their comparatively high development potential, the centrifuge and the separation nozzle method may become increasingly favorable in economics. The development of the centrifuge process which is superior by its low specific energy consumption aims at technological improvements. In the separation nozzle process which offers the advantage of a comparatively simple technology a further reduction of the specific energy consumption is to be expected because of the thermodynamically favorable separation mechanism of this process. Laser isotope separation methods are still on the laboratory scale, although large financial funds have been spent. (orig.) [de

  17. Oily Bilgewater Separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    11 3.3.4 Flotation ...Flocculation, • Flotation , and • Ultrafiltration . EPA evaluated the effectiveness of bilge separators by their ability to achieve low effluent oil...parameters, suspended solids), metals (arsenic, copper , cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium and zinc) and organics (benzene, chloroform

  18. Separation problems and forcing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletal, Jindřich

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2013), s. 1350002 ISSN 0219-0613 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : separation * set of uniqueness * forcing Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.364, year: 2012 http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0219061313500025

  19. Radioactive krypton gas separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive krypton is separated from a gas mixture comprising nitrogen and traces of carbon dioxide and radioactive krypton by selective adsorption and then cryogenic distillation of the prepurified gas against nitrogen liquid to produce krypton bottoms concentrate liquid, using the nitrogen gas from the distillation for two step purging of the adsorbent. 16 Claims, 8 Drawing Figures

  20. Availability of Life Support Equipment and its Utilization by Ambulance Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Rija; Badhu, Angur; Shah, Tara; Shrestha, Sharmila

    2017-09-08

    An effective ambulance is a vital requirement for providing an emergency medical service. Well-equipped ambulances with trained paramedics can save many lives during the golden hours of trauma care. The objective was to document the availability and utilization of basic life support equipment in the ambulances and to assess knowledge on first aid among the drivers. Descriptive design was used. Total of 109 ambulances linked to B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences were enrolled using purposive sampling method. Self- constructed observation checklist and semi structured interview schedule was used for data collection. More than half of the respondents had less than five years of experience and were not trained in first aid. About two-third of the respondents had adequate knowledge on first aid. About 90% of the ambulance had oxygen cylinder and adult oxygen mask which was 'usually' used equipment. More than half of ambulance had equipment less than 23% as compared to that of national guidelines. There was significant association of knowledge with the experience (p = 0.004) and training (p = 0.001). Availability of equipment was associated with training received (p = 0.007),organization (p= 0.032)and district (p = 0.023) in which the ambulance is registered. The study concludes that maximum ambulance linked to BPKIHS, Nepal did not have even one fourth of the equipment for basic life support. Equipment usually used was oxygen cylinder and oxygen mask. Majority of driver had adequate knowledge on first aid and it was associated with training and experience.

  1. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-05-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, in situ neutron diffraction was used to characterize the chemical and structural properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} (here after as L2SF55T) specimen, which was subject to measurements of neutron diffraction from room temperature to 900 C in N{sub 2}. Space group of R3c was found to result in a better refinement and is used in this study. The difference for crystal structure, lattice parameters and local crystal chemistry for LSFT nearly unchanged when gas environment switched from air to N{sub 2}. Stable crack growth studies on Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were done at room temperature in air. A bridge-compression fixture was fabricated to achieve stable pre-cracks from Vickers indents. Post fracture evaluation indicated stable crack growth from the indent and a regime of fast fracture. Post-fracture X-ray data of the OTM fractured at 1000 C in environment were refined by FullProf code and results indicate a distortion of the parent cubic perovskite to orthorhombic structure with reduced symmetry. TGA-DTA studies on the post-fracture samples also indicated residual effect arising from the thermal and stress history of the samples. The thermal and chemical expansion of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} were studied at 800 {le} T {le} 1000 C and at {approx} 1 x 10{sup -15} {le} pO{sub 2} {le} 0.21 atm. The thermal expansion coefficient of the sample was calculated from the dilatometric analysis in the temperature range between room temperature and 1200 C in air. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of

  2. Experience in the manufacture of nuclear equipment in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challappa, S.; Murthy, G.S.K.; Mehta, S.K.; Kakodkar, A.; Natarajan, A.

    1977-01-01

    Department of Atomic Energy with its programme for achieving self-sufficiency was involved in engineering, manufacture, inspection, performance testing and quality surveillance of major precision and critical equipment such as reactor vessels, shields, fuelling machines, coolant channel components etc. etc. high pressure equipment for Heavy Water Plants, specialized components for Fuel Complex, major equipment for Cyclotron Project and various research projects. These had to be manufactured at various shops in the country depending upon the availability of machines. The relative importance of various important parameters associated with the manufacture of this equipment were assessed in a separate R and D programme. This has helped in re-designing in some areas to suit the manufacture under Indian conditions. Assessment of any marginal variations that take place during manufacture was also possible because of the availability of data of this kind. Critical components and equipment are tested for their performance under simulated conditions before shipments. B.A.R.C. has contributed immensely in achieving the self-sufficiency and also for designs for future plants

  3. Optimization of the radio lanthanides separation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera T, A. L.

    2009-01-01

    At present, cancer is a major cause of mortality in our country, therefore, its prevention, diagnosis and treatment are vital to health systems. The cancer treatment and other diseases, from monoclonal antibodies, peptides, or amino macro aggregates marked with beta particle emitting radionuclides, is a highly promising field. The radioactive lanthanides: Pm, Tb, Ho, and Lu are beta emitters, which possess nuclear and chemical properties, which have shown their feasibility as radioisotopes of radiotherapeutic use. However, these radioisotopes are not available commercially in this connection, the Research Laboratory of Radioactive Materials of the National Institute of Nuclear Research, has developed the methodology of production of these radioisotopes and based on this work is designed, constructed and installed the radio lanthanides separation device for the radioisotopes production routinely. This device is part of the cell, , which has and auxiliary air service, an extraction system and is protected with a 10 cm of lead shielding. The radio lanthanides separation device is manual and easy to handle. The main function of this equipment is the radio lanthanides separation from extractive chromatography through packed columns with a commercial resin (Ln SPS) and coated on the top and bottom by fiberglass. The radio lanthanides separation device comprises a main carrousel where the separation columns and elution containers are mounted. It also has a system of open irradiation vials, carrier samples for columns and glassware. This paper presents a detailed description of the radio lanthanides separation device and its management, which allows the radioisotopes production Pm, Tb, Ho, and Lu from the separation of its parents Nd, Dy, Gd, and Yb respectively. (Author)

