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Sample records for oxygen penetration depth

  1. Spatial sensitivity and penetration depth of three cerebral oxygenation monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunadi, Sonny; Leung, Terence S.; Elwell, Clare E.; Tachtsidis, Ilias

    2014-01-01

    The spatial sensitivities of NIRO-100, ISS Oximeter and TRS-20 cerebral oxygenation monitors are mapped using the local perturbation method to inform on their penetration depths and susceptibilities to superficial contaminations. The results show that TRS-20 has the deepest mean penetration depth and is less sensitive than the other monitors to a localized absorption change in the superficial layer. However, an integration time of more than five seconds is required by the TRS-20 to achieve an acceptable level of signal-to-noise ratio, which is the poorest amongst the monitors. With the exception of NIRO-100 continuous wave method, the monitors are not significantly responsive to layer-wide absorption change that occurs in the superficial layer. PMID:25401006

  2. The oxygen isotope effect on the in-plane penetration depth in cuprate superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, R; Shengelaya, A; Morenzoni, E; Conder, K; Savic, I M; Keller, H

    2004-01-01

    Muon spin rotation (μSR) studies of the oxygen isotope ( 16 O/ 18 O) effect (OIE) on the in-plane magnetic field penetration depth λ ab in cuprate high-temperature superconductors (HTS) are presented. First, the doping dependence of the OIE on the transition temperature T c in various HTS is briefly discussed. It is observed that different cuprate families show similar doping dependences of the OIE on T c . Then, bulk μSR, low-energy μSR, and magnetization studies of the total and site-selective OIE on λ ab are described in some detail. A substantial OIE on λ ab was observed in various cuprate families at all doping levels, suggesting that cuprate HTS are non-adiabatic superconductors. The experiments clearly demonstrate that the total OIE on T c and λ ab arise from the oxygen sites within the superconducting CuO 2 planes, demonstrating that the phonon modes involving the movement of planar oxygen are dominantly coupled to the supercarriers. Finally, it is shown that the OIE on T c and λ ab exhibit a relation that appears to be generic for different families of cuprate HTS. The observation of these unusual isotope effects implies that lattice effects play an essential role in cuprate HTS and have to be considered in any realistic model of high-temperature superconductivity

  3. The oxygen isotope effect on the in-plane penetration depth in cuprate superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khasanov, R [Physik-Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Shengelaya, A [Physik-Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Morenzoni, E [Laboratory for Muon Spin Spectroscopy, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Conder, K [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, ETH Zuerich and PSI Villigen, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Savic, I M [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); Keller, H [Physik-Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2004-10-13

    Muon spin rotation ({mu}SR) studies of the oxygen isotope ({sup 16}O/{sup 18}O) effect (OIE) on the in-plane magnetic field penetration depth {lambda}{sub ab} in cuprate high-temperature superconductors (HTS) are presented. First, the doping dependence of the OIE on the transition temperature T{sub c} in various HTS is briefly discussed. It is observed that different cuprate families show similar doping dependences of the OIE on T{sub c}. Then, bulk {mu}SR, low-energy {mu}SR, and magnetization studies of the total and site-selective OIE on {lambda}{sub ab} are described in some detail. A substantial OIE on {lambda}{sub ab} was observed in various cuprate families at all doping levels, suggesting that cuprate HTS are non-adiabatic superconductors. The experiments clearly demonstrate that the total OIE on T{sub c} and {lambda}{sub ab} arise from the oxygen sites within the superconducting CuO{sub 2} planes, demonstrating that the phonon modes involving the movement of planar oxygen are dominantly coupled to the supercarriers. Finally, it is shown that the OIE on T{sub c} and {lambda}{sub ab} exhibit a relation that appears to be generic for different families of cuprate HTS. The observation of these unusual isotope effects implies that lattice effects play an essential role in cuprate HTS and have to be considered in any realistic model of high-temperature superconductivity.

  4. Temperature Dependence of Apparent Respiratory Quotients and Oxygen Penetration Depth in Contrasting Lake Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, Sebastian; Gudasz, Cristian; Koehler, Birgit; Tranvik, Lars J.; Bastviken, David; Morales-Pineda, María.

    2017-11-01

    Lake sediments constitute an important compartment in the carbon cycle of lakes, by burying carbon over geological timescales and by production and emission of greenhouse gases. The degradation of organic carbon (OC) in lake sediments is linked to both temperature and oxygen (O2), but the interactive nature of this regulation has not been studied in lake sediments in a quantitative way. We present the first systematic investigation of the effects of temperature on the apparent respiratory quotient (RQ, i.e., the molar ratio between carbon dioxide (CO2) production and O2 consumption) in two contrasting lake sediments. Laboratory incubations of sediment cores of a humic lake and an eutrophic lake across a 1-21°C temperature gradient over 157 days revealed that both CO2 production and O2 consumption were positively, exponentially, and similarly dependent on temperature. The apparent RQ differed significantly between the lake sediments (0.63 ± 0.26 and 0.99 ± 0.28 in the humic and the eutrophic lake, respectively; mean ± SD) and was significantly and positively related to temperature. The O2 penetration depth into the sediment varied by a factor of 2 over the 1-21°C temperature range and was significantly, negatively, and similarly related to temperature in both lake sediments. Accordingly, increasing temperature may influence the overall extent of OC degradation in lake sediments by limiting O2 supply to aerobic microbial respiration to the topmost sediment layer, resulting in a concomitant shift to less effective anaerobic degradation pathways. This suggests that temperature may represent a key controlling factor of the OC burial efficiency in lake sediments.

  5. Influence of the impurities on the depth of penetration with carbon steel weldings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Savytsky

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the results of the research about the influence of the impurities on the depth of penetration with carbon steels weldings of different chemical composition are presented. These data suggest that presence of those impurities, such as sulphure and oxygen, in the steel, increases the depth of penetration to 1,3 - 1,5 times compared to welding refined steels. Applying activating fluxes for welding high tensile steels, provides an increase in the depth of penetration of 2 - 3 times.

  6. Carbon mineralization and oxygen dynamics in sediments with deep oxygen penetration, Lake Superior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiying; Crowe, Sean Andrew; Miklesh, David

    2012-01-01

    To understand carbon and oxygen dynamics in sediments with deep oxygen penetration, we investigated eight locations (160–318-m depth) throughout Lake Superior. Despite the 2–4 weight percent organic carbon content, oxygen penetrated into the sediment by 3.5 to > 12 cm at all locations. Such deep ...... volume-specific carbon degradation rates were 0.3–1.5 µmol cm−3 d−1; bioturbation coefficient near the sediment surface was 3–8 cm2 yr−1. These results indicate that carbon cycling in large freshwater systems conforms to many of the same trends as in marine systems.......To understand carbon and oxygen dynamics in sediments with deep oxygen penetration, we investigated eight locations (160–318-m depth) throughout Lake Superior. Despite the 2–4 weight percent organic carbon content, oxygen penetrated into the sediment by 3.5 to > 12 cm at all locations. Such deep......, suggesting that temporal variability in deeply oxygenated sediments may be greater than previously acknowledged. The oxygen uptake rates (4.4–7.7 mmol m−2 d−1, average 6.1 mmol m−2 d−1) and carbon mineralization efficiency (∼ 90% of deposited carbon) were similar to those in marine hemipelagic and pelagic...

  7. The penetrating depth analysis of Lunar Penetrating Radar onboard Chang’e-3 rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Shu-Guo; Su, Yan; Feng, Jian-Qing; Dai, Shun; Xiao, Yuan; Ding, Chun-Yu; Li, Chun-Lai

    2017-04-01

    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) has successfully been used to acquire a large amount of scientific data during its in-situ detection. The analysis of penetrating depth can help to determine whether the target is within the effective detection range and contribute to distinguishing useful echoes from noise. First, this study introduces two traditional methods, both based on a radar transmission equation, to calculate the penetrating depth. The only difference between the two methods is that the first method adopts system calibration parameters given in the calibration report and the second one uses high-voltage-off radar data. However, some prior knowledge and assumptions are needed in the radar equation and the accuracy of assumptions will directly influence the final results. Therefore, a new method termed the Correlation Coefficient Method (CCM) is provided in this study, which is only based on radar data without any a priori assumptions. The CCM can obtain the penetrating depth according to the different correlation between reflected echoes and noise. To be exact, there is a strong correlation in the useful reflected echoes and a random correlation in the noise between adjacent data traces. In addition, this method can acquire a variable penetrating depth along the profile of the rover, but only one single depth value can be obtained from traditional methods. Through a simulation, the CCM has been verified as an effective method to obtain penetration depth. The comparisons and analysis of the calculation results of these three methods are also implemented in this study. Finally, results show that the ultimate penetrating depth of Channel 1 and the estimated penetrating depth of Channel 2 range from 136.9 m to 165.5 m ({\\varepsilon }r=6.6) and from 13.0 m to 17.5 m ({\\varepsilon }r=2.3), respectively.

  8. Mathematical Based Calculation of Drug Penetration Depth in Solid Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Namazi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by out-of-control cells’ growth which affect cells and make them damaged. Many treatment options for cancer exist. Chemotherapy as an important treatment option is the use of drugs to treat cancer. The anticancer drug travels to the tumor and then diffuses in it through capillaries. The diffusion of drugs in the solid tumor is limited by penetration depth which is different in case of different drugs and cancers. The computation of this depth is important as it helps physicians to investigate about treatment of infected tissue. Although many efforts have been made on studying and measuring drug penetration depth, less works have been done on computing this length from a mathematical point of view. In this paper, first we propose phase lagging model for diffusion of drug in the tumor. Then, using this model on one side and considering the classic diffusion on the other side, we compute the drug penetration depth in the solid tumor. This computed value of drug penetration depth is corroborated by comparison with the values measured by experiments.

  9. Campbell penetration depth in Fe-based superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prommapan, Plegchart

    2011-01-01

    A 'true' critical current density, j c , as opposite to commonly measured relaxed persistent (Bean) current, j B , was extracted from the Campbell penetration depth, λ c (T,H) measured in single crystals of LiFeAs, and optimally electron-doped Ba(Fe 0.954 Ni 0.046 ) 2 As 2 (FeNi122). In LiFeAs, the effective pinning potential is nonparabolic, which follows from the magnetic field - dependent Labusch parameter α. At the equilibrium (upon field - cooling), α(H) is non-monotonic, but it is monotonic at a finite gradient of the vortex density. This behavior leads to a faster magnetic relaxation at the lower fields and provides a natural dynamic explanation for the fishtail (second peak) effect. We also find the evidence for strong pinning at the lower fields.The inferred field dependence of the pinning potential is consistent with the evolution from strong pinning, through collective pinning, and eventually to a disordered vortex lattice. The value of j c (2 K) ≅ 1.22 x 10 6 A/cm 2 provide an upper estimate of the current carrying capability of LiFeAs. Overall, vortex behavior of almost isotropic, fully-gapped LiFeAs is very similar to highly anisotropic d-wave cuprate superconductors, the similarity that requires further studies in order to understand unconventional superconductivity in cuprates and pnictides. In addition to LiFeAs, we also report the magnetic penetration depth in BaFe 2 As 2 based superconductors including irradiation of FeNi122. In unirradiated FeNi122, the maximum critical current value is, j c (2K) ≅ 3.3 x 10 6 A/cm 2 . The magnetic-dependent feature was observed near the transition temperature in FeTe 0.53 Se 0.47 and irradiated FeNi122. Because of this feature, further studies are required in order to properly calibrate the Campbell penetration depth. Finally, we detected the crossing between the magnetic penetration depth and London penetration depth in optimally hold-doped Ba 0.6 K 0.4 Fe 2 As 2 (BaK122) and isovalent doped BaFe 2 (As 0

  10. Estimation of penetration depth of fission products in cladding Hull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Moon; Jung, Yang Hong; Yoo, Byong Ok; Choo, Yong Sun; Hong, Kwon Pyo

    2005-01-01

    A disposal and a reprocessing for spent fuel rod with high burnup need de-cladding procedure. Pellet in this rod has been separated from a cladding hull to reduce a radioactivity of hull by chemical and mechanical methods. But fission products and actinides(U,Pu) still remain inside of cladding hull by chemical bonding and fission spike, which is called as 'contamination'. More specific removal of this contamination would have been considered. In this study, the sorts of fission products and penetration depth in hull were observed by EPMA test. To analyze this behavior, SRIM 2000 code was also used as energies of fission products and an oxide thickness of hull

  11. Ballistic Phonon Penetration Depth in Amorphous Silicon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Zhang, Qian; Cui, Zhiguang; Gerboth, Matthew; Zhao, Yang; Xu, Terry T; Walker, D Greg; Li, Deyu

    2017-12-13

    Thermal transport in amorphous silicon dioxide (a-SiO 2 ) is traditionally treated as random walks of vibrations owing to its greatly disordered structure, which results in a mean free path (MFP) approximately the same as the interatomic distance. However, this picture has been debated constantly and in view of the ubiquitous existence of thin a-SiO 2 layers in nanoelectronic devices, it is imperative to better understand this issue for precise thermal management of electronic devices. Different from the commonly used cross-plane measurement approaches, here we report on a study that explores the in-plane thermal conductivity of double silicon nanoribbons with a layer of a-SiO 2 sandwiched in-between. Through comparing the thermal conductivity of the double ribbon samples with that of corresponding single ribbons, we show that thermal phonons can ballistically penetrate through a-SiO 2 of up to 5 nm thick even at room temperature. Comprehensive examination of double ribbon samples with various oxide layer thicknesses and van der Waals bonding strengths allows for extraction of the average ballistic phonon penetration depth in a-SiO 2 . With solid experimental data demonstrating ballistic phonon transport through a-SiO 2 , this work should provide important insight into thermal management of electronic devices.

  12. Measuring penetration depth of electron beam welds. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.W.; Collins, M.C.; Mentesana, C.P.; Watterson, C.E.

    1975-07-01

    The feasibility of evaluating electron beam welds using state-of-the-art techniques in the fields of holographic interferometry, micro-resistance measurements, and heat transfer was studied. The holographic study was aimed at evaluating weld defects by monitoring variations in weld strength under mechanical stress. The study, along with successful work at another facility, proved the feasibility of this approach for evaluating welds, but it did not assign any limitations to the technique. The micro-resistance study was aimed at evaluating weld defects by measuring the electrical resistance across the weld junction as a function of distance along the circumference. Experimentation showed this method, although sensitive, is limited by the same factors affecting other conventional nondestructive tests. Nevertheless, it was successful at distinguishing between various depths of penetration. It was also shown to be a sensitive thickness gage for thin-walled parts. The infrared study was aimed at evaluating weld defects by monitoring heat transfer through the weld under transient thermal conditions. Experimentation showed that this theoretically sound technique is not workable with the infrared equipment currently available at Bendix Kansas City. (U.S.)

  13. Non-penetrating states of atomic oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, E.S.; Barowy, W.M.; Sakai, H.

    1988-01-01

    Atomic Rydberg transitions have been observed in the 1-5 μm emission spectrum of an oxygen discharge. Proper analysis of these lines requires reinterpretation of previous 3d-nf measurements by explicit inclusion of the theoretical F-level fine structure in the experimental line profiles. The revised triplet-quintet differences in the nF levels are now seen to vary smoothly with n, analogous to the polarization energy in an Edlen plot. The new levels, 5g, 6g, 7g, and 7h also form a straight line according to the polarization formula, thereby confirming the ionization limit to a higher accuracy. (orig.)

  14. Lidar Penetration Depth Observations for Constraining Cloud Longwave Feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant de Guelis, T.; Chepfer, H.; Noel, V.; Guzman, R.; Winker, D. M.; Kay, J. E.; Bonazzola, M.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite-borne active remote sensing Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations [CALIPSO; Winker et al., 2010] and CloudSat [Stephens et al., 2002] provide direct measurements of the cloud vertical distribution, with a very high vertical resolution. The penetration depth of the laser of the lidar Z_Opaque is directly linked to the LongWave (LW) Cloud Radiative Effect (CRE) at Top Of Atmosphere (TOA) [Vaillant de Guélis et al., in review]. In addition, this measurement is extremely stable in time making it an excellent observational candidate to verify and constrain the cloud LW feedback mechanism [Chepfer et al., 2014]. In this work, we present a method to decompose the variations of the LW CRE at TOA using cloud properties observed by lidar [GOCCP v3.0; Guzman et al., 2017]. We decompose these variations into contributions due to changes in five cloud properties: opaque cloud cover, opaque cloud altitude, thin cloud cover, thin cloud altitude, and thin cloud emissivity [Vaillant de Guélis et al., in review]. We apply this method, in the real world, to the CRE variations of CALIPSO 2008-2015 record, and, in climate model, to LMDZ6 and CESM simulations of the CRE variations of 2008-2015 period and of the CRE difference between a warm climate and the current climate. In climate model simulations, the same cloud properties as those observed by CALIOP are extracted from the CFMIP Observation Simulator Package (COSP) [Bodas-Salcedo et al., 2011] lidar simulator [Chepfer et al., 2008], which mimics the observations that would be performed by the lidar on board CALIPSO satellite. This method, when applied on multi-model simulations of current and future climate, could reveal the altitude of cloud opacity level observed by lidar as a strong constrain for cloud LW feedback, since the altitude feedback mechanism is physically explainable and the altitude of cloud opacity accurately observed by lidar.

  15. The oxygen-isotope effect on the in-plane penetration depth in underdoped Y{sub 1-x} Pr{sub x} Ba{sub 2} Cu{sub 3} O{sub 7-{delta}} as revealed by muon-spin rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khasanov, R [Physik-Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Shengelaya, A [Physik-Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Conder, K [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, ETH Zuerich and PSI Villigen, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Morenzoni, E [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Savic, I M [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Keller, H [Physik-Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2003-01-22

    The oxygen-isotope ({sup 16}O/{sup 18}O) effect (OIE) on the in-plane penetration depth {lambda}{sub ab} (0) in underdoped Y{sub 1-x} Pr{sub x} Ba{sub 2} Cu{sub 3} O{sub 7-{delta}} was studied by means of muon-spin rotation. A pronounced OIE on {lambda}{sub ab}{sup -2} (0) was observed with a relative isotope shift of {delta}{lambda}{sub ab}{sup -2} /{lambda} {sub ab}{sup -2} = -5(2)% for x=0.3 and -9(2)% for x=0.4. The OIE exponents of T{sub c} and of {lambda}{sub ab}{sup -2} (0) exhibit a relation that appears to be generic for cuprate superconductors. (letter to the editor)

  16. Considerations on Dop (Depth Of Penetration) Test for Evaluation of Ceramics Materials Used in Ballistic Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Ioan-Dan; Dobriţa, Florin

    2017-12-01

    Tremendous amount of funds and other resorces were invested in studying the response of ceramic materials under ballistic impact, the main goal being to find a way to increase the protection of soldiers and the vehicles used in the modern battlespace. Using of ceramic materials especially carbon based (carbides), nitrogen based (nitrides) and oxygen based (oxides) ceramics in order to increase the protection level of ballistic equipment could be, sometimes, a big challenge when trying to use the proper test in order to evaluate and compare their performances. The role of the tests is to provide a better understanding of their response in different situations and, as a consequence, to make them more efficient as armour components through future improvements. The paper presents shortly the main tests which are used and eventually standardised for evaluating the ballistic behaviour of the ceramics and other armour components, with a special focus to DOP (Depth of Penetration) Tests.

  17. Closed Loop Control of Penetration Depth during CO2 Laser Lap Welding Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ancona

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe a novel spectroscopic closed loop control system capable of stabilizing the penetration depth during laser welding processes by controlling the laser power. Our novel approach is to analyze the optical emission from the laser generated plasma plume above the keyhole, to calculate its electron temperature as a process-monitoring signal. Laser power has been controlled by using a quantitative relationship between the penetration depth and the plasma electron temperature. The sensor is able to correlate in real time the difference between the measured electron temperature and its reference value for the requested penetration depth. Accordingly the closed loop system adjusts the power, thus maintaining the penetration depth.

  18. Study of the disorder by means of the superconducting penetration depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arce, R.D.

    1982-11-01

    Measurements of the weak magnetic field penetration depth in the amorphous superconducting systems Lasub(1-x) Msub(x), being M = Cu, Al, Ga and Au, and in the Zr 70 Cu 30 system are presented. Measurements of the sample geometrical factors and the flux expulsion between the lowest temperature reached and the critical temperature, allows the determination of zero temperature penetration depth. The measurement of the flux expulsion as a function of temperature is used to determine the temperature dependence of penetration depth, used to evaluate the temperature dependence superconducting gap. The magnetization measurements have been made using an rf-SQUID. The evolution of the penetration depth with annealing is studied in the La 70 Cu 30 and Zr 70 Cu 30 systems. Measurements of the electrical resistivity and the critical temperature are used to verify the Gorkov equations in these materials. The variation of the penetration depth with annealing suggests that a metallurgical phase separation occurs within the submicrometer range. Penetration depth measurement is a tool to detect this type of phase separation in high kappa materials. (M.E.L.) [es

  19. Spherical and cylindrical cavity expansion models based prediction of penetration depths of concrete targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochao Jin

    Full Text Available The cavity expansion theory is most widely used to predict the depth of penetration of concrete targets. The main purpose of this work is to clarify the differences between the spherical and cylindrical cavity expansion models and their scope of application in predicting the penetration depths of concrete targets. The factors that influence the dynamic cavity expansion process of concrete materials were first examined. Based on numerical results, the relationship between expansion pressure and velocity was established. Then the parameters in the Forrestal's formula were fitted to have a convenient and effective prediction of the penetration depth. Results showed that both the spherical and cylindrical cavity expansion models can accurately predict the depth of penetration when the initial velocity is lower than 800 m/s. However, the prediction accuracy decreases with the increasing of the initial velocity and diameters of the projectiles. Based on our results, it can be concluded that when the initial velocity is higher than the critical velocity, the cylindrical cavity expansion model performs better than the spherical cavity expansion model in predicting the penetration depth, while when the initial velocity is lower than the critical velocity the conclusion is quite the contrary. This work provides a basic principle for selecting the spherical or cylindrical cavity expansion model to predict the penetration depth of concrete targets.

  20. Impact of different solar penetration depths on climate simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three different estimates of shortwave attenuation depth (SWAD of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR derived from remotely sensed ocean colour data have been tested in an ocean general circulation model (OGCM forced with interannual atmospheric forcings. Two estimates (referred to as [Kd(PAR]1-1 and [Kd(PAR]2-1 are calculated from different algorithms based on the diffusive attenuation coefficient at 490 nm and the third one ([Kd(AVE]1-1 is just an average of [Kd(PAR]1-1 and [Kd(PAR]2-1. [Kd(PAR]2-1 is larger than [Kd(PAR]1-1 almost everywhere in the tropical oceans. Our results show that the OGCM with [Kd(PAR]2-1 produces warmer sea surface temperature (SST in the eastern equatorial Pacific and Atlantic and leads to reduce a cold bias in the equatorial cold tongue regions. It has warmer subsurface temperatures in the low latitude, a slower meridional velocity and Pacific equatorial undercurrent (EUC than the model with [Kd(PAR]1-1. These results are similar to previous studies, although we use a different model and different methods. This study has further analysis and firstly reveals that slower EUC and meridional velocity in the model with [Kd(PAR]2-1 are mainly related to the changes of the acceleration due to zonal density gradient. This acceleration driving the EUC eastward in the subsurface becomes smaller in the subsurface along the equatorial Pacific. However, near the sea surface, the zonally averaged accelerations over the different ocean basins are larger in the model with [Kd(PAR]2-1 than that with [Kd(PAR]1-1, which pushes back the poleward meridional transport. The interannual variability in the model with [Kd(PAR]2-1 is generally weaker than that in the experiment with [Kd(PAR]1-1 due to a deeper mixed layer depth. The vertical temperature errors averaged horizontally within the domain of 30°S to 30°N in the experiment with [Kd(AVE]1-1 are almost in the middle of errors of the other two experiments. This indicates that

  1. Convenient measurement of the residual stress using X-ray penetration depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Takayoshi; Shibano, Junichi

    1994-01-01

    The residual stress measured with a characteristic X-ray is usually evaluated as a surface stress. However, it is a weighted mean value over all penetration depth of X-ray. Thus, the classical sin 2 Ψ method with the characteristic X-ray is difficult to use for measuring the steep gradient of residual stress that occurs along the depth direction in a subsurface layer of the material after cold rolling and grinding. This paper presents a convenient method of the residual stress measurement along the depth direction in a subsurface layer using the penetration depth depending on a characteristic X-ray. The residual stress distribution of JIS SKS51 steel plate was measured as an example of applying this method. As a result, it could be confirmed that a residual stress distribution along the depth direction in a subsurface layer could be evaluated nondestructively by this convenient method. (author)

  2. Numerical analysis on effective electric field penetration depth for interdigital impedance sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chon-ung; Jong, Hakchol; Ro, Cholwu; Pak, Gilhung; Im, Songil; Li, Guofeng; Li, Jie; Song, Yunho

    2013-01-01

    Interdigital (finger-like) electrodes are widely used for electrical impedance and capacitance tomography of composite dielectric materials and complex insulating structures. Because of their advantages, they are now effectively introduced as capacitance sensors into a variety of industrial branches, agriculture, medical science, biological engineering, military branches, etc. In order to effectively apply the so-called interdigital impedance sensors in practice, of great importance is to optimize the sensor design parameters such as the electric field penetration depth, signal strength and so on. The general design principles of the interdigital capacitance sensor have been discussed for a long time by many researchers. However, there is no consensus on the definition of the effective electric field penetration depth of interdigital electrode. This paper discusses how to determine the effective electric field penetration depth of interdigital sensor on the basis of the refractive principle of electric field intensity and the FEM analyses of electric field distribution and capacitance for the sensor model.

  3. Penetration depth and nonlocal manipulation of quantum spin hall edge states in chiral honeycomb nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Uddin, Salah; Wang, Jun; Wu, Jiansheng; Liu, Jun-Feng

    2017-08-08

    We have studied numerically the penetration depth of quantum spin hall edge states in chiral honeycomb nanoribbons based on the Green's function method. The changing of edge orientation from armchair to zigzag direction decreases the penetration depth drastically. The penetration depth is used to estimate the gap opened for the finite-size effect. Beside this, we also proposed a nonlocal transistor based on the zigzag-like chiral ribbons in which the current is carried at one edge and the manipulation is by the edge magnetization at the other edge. The difficulty that the edge magnetization is unstable in the presence of a ballistic current can be removed by this nonlocal manipulation.

  4. Evidence of weak pair coupling in the penetration depth of bi-based high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.R.; Sun, Yang Ren; Ossandon, J.G.; Christen, D.K.; Chakoumakos, B.C.; Sales, B.C.; Kerchner, H.R.; Sonder, E.

    1990-01-01

    The magnetic penetration depth λ(T) has been investigated in Bi(Pb)SrCaCuO high-T c compounds having 2- and 3-layers of copper-oxygen per unit cell. Studies of the magnetization in the vortex state were employed and the results were compared with weak and strong coupling calculations. The temperature dependence of λ is described well by BCS theory in the clean limit, giving evidence for weak pair coupling in this family of materials. For the short component of the λ tensor, we obtain values of 292 and 220 nm (T = 0) for Bi-2212 and (BiPb)-2223, respectively

  5. Temperature dependence of the experimental penetration depth of superconducting thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, H.J.; Gruenfeld, V.; Pastawski, H.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental magnetic field penetration depths delta(t,d,H) of the stable and superheated Meissner state were calculated as a function of temperature for various applied magnetic fields and various film thicknesses for two cases: (1) lambda(t)/d<< kappa→infinity and (2) kappa< or approx. =2lambda(t)/d (lambda is the Ginzburg-Landau penetration depth, d is the film thickness, kappa is the GL parameter). The results of the first case should be a useful tool for obtaining lambda(0) of amorphous superconducting thin films

  6. Temperature dependence of the optical conductivity and penetration depth in superconductor MgB2 film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moarrefi, M.; Yavari, H.; Elahi, M.

    2010-01-01

    By using Green's function method the temperature dependence of the optical conductivity and penetration depth of high-quality MgB 2 film are calculated in the framework of the two-band model. We compare our results with experimental data and we argue that the single gap model is insufficient to describe the optical and penetration depth behavior, but the two-band model with different symmetries describes the data rather well. In the two gap model we consider that the both components of optical conductivity are a weighted sum of the contribution from σ and π bonds and hybridization between them is negligible.

  7. Determination of the magnetic penetration depth in a superconducting Pb film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisbois, J.; Silhanek, A. V.; Raes, B.; Van de Vondel, J.; Moshchalkov, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    By means of scanning Hall probe microscopy technique, we accurately map the magnetic field pattern produced by Meissner screening currents in a thin superconducting Pb stripe. The obtained field profile allows us to quantitatively estimate the Pearl length Λ without the need of pre-calibrating the Hall sensor. This fact contrasts with the information acquired through the spatial field dependence of an individual flux quantum where the scanning height and the magnetic penetration depth combine in a single inseparable parameter. The derived London penetration depth λ L coincides with the values previously reported for bulk Pb once the kinetic suppression of the order parameter is properly taken into account

  8. Evaluation of the penetration depth of the shell welds by electrical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laille, Alain.

    1979-07-01

    The aim of the present work is the development of two electrical non-destructive methods (eddy currents and potentiometry) to estimate the penetration depth of electron bombardment welds. To illustrate the study and show its potential applications these methods are used on various materials (1 to 3 mm thick) and the results compared with the real welded depth evaluated after sectioning. Finally the potentiometric set-up is coupled to a data acquisition and processing system [fr

  9. Wavelength-dependent penetration depth of near infrared radiation into cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalkar, M V; Pleshko, N

    2015-04-07

    Articular cartilage is a hyaline cartilage that lines the subchondral bone in the diarthrodial joints. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is emerging as a nondestructive modality for the evaluation of cartilage pathology; however, studies regarding the depth of penetration of NIR radiation into cartilage are lacking. The average thickness of human cartilage is about 1-3 mm, and it becomes even thinner as OA progresses. To ensure that spectral data collected is restricted to the tissue of interest, i.e. cartilage in this case, and not from the underlying subchondral bone, it is necessary to determine the depth of penetration of NIR radiation in different wavelength (frequency) regions. In the current study, we establish how the depth of penetration varies throughout the NIR frequency range (4000-10 000 cm(-1)). NIR spectra were collected from cartilage samples of different thicknesses (0.5 mm to 5 mm) with and without polystyrene placed underneath. A separate NIR spectrum of polystyrene was collected as a reference. It was found that the depth of penetration varied from ∼1 mm to 2 mm in the 4000-5100 cm(-1) range, ∼3 mm in the 5100-7000 cm(-1) range, and ∼5 mm in the 7000-9000 cm(-1) frequency range. These findings suggest that the best NIR region to evaluate cartilage with no subchondral bone contribution is in the range of 4000-7000 cm(-1).

  10. Magnetic penetration depth δ o and critical current density in Y-BA-Cu-O crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavaritsky, N.V.; Zavaritsky, V.N.

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic penetration depthδ o ∼1.03 10 - 5 cm and critical current density (j c = 0.5 divided-by 1 x 10 5 A/cm 2 at T/T ∼0.98) are determined from low-field do magnetization measurements on Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7 - crystals

  11. The Tubular Penetration Depth and Adaption of Four Sealers: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The tubular penetration and adaptation of the sealer are important factors for successful root canal filling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tubular penetration depth of four different sealers in the coronal, middle, and apical third of root canals as well as the adaptation of these sealers to root canal walls. Materials and Methods. 50 single-rooted teeth were prepared in this study. Forty-eight of them were filled with different sealers (Cortisomol, iRoot SP, AH-Plus, and RealSeal SE and respective core filling materials. Then the specimens were sectioned and scanning electron microscopy was employed to assess the tubular penetration and adaptation of the sealers. Results. Our results demonstrated that the maximum penetration was exhibited by RealSeal SE, followed by AH-Plus, iRoot SP, and Cortisomol. As regards the adaptation property to root canal walls, AH-Plus has best adaptation capacity followed by iRoot SP, RealSeal SE, and Cortisomol. Conclusion. The tubular penetration and adaptation vary with the different sealers investigated. RealSeal SE showed the most optimal tubular penetration, whereas AH-Plus presented the best adaptation to the root canal walls.

  12. Multiaxial stress analysis taking account of penetration depth of x-rays, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Yasuo; Sasaki, Toshihiko; Kuramoto, Makoto.

    1985-01-01

    In the past X-ray stress analysis in which the effect of stress gradients was taken into account within the penetration depth of X-rays, three assumptions have been made; 1) the stress gradient is linear in respect to the depth from the specimen surface, 2) the penetration depth of X-ray is a function of Sin 2 PSI and 3) the strain measured by X-rays corresponds to the weighted average strain on the intensity of the diffracted X-rays. A problem, however, still remains on the assumption of the X-ray penetration depth. We sometimes observed noticiable errors in the stage of the numerical simulation and these errors depend on the combination of stress components in a stress tensor. In the present paper, we proposed a new X-ray multiaxial stress analysis without using the assumption of the X-ray penetration depth. This analysis is also applicable to both the iso-inclination method ( OHM -goniometer) and the side inclination method (PSI-goniometer). The weighted average strain by X-rays, 1 >(phi), is expressed as a 4th degree function of cosPSI for iso-inclination method and 3rd degree for side inclination method. By rearranging this function as a sum of average strain, ( 1 >(0 0 )+ 1 >(90 0 )), and difference of average strain, ( 1 >(0 0 )- 1 >(90 0 )), we can solve the stress components with sufficient accuracy by a least squares method. The validity of this method was proved through numerical simulations and experiments. (author)

  13. Singularity of the London penetration depth at quantum critical points in superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Debanjan; Swingle, Brian; Berg, Erez; Sachdev, Subir

    2013-10-11

    We present a general theory of the singularity in the London penetration depth at symmetry-breaking and topological quantum critical points within a superconducting phase. While the critical exponents and ratios of amplitudes on the two sides of the transition are universal, an overall sign depends upon the interplay between the critical theory and the underlying Fermi surface. We determine these features for critical points to spin density wave and nematic ordering, and for a topological transition between a superconductor with Z2 fractionalization and a conventional superconductor. We note implications for recent measurements of the London penetration depth in BaFe2(As(1-x)P(x))2 [K. Hashimoto et al., Science 336, 1554 (2012)].

  14. Theory of the c-axis penetration depth in the cuprates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radtke, R.J.; Kostur, V.N.; Levin, K.

    1996-01-01

    Recent measurements of the London penetration-depth tensor in the cuprates find a weak temperature dependence along the c direction that is seemingly inconsistent with evidence for d-wave pairing deduced from in-plane measurements. We demonstrate in this paper that these disparate results are not in contradiction, but can be explained within a theory based on incoherent quasiparticle hopping between the CuO 2 layers. By relating the calculated temperature dependence of the penetration depth λ c (T) to the c-axis resistivity, we show how the measured ratio λ 2 c (0)/λ 2 c (T) can provide insight into the behavior of c-axis transport below T c and the related issue of open-quote open-quote confinement.close-quote close-quote copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  15. Measurement setup for the magnetic penetration depth and superfluid stiffness in thin superconducting films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Lorenz; Brunner, Markus Christopher Paul; Schneider, Ina; Kronfeldner, Klaus; Strunk, Christoph [Institute for exp. and appl. Physics, University of Regensburg (Germany); Bousquet, Jessica; Bustarret, Etienne [Institut NEEL, Grenoble (France)

    2015-07-01

    A mutual inductance measurement setup has been established in order to determine the magnetic penetration depths of thin film superconductors. By measuring the variation of the mutual inductance M, the temperature dependent penetration depth can be evaluated. The setup has been characterized using thin aluminum and niobium films as a reference. Temperature dependence of λ of B-doped diamond films is determined down to 0.3 K and compared with theoretical expectations. The impact of the doping ratio B/C and film thickness on λ and T{sub c} is investigated. Correlation between the film impedance σ = σ{sub 1} - i σ{sub 2} and λ is examined.

  16. Radio frequency absorption and penetration depth limits in whole body MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roschmann, P.

    1986-01-01

    There is a continual debate over the ultimate limits to MR imaging at higher field strengths owing to the problems of increasing radio frequency (RF) power deposition and decreasing depth of B/sub 1/ field penetration in the patient. The authors present experimental results of RF absorption and penetration studies in humans for frequencies (f) of 30 to 220 MHz. Results were mostly derived from RF measurements of the effects of loading different types of head, body, and surface coils during imaging of volunteers and metal phantoms. Imaging at 2 T (85 MHz) does not exhibit significant RF problems; the local SAR amounts to 0.06 W/kg for a π-pulse of 1 msec and a TR of 1 sec. RF measurements of coil loading yield SAR -- f/sup 2.2/. The derived effective penetration depth drops from 17 cm at 85 MHz to 7 cm at 220 MHz. Head imaging appears possible up to 220 MHz (5 T). Body and surface coil imaging is subjected to increasing limitations in size or depth above 100 MHz

  17. Geometry of X-ray based measurement of residual strain at desired penetration depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morawiec, A. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Krakow (Poland)

    2017-10-15

    X-ray based measurement of residual lattice strains at chosen penetration depth is one of the methods for investigating strain inhomogeneities in near-surface layers of polycrystalline materials. The measurement relies on determining shifts of Bragg peaks for various directions of the scattering vector with respect to the specimen. At each of these directions, to reach a given the penetration depth, a proper specimen orientation is required. The task of determining such orientations, albeit elementary, is quite intricate. The existing literature describes only partial solutions with unspecified domains of application, which fail if applied to beyond the domains. Therefore, geometric aspects of the measurement are analyzed in details. Explicit bounds on measurement parameters are given. The equation fundamental for the procedure is solved with respect to specimen orientations. For a given direction of the scattering vector, there are generally four different specimen orientations leading to the same penetration depth. This simple fact (overlooked in previous analyses) can be used for improving reliability of measurement results. Analytical formulas for goniometer angles representing these orientations are provided. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Implementation of pencil kernel and depth penetration algorithms for treatment planning of proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, K.R.; Saxner, M.; Ahnesjoe, A.; Montelius, A.; Grusell, E.; Dahlgren, C.V.

    2000-01-01

    The implementation of two algorithms for calculating dose distributions for radiation therapy treatment planning of intermediate energy proton beams is described. A pencil kernel algorithm and a depth penetration algorithm have been incorporated into a commercial three-dimensional treatment planning system (Helax-TMS, Helax AB, Sweden) to allow conformal planning techniques using irregularly shaped fields, proton range modulation, range modification and dose calculation for non-coplanar beams. The pencil kernel algorithm is developed from the Fermi-Eyges formalism and Moliere multiple-scattering theory with range straggling corrections applied. The depth penetration algorithm is based on the energy loss in the continuous slowing down approximation with simple correction factors applied to the beam penumbra region and has been implemented for fast, interactive treatment planning. Modelling of the effects of air gaps and range modifying device thickness and position are implicit to both algorithms. Measured and calculated dose values are compared for a therapeutic proton beam in both homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms of varying complexity. Both algorithms model the beam penumbra as a function of depth in a homogeneous phantom with acceptable accuracy. Results show that the pencil kernel algorithm is required for modelling the dose perturbation effects from scattering in heterogeneous media. (author)

  19. Multiaxial stress analysis taking account of the penetration depth of x-rays, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Toshihiko; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Kuramoto, Makoto.

    1983-01-01

    The new theory of X-ray multiaxial stress measurement is proposed. This method takes accounts of the influence concerning to the stress gradient and to the dependence of the penetration depth of X-rays upon the incidence angle. As a basic assumption, it's assumed that (1) stress gradient is linear in respect to the depth from the specimen surface, (2) the penetration depth of X-rays shows linear dependence upon sin 2 PSI, and (3) the lattice strain determined by X-rays corresponds to the weighted averaging strain on the intensity of the diffracted X-rays. Consequently, the stress state within the thin layer near to the surface is expressed by making use of three surface stresses and six stress gradients in this theory. It was proved that these nine stress elements were able to be solved through X-ray method by applying ''the integral method'' proposed by Lode and Peiter in 1976. The verification of the validity on this method was carried out through the numerical simulation and residual stress measurement of a ground S55C. As a result, it was found that this method could get a satisfactory accuracy. This method can estimate the multiaxial stress distribution within the surface layer nondestructively. (author)

  20. The penetration depth and lateral distribution of pigment related to the pigment grain size and the calendering of paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelow, K.; Kristiansson, P.; Schueler, B.; Tullander, E.; Oestling, S.; Elfman, M.; Malmqvist, K.; Pallon, J.; Shariff, A.

    2002-01-01

    The interaction of ink and newspaper has been investigated and the specific question of penetration of ink into the paper has been addressed with a nuclear microprobe using particle induced X-ray emission. The penetration depth of the newsprint is a critical factor in terms of increasing the quality of newsprint and minimising the amount of ink used. The objective of the experiment was to relate the penetration depth of pigment with the calendering of the paper. The dependence of the penetration depth on the pigment grain size was also studied. To study the penetration depth of pigment in paper, cyan ink with Cu as a tracer of the coloured pigment was used. For the study of the penetration depth dependence of pigment size, specially grounded Japanese ink with well-defined pigment grain size was used. This was compared to Swedish ink with pigment grains with normal size-distribution. The results show that the calendering of the paper considerably affects the penetration depth of ink

  1. An EPR methodology for measuring the London penetration depth for the ceramic superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakvin, B.; Mahl, T. A.; Dalal, N. S.

    1990-01-01

    The use is discussed of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) as a quick and easily accessible method for measuring the London penetration depth, lambda for the high T(sub c) superconductors. The method utilizes the broadening of the EPR signal, due to the emergence of the magnetic flux lattice, of a free radical adsorbed on the surface of the sample. The second moment, of the EPR signal below T(sub c) is fitted to the Brandt equation for a simple triangular lattice. The precision of this method compares quite favorably with those of the more standard methods such as micro sup(+)SR, Neutron scattering, and magnetic susceptibility.

  2. Evaluation of the Effective Moisture Penetration Depth Model for Estimating Moisture Buffering in Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Winkler, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effective moisture penetration depth (EMPD) model, and its suitability for building simulations. The EMPD model is a compromise between the simple, inaccurate effective capacitance approach and the complex, yet accurate, finite-difference approach. Two formulations of the EMPD model were examined, including the model used in the EnergyPlus building simulation software. An error in the EMPD model we uncovered was fixed with the release of EnergyPlus version 7.2, and the EMPD model in earlier versions of EnergyPlus should not be used.

  3. Study of temperature increase and optic depth penetration in photo irradiated human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolik, Suren; Delgado, Jose A.; Perez, Arllene M.; Anasagasti, Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    Optical radiation is widely applied in the treatment and diagnosis of different pathologies. If the power density of the incident light is sufficiently high to induce a significant temperature rise in the irradiated tissue, then it is also needed the knowledge of the thermal properties of the tissue for a complete understanding of the therapeutic effects. The thermal penetration depth of several human tissues has been measured applying the diffusion approximation of the radiative transfer equation for the distribution of optical radiation. The method, the experimental setup and the results are presented and discussed. (Author)

  4. Experimental determination of the temperature-dependent penetration depth in V3Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christen, D.K.; Kerchner, H.R.; Sekula, S.T.; Chang, Y.K.

    1984-03-01

    Small angle neutron diffraction from the flux-line lattice (FLL) in a high quality, single crystal of superconducting V 3 Si has been used to deduce the low-field penetration depth lambda (T). An absolute determination is possible because the FLL form factor F/sub hk/ is essentially single-valued in the scattering vector magnitude absolute value of K/sub hk/, as well as nearly London-like at low field. We obtain lambda (0) = 102 +- 1 nm, 20% to 30% larger than previous determinations of the London penetration depth lambda/sub L/ (0). The temperature dependence of lambda (T) is found to deviate from that of the BCS theory. An assessment of the data indicates the most prominent source of the discrepancy is due to strong electron-phonon coupling, and we find 2Δ(0)/k/sub B/T/sub c/ = 3.88 +- 0.07, in reasonable agreement with values found in the literature

  5. Measurement of the magnetic penetration depth in p-doped superconducting diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Lorenz; Brunner, Markus C.P.; Schneider, Ina; Kronfeldner, Klaus [University of Regensburg (Germany); Bousquet, Jessica; Bustarret, Etienne; Strunk, Christoph [Institut Neel, Grenoble (France)

    2016-07-01

    Boron-doped diamond becomes superconducting once a critical doping concentration of 4.5 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} is reached. Mutual inductance measurements with a two-coil setup have been performed to determine the magnetic penetration depth λ(T), which is a measure for the superfluid stiffnes θ ∝ 1/λ{sup 2}(T). Two superconducting p-doped diamond films with thicknesses of 145 nm and 345 nm were investigated. At low temperatures these values agree reasonably with the values expected within BCS-theory using T{sub c}, carrier density and mean free path determined from electric transport measurements. Magnetic penetration depths of 3.7 μm for the thinner and 2.6 μm for the thicker film have been found. λ decreases and accordingly θ increases with increasing film thickness. On the other hand, the superfluid stiffness drops by a factor of 2 or even more at T{sub c}/2, i.e., much faster than expected from BCS-theory, but remains finite between T{sub c}/2 < T < T{sub c}. At present it is unclear, whether this behavior results from the proliferation of phase fluctuations already far below T{sub c} or from a spatial inhomogeneity of the films.

  6. Effect of tool rotational speed and penetration depth on dissimilar aluminum alloys friction stir spot welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín M. Piccini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the automotive industry is looking for the use of aluminum parts in replace of steel parts in order to reduce the vehicles weight. These parts have to be joined, for instance, by welding processes. The more common welding process in the automotive industry is the Resistance Spot Welding (RSW technique. However, RSW of aluminum alloys has many disadvantages. Regarding this situation, a variant of the Friction Stir Welding process called Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW has been developed, showing a strong impact in welding of aluminum alloys and dissimilar materials in thin sheets. Process parameters affect the characteristics of the welded joints. However, the information available on this topic is scarce, particularly for dissimilar joints and thin sheets. The aim of this work was to study the effect of the rotational speed and the tool penetration depth on the characteristics of dissimilar FSS welded joints. Defects free joints have been achieved with higher mechanical properties than the ones reported. The maximum fracture load was 5800 N. It was observed that the effective joint length of the welded spots increased with the tool penetration depth, meanwhile the fracture load increased and then decreased. Finally, welding at 1200 RPM produced welded joints with lower mechanical properties than the ones achieved at 680 and 903 RPM.

  7. Oxygen penetration around burrows and roots in aquatic sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meysman, Filip J.R.; Galaktionov, O.S.; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion is the dominant physical mechanism for the transfer of oxygen into fine-grained aquatic sediments. This diffusive uptake occurs at the sediment-water interface, but also at internal interfaces, such as along ventilated burrows or O2 releasing plant roots. Here, we present a systematic...

  8. Multiscale analysis of depth-dependent soil penetration resistance in a tropical soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva De Lima, Renato; Santos, Djail; Medeiros Bezerra, Joel; Machado Siqueira, Glécio; Paz González, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Soil penetration resistance (PR) is widely used because it is linked to basic soil properties; it is correlated to root growth and plant production and is also used as a practical tool for assessing soil compaction and to evaluate the effects of soil management. This study investigates how results from multifractal analysis can quantify key elements of depth-dependent PR profiles and how this information can be used at the field scale. We analyzed multifractality of 50 PR vertical profiles, measured from 0 to 40 cm depth and randomly located on a 6.5 ha sugar cane field in north-eastern Brazil. According to the Soil Taxonomy, the studied soil was classified as an Orthic Podsol The scaling property of each profile was typified by singularity and Rényi spectra estimated by the method of moments. The Hurst exponent was used to parameterize the autocorrelation of the vertical PR data sets. Singularity and Rènyi spectra showed the vertical PR data sets exhibited a well-defined multifractal structure. Hurst exponent values were close to one indicating strong persistence in PR variation with soil depth. Also Hurst exponent was negatively and significantly correlated to coefficient of variation (CV) and skewness of the depth-dependent PR. Multifractal analysis added valuable information to describe the spatial arrangement of depth-dependent penetrometer data sets, which was not taken into account by classical statistical indices. Multifractal parameters were mapped over the experimental field and compared with mean, maximum and minimum values of PR; these maps showed the multifractal approach also may complete information provided by descriptive statistics at the field scale.

  9. London penetration depth and thermal fluctuations in the sulphur hydride 203 K superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talantsev, E.F.; Crump, W.P. [Robinson Research Institute, Victoria University of Wellington, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Storey, J.G.; Tallon, J.L. [Robinson Research Institute, Victoria University of Wellington, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    2017-03-15

    Recently, compressed H{sub 2}S has been shown to become superconducting at 203 K under a pressure of 155 GPa. One might expect fluctuations to dominate at such temperatures. Using the magnetisation critical current, we determine the ground-state London penetration depth, λ{sub 0} = 189 nm, and the superconducting energy gap, Δ{sub 0} = 27.8 meV, and find these parameters are similar to those of cuprate superconductors. We also determine the fluctuation temperature scale, T{sub fluc} = 1470 K, which shows that, unlike the cuprates, T{sub c} of the hydride is not limited by fluctuations. This is due to its three dimensionality and suggests the search for better superconductors should refocus on three-dimensional systems where the inevitable thermal fluctuations are less likely to reduce the observed T{sub c}. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. In-plane magnetic penetration depth of superconducting CaKFe4As4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanov, Rustem; Meier, William R.; Wu, Yun; Mou, Daixiang; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Eremin, Ilya; Luetkens, Hubertus; Kaminski, Adam; Canfield, Paul C.; Amato, Alex

    2018-04-01

    The temperature dependence of the in-plane magnetic penetration depth (λa b) in an extensively characterized sample of superconducting CaKFe4As4(Tc≃35 K ) was investigated using muon-spin rotation (μ SR ). A comparison of λab -2(T ) measured by μ SR with the one inferred from angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) data confirms the presence of multiple gaps at the Fermi level. An agreement between μ SR and ARPES requires the presence of additional bands, which are not resolved by ARPES experiments. These bands are characterized by small superconducting gaps with an average zero-temperature value of Δ0=2.4 (2 ) meV . Our data suggest that in CaKFe4As4 the s± order parameter symmetry acquires a more sophisticated form by allowing a sign change not only between electron and hole pockets, but also within pockets of similar type.

  11. Penetration-depth calculations in the ab and c directions in a layered S/N superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, W.A.; Carbotte, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of calculations of the penetration depths λ ab and λ c (the subscripts refer to the direction of the screening currents). Our model is a layered superconducting/normal metal (S/N) model, in which the two types of layers are stacked in alternating fashion. The S and N layers are coupled in a coherent fashion and the N layer is driven superconducting by a proximity effect. We calculate the penetration depths for both d-wave and s-wave order parameters for a range of interlayer coupling strengths, and we discuss the effect that the interlayer coupling has on the temperature dependence of the penetration depths. We finish by comparing our results with experimental observations of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7

  12. Effect of impurity scattering on the low temperature magnetic penetration depth of a nonlocal and nonlinear d-wave superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavary, H.

    2006-01-01

    The magnetic penetration depth of a quasi-two dimensional d-wave superconductor in the presence of nonlineary, nonlocality, and impurity effects is investigated by using Green's function method. It is shown that a d-wave superconductor would inevitably avoid the violation of the Nernst theorem by creating a T 2 term in its penetration depth through a competition of nonlinear, nonlocal, and impurity effects and this system may be stable at low temperatures. I also show that in the impure sample at low temperatures, T < T * ∝ γ the impurity effect determines the temperature dependence of the penetration depth, i.e., nonlocal and nonlinear effects are completely masked by impurities

  13. Muon-spin rotation (. mu. SR) study of the temperature dependence of the London penetration depth in copper oxide superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, H.; Kuendig, W.; Savic, I.M.; Simmler, H.; Staeuble-Puempin, B.; Warden, M.; Zech, D.; Zimmermann, P. (Physik-Inst., Univ. Zurich (Germany)); Kaldis, E.; Karpinski, J.; Rusiecki, S. (Lab. fuer Festkoerperphysik, ETH Zurich (Switzerland)); Brewer, J.H.; Riseman, T.M.; Schneider, J.W. (TRIUMF and Dept. of Physics, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)); Maeno, Y.; Rossel, C. (IBM Research Div., Zurich Research Lab., Rueschlikon (Switzerland))

    1991-12-01

    A {mu}SR study of the temperature dependence of the London penetration depth {lambda} in sintered samples of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (with various oxygen contents x), YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8} and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} is presented. It is found that the temperature behavior of {lambda} of all these cuprate superconductors is consistent with conventional s-wave pairing. However, there are significant differences concerning the exact temperature dependence of {lambda} in these materials. In YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} with high x, the behavior of {lambda}(T) is well described by the two-fluid model (strong coupling), whereas {lambda}(T) in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} with low x, YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8} and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} is in better agreement with weak-coupling BCS theory. Possible reasons for the different temperature behavior of {lambda} in these materials are discussed. (orig.).

  14. Microscopic measurement of penetration depth in YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films by scanning Hall probe microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oral, A.; Bending, S.J.; Humphreys, R.G.; Henini, M.

    1997-01-01

    We have used a low noise scanning Hall probe microscope to measure the penetration depth microscopically in a YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ thin film as a function of temperature. The instrument has high magnetic field (approx. 2.9x10 -8 T Hz -1/2 at 77 K) and spatial resolution (approx. 0.85 μm). Magnetic field profiles of single vortices in the superconducting film have been successfully measured and the microscopic penetration depth of the superconductor has been extracted. We find surprisingly large variations in values of λ for different vortices within the scanning field. (author)

  15. Plasma penetration depth and mechanical properties of atmospheric plasma-treated 3D aramid woven composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.; Yao, L.; Xue, J.; Zhao, D.; Lan, Y.; Qian, X.; Wang, C.X.; Qiu, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional aramid woven fabrics were treated with atmospheric pressure plasmas, on one side or both sides to determine the plasma penetration depth in the 3D fabrics and the influences on final composite mechanical properties. The properties of the fibers from different layers of the single side treated fabrics, including surface morphology, chemical composition, wettability and adhesion properties were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle measurement and microbond tests. Meanwhile, flexural properties of the composites reinforced with the fabrics untreated and treated on both sides were compared using three-point bending tests. The results showed that the fibers from the outer most surface layer of the fabric had a significant improvement in their surface roughness, chemical bonding, wettability and adhesion properties after plasma treatment; the treatment effect gradually diminished for the fibers in the inner layers. In the third layer, the fiber properties remained approximately the same to those of the control. In addition, three-point bending tests indicated that the 3D aramid composite had an increase of 11% in flexural strength and 12% in flexural modulus after the plasma treatment. These results indicate that composite mechanical properties can be improved by the direct fabric treatment instead of fiber treatment with plasmas if the fabric is less than four layers thick

  16. Low temperature London penetration depth and superfluid density in Fe-based superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyunsoo [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The superconducting gap symmetry of the Fe-based superconductors was studied by measurements and analysis of London penetration depth and super uid density. Tunnel diode resonator technique for these measurements was implemented in a dilution refrigerator allowing for the temperatures down to 50 mK. For the analysis of the super uid density, we used both experimental studies of Al-coated samples and original thermodynamic approach based on Rutgers relation. In three systems studied, we found that the superconducting gap at the optimal doping is best described in multi-gap full gap scenario. By performing experiments on samples with arti cially introduced disorder with heavy ion irradiation, we show that evolution of the superconducting transition temperature and of the super uid density are consistent with full-gap sign changing s superconducting state. The superconducting gap develops strong modulation both in the under-doped and the over-doped regimes. In the terminal hole-doped KFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, both temperature dependence of the super uid density and its evolution with increase of the scattering rate are consistent with symmetry imposed vertical line nodes in the superconducting gap. By comparative studies of hole-doped (Ba,K)Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} and electron-doped Ca10-3-8, we show that the superconducting gap modulation in the under-doped regime is intrinsic and is not induced by the coexisting static magnetic order.

