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Sample records for oxygen nitrogen water

  1. Remote Sensing of Dissolved Oxygen and Nitrogen in Water Using Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganoe, Rene; DeYoung, Russell J.

    2013-01-01

    The health of an estuarine ecosystem is largely driven by the abundance of dissolved oxygen and nitrogen available for maintenance of plant and animal life. An investigation was conducted to quantify the concentration of dissolved molecular oxygen and nitrogen in water by means of Raman spectroscopy. This technique is proposed for the remote sensing of dissolved oxygen in the Chesapeake Bay, which will be utilized by aircraft in order to survey large areas in real-time. A proof of principle system has been developed and the specifications are being honed to maximize efficiency for the final application. The theoretical criteria of the research, components of the experimental system, and key findings are presented in this report

  2. Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotope Effects of Ammonia Oxidation by Thermophilic Thaumarchaeota from a Geothermal Water Stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Manabu; Sakai, Sanae; Konno, Uta; Nakahara, Nozomi; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Saito, Yumi; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Tasumi, Eiji; Makabe, Akiko; Koba, Keisuke; Takai, Ken

    2016-08-01

    Ammonia oxidation regulates the balance of reduced and oxidized nitrogen pools in nature. Although ammonia-oxidizing archaea have been recently recognized to often outnumber ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in various environments, the contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea is still uncertain due to difficulties in the in situ quantification of ammonia oxidation activity. Nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrite (δ(15)NNO2- and δ(18)ONO2-, respectively) are geochemical tracers for evaluating the sources and the in situ rate of nitrite turnover determined from the activities of nitrification and denitrification; however, the isotope ratios of nitrite from archaeal ammonia oxidation have been characterized only for a few marine species. We first report the isotope effects of ammonia oxidation at 70°C by thermophilic Thaumarchaeota populations composed almost entirely of "Candidatus Nitrosocaldus." The nitrogen isotope effect of ammonia oxidation varied with ambient pH (25‰ to 32‰) and strongly suggests the oxidation of ammonia, not ammonium. The δ(18)O value of nitrite produced from ammonia oxidation varied with the δ(18)O value of water in the medium but was lower than the isotopic equilibrium value in water. Because experiments have shown that the half-life of abiotic oxygen isotope exchange between nitrite and water is longer than 33 h at 70°C and pH ≥6.6, the rate of ammonia oxidation by thermophilic Thaumarchaeota could be estimated using δ(18)ONO2- in geothermal environments, where the biological nitrite turnover is likely faster than 33 h. This study extended the range of application of nitrite isotopes as a geochemical clock of the ammonia oxidation activity to high-temperature environments. Because ammonia oxidation is generally the rate-limiting step in nitrification that regulates the balance of reduced and oxidized nitrogen pools in nature, it is important to understand the biological and environmental factors underlying the regulation of

  3. [Research advances in identifying nitrate pollution sources of water environment by using nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wei; Liang, Zhi-wei; Li, Wei; Zhu, Yao; Yanng, Mu-yi; Jia, Chao-jie

    2013-04-01

    Water body' s nitrate pollution has become a common and severe environmental problem. In order to ensure human health and water environment benign evolution, it is of great importance to effectively identify the nitrate pollution sources of water body. Because of the discrepant composition of nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes in different sources of nitrate in water body, nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes can be used to identify the nitrate pollution sources of water environment. This paper introduced the fractionation factors of nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes in the main processes of nitrogen cycling and the composition of these stable isotopes in main nitrate sources, compared the advantages and disadvantages of five pre-treatment methods for analyzing the nitrogen and oxygen isotopes in nitrate, and summarized the research advances in this aspect into three stages, i. e. , using nitrogen stable isotope alone, using nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes simultaneously, and combining with mathematical models. The future research directions regarding the nitrate pollution sources identification of water environment were also discussed.

  4. The development of a non-cryogenic nitrogen/oxygen supply system. [using hydrazine/water electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenough, B. M.; Mahan, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    A hydrazine/water electrolysis process system module design was fabricated and tested to demonstrate component and module performance. This module is capable of providing both the metabolic oxygen for crew needs and the oxygen and nitrogen for spacecraft leak makeup. The component designs evolved through previous R and D efforts, and were fabricated and tested individually and then were assembled into a complete module which was successfully tested for 1000 hours to demonstrate integration of the individual components. A survey was made of hydrazine sensor technology and a cell math model was derived.

  5. Photocatalytic Conversion of Nitrogen to Ammonia with Water on Surface Oxygen Vacancies of Titanium Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Hiroaki; Hashimoto, Masaki; Shiraishi, Yasuhiro; Hirai, Takayuki

    2017-08-09

    Ammonia (NH 3 ) is an essential chemical in modern society. It is currently manufactured by the Haber-Bosch process using H 2 and N 2 under extremely high-pressure (>200 bar) and high-temperature (>673 K) conditions. Photocatalytic NH 3 production from water and N 2 at atmospheric pressure and room temperature is ideal. Several semiconductor photocatalysts have been proposed, but all suffer from low efficiency. Here we report that a commercially available TiO 2 with a large number of surface oxygen vacancies, when photoirradiated by UV light in pure water with N 2 , successfully produces NH 3 . The active sites for N 2 reduction are the Ti 3+ species on the oxygen vacancies. These species act as adsorption sites for N 2 and trapping sites for the photoformed conduction band electrons. These properties therefore promote efficient reduction of N 2 to NH 3 . The solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency is 0.02%, which is the highest efficiency among the early reported photocatalytic systems. This noble-metal-free TiO 2 system therefore shows a potential as a new artificial photosynthesis for green NH 3 production.

  6. Oxygen-Poor Microzones as Potential Sites of Microbial N2 Fixation in Nitrogen-Depleted Aerobic Marine Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paerl, Hans W.; Prufert, Leslie E.

    1987-01-01

    The nitrogen-deficient coastal waters of North Carolina contain suspended bacteria potentially able to fix N2. Bioassays aimed at identifying environmental factors controlling the development and proliferation of N2 fixation showed that dissolved organic carbon (as simple sugars and sugar alcohols) and particulate organic carbon (derived from Spartina alterniflora) additions elicited and enhanced N2 fixation (nitrogenase activity) in these waters. Nitrogenase activity occurred in samples containing flocculent, mucilage-covered bacterial aggregates. Cyanobacterium-bacterium aggregates also revealed N2 fixation. In all cases bacterial N2 fixation occurred in association with surficial microenvironments or microzones. Since nitrogenase is oxygen labile, we hypothesized that the aggregates themselves protected their constituent microbes from O2. Microelectrode O2 profiles revealed that aggregates had lower internal O2 tensions than surrounding waters. Tetrazolium salt (2,3,5-triphenyl-3-tetrazolium chloride) reduction revealed that patchy zones existed both within microbes and extracellularly in the mucilage surrounding microbes where free O2 was excluded. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride reduction also strongly inhibited nitrogenase activity. These findings suggest that N2 fixation is mediated by the availability of the appropriate types of reduced microzones. Organic carbon enrichment appears to serve as an energy and structural source for aggregate formation, both of which were required for eliciting N2 fixation responses of these waters. Images PMID:16347337

  7. Adsorption Energies of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Oxygen Atoms on the Low-temperature Amorphous Water Ice: A Systematic Estimation from Quantum Chemistry Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimonishi, Takashi; Nakatani, Naoki; Furuya, Kenji; Hama, Tetsuya

    2018-03-01

    We propose a new simple computational model to estimate the adsorption energies of atoms and molecules to low-temperature amorphous water ice, and we present the adsorption energies of carbon (3 P), nitrogen (4 S), and oxygen (3 P) atoms based on quantum chemistry calculations. The adsorption energies were estimated to be 14,100 ± 420 K for carbon, 400 ± 30 K for nitrogen, and 1440 ± 160 K for oxygen. The adsorption energy of oxygen is consistent with experimentally reported values. We found that the binding of a nitrogen atom is purely physisorption, while that of a carbon atom is chemisorption, in which a chemical bond to an O atom of a water molecule is formed. That of an oxygen atom has a dual character, with both physisorption and chemisorption. The chemisorption of atomic carbon also implies the possibility of further chemical reactions to produce molecules bearing a C–O bond, though this may hinder the formation of methane on water ice via sequential hydrogenation of carbon atoms. These properties would have a large impact on the chemical evolution of carbon species in interstellar environments. We also investigated the effects of newly calculated adsorption energies on the chemical compositions of cold dense molecular clouds with the aid of gas-ice astrochemical simulations. We found that abundances of major nitrogen-bearing molecules, such as N2 and NH3, are significantly altered by applying the calculated adsorption energy, because nitrogen atoms can thermally diffuse on surfaces, even at 10 K.

  8. Biogeochemical controls on the oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur distributions in the water column of Golfo Dulce: an anoxic basin on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Thamdrup, Bo; Canfield, Donald E.; Noehr Glud, Ronnie; Kuever, Jan; Lillebaek, Rolf; Birger Ramsing, Niels; Wawer, Cathrin

    2006-01-01

    Chemical distributions, respiration rates, and bacterial distributions were measured in 1994 in the water column and sediments of a small, tropical, anoxic basin (Golfo Dulce, Pacific coast of Costa Rica) to examine the biogeochemical controls on anoxia, sulfide, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and organic carbon consumption. As reported previously, the deepest 100 m of the water column were anoxic, and sulfide concentrations in the bottom waters were less than 7 μM and then only transiently. Both free-swimming sulfide-oxidizing bacteria and Beggiatoa sp. (containing large vacuoles) were observed in the anoxic bottom waters or at the sediment-water interface. Aerobic respiration dominated the decomposition of organic matter in the surface waters and pycnocline, whereas sulfate reduction was principally restricted to the sediments. Bacteria were distributed in discrete zones and exhibited the highest densities where oxygen decreased below 1 μM around 100 m depth, and near the sediment-water interface. The sub-oxic, sub-pycnocline water column was characterized by a dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) deficit of 2.9 mole m -2 . With a water residence time of 35 - 57 d, estimated from a salt balance, this deficit corresponded to a DIN loss of 51 - 85 mmol m -2 d -1 , comparable to the sub-pycnocline oxygen consumption. Sulfide in the water column was maintained at low concentrations by frequent inputs of oxygenated water from the Pacific Ocean. Sulfide production in the sediments due to bacterial sulfate reduction was scavenged by frequent deposition of iron-rich turbidites. Based on 210 Pb distributions, the most recent emplacement of a turbidite in the basin sediments was determined to have occurred between 1989 and 1992. (author) [es

  9. Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotopic Studies of the Marine Nitrogen Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciotti, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    The marine nitrogen cycle is a complex web of microbially mediated reactions that control the inventory, distribution, and speciation of nitrogen in the marine environment. Because nitrogen is a major nutrient that is required by all life, its availability can control biological productivity and ecosystem structure in both surface and deep-ocean communities. Stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate and nitrite have provided new insights into the rates and distributions of marine nitrogen cycle processes, especially when analyzed in combination with numerical simulations of ocean circulation and biogeochemistry. This review highlights the insights gained from dual-isotope studies applied at regional to global scales and their incorporation into oceanic biogeochemical models. These studies represent significant new advances in the use of isotopic measurements to understand the modern nitrogen cycle, with implications for the study of past ocean productivity, oxygenation, and nutrient status.

  10. Effect of nitrogen and oxygen on radiolysis of iodide solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasawa, H; Endo, M [Hitachi Ltd., Power and Industrial System R+D Divisions, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    The effect of nitrogen and oxygen on radiolysis of iodide solution was examined. Direct decomposition of nitrogen by {gamma}-radiation produced nitric acid to decrease a water pH. This resulted in the iodine formation in the radiolysis of iodide solution. Hydrogen peroxide was produced by the radiolysis of water containing oxygen. This worked a reducing agent to suppress the formation of iodine in the radiolysis of iodide solution. In the analytical model, fourteen iodine species were considered and reaction scheme consisted in 124 reactions. The analytical model could estimate the oxidation state of iodide ions. (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  11. Nitrogen fixation in denitrified marine waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Fernandez

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fixation is an essential process that biologically transforms atmospheric dinitrogen gas to ammonia, therefore compensating for nitrogen losses occurring via denitrification and anammox. Currently, inputs and losses of nitrogen to the ocean resulting from these processes are thought to be spatially separated: nitrogen fixation takes place primarily in open ocean environments (mainly through diazotrophic cyanobacteria, whereas nitrogen losses occur in oxygen-depleted intermediate waters and sediments (mostly via denitrifying and anammox bacteria. Here we report on rates of nitrogen fixation obtained during two oceanographic cruises in 2005 and 2007 in the eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP, a region characterized by the presence of coastal upwelling and a major permanent oxygen minimum zone (OMZ. Our results show significant rates of nitrogen fixation in the water column; however, integrated rates from the surface down to 120 m varied by ∼30 fold between cruises (7.5±4.6 versus 190±82.3 µmol m(-2 d(-1. Moreover, rates were measured down to 400 m depth in 2007, indicating that the contribution to the integrated rates of the subsurface oxygen-deficient layer was ∼5 times higher (574±294 µmol m(-2 d(-1 than the oxic euphotic layer (48±68 µmol m(-2 d(-1. Concurrent molecular measurements detected the dinitrogenase reductase gene nifH in surface and subsurface waters. Phylogenetic analysis of the nifH sequences showed the presence of a diverse diazotrophic community at the time of the highest measured nitrogen fixation rates. Our results thus demonstrate the occurrence of nitrogen fixation in nutrient-rich coastal upwelling systems and, importantly, within the underlying OMZ. They also suggest that nitrogen fixation is a widespread process that can sporadically provide a supplementary source of fixed nitrogen in these regions.

  12. Nitrogen Fixation in Denitrified Marine Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Camila; Farías, Laura; Ulloa, Osvaldo

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation is an essential process that biologically transforms atmospheric dinitrogen gas to ammonia, therefore compensating for nitrogen losses occurring via denitrification and anammox. Currently, inputs and losses of nitrogen to the ocean resulting from these processes are thought to be spatially separated: nitrogen fixation takes place primarily in open ocean environments (mainly through diazotrophic cyanobacteria), whereas nitrogen losses occur in oxygen-depleted intermediate waters and sediments (mostly via denitrifying and anammox bacteria). Here we report on rates of nitrogen fixation obtained during two oceanographic cruises in 2005 and 2007 in the eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP), a region characterized by the presence of coastal upwelling and a major permanent oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Our results show significant rates of nitrogen fixation in the water column; however, integrated rates from the surface down to 120 m varied by ∼30 fold between cruises (7.5±4.6 versus 190±82.3 µmol m−2 d−1). Moreover, rates were measured down to 400 m depth in 2007, indicating that the contribution to the integrated rates of the subsurface oxygen-deficient layer was ∼5 times higher (574±294 µmol m−2 d−1) than the oxic euphotic layer (48±68 µmol m−2 d−1). Concurrent molecular measurements detected the dinitrogenase reductase gene nifH in surface and subsurface waters. Phylogenetic analysis of the nifH sequences showed the presence of a diverse diazotrophic community at the time of the highest measured nitrogen fixation rates. Our results thus demonstrate the occurrence of nitrogen fixation in nutrient-rich coastal upwelling systems and, importantly, within the underlying OMZ. They also suggest that nitrogen fixation is a widespread process that can sporadically provide a supplementary source of fixed nitrogen in these regions. PMID:21687726

  13. Anaerobic nitrogen turnover by sinking diatom aggregates at varying ambient oxygen levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Kamp, Anja; Thamdrup, Bo

    2016-01-01

    nitrate supply. Sinking diatom aggregates can contribute directly to fixed-nitrogen loss in low-oxygen environments in the ocean and vastly expand the ocean volume in which anaerobic nitrogen turnover is possible, despite relatively high ambient oxygen levels. Depending on the extent of intracellular......In the world’s oceans, even relatively low oxygen levels inhibit anaerobic nitrogen cycling by free-living microbes. Sinking organic aggregates, however, might provide oxygen-depleted microbial hotspots in otherwise oxygenated surface waters. Here, we show that sinking diatom aggregates can host...

  14. On nitrogen solubility in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalajda, Yu.A.; Katkov, Yu.D.; Kuznetsov, V.A.; Lastovtsev, A.Yu.; Lastochkin, A.P.; Susoev, V.S.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the results of experimental investigations on nitrogen solubility in water under 0-15 MPa pressure, at the temperature of 100-340 deg C and nitrogen concentration of 0-5000 n.ml. N 2 /kg H 2 O. Empiric equations are derived and a diagram of nitrogen solubility in water is developed on the basis of the experimental data, as well as critically evaluated published data. The investigation results can be used in analyzing water-gas regime of a primary heat carrier in stream-generating plants with water-water reactors

  15. Barley seed radiosensitivity following post-hydration in oxygen-, nitrogen- and nitrous oxide-saturated water, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.P.; Kesavan, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    Dry (∼3.5 and 4.0 per cent moisture content) barley seeds were exposed to 350 Gy of 60 Co-γ-rays in vacuo and post-hydrated at 4degC for 8 h in O 2 -, N 2 -, or N 2 O-saturated water. The effect of caffeine and t-butyl alcohol (t-BuOH) dissolved in the post-hydration medium on the magnitude of damage developing under these three different gaseous circumstances was studied. The post-irradiation damage and its modification by caffeine and t-BuOH was assessed in terms of 8-day-old seedling injury, peroxidase activity and total peroxides in the 8-day-old seedlings. Post-irradiation O 2 -saturated hydration caused maximal 8-day-old seedling injury, and increased peroxidase activity with concomitant reduction in total peroxides. Both caffeine and t-BuOH afforded significant radioprotection against post-irradiation O 2 -dependent damage. Post-irradiation N 2 O-saturated hydration was even more significantly radioprotective than the N 2 -saturated post-hydration. Under these circumstances, t-BuOH exerted no effect whatsoever on the N 2 - and N 2 O-mediated post-irradiation damage. Caffeine, on the other hand, significantly potentiated these two components of damage. A brief consideration of the physicochemical events which possibly account for the observed effects is presented. (author)

  16. Total Nitrogen in Surface Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Excess nitrogen in surface water can result in eutrophication. TOTALN is reported in kilograms/hectare/year. More information about these resources, including the...

  17. Water-bearing explosive containing nitrogen-base salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunglinson, C.; Lyerly, W.M.

    1968-10-21

    A water-bearing explosive composition consists of an oxidizing salt component, a fuel component, and water. A sensitizer is included having an oxygen balance more positive than -150%, and consisting of a salt of an inorganic oxidizing acid and of an acyclic nitrogen base having no more than 2 hydrogen atoms bonded to the basic nitrogen and up to 3 carbons per basic nitrogen, and/or of a phenyl amine. 41 claims.

  18. Nitrogen narcosis induced by repetitive hyperbaric nitrogen oxygen mixture exposure impairs long-term cognitive function in newborn mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Peng

    Full Text Available Human beings are exposed to compressed air or a nitrogen-oxygen mixture, they will produce signs and symptoms of nitrogen narcosis such as amnesia or even loss of memory, which may be disappeared once back to the normobaric environment. This study was designed to investigate the effect of nitrogen narcosis induced by repetitive hyperbaric nitrogen-oxygen mixture exposure on long-term cognitive function in newborn mice and the underlying mechanisms. The electroencephalogram frequency was decreased while the amplitude was increased in a pressure-dependent manner during 0.6, 1.2, 1.8 MPa (million pascal nitrogen-oxygen mixture exposures in adult mice. Nitrogen narcosis in postnatal days 7-9 mice but not in adult mice induced by repetitive hyperbaric exposure prolonged the latency to find the platform and decreased the number of platform-site crossovers during Morris water maze tests, and reduced the time in the center during the open field tests. An increase in the expression of cleaved caspase-3 in the hippocampus and cortex were observed immediately on the first day after hyperbaric exposure, and this lasted for seven days. Additionally, nitrogen narcosis induced loss of the dendritic spines but not of the neurons, which may mainly account for the cognitive dysfunction. Nitrogen narcosis induced long-term cognitive and emotional dysfunction in the postnatal mice but not in the adult mice, which may result from neuronal apoptosis and especially reduction of dendritic spines of neurons.

  19. RECENT PROGRESS OF OXYGEN/NITROGEN SEPARATION USING MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    K. C. CHONG; S. O. LAI; H. S. THIAM; H. C. TEOH; S. L. HENG

    2016-01-01

    The oxygen-enriched air is highly demanded for various industrial applications such as medical, chemical and enhanced combustion processes. The conventional oxygen/nitrogen production is either cryogenic distillation or pressure swing adsorption (PSA). Both of these techniques possess the production capability of 20 to 300 tonnes of oxygen per day and oxygen purity of more than 95%. However, these techniques are energy intensive. Alternatively, membrane technology is an emerging technology...

  20. Oxygen nitrogen and ozone: application in wastewater treatment and environment protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Julio A.G. [Oxigenio do Brasil, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    Oxygen`s versatility as an oxidant and as a combustion atmosphere provides clean solutions to different industries. Oxygen also finds excellent application for the regeneration of eutrophic surface waters where high biochemical oxygen demand loading demands extra available oxygen for life support. When even stronger oxidizing properties are needed, ozone may act as a supplement. Nitrogen, on the other hand, has excellent cooling capacity, resulting in practical application in solvent recapture, enabling processes to meet emission standards while allowing solvent recycle for reuse. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Oxygen nitrogen and ozone: application in wastewater treatment and environment protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Julio A.G. [Oxigenio do Brasil, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Oxygen`s versatility as an oxidant and as a combustion atmosphere provides clean solutions to different industries. Oxygen also finds excellent application for the regeneration of eutrophic surface waters where high biochemical oxygen demand loading demands extra available oxygen for life support. When even stronger oxidizing properties are needed, ozone may act as a supplement. Nitrogen, on the other hand, has excellent cooling capacity, resulting in practical application in solvent recapture, enabling processes to meet emission standards while allowing solvent recycle for reuse. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Oxygen, nitrogen and sulphide fluxes in the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. KONOVALOV

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The fluxes and production/consumption rates of oxygen, nitrate, ammonium and sulphide are estimated in the paper utilising results of the 1.5-dimensional stationary model of vertical exchange in the Black Sea (Samodurov & Ivanov, 1998. The profiles of the vertical flux and rate of production/consumption of these substances have revealed a number of intriguing features in the biogeochemical nature of the Black Sea. An approximate redox balance of the counter-fluxes of nitrate and ammonium into the sub-oxic zone has been revealed confirming that intensive denitrification may be the primary loss of nitrogen in the Black Sea. A low ratio of the nitrate stock to the flux of nitrate from the oxycline confirms the possibility of prominent changes in the distribution of nitrate on the time scale of a year. The ratio of the nitrate to oxygen vertical flux has revealed a lack of nitrate in the oxycline above the nitrate maximum. The lateral (related to the "Bosporus plume" flux of oxygen in the layer of the main pycnocline appears to be very important for the existing biogeochemical structure of the Black sea water column being the reason of sulphide consumption inside the anoxic zone and changes in the ammonium-sulphide stoichiometry of the anoxic zone, the primary reason of the existence of the sub-oxic layer and the basic reason of relative stability of the sulphide onset.

  3. Energetic Metastable Oxygen and Nitrogen Atoms in the Terrestrial Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharchenko, Vasili; Dalgarno, A.

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes our research performed under NASA Grant NAG5-11857. The three-year grant have been supported by the Geospace Sciences SR&T program. We have investigated the energetic metastable oxygen and nitrogen atoms in the terrestrial stratosphere, mesosphere and thermosphere. Hot atoms in the atmosphere are produced by solar radiation, the solar wind and various ionic reactions. Nascent hot atoms arise in ground and excited electronic states, and their translational energies are larger by two - three orders of magnitude than the thermal energies of the ambient gas. The relaxation kinetics of hot atoms determines the rate of atmospheric heating, the intensities of aeronomic reactions, and the rate of atom escape from the planet. Modeling of the non-Maxwellian energy distributions of metastable oxygen and nitrogen atoms have been focused on the determination of their impact on the energetics and chemistry of the terrestrial atmosphere between 25 and 250 km . At this altitudes, we have calculated the energy distribution functions of metastable O and N atoms and computed non-equilibrium rates of important aeronomic reactions, such as destruction of the water molecules by O(1D) atoms and production of highly excited nitric oxide molecules. In the upper atmosphere, the metastable O(lD) and N(2D) play important role in formation of the upward atomic fluxes. We have computed the upward fluxes of the metastable and ground state oxygen atoms in the upper atmosphere above 250 km. The accurate distributions of the metastable atoms have been evaluated for the day and night-time conditions.

  4. Reactivity of amino acid anions with nitrogen and oxygen atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe-Chen; Li, Ya-Ke; He, Sheng-Gui; Bierbaum, Veronica M

    2018-02-14

    For many decades, astronomers have searched for biological molecules, including amino acids, in the interstellar medium; this endeavor is important for investigating the hypothesis of the origin of life from space. The space environment is complex and atomic species, such as nitrogen and oxygen atoms, are widely distributed. In this work, the reactions of eight typical deprotonated amino acids (glycine, alanine, cysteine, proline, aspartic acid, histidine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) with ground state nitrogen and oxygen atoms are studied by experiment and theory. These amino acid anions do not react with nitrogen atoms. However, the reactions of these ions with oxygen atoms show an intriguing variety of ionic products and the reaction rate constants are of the order of 10 -10 cm 3 s -1 . Density functional calculations provide detailed mechanisms of the reactions, and demonstrate that spin conversion is essential for some processes. Our study provides important data and insights for understanding the kinetic and dynamic behavior of amino acids in space environments.

  5. Kinetics of liquid lithium reaction with oxygen-nitrogen mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, T.K.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    A series of experiments have been conducted in order to characterize the kinetics of lithium chemical reaction with a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen. Three mixed gas compositions were used; 80% N 2 and 20% O 2 , 90% N 2 and 10% O 2 , and 95% N 2 and 5% O 2 . The reaction rate was obtained as a function of lithium temperature and the oxygen fraction. Liquid lithium temperature varied from 400 to 1100 0 C. By varying the composition, the degree of inhibition of the lithium-nitrogen reaction rate due to the presence of oxygen was observed. The results indicate that the lithium-nitrogen reaction rate depended on both the fraction of oxygen present and lithium temperature. The lithium nitride layer formed from the reaction also had a significant inhibition effect on the lithium-nitrogen reaction rate while the lithium-oxygen reaction rate was not as greatly hindered. LITFIRE, a computer code which simulates temperature and pressure history in a containment building following lithium spills, was modified by including (1) an improved model for the lithium-nitrogen reaction rate and (2) a model for the lithium-CO 2 reaction. LITFIRE was used to simulate HEDL's LC-2 and LA-5 experiments, and the predicted temperatures and pressures were in a reasonable agreement. Furthermore, LITFIRE was applied to a prototypical fusion reactor containment in order to simulate the consequences of a lithium spill accident. The result indicated that if nitrogen was used as containment building gas during the accident, the consequences of the accident would be less severe than those with air. The pressure rise in the building was found to be reduced by 50% and the maximum temperature of the combustion zone was limited to 900 0 C instead of 1200 0 C in the case of air

  6. Thermotransport of nitrogen and oxygen in β-zirconium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, D.L.; Rieck, G.D.

    1971-01-01

    An investigation of thermotransport of nitrogen in ß-zirconium is reported. Using a method previously described, the heat of transport turned out to be 25.1 kcal/mole with a standard deviation of 2.5 kcal/mole. The formerly published value of the heat of transport of oxygen in ß-zirconium, viz. 20

  7. Oxygen etching mechanism in carbon-nitrogen (CNx) domelike nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acuna, J. J. S.; Figueroa, C. A.; Kleinke, M. U.; Alvarez, F.; Biggemann, D.

    2008-01-01

    We report a comprehensive study involving the ion beam oxygen etching purification mechanism of domelike carbon nanostructures containing nitrogen. The CN x nanodomes were prepared on Si substrate containing nanometric nickel islands catalyzed by ion beam sputtering of a carbon target and assisting the deposition by a second nitrogen ion gun. After preparation, the samples were irradiated in situ by a low energy ion beam oxygen source and its effects on the nanostructures were studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in an attached ultrahigh vacuum chamber, i.e., without atmospheric contamination. The influence of the etching process on the morphology of the samples and structures was studied by atomic force microscopy and field emission gun-secondary electron microscopy, respectively. Also, the nanodomes were observed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The oxygen atoms preferentially bond to carbon atoms by forming terminal carbonyl groups in the most reactive parts of the nanostructures. After the irradiation, the remaining nanostructures are grouped around two well-defined size distributions. Subsequent annealing eliminates volatile oxygen compounds retained at the surface. The oxygen ions mainly react with nitrogen atoms located in pyridinelike structures

  8. 40 CFR 415.490 - Applicability; description of the oxygen and nitrogen production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... oxygen and nitrogen production subcategory. 415.490 Section 415.490 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oxygen and Nitrogen Production Subcategory § 415.490 Applicability; description of the oxygen and nitrogen production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  9. Nitrogen transformations in wetlands: Effects of water flow patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidsson, T.

    1997-11-01

    In this thesis, I have studied nitrogen turnover processes in water meadows. A water meadow is a wetland where water infiltrates through the soil of a grassland field. It is hypothesized that infiltration of water through the soil matrix promotes nutrient transformations compared to surface flow of water, by increasing the contact between water, nutrients, soil organic matter and bacteria. I have studied how the balance between nitrogen removal (denitrification, assimilative uptake, adsorption) and release (mineralization, desorption) processes are affected by water flow characteristics. Mass balance studies and direct denitrification measurements at two field sites showed that, although denitrification was high, net nitrogen removal in the water meadows was poor. This was due to release of ammonium and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) from the soils. In laboratory studies, using {sup 15}N isotope techniques, I have shown that nitrogen turnover is considerably affected by hydrological conditions and by soil type. Infiltration increased virtually all the nitrogen processes, due to deeper penetration of nitrate and oxygen, and extended zones of turnover processes. On the contrary, soils and sediments with surface water flow, diffusion is the main transfer mechanism. The relation between release and removal processes sometimes resulted in shifts towards net nitrogen production. This occurred in infiltration treatments when ammonium efflux was high in relation to denitrification. It was concluded that ammonium and DON was of soil origin and hence not a product of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium. Both denitrification potential and mineralization rates were higher in peaty than in sandy soil. Vertical or horizontal subsurface flow is substantial in many wetland types, such as riparian zones, tidal salt marshes, fens, root-zone systems and water meadows. Moreover, any environment where aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems meet, and where water level fluctuates

  10. The G-factor in molecular nitrogen, oxygen and air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mentzoni, M.

    1987-06-01

    The electron energy relaxation in molecular nitrogen and oxygen is found experimentally using the methods of microwave cross-modulation, transport coeffisients, and flowing afterglows. On the basis of these results the excess electron energy loss factor, the G-factor, has been computed for nitrogen, oxygen and air as a function of electron temperature for various published effective electron collision frequencies. It is shown that the lack of a definitive theory for rotational excitation of O 2 , and very conflicting experimental results for this gas, yield a G-factor in air with a large degree of uncertainty. In spite of this uncertanty it is shown that the formula G = 18.9xT -1.5 , with T being the electron temperature in deg. K, agrees within 15% of the results obtained from swarm data and microwave cross-modulation

  11. Oxygen and nitrogen diffusion in coal-molecular sieve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Doina Maria

    1996-01-01

    Recently, the air separation process based on selective adsorption of carbon-molecular sieves has been developed strongly. The separation is based on the system kinematics and depends on the oxygen diffusion in adsorber micropores. The oxygen is preferentially adsorbed and in given conditions it is possible to obtain nitrogen of high purity. Recent theoretical and experimental studies concerning the production of nitrogen by PSA process have shown that the obtained performances can not be described by a constant diffusion model. The paper present the 'dual' model assumed for O 2 and N 2 diffusion through molecular sieve as well as the experimental data obtained in the adsorption study on carbon material produced at ICIS to determine the diffusivity values in micropores

  12. Nitrogen Oxygen Recharge System for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Dick, Brandon; Cook, Tony; Leonard, Dan

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) requires stores of Oxygen (O2) and Nitrogen (N2) to provide for atmosphere replenishment, direct crew member usage, and payload operations. Currently, supplies of N2/O2 are maintained by transfer from the Space Shuttle. Following Space Shuttle is retirement in 2010, an alternate means of resupplying N2/O2 to the ISS is needed. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has determined that the optimal method of supplying the ISS with O2/N2 is using tanks of high pressure N2/O2 carried to the station by a cargo vehicle capable of docking with the ISS. This paper will outline the architecture of the system selected by NASA and will discuss some of the design challenges associated with this use of high pressure oxygen and nitrogen in the human spaceflight environment.

  13. Influences of Air, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide Nanobubbles on Seed Germination and Plant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ahmed Khaled Abdella; Shi, Xiaonan; Hua, Likun; Manzueta, Leidy; Qing, Weihua; Marhaba, Taha; Zhang, Wen

    2018-05-23

    Nanobubbles (NBs) hold promise in green and sustainable engineering applications in diverse fields (e.g., water/wastewater treatment, food processing, medical applications, and agriculture). This study investigated the effects of four types of NBs on seed germination and plant growth. Air, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide NBs were generated and dispersed in tap water. Different plants, including lettuce, carrot, fava bean, and tomato, were used in germination and growth tests. The seeds in water-containing NBs exhibited 6-25% higher germination rates. Especially, nitrogen NBs exhibited considerable effects in the seed germination, whereas air and carbon dioxide NBs did not significantly promote germination. The growth of stem length and diameter, leave number, and leave width were promoted by NBs (except air). Furthermore, the promotion effect was primarily ascribed to the generation of exogenous reactive oxygen species by NBs and higher efficiency of nutrient fixation or utilization.

  14. Foil bearing performance in liquid nitrogen and liquid oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genge, Gary G.; Saville, Marshall; Gu, Alston

    1993-01-01

    Space transfer vehicles and other power and propulsion systems require long-life turbopumps. Rolling-element bearings used in current turbopumps do not have sufficient life for these applications. Process fluid foil bearings have established long life, with exceptional reliability, over a wide range of temperatures and fluids in many high-speed turbomachinery applications. However, actual data on bearing performance in cryogenic fluids has been minimal. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and AlliedSignal Aerospace Systems and Equipment (ASE) have attempted to characterize the leaf-type compliant foil bearing in oxygen and nitrogen. The work performed under a joint internal research and development program between Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and ASE demonstrated that the foil bearing has load capacities of at least 266 psi in liquid oxygen and 352 psi in liquid nitrogen. In addition, the bearing demonstrated a direct damping coefficient of 40 to 50 lb-sec/in. with a damping ratio of .7 to 1.4 in. liquid nitrogen using a bearing sized for upper-stage turbopumps. With the results from this testing and the years of successful use in air cycle machines and other applications, leaf-type compliant foil bearings are ready for testing in liquid oxygen turbopumps.

  15. Kinetics of irreversible thermal decomposition of dissociating nitrogen dioxide with nitrogen oxide or oxygen additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gvozdev, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of NO or O 2 admixtures on kinetics of the irreversible thermal decomposition of nitrogen dioxide at temperatures 460-520 deg C and pressures 4-7 MPa has been studied. It follows from experimental data that the rate of N 2 O 4 formation reduces with the increase of partial pressure of oxygen or decrease of partial pressure of nitrogen oxide. The same regularity is seen for the rate of nitrogen formation. The rate constants of N 2 O formation in dissociating nitrogen tetroxide with oxygen or nitrogen oxide additions agree satisfactorily with previously published results, obtained in stoichiometric mixtures. The appreciable discrepancy at 520 deg C is bind with considerable degree of nitrogen oxide transformation which constitutes approximately 14%. It is determined that the kinetics of formation of the products of irreversible N 2 O and N 2 decomposition in stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric 2NO 2 ↔ 2NO+O 2 mixtures is described by identical 3NO → N 2 O+NO 2 and N 2 O+NO → N 2 +NO 2 reactions

  16. Paradox reconsidered: Methane oversaturation in well-oxygenated lake waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Kam W.; McGinnis, Daniel F.; Frindte, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    The widely reported paradox of methane oversaturation in oxygenated water challenges the prevailing paradigm that microbial methanogenesis only occurs under anoxic conditions. Using a combination of field sampling, incubation experiments, and modeling, we show that the recurring mid-water methane...... peak in Lake Stechlin, northeast Germany, was not dependent on methane input from the littoral zone or bottom sediment or on the presence of known micro-anoxic zones. The methane peak repeatedly overlapped with oxygen oversaturation in the seasonal thermocline. Incubation experiments and isotope...... analysis indicated active methane production, which was likely linked to photosynthesis and/or nitrogen fixation within the oxygenated water, whereas lessening of methane oxidation by light allowed accumulation of methane in the oxygen-rich upper layer. Estimated methane efflux from the surface water...

  17. Modeling phytoremediation of nitrogen-polluted water using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Aloyce W.; Hanai, Emmanuel E.

    2017-08-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has a great potential for purification of wastewater through physical, chemical and biological mechanisms. In an attempt to improve the quality of effluents discharged from waste stabilization ponds at the University of Dar es Salaam, a pilot plant was constructed to experiment the effectiveness of this plants for transformation and removal of nitrogen. Samples of wastewater were collected and examined for water quality parameters, including pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and various forms of nitrogen, which were used as input parameters in a kinetic mathematical model. A conceptual model was then developed to model various processes in the system using STELLA 6.0.1 software. The results show that total nitrogen was removed by 63.9%. Denitrification contributed 73.8% of the removed nitrogen. Other dominant nitrogen removal mechanisms are net sedimentation and uptake by water hyacinth, which contributed 16.7% and 9.5% of the removed nitrogen, respectively. The model indicated that in presence of water hyacinth biofilm about 1.26 g Nm-2day-1 of nitrogen was removed. However, in the absence of biofilm in water hyacinth pond, the permanent nitrogen removal was only 0.89 g Nm-2day-1. This suggests that in absence of water hyacinth, the efficiency of nitrogen removal would decrease by 29.4%.

  18. Forensic applications of nitrogen and oxygen isotopes in tracing nitrate sources in urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S.R.; Ging, P.B.; Lee, R.W.; Ebbert, J.C.; Tesoriero, A.J.; Inkpen, E.L.

    2002-01-01

    Ground and surface waters in urban areas are susceptible to nitrate contamination from septic systems, leaking sewer lines, and fertilizer applications. Source identification is a primary step toward a successful remediation plan in affected areas. In this respect, nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate, in conjunction with hydrologic data and water chemistry, have proven valuable in urban studies from Austin, Texas, and Tacoma, Washington. In Austin, stream water was sampled during stremflow and baseflow conditions to assess surface and subsurface sources of nitrate, respectively. In Tacoma, well waters were sampled in adjacent sewered and un-sewered areas to determine if locally high nitrate concentrations were caused by septic systems in the un-sewered areas. In both studies, sewage was identified as a nitrate source and mixing between sewage and other sources of nitrate was apparent. In addition to source identification, combined nitrogen and oxygen isotopes were important in determining the significance of denitrification, which can complicate source assessment by reducing nitrate concentrations and increasing ??15N values. The two studies illustrate the value of nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate for forensic applications in urban areas. ?? Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. on behalf of AEHS.

  19. Preparation and use of nitrogen (2) oxide of special purity for production of oxygen and nitrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polevoj, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    Problems related with production of oxygen and nitrogen isotopes by means of low-temperature rectification of nitrogen (2) oxide are analyzed. Special attention, in particular, is payed to the techniques of synthesis and high purification of initial NO, utilization of waste flows formed during isotope separation. Ways to affect the initial isotope composition of nitrogen oxide and the rate of its homogeneous-isotope exchange, which provide for possibility of simultaneous production of oxygen and nitrogen isotopes by means of NO rectification, are considered. Description of a new technique for high purification of nitrogen oxide, prepared at decomposition of nitric acid by sulfurous anhydride, suggested by the author is presented

  20. Glove box adaptation of oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen determinator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanjaneyulu, P.S.; Phanindra Kumar, M.; Kulkarni, A.S.; Revathi, R.; Saxena, M.K.; Tomar, B.S.