  4. Stable isotope separation by thermal diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasaru, Gheorghe

    2001-01-01

    Thermal diffusion in both gaseous and liquid phase has been subject of extensive experimental and theoretical investigations, especially after the invention of K. Clusius and G. Dickel of the thermal diffusion column, sixty three years ago. This paper gives a brief overview of the most important research and developments performed during the time at the National Institute for Research and Development for Isotopic and Molecular Technology (ITIM) at Cluj - Napoca, Romania in the field of separation of stable isotopes by thermal diffusion. An retrospective analysis of the research and results concerning isotope separation by thermal diffusion entails the following conclusions: - thermal diffusion is an adequate method for hydrogen isotope separation (deuterium and tritium) and for noble gas isotope separation (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe); - thermal diffusion is attractive also for 13 C enrichment using methane as raw material for separation, when annual yields of up to 100 g are envisaged; - lately, the thermal diffusion appears to be chosen as a final enrichment step for 17 O. An obvious advantage of this method is its non-specificity, i.e. the implied equipment can be utilized for isotope separation of other chemical elements too. Having in view the low investment costs for thermal diffusion cascades the method appears economically attractive for obtaining low-scale, laboratory isotope production. The paper has the following content: 1. The principle of method; 2. The method's application; 3. Research in the field of thermal diffusion at ITIM; 4. Thermal diffusion cascades for N, C, Ne, Ar and Kr isotope separation; 5. Conclusion

  5. Separation science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.F.; Sauer, N.; Chamberlin, R.M.; Gottesfeld, S.; Mattes, B.R.; Li, D.Q.; Swanson, B.

    1998-01-01

    The focus of this project is the demonstration and advancement of membrane-based separation and destruction technologies. The authors are exploring development of membrane systems for gas separations, selective metal ion recovery, and for separation or destruction of hazardous organics. They evaluated existing polymers and polymer formulations for recovery of toxic oxyanionic metals such as chromate and arsenate from selected waste streams and developed second-generation water-soluble polymeric systems for highly selective oxyanion removal and recovery. They optimized the simultaneous removal of radioactive strontium and cesium from aqueous solutions using the new nonhazardous separations agents, and developed recyclable, redox-active extractants that permitted recovery of the radioactive ions into a minimal waste volume. They produced hollow fibers and fabricated prototype hollow-fiber membrane modules for applications to gas separations and the liquid-liquid extraction and recovery of actinides and nuclear materials from process streams. They developed and fabricated cyclodextrin-based microporous materials that selectively absorb organic compounds in an aqueous environment; the resultant products gave pure water with organics at less than 0.05 parts per billion. They developed new, more efficient, membrane-based electrochemical reactors for use in organic destruction in process waste treatment. They addressed the need for advanced oxidation technologies based on molecular-level materials designs that selectively remove or destroy target species. They prepared and characterized surface-modified TiO 2 thin films using different linking approaches to attach ruthenium photosensitizers, and they started the measurement of the photo-degradation products generated using surface modified TiO 2 films in reaction with chlorophenol

  6. Continued treatment and utilization of separable material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, W.; Englmann, E.; Goettle, A.; Hruschka, H.; Resch, H.; Schramm, W.; Wiedmann, U.; Flohrschuetz, R.

    1980-04-01

    The separable material (material retained on trash rack, material collected in the sand, floating substances, fresh sludge) occurring in a biological mechanical sewage treatment plant are described with respect to quantity, provenance, and composition. The most common methods for subsequent treatment of this material are at first aimed at the reduction of volume (dehydration), then at processing it to obtain reusable products (fertilizer, compost, feeding stuff, raw material) or at converting it into a mass that can be deposited. The individual steps of the process and their specific requirement, with respect to temperature, oxygen, and conditioning agents are described in detail.

  7. Glycerol extracting dealcoholization for the biodiesel separation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianchu; Sha, Yong; Zhang, Yun; Yuan, Yunlong; Wu, Housheng

    2011-04-01

    By means of utilizing sunflower oil and Jatropha oil as raw oil respectively, the biodiesel transesterification production and the multi-stage extracting separation were carried out experimentally. Results indicate that dealcoholized crude glycerol can be utilized as the extracting agent to achieve effective separation of methanol from the methyl ester phase, and the glycerol content in the dealcoholized methyl esters is as low as 0.02 wt.%. For the biodiesel separation process utilizing glycerol extracting dealcoholization, its technical and equipment information were acquired through the rigorous process simulation in contrast to the traditional biodiesel distillation separation process, and results show that its energy consumption decrease about 35% in contrast to that of the distillation separation process. The glycerol extracting dealcoholization has sufficient feasibility and superiority for the biodiesel separation process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Equipment and technology in robotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Declan; Challacombe, Ben; Nedas, Tim; Elhage, Oussama; Althoefer, Kaspar; Seneviratne, Lakmal; Dasgupta, Prokar

    2007-05-01

    We review the evolution and current status of robotic equipment and technology in urology. We also describe future developments in the key areas of virtual reality simulation, mechatronics and nanorobotics. The history of robotic technology is reviewed and put into the context of current systems. Experts in the associated fields of nanorobotics, mechatronics and virtual reality simulation simulation review the important future developments in these areas.

  9. Remote handling equipment for SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulten, B.H.

    1983-01-01

    This report gives information on the areas of the SNS, facility which become highly radioactive preventing hands-on maintenance. Levels of activity are sufficiently high in the Target Station Area of the SNS, especially under fault conditions, to warrant reactor technology to be used in the design of the water, drainage and ventilation systems. These problems, together with the type of remote handling equipment required in the SNS, are discussed

  10. Margins related to equipment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devos, J.

    1994-01-01

    Safety margins related to design of reactor equipment are defined according to safety regulations. Advanced best estimate methods are proposed including some examples which were computed and compared to experimental results. Best estimate methods require greater computation effort and more material data but give better variable accuracy and need careful experimental validation. Simplified methods compared to the previous are less sensitive to material data, sometimes are more accurate but very long to elaborate

  11. Temperature radiation measuring equipment. Temperaturstrahlungsmessgeraet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotzer, W

    1981-01-22

    The invention is concerned with a temperature radiation measuring equipment for non-contact temperature measurement by the light intensity variation method, with a photoelectric resistance as the measuring element. By having a circuit with a transistor, the 'dark resistance' occurring in the course of time is compensated for and thus gives a genuine reading (ie. the voltage drop across the photoelectric resistance remains constant).