  17. Unstability of the Fulde-Ferrell state in d-wave superconductors by calculating the magnetic penetration depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabani, H.; Shahzamanian, M.A.; Yavary, H.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Fulde, Ferrell, Larkin and Ovchnnikov (FFLO), first proposed the possibility that a superconducting state with a periodic spatial variation of the gap parameter would become stable when a large Zeeman splinting is present [1,2]. The order parameter varies periodically in space when the Pauli paramagnetism or the Zeeman term dominates the orbital effect. The Zeeman splitting could be due to either a strong magnetic field or an internal exchange field. Under these fields there is a splitting of the Fermi surfaces of spin up and spin down electrons, and the condensed pair has a non-zero total momentum, 2q, which causes the phase of the superconducting order parameter to vary. This state is known as the FF state. We determine the penetration depth of the Fulde-Ferrell State (FF) for quasi-two dimensional (2D) d-wave superconductor by calculating the electromagnetic nonlocal kernel response function. The behavior of the penetration depth at low temperatures is an important probe to determine the stability of the FF state. We start from a mean field Hamiltonian for the FF state and we calculate the electromagnetic nonlocal response tensor relating the current density to an applied vector potential to determine the magnetic penetration depth. We show that a linear T dependence of the magnetic penetration depth in the FF state superconductor violates indeed the third law of thermodynamics and the FF state is unstable due to Nernst theorem. (authors)

  18. Crystal growth vs. conventional acid etching: A comparative evaluation of etch patterns, penetration depths, and bond strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanna Raghu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect on enamel surface, penetration depth, and bond strength produced by 37% phosphoric acid and 20% sulfated polyacrylic acid as etching agents for direct bonding. Eighty teeth were used to study the efficacy of the etching agents on the enamel surface, penetration depth, and tensile bond strength. It was determined from the present study that a 30 sec application of 20% sulfated polyacrylic acid produced comparable etching topography with that of 37% phosphoric acid applied for 30 sec. The 37% phosphoric acid dissolves enamel to a greater extent than does the 20% sulfated polyacrylic acid. Instron Universal testing machine was used to evaluate the bond strengths of the two etching agents. Twenty percent sulfated polyacrylic acid provided adequate tensile bond strength. It was ascertained that crystal growth can be an alternative to conventional phosphoric acid etching as it dissolves lesser enamel and provides adequate tensile bond strength.

  19. Measurement of the penetration depth and coherence length of MgB2 in all directions using transmission electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loudon, J. C.; Yazdi, Sadegh; Kasama, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that images of flux vortices in a superconductor taken with a transmission electron microscope can be used to measure the penetration depth and coherence length in all directions at the same temperature and magnetic field. This is particularly useful for MgB2, where these quantities...... vary with the applied magnetic field and values are difficult to obtain at low field or in the c direction. We obtained images of flux vortices from a MgB2 single crystal cut in the ac plane by focused ion beam milling and tilted to 45 degrees. with respect to the electron beam about...... the crystallographic a axis. A new method was developed to simulate these images that accounted for vortices with a nonzero core in a thin, anisotropic superconductor and a simplex algorithm was used to make a quantitative comparison between the images and simulations to measure the penetration depths and coherence...

  20. Effective depth-of-penetration range due to hardness variation for different lots of nominally identical target material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Frueh

    2016-04-01

    A linear regression analysis of penetration vs. hardness shows that a target hardness increase within the given range of 280–330 BHN may result in a reduction of penetration depth of about 5.8 mm at constant velocity. This is equal to a change of −12% at an impact velocity of 1250 m/s. A multiple linear regression analysis included also the influence of yaw angle and impact velocity. It shows that small yaw angles and slight variations of impact velocities provide a smaller variation of the semi-infinite penetration depths than a variation of target hardness within a typical specification span of 50 BHN. For such a span a change in penetration of approximately −4.8 mm due to hardness variation is found, whereas 1° of yaw angle or −10 m/s of velocity variation gives a change of about −1.0 mm respectively −0.9 mm. For the given example, the overwhelming part of the variation is to be attributed to hardness effects – 4.8 mm out of 5.8 mm (83%. For nominally identical target material the target hardness thus influences the ballistic test results more severely than the typical scatter in impact conditions.

  1. Anisotropy of the penetration depth in La2-xSrxCuO4 in underdoped and overdoped regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, A. J.; Klamut, J.

    1999-12-01

    We present the results of measurements of the penetration depth anisotropy in pulverized, ceramic La2-xSrxCuO4. The measurements were carried out for x = 0.08, 0.1, 0.125, 0.15 and 0.2. The powdered samples, immersed in wax, were magnetically oriented in a static magnetic field of 10 T. The penetration depth in the a-b plane, icons/Journals/Common/lambda" ALT="lambda" ALIGN="TOP"/>ab, and perpendicular to it, icons/Journals/Common/lambda" ALT="lambda" ALIGN="TOP"/>icons/Journals/Common/perp" ALT="perp" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/>, were derived from alternating-current susceptibility measurements. For underdoped samples they both vary linearly with temperature (for the low-temperature region), while for the samples from the overdoped region the measured points can be fitted by an exponential function. These results support Uemura's picture (Uemura Y J 1997 Physica C 282-287 194) of crossover from Bose-Einstein condensation to a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer mechanism of superconductivity. The penetration depth values extrapolated to T = 0 may be described by a quadratic function of the strontium concentration (for both icons/Journals/Common/lambda" ALT="lambda" ALIGN="TOP"/>ab and icons/Journals/Common/lambda" ALT="lambda" ALIGN="TOP"/>icons/Journals/Common/perp" ALT="perp" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/>). The anisotropy of the penetration depth as a function of the substitution shows a similar dependence to the critical temperature Tc(x).

  2. There’s plenty of light at the bottom: statistics of photon penetration depth in random media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Fabrizio; Binzoni, Tiziano; Pifferi, Antonio; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Farina, Andrea; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    We propose a comprehensive statistical approach describing the penetration depth of light in random media. The presented theory exploits the concept of probability density function f(z|ρ, t) for the maximum depth reached by the photons that are eventually re-emitted from the surface of the medium at distance ρ and time t. Analytical formulas for f, for the mean maximum depth 〈zmax〉 and for the mean average depth reached by the detected photons at the surface of a diffusive slab are derived within the framework of the diffusion approximation to the radiative transfer equation, both in the time domain and the continuous wave domain. Validation of the theory by means of comparisons with Monte Carlo simulations is also presented. The results are of interest for many research fields such as biomedical optics, advanced microscopy and disordered photonics. PMID:27256988

  3. Sub?40?fs, 1060?nm Yb?fiber laser enhances penetration depth in nonlinear optical microscopy of human skin

    OpenAIRE

    Balu, Mihaela; Saytashev, Ilyas; Hou, Jue; Dantus, Marcos; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Authors. Advancing the practical utility of nonlinear optical microscopy requires continued improvement in imaging depth and contrast. We evaluated second-harmonic generation (SHG) and third-harmonic generation images from ex vivo human skin and showed that a sub-40 fs, 1060-nm Yb-fiber laser can enhance SHG penetration depth by up to 80% compared to a > 100 fs, 800 nm Ti:sapphire source. These results demonstrate the potential of fiber-based laser systems to address a key perform...

  4. Photon penetration depth in human brain for light stimulation and treatment: A realistic Monte Carlo simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Light has been clinically utilized as a stimulation in medical treatment, such as Low-level laser therapy and photodynamic therapy, which has been more and more widely accepted in public. The penetration depth of the treatment light is important for precision treatment and safety control. The issue of light penetration has been highlighted in biomedical optics field for decades. However, quantitative research is sparse and even there are conflicts of view on the capability of near-infrared light penetration into brain tissue. This study attempts to quantitatively revisit this issue by innovative high-realistic 3D Monte Carlo modeling of stimulated light penetration within high-precision Visible Chinese human head. The properties of light, such as its wavelength, illumination profile and size are concern in this study. We made straightforward and quantitative comparisons among the effects by the light properties (i.e., wavelengths: 660, 810 and 980nm; beam types: Gaussian and flat beam; beam diameters: 0, 2, 4 and 6cm which are in the range of light treatment. The findings include about 3% of light dosage within brain tissue; the combination of Gaussian beam and 810nm light make the maximum light penetration (>5cm, which allows light to cross through gray matter into white mater. This study offered us, the first time as we know, quantitative guide for light stimulation parameter optimization in medical treatment.

  5. Measurement of residual stress in a sphere by x-ray under the consideration of its penetration depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Osamu; Ukai, Takayoshi

    1981-01-01

    It was pointed out in the case of a plate that when stress gradient is large, the use of the X-ray with large penetration depth caused large measurement error. In this paper, the theoretical equations for measuring the residual stress in a sphere with X-ray, taking penetration depth into account, are proposed, and the example of application is shown. As the method of measuring the residual stress in a hollow sphere with X-ray, only the method of combining external surface removal and external surface irradiation is practically in use. It was assumed that a sphere is isotropic, and that the residual stress is a function of the radius only. First, the theory of measuring the residual stress in a sphere with X-ray taking penetration depth into account is explained, and the equations for calculating the residual stresses in tangential and radial directions are derived. As the example of applying this theory, the distribution of the residual stress in a steel ball for a ball bearing was measured with Cr characteristic X-ray. The ball of 30 mm diameter was made of high-carbon chromium bearing steel, grade 2, (JIS SUJ2) and quenched and tempered. The removal of the thin layer was made by chemical etching and electrolysis. The measured values and the calculated values are shown. (Kako, I.)

  6. The Impact of Microwave Penetration Depth on the Process of Heating the Moulding Sand with Sodium Silicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak D.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the impact of microwave penetration depth on the process of heating the moulding sand with sodium silicate. For each material it is affected by: the wavelength in vacuum and the real and imaginary components of the relative complex electrical permittivity εr for a selected measurement frequency. Since the components are not constant values and they change depending on the electrical parameters of materials and the frequency of the electromagnetic wave, it is indispensable to carry out laboratory measurements to determine them. Moreover, the electrical parameters of materials are also affected by: temperature, packing degree, humidity and conductivity. The measurements of the dielectric properties of moulding sand with sodium silicate was carried out using the perturbation method on a stand of waveguide resonance cavity. The real and imaginary components of the relative complex electrical permittivity was determined for moulding sand at various contents of sodium silicate and at various packing degrees of the samples. On the basis of the results the microwave penetration depth of moulding sand with sodium silicate was established. Relative literature contains no such data that would be essential to predicting an effective process of microwave heating of moulding sand with sodium silicate. Both the packing degree and the amount of sodium silicate in moulding sand turned out to affect the penetration depth, which directly translates into microwave power density distribution in the process of microwave heating of moulding sand with sodium silicate.

  7. Muon-spin-rotation measurements of the London penetration depths in YBa2Cu3O6.97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puempin, B.; Keller, H.; Kuendig, W.; Odermatt, W.; Savic, I.M.; Schneider, J.W.; Simmler, H.; Zimmermann, P.; Kaldis, E.; Rusiecki, S.; Maeno, Y.; Rossel, C.

    1990-01-01

    Muon-spin-rotation (μSR) experiments on a high-quality sintered YBa 2 Cu 3 O x sample [x=6.970(1)] were performed, in order to obtain an accurate knowledge of the magnitude and the temperature dependence of the magnetic penetration depth in this copper oxide superconductor. Special attention was given to the data analysis. In particular, the systematic errors introduced by different types of analyses were estimated. Our results show that the temperature dependence of the effective penetration depth λ eff into the sintered sample is well described by the two-fluid model, with λ eff (0)=155(10) nm. This behavior of λ eff (T) is consistent with conventional s-wave pairing. With the anisotropy ratio γ=λ c /λ ab =5(1) measured in a previous μSR experiment, the penetration depths λ ab (0)=130(10) nm and λ c (0)=500--800 nm (parallel and perpendicular to the CuO 2 planes, respectively) were extracted. Our results are compared with those obtained by other experimental techniques and theoretical predictions

  8. Quantitative analysis of oxygen depth distribution by means of deuteron reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyumin, A.N.; Eremin, V.K.; Konnikov, S.G.

    1993-01-01

    Experimentally are investigated and realized possibilities for using the reaction for quantitative determination of the depth profiles of the oxygen distribution in HTSC structures in layers up to 10 4 A. It is concluded that in the near-surface layers when profiling the oxygen content is achieved the spatial resolution of 150 A

  9. Investigating skin penetration depth and shape following needle-free injection at different pressures: A cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Joon; Oh, Chang Taek; Kwon, Hyun Jung; Kwon, Tae Rin; Choi, Eun Ja; Choi, Sun Young; Mun, Seog Kyun; Han, Seung-Ho; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam

    2016-08-01

    The effectiveness of needle-free injection devices in neocollagenesis for treating extended skin planes is an area of active research. It is anticipated that needle-free injection systems will not only be used to inject vaccines or insulin, but will also greatly aid skin rejuvenation when used to inject aesthetic materials such as hyaluronic acid, botulinum toxin, and placental extracts. There has not been any specific research to date examining how materials penetrate the skin when a needle-free injection device is used. In this study, we investigated how material infiltrates the skin when it is injected into a cadaver using a needle-free device. Using a needle-free injector (INNOJECTOR™; Amore Pacific, Seoul, Korea), 0.2 ml of 5% methylene blue (MB) or latex was injected into cheeks of human cadavers. The device has a nozzle diameter of 100 µm and produces a jet with velocity of 180 m/s. This jet penetrates the skin and delivers medicine intradermally via liquid propelled by compressed gasses. Materials were injected at pressures of 6 or 8.5 bars, and the injection areas were excised after the procedure. The excised areas were observed visually and with a phototrichogram to investigate the size, infiltration depth, and shape of the hole created on the skin. A small part of the area that was excised was magnified and stained with H&E (×40) for histological examination. We characterized the shape, size, and depth of skin infiltration following injection of 5% MB or latex into cadaver cheeks using a needle-free injection device at various pressure settings. Under visual inspection, the injection at 6 bars created semi-circle-shaped hole that penetrated half the depth of the excised tissue, while injection at 8.5 bars created a cylinder-shaped hole that spanned the entire depth of the excised tissue. More specific measurements were collected using phototrichogram imaging. The shape of the injection entry point was consistently spherical regardless of the

  10. Bonding of xenon to oxygen in magmas at depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Clémence; Sanloup, Chrystèle; Bureau, Hélène; Schmidt, Burkhard C.; Konôpková, Zuzana; Raepsaet, Caroline

    2018-02-01

    The field of noble gases chemistry has witnessed amazing advances in the last decade with over 100 compounds reported including Xe oxides and Xe-Fe alloys stable at the pressure-temperature conditions of planetary interiors. The chemistry of Xe with planetary materials is nonetheless still mostly ignored, while Xe isotopes are used to trace a variety of key planetary processes from atmosphere formation to underground nuclear tests. It is indeed difficult to incorporate the possibility of Xe reactivity at depth in isotopic geochemical models without a precise knowledge of its chemical environment. The structure of Xe doped hydrous silica-rich melts is investigated by in situ high energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction using resistive heating diamond anvil cells. Obtained pair distribution functions reveal the oxidation of Xe between 0.2 GPa and 4 GPa at high T up to 1000 K. In addition to the usual interatomic distances, a contribution at 2.05 ± 0.05 Å is observed. This contribution is not observed in the undoped melt, and is interpreted as the Xe-O bond, with a coordination number of about 12 consistent with Xe insertion in rings of the melt structure. Xe solubility measurements by electron microprobe and particle induced X-rays emission analysis confirm that Xe and Ar have similar solubility values in wt% in silicate melts. These values are nonetheless an order of magnitude higher than those theoretically calculated for Xe. The formation of Xe-O bonds explains the enhanced solubility of Xe in deep continental crust magmas, revealing a mechanism that could store Xe and fractionate its isotopes. Xenon is indeed atypical among noble gases, the atmosphere being notably depleted in elemental Xe, and very strongly depleted in Xe light isotopes. These observations are known as the 'missing' Xe paradox, and could be solved by the present findings.

  11. Measuring soil frost depth in forest ecosystems with ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Butnor; John L. Campbell; James B. Shanley; Stanley. Zarnoch

    2014-01-01

    Soil frost depth in forest ecosystems can be variable and depends largely on early winter air temperatures and the amount and timing of snowfall. A thorough evaluation of ecological responses to seasonally frozen ground is hampered by our inability to adequately characterize the frequency, depth, duration and intensity of soil frost events. We evaluated the use of...

  12. Muon-spin-rotation studies of the temperature dependence of the magnetic penetration depth in the YBa2Cu3Ox family and related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, P.; Keller, H.; Lee, S.L.; Savic, I.M.; Warden, M.; Zech, D.; Cubitt, R.; Forgan, E.M.; Kaldis, E.; Karpinski, J.; Krueger, C.

    1995-01-01

    A systematic muon-spin-rotation (μ + SR) study is presented of the temperature dependence of the London penetration depth in sintered powder samples of the YBa 2 Cu 3 O x system and related compounds. The in-plane penetration depth λ ab is estimated from the μ + SR depolarization rate of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ , YBa 2 Cu 4 O 8 , and a series of samples of the YBa 2 Cu 3 O x family, respectively. It is found that not only the low-temperature value λ ab (0), but also the temperature behavior λ ab (T) is specific to each compound. The form of λ ab (T) can be well characterized by a simple power law. In particular, the YBa 2 Cu 3 O x family shows a systematic variation of the form of λ ab (T) with the oxygen content x which points to a varying coupling strength, whereas λ ab (0) as a function of x suggests a positive charge transfer into the CuO 2 planes with increasing oxygen doping. Furthermore, our data is consistent with an empirical ansatz which has been proposed in the framework of a Bose-gas picture of high-temperature superconductivity. As a consequence, the pressure and the isotope coefficients can be extracted from the μ + SR depolarization rate and compared to direct measurements of these quantities, showing good agreement. Moreover, in the Bose-gas picture the variation of λ ab (T) in the YBa 2 Cu 3 O x family may be interpreted as a crossover from a dense (high-T c ) to a dilute (low-T c ) system of weakly interacting local pairs

  13. Penetration depth measurement of a 6 MeV electron beam in water by magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. E. Hammer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI visualization of a 6 MeV electron beam in ferrous-doped water; a 25 mm penetration depth was measured. Time domain nuclear magnetic resonance was used to investigate the effect of generated free radicals on the free induction decay (FID in nondoped water; no apparent effects to the FID were observed. We show that MRI visualization of charged particle beams used in medical applications will require exogenous agents to provide contrast enhancement.

  14. Effects of inserted depth of wall penetration on basal stability of foundation pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aizhao; Shen, Hao; Sun, Jinguo

    2017-05-01

    Evaluation of basal heave stability is one of important design checks for excavations in soft clays. The commonly used classical calculation method based on limit equilibrium theory and the safety coefficient formula recommended by the current code, do not consider the influence of supporting structure of foundation pit depth heave stability, which results in conservative. Considering the wall stiffness and strength, the effective stress changes in different depth of soil, the frictional resistance between the retaining wall and the passive zone, the vertical shear resistance of the soil behind the wall and other factors. The modified safety factor calculation formula of foundation pit stability is presented, comparison analysis of calculation method combined with examples. The calculation results show that the safety factor of foundation pit stability is improved considering the influence of supporting structure depth, the calculation results are more reasonable.

  15. Sub-40 fs, 1060-nm Yb-fiber laser enhances penetration depth in nonlinear optical microscopy of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, Mihaela; Saytashev, Ilyas; Hou, Jue; Dantus, Marcos; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2015-12-01

    Advancing the practical utility of nonlinear optical microscopy requires continued improvement in imaging depth and contrast. We evaluated second-harmonic generation (SHG) and third-harmonic generation images from ex vivo human skin and showed that a sub-40 fs, 1060-nm Yb-fiber laser can enhance SHG penetration depth by up to 80% compared to a >100 fs, 800 nm Ti:sapphire source. These results demonstrate the potential of fiber-based laser systems to address a key performance limitation related to nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM) technology while providing a low-barrier-to-access alternative to Ti:sapphire sources that could help accelerate the movement of NLOM into clinical practice.

  16. An investigation into the depth of penetration of low level laser therapy through the equine tendon in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Teresa

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Low level laser therapy (LLLT is frequently used in the treatment of wounds, soft tissue injury and in pain management. The exact penetration depth of LLLT in human tissue remains unspecified. Similar uncertainty regarding penetration depth arises in treating animals. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that transmission of LLLT in horses is increased by clipping the hair and/or by cleaning the area to be treated with alcohol, but is unaffected by coat colour. A LLLT probe (810 nm, 500 mW was applied to the medial aspect of the superficial flexor tendon of seventeen equine forelimbs in vivo. A light sensor was applied to the lateral aspect, directly opposite the laser probe to measure the amount of light transmitted. Light transmission was not affected by individual horse, coat colour or leg. However, it was associated with leg condition (F = 4.42, p = 0.0032. Tendons clipped dry and clipped and cleaned with alcohol, were both associated with greater transmission of light than the unprepared state. Use of alcohol without clipping was not associated with an increase in light transmission. These results suggest that, when applying laser to a subcutaneous structure in the horse, the area should be clipped and cleaned beforehand.

  17. The predicting ultimate of joint withdrawal resistance constructed of plywood with regression models application according to diameter and penetrating depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Maleki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to present regression models for predicting resistance of joints made with screw and plywood members. Joint members were out of hardwood plywood that were 19 mm in thickness. Two types of screws including coarse and fine thread drywall screw with 3.5, 4 and 5mm in diameter and sheet metal screw with 4 and 5mm were used. Results have shown that withdrawal resistance of screw was increased by increasing of screws, diameter and penetrating depth. Joints fabricated with coarse thread drywall screws were higher than those of fine thread drywall screws. Finally, average joint withdrawal resistance of screwed could be predicted by means of the expressions Wc=2.127×D1.072×P0.520 for coarse thread drywall screws and Wf=1.377×D1.156×P0.581 for fine thread drywall screws by taking account the diameter and penetrating depth. The difference of the observed and predicted data showed that developed models have a good correlation with actual experimental measurements.

  18. Glucose and oxygen metabolism after penetrating ballistic-like brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajavelli, Shyam; Kentaro, Shimoda; Diaz, Julio; Yokobori, Shoji; Spurlock, Markus; Diaz, Daniel; Jackson, Clayton; Wick, Alexandra; Zhao, Weizhao; Leung, Lai Y; Shear, Deborah; Tortella, Frank; Bullock, M Ross

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability in all age groups. Among TBI, penetrating traumatic brain injuries (PTBI) have the worst prognosis and represent the leading cause of TBI-related morbidity and death. However, there are no specific drugs/interventions due to unclear pathophysiology. To gain insights we looked at cerebral metabolism in a PTBI rat model: penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI). Early after injury, regional cerebral oxygen tension and consumption significantly decreased in the ipsilateral cortex in the PBBI group compared with the control group. At the same time point, glucose uptake was significantly reduced globally in the PBBI group compared with the control group. Examination of Fluorojade B-stained brain sections at 24 hours after PBBI revealed an incomplete overlap of metabolic impairment and neurodegeneration. As expected, the injury core had the most severe metabolic impairment and highest neurodegeneration. However, in the peri-lesional area, despite similar metabolic impairment, there was lesser neurodegeneration. Given our findings, the data suggest the presence of two distinct zones of primary injury, of which only one recovers. We anticipate the peri-lesional area encompassing the PBBI ischemic penumbra, could be salvaged by acute therapies. PMID:25669903

  19. Survey to identify depth of penetration of critical incident reporting systems in Austrian healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendlhofer, Gerald; Eder, Harald; Leitgeb, Karina; Gorges, Roland; Jakse, Heidelinde; Raiger, Marianne; Türk, Silvia; Petschnig, Walter; Pregartner, Gudrun; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Brunner, Gernot

    2018-01-01

    Incident reporting systems or so-called critical incident reporting systems (CIRS) were first recommended for use in health care more than 15 years ago. The uses of these CIRS are highly variable among countries, ranging from being used to report critical incidents, falls, or sentinel events resulting in death. In Austria, CIRS have only been introduced to the health care sector relatively recently. The goal of this work, therefore, was to determine whether and specifically how CIRS are used in Austria. A working group from the Austrian Society for Quality and Safety in Healthcare (ASQS) developed a survey on the topic of CIRS to collect information on penetration of CIRS in general and on how CIRS reports are used to increase patient safety. Three hundred seventy-one health care professionals from 274 health care facilities were contacted via e-mail. Seventy-eight respondents (21.0%) completed the online survey, thereof 66 from hospitals and 12 from other facilities (outpatient clinics, nursing homes). In all, 64.1% of the respondents indicated that CIRS were used in the entire health care facility; 20.6% had not yet introduced CIRS and 15.4% used CIRS only in particular areas. Most often, critical incidents without any harm to patients were reported (76.9%); however, some health care facilities also use their CIRS to report patient falls (16.7%), needle stick injuries (17.9%), technical problems (51.3%), or critical incidents involving health care professionals. CIRS are not yet extensively or homogeneously used in Austria. Inconsistencies exist with respect to which events are reported as well as how they are followed up and reported to health care professionals. Further recommendations for general use are needed to support the dissemination in Austrian health care environments.

  20. The effect of snow/sea ice type on the response of albedo and light penetration depth (e-folding depth to increasing black carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Marks

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The optical properties of snow/sea ice vary with age and by the processes they were formed, giving characteristic types of snow and sea ice. The response of albedo and light penetration depth (e-folding depth to increasing mass ratio of black carbon is shown to depend on the snow and sea ice type and the thickness of the snow or sea ice. The response of albedo and e-folding depth of three different types of snow (cold polar snow, wind-packed snow and melting snow and three sea ice (multi-year ice, first-year ice and melting sea ice to increasing mass ratio of black carbon is calculated using a coupled atmosphere–snow/sea ice radiative-transfer model (TUV-snow, over the optical wavelengths of 300–800 nm. The snow and sea ice types are effectively defined by a scattering cross-section, density and asymmetry parameter. The relative change in albedo and e-folding depth of each of the three snow and three sea ice types with increasing mass ratio of black carbon is considered relative to a base case of 1 ng g−1 of black carbon. The relative response of each snow and sea ice type is intercompared to examine how different types of snow and sea ice respond relative to each other. The relative change in albedo of a melting snowpack is a factor of four more responsive to additions of black carbon compared to cold polar snow over a black carbon increase from 1 to 50 ng g−1, while the relative change in albedo of a melting sea ice is a factor of two more responsive to additions of black carbon compared to multi-year ice for the same increase in mass ratio of black carbon. The response of e-folding depth is effectively not dependent on snow/sea ice type. The albedo of sea ice is more responsive to increasing mass ratios of black carbon than snow.

  1. Penetration depth λ(T) of YBa2Cu3O7-δ films determined from the kinetic inductance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.; Lemberger, T.R.

    1993-01-01

    We examine the temperature dependence of the magnetic penetration depth λ(T) of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ , determined from the kinetic inductance of a film patterned into a long meander line. This technique has sufficient sensitivity to study λ(T) to lower temperatures than have been examined previously. A numerical model which includes both the magnetic and kinetic inductances of the samples extracts λ(T) from the measured voltage. In reasonable agreement with other measurements, λ(0)∼2100 A is deduced from fitting λ(0) 2 /λ(T) 2 to the function 1-(T/T c ) 2 for T/T c ≥0.4. We find λ(T)/λ(0)-1 is proportional to (T/T c ) 2 for 0.06 ≤T/T c ≤0.4

  2. Energy absorption buildup factors of human organs and tissues at energies and penetration depths relevant for radiotherapy and diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manohara, S. R.; Hanagodimath, S. M.; Gerward, Leif

    2011-01-01

    Energy absorption geometric progression (GP) fitting parameters and the corresponding buildup factors have been computed for human organs and tissues, such as adipose tissue, blood (whole), cortical bone, brain (grey/white matter), breast tissue, eye lens, lung tissue, skeletal muscle, ovary......, testis, soft tissue, and soft tissue (4-component), for the photon energy range 0.015-15 MeV and for penetration depths up to 40 mfp (mean free path). The chemical composition of human organs and tissues is seen to influence the energy absorption buildup factors. It is also found that the buildup factor...... of human organs and tissues changes significantly with the change of incident photon energy and effective atomic number, Zeff. These changes are due to the dominance of different photon interaction processes in different energy regions and different chemical compositions of human organs and tissues...

  3. Magnetic penetration depth of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) thin films determined by the power transmission method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Vernon O.; Miranda, Felix A.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    1992-01-01

    A power transmission measurement technique was used to determine the magnetic penetration depth (lambda) of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) superconducting thin films on LaAlO3 within the 26.5 to 40.0 GHz frequency range, and at temperatures from 20 to 300 K. Values of lambda ranging from 1100 to 2500 A were obtained at low temperatures. The anisotropy of lambda was determined from measurements of c-axis and a-axis oriented films. An estimate of the intrinsic value of lambda of 90 +/- 30 nm was obtained from the dependence of lambda on film thickness. The advantage of this technique is that it allows lambda to be determined nondestructively.

  4. Variation of energy absorption buildup factors with incident photon energy and penetration depth for some commonly used solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Parjit S.; Singh, Tejbir; Kaur, Paramjeet

    2008-01-01

    G.P. fitting method has been used to compute energy absorption buildup factor of some commonly used solvents such as acetonitrile (C 4 H 3 N), butanol (C 4 H 9 OH), chlorobenzene (C 6 H 5 Cl), diethyl ether (C 4 H 10 O), ethanol (C 2 H 5 OH), methanol (CH 3 OH), propanol (C 3 H 7 OH) and water (H 2 O) for the wide energy range (0.015-15.0 MeV) up to the penetration depth of 10 mean free path. The variation of energy absorption buildup factor with chemical composition as well as incident photon energy for the selected solvents has been studied. It has been observed that the maximum value of energy absorption buildup factors shifts to the slightly higher incident photon energy with the increase in equivalent atomic number of the solvent and the solvent with least equivalent atomic number possesses the maximum value of energy absorption buildup factor

  5. Photoirradiation system with depth optical dosimetry control in initial oxygen saturation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintanar, L.; Stolik, S.; Rosa, J. de la; Moreno, E.

    2012-01-01

    Photodynamic Therapy is a technique in which a photosensitizing substance is applied that is activated by light and it generates reactive oxygen species which cause selective cell destruction. The efficiency of the therapy is affected by the parameters dose. In this work it is shown a photo-irradiation system for superficial Photodynamic Therapy, using as a light source a light emitting diode with an automatic control of optical power based on a model of the distribution of light in depth that was tested in tissue phantoms. It also has a reflective pulse oximeter for the measurement of the initial oxygen saturation. (Author)

  6. Ground-Penetrating-Radar Profiles of Interior Alaska Highways: Interpretation of Stratified Fill, Frost Depths, Water Table, and Thaw Settlement over Ice-Rich Permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    along either massive ice surfaces or within sections of segregated ice. The uninsulated ice surface at Tok in Figure 17B is irregular. All of the...ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 6- 14 ERDC’s Center-Directed Research Program Ground -Penetrating-Radar Profiles of Interior Alaska Highways...August 2016 Ground -Penetrating-Radar Profiles of Interior Alaska Highways Interpretation of Stratified Fill, Frost Depths, Water Table, and Thaw

  7. Determination of Penetration Depth of 800 keV Electron Beam into Coal Fired Power Plant Flue Gas at in a Electron Beam Machine Flue Gas Treatment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rany Saptaaji

    2008-01-01

    Penetration depth calculation of 800 keV electron beam into flue gas from coal fired power plan is presented in this paper. Electron Beam for Flue Gas Treatment (EB-FGT) is a dry treatment process using electron beam to simultaneously reduce SO 2 and NO x . Flue gas irradiation produces active radicals and then reaction with SO 2 and NO x produces nitrate acid and sulphate acid. Process vessel is needed in this process as reaction container of flue gas with electron beam. The calculation of electron beam penetration depth into flue gas is used to determine the process vessel dimension. The result of calculation of optimum penetration depth of 800 keV electron beam into flue gas is 188.67 cm. (author)

  8. Long range surface plasmon resonance with ultra-high penetration depth for self-referenced sensing and ultra-low detection limit using diverging beam approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, Sivan, E-mail: sivan.isaacs@gmail.com; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim [Department of Electro-Optical Engineering and TheIlse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); NEW CREATE Programme, School of Materials Science and Engineering, 1 CREATE Way, Research Wing, #02-06/08, Singapore 138602 (Singapore)

    2015-05-11

    Using an insulator-metal-insulator structure with dielectric having refractive index (RI) larger than the analyte, long range surface plasmon (SP) resonance exhibiting ultra-high penetration depth is demonstrated for sensing applications of large bioentities at wavelengths in the visible range. Based on the diverging beam approach in Kretschmann-Raether configuration, one of the SP resonances is shown to shift in response to changes in the analyte RI while the other is fixed; thus, it can be used as a built in reference. The combination of the high sensitivity, high penetration depth and self-reference using the diverging beam approach in which a dark line is detected of the high sensitivity, high penetration depth, self-reference, and the diverging beam approach in which a dark line is detected using large number of camera pixels with a smart algorithm for sub-pixel resolution, a sensor with ultra-low detection limit is demonstrated suitable for large bioentities.

  9. Variation of energy absorption buildup factors with incident photon energy and penetration depth for some commonly used solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Parjit S. [Department of Physics, Punjabi University, Patiala 147 002 (India)], E-mail: dr_parjit@hotmail.com; Singh, Tejbir [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara 144 402 (India); Kaur, Paramjeet [IAS and Allied Services Training Centre, Punjabi University, Patiala 147 002 (India)

    2008-06-15

    G.P. fitting method has been used to compute energy absorption buildup factor of some commonly used solvents such as acetonitrile (C{sub 4}H{sub 3}N), butanol (C{sub 4}H{sub 9}OH), chlorobenzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}Cl), diethyl ether (C{sub 4}H{sub 10}O), ethanol (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH), methanol (CH{sub 3}OH), propanol (C{sub 3}H{sub 7}OH) and water (H{sub 2}O) for the wide energy range (0.015-15.0 MeV) up to the penetration depth of 10 mean free path. The variation of energy absorption buildup factor with chemical composition as well as incident photon energy for the selected solvents has been studied. It has been observed that the maximum value of energy absorption buildup factors shifts to the slightly higher incident photon energy with the increase in equivalent atomic number of the solvent and the solvent with least equivalent atomic number possesses the maximum value of energy absorption buildup factor.

  10. Determination of penetration depth at high velocity impact using finite element method and artificial neural network tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namık KılıÇ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of ballistic performance of an armor solution is a complicated task and evolved significantly with the application of finite element methods (FEM in this research field. The traditional armor design studies performed with FEM requires sophisticated procedures and intensive computational effort, therefore simpler and accurate numerical approaches are always worthwhile to decrease armor development time. This study aims to apply a hybrid method using FEM simulation and artificial neural network (ANN analysis to approximate ballistic limit thickness for armor steels. To achieve this objective, a predictive model based on the artificial neural networks is developed to determine ballistic resistance of high hardness armor steels against 7.62 mm armor piercing ammunition. In this methodology, the FEM simulations are used to create training cases for Multilayer Perceptron (MLP three layer networks. In order to validate FE simulation methodology, ballistic shot tests on 20 mm thickness target were performed according to standard Stanag 4569. Afterwards, the successfully trained ANN(s is used to predict the ballistic limit thickness of 500 HB high hardness steel armor. Results show that even with limited number of data, FEM-ANN approach can be used to predict ballistic penetration depth with adequate accuracy.

  11. Topology and immersion depth of an integral membrane protein by paramagnetic rates from dissolved oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abdul-Wahid, M Sameer; Verardi, Raffaello; Veglia, Gianluigi; Prosser, R Scott

    2011-09-01

    In studies of membrane proteins, knowledge of protein topology can provide useful insight into both structure and function. In this work, we present a solution NMR method for the measurement the tilt angle and average immersion depth of alpha helices in membrane proteins, from analysis of the paramagnetic relaxation rate enhancements arising from dissolved oxygen. No modification to the micelle or protein is necessary, and the topology of both transmembrane and amphipathic helices are readily determined. We apply this method to the measure the topology of a monomeric mutant of phospholamban (AFA-PLN), a 52-residue membrane protein containing both an amphipathic and a transmembrane alpha helix. In dodecylphosphocholine micelles, the amphipathic helix of AFA-PLN was found to have a tilt angle of 87° ± 1° and an average immersion depth of 13.2 Å. The transmembrane helix was found to have an average immersion depth of 5.4 Å, indicating residues 41 and 42 are closest to the micelle centre. The resolution of paramagnetic relaxation rate enhancements from dissolved oxygen compares favourably to those from Ni (II), a hydrophilic paramagnetic species.

  12. Topology and immersion depth of an integral membrane protein by paramagnetic rates from dissolved oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Abdul-Wahid, M. Sameer; Verardi, Raffaello; Veglia, Gianluigi; Prosser, R. Scott

    2011-01-01

    In studies of membrane proteins, knowledge of protein topology can provide useful insight into both structure and function. In this work, we present a solution NMR method for the measurement the tilt angle and average immersion depth of alpha helices in membrane proteins, from analysis of the paramagnetic relaxation rate enhancements arising from dissolved oxygen. No modification to the micelle or protein is necessary, and the topology of both transmembrane and amphipathic helices are readily determined. We apply this method to the measure the topology of a monomeric mutant of phospholamban (AFA-PLN), a 52-residue membrane protein containing both an amphipathic and a transmembrane alpha helix. In dodecylphosphocholine micelles, the amphipathic helix of AFA-PLN was found to have a tilt angle of 87° ± 1° and an average immersion depth of 13.2 Å. The transmembrane helix was found to have an average immersion depth of 5.4 Å, indicating residues 41 and 42 are closest to the micelle centre. The resolution of paramagnetic relaxation rate enhancements from dissolved oxygen compares favourably to those from Ni (II), a hydrophilic paramagnetic species.

  13. Penetration Depth and Defect Image Contrast Formation in Grazing-Incidence X-ray Topography of 4H-SiC Wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Guo, Jianqiu; Goue, Ouloide Yannick; Kim, Jun Gyu; Raghothamachar, Balaji; Dudley, Michael; Chung, Gill; Sanchez, Edward; Manning, Ian

    2018-02-01

    Synchrotron x-ray topography in grazing-incidence geometry is useful for discerning defects at different depths below the crystal surface, particularly for 4H-SiC epitaxial wafers. However, the penetration depths measured from x-ray topographs are much larger than theoretical values. To interpret this discrepancy, we have simulated the topographic contrast of dislocations based on two of the most basic contrast formation mechanisms, viz. orientation and kinematical contrast. Orientation contrast considers merely displacement fields associated with dislocations, while kinematical contrast considers also diffraction volume, defined as the effective misorientation around dislocations and the rocking curve width for given diffraction vector. Ray-tracing simulation was carried out to visualize dislocation contrast for both models, taking into account photoelectric absorption of the x-ray beam inside the crystal. The results show that orientation contrast plays the key role in determining both the contrast and x-ray penetration depth for different types of dislocation.

  14. Calculation of optical properties of dental composites as a basis for determining color impression and penetration depth of laser light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weniger, Kirsten K.; Muller, Gerhard J.

    2005-03-01

    In order to achieve esthetic dental restorations, there should be no visible difference between restorative material and treated teeth. This requires a match of the optical properties of both restorative material and natural teeth. These optical properties are determined by absorption and scattering of light emerging not only on the surface but also inside the material. Investigating different dental composites in several shades, a method has been developed to calculate the optical parameters absorption coefficient μa, scattering coefficient μs, anisotropy factor g and reduced scattering coefficient μs'. The method includes sample preparation and measurements of transmittance and reflectance in an integrating sphere spectrometer, followed by inverse Monte Carlo simulations. Determination of optical properties is more precise and comprehensive than with the previously used Kubelka Munk theory because scattering can be looked at separated into pure scattering with the scattering coefficient μs and its direction with the anisotropy factor g. Moreover the use of the inverse Monte Carlo simulation not only minimizes systematic errors and considers the scattering phase function, but also takes into account the measuring geometry. The compilation of a data pool of optical parameters now enables the application of further calculation models as a basis for optimization of the composition of new materials. For example, a prediction of the general color impression for multiple layers can be carried out as well as the calculation of the wavelength dependent penetration depths of light with regard to photo polymerization. Further applications are possible in the area of laser ablation.

  15. Oxygen depth profiling using the 16O(d,α)14N nuclear reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khubeis, I.; Al-Rjob, R.

    1997-01-01

    The excitation function of the 16 O(d,α) 14 N nuclear reaction has been determined in the deuteron energy range of 0.88-2.28 MeV. Major resonances are observed at deuteron energies of 0.98, 1.31, 1.53, 1.60, 1.73 and 2.22 MeV. The present results show good agreement with those of Haase and Khubeis, however there is a shift of 60 keV in the first resonance compared with the measurements of Amsel. The use of a thin surface barrier detector (t=22 μm) and a bias voltage of +20 V coupled with a proper pile-up rejection circuit has allowed the determination of the oxygen depth profiling to a resolution of 16 nm for thick targets. This method is efficient in eliminating interferences from other nuclear reactions such as 16 O(d,p) 17 O and 12 C(d,p) 19 C, where emitted protons have severely obscured α-particles from the 16 O(d,α) 14 N reaction. A 1.08 MeV deuteron beam has been employed to increase the α-yield from the target. The target has been tilted at 70 to enhance depth resolution. This reaction is well suited for the determination of oxygen concentration in oxides of high temperature superconductors. (orig.)

  16. Sub-keV secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling: comparison of sample rotation and oxygen flooding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, R.; Wee, A.T.S.

    2004-01-01

    Following the increasingly stringent requirements in the characterization of sub-micron IC devices, an understanding of the various factors affecting ultra shallow depth profiling in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) has become crucial. Achieving high depth resolution (of the order of 1 nm) is critical in the semiconductor industry today, and various methods have been developed to optimize depth resolution. In this paper, we will discuss ultra shallow SIMS depth profiling using B and Ge delta-doped Si samples using low energy 0.5 keV O 2 + primary beams. The relationship between depth resolution of the delta layers and surface topography measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) is studied. The effect of oxygen flooding and sample rotation, used to suppress surface roughening is also investigated. Oxygen flooding was found to effectively suppress roughening and gives the best depth resolution for B, but sample rotation gives the best resolution for Ge. Possible mechanisms for this are discussed

  17. Comprehensive Survey on Improved Focality and Penetration Depth of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Employing Multi-Coil Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xile Wei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-coil arrays applied in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS are proposed to accurately stimulate brain tissues and modulate neural activities by an induced electric field (EF. Composed of numerous independently driven coils, a multi-coil array has alternative energizing strategies to evoke EFs targeting at different cerebral regions. To improve the locating resolution and the stimulating focality, we need to fully understand the variation properties of induced EFs and the quantitative control method of the spatial arrangement of activating coils, both of which unfortunately are still unclear. In this paper, a comprehensive analysis of EF properties was performed based on multi-coil arrays. Four types of planar multi-coil arrays were used to study the relationship between the spatial distribution of EFs and the structure of stimuli coils. By changing coil-driven strategies in a basic 16-coil array, we find that an EF induced by compactly distributed coils decays faster than that induced by dispersedly distributed coils, but the former has an advantage over the latter in terms of the activated brain volume. Simulation results also indicate that the attenuation rate of an EF induced by the 36-coil dense array is 3 times and 1.5 times greater than those induced by the 9-coil array and the 16-coil array, respectively. The EF evoked by the 36-coil dispense array has the slowest decay rate. This result demonstrates that larger multi-coil arrays, compared to smaller ones, activate deeper brain tissues at the expense of decreased focality. A further study on activating a specific field of a prescribed shape and size was conducted based on EF variation. Accurate target location was achieved with a 64-coil array 18 mm in diameter. A comparison between the figure-8 coil, the planar array, and the cap-formed array was made and demonstrates an improvement of multi-coil configurations in the penetration depth and the focality. These findings suggest

  18. Comprehensive Survey on Improved Focality and Penetration Depth of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Employing Multi-Coil Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xile; Li, Yao; Lu, Meili; Wang, Jiang; Yi, Guosheng

    2017-11-14

    Multi-coil arrays applied in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are proposed to accurately stimulate brain tissues and modulate neural activities by an induced electric field (EF). Composed of numerous independently driven coils, a multi-coil array has alternative energizing strategies to evoke EFs targeting at different cerebral regions. To improve the locating resolution and the stimulating focality, we need to fully understand the variation properties of induced EFs and the quantitative control method of the spatial arrangement of activating coils, both of which unfortunately are still unclear. In this paper, a comprehensive analysis of EF properties was performed based on multi-coil arrays. Four types of planar multi-coil arrays were used to study the relationship between the spatial distribution of EFs and the structure of stimuli coils. By changing coil-driven strategies in a basic 16-coil array, we find that an EF induced by compactly distributed coils decays faster than that induced by dispersedly distributed coils, but the former has an advantage over the latter in terms of the activated brain volume. Simulation results also indicate that the attenuation rate of an EF induced by the 36-coil dense array is 3 times and 1.5 times greater than those induced by the 9-coil array and the 16-coil array, respectively. The EF evoked by the 36-coil dispense array has the slowest decay rate. This result demonstrates that larger multi-coil arrays, compared to smaller ones, activate deeper brain tissues at the expense of decreased focality. A further study on activating a specific field of a prescribed shape and size was conducted based on EF variation. Accurate target location was achieved with a 64-coil array 18 mm in diameter. A comparison between the figure-8 coil, the planar array, and the cap-formed array was made and demonstrates an improvement of multi-coil configurations in the penetration depth and the focality. These findings suggest that there is a

  19. Measurement of the London penetration depths in YBa2Cu3Ox by means of muon spin rotation (μ SR) experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pumpin, B.; Keller, H.; Kundig, W.; Odermatt, W.; Savic, I.M.; Schneider, J.W.; Simmler, H.; Zimmermann, P.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report on experiments conducted to get accurate values of the London penetration depths in YBa 2 Cu 3 O x , μSR measurements were performed on a high quality, sintered sample and a c-axis-oriented polycrystal. For the sintered sample the temperature dependence of the effective penetration depthλ eff is well described by the two-fluid model, withλ eff (0) = 155(10) nm. This behavior ofλ eff (T) is consistent with conventional s-wave pairing. The anisotropy ratioλ c /λ ab ≅5(1) was determined from measurements on the polycrystal. These results were used to calculateλ ab (0) = 130(10) nm andλ c (0)≅ 500-800 nm

  20. Variation of energy absorption and exposure buildup factors with incident photon energy and penetration depth for boro-tellurite (B2O3-TeO2) glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyed, M. I.; Elhouichet, H.

    2017-01-01

    The gamma ray energy absorption (EABF) and exposure buildup factors (EBF) of (100-x)TeO2-xB2O3 glass systems (where x=5, 10, 15, 20, 22.5 and 25 mol%) have been calculated in the energy region 0.015-15 MeV up to a penetration depth of 40 mfp (mean free path). The five parameters (G-P) fitting method has been used to estimate both EABF and EBF values. Variations of EABF and EBF with incident photon energy and penetration depth have been studied. It was found that EABF and EBF values were higher in the intermediate energy region, for all the glass systems. Furthermore, boro-tellurite glass with 5 mol% B2O3, was found to present the lowest EABF and EBF values, hence it is superior gamma-ray shielding material. The results indicate that the boro-tellurite glasses can be used as radiation shielding materials.

  1. Measurements of the London penetration depths in YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub x by means of muon spin rotation (. mu. SR) experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puempin, B.; Keller, H.; Kuendig, W.; Odermatt, W.; Savic, I.M.; Schneider, J.W.; Simmler, H.; Zimmermann, P. (Physik-Inst., Univ. Zuerich (Switzerland)); Bednorz, J.G.; Maeno, Y.; Mueller, K.A.; Rossel, C. (IBM Research Div., Zuerich Research Lab., Rueschlikon (Switzerland)); Kaldis, E.; Rusiecki, S. (Lab. fuer Festkoerperphysik, ETH Zuerich (Switzerland)); Assmus, W.; Kowalewski, J. (Physikalisches Inst., Univ. Frankfurt (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-12-01

    To get accurate values of the London penetration depths in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x}, {mu}SR measurements were performed on a high quality, sintered sample and a c-axis-oriented polycrystal. For the sintered sample the temperature dependence of the effective penetration depth {lambda}{sub eff} is well described by the two-fluid model, with {lambda}{sub eff}(0) = 155(10) nm. This behavior of {lambda}{sub eff}(T) is consistent with conventional s-wave pairing. The anisotropy ratio {lambda}{sub c}/{lambda}{sub ab} {approx equal} 5(1) was determined from measurements on the polycrystal. These results were used to calculate {lambda}{sub ab}(0) = 130(10) nm and {lambda}{sub c}(0) {approx equal} 500-800 nm. (orig.).

  2. Measurement and modeling of the low-temperature penetration-depth anomaly in high-quality MgB{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agassi, Y.D. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division, Bethesda, MD 20817 (United States); Oates, D.E., E-mail: OATES@LL.MIT.EDU [MIT-Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, MA 02420 (United States); Moeckly, B.H. [STI, Inc. Santa Barbara, CA 93111 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Based on our measurements of intermodulation distortion in MgB{sub 2}, we have previously proposed that the {pi} energy-gap in MgB{sub 2} entails six nodal lines [Y.D. Agassi, D.E. Oates, and B.H. Moeckly, Phys. Rev. B 80 (2009) 174522]. Here we report high-precision measurements in MgB{sub 2} stripline resonators that show an increase of the penetration depth as the temperature is decreased below 5 K. This increase is consistent with the Script-Small-L = 6 symmetry of the {pi} energy gap that we have proposed. We interpret the increase as a manifestation of Andreev surface-attached states that are associated with the nodal lines of the {pi} energy gap. Penetration-depth calculations are in good agreement with our data. To reconcile the present interpretation with existing literature, we review other penetration-depth data, magnetic-impurity and tunneling experiments, and data on the paramagnetic Meissner effect. We conclude that these data do not rule out the interpretation of our experimental data based on a nodal {pi} energy gap.

  3. Oxygenation measurement by multi-wavelength oxygen-dependent phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence: catchment depth and application in intact heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balestra, Gianmarco M.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.; Specht, Patricia A. C.; Ince, Can; Mik, Egbert G.

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen delivery and metabolism represent key factors for organ function in health and disease. We describe the optical key characteristics of a technique to comprehensively measure oxygen tension (PO(2)) in myocardium, using oxygen-dependent quenching of phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence of

  4. Topical administration of Tetrasodium-Mesotetraphenyl-Porphinesulfonate (TPPS): correlations between drug penetration and depth of necrosis in skin of nude mice following red light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchesini, R.; Melloni, E.; Fava, G.

    1987-01-01

    The main side effect in photodynamic therapy is photosensitization of the patient's skin following systemic administration of the photosensitizing agent. In the case of superficial lesions, this problem can be avoided by topically applying the drug: in this way a local treatment can be performed. The photosensitizing properties of a 2% solution of TPPS (Tetrasodium-Tetraphenylpophinesulfonate) in a vehicle containing a penetration enhancer, Azone, on skin of nude mice has been tested. An aliquot of 0.1 ml/cm 2 of the solution was painted on the skin overlying an s.c. implanted NMU-1 tumor. Subsequently, animals were sacrificed at different times after applications. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that TPPS penetration depth was related to time elapsed after application and to painting modalities. Solution penetration was enhanced by wiping with ether immediately before painting. Irradiation at 80 mW/cm 2 for 20 min with a dye laser emitting at 640 nm, 4 h after TPPS applications, produced necrosis of the upper skin layers, up to 0.2 mm in depth. These findings suggest that topical TPPS administration, followed by laser irradiation, may be a suitable treatment modality for skin lesions involving epithelial layers, even though several aspects of this methodology need further investigation

  5. Depth distribution of carrier lifetime in 65 MeV oxygen ion irradiated silicon wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, N.S. [Ecotopia Science Institute, Division of Energy Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Dahiwale, S.S. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Kanjilal, D. [Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi (India); Bhoraskar, V.N. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Dhole, S.D. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)]. E-mail: sanjay@physics.unipune.ernet.in

    2006-03-15

    CZ-grown, n-doped crystalline Si(1 1 1) of resistivity 60 {omega} cm and 140 {omega} cm were irradiated with 65 MeV energy oxygen ions, in the fluence range of 2 x 10{sup 1}-10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}. The depth and spatial profile of excess minority carrier recombination time {tau} (lifetime) was measured using photoconductive decay (PCD) method. Lifetime measurements were carried out before the stopping range of impinging ions. Results show a monotonous decrease in lifetime with fluence, which is attributed to defect creation mechanism by electronic energy loss based on the thermal spike model. Also, surface modification is expected with a small loss in crystalline quality. This surface is considered to be a multi-crystalline surface with large grain boundaries that act as trapping sites for excess holes in n-Si(1 1 1). Annealing of the irradiated samples showed a near complete recovery at 750 deg. C for a period of 1 h.

  6. Magnetic penetration depth and flux dynamics in single-crystal Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harshman, D.R.; Kleiman, R.N.; Inui, M.; Espinosa, G.P.; Mitzi, D.B.; Kapitulnik, A.; Pfiz, T.; Williams, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The muon-spin-relaxation technique has been used to study vortex dynamics in single-phase superconducting single crystals of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ (T c ∼90 K). The data indicate motional narrowing of the internal field distribution due to vortex motion (on a time scale comparable to the muon lifetime). A field-dependent lattice transition is also observed at T x ∼30 K, as evidenced by the onset of an asymmetric line shape below T x . Narrowing arising from disordering of the vortices along [001] is also discussed with reference to its effect on the measured penetration depth

  7. Multi-channel ground-penetrating radar to explore spatial variations in thaw depth and moisture content in the active layer of a permafrost site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Wollschläger

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Multi-channel ground-penetrating radar (GPR was applied at a permafrost site on the Tibetan Plateau to investigate the influence of surface properties and soil texture on the late-summer thaw depth and average soil moisture content of the active layer. Measurements were conducted on an approximately 85 × 60 m2 sized area with surface and soil textural properties that ranged from medium to coarse textured bare soil to finer textured, sparsely vegetated areas covered with fine, wind blown sand, and it included the bed of a gravel road. The survey allowed a clear differentiation of the various units. It showed (i a shallow thaw depth and low average soil moisture content below the sand-covered, vegetated area, (ii an intermediate thaw depth and high average soil moisture content along the gravel road, and (iii an intermediate to deep thaw depth and low to intermediate average soil moisture content in the bare soil terrain. From our measurements, we found hypotheses for the permafrost processes at this site leading to the observed late-summer thaw depth and soil moisture conditions. The study clearly indicates the complicated interactions between surface and subsurface state variables and processes in this environment. Multi-channel GPR is an operational technology to efficiently study such a system at scales varying from a few meters to a few kilometers.

  8. Oxygen input and oxygen yield of tanks of great depth in theory and practice; Theorie und Praxis von Sauerstoffeintrag und -ertrag bei groesseren Beckentiefen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poepel, H.J.; Wagner, M. [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasserversorgung, Abwasserbeseitigung und Raumplanung; Weidmann, F.

    1999-07-01

    Activated sludge tanks are nowadays planned and built with greater depths (8.00 to 12.00 m) than hitherto (4.00 to 6.00 m); some are already in operation. For such depths there exist no confirmed dimensioning approaches. The fundamentals of oxygen transfer in deep tanks are pointed out and a model for calculating the influence of depth is set up. It is confirmed via an extensive test program with variation of water depth, the rate of density of membrane aerators, and air volume flows. It permits converting oxygen supply parameters of an aeration system established for a certain blow-in depth to a given alternative depth. For oxygen yield, too, relations are developed, which indicate gross yield for different compressor types (sliding vane rotary compressor, turbo compressor, screw-type compressor) as a function of blow-in-depth, air volume flow and rate of density with great accuracy. (orig.) [German] Belebungsbecken werden heute tiefer (8,00 bis 12,00 m) als bisher (4,00 bis 6,00 m) geplant, gebaut und bereits betrieben. Fuer diese Tiefen liegen keine gesicherten Bemesssungsansaetze vor. Die Grundlagen des Sauerstoffuebergangs in tiefen Becken werden dargelegt und ein Modell zur Berechnung des Tiefeneinflusses erstellt. Ueber ein ausfuehrliches Versuchsprogramm mit Variation der Wassertiefe, der Belegungsdichte mit Membranbelueftern und der Luftvolumenstroeme wird das Modell bestaetigt. Damit koennen Sauerstoffzufuhrparametern eines Belueftungssystems, die fuer eine bestimmte Einblastiefe bekannt sind, auf beliebige andere Tiefen umgerechnet werden. Auch fuer den Sauerstoffertrag werden Beziehungen entwickelt, die den Bruttoertrag fuer unterschiedliche Verdichterarten (Drehkolben-, Turbo- und Schraubenverdichter) in Abhaengigkeit von Einblastiefe, Luftvolumenstrom und Belegungsdichte mit grosser Genauigkeit festlegen. (orig.)