    2017-01-01

    Radioanalytical Chemistry Division (RACD) is involved in chemical quality assurance (CQA) of various nuclear fuels and materials related to various DAE projects including FBTR and PFBR. Determination of oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen in these fuels is one of the important steps in the CQA of material. For this purpose, O, N and H determinator was indigenously designed, fabricated and commissioned with the help of M/s Chromatography and Instruments Company Ltd., Vadodara, India. The present article describes about glove box adaptation of this instrument and various safety features incorporated in the glove box and instrument at Lab. C-25, RACD, as per the recommendations of the plant level safety committee

  1. RECENT PROGRESS OF OXYGEN/NITROGEN SEPARATION USING MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. CHONG

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The oxygen-enriched air is highly demanded for various industrial applications such as medical, chemical and enhanced combustion processes. The conventional oxygen/nitrogen production is either cryogenic distillation or pressure swing adsorption (PSA. Both of these techniques possess the production capability of 20 to 300 tonnes of oxygen per day and oxygen purity of more than 95%. However, these techniques are energy intensive. Alternatively, membrane technology is an emerging technology in gas separation as it requires low energy consumption and relatively moderate production volume, if compared to the conventional gas production techniques. These advantages have spurred much interest from industries and academics to speed up the commercial viability of the O2/N2 separation via membrane technology. In this review, the conventional and membrane technologies in O2/N2 separation, as well as recent development of membrane fabrication techniques and materials are reviewed. The latest membrane performance in O2/N2 separation is also tabulated and discussed.

  2. Toxicological and pathophysiological roles of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Ruth A.; Smith, Robert A.; Safe, Stephen; Szabo, Csaba; Tjalkens, Ronald B.; Robertson, Fredika M.

    2010-01-01

    'Oxidative and Nitrative Stress in Toxicology and Disease' was the subject of a symposium held at the EUROTOX meeting in Dresden 15th September 2009. Reactive oxygen (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) produced during tissue pathogenesis and in response to viral or chemical toxicants, induce a complex series of downstream adaptive and reparative events driven by the associated oxidative and nitrative stress. As highlighted by all the speakers, ROS and RNS can promote diverse biological responses associated with a spectrum of disorders including neurodegenerative/neuropsychiatric and cardiovascular diseases. Similar pathways are implicated during the process of liver and skin carcinogenesis. Mechanistically, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species drive sustained cell proliferation, cell death including both apoptosis and necrosis, formation of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA mutations, and in some cases stimulation of a pro-angiogenic environment. Here we illustrate the pivotal role played by oxidative and nitrative stress in cell death, inflammation and pain and its consequences for toxicology and disease pathogenesis. Examples are presented from five different perspectives ranging from in vitro model systems through to in vivo animal model systems and clinical outcomes.

  3. A scenario analysis of effects of reduced nitrogen input on oxygen conditions in the Kattegat and the Belt Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, I.S.; Ærtebjerg, G.; Richardson, K.

    1995-01-01

    A numerical tool has been developed for analyzing the potential effects of reduced nitrogen loading to the Kattegat and the Belt Sea. The analyzed effects relate to general trends in the occurrence of hypoxia and anoxia in the water below the pycnocline during the summer and autumn. Nitrogen...... is assumed to be the nutrient controlling production in these waters. The tool is a dynamic numerical model which includes the dominant hydrodynamic processes of the study area as well as the nitrogen cycle and is linked to oxygen conditions. The model has been calibrated based on the average intraannual...

  4. Barley seed radiosensitivity following post-hydration in oxygen-, nitrogen- and nitrous oxide-saturated water, 1; Influence of caffeine and t-butyl alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.P.; Kesavan, P.C. (Jawaharlal Nehru Univ., New Delhi (India). School of Life Sciences)

    1990-06-01

    Dry ({approx}3.5 and 4.0 per cent moisture content) barley seeds were exposed to 350 Gy of {sup 60}Co-{gamma}-rays in vacuo and post-hydrated at 4degC for 8 h in O{sub 2}-, N{sub 2}-, or N{sub 2}O-saturated water. The effect of caffeine and t-butyl alcohol (t-BuOH) dissolved in the post-hydration medium on the magnitude of damage developing under these three different gaseous circumstances was studied. The post-irradiation damage and its modification by caffeine and t-BuOH was assessed in terms of 8-day-old seedling injury, peroxidase activity and total peroxides in the 8-day-old seedlings. Post-irradiation O{sub 2}-saturated hydration caused maximal 8-day-old seedling injury, and increased peroxidase activity with concomitant reduction in total peroxides. Both caffeine and t-BuOH afforded significant radioprotection against post-irradiation O{sub 2}-dependent damage. Post-irradiation N{sub 2}O-saturated hydration was even more significantly radioprotective than the N{sub 2}-saturated post-hydration. Under these circumstances, t-BuOH exerted no effect whatsoever on the N{sub 2}- and N{sub 2}O-mediated post-irradiation damage. Caffeine, on the other hand, significantly potentiated these two components of damage. A brief consideration of the physicochemical events which possibly account for the observed effects is presented. (author).

  5. Biological nitrogen fixation in the oxygen-minimum region of the eastern tropical North Pacific ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Amal; Chang, Bonnie X; Widner, Brittany; Bernhardt, Peter; Mulholland, Margaret R; Ward, Bess B

    2017-10-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) was investigated above and within the oxygen-depleted waters of the oxygen-minimum zone of the Eastern Tropical North Pacific Ocean. BNF rates were estimated using an isotope tracer method that overcame the uncertainty of the conventional bubble method by directly measuring the tracer enrichment during the incubations. Highest rates of BNF (~4 nM day -1 ) occurred in coastal surface waters and lowest detectable rates (~0.2 nM day -1 ) were found in the anoxic region of offshore stations. BNF was not detectable in most samples from oxygen-depleted waters. The composition of the N 2 -fixing assemblage was investigated by sequencing of nifH genes. The diazotrophic assemblage in surface waters contained mainly Proteobacterial sequences (Cluster I nifH), while both Proteobacterial sequences and sequences with high identities to those of anaerobic microbes characterized as Clusters III and IV type nifH sequences were found in the anoxic waters. Our results indicate modest input of N through BNF in oxygen-depleted zones mainly due to the activity of proteobacterial diazotrophs.

  6. The role of oxygen and water on molybdenum nanoclusters for electro catalytic ammonia production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob G. Howalt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of water often gives rise to oxygen adsorption on catalyst surfaces through decomposition of water and the adsorbed oxygen or hydroxide species often occupy important surfaces sites, resulting in a decrease or a total hindrance of other chemical reactions taking place at that site. In this study, we present theoretical investigations of the influence of oxygen adsorption and reduction on pure and nitrogen covered molybdenum nanocluster electro catalysts for electrochemical reduction of N2 to NH3 with the purpose of understanding oxygen and water poisoning of the catalyst. Density functional theory calculations are used in combination with the computational hydrogen electrode approach to calculate the free energy profile for electrochemical protonation of O and N2 species on cuboctahedral Mo13 nanoclusters. The calculations show that the molybdenum nanocluster will preferentially bind oxygen over nitrogen and hydrogen at neutral bias, but under electrochemical reaction conditions needed for nitrogen reduction, oxygen adsorption is severely weakened and the adsorption energy is comparable to hydrogen and nitrogen adsorption. The potentials required to reduce oxygen off the surface are −0.72 V or lower for all oxygen coverages studied, and it is thus possible to (reactivate (partially oxidized nanoclusters for electrochemical ammonia production, e.g., using a dry proton conductor or an aqueous electrolyte. At lower oxygen coverages, nitrogen molecules can adsorb to the surface and electrochemical ammonia production via the associative mechanism is possible at potentials as low as −0.45 V to −0.7 V.

  7. Inhibition of nitrogenase by oxygen in marine cyanobacteria controls the global nitrogen and oxygen cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman-Frank, I.; Chen, Y.-B.; Gerchman, Y.; Dismukes, G. C.; Falkowski, P. G.

    2005-03-01

    Cyanobacterial N2-fixation supplies the vast majority of biologically accessible inorganic nitrogen to nutrient-poor aquatic ecosystems. The process, catalyzed by the heterodimeric protein complex, nitrogenase, is thought to predate that of oxygenic photosynthesis. Remarkably, while the enzyme plays such a critical role in Earth's biogeochemical cycles, the activity of nitrogenase in cyanobacteria is markedly inhibited in vivo at a post-translational level by the concentration of O2 in the contemporary atmosphere leading to metabolic and biogeochemical inefficiency in N2 fixation. We illustrate this crippling effect with data from Trichodesmium spp. an important contributor of "new nitrogen" to the world's subtropical and tropical oceans. The enzymatic inefficiency of nitrogenase imposes a major elemental taxation on diazotrophic cyanobacteria both in the costs of protein synthesis and for scarce trace elements, such as iron. This restriction has, in turn, led to a global limitation of fixed nitrogen in the contemporary oceans and provides a strong biological control on the upper bound of oxygen concentration in Earth's atmosphere.

  8. Anaerobic Nitrogen Turnover by Sinking Diatom Aggregates at Varying Ambient Oxygen Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eStief

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the world’s oceans, even relatively low oxygen (O2 levels inhibit anaerobic nitrogen cycling by free-living microbes. Sinking organic aggregates, however, might provide oxygen-depleted microbial hotspots in otherwise oxygenated surface waters. Here we show that sinking diatom aggregates can host anaerobic nitrogen cycling at ambient O2 levels well above the hypoxic threshold. Aggregates were produced from the ubiquitous diatom Skeletonema marinoi and the natural microbial community of seawater. Microsensor profiling through the center of sinking aggregates revealed internal anoxia at ambient 40% air saturation (~100 µmol O2 L-1 and below. Accordingly, anaerobic nitrate turnover inside the aggregates was evident within this range of ambient O2 levels. In incubations with 15N-labeled nitrate, individual Skeletonema aggregates produced NO2- (up to 10.7 nmol N h-1 per aggregate, N2 (up to 7.1 nmol N h-1, NH4+ (up to 2.0 nmol N h-1, and N2O (up to 0.2 nmol N h-1. Intriguingly, nitrate stored inside the diatom cells served as an additional, internal nitrate source for N2 production, which may partially uncouple anaerobic nitrate turnover by diatom aggregates from direct ambient nitrate supply. Sinking diatom aggregates can contribute directly to fixed-nitrogen loss in low-oxygen environments in the ocean and vastly expand the ocean volume in which anaerobic nitrogen turnover is possible, despite relatively high ambient O2 levels. Depending on the extent of intracellular nitrate consumption during the sinking process, diatom aggregates may also be involved in the long-distance export of nitrate to the deep ocean.

  9. Liquid Nitrogen (Oxygen Simulant) Thermodynamic Vent System Test Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayat, A.; Nelson, S. L.; Hastings, L. J.; Flachbart, R. H.; Tucker, S. P.

    2005-01-01

    In designing systems for the long-term storage of cryogens in low-gravity (space) environments, one must consider the effects of thermal stratification on tank pressure that will occur due to environmental heat leaks. During low-gravity operations, a Thermodynamic Vent System (TVS) concept is expected to maintain tank pressure without propellant resettling. A series of TVS tests was conducted at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) using liquid nitrogen (LN2) as a liquid oxygen (LO2) simulant. The tests were performed at tank til1 levels of 90%, 50%, and 25%, and with a specified tank pressure control band. A transient one-dimensional TVS performance program is used to analyze and correlate the test data for all three fill levels. Predictions and comparisons of ullage pressure and temperature and bulk liquid saturation pressure and temperature with test data are presented.

  10. Contamination of liquid oxygen by pressurized gaseous nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J.; King, Tracy K.; Ngo, Kim Chi

    1989-01-01

    The penetration of pressurized gaseous nitrogen (GN2) into liquid oxygen (LOX) was investigated experimentally in the 7-inch High Temperature Tunnel, the pilot tunnel for the 8-foot High Temperature Tunnel (8'HTT) at Langley Research Center. A preliminary test using a nuclear monitor revealed the extent of the liquid nitrogen (LN2) build-up at the LOX interface as a function of GN2 pressure. Then an adaptation of the differential flash vaporization technique was used to determine the binary diffusivity of the LOX-LN2 system at a temperature of 90.2 K. The measured value D equals 0.000086 sq cm/s + or - 25 percent together with two prior measurements at lower temperatures revealed an excellent fit to the Arrhenius equation, yielding a pre-exponential factor D sub 0 equals 0.0452 sq cm/s and an activation enthalpy H equals 1.08 kcal/mol. At a pressure of 1700 psi and holding time of 15 min, the penetration of LN2 into LOX (to a 1 percent contamination level) was found to be 0.9 cm, indicating but minimal impact upon 8'HTT operations.

  11. Liquid Nitrogen (Oxygen Simulent) Thermodynamic Venting System Test Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayat, A.; Nelson, S. L.; Hastings, L. J.; Flachbart, R. H.; Tucker, S. P.

    2005-01-01

    In designing systems for the long-term storage of cryogens in low gravity space environments, one must consider the effects of thermal stratification on excessive tank pressure that will occur due to environmental heat leakage. During low gravity operations, a Thermodynamic Venting System (TVS) concept is expected to maintain tank pressure without propellant resettling. The TVS consists of a recirculation pump, Joule-Thomson (J-T) expansion valve, and a parallel flow concentric tube heat exchanger combined with a longitudinal spray bar. Using a small amount of liquid extracted by the pump and passing it though the J-T valve, then through the heat exchanger, the bulk liquid and ullage are cooled, resulting in lower tank pressure. A series of TVS tests were conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center using liquid nitrogen as a liquid oxygen simulant. The tests were performed at fill levels of 90%, 50%, and 25% with gaseous nitrogen and helium pressurants, and with a tank pressure control band of 7 kPa. A transient one-dimensional model of the TVS is used to analyze the data. The code is comprised of four models for the heat exchanger, the spray manifold and injector tubes, the recirculation pump, and the tank. The TVS model predicted ullage pressure and temperature and bulk liquid saturation pressure and temperature are compared with data. Details of predictions and comparisons with test data regarding pressure rise and collapse rates will be presented in the final paper.

  12. Mitochondrial Signaling in Plants Under Hypoxia: Use of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim; Møller, Ian Max

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia commonly occurs in roots in water-saturated soil and in maturing and germinating seeds. We here review the role of the mitochondria in the cellular response to hypoxia with an emphasis on the turnover of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS) and their potential...

  13. Thermal relaxation of molecular oxygen in collisions with nitrogen atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrienko, Daniil A., E-mail: daniila@umich.edu; Boyd, Iain D. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Michigan, 1320 Beal Ave., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108 (United States)

    2016-07-07

    Investigation of O{sub 2}–N collisions is performed by means of the quasi-classical trajectory method on the two lowest ab initio potential energy surfaces at temperatures relevant to hypersonic flows. A complete set of bound–bound and bound–free transition rates is obtained for each precollisional rovibrational state. Special attention is paid to the vibrational and rotational relaxations of oxygen as a result of chemically non-reactive interaction with nitrogen atoms. The vibrational relaxation of oxygen partially occurs via the formation of an intermediate NO{sub 2} complex. The efficient energy randomization results in rapid vibrational relaxation at low temperatures, compared to other molecular systems with a purely repulsive potential. The vibrational relaxation time, computed by means of master equation studies, is nearly an order of magnitude lower than the relaxation time in N{sub 2}–O collisions. The rotational nonequilibrium starts to play a significant effect at translational temperatures above 8000 K. The present work provides convenient relations for the vibrational and rotational relaxation times as well as for the quasi-steady dissociation rate coefficient and thus fills a gap in data due to a lack of experimental measurements for this system.

  14. Nitrogen transformation of reclaimed wastewater in a pipeline by oxygen injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, L E; Alvarez, M; Rodríguez-Sevilla, J; Marrero, M C; Hernández, A

    2009-06-01

    A study of oxygen injection was performed in a completely filled gravity pipe, which is part of the South Tenerife reclaimed wastewater reuse scheme (Spain), in order to inhibit the appearance of anaerobic conditions by a nitrification-denitrification process. The pipe was 0.6 m in diameter and 62 km long and made of cast iron with a concrete inner coating, A high-pressure oxygen injection system was installed at 16 km from the pipe inlet, where severe anaerobic conditions appear. Experiments on oxygen injection were carried out with three different concentrations (7, 15 and 30 mg l(-1) O2). In all experiments, oxygen dissolved properly after injection, and no gas escapes were detected during water transportation. Most oxygen was consumed in the nitrification process, due to the low COD/NH4-N ratio, leading to a maximum production of oxidized nitrogen compounds of 7.5 mg l(-1) NO(x)-N with the 30 mg l(-1) O2 dose. Nitrification occured with nitrite accumulation, attributed to the presence of free ammonia within the range 1.2-1.4 mg l(-). Once the oxygen had been consumed, an apparent half-order denitrification took place, with limitation of biodegradable organic matter. The anoxic conditions led to a complete inhibition of sulphide generation.

  15. Oxygen Limited Bioreactors System For Nitrogen Removal Using Immobilized Mix Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, B. K.; Sumino, T.; Saiki, Y.; Kazama, F.

    2005-12-01

    Recently nutrients concentrations especially nitrogen in natural water is alarming in the world wide. Most of the effort is being done on the removal of high concentration of nitrogen especially from the wastewater treatment plants. The removal efficiency is targeted in all considering the effluent discharge standard set by the national environment agency. In many cases, it does not meet the required standard and receiving water is being polluted. Eutrophication in natural water bodies has been reported even if the nitrogen concentration is low and self purification of natural systems itself is not sufficient to remove the nitrogen due to complex phenomenon. In order to recover the pristine water environment, it is very essential to explore bioreactor systems for natural water systems using immobilized mix culture. Microorganism were entrapped in Polyethylene glycol (PEG) prepolymer gel and cut into 3mm cubic immobilized pellets. Four laboratory scale micro bio-reactors having 0.1 L volumes were packed with immobilized pellets with 50% compact ratio. RUN1, RUN2, RUN3 and RUN4 were packed with immobilized pellets from reservoirs sediments, activated sludge (AS), mixed of AS, AG and biodegradable plastic and anaerobic granules (AG) respectively. Water from Shiokawa Reservoirs was feed to all reactors with supplemental ammonia and nitrite nitrogen as specified in the results and discussions. The reactors were operated dark incubated room in continuous flow mode with hydraulic retention time of 12 hours under oxygen limiting condition. Ammonium, nitrate nitrite nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations were measured as described in APWA and AWWA (1998). Laboratory scale four bioreactors containing different combination of immobilized cell were monitored for 218 days. Influent NH4+-N and NO2--N concentration were 2.27±0.43 and 2.05±0.41 mg/l respectively. Average dissolved oxygen concentration and pH in the reactors were 0.40-2.5 mg/l and pH 6

  16. From nitrogen enrichment to oxygen depletion: a mechanistic model of coastal marine ecosystems response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Koski, Marja; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    Nitrogen (N) emissions from anthropogenic sources may enrich coastal waters and lead to marine eutrophication impacts. Processes describing N-limited primary production (PP), zooplankton grazing, and bacterial respiration of sinking organic carbon, were modelled to quantify the potential dissolved...... oxygen (DO) consumption as a function of N input. Such indicator is the basis for an eXposure Factor (XF) applied in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) to estimate impacts from N enrichment. The Large Marine Ecosystems (LME) biogeographical classification system was adopted to address the spatial...

  17. Depletion of oxygen, nitrate and nitrite in the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone cause an imbalance of benthic nitrogen fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, S.; Gier, J.; Treude, T.; Lomnitz, U.; Dengler, M.; Cardich, J.; Dale, A. W.

    2016-06-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) are key regions for fixed nitrogen loss in both the sediments and the water column. During this study, the benthic contribution to N cycling was investigated at ten sites along a depth transect (74-989 m) across the Peruvian OMZ at 12°S. O2 levels were below detection limit down to ~500 m. Benthic fluxes of N2, NO3-, NO2-, NH4+, H2S and O2 were measured using benthic landers. Flux measurements on the shelf were made under extreme geochemical conditions consisting of a lack of O2, NO3- and NO2- in the bottom water and elevated seafloor sulphide release. These particular conditions were associated with a large imbalance in the benthic nitrogen cycle. The sediments on the shelf were densely covered by filamentous sulphur bacteria Thioploca, and were identified as major recycling sites for DIN releasing high amounts of NH4+up to 21.2 mmol m-2 d-1 that were far in excess of NH4+ release by ammonification. This difference was attributed to dissimilatory nitrate (or nitrite) reduction to ammonium (DNRA) that was partly being sustained by NO3- stored within the sulphur oxidizing bacteria. Sediments within the core of the OMZ (ca. 200-400 m) also displayed an excess flux of N of 3.5 mmol m-2 d-1 mainly as N2. Benthic nitrogen and sulphur cycling in the Peruvian OMZ appears to be particularly susceptible to bottom water fluctuations in O2, NO3- and NO2-, and may accelerate the onset of pelagic euxinia when NO3- and NO2- become depleted.

  18. Modelling of zircaloy-4 degradation in oxygen and nitrogen mixtures at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasserre-Gagnaire, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Zircaloy-4 claddings provide the first containment of UO 2 fuel in Pressurised Water Reactors. It has been demonstrated that the fuel assemblies cladding could be exposed to air at high temperature in several accidental situations such as a loss of cooling accident in a spent fuel storage When mixed to oxygen at high temperature, the nitrogen, usually used as an inert gas, causes the accelerated corrosion of the cladding. The kinetic curves obtained by thermogravimetry reveal two stages: a pre-transition and a post-transition one. The pre-transition stage corresponds to the growth of a protective dense oxide layer: the kinetic rate decreases with time and is controlled by oxygen vacancy diffusion in the oxide layer. In the post-transition stage, the oxide layer is no longer protective and the kinetic rate increases with time. Images obtained by optical microscopy of a sample in the post-transition stage reveal the presence of corroded zones characterized by a porous scale with zirconium nitride precipitates at metal - oxide interface. Corrosion of Zy4 plates at 850 deg. C under mixed oxygen - nitrogen atmospheres has been studied during the post-transition stage. A sequence of three reactions is proposed to explain the mechanism of nitrogen-enhanced corrosion and the porosity of the corroded regions. The accelerating effect of nitrogen in the corrosion scale can therefore be described on the basis of an autocatalytic effect of the zirconium nitride precipitates. Then, it is demonstrated that the steady-state approximation as well as the existence of an elementary step controlling the growth process are valid during the post-transition stage. Thanks to the study of the variations of the surface rate of growth with the oxygen and nitrogen partial pressure, the rate-determining step is identified as the external interface reaction step of the oxidation of the zirconium nitride precipitates. Finally, a nucleation and growth model used for thermal reactions in powders

  19. Characterization of hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon and sulfur in nuclear fuel (UO2) and cladding nuclear rod materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crewe, Maria Teresa I.; Lopes, Paula Corain; Moura, Sergio C.; Sampaio, Jessica A.G.; Bustillos, Oscar V.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carbon and Sulfur gases analysis in nuclear fuels such as UO 2 , U 3 O 8 , U 3 Si 2 and in the fuel cladding such as Zircaloy, is a well known as a quality control in nuclear industry. In UO 2 pellets, the Hydrogen molecule fragilizes the metal lattice causing the material cracking. In Zircaloy material the H2 molecules cause the boiling of the cladding. Other gases like Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carbon and Sulfur affect in the lattice structure change. In this way these chemical compounds have to be measure within specify parameters, these measurement are part of the quality control of the nuclear industry. The analytical procedure has to be well established by a convention of the quality assurance. Therefore, the Oxygen, Carbon, Sulfur and Hydrogen are measured by infrared absorption (IR) and the nitrogen will be measured by thermal conductivity (TC). The gas/metal analyzer made by LECO Co. model TCHEN-600 is Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen analyzer in a variety of metals, refractory and other inorganic materials, using the principle of fusion by inert gas, infrared and thermo-coupled detector. The Carbon and Sulfur compounds are measure by LECO Co. model CS-400. A sample is first weighed and placed in a high purity graphite crucible and is casted on a stream of helium gas, enough to release the oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen. During the fusion, the oxygen present in the sample combines with the carbon crucible to form carbon monoxide. Then, the nitrogen present in the sample is analyzed and released as molecular nitrogen and the hydrogen is released as gas. The hydrogen gas is measured by infrared absorption, and the sample gases pass through a trap of copper oxide which converts CO to CO 2 and hydrogen into water. The gases enter the cell where infrared water content is then converted making the measurement of total hydrogen present in the sample. The Hydrogen detection limits for the nuclear fuel is 1 μg/g for the Nitrogen

  20. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. Kwok-Keung; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1987-08-25

    The present invention relates to a method of removing of nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas which method comprises contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate complex. The NO absorption efficiency of ferrous urea-dithiocarbamate and ferrous diethanolamine-xanthate as a function of time, oxygen content and solution ph is presented. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Nitrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of N sub(2)O from suboxic waters of the eastern tropical North Pacific and the Arabian Sea - measurement by continuous-flow isotope-ratio monitoring

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Yoshinari, T.; Altabet, M.A.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Codispoti, L.; Jayakumar, D.A.; Kuhland, M.; Devol, A.

    of the correlation between apparent oxygen utilization and N,O con- centration found in many portions of the ocean. However, such a correlation is not sufficient evi- dence to conclude that nitrification is the dominant source (Pierotti and Rasmussen, 1980...,O is also significantly affected by denitrification (Yoshinari and Koike, 1994). In the eastern tropical North Pa- cific, nitrate deficits (an estimate of the NO; con- verted to N, by denitrification) are relatively large in the water mass that contains...

  2. Nitrogen uptake and fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency of wheat under different soil water conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Baiqun; Zhang Wei; Yu Cunzu

    1999-01-01

    The pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of soil water regime and fertilizer nitrogen rate on the yields, nitrogen uptake and fertilizer nitrogen utilization of wheat by using 15 N tracer method. The results showed that the aboveground biomass, stem yield and grain yield increased with the increase of soil moisture in the fertilizer nitrogen treatments. All the yield increased with the increase of the fertilizer nitrogen rate in the soil water treatments. It was found that both soil water regime and fertilizer nitrogen rate significantly influenced the amount of nitrogen uptake by wheat according to the variance analysis. The amount of nitrogen uptake increased with the rise of the soil moisture in fertilizer nitrogen treatments and the amount also increased with the increase of the urea nitrogen rate in the soil water regime. Soil water regimes not only had an impact on nitrogen uptake but also had a close relationship with soil nitrogen supply and fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency. The soil A values decreased in urea treatment and increased with the rise of the soil moisture in the combination treatment of urea with pig manure. The fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency rose with the rise of the soil moisture in the same fertilizer nitrogen treatment. The fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency of the urea treatment was 13.3%, 27.9% and 32.3% in the soils with 50%, 70% and 90% of the field water capacity, respectively. The fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency in the combination treatment of urea with pig manure was 20.0%, 29.9% and 34.4% in the soils of above three levels, respectively. It was concluded that the low soil moisture restricted urea nitrogen use efficiency (UNUE) and the UNUE could be raised by combination treatment of urea with manure in the soil of enough moisture

  3. [Effects of water deficit and nitrogen fertilization on winter wheat growth and nitrogen uptake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, You-Ling; Zhang, Fu-Cang; Li, Kai-Feng

    2009-10-01

    Winter wheat plants were cultured in vitro tubes to study their growth and nitrogen uptake under effects of water deficit at different growth stages and nitrogen fertilization. Water deficit at any growth stages could obviously affect the plant height, leaf area, dry matter accumulation, and nitrogen uptake. Jointing stage was the most sensitive stage of winter wheat growth to water deficit, followed by flowering stage, grain-filling stage, and seedling stages. Rewatering after the water deficit at seedling stage had a significant compensation effect on winter wheat growth, and definite compensation effect was observed on the biomass accumulation and nitrogen absorption when rewatering was made after the water deficit at flowering stage. Under the same nitrogen fertilization levels, the nitrogen accumulation in root with water deficit at seedling, jointing, flowering, and grain-filling stages was reduced by 25.82%, 55.68%, 46.14%, and 16.34%, and the nitrogen accumulation in aboveground part was reduced by 33.37%, 51.71%, 27.01%, and 2.60%, respectively, compared with no water deficit. Under the same water deficit stages, the nitrogen content and accumulation of winter wheat decreased with decreasing nitrogen fertilization level, i. e., 0.3 g N x kg(-1) FM > 0.2 g N x kg(-1) FM > 0.1 g N x kg(-1) FM. Nitrogen fertilization had obvious regulation effect on winter wheat plant growth, dry matter accumulation, and nitrogen uptake under water stress.

  4. LBA-ECO CD-02 Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen Stable Isotopes in Organic Material, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports the measurement of stable carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope ratios in organic material (plant, litter and soil samples) in forest canopy...

  5. LBA-ECO CD-02 Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen Stable Isotopes in Organic Material, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports the measurement of stable carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope ratios in organic material (plant, litter and soil samples) in forest...

  6. MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF NITROGEN, OXYGEN AND SULFUR HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS UNDER ANAEROBIC CONDITIONS: STUDIES WITH AQUIFER SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential for anaerobic biodegradation of 12 heterocyclic model compounds was studied. Nine of the model compounds were biotransformed in aquifer slurries under sulfate-reducing or methanogenic conditions. The nitrogen and oxygen heterocyclic compounds were more susceptible t...

  7. Cement Pastes and Mortars Containing Nitrogen-Doped and Oxygen-Functionalized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Martínez-Alanis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cement pastes and mortars based on ordinary Portland cement containing nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-Nx or oxygen-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-Ox are investigated. To incorporate MWCNTs into the cementitious matrix, the as-produced carpets are dispersed over periods of 1 and 2 hours in distilled water at pH levels of 1 and 7. The cement pastes are prepared by adding 0.1 wt% of MWCNTs to cement powder, followed by characterization with SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD at an early age (first hours of hydration. The mortars are mechanically characterized during the hydration process for a period of 28 days. SEM characterization of cement pastes revealed that the carbon nanotubes are well incorporated in the cementitious matrix, with the hydrated cement grains interconnected by long carbon nanotubes. XRD characterizations demonstrated that, during the hydration of cement pastes, different peaks emerged that were associated with ettringite, hydrated calcium silicate, and calcium hydroxide, among other structures. Results of the compressive strength measurements for mortars simultaneously mixed with MWCNT-Nx and MWCNT-Ox reached an increment of approximately 30% in compressive strength. In addition, density functional theory calculations were performed in nitrogen-doped and oxygen-functionalized carbon nanotubes interacting with a cement grain.

  8. Determination of oxygen and nitrogen in coal by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrin, C.E. Jr.; Johannes, A.H.; James, W.D. Jr.; Sun, G.H.; Ehmann, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure oxygen and nitrogen in coals using instrumental neutron activation analysis. For six U.S. coals total oxygen ranged from 9.4 to 28.7% and total nitrogen varied from 0.72 to 1.61%. To obtain values of organic oxygen and nitrogen either a low-temperature-ashing (LTA) method or an acid-treatment (AT) method was suitable for bituminous coals. The mean difference of the experimentally determined values (Osub(dmmf))sub(LTA) - (Osub(dmmf))sub(AT) = -0.82, s = 0.51, [dmmf = dry, mineral-matter-free basis], was found to be statistically significant at the 95% confidence level, but the comparable difference for nitrogen was not. By the LTA method oxygen and nitrogen on the dmmf basis for bituminous coals showed no statistically significant difference with calculated dmmf values. Nitrogen was detected in all the LTAs varying from 0.38 to 1.67%. Formation of insoluble CaF 2 in the acid-treatment method caused an interference in the nitrogen determination due to the 19 F (n, 2n) 18 F reaction but was correctable. In addition, recoil proton reactions on C and O leading to the formation of 13 N must be accounted for in all nitrogen determinations in the coal matrix. (author)

  9. An electrochemical sensor for monitoring oxygen or hydrogen in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitai Yang; Morris, D.R.; Lister, D.H.

    1997-01-01

    Preliminary studies have been done on a simple electrochemical sensor which shows promise as a cheap, robust instrument for measuring dissolved oxygen or hydrogen in water. The sensor is based upon the solid-state electrolyte ''Nafion'' (trade name of perfluorinated sulphonic acid, manufactured by DuPont Inc.). The Nafion was dissolved in a mixture of aliphatic alcohols, made into a slurry with platinum black, and applied to a ∼1 cm-square electrode made of stainless steel gauze. The potential of the electrode was measured relative to a standard calomel electrode (SCE) in acid solutions at room temperature through which mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen or hydrogen and nitrogen were bubbled. The sensor was responsive to the equilibrating gas with good reproducibility. A similar sensor without the Nafion was not at all sensitive to changes in oxygen concentration. The voltage response of the sensor showed non-Nernstian behaviour, which suggests that the electrochemical reactions at the electrode surface are complex. Further testing of the sensor is required to verify its sensitivity and responsiveness in typical reactor coolant chemistries and to demonstrate its durability over a range of temperatures. (author). 4 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  10. An electrochemical sensor for monitoring oxygen or hydrogen in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Leitai; Morris, D R; Lister, D H [University of New Brunswick, Fredericton (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-02-01

    Preliminary studies have been done on a simple electrochemical sensor which shows promise as a cheap, robust instrument for measuring dissolved oxygen or hydrogen in water. The sensor is based upon the solid-state electrolyte ``Nafion`` (trade name of perfluorinated sulphonic acid, manufactured by DuPont Inc.). The Nafion was dissolved in a mixture of aliphatic alcohols, made into a slurry with platinum black, and applied to a {approx}1 cm-square electrode made of stainless steel gauze. The potential of the electrode was measured relative to a standard calomel electrode (SCE) in acid solutions at room temperature through which mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen or hydrogen and nitrogen were bubbled. The sensor was responsive to the equilibrating gas with good reproducibility. A similar sensor without the Nafion was not at all sensitive to changes in oxygen concentration. The voltage response of the sensor showed non-Nernstian behaviour, which suggests that the electrochemical reactions at the electrode surface are complex. Further testing of the sensor is required to verify its sensitivity and responsiveness in typical reactor coolant chemistries and to demonstrate its durability over a range of temperatures. (author). 4 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab.

  11. Separation of isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen by low temperature distillation of nitrogen oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isomura, Shohei; Tonooka, Yasuhiko; Kaetsu, Hayato

    1987-02-01

    In general, the distillation parameters, such as the number of theoretical plate (NTP) and the height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP), can be obtained from the operation at the steady state. However, it is time-consuming to achieve the steady state especially in the case of isotope separation. In this paper, with the purpose of simultaneous separation of isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen by NO distillation, we tried to determine the distillation parameters by an analytical method through the transient-state operation. It was confirmed that the results from the analysis were in good agreement with those observed for the operation at the steady state. Enrichment of the isotopes was carried out using a distillation column with a height of 1 m and inside diameter of 12 mm. The dependence of HETP on liquid flow rate was measured by the proposed method. The obtained HETP values were from 2 to 4 cm. The operation time of about 5 h was found to be long enough to determine the distillation parameters.

  12. Separation of isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen by low temperature distillation of nitrogen oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isomura, Shohei; Tonooka, Yasuhiko; Kaetsu, Hayato

    1987-01-01

    In general, the distillation parameters, such as the number of theoretical plate (NTP) and the height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP), can be obtained from the operation at the steady state. However, it is time-consuming to achieve the steady state especially in the case of isotope separation. In this paper, with the purpose of simultaneous separation of isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen by NO distillation, we tried to determine the distillation parameters by an analytical method through the transient-state operation. It was confirmed that the results from the analysis were in good agreement with those observed for the operation at the steady state. Enrichment of the isotopes was carried out using a distillation column with a height of 1 m and inside diameter of 12 mm. The dependence of HETP on liquid flow rate was measured by the proposed method. The obtained HETP values were from 2 to 4 cm. The operation time of about 5 h was found to be long enough to determine the distillation parameters. (author)

  13. Nitrogen And Oxygen Amount In Weld After Welding With Micro-Jet Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Węgrzyn T.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Micro-jet cooling after welding was tested only for MIG welding process with argon, helium and nitrogen as a shielded gases. A paper presents a piece of information about nitrogen and oxygen in weld after micro-jet cooling. There are put down information about gases that could be chosen both for MIG/MAG welding and for micro-jet process. There were given main information about influence of various micro-jet gases on metallographic structure of steel welds. Mechanical properties of weld was presented in terms of nitrogen and oxygen amount in WMD (weld metal deposit.

  14. A continuous-flow system for measuring in vitro oxygen and nitrogen metabolism in separated stream communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prahl, C.; Jeppesen, E.; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    1991-01-01

    on the stream bank, consists of several macrophyte and sediment chambers equipped with a double-flow system that ensures an internal water velocity close to that in the stream and which, by continuously renewing the water, mimics diel fluctuation in stream temperature and water chemistry. Water temperature...... production and dark respiration occurred at similar rates (6-7g O2 m-2 day-1), net balance being about zero. Inorganic nitrogen was consumed both by the sediment and to a greater extent by the macrophytes, the diel average consumption being 1g N m-2 day-1. 3. The sum of the activity in the macrophyte...... and sediment chambers corresponded to the overall activity of the stream section as determined by upstream/downstream mass balance. This indicates that the results obtained with the continuous-flow chambers realistically describe the oxygen and the nitrogen metabolism of the stream....

  15. The role of nitrogen in the formation of oxygen-related thermal donors in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, J.A.; Hartung, J.; Weber, J.

    1989-01-01

    Nitrogen doped silicon is investigated by Photothermal Ionisation Spectroscopy (PTIS) and Infrared Absorption (IR). The Shallow Thermal Donors (STD) are observed in this nitrogen doped Cz-silicon as well as the deeper Thermal Donors (TD). The Thermal Donor Growth in nitrogen doped material is reduced in comparison to nominally undoped oxygen-rich silicon. The half-widths of the spectral lines arising from the STD-transitions are observed to be dependent on the nitrogen concentration. The results suggest only a catalytic role of N in the STD-growth. (author) 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  16. Phosphorus and nitrogen in the eutrophication of waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salonen, S.; Frisk, T.; Kaermeniemi, T.; Niemi, J.; Pitkaenen, H.; Silvo, K.; Vuoristo, H.

    1992-01-01

    This report is a summary of the contribution of nitrogen and phosphorus in the eutrophication process of inland and coastal waters. Special attention was paid to the mechanisms of these nutrients in regulating biological processes and to the methods available in estimating their effects in the eutrophication of water bodies. The report includes five chapters which are entitled: Introduction, which is a general background to the subject with special attention to the requirements of the Finnish Water Act. Phosphorus and nitrogen as factors regulating biological processes. The topics included are: definition of eutrophication, forms of phosphorus and nitrogen and their sources to inland and coastal waters, effects of these nutrients as growth factors of phytoplankton and macrophytes and consequences of eutrophication. Estimation of the effects of phosphorus and nitrogen. The topics discussed from the point of view of the tasks of the National Board of Waters and the Environment are: estimation of the effects of phosphorus and nitrogen in the planning and supervision of industry, fish farming, peat production, municipalities, agriculture and forestry. A brief state-of-the art of the research carried out in the National Board of Waters and the Environment is given. Methods of estimating the effects of phosphorus and nitrogen loading in waters. The topics are: relationships between phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations in waters, material balances, water quality models, classification of waters and different groups of organisms as indicators of water quality. Conclusions for the estimation of the effects of phosphorus and nitrogen in receiving waters

  17. Nitrogen Removal from Digested Black Water by One-stage Partial Nitritation and Anammox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaeminck, S.E.; Terada, Akihiko; Smets, Barth F.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the technical feasibility to treat digested black water from vacuum toilets (> 1000 mg NH4+-N L-1) in a lab-scale oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification/denitrification (OLAND) rotating biological contactor. After an adaptation period of 2.5 months, a stable. nitrogen removal...... conversion was very low, in contrast to the high specific AnAOB activity. DGGE analysis showed that the dominant AerAOB and AnAOB species were resistant to the transition from synthetic medium to digested black water. This study demonstrates high-rate nitrogen removal from digested black water by one...