  12. Oxygen Dependent Biocatalytic Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Asbjørn Toftgaard

    Enzyme catalysts have the potential to improve both the process economics and the environ-mental profile of many oxidation reactions especially in the fine- and specialty-chemical industry, due to their exquisite ability to perform stereo-, regio- and chemo-selective oxida-tions at ambient...... to aldehydes and ketones, oxyfunctionalization of C-H bonds, and epoxidation of C-C double bonds. Although oxygen dependent biocatalysis offers many possibilities, there are numerous chal-lenges to be overcome before an enzyme can be implemented in an industrial process. These challenges requires the combined...... far below their potential maximum catalytic rate at industrially relevant oxygen concentrations. Detailed knowledge of the en-zyme kinetics are therefore required in order to determine the best operating conditions and design oxygen supply to minimize processing costs. This is enabled...

  13. Classification of methods and equipment recovery secondary waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kalashnikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of purification of secondary waters of industrial production have an important place and are relevant in the environmental activities of all food and chemical industries. For cleaning the transporter-washing water of beet-sugar production the key role is played by the equipment of treatment plants. A wide variety of wastewater treatment equipment is classified according to various methods. Typical structures used are sedimentation tanks, hydrocyclones, separators, centrifuges. In turn, they have a different degree of purification, productivity through the incoming suspension and purified secondary water. This is equipment is divided into designs, depending on the range of particles to be removed. A general classification of methods for cleaning the transporter-washing water, as well as the corresponding equipment, is made. Based on the analysis of processes and instrumentation, the main methods of wastewater treatment are identified: mechanical, physicochemical, combined, biological and disinfection. To increase the degree of purification and reduce technical and economic costs, a combined method is widely used. The main task of the site for cleaning the transporter-washing waters of sugar beet production is to provide the enterprise with water in the required quantity and quality, with economical use of water resources, taking into account the absence of pollution of surface and groundwater by industrial wastewater. In the sugar industry is currently new types of washing equipment of foreign production are widely used, which require high quality and a large amount of purified transporter-washing water for normal operation. The proposed classification makes it possible to carry out a comparative technical and economic analysis when choosing the methods and equipment for recuperation of secondary waters. The main equipment secondary water recovery used at the beet-sugar plant is considered. The most common beet processing plant is a

  14. Oxygen therapy reduces postoperative tachycardia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stausholm, K; Kehlet, H; Rosenberg, J

    1995-01-01

    Concomitant hypoxaemia and tachycardia in the postoperative period is unfavourable for the myocardium. Since hypoxaemia per se may be involved in the pathogenesis of postoperative tachycardia, we have studied the effect of oxygen therapy on tachycardia in 12 patients randomly allocated to blinded...... air or oxygen by facemask on the second or third day after major surgery. Inclusion criteria were arterial hypoxaemia (oxygen saturation 90 beat.min-1). Each patient responded similarly to oxygen therapy: an increase in arterial oxygen saturation and a decrease...... in heart rate (p oxygen has a positive effect on the cardiac oxygen delivery and demand balance....

  15. CERN computing equipment for Senegal

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    On 26 May, CERN once again had the honour of donating computing equipment to a foreign institute.   This time, around 100 servers and five network hubs were sent to Senegal, making it the seventh country, after Morocco, Ghana, Bulgaria, Serbia, Egypt and the Philippines, to receive a donation of computing equipment from the Organization. The official ceremony was held at CERN on 26 May in the presence of the Director-General, Rolf Heuer, and Senegal's ambassador to Geneva, Fodé Seck, who both expressed their enthusiasm for the project. The equipment is intended for Cheikh Anta Diop University (UCAD) in Dakar and will be of particular use to students attending the African School of Fundamental Physics and its Applications (ASP 2014) taking place from 3 to 23 August, for which CERN is a partner. The ASP allows a large number of African students to hone their skills in high-energy physics and to forge professional links with fellow physicists in Africa and Europe. ...

  16. Hyperbaric oxygen and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, R.; Hamilton-Farrell, M.R.; Kleij, A.J. van der

    2005-01-01

    Background: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy is the inhalation of 100% oxygen at a pressure of at least 1.5 atmospheres absolute (150 kPa). It uses oxygen as a drug by dissolving it in the plasma and delivering it to the tissues independent of hemoglobin. For a variety of organ systems, HBO is known to promote new vessel growth into areas with reduced oxygen tension due to poor vascularity, and therewith promotes wound healing and recovery of radiation-injured tissue. Furthermore, tumors may be sensitized to irradiation by raising intratumoral oxygen tensions. Methods: A network of hyperbaric facilities exists in Europe, and a number of clinical studies are ongoing. The intergovernmental framework COST B14 action 'Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy' started in 1999. The main goal of the Working Group Oncology is preparation and actual implementation of prospective study protocols in the field of HBO and radiation oncology in Europe. Results: In this paper a short overview on HBO is given and the following randomized clinical studies are presented: (a) reirradiation of recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck after HBO sensitization; (b) role of HBO in enhancing radiosensitivity on glioblastoma multiforme; (c) osseointegration in irradiated patients; adjunctive HBO to prevent implant failures; (d) the role of HBO in the treatment of late irradiation sequelae in the pelvic region. The two radiosensitization protocols (a, b) allow a time interval between HBO and subsequent irradiation of 10-20 min. Conclusion: Recruitment of centers and patients is being strongly encouraged, detailed information is given on www.oxynet.org. (orig.)

  17. Radiation tolerance assurance of technical equipment in the LHC radiation monitoring for technical equipment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Wijnands, Thijs; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2005-01-01

    In contrast with other accelerators at CERN, a large amount of technical equipment will be located in the LHC tunnel, the underground areas and in the experimental caverns where they will be exposed to radiation. Nearly all this equipment makes, to a certain extent, use of commercial microelectronics which is extremely sensitive to radiation damage, both instantaneous damage and cumulative damage. Examples in the TS Department are the electronics for the position sensors of the low beta quadrupoles, the access system, the cooling and ventilation units, the electronics for the electrical distribution, the oxygen deficiency monitors and fire detection systems. The basic effects of radiation on electronic systems and components are well understood because similar problems with radiation are encountered in the aerospace and aviation industry. Since 1998, an efficient and original Radiation Tolerance Assurance approach for the LHC machine has been established. Its aim is to minimise the effects of radiation damage...

  18. A drier unit for steam separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyrelongue, J.-P.

    1973-01-01

    Description is given of a drier unit adapted to equip a water separator mounted in a unit for treating a wet steam fed from a high pressure enclosure, so as to dry and contingently superheat said steam prior to injecting same into a turbine low pressure stage. This drier unit is constituted by at least a stack of separating sheets maintained in parallel relationship and at a slight angle with respect to the horizontal so as to allow the water provided by wet steam to flow toward a channel communicating with a manifold, and by means for guiding the steam between the sheets and evenly distributing it. This can be applied to steam turbines in nuclear power stations [fr

  19. Guide for the evaluation of physical protection equipment. Book 2: Volumes IV--VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberman, W.