  9. Oxygen flooding and sample cooling during depth profiling of HfSiON thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miwa, Shiro [Materials Analysis Center, Materials Laboratories, Sony Corporation, 4-16-1 Okata, Atsugi 243-0021 (Japan)], E-mail: Shiro.Miwa@jp.sony.com

    2008-12-15

    A combination of oxygen flooding and. Cs primary ion bombardment can suppress the enhancement of the secondary ion signal at the surface and at the interface of a thin HfSiON layer on a Si substrate. The surface concentration of both Cs and O during Cs primary ion bombardment with oxygen flooding was higher than that without oxygen flooding, as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. When the sample was cooled to about -150 deg. C, the enhancement of the secondary ion signal could be suppressed at a lower oxygen pressure.

  10. Muon-Spin Rotation Measurements of the Magnetic Field Dependence of the Vortex-Core Radius and Magnetic Penetration Depth in NbSe2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonier, J.E.; Kiefl, R.F.; Brewer, J.H.; Chakhalian, J.; Dunsiger, S.R.; MacFarlane, W.A.; Miller, R.I.; Wong, A.; Luke, G.M.; Brill, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Muon-spin rotation spectroscopy (μSR) has been used to measure the internal magnetic field distribution in NbSe 2 for H c1 c2 . The deduced profiles of the supercurrent density J s indicate that the vortex-core radius ρ 0 in the bulk decreases sharply with increasing magnetic field. This effect, which is attributed to increased vortex-vortex interactions, does not agree with the dirty-limit microscopic theory. A simple phenomenological equation in which ρ 0 depends on the intervortex spacing is used to model this behavior. In addition, we find for the first time that the in-plane magnetic penetration depth λ ab increases linearly with H in the vortex state of a conventional superconductor. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. A Novel Method for Measurements of the Penetration Depth of MgB2 Superconductor Films by Using Sapphire Resonators with Short-Circuited Parallel Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Ho Sang; Lee, J. H.; Cho, Y. H.; Lee, Sang Young; Seong, W. K.; Lee, N. H.; Kang, W. N.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a measurement method that enables to measure the penetration depth(λ) of superconductor films by using a short-ended parallel plate sapphire resonator. Variations in the (λof MgB 2 films could be measured down to the lowest temperature using a sapphire resonator with a YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x film at the bottom. A model equation of λλ 0 [1-(T/T c ) τ ] -1/2 for MgB 2 films appeared to describe the observed variations of the resonant frequency of the sapphire resonator with temperature, with λ 0 , τ and T c used as the fitting parameters.

  12. Mid-depth respired carbon storage and oxygenation of the eastern equatorial Pacific over the last 25,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umling, Natalie E.; Thunell, Robert C.

    2018-06-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that respired carbon was stored in mid-depth waters (∼1-3 km) during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and released to the atmosphere from upwelling regions during deglaciation. Decreased ventilation, enhanced productivity, and enhanced carbonate dissolution are among the mechanisms that have been cited as possible drivers of glacial CO2 drawdown. However, the relative importance of each of these mechanisms is poorly understood. New approaches to quantitatively constrain bottom water carbonate chemistry and oxygenation provide methods for estimating historic changes in respired carbon storage. While increased CO2 drawdown during the LGM should have resulted in decreased oxygenation and a shift in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) speciation towards lower carbonate ion concentrations, this is complicated by the interplay of carbonate compensation, export productivity, and circulation. To disentangle these processes, we use a multiproxy approach that includes boron to calcium (B/Ca) ratios of the benthic foraminifera Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi to reconstruct deep-water carbonate ion concentrations ([CO32-]) and the uranium to calcium (U/Ca) ratio of foraminiferal coatings in combination with benthic foraminiferal carbon isotopes to reconstruct changes in bottom water oxygen concentrations ([O2]) and organic carbon export. Our records indicate that LGM [CO32-] and [O2] was reduced at mid water depths of the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP), consistent with increased respired carbon storage. Furthermore, our results suggest enhanced mixing of lower Circumpolar Deep Water (LCDW) to EEP mid water depths and provide evidence for the importance of circulation for oceanic-atmospheric CO2 exchange.

  13. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS)-Based Models for Predicting the Weld Bead Width and Depth of Penetration from the Infrared Thermal Image of the Weld Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subashini, L.; Vasudevan, M.

    2012-02-01

    Type 316 LN stainless steel is the major structural material used in the construction of nuclear reactors. Activated flux tungsten inert gas (A-TIG) welding has been developed to increase the depth of penetration because the depth of penetration achievable in single-pass TIG welding is limited. Real-time monitoring and control of weld processes is gaining importance because of the requirement of remoter welding process technologies. Hence, it is essential to develop computational methodologies based on an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) or artificial neural network (ANN) for predicting and controlling the depth of penetration and weld bead width during A-TIG welding of type 316 LN stainless steel. In the current work, A-TIG welding experiments have been carried out on 6-mm-thick plates of 316 LN stainless steel by varying the welding current. During welding, infrared (IR) thermal images of the weld pool have been acquired in real time, and the features have been extracted from the IR thermal images of the weld pool. The welding current values, along with the extracted features such as length, width of the hot spot, thermal area determined from the Gaussian fit, and thermal bead width computed from the first derivative curve were used as inputs, whereas the measured depth of penetration and weld bead width were used as output of the respective models. Accurate ANFIS models have been developed for predicting the depth of penetration and the weld bead width during TIG welding of 6-mm-thick 316 LN stainless steel plates. A good correlation between the measured and predicted values of weld bead width and depth of penetration were observed in the developed models. The performance of the ANFIS models are compared with that of the ANN models.

  14. Oxygen accumulation on metal surfaces investigated by XPS, AES and LEIS, an issue for sputter depth profiling under UHV conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberger, R., E-mail: roland.steinberger@jku.at [Center for Surface and Nanoanalytics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Celedón, C.E., E-mail: carlos.celedon@usm.cl [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Abteilung für Atom- und Oberflächenphysik, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Valaparaíso, Casilla 110-V (Chile); Bruckner, B., E-mail: barbara.bruckner@jku.at [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Abteilung für Atom- und Oberflächenphysik, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Roth, D., E-mail: dietmar.roth@jku.at [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Abteilung für Atom- und Oberflächenphysik, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Duchoslav, J., E-mail: jiri.duchoslav@jku.at [Center for Surface and Nanoanalytics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Arndt, M., E-mail: martin.arndt@voestalpine.com [voestalpine Stahl GmbH, voestalpine-Straße 3, 4031 Linz (Austria); Kürnsteiner, P., E-mail: p.kuernsteiner@mpie.de [Center for Surface and Nanoanalytics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); and others

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Investigation on the impact of residual gas prevailing in UHV chambers. • For some metals detrimental oxygen uptake could be observed within shortest time. • Totally different behavior was found: no changes, solely adsorption and oxidation. • The UHV residual gas may severely corrupt results obtained from depth profiling. • A well-considered data acquisition sequence is the key for reliable depth profiles. - Abstract: Depth profiling using surface sensitive analysis methods in combination with sputter ion etching is a common procedure for thorough material investigations, where clean surfaces free of any contamination are essential. Hence, surface analytic studies are mostly performed under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions, but the cleanness of such UHV environments is usually overrated. Consequently, the current study highlights the in principle known impact of the residual gas on metal surfaces (Fe, Mg, Al, Cr and Zn) for various surface analytics methods, like X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and low-energy ion scattering (LEIS). The investigations with modern, state-of-the-art equipment showed different behaviors for the metal surfaces in UHV during acquisition: (i) no impact for Zn, even after long time, (ii) solely adsorption of oxygen for Fe, slight and slow changes for Cr and (iii) adsorption accompanied by oxide formation for Al and Mg. The efficiency of different counter measures was tested and the acquired knowledge was finally used for ZnMgAl coated steel to obtain accurate depth profiles, which exhibited before serious artifacts when data acquisition was performed in an inconsiderate way.

  15. Latitudinal variations in intermediate depth ventilation and biological production over northeastern Pacific Oxygen Minimum Zones during the last 60 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartapanis, Olivier; Tachikawa, Kazuyo; Bard, Edouard

    2012-10-01

    Mechanisms affecting past variability in the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific (ETNP) are poorly known. We analyzed core MD02-2524, obtained from the Nicaragua Margin in the present ETNP OMZ for major and minor elements (titanium (Ti), brome (Br), silicon (Si), potassium (K), and calcium (Ca)) using an X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) core scanner, and redox-sensitive trace elements (uranium (U), molybdenum (Mo), and nickel (Ni)) determined by ICP-MS. The U and Mo content was higher during the deglaciation than during the Holocene and the last glacial maximum, whereas enrichment was not observed for Ni, an element closely associated with organic matter. High-resolution XRF scanning indicated that the Ca-based carbonate content had millennial-scale variability inversely correlated with Br-based organic matter and Si/K-based opal content during the last glacial period. The available data suggest no clear regional trend in biological productivity during the last deglaciation, but significant local variability in the coastal eastern equatorial Pacific. The trace element enrichment and the lack of a concomitant increase in biogenic phases indicated that an enhanced ETNP OMZ, at least between 15°N and 12°N at a water depth of 500-900 m, was principally caused by a reduced oxygen supply driven by oceanic circulation to the Nicaragua Basin during the deglaciation. The observed patterns can be interpreted as the distinct changes in the oxygenation state of northern and southern water masses at intermediate depths. We also found evidence for a decoupling between local productivity and pore water oxygenation for several millennial-scale events during Marine Isotopic Stage 3, indicating that remote oxygen consumption and/or oceanic ventilation impacted OMZ intensity. Multi-millennial scale variations of the productivity at Papagayo upwelling cell displayed an opposite trend from productivity at the Costa Rica Dome, in relation with the latitudinal shift

  16. Dissolved oxygen, salinity, temperature, and depth data from bottle casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from 05 February 1973 to 19 August 1980 (NODC Accession 0000289)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dissolved oxygen, salinity, temperature, and depth data were collected using bottle casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from February 5, 1973 to August 19, 1980. These...

  17. Dissolved oxygen, salinity, temperature, and depth data from bottle casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from 07 February 1987 to 18 February 1991 (NODC Accession 0000290)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dissolved oxygen, salinity, temperature, and depth data were collected using bottle casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from February 7, 1987 to February 18, 1991....

  18. Influence of the depth of sedation on regional cerebral oxygen saturation monitoring in neurosurgery of supratentorial gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Kai⁃ying

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the influence on regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2 of sedation depth during anesthesia induction and maintenance in supratentorial glioma resections. Methods Thirty patients with Ⅰ - Ⅱ supratentorial glioma (graded by American Society of Anesthesiologists underwent elective supratentorial glioma resection were included in this study. Rocuronium, sufentanil and propofol were used for anesthesia induction. After trachea cannula, total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA was maintained with plasma concentration of propofol 2.80-3.20 μg/ml and remifentanil 0.10-0.20 μg/(kg·min. Thirty groups of rScO2, bispectral index (BIS, mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR were recorded continuously till the incision. Results During anesthesia induction, BIS decreased along with the infusion of anesthetics, and there was significant negative correlation between BIS and rScO2 (r = ⁃0.803, P = 0.001. During anesthesia maintenance, rScO2 and BIS were not significantly related (r = 0.147, P = 0.396. Conclusion The rScO2 monitoring can reflect the influence of sedation depth on cerebral oxygen delivery and consumption balance during supratentorial glioma resection under TIVA.

  19. Magma Ocean Depth and Oxygen Fugacity in the Early Earth--Implications for Biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    A large class of elements, referred to as the siderophile (iron-loving) elements, in the Earth's mantle can be explained by an early deep magma ocean on the early Earth in which the mantle equilibrated with metallic liquid (core liquid). This stage would have affected the distribution of some of the classic volatile elements that are also essential ingredients for life and biochemistry - H, C, S, and N. Estimates are made of the H, C, S, and N contents of Earth's early mantle after core formation, considering the effects of variable temperature, pressure, oxygen fugacity, and composition on their partitioning. Assessment is made of whether additional, exogenous, sources are required to explain the observed mantle concentrations, and areas are identified where additional data and experimentation would lead to an improved understanding of this phase of Earth's history.

  20. Atomistic simulation of femtosecond laser pulse interactions with a copper film: Effect of dependency of penetration depth and reflectivity on electron temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouye Foumani, A.; Niknam, A. R.

    2018-01-01

    The response of copper films to irradiation with laser pulses of fluences in the range of 100-6000 J/m2 is simulated by using a modified combination of a two-temperature model (TTM) and molecular dynamics (MD). In this model, the dependency of the pulse penetration depth and the reflectivity of the target on electron temperature are taken into account. Also, the temperature-dependent electron-phonon coupling factor, electron thermal conductivity, and electron heat capacity are used in the simulations. Based on this model, the dependence of the integral reflectivity on pulse fluence, the changes in the film thickness, and the evolution of density and electron and lattice temperatures are obtained. Moreover, snapshots that show the melting and disintegration processes are presented. The disintegration starts at a fluence of 4200 J/m2, which corresponds with an absorbed fluence of 616 J/m2. The calculated values of integral reflectivity are in good agreement with the experimental data. The inclusion of such temperature-dependent absorption models in the TTM-MD method would facilitate the comparison of experimental data with simulation results.

  1. Influence of structural disorder on low-temperature behavior of penetration depth in electron-doped high-TC thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanfredi, A.J.C.; Sergeenkov, S.; Araujo-Moreira, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    To probe the influence of structural disorder on low-temperature behavior of magnetic penetration depth, λ(T), in electron-doped high-T C superconductors, a comparative study of high-quality Pr 1.85 Ce 0.15 CuO 4 (PCCO) and Sm 1.85 Ce 0.15 CuO 4 (SCCO) thin films is presented. The λ(T) profiles are extracted from conductance-voltage data using a highly-sensitive home-made mutual-inductance technique. The obtained results confirm a d-wave pairing mechanism in both samples (with nodal gap parameter Δ 0 /k B T C =2.0 and 2.1 for PCCO and SCCO films, respectively), substantially modified by impurity scattering (which is more noticeable in less homogeneous SCCO films) at the lowest temperatures. More precisely, Δλ(T)=λ(T)-λ(0) is found to follow the Goldenfeld-Hirschfeld interpolation formulae Δλ(T)/λ(0)=AT 2 /(T+T 0 ) with T 0 =ln(2)k B Γ 1/2 Δ 0 1/2 being the crossover temperature which demarcates pure and impure scattering processes (T 0 /T C =0.13 and 0.26 for PCCO and SCCO films, respectively). The value of the extracted impurity scattering rate Γ correlates with the quality of our samples and is found to be much higher in less homogeneous films with lower T C

  2. Response function during oxygen sputter profiling and its application to deconvolution of ultrashallow B depth profiles in Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Lin; Liu Jiarui; Wang Chong; Ma, Ki B.; Zhang Jianming; Chen, John; Tang, Daniel; Patel, Sanjay; Chu Weikan

    2003-01-01

    The secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) response function to a B 'δ surface layer' has been investigated. Using electron-gun evaporation combined with liquid nitrogen cooling of target, we are able to deposit an ultrathin B layer without detectable island formation. The B spatial distribution obtained from SIMS is exponentially decaying with a decay length approximately a linear function of the incident energy of the oxygen during the SIMS analysis. Deconvolution with the response function has been applied to reconstruct the spatial distribution of ultra-low-energy B implants. A correction to depth and yield scales due to transient sputtering near the Si surface region was also applied. Transient erosion shifts the profile shallower, but beam mixing shifts it deeper. These mutually compensating effects make the adjusted distribution almost the same as original data. The one significant difference is a buried B peak observed near the surface region

  3. Oxygen depth profiling in Kr+-implanted polycrystalline alpha titanium by means of 16O(α,α)16O resonance scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nsengiyumva, S.; Riviere, J.P.; Raji, A.T.; Comrie, C.M.; Britton, D.T.; Haerting, M.

    2011-01-01

    The 16 O(α,α) 16 O resonance scattering was applied to study the effects of ion implantation on the oxygen distribution in the near surface region of polycrystalline titanium implanted with 180 keV krypton ions at fluences, ranging between 1 x 10 14 and 5 x 10 15 Kr + /cm 2 . Two sample sets were chosen: as-received polycrystalline titanium discs rolled and annealed in half-hard condition which had a thick oxygen layer and similar samples in which this surface layer was removed by polishing. An increase of the mean oxygen concentration observed in both unpolished and polished samples at low fluence suggests a knock-on implantation of surface oxygen atoms. At high fluence, an overall decrease in the mean oxygen concentration and mean oxygen depth suggests an out-diffusion of near-surface oxygen atoms.

  4. Oxygen depth profiling in Kr{sup +}-implanted polycrystalline alpha titanium by means of {sup 16}O({alpha},{alpha}){sup 16}O resonance scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsengiyumva, S., E-mail: schadnse@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Department of Physics and Electronics, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); Department of Physics, Kigali Institute of Education, P.O. Box 5039 Kigali (Rwanda); Riviere, J.P. [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux UMR6630-CNRS, 86960 (France); Raji, A.T.; Comrie, C.M.; Britton, D.T.; Haerting, M. [Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

    2011-07-15

    The {sup 16}O({alpha},{alpha}){sup 16}O resonance scattering was applied to study the effects of ion implantation on the oxygen distribution in the near surface region of polycrystalline titanium implanted with 180 keV krypton ions at fluences, ranging between 1 x 10{sup 14} and 5 x 10{sup 15} Kr{sup +}/cm{sup 2}. Two sample sets were chosen: as-received polycrystalline titanium discs rolled and annealed in half-hard condition which had a thick oxygen layer and similar samples in which this surface layer was removed by polishing. An increase of the mean oxygen concentration observed in both unpolished and polished samples at low fluence suggests a knock-on implantation of surface oxygen atoms. At high fluence, an overall decrease in the mean oxygen concentration and mean oxygen depth suggests an out-diffusion of near-surface oxygen atoms.

  5. Effects of recoil-implanted oxygen on depth profiles of defects and annealing processes in P{sup +}-implanted Si studied using monoenergetic positron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uedono, Akira; Moriya, Tsuyoshi; Tanigawa, Shoichiro [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Materials Science; Kitano, Tomohisa; Watanabe, Masahito; Kawano, Takao; Suzuki, Ryoichi; Ohdaira, Toshiyuki; Mikado, Tomohisa

    1996-04-01

    Effects of oxygen atoms recoiled from SiO{sub 2} films on depth profiles of defects and annealing processes in P{sup +}-implanted Si were studied using monoenergetic positron beams. For an epitaxial Si specimen, the depth profile of defects was found to be shifted toward the surface by recoil implantation of oxygen atoms. This was attributed to the formation of vacancy-oxygen complexes and a resultant decrease in the diffusion length of vacancy-type defects. The recoiled oxygen atoms stabilized amorphous regions introduced by P{sup +}-implantation, and the annealing of these regions was observed after rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 700degC. For a Czochralski-grown Si specimen fabricated by through-oxide implantation, the recoiled oxygen atoms introduced interstitial-type defects upon RTA below the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface, and such defects were dissociated by annealing at 1000degC. (author)

  6. Oxygen accumulation on metal surfaces investigated by XPS, AES and LEIS, an issue for sputter depth profiling under UHV conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberger, R.; Celedón, C. E.; Bruckner, B.; Roth, D.; Duchoslav, J.; Arndt, M.; Kürnsteiner, P.; Steck, T.; Faderl, J.; Riener, C. K.; Angeli, G.; Bauer, P.; Stifter, D.

    2017-07-01

    Depth profiling using surface sensitive analysis methods in combination with sputter ion etching is a common procedure for thorough material investigations, where clean surfaces free of any contamination are essential. Hence, surface analytic studies are mostly performed under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions, but the cleanness of such UHV environments is usually overrated. Consequently, the current study highlights the in principle known impact of the residual gas on metal surfaces (Fe, Mg, Al, Cr and Zn) for various surface analytics methods, like X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and low-energy ion scattering (LEIS). The investigations with modern, state-of-the-art equipment showed different behaviors for the metal surfaces in UHV during acquisition: (i) no impact for Zn, even after long time, (ii) solely adsorption of oxygen for Fe, slight and slow changes for Cr and (iii) adsorption accompanied by oxide formation for Al and Mg. The efficiency of different counter measures was tested and the acquired knowledge was finally used for ZnMgAl coated steel to obtain accurate depth profiles, which exhibited before serious artifacts when data acquisition was performed in an inconsiderate way.

  7. Effects of relative plate motion on the deep structure and penetration depth of slabs below the Izu-Bonin and Mariana island arcs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilst, R.D. van der; Seno, Tetsuzo

    1993-01-01

    An increasing number of seismological studies indicate that slabs of subducted lithosphere penetrate the Earth's lower mantle below some island arcs but are deflected, or, rather, laid down, in the transition zone below others. Recent numerical simulations of mantle flow also advocate a hybrid form

  8. Up-and-down shift in residence depth of slickheads (Alepocephalidae) revealed by otolith stable oxygen isotopic composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiao, J C; Liu, E Y; Sui, T D

    2016-03-01

    Otolith δ(18)O profiles for four slickhead species (Alepocephalidae) suggested that Alepocephalus umbriceps, Talismania okinawensis and Rouleina watasei migrated hundreds of metres to shallower depths during the juvenile to young stages before returning to their original depth or even deeper waters. Xenodermichthys nodulosus gradually shifted residence depth from shallow to deeper water during their life. These migratory patterns indicated that the slickheads examined had allopatric residence depths at different life stages, which might enhance the pelagic survival and growth rates of the juvenile and young fishes. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. London penetration depth measurements in Ba (Fe1-xTx)2As2(T=Co,Ni,Ru,Rh,Pd,Pt,Co+Cu) superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Ryan T. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The London penetration depth has been measured in various doping levels of single crystals of Ba(Fe1-xTx)2As2 (T=Co,Ni,Ru,Rh,Pd,Pt,Co+Cu) superconductors by utilizing a tunnel diode resonator (TDR) apparatus. All in-plane penetration depth measurements exhibit a power law temperature dependence of the form Δλab(T) = CTn, indicating the existence of low-temperature, normal state quasiparticles all the way down to the lowest measured temperature, which was typically 500 mK. Several different doping concentrations from the Ba(Fe1-xTx)2As2 (T=Co,Ni) systems have been measured and the doping dependence of the power law exponent, n, is compared to results from measurements of thermal conductivity and specific heat. In addition, a novel method has been developed to allow for the measurement of the zero temperature value of the in-plane penetration depth, λab(0), by using TDR frequency shifts. By using this technique, the doping dependence of λab(0) has been measured in the Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 series, which has allowed also for the construction of the doping-dependent superfluid phase stiffness, ρs(T) = [λ(0)/λ(T)]2. By studying the effects of disorder on these superconductors using heavy ion irradiation, it has been determined that the observed power law temperature dependence likely arises from pair-breaking impurity scattering contributions, which is consistent with the proposed s±-wave symmetry of the superconducting gap in the dirty scattering limit. This hypothesis is supported by the measurement of an exponential temperature dependence of the penetration depth in the intrinsically clean LiFeAs, indicative of a nodeless superconducting gap.

  10. Carbon and nitrogen uptake of calcareous benthic foraminifera along a depth-related oxygen gradient in the OMZ of the Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annekatrin Julie Enge

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Foraminifera are an important faunal element of the benthos in oxygen-depleted settings such as Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs where they can play a relevant role in the processing of phytodetritus. We investigated the uptake of phytodetritus (labeled with 13C and 15N by cal-careous foraminifera in the 0-1 cm sediment horizon under different oxygen concentrations within the OMZ in the eastern Arabian Sea. The in situ tracer experiments were carried out along a depth transect on the Indian margin over a period of 4 to 10 days. The uptake of phy-todetrital carbon within 4 days by all investigated species shows that phytodetritus is a rele-vant food source for foraminifera in OMZ sediments. The decrease of total carbon uptake from 540 to 1100 m suggests a higher demand for carbon by species in the low-oxygen core region of the OMZ or less food competition with macrofauna. Especially Uvigerinids showed high uptake of phytodetrital carbon at the lowest oxygenated site. Variation in the ratio of phytodetrital carbon to nitrogen between species and sites indicates that foraminiferal carbon and nitrogen use can be decoupled and different nutritional demands are found between spe-cies. Lower ratio of phytodetrital carbon and nitrogen at 540 m could hint for greater demand or storage of food-based nitrogen, ingestion or hosting of bacteria under almost anoxic condi-tions. Shifts in the foraminiferal assemblage structure (controlled by oxygen or food availabil-ity and in the presence of other benthic organisms account for observed changes in the pro-cessing of phytodetritus in the different OMZ habitats. Foraminifera dominate the short-term processing of phytodetritus in the OMZ core but are less important in the lower OMZ bounda-ry region of the Indian margin as biological interactions and species distribution of foraminif-era change with depth and oxygen levels.

  11. Roughness development in the depth profiling with 500 eV O2+ beam with the combination of oxygen flooding and sample rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui, D.; Xing, Z.X.; Huang, Y.H.; Mo, Z.Q.; Hua, Y.N.; Zhao, S.P.; Cha, L.Z.

    2008-01-01

    Roughness development is one of the most often addressed issues in the secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) ultra-shallow depth profiling. The effect of oxygen flooding pressure on the roughness development has been investigated under the bombardment of 500 eV O 2 + beam with simultaneous sample rotation. Oxygen flooding had two competing effects on the surface roughening, i.e., enhancement of initiating roughening and suppression of roughening development, which were suggested to be described by the onset depth z on and transient width w tr of surface roughening. Both z on and w tr decreased as oxygen flooding pressure increased. As the result, surface roughening was most pronounced at the intermediate pressure from 4.4E-5 Pa to 5.8E-5 Pa. The surface roughening is negligible while without flooding or with flooding at the saturated pressure. No flooding is preferable for depth profiling ultra-shallow B implantation because of the better B profile shape and short analysis time

  12. Analysis by numerical calculations of the depth and dynamics of the penetration of ordered cellular structure made by casting from AlSi10Mg eutectic alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Małysza

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Owing to high plastic deformability while maintaining stress values constant and relatively low, ordered cellular structures arecharacterised by excellent properties and the ability to dissipate the impact energy. Due to the low weight, structures of this type can beused, among others, for different parts of motor vehicles. For tests, a trapezoidal ordered cellular structure of 50.8 x 50.8 x 25.4 (mmoverall dimensions was selected. It was made as an investment casting from AlSi9Mg eutectic alloy by the method of Rapid Prototyping(RP. During FEM computations using an Abaqus programme, it was assumed that the material is isotropic and exhibits the features of anelastic – plastic body, introducing to calculations the, listed in a table, values of the stress-strain curve obtained in tensile tests performedon a MTS testing machine (10T. The computations used Johnson - Cook model, which is usually sufficiently accurate when modelling thephenomena of penetration of an element by an object of high initial velocity. The performed numerical calculations allowed identification

  13. Power-law index and penetration depth of (NdxSmxGd1−2x)Ba2Cu3O7−δ films studied by AC susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaofen; He, Dong; Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Superconducting (NdxSmxGd1−2x)Ba2Cu3O7−δ films with x=0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.33 were grown by PLD on STO single crystal substrates. The power-law index n and penetration depth λ are studied by AC susceptibility. During cooling, n in films with x ≠ 0 increases much slower compared with the films with x =....... The films with x ≠ 0 also tend to have a longer penetration depth. These properties might be related to the higher possibility for disorder in the mixed (Nd,Sm,Gd)BCO films....

  14. Evaluation of the Thickness and Oxygen Transmission Rate before and after Thermoforming Mono- and Multi-layer Sheets into Trays with Variable Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Buntinx

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During thermoforming, plastic sheets are heated and subsequently deformed through the application of mechanical stretching and/or pressure. This process directly impacts sheet properties such as material thickness in walls, corners, and bottom, crystallinity in the constituent layers, and particularly the oxygen gas permeability. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of thermoforming on thickness and oxygen transmission rate (OTR of selected packaging materials (polypropylene (PP; PP/ethylene-vinyl alcohol co-polymer/PP (PP/EVOH/PP; polystyrene/EVOH/polyethylene (PS/EVOH/PE; amorphous polyethylene terephtalate/PE (APET/PE; APET/PE/EVOH/PE; polyamide/PE (PA/PE; and (PE/PA/EVOH/PA/PE. These materials were extruded in two different thicknesses and thermoformed into trays with the same top dimensions and variable depths of 25, 50, and/or 75 mm and a 50 mm tray with a variable radius of the corners. The distribution of the material thickness in the trays was visualized, showing the locations that were most affected by the deep drawn process. The OTR results indicate that the calculated OTR, based on a homogeneous material distribution, can be used as a rough approximation of the measured OTR. However, detailed analysis of crystallization and unequal thinning, which is also related to the tray design, remains necessary to explain the deviation of the measured OTR as compared to the predicted one.

  15. Hydrogen in oxygen-free, phosphorus-doped copper - Charging techniques, hydrogen contents and modelling of hydrogen diffusion and depth profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsson, Aasa [Swerea KIMAB, Kista (Sweden); Sandstroem, Rolf [Swerea KIMAB, Kista (Sweden); Div. of Materials Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Lilja, Christina [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-01-15

    In Sweden spent nuclear fuel is planned to be disposed of by encapsulating in cast iron inserts protected by a copper shell. The copper can be exposed to hydrogen released during corrosion processes in the inserts. If the hydrogen is taken up by the copper, it could lead to hydrogen embrittlement. Specimens from oxygen-free copper have been hydrogen charged using two different methods. The purpose was to investigate how hydrogen could be introduced into copper in a controlled way. The thermal charging method resulted in a reduction of the initial hydrogen content. After electrochemical charging of cylindrical specimens, the measured hydrogen content was 2.6 wt. ppm which should compared with 0.6 wt. ppm before charging. The retained hydrogen after two weeks was reduced by nearly 40%. Recently the paper 'Hydrogen depth profile in phosphorus-doped, oxygen-free copper after cathodic charging' (Martinsson and Sandstrom, 2012) has been published. The paper describes experimental results for bulk specimens as well as presenting a model. Almost all the hydrogen is found to be located less than 100 {mu}m from the surface. This model is used to interpret the experimental results on foils in the present report. Since the model is fully based on fundamental equations, it can be used to analyse what happens in new situations. In this report the effect of the charging intensity, the grain size, the critical nucleus size for hydrogen bubble formation as well as the charging time are analysed.

  16. Hydrogen in oxygen-free, phosphorus-doped copper-Charging techniques, hydrogen contents and modelling of hydrogen diffusion and depth profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinsson, Aasa; Sandstroem, Rolf; Lilja, Christina

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden spent nuclear fuel is planned to be disposed of by encapsulating in cast iron inserts protected by a copper shell. The copper can be exposed to hydrogen released during corrosion processes in the inserts. If the hydrogen is taken up by the copper, it could lead to hydrogen embrittlement. Specimens from oxygen-free copper have been hydrogen charged using two different methods. The purpose was to investigate how hydrogen could be introduced into copper in a controlled way. The thermal charging method resulted in a reduction of the initial hydrogen content. After electrochemical charging of cylindrical specimens, the measured hydrogen content was 2.6 wt. ppm which should compared with 0.6 wt. ppm before charging. The retained hydrogen after two weeks was reduced by nearly 40%. Recently the paper 'Hydrogen depth profile in phosphorus-doped, oxygen-free copper after cathodic charging' (Martinsson and Sandstrom, 2012) has been published. The paper describes experimental results for bulk specimens as well as presenting a model. Almost all the hydrogen is found to be located less than 100 μm from the surface. This model is used to interpret the experimental results on foils in the present report. Since the model is fully based on fundamental equations, it can be used to analyse what happens in new situations. In this report the effect of the charging intensity, the grain size, the critical nucleus size for hydrogen bubble formation as well as the charging time are analysed

  17. CSDA range, stopping power and mean penetration depth energy relationships in some hydrocarbons and biologic materials for 10 eV to 100 MeV with the modified Rohrlich-Carlson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guemues, Hasan [Ondokuz Mayis University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Samsun (Turkey); Bentabet, Abdelouahab [Bordj Bou Arreridj University, LCVRN, SNVSTU Faculty, El Anasser (Algeria)

    2017-05-15

    In this study, for some hydrocarbons and biological compounds, stopping power formula are presented, being valid for low and intermediate electron energies. In addition, calculation of the continuous slowing down approximation range (CSDA range) from the stopping power is also made. Calculation of the CSDA range for some hydrocarbons: C{sub 2}H{sub 6} (ethane), C{sub 4}H{sub 10} (butane), C{sub 6}H{sub 14} (hexane) C{sub 8}H{sub 18} (octane), C{sub 5}H{sub 5}N{sub 5} (adenine) and C{sub 5}H{sub 5}N{sub 5}O (guanine) have been introduced for incident electrons in the energy range 30 eV to 1 MeV. The range of electrons has been calculated within the continuous slowing down approximation (CSDA) using modified Rohrlich and Carlson formula of stopping power. Besides, we have calculated the mean penetration depths using a spherical geometric model developed by Bentabet (Vacuum 86:1855-1859, 35). The results have been compared with the other theoretical results, Monte Carlo code such as PENELOPE predictions and semi-empirical results. The calculated results of CSDA ranges for electrons in the energy range from 20 eV to 100 MeV are found to be in good agreement to within 10% with available date. (orig.)

  18. Engineering zonal cartilaginous tissue by modulating oxygen levels and mechanical cues through the depth of infrapatellar fat pad stem cell laden hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lu; O'Reilly, Adam R; Thorpe, Stephen D; Buckley, Conor T; Kelly, Daniel J

    2017-09-01

    Engineering tissues with a structure and spatial composition mimicking those of native articular cartilage (AC) remains a challenge. This study examined if infrapatellar fat pad-derived stem cells (FPSCs) can be used to engineer cartilage grafts with a bulk composition and a spatial distribution of matrix similar to the native tissue. In an attempt to mimic the oxygen gradients and mechanical environment within AC, FPSC-laden hydrogels (either 2 mm or 4 mm in height) were confined to half of their thickness and/or subjected to dynamic compression (DC). Confining FPSC-laden hydrogels was predicted to accentuate the gradient in oxygen tension through the depth of the constructs (higher in the top and lower in the bottom), leading to enhanced glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen synthesis in 2 mm high tissues. When subjected to DC alone, both GAG and collagen accumulation increased within 2 mm high unconfined constructs. Furthermore, the dynamic modulus of constructs increased from 0.96 MPa to 1.45 MPa following the application of DC. There was no synergistic benefit of coupling confinement and DC on overall levels of matrix accumulation; however in all constructs, irrespective of their height, the combination of these boundary conditions led to the development of engineered tissues that spatially best resembled native AC. The superficial region of these constructs mimicked that of native tissue, staining weakly for GAG, strongly for type II collagen, and in 4 mm high tissues more intensely for proteoglycan 4 (lubricin). This study demonstrated that FPSCs respond to joint-like environmental conditions by producing cartilage tissues mimicking native AC. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Universal doping evolution of the superconducting gap anisotropy in single crystals of electron-doped Ba(Fe1‑x Rh x )2As2 from London penetration depth measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsoo; Tanatar, M. A.; Martin, C.; Blomberg, E. C.; Ni, Ni; Bud’ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Prozorov, R.

    2018-06-01

    Doping evolution of the superconducting gap anisotropy was studied in single crystals of 4d-electron doped Ba(Fe1‑x Rh x )2As2 using tunnel diode resonator measurements of the temperature variation of the London penetration depth . Single crystals with doping levels representative of an underdoped regime x  =  0.039 ( K), close to optimal doping x  =  0.057 ( K) and overdoped x  =  0.079 ( K) and x  =  0.131( K) were studied. Superconducting energy gap anisotropy was characterized by the exponent, n, by fitting the data to the power-law, . The exponent n varies non-monotonically with x, increasing to a maximum n  =  2.5 for x  =  0.079 and rapidly decreasing towards overdoped compositions to 1.6 for x  =  0.131. This behavior is qualitatively similar to the doping evolution of the superconducting gap anisotropy in other iron pnictides, including hole-doped (Ba,K)Fe2As2 and 3d-electron-doped Ba(Fe,Co)2As2 superconductors, finding a full gap near optimal doping and strong anisotropy toward the ends of the superconducting dome in the T-x phase diagram. The normalized superfluid density in an optimally Rh-doped sample is almost identical to the temperature-dependence in the optimally doped Ba(Fe,Co)2As2 samples. Our study supports the universal superconducting gap variation with doping and pairing at least in iron based superconductors of the BaFe2As2 family.

  20. Oxygen dynamics around buried lesser sandeels Ammodytes tobianus (Linnaeus 1785): mode of ventilation and oxygen requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Jane W; Stahl, Henrik J; Steffensen, John F

    2007-01-01

    The oxygen environment around buried sandeels (Ammodytes tobianus) was monitored by planar optodes. The oxygen penetration depth at the sediment interface was only a few mm. Thus fish, typically buried at 1-4 cm depth, were generally in anoxic sediment. However, they induced an advective transport...... down along the body, referred to as ;plume ventilation'. Yet, within approximately 30 min the oxic plume was replenished by oxygen-depleted water from the gills. The potential for cutaneous respiration by the buried fish was thus of no quantitative importance. Calculations derived by three independent...... methods (each with N=3) revealed that the oxygen uptake of sandeel buried for 6-7 h was 40-50% of previous estimates on resting respirometry of non-buried fish, indicating lower O(2) requirements during burial on a diurnal timescale. Buried fish exposed to decreasing oxygen tensions gradually approached...

  1. Deep ocean model penetrator experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, T.J.; Burdett, J.R.F.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary trials of experimental model penetrators in the deep ocean have been conducted as an international collaborative exercise by participating members (national bodies and the CEC) of the Engineering Studies Task Group of the Nuclear Energy Agency's Seabed Working Group. This report describes and gives the results of these experiments, which were conducted at two deep ocean study areas in the Atlantic: Great Meteor East and the Nares Abyssal Plain. Velocity profiles of penetrators of differing dimensions and weights have been determined as they free-fell through the water column and impacted the sediment. These velocity profiles are used to determine the final embedment depth of the penetrators and the resistance to penetration offered by the sediment. The results are compared with predictions of embedment depth derived from elementary models of a penetrator impacting with a sediment. It is tentatively concluded that once the resistance to penetration offered by a sediment at a particular site has been determined, this quantity can be used to sucessfully predict the embedment that penetrators of differing sizes and weights would achieve at the same site

  2. Influence of jet thrust on penetrator penetration when studying the structure of space object blanket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Fedorova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the calculation-and-theory-based research results to examine the possibility for using the jet thrust impulse to increase a penetration depth of high-velocity penetrator modules. Such devices can be used for studies of Earth surface layer composition, and in the nearest future for other Solar system bodies too. Research equipment (sensors and different instruments is housed inside a metal body of the penetrator with a sharpened nose that decreases drag force in soil. It was assumed, that this penetrator is additionally equipped with the pulse jet engine, which is fired at a certain stage of penetrator motion into target.The penetrator is considered as a rigid body of variable mass, which is subjected to drag force and reactive force applied at the moment the engine fires. A drag force was represented with a binomial empirical law, and penetrator nose part was considered to be conical. The jet thrust force was supposed to be constant during its application time. It was in accordance with assumption that mass flow and flow rate of solid propellant combustion products were constant. The amount of propellant in the penetrator was characterized by Tsiolkovsky number Z, which specifies the ratio between the fuel mass and the penetrator structure mass with no fuel.The system of equations to describe the penetrator dynamics was given in dimensionless form using the values aligned with penetration of an equivalent inert penetrator as the time and penetration depth scales. Penetration dynamics of penetrator represented in this form allowed to eliminate the influence of penetrator initial mass and its cross-section diameter on the solution results. The lack of such dependency is convenient for comparing the calculation results since they hold for penetrators of various initial masses and cross-sections.To calculate the penetration a lunar regolith was taken as a soil material. Calculations were carried out for initial velocities of

  3. Photoacoustic Imaging in Oxygen Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Cao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen level, including blood oxygen saturation (sO2 and tissue oxygen partial pressure (pO2, are crucial physiological parameters in life science. This paper reviews the importance of these two parameters and the detection methods for them, focusing on the application of photoacoustic imaging in this scenario. sO2 is traditionally detected with optical spectra-based methods, and has recently been proven uniquely efficient by using photoacoustic methods. pO2, on the other hand, is typically detected by PET, MRI, or pure optical approaches, yet with limited spatial resolution, imaging frame rate, or penetration depth. Great potential has also been demonstrated by employing photoacoustic imaging to overcome the existing limitations of the aforementioned techniques.

  4. Projectile penetration into ballistic gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, M V; Kieser, D C; Shah, S; Kieser, J A

    2014-01-01

    Ballistic gelatin is frequently used as a model for soft biological tissues that experience projectile impact. In this paper we investigate the response of a number of gelatin materials to the penetration of spherical steel projectiles (7 to 11mm diameter) with a range of lower impacting velocities (projectile velocity are found to be linear for all systems above a certain threshold velocity required for initiating penetration. The data for a specific material impacted with different diameter spheres were able to be condensed to a single curve when the penetration depth was normalised by the projectile diameter. When the results are compared with a number of predictive relationships available in the literature, it is found that over the range of projectiles and compositions used, the results fit a simple relationship that takes into account the projectile diameter, the threshold velocity for penetration into the gelatin and a value of the shear modulus of the gelatin estimated from the threshold velocity for penetration. The normalised depth is found to fit the elastic Froude number when this is modified to allow for a threshold impact velocity. The normalised penetration data are found to best fit this modified elastic Froude number with a slope of 1/2 instead of 1/3 as suggested by Akers and Belmonte (2006). Possible explanations for this difference are discussed. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Miniature Ground Penetrating Radar, CRUX GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soon Sam; Carnes, Steven R.; Haldemann, Albert F.; Ulmer, Christopher T.; Ng, Eddie; Arcone, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    Under NASA instrument development programs (PIDDP 2000-2002, MIPD 2003-2005, ESR and T, 2005) we have been developing miniature ground penetrating radars (GPR) for use in mapping subsurface stratigraphy from planetary rovers for Mars and lunar applications. The Mars GPR is for deeper penetration (up to 50 m depth) into the Martian subsurface at moderate resolution (0.5 m) for a geological characterization. As a part of the CRUX (Construction and Resource Utilization Explorer) instrument suite, the CRUX GPR is optimized for a lunar prospecting application. It will have shallower penetration (5 m depth) with higher resolution (10 cm) for construction operations including ISRU (in-situ resource utilization).

  6. Sphere impact and penetration into wet sand

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.

    2012-08-07

    We present experimental results for the penetration of a solid sphere when released onto wet sand. We show, by measuring the final penetration depth, that the cohesion induced by the water can result in either a deeper or shallower penetration for a given release height compared to dry granular material. Thus the presence of water can either lubricate or stiffen the granular material. By assuming the shear rate is proportional to the impact velocity and using the depth-averaged stopping force in calculating the shear stress, we derive effective viscosities for the wet granular materials.

  7. Sphere impact and penetration into wet sand

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2012-01-01

    We present experimental results for the penetration of a solid sphere when released onto wet sand. We show, by measuring the final penetration depth, that the cohesion induced by the water can result in either a deeper or shallower penetration for a given release height compared to dry granular material. Thus the presence of water can either lubricate or stiffen the granular material. By assuming the shear rate is proportional to the impact velocity and using the depth-averaged stopping force in calculating the shear stress, we derive effective viscosities for the wet granular materials.

  8. Light penetration structures the deep acoustic scattering layers in the global ocean.

    KAUST Repository

    Aksnes, Dag L.

    2017-05-01

    The deep scattering layer (DSL) is a ubiquitous acoustic signature found across all oceans and arguably the dominant feature structuring the pelagic open ocean ecosystem. It is formed by mesopelagic fishes and pelagic invertebrates. The DSL animals are an important food source for marine megafauna and contribute to the biological carbon pump through the active flux of organic carbon transported in their daily vertical migrations. They occupy depths from 200 to 1000 m at daytime and migrate to a varying degree into surface waters at nighttime. Their daytime depth, which determines the migration amplitude, varies across the global ocean in concert with water mass properties, in particular the oxygen regime, but the causal underpinning of these correlations has been unclear. We present evidence that the broad variability in the oceanic DSL daytime depth observed during the Malaspina 2010 Circumnavigation Expedition is governed by variation in light penetration. We find that the DSL depth distribution conforms to a common optical depth layer across the global ocean and that a correlation between dissolved oxygen and light penetration provides a parsimonious explanation for the association of shallow DSL distributions with hypoxic waters. In enhancing understanding of this phenomenon, our results should improve the ability to predict and model the dynamics of one of the largest animal biomass components on earth, with key roles in the oceanic biological carbon pump and food web.

  9. Light penetration structures the deep acoustic scattering layers in the global ocean.

    KAUST Repository

    Aksnes, Dag L.; Rø stad, Anders; Kaartvedt, Stein; Martinez, Udane; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier

    2017-01-01

    The deep scattering layer (DSL) is a ubiquitous acoustic signature found across all oceans and arguably the dominant feature structuring the pelagic open ocean ecosystem. It is formed by mesopelagic fishes and pelagic invertebrates. The DSL animals are an important food source for marine megafauna and contribute to the biological carbon pump through the active flux of organic carbon transported in their daily vertical migrations. They occupy depths from 200 to 1000 m at daytime and migrate to a varying degree into surface waters at nighttime. Their daytime depth, which determines the migration amplitude, varies across the global ocean in concert with water mass properties, in particular the oxygen regime, but the causal underpinning of these correlations has been unclear. We present evidence that the broad variability in the oceanic DSL daytime depth observed during the Malaspina 2010 Circumnavigation Expedition is governed by variation in light penetration. We find that the DSL depth distribution conforms to a common optical depth layer across the global ocean and that a correlation between dissolved oxygen and light penetration provides a parsimonious explanation for the association of shallow DSL distributions with hypoxic waters. In enhancing understanding of this phenomenon, our results should improve the ability to predict and model the dynamics of one of the largest animal biomass components on earth, with key roles in the oceanic biological carbon pump and food web.

  10. Ethical hacking and penetration testing guide

    CERN Document Server

    Baloch, Rafay

    2014-01-01

    Requiring no prior hacking experience, Ethical Hacking and Penetration Testing Guide supplies a complete introduction to the steps required to complete a penetration test, or ethical hack, from beginning to end. You will learn how to properly utilize and interpret the results of modern-day hacking tools, which are required to complete a penetration test. The book covers a wide range of tools, including Backtrack Linux, Google reconnaissance, MetaGooFil, dig, Nmap, Nessus, Metasploit, Fast Track Autopwn, Netcat, and Hacker Defender rootkit. Supplying a simple and clean explanation of how to effectively utilize these tools, it details a four-step methodology for conducting an effective penetration test or hack.Providing an accessible introduction to penetration testing and hacking, the book supplies you with a fundamental understanding of offensive security. After completing the book you will be prepared to take on in-depth and advanced topics in hacking and penetration testing. The book walks you through each ...

  11. [Functional state of various physiological systems of the human body during respiration of neon-oxygen mixture at depth up to 400 meters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poleshuk, I P; Genin, A M; Unku, R D; Mikhnenko, A E; Sementsov, V N; Suvorov, A V

    1991-01-01

    Hyperbaric neon-oxygen mixture has been studied for the effect of its high density under pressure of 41 ata on basic physiological functions of human organism. Typical changes of the cardiorespiratory system and tissue respiration parameters are revealed. Changes in physical working capacity are shown. Exposure to gaseous medium of high pressure and density is accompanied by the development of some compensatory-adaptive reactions. The possibility to perform mid-hard physical work is attained with overstrain of respiration and circulation function.

  12. Maps showing predicted probabilities for selected dissolved oxygen and dissolved manganese threshold events in depth zones used by the domestic and public drinking water supply wells, Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecrans, Celia Z.; Nolan, Bernard T.; Gronberg, JoAnn M.

    2018-01-31

    The purpose of the prediction grids for selected redox constituents—dissolved oxygen and dissolved manganese—are intended to provide an understanding of groundwater-quality conditions at the domestic and public-supply drinking water depths. The chemical quality of groundwater and the fate of many contaminants is influenced by redox processes in all aquifers, and understanding the redox conditions horizontally and vertically is critical in evaluating groundwater quality. The redox condition of groundwater—whether oxic (oxygen present) or anoxic (oxygen absent)—strongly influences the oxidation state of a chemical in groundwater. The anoxic dissolved oxygen thresholds of water, making drinking water undesirable with respect to taste, staining, or scaling. Three dissolved manganese thresholds, supply water wells. The 50 µg/L event threshold represents the secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) benchmark for manganese (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2017; California Division of Drinking Water, 2014), whereas the 300 µg/L event threshold represents the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) health-based screening level (HBSL) benchmark, used to put measured concentrations of drinking-water contaminants into a human-health context (Toccalino and others, 2014). The 150 µg/L event threshold represents one-half the USGS HBSL. The resultant dissolved oxygen and dissolved manganese prediction grids may be of interest to water-resource managers, water-quality researchers, and groundwater modelers concerned with the occurrence of natural and anthropogenic contaminants related to anoxic conditions. Prediction grids for selected redox constituents and thresholds were created by the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) modeling and mapping team.

  13. Temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, nitrite, pH, alkalinity, bottom depth, and meteorology data collected from Arctic Seas and North Western Pacific by various Soviet Union institutions from 1925-11-16 to 1989-05-18 (NODC Accession 0075099)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, nitrite, pH, alkalinity, bottom depth, and meteorology data collected from Arctic Seas and North Western Pacific...

  14. FAA Fluorescent Penetrant Laboratory Inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WINDES,CONNOR L.; MOORE,DAVID G.

    2000-08-02

    The Federal Aviation Administration Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center currently assesses the capability of various non-destructive inspection (NDI) methods used for analyzing aircraft components. The focus of one such exercise is to evaluate the sensitivity of fluorescent liquid penetrant inspection. A baseline procedure using the water-washable fluorescent penetrant method defines a foundation for comparing the brightness of low cycle fatigue cracks in titanium test panels. The analysis of deviations in the baseline procedure will determine an acceptable range of operation for the steps in the inspection process. The data also gives insight into the depth of each crack and which step(s) of the inspection process most affect penetrant sensitivities. A set of six low cycle fatigue cracks produced in 6.35-mm thick Ti-6Al-4V specimens was used to conduct the experiments to produce sensitivity data. The results will document the consistency of the crack readings and compare previous experiments to find the best parameters for water-washable penetrant.

  15. Oxygen isotopic distribution along the otolith growth axis by secondary ion mass spectrometry: Applications for studying ontogenetic change in the depth inhabited by deep-sea fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiao, Jen-Chieh; Itoh, Shoichi; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki; Liao, Yun-Chih

    2014-02-01

    This study using tuna otoliths as working standards established a high lateral resolution and precision analysis to measure δ18Ootolith by secondary ion mass spectrometry. This analytical approach of the ion probe was applied to deep-sea fishes to reconstruct the likely depths inhabited by the fishes at different life history stages based on the measured δ18Ootolith values as a proxy of water temperature. Dramatic increases up to 5-6‰ in δ18Ootolith, representing a temperature decrease of approximately 20 °C, were detected in a blind cusk eel (Barathronus maculatus) otolith and in the otoliths of Synaphobranchus kaupii during leptocephalus metamorphosis to glass eel, inferred from the drop of otolith Sr/Ca ratios and increase of otolith growth increment width. δ18Ootolith profiles clearly divided the fish's life history into a planktonic stage in the mixed layer of the ocean and a benthic stage on the deep-sea ocean bottom. The habitat shift signal was recorded within a 150 μm width of otolith growth zone, which was too narrow to be clearly detected by mechanical drilling and conventional isotopic ratio mass spectrometry. However, variations down to -7‰ were found in δ18Ootolith profiles as the result of Cs2+ beam sputter in the core and larval portions of the otoliths. Carbon mapping by electron probe microanalyzer and staining by toluidine blue suggested abundant proteins existed in the areas with anomaly negative δ18Ootolith values, which cannot be interpreted as a habitat change but due to the isotopic fractionation by O emission from the proteins. These results implied that careful design and understanding of the chemical composition of the analytical areas or tracks on the heterogeneous otolith was essential for highly accurate and precise analysis.

  16. Penetration tests to study the mechanical tribological properties of chisel type knife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlăduţoiu, L.; Chişiu, G.; Andrei, T.; Predescu, A.; Muraru, C.; Vlăduţ, V.

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the behaviour of chisel knife type penetration in a certain type of sand. A series of penetration tests were carried out with chisel knife type, the answer to penetration depending mainly on nature, shape, size of knife and operating parameters such as speed, depth and working conditions. Tests were conducted in work conditions with wet sand and dry sand and determined force of resistance to penetration of the chisel knife type to a certain depth.

  17. Mathematics applied to radiotherapy problem: oxygen diffusion in live tissues; La matematica aplicada en un problema de radioterapia: la difusion de oxigeno en los tejidos vivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyano, Edgardo A.; Dominici, Diego E. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1996-07-01

    It is known that the oxygenation of living tissues increases the effect of irradiation. Thus it's convenient to oxygen tumor tissues and to know, before irradiation, the change of concentration of available oxygen already in it, between the sealed surface and the furthest depth of penetration or interface. In the present work we solve a model proposed by J. Cranck and R. Gupta, that describes thediffusion of oxygen in living tissues. Landau's transformation we used and finite differences for approximating the problem. We describe two implicit algorithms. The transformation allows to work with a fixed number of nodes during all the simulation. (author)

  18. The Basics of Hacking and Penetration Testing Ethical Hacking and Penetration Testing Made Easy

    CERN Document Server

    Engebretson, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The Basics of Hacking and Penetration Testing serves as an introduction to the steps required to complete a penetration test or perform an ethical hack. You learn how to properly utilize and interpret the results of modern day hacking tools; which are required to complete a penetration test. Tool coverage will include, Backtrack Linux, Google, Whois, Nmap, Nessus, Metasploit, Netcat, Netbus, and more. A simple and clean explanation of how to utilize these tools will allow you  to gain a solid understanding of each of the four phases and prepare them to take on more in-depth texts and topi

  19. Munition Penetration Depth Prediction: SERDP SEED Project MR 2629

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    25 10 Time trace of impact forces estimated from the DEM simulation of the projectile- drop test. The time evolution of...and a Coulomb friction cap on the tangential force. The force components depend on the overlap between dilated grains. The overlap δ between a pair of...2 subject to ∈ (1,2, 1) and 1,2 ∈ [−1,1] (22) where z is the norm square distance between a point y on the coupling sur

  20. Influence of soil parameters on depth of oil waste penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rychlicki Stanislaw

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A measurement post for testing propagation of hydrocarbon contamination in a model of a near-surface soil layer and its remediation, are characterized in the paper. Generalized results of laboratory observations require meeting similarity criteria of the laboratory and actual processes. These requirements were used when designing the measurement post. A successful attempt to match a theoretical model describing oil products filtration necessitates certain conditions, e.g. homogeneity of the physical model of soil and characteristic of the course of the analyzed processes.

  1. Simulation of depth of penetration during ballistic impact on thick ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    One-dimensional discrete element model for the ballistic impact is used ... Simulation of ballistic impact process has been done using several ..... MATLAB 7.0 platform is used to simulate impact process using 1-D DEM and to perform the.

  2. Spectrometric kidney depth measurement method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, P.; Soussaline, F.; Raynaud, C.

    1976-01-01

    The method proposed uses the single posterior surface measurement of the kidney radioactivity distribution. The ratio C/P of the number of scattered photons to the number of primary photons, which is a function of the tissue depth penetrated, is calculated for a given region. The parameters on which the C/P value depends are determined from studies on phantoms. On the basis of these results the kidney depth was measured on a series of 13 patients and a correlation was established between the value thus calculated and that obtained by the profile method. The reproducibility of the method is satisfactory [fr

  3. Controlling Force and Depth in Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Glynn; Loftus, Zachary; McCormac, Nathan; Venable, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Feedback control of the penetration force applied to a pin tool in friction stir welding has been found to be a robust and reliable means for controlling the depth of penetration of the tool. This discovery has made it possible to simplify depth control and to weld with greater repeatability, even on workpieces with long weld joints. Prior to this discovery, depths of penetration in friction stir welding were controlled by hard-tooled roller assemblies or by depth actuators controlled by feedback from such external sensors as linear variable-differential transformers or laser-based devices. These means of control are limited: A hard-tooled roller assembly confines a pin tool to a preset depth that cannot be changed easily during the welding process. A measurement by an external sensor is only an indirect indicative of the depth of penetration, and computations to correlate such a measurement with a depth of penetration are vulnerable to error. The present force-feedback approach exploits the proportionality between the depth and the force of penetration Unlike a depth measurement taken by an external sensor, a force measurement can be direct because it can be taken by a sensor coupled directly to the pin tool. The reading can be processed through a modern electronic servo control system to control an actuator to keep the applied penetration force at the desired level. In comparison with the older depth-control methods described above, this method offers greater sensitivity to plasticizing of the workpiece metal and is less sensitive to process noise, resulting in a more consistent process. In an experiment, a tapered panel was friction stir welded while controlling the force of penetration according to this method. The figure is a plot of measurements taken during the experiment, showing that force was controlled with a variation of 200 lb (890 N), resulting in control of the depth of penetration with a variation of 0.004 in. (0.1 mm).