  18. Oxygen-15 labelled water production for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janus, A.; Sachinidis, J.I.; Chan, J.G.; Tochon-Danguy, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Functional imaging using positron emission tomography (PET) and 15 O-labelled compounds is both scientifically and clinically challenging. The short half-life of oxygen-15 (t 1/2 = 2 min) allows for multiple administration to a patient without exceeding acceptable levels of absorbed radiation dose and without excessive delay between administrations. The clinical usefulness of [ 15 O]-labelled water for cerebral blood flow measurements has been well established. Here we report the development and construction of a [ 15 O]water generator based on an earlier design from Hammersmith Hospital, London. The cyclotron produces a continuous flow of [ 15 O]O 2 gas by the irradiation of a natural nitrogen target (1% O 2 in N 2 ) with a 5 MeV deuteron beam, via the nuclear reaction ( 14 N(d,n) 15 O). The radioactive gas is then mixed with 5% hydrogen in nitrogen and piped to the water generator located in the scanner room. The O 2 /N 2 gas mixture is reacted over a palladium catalyst at 1500 deg C to produce [ 15 O]H 2 O vapour. The vapour passes through an exchanger where it diffuses across a semi-permeable membrane (cellulose acetate) into saline solution. At the optimum gas flow- rate of 500 mL/min, more than 95% of the radioactive oxygen is converted to radioactive water. Waste radioactive gas is piped back to the cyclotron vault to decay before release into the atmosphere. The saline solution (0.9% NaCl) is pumped continuously through the system at 6 mL/min with an infusion pump (3M AVI470). The present system has been in operation for more than a year and has been used for clinical evaluation of stroke patients and for brain activation research studies

  19. A Cryptic Sulfur Cycle in Oxygen-Minimum-Zone Waters off the Chilean Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Canfield, D. E.; Thamdrup, B.; De Brabandere, L.; Dalsgaard, T.; Revsbech, N. P.; Ulloa, O.; Stewart, Frank J.; DeLong, Edward Francis

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen cycling is normally thought to dominate the biogeochemistry and microbial ecology of oxygen-minimum zones in marine environments. Through a combination of molecular techniques and process rate measurements, we showed that both sulfate reduction and sulfide oxidation contribute to energy flux and elemental cycling in oxygen-free waters off the coast of northern Chile. These processes may have been overlooked because in nature, the sulfide produced by sulfate reduction immediately oxid...

  20. Effect of nitrogen precursors on the electrochemical performance of nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide towards oxygen reduction reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soo, Li Ting, E-mail: nicolesoo90@gmail.com [Fuel Cell Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi UKM, Selangor (Malaysia); Loh, Kee Shyuan, E-mail: ksloh@ukm.edu.my [Fuel Cell Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi UKM, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohamad, Abu Bakar, E-mail: drab@ukm.edu.my [Fuel Cell Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi UKM, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi UKM, Selangor (Malaysia); Daud, Wan Ramli Wan, E-mail: wramli@ukm.edu.my [Fuel Cell Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi UKM, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi UKM, Selangor (Malaysia); Wong, Wai Yin, E-mail: waiyin.wwy@gmail.com [Fuel Cell Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi UKM, Selangor (Malaysia); School of Engineering, Taylor' s University' s Lakeside Campus, No. 1, Jalan Taylor' s, 46500 Subang Jaya, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-08-25

    A series of nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxides (NGs) with different ratios are synthesized by thermal annealing of graphene oxide with melamine or urea. The total nitrogen content in NG is high, with values of up to 5.88 at.%. The NG samples prepared by melamine exhibited thin transparent graphene sheets structure, with consist of higher nitrogen doping level and quaternary N content compared to those NG samples prepared from urea. Electrochemical characterizations show that NG is a promising metal-free electrocatalyst for an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Incorporation of nitrogen atoms into graphene basal plane can enhances its electrocatalytic activity toward ORR in alkaline media. The onset potential and mean number of electron transfers on NG 1 are −0.10 V and 3.80 respectively, which is higher than that of reduced graphene oxide (−0.15 V, 3.52). This study suggests that quaternary-N of the NG samples is the active site which determines the ORR activity Moreover, the NG samples with the transparent layer of graphene-like structure have better ORR performances than that of bulk graphite-like NG samples. - Highlights: • Synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) via thermal annealing. • The effects of the nitrogen precursors on the synthesized NG are discussed. • Electrochemical performances of the NG are correlated to N doping and EASA. • Graphitic-N is proposed to be the active site for ORR.

  1. Effect of nitrogen precursors on the electrochemical performance of nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide towards oxygen reduction reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo, Li Ting; Loh, Kee Shyuan; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Daud, Wan Ramli Wan; Wong, Wai Yin

    2016-01-01

    A series of nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxides (NGs) with different ratios are synthesized by thermal annealing of graphene oxide with melamine or urea. The total nitrogen content in NG is high, with values of up to 5.88 at.%. The NG samples prepared by melamine exhibited thin transparent graphene sheets structure, with consist of higher nitrogen doping level and quaternary N content compared to those NG samples prepared from urea. Electrochemical characterizations show that NG is a promising metal-free electrocatalyst for an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Incorporation of nitrogen atoms into graphene basal plane can enhances its electrocatalytic activity toward ORR in alkaline media. The onset potential and mean number of electron transfers on NG 1 are −0.10 V and 3.80 respectively, which is higher than that of reduced graphene oxide (−0.15 V, 3.52). This study suggests that quaternary-N of the NG samples is the active site which determines the ORR activity Moreover, the NG samples with the transparent layer of graphene-like structure have better ORR performances than that of bulk graphite-like NG samples. - Highlights: • Synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) via thermal annealing. • The effects of the nitrogen precursors on the synthesized NG are discussed. • Electrochemical performances of the NG are correlated to N doping and EASA. • Graphitic-N is proposed to be the active site for ORR.

  2. Use of Nitrogen-15 Isotope Method in Soils and Ground Water to Determine Potential Nitrogen Sources Affecting a Municipal Water Supply in Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, M. A.; Macko, S. A.

    2004-12-01

    Nitrate-N concentrations have increased to greater than 10 mg/L in a municipal water supply in western Kansas from 1995 to 2002. A study was done by the Kansas Geological Survey using the nitrogen-15 natural abundance isotope method to determine potential sources for the increasing nitrate concentrations. Preliminary results of the isotope analyses on water samples suggest that animal waste and/or denitrification enrichment has affected the water supply. Soil samples from areas near the wells that were not treated with manure show a general increase of nitrogen-15 signature (+9 to +15 \\permil) to a depth of 5 m. Soils are silt loams with measurable carbonate (0.8 to 2 % by weight) in the profile, which may permit volatilization enrichment to occur in the soil profile. Wells in the area range from 11 to 20 m in alluvial deposits with depth to water at approximately 9 m). Nitrate-N values range from 8 to 26 mg/L. Nitrogen-15 values range from (+17 to +28 \\permil) with no obvious source of animal waste near the well sites. There are potential nearby long-term sources of animal waste - an abandoned sewage treatment plant and an agricultural testing farm. One well has a reducing chemistry with a nitrate value of 0.9 mg/L and a nitrogen-15 value of +17 \\permil suggesting that alluvial sediment variation also has an impact on the water quality in the study area. The other wells show values of nitrate and nitrogen-15 that are much greater than the associated soils. The use of nitrogen-15 alone permited limited evaluation of sources of nitrate to ground water particularly in areas with carbonate in the soils. Use of oxygen-18 on nitrate will permit the delineation of the processes affecting the nitrogen in the soil profile and determination of the probable sources and the processes that have affected the nitrogen in the ground water. Final results of the nitrogen-15 and oxygen-18 analyses will be presented.

  3. A Cryptic Sulfur Cycle in Oxygen-Minimum-Zone Waters off the Chilean Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Don E.; Stewart, Frank J.; Thamdrup, Bo; De Brabandere, Loreto; Dalsgaard, Tage; Delong, Edward F.; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Ulloa, Osvaldo

    2010-12-01

    Nitrogen cycling is normally thought to dominate the biogeochemistry and microbial ecology of oxygen-minimum zones in marine environments. Through a combination of molecular techniques and process rate measurements, we showed that both sulfate reduction and sulfide oxidation contribute to energy flux and elemental cycling in oxygen-free waters off the coast of northern Chile. These processes may have been overlooked because in nature, the sulfide produced by sulfate reduction immediately oxidizes back to sulfate. This cryptic sulfur cycle is linked to anammox and other nitrogen cycling processes, suggesting that it may influence biogeochemical cycling in the global ocean.

  4. Efficient assimilation of cyanobacterial nitrogen by water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hongjie; Zhang, Zhiyong; Liu, Minhui; Wang, Yan; Wen, Xuezheng; Yan, Shaohua; Zhang, Yingying; Liu, Haiqin

    2017-10-01

    A 15 N labeling technique was used to study nitrogen transfer from cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa to water hyacinth. 15 N atom abundance in M. aeruginosa peaked (15.52%) after cultivation in 15 N-labeled medium for 3weeks. Over 87% of algal nitrogen was transferred into water hyacinth after the 4-week co-cultivation period. The nitrogen quickly super-accumulated in the water hyacinth roots, and the labeled nitrogen was re-distributed to different organs (i.e., roots, stalks, and leaves). This study provides a new strategy for further research on cyanobacterial bloom control, nitrogen migration, and nitrogen cycle in eutrophic waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Oxygen, nitrogen and air broadening of HCN spectral lines at terahertz frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chun; Buldyreva, Jeanna; Gordon, Iouli E.; Rohart, Francois; Cuisset, Arnaud; Mouret, Gael; Bocquet, Robin; Hindle, Francis

    2008-01-01

    The room-temperature nitrogen- and oxygen-broadening coefficients of hydrogen cyanide spectral lines have been measured in the 0.5-3 THz (17-100 cm -1 ) frequency range (purely rotational transitions with 5≤J≤36) by a continuous-wave terahertz spectrometer based on a photomixing source. An improved version of the Robert and Bonamy semiclassical formalism has been used to calculate the oxygen-broadening coefficients and resulted in a good agreement with these measurements. The nitrogen and oxygen data are combined to provide the air-broadening coefficients as used by the HITRAN database. A significant difference is observed between the measured and tabulated values for transitions with high values of the rotational quantum number. A new polynomial representation is suggested for inclusion in HITRAN. A similar polynomial expression has been derived for the nitrogen broadening to aid the studies of Titan's atmosphere

  6. Oxygen, nitrogen and air broadening of HCN spectral lines at terahertz frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Chun [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie de l' Atmosphere, UMR CNRS 8101, Universite du Littoral Cote d' Opale, 189A Av. Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Buldyreva, Jeanna [Institut UTINAM, UMR CNRS 6213, Universite de Franche-Comte, 16, Route de Gray, 25030 Besancon Cedex (France); Gordon, Iouli E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138-1516 (United States); Rohart, Francois [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, Atomes et Molecules, UMR CNRS 8523, Batiment P5-135, Universite de Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Cuisset, Arnaud; Mouret, Gael; Bocquet, Robin [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie de l' Atmosphere, UMR CNRS 8101, Universite du Littoral Cote d' Opale, 189A Av. Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Hindle, Francis [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie de l' Atmosphere, UMR CNRS 8101, Universite du Littoral Cote d' Opale, 189A Av. Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France)], E-mail: francis.hindle@univ-littoral.fr

    2008-11-15

    The room-temperature nitrogen- and oxygen-broadening coefficients of hydrogen cyanide spectral lines have been measured in the 0.5-3 THz (17-100 cm{sup -1}) frequency range (purely rotational transitions with 5{<=}J{<=}36) by a continuous-wave terahertz spectrometer based on a photomixing source. An improved version of the Robert and Bonamy semiclassical formalism has been used to calculate the oxygen-broadening coefficients and resulted in a good agreement with these measurements. The nitrogen and oxygen data are combined to provide the air-broadening coefficients as used by the HITRAN database. A significant difference is observed between the measured and tabulated values for transitions with high values of the rotational quantum number. A new polynomial representation is suggested for inclusion in HITRAN. A similar polynomial expression has been derived for the nitrogen broadening to aid the studies of Titan's atmosphere.

  7. Determining pomegranate water and nitrogen requirements with drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite being an ancient crop there is limited knowledge on the water and nitrogen (N) requirements of pomegranate. We conducted research at the University of California, Kearney Agricultural Research and Extension Center (KARE) to determine the water and nitrogen requirements of a developing pomegr...

  8. Measuring reactive oxygen and nitrogen species with fluorescent probes: challenges and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Darley-Usmar, Victor; Davies, Kelvin J.A.; Dennery, Phyllis A.; Forman, Henry Jay; Grisham, Matthew B.; Mann, Giovanni E.; Moore, Kevin; Roberts, L. Jackson; Ischiropoulos, Harry

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this position paper is to present a critical analysis of the challenges and limitations of the most widely used fluorescent probes for detecting and measuring reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Where feasible, we have made recommendations for the use of alternate probes and appropriate analytical techniques that measure the specific products formed from the reactions between fluorescent probes and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. We have proposed guidelines that will help present and future researchers with regard to the optimal use of selected fluorescent probes and interpretation of results. PMID:22027063

  9. Startup and oxygen concentration effects in a continuous granular mixed flow autotrophic nitrogen removal reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varas, Rodrigo; Guzmán-Fierro, Víctor; Giustinianovich, Elisa; Behar, Jack; Fernández, Katherina; Roeckel, Marlene

    2015-08-01

    The startup and performance of the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process was tested in a continuously fed granular bubble column reactor (BCR) with two different aeration strategies: controlling the oxygen volumetric flow and oxygen concentration. During the startup with the control of oxygen volumetric flow, the air volume was adjusted to 60mL/h and the CANON reactor had volumetric N loadings ranging from 7.35 to 100.90mgN/Ld with 36-71% total nitrogen removal and high instability. In the second stage, the reactor was operated at oxygen concentrations of 0.6, 0.4 and 0.2mg/L. The best condition was 0.2 mgO2/L with a total nitrogen removal of 75.36% with a CANON reactor activity of 0.1149gN/gVVSd and high stability. The feasibility and effectiveness of CANON processes with oxygen control was demonstrated, showing an alternative design tool for efficiently removing nitrogen species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantification of the impact of macrophytes on oxygen dynamics and nitrogen retention in a vegetated lowland river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, N. J. S.; Van Belleghem, S.; Seuntjens, P.; Bouma, T. J.; Buis, K.; Meire, P.

    When macrophytes are growing in the river, the vegetation induces substantial changes to the water quality. Some effects are the result of direct interactions, such as photosynthetic activity or nutrient uptake, whereas others may be attributed to indirect effects of the water plants on hydrodynamics and river processes. This research focused on the direct effect of macrophytes on oxygen dynamics and nutrient cycling. Discharge, macrophyte biomass density, basic water quality, dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations were in situ monitored throughout the year in a lowland river (Nete catchment, Belgium). In addition, various processes were investigated in more detail in multiple ex situ experiments. The field and aquaria measurement results clearly demonstrated that aquatic plants can exert considerable impact on dissolved oxygen dynamics in a lowland river. When the river was dominated by macrophytes, dissolved oxygen concentrations varied from 5 to 10 mg l -1. Considering nutrient retention, it was shown that the investigated in-stream macrophytes could take up dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) from the water column at rates of 33-50 mg N kgdry matter-1 h. And DIN fluxes towards the vegetation were found to vary from 0.03 to 0.19 g N ha -1 h -1 in spring and summer. Compared to the measured changes in DIN load over the river stretch, it means that about 3-13% of the DIN retention could be attributed to direct nitrogen uptake from the water by macrophytes. Yet, the role of macrophytes in rivers should not be underrated as aquatic vegetation also exerts considerable indirect effects that may have a greater impact than the direct fixation of nutrients into the plant biomass.

  11. Influence of nitrogen oxides NO and NO2 on singlet delta oxygen production in pulsed discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionin, A A; Klimachev, Yu M; Kozlov, A Yu; Kotkov, A A; Rulev, O A; Seleznev, L V; Sinitsyn, D V; Vagin, N P; Yuryshev, N N; Kochetov, I V; Napartovich, A P

    2009-01-01

    The influence of nitrogen oxides NO and NO 2 on the specific input energy (SIE) and the time behaviour of singlet delta oxygen (SDO) luminescence excited by a pulsed e-beam sustained discharge in oxygen were experimentally and theoretically studied. NO and NO 2 addition into oxygen results in a small increase and decrease in the SIE, respectively, the latter being connected with a large energy of electron affinity to NO 2 . The addition of 0.1-0.3% nitrogen oxides was experimentally and theoretically demonstrated to result in a notable enhancement of the SDO lifetime, which is related to a decrease in the atomic oxygen concentration in afterglow. It was experimentally demonstrated that to get a high SDO concentration at the gas pressure 30-60 Torr for a time interval of less than ∼0.5 s one needs to add not less than 0.2% nitrogen oxides into oxygen. The temperature dependence of the relaxation constant for SDO quenching by unexcited oxygen was estimated by using experimental data on the time behaviour of SDO luminescence.

  12. The role of oxygen and water on molybdenum nanoclusters for electro catalytic ammonia production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howalt, Jakob Geelmuyden; Vegge, Tejs

    2014-01-01

    are -0.72 V or lower for all oxygen coverages studied, and it is thus possible to (re)activate (partially) oxidized nanoclusters for electrochemical ammonia production, e.g., using a dry proton conductor or an aqueous electrolyte. At lower oxygen coverages, nitrogen molecules can adsorb to the surface...... and electrochemical ammonia production via the associative mechanism is possible at potentials as low as -0.45 V to -0.7 V. © 2014 Howalt and Vegge........ In this study, we present theoretical investigations of the influence of oxygen adsorption and reduction on pure and nitrogen covered molybdenum nanocluster electro catalysts for electrochemical reduction of N2 to NH3 with the purpose of understanding oxygen and water poisoning of the catalyst. Density...

  13. Anthropogenic imprints on nitrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation nitrate in a nitrogen-polluted city in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Y. T.; Koba, K.; Wang, X. M.; Wen, D. Z.; Li, J.; Takebayashi, Y.; Liu, X. Y.; Yoh, M.

    2011-02-01

    Nitric acid (HNO3) or nitrate (NO3-) is the dominant sink for reactive nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) in the atmosphere. In many Chinese cities, HNO3 is becoming a significant contributor to acid deposition. In the present study, we measured nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) isotopic composition of NO3- in 113 precipitation samples collected from Guangzhou City in southern China over a two-year period (2008 and 2009). We attempted to better understand the spatial and seasonal variability of atmospheric NOx sources and the NO3- formation pathways in this N-polluted city in the Pearl River Delta region. The δ15N values of NO3- (versus air N2) ranged from -4.9 to +10.1‰, and averaged +3.9‰ in 2008 and +3.3‰ in 2009. Positive δ15N values were observed throughout the year, indicating the anthropogenic contribution of NOx emissions, particularly from coal combustion. Different seasonal patterns of δ15N-NO3- were observed between 2008 and 2009, which might reflect different human activities associated with the global financial crisis and the intensive preparations for the 16th Asian Games. Nitrate δ18O values (versus Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water) varied from +33.4 to +86.5‰ (average +65.0‰ and +67.0‰ in 2008 and 2009, respectively), a range being lower than those reported for high latitude and polar areas. Sixteen percent of δ18O values was observed lower than the expected minimum of +55‰ at our study site. This was likely caused by the reaction of NO with peroxy radicals; peroxy radicals can compete with O3 to convert NO to NO2, thereby donate O atoms with much lower δ18O value than that of O3 to atmospheric NO3-. Our results highlight that the influence of human activities on atmospheric chemistry can be recorded by the N and O isotopic composition of atmospheric NO3- in a N-polluted city.

  14. Nitrogen fixation in the activated sludge treatment of thermomechanical pulping wastewater: effect of dissolved oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, A H; Anderson, S M; Evans, B G

    2003-01-01

    N-ViroTech, a novel technology which selects for nitrogen-fixing bacteria as the bacteria primarily responsible for carbon removal, has been developed to treat nutrient limited wastewaters to a high quality without the addition of nitrogen, and only minimal addition of phosphorus. Selection of the operating dissolved oxygen level to maximise nitrogen fixation forms a key component of the technology. Pilot scale activated sludge treatment of a thermomechanical pulping wastewater was carried out in nitrogen-fixing mode over a 15 month period. The effect of dissolved oxygen was studied at three levels: 14% (Phase 1), 5% (Phase 2) and 30% (Phase 3). The plant was operated at an organic loading of 0.7-1.1 kg BOD5/m3/d, a solids retention time of approximately 10 d, a hydraulic retention time of 1.4 d and a F:M ratio of 0.17-0.23 mg BOD5/mg VSS/d. Treatment performance was very stable over the three dissolved oxygen operating levels. The plant achieved 94-96% BOD removal, 82-87% total COD removal, 79-87% soluble COD removal, and >99% total extractives removal. The lowest organic carbon removals were observed during operation at 30% DO but were more likely to be due to phosphorus limitation than operation at high dissolved oxygen, as there was a significant decrease in phosphorus entering the plant during Phase 3. Discharge of dissolved nitrogen, ammonium and oxidised nitrogen were consistently low (1.1-1.6 mg/L DKN, 0.1-0.2 mg/L NH4+-N and 0.0 mg/L oxidised nitrogen). Discharge of dissolved phosphorus was 2.8 mg/L, 0.1 mg/L and 0.6 mg/L DRP in Phases 1, 2 and 3 respectively. It was postulated that a population of polyphosphate accumulating bacteria developed during Phase 1. Operation at low dissolved oxygen during Phase 2 appeared to promote biological phosphorus uptake which may have been affected by raising the dissolved oxygen to 30% in Phase 3. Total nitrogen and phosphorus discharge was dependent on efficient secondary clarification, and improved over the course of

  15. Effects of water and nitrogen availability on nitrogen contribution by the legume, Lupinus argenteus Pursh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin Goergen; Jeanne C. Chambers; Robert Blank

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing species contribute to ecosystem nitrogen budgets, but background resource levels influence nodulation, fixation, and plant growth. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine the separate and interacting effects of water and N availability on biomass production, tissue N concentration, nodulation, nodule activity, and rhizodeposition of ...

  16. Oxygen- and nitrogen-chemisorbed carbon nanostructures for Z-scheme photocatalysis applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Zhao; Pathak, Biswarup; Nisar, Jawad; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2012-01-01

    Here focusing on the very new experimental finding on carbon nanomaterials for solid-state electron mediator applications in Z-scheme photocatalysis, we have investigated different graphene-based nanostructures chemisorbed by various types and amounts of species such as oxygen (O), nitrogen (N) and hydroxyl (OH) and their electronic structures using density functional theory. The work functions of different nanostructures have also been investigated by us to evaluate their potential applications in Z-scheme photocatalysis for water splitting. The N-, O–N-, and N–N-chemisorbed graphene-based nanostructures (32 carbon atoms supercell, corresponding to lattice parameter of about 1 nm) are found promising to be utilized as electron mediators between reduction level and oxidation level of water splitting. The O- or OH-chemisorbed nanostructures have potential to be used as electron conductors between H 2 -evolving photocatalysts and the reduction level (H + /H 2 ). This systematic study is proposed to understand the properties of graphene-based carbon nanostructures in Z-scheme photocatalysis and guide experimentalists to develop better carbon-based nanomaterials for more efficient Z-scheme photocatalysis applications in the future.

  17. Effect of oxygen breathing on micro oxygen bubbles in nitrogen-depleted rat adipose tissue at sea level and 25 kPa altitude exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randsoe, Thomas; Hyldegaard, Ole

    2012-01-01

    The standard treatment of altitude decompression sickness (aDCS) caused by nitrogen bubble formation is oxygen breathing and recompression. However, micro air bubbles (containing 79% nitrogen), injected into adipose tissue, grow and stabilize at 25 kPa regardless of continued oxygen breathing...... at 101.3 kPa (sea level) or at 25 kPa altitude exposures during continued oxygen breathing. In keeping with previous observations and bubble kinetic models, we hypothesize that oxygen breathing may contribute to oxygen bubble growth at altitude. Anesthetized rats were exposed to 3 h of oxygen...... prebreathing at 101.3 kPa (sea level). Micro oxygen bubbles of 500-800 nl were then injected into the exposed abdominal adipose tissue. The oxygen bubbles were studied for up to 3.5 h during continued oxygen breathing at either 101.3 or 25 kPa ambient pressures. At 101.3 kPa, all bubbles shrank consistently...

  18. EQUILIBRIUM AND KINETIC NITROGEN AND OXYGEN-ISOTOPE FRACTIONATIONS BETWEEN DISSOLVED AND GASEOUS N2O

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    INOUE, HY; MOOK, WG

    1994-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the equilibrium as well as kinetic stable nitrogen and oxygen isotope fractionations between aqueous dissolved and gaseous N2O. The equilibrium fractionations, defined as the ratio of the isotopic abundance ratios (15R and 18R, respectively) of gaseous and

  19. ANALYTICAL EMPLOYMENT OF STABLE ISOTOPES OF CARBON, NITROGEN, OXYGEN AND HYDROGEN FOR FOOD AUTHENTICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Novelli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen were used for analytical purposes for the discrimination of the type of production (farming vs. fishing in the case of sea bass and for geographical origin in the case of milk. These results corroborate similar experimental evidences and confirm the potential of this analytical tool to support of food traceability.

  20. Nitrogen speciation in FGD waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogh, F. [Elsam A/S, Skaerbaekvaerket, Fredericia (Denmark); Smitshuysen, E.F. [Elsam A/S, Esbjergvaerket, Esbjerg (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    Elsam operates six flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) units (2590 MWe): three wet FGD units (1440 MWe) and three semi-dry FGD units (1150 MWe). The paper presents the results of Elsam investigations covering nitrogen analysis of selected aqueous and solid streams together with nitrogen source and sink considerations in wet and semi-dry FGD plants. (orig.)

  1. Nitrogen fixation and molecular oxygen: comparative genomic reconstruction of transcription regulation in Alphaproteobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V Tsoy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biological nitrogen fixation plays a crucial role in the nitrogen cycle. An ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen, reducing it to ammonium, was described for multiple species of Bacteria and Archaea. Being a complex and sensitive process, nitrogen fixation requires a complicated regulatory system, also, on the level of transcription. The transcriptional regulatory network for nitrogen fixation was extensively studied in several representatives of the class Alphaproteobacteria. This regulatory network includes the activator of nitrogen fixation NifA, working in tandem with the alternative sigma-factor RpoN as well as oxygen-responsive regulatory systems, one-component regulators FnrN/FixK and two-component system FixLJ. Here we used a comparative genomics analysis for in silico study of the transcriptional regulatory network in 50 genomes of Alphaproteobacteria. We extended the known regulons and proposed the scenario for the evolution of the nitrogen fixation transcriptional network. The reconstructed network substantially expands the existing knowledge of transcriptional regulation in nitrogen-fixing microorganisms and can be used for genetic experiments, metabolic reconstruction, and evolutionary analysis.

  2. THE REDSHIFT EVOLUTION OF OXYGEN AND NITROGEN ABUNDANCES IN EMISSION-LINE SDSS GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuan, Trinh X.; Pilyugin, Leonid S.; Zinchenko, Igor A.

    2010-01-01

    The oxygen and nitrogen abundance evolutions with redshift and galaxy stellar mass in emission-line galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) are investigated. This is the first such study for nitrogen abundances, and it provides an additional constraint for the study of the chemical evolution of galaxies. We have devised a criterion to recognize and exclude from consideration active galactic nuclei and star-forming galaxies with large errors in the line flux measurements. To select star-forming galaxies with accurate line fluxes measurements, we require that, for each galaxy, the nitrogen abundances derived with various calibrations based on different emission lines agree. Using this selection criterion, subsamples of star-forming SDSS galaxies have been extracted from catalogs of the Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics/Johns Hopkins University group. We found that the galaxies of highest masses, those with masses ∼>10 11.2 M sun , have not been enriched in both oxygen and nitrogen over the last ∼3 Gyr: they have formed their stars in the so distant past that these have returned their nucleosynthesis products to the interstellar medium before z = 0.25. The galaxies in the mass range from ∼10 11.0 M sun to ∼10 11.2 M sun do not show an appreciable enrichment in oxygen, but do show some enrichment in nitrogen: they also formed their stars before z = 0.25 but later in comparison to the galaxies of highest masses; these stars have not returned nitrogen to the interstellar medium before z = 0.25 because they have not had enough time to evolve. This suggests that stars with lifetimes of 2-3 Gyr, in the 1.5-2 M sun mass range, contribute to the nitrogen production. Finally, galaxies with masses ∼ 11 M sun show enrichment in both oxygen and nitrogen during the last 3 Gyr: they have undergone appreciable star formation and have converted up to ∼20% of their mass into stars over this period. Both oxygen and nitrogen enrichments increase with decreasing

  3. Global gray water footprint and water pollution levels related to anthropogenic nitrogen loads to fresh water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2015-01-01

    This is the first global assessment of nitrogen-related water pollution in river basins with a specification of the pollution by economic sector, and by crop for the agricultural sector. At a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minute, we estimate anthropogenic nitrogen (N) loads to freshwater,

  4. The influence of riverine nitrogen on the dynamics of the North Sea oxygen minimum zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Große, Fabian; Kreus, Markus; Lenhart, Hermann; Pätsch, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    The mitigation of eutrophication and its concomitants, like oxygen deficiency in bottom waters, is one of the major aspects of the ecological management of coastal marine ecosystems. In the past, biogeochemical models helped to significantly improve the understanding of the interaction of the physical and biological processes driving eutrophication. Anthropogenic river input of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) is the main driver for eutrophication. Nevertheless, the quantification of their influence in a specific region remains an important issue, since it is as crucial for an efficient management as it is difficult to obtain. During the past decade, a quantitative method applicable to biogeochemical models - often referred to as `trans-boundary nutrient transports' (TBNT) - became more and more popular in the context of marine ecosystem management. This method allows for the tracing of elements from various sources, e.g., nitrogen (N) from different rivers, throughout the whole process chain of the applied model. By this, it provides valuable information about the contributions from different sources to the overall amount and turnover of an element in different areas of the model domain. This information constitutes the basis for the quantification, evaluation and optimisation of river input reduction targets for the tributaries, which are defined in relation to their ecological consequences in the marine environment. In existing studies, the TBNT method has been applied to a variety of biogeochemical models, e.g. to quantify the atmospheric contribution to total N in the North Sea (Troost et al., 2013). This study presents a novel approach to link the TBNT method applied to N to the biological processes driving the oxygen dynamics in the bottom layer of the North Sea. For this purpose, simulations from the biogeochemical model ECOHAM (ECOlogical model HAMburg) are analysed for the years 2002 and 2010, with the focus on the southern central North Sea, the region of

  5. Nitrogen diffusion in hafnia and the impact of nitridation on oxygen and hydrogen diffusion: A first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathiyanarayanan, Rajesh, E-mail: rajessat@in.ibm.com, E-mail: rajesh.sathiyanarayanan@gmail.com; Pandey, R. K.; Murali, K. V. R. M. [IBM Semiconductor Research and Development Center, Bangalore 560045 (India)

    2015-01-21

    Using first-principles simulations, we have computed incorporation energies and diffusion barriers of ammonia, the nitrogen molecule and atomic nitrogen in monoclinic hafnia (m-HfO{sub 2}). Our calculations show that ammonia is likely to dissociate into an NH{sub 2} molecular unit, whereas the nitrogen molecule remains as a molecule either in the interstitial space or at an oxygen lattice site. The lowest energy pathway for the diffusion of atomic nitrogen interstitials consists of the hopping of the nitrogen interstitial between neighboring three-coordinated lattice oxygen atoms that share a single Hf atom, and the barrier for such hops is determined by a switching mechanism. The substitutional nitrogen atom shows a preference for diffusion through the doubly positive oxygen vacancy-mediated mechanism. Furthermore, we have investigated the impact of nitrogen atoms on the diffusion barriers of oxygen and hydrogen interstitials in m-HfO{sub 2}. Our results show that nitrogen incorporation has a significant impact on the barriers for oxygen and hydrogen diffusion: nitrogen atoms attract oxygen and hydrogen interstitials diffusing in the vicinity, thereby slowing down (reducing) their diffusion (diffusion length)

  6. Simulation of water vapor condensation on LOX droplet surface using liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Eugene A.

    1988-01-01

    The formation of ice or water layers on liquid oxygen (LOX) droplets in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) environment was investigated. Formulation of such ice/water layers is indicated by phase-equilibrium considerations under conditions of high partial pressure of water vapor (steam) and low LOX droplet temperature prevailing in the SSME preburner or main chamber. An experimental investigation was begun using liquid nitrogen as a LOX simulant. A monodisperse liquid nitrogen droplet generator was developed which uses an acoustic driver to force the stream of liquid emerging from a capillary tube to break up into a stream of regularly space uniformly sized spherical droplets. The atmospheric pressure liquid nitrogen in the droplet generator reservoir was cooled below its boiling point to prevent two phase flow from occurring in the capillary tube. An existing steam chamber was modified for injection of liquid nitrogen droplets into atmospheric pressure superheated steam. The droplets were imaged using a stroboscopic video system and a laser shadowgraphy system. Several tests were conducted in which liquid nitrogen droplets were injected into the steam chamber. Under conditions of periodic droplet formation, images of 600 micron diameter liquid nitrogen droplets were obtained with the stroboscopic video systems.

  7. Energy transfers between N_2(A"3Σ) nitrogen metastable molecules and oxygen atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Souza, Antonio Rogerio

    1985-01-01

    This research thesis aims at determining reaction coefficients for energy transfers between nitrogen in its metastable status and oxygen atoms and molecules, the variation of these coefficients with respect to temperature (mainly in the 200-400 K range), products formed and more particularly branching rates of O("1S) oxygen and of NO_2. Reaction coefficients are experimentally determined by using the technique of post-discharge in flow. The experimental set-up is described and the study of the best operating conditions is reported. In the next part, the author reports the study of the energy transfer between nitrogen in its metastable status N_2(A) and oxygen molecules. Reaction coefficients are determined for the first three vibrational levels. The author then reports the study of the transfer of N_2(A) molecules on oxygen atoms in their fundamental status. Reactions coefficients and their variations are determined for the three first vibrational levels. The author describes the dissociation method and the method of detection of atomic oxygen. A kinetic model is proposed for the analysis of formed products during a post-discharge in flow, and the branching rate for the formation of O("1S) oxygen between 190 and 365 K is determined. The author finally discusses publications on the role of these reactions in the interpretation of some atmospheric phenomena

  8. Effects of Watering and Nitrogen Fertilization on Yield and Water and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Cropping Oil Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAN Jian-xin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment with split-plot design was conducted to study the effects of the interaction of water and nitrogen fertilization on the growth and yield of oil sunflower, water and nitrogen use efficiency of cropping oil sunflower. This experiment set three irrigation rate treatments, including high irrigation treatment (5 250 m3·hm-2, middle irrigation treatment (3 750 m3·hm-2, low irrigation treatment (2 250 m3·hm-2, and four nitrogen application rate treatments, covering no nitrogen fertilization treatment (0 kg·hm-2, low nitrogen application treatment (120 kg·hm-2, middle nitrogen application treatment (240 kg·hm-2 and high nitrogen application treatment (360 kg·hm-2. The results showed that the nitrogen absorption and nitrogen use efficiency of cropping oil sunflower increased as the irrigation rate increased. With the nitrogen application rate increased, the yield of cropping oil sunflower was increased when the nitrogen application rate was 0~240 kg·hm-2, but beyond the 240 kg·hm-2, there was no significant increase. With the irrigation rate increased, the water consumption amount of cropping oil sunflower increased all the time, but the water use efficiency increased first, and hen decreased. Besides there was no significant difference between 240 kg·hm-2 and 360 kg·hm-2 treatment. Under our experiment condition, during the cropping oil sunflower growth period, when the irrigation rate was 5 250 m3·hm-2 (high irrigation rate and the nitrogen ertilization was 360 m3·hm-2 (high nitrogen application rate, the yield of cropping oil sunflower was 3 598 kg·hm-2. When the irrigation rate was 3 750 m3·hm-2 (middle irrigation rate and the nitrogen fertilization was 240 m3·hm-2 (middle nitrogen application rate, the yield was 3 518 kg·hm-2, with the yield components similar with the high irrigation rate and high nitrogen application rate treatment. Considering various factors, middle irrigation rate and middle nitrogen

  9. Nitrogen-doped graphene prepared by a transfer doping approach for the oxygen reduction reaction application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Zaiyong; Zheng, Ruiping; Peng, Hongliang; Liang, Huagen; Liao, Shijun

    2014-01-01

    Well defined nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) is prepared by a transfer doping approach, in which the graphene oxide (GO) is deoxidized and nitrogen doped by the vaporized polyaniline, and the GO is prepared by a thermal expansion method from graphite oxide. The content of doped nitrogen in the doped graphene is high up to 6.25 at% by the results of elements analysis, and oxygen content is lowered to 5.17 at%. As a non-precious metal cathode electrocatalyst, the NG catalyst exhibits excellent activity toward the oxygen reduction reaction, as well as excellent tolerance toward methanol. In 0.1 M KOH solution, its onset potential, half-wave potential and limiting current density for the oxygen reduction reaction reach 0.98 V (vs. RHE), 0.87 V (vs. RHE) and 5.38 mA cm-2, respectively, which are comparable to those of commercial 20 wt% Pt/C catalyst. The well defined graphene structure of the catalyst is revealed clearly by HRTEM and Raman spectra. It is suggested that the nitrogen-doping and large surface area of the NG sheets give the main contribution to the high ORR catalytic activity.

  10. Rapid estimation of organic nitrogen in oil shale waste waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, B.M.; Daughton, C.G.; Harris, G.J.

    1984-04-01

    Many of the characteristics of oil shale process waste waters (e.g., malodors, color, and resistance to biotreatment) are imparted by numerous nitrogenous heterocycles and aromatic amines. For the frequent performance assessment of waste treatment processes designed to remove these nitrogenous organic compounds, a rapid and colligative measurement of organic nitrogen is essential. Quantification of organic nitrogen in biological and agricultural samples is usually accomplished using the time-consuming, wet-chemical Kjeldahl method. For oil shale waste waters, whose primary inorganic nitorgen constituent is amonia, organic Kjeldahl nitrogen (OKN) is determined by first eliminating the endogenous ammonia by distillation and then digesting the sample in boiling H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The organic material is oxidized, and most forms of organically bound nitrogen are released as ammonium ion. After the addition of base, the ammonia is separated from the digestate by distillation and quantified by acidimetric titrimetry or colorimetry. The major failings of this method are the loss of volatile species such as aliphatic amines (during predistillation) and the inability to completely recover nitrogen from many nitrogenous heterocycles (during digestion). Within the last decade, a new approach has been developed for the quantification of total nitrogen (TN). The sample is first combusted, a

  11. A system for removing both oxygen and nitrogen from a rare gas-hydrocarbon mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkman, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    A study has been made how to remove nitrogen from a mixture of a rare gas and a hydrocarbon in addition to the removal of oxygen, H 2 O and gaseous oxides. The purpose was to find a simple method for the purification of drift-chamber gases in a recirculation system. Such a method would reduce the operating costs of the large detectors presently constructed for LEP. A promising technique has been developed. First results of a chemical reactor using the novel technique are presented. The N 2 content of Ar/air mixtures containing up to 28% air could be reduced to a level of 20 ppm at a flow rate of 0.11 m 3 /h (200 ppm at 1.0 m 3 /h); and the O 2 content to 30 and 300 ppm respectively. Water and gaseous oxides concentrations were always below 5 ppm. Some of the practical problems still to be solved are discussed and suggestions are given for further development and applications. The method can in principle be of more general use. (orig.)