    1977-06-01

    A guide for evaluating the performance of commercially available physical protection equipment has been prepared for use by U.S. NRC. Separate evaluation procedures are provided for each generic type of equipment contained in the companion document, Catalog of Physical Protection Equipment (NUREG-0274). Among the equipment parameters evaluated are sensitivity, area/volume of coverage, false/nuisance alarm rate, resistance to countermeasures, environmental requirements, installation parameters and maintenance. Four evaluation techniques are employed (inspections, analyses, demonstrations and tests); standard test equipment (both commercially available as well as developmental) to be used in the evaluation is listed. The following categories of equipment are covered: surveillance and alarm assessment components, contraband detection components, automated response components, general purpose display components, and general purpose communication components

  20. OXYGEN MANAGEMENT DURING ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    MOENNE VARGAS, MARÍA ISABE

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen additions are a common practice in winemaking, as oxygen has a positive effect in fermentative kinetics, biomass synthesis and improvement of color, structure and :flavor in treated wines. However, most oxygen additions are carried out heuristically through pump-over operations solely on a know-how basis, which is difficult to manage in terms of the exact quantity of oxygen transferred to the fermenting must. It is important to estímate the amount of oxygen added because...

  1. Separation of boron isotopes by infrared laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazuya

    1995-01-01

    Vibrationally excited chemical reaction of boron tribromide (BBr 3 ) with oxygen (O 2 ) is utilized to separate 10 B and 11 B. Infrared absorption of 10 BBr 3 is at 11.68μ and that of 11 BBr 3 is at 12.18μ. The wavelengths of ammonia laser made in the laboratory were mainly 11.71μ, 12.08μ and 12.26μ. Irradiation was done by focussing the laser with ZnSe lens on the sample gas (mixture of 1.5 torr of natural BBr 3 and 4.5 torr of O 2 ) in the reaction cell. Depletions of 10 BBr 3 and 11 BBr 3 due to chemical reaction of BBr 3 with O 2 was measured with infrared spectrometer. The maximum separation factor β( 10 B/ 11 B) obtained was about 4.5 (author)

  2. Modelling of multifrequency IRMPD for laser isotope separation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    This model was exploited in analysing our MPD results ... separation method for 235U, the fissile isotope of uranium needed to fuel light water ... for analysis. The radio-GC consisted of a commercial GC (Shimadzu GC-R1A) equipped with thermal conductivity detector (TCD) and an indigenously built proportional counter.

  3. JCE Online: Equipment Buyers Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    1999-01-01

    The Equipment Buyers Guide was edited by Jo Rita Jordan. The new Equipment Buyers Guide, bound into the back of this issue, is also a new resource of JCE Internet. This resource provides an online source for the information contained in the printed guide. Placing this information online allows us to regularly update it and to provide live links to the suppliers' WWW sites. The organization of the online version parallels that of the print version. There is an alphabetical list of suppliers and a categorical listing. Links to these lists are provided on every page in the left-hand navigation bar. To quickly find information about a particular supplier, you click Supplier List, click the letter that begins the supplier's name, and scroll through the list to find the supplier. To find which suppliers provide a particular type of instrument or equipment, use the Categories link; click the category of the equipment you are looking for and then click the link to a supplier. You will then be taken to an alphabetical supplier listing page where you can scroll until you find the particular supplier of the item for which you are looking. Once you have found a supplier, the online Equipment Buyers Guide gives you the traditional contact information. But in addition, you also get one-click access to the WWW sites of the suppliers that have them. Depending on the site, you should be able to find information about the items that you seek and may even be able to order the items online! We think that you will find the online version of the Equipment Buyers Guide useful. To make it more useful, please send your suggestions, any errors or omissions you find, and any additional categories to the editor at jjordan@world.std.com The online Equipment Buyers Guide can be found at JCE Online at http://JChemEd.chem.wisc.edu/JCEWWW/Resources/EBG/ JCE Online in '99 JCE Online is your online source of "all things JCE". In order to provide you with an even more useful online resource, JCE

  4. Division of Scientific Equipment - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halik, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Scientific Equipment Division consists of the Design Group and the Mechanical Workshop. The activity of the Division includes the following: * designs of devices and equipment for experiments in physics; their mechanical construction and assembly. In particular, these are vacuum chambers and installations for HV and UHV;* maintenance and upgrading of the existing installations and equipment in our Institute; * participation of our engineers and technicians in design works, equipment assembly and maintenance for experiments in foreign laboratories. The Design Group is equipped with PC-computers and AutoCAD graphic software (release 2000 and Mechanical Desktop 4.0) and an A0 plotter, which allow us to make drawings and 2- and 3-dimensional mechanical documentation to the world standards. The Mechanical Workshop offers a wide range of machining and treatment methods with satisfactory tolerances and surface quality. They include: * turning - cylindrical elements of a length up to 2000 mm and a diameter up to 400 mm, and also disc type elements of a diameter up to 600 mm and a length not exceeding 300 mm, * milling - elements of length up to 1000 mm and gear wheels of diameter up to 300 mm, * grinding - flat surfaces of dimensions up to 300 mm x 1000 mm and cylindrical elements of a diameter up to 200 mm and a length up to 800 mm, * drilling - holes of a diameter up to 50 mm, * welding - electrical and gas welding, including TIG vacuum-tight welding, * soft and hard soldering, * mechanical works including precision engineering, * plastics treatment - machining and polishing using diamond milling, modelling, lamination of various shapes and materials, including plexiglas, scintillators and light-guides, * painting - paint spraying with possibility of using furnace-fired drier of internal dimensions of 800 mm x 800 mm x 800 mm. Our workshop is equipped with the CNC milling machine which can be used for machining of work pieces up to 500 kg. The machine

  5. Strategic Consolidation of Medical War Reserve Material (WRM) Equipment Unit Type Code (UTC) Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    anomalies such as listing 640 deployments in 2003 but only 11 for 2005 and 3 for 2008. The poor data quality was attributed to a lost hard drive 31...Dosimetry Equipment 9171 Expeditionary Dental Clinic 902P RAD/ NUC Dosimetry A ug Equipm ent 9171 High A ltitude A ir Dr op M ission Support 903A Oxygen

  6. Used energy-related laboratory equipment grant program for institutions of higher learning. Eligible equipment catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This is a listing of energy related equipment available through the Energy-Related Laboratory Equipment Grant Program which grants used equipment to institutions of higher education for energy-related research. Information included is an overview of the program, how to apply for a grant of equipment, eligibility requirements, types of equipment available, and the costs for the institution.