  4. Metasploit penetration testing cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Monika

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a Cookbook style with recipes explaining the steps for penetration testing with WLAN, VOIP, and even cloud computing. There is plenty of code and commands used to make your learning curve easy and quick.This book targets both professional penetration testers as well as new users of Metasploit, who wish to gain expertise over the framework and learn an additional skill of penetration testing, not limited to a particular OS. The book requires basic knowledge of scanning, exploitation, and the Ruby language.

  5. Penetration testing with Perl

    CERN Document Server

    Berdeaux, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    If you are an expert Perl programmer interested in penetration testing or information security, this guide is designed for you. However, it will also be helpful for you even if you have little or no Linux shell experience.

  6. penetrating abdominal trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gender, mechanism of injury, injury severity scores (ISS), penetrating ... ileus, reduced pulmonary function and loss of muscle mass and function, all of .... pathophysiology and rehabilitation. ... quality of life after surgery for colorectal cancer.

  7. Barrier penetration database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainberg, A.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1978-11-01

    This document is intended to supply the NRC and nuclear power plant licensees with basic data on the times required to penetrate forcibly the types of barriers commonly found in nuclear plants. These times are necessary for design and evaluation of the physical protection system required under 10CFR73.55. Each barrier listed is described in detail. Minor variations in basic barrier construction that result in the same penetration time, are also described

  8. Low Force Penetration of Icy Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, J. G.; Galloway, G. M.; Zacny, K.

    2016-01-01

    A percussive cone penetrometer measures the strength of granular material by using percussion to deliver mechanical energy into the material. A percussive cone penetrometer was used in this study to penetrate a regolith ice mixture by breaking up ice and decompacting the regolith. As compared to a static cone penetrometer, percussion allows low reaction forces to push a penetrometer probe tip more easily into dry regolith in a low gravity environment from a planetary surface rover or a landed spacecraft. A percussive cone penetrates icy regolith at ice concentrations that a static cone cannot penetrate. In this study, the percussive penetrator was able to penetrate material under 65 N of down-force which could not be penetrated using a static cone under full body weight. This paper discusses using a percussive cone penetrometer to discern changes in the concentration of water-ice in a mixture of lunar regolith simulant and ice to a depth of one meter. The rate of penetration was found to be a function of the ice content and was not significantly affected by the down-force. The test results demonstrate that this method may be ideal for a small platform in a reduced gravity environment. However, there are some cases where the system may not be able to penetrate the icy regolith, and there is some risk of the probe tip becoming stuck so that it cannot be retracted. It is also shown that a percussive cone penetrometer could be used to prospect for water ice in regolith at concentrations as high as 8 by weight.

  9. Study on Penetration Characteristics of Tungsten Cylindrical Penetrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Hyun; Lee, Young Shin; Kim, Jae Hoon [Chungnam Nat' l Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Yong Woon [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    The design of missile require extremely small warheads that must be highly efficient and lethal. The penetration characteristics of each penetrator and the total number of penetrators on the warhead are obvious key factors that influence warhead lethality. The design of the penetrator shape and size are directly related to the space and weight of the warhead. The design of the penetrator L/D was directly related to the space and weight of the warhead. L and D are the length and the diameter of the projectile, respectively. The AUTODYN-3a code was used to study the effect of penetrator penetration. The objective of numerical analysis was to determine the penetration characteristics of penetrator produced by hypervelocity impacts under different initial conditions such as initial velocity, obliquity angle and L/D of penetrator. The residual velocity and residual mass were decreased with increasing initial impact velocity under L/D{<=}4.

  10. Penetration portion shielding structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Katsumi; Narita, Hitoshi; Handa, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Jun; Tozuka, Fumio.

    1994-01-01

    Openings of a plurality of shieldings for penetration members are aligned to each other, and penetration members are inserted from the openings. Then, the openings of the plurality of shielding members are slightly displaced with each other to make the penetration portions into a helical configuration, so that leakage of radiation is reduced. Upon removal of the members, reverse operation is conducted. When a flowable shielding material is used, the penetration portions are constituted with two plates having previously formed openings and pipes for connecting the openings with each other and a vessel covering the entire of them. After passing the penetration members such as a cable, the relative position of the two plates is changed by twisting, to form a helical configuration which reduces radiation leakage. Since they are bent into the helical configuration, shielding performance is extremely improved compared with a case that radiation leakage is caused from an opening of a straight pipe. In addition, since they can be returned to straight pipes, attachment, detachment and maintenance can be conducted easily. (N.H.)

  11. Deformation analysis of shallow penetration in clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagaseta, C.; Whittle, A. J.; Santagata, M.

    1997-10-01

    A new method of analysis is described for estimating the deformations and strains caused by shallow undrained penetration of piles and caissons in clay. The formulation combines previous analyses for steady, deep penetration, with methods used to compute soil deformations due to near-surface ground loss, and is referred to as the Shallow Strain Path Method (SSPM). Complete analytical solutions for the velocity and strain rates are given for a planar wall, an axisymmetric, closed-ended pile and unplugged, open-ended pile geometries. In these examples, the analyses consider a single source penetrating through the soil at a constant rate, generating a family of penetrometers with rounded tips, referred to as simple wall, pile and tube geometries. Soil deformations and strains are obtained by integrating the velocity and strain rates along the particle paths.The transition from shallow to deep penetration is analysed in detail. Shallow penetration causes heave at the ground surface, while settlements occur only in a thin veneer of material adjacent to the shaft and in a bulb-shaped region around the tip. The size of this region increases with the embedment depth. Deformations inside an open-ended pile/caisson are affected significantly by details of the simple tube wall geometry.

  12. Ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Daniels, David J

    2004-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  13. Skull penetrating wound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Orlandi, Yvei; Junco Martin, Reinel; Rojas Manresa, Jorge; Duboy Limonta, Victor; Matos Herrera, Omar; Saez Corvo, Yunet

    2011-01-01

    The cranioencephalic trauma is common in the emergence centers to care for patients with multiple traumata and it becames in a health problem in many countries. Skull penetrating trauma is located in a special place due to its low frequency. In present paper a case of male patient aged 52 severely skull-injured with penetrating wound caused by a cold steel that remained introduced into the left frontotemporal region. After an imaging study the emergence surgical treatment was applied and patient evolves adequately after 25 days of hospitalization. Nowadays, she is under rehabilitation treatment due to a residual right hemiparesis.(author)

  14. Modeling of Oblique Penetration into Geologic Targets Using Cavity Expansion Penetrator Loading with Target free-Surface Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joe; Longcope, Donald B.; Tabbara, Mazen R.

    1999-05-03

    A procedure has been developed to represent the loading on a penetrator and its motion during oblique penetration into geologic media. The penetrator is modeled with the explicit dynamics, finite element computer program PRONTO 3D and the coupled pressure on the penetrator is given in a new loading option based on a separate cavity expansion (CE) solution that accounts for the pressure-reduction from a nearby target free surface. The free-surface influ- ence distance is selected in a predictive manner by considering the pressure to expand a spherical cavity in a finite radius sphere of the target material. The CE/PRONTO 3D procedure allows a detailed description of the penetrator for predicting shock environments or structural failure dur- ing the entire penetration event and is sufficiently rapid to be used in design optimization. It has been evaluated by comparing its results with data from two field tests of a full-scale penetrator into frozen soil at an impact angles of 49.6 and 52.5 degrees from the horizontal. The measured penetrator rotations were 24 and 22 degrees, respectively. In the simulation, the rotation was21 degrees and predominately resulted from the pressure reduction of the free surface. Good agree- ment was also found for the penetration depth and axial and lateral acceleration at two locations in the penetrator.

  15. Tumor penetrating peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambet eTeesalu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC, contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular zip code of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is

  16. How has Mobile Phone Penetration Stimulated Financial Development in Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice A, Asongu

    2012-01-01

    In the first macroeconomic empirical assessment of the relationship between mobile phones and finance, this paper examines the correlations between mobile phone penetration and financial development using two conflicting definitions of the financial system in the financial development literature. With the traditional IFS (2008) definition, mobile phone penetration has a negative correlation with traditional financial intermediary dynamics of depth, activity and size. However, when a previous...

  17. Antibody tumor penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Greg M.; Schmidt, Michael M.; Wittrup, K. Dane

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies have proven to be effective agents in cancer imaging and therapy. One of the major challenges still facing the field is the heterogeneous distribution of these agents in tumors when administered systemically. Large regions of untargeted cells can therefore escape therapy and potentially select for more resistant cells. We present here a summary of theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze and improve antibody penetration in tumor tissue. PMID:18541331

  18. Python penetration testing essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Mohit

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Python programmer or a security researcher who has basic knowledge of Python programming and want to learn about penetration testing with the help of Python, this book is ideal for you. Even if you are new to the field of ethical hacking, this book can help you find the vulnerabilities in your system so that you are ready to tackle any kind of attack or intrusion.

  19. Modeling of Oblique Penetration into Geologic Targets Using Cavity Expansion Penetrator Loading with Target free-Surface Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joe; Longcope, Donald B.; Tabbara, Mazen R.

    1999-06-01

    A procedure has been developed to represent the loading on a penetrator and its motion during oblique penetration into geologic media. The penetrator is modeled with the explicit dynamics, finite element computer program PRONTO 3D and the coupled pressure on the penetrator is given in a new loading option based on a separate cavity expansion (CE) solution that accounts for the pressure reduction from a nearby target free surface. The free-surface influence distance is selected in a predictive manner by considering the pressure to expand a spherical cavity in a finite radius sphere of the target material. The CE/PRONTO 3D procedure allows a detailed description of the penetrator for predicting shock environments or structural failure during the entire penetra- tion event and is sufficiently rapid to be used in design optimization. It has been evaluated by comparing its results with data from two field tests of a full-scale penetrator into frozen soil at an impact angles of 49.6 and 52.5 degrees from the horizontal. The measured penetrator rotations were 24 and 22 degrees, respectively. In the simulation, the rotation was 21 degrees and predom- inately resulted from the pressure reduction of the free surface. Good agreement was also found for the penetration depth and axial and lateral acceleration at two locations in the penetrator.

  20. Avaliação da microinfiltração marginal e profundidade de penetração dos cimentos de ionômero de vidro utilizados como selantes oclusais Evaluation of marginal microleakage and depth of penetration of glass ionomer cements used as occlusal sealants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Lourdes Calvo Fracasso

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE: the aim of this study was to conduct an in vitro comparison of marginal microleakage (MM and the depth of penetration (DP of glass ionomer cements (GIC and a resin sealant (RS into occlusal pit and fissures. METHODS: for that purpose, 60 intact third molars were equally distributed to 5 groups: G1 - 37% phosphoric acid / Delton; G2 - 40% polyacrylic acid / Ketac-Molar / nail varnish; G3 - Fuji Plus conditioner / Fuji Plus/ nail varnish; G4 -37% phosphoric acid / Vitremer / Finishing gloss; G5 -37% phosphoric acid / Vitremer prepared with a 1:4 ratio of powder / Finishing gloss. The teeth were submitted to a thermal treatment corresponding to 300 cycles (15 sec, 5/55(0C, followed by complete coating with nail varnish, except for 1mm beyond the contour of the sealant. Afterwards, the teeth were immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsine for 24 hours. Thereafter, the teeth were sectioned in buccolingual direction and microscopically analyzed (150x magnification by means of predetermined scores. The results were subject to the Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: there was no statistical difference between the materials tested in relation to the DP, being that all groups displayed nearly complete filling of the fissures. No sealant material was able to prevent dye penetration; however, the GICs provided better results of MM, with significant difference when compared to the RS. CONCLUSION: all materials investigated presented a satisfactory degree of penetration into the fissures; however, the glass ionomer cements displayed better performance in the marginal microleakage test compared to the resin sealant.OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste estudo foi comparar in vitro a microinfiltração marginal (MM e o grau de profundidade de penetração (DP de cimentos de ionômero de vidro (CIV e um selante resinoso (SR em fossas e fissuras oclusais. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: para tanto, 60 terceiros molares hígidos foram igualmente distribuídos em 5 grupos: G1- ácido fosf

  1. Penetration in bimodal, polydisperse granular material

    KAUST Repository

    Kouraytem, Nadia; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Marston, J. O.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the impact penetration of spheres into granular media which are compositions of two discrete size ranges, thus creating a polydisperse bimodal material. We examine the penetration depth as a function of the composition (volume fractions of the respective sizes) and impact speed. Penetration depths were found to vary between delta = 0.5D(0) and delta = 7D(0), which, for mono-modal media only, could be correlated in terms of the total drop height, H = h + delta, as in previous studies, by incorporating correction factors for the packing fraction. Bimodal data can only be collapsed by deriving a critical packing fraction for each mass fraction. The data for the mixed grains exhibit a surprising lubricating effect, which was most significant when the finest grains [d(s) similar to O(30) mu m] were added to the larger particles [d(l) similar to O(200 - 500) mu m], with a size ratio, epsilon = d(l)/d(s), larger than 3 and mass fractions over 25%, despite the increased packing fraction. We postulate that the small grains get between the large grains and reduce their intergrain friction, only when their mass fraction is sufficiently large to prevent them from simply rattling in the voids between the large particles. This is supported by our experimental observations of the largest lubrication effect produced by adding small glass beads to a bed of large sand particles with rough surfaces.

  2. Penetration in bimodal, polydisperse granular material

    KAUST Repository

    Kouraytem, N.

    2016-11-07

    We investigate the impact penetration of spheres into granular media which are compositions of two discrete size ranges, thus creating a polydisperse bimodal material. We examine the penetration depth as a function of the composition (volume fractions of the respective sizes) and impact speed. Penetration depths were found to vary between delta = 0.5D(0) and delta = 7D(0), which, for mono-modal media only, could be correlated in terms of the total drop height, H = h + delta, as in previous studies, by incorporating correction factors for the packing fraction. Bimodal data can only be collapsed by deriving a critical packing fraction for each mass fraction. The data for the mixed grains exhibit a surprising lubricating effect, which was most significant when the finest grains [d(s) similar to O(30) mu m] were added to the larger particles [d(l) similar to O(200 - 500) mu m], with a size ratio, epsilon = d(l)/d(s), larger than 3 and mass fractions over 25%, despite the increased packing fraction. We postulate that the small grains get between the large grains and reduce their intergrain friction, only when their mass fraction is sufficiently large to prevent them from simply rattling in the voids between the large particles. This is supported by our experimental observations of the largest lubrication effect produced by adding small glass beads to a bed of large sand particles with rough surfaces.

  3. Long-rod penetration: the transition zone between rigid and hydrodynamic penetration modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-feng Lou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-rod penetration in a wide range of velocity means that the initial impact velocity varies in a range from tens of meters per second to several kilometers per second. The long rods maintain rigid state when the impact velocity is low, the nose of rod deforms and even is blunted when the velocity gets higher, and the nose erodes and fails to lead to the consumption of long projectile when the velocity is very high due to instantaneous high pressure. That is, from low velocity to high velocity, the projectile undergoes rigid rods, deforming non-erosive rods, and erosive rods. Because of the complicated changes of the projectile, no well-established theoretical model and numerical simulation have been used to study the transition zone. Based on the analysis of penetration behavior in the transition zone, a phenomenological model to describe target resistance and a formula to calculate penetration depth in transition zone are proposed, and a method to obtain the boundary velocity of transition zone is determined. A combined theoretical analysis model for three response regions is built by analyzing the characteristics in these regions. The penetration depth predicted by this combined model is in good agreement with experimental result.

  4. Eddy current testing with high penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, R.; Kroening, M.

    1999-01-01

    The low-frequency eddy current testing method is used when penetration into very deep layers is required. The achievable penetration depth is determined among other parameters by the lowest testing frequency that can be realised together with the eddy current sensor. When using inductive sensors, the measuring effect declines proportional to the lowering frequency (induction effect). Further reduction of testing frequency requires other types of sensors, as e.g. the GMR (Giant Magnetic Resistance), which achieves a constant measuring sensitivity down to the steady field. The multi-frequency eddy current testing method MFEC 3 of IZFP described here can be operated using three different scanning frequencies at a time. Two variants of eddy current probes are used in this case. Both have an inductive winding at their emitters, of the type of a measuring probe. The receiver end is either also an inductive winding, or a magnetic field-responsive resistance (GMR). (orig./CB) [de

  5. Penetrating ureteral trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo P. Fraga

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this series is to report our experience in managing ureteral trauma, focusing on the importance of early diagnosis, correct treatment, and the impact of associated injuries on the management and morbid-mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 1994 to December 2002, 1487 laparotomies for abdominal trauma were performed and 20 patients with ureteral lesions were identified, all of them secondary to penetrating injury. Medical charts were analyzed as well as information about trauma mechanisms, diagnostic routine, treatment and outcome. RESULTS: All patients were men. Mean age was 27 years. The mechanisms of injury were gunshot wounds in 18 cases (90% and stab wounds in two (10%. All penetrating abdominal injuries had primary indication of laparotomy, and neither excretory urography nor computed tomography were used in any case before surgery. The diagnosis of ureteric injury was made intra-operatively in 17 cases (85%. Two ureteral injuries (10% were initially missed. All patients had associated injuries. The treatment was dictated by the location, extension and time necessary to identify the injury. The overall incidence of complications was 55%. The presence of shock on admission, delayed diagnosis, Abdominal Trauma Index > 25, Injury Severity Score > 25 and colon injuries were associated to a high complication rate, however, there was no statistically significant difference. There were no mortalities in this group. CONCLUSIONS: A high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis of ureteral injuries. A thorough exploration of all retroperitoneal hematoma after penetrating trauma should be an accurate method of diagnosis; even though it failed in 10% of our cases.

  6. Market penetration of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth R.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Cornforth, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    This research examines in detail the technology and economics of substituting ethanol for gasoline. This endeavor examines three issues. First, the benefits of ethanol/gasoline blends are examined, and then the technical problems of large-scale implementation of ethanol. Second, ethanol production possibilities are examined in detail from a variety of feedstocks and technologies. The feedstocks are the starch/sugar crops and crop residues, while the technologies are corn wet mill, dry grind, and lignocellulosic fermentation. Examining in detail the production possibilities allows the researchers to identity the extent of technological change, production costs, byproducts, and GHG emissions. Finally, a U.S. agricultural model, FASOMGHG, is updated which predicts the market penetration of ethanol given technological progress, variety of technologies and feedstocks, market interactions, energy prices, and GHG prices. FASOMGHG has several interesting results. First, gasoline prices have a small expansionary impact on the U.S. ethanol industry. Both agricultural producers' income and cost both increase with higher energy prices. If wholesale gasoline is $4 per gallon, the predicted ethanol market penetration attains 53% of U.S. gasoline consumption in 2030. Second, the corn wet mill remains an important industry for ethanol production, because this industry also produces corn oil, which could be converted to biodiesel. Third, GHG prices expand the ethanol industry. However, the GHG price expands the corn wet mill, but has an ambiguous impact on lignocellulosic ethanol. Feedstocks for lignocellulosic fermentation can also be burned with coal to generate electricity. Both industries are quite GHG efficient. Finally, U.S. government subsidies on biofuels have an expansionary impact on ethanol production, but may only increase market penetration by an additional 1% in 2030, which is approximately 6 billion gallons. (author)

  7. Study of Penetration Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-01

    srecimens fabricated at the AFATL, AISI-01 oil quenched bar stock was used. Three of the projectiles used in the Eglin penetration experiments are shown...in the Mathema- tical Laboratory at Eglin AFB, is essencially a fourth order Runge-Kutta numerical method for solving simultaneous differential...C9G. VEL. X-COMPo (M4/5): d!10. I oil 140. 107. 82. RmCC~kr’ED TIME OF MAXIftjM/MINIM94U COIL VOLTAGE tSI MAX 0040 A 55 *.03J04A 0 0 05ji6 .000634 MIN

  8. Deep penetration calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.L.; Deutsch, O.L.; Booth, T.E.

    1980-04-01

    Several Monte Carlo techniques are compared in the transport of neutrons of different source energies through two different deep-penetration problems each with two parts. The first problem involves transmission through a 200-cm concrete slab. The second problem is a 90 0 bent pipe jacketed by concrete. In one case the pipe is void, and in the other it is filled with liquid sodium. Calculations are made with two different Los Alamos Monte Carlo codes: the continuous-energy code MCNP and the multigroup code MCMG

  9. Penetrating abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, P L

    1989-08-01

    The management of patients with penetrating abdominal trauma is outlined in Figure 1. Patients with hemodynamic instability, evisceration, significant gastrointestinal bleeding, peritoneal signs, gunshot wounds with peritoneal violation, and type 2 and 3 shotgun wounds should undergo emergency laparotomy. The initial ED management of these patients includes airway management, monitoring of cardiac rhythm and vital signs, history, physical examination, and placement of intravenous lines. Blood should be obtained for initial hematocrit, type and cross-matching, electrolytes, and an alcohol level or drug screen as needed. Initial resuscitation should utilize crystalloid fluid replacement. If more than 2 liters of crystalloid are needed to stabilize an adult (less in a child), blood should be given. Group O Rh-negative packed red blood cells should be immediately available for a patient in impending arrest or massive hemorrhage. Type-specific blood should be available within 15 minutes. A patient with penetrating thoracic and high abdominal trauma should receive a portable chest x-ray, and a hemo- or pneumothorax should be treated with tube thoracostomy. An unstable patient with clinical signs consistent with a pneumothorax, however, should receive a tube thoracostomy prior to obtaining roentgenographic confirmation. If time permits, a nasogastric tube and Foley catheter should be placed, and the urine evaluated for blood (these procedures can be performed in the operating room). If kidney involvement is suspected because of hematuria or penetrating trauma in the area of a kidney or ureter in a patient requiring surgery, a single-shot IVP should be performed either in the ED or the operating room. An ECG is important in patients with possible cardiac involvement and in patients over the age of 40 going to the operating room. Tetanus status should be updated, and appropriate antibiotics covering bowel flora should be given. Operative management should rarely be delayed

  10. Penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biocina, B; Sutlić, Z; Husedzinović, I; Rudez, I; Ugljen, R; Letica, D; Slobodnjak, Z; Karadza, J; Brida, V; Vladović-Relja, T; Jelić, I

    1997-03-01

    Penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds are very common among war casualties. Those injuries require prompt and specific treatment in an aim to decrease mortality and late morbidity. There are a few controversies about the best modality of treatment for such injuries, and there are not many large series of such patients in recent literature. We analysed a group of 259 patients with penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds admitted to our institutions between May 1991 and October 1992. There were 235 (90.7%) patients with thoracic wounds, 14 (5.4%) patients with cardiac, wounds and in 10 (3.7%) patients both heart and lungs were injured. The cause of injury was shrapnel in 174 patients (67%), bullets in 25 patients (9.7%), cluster bomb particles in 45 patients (17.3%) and other (blast etc.) in 15 patients (6%). Patients, 69, had concomitant injuries of various organs. The initial treatment in 164 operated patients was chest drainage in 76 (46.3%) patients, thoracotomy and suture of the lung in 71 (43.2%) patients, lobectomy in 12 (7.3%) patients and pneumonectomy in 5 (3%) patients. Complications include pleural empyema and/or lung abscess in 20 patients (8.4%), incomplete reexpansion of the lung in 10 patients (4.2%), osteomyelitis of the rib in 5 patients (2.1%) and bronchopleural fistula in 1 patient (0.4%). Secondary procedures were decortication in 12 patients, rib resection in 5 patients, lobectomy in 2 patients, pneumonectomy in 4 patients, reconstruction of the chest wall in 2 patients and closure of the bronchopleural fistula in 1 patient. The cardiac chamber involved was right ventricle in 12 patients, left ventricular in 6 patients, right atrium in 7 patients, left atrium in 3 patients, ascending aorta in 2 patients and 1 patient which involved descending aorta, right ventricle and coronary artery (left anterior descending) and inferior vena cava, respectively. The primary procedure was suture in 17 patients (in 10 patients with the additional suture of the

  11. Penetration Tester's Open Source Toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Great commercial penetration testing tools can be very expensive and sometimes hard to use or of questionable accuracy. This book helps solve both of these problems. The open source, no-cost penetration testing tools presented do a great job and can be modified by the user for each situation. Many tools, even ones that cost thousands of dollars, do not come with any type of instruction on how and in which situations the penetration tester can best use them. Penetration Tester's Open Source Toolkit, Third Edition, expands upon existing instructions so that a professional can get the most accura

  12. Penetration analysis of projectile with inclined concrete target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim S.B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents numerical analysis result of projectile penetration with concrete target. We applied dynamic material properties of 4340 steels, aluminium and explosive for projectile body. Dynamic material properties were measured with static tensile testing machine and Hopkinson pressure bar tests. Moreover, we used three concrete damage models included in LS-DYNA 3D, such as SOIL_CONCRETE, CSCM (cap model with smooth interaction and CONCRETE_DAMAGE (K&C concrete models. Strain rate effect for concrete material is important to predict the fracture deformation and shape of concrete, and penetration depth for projectiles. CONCRETE_DAMAGE model with strain rate effect also applied to penetration analysis. Analysis result with CSCM model shows good agreement with penetration experimental data. The projectile trace and fracture shapes of concrete target were compared with experimental data.

  13. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Soil Penetration Resistance of Recultivated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadorozhnaya Galina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines changes in the spatial distribution of soil penetration resistance in ordinary chernozem (Calcic Chernozem and in the recultivated soil in 2012 and 2014. The measurements were carried out in the field using an Eijkelkamp penetrometer on a regular grid. The depth of measurement was 50 cm, the interval was 5 cm. The indices of variation of soil penetration resistance in space and time have been determined. The degree of spatial dependence of soil penetration resistance has been determined layer by layer. The nature of temporal dynamics of soil penetration resistance of chernozem and technical soil has been described. A significant positive relationship of the structure of chernozem in the two years of the research has been shown. Significant correlations between the data of different years in the technical soil were found to be mostly negative.

  14. Penetration analysis of projectile with inclined concrete target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. B.; Kim, H. W.; Yoo, Y. H.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents numerical analysis result of projectile penetration with concrete target. We applied dynamic material properties of 4340 steels, aluminium and explosive for projectile body. Dynamic material properties were measured with static tensile testing machine and Hopkinson pressure bar tests. Moreover, we used three concrete damage models included in LS-DYNA 3D, such as SOIL_CONCRETE, CSCM (cap model with smooth interaction) and CONCRETE_DAMAGE (K&C concrete) models. Strain rate effect for concrete material is important to predict the fracture deformation and shape of concrete, and penetration depth for projectiles. CONCRETE_DAMAGE model with strain rate effect also applied to penetration analysis. Analysis result with CSCM model shows good agreement with penetration experimental data. The projectile trace and fracture shapes of concrete target were compared with experimental data.

  15. Effect of skin tumor properties on laser penetration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Karsten, AE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Computer modeling can be a valuable tool to determine the absorption of laser light in different skin layers. For this study, the optical properties of three different skin tumors were used in the model to evaluate the effect on penetration depth...

  16. Ink Penetration of Uncoated Inkjet Paper and Impact on Printing Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren'ai Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated ink penetration through imaging technology, first by gray and contour mapping and then calculating the ink penetration depth by programing. Next, a series of further analyses were carried out, including average ink permeability, ink distributions, and printability of different uncoated inkjet paper with different parameters. The impact on ink penetration of the microstructure and hydrophilicity of the uncoated paper was also studied. The experimental results indicated that paper specimens with sizing agent were resistant to the ink, resulting in a slow and shallow ink penetration. Paper containing filler had a more hydrophilic surface and porous structure, leading to a faster and deeper ink penetration. However, the calendering operation could make the paper structure more compact and reduce the porosity and penetration depth. When an appropriate combination of sizing agent, filler content, and the calendering process was utilized, a more stable hue could be produced with improvements in optical density, saturation, and color.

  17. Deep penetration of light into biotissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, Edward D.; Wilson, James D.; Zharov, Vladimir P.; Lowery, Curtis L.

    2001-07-01

    The results of a study of deep (several centimeters) light penetration into biological tissue are presented in order to estimate its significance to potentially photosensitive structures and processes including the fetal eyes. In order to accomplish this goal, samples of various tissues (fat, muscle, and uterus) from surgical patients and autopsies were examined with a double integrating sphere arrangement to determine their optical properties. The results were implemented in a Monte Carlo modeling program. Next, optical fiber probes were inserted into the uterus and abdominal wall of patients undergoing laparoscopic procedures. The fibers were couples to a photomultiplier tube with intervening filters allowing measurements of light penetration at various wavelengths. To determine the feasibility of stimulation in utero, a xenon lamp and waveguide were used to transilluminate the abdomen of several labor patients. Light in the range of 630 to 670 nm where the eye sensitivity and penetration depth are well matched, will likely provide the best chance of visual stimulation. Fetal heart rate, fetal movement, and fetal magnetoencephalography (SQUID) and electroencephalography (EEG) were observed in different studies to determine if stimulation has occurred. Since internal organs and the fetus are completely dark adapted, the amount of light required to simulate in our opinion could be on the order of 10(superscript -8 Watts.

  18. Physical Penetration Testing: A Whole New Story in Penetration Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimkov, T.; Pieters, Wolter

    2011-01-01

    Physical penetration testing plays an important role in assuring a company that the security policies are properly enforced and that the security awareness of the employees is on the appropriate level. In physical penetration tests the tester physically enters restricted locations and directly

  19. The Beryllium 7 Depth Distribution Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal Sharib; Zainudin Othman; Dainee Nor Fardzila Ahmad Tugi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the evolution of 7Be depth distribution in a soil profile. The soil samples have been collected by using plastic core in bare area in Bangi, Malaysia. Each of the soil core samples has been sectioned into 2 mm increments to a depth of 4 cm and the samples are subsequently oven dried at 45°C and gently disaggregated. The sample is passed through a < 2 mm sieve and packed into plastic pot for 7Be analysis using gamma spectrometry with a 24 hour count time. From the findings, show the 7Be depth penetration from this study decreases exponentially with depth and is confined within the top few centimeters and similar with other works been reported. The further discussion for this findings will be presented in full paper. (author)

  20. The effect of oxygen tension in the sediment on the behaviour of waste radionuclides at the NEA Atlantic dumpsite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutgers van der Loeff, M.M.; Waijers, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    Predictions of the transport and fate of waste radionuclides at the NEA Atlantic dumpsite require a knowledge of the behaviour of these nuclides within the sediment. Since redox conditions are known to influence the mobility of many elements in deep-sea sediments, we have investigated the speciation of some trace elements in relation to the dissolved oxygen concentration in sediments from the dumpsite. Dissolved oxygen in these sediments penetrates mostly between 50 and 100 cm, although at topographic highs and on hillsides oxygen penetrates more than 2 m into the sediment because of the special hydrodynamic and sedimentological conditions there. Remobilization at lowered redox potentials below the depth where oxygen reaches zero causes an upward diffusive transport of Mn and the manganese-associated trace metals Co and Ni. Whether this diagenetic mobilization influences other elements such as rare earth elements and actinides as well, remains to be investigated. Under normal sedimentological condition this mobilization can not be expected to return radioactivity to the water column through an oxidized sediment layer of 50 cm. However, burial of radioactivity to depths beyond the reach of deep burrowing organisms can be significantly delayed. Kd values (solid/dissolved partition coefficients) of redox sensitive elements vary over orders of magnitude and are inappropriate to model the behaviour of these elements in sediments with redox gradients

  1. A numerical study on the disturbance of explosive reactive armors to jet penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-dong Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The disturbance of flat and V-shaped sandwich reactive armor configurations to shaped-charge jet is studied by a numerical approach. The disturbing and cutting effects of the two reactive armor configurations to the jet are successfully captured. The predicted disturbance characteristics and patterns are in fairly good agreement with the X-ray photographic observations. The residual depth of penetration into a semi-infinitive homogeneous steel target behind the reactive armor is computed for a series of jet/armor parameters. For the flat configuration, it is demonstrated that the residual penetration depth is not significantly reduced for a normal impact while it is reduced up to 75% for an oblique impact. In comparison, the V-shaped configuration reduces the penetration depth of the jet to 90%, and it is observed that the penetration depth is not sensitive to the V-shaped angle.

  2. Influence of massage and occlusion on the ex vivo skin penetration of rigid liposomes and invasomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trauer, S.; Richter, H.; Kuntsche, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Liposomes are frequently described as drug delivery systems for dermal and transdermal applications. Recently, it has been shown that particulate substances penetrate effectively into hair follicles and that the follicular penetration depth can be increased by massaging the skin, which simulates...

  3. Penetration of Photovoltaics in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Giannini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, an interesting experiment was completed in Greece concerning photovoltaic penetration into the electricity production sector. Based on the relevant laws and in accordance to the related European directives, an explosive penetration process was completed in less than three years, resulting in a 7% share of photovoltaics in electricity production instead of the previous negligible share. The legislation was based on licensing simplification and generous feed-in-tariffs. This approach transformed photovoltaic technology from a prohibitively expensive to a competitive one. This work aims to summarize the relevant legislation and illustrate its effect on the resulting penetration. A sigmoid-shape penetration was observed which was explained by a pulse-type driving force. The return on investment indicator was proposed as an appropriate driving force, which incorporates feed-in-tariffs and turnkey-cost. Furthermore, the resulting surcharge on the electricity price due to photovoltaic penetration was also analyzed.

  4. A Study of Crystalline Mechanism of Penetration Sealer Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Li-Wei; Huang, Ran; Chen, Jie; Cheng, An; Hsu, Hui-Mi

    2014-01-14

    It is quite common to dispense a topping material like crystalline penetration sealer materials (CPSM) onto the surface of a plastic substance such as concrete to extend its service life span by surface protections from outside breakthrough. The CPSM can penetrate into the existing pores or possible cracks in such a way that it may form crystals to block the potential paths which provide breakthrough for any unknown materials. This study investigated the crystalline mechanism formed in the part of concrete penetrated by the CPSM. We analyzed the chemical composites, in order to identify the mechanism of CPSM and to evaluate the penetrated depth. As shown in the results, SEM observes the acicular-structured crystals filling capillary pores for mortar substrate of the internal microstructure beneath the concrete surface; meanwhile, XRD and FT-IR showed the main hydration products of CPSM to be C-S-H gel and CaCO₃. Besides, MIP also shows CPSM with the ability to clog capillary pores of mortar substrate; thus, it reduces porosity, and appears to benefit in sealing pores or cracks. The depth of CPSM penetration capability indicated by TGA shows 0-10 mm of sealer layer beneath the concrete surface.

  5. A Study of Crystalline Mechanism of Penetration Sealer Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wei Teng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is quite common to dispense a topping material like crystalline penetration sealer materials (CPSM onto the surface of a plastic substance such as concrete to extend its service life span by surface protections from outside breakthrough. The CPSM can penetrate into the existing pores or possible cracks in such a way that it may form crystals to block the potential paths which provide breakthrough for any unknown materials. This study investigated the crystalline mechanism formed in the part of concrete penetrated by the CPSM. We analyzed the chemical composites, in order to identify the mechanism of CPSM and to evaluate the penetrated depth. As shown in the results, SEM observes the acicular-structured crystals filling capillary pores for mortar substrate of the internal microstructure beneath the concrete surface; meanwhile, XRD and FT-IR showed the main hydration products of CPSM to be C-S-H gel and CaCO3. Besides, MIP also shows CPSM with the ability to clog capillary pores of mortar substrate; thus, it reduces porosity, and appears to benefit in sealing pores or cracks. The depth of CPSM penetration capability indicated by TGA shows 0–10 mm of sealer layer beneath the concrete surface.

  6. Oxygen toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. van der Westhuizen

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen has been discovered about 200 years ago. Since then the vital physiological involvement of oxygen in various biologi­cal processes, mainly energy production, has been established. However, in the body molecular oxygen can be converted to toxic oxygen metabolites such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen. These toxic metabolites are produced mainly in the mitochondria, plasma membranes and endoplasmic reticulum.

  7. Effects of tailwater depth on spillway aeration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-15

    Apr 15, 2011 ... Hydraulic structures such as spillways or weirs with their water-air controlling mechanisms are not only important for their structural properties but also for their effects on downstream ecology. Tailwater depth is an important factor affecting dissolved oxygen transfer and aeration rates of spillways. In this ...

  8. Penetration of a magnetic field into superconducting lead and lead-indium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egloff, C.; Raychaudhuri, A.K.; Rinderer, L.

    1983-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the magnetic field penetration depth of superconducting lead and lead-indium alloys has been studied over the temperature range between about 2 K and T/sub c/. Data are analyzed in terms of the microscopic theory. The difficulties of a unique analysis of the penetration data are pointed out and a strategy for the analysis is discussed. The penetration depth at T = 0K for pure lead is determined as 522 A. This value, though higher than the previously accepted value for lead, is nevertheless consistent with the strong coupling character of lead

  9. Europa Kinetic Ice Penetrator (EKIP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the proposed work is to validate an initial design for a Europa penetrator that can withstand the high g load associated with the expected hypervelocity...

  10. Penetration of Photovoltaics in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenia Giannini; Antonia Moropoulou; Zacharias Maroulis; Glykeria Siouti

    2015-01-01

    Recently, an interesting experiment was completed in Greece concerning photovoltaic penetration into the electricity production sector. Based on the relevant laws and in accordance to the related European directives, an explosive penetration process was completed in less than three years, resulting in a 7% share of photovoltaics in electricity production instead of the previous negligible share. The legislation was based on licensing simplification and generous feed-in-tariffs. This approach ...

  11. Weighted halfspace depth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotík, Lukáš; Hlubinka, D.; Vencálek, O.

    Vol. 46, č. 1 (2010), s. 125-148 ISSN 0023-5954 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : data depth * nonparametric multivariate analysis * strong consistency of depth * mixture of distributions Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.461, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/SI/kotik-weighted halfspace depth.pdf

  12. Effect of snow cover on soil frost penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rožnovský, Jaroslav; Brzezina, Jáchym

    2017-12-01

    Snow cover occurrence affects wintering and lives of organisms because it has a significant effect on soil frost penetration. An analysis of the dependence of soil frost penetration and snow depth between November and March was performed using data from 12 automated climatological stations located in Southern Moravia, with a minimum period of measurement of 5 years since 2001, which belong to the Czech Hydrometeorological institute. The soil temperatures at 5 cm depth fluctuate much less in the presence of snow cover. In contrast, the effect of snow cover on the air temperature at 2 m height is only very small. During clear sky conditions and no snow cover, soil can warm up substantially and the soil temperature range can be even higher than the range of air temperature at 2 m height. The actual height of snow is also important - increased snow depth means lower soil temperature range. However, even just 1 cm snow depth substantially lowers the soil temperature range and it can therefore be clearly seen that snow acts as an insulator and has a major effect on soil frost penetration and soil temperature range.

  13. Quantifying tidally driven benthic oxygen exchange across permeable sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGinnis, Daniel F.; Sommer, Stefan; Lorke, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Continental shelves are predominately (approximate to 70%) covered with permeable, sandy sediments. While identified as critical sites for intense oxygen, carbon, and nutrient turnover, constituent exchange across permeable sediments remains poorly quantified. The central North Sea largely consists...... of permeable sediments and has been identified as increasingly at risk for developing hypoxia. Therefore, we investigate the benthic O-2 exchange across the permeable North Sea sediments using a combination of in situ microprofiles, a benthic chamber, and aquatic eddy correlation. Tidal bottom currents drive...... the variable sediment O-2 penetration depth (from approximate to 3 to 8 mm) and the concurrent turbulence-driven 25-fold variation in the benthic sediment O-2 uptake. The O-2 flux and variability were reproduced using a simple 1-D model linking the benthic turbulence to the sediment pore water exchange...

  14. Capillaric penetration of etchant solution into swift heavy ion-irradiated silicone rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, D.; Mueller, M.

    2000-01-01

    There is growing evidence that etchants penetrate into latent ion tracks in polymers from the very beginning, i.e., even during the so-called 'incubation time' when no visible etchant attack is observed. The model of capillaric penetration of viscous liquids into sponge-like matter agrees with experimental values both in their parametric dependence as in the absolute values. Our experiments are based on LiOH etching of both pristine and swift heavy ion-irradiated silicone rubber foils. About five times more etchant penetrates into irradiated than into pristine silicone rubber. The overall etchant penetration is highest in tracks parallel to the surface normal, and decreases with increasing ion track tilt angle towards the surface normal. The etchant penetration into the tracks proceeds relatively slowly with an effective viscosity comparable to that of heavy machine oil. When swelling starts to predominate, the maximum etchant penetration depth comes to saturation, with the total etchant uptake even decreasing

  15. DEPTH - OBSERVATION and Other Data (NODC Accession 9700138)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity and other data were collected in the North Sea and other locations. Data include water depths, temperatures, salinities, and oxygen...

  16. Oxygen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their breathing to dangerously low levels. Will I need oxygen when I sleep? Usually if you use supplemental oxygen during the ... your health care provider tells you you only need to use oxygen for exercise or sleep. Even if you feel “fine” off of your ...

  17. Consistent constitutive modeling of metallic target penetration using empirical, analytical, and numerical penetration models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John (Jack P. Riegel III

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Historically, there has been little correlation between the material properties used in (1 empirical formulae, (2 analytical formulations, and (3 numerical models. The various regressions and models may each provide excellent agreement for the depth of penetration into semi-infinite targets. But the input parameters for the empirically based procedures may have little in common with either the analytical model or the numerical model. This paper builds on previous work by Riegel and Anderson (2014 to show how the Effective Flow Stress (EFS strength model, based on empirical data, can be used as the average flow stress in the analytical Walker–Anderson Penetration model (WAPEN (Anderson and Walker, 1991 and how the same value may be utilized as an effective von Mises yield strength in numerical hydrocode simulations to predict the depth of penetration for eroding projectiles at impact velocities in the mechanical response regime of the materials. The method has the benefit of allowing the three techniques (empirical, analytical, and numerical to work in tandem. The empirical method can be used for many shot line calculations, but more advanced analytical or numerical models can be employed when necessary to address specific geometries such as edge effects or layering that are not treated by the simpler methods. Developing complete constitutive relationships for a material can be costly. If the only concern is depth of penetration, such a level of detail may not be required. The effective flow stress can be determined from a small set of depth of penetration experiments in many cases, especially for long penetrators such as the L/D = 10 ones considered here, making it a very practical approach. In the process of performing this effort, the authors considered numerical simulations by other researchers based on the same set of experimental data that the authors used for their empirical and analytical assessment. The goals were to establish a

  18. Plutonium in depleted uranium penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, J.P.; Leon-Vintro, L.; Smith, K.; Mitchell, P.I.; Zunic, Z.S.

    2002-01-01

    Depleted Uranium (DU) penetrators used in the recent Balkan conflicts have been found to be contaminated with trace amounts of transuranic materials such as plutonium. This contamination is usually a consequence of DU fabrication being carried out in facilities also using uranium recycled from spent military and civilian nuclear reactor fuel. Specific activities of 239+240 Plutonium generally in the range 1 to 12 Bq/kg have been found to be present in DU penetrators recovered from the attack sites of the 1999 NATO bombardment of Kosovo. A DU penetrator recovered from a May 1999 attack site at Bratoselce in southern Serbia and analysed by University College Dublin was found to contain 43.7 +/- 1.9 Bq/kg of 239+240 Plutonium. This analysis is described. An account is also given of the general population radiation dose implications arising from both the DU itself and from the presence of plutonium in the penetrators. According to current dosimetric models, in all scenarios considered likely ,the dose from the plutonium is estimated to be much smaller than that due to the uranium isotopes present in the penetrators. (author)

  19. Complexity and Dynamical Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrence Deacon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We argue that a critical difference distinguishing machines from organisms and computers from brains is not complexity in a structural sense, but a difference in dynamical organization that is not well accounted for by current complexity measures. We propose a measure of the complexity of a system that is largely orthogonal to computational, information theoretic, or thermodynamic conceptions of structural complexity. What we call a system’s dynamical depth is a separate dimension of system complexity that measures the degree to which it exhibits discrete levels of nonlinear dynamical organization in which successive levels are distinguished by local entropy reduction and constraint generation. A system with greater dynamical depth than another consists of a greater number of such nested dynamical levels. Thus, a mechanical or linear thermodynamic system has less dynamical depth than an inorganic self-organized system, which has less dynamical depth than a living system. Including an assessment of dynamical depth can provide a more precise and systematic account of the fundamental difference between inorganic systems (low dynamical depth and living systems (high dynamical depth, irrespective of the number of their parts and the causal relations between them.

  20. Corrosion of copper in distilled water without molecular oxygen and the detection of produced hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultquist, G.; Graham, M.J.; Kodra, O.; Moisa, S.; Liu, R.; Bexell, U.; Smialek, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on hydrogen pressures measured during the longterm immersion (∼19 000 hours) of copper in oxygen-free distilled water. Hydrogen gas evolution is from copper corrosion and similar pressures (in the mbar range) are measured for copper contained in either a 316 stainless steel or titanium system. Copper corrosion products have been examined ex-situ by SEM and characterized by Xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). XPS strongly indicates a corrosion product containing both hydroxide and oxide. SIMS shows that oxygen is mainly present in the outer 0.3 μm surface region and that hydrogen penetrates to depths in the substrate well below the corrosion product

  1. Penetration shielding applications of CYLSEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dexheimer, D.T.; Hathaway, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluation of penetration and discontinuity shielding is necessary to meet 10CFR20 regulations for ensuring personnel exposures are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Historically, those shielding evaluations have been done to some degree on all projects. However, many early plants used conservative methods due to lack of an economical computer code, resulting in costly penetration shielding programs. With the increased industry interest in cost effectively reducing personnel exposures to meet ALARA regulations and with the development of the CYLSEC gamma transport computer code at Bechtel, a comprehensive effort was initiated to reduce penetration and discontinuity shielding but still provide a prudent degree of protection for plant personnel from radiation streaming. This effort was more comprehensive than previous programs due to advances in shielding analysis technology and increased interest in controlling project costs while maintaining personnel exposures ALARA. Methodology and resulting cost savings are discussed

  2. Oxygen Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Solmes

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available LTOT is prescribed for people with chronic lung disease in whom there is a decrease in the ability of the lungs to supply enough oxygen to the body. The heart is obliged to pump faster to meet the body's oxygen requirements. This may place undue stress on the heart, resulting in palpitations, dizziness and fatigue. A low oxygen level in arterial blood is also harmful to the heart, the brain and the pulmonary blood vessels. Oxygen therapy is used to break this cycle. A person with low blood oxygen will often be able to accomplish more with less fatigue with the help of supplemental oxygen therapy. Shortness of breath is a mechanical problem resulting from the effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Oxygen therapy may or may not reduce shortness of breath, but it will help the lungs and heart to function with less stress.

  3. Integrated computation model of lithium-ion battery subject to nail penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Binghe; Yin, Sha; Xu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A coupling model to predict battery penetration process is established. • Penetration test is designed and validates the computational model. • Governing factors of the penetration induced short-circuit is discussed. • Critical safety battery design guidance is suggested. - Abstract: The nail penetration of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has become a standard battery safety evaluation method to mimic the potential penetration of a foreign object into LIB, which can lead to internal short circuit with catastrophic consequences, such as thermal runaway, fire, and explosion. To provide a safe, time-efficient, and cost-effective method for studying the nail penetration problem, an integrated computational method that considers the mechanical, electrochemical, and thermal behaviors of the jellyroll was developed using a coupled 3D mechanical model, a 1D battery model, and a short circuit model. The integrated model, along with the sub-models, was validated to agree reasonably well with experimental test data. In addition, a comprehensive quantitative analysis of governing factors, e.g., shapes, sizes, and displacements of nails, states of charge, and penetration speeds, was conducted. The proposed computational framework for LIB nail penetration was first introduced. This framework can provide an accurate prediction of the time history profile of battery voltage, temperature, and mechanical behavior. The factors that affected the behavior of the jellyroll under nail penetration were discussed systematically. Results provide a solid foundation for future in-depth studies on LIB nail penetration mechanisms and safety design.

  4. Penetration of ASM 981 in canine skin: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzwiller, Meret E Ricklin; Reist, Martin; Persohn, Elke; Peel, John E; Roosje, Petra J

    2006-01-01

    ASM 981 has been developed for topical treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. It specifically inhibits the production and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We measured the skin penetration of ASM 981 in canine skin and compared penetration in living and frozen skin. To make penetration of ASM 981 visible in dog skin, tritium labelled ASM 981 was applied to a living dog and to defrosted skin of the same dog. Using qualitative autoradiography the radioactive molecules were detected in the lumen of the hair follicles until the infundibulum, around the superficial parts of the hair follicles and into a depth of the dermis of 200 to 500 microm. Activity could not be found in deeper parts of the hair follicles, the dermis or in the sebaceous glands. Penetration of ASM 981 is low in canine skin and is only equally spread in the upper third of the dermis 24 hours after application. Penetration in frozen skin takes even longer than in living canine skin but shows the same distribution.

  5. Estimating residual life of alloy 600 RPV penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, E.S.; White, G.A.; Pathania, R.; Arey, M.L.; Whitaker, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 penetrations PWR in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) heads has become a significant economic concern worldwide. PWSCC of these penetrations has led to extended maintenance outages, expensive inspections and repairs, and in some cases, replacement of the entire vessel head. This paper describes methodology developed to predict the remaining life of Alloy 600 penetrations in reactor vessel heads. Predictions of remaining life are an important input to planning models used by utilities to select a strategy for responding to the PWSCC issue at the lowest life cycle cost with an acceptably low risk of leakage. The remaining life of RPV penetrations is determined using the results of inspections of penetrations and statistical methods to predict future degradation. The analysis takes into account the effects of material properties, welding residual stresses, and operating temperature on PWSCC initiation and growth. The probability of developing cracks of various depths is assessed using Monte Carlo methods which provide for uncertainties in the input assumptions. For plants which have not yet performed inspections, remaining life predictions are based on inspection results from similar plants which have performed inspections with corrections made for known differences in design details, material properties and operating conditions

  6. About the information depth of backscattered electron imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Piňos, Jakub; Mikmeková, Šárka; Frank, Luděk

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 266, č. 3 (2017), s. 335-342 ISSN 0022-2720 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : backscattered electrons * information depth * penetration of electrons Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 1.692, year: 2016

  7. Motivation with Depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSpezio, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    Presents an illusional arena by offering experience in optical illusions in which students must apply critical analysis to their innate information gathering systems. Introduces different types of depth illusions for students to experience. (ASK)

  8. Element depth profiles of porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzev, A.P.; Nikonov, O.A.; Kulik, M.; Zuk, J.; Krzyzanowska, H.; Ochalski, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Element depth profiles of porous silicon were measured on the Van-de-Graaff accelerator in the energy range of 4 He + ions from 2 to 3.2 MeV. Application of complementary RBS, ERD and 16 O(α,α) 16 O nuclear reaction methods permits us to obtain: 1) the exact silicon, oxygen and hydrogen distribution in the samples, 2) the distribution of partial pore concentrations. The oxygen concentration in porous silicon reaches 30%, which allows one to assume the presence of silicon oxide in the pores and to explain the spectrum shift of luminescence into the blue area

  9. Penetrating performance and “self-sharpening” behavior of fine-grained tungsten heavy alloy rod penetrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Rongmei, E-mail: luorm_1999@126.com [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu (China); College of Equipment Engineering, Shenyang Ligong University, Shenyang 110159, Liaoning (China); Huang, Dewu; Yang, Mingchuan; Tang, Enling; Wang, Meng; He, Liping [College of Equipment Engineering, Shenyang Ligong University, Shenyang 110159, Liaoning (China)

    2016-10-15

    Rod penetrators with 95W–3.75Ni–1.25Fe fine-grained tungsten heavy alloy (fine-grained 95W) and conventional tungsten heavy alloy rod penetrators with the same chemical composition (conventional 95W) were subjected to ballistic impact to compare their penetration performance. “Self-sharpening” behavior and an average 10.5% increase in penetration depth compared to conventional 95W penetrators. An acute head remained on the fine-grained 95W rod with SEM results revealing many micro-cracks and small debris on surface layer of the rod head. The stress-strain curves collected in the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) experiment showed that critical failure strain values of the fine-grained 95W were 0.12 and 0.39 at strain rate of 2×10{sup 3} s{sup −1} and 3.9×10{sup 3} s{sup −1}, respectively, approximately 40% and 10% lower than those of the conventional 95W. The dynamic strength values of fine-grained 95W were 2100 MPa and 2520 MPa, respectively, which were 500 MPa and 520 MPa higher than those of the conventional 95W. The relationship among microstructure, mechanical property and “self-sharpening” behavior of fine-grained 95W is discussed in this work.

  10. Prediction of electric vehicle penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The object of this report is to present the current market status of plug-in-electric : vehicles (PEVs) and to predict their future penetration within the world and U.S. : markets. The sales values for 2016 show a strong year of PEV sales both in the...

  11. Industrial Penetration and Internet Intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); Y-C. Wu (Yu-Chieh)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the effect of industrial penetration and internet intensity for Taiwan manufacturing firms, and analyses whether the relationships are substitutes or complements. The sample observations are based on 153,081 manufacturing plants, and covers 26 two-digit industry

  12. Import market penetration in services

    OpenAIRE

    Langhammer, Rolf J.

    1991-01-01

    The EC-1992 programme foresees the complete liberalization of trade in services among member countries. To what extent has import market penetration in the Community already begun in selected service industries? Which EC member countries have been the forerunners to date? The following paper uses a new data base released recently by EUROSTAT in an attempt to answer these and other related questions.

  13. Autonomous observations of in vivo fluorescence and particle backscatteringin an oceanic oxygen minimum zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, A L; Letelier, R M; Villagrán, V; Ulloa, O

    2009-11-23

    The eastern South Pacific (ESP) oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) is a permanent hydrographic feature located directly off the coasts of northern Chile and Peru. The ESP OMZ reaches from coastal waters out to thousands of kilometers offshore, and can extend from the near surface to depths greater than 700 m. Oxygen minimum zones support unique microbial assemblages and play an important role in marine elemental cycles. We present results from two autonomous profiling floats that provide nine months of time-series data on temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a, and particulate backscattering in the ESP OMZ. We observed consistently elevated backscattering signals within low-oxygen waters, which appear to be the result of enhanced microbial biomass in the OMZ intermediate waters. We also observed secondary chlorophyll a fluorescence maxima within low-oxygen waters when the upper limit of the OMZ penetrated the base of the photic zone. We suggest that autonomous profiling floats are useful tools for monitoring physical dynamics of OMZs and the microbial response to perturbations in these areas.

  14. Prestack depth migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postma, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Two lines form the southern North Sea, with known velocity inhomogeneities in the overburden, have been pre-stack depth migrated. The pre-stack depth migrations are compared with conventional processing, one with severe distortions and one with subtle distortions on the conventionally processed sections. The line with subtle distortions is also compared with post-stack depth migration. The results on both lines were very successful. Both have already influenced drilling decisions, and have caused a modification of structural interpretation in the respective areas. Wells have been drilled on each of the lines, and well tops confirm the results. In fact, conventional processing led to incorrect locations for the wells, both of which were dry holes. The depth migrated sections indicate the incorrect placement, and on one line reveals a much better drilling location. This paper reports that even though processing costs are high for pre-stack depth migration, appropriate use can save millions of dollars in dry-hole expense

  15. [Professor WU Zhongchao's experience of penetration needling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Wang, Bing; Zhou, Yu

    2016-08-12

    Professor WU Zhongchao has unique application of penetration needling in clinical treatment. Professor WU applies penetration needling along meridians, and the methods of penetration needling include self-meridian penetration, exterior-interior meridian penetration, identical-name meridian penetration, different meridian penetration. The meridian differentiation is performed according to different TCM syndromes, locations and natures of diseases and acupoint nature, so as to make a comprehensive assessment. The qi movement during acupuncture is focused. In addition, attention is paid on anatomy and long-needle penetration; the sequence and direction of acupuncture is essential, and the reinforcing and reducing methods have great originality, presented with holding, waiting, pressing and vibrating. Based on classical acupoint, the acupoint of penetration needling is flexible, forming unique combination of acupoints.