  12. [Effects of nitrogen and irrigation water application on yield, water and nitrogen utilization and soil nitrate nitrogen accumulation in summer cotton].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Zhuan Yun; Gao, Yang; Shen, Xiao Jun; Liu, Hao; Gong, Xue Wen; Duan, Ai Wang

    2017-12-01

    A field experiment was carried out to study the effects of nitrogen and irrigation water application on growth, yield, and water and nitrogen use efficiency of summer cotton, and to develop the optimal water and nitrogen management model for suitable yield and less nitrogen loss in summer cotton field in the Huang-Huai region. Two experimental factors were arranged in a split plot design. The main plots were used for arranging nitrogen factor which consisted of five nitrogen fertilizer le-vels(0, 60, 120, 180, 240 kg·hm -2 , referred as N 0 , N 1 , N 2 , N 3 , N 4 ), and the subplots for irrigation factor which consisted of three irrigation quota levels (30, 22.5, 15 mm, referred as I 1 , I 2 , I 3 ). There were 15 treatments with three replications. Water was applied with drip irrigation system. Experimental results showed that both irrigation and nitrogen fertilization promoted cotton growth and yield obviously, but nitrogen fertilizer showed more important effects than irrigation and was the main factor of regulating growth and yield of summer cotton in the experimental region. With the increase of nitrogen fertilization rate and irrigation amount, the dry mater accumulation of reproductive organs, the above-ground biomass at the flowering-bolling stage and seed cotton yield increased gradually, reached peak values at nitrogen fertilization rate of 180 kg·hm -2 and decreased slowly with the nitrogen fertilization rate further increased. The maximum yield of 4016 kg·hm -2 was observed in the treatment of N 3 I 1 . Increasing nitrogen fertilizer amount would improve significantly total N absorption of shoots and N content of stem and leaf, but decrease nitrogen partial factor productivity. The maximum irrigation-water use efficiency of 5.40 kg·m -3 and field water use efficiency of 1.24 kg·m -3 were found in the treatments of N 3 I 3 and N 3 I 1 , respectively. With increasing nitrogen fertilization amount, soil NO 3 - -N content increased and the main soil

  13. Enhancement of oxygen transfer and nitrogen removal in a membrane separation bioreactor for domestic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiemchaisri, C; Yamamoto, K

    2005-01-01

    Biological nitrogen removal in a membrane separation bioreactor developed for on-site domestic wastewater treatment was investigated. The bioreactor employed hollow fiber membrane modules for solid-liquid separation so that the biomass could be completely retained within the system. Intermittent aeration was supplied with 90 minutes on and off cycle to achieve nitrification and denitrification reaction for nitrogen removal. High COD and nitrogen removal of more than 90% were achieved under a moderate temperature of 25 degrees C. As the temperature was stepwise decreased from 25 to 5 degrees C, COD removal in the system could be constantly maintained while nitrogen removal was deteriorated. Nevertheless, increasing aeration supply could enhance nitrification at low temperature with benefit from complete retention of nitrifying bacteria within the system by membrane separation. At low operating temperature range of 5 degrees C, nitrogen removal could be recovered to more than 85%. A mathematical model considering diffusion resistance of limiting substrate into the bio-particle is applied to describe nitrogen removal in a membrane separation bioreactor. The simulation suggested that limitation of the oxygen supply was the major cause of inhibition of nitrification during temperature decrease. Nevertheless, increasing aeration could promote oxygen diffusion into the bio-particle. Sufficient oxygen was supplied to the nitrifying bacteria and the nitrification could proceed. In the membrane separation bioreactor, biomass concentration under low temperature operation was allowed to increase by 2-3 times of that of moderate temperature to compensate for the loss of bacterial activities so that the temperature effect was masked.

  14. Equilibration of the terrestrial water, nitrogen, and carbon cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Schimel, David S.; Braswell, B. H.; Parton, W. J.

    1997-01-01

    Recent advances in biologically based ecosystem models of the coupled terrestrial, hydrological, carbon, and nutrient cycles have provided new perspectives on the terrestrial biosphere’s behavior globally, over a range of time scales. We used the terrestrial ecosystem model Century to examine relationships between carbon, nitrogen, and water dynamics. The model, run to a quasi-steady-state, shows strong correlations between carbon, water, and nitrogen fluxes that l...

  15. Degradation mechanisms of 4-chlorophenol in a novel gas-liquid hybrid discharge reactor by pulsed high voltage system with oxygen or nitrogen bubbling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Minghua; Hao, Xiaolong; Lei, Lecheng

    2007-03-01

    The effect of gas bubbling on the removal efficiency of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) in aqueous solution has been investigated using a novel pulsed high voltage gas-liquid hybrid discharge reactor, which generates gas-phase discharge above the water surface simultaneously with the spark discharge directly in the liquid. The time for 100% of 4-CP degradation in the case of oxygen bubbling (7 min) was much shorter than that in the case of nitrogen bubbling (25 min) as plenty of hydrogen peroxide and ozone formed in oxygen atmosphere enhanced the removal efficiency of 4-CP. Except for the main similar intermediates (4-chlorocatechol, hydroquinone and 1,4-benzoquinone) produced in the both cases of oxygen and nitrogen bubbling, special intermediates (5-chloro-3-nitropyrocatechol, 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol, nitrate and nitrite ions) were produced in nitrogen atmosphere. The reaction pathway of 4-CP in the case of oxygen bubbling was oxygen/ozone attack on the radical hydroxylated derivatives of 4-CP. However, in the case of nitrogen bubbling, hydroxylation was the main reaction pathway with effect of N atom on degradation of 4-CP.

  16. Simultaneous Measurement of Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotopes of Nitrate to Evaluate Nitrate Sources and Processes in Catchments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohte, Nobuhito [Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Nagata, Toshi; Tayasu, Ichiro [Center for Ecological Research, Kyoto University, Ohtsu (Japan); Kyozu, Ayato; Yoshimizu, Chikage [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Center for Ecological Research, Kyoto University, Ohtsu (Japan); Osaka, Ken' ichi [Carbon and Nutrient Cycles Division, National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba, (Japan)

    2013-05-15

    We review studies on applied isotope analytical techniques for identifying sources and transformations of river nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) to examine the influences of water pollution, excess nutrient (nitrogen) loads and ecosystem disturbances in river systems. We also discuss the current status and future perspectives of the application of NO{sub 3}{sup -} isotope measurements to the assessment of river nutrients. Our review shows that in recent years simultaneous measurements of nitrogen and oxygen isotopes ({delta}{sup 15}N and {delta}{sup 18}O) of NO{sub 3}{sup -} have been increasingly used to identify the sources and pathways of nitrogen in river systems. The {delta}{sup 15}N value of NO{sub 3}{sup -} is a useful indicator to evaluate the contributions of sewage and/or animal waste to NO{sub 3}{sup -} load, and the {delta}{sup 18}O value can be used for estimation of the contribution of NO{sub 3}{sup -} derived through atmospheric deposition. The microbial denitrification method is currently a most useful tool to measure the {delta}{sup 15}N and {delta}{sup 18}O values of NO{sub 3}{sup -} simultaneously, because of its capability for high throughput of samples. This method allows us to conduct a comprehensive investigation of spatial and temporal variations and mechanisms of nitrogen transport and transformation in rivers and catchments in more precise and effective manner. (author)

  17. Nitrogen And Oxygen Amount In Weld After Welding With Micro-Jet Cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Węgrzyn T.; Piwnik J.

    2015-01-01

    Micro-jet cooling after welding was tested only for MIG welding process with argon, helium and nitrogen as a shielded gases. A paper presents a piece of information about nitrogen and oxygen in weld after micro-jet cooling. There are put down information about gases that could be chosen both for MIG/MAG welding and for micro-jet process. There were given main information about influence of various micro-jet gases on metallographic structure of steel welds. Mechanical properties of weld was pr...

  18. Measurement and modeling of ozone and nitrogen oxides produced by laser breakdown in oxygen-nitrogen atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornushkin, Igor B; Stevenson, Chris L; Galbács, Gábor; Smith, Ben W; Winefordner, James D

    2003-11-01

    The production of ozone nad nitrogen oxides was studied during multiple laser breakdown in oxygen-nitrogen mixtures at atmospheric pressure. About 2000 laser shots at 10(10) W cm-2 were delivered into a sealed reaction chamber. The chamber with a long capillary was designed to measure absorption of O3, NO, and NO2 as a function of the number of laser shots. The light source for absorption measurements was the continuum radiation emitted by the plasma during the first 0.2 microsecond of its evolution. A kinetic model was developed that encompassed the principal chemical reactions between the major atmospheric components and the products of laser breakdown. In the model, the laser plasma was treated as a source of nitric oxide and atomic oxygen, whose rates of production were calculated using measured absorption by NO, NO2, and O3. The calculated concentration profiles for NO, NO2, and O3 were in good agreement with measured profiles over a time scale of 0-200 s. The steady-state concentration of ozone was measured in a flow cell in air. For a single breakdown in air, the estimated steady-state yield of ozone was 2 x 10(12) molecules, which agreed with the model prediction. This study can be of importance for general understanding of laser plasma chemistry and for elucidating the nature of spectral interferences and matrix effects that may take place in applied spectrochemical analysis.

  19. Detonation limits of clouds of coal dust in mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, D.H.; Fearnley, P.J.; Nettleton, M.A.

    1987-09-01

    Ignition and the subsequent acceleration of flame in clouds of coal dust dispersed in mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen have been studied. Two coal sizes, 24 and 54 ..mu..m, in concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 0.22 kg/m/sup 3/ were employed. Flame acceleration and the approach to transition to a stable detonation were monitored by a combination of microwave interferometry and pressure measurements. Flame and shock velocities up to 1.85 km/sec were observed. Ignition distances were found to be independent of the concentrations of dust and oxygen and particle size.

  20. Stable isotope ratio measurements in hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen using Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harney, R.C.; Bloom, S.D.; Milanovich, F.P.

    1975-01-01

    A method for measuring stable isotope ratios using laser Raman scattering was developed which may prove of significant utility and benefit in stable isotope tracer studies. Crude isotope ratio measurements obtained with a low-power laser indicate that with current technology it should be possible to construct an isotope ratio measurement system using laser Raman scattering that is capable of performing 0.1 percent accuracy isotope ratio measurements of 16 O/ 18 O in natural abundance oxygen gas or 14 N/ 15 N in natural abundance nitrogen gas in times less than two minutes per sample. Theory pertinent to the technique, designs of specific isotope ratio spectrometer systems, and data relating to isotope ratio measurements in hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen are presented. In addition, the current status of several studies utilizing this technique is discussed. (auth)

  1. Sputtering of solid nitrogen and oxygen by keV hydrogen ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, O.; Schou, Jørgen; Stenum, B.

    1994-01-01

    Electronic sputtering of solid nitrogen and oxygen by keV hydrogen ions has been studied at two low-temperature setups. The yield of the sputtered particles has been determined in the energy regime 4-10 keV for H+, H-2+ and H-3+ ions. The yield for oxygen is more than a factor of two larger than...... that for nitrogen. The energy distributions of the sputtered N2 and O2 molecules were measured for hydrogen ions in this energy regime as well. The yields from both solids turn out to depend on the sum of the stopping power of all atoms in the ion. The yield increases as a quadratic function of the stopping power...

  2. Investigations into detonations of coal dust suspensions in oxygen-nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, D.; Fearnley, P.; Nettleton, M.

    1987-03-01

    The effect of particle size (practically monodispersed), volatile content and composition of gaseous oxygen-nitrogen mixtures on initiating flame acceleration rates in coal dust suspensions is investigated experimentally. Description is given of apparatus, material used and experiments carried out. The authors discusses: microwave interferograms, pressure oscillograms for various oxygen-nitrogen mixtures; development of ionization front speed in relation to distance from diaphragm; effect of composition on shock wave advance rates. It is concluded that: microwave interferometry can successfully be used in recording initiation of coal dust suspension detonations; ignition of confined coal dust suspensions by shock waves originated by detonation front in stoichiometric oxyacetylene mixtures can be explained by heating of coal particles in shock compression stream to ignition temperature (1000 K) by combined convection and radiation heat transfer. 16 refs.

  3. Dinitrogen Fixation Within and Adjacent to Oxygen Deficient Waters of the Eastern Tropical South Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widner, B.; Mulholland, M. R.; Bernhardt, P. W.; Chang, B. X.; Jayakumar, A.

    2016-02-01

    Recent work suggests that planktonic diazotrophs are geographically more widely distributed than previously thought including relatively warm (14-23oC) aphotic oxygenated pelagic waters and in aphotic waters within oxygen deficient zones. Because the volume of aphotic water in the ocean is large and may increase in the future, if dinitrogen (N2) fixation is widely occurring at sub-euphotic depths, this could result in a dramatic upward revision of global nitrogen (N) inputs via this process. N2 fixation rates were measured during a cruise in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific using stable isotope tracer techniques that account for slow gas dissolution. Results are compared with light, nutrient, and oxygen gradients (and necessarily temperature gradients). In addition, rates of N2 fixation made in vertical profiles within and above oxygen deficient waters are compared with those measured in vertical profiles adjacent to oxygen deficient waters. Results suggest that while rates of N2 fixation were measurable in deeper anoxic waters, volumetric N2 fixation rates were higher in surface waters.

  4. Nitrogen oxidative activation in the radiolysis process of dioxide hydrocarbon composition, oxygen-nitrogen over 3-d transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustamov, V.R.; Garibov, A.A.; Kerimov, V.K.; Aliyev, S.M.; Nasirova, Kh.Y.

    2004-01-01

    The radiochemical process of nitrogen fixation in carbon dioxide, oxygen-nitrogen composition in 3-d metal (iron, nickel) was studied. Bifunctional character of surface's role in the generation of radiolysis products was postulated: a) Chemisorption's of molecular ions (N 2 + , CO 2 + , O 2 + ) on the surface of metal and their dissociative neutralization. b) Coordination of nitrogen and carbon oxide being generated in nitrosyl and carbonyl-nitrosyl complex of iron and nickel. Total yield of the products is over the rang 6,4†7,5, to explain radiolysis' what contribution of only neutral products is impossible. Evidently in the generation of final products, defined contribution brings in molecular ions N 2 + (N + ) and CO 2 + . Interaction character of these ions with nickel proposes the formation of the relation between unpaired electrons N 2 + and CO 2 + with unfilled d-sub level of this metals with the nickel nitride generation [N i -N=N + ] and binding energy in ion diazotate decreases to twice. The yield of nitrogen dioxide on radiolysis of the air gave G NO2 =0,8±0,2 molecule/100eV which is proper to the date in the literature. Kinetic curve appears rapidly in the saturation. Air radiolysis over iron gave the following results: G NO 2 = 2,75 ± 0,25, G N 2 O = 9,0 ± 1,0 molecule/100eV. Thus total yield of radiolysis products is Σ G = 10,5 ± 12,0 molecule/100eV. (author)

  5. Nitrogen oxidative activation in the radiolysis process of dioxide hydrocarbon composition, oxygen-nitrogen over 3-D transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustamov, V.R.; Garibov, A.A.; Kerimov, V.K.; Aliyev, S.M.; Nasirova, Kh.Y.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The radiochemical process of nitrogen fixation in carbon dioxide, oxygen-nitrogen composition in 3-d metal (iron, nickel) was studied. Bifunctional character of surface's role in the generation of radiolysis products was postulated: a) Chemisorption's of molecular ions (N 2 + , CO 2 + , O 2 + ) on the surface of metal and their dissociative neutralization. b) Coordination of nitrogen and carbon oxide being generated in nitrosyl and carbonyl-nitrosyl complex of iron and nickel. Total yield of the products is over the rang 6,4†7,5, to explain radiolysis' what contribution of only neutral products is impossible. Evidently in the generation of final products, defined contribution brings in molecular ions N 2 + (N + ) and CO 2 + . Interaction character of these ions with nickel proposes the formation of the relation between unpaired electrons N 2 + and CO 2 + with unfilled d-sub level of this metals with the nickel nitride generation [N i -N=N + ] and binding energy in ion diazotate decreases to twice. The yield of nitrogen dioxide on radiolysis of the air gave G NO2 =0,8±0,2 molecule/100eV which is proper to the date in the literature. Kinetic curve appears rapidly in the saturation. Air radiolysis over iron gave the following results: G NO 2 = 2,75 ± 0,25, G N 2 O = 9,0 ± 1,0 molecule/100eV. Thus total yield of radiolysis products is Σ G = 10,5 ± 12,0 molecule/100eV

  6. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Materials for Oxygen Reduction Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiliang Wei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen-doped carbon materials, including nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs and nitrogen-doped graphene (NG, have attracted increasing attention for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR in metal-air batteries and fuel cell applications, due to their optimal properties including excellent electronic conductivity, 4e− transfer and superb mechanical properties. Here, the recent progress of NCNTs- and NG-based catalysts for ORR is reviewed. Firstly, the general preparation routes of these two N-doped carbon-allotropes are introduced briefly, and then a special emphasis is placed on the developments of both NCNTs and NG as promising metal-free catalysts and/or catalyst support materials for ORR. All these efficient ORR electrocatalysts feature a low cost, high durability and excellent performance, and are thus the key factors in accelerating the widespread commercialization of metal-air battery and fuel cell technologies.

  7. Effect of hypolimnetic oxygenation on oxygen depletion rates in two water-supply reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantzer, Paul A; Bryant, Lee D; Little, John C

    2009-04-01

    Oxygenation systems, such as bubble-plume diffusers, are used to improve water quality by replenishing dissolved oxygen (DO) in the hypolimnia of water-supply reservoirs. The diffusers induce circulation and mixing, which helps distribute DO throughout the hypolimnion. Mixing, however, has also been observed to increase hypolimnetic oxygen demand (HOD) during system operation, thus accelerating oxygen depletion. Two water-supply reservoirs (Spring Hollow Reservoir (SHR) and Carvins Cove Reservoir (CCR)) that employ linear bubble-plume diffusers were studied to quantify diffuser effects on HOD. A recently validated plume model was used to predict oxygen addition rates. The results were used together with observed oxygen accumulation rates to evaluate HOD over a wide range of applied gas flow rates. Plume-induced mixing correlated well with applied gas flow rate and was observed to increase HOD. Linear relationships between applied gas flow rate and HOD were found for both SHR and CCR. HOD was also observed to be independent of bulk hypolimnion oxygen concentration, indicating that HOD is controlled by induced mixing. Despite transient increases in HOD, oxygenation caused an overall decrease in background HOD, as well as a decrease in induced HOD during diffuser operation, over several years. This suggests that the residual or background oxygen demand decreases from one year to the next. Despite diffuser-induced increases in HOD, hypolimnetic oxygenation remains a viable method for replenishing DO in thermally-stratified water-supply reservoirs such as SHR and CCR.

  8. Preparation of nitrogen-doped graphitic carboncages as electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Jing; Meng, Hui; Yu, Wendan; Yuan, Xiaoli; Lin, Worong; Ouyang, Wenpeng; Yuan, Dingsheng

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanomaterials have been attracted increasing research interests in lithium-O 2 and Zinc-O 2 batteries, ultracapacitors and fuel cells. Herein, nitrogen-doped graphitic carboncages (N-GCs) have been prepared by mesoporous Fe 2 O 3 as a catalyst and lysine as a nitrogen doped carbon source. Due to the catalysis of Fe 2 O 3 , the N-GCs have a high graphitization degree at a low temperature, which is detected by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectrometer. Simultaneously, the heteroatom nitrogen is in-situ doped into carbon network. Therefore, the excellent electrocatalysis performance for oxygen reduction reaction is expected. The electrochemical measurement indicates that The N-GCs for oxygen reduction reaction in O 2 -saturated 0.1 mol L −1 KOH show a four-electron transfer process and exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity (E ORR = -0.05 V vs. Ag/AgCl) and good stability (i/i 0 = 90% at -0.35 V after 4000 s with a rotation rate of 1600 rpm)

  9. Nitrogen Transformation and Microbial Spatial Distribution in Drinking Water Biofilter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yongxing; Zhang, Huining; Jin, Huizheng; Wu, Chengxia

    2018-02-01

    Well understanding the rule of nitrogen mutual transformation in biofilters is important for controlling the DBPs formation in the subsequent disinfection process. Ammonia nitrogen removal effect and nitrogen transformation approach in biofilter of drinking water was researched in the study. The biofilter removed ammonia of 48.5% and total phosphorus of 72.3%. And the removal rate of TN, NO3 --N, DON were 37.1%, 33.1%, 46.9%, respectively. Biomass and bioactivity of different depth of the biofilter were determined, too. The overall distribution of biomass showed a decreasing trend from top to bottom. The bioactivity in lower layer gradually increased. Especially the bioactivity of heterotrophic microorganisms showed a gradual increase trend. The amount of the nitrogen loss was 3.06mg/L. Non-nitrification pathway of “nitrogen loss” phenomenon in biofilter might exist assimilation, nitrification and denitrification in autotrophic.

  10. Chemical oxygen demand (cod) attenuation of methyl red in water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical oxygen demand (cod) attenuation of methyl red in water using biocarbons obtained from Nipa palm leaves. ... eco-friendly and locally accessible biocarbon for mitigation of organic contaminants in water. Keywords: Chemical oxygen demand, biocarbon, methyl red, biodegradation, bioremediation, Nipa palm ...

  11. Problems of Nitrogen at Central Municipal Water Works in Ostrava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praus Petr

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is very important nutrient and must be removed during wastewater treatment process. The presented article describes the situation of nitrogen removal at the Central Municipal Water Works in Ostrava. At present, this biological sewage plant operates with only 45% nitrogen removal efficiency. The current three corridor denitrification-nitrification (D-N system is planed to be reconstructed. One of several solution is modification of the activation tank into four step D-N system that could be completed by postdenitrification in the redundant clarifiers.In this paper the analytical methods, used for determination of nitrogen compounds in waste waters, are described as well. Only sufficiently precise and accurate methods must be selected and that is why the standardized or fully validated procedures are preferred. Laboratory results are used for monitoring of treatment process and for making of important technological decisions. For this purpose, introduction of the quality control and quality assurance system into laboratory practise is desired.

  12. Combined effect of protein and oxygen on reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the plasma treatment of tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Nishtha; Szili, Endre J.; Oh, Jun-Seok; Hong, Sung-Ha; Michelmore, Andrew; Graves, David B.; Hatta, Akimitsu; Short, Robert D.

    2015-09-01

    The influence of protein and molecular, ground state oxygen (O2) on the plasma generation, and transport of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) in tissue are investigated. A tissue target, comprising a 1 mm thick gelatin film (a surrogate for real tissue), is placed on top of a 96-well plate; each well is filled with phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) containing one fluorescent or colorimetric reporter that is specific for one of three RONS (i.e., H2O2, NO2-, or OH•) or a broad spectrum reactive oxygen species reporter (2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein). A helium cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) jet contacts the top of the gelatin surface, and the concentrations of RONS generated in PBS are measured on a microplate reader. The data show that H2O2, NO2-, or OH• are generated in PBS underneath the target. Independently, measurements are made of the O2 concentration in the PBS with and without the gelatin target. Adding bovine serum albumin protein to the PBS or gelatin shows that protein either raises or inhibits RONS depending upon the O2 concentration. Our results are discussed in the context of plasma-soft tissue interactions that are important in the development of CAP technology for medicine, biology, and food manufacturing.

  13. Nitrogen phytoremediation by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, L.J.; Struik, P.C.; Appleton, B.L.; Rule, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    The phytoremediation potential of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, was examined in two independent studies under nitrogen (N) rates of 0, 40, 80, 100, 150, 200, and 300 ppm. A modified Hoagland solution was added to ponds containing water hyacinths which were rated and measured

  14. Dissolved nitrogen in drinking water resources of farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dissolved nitrogen in drinking water resources of farming communities in Ghana. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... Concentrations of these potentially toxic substances were below WHO acceptable limits for surface and groundwaters, indicating these water resources appear safe for drinking ...

  15. Water and nitrogen distribution in uncropped ridgetilled soil under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A ridge-tillage configuration, with placement of nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N) or its source in the elevated portion of the ridge, can potentially isolate fertilizer from downward water flow and minimize nitrate leaching. In the experiment, the simultaneous distribution of water, nitrate, and ammonium under three ridge widths was ...

  16. One step synthesis of chlorine-free Pt/Nitrogen-doped graphene composite for oxygen reduction reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Varga, Tamá s; Varga, Á gnes Tí mea; Ballai, Gergő; Haspel, Henrik; Kukovecz, Á kos; Kó nya, Z.

    2018-01-01

    Chlorine-free Platinum/nitrogen-doped graphene oxygen reduction reaction catalysts were synthesized by a one step method of annealing a mixture of platinum acetylacetonate and graphene oxide under ammonia atmosphere. Nanoparticles with close

  17. Microbial Nitrogen Transformations in the Oxygen Minimum Zone off Peru, 01 February 1985 to 05 March 1985 (NODC Accession 9200026)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NITROP - 85 was the major field of experiment of an N.S.F. funded program entitled "Microbial Nitrogen Transformations in the Oxygen Minimum Zone off Peru". this...

  18. Manipulation of environmental oxygen modifies reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generation during myogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel McCormick

    2016-08-01

    Data demonstrate that satellite cell proliferation increased when cells were grown in 6% O2 compared with 20% O2. Myoblasts grown in 20% O2 showed an increase in DCF fluorescence and DHE oxidation compared with myoblasts grown at 6% O2. Myotubes grown in 20% O2 also showed an increase in DCF and DAF-FM fluorescence and DHE oxidation compared with myotubes grown in 6% O2. The catalase and MnSOD contents were also increased in myoblasts and myotubes that were maintained in 20% O2 compared with myoblasts and myotubes grown in 6% O2. These data indicate that intracellular RONS activities in myoblasts and myotubes at rest are influenced by changes in environmental oxygen concentration and that the increased ROS may influence myogenesis in a negative manner.

  19. Nitrogen cycling in the suboxic waters of the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devol, A.H.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Codispoti, L.A.

    primary production in a section extending about 1000 km off shore from the Arabian coast (1.5 g C m-* d-'; [6]). The Northeast Monsoon (December- February) is characterized by moderate winds From the Himalayas that send cool, dry air over the region... the surface oxygen concentration is high, but by time it reaches the southern border of the ODZ (- 14"N) it loses almost all of its dissolved oxygen (Fig 1; 1771). Thus the combination of high oxygen demand and low oxygen source waters results in the strong...

  20. Modeling of recovery mechanism of ozone zero phenomenaby adding small amount of nitrogen in atmospheric pressure oxygen dielectric barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Haruaki; Yoshinaga, Tomokazu

    2013-09-01

    Ozone zero phenomena in an atmospheric pressure oxygen dielectric barrier discharges have been one of the major problems during a long time operation of ozone generators. But it is also known that the adding a small amount of nitrogen makes the recover from the ozone zero phenomena. To make clear the mechanism of recovery, authors have been simulated the discharges with using the results of Ref. 3. As a result, the recovery process can be seen and ozone density increased. It is found that the most important species would be nitrogen atoms. The reaction of nitrogen atoms and oxygen molecules makes oxygen atoms which is main precursor species of ozone. This generation of oxygen atoms is effective to increase ozone. The dependence of oxygen atom density (nO) and nitrogen atom density (nN) ratio was examined in this paper. In the condition of low nN/nO ratio case, generation of nitrogen oxide is low, and the quenching of ozone by the nitrogen oxide would be low. But in the high ratio condition, the quenching of ozone by nitrogen oxide would significant. This work was supported by KAKENHI(23560352).

  1. Water Stress Scatters Nitrogen Dilution Curves in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Hoogmoed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen dilution curves relate a crop’s critical nitrogen concentration (%Nc to biomass (W according to the allometric model %Nc = a W-b. This model has a strong theoretical foundation, and parameters a and b show little variation for well-watered crops. Here we explore the robustness of this model for water stressed crops. We established experiments to examine the combined effects of water stress, phenology, partitioning of biomass, and water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC, as driven by environment and variety, on the %Nc of wheat crops. We compared models where %Nc was plotted against biomass, growth stage and thermal time. The models were similarly scattered. Residuals of the %Nc - biomass model at anthesis were positively related to biomass, stem:biomass ratio, Δ13C and water supply, and negatively related to ear:biomass ratio and concentration of WSC. These are physiologically meaningful associations explaining the scatter of biomass-based dilution curves. Residuals of the thermal time model showed less consistent associations with these variables. The biomass dilution model developed for well-watered crops overestimates nitrogen deficiency of water-stressed crops, and a biomass-based model is conceptually more justified than developmental models. This has implications for diagnostic and modeling. As theory is lagging, a greater degree of empiricism might be useful to capture environmental, chiefly water, and genotype-dependent traits in the determination of critical nitrogen for diagnostic purposes. Sensitivity analysis would help to decide if scaling nitrogen dilution curves for crop water status, and genotype-dependent parameters are needed.

  2. Visible-light driven nitrogen-doped petal-morphological ceria nanosheets for water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Junchao; Zhang, Wenya; Wang, Yaping; Chen, Zhigang; Chen, Feng; Liu, Chengbao; Lu, Xiaowang; Li, Ping; Wang, Kaiyuan; Chen, Ailian

    2018-06-01

    Water splitting is a promising sustainable technology for solar-to-chemical energy conversion. Herein, we successfully fabricated nitrogen-doped ultrathin CeO2 nanosheets by using field poppy petals as templates, which exhibit an efficiently catalytic activity for water splitting. Abundant oxygen vacancies and substitutional N atoms were experimentally observed in the film due to its unique biomorphic texture. In view of high efficiency and long durability of the as-prepared photocatalyst, this biotemplate method may provide an alternative technique for using biomolecules to assemble 2D nanomaterials.

  3. Effectiveness of Ammonium-Nitrogen and Nitrate-Nitrogen in Irrigation Water in Paddy Rice without Topdressed Nitrogen at the Panicle Formation Stage

    OpenAIRE

    池田, 元輝; 渡辺, 孝賢; Ikeda, Motoki; Watanabe, Takayasu

    2002-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of ammonium- and nitrate- nitrogen contained in irrigation water during the reproductive growth period of paddy rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Hinohikari) that did not receive topdressed nitrogen at the panicle formation stage. lrrigation of water containing a low level of nitrogen (7mgNL^-1) did not increase yields so much compared to topdressed nitrogen. lrrigation of water containing a high level of nitrogen (14mgNL^-1) caused substantia...

  4. Synergistically enhanced activity of nitrogen-doped carbon dots/graphene composites for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Zhao, Qingshan; Liu, Jingyan; Ma, Xiao; Rao, Yuan; Shao, Xiaodong; Li, Zhongtao; Wu, Wenting; Ning, Hui; Wu, Mingbo

    2017-11-01

    With rapid dissociative adsorption of oxygen, nitrogen-doped carbon nanomaterials have been demonstrated to be efficient alternative catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells. Herein, we developed a mild hydrothermal strategy to construct nitrogen-doped carbon dots/graphene (NCDs-NG) composites towards ORR. Carbon dots (CDs) were derived from petroleum coke via acid oxidation while graphene oxide (GO) was obtained from graphite by modified Hummer's method. Graphene was employed as a conductive substrate to disperse CDs during hydrothermal reducing reaction while ammonia was utilized as N source to dope both graphene and CDs. The synergistic effects, i.e. CDs as pillars for graphene and catalytic sites for ORR, the high conductivity of graphene, the quick O2 adsorption on doped pyridinic nitrogen endow the NCDs-NG composites with enhanced ORR catalytic performance in alkaline electrolyte. The onset potential of -95 mV and kinetic current density of 12.7 mA cm-2 at -0.7 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) can be compared to those of the commercial 20 wt% Pt/C catalyst. The electron transfer number is about 3.9, revealing a four-electron pathway for ORR. The optimal NCDs-NG catalyst shows superior durability and methanol tolerance than 20 wt% Pt/C. This work demonstrates a feasible and effective strategy to prepare metal-free efficient ORR electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications.

  5. Substitution the water by nitrogen; Substituicao da agua por nitrogenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fidalgo Junior, Paulo Jose [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Navarro, Antonio Reinaldo [Faculdade Taboao da Serra, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The use of nitrogen in the removal from service for maintenance of pressurized equipment, resulted an excellent process alternative in relation to the traditional injection of water. The advantages of the use of nitrogen can be evidenced in a more significant way, when the operation of maintenance is done in big load pressure equipment, such as gas spheres and horizontal storage tanks. We can mention some important advantages such as: no water consumption, smaller costs, smaller time for equipment removal from service, smaller residues generation, smaller structural efforts in the equipment and better quality of the fluid used in the process. (author)

  6. [A toxicologic hygiene evaluation of electrolytic oxygen obtained from the water in a system with a solid polymeric electrolyte].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardov, V G; Koziarin, I P; Suk, V G; Maslenko, A A; Shmuter, G M

    1990-01-01

    The authors evaluated the problems of hygienic aspects of oxygen obtained by the method of electrolytic decomposition of water with a different content of chemical substances in the system with a hard polymere electrolyte. On the basis of sanitary-chemical qualities and toxicological properties electrolysis gaseous oxygen may be recommended for use in creating an artificial gaseous atmosphere in hermetically sealed compartments in mixture with gaseous nitrogen (ratio 1:4).

  7. A Generalizable Top-Down Nanostructuring Method of Bulk Oxides: Sequential Oxygen-Nitrogen Exchange Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lanlee; Kang, Byungwuk; Han, Suyoung; Kim, Hee-Eun; Lee, Moo Dong; Bang, Jin Ho

    2018-05-27

    A thermal reaction route that induces grain fracture instead of grain growth is devised and developed as a top-down approach to prepare nanostructured oxides from bulk solids. This novel synthesis approach, referred to as the sequential oxygen-nitrogen exchange (SONE) reaction, exploits the reversible anion exchange between oxygen and nitrogen in oxides that is driven by a simple two-step thermal treatment in ammonia and air. Internal stress developed by significant structural rearrangement via the formation of (oxy)nitride and the creation of oxygen vacancies and their subsequent combination into nanopores transforms bulk solid oxides into nanostructured oxides. The SONE reaction can be applicable to most transition metal oxides, and when utilized in a lithium-ion battery, the produced nanostructured materials are superior to their bulk counterparts and even comparable to those produced by conventional bottom-up approaches. Given its simplicity and scalability, this synthesis method could open a new avenue to the development of high-performance nanostructured electrode materials that can meet the industrial demand of cost-effectiveness for mass production. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Synthesis of 2D Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous Carbon Catalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Yu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available 2D nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon (NMC is synthesized by using a mesoporous silica film as hard template, which is then investigated as a non-precious metal catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR. The effect of the synthesis conditions on the silica template and carbon is extensively investigated. In this work, we employ dual templates—viz. graphene oxide and triblock copolymer F127—to control the textural features of a 2D silica film. The silica is then used as a template to direct the synthesis of a 2D nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon. The resultant nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon is characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, nitrogen ad/desorption isotherms, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, cyclic voltammetry (CV, and rotating disk electrode measurements (RDE. The electrochemical test reveals that the obtained 2D-film carbon catalyst yields a highly electrochemically active surface area and superior electrocatalytic activity for the ORR compared to the 3D-particle. The superior activity can be firstly attributed to the difference in the specific surface area of the two catalysts. More importantly, the 2D-film morphology makes more active sites accessible to the reactive species, resulting in a much higher utilization efficiency and consequently better activity. Finally, it is noted that all the carbon catalysts exhibit a higher ORR activity than a commercial Pt catalyst, and are promising for use in fuel cells.

  9. Nitrogen Dynamics Variation in Overlying Water of Jinshan Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jinshan Lake is a famous urban landscape lake with approximately 8.8 km2 water area, which is located on the north of Zhenjiang, of Jiangsu Province, China. Eighteen sampled sites were selected and overlying water was sampled from 2013 to 2014 to study the seasonal and spatial variation of nitrogen in overlying water of Jinshan Lake. Results showed that physicochemical characteristics of temperature, pH, and DO showed high seasonal variation, whereas they had no significant spatial differences in the 18 sampling points (P>0.05 in overlying water of Jinshan Lake. Nitrogen concentrations showed strong seasonal variation trends. The ranked order of TN was as follows: spring > summer > autumn > winter; the order of NH4+-N was as follows: spring > autumn > summer > winter, whereas NO3--N concentrations revealed an inverse seasonal pattern, with maxima occurring in winter and minimal values occurring in spring. Nitrogen concentrations had dramatic spatial changes in 18 sampling points of Jinshan Lake. Physicochemical parameter difference, domestic wastes pollution, and rainfall runoff source may have led to seasonal and spatial fluctuation variations of nitrogen in overlying water of Jinshan Lake, China.

  10. A high-performance mesoporous carbon supported nitrogen-doped carbon electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingjing; Lu, Shiyao; Chen, Xu; Wang, Jianan; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Xinyu; Xiao, Chunhui; Ding, Shujiang

    2017-12-01

    Investigating low-cost and highly active electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) is of crucial importance for energy conversion and storage devices. Herein, we design and prepare mesoporous carbon supported nitrogen-doped carbon by pyrolysis of polyaniline coated on CMK-3. This electrocatalyst exhibits excellent performance towards ORR in alkaline media. The optimized nitrogen-doped mesoporous electrocatalyst show an onset potential (E onset) of 0.95 V (versus reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE)) and half-wave potential (E 1/2) of 0.83 V (versus RHE) in 0.1 M KOH. Furthermore, the as-prepared catalyst presents superior durability and methanol tolerance compared to commercial Pt/C indicating its potential applications in fuel cells and metal-air batteries.

  11. Assessment of nitrogen and oxygen isotopic fractionation during nitrification and its expression in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciotti, Karen L; Buchwald, Carolyn; Santoro, Alyson E; Frame, Caitlin

    2011-01-01

    Nitrification is a microbially-catalyzed process whereby ammonia (NH(3)) is oxidized to nitrite (NO(2)(-)) and subsequently to nitrate (NO(3)(-)). It is also responsible for production of nitrous oxide (N(2)O), a climatically important greenhouse gas. Because the microbes responsible for nitrification are primarily autotrophic, nitrification provides a unique link between the carbon and nitrogen cycles. Nitrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios have provided insights into where nitrification contributes to the availability of NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-), and where it constitutes a significant source of N(2)O. This chapter describes methods for determining kinetic isotope effects involved with ammonia oxidation and nitrite oxidation, the two independent steps in the nitrification process, and their expression in the marine environment. It also outlines some remaining questions and issues related to isotopic fractionation during nitrification. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Crops, Nitrogen, Water: Are Legumes Friend, Foe, or Misunderstood Ally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark A; Buchmann, Nina; Sprent, Janet; Buckley, Thomas N; Turnbull, Tarryn L

    2018-06-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) by crop legumes reduces demand for industrial nitrogen fixation (INF). Nonetheless, rates of BNF in agriculture remain low, with strong negative feedback to BNF from reactive soil nitrogen (N) and drought. We show that breeding for yield has resulted in strong relationships between photosynthesis and leaf N in non-leguminous crops, whereas grain legumes show strong relations between leaf N and water use efficiency (WUE). We contrast these understandings with other studies that draw attention to the water costs of grain legume crops, and their potential for polluting the biosphere with N. We propose that breeding grain legumes for reduced stomatal conductance can increase WUE without compromising production or BNF. Legume crops remain a better bet than relying on INF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of water quality by chlorophyll and dissolved oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, Z.; Tasneem, M.A.; Javed, T.; Butt, S.; Fazil, M.; Ali, M.; Sajjad, M.I.