  7. Data center equipment location and monitoring system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A data center equipment location system includes both hardware and software to provide for location, monitoring, security and identification of servers and other equipment in equipment racks. The system provides a wired alternative to the wireless RFID tag system by using electronic ID tags...... connected to each piece of equipment, each electronic ID tag connected directly by wires to a equipment rack controller on the equipment rack. The equipment rack controllers then link over a local area network to a central control computer. The central control computer provides an operator interface......, and runs a software application program that communicates with the equipment rack controllers. The software application program of the central control computer stores IDs of the equipment rack controllers and each of its connected electronic ID tags in a database.; The software application program...

  8. New characterisation method of electrical and electronic equipment wastes (WEEE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menad, N., E-mail: n.menad@brgm.fr [BRGM, 3 av. C. Guillemin, 45060 Orléans (France); Guignot, S. [BRGM, 3 av. C. Guillemin, 45060 Orléans (France); Houwelingen, J.A. van, E-mail: recy.cling@iae.nl [Recycling Consult, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► A novel method of characterisation of components contained in WEEE has been developed. ► This technique was applied on several samples generated from different recycling plants. ► Handheld NIR and XRF were used to determine types of plastics and flame retardants. ► WEEE processing flow-sheet was suggested. - Abstract: Innovative separation and beneficiation techniques of various materials encountered in electrical and electronic equipment wastes (WEEE) is a major improvement for its recycling. Mechanical separation-oriented characterisation of WEEE was conducted in an attempt to evaluate the amenability of mechanical separation processes. Properties such as liberation degree of fractions (plastics, metals ferrous and non-ferrous), which are essential for mechanical separation, are analysed by means of a grain counting approach. Two different samples from different recycling industries were characterised in this work. The first sample is a heterogeneous material containing different types of plastics, metals (ferrous and non-ferrous), printed circuit board (PCB), rubber and wood. The second sample contains a mixture of mainly plastics. It is found for the first sample that all aluminium particles are free (100%) in all investigated size fractions. Between 92% and 95% of plastics are present as free particles; however, 67% in average of ferromagnetic particles are liberated. It can be observed that only 42% of ferromagnetic particles are free in the size fraction larger than 20 mm. Particle shapes were also quantified manually particle by particle. The results show that the particle shapes as a result of shredding, turn out to be heterogeneous, thereby complicating mechanical separation processes. In addition, the separability of various materials was ascertained by a sink–float analysis and eddy current separation. The second sample was separated by automatic sensor sorting in four different products: ABS, PC–ABS, PS and rest product. The

  9. New characterisation method of electrical and electronic equipment wastes (WEEE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menad, N.; Guignot, S.; Houwelingen, J.A. van

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel method of characterisation of components contained in WEEE has been developed. ► This technique was applied on several samples generated from different recycling plants. ► Handheld NIR and XRF were used to determine types of plastics and flame retardants. ► WEEE processing flow-sheet was suggested. - Abstract: Innovative separation and beneficiation techniques of various materials encountered in electrical and electronic equipment wastes (WEEE) is a major improvement for its recycling. Mechanical separation-oriented characterisation of WEEE was conducted in an attempt to evaluate the amenability of mechanical separation processes. Properties such as liberation degree of fractions (plastics, metals ferrous and non-ferrous), which are essential for mechanical separation, are analysed by means of a grain counting approach. Two different samples from different recycling industries were characterised in this work. The first sample is a heterogeneous material containing different types of plastics, metals (ferrous and non-ferrous), printed circuit board (PCB), rubber and wood. The second sample contains a mixture of mainly plastics. It is found for the first sample that all aluminium particles are free (100%) in all investigated size fractions. Between 92% and 95% of plastics are present as free particles; however, 67% in average of ferromagnetic particles are liberated. It can be observed that only 42% of ferromagnetic particles are free in the size fraction larger than 20 mm. Particle shapes were also quantified manually particle by particle. The results show that the particle shapes as a result of shredding, turn out to be heterogeneous, thereby complicating mechanical separation processes. In addition, the separability of various materials was ascertained by a sink–float analysis and eddy current separation. The second sample was separated by automatic sensor sorting in four different products: ABS, PC–ABS, PS and rest product. The

  10. Separation of UO2 powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristic, M.M.

    1962-01-01

    This report deals with theoretical approach to separation process and describes the constructed separator with liquid medium. The separator was calibrated and tested with Al 3 O 3 and UO 2 . it has been concluded that it can be used for separation of powders with sufficient accuracy if the separation is performed for a longer period of time. The separated fractions were characterised by microscopic method and the UO 2 fraction additionally by sedimentation method

  11. Polymer coatings as separator layers for microbial fuel cell cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Watson, Valerie J.

    2011-03-01

    Membrane separators reduce oxygen flux from the cathode into the anolyte in microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but water accumulation and pH gradients between the separator and cathode reduces performance. Air cathodes were spray-coated (water-facing side) with anion exchange, cation exchange, and neutral polymer coatings of different thicknesses to incorporate the separator into the cathode. The anion exchange polymer coating resulted in greater power density (1167 ± 135 mW m-2) than a cation exchange coating (439 ± 2 mW m-2). This power output was similar to that produced by a Nafion-coated cathode (1114 ± 174 mW m-2), and slightly lower than the uncoated cathode (1384 ± 82 mW m-2). Thicker coatings reduced oxygen diffusion into the electrolyte and increased coulombic efficiency (CE = 56-64%) relative to an uncoated cathode (29 ± 8%), but decreased power production (255-574 mW m-2). Electrochemical characterization of the cathodes ex situ to the MFC showed that the cathodes with the lowest charge transfer resistance and the highest oxygen reduction activity produced the most power in MFC tests. The results on hydrophilic cathode separator layers revealed a trade off between power and CE. Cathodes coated with a thin coating of anion exchange polymer show promise for controlling oxygen transfer while minimally affecting power production. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Control strategies for laser separation of carbon isotopes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laser isotope separation (LIS) by infrared laser chemistry of polyatomic molecules has come a long way since its discovery. The last decade has seen considerable efforts in scaling up of the process for light elements like carbon, oxygen and silicon. These efforts aim at ways to improve both the enrichment factor and the ...

  13. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldor, A.; Rabinowitz, P.