  16. Radon depth migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, S.T.; Carroll, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    A depth migration method is presented that used Radon-transformed common-source seismograms as input. It is shown that the Radon depth migration method can be extended to spatially varying velocity depth models by using asymptotic ray theory (ART) to construct wavefield continuation operators. These operators downward continue an incident receiver-array plane wave and an assumed point-source wavefield into the subsurface. The migration velocity model is constrain to have longer characteristic wavelengths than the dominant source wavelength such that the ART approximations for the continuation operators are valid. This method is used successfully to migrate two synthetic data examples: (1) a point diffractor, and (2) a dipping layer and syncline interface model. It is shown that the Radon migration method has a computational advantage over the standard Kirchhoff migration method in that fewer rays are computed in a main memory implementation

  17. Control of penetration zone GMAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віталій Петрович Iванов

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of the base metal, shielding medium and the nature of the electrode metal transfer to a great extent determine the penetration area formation in gas-arc welding. It is not always possible to take into account the influence of these factors on penetration front forming within the existing models. The aim of the work was to research the penetration area forming in gas-arc welding. The research of the penetration area forming in gas-arc welding of CrNi austenitic steels was made. The parameters of the regime as well as the kind of the gaseous medium influence on the formation of the penetration zone were studied. The article shows a linear proportional relationship between the electrode feed rate and the size of the base metal plate. The penetration area formation mode for welding in argon and carbon dioxide have been worked out. Diameter, feed rate and the speed of the electrode movement have been chosen as the main input parameters. Multiple regression analysis method was used to make up the modes. The relations of the third order that make it possible to take into account the electrode metal transfer and thermal properties change of the materials to be welded were used. These relationships show quite good agreement with the experimental measurements in the calculation of the fusion zone shape with consumable electrode in argon and carbon dioxide. It was determined that the shape of the melting front curve can be shown as a generalized function in which the front motion parameters depend on feed rate and the diameter of the electrode. Penetration zone growth time is determined by the welding speed and is calculated as a discrete function of the distance from the electrode with the spacing along the movement coordinate. The influence of the mode parameters on the formation of the fusion zone has been investigated and the ways to manage and stabilize the weld pool formation have been identified. The modes can be used to develop

  18. Measuring depth in boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodson, G.M.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of determining the depth of rock strata and other features of a borehole. It may be employed with particular advantage when access to the top of the borehole is difficult, for example in underwater operations. A radioactive marker, such as a source of gamma rays, is positioned near the top of the riser of a sub-sea wellhead structure. A radiation detector is lowered between the marker and a radioactive stratum and the length of line supplied is measured on the floating platform. This enables the depth of the stratum to be measured irrespective of tidal variations of the height of the platform. (U.K.)

  19. Impeller Submergence Depth for Stirred Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiyam T. Devi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Impeller submergence governs the performance of mixing tanks employed in oxygen transfer operation. Present work experimentally investigates the effect of impeller submergence depths on oxygen transfer and corresponding power consumption. It has been found that at higher range of impeller submergence, mixing tanks consume less power and gives higher values of oxygen transfer coefficient. Optimal range of submergence depth is 0.7 to 0.9 times the impeller diameter. Copyright ©2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.(Received: 4th March 2011; Revised: 12nd July 2011; Accepted: 14th July 2011[How to Cite: T.T. Devi, A.P. Sinha, M. Thakre, and B. Kumar. (2011. Impeller Submergence Depth for Stirred Tanks. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 6 (2: 123-128. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.2.826.123-128][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.2.826.123-128 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/826] | View in 

  20. Hydrologic regulation of plant rooting depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ying; Miguez-Macho, Gonzalo; Jobbágy, Esteban G; Jackson, Robert B; Otero-Casal, Carlos

    2017-10-03

    Plant rooting depth affects ecosystem resilience to environmental stress such as drought. Deep roots connect deep soil/groundwater to the atmosphere, thus influencing the hydrologic cycle and climate. Deep roots enhance bedrock weathering, thus regulating the long-term carbon cycle. However, we know little about how deep roots go and why. Here, we present a global synthesis of 2,200 root observations of >1,000 species along biotic (life form, genus) and abiotic (precipitation, soil, drainage) gradients. Results reveal strong sensitivities of rooting depth to local soil water profiles determined by precipitation infiltration depth from the top (reflecting climate and soil), and groundwater table depth from below (reflecting topography-driven land drainage). In well-drained uplands, rooting depth follows infiltration depth; in waterlogged lowlands, roots stay shallow, avoiding oxygen stress below the water table; in between, high productivity and drought can send roots many meters down to the groundwater capillary fringe. This framework explains the contrasting rooting depths observed under the same climate for the same species but at distinct topographic positions. We assess the global significance of these hydrologic mechanisms by estimating root water-uptake depths using an inverse model, based on observed productivity and atmosphere, at 30″ (∼1-km) global grids to capture the topography critical to soil hydrology. The resulting patterns of plant rooting depth bear a strong topographic and hydrologic signature at landscape to global scales. They underscore a fundamental plant-water feedback pathway that may be critical to understanding plant-mediated global change.

  1. Hydrologic regulation of plant rooting depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ying; Miguez-Macho, Gonzalo; Jobbágy, Esteban G.; Jackson, Robert B.; Otero-Casal, Carlos

    2017-10-01

    Plant rooting depth affects ecosystem resilience to environmental stress such as drought. Deep roots connect deep soil/groundwater to the atmosphere, thus influencing the hydrologic cycle and climate. Deep roots enhance bedrock weathering, thus regulating the long-term carbon cycle. However, we know little about how deep roots go and why. Here, we present a global synthesis of 2,200 root observations of >1,000 species along biotic (life form, genus) and abiotic (precipitation, soil, drainage) gradients. Results reveal strong sensitivities of rooting depth to local soil water profiles determined by precipitation infiltration depth from the top (reflecting climate and soil), and groundwater table depth from below (reflecting topography-driven land drainage). In well-drained uplands, rooting depth follows infiltration depth; in waterlogged lowlands, roots stay shallow, avoiding oxygen stress below the water table; in between, high productivity and drought can send roots many meters down to the groundwater capillary fringe. This framework explains the contrasting rooting depths observed under the same climate for the same species but at distinct topographic positions. We assess the global significance of these hydrologic mechanisms by estimating root water-uptake depths using an inverse model, based on observed productivity and atmosphere, at 30″ (˜1-km) global grids to capture the topography critical to soil hydrology. The resulting patterns of plant rooting depth bear a strong topographic and hydrologic signature at landscape to global scales. They underscore a fundamental plant-water feedback pathway that may be critical to understanding plant-mediated global change.

  2. Akon - A Penetrator for Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Geraint

    2016-04-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa is one of the most intriguing objects in our Solar System. This 2000km-wide body has a geologically young solid water ice crust that is believed to cover a global ocean of liquid water. The presence of this ocean, together with a source of heating through tidal forces, make Europa a conceivable location for extraterrestrial life. The science case for exploring all aspects of this icy world is compelling. NASA has selected the Europa Mission (formerly Europa Clipper) to study Europa in detail in the 2020s through multiple flybys, and ESA's JUICE mission will perform two flybys of the body in the 2030s. The US agency has extended to the European Space Agency an invitation to provide a contribution to their mission. European scientists interested in Europa science and exploration are currently organizing themselves, in the framework of a coordinated Europa M5 Inititative to study concurrently the main options for this ESA contribution, from a simple addition of individual instruments to the NASA spacecraft, to a lander to investigate Europa's surface in situ. A high speed lander - a penetrator - is by far the most promising technology to achieve this latter option within the anticipated mass constraints, and studies of such a hard lander, many funded by ESA, are now at an advanced level. An international team to formally propose an Europa penetrator to ESA in response to the anticipated ESA M5 call is growing. The working title of this proposal is Akon (Άκων), named after the highly accurate javelin gifted to Europa by Zeus in ancient Greek mythology. We present plans for the Akon penetrator, which would impact Europa's surface at several hundred metres per second, and travel up to several metres into the moon's subsurface. To achieve this, the penetrator would be delivered to the surface by a dedicated descent module, to be destroyed on impact following release of the penetrator above the surface. It is planned that the instruments to be

  3. Forestry applications of ground-penetrating radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo, H.; Perez-Gracia, V.; Novo, A.; Armesto, J.

    2010-07-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a geophysical and close-range remote sensing technique based on the use of radar pulses to obtain cross-section images of underground features. This method is characterized by the transmission of an electromagnetic short length pulse (1-2 ns), presenting a centre frequency ranging from 10 MHz to 2.5 GHz. The principles of GPR operation are based on the ability of low frequency radar waves to penetrate into a non-conductive medium, usually subsoil, but also walls, concrete or wood. Those waves are detected after suffering a reflection in electromagnetic discontinuities of the propagation medium. Therefore, this is a suitable method to study changes in those physical properties, and also to characterize different mediums and the reflective targets providing information about their physical properties. The aim of this work is to describe and demonstrate different applications of GPR in forestry, showing the obtained results together with their interpretation. Firstly, in this paper, it is illustrated how GPR is able to map shallow bedrock, subsoil stratigraphy and also to estimate shallow water table depth. Secondly, different tree trunks as well as dry timber are analyzed, evaluating the different radar data obtained in each particular case, and observing differences in their electromagnetic properties related to the GPR response. Finally, several measurements were taken in order to analyze the use of GPR to detect tree root systems using polarimetric techniques, being possible to detect medium and big size roots, together with groups of small roots. (Author) 39 refs.

  4. Performance of kevlar fibre-reinforced rubber composite armour against shaped-charge jet penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Zu,Xu-dong; Huang,Zheng-xiang; Zhai,Wen

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe protective capability of the Kevlar fibre-reinforced rubber composite armour (KFRRCA) at different obliquities is studied using depth-of-penetration experiments method against a 56 mm-diameter standard-shaped charge. Efficiency factors are calculated to evaluate the protection capability of the KFRRCA at different obliquities. Meanwhile, an X-ray experiment is used to observe the deformation, fracture, and scatter of the shaped-charge jet as it penetrates the composite armour. Fin...

  5. Why bother about depth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Peter A.; Obrador, Biel; Christensen, Jesper Philip

    We present results from a newly developed method to determine depth specific rates of GPP, NEP and R using frequent automated profiles of DO and temperature. Metabolic rate calculations were made for three lakes of different trophic status using a diel DO methodology that integrates rates across...

  6. Defining depth of anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, S L; Stanski, D R

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, drawn largely from the synthesis of material that we first presented in the sixth edition of Miller's Anesthesia, Chap 31 (Stanski and Shafer 2005; used by permission of the publisher), we have defined anesthetic depth as the probability of non-response to stimulation, calibrated against the strength of the stimulus, the difficulty of suppressing the response, and the drug-induced probability of non-responsiveness at defined effect site concentrations. This definition requires measurement of multiple different stimuli and responses at well-defined drug concentrations. There is no one stimulus and response measurement that will capture depth of anesthesia in a clinically or scientifically meaningful manner. The "clinical art" of anesthesia requires calibration of these observations of stimuli and responses (verbal responses, movement, tachycardia) against the dose and concentration of anesthetic drugs used to reduce the probability of response, constantly adjusting the administered dose to achieve the desired anesthetic depth. In our definition of "depth of anesthesia" we define the need for two components to create the anesthetic state: hypnosis created with drugs such as propofol or the inhalational anesthetics and analgesia created with the opioids or nitrous oxide. We demonstrate the scientific evidence that profound degrees of hypnosis in the absence of analgesia will not prevent the hemodynamic responses to profoundly noxious stimuli. Also, profound degrees of analgesia do not guarantee unconsciousness. However, the combination of hypnosis and analgesia suppresses hemodynamic response to noxious stimuli and guarantees unconsciousness.

  7. Assessing high wind energy penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tande, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In order to convincingly promote installing wind power capacity as a substantial part of the energy supply system, a set of careful analyses must be undertaken. This paper applies a case study concentrated on assessing the cost/benefit of high wind energy penetration. The case study considers...... expanding the grid connected wind power capacity in Praia, the capital of Cape Verde. The currently installed 1 MW of wind power is estimated to supply close to 10% of the electric energy consumption in 1996. Increasing the wind energy penetration to a higher level is considered viable as the project...... with the existing wind power, supply over 30% of the electric consumption in 1996. Applying the recommended practices for estimating the cost of wind energy, the life-cycle cost of this 2.4 MW investment is estimated at a 7% discount rate and a 20 year lifetime to 0.26 DKK/kW h....

  8. Mobile Termination and Mobile Penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Hurkens, Sjaak; Jeon, Doh-Shin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study how access pricing affects network competition when subscription demand is elastic and each network uses non-linear prices and can apply termination-based price discrimination. In the case of a fixed per minute termination charge, we find that a reduction of the termination charge below cost has two oppos- ing effects: it softens competition but helps to internalize network externalities. The former reduces mobile penetration while the latter boosts it. We find that fi...

  9. Mobile termination and mobile penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Hurkens, Sjaak

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study how access pricing affects network competition when subscription demand is elastic and each network uses non-linear prices and can apply termination-based price discrimination. In the case of a fixed per minute termination charge, we find that a reduction of the termination charge below cost has two opposing effects: it softens competition but helps to internalize network externalities. The former reduces mobile penetration while the latter boosts it. We find that firm...

  10. Fluorescent penetration crack testing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, A.

    1979-01-01

    The same cleaning, penetration, washing, development and evaluation agents are used in this method as for known methods. In order to accelerate or shorten the testing, the drying process is performed only to optical dryness of the material surface by blowing on it with pressurized air, the development by simple pressing into or dusting of the material with the developer and the temperature of the washing water is selected within room temperature range. (RW) [de

  11. Effects of Temperature, Oxygen Partial Pressure, and Materials Selection on Slag Infiltration into Porous Refractories for Entrained-Flow Gasifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Tetsuya Kenneth

    The penetration rate of molten mineral contents (slag) from spent carbonaceous feedstock into porous ceramic-oxide refractory linings is a critical parameter in determining the lifecycle of integrated gasification combined cycle energy production plants. Refractory linings that withstand longer operation without interruption are desirable because they can mitigate consumable and maintenance costs. Although refractory degradation has been extensively studied for many other high-temperature industrial processes, this work focuses on the mechanisms that are unique to entrained-flow gasification systems. The use of unique feedstock mixtures, temperatures from 1450 °C to 1600 °C, and oxygen partial pressures from 10-7 atm to 10-9 atm pose engineering challenges in designing an optimal refractory material. Experimentation, characterization, and modeling show that gasifier slag infiltration into porous refractory is determined by interactions between the slag and the refractory that either form a physical barrier that impedes fluid flow or induce an increased fluid viscosity that decelerates the velocity of the fluid body. The viscosity of the slag is modified by the thermal profile of the refractory along the penetration direction as well as reactions between the slag and refractory that alter the chemistry, and thereby the thermo-physical properties of the fluid. Infiltration experiments reveal that the temperature gradient inherently present along the refractory lining limits penetration. A refractory in near-isothermal conditions demonstrates deeper slag penetration as compared to one that experiences a steeper thermal profile. The decrease in the local temperatures of the slag as it travels deeper into the refractory increases the viscosity of the fluid, which in turn slows the infiltration velocity of fluid body into the pores of the refractory microstructure. With feedstock mixtures that exhibit high iron-oxide concentrations, a transition-metal-oxide, the oxygen

  12. HMO penetration and physicians' earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, J; Mitchell, J M

    1999-11-01

    The goal of this study is to estimate whether cross-sectional variations in enrollment in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) affected physicians' earnings and hourly income in 1990. Using data from a nationally representative sample of 4,577 younger physicians (penetration is endogenous and used the instrumental variables approach to obtain unbiased estimates. HMO penetration had a negative and statistically significant impact on physicians earnings in 1990. A doubling of the average level of HMO penetration in the market is estimated to reduce annual earnings by 7% to 10.7%, and hourly earnings by approximately 6% to 9%. It appears that HMOs were successful in reducing physicians' annual and per hour earnings in 1990, presumably through a combination of fewer visits and lower payment rates for people covered by HMOs. Although these results cannot be generalized to all physicians, the experience of a younger cohort of physicians may still be a good indicator of the future effects of HMOs because younger physicians may be more susceptible to market forces than older and more established physicians. Moreover, these results may be somewhat conservative because they reflect market behavior in 1990, several years before the rapid growth and more aggressive market behavior of HMOs in recent years.

  13. Penetrating eye injury in war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, J W; Valdez, J; Hemady, R K; Steidl, S M; Bourke, D L

    1999-11-01

    The percentage of penetrating eye injuries in war has increased significantly in this century compared with the total number of combat injuries. With the increasing use of fragmentation weapons and possibly laser weapons on the battle-field in the future, the rate of eye injuries may exceed the 13% of the total military injuries found in Operations Desert Storm/Shield. During the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), eye injuries revealed that retained foreign bodies and posterior segment injuries have an improved prognosis in future military ophthalmic surgery as a result of modern diagnostic and treatment modalities. Compared with the increasing penetrating eye injuries on the battlefield, advances in ophthalmic surgery are insignificant. Eye armor, such as visors that flip up and down and protect the eyes from laser injury, needs to be developed. Similar eye protection is being developed in civilian sportswear. Penetrating eye injury in the civilian sector is becoming much closer to the military model and is now comparable for several reasons.

  14. High-velocity Penetration of Concrete Targets with Three Types of Projectiles: Experiments and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhang

    Full Text Available Abstract This study conducted high-velocity penetration experiments using conventional ogive-nose, double-ogive-nose, and grooved-tapered projectiles of approximately 2.5 kg and initial velocities between 1000 and 1360 m/s to penetrate or perforate concrete targets with unconfined compressive strengths of nominally 40MPa. The penetration performance data of these three types of projectiles with two different types of materials (i.e., AerMet100 and DT300 were obtained. The crater depth model considering both the projectile mass and the initial velocity was proposed based on the test results and a theoretical analysis. The penetration ability and the trajectory stability of these three projectile types were compared and analyzed accordingly. The results showed that, under these experimental conditions, the effects of these two different kinds of projectile materials on the penetration depth and mass erosion rate of projectile were not obvious. The existing models could not reflect the crater depths for projectiles of greater weights or higher velocities, whereas the new model established in this study was reliable. The double-ogive-nose has a certain effect of drag reduction. Thus, the double-ogive-nose projectile has a higher penetration ability than the conventional ogive-nose projectile. Meanwhile, the grooved-tapered projectile has a better trajectory stability, because the convex parts of tapered shank generated the restoring moment to stabilize the trajectory.

  15. Experimental and numerical studies on penetration of shaped charge into concrete and pebble layered targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiments on penetrating into concrete and pebble layered targets were performed by shaped charge with different cone angles, liner wall thicknesses, length to diameter ratios and charge diameters at different standoffs. Based on the experimental data, the influence of shaped charge’s structural parameters on crater diameter, hole diameter, crater depth and penetration depth was analyzed in detail. Meanwhile, formation and penetration processes of all shaped charges were simulated by AUTODYN software for investigating the more intrinsic mechanisms, in which the numerical models are the same as those set up in the experiments. The results obtained in this paper indicate that there are obvious differences between jetting projectile charge (JPC and explosively formed projectile (EFP in penetrating into multi-layer targets. For the same charge diameter, the values of hole diameter formed by EFP were much larger than JPC. However, for the same standoff, the penetration depth caused by JCP were larger than EFP. The interfacial effect exists in the penetration progress of JPC.

  16. Real-Time Penetrating Particle Analyzer (PAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Ambrosi, G.; Bertucci, B.

    2018-02-01

    The PAN can measure penetrating particles with great precision to study energetic particles, solar activities, and the origin and propagation of cosmic rays. The real-time monitoring of penetrating particles is crucial for deep space human travel.

  17. Links between climate change, water-table depth, and water chemistry in a mineralized mountain watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Andrew H.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Caine, Jonathan S.; Todd, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that climate change is causing rising solute concentrations in mountain lakes and streams. These changes may be more pronounced in mineralized watersheds due to the sensitivity of sulfide weathering to changes in subsurface oxygen transport. Specific causal mechanisms linking climate change and accelerated weathering rates have been proposed, but in general remain entirely hypothetical. For mineralized watersheds, a favored hypothesis is that falling water tables caused by declining recharge rates allow an increasing volume of sulfide-bearing rock to become exposed to air, thus oxygen. Here, we test the hypothesis that falling water tables are the primary cause of an increase in metals and SO4 (100-400%) observed since 1980 in the Upper Snake River (USR), Colorado. The USR drains an alpine watershed geologically and climatologically representative of many others in mineralized areas of the western U.S. Hydrologic and chemical data collected from 2005 to 2011 in a deep monitoring well (WP1) at the top of the USR watershed are utilized. During this period, both water table depths and groundwater SO4 concentrations have generally increased in the well. A numerical model was constructed using TOUGHREACT that simulates pyrite oxidation near WP1, including groundwater flow and oxygen transport in both saturated and unsaturated zones. The modeling suggests that a falling water table could produce an increase in metals and SO4 of a magnitude similar to that observed in the USR (up to 300%). Future water table declines may produce limited increases in sulfide weathering high in the watershed because of the water table dropping below the depth of oxygen penetration, but may continue to enhance sulfide weathering lower in the watershed where water tables are shallower. Advective air (oxygen) transport in the unsaturated zone caused by seasonally variable recharge and associated water table fluctuations was found to have little influence on pyrite

  18. Storage Conditions of Skin Affect Tissue Structure and Subsequent in vitro Percutaneous Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Plasencia Gil, Maria Inés; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2011-01-01

    fluorescence microscopy) and in vitro percutaneous penetration of caffeine under four different storage conditions using skin samples from the same donors: fresh skin, skin kept at -20°C for 3 weeks (with or without the use of polyethylene glycol) and at -80°C. Our results show a correlation between increasing...... permeation of caffeine and tissue structural damage caused by the storage conditions, most so after skin storage at -80°C. The presented approach, which combines imaging techniques with studies on percutaneous penetration, enables the link between tissue damage at selected depths and penetration...

  19. Influence of the mole penetrator on measurements of heat flow in lunar subsurface layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzaszek, Roman; Drogosz, Michal; Seweryn, Karol; Banaszkiewicz, Marek; Grygorczuk, Jerzy

    Measuring the thermal gradient in subsurface layers is a basic method of determination the heat flux from the interior of a planetary body to its surface. In case of the Moon, such measurements complemented with the results of theoretical analysis and modeling can significantly improve our understanding of the thermal and geological evolution of the Moon. In practice, temperature gradient measurements are performed by at least two sensors located at different depths under the surface. These sensors will be attached to a penetrator [1] or to a cable pulled behind the penetrator. In both cases the object that carries the sensors, e.g. penetrator, perturb temperature measurements. In our study we analyze a case of two thermal sensors attached to the ends of 350mm long penetrator made of a composite material. In agreement with the studies of other authors we have found that the penetrator should be placed at the depth of 2-3 meters, where periodic changes of the temperature due to variation of solar flux at the surface are significantly smaller than the error of temperature measurement. The most important result of our analysis is to show how to deconvolve the real gradient of the temperature from the measurements perturbed by the penetrator body. In this way it will be possible to more accurately determine heat flux in the lunar regolith. [1] Grygorczuk J., Seweryn K., Wawrzaszek R., Banaszkiewicz M., Insertion of a Mole Pene-trator -Experimental Results, /39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference /League City, Texas 2008

  20. Network Penetration Testing and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Brandon F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper will focus the on research and testing done on penetrating a network for security purposes. This research will provide the IT security office new methods of attacks across and against a company's network as well as introduce them to new platforms and software that can be used to better assist with protecting against such attacks. Throughout this paper testing and research has been done on two different Linux based operating systems, for attacking and compromising a Windows based host computer. Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu (Linux based penetration testing operating systems) are two different "attacker'' computers that will attempt to plant viruses and or NASA USRP - Internship Final Report exploits on a host Windows 7 operating system, as well as try to retrieve information from the host. On each Linux OS (Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu) there is penetration testing software which provides the necessary tools to create exploits that can compromise a windows system as well as other operating systems. This paper will focus on two main methods of deploying exploits 1 onto a host computer in order to retrieve information from a compromised system. One method of deployment for an exploit that was tested is known as a "social engineering" exploit. This type of method requires interaction from unsuspecting user. With this user interaction, a deployed exploit may allow a malicious user to gain access to the unsuspecting user's computer as well as the network that such computer is connected to. Due to more advance security setting and antivirus protection and detection, this method is easily identified and defended against. The second method of exploit deployment is the method mainly focused upon within this paper. This method required extensive research on the best way to compromise a security enabled protected network. Once a network has been compromised, then any and all devices connected to such network has the potential to be compromised as well. With a compromised

  1. Ethical Dilemmas and Dimensions in Penetration Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Faily, Shamal; McAlaney, John; Iacob, C.

    2015-01-01

    Penetration testers are required to attack systems to evaluate their security, but without engaging in unethical behaviour while doing so. Despite work on hacker values and studies into security practice, there is little literature devoted to the ethical pressures associated with penetration testing. This paper presents several ethical dilemmas and dimensions associated with penetration testing;\\ud these shed light on the ethical positions taken by Penetration testers, and help identify poten...

  2. A study of the penetration of projectiles into marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisson, J.Y.

    1985-01-01

    The work described in this document consists of three main parts: - Application, after having reviewed calculation methods and known codes, of a dynamic plasticity model based on the upper bound-method (with dissipated energy calculations by plastic deformations). The soil model used for this calculation is the Cambridge Clay Model. - Carrying out a programme of tests with instrumented small scale penetrators in centrifuge on a consolidated clay-target. The trials are done under 50 g, with projectiles, fired with an airgun at high impact velocity (50 m/s). The penetrators' instrumentation consists of either measuring acceleration, or tip force with strain gauges. - The mounting of a small instrumented penetrator for shallow water depth experimentations, with an accelerometer, and a local cell for tip resistance. A rapid electronic data acquisition system has been developed for these experimentations. The preliminary tests are done in a large tank filled with clay. The geotechnical characteristics of the clay are perfectly controlled. The tests performed under these conditions have shown the following observations: the rapid electronic data acquisition system works perfectly and could be used as a basic component for a deep water instrumentated penetrator; the results, obtained in these particular test conditions, are in a perfect agreement with the predictions of the model developed in the frame of this contract

  3. Kali Linux wireless penetration testing essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Alamanni, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This book is targeted at information security professionals, penetration testers and network/system administrators who want to get started with wireless penetration testing. No prior experience with Kali Linux and wireless penetration testing is required, but familiarity with Linux and basic networking concepts is recommended.

  4. Effect of compressibility on the hypervelocity penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W. J.; Chen, X. W.; Chen, P.

    2018-02-01

    We further consider the effect of rod strength by employing the compressible penetration model to study the effect of compressibility on hypervelocity penetration. Meanwhile, we define different instances of penetration efficiency in various modified models and compare these penetration efficiencies to identify the effects of different factors in the compressible model. To systematically discuss the effect of compressibility in different metallic rod-target combinations, we construct three cases, i.e., the penetrations by the more compressible rod into the less compressible target, rod into the analogously compressible target, and the less compressible rod into the more compressible target. The effects of volumetric strain, internal energy, and strength on the penetration efficiency are analyzed simultaneously. It indicates that the compressibility of the rod and target increases the pressure at the rod/target interface. The more compressible rod/target has larger volumetric strain and higher internal energy. Both the larger volumetric strain and higher strength enhance the penetration or anti-penetration ability. On the other hand, the higher internal energy weakens the penetration or anti-penetration ability. The two trends conflict, but the volumetric strain dominates in the variation of the penetration efficiency, which would not approach the hydrodynamic limit if the rod and target are not analogously compressible. However, if the compressibility of the rod and target is analogous, it has little effect on the penetration efficiency.

  5. Development of penetrant materials from used oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Azhar Azmi

    2014-01-01

    This paper described the results of experiment to produce penetrant for nondestructive testing using used engine oil. The used engine oil was obtained from motor vehicle. It was mixed with kerosene at several mix proportion. The penetrability of these mixing were measured and compared with the penetrant available on the market. The results of measurement were explained and discussed. (author)

  6. Corrosion behavior of austenitic and ferritic/martensitic steels in oxygen-saturated liquid Pb-Bi eutectic at 450circC and 550circC

    OpenAIRE

    倉田 有司; 二川 正敏; 斎藤 滋

    2005-01-01

    Static corrosion tests of various austenitic and ferritic/martensitic steels were conducted in oxygen-saturated liquid Pb-Bi at 450circC and 550circC for 3000h to study the effects of temperature and alloying elements on corrosion behavior. Oxidation, grain boundary corrosion, dissolution and penetration were observed. The corrosion depth decreases at 450circC with increasing Cr content in steels regardless of ferritic/martensitic or austenitic steels. Appreciable dissolution of Ni and Cr doe...

  7. Depth perception: the need to report ocean biogeochemical rates as functions of temperature, not depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Peter G; Peltzer, Edward T

    2017-09-13

    For over 50 years, ocean scientists have oddly represented ocean oxygen consumption rates as a function of depth but not temperature in most biogeochemical models. This unique tradition or tactic inhibits useful discussion of climate change impacts, where specific and fundamental temperature-dependent terms are required. Tracer-based determinations of oxygen consumption rates in the deep sea are nearly universally reported as a function of depth in spite of their well-known microbial basis. In recent work, we have shown that a carefully determined profile of oxygen consumption rates in the Sargasso Sea can be well represented by a classical Arrhenius function with an activation energy of 86.5 kJ mol -1 , leading to a Q 10 of 3.63. This indicates that for 2°C warming, we will have a 29% increase in ocean oxygen consumption rates, and for 3°C warming, a 47% increase, potentially leading to large-scale ocean hypoxia should a sufficient amount of organic matter be available to microbes. Here, we show that the same principles apply to a worldwide collation of tracer-based oxygen consumption rate data and that some 95% of ocean oxygen consumption is driven by temperature, not depth, and thus will have a strong climate dependence. The Arrhenius/Eyring equations are no simple panacea and they require a non-equilibrium steady state to exist. Where transient events are in progress, this stricture is not obeyed and we show one such possible example.This article is part of the themed issue 'Ocean ventilation and deoxygenation in a warming world'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Depth perception: the need to report ocean biogeochemical rates as functions of temperature, not depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Peter G.; Peltzer, Edward T.

    2017-08-01

    For over 50 years, ocean scientists have oddly represented ocean oxygen consumption rates as a function of depth but not temperature in most biogeochemical models. This unique tradition or tactic inhibits useful discussion of climate change impacts, where specific and fundamental temperature-dependent terms are required. Tracer-based determinations of oxygen consumption rates in the deep sea are nearly universally reported as a function of depth in spite of their well-known microbial basis. In recent work, we have shown that a carefully determined profile of oxygen consumption rates in the Sargasso Sea can be well represented by a classical Arrhenius function with an activation energy of 86.5 kJ mol-1, leading to a Q10 of 3.63. This indicates that for 2°C warming, we will have a 29% increase in ocean oxygen consumption rates, and for 3°C warming, a 47% increase, potentially leading to large-scale ocean hypoxia should a sufficient amount of organic matter be available to microbes. Here, we show that the same principles apply to a worldwide collation of tracer-based oxygen consumption rate data and that some 95% of ocean oxygen consumption is driven by temperature, not depth, and thus will have a strong climate dependence. The Arrhenius/Eyring equations are no simple panacea and they require a non-equilibrium steady state to exist. Where transient events are in progress, this stricture is not obeyed and we show one such possible example. This article is part of the themed issue 'Ocean ventilation and deoxygenation in a warming world'.

  9. FAA Fluorescent Penetrant Activities - An Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, D.G.

    1998-10-20

    The Federal Aviation Administration's Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) is currently characterizing low cycle fatigue specimens that will support the needs of penetrant manufacturers, commercial airline industry and the Federal Aviation Administration. The main focus of this characterization is to maintain and enhance the evaluation of penetrant inspection materials and apply resources to support the aircraft community needs. This paper discusses efforts to-date to document the Wright Laboratory penetrant evaluation process and characterize penetrant brightness readings in the initial set of sample calibration panels using Type 1 penetrant.

  10. Web penetration testing with Kali Linux

    CERN Document Server

    Muniz, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Web Penetration Testing with Kali Linux contains various penetration testing methods using BackTrack that will be used by the reader. It contains clear step-by-step instructions with lot of screenshots. It is written in an easy to understand language which will further simplify the understanding for the user.""Web Penetration Testing with Kali Linux"" is ideal for anyone who is interested in learning how to become a penetration tester. It will also help the users who are new to Kali Linux and want to learn the features and differences in Kali versus Backtrack, and seasoned penetration testers

  11. Penetration through the Skin Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Benfeldt, Eva; Holmgaard, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    The skin is a strong and flexible organ with barrier properties essential for maintaining homeostasis and thereby human life. Characterizing this barrier is the ability to prevent some chemicals from crossing the barrier while allowing others, including medicinal products, to pass at varying rates......-through diffusion cells) as well as in vivo methods (microdialysis and microperfusion). Then follows a discussion with examples of how different characteristics of the skin (age, site and integrity) and of the penetrants (size, solubility, ionization, logPow and vehicles) affect the kinetics of percutaneous...

  12. Penetrating abdominal injuries: management controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Muhammad U; Zacharias, Nikolaos; Velmahos, George C

    2009-01-01

    Penetrating abdominal injuries have been traditionally managed by routine laparotomy. New understanding of trajectories, potential for organ injury, and correlation with advanced radiographic imaging has allowed a shift towards non-operative management of appropriate cases. Although a selective approach has been established for stab wounds, the management of abdominal gunshot wounds remains a matter of controversy. In this chapter we describe the rationale and methodology of selecting patients for non-operative management. We also discuss additional controversial issues, as related to antibiotic prophylaxis, management of asymptomatic thoracoabdominal injuries, and the use of colostomy vs. primary repair for colon injuries. PMID:19374761

  13. Penetrating abdominal injuries: management controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmahos George C

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Penetrating abdominal injuries have been traditionally managed by routine laparotomy. New understanding of trajectories, potential for organ injury, and correlation with advanced radiographic imaging has allowed a shift towards non-operative management of appropriate cases. Although a selective approach has been established for stab wounds, the management of abdominal gunshot wounds remains a matter of controversy. In this chapter we describe the rationale and methodology of selecting patients for non-operative management. We also discuss additional controversial issues, as related to antibiotic prophylaxis, management of asymptomatic thoracoabdominal injuries, and the use of colostomy vs. primary repair for colon injuries.

  14. Penetration testing with Raspberry Pi

    CERN Document Server

    Muniz, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    If you are looking for a low budget, small form-factor remotely accessible hacking tool, then the concepts in this book are ideal for you. If you are a penetration tester who wants to save on travel costs by placing a low-cost node on a target network, you will save thousands by using the methods covered in this book. You do not have to be a skilled hacker or programmer to use this book. It will be beneficial to have some networking experience; however, it is not required to follow the concepts covered in this book.

  15. Correlation Between Cone Penetration Rate And Measured Cone Penetration Parameters In Silty Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Rikke; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows, how a change in cone penetration rate affects the cone penetration measurements, hence the cone resistance, pore pressure, and sleeve friction in silty soil. The standard rate of penetration is 20 mm/s, and it is generally accepted that undrained penetration occurs in clay while...... drained penetration occurs in sand. When lowering the penetration rate, the soil pore water starts to dissipate and a change in the drainage condition is seen. In intermediate soils such as silty soils, the standard cone penetration rate may result in a drainage condition that could be undrained......, partially or fully drained. However, lowering the penetration rate in silty soils has a great significance because of the soil permeability, and only a small change in penetration rate will result in changed cone penetration measurements. In this paper, analyses will be done on data from 15 field cone...

  16. Prediction of Weld Penetration in FCAW of HSLA steel using Artificial Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asl, Y. Dadgar; Mostafa, N. B.; Panahizadeh, V. R.; Seyedkashi, S. M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) is a semiautomatic or automatic arc welding process that requires a continuously-fed consumable tubular electrode containing a flux. The main FCAW process parameters affecting the depth of penetration are welding current, arc voltage, nozzle-to-work distance, torch angle and welding speed. Shallow depth of penetration may contribute to failure of a welded structure since penetration determines the stress-carrying capacity of a welded joint. To avoid such occurrences; the welding process parameters influencing the weld penetration must be properly selected to obtain an acceptable weld penetration and hence a high quality joint. Artificial neural networks (ANN), also called neural networks (NN), are computational models used to express complex non-linear relationships between input and output data. In this paper, artificial neural network (ANN) method is used to predict the effects of welding current, arc voltage, nozzle-to-work distance, torch angle and welding speed on weld penetration depth in gas shielded FCAW of a grade of high strength low alloy steel. 32 experimental runs were carried out using the bead-on-plate welding technique. Weld penetrations were measured and on the basis of these 32 sets of experimental data, a feed-forward back-propagation neural network was created. 28 sets of the experiments were used as the training data and the remaining 4 sets were used for the testing phase of the network. The ANN has one hidden layer with eight neurons and is trained after 840 iterations. The comparison between the experimental results and ANN results showed that the trained network could predict the effects of the FCAW process parameters on weld penetration adequately.

  17. Quantitative wood–adhesive penetration with X-ray computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paris, Jesse L.; Kamke, Frederick A. (Oregon State U.); (Willamette Valley)

    2015-09-01

    Micro X-ray computed tomography (XCT) was used to analyze the 3D adhesive penetration behavior of different wood–adhesive bondlines. Three adhesives, a phenol formaldehyde (PF), a polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate (pMDI), and a hybrid polyvinyl acetate (PVA), all tagged with iodine for enhanced X-ray attenuation, were used to prepare single-bondline laminates in two softwoods, Douglas-fir and loblolly pine, and one hardwood, a hybrid polar. Adhesive penetration depth was measured with two separate calculations, and results were compared with 2D fluorescent micrographs. A total of 54 XCT scans were collected, representing six replicates of each treatment type; each replicate, however, consisted of approximately 1500 individual, cross-section slices stacked along the specimen length. As these adhesives were highly modified, the presented results do not indicate typical behavior for their broader adhesive classes. Still, clear penetration differences were observed between each adhesive type, and between wood species bonded with both the PF and pMDI adhesives. Furthermore, penetration results depended on the calculation method used. Two adhesive types with noticeably different resin distributions in the cured bondline, showed relatively similar penetration depths when calculated with a traditional effective penetration equation. However, when the same data was calculated with a weighted penetration calculation, which accounts for both adhesive area and depth, the results appeared to better represent the different distributions depicted in the photomicrographs and tomograms. Additionally, individual replicate comparisons showed variation due to specimen anatomy, not easily observed or interpreted from 2D images. Finally, 3D views of segmented 3D adhesive phases offered unique, in-situ views of the cured adhesive structures. In particular, voids formed by CO2 bubbles generated during pMDI cure were clearly visible in penetrated columns of the solidified

  18. Limitations of quantitative photoacoustic measurements of blood oxygenation in small vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Mathangi; Maslov, Konstantin; Zhang, Hao F; Stoica, George; Wang, Lihong V

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of obtaining accurate quantitative information, such as local blood oxygenation level (sO 2 ), with a spatial resolution of about 50 μm from spectral photoacoustic (PA) measurements. The optical wavelength dependence of the peak values of the PA signals is utilized to obtain the local blood oxygenation level. In our in vitro experimental models, the PA signal amplitude is found to be linearly proportional to the blood optical absorption coefficient when using ultrasonic transducers with central frequencies high enough such that the ultrasonic wavelengths are shorter than the light penetration depth into the blood vessels. For an optical wavelength in the 578-596 nm region, with a transducer central frequency that is above 25 MHz, the sensitivity and accuracy of sO 2 inversion is shown to be better than 4%. The effect of the transducer focal position on the accuracy of quantifying blood oxygenation is found to be negligible. In vivo oxygenation measurements of rat skin microvasculature yield results consistent with those from in vitro studies, although factors specific to in vivo measurements, such as the spectral dependence of tissue optical attenuation, dramatically affect the accuracy of sO 2 quantification in vivo

  19. Linguistic Intuitions and Cognitive Penetrability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Devitt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Metalinguistic intuitions play a very large evidential role in both linguistics and philosophy. Linguists think that these intuitions are products of underlying linguistic competence. I call this view “the voice of competence” (“VoC”. Although many philosophers seem to think that metalinguistic intuitions are a priori many may implicitly hold the more scientifically respectable VoC. According to VoC, I argue, these intuitions can be cognitively penetrated by the central processor. But, I have argued elsewhere, VoC is false. Instead, we should hold “the modest explanation” (“ME” according to which these intuitions are fairly unreflective empirical theory-laden central-processor responses to phenomena. On ME, no question of cognitive penetration arises. ME has great methodological significance for the study of language. Insofar as we rely on intuitions as evidence we should prefer those of linguists and philosophers because they are more expert. But, more importantly, we should be seeking other evidence in linguistic usage.

  20. Shave-off depth profiling: Depth profiling with an absolute depth scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojima, M.; Maekawa, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Tomiyasu, B.; Sakamoto, T.; Owari, M.; Nihei, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Shave-off depth profiling provides profiling with an absolute depth scale. This method uses a focused ion beam (FIB) micro-machining process to provide the depth profile. We show that the shave-off depth profile of a particle reflected the spherical shape of the sample and signal intensities had no relationship to the depth. Through the introduction of FIB micro-sampling, the shave-off depth profiling of a dynamic random access memory (DRAM) tip was carried out. The shave-off profile agreed with a blue print from the manufacturing process. Finally, shave-off depth profiling is discussed with respect to resolutions and future directions

  1. Dimensional analysis and extended hydrodynamic theory applied to long-rod penetration of ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Clayton

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Principles of dimensional analysis are applied in a new interpretation of penetration of ceramic targets subjected to hypervelocity impact. The analysis results in a power series representation – in terms of inverse velocity – of normalized depth of penetration that reduces to the hydrodynamic solution at high impact velocities. Specifically considered are test data from four literature sources involving penetration of confined thick ceramic targets by tungsten long rod projectiles. The ceramics are AD-995 alumina, aluminum nitride, silicon carbide, and boron carbide. Test data can be accurately represented by the linear form of the power series, whereby the same value of a single fitting parameter applies remarkably well for all four ceramics. Comparison of the present model with others in the literature (e.g., Tate's theory demonstrates a target resistance stress that depends on impact velocity, linearly in the limiting case. Comparison of the present analysis with recent research involving penetration of thin ceramic tiles at lower typical impact velocities confirms the importance of target properties related to fracture and shear strength at the Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL only in the latter. In contrast, in the former (i.e., hypervelocity and thick target experiments, the current analysis demonstrates dominant dependence of penetration depth only by target mass density. Such comparisons suggest transitions from microstructure-controlled to density-controlled penetration resistance with increasing impact velocity and ceramic target thickness.

  2. Oxygen safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sure you have working smoke detectors and a working fire extinguisher in your home. If you move around the house with your oxygen, you may need more than one fire extinguisher in different locations. Smoking can be very dangerous. No one should smoke ...

  3. Cable Braid Electromagnetic Penetration Model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry K. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Langston, William L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Basilio, Lorena I. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, W. A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The model for penetration of a wire braid is rigorously formulated. Integral formulas are developed from energy principles and reciprocity for both self and transfer immittances in terms of potentials for the fields. The detailed boundary value problem for the wire braid is also setup in a very efficient manner; the braid wires act as sources for the potentials in the form of a sequence of line multipoles with unknown coefficients that are determined by means of conditions arising from the wire surface boundary conditions. Approximations are introduced to relate the local properties of the braid wires to a simplified infinite periodic planar geometry. This is used in a simplified application of reciprocity to be able to treat nonuniform coaxial geometries including eccentric interior coaxial arrangements and an exterior ground plane.

  4. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigutti, Sara; Gerbino, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Fantoni & Gerbino (2014) showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP), they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015) would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification) task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions), in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top-down effect on

  5. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Fantoni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fantoni & Gerbino (2014 showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP, they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015 would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions, in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top

  6. Assessing high wind energy penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tande, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In order to convincingly promote installing wind power capacity as a substantial part of the energy supply system, a set of careful analyses must be undertaken. This paper applies a case study concentrated on assessing the cost/benefit of high wind energy penetration. The case study considers expanding the grid connected wind power capacity in Praia, the capital of Cape Verde. The currently installed 1 MW of wind power is estimated to supply close to 10% of the electric energy consumption in 1996. Increasing the wind energy penetration to a higher level is considered viable as the project settings are close to ideal, including a very capable national utility company, Electra, a conventional power supply system based on imported heavy fuel and gas oil, and favourable wind conditions with an estimated annual average of 9.3 m/s at the hub height of the wind turbines. With the applied case study assumptions, simulations with WINSYS over the lifetime of the assessed wind power investment show that investments up to 4.2 MW are economically viable. The economic optimum is found at 2.4 MW reaching an internal rate of return of almost 8% p.a. This 2.4 MW of wind power would, together with the existing wind power, supply over 30% of the electric consumption in 1996. Applying the recommended practices for estimating the cost of wind energy, the life-cycle cost of this 2.4 MW investment is estimated at a 7% discount rate and a 20 year lifetime to 0.26 DKK/kW h. (Author)

  7. Varieties of cognitive penetration in visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Petra; Newen, Albert

    2014-07-01

    Is our perceptual experience a veridical representation of the world or is it a product of our beliefs and past experiences? Cognitive penetration describes the influence of higher level cognitive factors on perceptual experience and has been a debated topic in philosophy of mind and cognitive science. Here, we focus on visual perception, particularly early vision, and how it is affected by contextual expectations and memorized cognitive contents. We argue for cognitive penetration based on recent empirical evidence demonstrating contextual and top-down influences on early visual processes. On the basis of a perceptual model, we propose different types of cognitive penetration depending on the processing level on which the penetration happens and depending on where the penetrating influence comes from. Our proposal has two consequences: (1) the traditional controversy on whether cognitive penetration occurs or not is ill posed, and (2) a clear-cut perception-cognition boundary cannot be maintained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Percutaneous penetration studies for risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartorelli, Vittorio; Andersen, Helle Raun; Angerer, Jürgen

    2000-01-01

    . In order to predict the systemic risk of dermally absorbed chemicals and to enable agencies to set safety standards, data is needed on the rates of percutaneous penetration of important chemicals. Standardization of in vitro tests and comparison of their results with the in vivo data could produce...... internationally accepted penetration rates and/or absorption percentages very useful for regulatory toxicology. The work of the Percutaneous Penetration Subgroup of EC Dermal Exposure Network has been focussed on the standardization and validation of in vitro experiments, necessary to obtain internationally...... accepted penetration rates for regulatory purposes. The members of the Subgroup analyzed the guidelines on percutaneous penetration in vitro studies presented by various organizations and suggested a standardization of in vitro models for percutaneous penetration taking into account their individual...

  9. Oxygen therapy - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathe increased amounts of oxygen to get normal levels of oxygen in their blood. Oxygen therapy provides babies with the extra oxygen. Information Oxygen is a gas that the cells in your body need to work properly. The ...

  10. Initial response of a rock penetrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longcope, D.B.; Grady, D.E.

    1977-12-01

    An analysis based on elastic rod theory is given for the early-time axisymmetric response of pointed penetrators. Results of measurements by laser interferometry of the back surface particle velocity of laboratory scale penetrators impacted by sandstone targets are presented. Values of the initial pressure on the penetrator tip are determined which give good agreement between the analytical and experimental results. These initial tip pressures are found to be approximated by the stress-particle velocity Hugoniot for the target material

  11. In-place HEPA filter penetration test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Elliott, J.; Bettencourt, B.; Slawski, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of conducting penetration tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters as installed in nuclear ventilation systems. The in-place penetration test, which is designed to yield equivalent penetration measurements as the standard DOP efficiency test, is based on measuring the aerosol penetration of the filter installation as a function of particle size using a portable laser particle counter. This in-place penetration test is compared to the current in-place leak test using light scattering photometers for single HEPA filter installations and for HEPA filter plenums using the shroud method. Test results show the in-place penetration test is more sensitive than the in-place leak test, has a similar operating procedure, but takes longer to conduct. Additional tests are required to confirm that the in-place penetration test yields identical results as the standard dioctyl phthalate (DOP) penetration test for HEPA filters with controlled leaks in the filter and gasket and duct by-pass leaks. Further development of the procedure is also required to reduce the test time before the in- place penetration test is practical

  12. Market penetration rates of new energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The market penetration rates of 11 different new energy technologies were studied covering energy production and end-use technologies. The penetration rates were determined by fitting observed market data to an epidemical diffusion model. The analyses show that the exponential penetration rates of new energy technologies may vary from 4 up to over 40%/yr. The corresponding take-over times from a 1% to 50% share of the estimated market potential may vary from less than 10 to 70 years. The lower rate is often associated with larger energy impacts. Short take-over times less than 25 years seem to be mainly associated with end-use technologies. Public policies and subsides have an important effect on the penetration. Some technologies penetrate fast without major support explained by technology maturity and competitive prices, e.g. compact fluorescent lamps show a 24.2%/yr growth rate globally. The penetration rates determined exhibit some uncertainty as penetration has not always proceeded close to saturation. The study indicates a decreasing penetration rate with increasing time or market share. If the market history is short, a temporally decreasing functional form for the penetration rate coefficient could be used to anticipate the probable behavior

  13. In-place HEPA filter penetration test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Elliott, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of conducting penetration tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters as installed in nuclear ventilation systems. The in-place penetration test, which is designed to yield equivalent penetration measurements as the standard DOP efficiency test, is based on measuring the aerosol penetration of the filter installation as a function of particle size using a portable laser particle counter. This in-place penetration test is compared to the current in-place leak test using light scattering photometers for single HEPA filter installations and for HEPA filter plenums using the shroud method. Test results show the in-place penetration test is more sensitive than the in-place leak test, has a similar operating procedure, but takes longer to conduct. Additional tests are required to confirm that the in-place penetration test yields identical results as the standard dioctyl phthalate (DOP) penetration test for HEPA filters with controlled leaks in the filter and gasket and duct by-pass leaks. Further development of the procedure is also required to reduce the test time before the in-place penetration test is practical. 14 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Penetration of fast projectiles into resistant media: From macroscopic to subatomic projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaite, José

    2017-09-01

    The penetration of a fast projectile into a resistant medium is a complex process that is suitable for simple modeling, in which basic physical principles can be profitably employed. This study connects two different domains: the fast motion of macroscopic bodies in resistant media and the interaction of charged subatomic particles with matter at high energies, which furnish the two limit cases of the problem of penetrating projectiles of different sizes. These limit cases actually have overlapping applications; for example, in space physics and technology. The intermediate or mesoscopic domain finds application in atom cluster implantation technology. Here it is shown that the penetration of fast nano-projectiles is ruled by a slightly modified Newton's inertial quadratic force, namely, F ∼v 2 - β, where β vanishes as the inverse of projectile diameter. Factors essential to penetration depth are ratio of projectile to medium density and projectile shape.

  15. A comparative study on the transdermal penetration effect of gaseous and aqueous plasma reactive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Gan, Lu; Ma, Mingyu; Zhang, Song; Liu, Jingjing; Chen, Hongxiang; Liu, Dawei; Lu, Xinpei

    2018-02-01

    To improve the depth of plasma active species in the skin, it is very important to develop skin disease treatment using plasma. In this article, an air plasma source was used to work directly with the skin of a mouse. A tortuous pathway, hair follicles, electroporation and a microneedle do not aid the transdermal delivery of gaseous plasma active species, therefore these gaseous plasma active species cannot penetrate mouse skin with a thickness of ~0.75 mm. The plasma activated water (PAW) produced by the air plasma source was used to study the transdermal penetration of the aqueous plasma activated species. This aqueous plasma activated species can penetrate the skin through hair follicles, intercellular and transcellular routes. The pH of the PAW did not affect the penetration efficiency of the aqueous plasma active species.

  16. PENETRATION OF CONICAL INDENTER INTO FOUNDATION MATERIAL AT COMBINED PERCUSSION AND SUBSEQUENT ULTRASONIC IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Kiselev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is theoretical and experimental studys of a percussion and subsequent ultrasonic impacts on the indenter depth penetration into material of rigid-plastic foundation.The obtained results allow us to estimate an influence of percussion (low-frequency and ultrasound (high-frequency component parameters on a charging process.

  17. Surface-Adaptive, Antimicrobially Loaded, Micellar Nanocarriers with Enhanced Penetration and Killing Efficiency in Staphylococcal Biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Yong; Busscher, Henk J; Zhao, Bingran; Li, Yuanfeng; Zhang, Zhenkun; van der Mei, Henny C; Ren, Yijin; Shi, Linqi

    Biofilms cause persistent bacterial infections and are extremely recalcitrant to antimicrobials, due in part to reduced penetration of antimicrobials into biofilms that allows bacteria residing in the depth of a biofilm to survive antimicrobial treatment. Here, we describe the preparation of

  18. Institutional Strength in Depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weightman, M.

    2016-01-01

    Much work has been undertaken in order to identify, learn and implement the lessons from the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. These have mainly targeted on engineering or operational lessons. Less attention has been paid to the institutional lessons, although there have been some measures to improve individual peer reviews, particularly by the World Association of Nuclear Operators, and the authoritative IAEA report published in 2015 brought forward several important lessons for regulators and advocated a system approach. The report noted that one of the contributing factors the accident was the tendency of stakeholders not to challenge. Additionally, it reported deficiencies in the regulatory authority and system. Earlier, the root cause of the accident was identified by a Japanese independent parliamentary report as being cultural and institutional. The sum total of the institutions, the safety system, was ineffective. While it is important to address the many technical and operational lessons these may not necessary address this more fundamental lesson, and may not serve to provide robust defences against human or institutional failings over a wide variety of possible events and combinations. The overall lesson is that we can have rigorous and comprehensive safety standards and other tools in place to deliver high levels of safety, but ultimately what is important is the ability of the nuclear safety system to ensure that the relevant institutions diligently and effectively apply those standards and tools — to be robust and resilient. This has led to the consideration of applying the principles of the strength in depth philosophy to a nuclear safety system as a way of providing a framework for developing, assessing, reviewing and improving the system. At an IAEA conference in October 2013, a model was presented for a robust national nuclear safety system based on strength in depth philosophy. The model highlighted three main layers: industry, the

  19. Penetration Evaluation of Explosively Formed Projectiles Through Air and Water Using Insensitive Munition: Simulative and Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The process of formation, flying, penetration of explosively-formed projectiles (EFP and the effect of water on performance of the charge for underwater applications is simulated by Ansysis Autodyn 2D-Hydro code. The main objective of an explosively formed projectile designed for underwater applications is to disintegrate the target at longer standoff distances. In this paper we have simulated the explosively formed projectile from OFHC-Copper liner for 1200 conical angle. The Affect of water on the penetration of EFP is determined by simulations from Ansysis Autodyn 2-D Hydrocode and by varying depth of water from 1CD-5CD. The depth of penetration against steel target is measured experimentally. Flash X-Ray Radiography (FXR is used to capture EFP jet formation and its penetration against target is measured by depth of penetration experiments. Simulation results are compared with experimental results. The difference in simulated and experimental results for depth of penetration is about 7 mm, which lies within favorable range of error. The jet formation captured from FXR is quite clear and jet velocity determined from Flash X-ray radiography is the same as the ones obtained by using other high explosives. Therefore, it is indicated that Insensitive Munition (8701 can be utilized instead of Polymer Bonded Explosives (PBX for air and underwater environments with great reliability and without any hazard.

  20. Measurement of penetration depths of plutonium and americium in sediment from the ocean floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fried, S.; Friedman, A.; Hines, J.; Sjoblom, R.; Schmitz, G.; Schreiner, F.

    1979-01-01

    The clay-like sediment covering the ocean floor constitutes the last barrier that shields the biosphere from contamination by radionuclides stemming from the nuclear wastes of a subseabed repository. In the event of a failure of the engineered barriers the mobility of the released radionuclides in the sediment determines the rate and the extent of entry into the water of the ocean. The initial results of measurements designed to determine the mobility of transuranium elements in sediment from the ocean floor are presented. Data indicate very low migration rates and imply strong chemisorptive interaction with the sediment

  1. Penetration depth of YBa2Cu3O7 measured by polarised neutron reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, J.M.; Nunez, V.; Boothroyd, A.T.; Bucknall, D.G.; Penfold, J.