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of Chlorophyll and dissolved Oxygen on water quality. Kalar Kahar and Rawal lakes were selected for this research. A Spectrophotometer was used for determination of Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, Chlorophyll c and Pheophytin pigment. Dissolved Oxygen was measured in situ, using dissolved oxygen meter. The gamma O/sup 18/ of dissolved Oxygen, like concentration, is affected primarily by three processes: air water gas exchange, respiration and photosynthesis; gamma O/sup 18/ is analyzed on isotopic ratio mass spectrometer, after extraction of dissolved Oxygen from water samples, followed by purification and conversion into CO/sub 2/. Rawal lake receives most of the water from precipitation during monsoon period and supplemented by light rains in December and January. This water is used throughout the year for drinking purposes in Rawalpindi city. The water samples were collected from 5, 7.5, and 10 meters of depth for seasonal studies of physiochemical and isotopic parameters of water and dissolved Oxygen. Optimum experimental conditions for delta O/sup 18/ analysis of dissolved Oxygen from aqueous samples were determined. Stratification of dissolved Oxygen was observed in Rawal Lake before rainy season in summer. The water quality deteriorates with depth, because the respiration exceeds the photosynthesis and gas exchange. The concentration and delta O/sup 18/ of dissolved Oxygen show no variation with depth in 1998 winter sampling. Kalar Kahar lake gets water from springs, which are recharged by local rains on the nearby mountains. It is a big lake, with shallow and uniform depth of nearly 1.5 meters. A lot of vegetation can be seen on the periphery of the lake. Algae have grown on the floor of the lake Water samples were collected from the corner with large amount of vegetation and from the center of the lake for dissolved Oxygen and Chlorophyll measurements. Chlorophyll result shows that Kalar Kahar Lake falls in Eutrophic category

  14. PHOTOINDUCED TRANSFER OF OXYGEN FROM WATER: AN ARTIFICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willner, Itamar; Otvos, John W.; Ford, William E.; Mettee, Howard; Calvin, Melvin

    1979-11-01

    The photoinduced splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen has evoked great interest in recent years as a means for energy storag eand fuel production. Photoinduced reduction of water to hydrogen, using visible light, has been described using heterogeneous or homogeneous catalysts. However, the complementary part involving the oxidation of water to oxygen is required in order to create a cyclic artificial 'photosynthetic' fuel system. The major difficulty assocaited with the photooxidation of water involves the requirement for a four electron transfer to produce oxygen. A stepwise one-electron oxidation of water is unfavorable due to the implied formation of active hydroxyl radicals. Very recently, it has been reported that RuO{sub 2} can serve as a heterogeneous charge storage catalyst for oxygen production. On the basis of the limited knowledge about natural photosynthesis, in which manganese ions play an important role in oxygen evolution, synthetic manganese complexes, and in particular dimeric complexes, have been proposed as potential catalysts for oxygen production. So far, efforts directed toward this goal have been unsuccessful. Consequently, using a manganese complex, they attempted to perform a photoinduced oxidation of water whereby the active oxygen is transferred to a trapping substrate. In such a way, the requirement for a dimerization process to evolve molecular oxygen is avoided. They wish to report a photoinduced redox cycle sensitized by a manganese porphyrin, 5-(4{prime}-hexadecylpyridium)-10, 15, 20-tri (4{prime}-pyridyl)-porphinatomanganese(III) (abbreciated to Pn-Mn{sup III}) in which the resultant reaction is the oxidation of water and trapping of the single oxygen atom by a substrate (triphenylphosphine).

  15. Effects of nitrogen- and oxygen-containing functional groups of activated carbon nanotubes on the electrochemical performance in supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiyan; Song, Huaihe; Chen, Xiaohong; Zhang, Su; Zhou, Jisheng; Ma, Zhaokun

    2015-07-01

    A kind of nitrogen- and oxygen-containing activated carbon nanotubes (ACNTs) has been prepared by carbonization and activation of polyaniline nanotubes obtained by rapidly mixed reaction. The ACNTs show oxygen content of 15.7% and nitrogen content of 2.97% (atomic ratio). The ACNTs perform high capacitance and good rate capability (327 F g-1 at the current density of 10 A g-1) when used as the electrode materials for supercapacitors. Hydrogen reduction has been further used to investigate the effects of surface functional groups on the electrochemical performance. The changes for both structural component and electrochemical performance reveal that the quinone oxygen, pyridinic nitrogen, and pyrrolic nitrogen of carbon have the most obvious influence on the capacitive property because of their pseudocapacitive contributions.

  16. Formation of mixed ligand complexes of UO22+ involving some nitrogen and oxygen donor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mamta; Ram Nayan

    1996-01-01

    The complexation reactions of UO 2 2+ ion with nitrogen and oxygen donor ligands, 1-amino-2-naphthol-4-sulphonic acid, o-aminophenol (ap), 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (sa), 3-carboxy-4-hydroxybenzenesulphonic acid (ss) and 1,2-dihydroxybenzene (ca) have been investigated in aqueous solution employing the pH-titration technique. Analysis of the experimental data recorded at 25 degC and at an ionic strength of 0.10 M KNO 3 indicates formation of binary, hydroxo and ternary complexes of uranium. Formation constant values of the existing species have been evaluated and the results have been discussed. (author). 21 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Microbial removal of fixed nitrogen in an oceanic oxygen minimum zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Tage; Thamdrup, Bo; Revsbech, Niels Peter

    We quantified the removal of fixed nitrogen as N2 production by anammox and N2 and N2O production by denitrification over a distance of 1900 km along the coast of Chile and Peru, using short-term incubations with 15N-labeled substrates. The eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP) holds an oxygen...... and that denitrification is needed for the mineralization of organic matter and production of NH4+ for anammox. Our data from frequent sampling along a 1900 km cruise track parallel to the coast of Chile and Peru show that denitrification does indeed occur, but less frequent and at higher rates than anammox...

  18. Microstructure and tribology of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen implanted ferrous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    Nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen ions have been implanted into ferrous materials under unusual conditions of elevated temperatures and very high dose rates. The tribological durabilities of the resulting surfaces are examined with a special type of pin-on-disc wear test apparatus and found in most cases to be dramatically improved compared to surfaces prepared with conventional implantation conditions. Near-surface microstructures and compositions are characterized after implantation and after wear testing by backscatter Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Auger electron spectroscopy. These data provide evidence for the predominant mechanisms responsible for the observed sliding wear behavior induced by each of the three species. (orig.)

  19. Locations of oxygen, nitrogen and carbon atoms in vanadium determined by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraga, K.; Onozuka, T.; Hirabayashi, M.

    1977-01-01

    The occupation sites of oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon atoms dissolved interstitially in vanadium have been determined by means of neutron diffraction with use of single crystals of VOsub(0.032), VNsub(0.013) and VCsub(0.006). It is revealed that the interstitial atoms occupy, randomly, the octahedral sites in the b.c.c. host lattice of the three crystals. Neutron diffraction is advantageous for the present purpose, since the coherent scattering amplitudes of the solute atoms are much larger than that of the vanadium atom. (Auth.)

  20. Measurement of the isotopic composition of galactic cosmic ray carbon, nitrogen and oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedenbeck, M.E.; Greiner, D.E.; Bieser, F.S.; Crawford, H.J.; Heckman, H.H.; Lindstrom, P.J.

    1979-06-01

    The results of an investigation of the isotopic composition of galactic cosmic ray carbon, nitrogen and oxygen (E approx. 80 to 230 MeV/amu) made using the U.C. Berkeley HKH instrument aboard the ISEE-3 spacecraft are reported. The combination of high mass resolution and a large statistical sample makes possible a precise determination of the relative isotopic abundances for these elements. In local interplanetary space we find: 13 C/C = 0.067 +- 0.008, 15 N/N = 0.54 +- 0.03, 17 O/O 18 O/O = 0.019 +- 0.003

  1. Efficiencies for production of atomic nitrogen and oxygen by relativistic proton impact in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, H. S.; Jackman, C. H.; Green, A. E. S.

    1976-01-01

    Relativistic electron and proton impact cross sections are obtained and represented by analytic forms which span the energy range from threshold to 1 GeV. For ionization processes, the Massey-Mohr continuum generalized oscillator strength surface is parameterized. Parameters are determined by simultaneous fitting to (1) empirical data, (2) the Bethe sum rule, and (3) doubly differential cross sections for ionization. Branching ratios for dissociation and predissociation from important states of N2 and O2 are determined. The efficiency for the production of atomic nitrogen and oxygen by protons with kinetic energy less than 1 GeV is determined using these branching ratio and cross section assignments.

  2. Energy and chemical efficient nitrogen removal at a full-scale MBR water reuse facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Wen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With stringent wastewater discharge limits on nitrogen and phosphorus, membrane bioreactor (MBR technology is gaining popularity for advanced wastewater treatment due to higher effluent quality and smaller footprint. However, higher energy intensity required for MBR plants and increased operational costs for nutrient removal limit wide application of the MBR technology. Conventional nitrogen removal requires intensive energy inputs and chemical addition. There are drivers to search for new technology and process control strategies to treat wastewater with lower energy and chemical demand while still producing high quality effluent. The NPXpress is a patented technology developed by American Water engineers. This technology is an ultra-low dissolved oxygen (DO operation for wastewater treatment and is able to remove nitrogen with less oxygen requirements and reduced supplemental carbon addition in MBR plants. Jefferson Peaks Water Reuse Facility in New Jersey employs MBR technology to treat municipal wastewater and was selected for the implementation of the NPXpress technology. The technology has been proved to consistently produce a high quality reuse effluent while reducing energy consumption and supplemental carbon addition by 59% and 100%, respectively. Lab-scale kinetic studies suggested that NPXpress promoted microorganisms with higher oxygen affinity. Process modelling was used to simulate treatment performance under NPXpress conditions and develop ammonia-based aeration control strategy. The application of the ammonia-based aeration control at the plant further reduced energy consumption by additional 9% and improved treatment performance with 35% reduction in effluent total nitrogen. The overall energy savings for Jefferson Peaks was $210,000 in four years since the implementation of NPXpress. This study provided an insight in design and operation of MBR plants with NPXpress technology and ultra-low DO operations.

  3. Liquid nitrogen - water interaction experiments for fusion reactor accident scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckworth, R.; Murphy, J.; Pfotenhauer, J.; Corradini, M.

    2001-01-01

    With the implementation of superconducting magnets in fusion reactors, the possibility exists for the interaction between water and cryogenic systems. The interaction between liquid nitrogen and water was investigated experimentally and numerically. The rate of pressurization and peak pressure were found to be driven thermodynamically by the expansion of the water and the boil-off of the liquid nitrogen and did not have a vapor explosion nature. Since the peak pressure was small in comparison to previous work with stratified geometries, the role of the geometry of the interacting fluids has been shown to be significant. Comparisons of the peak pressure and the rate of pressurization with respect to the ratio of the liquid nitrogen mass to water mass reveal no functional dependence as was observed in the liquid helium-water experiments. A simple thermodynamic model provides a fairly good description of the pressure rise data. From the data, the model will allow one to extract the interaction area of the water. As with previous liquid helium-water interaction experiments, more extensive investigation of the mass ratio and interaction geometry is needed to define boundaries between explosive and non-explosive conditions. (authors)

  4. Dynamic surface water-groundwater exchange and nitrogen transport in the riparian aquifer of a tidal river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, A. H.; Barnes, R.; Wallace, C.; Knights, D.; Tight, D.; Bayer, M.

    2017-12-01

    Tides in coastal rivers can propagate tens to hundreds of kilometers inland and drive large daily changes in water and nitrogen exchange across the sediment-water interface. We use field observations and numerical models to illuminate hydrodynamic controls on nitrogen export from the riparian aquifer to a fresh, tidal reach of White Clay Creek (Delaware, USA). In the banks, an aerobic zone with high groundwater nitrate concentrations occurs near the fluctuating water table. Continuous depth-resolved measurements of redox potential suggest that this zone is relatively stable over tidal timescales but moves up or down in response to storms. The main source of dissolved oxygen is soil air that is imbibed in the zone of water table fluctuations, and the source of nitrate is likely nitrification of ammonium produced locally from the mineralization of organic matter in floodplain soils. Much of the nitrate is removed by denitrification along oscillating flow paths towards the channel. Within centimeters of the sediment-water interface, denitrification is limited by the mixing of groundwater with oxygen-rich river water. Our models predict that the benthic zones of tidal rivers play an important role in removing new nitrate inputs from discharging groundwater but may be less effective at removing nitrate from river water. Nitrate removal and production rates are expected to vary significantly along tidal rivers as permeability, organic matter content, tidal range vary. It is imperative that we understand nitrogen dynamics along tidal rivers and their role in nitrogen export to the coast.

  5. Soybean response to nitrogen fertilizer under water deficit conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-18

    Apr 18, 2011 ... In order to determine the effect of water deficit and nitrogen fertilizer application on growth indices, yield and yield ... located in 39°N and 47°E longitude and has 32 m altitude. The soil ...... Stable Isotope Research (GASIR).

  6. Modelling of long term nitrogen retention in surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbfaß, S.; Gebel, M.; Bürger, S.

    2010-12-01

    In order to derive measures to reduce nutrient loadings into waters in Saxony, we calculated nitrogen inputs with the model STOFFBILANZ on the regional scale. Thereby we have to compare our modelling results to measured loadings at the river basin outlets, considering long term nutrient retention in surface waters. The most important mechanism of nitrogen retention is the denitrification in the contact zone of water and sediment, being controlled by hydraulic and micro-biological processes. Retention capacity is derived on the basis of the nutrient spiralling concept, using water residence time (hydraulic aspect) and time-specific N-uptake by microorganisms (biological aspect). Short time related processes of mobilization and immobilization are neglected, because they are of minor importance for the derivation of measures on the regional scale.

  7. Nitrogen and oxygen isotopic constraints on the origin of atmospheric nitrate in coastal Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Savarino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the year 2001, aerosol samples were collected continuously for 10 to 15 days at the French Antarctic Station Dumont d'Urville (DDU (66°40' S, l40°0' E, 40 m above mean sea level. The nitrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios of particulate nitrate at DDU exhibit seasonal variations that are among the most extreme observed for nitrate on Earth. In association with concentration measurements, the isotope ratios delineate four distinct periods, broadly consistent with previous studies on Antarctic coastal areas. During austral autumn and early winter (March to mid-July, nitrate concentrations attain a minimum between 10 and 30 ng m−3 (referred to as Period 2. Two local maxima in August (55 ng m−3 and November/December (165 ng m−3 are used to assign Period 3 (mid-July to September and Period 4 (October to December. Period 1 (January to March is a transition period between the maximum concentration of Period 4 and the background concentration of Period 2. These seasonal changes are reflected in changes of the nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios. During Period 2, which is characterized by background concentrations, the isotope ratios are in the range of previous measurements at mid-latitudes: δ18Ovsmow=(77.2±8.6‰; Δ17O=(29.8±4.4‰; δ15Nair=(−4.4±5.4‰ (mean ± one standard deviation. Period 3 is accompanied by a significant increase of the oxygen isotope ratios and a small increase of the nitrogen isotope ratio to δ18Ovsmow=(98.8±13.9‰; Δ17O=(38.8±4.7‰ and δ15Nair=(4.3±8.20‰. Period 4 is characterized by a minimum 15N/14N ratio, only matched by one prior study of Antarctic aerosols, and oxygen isotope ratios similar to Period 2: δ18Ovsmow=(77.2±7.7‰; Δ17O=(31.1±3.2‰; δ15Nair=(−32.7±8.4‰. Finally, during Period 1, isotope ratios reach minimum values for oxygen and intermediate values for nitrogen: δ18Ovsmow=63.2±2.5‰; Δ17O=24.0±1.1‰; δ15Nair=−17.9±4.0‰. Based on the measured

  8. An Isotopic view of water and nitrogen transport through the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in Oregon’s southern Willamette Valley and many more across the Pacific Northwest. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (SWV GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nitrate levels in the groundwater exceeding the human health standard of 10 mg nitrate-N L-1. Much of the nitrogen inputs to the GWMA comes from agricultural nitrogen use, and thus efforts to reduce N inputs to groundwater are focused upon improving N management. However, the effectiveness of these improvements on groundwater quality is unclear because of the complexity of nutrient transport through the vadose zone and long groundwater residence times. Our objective was to focus on vadose zone transport and understand the dynamics and timing of N and water movement below the rooting zone in relation to N management and water inputs. Stable isotopes are a powerful tool for tracking water movement, and understanding nitrogen transformations within the vadose zone. In partnership with local farmers, and state agencies, we established lysimeters and groundwater wells in multiple agricultural fields in the GWMA, and have monitored nitrate, nitrate isotopes, and water isotopes weekly for multiple years. Our results indicate that vadose zone transport is highly complex, and the residence time of water collected in lysimeters was much longer than expected. While input precipitation water isotopes were highly variab

  9. Oxygen Response of the Wine Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118 Grown under Carbon-Sufficient, Nitrogen-Limited Enological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceituno, Felipe F.; Orellana, Marcelo; Torres, Jorge; Mendoza, Sebastián; Slater, Alex W.; Melo, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Discrete additions of oxygen play a critical role in alcoholic fermentation. However, few studies have quantitated the fate of dissolved oxygen and its impact on wine yeast cell physiology under enological conditions. We simulated the range of dissolved oxygen concentrations that occur after a pump-over during the winemaking process by sparging nitrogen-limited continuous cultures with oxygen-nitrogen gaseous mixtures. When the dissolved oxygen concentration increased from 1.2 to 2.7 μM, yeast cells changed from a fully fermentative to a mixed respirofermentative metabolism. This transition is characterized by a switch in the operation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and an activation of NADH shuttling from the cytosol to mitochondria. Nevertheless, fermentative ethanol production remained the major cytosolic NADH sink under all oxygen conditions, suggesting that the limitation of mitochondrial NADH reoxidation is the major cause of the Crabtree effect. This is reinforced by the induction of several key respiratory genes by oxygen, despite the high sugar concentration, indicating that oxygen overrides glucose repression. Genes associated with other processes, such as proline uptake, cell wall remodeling, and oxidative stress, were also significantly affected by oxygen. The results of this study indicate that respiration is responsible for a substantial part of the oxygen response in yeast cells during alcoholic fermentation. This information will facilitate the development of temporal oxygen addition strategies to optimize yeast performance in industrial fermentations. PMID:23001663

  10. Oxygen response of the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118 grown under carbon-sufficient, nitrogen-limited enological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceituno, Felipe F; Orellana, Marcelo; Torres, Jorge; Mendoza, Sebastián; Slater, Alex W; Melo, Francisco; Agosin, Eduardo

    2012-12-01

    Discrete additions of oxygen play a critical role in alcoholic fermentation. However, few studies have quantitated the fate of dissolved oxygen and its impact on wine yeast cell physiology under enological conditions. We simulated the range of dissolved oxygen concentrations that occur after a pump-over during the winemaking process by sparging nitrogen-limited continuous cultures with oxygen-nitrogen gaseous mixtures. When the dissolved oxygen concentration increased from 1.2 to 2.7 μM, yeast cells changed from a fully fermentative to a mixed respirofermentative metabolism. This transition is characterized by a switch in the operation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and an activation of NADH shuttling from the cytosol to mitochondria. Nevertheless, fermentative ethanol production remained the major cytosolic NADH sink under all oxygen conditions, suggesting that the limitation of mitochondrial NADH reoxidation is the major cause of the Crabtree effect. This is reinforced by the induction of several key respiratory genes by oxygen, despite the high sugar concentration, indicating that oxygen overrides glucose repression. Genes associated with other processes, such as proline uptake, cell wall remodeling, and oxidative stress, were also significantly affected by oxygen. The results of this study indicate that respiration is responsible for a substantial part of the oxygen response in yeast cells during alcoholic fermentation. This information will facilitate the development of temporal oxygen addition strategies to optimize yeast performance in industrial fermentations.

  11. Carbon-nitrogen-water interactions: is model parsimony fruitful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puertes, Cristina; González-Sanchis, María; Lidón, Antonio; Bautista, Inmaculada; Lull, Cristina; Francés, Félix

    2017-04-01

    It is well known that carbon and nitrogen cycles are highly intertwined and both should be explained through the water balance. In fact, in water-controlled ecosystems nutrient deficit is related to this water scarcity. For this reason, the present study compares the capability of three models in reproducing the interaction between the carbon and nitrogen cycles and the water cycle. The models are BIOME-BGCMuSo, LEACHM and a simple carbon-nitrogen model coupled to the hydrological model TETIS. Biome-BGCMuSo and LEACHM are two widely used models that reproduce the carbon and nitrogen cycles adequately. However, their main limitation is that these models are quite complex and can be too detailed for watershed studies. On the contrary, the TETIS nutrient sub-model is a conceptual model with a vertical tank distribution over the active soil depth, dividing it in two layers. Only the input of the added litter and the losses due to soil respiration, denitrification, leaching and plant uptake are considered as external fluxes. Other fluxes have been neglected. The three models have been implemented in an experimental plot of a semi-arid catchment (La Hunde, East of Spain), mostly covered by holm oak (Quercus ilex). Plant transpiration, soil moisture and runoff have been monitored daily during nearly two years (26/10/2012 to 30/09/2014). For the same period, soil samples were collected every two months and taken to the lab in order to obtain the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, ammonium and nitrate. In addition, between field trips soil samples were placed in PVC tubes with resin traps and were left incubating (in situ buried cores). Thus, mineralization and nitrification accumulated fluxes for two months, were obtained. The ammonium and nitrate leaching accumulated for two months were measured using ion-exchange resin cores. Soil respiration was also measured every field trip. Finally, water samples deriving from runoff, were collected

  12. Identification of catalytic sites in cobalt-nitrogen-carbon materials for the oxygen reduction reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitolo, Andrea; Ranjbar-Sahraie, Nastaran; Mineva, Tzonka; Li, Jingkun; Jia, Qingying; Stamatin, Serban; Harrington, George F; Lyth, Stephen Mathew; Krtil, Petr; Mukerjee, Sanjeev; Fonda, Emiliano; Jaouen, Frédéric

    2017-10-16

    Single-atom catalysts with full utilization of metal centers can bridge the gap between molecular and solid-state catalysis. Metal-nitrogen-carbon materials prepared via pyrolysis are promising single-atom catalysts but often also comprise metallic particles. Here, we pyrolytically synthesize a Co-N-C material only comprising atomically dispersed cobalt ions and identify with X-ray absorption spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility measurements and density functional theory the structure and electronic state of three porphyrinic moieties, CoN 4 C 12 , CoN 3 C 10,porp and CoN 2 C 5 . The O 2 electro-reduction and operando X-ray absorption response are measured in acidic medium on Co-N-C and compared to those of a Fe-N-C catalyst prepared similarly. We show that cobalt moieties are unmodified from 0.0 to 1.0 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode, while Fe-based moieties experience structural and electronic-state changes. On the basis of density functional theory analysis and established relationships between redox potential and O 2 -adsorption strength, we conclude that cobalt-based moieties bind O 2 too weakly for efficient O 2 reduction.Nitrogen-doped carbon materials with atomically dispersed iron or cobalt are promising for catalytic use. Here, the authors show that cobalt moieties have a higher redox potential, bind oxygen more weakly and are less active toward oxygen reduction than their iron counterpart, despite similar coordination.

  13. Fractionation of Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotopes and Roles of Bacteria during Denitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J.; Buyanjargal, A.; Jeen, S. W.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrate in groundwater can cause health and environmental problems when not properly treated. The purpose of this study was to develop a treatment method for nitrate in groundwater using organic carbon-based reactive mixtures (i.e., wood chips and gravel) through column experiments and to evaluate reaction mechanisms responsible for the treatment. The column experiments were operated for a total of 19 months. The results from the geochemical analyses for the experiments suggest that cultures of denitrifying bacteria used organic carbon while utilizing nitrate as their electron acceptor via denitrification process. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in all samples, accounting for 45.7% of the bacterial reads, followed by Firmicutes (22.6%) and Chlorobi (10.6%). Bacilli, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria_c consisted of 32, 30, 23, 11, and 2% of denitrifying bacteria class. The denitrification process caused fractionation of nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate while nitrate concentration decreased. When fitted to the Rayleigh's fractionation model, enrichment factors (ɛ) were 11.5‰ and 5.6‰ for 15N and 18O isotopes, respectively. Previous studies suggested that nitrogen isotope enrichment factors of denitrification are within the range of 4.7 to 40‰ and oxygen isotopic enrichment factors are between 8 and 18.3‰. This study shows that nitrate in groundwater can be effectively treated using passive treatment systems, such as permeable reactive barriers (PRBs), and denitrificaton is the dominant process reponsible for the removal of nitrate.

  14. Measurement of total-body oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon in vivo by photon activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulin, K.

    1984-01-01

    With the aim of assessing nutritional status, the feasibility of measuring the total body quantities of the major body elements, i.e. oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon, using the photon beam of a 45 MV betatron and a whole-body counter, has been evaluated in detail. Following photon activation a single energy γ-radiation (.511 MeV) is observed from all three elements to be measured. The half-lives of 15 O, 13 N, and 11 C, however, are sufficiently different (20.5 min, 10.0 min, and 20.4 min. respectively) to permit their measurement from an analysis of the measured decay curve. Following corrections for interfering reactions, a computer curve-fitting algorithm is used to resolve the data into 15 O, 13 N, and 11 C components. Measurements of O, N, and C have been made both in phantoms and in live and dead rats. A comparison of the body composition results from this technique with results from chemical analysis indicates that measured carbon can quite accurately predict total body fat. The comparison of the total body nitrogen measurement by photon activation with total body protein by chemical analysis was inconclusive and suggests that further work be done to verify the estimated accuracy of the nitrogen measurement

  15. Ultrasonic cavitation erosion of Ti in 0.35% NaCl solution with bubbling oxygen and nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D G; Wang, J D; Chen, D R; Liang, P

    2015-09-01

    The influences of oxygen and nitrogen on the ultrasonic cavitation erosion of Ti in 0.35%NaCl solution at room temperature, were investigated using a magnetostrictive-induced ultrasonic cavitation erosion (CE) facility and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The roles of oxygen and nitrogen in the composition and the electronic property of the passive film on Ti, were studied by Mott-Schottky plot and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the mass loss of Ti in 0.35%NaCl solution increased with increasing cavitation time. Bubbling oxygen can evidently increase the resistance of ultrasonic cavitation erosion comparing with bubbling nitrogen. XPS results showed that the thickness of the passive film on Ti in 0.35%NaCl solution in the case of bubbling oxygen for 3 weeks, was about 7 nm, and the passive film was mainly composed of TiO2 with an anatase structure. While TiO2 with a rutile structure was found to be the major component of the passive film on Ti in 0.35%NaCl solution in the case of bubbling nitrogen for 3 weeks, and the film thickness was 5 nm. The results extracted from Mott-Schottky plot showed that the passive film on Ti in the case of bubbling oxygen had more donor density than the passive film on Ti in the case of bubbling nitrogen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of water and nitrogen additions on free-living nitrogen fixer populations in desert grass root zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, R P; Provencio, K R; Torrez, R J; Seager, G M

    1993-01-01

    In this study we measured changes in population levels of free-living N2-fixing bacteria in the root zones of potted Bouteloua eriopoda and Sporobolus flexuosus plants as well as the photosynthetic indices of the plants in response to added nitrogen, added water, and added water plus nitrogen treatments. In addition, N2 fixer population changes in response to added carbon source and nitrogen were measured in plant-free soil columns. There were significant increases in the numbers of N2 fixers associated with both plant species in the water and the water plus nitrogen treatments. Both treatments increased the photosynthetic index, suggesting that plant exudates were driving N2 fixer population changes. Population increases were greatest in the water plus nitrogen treatments, indicating that added nitrogen was synergistic with added water and suggesting that nitrogen addition spared bacteria the metabolic cost of N2 fixation, allowing greater reproduction. Plant-free column studies demonstrated a synergistic carbon-nitrogen effect when carbon levels were limiting (low malate addition) but not when carbon was abundant (high malate), further supporting this hypothesis. The results of this study indicate the presence of N2 fixer populations which interact with plants and which may play a role in the nitrogen balance of desert grasslands. PMID:8215373

  17. [Influence of water deficit and supplemental irrigation on nitrogen uptake by winter wheat and nitrogen residual in soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Wang, Bing; Li, Shengxiu

    2004-08-01

    Pot experiment in greenhouse showed that water deficit at all growth stages and supplemental irrigation at tillering stage significantly decreased the nitrogen uptake by winter wheat and increased the mineral N residual (79.8-113.7 mg x kg(-1)) in soil. Supplemental irrigation at over-wintering, jointing or filling stage significantly increased the nitrogen uptake by plant and decreased the nitrogen residual (47.2-60.3 mg x kg(-1)) in soil. But, the increase of nitrogen uptake caused by supplemental irrigation did not always mean a high magnitude of efficient use of nitrogen by plants. Supplemental irrigation at over-wintering stage didn't induce any significant change in nitrogen content of grain, irrigation at filling stage increased the nitrogen content by 20.9%, and doing this at jointing stage decreased the nitrogen content by 19.6%, as compared to the control.

  18. Meta-omic signatures of microbial metal and nitrogen cycling in marine oxygen minimum zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer B. Glass

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe and copper (Cu are essential cofactors for microbial metalloenzymes, but little is known about the metalloenyzme inventory of anaerobic marine microbial communities despite their importance to the nitrogen cycle. We compared dissolved O2, NO3-, NO2-, Fe and Cu concentrations with nucleic acid sequences encoding Fe and Cu-binding proteins in 21 metagenomes and 9 metatranscriptomes from Eastern Tropical North and South Pacific oxygen minimum zones and 7 metagenomes from the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Station. Dissolved Fe concentrations increased sharply at upper oxic-anoxic transition zones, with the highest Fe:Cu molar ratio (1.8 occurring at the anoxic core of the Eastern Tropical North Pacific oxygen minimum zone and matching the predicted maximum ratio based on data from diverse ocean sites. The relative abundance of genes encoding Fe-binding proteins was negatively correlated with O2, driven by significant increases in genes encoding Fe-proteins involved in dissimilatory nitrogen metabolisms under anoxia. Transcripts encoding cytochrome c oxidase, the Fe- and Cu-containing terminal reductase in aerobic respiration, were positively correlated with O2 content. A comparison of the taxonomy of genes encoding Fe- and Cu-binding vs. bulk proteins in OMZs revealed that Planctomycetes represented a higher percentage of Fe genes while Thaumarchaeota represented a higher percentage of Cu genes, particularly at oxyclines. These results are broadly consistent with higher relative abundance of genes encoding Fe-proteins in the genome of a marine planctomycete vs. higher relative abundance of genes encoding Cu-proteins in the genome of a marine thaumarchaeote. These findings highlight the importance of metalloenzymes for microbial processes in oxygen minimum zones and suggest preferential Cu use in oxic habitats with Cu > Fe vs. preferential Fe use in anoxic niches with Fe > Cu.

  19. Age and quality of ground water and sources of nitrogen in the aquifers in Pumpkin Creek Valley, western Nebraska, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, G.V.; Cannia, J.C.; Sibray, S.S.; McGuire, V.L.

    2005-01-01

    Ground water is the source of drinking water for the residents of Pumpkin Creek Valley, western Nebraska. In this largely agricultural area, shallow aquifers potentially are susceptible to nitrate contamination. During the last 10 years, ground-water levels in the North Platte Natural Resources District have declined and contamination has become a major problem for the district. In 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey and the North Platte Natural Resources District began a cooperative study to determine the age and quality of the ground water and the sources of nitrogen in the aquifers in Pumpkin Creek Valley. Water samples were collected from 8 surface-water sites, 2 springs, and 88 ground-water sites during May, July, and August 2000. These samples were analyzed for physical properties, nutrients or nitrate, and hydrogen and oxygen isotopes. In addition, a subset of samples was analyzed for any combination of chlorofluorocarbons, tritium, tritium/helium, sulfur-hexafluoride, carbon-14, and nitrogen-15. The apparent age of ground water in the alluvial aquifer typically varied from about 1980 to modern, whereas ground water in the fractured Brule Formation had a median value in the 1970s. The Brule Formation typically contained ground water that ranged from the 1940s to the 1990s, but low-yield wells had apparent ages of 5,000 to 10,000 years before present. Data for oxygen-18 and deuterium indicated that lake-water samples showed the greatest effects from evaporation. Ground-water data showed no substantial evaporative effects and some ground water became isotopically heavier as the water moved downgradient. In addition, the physical and chemical ground-water data indicate that Pumpkin Creek is a gaining stream because little, if any, of its water is lost to the ground-water system. The water-quality type changed from a sodium calcium bicarbonate type near Pumpkin Creek's headwaters to a calcium sodium bicarbonate type near its mouth. Nitrate concentrations were

  20. Nitrogen transformation under different dissolved oxygen levels by the anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium Marichromatium gracile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xuan; Chen, Zhongwei; Zhao, Chungui; Yang, Suping

    2017-06-01

    Marichromatium gracile: YL28 (M. gracile YL28) is an anoxygenic phototrophic bacterial strain that utilizes ammonia, nitrate, or nitrite as its sole nitrogen source during growth. In this study, we investigated the removal and transformation of ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite by M. gracile YL28 grown in a combinatorial culture system of sodium acetate-ammonium, sodium acetate-nitrate and sodium acetate-nitrite in response to different initial dissolved oxygen (DO) levels. In the sodium acetate-ammonium system under aerobic conditions (initial DO = 7.20-7.25 mg/L), we detected a continuous accumulation of nitrate and nitrite. However, under semi-anaerobic conditions (initial DO = 4.08-4.26 mg/L), we observed a temporary accumulation of nitrate and nitrite. Interestingly, under anaerobic conditions (initial DO = 0.36-0.67 mg/L), there was little accumulation of nitrate and nitrite, but an increase in nitrous oxide production. In the sodium acetate-nitrite system, nitrite levels declined slightly under aerobic conditions, and nitrite was completely removed under semi-anaerobic and anaerobic conditions. In addition, M. gracile YL28 was able to grow using nitrite as the sole nitrogen source in situations when nitrogen gas produced by denitrification was eliminated. Taken together, the data indicate that M. gracile YL28 performs simultaneous heterotrophic nitrification and denitrification at low-DO levels and uses nitrite as the sole nitrogen source for growth. Our study is the first to demonstrate that anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria perform heterotrophic ammonia-oxidization and denitrification under anaerobic conditions.

  1. Microbial nitrogen sinks in the water column of a large coastal hypoxic area, the Gulf of Mexico "Dead Zone"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogener, M. K.; Roberts, B. J.; Rabalais, N. N.; Stewart, F. J.; Joye, S. B.

    2016-02-01

    Excess nitrogen in coastal environments leads to eutrophication, harmful algal blooms, habitat loss, oxygen depletion and reductions in biodiversity. As such, biological nitrogen (N) removal through the microbially-mediated process of denitrification is a critical ecosystem function that can mitigate the negative consequences of excess nitrogen loading. However, denitrification can produce nitrous oxide, a potent greenhouse gas, as a byproduct under some environmental conditions. To understand how excess nitrogen loading impacts denitrification, we measured rates of this process in the water column of the Gulf of Mexico "Dead Zone" three times over the summer of 2015. The Dead Zone is generated by excessive nitrogen loading from the Mississippi River co-occurring with strong water column stratification, which leads to a large summer-time hypoxic/anoxic area at the mouth of the river and along the coast of Louisiana. Rates of denitrification ranged from 31 to 153 nmol L-1 d-1. Dead Zone waters are also enriched in methane and aerobic methane oxidation rates ranged from 0.1 to 4.3 nmol L-1 d-1. Maximal denitrification rates were observed at stations with the lowest oxygen concentrations and highest methane oxidation rates, suggesting a potential coupling between nitrate reduction and methane oxidation which both scrubs reactive N and methane from the system, thus performing a duel ecosystem service.

  2. The Recovery of Water and Nitrogen from Urine in BLSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Beizhen; Liu, Hong; Deng, Shengda

    The recycle and reuse of the wastewater is one of the main factors for realizing a higher closure degree of bioregenerative life support system (BLSS), and the treatment and recovery of the crew’s urine are the most difficult and critical issues. Urine contains a lot of water and high concentrations of urea and salts. Water can be used for the irrigation of the plants in BLSS, and the nitrogen is also the necessary nutrient for plant growth. Therefore, if the nitrogen could be recycled simultaneously while desalting the urine, the substance circulation and the closure of BLSS could be improved significantly. In this study, two-step method was conducted to treat the urine and recycle the water and nitrogen. The urea was hydrolyzed firstly, and then the water vapor and ammonia gas were cooled and collected by using reduced pressure distillation in alkaline condition. High temperature acidification and urease processing methods were studied during the urea hydrolysis step. The treatment conditions of both methods were optimized and the degrees of hydrolysis were compared. This investigation may provide a reference for the establishment of the urine recycle in BLSS.

  3. Study of the metastable singlet of molecular nitrogen and of oxygen atoms in discharges and post-discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magne, Lionel

    1991-01-01

    Whereas discharges in nitrogen, in oxygen and in their mixtures are used in many different industrial processes (surface treatment, nitridation, oxidation, and so on), in order to get a better knowledge on nitrogen electronic states, this research thesis reports the study of the metastable singlet state of molecular nitrogen, and of oxygen atoms in their fundamental state. The molecular metastable has been observed by far-UV optical emission spectroscopy, in the positive column of a continuous discharge and in time post-discharge. As far as continuous discharge is concerned, the author measured the vibrational distribution of this state. A kinetic model has been developed, and calculated vibrational distributions are in good agreement with measurements. The density of oxygen atoms in fundamental state in time post-discharge has been measured by far-UV absorption optical spectroscopy. The probability of atom re-association of glass walls is deduced from the obtained results [fr

  4. Nitrogen, Sulfur, and Oxygen Isotope Ratios of Animal- and Plant-Based Organic Fertilizers Used in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Woo-Jin; Ryu, Jong-Sik; Mayer, Bernhard; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Kim, Insu

    2017-05-01

    Organic fertilizers are increasingly used in agriculture in Asia and elsewhere. Tracer techniques are desirable to distinguish the fate of nutrients added to agroecosystems with organic fertilizers from those contained in synthetic fertilizers. Therefore, we determined the nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrogen- and sulfur-bearing compounds in animal- and plant-based organic fertilizers (ABOF and PBOF, respectively) used in South Korea to evaluate whether they are isotopically distinct. The δN values of total and organic nitrogen for ABOF ranged from +7 to +19‰ and were higher than those of PBOF (generally fertilizer compounds in the plant-soil-water system, whereas PBOFs have similar δN values to synthetic fertilizers. However, δO values for nitrate (δO) from organic fertilizer samples (fertilizers. The δS values of total sulfur, organic sulfur compounds (e.g., carbon-bonded sulfur and hydriodic acid-reducible sulfur), and sulfate for ABOFs yielded wide and overlapping ranges of +0.3 to +6.3, +0.9 to +7.2, and -2.6 to +14.2‰, whereas those for PBOFs varied from -3.4 to +7.7, +1.4 to +9.4, and -4.1 to +12.5‰, respectively, making it challenging to distinguish the fate of sulfur compounds from ABOF and PBOF in the environment using sulfur isotopes. We conclude that the δN values of ABOFs and the O values of organic fertilizers are distinct from those of synthetic fertilizers and are a promising tool for tracing the fate of nutrients added by organic fertilizers to agroecosystems. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal in sequencing batch reactors: effects of cycle length, dissolved oxygen concentration and influent particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginige, Maneesha P; Kayaalp, Ahmet S; Cheng, Ka Yu; Wylie, Jason; Kaksonen, Anna H

    2013-01-01

    Removal of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) from municipal wastewaters is required to mitigate eutrophication of receiving water bodies. While most treatment plants achieve good N removal using influent carbon (C), the use of influent C to facilitate enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is poorly explored. A number of operational parameters can facilitate optimum use of influent C and this study investigated the effects of cycle length, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration during aerobic period and influent solids on biological P and N removal in sequencing batch reactors (SRBs) using municipal wastewaters. Increasing cycle length from 3 to 6 h increased P removal efficiency, which was attributed to larger portion of N being removed via nitrite pathway and more biodegradable organic C becoming available for EBPR. Further increasing cycle length from 6 to 8 h decreased P removal efficiencies as the demand for biodegradable organic C for denitrification increased as a result of complete nitrification. Decreasing DO concentration in the aerobic period from 2 to 0.8 mg L(-1) increased P removal efficiency but decreased nitrification rates possibly due to oxygen limitation. Further, sedimented wastewater was proved to be a better influent stream than non-sedimented wastewater possibility due to the detrimental effect of particulate matter on biological nutrient removal.