    1979-01-01

    A method of separating the isotopes of an element is described, which comprises the steps of (i) subjecting molecules of a gaseous compound of the element simultaneously to two infrared radiations of different wavelengths, the first radiation having a wavelength which corresponds to an absorption band of the compound, which in turn corresponds to a mode of molecular motion in which there is participation by atoms of the element, and the second radiation having a power density greater than 10 6 watts per cm 2 , thereby exciting molecules of the compound in an isotopically selective manner, this step being conducted in such manner that the excited molecules either receive a level of energy sufficient to cause them to undergo conversion by unimolecular decomposition or receive a level of energy sufficient to cause them to undergo conversion by reaction with molecules of another gas present for that purpose; and (ii) separating and recovering converted molecules from unconverted molecules. (author)

  14. Process for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emile, B.F.M.

    1983-11-01

    A process is claimed for isotopic separation applied to isotopes of elements that can be placed in at least a physicochemical form in which the isotopic atoms or the molecules containing these atoms can be easily displaced and for which there are selective radiations preferentially absorbed by the isotopes of a certain type or by the molecules containing them, said absorption substantially increasing the probability of ionization of said atoms or molecules relative to the atoms or molecules that did not absorb the radiation. The process consists of placing the isotopic mixture in such a form, subjecting it in a separation zone to selective radiations and to an electrical field that produces migration of positive ions toward the negative electrodes and negative ions toward the positive electrodes, and withdrawing from certain such zones the fractions thus enriched in certain isotopes

  15. High gradient magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prothero, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    In a process in which magnetic material is trapped in a filter disposed in a magnetic field, and is unloaded by passing a fluid through the filter in the absence of the initial magnetic field, the magnetic field is first reduced to an intermediate value to allow unloading of the more weakly magnetic particles, the more strongly magnetic particles being retained and subsequently unloaded by further reduction of the magnetic field. Stage by stage reduction of the magnetic field during unloading allows separation of different species from the mixture. As an example the method can be applied to the separation of uranium compounds from mine ores. The uranium compounds are magnetic, while most of the other constituents of the ore are non-magnetic. The starting material is a suspension of the ore. Water is used for unloading. The filter material in this case is stainless steel balls. (author)

  16. Early Cambrian oxygen minimum zone-like conditions at Chengjiang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammarlund, Emma U.; Gaines, Robert R.; Prokopenko, Maria G.

    2017-01-01

    in early Cambrian marine settings and the relationship of those conditions to early metazoan ecosystems is still emerging. Here, we report multi-proxy geochemical data from two drill cores through the early Cambrian (Series 2) Yu’anshan Formation of Yunnan, China. Results reveal dynamic water...... oxygen-minimum zones. The oxygenated benthic environments in which the Chengjiang biota thrived were proximal to, but sharply separated from, the open ocean by a persistent anoxic water mass that occupied a portion of the outer shelf. Oxygen depletion in the lower water column developed dynamically...

  17. Materials separation and enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This volume supplies information in 16 individual contributions on projects sponsored by the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT) with regard to the above mentioned topic, on the state of the art, on new technologies, and on international cooperation; two of the contributions have been recorded separately for the databases INIS and ENERGY. The contributions are supplemented by a survey of the projects sponsored and by a list of publications which have resulted from the sponsored projects. (EF) [de

  18. Laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The claimed invention is a method of isotope separation based on the unimolecular decomposition of vibrationally excited negative ions which are produced in the reaction of thermal electrons and molecules which have been vibrationally excited in an isotope selective manner. This method is especially applicable to molecules represented by the formula MF 6 wherein M is selected from the group consisting of U, S, W, Se, Te, Mo, Re and Tc

  19. Laser isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldor, A.

    1976-01-01

    The claimed invention is a method of isotope separation based on the unimolecular decomposition of vibrationally excited negative ions which are produced in the reaction of thermal electrons and molecules which have been vibrationally excited in an isotope selective manner. This method is especially applicable to molecules represented by the formula MF 6 wherein M is selected from the group consisting of U, S, W, Se, Te, Mo, Re, and Tc. 9 claims, 1 drawing figure

  20. Eddy energy separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhutdinov, R.Kh.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1982-01-01

    An eddy energy separator is proposed which contains a chamber with nozzle input of compressed air and sleeves for cold and hot streams. In order to increase productivity, the chamber is cylindrical and the nozzle input is arranged along its axis. Coaxially to the input, there is an adaptor forming an annular channel with its end arranged in an angle to the axis of the chamber. The nozzle input and the adaptor are installed with the possibility of relative movement.

  1. URANIUM SEPARATION PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, W.L.

    1962-04-17

    A method of separating uranium oxides from PuO/sub 2/, ThO/sub 2/, and other actinide oxides is described. The oxide mixture is suspended in a fused salt melt and a chlorinating agent such as chlorine gas or phosgene is sparged through the suspension. Uranium oxides are selectively chlorinated and dissolve in the melt, which may then be filtered to remove the unchlorinated oxides of the other actinides. (AEC)

  2. Colour Separation and Aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Haigh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Aversion to achromatic patterns is well documented but relatively little is known about discomfort from chromatic patterns. Large colour differences are uncommon in the natural environment and deviation from natural statistics makes images uncomfortable (Fernandez and Wilkins 2008, Perception, 37(7, 1098–113; Juricevic et al 2010, Perception, 39(7, 884–899. We report twelve studies documenting a linear increase in aversion to chromatic square-wave gratings as a function of the separation in UCS chromaticity between the component bars, independent of their luminance contrast. Two possible explanations for the aversion were investigated: (1 accommodative response, or (2 cortical metabolic demand. We found no correlation between chromaticity separation and accommodative lag or variance in lag, measured using an open-field autorefractor. However, near infrared spectroscopy of the occipital cortex revealed a larger oxyhaemoglobin response to patterns with large chromaticity separation. The aversion may be cortical in origin and does not appear to be due to accommodation.