    1998-01-01

    We have applied the technique of polarised neutron reflectometry (PNR) to investigate the magnetic field profile near the surface of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 films at 4.3 K. The samples comprised 700-1400 nm of c-axis oriented, single crystal YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 deposited by laser ablation on SrTiO 3 substrates. The measurements were carried out on the CRISP reflectometer at the ISIS facility. The PNR technique measures the magnetic induction profile perpendicular to the surface, and so in our case the decay of flux in the c-direction was measured with a field applied parallel to the ab plane. We present preliminary data for the polarised and unpolarised reflectivity (orig.)

  2. Comparison of pellet acceleration model results to experimentally observed penetration depths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szepesi, T., E-mail: szepesi.tamas@gmail.co [KFKI - Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, EURATOM Association, MTA KFKI-RMKI, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest-114 (Hungary); Kalvin, S.; Kocsis, G. [KFKI - Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, EURATOM Association, MTA KFKI-RMKI, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest-114 (Hungary); Lang, P.T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Senichenkov, I. [Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University, Polytehnicheskaya 29, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    Cryogenic hydrogen isotope fuelling pellets were observed to undergo strong radial acceleration in the confined plasma. The reason for pellet acceleration is believed to originate from drift effects: the ionised part of pellet cloud is affected by the grad-B drift, therefore, the cloud becomes polarised. The E x B drift then deforms the pellet cloud so that it can no longer follow the original flux bundle - this results in a less efficient shielding on the pellet's HFS region, where the subsequently enhanced ablation pushes the pellet towards LFS, like a rocket. In order to study this effect, a simple and a comprehensive ablation model was developed. Results from both models show quantitatively acceptable agreement with ASDEX-Upgrade experiments concerning trajectory curvature, corresponding to radial acceleration in the range of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 7} m/s{sup 2}.

  3. Residual stress measurement by x-ray under the consideration of its penetration depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Osamu; Ukai, Takayoshi

    1983-01-01

    The authors derived the fundamental relations between the measured stress by X-ray and the residual stress distribution from the consideration of the contribution of internal stress in definite subsurface layer of metal to X-ray diffraction and proposed the exact formulas and their applications of residual stress measurements by successive thin layer removal in a plate, a hollow cylinder and a hollow sphere. (author)

  4. Offshore Wind Technology Depth Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coastal bathymetric depth, measured in meters at depth values of: -30, -60, -900 Shallow Zone (0-30m): Technology has been demonstrated on a commercial scale at...

  5. Fast magnetic field penetration into an intense neutralized ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armale, R.

    1992-06-01

    Experiments involving propagation of neutralized ion beams across a magnetic field indicate a magnetic field penetration time determined by the Hall resistivity rather than the Spitzer or Pedersen resistivity. In magnetohydrodynamics the Hall current is negligible because electrons and ions drift together in response to an electric field perpendicular to the magnetic field. For a propagating neutralized ion beam, the ion orbits are completely different from the electron orbits and the Hall current must be considered. There would be no effect unless there is a component of magnetic field normal to the surface which would usually be absent for a good conductor. It is necessary to consider electron inertia and the consequent penetration of the normal component to a depth c/ω p . In addition it is essential to consider a component of magnetic field parallel to the velocity of the beam which may be initially absent, but is generated by the Hall effect. The penetration time is determined by whistler waves rather than diffusion

  6. Analysis of Reactor Vessel Lower Head Penetration Tube Failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stempniewicz, Marek

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents results of two studies, performed to investigate the behavior of the reactor vessel penetration tubes in case of relocation of molten material into the tubes. The first study is on the CORVIS drain line experiment 03/1. Results of pre-test calculations are presented, and compared to the later obtained experimental data. The timing of the drain line melting and the velocity of the debris flowing inside the drain line were predicted correctly, but the penetration depth was clearly underestimated. If the calculations are done using different correlation for the melt-to-wall convective heat transfer, the results are closer to the experiment. It cannot however be concluded that the alternative correlation is more appropriate until other uncertainties are clarified. The second study presents calculations performed for GKN Dodewaard CRD, instrument tubes and drain line. Calculations were performed to estimate whether the tubes have a chance to withstand the first attack of the melt and thus postpone vessel failure until the water in the lower plenum evaporates. Calculations were performed assuming that the melt can move into the tubes without any resistance, e.g. presence of water in the tubes was not taken into account. The results indicate that the critical penetration of the GKN vessel, which is most likely to fail, is the drain line. Results also indicate that external flooding should prevent early tube failure, at least in case of low vessel pressure. (author)

  7. Orientation dependence of deformation and penetration behavior of tungsten single crystal rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruchey, W.J. Jr.; Horwath, E.J.; Kingman, P.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on deformation and flow at a target/penetrator interface that occurs under conditions of high hydrostatic pressure and associated heat generation. To further elucidate the role of material structure in the penetration process, oriented single crystals of tungsten have been launched into steel targets and the residual penetrators recovered and analyzed. Both the penetration depth and the deformation characteristics were strongly influenced by the crystallographic orientation. Deformation modes for the left-angle 100 right-angle rod, which exhibited the best performance, appeared to involve considerable localized slip/cleavage and relatively less plastic working; the residual penetrator was extensively cracked and the eroded penetrator material was extruded in a smooth tube lined with an oriented array of discrete particle exhibiting cleavage fractures. Deformation appeared to be much less localized and to involve more extensive plastic working in the left-angle 011 right-angle rod, which exhibited the poorest penetration, while the left-angle 111 right-angle behaved in an intermediate fashion

  8. Light-Emitting Photon-Upconversion Nanoparticles in the Generation of Transdermal Reactive-Oxygen Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Martin; Rwei, Alina Y; Alejo, Teresa; Wei, Tuo; Lopez-Franco, Maria Teresa; Mendoza, Gracia; Sebastian, Victor; Kohane, Daniel S; Arruebo, Manuel

    2017-12-06

    Common photosensitizers used in photodynamic therapy do not penetrate the skin effectively. In addition, the visible blue and red lights used to excite such photosensitizers have shallow penetration depths through tissue. To overcome these limitations, we have synthesized ultraviolet- and visible-light-emitting, energy-transfer-based upconversion nanoparticles and coencapsulated them inside PLGA-PEG (methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)) nanoparticles with the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX. Nd 3+ has been introduced as a sensitizer in the upconversion nanostructure to allow its excitation at 808 nm. The subcytotoxic doses of the hybrid nanoparticles have been evaluated on different cell lines (i.e., fibroblasts, HaCaT, THP-1 monocytic cell line, U251MG (glioblastoma cell line), and mMSCs (murine mesenchymal stem cells). Upon NIR (near infrared)-light excitation, the upconversion nanoparticles emitted UV and VIS light, which consequently activated the generation of reactive-oxygen species (ROS). In addition, after irradiating at 808 nm, the resulting hybrid nanoparticles containing both upconversion nanoparticles and protoporphyrin IX generated 3.4 times more ROS than PLGA-PEG nanoparticles containing just the same dose of protoporphyrin IX. Their photodynamic effect was also assayed on different cell cultures, demonstrating their efficacy in selectively killing treated and irradiated cells. Compared to the topical application of the free photosensitizer, enhanced skin permeation and penetration were observed for the nanoparticulate formulation, using an ex vivo human-skin-permeation experiment. Whereas free protoporphyrin IX remained located at the outer layer of the skin, nanoparticle-encapsulated protoporphyrin IX was able to penetrate through the epidermal layer slightly into the dermis.

  9. Oxygen transfer in slurry bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Y; Moo-Young, M

    1991-04-25

    The oxygen transfer in bioreactors with slurries having a yield stress was investigated. The volumetric mass transfer coefficients in a 40-L bubble column with simulated fermentation broths, the Theological properties of which were represented by the Casson model, were measured. Experimental data were compared with a theoretical correlation developed on the basis of a combination of Higbie's penetration theory and Kolmogoroff's theory of isotropic turbulence. Comparisons between the proposed correlation and data for the simulated broths show good agreement. The mass transfer data for actual mycelial fermentation broths reported previously by the authors were re-examined. Their Theological data was correlated by the Bingham plastic model. The oxygen transfer rate data in the mycelial fermentation broths fit the predictions of the proposed theoretical correlation.

  10. Depth-dependent positron annihilation in different polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.; Zhang, P.; Cheng, G.D.; Li, D.X.; Wu, H.B.; Li, Z.X.; Cao, X.Z. [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analysis Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19 Yuquan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China); Jia, Q.J. [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19 Yuquan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China); Yu, R.S. [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analysis Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19 Yuquan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, B.Y., E-mail: wangboy@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analysis Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19 Yuquan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2013-09-01

    Depth-dependent positron annihilation Doppler broadening measurements were conducted for polymers with different chemical compositions. Variations of the S parameter with respect to incident positron energy were observed. For pure hydrocarbons PP, HDPE and oxygen-containing polymer PC, S parameter rises with increasing positron implantation depth. While for PI and fluoropolymers like PTFE, ETFE and PVF, S parameter decreases with higher positron energy. For chlorine-containing polymer PVDC, S parameter remains nearly constant at all incident positron energies. It is suggested that these three variation trends are resulted from a competitive effect between the depth-dependent positronium formation and the influence of highly electronegative atoms on positron annihilation characteristics.

  11. A review of penetration mechanisms and dynamic properties of tungsten and depleted uranium penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew, S.P.; Caligiuri, R.D.; Eiselstein, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Kinetic energy penetrators must posses the best possible combination of hardness, stiffness, strength, and fracture toughness characteristics to be effective against modern armor systems. Over the last decade, depleted uranium (DU) and tungsten alloys have been the materials of choice for kinetic energy penetrators. Du and tungsten perform abut the same against semi-infinite targets, and DU outperforms tungsten penetrators in oblique, spaced array targets, but because of environmental and subsequent cost concerns, effort has focused on improving the performance of tungsten penetrators over the last few years. However, despite recent improvements in material properties, the penetration performance of tungsten still lags behind that of DU. One possible reason is the difference in deformation mechanisms at the leading edge of the penetrator during the penetration process-DU alloys tend to shear band and sharpen as they penetrate the target material, whereas tungsten penetrators tend to mushroom and blunt. As a first step to determine whether shear banding is truly the reason for superior DU performance, a review of the fabrication, high strain-rate properties, and penetration phenomena of penetrators manufactured from both tungsten and DU alloys. Specifically, the effects of composition, processing, and heat treatment on material properties and penetration mechanisms of these alloys are discussed

  12. Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, W.; Arnold, F.; Stoelinga, M.I.A.

    2013-01-01

    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Therefore, penetration testing has thus far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management,

  13. Generic penetration in the retail antidepressant market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventimiglia, Jeffrey; Kalali, Amir H

    2010-06-01

    In this article, we explore the accelerated penetration of generic antidepressants in the United States market following the availability of generic citalopram and sertraline. Analysis suggests that overall, generic penetration into the antidepressant market has grown from approximately 41 percent in January 2004 to over 73 percent in January 2010. Similar trends are uncovered when branded and generic prescriptions are analyzed by specialty.

  14. Quantitative Penetration Testing with Item Response Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Florian; Pieters, Wolter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    2014-01-01

    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Thus, penetration testing has so far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, including

  15. Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Florian; Pieters, Wolter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle

    2013-01-01

    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Thus, penetration testing has so far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, including

  16. Chemical Penetration Enhancers for Transdermal Drug Delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for transdermal administration. The permeation of drug through skin can be enhanced by both chemical penetration enhancement and physical methods. In this review, we have discussed the chemical penetration enhancement technology for transdermal drug delivery as well as the probable mechanisms of action.

  17. An energy approach study of the penetration of concrete by rigid missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guirgis, Sameh; Guirguis, Ehab

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an energy approach for investigating the penetration of concrete by rigid missiles and the associated phenomena. However, the principal assumptions made here must be validated experimentally before giving the proposed subject further considerations. In the following, a new measure for concrete resistance to penetration by hard missiles is presented. The suggested term for this measure is 'the Volumetric Crushing Energy Density' of concrete which can be described as the energy required for converting a unit volume of concrete to separate particles under compressive loading so that the particles of the crushed volume meet certain gradation criteria. Using this quantity, an explanation of the scale effect is postulated. Moreover, a dimensionless semi-analytical formula for the penetration depth of a rigid missile in a concrete target is proposed which includes a large number of the variables of the problem. The formula assumes that the penetration incident may include several successive phases where the set of variables that governs the impact is different during each phase, and the variables that characterize the impact during each phase correlate in a different manner as well. Furthermore, many of the penetration depth formulae available in the literature are rewritten according to the formula proposed here where the concrete penetration resistance of any incident is estimated by modifying the resistance of 'reference impact incidents.' The rewritten formulae show the wide variation of the values of concrete resistance which are implicitly included in the original formulae. Finally, the proposed formula is applied using data of penetration experiments presented by Forrestal et al. [Forrestal, M.J., Altman, B.S., Cargile, J.D., Hanchak, S.J., 1994. An empirical equation for penetration depth of ogive-nose projectiles into concrete targets. Int. J. Impact Eng. 15(4), 395-405; Forrestal, M.J., Frew, D.J., Hickerson, J.P., Rohwer, T.A., 2003

  18. MDCT diagnosis of penetrating diaphragm injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodanapally, Uttam K.; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan; Mirvis, Stuart E.; Sliker, Clint W.; Fleiter, Thorsten R.; Sarada, Kamal; Miller, Lisa A. [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Stein, Deborah M. [University of Maryland, Department of Surgery, Shock Trauma Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Alexander, Melvin [National Study Center for Trauma and Emergency Medical Systems, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The purpose of the study was to determine the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of multidetector CT (MDCT) in detection of diaphragmatic injury following penetrating trauma. Chest and abdominal CT examinations performed preoperatively in 136 patients after penetrating trauma to the torso with injury trajectory in close proximity to the diaphragm were reviewed by radiologists unaware of surgical findings. Signs associated with diaphragmatic injuries in penetrating trauma were noted. These signs were correlated with surgical diagnoses, and their sensitivity and specificity in assisting the diagnosis were calculated. CT confirmed diaphragmatic injury in 41 of 47 injuries (sensitivity, 87.2%), and an intact diaphragm in 71 of 98 patients (specificity, 72.4%). The overall accuracy of MDCT was 77%. The most accurate sign helping the diagnosis was contiguous injury on either side of the diaphragm in single-entry penetrating trauma (sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 82%). Thus MDCT has high sensitivity and good specificity in detecting penetrating diaphragmatic injuries. (orig.)

  19. MDCT diagnosis of penetrating diaphragm injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodanapally, Uttam K.; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan; Mirvis, Stuart E.; Sliker, Clint W.; Fleiter, Thorsten R.; Sarada, Kamal; Miller, Lisa A.; Stein, Deborah M.; Alexander, Melvin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of multidetector CT (MDCT) in detection of diaphragmatic injury following penetrating trauma. Chest and abdominal CT examinations performed preoperatively in 136 patients after penetrating trauma to the torso with injury trajectory in close proximity to the diaphragm were reviewed by radiologists unaware of surgical findings. Signs associated with diaphragmatic injuries in penetrating trauma were noted. These signs were correlated with surgical diagnoses, and their sensitivity and specificity in assisting the diagnosis were calculated. CT confirmed diaphragmatic injury in 41 of 47 injuries (sensitivity, 87.2%), and an intact diaphragm in 71 of 98 patients (specificity, 72.4%). The overall accuracy of MDCT was 77%. The most accurate sign helping the diagnosis was contiguous injury on either side of the diaphragm in single-entry penetrating trauma (sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 82%). Thus MDCT has high sensitivity and good specificity in detecting penetrating diaphragmatic injuries. (orig.)

  20. The Beryllium-7 Depth Study in Different Land Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal Sharib; Zainudin Othman; Dainee Nor Fardzila Ahmad Tugi; Noor Fadzilah Yusof; Mohd Tarmizi Ishak

    2015-01-01

    The main objective for this study is to evaluate the evolution of 7 Be depth distribution in soil profile at Tasoh Catchment area, Perlis, Malaysia which area has been different land use. The soil samples for this study have been carried out in Timah surroundings by different agricultural land use. Therefore, three different types of soil samples from different land use have been collected by using metal core and have been sectioned into 2 mm increments to a depth of 4 cm. The samples were brought to Radiochemistry and Environment Group Laboratory (RAS), Bangi for further treatment. The samples subsequently oven dried at 45-60 degree Celsius and gently desegregated. The sample is passed through a < 2 mm sieve and packed into geometry plastic container for 7 Be analysis by using gamma spectrometry with a 24-hour count time. From the findings show that the 7 Be soil samples are penetrated with decreases exponentially with depth and is confined within the top few centimeters at most and similar with other works been reported (Blake et al., 2000 and Walling et al., 2008). , the 7 Be from mixed land use also shows more deeper penetration into the soil depth than from two others land use due to a several factors. Therefore, further and detailed discussion for these findings will be described in full paper. (author)

  1. Penetration of Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus sanguinis into dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneist, Susanne; Nietzsche, Sandor; Küpper, Harald; Raser, Gerhard; Willershausen, Brita; Callaway, Angelika

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to assess the difference in virulence of acidogenic and aciduric oral streptococci in an in vitro caries model using their penetration depths into dental enamel. 30 caries-free extracted molars from 11- to 16-year-olds were cleaned ultrasonically for 1 min with de-ionized water and, after air-drying, embedded in epoxy resin. After 8-h of setting at room temperature, the specimens were ground on the buccal side with SiC-paper 1200 (particle size 13-16 μm). Enamel was removed in circular areas sized 3 mm in diameter; the mean depth of removed enamel was 230 ± 60 μm. 15 specimens each were incubated anaerobically under standardized conditions with 24 h-cultures of Streptococcus sanguinis 9S or Streptococcus sobrinus OMZ 176 in Balmelli broth at 37 ± 2 °C; the pH-values of the broths were measured at the beginning and end of each incubation cycle. After 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks 3 teeth each were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde in cacodylate buffer for 24 h, washed 3× and dehydrated 30-60min by sequential washes through a series of 30-100% graded ethanol. The teeth were cut in half longitudinally; afterward, two slits were made to obtain fracture surfaces in the infected area. After critical-point-drying the fragments were gold-sputtered and viewed in a scanning electron microscope at magnifications of ×20-20,000. After 10 weeks of incubation, penetration of S. sanguinis of 11.13 ± 24.04 μm below the break edges into the enamel was observed. The invasion of S. sobrinus reached depths of 87.53 ± 76.34 μm. The difference was statistically significant (paired t test: p = 0.033). The experimental penetration depths emphasize the importance of S. sanguinis versus S. sobrinus in the context of the extended ecological plaque hypothesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection and delineation of underground septic tanks in sandy terrain using ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omolaiye, Gabriel Efomeh; Ayolabi, Elijah A.

    2010-09-01

    A ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey was conducted on the Lekki Peninsula, Lagos State, Nigeria. The primary target of the survey was the delineation of underground septic tanks (ST). A total of four GPR profiles were acquired on the survey site using Ramac X3M GPR equipment with a 250MHz antenna, chosen based on the depth of interest and resolution. An interpretable depth of penetration of 4.5m below the surface was achieved after processing. The method accurately delineated five underground ST. The tops of the ST were easily identified on the radargram based on the strong-amplitude anomalies, the length and the depths to the base of the ST were estimated with 99 and 73 percent confidence respectively. The continuous vertical profiles provide uninterrupted subsurface data along the lines of traverse, while the non-intrusive nature makes it an ideal tool for the accurate mapping and delineation of underground utilities.

  3. Determination of the neutralization depth of concrete under the aggressive environment influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morzhukhina, Anastasia; Nikitin, Stanislav; Akimova, Elena

    2018-03-01

    Aggressive environments have a significant impact on destruction of many reinforced concrete structures, such as high-rise constructions or chemical plants. For example, some high-rise constructions are equipped with a swimming pool, so they are exposed to chloride ions in the air. Penetration of aggressive chemical substances into the body of concrete contributes to acceleration of reinforced concrete structure corrosion that in turn leads to load bearing capacity loss and destruction of the building. The article considers and analyzes the main technologies for calculating penetration depth of various aggressive substances into the body of concrete. The calculation of corrosion depth was made for 50-year service life.

  4. Transconjunctival penetration of mitomycin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velpandian T

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The study was performed to estimate transconjunctival penetration of mitomycin C (MMC to Tenon′s tissue following application over the intact conjunctiva before routine trabeculectomy. Settings and Design: Institution-based case series. Materials and Methods: In 41 eyes of 41 patients, MMC (0.4 mg/ml for 3 min was applied over the intact conjunctiva before beginning trabeculectomy. Tenon′s capsule directly beneath the site of application was excised during trabeculectomy and was homogenized, centrifuged and MMC concentrations were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using stata0 8.0 version software (STATA Corporation, Houston, TX, USA. In this study, P -values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: The average weight of the sample of Tenon′s tissue excised was 5.51 ± 4.42 mg (range: 0.9-17.1 and the average estimated MMC concentration found to be present in Tenon′s tissue using HPLC was 18.67 ± 32.36 x 10−6 moles/kg of the tissue (range: 0.38-197.05 x 10−6 . In 36 of the 41 patients (87.80%, the MMC concentration reached above 2 x 10−6 moles/kg of the tissue concentration required to inhibit human conjunctival fibroblasts. Conclusions: Mitomycin C does permeate into the subconjunctival tissue after supraconjunctival application for 3 min. Application of MMC over the conjunctiva may be a useful alternative to subconjunctival or subscleral application during routine trabeculectomy and as an adjunct for failing blebs.

  5. Defence in depth perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veneau, Tania; Ferrier, Agnes; Barbaud, Jean

    2017-01-01

    The Defence in Depth (DiD) concept was introduced to the field of nuclear safety in the sixties and early seventies. Even though it was not well developed at the beginning, the principles rapidly became close to those currently used. The concept was then composed of 3 levels, and was already associated with operating conditions. These principles have progressed over time and now there are five levels, including progressively situations issued from design extension conditions, to cope with severe accidents and dealing with accident management off-site. Indeed, human and organizational features are considered as a part of the safety provisions at all levels in an integrated approach that is not just related to reactor design. That's the current vision from IAEA, addressed first in INSAG 3 then in INSAG 10, and in the IAEA standards requirements currently addressed by SSR-2/1 superseding NS-R-1). These five levels of DiD are also referred to in other texts including WENRA documents in Europe, but also in the national requirements from different countries. Thus, the application of DiD principle has become a recognized international practice. The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi accidents, even if they raised many questions on nuclear safety issues, confirmed the merits of the DiD concept. Indeed, lessons learned from the accidents have reinforced the use of the DiD concept to ensure adequate safety. The discussions focused more on the implementation of the concept (how it has been or can be used in practice) than the concept itself, and in particular on the following subjects: the notion of level robustness, generally addressed separately from the levels definition, but playing an important role for the efficiency of the concept; the notion of levels independence and the need for strengthening them; the role of diversity to achieve levels independence. However, a prescription of additional diversity and independence across all safety levels could result in inappropriately

  6. Chloride Penetration through Cracks in High-Performance Concrete and Surface Treatment System for Crack Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Seok Yoon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For enhancing the service life of concrete structures, it is very important to minimize crack at surface. Even if these cracks are very small, the problem is to which extend these cracks may jeopardize the durability of these decks. It was proposed that crack depth corresponding with critical crack width from the surface is a crucial factor in view of durability design of concrete structures. It was necessary to deal with chloride penetration through microcracks characterized with the mixing features of concrete. This study is devoted to examine the effect of high strength concrete and reinforcement of steel fiber on chloride penetration through cracks. High strength concrete is regarded as an excellent barrier to resist chloride penetration. However, durability performance of cracked high strength concrete was reduced seriously up to that of ordinary cracked concrete. Steel fiber reinforcement is effective to reduce chloride penetration through cracks because steel fiber reinforcement can lead to reduce crack depth significantly. Meanwhile, surface treatment systems are put on the surface of the concrete in order to seal the concrete. The key-issue is to which extend a sealing is able to ensure that chloride-induced corrosion can be prevented. As a result, penetrant cannot cure cracks, however, coating and combined treatment can prevent chloride from flowing in concrete with maximum crack width of 0.06 mm and 0.08 mm, respectively.

  7. Cs and Cl penetration estimation in mortar from fly ash of MSWI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, K.; Hosokawa, Y.; Haga, K.; Osako, M.

    2015-01-01

    By the Fukushima Daiichi accident, radioactive Cs was scattered widely in East Japan. From the viewpoint of radionuclide contaminated wastes management, water soluble Cs in the fly ash of incineration of municipal solid wastes (MSWI-FA) is the most serious problem. When final disposal of MSWI-FA contaminated by radioactive Cs in concrete pit is considered, it is necessary to understand the characteristics of MSWI-FA and Cs penetration behavior into concrete. In this study, the expected solution generated from MSWI-FA is analyzed and immersion test of mortar in this model solution was carried out for several kinds of cement and sand types. Cs showed similar penetration profiles with Cl regardless of cement and sand types. By using fly ash cement, the penetration depth of Cs decreased less than half compared to ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Clay mineral in sand did not affect the penetration of Cs possible because of the competing effect of potassium for Cs adsorption. Assuming a diffusion equation considering non-linear binding, from the measured profiles, diffusion coefficient and parameters of binding were obtained by fitting. Then, the Cs and Cl profiles after 30 years are estimated and penetration depths of Cs and Cl were only 15 mm for fly ash mortar. (authors)

  8. Melt pool and keyhole behaviour analysis for deep penetration laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbro, R

    2010-01-01

    One usually defines the main characteristic of the welding performances of a given laser system by its 'penetration curve' that corresponds to the welding depth as a function of the welding speed V w for a given set of operating parameters. Analysis of a penetration curve is interesting and gives very fruitful results. Coupled with high-speed video imaging of melt pool surface and ejected plume behaviour, the analysis of this penetration curve on a very large range of welding speeds, typically from 0 to 50 m min -1 , has allowed us to observe very different and characteristic regimes. These regimes are mainly characterized by the physical processes by which they impede the laser beam penetration inside the material. We show that it is only at rather high welding speeds that these limiting processes are reduced. Consequently, the scaling law of welding depth with welding speed is in agreement with adapted modelling of this process. On the other hand, as the welding speed is reduced, different effects depending on the weld pool dynamics and plume interaction strongly disturb the keyhole stability and are responsible for the deviation of the penetration curve from the previous modelling that agrees with a 1/V w scaling law. A corresponding criterion for the occurrence of this effect is defined.

  9. Slab Penetration vs. Slab Stagnation: Mantle Reflectors as an Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeler, A.; Gu, Y. J.; Schultz, R.; Contenti, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    Subducting oceanic lithosphere along convergent margins may stagnate near the base of the upper mantle or penetrate into the lower mantle. These dynamic processes cause extensive thermal and compositional variations, which can be observed in terms of impedance contrast (reflectivity) and topography of mantle transition zone (MTZ) discontinuities, i.e., 410- and 660-km discontinuities. In this study, we utilize ~ 15000 surface-reflected shear waves (SS) and their precursory arrivals (S410S and S660S) to analyze subduction related deformations on mantle reflectivity structure. We apply pre-stack, time-to-depth migration technique to SS precursors, and move weak underside reflections using PREM-predicted travel-time curves. Common Mid-point gathers are formed to investigate structure under the western Pacific, south America, and Mediterranean convergent boundaries. In general, mantle reflectivity structures are consistent with previous seismic tomography models. In regions of slab penetration (e.g., southern Kurile arc, Aegean Sea), our results show 1) a substantial decrease in S660S amplitude, and 2) strong lower mantle reflector(s) at ~ 900 km depth. These reflective structures are supported by zones of high P and S velocities extending into the lower mantle. Our 1-D synthetic simulations suggest that the decreasing S660S amplitudes are, at least partially, associated with shear wave defocusing due to changes in reflector depth (by ±20 km) within averaging bin. Assuming a ~500 km wide averaging area, a dipping reflector with 6-8 % slope can reduce the amplitude of a SS precursor by ~50%. On the other hand, broad depressions with strong impedance contrast at the base of the MTZ characterize the regions of slab stagnation, such as beneath the Tyrrhenian Sea and northeastern China. For the latter region, substantial topography on the 660-km discontinuity west of the Wadati-Benioff zone suggests that the stagnant part of the Pacific plate across Honshu arc is not

  10. Friction force regimes and the conditions for endless penetration of an intruder into a granular medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rodríguez, L A; Pacheco-Vázquez, F

    2017-09-01

    An intruder penetrating into a granular column experiences a depth-dependent friction force F(z). Different regimes of F(z) have been measured depending on the experimental design: a nearly linear dependence for shallow penetrations, total saturation at large depths, and an exponential increase when the intruder approaches the bottom of the granular bed. We report here an experiment that allows us to measure the different regimes in a single run during the quasistatic descent of a sphere in a light granular medium. From the analysis of the resistance in the saturation zone, it was found that F(z) follows a cube-power-law dependence on the intruder diameter and an exponential increase with the packing fraction of the bed. Moreover, we determine the critical mass m_{c} required to observe infinite penetration and its dependence on the above parameters. Finally, we use our results to estimate the final penetration depth reached by intruders of masses m

  11. Tumor induction and hair follicle damage for different electron penetrations in rat skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, F.J.; Sinclair, I.P.; Albert, R.E.; Vanderlaan, M.

    1976-01-01

    The penetration and dose of an electron beam were varied in an attempt to locate the depth in growing-phase rat skin where irradiation was most effective in inducing tumors and morphological damage to the hair follicles. The hair was plucked to initiate the growing phase of the hair cycle, and 12 days later the dorsal skin was irradiated with electrons penetrating 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mm at doses from 500 to 4000 rad. Differences in the curves of tumor incidence as a function of dose for different penetrations were best resolved by plotting the results against the 0.4 mm dose, while comparable curves for destruction of the follicles were best resolved by the 0.8 mm dose. Since 0.8 mm corresponded approximately to the depth of the follicles, these results indicated that the target tissues for follicular damage and tumor induction were separated in depth and that the target for tumor induction was probably located in the region above or near the midpoint of the follicles. When the radiation penetrated sufficiently to reach the entire follicle, the number of tumors produced was not significantly greater than the number observed previously in resting-phase skin, and it was inferred that the additional size and greater mitotic activity of the growing-phase follicles at the time of irradiation did not increase the probability of tumor induction

  12. Evaluation of Depth of Field for depth perception in DVR

    KAUST Repository

    Grosset, A.V.Pascal; Schott, Mathias; Bonneau, Georges-Pierre; Hansen, Charles D.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a user study on the use of Depth of Field for depth perception in Direct Volume Rendering. Direct Volume Rendering with Phong shading and perspective projection is used as the baseline. Depth of Field is then added to see its impact on the correct perception of ordinal depth. Accuracy and response time are used as the metrics to evaluate the usefulness of Depth of Field. The onsite user study has two parts: static and dynamic. Eye tracking is used to monitor the gaze of the subjects. From our results we see that though Depth of Field does not act as a proper depth cue in all conditions, it can be used to reinforce the perception of which feature is in front of the other. The best results (high accuracy & fast response time) for correct perception of ordinal depth occurs when the front feature (out of the two features users were to choose from) is in focus and perspective projection is used. © 2013 IEEE.

  13. Evaluation of Depth of Field for depth perception in DVR

    KAUST Repository

    Grosset, A.V.Pascal

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we present a user study on the use of Depth of Field for depth perception in Direct Volume Rendering. Direct Volume Rendering with Phong shading and perspective projection is used as the baseline. Depth of Field is then added to see its impact on the correct perception of ordinal depth. Accuracy and response time are used as the metrics to evaluate the usefulness of Depth of Field. The onsite user study has two parts: static and dynamic. Eye tracking is used to monitor the gaze of the subjects. From our results we see that though Depth of Field does not act as a proper depth cue in all conditions, it can be used to reinforce the perception of which feature is in front of the other. The best results (high accuracy & fast response time) for correct perception of ordinal depth occurs when the front feature (out of the two features users were to choose from) is in focus and perspective projection is used. © 2013 IEEE.

  14. Properties of millimetre wave sintered and oxygenated YBa2Cu3Ox bulk material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunyar, C.

    1999-12-01

    optimized signal coupling in the TE 01p modes (9-11 GHz). With each oxygenated sample pair depth dependent measurements were made by grinding the sample in steps of 0,05 mm to 0,3 mm. Although the depths of oxygenation differed between the sample pairs, the penetration of oxygen was always higher in the millimetre wave treated sample as compared to the conventionally tempered one. A possible explanation could be the increased

  15. Development of coring, consolidating, subterrene penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, H.D.; Neudecker, J.W.; Cort, G.E.; Turner, W.C.; McFarland, R.D.; Griggs, J.E.

    1976-02-01

    Coring penetrators offer two advantages over full face-melting penetrators, i.e., formation of larger boreholes with no increase in power and the production of glass-lined, structurally undisturbed cores which can be recovered with conventional core-retrieval systems. These cores are of significant value in geological exploratory drilling programs. The initial design details and fabrication features of a 114-mm-diam coring penetrator are discussed; significant factors for design optimization are also presented. Results of laboratory testing are reported and compared with performance predictions, and an initial field trial is described

  16. Ta penetration into template-type porous low-k material during atomic layer deposition of TaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Akira; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Misawa, Kaori; Shimada, Miyoko; Ogawa, Shinichi

    2005-01-01

    Ta penetration into a planar template-type porous low-k film during atomic layer deposition of TaN has been investigated by evaluating relations between Ta penetration and number of deposition cycles, exposure time of Ta precursor per deposition cycle, substrate temperature, and porosity of the porous low-k. The precursors were pentakisdimethylaminotantalum [PDMAT:Ta(N(CH 3 ) 2 ) 5 ] and NH 3 . The porous low-k was a methylsiloxane (MSX) whose pore size in the maximum distribution and porosity of the porous low-k were 0-1.9 nm and 0%-47%. Depth profile of the Ta penetration was measured by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The amount of penetrated and the penetration depth depended on the porosity. It was found that the precursors penetrate into the MSX film dominantly by gas phase diffusion through pores connecting from the surface to the inside. Increased surface area of the MSX film due to the pores results in a depletion of precursor at the wafer edge, and that this depletion causes the penetration characteristics at the edge of wafer differ from those at the center of the wafer. Moreover, the thickness required for the pore sealing by additive liner deposition is discussed

  17. High-resolution mapping, modeling, and evolution of subsurface geomorphology using ground-penetrating radar techniques

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Loveson, V.J.; Gujar, A.R.

    subsurface. It has been useful to decipher shallow geomorphic structures having various options to use different antennas for different depth penetration (0-30 m) with higher resolution.   7.2 Principles of GPR  Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) was invented... about 90m. Flat and plain land is being used, at present, for agriculture (paddy cultivation) practice. Sand dunes are low lying and highly reworked due to social forestry plantation (acacia) activities. 13    7.8.6 Paleo­Lagoon  GPR data shows two...

  18. Analysis on the resistive force in penetration of a rigid projectile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-wei Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the dimensionless formulae of DOP (depth of penetration of a rigid projectile into different targets, the resistive force which a target exerts on the projectile during the penetration of rigid projectile is theoretically analyzed. In particular, the threshold Vc of impact velocity applicable for the assumption of constant resistive force is formulated through impulse analysis. The various values of Vc corresponding to different pairs of projectile-target are calculated, and the consistency of the relative test data and numerical results is observed.

  19. Predicting the Consequences of MMOD Penetrations on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, James; Christiansen, E.; Lear, D.; Evans

    2018-01-01

    The threat from micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts on space vehicles is often quantified in terms of the probability of no penetration (PNP). However, for large spacecraft, especially those with multiple compartments, a penetration may have a number of possible outcomes. The extent of the damage (diameter of hole, crack length or penetration depth), the location of the damage relative to critical equipment or crew, crew response, and even the time of day of the penetration are among the many factors that can affect the outcome. For the International Space Station (ISS), a Monte-Carlo style software code called Manned Spacecraft Crew Survivability (MSCSurv) is used to predict the probability of several outcomes of an MMOD penetration-broadly classified as loss of crew (LOC), crew evacuation (Evac), loss of escape vehicle (LEV), and nominal end of mission (NEOM). By generating large numbers of MMOD impacts (typically in the billions) and tracking the consequences, MSCSurv allows for the inclusion of a large number of parameters and models as well as enabling the consideration of uncertainties in the models and parameters. MSCSurv builds upon the results from NASA's Bumper software (which provides the probability of penetration and critical input data to MSCSurv) to allow analysts to estimate the probability of LOC, Evac, LEV, and NEOM. This paper briefly describes the overall methodology used by NASA to quantify LOC, Evac, LEV, and NEOM with particular emphasis on describing in broad terms how MSCSurv works and its capabilities and most significant models.

  20. Penetration of gold nanoparticles across the stratum corneum layer of thick-Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Gayathri; Katiyar, Neeraj; Vadukumpully, Sajini; Shankarappa, Sahadev A

    2018-02-01

    Transdermal particulate penetration across thick-skin, such as that of palms and sole, is particularly important for drug delivery for disorders such as small fiber neuropathies. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery across skin is believed to have much translational applications, but their penetration especially through thick-skin, is not clear. This study specifically investigates the effectiveness of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for thick-skin penetration, especially across the stratum corneum (SC) as a function of particle size. The thick-skinned hind-paw of rat was used to characterize depth and distribution of AuNPs of varying sizes, namely, 22±3, 105±11, and 186±20nm. Epidermal penetration of AuNPs was characterized both, in harvested skin from the hind-paw using a diffusion chamber, as well as in vivo. Harvested skin segments exposed to 22nm AuNPs for only 3h demonstrated higher penetration (pthick-skin allows nanoparticle penetration and acts as a depot for release of AuNPs into circulation long after the initial exposure has ceased. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An analysis of depth dose characteristics of photon in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzdar, S.A.; Rao, M.A.; Nazir, A.

    2009-01-01

    Photon beam is most widely being used for radiation therapy. Biological effect of radiation is concerned with the evaluation of energy absorbed in the tissues. It was aimed to analyse the depth dose characteristics of x-ray beams of diverse energies to enhance the quality of radiotherapy treatment planning. Depth dose characteristics of different energy photon beams in water have been analysed. Photon beam is attenuated by the medium and the transmitted beam with less intensity causes lesser absorbed dose as depth increases. Relative attenuation on certain points on the beam axis and certain percentage of doses on different depths for available energies has been investigated. Photon beam depth dose characteristics do not show identical attributes as interaction of x-ray with matter is mainly governed by beam quality. Attenuation and penetration parameters of photon show variation with dosimetric parameters like field size due to scattering and Source to Surface Distance due to inverse square law, but the major parameter in photon interactions is its energy. Detailed analysis of photon Depth Dose characteristics helps to select appropriate beam for radiotherapy treatment when variety of beam energies available. Evaluation of this type of characteristics will help to establish theoretical relationships between dosimetric parameters to confirm measured values of dosimetric quantities, and hence to increase accuracy in radiotherapy treatment. (author)

  2. A Mass Loss Penetration Model to Investigate the Dynamic Response of a Projectile Penetrating Concrete considering Mass Abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NianSong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the dynamic response of a projectile penetrating concrete is conducted. The evolutional process of projectile mass loss and the effect of mass loss on penetration resistance are investigated using theoretical methods. A projectile penetration model considering projectile mass loss is established in three stages, namely, cratering phase, mass loss penetration phase, and remainder rigid projectile penetration phase.

  3. The Current Status of the Japanese Penetrator Mission: LUNAR-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, S.; Shiraishi, H.; Fujimura, A.; Hayakawa, H.

    The scientific objective of the LUNAR-A, Japanese Penetrator Mission, is to explore the lunar interior by seismic and heat-flow experiments. Two penetrators containing two seismometers (horizontal and vertical components) and heat-flow probes will be deployed from a spacecraft onto the lunar surface, one on the nearside and the other on the farside of the moon. The final impact velocity of the penetrator will be about 300m/sec; it will encounter a shock of about 8000 G at impact on the lunar surface. According to numerous experimental impact tests using model penetrators and a lunar regolith analog target, each penetrator is predicted to penetrate to a depth of 1 to 3 m. The data obtained by the penetrators will be transmitted to the earth station via the LUNAR-A mother spacecraft orbiting at an altitude of about 200 km. The penetrator is a missile-shaped instrument carrier, which is about 14cm in diameter, 75cm in length, and about 14kg in weight without attitude control system. It contains a two-component seismometer and heat flow probes together with other supporting instruments such as a tilt meter and an accelerometer. The seismic observations are expected to provide key data on the size of the lunar core, as well as data on deep lunar mantle structure. The heat flow measurements at two penetrator deployment sites will also provide important data on the thermal structure and bulk concentrations of heat-generating elements in the Moon. These data will provide much stronger geophysical constraints on the origin and evolution of the Moon than has been obtained so far. The LUNAR-A spacecraft was supposed to be launched in the summer of 2004, but it was postponed due to the necessity of a replacement of the valves used in the RCS propulsion system of the spacecraft, following a recall issued by the manufacturer who found a malfunction of similar valves. Then, the technological review boards by ISAS and JAXA recommended that both the more robustness of the

  4. The penetration of aerosols through fine orifices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, I.A.; Latham, L.J.; Ball, M.H.E.; Mitchell, J.P.

    1991-07-01

    A novel experimental technique has been extended to study the migration of gas-borne glass microspheres in the size range from about 1 to 15 μm volume equivalent diameter through orifices with bores and thicknesses in the range from 2 to 100 μm and 12.7 to 509 μm respectively. The penetration of these particles was significant with all orifices greater than 10 μm bore at a constant driving pressure of 100 kPa. However, few particles penetrated the 5 μm bore orifice, while virtually no particles penetrated the 2 μm bore orifice. Particle size distributions determined after penetration through the orifices were very similar to that of the upstream aerosol except when significant attenuation occurred. (author)

  5. Temporary fire sealing of penetrations on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondorp, H.L.

    1981-02-01

    The radiation shielding provided for TFTR for D-D and D-T operation will be penetrated by numerous electrical and mechanical services. Eventually, these penetrations will have to be sealed to provide the required fire resistance, tritium sealability, pressure integrity and radiation attenuation. For the initial hydrogen operation, however, fire sealing of the penetrations in the walls and floor is the primary concern. This report provides a discussion of the required and desirable properties of a temporary seal which can be used to seal these penetrations for the hydrogen operation and then subsequently be removed and replaced as required for the D-D and D-T operations. Several candidate designs are discussed and evaluated and recommendations are made for specific applications

  6. Identifying structural damage with ground penetrating radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Abraham M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistance tomography (ERT) surveys were conducted in an urban environment in an attempt to identify the cause of severe structural damage to a historically significant residential property...

  7. Thyroid Emphysema Following Penetrating Neck Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Karadağ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although traumatic thyroid gland rupture or hemorrhage is usually seen in goitrous glands, injuries of the normal thyroid gland after neck trauma have rarely been described in the literature. We describe a 44-year-old man who presented with thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema (SCE that occurred after penetrating neck trauma. CT images showed complete resolution of thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema at follow-up examination. Neck injuries can be life threatening. After penetrating neck traumas, physicians should consider subtle esophageal or tracheal laceration. Thyroid emphysema can occur as the result of penetrating neck trauma. The mechanism of emphysema of the thyroid parenchyma can be explained by the thyroid gland’s presence in a single visceral compartment that encompasses the larynx, trachea and thyroid gland. We describe an unusual case of thyroid emphysema of a normal thyroid gland following a penetrating neck injury.

  8. Kali Linux wireless penetration testing beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Ramachandran, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    If you are a security professional, pentester, or anyone interested in getting to grips with wireless penetration testing, this is the book for you. Some familiarity with Kali Linux and wireless concepts is beneficial.

  9. Penetration testing protecting networks and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Henry, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    This book is a preparation guide for the CPTE examination, yet is also a general reference for experienced penetration testers, ethical hackers, auditors, security personnel and anyone else involved in the security of an organization's computer systems.

  10. The penetration of aerosols through fine capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.P.; Edwards, R.T.; Ball, M.H.E.

    1989-10-01

    A novel experimental technique has been developed to study the penetration of aerosol particles ranging from about 1 to 15 μm aerodynamic diameter through capillaries varying from 20 to 80 μm bore and from 10 to 50 mm in length. When the driving pressure was 100 kPa, the penetration of the airborne particles was considerably smaller than expected from a simple comparison of particle diameter with the bore of the capillary. Particle size distributions determined after penetration through the capillaries were in almost all cases similar to the particle size distribution of the aerosol at the capillary entrance. This lack of size-selectivity can be explained in terms of the capillary behaving as a conventional suction-based sampler from a near still (calm) air environment. The resulting particle penetration data are important in assessing the potential for the leakage of aerosols through seals in containers used to transport radioactive materials. (author)

  11. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide, pH, oxygen and other variables collected from time series observations using SAMI-CO2, SAMI-pH, and other instruments from Buoy NH-10 off the coast of Newport, Oregon, United States, at the near bottom depth of ~80 meters from 2011-08-16 to 2015-08-25 (NCEI Accession 0145162)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains time series measurements of near bottom partial pressure of carbon dioxide, pH, dissolved oxygen that are measured from SAMI-CO2, and...

  12. Non destructive measurement for the penetration of contamination inside concrete walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rottner, B.

    1998-01-01

    The scope of this work is to determine the penetration depth of the contamination inside materials like concrete, only using external measurements, avoiding for instance to drill holes in the concrete wall. When dismantling NPP, concrete represents a significant part of the amount of waste. It is then interesting to segregate concrete into different types of waste: ordinary waste, very low level active waste,... This method makes it possible to generate a three dimensional map of the contamination in a concrete wall; this map car be used to adapt the dismantling scenario, and the tools, in order to: - first: decontaminate the wall by scraping the identified contaminated parts, which generates a small quantity of active waste; - second: break down the wall using non nuclear specific methods, generating a large quantity of ordinary waste. The method is based on spectrometric measurements, using two types of information: - the peak to peak ratios for a single radio-nuclide; - the ratio of the peak surface to the baseline enhancement under the peak. Both ratios vary with the penetration depth of the contamination, but rot in the same way. Therefore, the information which is used, will preferably depends on the depth. The correlation of the two ratios to the penetration depth is computed, using two specific calculation codes. One computes the sensitivity of the detector to the direct rays and the other computes the spectrum shape. (author)

  13. SHUTTLE IMAGING RADAR: PHYSICAL CONTROLS ON SIGNAL PENETRATION AND SUBSURFACE SCATTERING IN THE EASTERN SAHARA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, Gerald G.; McCauley, John F.; Breed, Carol S.; Olhoeft, Gary R.

    1986-01-01

    It is found that the Shuttle Imaging Radar A (SIR-A) signal penetration and subsurface backscatter within the upper meter or so of the sediment blanket in the Eastern Sahara of southern Egypt and northern Sudan are enhanced both by radar sensor parameters and by the physical and chemical characteristics of eolian and alluvial materials. The near-surface stratigraphy, the electrical properties of materials, and the types of radar interfaces found to be responsible for different classes of SIR-A tonal response are summarized. The dominant factors related to efficient microwave signal penetration into the sediment blanket include 1) favorable distribution of particle sizes, 2) extremely low moisture content and 3) reduced geometric scattering at the SIR-A frequency (1. 3 GHz). The depth of signal penetration that results in a recorded backscatter, called radar imaging depth, was documented in the field to be a maximum of 1. 5 m, or 0. 25 times the calculated skin depth, for the sediment blanket. The radar imaging depth is estimated to be between 2 and 3 m for active sand dune materials.

  14. In vitro penetration of bleaching agents into the pulp chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Valera, M C; Mancini, M N G

    2004-01-01

    To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures.......To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures....

  15. Buoyancy of gas-filled bladders at great depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priede, Imants G.

    2018-02-01

    At high hydrostatic pressures exceeding 20 MPa or 200 bar, equivalent to depths exceeding ca.2000 m, the behaviour of gases deviates significantly from the predictions of standard equations such as Boyle's Law, the Ideal Gas Law and Van der Waals equation. The predictions of these equations are compared with experimental data for nitrogen, oxygen and air at 0 °C and 15 °C, at pressures up to 1100 bar (110 MPa) equivalent to full ocean depth of ca. 11000 m. Owing to reduced compressibility of gases at high pressures, gas-filled bladders at full ocean depth have a density of 847 kg m-3 for Oxygen, 622 kg m-3 for Nitrogen and 660 kg m-3 for air providing potentially useful buoyancy comparable with that available from man-made materials. This helps explain why some of the deepest-living fishes at ca. 7000 m depth (700 bar or 70 MPa) have gas-filled swim bladders. A table is provided of the density and buoyancy of oxygen, nitrogen and air at 0 °C and 15 °C from 100 to 1100 bar.

  16. Is Grey Level a Suitable Alternative to Low-Contrast Penetration as a Serial Measure of Sensitivity in Computerised Ultrasound Quality Assurance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Nicholas J; Gibson, Nicholas M

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that grey levels are a suitable alternative measure of sensitivity in ultrasound imaging quality assurance, as there are several caveats in the use of penetration depth. In a primary cohort of nine probes, where measurements had been made for 6 to 34 mo, both penetration depth and mean grey level fell below tolerance for six probes; both penetration depth and mean grey level remained within tolerance for three probes. In a secondary cohort where a measurement programme had been in place for a shorter period, grey level and/or penetration depth fell below tolerance in 15 of 66 probes; the sensitivity and specificity of at least 10% loss of grey level in predicting >5% loss in penetration depth were 91% and 93%, respectively. A loss of grey level accompanies a loss of penetration and provides a suitable alternative measure of sensitivity. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A review of penetration mechanisms and dynamic properties of tungsten and depleted uranium penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew, S.P.; Caligiuri, R.D.; Eiselstein, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Over the last decade, depleted uranium (DU) and tungsten alloys have been the materials of choice for kinetic energy penetrators. However, despite improvements in mechanical properties in recent years, the penetration performance of tungsten still lags behind that of DU. One possible reason is the difference in deformation mechanisms- DU alloys tend to shear band as they penetrate the target material, whereas tungsten penetrators tend to mushroom. As a first step to determining whether shear banding is truly the reason for superior DU performance, a review and summary of the available information was performed. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of the formulation, high strain- rate properties, and penetration phenomena of penetrators manufactured from both tungsten and DU alloys. Specifically, the effects of composition, processing, and heat treatment on mechanical properties and penetration mechanisms of these alloys are discussed. Penetration data and models for penetration mechanisms (in particular shear banding) are also presented, as well as the applicability of these models and their salient features

  18. Rapid penetration into granular media visualizing the fundamental physics of rapid earth penetration

    CERN Document Server

    Iskander, Magued

    2015-01-01

    Rapid Penetration into Granular Media: Visualizing the Fundamental Physics of Rapid Earth Penetration introduces readers to the variety of methods and techniques used to visualize, observe, and model the rapid penetration of natural and man-made projectiles into earth materials. It provides seasoned practitioners with a standard reference that showcases the topic's most recent developments in research and application. The text compiles the findings of new research developments on the subject, outlines the fundamental physics of rapid penetration into granular media, and assembles a com

  19. Rooting depth and root depth distribution of Trifolium repens × T. uniflorum interspecific hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, S N; Hofmann, R W; Williams, W M; van Koten, C

    2016-05-20

    Traits related to root depth distribution were examined in Trifolium repens × T. uniflorum backcross 1 (BC 1 ) hybrids to determine whether root characteristics of white clover could be improved by interspecific hybridization. Two white clover cultivars, two T. uniflorum accessions and two BC 1 populations were grown in 1 -m deep tubes of sand culture. Maximum rooting depth and root mass distribution were measured at four harvests over time, and root distribution data were fitted with a regression model to provide measures of root system shape. Morphological traits were measured at two depths at harvest 3. Root system shape of the hybrids was more similar to T. uniflorum than to white clover. The hybrids and T. uniflorum had a higher rate of decrease in root mass with depth than white clover, which would result in higher proportions of root mass in the upper profile. Percentage total root mass at 100-200 mm depth was higher for T. uniflorum than white clover, and for Crusader BC 1 than 'Crusader'. Roots of the hybrids and T. uniflorum also penetrated deeper than those of white clover. T. uniflorum had thicker roots at 50-100 mm deep than the other entries, and more of its fine root mass at 400-500 mm. The hybrids and white clover had more of their fine root mass higher in the profile. Consequently, T. uniflorum had a higher root length density at 400-500 mm than most entries, and a smaller decrease in root length density with depth. These results demonstrate that rooting characteristics of white clover can be altered by hybridization with T. uniflorum, potentially improving water and nutrient acquisition and drought resistance. Root traits of T. uniflorum are likely to be adaptations to soil moisture and fertility in its natural environment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Hydrodynamic analysis and design of high-level radioactive waste disposal model penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visintini, L.; Mazazzi, R.; Murray, C.N.

    1991-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities is studying in the framework of the NEA/OECD Internationally Co-ordinational Seabed Programme the feasibility of using deep ocean sedimentary geological formations as a final disposal medium for vitrified high level waste and fuel elements. At present, two options are being considered for the embedment of such wastes in the sediment column, drilling and free fall penetrators. In the second case, the high level waste would be contained in specially designed drums which would be placed into torpedo-shaped projectiles. These penetrators would then be launched from a semi-submersible platform or ship and allowed to fall freely through the water column (≅ 5 km depth) and to bury themselves within the sediment column. The present article reports some work which has been carried out by the Joint Research Centre, Ispra Establishment on designing large model penetrators for tests at two sites in the North Atlantic

  1. Study on mixed convective flow penetration into subassembly from reactor hot plenum in FBRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, J.; Ohshima, H.; Kamide, H.; Ieda, Y. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Fundamental experiments using water were carried out in order to reveal the phenomenon of mixed convective flow penetration into subassemblies from a reactor`s upper plenum of fast breeder reactors. This phenomenon appears under a certain natural circulation conditions during the operation of the direct reactor auxiliary cooling system for decay heat removal and might influence the natural circulation head which determines the core flow rate and therefore affects the core coolability. In the experiment, a simplified model which simulates an upper plenum and a subassembly was used and the ultrasonic velocity profile monitor as well as thermocouples were applied for the simultaneous measurement of velocity and temperature distributions in the subassembly. From the measured data, empirical equations related to the penetration flow onset condition and the penetration depth were obtained using relevant parameters which were derived from dimensional analysis.

  2. Performance of kevlar fibre-reinforced rubber composite armour against shaped-charge jet penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-dong Zu

    Full Text Available AbstractThe protective capability of the Kevlar fibre-reinforced rubber composite armour (KFRRCA at different obliquities is studied using depth-of-penetration experiments method against a 56 mm-diameter standard-shaped charge. Efficiency factors are calculated to evaluate the protection capability of the KFRRCA at different obliquities. Meanwhile, an X-ray experiment is used to observe the deformation, fracture, and scatter of the shaped-charge jet as it penetrates the composite armour. Finally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM is used to analyse the effect of the Kevlar fibre-reinforced rubber for the composite armour to resist jet penetration. The results showed that the KFEECA can be used as additional armour, because it has excellent protection capability, and it can disturb the stability of the middle part of the shaped charge jet (SCJ obviously especially when the armour at 30°and 68° obliquities.

  3. Optimized support vector regression for drilling rate of penetration estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodaghi, Asadollah; Ansari, Hamid Reza; Gholami, Mahsa

    2015-12-01

    In the petroleum industry, drilling optimization involves the selection of operating conditions for achieving the desired depth with the minimum expenditure while requirements of personal safety, environment protection, adequate information of penetrated formations and productivity are fulfilled. Since drilling optimization is highly dependent on the rate of penetration (ROP), estimation of this parameter is of great importance during well planning. In this research, a novel approach called `optimized support vector regression' is employed for making a formulation between input variables and ROP. Algorithms used for optimizing the support vector regression are the genetic algorithm (GA) and the cuckoo search algorithm (CS). Optimization implementation improved the support vector regression performance by virtue of selecting proper values for its parameters. In order to evaluate the ability of optimization algorithms in enhancing SVR performance, their results were compared to the hybrid of pattern search and grid search (HPG) which is conventionally employed for optimizing SVR. The results demonstrated that the CS algorithm achieved further improvement on prediction accuracy of SVR compared to the GA and HPG as well. Moreover, the predictive model derived from back propagation neural network (BPNN), which is the traditional approach for estimating ROP, is selected for comparisons with CSSVR. The comparative results revealed the superiority of CSSVR. This study inferred that CSSVR is a viable option for precise estimation of ROP.