  6. Carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotope fractionation during food cooking: Implications for the interpretation of the fossil human record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Aurélien; Daux, Valérie; Fourel, François; Lécuyer, Christophe

    2017-08-01

    Stable isotope data provide insight into the reconstruction of ancient human diet. However, cooking may alter the original stable isotope compositions of food due to losses and modifications of biochemical and water components. To address this issue, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios were measured on meat aliquots sampled from various animals such as pork, beef, duck and chicken, and also from the flesh of fishes such as salmon, European seabass, European pilchard, sole, gilt-head bream, and tuna. For each specimen, three pieces were cooked according to the three most commonly-known cooking practices: boiling, frying and roasting on a barbecue. Our data show that cooking produced isotopic shifts up to 1.8‰, 3.5‰, and 5.2‰ for δ 13 C, δ 15 N, and δ 18 O values, respectively. Such variations between raw and cooked food are much greater than previously estimated in the literature; they are more sensitive to the type of food rather than to the cooking process itself, except in the case of boiling. Reconstructions of paleodietary may thus suffer slight bias in cases of populations with undiversified diets that are restrained toward a specific raw or cooked product, or using a specific cooking mode. In cases of oxygen isotope compositions from skeletal remains (bones, teeth), they not only constitute a valuable proxy for reconstructing past climatic conditions, but they could also be used to improve our knowledge of past human diet. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Chlorophyll fluorescence response to water and nitrogen deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendrero Mateo, Maria del Pilar

    The increasing food demand as well as the need to predict the impact of warming climate on vegetation makes it critical to find the best tools to assess crop production and carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange between the land and atmosphere. Photosynthesis is a good indicator of crop production and CO2 exchange. Chlorophyll fluorescence (ChF) is directly related to photosynthesis. ChF can be measured at leaf-scale using active techniques and at field-scales using passive techniques. The measurement principles of both techniques are different. In this study, three overarching questions about ChF were addressed: Q1) How water, nutrient and ambient light conditions determine the relationships between photosynthesis and ChF? Which is the optimum irradiance level for detecting water and nutrient deficit conditions with ChF? ; Q2) which are the limits within which active and passive techniques are comparable?; and Q3) What is the seasonal relationship between photosynthesis and ChF when nitrogen is the limiting factor? To address these questions, two main experiments were conducted: Exp1) Concurrent photosynthesis and ChF light-response curves were measured in camelina and wheat plants growing under (i) intermediate-light and (ii) high-light conditions respectively. Plant stress was induced by (i) withdrawing water, and (ii) applying different nitrogen levels; and Exp2) coincident active and passive ChF measurements were made in a wheat field under different nitrogen treatments. The results indicated ChF has a direct relationship with photosynthesis when water or nitrogen drives the relationship. This study demonstrates that the light level at which plants were grown was optimum for detecting water and nutrient deficit with ChF. Also, the results showed that for leaf-average-values, active measurements can be used to better understand the daily and seasonal behavior of passive ChF. Further, the seasonal relation between photosynthesis and ChF with nitrogen stress was not a

  8. Bayesian Nitrate Source Apportionment to Individual Groundwater Wells in the Central Valley by use of Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Boron Isotopic Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, K.; Harter, T.; Grote, M.; Young, M. B.; Eppich, G.; Deinhart, A.; Wimpenny, J.; Yin, Q. Z.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater quality is a concern in alluvial aquifers underlying agricultural areas worldwide, an example of which is the San Joaquin Valley, California. Nitrate from land applied fertilizers or from animal waste can leach to groundwater and contaminate drinking water resources. Dairy manure and synthetic fertilizers are the major sources of nitrate in groundwater in the San Joaquin Valley, however, septic waste can be a major source in some areas. As in other such regions around the world, the rural population in the San Joaquin Valley relies almost exclusively on shallow domestic wells (≤150 m deep), of which many have been affected by nitrate. Consumption of water containing nitrate above the drinking water limit has been linked to major health effects including low blood oxygen in infants and certain cancers. Knowledge of the proportion of each of the three main nitrate sources (manure, synthetic fertilizer, and septic waste) contributing to individual well nitrate can aid future regulatory decisions. Nitrogen, oxygen, and boron isotopes can be used as tracers to differentiate between the three main nitrate sources. Mixing models quantify the proportional contributions of sources to a mixture by using the concentration of conservative tracers within each source as a source signature. Deterministic mixing models are common, but do not allow for variability in the tracer source concentration or overlap of tracer concentrations between sources. Bayesian statistics used in conjunction with mixing models can incorporate variability in the source signature. We developed a Bayesian mixing model on a pilot network of 32 private domestic wells in the San Joaquin Valley for which nitrate as well as nitrogen, oxygen, and boron isotopes were measured. Probability distributions for nitrogen, oxygen, and boron isotope source signatures for manure, fertilizer, and septic waste were compiled from the literature and from a previous groundwater monitoring project on several

  9. The cyanobacterial nitrogen fixation paradox in natural waters [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Paerl

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fixation, the enzymatic conversion of atmospheric N (N2 to ammonia (NH3, is a microbially mediated process by which “new” N is supplied to N-deficient water bodies. Certain bloom-forming cyanobacterial species are capable of conducting N2 fixation; hence, they are able to circumvent N limitation in these waters. However, this anaerobic process is highly sensitive to oxygen, and since cyanobacteria produce oxygen in photosynthesis, they are faced with a paradoxical situation, where one critically important (for supporting growth biochemical process is inhibited by another. N2-fixing cyanobacterial taxa have developed an array of biochemical, morphological, and ecological adaptations to minimize the “oxygen problem”; however, none of these allows N2 fixation to function at a high enough efficiency so that it can supply N needs at the ecosystem scale, where N losses via denitrification, burial, and advection often exceed the inputs of “new” N by N2 fixation. As a result, most marine and freshwater ecosystems exhibit chronic N limitation of primary production. Under conditions of perpetual N limitation, external inputs of N from human sources (agricultural, urban, and industrial play a central role in determining ecosystem fertility and, in the case of N overenrichment, excessive primary production or eutrophication. This points to the importance of controlling external N inputs (in addition to traditional phosphorus controls as a means of ensuring acceptable water quality and safe water supplies. Nitrogen fixation, the enzymatic conversion of atmospheric N2 to ammonia (NH3 is a  microbially-mediated process by which “new” nitrogen is supplied to N-deficient water bodies.  Certain bloom-forming cyanobacterial species are capable of conducting N2 fixation; hence they are able to circumvent nitrogen limitation in these waters. However, this anaerobic process is highly sensitive to oxygen, and since cyanobacteria produce

  10. Electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction on nitrogen-containing multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikkisk, Merilin; Kruusenberg, Ivar; Joost, Urmas; Shulga, Eugene; Tammeveski, Kaido

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Pyrolysis in the presence of urea was used for nitrogen doping of carbon nanotubes. ► N-doped carbon nanotubes were used as catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction. ► N-doped carbon material showed a high catalytic activity for ORR in alkaline media. ► N-containing CNT material is an attractive cathode catalyst for alkaline membrane fuel cells. - Abstract: The electrochemical reduction of oxygen was studied on nitrogen-doped multi-walled carbon nanotube (NCNT) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrodes employing the rotating disk electrode (RDE) method. Nitrogen doping was achieved by simple pyrolysis of the carbon nanotube material in the presence of urea. The surface morphology and composition of the NCNT samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The SEM images revealed a rather uniform distribution of NCNTs on the GC electrode substrate. The XPS analysis showed a successful doping of carbon nanotubes with nitrogen species. The RDE results revealed that in alkaline solution the N-doped nanotube materials showed a remarkable electrocatalytic activity towards oxygen reduction. At low overpotentials the reduction of oxygen followed a two-electron pathway on undoped carbon nanotube modified GC electrodes, whereas on NCNT/GC electrodes a four-electron pathway of O 2 reduction predominated. The results obtained are significant for the development of nitrogen-doped carbon-based cathodes for alkaline membrane fuel cells.

  11. Nitrogen and Triple Oxygen Isotopic Analyses of Atmospheric Particulate Nitrate over the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamezaki, Kazuki; Hattori, Shohei; Iwamoto, Yoko; Ishino, Sakiko; Furutani, Hiroshi; Miki, Yusuke; Miura, Kazuhiko; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2017-04-01

    Nitrate plays a significant role in the biogeochemical cycle. Atmospheric nitrate (NO3- and HNO3) are produced by reaction precursor as NOx (NO and NO2) emitted by combustion, biomass burning, lightning, and soil emission, with atmospheric oxidants like ozone (O3), hydroxyl radical (OH), peroxy radical and halogen oxides. Recently, industrial activity lead to increases in the concentrations of nitrogen species (NOx and NHy) throughout the environment. Because of the increase of the amount of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, the oceanic biogeochemical cycle are changed (Galloway et al., 2004; Kim et al., 2011). However, the sources and formation pathways of atmospheric nitrate are still uncertain over the Pacific Ocean because the long-term observation is limited. Stable isotope analysis is useful tool to gain information of sources, sinks and formation pathways. The nitrogen stable isotopic composition (δ15N) of atmospheric particulate NO3- can be used to posses information of its nitrogen sources (Elliott et al., 2007). Triple oxygen isotopic compositions (Δ17O = δ17O - 0.52 ×δ18O) of atmospheric particulate NO3- can be used as tracer of the relative importance of mass-independent oxygen bearing species (e.g. O3, BrO; Δ17O ≠ 0 ‰) and mass-dependent oxygen bearing species (e.g. OH radical; Δ17O ≈ 0 ‰) through the formation processes from NOx to NO3- in the atmosphere (Michalski et al., 2003; Thiemens, 2006). Here, we present the isotopic compositions of atmospheric particulate NO3- samples collected over the Pacific Ocean from 40˚ S to 68˚ N. We observed significantly low δ15N values for atmospheric particulate NO3- on equatorial Pacific Ocean during both cruises. Although the data is limited, combination analysis of δ15N and Δ17O values for atmospheric particulate NO3- showed the possibility of the main nitrogen source of atmospheric particulate NO3- on equatorial Pacific Ocean is ammonia oxidation in troposphere. Furthermore, the Δ17O values

  12. Activated carbon oxygen content influence on water and surfactant adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Phillip; Wu, Sophie Hua; Badalyan, Alexander

    2002-02-15

    This research investigates the adsorption properties of three activated carbons (AC) derived from coconut, coal, and wood origin. Each carbon demonstrates different levels of resistance to 2 M NaOH treatment. The coconut AC offers the greatest and wood AC the least resistance. The influence of base treatment is mapped in terms of its effects on specific surface area, micropore volume, water adsorption, and dodecanoic acid adsorption from both water and 2 M NaOH solution. A linear relationship exists between the number of water molecules adsorbed at the B-point of the water adsorption isotherm and the oxygen content determined from elemental analysis. Surfactant adsorption isotherms from water and 2 M NaOH indicate that the AC oxygen content effects a greater dependence on affinity for surfactant than specific surface area and micropore volume. We show a linear relationship between the plateau amount of surfactant adsorbed and the AC oxygen content in both water and NaOH phases. The higher the AC oxygen content, the lower the amount of surfactant adsorbed. In contrast, no obvious relationship could be drawn between the surfactant amount adsorbed and the surface area.

  13. Isotopic-spectral determination of hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and carbon in semiconductor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudich, G.K.; Eremeev, V.A.; Li, V.N.; Nemets, V.M.

    1981-01-01

    Techniques of low-temperature isotopic-spectral determination of impurities of hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and carbon in semiconductor materials Bi, Ge, Pb tellurides are developed. The techniques include selection into special vessel with the known volume (exchanger) of sample analyzed, dosed introduction into exchanger of rare isotope of the element determined ( 2 H, 15 N, 18 O, 13 C) in the form of isotope-containing gas, balancing of the determined element isotopes in the system sample-isotope, containing gas, spectroscopic, determination of its isotope composition in gaseous phase of the system and calculation of the amount of the element determined in the sample. The lower boundaries of the amounts determined constitute 10 -7 , 10 -7 , 10 -6 and 10 -5 mass % respectively when sample of 20 g are used [ru

  14. Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in the Development of Pulmonary Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J.R. Fulton

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a progressive disease of the lung vasculature that involves the loss of endothelial function together with inappropriate smooth muscle cell growth, inflammation, and fibrosis. These changes underlie a progressive remodeling of blood vessels that alters flow and increases pulmonary blood pressure. Elevated pressures in the pulmonary artery imparts a chronic stress on the right ventricle which undergoes compensatory hypertrophy but eventually fails. How PAH develops remains incompletely understood and evidence for the altered production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS, RNS respectively in the pulmonary circulation has been well documented. There are many different types of ROS and RNS, multiple sources, and collective actions and interactions. This review summarizes past and current knowledge of the sources of ROS and RNS and how they may contribute to the loss of endothelial function and changes in smooth muscle proliferation in the pulmonary circulation.

  15. Characterization of water quality and simulation of temperature, nutrients, biochemical oxygen demand, and dissolved oxygen in the Wateree River, South Carolina, 1996-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaster, Toby D.; Conrads, Paul

    2000-01-01

    In May 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey entered into a cooperative agreement with the Kershaw County Water and Sewer Authority to characterize and simulate the water quality in the Wateree River, South Carolina. Longitudinal profiling of dissolved-oxygen concentrations during the spring and summer of 1996 revealed dissolved-oxygen minimums occurring upstream from the point-source discharges. The mean dissolved-oxygen decrease upstream from the effluent discharges was 2.0 milligrams per liter, and the decrease downstream from the effluent discharges was 0.2 milligram per liter. Several theories were investigated to obtain an improved understanding of the dissolved-oxygen dynamics in the upper Wateree River. Data suggest that the dissolved-oxygen concentration decrease is associated with elevated levels of oxygen-consuming nutrients and metals that are flowing into the Wateree River from Lake Wateree. Analysis of long-term streamflow and water-quality data collected at two U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations suggests that no strong correlation exists between streamflow and dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the Wateree River. However, a strong negative correlation does exist between dissolved-oxygen concentrations and water temperature. Analysis of data from six South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control monitoring stations for 1980.95 revealed decreasing trends in ammonia nitrogen at all stations where data were available and decreasing trends in 5-day biochemical oxygen demand at three river stations. The influence of various hydrologic and point-source loading conditions on dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the Wateree River were determined by using results from water-quality simulations by the Branched Lagrangian Transport Model. The effects of five tributaries and four point-source discharges were included in the model. Data collected during two synoptic water-quality samplings on June 23.25 and August 11.13, 1997, were used to calibrate

  16. Water deficit stress-induced changes in carbon and nitrogen partitioning in Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascuñán-Godoy, Luisa; Reguera, Maria; Abdel-Tawab, Yasser M; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    Water deficit stress followed by re-watering during grain filling resulted in the induction of the ornithine pathway and in changes in Quinoa grain quality. The genetic diversity of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Quinoa) is accompanied by an outstanding environmental adaptability and high nutritional properties of the grains. However, little is known about the biochemical and physiological mechanisms associated with the abiotic stress tolerance of Quinoa. Here, we characterized carbon and nitrogen metabolic changes in Quinoa leaves and grains in response to water deficit stress analyzing their impact on the grain quality of two lowland ecotypes (Faro and BO78). Differences in the stress recovery response were found between genotypes including changes in the activity of nitrogen assimilation-associated enzymes that resulted in differences in grain quality. Both genotypes showed a common strategy to overcome water stress including the stress-induced synthesis of reactive oxygen species scavengers and osmolytes. Particularly, water deficit stress induced the stimulation of the ornithine and raffinose pathways. Our results would suggest that the regulation of C- and N partitioning in Quinoa during grain filling could be used for the improvement of the grain quality without altering grain yields.

  17. The effects of soil water conditions on nitrogen fertilization use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Lingyun

    1996-01-01

    Concerning with applied nitrogen fertilizer, the uptake as well as loss of nitrogen is mainly related to soil water content. The effects of soil water condition in wheat field on the uptake, leach and loss of nitrogen fertilizer were studied using 15 N tracing technique. The results showed that within certain range of soil water supply, from 180 to 360 mm of available water storage, the loss of nitrogen was in direct proportion to the amount of fertilizer application and the nitrogen use efficiency decreased with the increase of nitrogen application. In other words, the nitrogen use efficiency descended with the nitrogen application increased in an order of 75 kgN/ha, 150 kgN/ha, 225 kgN/ha. One interesting result was that the nitrogen use efficiencies ranged from 17.0% to 30.5% for the treatments receiving the same application rate of 75 kgN/ha

  18. CoM(M=Fe,Cu,Ni)-embedded nitrogen-enriched porous carbon framework for efficient oxygen and hydrogen evolution reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaogeng; Bo, Xiangjie; Guo, Liping

    2018-06-01

    Rational synthesis and development of earth-abundant materials with efficient electrocatalytic activity and stability for water splitting is a critical but challenging step for sustainable energy application. Herein, a family of bimetal (CoFe, CoCu, CoNi) embedded nitrogen-doped carbon frameworks is developed through a facile and simple thermal conversion strategy of metal-doped zeolitic imidazolate frameworks. Thanks to collaborative superiorities of abundant M-N-C species, modulation action of secondary metal, cobalt-based electroactive phases, template effect of MOFs and unique porous structure, bimetal embedded nitrogen-doped carbon frameworks materials manifest good oxygen and hydrogen evolution catalytic activity. Especially, after modulating the species and molar ratio of metal sources, optimal Co0.75Fe0.25 nitrogen-doped carbon framework catalyst just requires a low overpotential of 303 mV to achieve 10 mA cm-2 with a low Tafel slope (39.49 mV dec-1) for oxygen evolution reaction, which even surpasses that of commercial RuO2. In addition, the optimal catalyst can function as an efficient bifunctional electrocatalyst for overall water splitting with satisfying activity and stability. This development offers an attractive direction for the rational design and fabrication of porous carbon materials for electrochemical energy applications.

  19. Bubble growth as a means to measure dissolved nitrogen concentration in aerated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Keita; Yamashita, Tatsuya

    2017-11-01

    Controlling the amount of dissolved gases in water is important, for example, to food processing; it is essential to quantitatively evaluate dissolved gas concentration. The concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) can be measured by commercial DO meters, but that of dissolved nitrogen (DN) cannot be obtained easily. Here, we propose a means to measure DN concentration based on Epstein-Plesset-type analysis of bubble growth under dissolved gas supersaturation. DO supersaturation in water is produced by oxygen microbubble aeration. The diffusion-driven growth of bubbles nucleated at glass surfaces in contact with the aerated water is first observed. The observed growth is then compared to the extended Epstein-Plesset theory that considers Fick's mass transfer of both DO and DN across bubble interfaces; in this comparison, the unknown DN concentration is treated as a fitting parameter. Comparisons between the experiment and the theory suggest, as expected, that DN can be effectively purged by oxygen microbubble aeration. This study was supported in part by the Mizuho Foundation for the Promotion of Science and by a MEXT Grant-in-Aid for the Program for Leading Graduate Schools.

  20. Ammonium and nitrite oxidation at nanomolar oxygen concentrations in oxygen minimum zone waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Laura A; Dalsgaard, Tage; Tiano, Laura; Mills, Daniel B; Bertagnolli, Anthony D; Wright, Jody J; Hallam, Steven J; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Canfield, Donald E; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Thamdrup, Bo

    2016-09-20

    A major percentage of fixed nitrogen (N) loss in the oceans occurs within nitrite-rich oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) via denitrification and anammox. It remains unclear to what extent ammonium and nitrite oxidation co-occur, either supplying or competing for substrates involved in nitrogen loss in the OMZ core. Assessment of the oxygen (O2) sensitivity of these processes down to the O2 concentrations present in the OMZ core (Chile at manipulated O2 levels between 5 nmol⋅L(-1) and 20 μmol⋅L(-1) Rates of both processes were detectable in the low nanomolar range (5-33 nmol⋅L(-1) O2), but demonstrated a strong dependence on O2 concentrations with apparent half-saturation constants (Kms) of 333 ± 130 nmol⋅L(-1) O2 for ammonium oxidation and 778 ± 168 nmol⋅L(-1) O2 for nitrite oxidation assuming one-component Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Nitrite oxidation rates, however, were better described with a two-component Michaelis-Menten model, indicating a high-affinity component with a Km of just a few nanomolar. As the communities of ammonium and nitrite oxidizers were similar to other OMZs, these kinetics should apply across OMZ systems. The high O2 affinities imply that ammonium and nitrite oxidation can occur within the OMZ core whenever O2 is supplied, for example, by episodic intrusions. These processes therefore compete with anammox and denitrification for ammonium and nitrite, thereby exerting an important control over nitrogen loss.

  1. Copper corrosion in pure oxygen-free water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, K.

    1995-12-01

    The study was initiated following reports on corrosion of Copper in water in absence of Oxygen. Quartz glass tubes containing pure water and Copper plates were sealed in two different ways, using Palladium or Platinum foils, respectively. Tests were also performed with Copper wires. The insulated systems contained Oxygen initially. The Oxygen was dissolved in the water, and in the air column between the water surface and the Palladium/Platinum foils. The tubes were kept in a hot cabinet at 50 C for a total of two years. The exposed plates were analyzed in different ways, e g using reflectance FTIR. The amounts of oxide formed were also weighed. The following conclusions could be drawn: No difference in color was observed for the Pd and Pt seals except in one case for the Copper wire, where only a slight difference was noticed. No significant difference in oxidation between the plates with Pd or Pt seals in quartz glass tubes. No oxide growth was observed during the last year. The corrosion rate at 50 C is below 2.3 micrograms Copper/cm 2 /year. A certain imbalance was noted between the amounts of oxides formed, and expected amount estimated from the original amount of oxygen in the system. A significant amount of water has 'disappeared' from the tubes. 17 refs, 10 figs, 3 tabs

  2. Determining the Source of Water Vapor in a Cerium Oxide Electrochemical Oxygen Separator to Achieve Aviator Grade Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, John; Taylor, Dale; Martinez, James

    2014-01-01

    More than a metric ton of water is transported to the International Space Station (ISS) each year to provide breathing oxygen for the astronauts. Water is a safe and compact form of stored oxygen. The water is electrolyzed on ISS and ambient pressure oxygen is delivered to the cabin. A much smaller amount of oxygen is used each year in spacesuits to conduct Extra Vehicular Activities (EVAs). Space suits need high pressure (>1000 psia) high purity oxygen (must meet Aviator Breathing Oxygen "ABO" specifications, >99.5% O2). The water / water electrolysis system cannot directly provide high pressure, high purity oxygen, so oxygen for EVAs is transported to ISS in high pressure gas tanks. The tanks are relatively large and heavy, and the majority of the system launch weight is for the tanks and not the oxygen. Extracting high purity oxygen from cabin air and mechanically compressing the oxygen might enable on-board production of EVA grade oxygen using the existing water / water electrolysis system. This capability might also benefit human spaceflight missions, where oxygen for EVAs could be stored in the form of water, and converted into high pressure oxygen on-demand. Cerium oxide solid electrolyte-based ion transport membranes have been shown to separate oxygen from air, and a supported monolithic wafer form of the CeO2 electrolyte membrane has been shown to deliver oxygen at pressures greater than 300 psia. These supported monolithic wafers can withstand high pressure differentials even though the membrane is very thin, because the ion transport membrane is supported on both sides (Fig 1). The monolithic supported wafers have six distinct layers, each with matched coefficients of thermal expansion. The wafers are assembled into a cell stack which allows easy air flow across the wafers, uniform current distribution, and uniform current density (Fig 2). The oxygen separation is reported to be "infinitely selective" to oxygen [1] with reported purity of 99.99% [2

  3. Sunlight creates oxygenated species in water-soluble fractions of Deepwater horizon oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Phoebe Z. [Department of Chemistry, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States); Chen, Huan [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310-4005 (United States); Podgorski, David C. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310-4005 (United States); Future Fuels Institute, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310-4005 (United States); McKenna, Amy M. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310-4005 (United States); Tarr, Matthew A., E-mail: mtarr@uno.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Sunlight oxygenates petroleum. - Highlights: • Oxidation seen in water-soluble oil fraction after exposure to simulated sunlight. • Oxygen addition occurred across a wide range of carbon number and DBE. • Oil compounds were susceptible to addition of multiple oxygens to each molecule. • Results provide understanding of fate of oil on water after exposure to sunlight. - Abstract: In order to assess the impact of sunlight on oil fate, Macondo well oil from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) rig was mixed with pure water and irradiated with simulated sunlight. After irradiation, the water-soluble organics (WSO) from the dark and irradiated samples were extracted and characterized by ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Liquid–liquid extraction yielded two fractions from dark and irradiated water/oil mixtures: acidic WSOs (negative-ion electrospray (ESI)), and base/neutral WSOs (positive-ion ESI) coupled to FT-ICR MS to catalog molecular-level transformations that occur to Macondo-derived WSOs after solar irradiation. Such direct measure of oil phototransformation has not been previously reported. The most abundant heteroatom class detected in the irradiated WSO acid fractions correspond to molecules that contain five oxygens (O{sub 5}), while the most abundant acids in the dark samples contain two oxygen atoms per molecule (O{sub 2}). Higher-order oxygen classes (O{sub 5}–O{sub 9}) were abundant in the irradiated samples, but <1.5% relative abundance in the dark sample. The increased abundance of higher-order oxygen classes in the irradiated samples relative to the dark samples indicates that photooxidized components of the Macondo crude oil become water-soluble after irradiation. The base/neutral fraction showed decreased abundance of pyridinic nitrogen (N{sub 1}) concurrent with an increased abundance of N{sub 1}O{sub x} classes after irradiation. The predominance of higher

  4. Water self-diffusion through narrow oxygenated carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Striolo, Alberto [School of Chemical Biological and Materials Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2007-11-28

    The hydrophobic interior of carbon nanotubes, which is reminiscent of ion channels in cellular membranes, has inspired scientific research directed towards the production of, for example, membranes for water desalination, drug-delivery devices, and nanosyringes. To develop these technologies it is crucial to understand and predict the equilibrium and transport properties of confined water. We present here a series of molecular dynamics simulation results conducted to understand the extent to which the presence of a few oxygenated active sites, modeled as carbonyls, affects the transport properties of confined water. The model for the carbon nanotube is not intended to be realistic. Its only purpose is to allow us to understand the effect of a few oxygenated sites on the transport properties of water confined in a narrow cylindrical pore, which is otherwise hydrophobic. At low hydration levels we found little, if any, water diffusion. The diffusion, which appears to be of the Fickian type for sufficiently large hydration levels, becomes faster as the number of confined water molecules increases, reaches a maximum, and slows as water fills the carbon nanotubes. We explain our findings on the basis of two collective motion mechanisms observed from the analysis of sequences of simulation snapshots. We term the two mechanisms 'cluster-breakage' and 'cluster-libration' mechanisms. We observe that the cluster-breakage mechanism produces longer displacements for the confined water molecules than the cluster-libration one, but deactivates as water fills the carbon nanotube. From a practical point of view, our results are particularly important for two reasons: (1) at low hydration levels the presence of only eight carbonyl groups can prevent the diffusion of water through (8, 8) carbon nanotubes; and (2) the extremely fast self-diffusion coefficients observed for water within narrow carbon nanotubes are significantly decreased in the presence of only a

  5. Water self-diffusion through narrow oxygenated carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Striolo, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    The hydrophobic interior of carbon nanotubes, which is reminiscent of ion channels in cellular membranes, has inspired scientific research directed towards the production of, for example, membranes for water desalination, drug-delivery devices, and nanosyringes. To develop these technologies it is crucial to understand and predict the equilibrium and transport properties of confined water. We present here a series of molecular dynamics simulation results conducted to understand the extent to which the presence of a few oxygenated active sites, modeled as carbonyls, affects the transport properties of confined water. The model for the carbon nanotube is not intended to be realistic. Its only purpose is to allow us to understand the effect of a few oxygenated sites on the transport properties of water confined in a narrow cylindrical pore, which is otherwise hydrophobic. At low hydration levels we found little, if any, water diffusion. The diffusion, which appears to be of the Fickian type for sufficiently large hydration levels, becomes faster as the number of confined water molecules increases, reaches a maximum, and slows as water fills the carbon nanotubes. We explain our findings on the basis of two collective motion mechanisms observed from the analysis of sequences of simulation snapshots. We term the two mechanisms 'cluster-breakage' and 'cluster-libration' mechanisms. We observe that the cluster-breakage mechanism produces longer displacements for the confined water molecules than the cluster-libration one, but deactivates as water fills the carbon nanotube. From a practical point of view, our results are particularly important for two reasons: (1) at low hydration levels the presence of only eight carbonyl groups can prevent the diffusion of water through (8, 8) carbon nanotubes; and (2) the extremely fast self-diffusion coefficients observed for water within narrow carbon nanotubes are significantly decreased in the presence of only a few oxygenated active

  6. Compartmentalized microbial composition, oxygen gradients and nitrogen fixation in the gut of Odontotaenius disjunctus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceja-Navarro, Javier A; Nguyen, Nhu H; Karaoz, Ulas; Gross, Stephanie R; Herman, Donald J; Andersen, Gary L; Bruns, Thomas D; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Blackwell, Meredith; Brodie, Eoin L

    2014-01-01

    Coarse woody debris is an important biomass pool in forest ecosystems that numerous groups of insects have evolved to take advantage of. These insects are ecologically important and represent useful natural analogs for biomass to biofuel conversion. Using a range of molecular approaches combined with microelectrode measurements of oxygen, we have characterized the gut microbiome and physiology of Odontotaenius disjunctus, a wood-feeding beetle native to the eastern United States. We hypothesized that morphological and physiological differences among gut regions would correspond to distinct microbial populations and activities. In fact, significantly different communities were found in the foregut (FG), midgut (MG)/posterior hindgut (PHG) and anterior hindgut (AHG), with Actinobacteria and Rhizobiales being more abundant toward the FG and PHG. Conversely, fermentative bacteria such as Bacteroidetes and Clostridia were more abundant in the AHG, and also the sole region where methanogenic Archaea were detected. Although each gut region possessed an anaerobic core, micron-scale profiling identified radial gradients in oxygen concentration in all regions. Nitrogen fixation was confirmed by (15)N2 incorporation, and nitrogenase gene (nifH) expression was greatest in the AHG. Phylogenetic analysis of nifH identified the most abundant transcript as related to Ni-Fe nitrogenase of a Bacteroidetes species, Paludibacter propionicigenes. Overall, we demonstrate not only a compartmentalized microbiome in this beetle digestive tract but also sharp oxygen gradients that may permit aerobic and anaerobic metabolism to occur within the same regions in close proximity. We provide evidence for the microbial fixation of N2 that is important for this beetle to subsist on woody biomass.

  7. Numerical modeling of hypolimnetic oxygenation by electrolysis of water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaćimović Nenad M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a novel method for hypolimnetic oxygenation by electrolysis of water. The performance of the method is investigated by the laboratory and the field experiment. The laboratory experiment is conducted in a 90 L vessel, while the field experiment is conducted at the lake Biwa in Japan. In order to provide a better insight into involved processes, a numerical model for simulation of bubble flow is developed with consideration of gas compressibility and oxygen dissolution. The model simultaneously solves 3-D volume averaged two-fluid governing equations. Developed model is firstly verified by simulation of bubble flow experiments, reported in the literature, where good qualitative agreement between measured and simulated results is observed. In the second part, the model is applied for simulation of conducted water electrolysis experiments. The model reproduced the observed oxygen concentration dynamics reasonably well. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 37009

  8. Unlocking the Electrocatalytic Activity of Chemically Inert Amorphous Carbon-Nitrogen for Oxygen Reduction: Discerning and Refactoring Chaotic Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Caihong; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Mild annealing enables inactive nitrogen (N)-doped amorphous carbon (a-C) films abundant with chaotic bonds prepared by magnetron sputtering to become effective for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) by virtue of generating pyridinic N. The rhythmic variation of ORR activity elaborates well...... on the subtle evolution of the amorphous C−N bonds conferred by spectroscopic analysis....

  9. Effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production by raw 264.7 macrophages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ambrožová, Gabriela; Pekarová, Michaela; Lojek, Antonín

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 3 (2010), s. 133-139 ISSN 1436-6207 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : polyunsaturated fatty acids * reactive oxygen species * reactive nitrogen species Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.343, year: 2010

  10. The compositional study of nitrogen and oxygen compounds in products of heavy oil primary and secondary upgrading processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielowiec, J.

    1986-02-01

    The primary objective was to characterize nitrogen and oxygen compound types in the upgraded products derived from Athabasca bitumen. Nitrogen compounds, depending on their nature and concentrations, in charge stocks to catalytic processess (hydro-processes and reforming) can severely limit or poison the catalyst activity. Oxygen compounds are corrosive (especially naphthenic acids) and can promote gum formation as part of the deterioration of the hydrocarbons in the petroleum product. A secondary objective was to evaluate the advantages and limitations of in-house mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy methods for analyzing specific classes of polar compounds in naphthas, middle distillates, and gas oils. An analytical procedure that was based on the discrimination of polar compound classes using liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometric analysis was tested. The chemical intelligence on the fractions obtained from Athabasca bitumen and its upgrading products has been advanced by determining structural characteristics of the nitrogen and oxygen components. This report describes the determination of the distributions of nitrogen and oxygen compounds in samples from various process streams. This procedure is capable of providing information useful for evaluating hydrodenitrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation reactions.

  11. Dosing of traces of oxygenated water by polarography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, A.M.; Malterre, J.

    1960-01-01

    As dosing oxygenated water by using polarography has been envisaged within the framework of water purity controls for the Melusine pile, the objective of the authors is here to see whether the polarographic method could be satisfying for routine analyses, and would result in a higher dosing sensitivity. They describe the polarography principle, indicate devices which are used, specify and comment conditions under which polarography is performed [fr

  12. The method of water enrichment in oxygen-18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Zakrzewska-Trznadel, G.; Van Hook, A.; Milievic, N.R.

    1996-01-01

    The process of membrane distillation has been used for water enrichment in oxygen-18. The hydrophobic PTFE membranes has been used as a boundary for liquids being at different temperatures on the each side of membrane. Example of obtained results have been shown

  13. Methane oxidation coupled to oxygenic photosynthesis in anoxic waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milucka, Jana; Kirf, Mathias; Lu, Lu; Krupke, Andreas; Lam, Phyllis; Littmann, Sten; Kuypers, Marcel MM; Schubert, Carsten J

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater lakes represent large methane sources that, in contrast to the Ocean, significantly contribute to non-anthropogenic methane emissions to the atmosphere. Particularly mixed lakes are major methane emitters, while permanently and seasonally stratified lakes with anoxic bottom waters are often characterized by strongly reduced methane emissions. The causes for this reduced methane flux from anoxic lake waters are not fully understood. Here we identified the microorganisms and processes responsible for the near complete consumption of methane in the anoxic waters of a permanently stratified lake, Lago di Cadagno. Interestingly, known anaerobic methanotrophs could not be detected in these waters. Instead, we found abundant gamma-proteobacterial aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria active in the anoxic waters. In vitro incubations revealed that, among all the tested potential electron acceptors, only the addition of oxygen enhanced the rates of methane oxidation. An equally pronounced stimulation was also observed when the anoxic water samples were incubated in the light. Our combined results from molecular, biogeochemical and single-cell analyses indicate that methane removal at the anoxic chemocline of Lago di Cadagno is due to true aerobic oxidation of methane fuelled by in situ oxygen production by photosynthetic algae. A similar mechanism could be active in seasonally stratified lakes and marine basins such as the Black Sea, where light penetrates to the anoxic chemocline. Given the widespread occurrence of seasonally stratified anoxic lakes, aerobic methane oxidation coupled to oxygenic photosynthesis might have an important but so far neglected role in methane emissions from lakes. PMID:25679533

  14. Moderate water stress affects tomato leaf water relations in dependence on the nitrogen supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, A.L.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Garcia-Sanchez, F.; Nicolas, N.; Martinez, V.

    2007-01-01

    The responses of water relations, stomatal conductance (g(s)) and growth parameters of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Royesta) plants to nitrogen fertilisation and drought were studied. The plants were subjected to a long-term, moderate and progressive water stress by adding 80 % of the

  15. Nitrogen and Organics Removal during Riverbank Filtration along a Reclaimed Water Restored River in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyan Pan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Reclaimed water has been widely used to restore rivers and lakes in water scarce areas as well as in Beijing municipality, China. However, refilling the rivers with reclaimed water may result in groundwater pollution. A three-year field monitoring program was conducted to assess the effect of a riverbank filtration (RBF system on the removal of nitrogen and organics from the Qingyang River of Beijing, which is replenished with reclaimed water. Water samples from the river, sediment, and groundwater were collected for NO3-N, NH4-N, and chemical oxygen demand (COD was measured. The results indicate that about 85% of NO3-N was removed from the riverbed sediments. Approximate 92% of NH4-N was removed during the infiltration of water from river to aquifer. On average, 54% of COD was removed by RBF. The attenuation of NO3-N through RBF to the groundwater varied among seasons and was strongly related to water temperature. On the other hand, no obvious temporal variability was identified in the removal of COD. These results suggest that the RBF system is an effective barrier against NO3-N, NH4-N and COD in the Qingyang River, as well as those rivers with similar geological and climatic conditions refilled with reclaimed water.

  16. The fate of fertilizer nitrogen in winter wheat under different water and nitrogen levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shijuan; Zhou Dianxi; Lan Linwang

    2002-01-01

    N uptake and the fate of fertilizer N were studied in the field under different water and nitrogen levels with 15 N technique. Results showed that (1) the total N uptake of economical N treatment under saving irrigation was higher than that under conventional irrigation. Under saving irrigation the total N uptake of conventional N was higher than that of economical N treatment, yet the NHI decreased; (2) compared with saving irrigation, the N loss of conventional irrigation increased and NUE and soil residue decreased. On the same water condition the NUE and soil residue of conventional N treatment was lower than that of economical treatment, and N loss increased; (3) for the same fertilizer amount, the loss of N applied all as basal fertilizer is lower than that of part as basal and part as top-dressing treatment

  17. Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an overview of the nitrogen chemical market as of July 2013, including the production of ammonia compounds. Industrial uses for ammonia include fertilizers, explosives, and plastics. Other topics include industrial capacity of U.S. ammonia producers CF Industries Holdings Inc., Koch Nitrogen Co., PCS Nitrogen, Inc., and Agrium Inc., the impact of natural gas prices on the nitrogen industry, and demand for corn crops for ethanol production.

  18. Photoelectrochemical water splitting in separate oxygen and hydrogen cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, Avigail; Dotan, Hen; Shter, Gennady E.; Wullenkord, Michael; Houaijia, Anis; Maljusch, Artjom; Grader, Gideon S.; Rothschild, Avner

    2017-06-01

    Solar water splitting provides a promising path for sustainable hydrogen production and solar energy storage. One of the greatest challenges towards large-scale utilization of this technology is reducing the hydrogen production cost. The conventional electrolyser architecture, where hydrogen and oxygen are co-produced in the same cell, gives rise to critical challenges in photoelectrochemical water splitting cells that directly convert solar energy and water to hydrogen. Here we overcome these challenges by separating the hydrogen and oxygen cells. The ion exchange in our cells is mediated by auxiliary electrodes, and the cells are connected to each other only by metal wires, enabling centralized hydrogen production. We demonstrate hydrogen generation in separate cells with solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 7.5%, which can readily surpass 10% using standard commercial components. A basic cost comparison shows that our approach is competitive with conventional photoelectrochemical systems, enabling safe and potentially affordable solar hydrogen production.

  19. Nitrogen Metabolism in Adaptation of Photosynthesis to Water Stress in Rice Grown under Different Nitrogen Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Zhong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of nitrogen (N metabolism in the adaptation of photosynthesis to water stress in rice, a hydroponic experiment supplying with low N (0.72 mM, moderate N (2.86 mM, and high N (7.15 mM followed by 150 g⋅L-1 PEG-6000 induced water stress was conducted in a rainout shelter. Water stress induced stomatal limitation to photosynthesis at low N, but no significant effect was observed at moderate and high N. Non-photochemical quenching was higher at moderate and high N. In contrast, relative excessive energy at PSII level (EXC was declined with increasing N level. Malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 contents were in parallel with EXC. Water stress decreased catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities at low N, resulting in increased H2O2 content and severer membrane lipid peroxidation; whereas the activities of antioxidative enzymes were increased at high N. In accordance with photosynthetic rate and antioxidative enzymes, water stress decreased the activities of key enzymes involving in N metabolism such as glutamate synthase and glutamate dehydrogenase, and photorespiratory key enzyme glycolate oxidase at low N. Concurrently, water stress increased nitrate content significantly at low N, but decreased nitrate content at moderate and high N. Contrary to nitrate, water stress increased proline content at moderate and high N. Our results suggest that N metabolism appears to be associated with the tolerance of photosynthesis to water stress in rice via affecting CO2 diffusion, antioxidant capacity, and osmotic adjustment.