  3. Separation of gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus is described for the separation of a gaseous plasma mixture into components in some of which the original concentration of a specific ion has been greatly increased or decreased, comprising: a source for converting the gaseous mixture into a train of plasma packets; an open-ended vessel with a main section and at least one branch section, adapted to enclose along predetermined tracks the original plasma packets in the main section, and the separated plasma components in the branch sections; drive means for generating travelling magnetic waves along the predetermined tracks with the magnetic flux vector of the waves transverse to each of the tracks; and means for maintaining phase coherence between the plasma packets and the magnetic waves at a value needed for accelerating the components of the packets to different velocities and in such different directions that the plasma of each packet is divided into distinctly separate packets in some of which the original concentration of a specific ion has been greatly increased or decreased, and which plasma packets are collected from the branch sections of the vessels. (author)

  4. Centrifugal gas separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanagawa, A; Fujii, O; Nakamoto, H

    1970-03-09

    Counter currents in the rotary drum of a centrifugal gas separator are produced by providing, at either end of the drum in the vicinity of the circumferential and central positions, respectively, outflow and inflow holes with a communicating passage external to the drum there between whereby gaseous counter currents are caused to flow within the drum and travel through the passage which is provided with gas flow adjustment means. Furthermore, the space defined by the stationary portion of the passage and the rotor drum is additionally provided with a screw pump or throttling device at either its stationary side or drum side or both in order to produce a radially directed gas flow therewithin. A gas mixture is axially admitted into the drum while centrifugal force and a cooling element provided therebelow cause an increase in gas pressure along and a gaseous flow toward the wall member, whereupon the comparatively high pressured circumferentially distributed gas is extracted from the outlet holes, flows through the external gas passage and back into the lower pressured drum core through the inlet holes, thus producing the desired counter currents. The gases thus separated are withdrawn along axially provided discharge pipes. Accordingly, this invention permits heating elements which were formerly used to produce thermal convection currents to be disposed of and allows the length of the rotor drum to be more efficiently utilized to enhance separation efficiency.

  5. Radioactive substance separation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takuhiko.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable separation of fission products, radioactive corrosion products and the likes in primary coolants with no requirement for the replacement of separation system during plant service life, by providing protruded magnetic pole plates in a liquid metal flow channel to thereby form slopes magnetic fields. Constitution: A plurality of magnetic pole plates are disposed vertically in a comb-like arrangement so as not to contact with each other along the direction of flow in a rectangular primary coolant pipeway at the exit of the reactor core in an LMFBR type reactor. Large magnetic poles are provided to the upper and lower sides of the pipeway and coils are wound on the side opposed to the pipeway. When electrical current is supplied to the coils, the magnetic pole is magnetized intensely and thus the magnetic pole plates are also magnetized intensely and thus the magnetic pole plates are also magnetized intensely to form large gradient in the magnetic fields between the upper and lower magnetic plates, whereby ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic fission products and radioactive corrosion products in the coolants are intensely adsorbed and not detached by the flow of the coolants. Accordingly, the fission products and the radioactive corrosion products can surely be removed with no requirement for the exchange of separation system during plant service life. (Horiuchi, T.)

  6. Separation of contaminated concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakiewicz, J.L.; Reymer, A.P.S.

    1990-01-01

    Separating the contaminated parts from the non-contaminated parts from decommissioned nuclear facilities may strongly reduce the amount of contaminated concrete. The reduction in volume of the radioactive contaminated concrete is dependent on how much cementstone is in the concrete. This research program shows that the radioactive contamination is mostly in the cementstone. However the choice that the cementstone parts, (or better said the radioactive parts) are smaller than 1 mm may not always be true. Normally the cementstone takes about 30% of the total concrete volume. A separation procedure composed by a combination of milling and thermal shock has been assessed. Both the cold and hot thermal shock in combination with milling are not able to separate the cementstone from the larger aggregates completely. However, the cementstone from the concrete with a low nominal grain size seems to be almost completely removed by the combination cold thermal shock/milling, while the cementstone from the concrete with a high nominal grain size seems to be almost completely removed by the combination hot thermal shock/milling. After both methods a layer of cementstone was still visible on the aggregates. Washing followed by a nitric acid treatment removed each 2 wt% of cementstone

  7. Method of isotope separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, R K

    1975-05-22

    Isotopes of a gaseous compound can be separated by multi-infrared photoabsorption which follows a selective dissociation of the excited molecules by single photon absorption of photons of visible or UV radiation. The process involves three steps. Firstly, the molecules to be separated are irradiated with a high-energy IR laser, whereby the molecules of the compound containing the lighter isotopes are preferably excited. They are then irradiated by a second laser with UV or visible light whose frequency of radiation brings the excited molecules into a form in which they can be separated from the non-excited molecules. The third step is the reformation of the substances according to known methods. A power density of at least 10/sup 4/ watt/cm/sup 2/ per torr gas pressure with an irradiation time of 10/sup -10/ to 5 x 10/sup -5/ seconds in the presence of a second gas with at least 5 times higher partial pressure is necessary for the IR radiation. The method may be used for UF/sub 6/ for which an example is given here.

  8. Thermal analysis, optimization and design of a Martian oxygen production plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Venkatesh A.; Sridhar, K. R.

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to optimally design the thermal components of a system that uses carbon dioxide (CO2) from the Martian atmosphere to produce oxygen (O2) for spacecraft propulsion and/or life-support. Carbon dioxide is thermally decomposed into carbon monoxide (CO) and O2 followed by the electrochemical separation of O2. The design of the overall system and its various individual components depends on, among other things, the fraction of the stoichiometric yield of O2 that can be realized in the system and the temperature of operation of the electrochemical separation membrane. The analysis indicates that a substantial reduction could be obtained in the mass and power requirements of the system if the unreacted CO2 were to be recycled. The concepts of an optimum temperature of the zirconia cell and impracticality of plant operation at low cell efficiencies are also discussed. The design of the thermal equipment is such that the mass and power requirements of the individual components and of the overall system are optimized.

  9. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Pedersen, D B; Eysteinsson, T

    2004-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetazolamide and dorzolamide raise optic nerve oxygen tension (ONPO(2)) in pigs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether timolol, which belongs to another group of glaucoma drugs called beta...

  10. Home Oxygen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cold it can hurt your skin. Keep a fire extinguisher close by, and let your fire department know that you have oxygen in your ... any symptoms of illness. Medicare, Medicaid, and Commercial Insurance Certain insurance policies may pay for all your ...

  11. Central oxygen pipeline failure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    surgical intensive care unit (ICU), with two patients on full ventilation and ... uncertainty around the cause of the failure and the restoration, .... soon as its level also falls below three tons. Should ... (properly checked and closed prior to each anaesthetic). ... in use at the time of the central oxygen pipeline failure at Tygerberg.

  12. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is not a novel therapy in the true sense of the ... Intention-to-treat analysis showed benefit for ECMO, with a relative risk ... no doubt that VV-ECMO is an advance in medical technology, and that.