  4. The Penetration of Solar Radiation Into Carbon Dioxide Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnery, H. E.; Hagermann, A.; Kaufmann, E.; Lewis, S. R.

    2018-04-01

    Icy surfaces behave differently to rocky or regolith-covered surfaces in response to irradiation. A key factor is the ability of visible light to penetrate partially into the subsurface. This results in the solid-state greenhouse effect, as ices can be transparent or translucent to visible and shorter wavelengths, while opaque in the infrared. This can lead to significant differences in shallow subsurface temperature profiles when compared to rocky surfaces. Of particular significance for modeling the solid-state greenhouse effect is the e-folding scale, otherwise known as the absorption scale length, or penetration depth, of the ice. While there have been measurements for water ice and snow, pure and with mixtures, to date, there have been no such measurements published for carbon dioxide ice. After an extensive series of measurements we are able to constrain the e-folding scale of CO2 ice for the cumulative wavelength range 300 to 1,100 nm, which is a vital parameter in heat transfer models for the Martian surface, enabling us to better understand surface-atmosphere interactions at Mars' polar caps.

  5. Corrosion penetration monitoring of advanced ceramics in hot aqueous fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus G. Nickel

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Advanced ceramics are considered as components in energy related systems, because they are known to be strong, wear and corrosion resistant in many environments, even at temperatures well exceeding 1000 °C. However, the presence of additives or impurities in important ceramics, for example those based on Silicon Nitride (Si3N4 or Al2O3 makes them vulnerable to the corrosion by hot aqueous fluids. The temperatures in this type of corrosion range from several tens of centigrade to hydrothermal conditions above 100 °C. The corrosion processes in such media depend on both pH and temperature and include often partial leaching of the ceramics, which cannot be monitored easily by classical gravimetric or electrochemical methods. Successful corrosion penetration depth monitoring by polarized reflected light optical microscopy (color changes, Micro Raman Spectroscopy (luminescence changes and SEM (porosity changes will be outlined. The corrosion process and its kinetics are monitored best by microanalysis of cross sections, Raman spectroscopy and eluate chemistry changes in addition to mass changes. Direct cross-calibrations between corrosion penetration and mechanical strength is only possible for severe corrosion. The methods outlined should be applicable to any ceramics corrosion process with partial leaching by fluids, melts or slags.

  6. Extreme value statistics for two-dimensional convective penetration in a pre-main sequence star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, J.; Baraffe, I.; Goffrey, T.; Constantino, T.; Viallet, M.; Popov, M. V.; Walder, R.; Folini, D.

    2017-08-01

    Context. In the interior of stars, a convectively unstable zone typically borders a zone that is stable to convection. Convective motions can penetrate the boundary between these zones, creating a layer characterized by intermittent convective mixing, and gradual erosion of the density and temperature stratification. Aims: We examine a penetration layer formed between a central radiative zone and a large convection zone in the deep interior of a young low-mass star. Using the Multidimensional Stellar Implicit Code (MUSIC) to simulate two-dimensional compressible stellar convection in a spherical geometry over long times, we produce statistics that characterize the extent and impact of convective penetration in this layer. Methods: We apply extreme value theory to the maximal extent of convective penetration at any time. We compare statistical results from simulations which treat non-local convection, throughout a large portion of the stellar radius, with simulations designed to treat local convection in a small region surrounding the penetration layer. For each of these situations, we compare simulations of different resolution, which have different velocity magnitudes. We also compare statistical results between simulations that radiate energy at a constant rate to those that allow energy to radiate from the stellar surface according to the local surface temperature. Results: Based on the frequency and depth of penetrating convective structures, we observe two distinct layers that form between the convection zone and the stable radiative zone. We show that the probability density function of the maximal depth of convective penetration at any time corresponds closely in space with the radial position where internal waves are excited. We find that the maximal penetration depth can be modeled by a Weibull distribution with a small shape parameter. Using these results, and building on established scalings for diffusion enhanced by large-scale convective motions, we

  7. Frequency and Magnetic Field Dependence of the Skin Depth in Co-rich Soft Magnetic Microwires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zhukov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We studied giant magnetoimpedance (GMI effect in magnetically soft amorphous Co-rich microwires in the extended frequency range. From obtained experimentally dependences of GMI ratio on magnetic field and different frequencies we estimated the penetration depth and its dependence on applied magnetic field and frequency

  8. Three-dimensional in-situ subsurface density estimations and the seismic skin depth

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fourie, CJS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available All electromagnetic geophysical methods, but the frequency domain methods in particular, depend on the skindepth as a guide to the depth of investigation or penetration from the surface. By definition the skindepth is the distance where the initial...

  9. Surface area and the seabed area, volume, depth, slope, and topographic variation for the world's seas, oceans, and countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Mark John; Cheung, Alan; De Hauwere, Nathalie

    2010-12-01

    Depth and topography directly and indirectly influence most ocean environmental conditions, including light penetration and photosynthesis, sedimentation, current movements and stratification, and thus temperature and oxygen gradients. These parameters are thus likely to influence species distribution patterns and productivity in the oceans. They may be considered the foundation for any standardized classification of ocean ecosystems and important correlates of metrics of biodiversity (e.g., species richness and composition, fisheries). While statistics on ocean depth and topography are often quoted, how they were derived is rarely cited, and unless calculated using the same spatial resolution the resulting statistics will not be strictly comparable. We provide such statistics using the best available resolution (1-min) global bathymetry, and open source digital maps of the world's seas and oceans and countries' Exclusive Economic Zones, using a standardized methodology. We created a terrain map and calculated sea surface and seabed area, volume, and mean, standard deviation, maximum, and minimum, of both depth and slope. All the source data and our database are freely available online. We found that although the ocean is flat, and up to 71% of the area has a ocean volume exceeds 1.3 billion km(3) (or 1.3 sextillion liters), and sea surface and seabed areas over 354 million km(2). We propose the coefficient of variation of slope as an index of topographic heterogeneity. Future studies may improve on this database, for example by using a more detailed bathymetry, and in situ measured data. The database could be used to classify ocean features, such as abyssal plains, ridges, and slopes, and thus provide the basis for a standards based classification of ocean topography.

  10. ISLSCP II Ecosystem Rooting Depths

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this study was to predict the global distribution of plant rooting depths based on data about global aboveground vegetation structure and climate....

  11. ISLSCP II Ecosystem Rooting Depths

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to predict the global distribution of plant rooting depths based on data about global aboveground vegetation structure and...

  12. High-Energy-Density Metal-Oxygen Batteries: Lithium-Oxygen Batteries vs Sodium-Oxygen Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyeongse; Agyeman, Daniel Adjei; Park, Mihui; Yang, Junghoon; Kang, Yong-Mook

    2017-12-01

    The development of next-generation energy-storage devices with high power, high energy density, and safety is critical for the success of large-scale energy-storage systems (ESSs), such as electric vehicles. Rechargeable sodium-oxygen (Na-O 2 ) batteries offer a new and promising opportunity for low-cost, high-energy-density, and relatively efficient electrochemical systems. Although the specific energy density of the Na-O 2 battery is lower than that of the lithium-oxygen (Li-O 2 ) battery, the abundance and low cost of sodium resources offer major advantages for its practical application in the near future. However, little has so far been reported regarding the cell chemistry, to explain the rate-limiting parameters and the corresponding low round-trip efficiency and cycle degradation. Consequently, an elucidation of the reaction mechanism is needed for both lithium-oxygen and sodium-oxygen cells. An in-depth understanding of the differences and similarities between Li-O 2 and Na-O 2 battery systems, in terms of thermodynamics and a structural viewpoint, will be meaningful to promote the development of advanced metal-oxygen batteries. State-of-the-art battery design principles for high-energy-density lithium-oxygen and sodium-oxygen batteries are thus reviewed in depth here. Major drawbacks, reaction mechanisms, and recent strategies to improve performance are also summarized. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. In vitro investigation of the follicular penetration of porcine ear skin using a nanoparticle-emulsion containing the antiseptic polihexanide In vitro investigation of the follicular penetration of porcine ear skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, M.; Patzelt, A.; Vergou, T.; Lademann, J.; Richter, H.; Kramer, A.; Müller, G.; Sterry, W.; Lange-Asschenfeldt, B.

    2012-05-01

    Earlier investigations regarding the distribution of the bacterial flora on the human skin demonstrate that the hair follicle acts as a bacterial reservoir, providing a quick source for secondary recontamination. These findings highlight the importance of the hair follicle as a target for modern antiseptics. In the present study, we have assessed the follicular penetration of a curcumin-labeled particle-associated antiseptic into porcine skin by laser scanning microscopy. Therefore, the follicular penetration depth of the curcumin-labeled particle-associated antiseptic was compared to the follicular penetration depth of curcumin-labeled particles without antiseptic. The investigation was performed in vitro using porcine skin biopsies. By superposition of the images acquired in the transmission and the fluorescent modus, it was possible to visualize the distribution of the fluorescent dye inside the hair follicles. Quantitative and qualitative results showed that both dispersions penetrated efficiently into the hair follicles. The average penetration depth of the particles with attached antiseptic polihexanide was significantly higher than that of particles without the attached antiseptic. Also, whilst very little sample preparation was needed, laser scanning microscopy was found to be an efficient tool to visualize the skin relief and in particular the hair follicle shaft and localize fluorescent markers within the skin tissue and hair follicles.

  14. Penetration of silver nanoparticles into porcine skin ex vivo using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, Raman microscopy, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongjian; Choe, Chun-Sik; Ahlberg, Sebastian; Meinke, Martina C; Alexiev, Ulrike; Lademann, Juergen; Darvin, Maxim E

    2015-05-01

    In order to investigate the penetration depth of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) inside the skin, porcine ears treated with Ag NPs are measured by two-photon tomography with a fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (TPT-FLIM) technique, confocal Raman microscopy (CRM), and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) microscopy. Ag NPs are coated with poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone and dispersed in pure water solutions. After the application of Ag NPs, porcine ears are stored in the incubator for 24 h at a temperature of 37°C. The TPT-FLIM measurement results show a dramatic decrease of the Ag NPs' signal intensity from the skin surface to a depth of 4 μm. Below 4 μm, the Ag NPs' signal continues to decline, having completely disappeared at 12 to 14 μm depth. CRM shows that the penetration depth of Ag NPs is 11.1 ± 2.1 μm. The penetration depth measured with a highly sensitive SERS microscopy reaches 15.6 ± 8.3 μm. Several results obtained with SERS show that the penetration depth of Ag NPs can exceed the stratum corneum (SC) thickness, which can be explained by both penetration of trace amounts of Ag NPs through the SC barrier and by the measurements inside the hair follicle, which cannot be excluded in the experiment.

  15. A theoretical basis of the approach for the magnetic field penetration measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezotosnyi, P I; Gavrilkin, S Yu; Ivanenko, O M; Mitsen, K V; Tsvetkov, A Yu

    2016-01-01

    An approach for the assessment of London penetration depth of superconducting films is proposed. This approach is based on the analysis of linear response of the sample to a local low-frequency alternating magnetic field generated by the measuring coil disposed near the film surface. A visual “electrical engineering” model of induced currents distribution in the superconductor taking into account the kinetic inductance was developed for a description of this response. The possibility of determining of the penetration depth from changing the inductance of the system “coil-sample” is shown in the framework of this model. The sensitivity of the proposed method for the films with different thicknesses is considered. (paper)

  16. Regolith thickness at the Chang'E-3 landing site from the Lunar Penetrating Radar and impact craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, W.; Zhu, M.-H.; Liu, T.

    2015-10-01

    The Chang'E-3 lunar penetrating radar (LPR) observations reveal a newly formed regolith layer (<1 m), an ejecta layer (~2-6 m), and a palaeoregolith layer (~4-9 m) from the surface to a depth of ~ 20 m. The thicknesses of the newly formed regolith layer and the palaeoregolith layer are consistent with the estimations based on the excavation depth and morphology of small fresh craters.

  17. In vitro investigation of the follicular penetration of porcine ear skin using a nanoparticle-emulsion containing the antiseptic polihexanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmer, M; Patzelt, A; Lademann, J; Richter, H; Sterry, W; Lange-Asschenfeldt, B; Vergou, T; Kramer, A; Mueller, G

    2012-01-01

    Earlier investigations regarding the distribution of the bacterial flora on the human skin demonstrate that the hair follicle acts as a bacterial reservoir, providing a quick source for secondary recontamination. These findings highlight the importance of the hair follicle as a target for modern antiseptics. In the present study, we have assessed the follicular penetration of a curcumin-labeled particle-associated antiseptic into porcine skin by laser scanning microscopy. Therefore, the follicular penetration depth of the curcumin-labeled particle-associated antiseptic was compared to the follicular penetration depth of curcumin-labeled particles without antiseptic. The investigation was performed in vitro using porcine skin biopsies. By superposition of the images acquired in the transmission and the fluorescent modus, it was possible to visualize the distribution of the fluorescent dye inside the hair follicles. Quantitative and qualitative results showed that both dispersions penetrated efficiently into the hair follicles. The average penetration depth of the particles with attached antiseptic polihexanide was significantly higher than that of particles without the attached antiseptic. Also, whilst very little sample preparation was needed, laser scanning microscopy was found to be an efficient tool to visualize the skin relief and in particular the hair follicle shaft and localize fluorescent markers within the skin tissue and hair follicles

  18. Two methodologies for physical penetration testing using social engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimkov, T.; van Cleeff, A.; Pieters, Wolter; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2010-01-01

    Penetration tests on IT systems are sometimes coupled with physical penetration tests and social engineering. In physical penetration tests where social engineering is allowed, the penetration tester directly interacts with the employees. These interactions are usually based on deception and if not

  19. Opportunities for high wind energy penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tande, J.O.; Hansen, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Wind power is today a mature technology, which at windy locations, is economically competitive to conventional power generation technologies. This and growing global environmental concerns have led governments to encourage and plan for wind energy development, a typical aim being 10% of electricity...... consumption. The successful operation of the three major power systems of Cape Verde, with a total wind energy penetration of about 15% since December 1994, demonstrates that power systems can be operated with high penetration of wind energy by adding simple control and monitoring systems only. Thorough...... analyses conclude that expanding to even above 15% wind energy penetration in the Cape Verde power systems is economical. Worldwide, numerous locations with favorable wind conditions and power systems similar to the Capeverdean provide good opportunities for installing wind farms and achieving high wind...

  20. WAPTT - Web Application Penetration Testing Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DURIC, Z.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Web applications vulnerabilities allow attackers to perform malicious actions that range from gaining unauthorized account access to obtaining sensitive data. The number of reported web application vulnerabilities in last decade is increasing dramatically. The most of vulnerabilities result from improper input validation and sanitization. The most important of these vulnerabilities based on improper input validation and sanitization are: SQL injection (SQLI, Cross-Site Scripting (XSS and Buffer Overflow (BOF. In order to address these vulnerabilities we designed and developed the WAPTT (Web Application Penetration Testing Tool tool - web application penetration testing tool. Unlike other web application penetration testing tools, this tool is modular, and can be easily extended by end-user. In order to improve efficiency of SQLI vulnerability detection, WAPTT uses an efficient algorithm for page similarity detection. The proposed tool showed promising results as compared to six well-known web application scanners in detecting various web application vulnerabilities.

  1. Penetrating power of resonant electromagnetic induction imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Guilizzoni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of revealing the presence and identifying the nature of conductive targets is of central interest in many fields, including security, medicine, industry, archaeology and geophysics. In many applications, these targets are shielded by external materials and thus cannot be directly accessed. Hence, interrogation techniques are required that allow penetration through the shielding materials, in order for the target to be identified. Electromagnetic interrogation techniques represent a powerful solution to this challenge, as they enable penetration through conductive shields. In this work, we demonstrate the power of resonant electromagnetic induction imaging to penetrate through metallic shields (1.5-mm-thick and image targets (having conductivities σ ranging from 0.54 to 59.77 MSm−1 concealed behind them.

  2. Wireless Network Penetration Testing and Security Auditing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shao-Long

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available IEEE802.11 wireless wireless networks have security issues that are vulnerable to a variety of attacks. Due to using radio to transport data, attackers can bypass firewalls, sniff sensitive information, intercept packets and send malicious packets. Security auditing and penetration testing is expected to ensure wireless networks security. The contributions of this work are analyzed the vulnerability and types of attacks pertaining to IEEE 802.11 WLAN, performed well known attacks in a laboratory environment to conduct penetration tests to confirm whether our wireless network is hackable or not. WAIDPS is configured as auditing tool to view wireless attacks, such as WEP/WPA/WPA2 cracking, rouge access points, denial of service attack. WAIDPS is designed to detect wireless intrusion with additional features. Penetration testing and auditing will mitigate the risk and threatening to protect WALN.

  3. Penetrating chest injury: A miraculous life salvage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh B Dalavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An unusual penetrating chest injury was caused by high velocity road traffic accident. An 18-year-old had a four wheeler accident and was brought in emergency department with a ′bamboo′ stick on the left side chest exiting through back. After the stabilization of vital parameters, an inter-costal tube drainage was done on the left side. Except the minor brochopleural fistula which healed by 10 th day, his recovery was uneventful. The outcome was consistent with current aggressive management of penetrating chest injuries. Management of penetrating chest injury involving pulmonary trauma is based on three principles. One is stabilization of hemodynamics of patient with proper clinical evaluation. Second, a mere intercostal tube drainage sufficient for majority of the cases. Third, post-operative active as well as passive physiotherapy is necessary for speedy recovery.

  4. Verification of Sulfate Attack Penetration Rates for Saltstone Disposal Unit Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-05-12

    Recent Special Analysis modeling of Saltstone Disposal Units consider sulfate attack on concrete and utilize degradation rates estimated from Cementitious Barriers Partnership software simulations. This study provides an independent verification of those simulation results using an alternative analysis method and an independent characterization data source. The sulfate penetration depths estimated herein are similar to the best-estimate values in SRNL-STI-2013-00118 Rev. 2 and well below the nominal values subsequently used to define Saltstone Special Analysis base cases.

  5. Performance of carbon fiber reinforced rubber composite armour against shaped charge jet penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Yue Lian-yong; Li Wei; Zu Xu-dong; Huang Zheng-xiang; Gao Zhen-yu

    2016-01-01

    Natural rubber is reinforced with carbon fiber; the protective performances of the carbonfiber reinforced rubber composite armour to shaped charge jet have been studied based on the depth of penetration experiments. The craters on the witness blocks, the nature rubber based composite plates’ deformation and the Scanning Electron Microscopy for the hybrid fiber reinforced rubber plate also is analyzed. The results showed that the composite armour can affect the stability of the jet and made pa...

  6. Evidence of Deep Water Penetration in Silica during Stress Corrosion Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Lechenault, F.; Rountree, C. L.; Cousin, F.; Bouchaud, J.-P.; Ponson, L.; Bouchaud, E.

    2011-01-01

    We measure the thickness of the heavy water layer trapped under the stress corrosion fracture surface of silica using neutron reflectivity experiments. We show that the penetration depth is 65-85 \\aa ngstr\\"{o}ms, suggesting the presence of a damaged zone of $\\approx$ 100 \\aa ngstr\\"{o}ms extending ahead of the crack tip during its propagation. This estimate of the size of the damaged zone is compatible with other recent results.

  7. The Processing and Analysis of Lunar Penetrating Radar Channel-1 Data from Chang'E-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yun-ze

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR, which is one of the most important science payloads onboard the Chang'E-3 (CE-3 rover, is used to obtain electromagnetic image less than 100 m beneath the lunar surface. This paper describes the system composition and working mechanism of the LPR and presents a detailed analysis of its data. We investigated special signal-processing methods and present the result of channel-1 data. The result shows that the effective echo occurs at depths greater than 100 m. Moreover, an unusual reflection exists at depth of 40 m, which may be the boundary of two geological units beneath the lunar surface.

  8. Development Of The Nuclear Optical Penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K.; Koike, K.; Imada, Y.

    1984-10-01

    We have developed the nuclear optical penetration to be incorporated in the wall penetration of the shell to introduce a data transmission system using optical fibers into a nuclear power plant with a pressurized water reactor. Radiation-induced coloration in optical glass seriously affects transmission characteristics of optical fibers, whereas it has been revealed that the pure-silica core optical fiber without any dopant in the core has wide applicability in radiation fields thanks to its very low radiation-induced attenuation. The wall penetration of the shell should have airtightness and resistivity to heat, vibration, and pressure, let alone radiation, excellent enough to be invariable in data transmission efficiency even when subjected to severe environmental tests. The sealing modules of this newly developed nuclear optical penetration are hermetically sealed. The gap between the optical fiber rod (100 pm in core diameter and 5 mm in rod diameter) and stainless steel tube is sealed with lamingted glass layer. As the result of He gas leakage test, high airtightness of less than 10 cc/sec was achieved. No thermal deformation of the core was caused by sealing with laminated glass layer, nor was observed transmission loss. Then the sealiing modules were subjected to the irradiation test using 60 Co gamma ray exposure of 2 x 10 rads. Though silica glass layer supporting the fiber rod and sealing glass portion turned blackish purple, transparency of the fiber was not affected. Only less than 0.5 dB of connecting loss was observed at the connecting point with the optical fiber cable. The sealing modules were also found to have resistivity to vibration and pressure as excellent as that of existing nuclear electric penetrations. We expect the nuclear optical fiber penetration will be much effective in improving reliability of data transmission systems using optical fibers in radiation fields.

  9. Penetrators for delivering Scientific equipment to minor bodies by flying-pass missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrov, Alexander; Martynov, Maxim; Pichkhadze, Konstantin M.; Dolgopolov, Vladimir; Sysoev, Valentin

    Many space missions are planned to have close encounters with Solar system minor bodies as a pass-fly. Short time of such close encounters were effectively used for photographing of these bodies, i.e. for distant investigations only because of large velocities of the encounter. We propose to use high-velocity penetrators to provide contact investigations of the minor bodies in situ. These devices were designed by Lavochkin Association for lunar missions. They were designed for long lived scientific equipment to be placed under surface up to depth 2...3 m. Penetrators could survive under 500 g shock, so the contact velocity was from 90 to 250 m/s, so each of them had booster engine to decelerate orbital velocity. As flying-pass velocity near minor body can be more then 10 km/s, penetrators would hit target at speed above 1 km/s and successfully bear 1500 g. To do so we propose to fulfill whole internal space inside penetrator with distilled water and froze it to temperature - 80°C or lower. At this temperature water ice is as hard as steel, so penetrator will plunge into target like armour-piercing shell. After landing protective ice will be evaporated (particularly due to heating from collision) and all sensitive mechanics will be set free.

  10. Partial liquid-penetration inside a deep trench by film flowing over it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuc-Khanh; Dimakopoulos, Yiannis; Tsamopoulos, John

    2014-11-01

    Liquid film flow along substrates featuring a deep trench may not wet the trench floor, but create a second gas-liquid interface inside the trench. The liquid penetration inside the trench depends on the location and shape of this inner interface. The penetration increases by decreasing the two three-phase contact lines between the inner interface and the two side-walls or the flow rate and depends on the liquid properties. This partial-penetration is studied by employing the Galerkin / finite element method to solve the two-dimensional steady-state Navier-Stokes equations in a physical domain that is adaptively remeshed. Multiple branches of steady solutions connected via turning points are revealed by pseudo arc-length continuation. Flow hysteresis may occur in a certain range of liquid penetration depth, when the interaction of the two interfaces changes qualitatively. This induces an abrupt jump of penetration distance and deformation amplitude of the outer interface. Work supported by the General Secretariat of Research & Technology of Greece through the program ``Excellence'' (Grant No. 1918) in the framework ``Education and Lifelong Learning'' co-funded by the ESF.

  11. Spatio-temporal dynamics of the penetration resistance of recultivated soils formed after open cast mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zhukov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of studying the spatio-temporal dynamics of soil penetration resistance we proved the existence of the technozem ecomorphs as above horizon soil formations. Research was carried out at a research center for study of recultivation processes in Ordzhonikidze city. Measurement of soils penetration was made in field conditions using an Eijkelkamp penetrometer on a regular grid at depths of up to50 cmwith intervals of5 cm. Calculation of average values and degrees of variation was performed by means of descriptive statistical tools. The extent of soil penetration spatial dependence was assessed and the existence of ecomorphs was proved by means of geostatistical analysis. The degree of associativity of spatial distribution of indicators of a soil body in different years of research was established by means of correlation analysis. The level of variation in space and in time of  technozem penetration generated on loess-like loams, grey-green, red-brown clays, and also pedozems was revealed. The degree of spatial dependence of  technozem penetration within soil layers and also the linear sizes of ecomorphs as above horizon soil structures was established. The time dynamics of  penetration of various recultozems were described. As a result of research into the spatio-temporal dynamics of penetration of technozems, data confirming the hypothesis of the existence of ecomorphs as above horizon morphological soil formations were obtained. An ecomorphic approach to the study of the morphological structure of technozems is proposed. The comparative characteristics of ecomorphs from various types of technozem are presented. The results obtained solve the problem of combining the higher and lowest levels in the hierarchical system of soil organisation as a natural body, which should raise the efficiency of the analysis of relations of morphological elements as a basis for detailed reconstruction of recultivation processes, soil formation, and

  12. HMO penetration: has it hurt public hospitals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, J P; Grazier, K L

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration within the public hospitals' market area affects the financial performance and viability of these institutions, relative to private hospitals. Hospital- and market-specific measures are examined in a fully interacted model of over 2,300 hospitals in 321 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in 1995. Although hospitals located in markets with higher HMO penetration have lower financial performance as reflected in revenues, expenses and operating margin, public hospitals are not more disadvantaged than other hospitals by managed care.

  13. Operational experience of extreme wind penetrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estanqueiro, Ana [INETI/LNEG - National Laboratory for Energy and Geology, Lisbon (Portugal); Mateus, Carlos B. [Instituto de Meteorologia, Lisboa (Portugal); Pestana, Rui [Redes Energeticas Nacionais (REN), Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reports the operational experience from the Portuguese Power System during the 2009/2010 winter months when record wind penerations were observed: the instantaneous wind power penetration peaked at 70% of consumption during no-load periods and the wind energy accounted for more than 50% of the energy consumed for a large period. The regulation measures taken by the TSO are presented in the paper, together with the additional reserves operated for added system security. Information on the overall power system behavior under such extreme long-term wind power penetrations will also be addressed. (org.)

  14. Hybrid treatment of penetrating aortic ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, Juan Antonio Herrero; Martins-Romeo, Daniela de Araujo; Escudero, Carlos Caparros; Falcon, Maria del Carmen Prieto; Batista, Vinicius Bianchi; Vazquez, Rosa Maria Lepe

    2015-01-01

    Penetrating atherosclerotic aortic ulcer is a rare entity with poor prognosis in the setting of acute aortic syndrome. In the literature, cases like the present one, located in the aortic arch, starting with chest pain and evolving with dysphonia, are even rarer. The present report emphasizes the role played by computed tomography in the diagnosis of penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer as well as in the differentiation of this condition from other acute aortic syndromes. Additionally, the authors describe a new therapeutic approach represented by a hybrid endovascular surgical procedure for treatment of the disease. (author)

  15. Hybrid treatment of penetrating aortic ulcer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, Juan Antonio Herrero; Martins-Romeo, Daniela de Araujo; Escudero, Carlos Caparros; Falcon, Maria del Carmen Prieto; Batista, Vinicius Bianchi, E-mail: jaherrero5@hotmail.com [Unidade de Gestao Clinica (UGC) de Diagnostico por Imagem - Hosppital Universitario Virgen Macarena, Sevilha (Spain); Vazquez, Rosa Maria Lepe [Unit of Radiodiagnosis - Hospital Nuestra Senora de la Merced, Osuna, Sevilha (Spain)

    2015-05-15

    Penetrating atherosclerotic aortic ulcer is a rare entity with poor prognosis in the setting of acute aortic syndrome. In the literature, cases like the present one, located in the aortic arch, starting with chest pain and evolving with dysphonia, are even rarer. The present report emphasizes the role played by computed tomography in the diagnosis of penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer as well as in the differentiation of this condition from other acute aortic syndromes. Additionally, the authors describe a new therapeutic approach represented by a hybrid endovascular surgical procedure for treatment of the disease. (author)

  16. Roentgenologic image of penetrating duodenal bulb ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strunin, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    When studying a series of aimed roentgenograms in patients with peptic ulcer a gas bubble of irregular spherical configuration or two-layer niche were determined near the bulb medial contour. Gas bubble was from 0.5-0.7 to 3.5 cm in diameter. In such cases penetrating ulcers were determined in operations. Along with other signs gas bubble symptom, sometimes two-layer signs may be used for timely and exact roentgenological diagnosis of penetrating duodenal bulb ulcer in peptic ulcer disease

  17. Fractal measures in a deep penetration problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, K.P.N.; Indira, R.; John, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    In the Monte Carlo simulation of a deep penetration problem the parameter, say b in the importance function must be assigned a value b' such that variance is minimum. If b b' the sample mean is still not reliable; but the sample fluctuations would be small and misleading, though the actual fluctuations are quite large. This is because the distribution of transmission has a tail which becomes prominent when b > b'. Considering a model deep penetration problem, and employing exact enumeration techniques, it is shown that in the limit of large biasing the long tailed distribution to the transmission is multifractal. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs

  18. Generic Penetration of the SSRI Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascade, Elisa F; Kalali, Amir H

    2008-04-01

    In this article, we investigate the penetration of generic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the US market and the implications for patient out-of-pocket expense. The data suggest that generic penetration into the SSRI market has grown from approximately nine percent in 2000, the year that the patent for Prozac((R)) expired, to 72 percent in 2007. For December, 2007, the difference in patient out-of-pocket expense for branded vs. generic agents was, on average, $55.42 for patients paying by cash (i.e., they had no prescription drug insurance) and $22.39 for patients with insurance coverage.

  19. Penetrating ocular trauma from trampoline spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokes, David; Siddiqui, Salina; Vize, Colin

    2010-02-01

    The case is presented of a 12-year old boy who sustained severe penetrating ocular trauma while playing on a domestic trampoline. A main spring broke under tension and the hook had struck the eye at high velocity and penetrated the sclera. Primary repair was undertaken but on review it became apparent the eye could not be salvaged. Evisceration was carried out and an orbital implant was placed. Post-operative cosmesis is acceptable. This type of injury has not been reported before. Adult supervision of children on trampolines is recommended to minimise the chance of serious injury.

  20. Λ and Σ well depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Eiji

    1982-01-01

    The Λ well depth was calculated by taking into account the effect of the ΛΣ conversion. Takahashi et al. obtained the separate type of potentials which described the hyperon-nucleon interaction up to p waves. Two types of the potentials among several types they obtained were used to calculate the Λ well depth. The G matrix was easily calculated, and the Λ well depth was obtained by integrating the G matrix in momentum space up to the Fermi surface. The effect of the ΛΣ conversion was given by an equation. The total Λ well depth was estimated to be 9.13 MeV and 49.36 MeV for each type of potential, respectively. It was concluded that the argument by Bodmer et al. was not correct. The Σ well depth was also calculated using the potential obtained by Takahashi et al. for I = 1/2 and the one obtained by Σ + p → Σ + p scattering data for I = 3/2. The obtained value 35.30 MeV may be overestimated, and the experimental value is expected to be in the range from 20 MeV to 30 MeV. (Ito, K.)

  1. Quantitative estimation of carbonation and chloride penetration in reinforced concrete by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Shuzo; Matsuo, Toyofumi; Matsumura, Takuro; Fujii, Takashi; Tanaka, Masayoshi Y.

    2014-11-01

    The penetration profile of chlorine in a reinforced concrete (RC) specimen was determined by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The concrete core was prepared from RC beams with cracking damage induced by bending load and salt water spraying. LIBS was performed using a specimen that was obtained by splitting the concrete core, and the line scan of laser pulses gave the two-dimensional emission intensity profiles of 100 × 80 mm2 within one hour. The two-dimensional profile of the emission intensity suggests that the presence of the crack had less effect on the emission intensity when the measurement interval was larger than the crack width. The chlorine emission spectrum was measured without using the buffer gas, which is usually used for chlorine measurement, by collinear double-pulse LIBS. The apparent diffusion coefficient, which is one of the most important parameters for chloride penetration in concrete, was estimated using the depth profile of chlorine emission intensity and Fick's law. The carbonation depth was estimated on the basis of the relationship between carbon and calcium emission intensities. When the carbon emission intensity was statistically higher than the calcium emission intensity at the measurement point, we determined that the point was carbonated. The estimation results were consistent with the spraying test results using phenolphthalein solution. These results suggest that the quantitative estimation by LIBS of carbonation depth and chloride penetration can be performed simultaneously.

  2. Penetration and delivery characteristics of repetitive microjet injection into the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römgens, Anne M; Rem-Bronneberg, Debbie; Kassies, Roel; Hijlkema, Markus; Bader, Dan L; Oomens, Cees W J; van Bruggen, Michel P B

    2016-07-28

    Drugs can be delivered transdermally using jet injectors, which can be an advantageous route compared to oral administration. However, these devices inject large volumes deep into the skin or tissues underneath the skin often causing bruising and pain. This may be prevented by injecting smaller volumes at lower depth in a repetitive way using a microjet injection device. Such a device could be used to apply drugs in a controllable and sustainable manner. However, the efficacy of microjet injection has been rarely examined. In this study, the penetration and delivery capacity was examined of a repetitive microjet injection device. Various experiments were performed on epidermal and full-thickness ex vivo human as well as ex vivo porcine skin samples. Results revealed that microjets with a velocity exceeding 90m/s penetrated an epidermal skin sample with a delivery efficiency of approximately 96%. In full-thickness human skin, the delivery efficiency drastically decreased to a value of approximately 12%. Experiments on full-thickness skin revealed that the microjets penetrated to a depth corresponding to the transition between the papillary and reticular dermis. This depth did not further increase with increasing number of microjets. In vivo studies on rats indicated that intact insulin was absorbed into the systemic circulation. Hence, the microjet injection device was able to deliver medication into the skin, although the drug delivery efficiency should be increased. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Performance evaluation of lunar penetrating radar onboard the rover of CE-3 probe based on results from ground experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Bo; Zheng, Lei; Su, Yan; Fang, Guang-You; Zhou, Bin; Feng, Jian-Qing; Xing, Shu-Guo; Dai, Shun; Li, Jun-Duo; Ji, Yi-Cai; Gao, Yun-Ze; Xiao, Yuan; Li, Chun-Lai

    2014-12-01

    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) onboard the rover that is part of the Chang'e-3 (CE-3) mission was firstly utilized to obtain in situ measurements about geological structure on the lunar surface and the thickness of the lunar regolith, which are key elements for studying the evolutional history of lunar crust. Because penetration depth and resolution of LPR are related to the scientific objectives of this mission, a series of ground-based experiments using LPR was carried out, and results of the experimental data were obtained in a glacial area located in the northwest region of China. The results show that the penetration depth of the first channel antenna used for LPR is over 79 m with a resolution of 2.8 m, and that for the second channel antenna is over 50.8 m with a resolution of 17.1 cm.

  4. Performance evaluation of lunar penetrating radar onboard the rover of CE-3 probe based on results from ground experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hong-Bo; Zheng Lei; Su Yan; Feng Jian-Qing; Xing Shu-Guo; Dai Shun; Li Jun-Duo; Xiao Yuan; Li Chun-Lai; Fang Guang-You; Zhou Bin; Ji Yi-Cai; Gao Yun-Ze

    2014-01-01

    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) onboard the rover that is part of the Chang'e-3 (CE-3) mission was firstly utilized to obtain in situ measurements about geological structure on the lunar surface and the thickness of the lunar regolith, which are key elements for studying the evolutional history of lunar crust. Because penetration depth and resolution of LPR are related to the scientific objectives of this mission, a series of ground-based experiments using LPR was carried out, and results of the experimental data were obtained in a glacial area located in the northwest region of China. The results show that the penetration depth of the first channel antenna used for LPR is over 79 m with a resolution of 2.8 m, and that for the second channel antenna is over 50.8 m with a resolution of 17.1 cm

  5. Analysis of the penetration of a caffeine containing shampoo into the hair follicles by in vivo laser scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, J.; Richter, H.; Schanzer, S.; Klenk, A.; Sterry, W.; Patzelt, A.

    2010-02-01

    In previous in vitro investigations, it was demonstrated that caffeine is able to stimulate the hair growth. Therefore, a penetration of caffeine into the hair follicle is necessary. In the present study, in vivo laser scanning microscopy (LSM) was used to investigate the penetration and storage of a caffeine containing shampoo into the hair follicles. It was shown that a 2-min contact time of the shampoo with the skin was enough to accumulate significant parts of the shampoo in the hair follicles. A penetration of the shampoo up to a depth of approx. 200 μm could be detected, which represents the detection limit of the LSM. At this depth, the close network of the blood capillaries surrounding the hair follicles commences. Even after 24 h, the substance was still detectable in the hair follicles. This demonstrates the long-term reservoir function of the hair follicles for topically applied substances such as caffeine.

  6. Energy-depth relation of electrons in bulk targets by Monte-Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaber, M.; Fitting, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    Monte-Carlo calculations are used to calculate the energy of penetrating electrons as a function of the depth in thick targets of Ti, Fe, Cu, As, In, and Au. It is shown that the mean energy ratio anti E(z)/E 0 decays exponentially with depth z and depends on the backscattering coefficient eta/sub B/ of the bulk material and the maximum range R(E 0 ) of the primary electrons with initial energy E 0 . Thereby a normalized plot anti E/E 0 as a function of the reduced depth z/R becomes possible. (author)

  7. Relationship Between Cerebral Oxygenation and Hemodynamic and Oxygen Transport Parameters in Surgery for Acquired Heart Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Lenkin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamic and oxygen transport parameters in surgical correction of concomitant acquired heart diseases. Subjects and methods. Informed consent was received from 40 patients who required surgery because of concomitant (two or more acquired heart defects. During procedure, perioperative monitoring of oxygen transport and cerebral oxygenation was performed with the aid of PiCCO2 monitor (Pulsion Medical Systems, Germany and a Fore-Sight cerebral oximeter (CASMED, USA. Anesthesia was maintained with propofol and fen-tanyl, by monitoring the depth of anesthesia. Early postoperative intensive therapy was based on the protocol for early targeted correction of hemodynamic disorders. Oxygen transport and cerebral oxygenation parameters were estimated intraopera-tively and within 24 postoperative hours. A statistical analysis including evaluation of Spearman correlations was performed with the aid of SPSS 15.0. Results. During perfusion, there was a relationship between cerebral oximetry values and hemat-ocrit levels, and oxygen partial pressure in the venous blood. Furthermore, a negative correlation between cerebral oximetry values and blood lactate levels was found 30 minutes after initiation of extracorporeal circulation (EC. During the study, there was a positive correlation between cerebral oxygenation and values of cardiac index, central venous saturation, and oxygen delivery index. There was a negative relationship between cerebral oxygenation and extravascular lung water at the beginning of surgery and a correlation between cerebral oximetry values and oxygenation index by the end of the first 24 postoperative hours. Conclusion. The cerebral oxygenation values correlate -with the main determinants of oxygen transport during EC and after cardiac surgical procedures. Cerebral oximetry may be used in early targeted therapy for the surgical correction of acquired combined

  8. Study of damaged depth profiles of ion-irradiated PEEK

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vacík, Jiří; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Červená, Jarmila; Apel, P. Yu.; Posta, S.; Kobayashi, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 201, 19-20 (2007), s. 8370-8372 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) 1H-PK2/05; GA MŠk 1P04LA213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Oxygen irradiation * Poly-aryl-ether-ether ketone * Thermal neutron depth profiling (TNDP) Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.678, year: 2007

  9. Control of spiking in partial penetration of electron beam welds. Final report, 1 October 1969--1 October 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    An investigation of the penetration mechanism of high energy density electron beams and an evaluation of electron beam deflection as a method of penetration control are presented. A discussion of electron beam mechanics including several penetration theories is presented in the introduction and background. Slur radiographs made using a pinhole x-ray camera are evaluated to determine velocity and acceleration of the point of beam impingement. Methods of cavity closure are discussed with possible causes of surface sealing of the beam cavity. A method of penetration, after the cavity has closed, based on the curves relating velocity and acceleration to penetration distance is considered. An estimate of cavity pressure is made from the maximum acceleration of the beam-metal interface. A system using an x-ray detector coupled with a beam deflecting device is detailed and evaluated. As this is the first attempt at penetration control by beam deflection the investigation seeks only to determine the feasibility of the idea without attempting a thorough analysis of range of abilities or quality of welds made by such devices. Based on several specimens which are presented beam deflection appears capable of controlling penetration depth. It is hoped that the ideas presented here will inspire future research along these lines

  10. Heat flow of standard depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cull, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Secular and long-term periodic changes in surface temperature cause perturbations to the geothermal gradient which may be significant to depths of at least 1000 m, and major corrections are required to determine absolute values of heat flow from the Earth's interior. However, detailed climatic models remain contentious and estimates of error in geothermal gradients differ widely. Consequently, regions of anomalous heat flow which could contain geothermal resources may be more easily resolved by measuring relative values at a standard depth (e.g. 100 m) so that all data are subject to similar corrections. (orig./ME)

  11. The influence of soil type at Cs-137-spreading in soil depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyrpanova, Kh.; Jordanova, I.

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of Cs-137 in soil depth up to 15 cm was examined for four types of soil - leached black earth, calcareous black earth, brown forest soil and slightly leached humus-calcareous soil. The behaviour of Cs-137 before and after Chernobyl accident depending on soil type was determined using Cs-134. Accounting for halftime effect of Cs-134 it was possible to distinguish the penetration of the Chernobyl Cs-137 from that of the older one. The same degree of penetration has been achieved: for 30 years for the old Cs-137 and only for a year for the Chernobyl one probably due to its modification. The most expressed tendency to penetrate in depth has been observed at the calcareous black earth (from Kozloduy region, with highest pH value and basis content), the least - at the brown forest soil (from Smolyan region, lowest pH value and basis content). The mineral composition and organic matter content influence the penetration process. The humus matter absorbs Cs-137. Thus it is accessible to the plants, but its penetration is limited to 2.5 cm. 9 refs., 2 tabs. (author)

  12. Tree root mapping with ground penetrating radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Abraham M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the application of ground penetrating radar (GPR) for the mapping of near surface tree roots is demonstrated. GPR enables tree roots to be mapped in a non-destructive and cost-effective manner and is therefore a useful prospecting...

  13. Penetration and haptenation of p-phenylenediamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, Laura M.; Scheitza, Simone M.; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Bloemeke, Brunhilde; Blomeke, B.

    Although p-phenylenediamine (PPD) has been recognized as an extreme sensitizer for many years, the exact mechanism of sensitization has not been elucidated yet. Penetration and the ability to bind to proteins are the first two hurdles that an allergen has to overcome to be able to sensitize. This

  14. Mechanical behaviour of pressure vessel head penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faidy, C.; Ternon, F.; Vagner, J.; Vaindirlis, M.

    1994-01-01

    After leaks on Bugey 3 penetrations EdF and Framatome have started a study on the stress corrosion phenomenon of Inconel 600. In this paper, limited to the mechanical aspect, we present an estimation of in service stresses, the experimental program on mockup for visualize the surface stress and the noxiousness of potential cracks. 5 figs., 6 tabs., 5 refs

  15. Standard Penetration Test and Relative Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-02-01

    Se OPSeS Debido a que el agua subterranea granclemente influve la resistencia a suelo, se establecio una relacion empirica entre el nurmero de golpes...de laboratorio ejecutados con un penetr6metro est’tico pequeno. INTRODUCTION One of the main problems encountered in subsoil e’xploration is in situ

  16. Penetration of electronic beams in ionizing media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martiarena, M.L.; Zanete, D.H.; Garibotti, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    It is studied the penetration of an electron beam in an ionizable medium by means of a generalized kinetic equation. This equation is related to elastic collisions, processes of creation and destruction of particles. By integrating numerically the transport equation, it can be evaluated the relative effects of all the processes involved in the evolution of the system. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  17. Penetration of amalgam constituents into dentine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtanus, Johannes D.; Ozcan, Mutlu; Huysmans, Marie-Charlotte D. N. J. M.

    Objectives: Amalgam restorations are replaced by adhesively placed composite resin restorations at an increasing rate. After the removal of amalgam dentine often shows marked dark discoloration that is attributed to the penetration of corrosion products from overlying amalgams. it is questioned

  18. Penetration of amalgam constituents into dentine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtanus, J.D.; Ozcan, M.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Amalgam restorations are replaced by adhesively placed composite resin restorations at an increasing rate. After the removal of amalgam dentine often shows marked dark discoloration that is attributed to the penetration of corrosion products from overlying amalgams. It is questioned

  19. Computed tomographic findings in penetrating peptic ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madrazo, B.L.; Halpert, R.D.; Sandler, M.A.; Pearlberg, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Four cases of peptic ulcer penetrating the head of the pancreas were diagnosed by computed tomography (CT). Findings common to 3 cases included (a) an ulcer crater, (b) a sinus tract, and (c) enlargement of the head of the pancreas. Unlike other modalities, the inherent spatial resolution of CT allows a convenient diagnosis of this important complication of peptic ulcer disease

  20. Reduced penetrance in human inherited disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... tant role in cellular senescence, tumorigenesis and in several diseases including type ... between epigenetic DNA modifications and human life span has also been shown .... penetrance mutation that is age dependent especially when compared with the ..... on healthy aging and longevity. Immunity Aging ...

  1. An Experimental Model for Market Penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caren, William L.

    1987-01-01

    A plan for college market penetration that has been successful in increasing the applicant pool for one institution is outlined and discussed. It includes development of performance objectives, a schedule, a promotional plan, market survey, and promotional activities including alumni, media, and other community resources. (MSE)

  2. STYLET PENETRATION BEHAVIOURS OF FOUR Cicadulina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Feeding from phloem cells, overall probing and probe mean (the average time per probe) were higher ... Key Words: Cicadulina spp., electrical penetration graph, MSV, Zea mays .... wire and alligator clip clamped to the stem of the .... á All measures are in minutes except for frequency of probing; - Main effect not significant.

  3. Percutaneous penetration studies for risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartorelli, Vittorio; Andersen, Helle Raun; Angerer, Jürgen

    2000-01-01

    experiences, literature data and guidelines already in existence. During the meetings of Percutaneous Penetration Subgroup they presented a number of short papers of up to date information on the key issues. The objective was to focus the existing knowledge and the gaps in the knowledge in the field...

  4. Penetration of albendazole sulphoxide into hydatid cysts.

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, D L; Chinnery, J B; Georgiou, G; Stamatakis, G; Golematis, B

    1987-01-01

    The penetration of albendazole sulphoxide, the principal metabolite of albendazole into hydatid cysts (E granulosus) was measured by means of in vitro animal and clinical studies. The drug freely diffuses across the parasitic membranes. Cyst/serum concentrations of 22% were achieved in patients, longer pre-operative therapy produced higher concentrations.

  5. Monitoring bioremediation of weathered diesel NAPL using oxygen depletion profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.B.; Johnston, C.D.; Patterson, B.M.; Barber, C.; Bennett, M.

    1995-01-01

    Semicontinuous logging of oxygen concentrations at multiple depths has been used to evaluate the progress of an in situ bioremediation trial at a site contaminated by weathered diesel nonaqueous-phase liquid (NAPL). The evaluation trial consisted of periodic addition of nutrients and aeration of a 100-m 2 trial plot. During the bioremediation trial, aeration was stopped periodically, and decreases in dissolved and gaseous oxygen concentrations were monitored using data loggers attached to in situ oxygen sensors placed at multiple depths above and within a thin NAPL-contaminated zone. Oxygen usage rate coefficients were determined by fitting zero- and first-order rate equations to the oxygen depletion curves. For nutrient-amended sites within the trial plot, estimates of oxygen usage rate coefficients were significantly higher than estimates from unamended sites. These rates also converted to NPL degradation rates, comparable to those achieved in previous studies, despite the high concentrations and weathered state of the NAPL at this test site

  6. Work function of oxygen exposed lead and lead/indium alloy films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundlach, K.H.; Hellemann, H.P.; Hoelzl, J.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of indium in superconducting tunnel junctions with lead/indium alloy base electrodes is investigated by measuring the vacuum work function of lead, indium, and lead/indium alloy films. It is found that the anomalous decrease of the work function of lead upon exposure to oxygen, explained by the penetration of oxygen into the inner surface of the lead film, is reversed into a slight increase in work function when some indium is added to the lead. This result indicates that the addition of indium provides a protection by suppressing the penetration of oxygen (and probably other gases) into the interior of the thin film

  7. The vanadium/oxygen system in the analysis of sodium for oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.A.J.; Price, W.B.

    1981-05-01

    An investigation of the V-O-Na system at 1023 K is described for oxygen in sodium contents of 5 to 25 ppm. Electron spectroscopy combined with depth profiling is used to determine the vanadium/oxygen ratios inwards from the surface of vanadium foil and these ratios are compared with theoretical predictions. The validity of the vanadium wire technique as an analytical method is examined and a model for the vanadium oxidation is suggested. (author)

  8. Deuterium depth profiles in metals using imaging field desorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitz, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Depth profiles of 80 eV deuterium ions implanted in-situ into (110) tungsten have been measured by Imaging, Field-Desorption Mass Spectrometry. The relative abundance of deuterium was measured from the surface to a depth of 300A with less than 3A depth resolution by controlled field-evaporation of the specimen, and time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. The position of the depth distribution maximum (57 +- 3A from the surface) is shown to be in close agreement with that predicted theoretically for low energy deuterium implants using an amorphous-solid model. Structure in the distribution is attributed to surface morphology and channeling phenomena in the near surface region. Implanted impurity species from the ion source and tungsten surface have also been observed. For C + , C 2+ and 0 + , penetration is limited to less than 30A, with abundance decreasing exponentially from the surface. These results are interpreted in the context of the CTR first-wall impurity problem, and are used to suggest a novel method for in-situ characterization of low energy plasma species in operating CTR devices

  9. The Spatial Variability of Beryllium-7 Depth Distribution Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal Sharib; Zainudin Othman; Dainee Nor Fardzila Ahmad Tugi; Noor Fadzilah Yusof; Mohd Tarmizi Ishak

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the spatial variability of 7 Be depth evolution in soil profile at two different sampling sites. The soil samples have been collected by using metal core in bare area in Bangi, Selangor and Timah Tasoh, Perlis , Malaysia. Two composite core samples for each sampling sites has been sectioned into 2 mm increments to a depth of 4 cm and oven dried at 45- 60 degree Celsius and gently desegregated. These two composite spatial samples are passed through a < 2 mm sieve and packed into proper geometry plastic container for 7 Be analysis by using gamma spectrometry with a 24-hour count time. From the findings, the 7 Be content in the soil samples from Bangi, Selangor study area is distributed lower depth penetration into the soil profile than Timah Tasoh, Perlis catchment due to many factors such as precipitation (fallout) and others. However, the spatial variability from both samples study area is also decreases exponentially with depth and is confined within the top few centimeters and similar with other works been reported (Blake et al., (2000) and Walling et al.,(2008). Furthermore, a detailed discussion from this study findings will be in full papers. (author)

  10. Hydrologic Regulation of Plant Rooting Depth and Vice Versa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y.; Miguez-Macho, G.

    2017-12-01

    How deep plant roots go and why may hold the answer to several questions regarding the co-evolution of terrestrial life and its environment. In this talk we explore how plant rooting depth responds to the hydrologic plumbing system in the soil/regolith/bedrocks, and vice versa. Through analyzing 2200 root observations of >1000 species along biotic (life form, genus) and abiotic (precipitation, soil, drainage) gradients, we found strong sensitivities of rooting depth to local soil water profiles determined by precipitation infiltration depth from the top (reflecting climate and soil), and groundwater table depth from below (reflecting topography-driven land drainage). In well-drained uplands, rooting depth follows infiltration depth; in waterlogged lowlands, roots stay shallow avoiding oxygen stress below the water table; in between, high productivity and drought can send roots many meters down to groundwater capillary fringe. We explore the global significance of this framework using an inverse model, and the implications to the coevolution of deep roots and the CZ in the Early-Mid Devonian when plants colonized the upland environments.

  11. Pursuing the Depths of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyles, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Today's state literacy standards and assessments demand deeper levels of knowledge from students. But many teachers ask, "What does depth of knowledge look like on these new, more rigorous assessments? How do we prepare students for this kind of thinking?" In this article, Nancy Boyles uses a sampling of questions from the PARCC and SBAC…

  12. Artificial oxygen transport protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, P. Leslie

    2014-09-30

    This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

  13. Radon penetration of concrete slab cracks, joints, pipe penetrations, and sealants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielson, KK; Rogers, VC; Holt, RB; Pugh, TD; Grondzik, WA; deMeijer, RJ

    1997-01-01

    Radon movement through 12 test slabs with different cracks, pipe penetrations, cold joints, masonry blocks, sealants, and tensile stresses characterized the importance of these anomalous structural domains, Diffusive and advective radon transport were measured with steady-state air pressure

  14. Prophylactic antibiotics for penetrating abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Martin; Grieve, Andrew

    2013-11-18

    Penetrating abdominal trauma occurs when the peritoneal cavity is breached. Routine laparotomy for penetrating abdominal injuries began in the 1800s, with antibiotics first being used in World War II to combat septic complications associated with these injuries. This practice was marked with a reduction in sepsis-related mortality and morbidity. Whether prophylactic antibiotics are required in the prevention of infective complications following penetrating abdominal trauma is controversial, however, as no randomised placebo controlled trials have been published to date. There has also been debate about the timing of antibiotic prophylaxis. In 1972 Fullen noted a 7% to 11% post-surgical infection rate with pre-operative antibiotics, a 33% to 57% infection rate with intra-operative antibiotic administration and 30% to 70% infection rate with only post-operative antibiotic administration. Current guidelines state there is sufficient class I evidence to support the use of a single pre-operative broad spectrum antibiotic dose, with aerobic and anaerobic cover, and continuation (up to 24 hours) only in the event of a hollow viscus perforation found at exploratory laparotomy. To assess the benefits and harms of prophylactic antibiotics administered for penetrating abdominal injuries for the reduction of the incidence of septic complications, such as septicaemia, intra-abdominal abscesses and wound infections. Searches were not restricted by date, language or publication status. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2013, issue 12 of 12), MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index- Science (CPCI-S) and PubMed. Searches were last conducted in January 2013. All randomised controlled trials of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with penetrating abdominal trauma versus no

  15. The contemporary management of penetrating splenic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Regan J; Inaba, Kenji; Okoye, Obi; Pasley, Jason; Teixeira, Pedro G; Esparza, Michael; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2014-09-01

    Selective non-operative management (NOM) is standard of care for clinically stable patients with blunt splenic trauma and expectant management approaches are increasingly utilised in penetrating abdominal trauma, including in the setting of solid organ injury. Despite this evolution of clinical practice, little is known about the safety and efficacy of NOM in penetrating splenic injury. Trauma registry and medical record review identified all consecutive patients presenting to LAC+USC Medical Center with penetrating splenic injury between January 2001 and December 2011. Associated injuries, incidence and nature of operative intervention, local and systemic complications and mortality were determined. During the study period, 225 patients experienced penetrating splenic trauma. The majority (187/225, 83%) underwent emergent laparotomy. Thirty-eight clinically stable patients underwent a deliberate trial of NOM and 24/38 (63%) were ultimately managed without laparotomy. Amongst patients failing NOM, 3/14 (21%) underwent splenectomy while an additional 6/14 (42%) had splenorrhaphy. Hollow viscus injury (HVI) occurred in 21% of all patients failing NOM. Forty percent of all NOM patients had diaphragmatic injury (DI). All patients undergoing delayed laparotomy for HVI or a splenic procedure presented symptomatically within 24h of the initial injury. No deaths occurred in patients undergoing NOM. Although the vast majority of penetrating splenic trauma requires urgent operative management, a group of patients does present without haemodynamic instability, peritonitis or radiologic evidence of hollow viscus injury. Management of these patients is complicated as over half may remain clinically stable and can avoid laparotomy, making them potential candidates for a trial of NOM. HVI is responsible for NOM failure in up to a fifth of these cases and typically presents within 24h of injury. Delayed laparotomy, within this limited time period, did not appear to increase

  16. Shuttle Imaging Radar - Physical controls on signal penetration and subsurface scattering in the Eastern Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, G. G.; Mccauley, J. F.; Breed, C. S.; Olhoeft, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    Interpretation of Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A) images by McCauley et al. (1982) dramatically changed previous concepts of the role that fluvial processes have played over the past 10,000 to 30 million years in shaping this now extremely flat, featureless, and hyperarid landscape. In the present paper, the near-surface stratigraphy, the electrical properties of materials, and the types of radar interfaces found to be responsible for different classes of SIR-A tonal response are summarized. The dominant factors related to efficient microwave signal penetration into the sediment blanket include (1) favorable distribution of particle sizes, (2) extremely low moisture content and (3) reduced geometric scattering at the SIR-A frequency (1.3 GHz). The depth of signal penetration that results in a recorded backscatter, here called 'radar imaging depth', was documented in the field to be a maximum of 1.5 m, or 0.25 of the calculated 'skin depth', for the sediment blanket. Radar imaging depth is estimated to be between 2 and 3 m for active sand dune materials. Diverse permittivity interfaces and volume scatterers within the shallow subsurface are responsible for most of the observed backscatter not directly attributable to grazing outcrops. Calcium carbonate nodules and rhizoliths concentrated in sandy alluvium of Pleistocene age south of Safsaf oasis in south Egypt provide effective contrast in premittivity and thus act as volume scatterers that enhance SIR-A portrayal of younger inset stream channels.