  20. Denitrification, anammox and fixed nitrogen removal in the water column of a tropical great lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darchambeau, François; Roland, Fleur; Crowe, Sean A.; De Brabandere, Loreto; Llirós, Marc; Garcia-Armisen, Tamara; Inceoglu, Ozgul; Michiels, Céline; Servais, Pierre; Morana, Cédric D. T.; Bouillon, Steven; Meysman, Filip; Veuger, Bart; Masilya, Pascal M.; Descy, Jean-Pierre; Borges, Alberto V.

    2013-04-01

    If rates of microbial denitrification in aquatic systems are poorly constrained, it is much more the case for tropical water bodies. Lake Kivu [2.50° S 1.59° S, 29.37° E 28.83° E] is one of the great lakes of the East African Rift. It is an oligotrophic lake characterized by anoxic deep waters rich in dissolved gases (methane and carbon dioxide) and nutrients, and by well oxygenated and nutrient-depleted surface waters. During the seasonally stratified rainy season (October to May), a nitrogenous zone characterized by the accumulation of nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) is often observed in the lower layer of the mixolimnion. It results from nitrification of ammonium released by decaying organic matter. With the seasonal uplift of the oxygen minimum zone, the nitrogenous zone becomes anoxic and might be the most preferential area for fixed nitrogen (N) removal in Lake Kivu. Our work aimed at identifying and quantifying the processes of N losses by denitrification and/or anammox in the nitrogenous zone of the Lake Kivu water column. During 5 sampling campaigns (March 2010, October 2010, June 2011, February 2012 and September 2012), isotopic labelling experiments were used to quantify denitrification and anammox rates along vertical profiles at two pelagic stations of the main lake. Moreover, N2:Ar ratios were estimated during the September 2012 campaign, and 16S rDNA pyrosequencing was used to describe bacterial community composition during the last 2 campaigns. No bacteria related to organisms performing anammox was observed and labelling experiments failed to detect anammox at any locations and any depths. In Lake Kivu, denitrifying bacteria were mainly related to Denitratisoma and Thiobacillus genus. Significant denitrification rates were observed at several occasions, especially under the oxic-anoxic interface in the bottom of the nitracline. The annual average denitrification rate was estimated at ~150 μmoles N m-2 d-1. Denitrification was not the only

  1. Oxygen vacancy rich Cu2O based composite material with nitrogen doped carbon as matrix for photocatalytic H2 production and organic pollutant removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lele; Xu, Xinxin; Yan, Jiaming; Shi, Fa-Nian; Huo, Yuqiu

    2018-02-06

    A nitrogen doped carbon matrix supported Cu 2 O composite material (Cu/Cu2O@NC) was fabricated successfully with a coordination polymer as precursor through calcination. In this composite material, Cu 2 O particles with a size of about 6-10 nm were dispersed evenly in the nitrogen doped carbon matrix. After calcination, some coordinated nitrogen atoms were doped in the lattice of Cu 2 O and replace oxygen atoms, thus generating a large number of oxygen vacancies. In Cu/Cu2O@NC, the existence of oxygen vacancies has been confirmed by electron spin resonance (ESR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Under visible light irradiation, Cu/Cu2O@NC exhibits excellent H 2 production with the rate of 379.6 μmol h -1 g -1 . Its photocatalytic activity affects organic dyes, such as Rhodamine B (RhB) and methyl orange (MO). In addition to photocatalysis, Cu/Cu2O@NC also exhibits striking catalytic activity in reductive conversion of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol with in presence of sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ). The conversion efficiency reaches almost 100% in 250 s with the quantity of Cu/Cu2O@NC as low as 5 mg. The outstanding H 2 production and organic pollutants removal are attributed to the oxygen vacancy. We expect that Cu/Cu2O@NC will find its way as a new resource for hydrogen energy as well as a promising material in water purification.

  2. Singlet oxygen reactivity in water-rich solvent mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Sousa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 3-methylindole (3MI oxygenation sensitized by psoralen (PSO has been investigated in 100%, 20% and 5% O2-saturated water/dioxane (H2O/Dx mixtures. The lowering of the ¹O2* chemical rate when water (k chem∆3MI = 1.4 × 109 M-1 s-1 is replaced by deuterated water (k chem∆3MI = 1.9 × 108 M-1 s-1 suggests that hydrogen abstraction is involved in the rate determining step. A high dependence of the chemical rate constant on water concentration in H2O/Dx mixtures was found showing that water molecules are absolutely essential for the success of the 3MI substrate oxidation by ¹O2* in water-rich solvent mixtures.

  3. Modeling Nitrogen Decrease in Water Lettuce Ponds from Waste Stabilization Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Gitta Agnes; Sunarsih

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents about the dynamic modeling of the Water Lettuce ponds as a form of improvement from the Water Hyacinth ponds. The purpose of this paper is to predict nitrogen decrease and nitrogen transformation in Water Lettuce ponds integrated with Waste Stabilization Ponds. The model consists of 4 mass balances, namely Dissolved Organic Nitrogen (DON), Particulate Organic Nitrogen (PON), ammonium (NH4+), Nitrate and Nitrite (NOx). The process of nitrogen transformation which considered in a Water Lettuce ponds, namely hydrolysis, mineralization, nitrification, denitrification, plant and bacterial uptake processes. Numerical simulations are performed by giving the values of parameters and the initial values of nitrogen compounds based on a review of previous studies. Numerical results show that the rate of change in the concentration of nitrogen compounds in the integration ponds of waste stabilization and water lettuce decreases and reaches stable at different times.

  4. Oxygen isotope fractionation between human phosphate and water revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daux, Valérie; Lécuyer, Christophe; Héran, Marie-Anne

    2008-01-01

    to investigate the impact of solid food consumption on the oxygen isotope composition of the total ingested water (drinking water+solid food water). The results, along with those from three, smaller published data sets, can be considered as random estimates of a unique delta18OW/delta18OP linear relationship...... collected at 12 sites located at latitudes ranging from 4 degrees N to 70 degrees N together with the corresponding oxygen composition of tap waters (delta18OW) from these areas. In addition, the delta18O of some raw and boiled foods were determined and simple mass balance calculations were performed......: delta18OW=1.54(+/-0.09)xdelta18OP-33.72(+/-1.51)(R2=0.87: p [H0:R2=0]=2x10(-19)). The delta18O of cooked food is higher than that of the drinking water. As a consequence, in a modern diet the delta18O of ingested water is +1.05 to 1.2 per thousand higher than that of drinking water in the area. In meat...

  5. Oxygen and diverse nutrients influence the water kefir fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureys, David; Aerts, Maarten; Vandamme, Peter; De Vuyst, Luc

    2018-08-01

    Eight water kefir fermentation series differing in the presence of oxygen, the nutrient concentration, and the nutrient source were studied during eight consecutive backslopping steps. The presence of oxygen allowed the proliferation of acetic acid bacteria, resulting in high concentrations of acetic acid, and decreased the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium aquikefiri. Low nutrient concentrations resulted in slow water kefir fermentation and high pH values, which allowed the growth of Comamonas testosteroni/thiooxydans. Further, low nutrient concentrations favored the growth of Lactobacillus hilgardii and Dekkera bruxellensis, whereas high nutrient concentrations favored the growth of Lactobacillus nagelii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Dried figs, dried apricots, and raisins resulted in stable water kefir fermentation. Water kefir fermentation with dried apricots resulted in the highest pH and water kefir grain growth, whereas that with raisins resulted in the lowest pH and water kefir grain growth. Further, water kefir fermentation with raisins resembled fermentations with low nutrient concentrations, that with dried apricots resembled fermentations with normal nutrient concentrations, and that with fresh figs or a mixture of yeast extract and peptone resembled fermentations with high nutrient concentrations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand removal from septic tank wastewater in subsurface flow constructed wetlands: substrate (cation exchange capacity) effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Robert S; Grismer, Mark E

    2014-04-01

    The current article focuses on chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) removal performance from synthetic human wastewater as affected by different substrate rocks having a range of porosities and cation exchange capacities (CECs). The aggregates included lava rock, lightweight expanded shale, meta-basalt (control), and zeolite. The first three had CECs of 1 to 4 mequiv/100 gm, whereas the zeolite CEC was much greater (-80 mequiv/100 gm). Synthetic wastewater was gravity fed to each constructed wetland system, resulting in a 4-day retention time. Effluent samples were collected, and COD and nitrogen species concentrations measured regularly during four time periods from November 2008 through June 2009. Chemical oxygen demand and nitrogen removal fractions were not significantly different between the field and laboratory constructed wetland systems when corrected for temperature. Similarly, overall COD and nitrogen removal fractions were practically the same for the aggregate substrates. The important difference between aggregate effects was the zeolite's ammonia removal process, which was primarily by adsorption. The resulting single-stage nitrogen removal process may be an alternative to nitrification and denitrification that may realize significant cost savings in practice.

  7. Functionalised Oximes: Emergent Precursors for Carbon-, Nitrogen- and Oxygen-Centred Radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Walton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxime derivatives are easily made, are non-hazardous and have long shelf lives. They contain weak N–O bonds that undergo homolytic scission, on appropriate thermal or photochemical stimulus, to initially release a pair of N- and O-centred radicals. This article reviews the use of these precursors for studying the structures, reactions and kinetics of the released radicals. Two classes have been exploited for radical generation; one comprises carbonyl oximes, principally oxime esters and amides, and the second comprises oxime ethers. Both classes release an iminyl radical together with an equal amount of a second oxygen-centred radical. The O-centred radicals derived from carbonyl oximes decarboxylate giving access to a variety of carbon-centred and nitrogen-centred species. Methods developed for homolytically dissociating the oxime derivatives include UV irradiation, conventional thermal and microwave heating. Photoredox catalytic methods succeed well with specially functionalised oximes and this aspect is also reviewed. Attention is also drawn to the key contributions made by EPR spectroscopy, aided by DFT computations, in elucidating the structures and dynamics of the transient intermediates.

  8. Oxygen- and Nitrogen-Enriched 3D Porous Carbon for Supercapacitors of High Volumetric Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Liu, Kang; Gao, Xiang; Yao, Bin; Huo, Kaifu; Cheng, Yongliang; Cheng, Xiaofeng; Chen, Dongchang; Wang, Bo; Sun, Wanmei; Ding, Dong; Liu, Meilin; Huang, Liang

    2015-11-11

    Efficient utilization and broader commercialization of alternative energies (e.g., solar, wind, and geothermal) hinges on the performance and cost of energy storage and conversion systems. For now and in the foreseeable future, the combination of rechargeable batteries and electrochemical capacitors remains the most promising option for many energy storage applications. Porous carbonaceous materials have been widely used as an electrode for batteries and supercapacitors. To date, however, the highest specific capacitance of an electrochemical double layer capacitor is only ∼200 F/g, although a wide variety of synthetic approaches have been explored in creating optimized porous structures. Here, we report our findings in the synthesis of porous carbon through a simple, one-step process: direct carbonization of kelp in an NH3 atmosphere at 700 °C. The resulting oxygen- and nitrogen-enriched carbon has a three-dimensional structure with specific surface area greater than 1000 m(2)/g. When evaluated as an electrode for electrochemical double layer capacitors, the porous carbon structure demonstrated excellent volumetric capacitance (>360 F/cm(3)) with excellent cycling stability. This simple approach to low-cost carbonaceous materials with unique architecture and functionality could be a promising alternative to fabrication of porous carbon structures for many practical applications, including batteries and fuel cells.

  9. Triple oxygen isotope systematics of structurally bonded water in gypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwartz, Daniel; Surma, Jakub; Voigt, Claudia; Assonov, Sergey; Staubwasser, Michael

    2017-07-01

    The triple oxygen isotopic composition of gypsum mother water (gmw) is recorded in structurally bonded water in gypsum (gsbw). Respective fractionation factors have been determined experimentally for 18O/16O and 17O/16O. By taking previous experiments into account we suggest using 18αgsbw-gmw = 1.0037; 17αgsbw-gmw = 1.00195 and θgsbw-gmw = 0.5285 as fractionation factors in triple oxygen isotope space. Recent gypsum was sampled from a series of 10 ponds located in the Salar de Llamara in the Atacama Desert, Chile. Total dissolved solids (TDS) in these ponds show a gradual increase from 23 g/l to 182 g/l that is accompanied by an increase in pond water 18O/16O. Gsbw falls on a parallel curve to the ambient water from the saline ponds. The offset is mainly due to the equilibrium fractionation between gsbw and gmw. However, gsbw represents a time integrated signal biased towards times of strong evaporation, hence the estimated gmw comprises elevated 18O/16O compositions when compared to pond water samples taken on site. Gypsum precipitation is associated with algae mats in the ponds with lower salinity. No evidence for respective vital effects on the triple oxygen isotopic composition of gypsum hydration water is observed, nor are such effects expected. In principle, the array of δ18Ogsbw vs. 17Oexcess can be used to: (1) provide information on the degree of evaporation during gypsum formation; (2) estimate pristine meteoric water compositions; and (3) estimate local relative humidity which is the controlling parameter of the slope of the array for simple hydrological situations. In our case study, local mining activities may have decreased deep groundwater recharge, causing a recent change of the local hydrology.

  10. The influence of oxygen and nitrogen doping on GeSbTe phase-change optical recording media properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrov, D.; Shieh, H.-P.D

    2004-03-15

    Nitrogen and oxygen doped and co-doped GeSbTe (GST) films for phase-change optical recording are investigated. It is found that the crystallization temperature increased as well as the crystalline microstructure refined by doping. The carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) and erasability of phase-change optical disks are improved being up to 52 and 35 dB, respectively, by using an appropriate nitrogen doping or co-doping concentration in the recording layer. Optical disks with co-doped recording layer are found to be superior in the recording characteristics then the single doped recording layer disks.

  11. Hydrophobic recovery of repeatedly plasma-treated silicone rubber .2. A comparison of the hydrophobic recovery in air, water, or liquid nitrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaert, EP; VanderMei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    1996-01-01

    Surfaces of medical grade silicone rubber (Q7-4750, Dow Coming) were modified by repeated (six times) RF plasma treatments using various discharge gases: oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. The treated samples were stored for a period of 3 months in ambient air, water, or liquid nitrogen.

  12. Oxygen isotope analysis of plant water without extraction procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, K.S.; Wong, S.C.; Farquhar, G.D.; Yong, J.W.H.

    2001-01-01

    Isotopic analyses of plant water (mainly xylem, phloem and leaf water) are gaming importance as the isotopic signals reflect plant-environment interactions, affect the oxygen isotopic composition of atmospheric O 2 and CO 2 and are eventually incorporated into plant organic matter. Conventionally, such isotopic measurements require a time-consuming process of isolating the plant water by azeotropic distillation or vacuum extraction, which would not complement the speed of isotope analysis provided by continuous-flow IRMS (Isotope-Ratio Mass Spectrometry), especially when large data sets are needed for statistical calculations in biological studies. Further, a substantial amount of plant material is needed for water extraction and leaf samples would invariably include unenriched water from the fine veins. To measure sub-microlitre amount of leaf mesophyll water, a new approach is undertaken where a small disc of fresh leaf is cut using a specially designed leaf punch, and pyrolysed directly in an IRMS. By comparing with results from pyrolysis of the dry matter of the same leaf, the 18 O content of leaf water can be determined without extraction from fresh leaves. This method is validated using a range of cellulose-water mixtures to simulate the constituents of fresh leaf. Cotton leaf water δ 18 O obtained from both methods of fresh leaf pyrolysis and azeotropic distillation will be compared. The pyrolysis technique provides a robust approach to measure the isotopic content of water or any volatile present in a homogeneous solution or solid hydrous substance

  13. Solubilities of oxygenated aromatic solids in pressurized hot water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karásek, Pavel; Planeta, Josef; Roth, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 5 (2009), s. 1457-1461 ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/0886; GA ČR GA203/08/1536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : oxygenated aromatics * solubility * pressurized hot water Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.695, year: 2009

  14. Phase equilibrium condition measurements in nitrogen and air clathrate hydrate forming systems at temperatures below freezing point of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Keita; Oto, Yuya; Shen, Renkai; Uchida, Tsutomu; Ohmura, Ryo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Phase equilibrium conditions in the nitrogen and modelled air hydrate forming systems are measured. • Measurements are conducted at temperatures below the freezing point of water. • Results have relevance to the air hydrate formation in the ice sheets. • Measured data are quantitatively compared with the previously reported values. • Range of the equilibrium measurements was from (242 to 268) K. -- Abstract: Contained in this paper are the three phase equilibrium conditions of the (ice + clathrate hydrate + guest-rich) vapour in the (nitrogen + water) and the modelled (air + water) systems at temperatures below the freezing point of water. The precise determination of the equilibrium conditions in those systems are of importance for the analysis of the past climate change using the cored samples from the ice sheets at Antarctica and Greenland because the air hydrates keep the ancient climate signals. The mole ratio of the modelled air composed of nitrogen and oxygen is 0.790:0.210. The equilibrium conditions were measured by the batch, isochoric procedure. The temperature range of the measurements in the nitrogen hydrate forming system is (244.05 < T < 266.55) K and the corresponding equilibrium pressure range is (7.151 < p < 12.613) MPa. The temperature range of the measurements in the modelled air hydrate forming system is (242.55 < T < 267.85) K, and the corresponding equilibrium pressure range is (6.294 < p < 12.144) MPa. The data obtained quantitatively compared with the previously reported data

  15. Methanol Droplet Extinction in Oxygen/Carbon-dioxide/Nitrogen Mixtures in Microgravity: Results from the International Space Station Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayagam, Vedha; Dietrich, Daniel L.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Hicks, Michael C.; Williams, Forman A.

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the need to understand the flammability limits of condensed-phase fuels in microgravity, isolated single droplet combustion experiments were carried out in the Combustion Integrated Rack Facility onboard the International Space Station. Experimental observations of methanol droplet combustion and extinction in oxygen/carbon-dioxide/nitrogen mixtures at 0.7 and 1 atmospheric pressure in quiescent microgravity environment are reported for initial droplet diameters varying between 2 mm to 4 mm in this study.The ambient oxygen concentration was systematically lowered from test to test so as to approach the limiting oxygen index (LOI) at fixed ambient pressure. At one atmosphere pressure, ignition and some burning were observed for an oxygen concentration of 13% with the rest being nitrogen. In addition, measured droplet burning rates, flame stand-off ratios, and extinction diameters are presented for varying concentrations of oxygen and diluents. Simplified theoretical models are presented to explain the observed variations in extinction diameter and flame stand-off ratios.

  16. Draining Water from Aircraft Fuel Using Nitrogen Enriched Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Frank

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns a computational study of the process of removing water from an aircraft’s fuel tank by pumping nitrogen enriched air (NEA from the bottom of the tank. This is an important procedure for the smooth, efficient, and safe operation of the aircraft’s engine. Due to the low partial pressure of water in the pumped NEA, it absorbs water from the fuel. The water-laden bubbles enter the ullage, the empty space above the fuel, and escape into the environment. The effects of the number of NEA inlets and the NEA mass flow rate on the timescale of the NEA pumping were investigated using Computational Fluid Dynamics. The results reveal that the absorption of water by the NEA bubbles is low and is not affected by the number of the inlets used. Yet, the water content in the fuel decreases fast during the procedure, which is the desired outcome. We show that this is due to the relatively dry NEA entering the ullage and displacing the moist air, thus reducing the partial pressure of water at the fuel/ullage interface. This shift from equilibrium conditions forces water to evaporate from the fuel’s entire surface. Furthermore, the amount of water migrating from the fuel directly into the ullage is significantly greater than that absorbed by the rising bubbles. In turn, the rate of decrease of the water content in the ullage is determined by the total NEA mass flow rate and this is the dominant contributor to the draining time, with the number of NEA nozzles playing a minor role. We confirmed this by pumping NEA directly into the ullage, where we observe a significant decrease of water even when the NEA is not pumped through the fuel. We also show that doubling the mass flow rate halves the draining time. When considering the capability of most modern aircraft to pump NEA through the fuel as part of their inerting system, the proposed method for removing water is particularly attractive, requiring very little (if at all design modification.

  17. Remote sensing of water and nitrogen stress in broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, Diael-Deen Mohamed

    Remote sensing is being used in agriculture for crop management. Ground based remote sensing data acquisition system was used for collection of high spatial and temporal resolution data for irrigated broccoli crop. The system was composed of a small cart that ran back and forth on a rail system that was mounted on a linear move irrigation system. The cart was equipped with a sensor that had 4 discrete wavelengths; 550 nm, 660 nm, 720 nm, and 810 nm, and an infrared thermometer, all had 10 nm bandwidth. A global positioning system was used to indicate the cart position. The study consisted of two parts; the first was to evaluate remotely sensed reflectance and indices in broccoli during the growing season, and determine whether remotely sensed indices or standard deviation of indices can distinguish between nitrogen and water stress in broccoli, and the second part of the study was to evaluate remotely sensed indices and standard deviation of remotely sensed indices in broccoli during daily changes in solar zenith angle. Results indicated that nitrogen was detected using Ratio Vegetation index, RVI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI, Canopy Chlorophyll Concentration Index, CCCI, and also using the reflectance in the Near-Infrared, NIR, bands. The Red reflectance band capability of showing stress was not as clear as the previous indices and bands reflectance. The Canopy Chlorophyll Concentration Index, CCCI, was the most successful index. The Crop Water Stress Index was able to detect water stress but it was highly affected by the solar zenith angle change along the day.

  18. Morphophysiology of guava under saline water irrigation and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idelfonso L. Bezerra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth of grafted guava cv. ‘Paluma’ subjected to different concentrations of salts in irrigation water and nitrogen (N fertilization. The plants were transplanted to 150 L lysimeters and under field conditions at the Science and Agri-food Technology Center of the Federal University of Campina Grande, in the municipality of Pombal - PB. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design in a 5 x 4 factorial scheme, with three replicates, and the treatments corresponded to five levels of electrical conductivity of irrigation water - ECw (0.3; 1.1; 1.9; 2.7 and 3.5 dS m-1 and four N doses (70, 100, 130 and 160% of the N dose recommended for the crop. The doses equivalent to 100% corresponded to 541.1 mg of N dm-3 of soil. Irrigation water salinity above 0.3 dS m-1 negatively affects the number of leaves, leaf area, stem diameter, dry phytomass of leaves, branches and shoots . A significant interaction between irrigation water salinity and N fertilization was observed only for the number of leaves and leaf area at 120 days after transplanting. N dose above 70% of the recommendation (378.7 mg N dm-3 soil did not mitigate the deleterious effects caused by salt stress on plant growth.

  19. Influence of oxygen, nitrogen and carbonic gas during gamma irradiation of 'Sitophilus zeamais' Mots. and 'Zabrotes subfasciatus' (Boh.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiendl, F.M.; Tornisielo, V.L.; Walder, J.M.N.; Sgrillo, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    Zero to twenty-four hour old adults of the corn-weevil (S. zeamais) and of the bean weevil (Z. subfasciatus) with their food were irradiated with 5 krad of gamma rays from a Co-60 source (dose rate of 96.25 krad/h). The foodstuffs for the corn weevil were maize and rice as well as common beans for the bean weevil. Before irradiation, the insects of each treatment were exposed to 30 minutes gas fluxes of air, oxygen, nitrogen or carbonic gas, respectively. After irradiation, insects were kept in a temperature controlled chamber at 28 0 C. Losses in weight of the foodstuffs were recorded for 51 weeks. The greatest weight loss was found in the treatment with air flux. Weight losses decreased with the nitrogen, carbonic gas and oxygen treatments, respectively [pt

  20. Phosphorus, and nitrogen co-doped carbon dots as a fluorescent probe for real-time measurement of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species inside macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yunqian; Yu, Bin; Yang, Wen; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2016-05-15

    Phosphorus and nitrogen doped carbon dots (PN-CDs) were conveniently prepared by carbonization of adenosine-5'-triphosphate using a hydrothermal treatment. The PN-CDs with P/C atomic ratio of ca. 9.2/100 emit blue luminescence with high quantum yields of up to 23.5%. The PN-CDs were used as a novel sensing platform for live cell imaging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), including ClO(-), ONOO(-), and NO in macrophages. The nanosensor design is based on our new finding that the strong fluorescence of the PN-CDs can be sensitively and selectively quenched by ROS and RNS both in vitro and in vivo. These results reveal that the PN-CDs can serve as a sensitive sensor for rapid imaging of ROS and RNS signaling with high selectivity and contrast. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Defect-induced Catalysis toward the Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Single-walled Carbon Nanotube: Nitrogen doped and Non-nitrogen doped

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Di; Wu, Dan; Jin, Jian; Chen, Liwei

    2016-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are post-treated by argon (Ar) or ammonia (NH 3 ) plasma irradiation to introduce defects that are potentially related to catalysis towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Electrochemical characterization in alkali medium suggests that the plasma irradiated SWNTs demonstrate enhanced catalytic activity toward the ORR with a positively shifted threshold potential. Moreover the enhanced desired four-electron pathway catalytic activity, which exhibited as the positive shifted threshold potential, is independent of the nitrogen dopant. The nature of the defects is probed with Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicate that the non-nitrogen doped defects of SWNTs contribute to the actual active site for the ORR.

  2. Diffusion of oxygen in nitrogen in the pores of graphite. Preliminary results on the effect of oxidation on diffusivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewitt, G. F.; Sharratt, E. W.

    1962-10-15

    Preliminary results are reported from an experimental study of the effect of burnoff on the diffusivity of oxygen in nitrogen within the pores of graphite. It is found that the ratio of effective diffusivity to ''free gas'' diffusivity changes about four-fold in the range 0-9% total oxidation. The viscous permeability, B0, increases in almost the same proportion over the same range.

  3. Determination of occluded oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen in zircalloy-4 by vacuum extraction coupled to gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, O.; Imakuma, K.

    1983-01-01

    The technique of vacuum extraction at high temperatures was used for the liberation of gases from zircalloy-4 samples; oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen were quantitatively analysed by gas chromatography. Two different sets of zircalloy-4 samples were examined. The results for O 2 , N 2 and H 2 quantitative analyses satisfy the requirements for the characterization of the zircalloy-4 quality. (C.L.B.) [pt

  4. Nature of infrared-active phonon sidebands to internal vibrations: Spectroscopic studies of solid oxygen and nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodyanski, A. P.; Medvedev, S. A.; Vetter, M.; Kreutz, J.; Jodl, H. J.

    2002-09-01

    The ir-active phonon sidebands to internal vibrations of oxygen and nitrogen were precisely investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the fundamental and first overtone spectral regions from 10 K to the boiling points at ambient pressure. We showed that an analysis of ir-active phonon sidebands yields important information on the internal vibrations of molecules in a condensed medium (solid or liquid), being complementary to Raman data on vibron frequencies. Analyzing the complete profile of these bands, we determined the band origin frequencies and explored their temperature behavior in all phases of both substances. We present unambiguous direct experimental proofs that this quality corresponds to the frequency of internal vibrations of single molecules. Considering solid oxygen and nitrogen as two limiting cases for simple molecular solids, we interpret this result as a strong evidence for a general fact that an ir-active phonon sideband possesses the same physical origin in pure molecular solids and in impurity centers. The key characteristics of the fundamental vibron energy zone (environmental and resonance frequency shifts) were deduced from the combined analysis of ir and Raman experimental data and their temperature behavior was explored in solid and liquid phases of oxygen and nitrogen at ambient pressure. The character of the short-range orientational order was established in the β-nitrogen based on our theoretical analysis consistent with the present experimental results. We also present the explanation of the origin of pressure-caused changes in the frequency of the Raman vibron mode of solid oxygen at low temperatures.

  5. [Effects of two submerged macrophytes on dissolved inorganic nitrogen in overlying water and interstitial water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Bin; Li, Yang; Sun, Gong-Xian

    2014-06-01

    Ceratophyllum demersum (C. demersum) and Vallisneria spiralis L. (V. spiralis L.) were studied as model submerged macrophytes. The effects of the submerged macrophytes on the forms and concentration of the dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in the overlying water and the interstitial water, as well as the diffusion flux of DIN in the water-sediment interface were investigated by batch simulation experiment. The results indicated that the removal effect of DIN in the overlying water was better than that in the interstitial water by submerged macrophytes. The removal efficiency of DIN in the overlying water and the interstitial water followed the order of NO2(-) -N > NH4(+) -N > NO3(-) -N. The removal rate of DIN by C. demersum was higher than that of V. spiralis L. in the overlying water, while the result was converse in the interstitial water. C. demersum and V. spiralis L. decreased the diffusion flux of NH4(+) -N and NO2(-) -N, and increased the diffusion flux of NO3(-) -N significantly. Consequently, NO3(-) -N replaced NH4(+) -N and became the main form of DIN, which diffused from the interstitial water to the overlying water. The impact of the diffusion flux of NO3(-) -N between C. demersum and V. spiralis L. showed no significant difference, and the result was the same for NH4(+) -N. C. demersum and V. spiralis L. increased the width of variation of the three nitrogen forms to total DIN in the overlying water and the interstitial water, the influence on the ratio of DIN by C. demersum was greater than that of V. spiralis L. in the overlying water, while the result was opposite in the interstitial water. In general, C. demersum had more influence in the overlying water, while V. spiralis L. had more influence in the interstitial water, and the influence of DIN diffusion flux was not significant.

  6. Heavily Graphitic-Nitrogen Self-doped High-porosity Carbon for the Electrocatalysis of Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tong; Liao, Wenli; Li, Zhongbin; Sun, Lingtao; Shi, Dongping; Guo, Chaozhong; Huang, Yu; Wang, Yi; Cheng, Jing; Li, Yanrong; Diao, Qizhi

    2017-11-01

    Large-scale production of active and stable porous carbon catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) from protein-rich biomass became a hot topic in fuel cell technology. Here, we report a facile strategy for synthesis of nitrogen-doped porous nanocarbons by means of a simple two-step pyrolysis process combined with the activation of zinc chloride and acid-treatment process, in which kidney bean via low-temperature carbonization was preferentially adopted as the only carbon-nitrogen sources. The results show that this carbon material exhibits excellent ORR electrocatalytic activity, and higher durability and methanol-tolerant property compared to the state-of-the-art Pt/C catalyst for the ORR, which can be mainly attributed to high graphitic-nitrogen content, high specific surface area, and porous characteristics. Our results can encourage the synthesis of high-performance carbon-based ORR electrocatalysts derived from widely-existed natural biomass.

  7. Dissolved oxygen removal on radiolysis: studies in context of use of nitrogen atmosphere above PHT storage bag in Indian PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumbhar, A.G.; Venkateswaran, G.; Kishore, K.; Kumar, Sangeeta D.; Naik, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen content of the water (N 2 in gas phase) sample on radiolysis was measured and it was observed that up to 2 M Rad dose, oxygen content decreases linearly and at higher doses remains constant. Results are compared with nitrate ion yield in water-N 2 systems determined earlier. In aerated solutions also, nitrate ion yield was measured as function of dose. (author)

  8. Transforming waste biomass with an intrinsically porous network structure into porous nitrogen-doped graphene for highly efficient oxygen reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huang; Zhang, Jian; Amiinu, Ibrahim Saana; Zhang, Chenyu; Liu, Xiaobo; Tu, Wenmao; Pan, Mu; Mu, Shichun

    2016-04-21

    Porous nitrogen-doped graphene with a very high surface area (1152 m(2) g(-1)) is synthesized by a novel strategy using intrinsically porous biomass (soybean shells) as a carbon and nitrogen source via calcination and KOH activation. To redouble the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity by tuning the doped-nitrogen content and type, ammonia (NH3) is injected during thermal treatment. Interestingly, this biomass-derived graphene catalyst exhibits the unique properties of mesoporosity and high pyridine-nitrogen content, which contribute to the excellent oxygen reduction performance. As a result, the onset and half-wave potentials of the new metal-free non-platinum catalyst reach -0.009 V and -0.202 V (vs. SCE), respectively, which is very close to the catalytic activity of the commercial Pt/C catalyst in alkaline media. Moreover, our catalyst has a higher ORR stability and stronger CO and CH3OH tolerance than Pt/C in alkaline media. Importantly, in acidic media, the catalyst also exhibits good ORR performance and higher ORR stability compared to Pt/C.

  9. Oxygen- and nitrogen-co-doped activated carbon from waste particleboard for potential application in high-performance capacitance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, Tong-Xin; Ren, Ru-Quan; Zhu, Yue-Mei; Jin, Xiao-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: All electrodes showed excellent capacitance and retention versus discharge current density from 0.05 to 5 A/g. - Abstract: Oxygen- and nitrogen-co-doped activated carbons were obtained from phosphoric acid treated nitrogen-doped activated carbons which were prepared from waste particleboard bonded with urea-formaldehyde resin adhesives. The activated carbon samples obtained were tested as supercapacitors in two-electrode cell and extensive wetting 7 M KOH electrolytes. Their structural properties and surface chemistry, before the electrical testing, were investigated using elemental analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, and adsorption of nitrogen. Activated carbon treated by 4 M phosphoric acid of the highest capacitance (235 F/g) was measured in spite of a relatively lower surface (1360 m 2 /g) than that of the activated carbon treated by 2 M phosphoric acid (1433 m 2 /g). The surface chemistry, and especially oxygen- and nitrogen-containing functional groups, was found of paramount importance for the capacitive behavior and for the effective pore space utilization by the electrolyte ions

  10. Effect of hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen, on the tendency of welded joints of titanium alloys to moderate failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorshkov, A.I.; Matyushin, B.A.

    1976-01-01

    The admissible limits have been defined of gaseous impurities content in the metal of welded joints of titanium alloys, with due accout for the phase composition and alloying system. The proposed procedure of testing disk specimens most adequately simulates the behavior of welded joints in full-scale strures. The tests lasting 2.5 to 3 years permit to consider the effect of temporal processes (hydrogen diffusion, relaxation of stresses, phase transformations, etc.) on the durability of a weld. The hydrogen content in the metal of welded joints of OT4 alloy should not exceed 0.008%, that of VT14 alloy should not exceed 0.008%, and that of VT20 alloy should not exceed 0.015% (at an oxygen content of no more than 0.15% and a nitrogen content of no more than 0.03%), the oxygen content being 0.25%, 0.2% and 0.2%, respectxvely (at a hydrogen content of no more than 0.008% and a nitrogen of no more than 0.03%), ;nd the nitrogen content being 0.1%, 0.06% and 0.08%, respectively (at hydrogen content of no more than 0.008% and an oxygen content of no more than 0.15%

  11. Rate of oxygen isotope exchange between selenate and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Masanori; Poulson, Simon R

    2012-04-17

    The rate of oxygen isotope exchange between selenate and water was investigated at conditions of 10 to 80 °C and pH -0.6 to 4.4. Oxygen isotope exchange proceeds as a first-order reaction, and the exchange rate is strongly affected by reaction temperature and pH, with increased rates of isotope exchange at higher temperature and lower pH. Selenate speciation (HSeO(4)(-) vs SeO(4)(2-)) also has a significant effect on the rate of isotope exchange. The half-life for isotope exchange at example natural conditions (25 °C and pH 7) is estimated to be significantly in excess of 10(6) years. The very slow rate of oxygen isotope exchange between selenate and water under most environmental conditions demonstrates that selenate-δ(18)O signatures produced by biogeochemical processes will be preserved and hence that it will be possible to use the value of selenate-δ(18)O to investigate the biogeochemical behavior of selenate, in an analogous fashion to the use of sulfate-δ(18)O to study the biogeochemical behavior of sulfate.

  12. Nitrogen-doped graphene-wrapped iron nanofragments for high-performance oxygen reduction electrocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang Yeol [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Photo-Electronic Hybrid Research Center (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Na Young [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Fuel Cell Research Center (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong Yun [Chungbuk National University, Department of Environmental Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee-Young [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Fuel Cell Research Center (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Soo [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Photo-Electronic Hybrid Research Center (Korea, Republic of); Joon Kwon, S. [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Nanophotonics Research Center (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Dong-Hee [Chungbuk National University, Department of Environmental Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Bong, Ki Wan [Korea University, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Son, Jeong Gon, E-mail: jgson@kist.re.kr [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Photo-Electronic Hybrid Research Center (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Young, E-mail: jinykim@kist.re.kr [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Fuel Cell Research Center (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Transition metals, such as iron (Fe)- or cobalt (Co)-based nanomaterials, are promising electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) in fuel cells due to their high theoretical activity and low cost. However, a major challenge to using these metals in place of precious metal catalysts for ORR is their low efficiency and poor stability, thus new concepts and strategies should be needed to address this issue. Here, we report a hybrid aciniform nanostructures of Fe nanofragments embedded in thin nitrogen (N)-doped graphene (Fe@N-G) layers via a heat treatment of graphene oxide-wrapped iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) microparticles with melamine. The heat treatment leads to transformation of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} microparticles to nanosized zero-valent Fe fragments and formation of core-shell structures of Fe nanofragments and N-doped graphene layers. Thin N-doped graphene layers massively promote electron transfer from the encapsulated metals to the graphene surface, which efficiently optimizes the electronic structure of the graphene surface and thereby triggers ORR activity at the graphene surface. With the synergistic effect arising from the N-doped graphene and Fe nanoparticles with porous aciniform nanostructures, the Fe@N-G hybrid catalyst exhibits high catalytic activity, which was evidenced by high E{sub 1/2} of 0.82 V, onset potential of 0.93 V, and limiting current density of 4.8 mA cm{sup −2} indicating 4-electron ORR, and even exceeds the catalytic stability of the commercial Pt catalyst.

  13. AMPK signaling in skeletal muscle during exercise: Role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Alamo, David; Calbet, Jose A L

    2016-09-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are generated during exercise depending on intensity, duration and training status. A greater amount of RONS is released during repeated high-intensity sprint exercise and when the exercise is performed in hypoxia. By activating adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK), RONS play a critical role in the regulation of muscle metabolism but also in the adaptive responses to exercise training. RONS may activate AMPK by direct an indirect mechanisms. Directly, RONS may activate or deactivate AMPK by modifying RONS-sensitive residues of the AMPK-α subunit. Indirectly, RONS may activate AMPK by reducing mitochondrial ATP synthesis, leading to an increased AMP:ATP ratio and subsequent Thr(172)-AMPK phosphorylation by the two main AMPK kinases: LKB1 and CaMKKβ. In presence of RONS the rate of Thr(172)-AMPK dephosphorylation is reduced. RONS may activate LKB1 through Sestrin2 and SIRT1 (NAD(+)/NADH.H(+)-dependent deacetylase). RONS may also activate CaMKKβ by direct modification of RONS sensitive motifs and, indirectly, by activating the ryanodine receptor (Ryr) to release Ca(2+). Both too high (hypoxia) and too low (ingestion of antioxidants) RONS levels may lead to Ser(485)-AMPKα1/Ser(491)-AMPKα2 phosphorylation causing inhibition of Thr(172)-AMPKα phosphorylation. Exercise training increases muscle antioxidant capacity. When the same high-intensity training is applied to arm and leg muscles, arm muscles show signs of increased oxidative stress and reduced mitochondrial biogenesis, which may be explained by differences in RONS-sensing mechanisms and basal antioxidant capacities between arm and leg muscles. Efficient adaptation to exercise training requires optimal exposure to pulses of RONS. Inappropriate training stimulus may lead to excessive RONS formation, oxidative inactivation of AMPK and reduced adaptation or even maladaptation. Theoretically, exercise programs should be designed taking into account the

  14. Nitrogen retention and water balance in animals fed medium protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    amount of nitrogen, in contrast to control animals that lost 2.4% nitrogen via the faeces. Inadequate drinking caused decreased excretion of urea. The improved nitrogen retention coupled with high rates of urea recycling enhances nutrients digestion and consequently the animals' absorptive capabilities. . (Afr. J. Biomed.

  15. Determination of oxygen, nitrogen, and silicon in Nigerian fossil fuels by 14 MeV neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannan, M.A.; Oluwole, A.F.; Kehinde, L.O.; Borisade, A.B.