  13. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  14. Ocean Ridges and Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmuir, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The history of oxygen and the fluxes and feedbacks that lead to its evolution through time remain poorly constrained. It is not clear whether oxygen has had discrete steady state levels at different times in Earth's history, or whether oxygen evolution is more progressive, with trigger points that lead to discrete changes in markers such as mass independent sulfur isotopes. Whatever this history may have been, ocean ridges play an important and poorly recognized part in the overall mass balance of oxidants and reductants that contribute to electron mass balance and the oxygen budget. One example is the current steady state O2 in the atmosphere. The carbon isotope data suggest that the fraction of carbon has increased in the Phanerozoic, and CO2 outgassing followed by organic matter burial should continually supply more O2 to the surface reservoirs. Why is O2 not then increasing? A traditional answer to this question would relate to variations in the fraction of burial of organic matter, but this fraction appears to have been relatively high throughout the Phanerozoic. Furthermore, subduction of carbon in the 1/5 organic/carbonate proportions would contribute further to an increasingly oxidized surface. What is needed is a flux of oxidized material out of the system. One solution would be a modern oxidized flux to the mantle. The current outgassing flux of CO2 is ~3.4*1012 moles per year. If 20% of that becomes stored organic carbon, that is a flux of .68*1012 moles per year of reduced carbon. The current flux of oxidized iron in subducting ocean crust is ~2*1012 moles per year of O2 equivalents, based on the Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios in old ocean crust compared to fresh basalts at the ridge axis. This flux more than accounts for the incremental oxidizing power produced by modern life. It also suggests a possible feedback through oxygenation of the ocean. A reduced deep ocean would inhibit oxidation of ocean crust, in which case there would be no subduction flux of oxidized

  15. Glovebox atmosphere detritiation process using gas separation membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Digabel, M.; Truan, P.A.; Ducret, D.; Laquerbe, C.; Perriat, P.; Niepce, J.C.; Pelletier, T.

    2003-01-01

    The use of gas separation membranes in atmospheric detritiation systems has been studied. The main advantage of this new process is to reduce the number and/or the size of the equipment in comparison to conventional tritium removal systems. Owing to the constraints linked to tritium handling, the separation performances of several commercial hollow fiber organic membranes have been analyzed, under various operating conditions, with hydrogen/nitrogen or deuterium/nitrogen mixtures. The experiments are performed with small quantities of hydrogen or deuterium (5000 ppm). The experimental results allow to evaluate the separation efficiency of these membranes and to determine the appropriate operating conditions to apply to a membrane detritiation process

  16. Factors Determining the Oxygen Permeability of Biological Membranes: Oxygen Transport Across Eye Lens Fiber-Cell Plasma Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subczynski, Witold Karol; Widomska, Justyna; Mainali, Laxman

    2017-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-label oximetry allows the oxygen permeability coefficient to be evaluated across homogeneous lipid bilayer membranes and, in some cases, across coexisting membrane domains without their physical separation. The most pronounced effect on oxygen permeability is observed for cholesterol, which additionally induces the formation of membrane domains. In intact biological membranes, integral proteins induce the formation of boundary and trapped lipid domains with a low oxygen permeability. The effective oxygen permeability coefficient across the intact biological membrane is affected not only by the oxygen permeability coefficients evaluated for each lipid domain but also by the surface area occupied by these domains in the membrane. All these factors observed in fiber cell plasma membranes of clear human eye lenses are reviewed here.

  17. Separation of SRP waste sludge and supernate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Sludges and supernates were separated from Savannah River Plant waste slurries by centrifugation and sand filtration. This separation, a portion of a conceptual process for solidification and long-term storage of high-level radioactive wastes, was tested in shielded cells with small-scale process equipment. Procedures for the separation were developed in tests with nonradioactive materials. Then, in 13 tests with actual sludges and supernates, solids removal ranged from 90 to 99.2 vol percent and averaged 96.4 vol percent after two passes through a basket-type centrifuge. Concentrates from the tests, containing 0.05 to 0.2 vol percent solids, were clarified by sand filter columns to produce solutions of the soluble salts with less than 0.01 vol percent solids. About 700 liters of salt solution and 8 kilograms of washed, dried sludges were separated in the tests. Effects of sludge type, flocculant, flow rates, and batch size were evaluated. Washing and drying of centrifuged sludges were studied, and two types of dryers were tested. Ruthenium volatility during drying was negligible. Washing efficiency was determined by analyses of wash solutions and sludge products

  18. The ISOLDE experimental hall, wth the isotope separator in the upper left corner.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1969-01-01

    Beam tubes branch out from a switchyard, which by electrostatic deflectors direct beams of short-lived isotopes to various spectroscopic equipment. From left to right, Rudi Stoeckli at the separator control panel, Gilbert Droz and Henri Bersinger.

  19. Oxygen diffusion in monazite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Nakamura, M.; Watson, E. B.

    2004-09-01

    We report measurements of oxygen diffusion in natural monazites under both dry, 1-atm conditions and hydrothermal conditions. For dry experiments, 18O-enriched CePO4 powder and monazite crystals were sealed in Ag-Pd capsules with a solid buffer (to buffer at NNO) and annealed in 1-atm furnaces. Hydrothermal runs were conducted in cold-seal pressure vessels, where monazite grains were encapsulated with 18O-enriched water. Following the diffusion anneals, oxygen concentration profiles were measured with Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) using the reaction 18O(p,α)15N. Over the temperature range 850-1100 °C, the Arrhenius relation determined for dry diffusion experiments on monazite is given by: Under wet conditions at 100 MPa water pressure, over the temperature range 700-880 °C, oxygen diffusion can be described by the Arrhenius relationship: Oxygen diffusion under hydrothermal conditions has a significantly lower activation energy for diffusion than under dry conditions, as has been found the case for many other minerals, both silicate and nonsilicate. Given these differences in activation energies, the differences between dry and wet diffusion rates increase with lower temperatures; for example, at 600 °C, dry diffusion will be more than 4 orders of magnitude slower than diffusion under hydrothermal conditions. These disparate diffusivities will result in pronounced differences in the degree of retentivity of oxygen isotope signatures. For instance, under dry conditions (presumably rare in the crust) and high lower-crustal temperatures (∼800 °C), monazite cores of 70-μm radii will preserve O isotope ratios for about 500,000 years; by comparison, they would be retained at this temperature under wet conditions for about 15,000 years.

  20. Development of Separation Materials Containing Palladium for Hydrogen Isotopes Separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xiaojun; Luo Deli; Qian Xiaojing

    2010-01-01

    Displacement chromatography (DC) is a ascendant technique for hydrogen isotopes separation. The performance of separation materials is a key factor to determine the separation effect of DC. At present,kinds of materials are researched, including palladium materials and non-palladium materials. It is hardly replaceable because of its excellent separation performance, although palladium is expensive. The theory of hydrogen isotopes separation using DC was introduced at a brief manner, while several palladium separation materials were expatiated in detail(Pd/K, Pd-Al 2 O 3 , Pd-Pt alloy). Development direction of separation materials for DC was forecasted elementarily. (authors)