  17. Remote fluorescent penetrant system sheds new light on cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A remotely operated fluorescent penetrant inspection system developed in Sweden has successfully identified very small cracks -less than 2mm in length and less than 0.2mm in depth. The method, which is being patented, is applicable to all sizes of tubing, as well as other types of flat or curved surfaces. The system consists of a specially designed probe attached to a flexible hose. The probe is positioned by a remotely operated pusher-puller, which can be attached to any kind of robot. The pusher-puller is equipped with electrical motors and encoders for exact positioning at any given location. The hose is attached to a pump and valve unit remote from the item under test, located in the same area as the control equipment for the pusher-puller and the robot. Once the probe has been positioned in the area of interest, it is able to apply fluorescent penetrant test fluid remotely to the surface under test, using a system of inflatable seals. A fluorescent print is made on the probe head, which is then removed from the tube and another probe head fitted for testing of the next tube. Testing takes about 10 minutes per tube. To take measurements, a photograph of the probe head can be taken under ultraviolet light. Manual transfer of the fluorescent print under ultraviolet light to a transparent plastic sheet, temporarily wrapped around the probe head, is also done. The plastic sheet is then unfolded and copied in a normal photocopying machine, and a permanent record thus created. (author)

  18. Intercomparison On Depth Dose Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohmah, N; Akhadi, M

    1996-01-01

    Intercomparation on personal dose evaluation system has been carried out between CSRSR-NAEA of Indonesia toward Standard Laboratory of JAERI (Japan) and ARL (Australia). The intercomparison was in 10 amm depth dose measurement , Hp (10), from the intercomparison result could be stated that personal depth dose measurement conducted by CSRSR was sufficiently good. Deviation of dose measurement result using personal dosemeter of TLD BG-1 type which were used by CSRSR in the intercomparison and routine photon personal dose monitoring was still in internationally agreed limit. Maximum deviation of reported doses by CSRSR compared to delivered doses for dosemeter irradiation by JAERI was -10.0 percent and by ARL was +29 percent. Maximum deviation permitted in personal dose monitoring is ± 50 percent

  19. A Comparison of Different Corneal Iontophoresis Protocols for Promoting Transepithelial Riboflavin Penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Daniel M; O'Brart, David P; French, Paul; Dunsby, Chris; Allan, Bruce D

    2015-12-01

    To measure corneal riboflavin penetration using different transepithelial iontophoresis protocols. Freshly enucleated rabbit eyes were divided into nine treatment groups of 4 eyes. One group, in which 0.1% wt/vol riboflavin was applied for 30 minutes without iontophoresis after corneal epithelial debridement, acted as a control. The remaining groups were treated with an intact epithelium using different riboflavin formulations and varying iontophoresis current, soak, and rinse times. After riboflavin application, eyes were snap frozen in liquid nitrogen. Corneal cross sections 35 μm thick were then imaged immediately by two-photon fluorescence microscopy, using image processing software to quantify stromal riboflavin concentration at different corneal depths. In the epithelium-on iontophoresis treatment groups, greater stromal riboflavin penetration was achieved with higher-concentration riboflavin solutions, greater iontophoresis dosage, and longer solution contact times. A protocol utilizing 0.25% wt/vol riboflavin with benzalkonium chloride (BAC) 0.01% and two cycles of applied current and subsequent soaking (1 mA 5 minutes, soak 5 minutes; 0.5 mA 5 minutes, soak 5 minutes) achieved similar stromal riboflavin penetration to epithelium-off controls. The best-performing non-BAC-containing protocol produced stromal riboflavin penetration approximately 60% that of epithelium-off controls. Riboflavin solutions containing saline resulted in minimal stromal penetration. Riboflavin loading within the epithelium was equivalent to or higher than that in the subjacent stroma, despite rinsing the ocular surface with balanced salt solution. Modified iontophoresis protocols can significantly improve transepithelial riboflavin penetration in experimental corneal collagen cross-linking.

  20. Thermal Behavior of the Reactor Vessel Penetration Under External Vessel Cooling During a Severe Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kyoung-Ho; Park, Rae-Joon; Kim, Jong-Tae; Min, Byung-Tae; Lee, Ki-Young; Kim, Sang-Baik

    2004-01-01

    Experimental and analytical studies on the thermal behavior of reactor vessel penetration have been performed under external vessel cooling during a severe accident in the Korean next-generation reactor APR1400. Two types of tests, SUS-EXT and SUS-DRY with and without external vessel cooling, respectively, have been performed using sustained heating by an induction heater. Three tests have been carried out varying the cooling conditions at the vessel outer surface in the SUS-EXT tests. The experimental results have been thermally estimated using the LILAC computer code. The experimental results indicate that the inner surface of the vessel was ablated by the 45-mm thickness in the SUS-DRY test. Despite the total ablation of the welding material, the penetration was not ejected outside the vessel, which could be attributed to the thermal expansion of the penetration. Unlike the SUS-DRY test, the thickness of the ablation was ∼15 to 20 mm at most, so the welding was preserved in the SUS-EXT tests. It is concluded from the experimental results that the external vessel cooling highly affected the ablation configuration and the thermal behaviors of the vessel and the penetration. An increase in coolant mass flow rate from 0.047 to 0.152 kg/s had effects on the thermal behavior of the lower head vessel and penetration in the SUS-EXT tests. The LILAC analytical results on temperature distribution and ablation depth in the lower head vessel and penetration were very similar to the experimental results

  1. Applications of positron depth profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakvoort, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis some contributions of the positron-depth profiling technique to materials science have been described. Following studies are carried out: Positron-annihilation measurements on neon-implanted steel; Void creation in silicon by helium implantation; Density of vacancy-type defects present in amorphous silicon prepared by ion implantation; Measurements of other types of amorphous silicon; Epitaxial cobalt disilicide prepared by cobalt outdiffusion. Positron-annihilation experiments on low-pressure CVD silicon-nitride films. (orig./MM)

  2. Applications of positron depth profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakvoort, R A

    1993-12-23

    In this thesis some contributions of the positron-depth profiling technique to materials science have been described. Following studies are carried out: Positron-annihilation measurements on neon-implanted steel; Void creation in silicon by helium implantation; Density of vacancy-type defects present in amorphous silicon prepared by ion implantation; Measurements of other types of amorphous silicon; Epitaxial cobalt disilicide prepared by cobalt outdiffusion. Positron-annihilation experiments on low-pressure CVD silicon-nitride films. (orig./MM).

  3. Containment penetration design criteria and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.F.; Rigamonti, G.; Dainora, J.

    1975-01-01

    A rational design criteria is presented which serves as a basis for the design and analysis of containment piping penetrations. The criteria includes the effect of temperature as well as mechanical loads for the full range of plant conditions. With this criteria various penetration flued head designs have been compared and optimization achieved. Sleeve wall dimensions and containment loads have been determined without reference to piping configuration. An interaction theory which allows the implementation of the criteria for the determination of design loads and minimum sleeve wall thickness. The interaction theory developed applies to elastic-perfectly plastic cylinders (pipes and sleeves) and accounts for the simultaneous load resultants of transverse shear force, bending moment, torsional moment, and axial force in addition to internal pipe pressure. Application of the theory developed to the determination of sleeve thickness and containment design loads is presented in detail. (Auth.)

  4. Ureteric transection secondary to penetrating handlebar injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P. Debbink

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ureteric trauma is rare, occurring in <1% of all traumas. We present a unique case of a 13 year old female who sustained a penetrating abdominal injury from a bicycle handlebar. Upon initial examination there was herniation of bowel through the abdominal wound, so exploratory laparotomy was performed. A serosal injury of the colon and bleeding mesenteric veins were encountered; the retroperitoneum was not explored at that time. Postoperative course was remarkable for a doubling of the serum creatinine, increasing abdominal distention and pain. Computed tomography on postoperative day five demonstrated a large amount of intra-abdominal fluid. The patient was taken for re-exploration. The left ureter was found to be completely transected. It was repaired over a double-J stent. This case demonstrates the need for a high index of suspicion in the diagnosis of ureteric injury. Keywords: Ureter, Bicycle, Handlebar, Penetrating

  5. Corrosion and protection of uranium alloy penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weirick, L.J.; Johnson, H.R.; Dini, J.W.

    1975-06-01

    Penetrators made from either a U--3/4 percent Ti alloy or a U--3/4 percent Mo--3/4 percent Zr--3/4 percent Nb--1/2 percent Ti alloy (''Quad'') corrode mildly in moist air, significantly in moist nitrogen, and severely in salt fog. Adequate protection was provided in moist air and nitrogen by coating with electroplated nickel, electroplated nickel and zinc with a chromate finish, and galvanized zinc with a chromate finish. In salt fog, electroplated nickel offered only temporary protection whereas galvanized zinc and electroplated nickel-zinc provided long-lasting protection. The resistance of uncoated penetrators was affected variously by dissimilar metal couplings. Aluminum protected the Quad alloy and adversely affected the U--3/4 percent Ti alloy, whereas steel enhanced localized corrosion in both. (U.S.)

  6. Large scale wind power penetration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karnøe, Peter

    2013-01-01

    he Danish electricity generating system prepared to adopt nuclear power in the 1970s, yet has become the world's front runner in wind power with a national plan for 50% wind power penetration by 2020. This paper deploys a sociotechnical perspective to explain the historical transformation...... of "networks of power" via the interactions of politics, the techno-physics of electrons, and the market setting. The Danish case is about how an assemblage of new agencies has reorganized and reshaped society by building a new sociotechnical network. This has rendered developments highly unpredictable...... and highly experimental. The transformation process can be followed through the way successive technical engineering reports have represented the challenges associated with the penetration of wind power. The iteration shows how novel technical phenomena emerge and are assimilated, and how new engineering...

  7. Suicide bomb attack causing penetrating craniocerebral injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Manzar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Penetrating cerebral injuries caused by foreign bodies are rare in civilian neurosurgical trauma, al-though there are various reports of blast or gunshot inju-ries in warfare due to multiple foreign bodies like pellets and nails. In our case, a 30-year-old man presented to neurosur-gery clinic with signs and symptoms of right-sided weak-ness after suicide bomb attack. The skull X-ray showed a single intracranial nail. Small craniotomy was done and the nail was removed with caution to avoid injury to surround-ing normal brain tissue. At 6 months’ follow-up his right-sided power improved to against gravity. Key words: Head injury, penetrating; Bombs; Nails

  8. Standardization of penetrating radiation testing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiley, P.A.; Aronson, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    Standardization is provided to control system gain of a penetrating radiation testing system by periodically inspecting a reference object in the same manner as the product samples so as to generate a stabilization signal which is compared to a reference signal. The difference, if any, between the stabilization signal and the reference signal is integrated and the integrated signal is used to correct the gain of the system

  9. Market penetration of new energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packey, D.J.

    1993-02-01

    This report examines the characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, and, for some, the mathematical formulas of forecasting methods that can be used to forecast the market penetration of renewable energy technologies. Among the methods studied are subjective estimation, market surveys, historical analogy models, cost models, diffusion models, time-series models, and econometric models. Some of these forecasting methods are more effective than others at different developmental stages of new technologies.

  10. Intrauterine Devices Penetrated and Migrated: CT Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia Restrepo, Jorge; Lopez, Juan Esteban; Aldana Sepulveda, Natalia; Ruiz Zabaleta, Tania; Mazzaro Mauricio

    2011-01-01

    Intrauterine devices have been used for over 40 years, and they constitute the most widely accepted method of contraception among women because of the low rates of complications and low cost. Although uncommon, with the growing use of multidetector CT penetrated and migrated intrauterine devices have become a more common incidental finding. In some cases, intrauterine devices migrate to adjacent viscera, in particular the bladder and bowel and may give rise to symptoms. Consequently tomographic localization and characterization are essential for treatment planning.

  11. Models of fast-electron penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, D.J.; Raisis, S.K.

    1994-01-01

    We introduce multiple scattering models of charged-particle penetration which are based on the previous analyses of Yang and Perry. Our development removes the main limitations of the Fermi-Eyges approach while retaining its considerable potential as a theory which is useful for applied work. We illustrate key predictions with sample calculations that are of particular interest in therapeutic applications, 5-20 MeV electrons incident on water. 8 refs., 5 figs

  12. Thyroid Emphysema Following Penetrating Neck Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Karadağ, Demet; Doner, Egemen; Adapınar, Baki

    2014-01-01

    Although traumatic thyroid gland rupture or hemorrhage is usually seen in goitrous glands, injuries of the normal thyroid gland after neck trauma have rarely been described in the literature. We describe a 44-year-old man who presented with thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema (SCE) that occurred after penetrating neck trauma. CT images showed complete resolution of thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema at follow-up examination. Neck injuries can be life threatening. After pene...

  13. Penetrating spinal injuries and their management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Penetrating spinal trauma due to missile/gunshot injuries has been well reported in the literature and has remained the domain of military warfare more often. Civic society′s recent upsurge in gunshot injuries has created a dilemma for the treating neurosurgeon in many ways as their management has always involved certain debatable and controversial issues. Both conservative and surgical management of penetrating spinal injuries (PSI have been practiced widely. The chief neurosurgical concern in these types of firearm injuries is the degree of damage sustained during the bullet traversing through the neural tissue and the after-effects of the same in long term. We had an interesting case of a penetrating bullet injury to cervical spine at C2 vertebral level. He was operated and the bullets were removed from posterior midline approach. Usually, the management of such cases differs from region to region depending on the preference of the surgeon but still certain common principles are followed world over. Thus, we realized the need to review the literature regarding spinal injuries with special emphasis on PSI and to study the recent guidelines for their treatment in light of our case.

  14. Spanish RPV head penetrations. Regulatory status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueras, J.M.; Colino, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents the actual status of inspection results on the Spanish PWR RPV CRD head penetrations (CRDH's), after two years of a whole program of inspections in all affected plants. Actual situation of penetrations pertaining to ALMARAZ 1 and 2, ASCO 1 and 2 and VANDELLOS 2 NPP's show any damage in those CRDH's inspected in 1993 and 1994 (roughly 20 out of 65 CRDH's at each unit). The paper presents a summary of CRDH characteristics, inspection methods and results obtained in each plant. TRILLO NPP has a different CRDH design (KWU-SIEMENS type) and for that reason is not considered an affected plant nor has conducted any inspection up to now. JOSE CABRERA (ZORITA) NPP has shown extensive damage, both in the lower side (weldment to the vessel) and in the upper free span area, near bimetallic weldment to SS 304, in active and nonactive penetrations and also in the vent nozzle. The paper comments extensively on the CRDH materials general data, root-cause analysis and structural analysis of degraded zones, inspection results, repair actions and other additional actions applied up to now. Finally, the paper deals with the regulatory actions taken by CSN on this topic, both for those NPP's actually non affected by the IGSCC phenomenon in the RPV CRDH's and for the specific safety case of ZORITA NPP. (author)

  15. Cutaneous mucormycosis secondary to penetrative trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, Bilal; Kent, Stephen; Wall, Daryl

    2016-07-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare but serious sequelae of penetrating trauma [1-5]. In spite of aggressive management, mortality remains high due to dissemination of infection. We completed a review of literature to determine the most optimal treatment of cutaneous mucormycosis which occurs secondary to penetrating trauma. We completed a review regarding the management of mucormycosis in trauma patients. We selected a total of 36 reports, of which 18 were case-based, for review. Surgical debridement is a primary predictor of improved outcomes in the treatment of mucormycosis [3,6,7]. Anti-fungal therapy, especially lipid soluble formulation of Amphotericin B, is helpful as an adjunct or when surgical debridement has been maximally achieved. Further research is needed to fully evaluate the impact of topical dressings; negative pressure wound therapy is helpful. An aggressive and early surgical approach, even at the expense of disfigurement, is necessary to reduce mortality in the setting of cutaneous mucormycosis that results from penetrating trauma [4,8,9]. Anti-fungal therapy and negative pressure wound therapy are formidable adjuncts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Penetrating chest wound of the foetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Wandaogo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumas of the foetus caused by stabbings are rare but actually life-threatening for both the foetus and the mother. We report a case of penetrating chest wound on a baby taken from the obstetrics unit to the paediatric surgical department. His mother was assaulted by his father, a mentally sick person with no appropriate follow-up. The foetus did not show any sign of vital distress. Surgical exploration of the wound has revealed a section of the 10 th rib, a laceration of the pleura and a tearing of the diaphragm. A phrenorraphy and a pleural drainage were performed. The new-born and its mother were released from hospital after 5 days and the clinical control and X-ray checks 6 months later showed nothing abnormal. We insisted a medical, psychiatric follow-up be initiated for the father. As regards pregnant women with penetrating wounds, the mortality rate of the foetus is 80%. The odds are good for our newborn due to the mild injuries and good professional collaboration of the medical staff. Penetrating transuterine wounds of the foetus can be very serious. The health care needed should include many fields due to the mother and the foetus′ lesions extreme polymorphism. In our case, it could have prevented by a good psychiatric followed up of the offender.

  17. Diffusion and Monod kinetics model to determine in vivo human corneal oxygen-consumption rate during soft contact lens wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Del Castillo

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Present results are relevant for the calculation on the partial pressure of oxygen, available at different depths into the corneal tissue behind contact lenses of different oxygen transmissibility.

  18. Regolith stratigraphy at the Chang'E-3 landing site as seen by lunar penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, Wenzhe; Zhu, Meng-Hua; Liu, Tiantian; Plescia, Jeffrey B.

    2015-12-01

    The Chang'E-3 lunar penetrating radar (LPR) observations at 500 MHz reveal four major stratigraphic zones from the surface to a depth of ~20 m along the survey line: a layered reworked zone (<1 m), an ejecta layer (~2-6 m), a paleoregolith layer (~4-11 m), and the underlying mare basalts. The reworked zone has two to five distinct layers and consists of surface regolith. The paleoregolith buried by the ejecta from a 500 m crater is relatively homogenous and contains only a few rocks. Population of buried rocks increases with depth to ~2 m at first, and then decreases with depth, representing a balance between initial deposition of the ejecta and later turnover of the regolith. Combining with the surface age, the LPR observations indicate a mean accumulation rate of about 5-10 m/Gyr for the surface regolith, which is at least 4-8 times larger than previous estimation.

  19. CNS penetration of ART in HIV-infected children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hof, Malon; Blokhuis, Charlotte; Cohen, Sophie; Scherpbier, Henriette J.; Wit, Ferdinand W. N. M.; Pistorius, M. C. M.; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Teunissen, Charlotte E.; Mathot, Ron A. A.; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2018-01-01

    Background: Paediatric data on CNS penetration of antiretroviral drugs are scarce. Objectives: To evaluate CNS penetration of antiretroviral drugs in HIV-infected children and explore associations with neurocognitive function. Patients and methods: Antiretroviral drug levels were measured in paired

  20. A Study to Increase Weld Penetration in P91 Steel During TIG Welding by using Activating Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akhilesh Kumar; Kumar, Mayank; Dey, Vidyut; Naresh Rai, Ram

    2017-08-01

    Activated Flux TIG (ATIG) welding is a unique joining process, invented at Paton Institute of electric welding in 1960. ATIG welding process is also known as flux zoned TIG (FZTIG). In this process, a thin layer of activating flux is applied along the line on the surface of the material where the welding is to be carries out. The ATIG process aids to increase the weld penetration in thick materials. Activating fluxes used in the literature show the use of oxides like TiO2, SiO2, Cr2O3, ZnO, CaO, Fe2O3, and MnO2 during welding of steels. In the present study, ATIG was carried out on P-91 steel. Though, Tungsten Inert Gas welding gives excellent quality welds, but the penetration obtained in such welding is still demanding. P91 steel which is ferritic steel is used in high temperature applications. As this steel is, generally, used in thick sections, fabrication of such structures with TIG welding is limited, due to its low depth of penetration. To increase the depth of penetration in P91while welding with ATIG, the role of various oxides were investigated. Apart from the oxides mentioned above, in the present study the role of B2O3, V2O5 and MgO, during ATIG welding of P91 was investigated. It was seen that, compared to TIG welding, there was phenomenal increase in weld penetration during ATIG welding. Amongst all the oxides used in this study, maximum penetration was achieved in case of B2O3. The measurements of weld penetration, bead width and heat affected zone of the weldings were carried out using an image analysis technique.

  1. Effect of Heat Input During Disk Laser Bead-On-Plate Welding of Thermomechanically Rolled Steel on Penetration Characteristics and Porosity Formation in the Weld Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiecki A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a detailed analysis of the influence of heat input during laser bead-on-plate welding of 5.0 mm thick plates of S700MC steel by modern Disk laser on the mechanism of steel penetration, shape and depth of penetration, and also on tendency to weld porosity formation. Based on the investigations performed in a wide range of laser welding parameters the relationship between laser power and welding speed, thus heat input, required for full penetration was determined. Additionally the relationship between the laser welding parameters and weld quality was determined.

  2. Multichannel optical mapping: investigation of depth information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sase, Ichiro; Eda, Hideo; Seiyama, Akitoshi; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Takatsuki, Akira; Yanagida, Toshio

    2001-06-01

    Near infrared (NIR) light has become a powerful tool for non-invasive imaging of human brain activity. Many systems have been developed to capture the changes in regional brain blood flow and hemoglobin oxygenation, which occur in the human cortex in response to neural activity. We have developed a multi-channel reflectance imaging system, which can be used as a `mapping device' and also as a `multi-channel spectrophotometer'. In the present study, we visualized changes in the hemodynamics of the human occipital region in multiple ways. (1) Stimulating left and right primary visual cortex independently by showing sector shaped checkerboards sequentially over the contralateral visual field, resulted in corresponding changes in the hemodynamics observed by `mapping' measurement. (2) Simultaneous measurement of functional-MRI and NIR (changes in total hemoglobin) during visual stimulation showed good spatial and temporal correlation with each other. (3) Placing multiple channels densely over the occipital region demonstrated spatial patterns more precisely, and depth information was also acquired by placing each pair of illumination and detection fibers at various distances. These results indicate that optical method can provide data for 3D analysis of human brain functions.

  3. USING GROUND PENETRATING RADAR TO DETERMINE THE TUNNEL LOCATION BURIED UNDER THE GLACIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deryuga Andrey Mikhaylovich

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The works were carried out with the help of ground penetrating radar “Grot-10”. Doublet broadband antennas with the central frequency of 100 MHz were used. Georadar measures the speed of EM waves v in ice-saturated soil and then the value ε′ is calculated. The radargrams received as a result of georadar survey, which represents stacked data (the two-way time is indicated on vertical scale, were transformed into depth sections, which reflect the space structure located below ground. The distance between the bottom landing and buried mountain road near the north tunnel portal is 78,5 m (profile # 1, and the distance from the upper landing is 84,5 m (profile no. 2. Later, in the April 2003 during the hole boring with the diameter 1,2 m the vertical distance between the upper landing, where ground penetrating works were carried out, and the carpet road of the tunnel was calculated. This distance appeared to be 83 m, that means, the discrepancy between boring and georadar data (84,5 m was only 1,5 m. Thus, the results of ground penetrating investigations helped the workers of glacier to make the correct conclusion on time about the location and burial depth of the tunnel.

  4. Projectile Nose Mass Abrasion of High-Speed Penetration into Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the dynamic spherical cavity expansion theory of concrete and the analysis of experimental data, a mass abrasion model of projectile considering the hardness of aggregates, the relative strength of target and projectile, and the initial impact velocity is constructed in this paper. Furthermore, the effect of mass abrasion on the penetration depth of projectile and the influence of hardness of aggregates and strength of projectile on penetration depth and mass loss are also analyzed. The results show that, for the ogive-nose projectile with the CRH of 3 and aspect ratio of 7 penetrating the concrete of 35 MPa, the “rigid-body penetration” model is available when the initial impact velocity is lower than 800 m/s. However, when the initial impact velocity is higher than 800 m/s, the “deforming/eroding body penetration” model should be adopted. Through theoretical analysis and numerical calculation, the results indicate that the initial impact velocity is the most important factor of mass abrasion. The hardness of aggregates and the strength of projectile are also significant factors. But relatively speaking, the sensitivity of strength of projectile to mass abrasion is higher, which indicates that the effect of projectile material on mass abrasion is more dramatic than the hardness of aggregates.

  5. Penetration Testing Curriculum Development in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengcheng Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As both the frequency and the severity of network breaches have increased in recent years, it is essential that cybersecurity is incorporated into the core of business operations. Evidence from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2012 indicates that there is, and will continue to be, a severe shortage of cybersecurity professionals nationwide throughout the next decade. To fill this job shortage we need a workforce with strong hands-on experience in the latest technologies and software tools to catch up with the rapid evolution of network technologies. It is vital that the IT professionals possess up-to-date technical skills and think and act one step ahead of the cyber criminals who are constantly probing and exploring system vulnerabilities. There is no perfect security mechanism that can defeat all the cyber-attacks; the traditional defensive security mechanism will eventually fail to the pervasive zero-day attacks. However, there are steps to follow to reduce an organization’s vulnerability to cyber-attacks and to mitigate damages. Active security tests of the network from a cyber-criminal’s perspective can identify system vulnerabilities that may lead to future breaches. “If you know yourself but not the enemy, for every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat. But if you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the result of hundred battles” (Sun, 2013. Penetration testing is a discipline within cybersecurity that focuses on identifying and exploiting the vulnerabilities of a network, eventually obtaining access to the critical business information. The pentesters, the security professionals who perform penetration testing, or ethical hackers, break the triad of information security - Confidentiality, Integrity, and Accountability (CIA - as if they were a cyber-criminal. The purpose of ethical hacking or penetration testing is to know what the “enemy” can do and then generate a

  6. Recent Advances in Skin Penetration Enhancers for Transdermal Gene and Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjadi, Morteza; Mostaghaci, Babak; Sitti, Metin

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing interest in transdermal delivery systems because of their noninvasive, targeted, and on-demand delivery of gene and drugs. However, efficient penetration of therapeutic compounds into the skin is still challenging largely due to the impermeability of the outermost layer of the skin, known as stratum corneum. Recently, there have been major research activities to enhance the skin penetration depth of pharmacological agents. This article reviews recent advances in the development of various strategies for skin penetration enhancement. We show that approaches such as ultrasound waves, laser, and microneedle patches have successfully been employed to physically disrupt the stratum corneum structure for enhanced transdermal delivery. Rather than physical approaches, several non-physical route have also been utilized for efficient transdermal delivery across the skin barrier. Finally, we discuss some clinical applications of transdermal delivery systems for gene and drug delivery. This paper shows that transdermal delivery devices can potentially function for diverse healthcare and medical applications while further investigations are still necessary for more efficient skin penetration of gene and drugs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Penetrative trace fossils from the late Ediacaran of Mongolia: early onset of the agronomic revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oji, Tatsuo; Dornbos, Stephen Q.; Yada, Keigo; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Gonchigdorj, Sersmaa; Mochizuki, Takafumi; Takayanagi, Hideko; Iryu, Yasufumi

    2018-02-01

    The Cambrian radiation of complex animals includes a dramatic increase in the depth and intensity of bioturbation in seafloor sediment known as the `agronomic revolution'. This bioturbation transition was coupled with a shift in dominant trace fossil style from horizontal surficial traces in the late Precambrian to vertically penetrative trace fossils in the Cambrian. Here we show the existence of the first vertically penetrative trace fossils from the latest Ediacaran: dense occurrences of the U-shaped trace fossil Arenicolites from late Precambrian marine carbonates of Western Mongolia. Their Ediacaran age is established through stable carbon isotope chemostratigraphy and their occurrence stratigraphically below the first appearance of the trace fossil Treptichnus pedum. These Arenicolites are large in diameter, penetrate down to at least 4 cm into the sediment, and were presumably formed by the activity of bilaterian animals. They are preserved commonly as paired circular openings on bedding planes with maximum diameters ranging up to almost 1 cm, and as U- and J-shaped tubes in vertical sections of beds. Discovery of these complex penetrative trace fossils demonstrates that the agronomic revolution started earlier than previously considered.

  8. 40 CFR 1065.365 - Nonmethane cutter penetration fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fractions. 1065.365 Section 1065.365 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Measurements § 1065.365 Nonmethane cutter penetration fractions. (a) Scope and frequency. If you use a FID... penetration fractions of methane, PFCH4, and ethane, PF C2H6. As detailed in this section, these penetration...

  9. Suppurative Inflammation and Local Tissue Destruction Reduce the Penetration of Cefuroxime to Infected Bone Implant Cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L Kruse; Koch, J; Henriksen, N Lind

    2017-01-01

    with Staphylococcus aureus IAO present for 5 days. In the present study, a comprehensive histopathological characterization of the peri-implant bone tissue was performed and correlated with the reduced penetration of cefuroxime. In two pigs, the levels of oxygen, pyruvate and lactate was estimated in the implant...... cavity. A peri-implant pathological bone area (PIBA) developed with a width of 1.2 up to 3.8 mm. PIBAs included: (1) suppuration, resulting in destruction of the implant cavity contour, and (2) a non-vascular zone of primarily necrotic bone tissue. A strong negative correlation was seen between PIBA...... width and cefuroxime area under the concentration time curves (AUC[0-last]) and peak concentration of cefuroxime (Cmax). All metabolic measurements demonstrated hypoxia. In conclusion, subacute suppurative bone inflammation with local tissue destruction can result in decreased penetration of antibiotics...

  10. Biogeochemistry: Oxygen burrowed away

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meysman, F.J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Multicellular animals probably evolved at the seafloor after a rise in oceanic oxygen levels. Biogeochemical model simulations suggest that as these animals started to rework the seafloor, they triggered a negative feedback that reduced global oxygen.

  11. Oxygen transport membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof.......The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof....

  12. Diffusion of radioactively tagged penetrants through rubbery polymers. II. Dependence on molecular length of penetrant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, C.K.; Ferry, J.D.; Fetters, L.J.

    1977-01-01

    The diffusion of radioactively tagged n-hexadecane, n-dotriacontane, and a polybutadiene oligomer with molecular weight 1600 has been studied in 12 rubbery polymers. Diffusion coefficients were obtained from the theory for the thin smear method: for n-hexadecane and for n-dotriacontane (with one exception), in the form appropriate for a completely miscible polymer-penetrant pair, and for the oligomer in the form appropriate for slow entry of the pentrant across the penetrant-polymer interface. For the four flexible linear penetrants, n-dodecane, n-hexadecane, n-dotriacontane, and oligomer, the ratios of diffusion coefficients (or translational friction coefficients) are nearly the same in every polymer. It is concluded that these penetrants travel with similar segmentwise motions, although that is not the case with bulkier, more rigid penetrants. For the three normal paraffins, the friction coefficient is approximately proportional to molecular weight, but that for the oligomer is smaller than would be predicted on this basis

  13. Depth distributions of light action spectra for skin chromophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barun, V. V.; Ivanov, A. P.

    2010-03-01

    Light action spectra over wavelengths of 300-1000 nm are calculated for components of the human cutaneous covering: melanin, basal (bloodless) tissue, and blood oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin. The transformation of the spectra with depth in biological tissue results from two factors. The first is the wavelength dependence of the absorption coefficient corresponding to a particular skin chromophore and the second is the spectral selectivity of the radiation flux in biological tissue. This factor is related to the optical properties of all chromophores. A significant change is found to take place in the spectral distribution of absorbed radiant power with increasing depth. The action spectrum of light for the molecular oxygen contained in all components of biological tissue is also studied in the 625-645 nm range. The spectra are found to change with both the volume fraction of blood vessels and the degree of oxygenation of the blood. These results are useful for analyzing processes associated with optical absorption that are possible mechanisms for the interaction of light with biological tissues: photodissociation of oxyhemoglobin and the light-oxygen effect.

  14. Depth as an organizer of fish assemblages in floodplain lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, L.E.

    2011-01-01

    Depth reduction is a natural process in floodplain lakes, but in many basins has been accelerated by anthropogenic disturbances. A diverse set of 42 floodplain lakes in the Yazoo River Basin (Mississippi, USA) was examined to test the hypothesis of whether depth reduction was a key determinant of water quality and fish assemblage structure. Single and multiple variable analyses were applied to 10 commonly monitored water variables and 54 fish species. Results showed strong associations between depth and water characteristics, and between depth and fish assemblages. Deep lakes provided less variable environments, clearer water, and a wider range of microhabitats than shallow lakes. The greater environmental stability was reflected by the dominant species in the assemblages, which included a broader representation of large-body species, species less tolerant of extreme water quality, and more predators. Stability in deep lakes was further reflected by reduced among-lake variability in taxa representation. Fish assemblages in shallow lakes were more variable than deep lakes, and commonly dominated by opportunistic species that have early maturity, extended breeding seasons, small adult size, and short lifespan. Depth is a causal factor that drives many physical and chemical variables that contribute to organizing fish assemblages in floodplain lakes. Thus, correlations between fish and water transparency, temperature, oxygen, trophic state, habitat structure, and other environmental descriptors may ultimately be totally or partly regulated by depth. In basins undergoing rapid anthropogenic modifications, local changes forced by depth reductions may be expected to eliminate species available from the regional pool and could have considerable ecological implications. ?? 2010 Springer Basel AG (outside the USA).

  15. Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2014-01-01

    This article is concerned with the evolution of atmospheric oxygen concentrations through the Proterozoic Eon. In particular, this article will seek to place the history of atmospheric oxygenation through the Proterozoic Eon in the context of the evolving physical environment including the history...... of continental growth and volcanic outgassing, as well as biogeochemical processing of elements within the oceans. The author will seek to explore constraints on the history of oxygenation and understand which processes have regulated oxygen through this eon....

  16. Oxygen evolution reaction catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, Joel A.; Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Jones, Ryan J.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Shinde, Aniketa A.

    2016-09-06

    An Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER) catalyst includes a metal oxide that includes oxygen, cerium, and one or more second metals. In some instances, the cerium is 10 to 80 molar % of the metals in the metal oxide and/or the catalyst includes two or more second metals. The OER catalyst can be included in or on an electrode. The electrode can be arranged in an oxygen evolution system such that the Oxygen Evolution Reaction occurs at the electrode.

  17. Market penetration of intersection AEB: Characterizing avoided and residual straight crossing path accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Ulrich; Lubbe, Nils

    2018-06-01

    Car occupants account for one third of all junction fatalities in the European Union. Driver warning can reduce intersection accidents by up to 50 percent; adding Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) delivers a reduction of up to 70 percent. However, these findings are based on an assumed 100 percent equipment rate, which may take decades to achieve. Our study investigates the relationship between intersection AEB market penetration rates and avoidance of accidents and injuries in order to guide implementation strategies. Additionally, residual accident characteristics (impact configurations and severity) are analyzed to provide a basis for future in-crash protection requirements. We determined which accidents would have been avoided through the use of an Intersection AEB system with different sensor field-of-views (180° and 120°) by means of re-simulating the pre-crash phase of 792 straight crossing path (SCP) car-to-car accidents recorded in the German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS) and the associated Pre-Crash Matrix (PCM). Intersection AEB was activated when neither of the conflict opponents could avoid the crash through reasonable braking or steering reactions. For not-avoided accidents, we used the Kudlich-Slibar rigid body impulse model to calculate the change of velocity during the impact as a measure of impact severity and the principal direction of force. Accident avoidance over market penetration is not linear but exponential, with higher gains at low penetration rates and lower gains at higher rates. A wide field-of-view sensor (180°) substantially increased accident avoidance and injury mitigation rates compared to a 120° field-of-view sensor. For a 180° field-of-view sensor at 100 percent market penetration, about 80 percent of the accidents and 90 percent of the MAIS2 + F injuries could be avoided. For the remaining accidents, AEB intervention rarely affected side of impact. The median change of velocity (delta-V) of the remaining crashes

  18. [Domiciliary oxygen therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Kafi, S

    2010-09-01

    In Belgium, oxygen therapy is becoming more and more accessible. When oxygen is needed for short periods or for special indications as palliative care, an agreement between mutual insurance companies and pharmacists allows the practitioner the home installation of gazeous oxygen cylinder or of oxygen concentrator. When long term oxygen therapy (LTOT) is indicated for patients with respiratory insufficiency, the pneumologist must first ask the INAMI the authorization to install one of the following modalities: oxygen concentrator with or without demand oxygen delivery cylinder and liquid oxygen. The goal of LTOT is to increase survival and quality of life. The principal and well accepted indication for LTOT is severe hypoxemia. The beneficial effects of oxygen therapy limited at night or on exertion are controversial. In order to increase patient's autonomy, oxygen can be prescribed for ambulation, respecting prescription's rules. At each step of oxygen therapy implementing (indication, choice of the device and follow-up) the patient under oxygen may benefit from a joint approach between the general practitioner and the chest specialist.

  19. Aircraft Oxygen Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    An Oxygen Enriched Air System for the AV-8A Harrier (NADC-81198-60).” 70 Horch , T., et. al. “The F-16 Onboard Oxygen Generating System: Performance...Only and Safety Privileged). Horch , T., Miller, R., Bomar, J., Tedor, J., Holden, R., Ikels, K., & Lozano, P. (1983). The F-16 Onboard Oxygen

  20. Translocation of Cell Penetrating Peptide Engrafted Nanoparticles Across Skin Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlolla, Ram R; Desai, Pinaki; Belay, Kalayu; Singh, Mandip

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the ability of cell penetrating peptides (CPP) to translocate the lipid payload into the skin layers. Fluorescent dye (DID-oil) encapsulated nano lipid crystal nanoparticles (FNLCN) were prepared using Compritol, Miglyol and DOGS-NTA-Ni lipids by hot melt homogenization technique. The FNLCN surface was coated with TAT peptide (FNLCNT) or control YKA peptide (FNLCNY) and in vitro rat skin permeation studies were performed using Franz diffusion cells. Observation of lateral skin sections obtained using cryotome with a confocal microscope demonstrated that skin permeation of FNLCNT was time dependent and after 24 h, fluorescence was observed upto a depth of 120 µm which was localized in the hair follicles and epidermis. In case of FNLCN and FNLCNY formulations fluorescence was mainly observed in the hair follicles. This observation was further supported by confocal Raman spectroscopy where higher fluorescence signal intensity was observed at 80 and 120 µm depth with FNLCNT treated skin and intensity of fluorescence peaks was in the ratio of 2:1:1 and 5:3:1 for FNLCNT, FNLCN, and FNLCNY treated skin sections, respectively. Furthermore, replacement of DID-oil with celecoxib (Cxb), a model lipophilic drug showed similar results and after 24 h, the CXBNT formulation increased the Cxb concentration in SC by 3 and 6 fold and in epidermis by 2 and 3 fold as compared to CXBN and CXBNY formulations respectively. Our results strongly suggest that CPP can translocate nanoparticles with their payloads into deeper skin layers. PMID:20413152

  1. Statistical analysis of cone penetration resistance of railway ballast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saussine Gilles

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic penetrometer tests are widely used in geotechnical studies for soils characterization but their implementation tends to be difficult. The light penetrometer test is able to give information about a cone resistance useful in the field of geotechnics and recently validated as a parameter for the case of coarse granular materials. In order to characterize directly the railway ballast on track and sublayers of ballast, a huge test campaign has been carried out for more than 5 years in order to build up a database composed of 19,000 penetration tests including endoscopic video record on the French railway network. The main objective of this work is to give a first statistical analysis of cone resistance in the coarse granular layer which represents a major component of railway track: the ballast. The results show that the cone resistance (qd increases with depth and presents strong variations corresponding to layers of different natures identified using the endoscopic records. In the first zone corresponding to the top 30cm, (qd increases linearly with a slope of around 1MPa/cm for fresh ballast and fouled ballast. In the second zone below 30cm deep, (qd increases more slowly with a slope of around 0,3MPa/cm and decreases below 50cm. These results show that there is no clear difference between fresh and fouled ballast. Hence, the (qd sensitivity is important and increases with depth. The (qd distribution for a set of tests does not follow a normal distribution. In the upper 30cm layer of ballast of track, data statistical treatment shows that train load and speed do not have any significant impact on the (qd distribution for clean ballast; they increase by 50% the average value of (qd for fouled ballast and increase the thickness as well. Below the 30cm upper layer, train load and speed have a clear impact on the (qd distribution.

  2. Da Vinci Xi Robot-Assisted Penetrating Keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammas, Jimmy; Sauer, Arnaud; Pizzuto, Joëlle; Pouthier, Fabienne; Gaucher, David; Marescaux, Jacques; Mutter, Didier; Bourcier, Tristan

    2017-06-01

    This study aims (1) to investigate the feasibility of robot-assisted penetrating keratoplasty (PK) using the new Da Vinci Xi Surgical System and (2) to report what we believe to be the first use of this system in experimental eye surgery. Robot-assisted PK procedures were performed on human corneal transplants using the Da Vinci Xi Surgical System. After an 8-mm corneal trephination, four interrupted sutures and one 10.0 monofilament running suture were made. For each procedure, duration and successful completion of the surgery as well as any unexpected events were assessed. The depth of the corneal sutures was checked postoperatively using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Robot-assisted PK was successfully performed on 12 corneas. The Da Vinci Xi Surgical System provided the necessary dexterity to perform the different steps of surgery. The mean duration of the procedures was 43.4 ± 8.9 minutes (range: 28.5-61.1 minutes). There were no unexpected intraoperative events. SD-OCT confirmed that the sutures were placed at the appropriate depth. We confirm the feasibility of robot-assisted PK with the new Da Vinci Surgical System and report the first use of the Xi model in experimental eye surgery. Operative time of robot-assisted PK surgery is now close to that of conventional manual surgery due to both improvement of the optical system and the presence of microsurgical instruments. Experimentations will allow the advantages of robot-assisted microsurgery to be identified while underlining the improvements and innovations necessary for clinical use.

  3. Da Vinci Xi Robot–Assisted Penetrating Keratoplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammas, Jimmy; Sauer, Arnaud; Pizzuto, Joëlle; Pouthier, Fabienne; Gaucher, David; Marescaux, Jacques; Mutter, Didier; Bourcier, Tristan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study aims (1) to investigate the feasibility of robot-assisted penetrating keratoplasty (PK) using the new Da Vinci Xi Surgical System and (2) to report what we believe to be the first use of this system in experimental eye surgery. Methods Robot-assisted PK procedures were performed on human corneal transplants using the Da Vinci Xi Surgical System. After an 8-mm corneal trephination, four interrupted sutures and one 10.0 monofilament running suture were made. For each procedure, duration and successful completion of the surgery as well as any unexpected events were assessed. The depth of the corneal sutures was checked postoperatively using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Results Robot-assisted PK was successfully performed on 12 corneas. The Da Vinci Xi Surgical System provided the necessary dexterity to perform the different steps of surgery. The mean duration of the procedures was 43.4 ± 8.9 minutes (range: 28.5–61.1 minutes). There were no unexpected intraoperative events. SD-OCT confirmed that the sutures were placed at the appropriate depth. Conclusions We confirm the feasibility of robot-assisted PK with the new Da Vinci Surgical System and report the first use of the Xi model in experimental eye surgery. Operative time of robot-assisted PK surgery is now close to that of conventional manual surgery due to both improvement of the optical system and the presence of microsurgical instruments. Translational Relevance Experimentations will allow the advantages of robot-assisted microsurgery to be identified while underlining the improvements and innovations necessary for clinical use. PMID:28660096

  4. Tailoring the stress-depth profile in thin films; the case of γ'-Fe4N1-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlschloegel, M.; Welzel, U.; Mittemeijer, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Homogeneous γ'-Fe 4 N 1-x thin films were produced by gas through-nitriding of iron thin films (thickness 800 nm) deposited onto Al 2 O 3 substrates by Molecular Beam Epitaxy. The nitriding parameters were chosen such that the nitrogen concentration within the γ' thin films was considerably lower (x ∼ 0.05) than the stoichiometric value (x = 0). X-ray diffraction stress analysis at constant penetration depths performed after the nitriding step revealed the presence of tensile stress parallel to the surface; the tensile stress was shown to be practically constant over the entire film thickness. For further nitriding treatments, the parameters were adjusted such that nitrogen enrichment occurred near the specimen surface. The depth-dependent nitrogen enrichment could be monitored by evaluating the strain-free lattice parameter of γ' as a function of X-ray penetration depth and relating it to the nitrogen concentration employing a direct relation between lattice parameter and nitrogen concentration. The small compositional variations led to distinct characteristic stress-depth profiles. The stress changes non-monotonously with depth in the film as could be shown by non-destructive X-ray diffraction stress analysis at constant penetration depths. This work demonstrates that by a specific choice of a first and a subsequent nitriding treatment (employing different nitriding potentials and/or different temperatures for both treatments) controlled development of residual stress profiles is possible in thin iron-nitride surface layers.

  5. Data processing and initial results of Chang'e-3 lunar penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Fang, Guang-You; Feng, Jian-Qing; Xing, Shu-Guo; Ji, Yi-Cai; Zhou, Bin; Gao, Yun-Ze; Li, Han; Dai, Shun; Xiao, Yuan; Li, Chun-Lai

    2014-12-01

    To improve our understanding of the formation and evolution of the Moon, one of the payloads onboard the Chang'e-3 (CE-3) rover is Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR). This investigation is the first attempt to explore the lunar subsurface structure by using ground penetrating radar with high resolution. We have probed the subsurface to a depth of several hundred meters using LPR. In-orbit testing, data processing and the preliminary results are presented. These observations have revealed the configuration of regolith where the thickness of regolith varies from about 4 m to 6 m. In addition, one layer of lunar rock, which is about 330 m deep and might have been accumulated during the depositional hiatus of mare basalts, was detected.

  6. Data processing and initial results of Chang'e-3 lunar penetrating radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Yan; Feng Jian-Qing; Xing Shu-Guo; Li Han; Dai Shun; Xiao Yuan; Li Chun-Lai; Fang Guang-You; Ji Yi-Cai; Zhou Bin; Gao Yun-Ze

    2014-01-01

    To improve our understanding of the formation and evolution of the Moon, one of the payloads onboard the Chang'e-3 (CE-3) rover is Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR). This investigation is the first attempt to explore the lunar subsurface structure by using ground penetrating radar with high resolution. We have probed the subsurface to a depth of several hundred meters using LPR. In-orbit testing, data processing and the preliminary results are presented. These observations have revealed the configuration of regolith where the thickness of regolith varies from about 4 m to 6 m. In addition, one layer of lunar rock, which is about 330 m deep and might have been accumulated during the depositional hiatus of mare basalts, was detected

  7. Penetration of a dielectric barrier discharge plasma into textile structures at medium pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyter, N De; Morent, R; Leys, C

    2006-01-01

    Plasma treatment of textiles is becoming more and more popular as a surface modification technique. Plasma treatment changes the outermost layer of a material without interfering with the bulk properties. However, textiles are several millimetres thick and need to be treated homogeneously throughout the entire thickness. To control the penetration depth of the plasma effect, it is necessary to study the influence of operating parameters. Three layers of a 100% polyester non-woven are treated in the medium pressure range (0.3-7 kPa) with a dielectric barrier discharge to study the influence of pressure and treatment time. Current and voltage waveforms and Lichtenberg figures are used to characterize the discharge. Process pressure proved to have an important effect on the penetration of the plasma through the textile layers. This is caused not only by the pressure dependence of diffusive transport of textile modifying particles but also by a different behaviour of the barrier discharge

  8. High-accuracy defect sizing for CRDM penetration adapters using the ultrasonic TOFD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, I.

    1995-01-01

    Ultrasonic time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) is the preferred technique for critical sizing of throughwall orientated defects in a wide range of components, primarily because it is intrinsically more accurate than amplitude-based techniques. For the same reason, TOFD is the preferred technique for sizing the cracks in control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) penetration adapters, which have been the subject of much recent attention. Once the considerable problem of restricted access for the UT probes has been overcome, this inspection lends itself to very high accuracy defect sizing using TOFD. In qualification trials under industrial conditions, depth sizing to an accuracy of ≤ 0.5 mm has been routinely achieved throughout the full wall thickness (16 mm) of the penetration adapters, using only a single probe pair and without recourse to signal processing. (author)

  9. Penetration Testing Professional Ethics: a conceptual model and taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Pierce

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In an environment where commercial software is continually patched to correct security flaws, penetration testing can provide organisations with a realistic assessment of their security posture. Penetration testing uses the same principles as criminal hackers to penetrate corporate networks and thereby verify the presence of software vulnerabilities. Network administrators can use the results of a penetration test to correct flaws and improve overall security. The use of hacking techniques, however, raises several ethical questions that centre on the integrity of the tester to maintain professional distance and uphold the profession. This paper discusses the ethics of penetration testing and presents our conceptual model and revised taxonomy.

  10. Assessing the credibility of diverting through containment penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, J.N.; Swindle, D.W. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A viable approach has been developed for identifying those containment penetrations in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant which are credible diversion routes. The approach is based upon systematic engineering and design analyses and is applied to each type of penetration to determine which penetrations could be utilized to divert nuclear material from a reprocessing facility. The approach is described and the results of an application are discussed. In addition, the concept of credibility is developed and discussed. For a typical reprocessing plant design, the number of penetrations determined to be credible without process or piping modifications was approx. 16% of the penetrations originally identified

  11. Market penetration scenarios for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Fuel cell vehicles may create the first mass market for hydrogen as an energy carrier. Directed Technologies, Inc., working with the US Department of Energy hydrogen systems analysis team, has developed a time-dependent computer market penetration model. This model estimates the number of fuel cell vehicles that would be purchased over time as a function of their cost and the cost of hydrogen relative to the costs of competing vehicles and fuels. The model then calculates the return on investment for fuel cell vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers. The model also projects the benefit/cost ratio for government--the ratio of societal benefits such as reduced oil consumption, reduced urban air pollution and reduced greenhouse gas emissions to the government cost for assisting the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicle technologies. The purpose of this model is to assist industry and government in choosing the best investment strategies to achieve significant return on investment and to maximize benefit/cost ratios. The model can illustrate trends and highlight the sensitivity of market penetration to various parameters such as fuel cell efficiency, cost, weight, and hydrogen cost. It can also illustrate the potential benefits of successful R and D and early demonstration projects. Results will be shown comparing the market penetration and return on investment estimates for direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to fuel cell vehicles with onboard fuel processors including methanol steam reformers and gasoline partial oxidation systems. Other alternative fueled vehicles including natural gas hybrids, direct injection diesels and hydrogen-powered internal combustion hybrid vehicles will also be analyzed.

  12. Simulating barrier penetration during combat. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Laquil, P. III.

    1980-04-01

    A computer program, BARS, simulates combat between an adversary group attempting to hijack special nuclear material and escort personnel attempting to protect it. BARS is designed to investigate how various combat strategies and levels of performance affect the time required to penetrate barriers (armor, deterrent systems, etc.) against forcible entry. A Monte Carlo code, BARS uses a game theoretic approach to allocate the attacking and defending forces. Combat suppression is simulated using a stochastic state-transition model for the behavior of individuals under combat stress. The BARS program was developed as part of the overall combat modelling effort of the transportation safeguards program

  13. A medium energy neutron deep penetration experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amian, W.; Cloth, P.; Druecke, V.; Filges, D.; Paul, N.; Schaal, H.

    1986-11-01

    A deep penetration experiment conducted at the Los Alamos WNR facility's Spallation Neutron Target is compared with calculations using intra-nuclear-cascade and S N -transport codes installed at KFA-IRE. In the experiment medium energy reactions induced by neutrons between 15 MeV and about 150 MeV inside a quasi infinite slab of iron have been measured using copper foil monitors. Details of the experimental procedure and the theoretical methods are described. A comparison of absolute reaction rates for both experimentally and theoretically derived reactions is given. The present knowledge of the corresponding monitor reaction cross sections is discussed. (orig.)

  14. Income Inequality and Transnational Corporate Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Beer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether the positive association between national income inequality and transnational corporate penetration found previously by Bornschier and Chase-Dunn (1985 and others circa the late 1960s still holds for the mid-l980s. Both methodological and theoretical problems of earlier studies are discussed and solutions are offered. Economic development, political-institutional and regional variables are also included inthe analyses. While further research is warranted, the results provide support for a World-System/Dependency perspective in understanding income inequality cross-nationally.

  15. Premium Efficiency Motors And Market Penetration Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhaddadi, Mohamed; Olivier, Guy

    2010-09-15

    This paper illustrates the induced enormous energy saving potential, permitted by using high-efficiency motors. Furthermore, the most important barriers to larger high-efficiency motors utilization are identified, and some incentives recommendations are given to overcome identified impediments. The authors consider that there is a strong case to enhance incentives policies for larger market penetration. The US Energy Policy Act and the Canadian Energy Efficient Act have lead to North American leadership on motor efficiency implementation. North America is not on the leading edge for energy saving and conservation. Motor efficiency is an exception that should be at least maintained.

  16. Hacking with Kali practical penetration testing techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Broad, James

    2013-01-01

    Hacking with Kali introduces you the most current distribution of the de facto standard tool for Linux pen testing. Starting with use of the Kali live CD and progressing through installation on hard drives, thumb drives and SD cards, author James Broad walks you through creating a custom version of the Kali live distribution. You'll learn how to configure networking components, storage devices and system services such as DHCP and web services. Once you're familiar with the basic components of the software, you'll learn how to use Kali through the phases of the penetration testing lifecycle

  17. Penetration of relativistic heavy ions through matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidenberger, C.; Geissel, H.

    1997-07-01

    New heavy-ion accelerators covering the relativistic and ultra-relativistic energy regime allow to study atomic collisions with bare and few-electron projectiles. High-resolution magnetic spectrometers are used for precise stopping-power and energy-loss straggling measurements. Refined theories beyond the Born approximation have been developed and are confirmed by experiments. This paper summarizes the large progress in the understanding of relativistic heavy-ion penetration through matter, which has been achieved in the last few years. (orig.)

  18. Penetrating the markets: biomass and commercial distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidl, J.

    1999-01-01

    Although biomass accounts for a significant proportion of renewable energy in Europe, its market penetration could be increased if certain barriers can be surmounted. Some of those barriers are identified and suggestions made as to how they may be overcome through improved 'distribution' in various sectors. To integrate biomass into the electricity distribution system, the commercial distribution of liquid biofuels, and in the commercial distribution of biomass in the heat sector, certain rewards and penalties could be introduced and these are discussed. The low temperature heat market is seen as very important for the further development of bioenergy in Europe. (UK)

  19. Neutron streaming studies along JET shielding penetrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatelatos, Ion E.; Vasilopoulou, Theodora; Batistoni, Paola; Obryk, Barbara; Popovichev, Sergey; Naish, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Neutronic benchmark experiments are carried out at JET aiming to assess the neutronic codes and data used in ITER analysis. Among other activities, experiments are performed in order to validate neutron streaming simulations along long penetrations in the JET shielding configuration. In this work, neutron streaming calculations along the JET personnel entrance maze are presented. Simulations were performed using the MCNP code for Deuterium-Deuterium and Deuterium- Tritium plasma sources. The results of the simulations were compared against experimental data obtained using thermoluminescence detectors and activation foils.

  20. Mastering Kali Linux for advanced penetration testing

    CERN Document Server

    Beggs, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the kill chain approach to penetration testing, and then focuses on using Kali Linux to provide examples of how this methodology is applied in the real world. After describing the underlying concepts, step-by-step examples are provided that use selected tools to demonstrate the techniques. If you are an IT professional or a security consultant who wants to maximize the success of your network testing using some of the advanced features of Kali Linux, then this book is for you. This book will teach you how to become an expert in the pre-engagement, management,