    2003-01-01

    Classification, assessment, and utilization of coal and crude oil extracts are enhanced by analysis of their oxygen content. Values of oxygen obtained 'by difference' from chemical analysis have proved inaccurate. The oxygen, nitrogen, and silicon content of Nigerian coal samples, crude oils, bitumen extracts, and tar sand samples were measured directly using instrumental fast neutron activation analysis (FNAA). The total oxygen in the coal ranges from 5.20% to 23.3%, in the oil and extracts from 0.14% to 1.08%, and in the tar sands from 38% to 47%. The nitrogen content in the coal ranges from 0.54% to 1.35%, in the crude oil and bitumen extracts from ≤ 0.014% to 0.490%, and in the tar sands from 0.082% to 0.611%. The silicon content in the coal ranges from 1.50% to 8.86%; in the oil and the bitumen extracts it is <1%, and in the tar sands between 25.1% and 37.5%. The results show that Nigerian coals are mostly sub-bituminous. However, one of the samples showed bituminous properties as evidenced by the dry ash-free (daf) percent of carbon obtained. This same sample indicated a higher ash content resulting in a comparatively high percentage of silicon. In oils and tar sands from various locations, a comparison of elements is made. (author)

  16. The temperature dependence of intermediate range oxygen-oxygen correlations in liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, Daniel; Pettersson, Lars G. M.; Wikfeldt, K. Thor; Skinner, Lawrie B.; Benmore, Chris J.; Nilsson, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the recent temperature dependent oxygen-oxygen pair-distribution functions from experimental high-precision x-ray diffraction data of bulk water by Skinner et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 141, 214507 (2014)] with particular focus on the intermediate range where small, but significant, correlations are found out to 17 Å. The second peak in the pair-distribution function at 4.5 Å is connected to tetrahedral coordination and was shown by Skinner et al. to change behavior with temperature below the temperature of minimum isothermal compressibility. Here we show that this is associated also with a peak growing at 11 Å which strongly indicates a collective character of fluctuations leading to the enhanced compressibility at lower temperatures. We note that the peak at ∼13.2 Å exhibits a temperature dependence similar to that of the density with a maximum close to 277 K or 4 °C. We analyze simulations of the TIP4P/2005 water model in the same manner and find excellent agreement between simulations and experiment albeit with a temperature shift of ∼20 K.

  17. The temperature dependence of intermediate range oxygen-oxygen correlations in liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, Daniel; Pettersson, Lars G. M., E-mail: Lars.Pettersson@fysik.su.se [Department of Physics, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Wikfeldt, K. Thor [Department of Physics, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Science Institute, University of Iceland, VR-III, 107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Skinner, Lawrie B.; Benmore, Chris J. [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Nilsson, Anders [Department of Physics, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2016-08-28

    We analyze the recent temperature dependent oxygen-oxygen pair-distribution functions from experimental high-precision x-ray diffraction data of bulk water by Skinner et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 141, 214507 (2014)] with particular focus on the intermediate range where small, but significant, correlations are found out to 17 Å. The second peak in the pair-distribution function at 4.5 Å is connected to tetrahedral coordination and was shown by Skinner et al. to change behavior with temperature below the temperature of minimum isothermal compressibility. Here we show that this is associated also with a peak growing at 11 Å which strongly indicates a collective character of fluctuations leading to the enhanced compressibility at lower temperatures. We note that the peak at ∼13.2 Å exhibits a temperature dependence similar to that of the density with a maximum close to 277 K or 4 °C. We analyze simulations of the TIP4P/2005 water model in the same manner and find excellent agreement between simulations and experiment albeit with a temperature shift of ∼20 K.

  18. Precision management of nitrogen and water in potato production through monitoring and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, A.J.; Vos, J.; Booij, R.

    2003-01-01

    Nitrogen and water application rates and timing depend on the final yield a grower expects the potato crop to achieve. Therefore precise measurements of 1) the nitrogen status of the crop and 2) the water status of the soil are needed. A crop growth model LINTUL-Potato calculates yields and the

  19. Water Injection on Commercial Aircraft to Reduce Airport Nitrogen Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Fucke, Lars; Eames, David J. H.

    2010-01-01

    The potential nitrogen oxide (NO(x) reductions, cost savings, and performance enhancements identified in these initial studies of waterinjection technology strongly suggest that it be further pursued. The potential for engine maintenance cost savings from this system should make it very attractive to airline operators and assure its implementation. Further system tradeoff studies and engine tests are needed to answer the optimal system design question. Namely, would a low-risk combustor injection system with 70- to 90-percent NO(x) reduction be preferable, or would a low-pressure compressor (LPC) misting system with only 50-percent NO(x) reduction but larger turbine inlet temperature reductions be preferable? The low-pressure compressor injection design and operability issues identified in the report need to be addressed because they might prevent implementation of the LPC type of water-misting system. If water-injection technology challenges are overcome, any of the systems studied would offer dramatic engine NO(x) reductions at the airport. Coupling this technology with future emissions-reduction technologies, such as fuel-cell auxiliary power units will allow the aviation sector to address the serious challenges of environmental stewardship, and NO(x) emissions will no longer be an issue at airports.

  20. An eddy-stimulated hotspot for fixed nitrogen-loss from the Peru oxygen minimum zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altabet, M. A.; Ryabenko, E.; Stramma, L.; Wallace, D. W. R.; Frank, M.; Grasse, P.; Lavik, G.

    2012-12-01

    Fixed nitrogen (N) loss to biogenic N2 in intense oceanic O2 minimum zones (OMZ) accounts for a large fraction of the global N sink and is an essential control on the ocean's N-budget. However, major uncertainties exist regarding microbial pathways as well as net impact on the magnitude of N-loss and the ocean's overall N-budget. Here we report the discovery of a N-loss hotspot in the Peru OMZ associated with a coastally trapped mesoscale eddy that is marked by an extreme N-deficit matched by biogenic N2 production, high NO2- levels, and the highest isotope enrichments observed so far in OMZ's for the residual NO3-. High sea surface chlorophyll in seaward flowing streamers provides evidence for offshore eddy transport of highly productive, inshore water. Resulting pulses in the downward flux of particles likely stimulated heterotrophic dissimilatory NO3- reduction and subsequent production of biogenic N2 within the OMZ. A shallower biogenic N2 maximum within the oxycline is likely a feature advected by the eddy streamer from the shelf. Eddy-associated temporal-spatial heterogeneity of N-loss, mediated by a local succession of microbial processes, may explain inconsistencies observed among prior studies. Similar transient enhancements of N-loss likely occur within all other major OMZ's exerting a major influence on global ocean N and N isotope budgets.

  1. The effect of dissolved oxygen on water radiolysis behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakabuskie, P.A.; Joseph, J.M.; Wren, J.C.; Stuart, C.R.

    2012-09-01

    A quantitative understanding of the chemical or redox environments generated in water by ionizing radiation is important for material selection, development of maintenance programs, and safety assessments for water-cooled nuclear power reactors. The highly reactive radicals (·OH, ·H, ·e aq - , ·HO 2 , and ·O 2 - ) and molecular species (H 2 and H 2 O 2 ) generated by water radiolysis can compete in reactions with other dissolved compounds and impose changes to the system chemistry by altering the steady-state concentrations of water radiolysis products, which could impact the degradation of materials in contact with the aqueous phase. Understanding in detail how a given chemical additive changes the long-term radiolysis kinetics can help us to determine what chemistry control steps may be required to return the system to an optimal redox condition, and in turn, enhance the lifetime of reactor components. This study outlines the effect of dissolved oxygen gas, which could be introduced due to air ingress, on long-term water radiolysis behaviour. The effects of solution pH and initial dissolved O 2 concentration on the radiolytic production of molecular H 2 and H 2 O 2 have been investigated by performing experiments with three different O 2 concentrations at pH 6.0 and 10.6 under steady-state radiolysis conditions. The aqueous and gas phase analyses were performed using UV-Vis spectrophotometry and gas-chromatography equipped with electron capture and thermal conductivity detectors. The experimental results were compared with kinetic model calculations of steady-state radiolysis and were found to be in good agreement. The concentrations of water radiolysis products, H 2 O 2 and H 2 , were found to increase in the presence of dissolved oxygen, but the degree of increase was shown to depend on the solution pH. Furthermore, the steady-state concentration of H 2 did not increase as greatly as that of H 2 O 2 at either pH studied. The kinetic analyses have shown

  2. ASRDI oxygen technology survey. Volume 5: Density and liquid level measurement instrumentation for the cryogenic fluids oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, H. M.

    1974-01-01

    Information is presented on instrumentation for density measurement, liquid level measurement, quantity gauging, and phase measurement. Coverage of existing information directly concerned with oxygen was given primary emphasis. A description of the physical principle of measurement for each instrumentation type is included. The basic materials of construction are listed if available from the source document for each instrument discussed. Cleaning requirements, procedures, and verification techniques are included.

  3. Volatile elements - water, carbon, nitrogen, noble gases - on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, B.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the origin and evolution of life-bearing volatile elements (water, carbon, nitrogen) on Earth is a fruitful and debated area of research. In his pioneering work, W.W. Rubey inferred that the terrestrial atmosphere and the oceans formed from degassing of the mantle through geological periods of time. Early works on noble gas isotopes were consistent with this view and proposed a catastrophic event of mantle degassing early in Earth's history. We now have evidence, mainly from noble gas isotopes, that several cosmochemical sources contributed water and other volatiles at different stages of Earth's accretion. Potential contributors include the protosolar nebula gas that equilibrated with magma oceans, inner solar system bodies now represented by chondrites, and comets. Stable isotope ratios suggest volatiles where primarily sourced by planetary bodies from the inner solar system. However, recent measurements by the European Space Agency Rosetta probe on the coma of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko permit to set quantitative constraints on the cometary contribution to the surface of our planet. The surface and mantle reservoirs volatile elements exchanged volatile elements through time, with rates that are still uncertain. Some mantle regions remained isolated from whole mantle convection within the first tens to hundreds million years after start of solar system formation. These regions, now sampled by some mantle plumes (e.g., Iceland, Eifel) preserved their volatile load, as indicated by extinct and extant radioactivity systems. The abundance of volatile elements in the mantle is still not well known. Different approaches, such as high pressure experimental petrology, noble gas geochemistry, modelling, resulted in somewhat contrasted estimates, varying over one order of magnitude for water. Comparative planetology, that is, the study of volatiles on the Moon, Venus, Mars, Vesta, will shed light on the sources and strengths of these elements in the

  4. Mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon microfibers derived from Mg-biquinoline-dicarboxy compound for efficient oxygen electroreduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Aiguo, E-mail: agkong@chem.ecnu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241 (China); Fan, Xiaohong; Chen, Aoling [School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241 (China); Zhang, Hengiang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hebei Normal University for Nationalities, Chengde 067000 (China); Shan, Yongkui, E-mail: agkong@chem.ecnu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241 (China)

    2017-02-15

    An in-situ MgO-templating synthesis route was introduced to obtain the mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon microfibers by thermal conversion of new Mg-2,2′-biquinoline 4,4-dicarboxy acid coordination compound (Mg-DCA) microfibers. The investigated crystal structure of Mg-DCA testified that the assembling of Mg{sup 2+} and DCA through Mg-O coordination bond and hydrogen bond contributed to the formation of one-dimensional (1D) crystalline Mg-DCA microfibers. The nitrogen-doped carbons derived from the pyrolysis of Mg-DCA showed the well-defined microfiber morphology with high mesopore-surface area. Such mesoporous microfibers exhibited the efficient catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline solutions with better stability and methanol-tolerance performance. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon microfibers with efficient oxygen electroreduction activity were prepared by thermal conversion of new Mg-biquinoline-based coordination compound microfibers.

  5. Nitrogen availability, water-filled pore space, and N2O-N fluxes after biochar application and nitrogen fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, Márcia Thaís De Melo; Madari, Beáta Emoke; Bastiaans, Lammert; Oort, Pepijn Adrianus Johannes Van; Leal, Wesley Gabriel De Oliveira; Souza, Diego Mendes De; Santos, Roberto Carlos Dos; Matsushige, Iva; Maia, Aline De Holanda Nunes; Heinemann, Alexandre Bryan; Meinke, Holger

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the impact of the application of wood biochar, combined with N fertilizations, on N2O-N fluxes, nitrogen availability, and water-filled pore space (WFPS) of a clayey Oxisol under rice (wet season) and common bean (dry season) succession. Manual static

  6. 3D PIC-MCC simulations of discharge inception around a sharp anode in nitrogen/oxygen mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, Jannis; Ebert, Ute

    2016-08-01

    We investigate how photoionization, electron avalanches and space charge affect the inception of nanosecond pulsed discharges. Simulations are performed with a 3D PIC-MCC (particle-in-cell, Monte Carlo collision) model with adaptive mesh refinement for the field solver. This model, whose source code is available online, is described in the first part of the paper. Then we present simulation results in a needle-to-plane geometry, using different nitrogen/oxygen mixtures at atmospheric pressure. In these mixtures non-local photoionization is important for the discharge growth. The typical length scale for this process depends on the oxygen concentration. With 0.2% oxygen the discharges grow quite irregularly, due to the limited supply of free electrons around them. With 2% or more oxygen the development is much smoother. An almost spherical ionized region can form around the electrode tip, which increases in size with the electrode voltage. Eventually this inception cloud destabilizes into streamer channels. In our simulations, discharge velocities are almost independent of the oxygen concentration. We discuss the physical mechanisms behind these phenomena and compare our simulations with experimental observations.

  7. Development of Nanofiller-Modulated Polymeric Oxygen Enrichment Membranes for Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides in Coal Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jianzhong Lou; Shamsuddin Ilias

    2010-12-31

    North Carolina A&T State University in Greensboro, North Carolina, has undertaken this project to develop the knowledge and the material to improve the oxygen-enrichment polymer membrane, in order to provide high-grade oxygen-enriched streams for coal combustion and gasification applications. Both experimental and theoretical approaches were used in this project. The membranes evaluated thus far include single-walled carbon nano-tube, nano-fumed silica polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and zeolite-modulated polyimide membranes. To document the nanofiller-modulated polymer, molecular dynamics simulations have been conducted to calculate the theoretical oxygen molecular diffusion coefficient and nitrogen molecular coefficient inside single-walled carbon nano-tube PDMS membranes, in order to predict the effect of the nano-tubes on the gas-separation permeability. The team has performed permeation and diffusion experiments using polymers with nano-silica particles, nano-tubes, and zeolites as fillers; studied the influence of nano-fillers on the self diffusion, free volume, glass transition, oxygen diffusion and solubility, and perm-selectivity of oxygen in polymer membranes; developed molecular models of single-walled carbon nano-tube and nano-fumed silica PDMS membranes, and zeolites-modulated polyimide membranes. This project partially supported three graduate students (two finished degrees and one transferred to other institution). This project has resulted in two journal publications and additional publications will be prepared in the near future.

  8. Assessing water pollution level and gray water footprint of anthropogenic nitrogen in agricultural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guorui; Chen, Han; Yu, Chaoqing

    2017-04-01

    Water pollution has become a global problem which is one of the most critical issues of today's water treatment. At a spatial resolution of 10km, we use the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model to simulate the biogeochemical processes for major cropping systems from 1955 to 2014, estimate the anthropogenic nitrogen loads to fresh, and calculate the resultant grey water footprints and N-related water pollution level in China. The accumulated annual Nitrogen loads to fresh from agricultural system is 0.38Tg in 1955 and 4.42Tg in 2014, while the grey water footprints vary from 1.53 billion m3 to 17.67 billion m3, respectively. N loads in north of China contributes much more on the N leaching because of the high fertilizer but in south of China, it is mainly focused on the N runoff because of the heavy rain. There are more than 25% of grids with WPL>1 (exceed the water capacity of assimilation), which is mainly located on the North China Plain.

  9. One step synthesis of chlorine-free Pt/Nitrogen-doped graphene composite for oxygen reduction reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Varga, Tamás

    2018-03-14

    Chlorine-free Platinum/nitrogen-doped graphene oxygen reduction reaction catalysts were synthesized by a one step method of annealing a mixture of platinum acetylacetonate and graphene oxide under ammonia atmosphere. Nanoparticles with close to the ideal particle size for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) were formed, i.e., with diameter of 3–4 nm (500 and 600 °C) and 6 nm (700 °C). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the successful introduction of both pyridinic and pyrrolic type nitrogen moieties into the graphene layers, which indicates a strong interaction between the nanoparticles and the graphene layers. The electrocatalytic activity of glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) modified with the synthesized Pt/NG samples for oxygen reduction was compared to that of a platinum/carbon black catalyst modified electrode in acidic and alkaline media. Based on the measured limiting current densities and calculated electron transfer number, the highest activity was measured in acidic and alkaline media on the samples annealed at 600 and 700 °C, respectively.

  10. Feed-derived volatile basic nitrogen increases reactive oxygen species production of blood leukocytes in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Ei; Gross, Josef J; Kawashima, Chiho; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Kida, Katsuya; Miyamoto, Akio

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated over 9 months the changes of fermentative quality of total mixed rations (TMR) containing grass silage (GS) as a major component, associated with changes in the volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) levels in an experimental dairy farm. Effects of VBN levels in TMR on metabolic parameters, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and conception rates for dairy cows were analyzed. According to VBN levels in TMR during survey periods, three distinct phases were identified; phase A with low VBN; phase B with high VBN; and phase C with mid-VBN. Metabolic parameters in blood were all within normal range. However, during phases B and C, nitrogen metabolic indices such as blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen showed higher levels compared to those in phase A, and a simultaneous increase in ROS production by blood PMNs and the load on hepatic function in metabolic parameters was observed in the cows with a lower conception rate. This suggests that feeding TMR with elevated VBN levels due to poor fermented GS results in stimulation of ROS production by PMNs by ammonia, and negatively affects metabolism and reproductive performance in lactating dairy cow. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. An eddy-stimulated hotspot for fixed nitrogen-loss from the Peru oxygen minimum zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Altabet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fixed nitrogen (N loss to biogenic N2 in intense oceanic O2 minimum zones (OMZ accounts for a large fraction of the global N sink and is an essential control on the ocean's N-budget. However, major uncertainties exist regarding microbial pathways as well as net impact on the magnitude of N-loss and the ocean's overall N-budget. Here we report the discovery of a N-loss hotspot in the Peru OMZ associated with a coastally trapped mesoscale eddy that is marked by an extreme N-deficit matched by biogenic N2 production, high NO2 levels, and the highest isotope enrichments observed so far in OMZ's for the residual NO3. High sea surface chlorophyll in seaward flowing streamers provides evidence for offshore eddy transport of highly productive, inshore water. Resulting pulses in the downward flux of particles likely stimulated heterotrophic dissimilatory NO3 reduction and subsequent production of biogenic N2 within the OMZ. A shallower biogenic N2 maximum within the oxycline is likely a feature advected by the eddy streamer from the shelf. Eddy-associated temporal-spatial heterogeneity of N-loss, mediated by a local succession of microbial processes, may explain inconsistencies observed among prior studies. Similar transient enhancements of N-loss likely occur within all other major OMZ's exerting a major influence on global ocean N and N isotope budgets.

  12. Regulation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species by salicylic acid in rice plants under salinity stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Bong-Gyu; Khan, Abdul Latif; Waqas, Muhammad; Kim, Hyun-Ho; Shahzad, Raheem; Imran, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the regulatory role of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) in rice and its effects on toxic reactive oxygen and nitrogen species during short-term salinity stress. SA application (0.5 and 1.0 mM) during salinity-induced stress (100 mM NaCl) resulted in significantly longer shoot length and higher chlorophyll and biomass accumulation than with salinity stress alone. NaCl-induced reactive oxygen species production led to increased levels of lipid peroxidation in rice plants, which were significantly reduced following SA application. A similar finding was observed for superoxide dismutase; however, catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were significantly reduced in rice plants treated with SA and NaCl alone and in combination. The relative mRNA expression of OsCATA and OsAPX1 was lower in rice plants during SA stress. Regarding nitrogenous species, S-nitrosothiol (SNO) was significantly reduced initially (one day after treatment [DAT]) but then increased in plants subjected to single or combined stress conditions. Genes related to SNO biosynthesis, S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR1), NO synthase-like activity (NOA), and nitrite reductase (NIR) were also assessed. The mRNA expression of GSNOR1 was increased relative to that of the control, whereas OsNOA was expressed at higher levels in plants treated with SA and NaCl alone relative to the control. The mRNA expression of OsNR was decreased in plants subjected to single or combination treatment, except at 2 DAT, compared to the control. In conclusion, the current findings suggest that SA can regulate the generation of NaCl-induced oxygen and nitrogen reactive species in rice plants. PMID:29558477

  13. High electrochemical capacitor performance of oxygen and nitrogen enriched activated carbon derived from the pyrolysis and activation of squid gladius chitin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, C. Justin; Rajesh, Murugesan; Manikandan, Ramu; Yu, Kook Hyun; Anusha, J. R.; Ahn, Jun Hwan; Kim, Dong-Won; Park, Sang Yeup; Kim, Byung Chul

    2018-05-01

    Activated carbon containing nitrogen functionalities exhibits excellent electrochemical property which is more interesting for several renewable energy storage and catalytic applications. Here, we report the synthesis of microporous oxygen and nitrogen doped activated carbon utilizing chitin from the gladius of squid fish. The activated carbon has large surface area of 1129 m2 g-1 with microporous network and possess ∼4.04% of nitrogen content in the form of pyridinic/pyrrolic-N, graphitic-N and N-oxide groups along with oxygen and carbon species. The microporous oxygen/nitrogen doped activated carbon is utilize for the fabrication of aqueous and flexible supercapacitor electrodes, which presents excellent electrochemical performance with maximum specific capacitance of 204 Fg-1 in 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte and 197 Fg-1 as a flexible supercapacitor. Moreover, the device displays 100% of specific capacitance retention after 25,000 subsequent charge/discharge cycles in 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte.

  14. C-H functionalization directed by transformable nitrogen heterocycles: synthesis of ortho-oxygenated arylnaphthalenes from arylphthalazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Shiva K; Medellin, Derek C; Kornienko, Alexander

    2014-01-21

    Two protocols for oxygenation of aromatic C-H bonds ortho-positioned to the phthalazine ring were developed. The transannulation of the phthalazine ring to a naphthalene moiety by an Inverse Electron Demand Diels-Alder (IEDDA) reaction led to the synthesis of naphtho[2,1-c]chromenes, 1-(ortho-hydroxyaryl)naphthalenes and 6,7-dihydrobenzo[b]naphtho[1,2-d]oxepine. This new strategy based on the utilization of transformable nitrogen heterocycles in C-H functionalization chemistry can be potentially applicable to the synthesis of a broad range of biaryl compounds.

  15. Nitrogen and Fluorine-Codoped Carbon Nanowire Aerogels as Metal-Free Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Shaofang [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 USA; Zhu, Chengzhou [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 USA; Song, Junhua [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 USA; Engelhard, Mark H. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Xiao, Biwei [Energy and Environmental Directory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Du, Dan [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 USA; Lin, Yuehe [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 USA

    2017-07-11

    The development of active, durable, and low-cost catalysts to replace noble metal-based materials is highly desirable to promote the sluggish oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells. Herein, nitrogen and fluorine-codoped three-dimensional carbon nanowire aerogels, composed of interconnected carbon nanowires, were synthesized for the first time by a hydrothermal carbonization process. Owing to their porous nanostructures and heteroatom-doping, the as-prepared carbon nanowire aerogels, with optimized composition, present excellent electrocatalytic activity that is comparable to commercial Pt/C. Remarkably, the aerogels also exhibit superior stability and methanol tolerance. This synthesis procedure paves a new way to design novel heteroatomdoped catalysts.

  16. A survey of the reaction rate constants for the thermal dissociation and recombination of nitrogen and oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marraffa, Lionel; Dulikravich, George S.; Keeney, Timothy C.; Deiwert, George S.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the present report is to survey the various values of forward and backward reaction rate constants used by investigators in the field of high-temperature (T greater than 2000 K) gas reactions involving nitrogen and oxygen only. The objective is to find those values that correlate well so that they can be used for the studies of hypersonic flow and supersonic combustion with reasonable confidence. Relatively good agreement among these various values is observed for temperatures lower than 10,000 K.

  17. Characterization of silicon oxynitride films prepared by the simultaneous implantation of oxygen and nitrogen ions into silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hezel, R.; Streb, W.

    1985-01-01

    Silicon oxynitride films about 5 nm in thickness were prepared by simultaneously implanting 5 keV oxygen and nitrogen ions into silicon at room temperature up to saturation. These films with concentrations ranging from pure silicon oxide to silicon nitride were characterized using Auger electron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and depth-concentration profiling. The different behaviour of the silicon oxynitride films compared with those of silicon oxide and silicon nitride with regard to thermal stability and hardness against electron and argon ion irradiation is pointed out. (Auth.)

  18. Increasing water productivity, nitrogen economy, and grain yield of rice by water saving irrigation and fertilizer-N management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Omar; Hussain, Saddam; Rizwan, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; Bashir, Saqib; Lin, Lirong; Mehmood, Sajid; Imran, Muhammad; Yaseen, Rizwan; Lu, Guoan

    2018-06-01

    The looming water resources worldwide necessitate the development of water-saving technologies in rice production. An open greenhouse experiment was conducted on rice during the summer season of 2016 at Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China, in order to study the influence of irrigation methods and nitrogen (N) inputs on water productivity, N economy, and grain yield of rice. Two irrigation methods, viz. conventional irrigation (CI) and "thin-shallow-moist-dry" irrigation (TSMDI), and three levels of nitrogen, viz. 0 kg N ha -1 (N 0 ), 90 kg N ha -1 (N 1 ), and 180 kg N ha -1 (N 2 ), were examined with three replications. Study data indicated that no significant water by nitrogen interaction on grain yield, biomass, water productivity, N uptake, NUE, and fertilizer N balance was observed. Results revealed that TSMDI method showed significantly higher water productivity and irrigation water applications were reduced by 17.49% in TSMDI compared to CI. Thus, TSMDI enhanced root growth and offered significantly greater water saving along with getting more grain yield compared to CI. Nitrogen tracer ( 15 N) technique accurately assessed the absorption and distribution of added N in the soil crop environment and divulge higher nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) influenced by TSMDI. At the same N inputs, the TSMDI was the optimal method to minimize nitrogen leaching loss by decreasing water leakage about 18.63%, which are beneficial for the ecological environment.

  19. Holographic monitoring of spatial distributions of singlet oxygen in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belashov, A. V.; Bel'tyukova, D. M.; Vasyutinskii, O. S.; Petrov, N. V.; Semenova, I. V.; Chupov, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    A method for monitoring spatial distributions of singlet oxygen in biological media has been developed. Singlet oxygen was generated using Radachlorin® photosensitizer, while thermal disturbances caused by nonradiative deactivation of singlet oxygen were detected by the holographic interferometry technique. Processing of interferograms yields temperature maps that characterize the deactivation process and show the distribution of singlet oxygen species.

  20. Azospirillum Inoculation Alters Nitrate Reductase Activity and Nitrogen Uptake in Wheat Plant Under Water Deficit Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    N. Aliasgharzad, N. Aliasgharzad; Heydaryan, Zahra; Sarikhani, M.R

    2014-01-01

    Water deficit stress usually diminishes nitrogen uptake by plants. There are evidences that some nitrogen fixing bacteria can alleviate this stress by supplying nitrogen and improving its metabolism in plants. Four Azospirillum strains, A. lipoferum AC45-II, A. brasilense AC46-I, A. irakense AC49-VII and A. irakense AC51-VI were tested for nitrate reductase activity (NRA). In a pot culture experiment using a sandy loam soil, wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Sardari) were inoculated with...

  1. Interactive Effects of CO2 Concentration and Water Regime on Stable Isotope Signatures, Nitrogen Assimilation and Growth in Sweet Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María D. Serret

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet pepper is among the most widely cultivated horticultural crops in the Mediterranean basin, being frequently grown hydroponically under cover in combination with CO2 fertilization and water conditions ranging from optimal to suboptimal. The aim of this study is to develop a simple model, based on the analysis of plant stable isotopes in their natural abundance, gas exchange traits and N concentration, to assess sweet pepper growth. Plants were grown in a growth chamber for near 6 weeks. Two [CO2] (400 and 800 μmol mol−1, three water regimes (control and mild and moderate water stress and four genotypes were assayed. For each combination of genotype, [CO2] and water regime five plants were evaluated. Water stress applied caused significant decreases in water potential, net assimilation, stomatal conductance, intercellular to atmospheric [CO2], and significant increases in water use efficiency, leaf chlorophyll content and carbon isotope composition, while the relative water content, the osmotic potential and the content of anthocyanins did change not under stress compared to control conditions support this statement. Nevertheless, water regime affects plant growth via nitrogen assimilation, which is associated with the transpiration stream, particularly at high [CO2], while the lower N concentration caused by rising [CO2] is not associated with stomatal closure. The stable isotope composition of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen (δ13C, δ18O, and δ15N in plant matter are affected not only by water regime but also by rising [CO2]. Thus, δ18O increased probably as response to decreases in transpiration, while the increase in δ15N may reflect not only a lower stomatal conductance but a higher nitrogen demand in leaves or shifts in nitrogen metabolism associated with decreases in photorespiration. The way that δ13C explains differences in plant growth across water regimes within a given [CO2], seems to be mediated through its direct

  2. Water-assisted nitrogen mediated crystallisation of ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muydinov, R. [Technical University Berlin, Institute of Semiconducting- and High-Frequency Technologies, Einsteinufer 25, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Steigert, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Institute of Heterogeneous Material Systems, Albert-Einstein-Straße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Schönau, S.; Ruske, F. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Institute of Silicon Photovoltaics, Kekuléstraße 5, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kraehnert, R.; Eckhardt, B. [Technical University Berlin, Institute of Technical Chemistry, Straße des 17. Juni 124, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Lauermann, I. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Institute of Heterogeneous Material Systems, Albert-Einstein-Straße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Szyszka, B. [Technical University Berlin, Institute of Semiconducting- and High-Frequency Technologies, Einsteinufer 25, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-09-01

    Nitrogen mediated crystallisation (NMC) being performed in oxygen atmosphere at T ≥ 600 °C is an effective approach to obtain very well (00l)-textured ZnO films. A use of NMC-seed layers remarkably improves electrical transport properties of subsequently deposited ZnO:Al contacts. In this work, crystallisation of quasi-amorphous, nitrogen doped ZnO seed layers has been performed using water vapours at overpressure and temperatures around 100 °C. This approach allows employment of soda-lime float-glass or temperature sensitive film stacks as a substrate. We propose here possible mechanism of water-assisted NMC and grope for optimised crystallisation conditions on the basis of optical, microscopic, and textural investigation. Low temperature water-assisted crystallisation of 20 nm thick ZnO layers was compared with high temperature annealing methods in terms of composition, microstructure and crystallinity. Electrical properties such as electron Hall mobility (μ{sub e}), concentration of free electrons (N{sub e}) and sheet resistance (R{sub sh}) have been evaluated and compared for functional ZnO:Al films obtained on glass and on differently crystallised NMC-seed layers. It was found that the crystallised with water assistance at low temperature ZnO seed layers provide comparable improvement in crystallinity and electrical properties of subsequently grown functional ZnO:Al films with respect to the ones crystallised at high temperature. Use of optimised water-assisted crystallisation of seed layers has allowed decreasing R{sub sh} of thin (130–270 nm) functional ZnO:Al films twice compared to the glass substrate. Both provide this effect: increase in μ{sub e} and increase of N{sub e}. - Highlights: • Amorphous ZnO:N films can be crystallised in autoclave at temperatures around 100 °C. • Such water-assisted crystallisation provides well-crystalline ZnO seed layers. • Use of these seed layers resulted in stress-free ZnO:Al contacts with twice lower R

  3. Nitrogen and triple oxygen isotopes in near-road air samples using chemical conversion and thermal decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnoff, Anna; Savard, Martine M; Vet, Robert; Simard, Marie-Christine

    2012-12-15

    The determination of triple oxygen (δ(18)O and δ(17)O) and nitrogen isotopes (δ(15)N) is important when investigating the sources and atmospheric paths of nitrate and nitrite. To fully understand the atmospheric contribution into the terrestrial nitrogen cycle, it is crucial to determine the δ(15)N values of oxidised and reduced nitrogen species in precipitation and dry deposition. In an attempt to further develop non-biotic methods and avoid expensive modifications of the gas-equilibration system, we have combined and modified sample preparation procedures and analytical setups used by other researchers. We first chemically converted NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+) into NO(2)(-) and then into N(2)O. Subsequently, the resulting gas was decomposed into N(2) and O(2) and analyzed by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) using a pre-concentration system equipped with a gold reduction furnace. The δ(17)O, δ(18)O and δ(15)N values of nitrate and nitrite samples were acquired simultaneously in one run using a single analytical system. Most importantly, the entire spectrum of δ(17)O, δ(18)O and/or δ(15)N values was determined from atmospheric nitrate, nitric oxide, ammonia and ammonium. The obtained isotopic values for air and precipitation samples were in good agreement with those from previous studies. We have further advanced chemical approaches to sample preparation and isotope analyses of nitrogen-bearing compounds. The proposed methods are inexpensive and easily adaptable to a wide range of laboratory conditions. This will substantially contribute to further studies on sources and pathways of nitrate, nitrite and ammonium in terrestrial nitrogen cycling. Copyright © 2012 Crown in the right of Canada. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Plants for water recycling, oxygen regeneration and food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    During long-duration space missions that require recycling and regeneration of life support materials the major human wastes to be converted to usable forms are CO2, hygiene water, urine and feces. A Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) relies on the air revitalization, water purification and food production capabilities of higher plants to rejuvenate human wastes and replenish the life support materials. The key processes in such a system are photosynthesis, whereby green plants utilize light energy to produce food and oxygen while removing CO2 from the atmosphere, and transpiration, the evaporation of water from the plant. CELSS research has emphasized the food production capacity and efforts to minimize the area/volume of higher plants required to satisfy all human life support needs. Plants are a dynamic system capable of being manipulated to favour the supply of individual products as desired. The size and energy required for a CELSS that provides virtually all human needs are determined by the food production capacity. Growing conditions maximizing food production do not maximize transpiration of water; conditions favoring transpiration and scaling to recycle only water significantly reduces the area, volume, and energy inputs per person. Likewise, system size can be adjusted to satisfy the air regeneration needs. Requirements of a waste management system supplying inputs to maintain maximum plant productivity are clear. The ability of plants to play an active role in waste processing and the consequence in terms of degraded plant performance are not well characterized. Plant-based life support systems represent the only potential for self sufficiency and food production in an extra-terrestrial habitat.

  5. Kinetic theory of oxygen isotopic exchange between minerals and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criss, R.E.; Gregory, R.T.; Taylor, H.P.

    1987-01-01

    Kinetic and mass conservation equations are used to describe oxygen isotopic exchange between minerals and water in "closed" and open hydrothermal systems. In cases where n coexisting mineral phases having different reaction rates are present, the exchange process is described by a system of n + 1 simultaneous differential equations consisting of n pseudo first-order rate equations and a conservation of mass equation. The simultaneous solutions to these equations generate curved exchange trajectories on ??-?? plots. Families of such trajectories generated under conditions allowing for different fluid mole fractions, different fluid isotopic compositions, or different fluid flow rates are connected by positive-sloped isochronous lines. These isochrons reproduce the effects observed in hydrothermally exchanged mineral pairs including 1) steep positive slopes, 2) common reversals in the measured fractionation factors (??), and 3) measured fractionations that are highly variable over short distances where no thermal gradient can be geologically demonstrated. ?? 1987.

  6. Nitrogen accumulation in lucerne (Medicago sativa L. under water deficit stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileva Viliana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study nitrogen accumulation in aboveground and root dry mass in lucerne (Medicago sativa L. under water deficit stress, a pot experiment was carried out at the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria. The plants were grown under optimum water supply (75-80% FC and 10-days water deficit stress was simulated at the stage of budding by interrupting the irrigation until soil moisture was reduced to 37-40% FC. Mineral nitrogen fertilization (ammonium nitrate at the doses of 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg N kg-1 soil was applied. It was found that nitrogen accumulation in dry aboveground mass was reduced to 18.0%, and in dry root mass to 26.5% under water deficit stress. Mineral nitrogen fertilization contributed to easily overcome the stress conditions of water deficit stress in lucerne.

  7. Introducing individual transferable quotas on nitrogen in Danish fresh water aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    behavioral and technical assumptions, whilst keeping the overall pollution level of nitrogen constant. Furthermore, the effect of a catchment area restriction on nitrogen is analyzed to comply with the EU Water Framework Directive. The paper quantifies the gains of a policy change from a command and control...

  8. Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Ammonia was produced by 13 companies at 23 plants in 16 states during 2009. Sixty percent of all U.S. ammonia production capacity was centered in Louisiana. Oklahoma and Texas because of those states' large reserves of natural gas, the dominant domestic feedstock. In 2009, U.S. producers operated at about 83 percent of their rated capacity (excluding plants that were idle for the entire year). Five companies — Koch Nitrogen Co.; Terra Industries Inc.; CF Industries Inc.; PCS Nitrogen Inc. and Agrium Inc., in descending order — accounted for 80 percent of the total U.S. ammonia production capacity. U.S. production was estimated to be 7.7 Mt (8.5 million st) of nitrogen (N) content in 2009 compared with 7.85 Mt (8.65 million st) of N content in 2008. Apparent consumption was estimated to have decreased to 12.1 Mt (13.3 million st) of N, a 10-percent decrease from 2008. The United States was the world's fourth-ranked ammonia producer and consumer following China, India and Russia. Urea, ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphates, nitric acid and ammonium sulfate were the major derivatives of ammonia in the United States, in descending order of importance.

  9. Lanthanide ions (III) as sensitizers of melatonin oxidation in reaction mixtures providing reactive species of oxygen and nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaczmarek, Małgorzata, E-mail: mkaczmar@amu.edu.pl

    2015-06-15

    Chemiluminescence (CL) of the reactive systems providing strong oxidants (reactive species of oxygen and nitrogen) containing lanthanide ions (III) and melatonin, was studied. Kinetic curves of emission decay and spectral distributions of chemiluminescence were obtained. Analysis of differences in the intensity of chemiluminescence and CL spectra proved that excitation of Tb(III) and Dy(III) ions takes place with the energy transfer from the products of melatonin oxidation: N{sup 1}-acetyl-N{sup 2}-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK) and N{sup 1}-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AMK) to the lanthanide ions. In the system Fe(II)/Fe(III)–H{sub 2}O{sub 2}–Mel–Tb(III) a linear correlation was established between the integrated CL intensity and melatonin concent. - Highlights: • Chemiluminescence (CL) of melatonin (Mel) oxidation by reactive species of oxygen and nitrogen. • Tb(III) and Dy(III) ions as sensitizers of a melatonin oxidation process. • New CL method for determination of melatonin in pharmaceutical preparations based on CL of Fe(II)/Fe(III)–H{sub 2}O{sub 2}–Mel–Tb(III) system.

  10. Vertical segregation among pathways mediating nitrogen loss (N2 and N2O production) across the oxygen gradient in a coastal upwelling ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, Alexander; Thamdrup, Bo; Saldías, Gonzalo S.; Farías, Laura

    2017-10-01

    The upwelling system off central Chile (36.5° S) is seasonally subjected to oxygen (O2)-deficient waters, with a strong vertical gradient in O2 (from oxic to anoxic conditions) that spans a few metres (30-50 m interval) over the shelf. This condition inhibits and/or stimulates processes involved in nitrogen (N) removal (e.g. anammox, denitrification, and nitrification). During austral spring (September 2013) and summer (January 2014), the main pathways involved in N loss and its speciation, in the form of N2 and/or N2O, were studied using 15N-tracer incubations, inhibitor assays, and the natural abundance of nitrate isotopes along with hydrographic information. Incubations were developed using water retrieved from the oxycline (25 m depth) and bottom waters (85 m depth) over the continental shelf off Concepción, Chile. Results of 15N-labelled incubations revealed higher N removal activity during the austral summer, with denitrification as the dominant N2-producing pathway, which occurred together with anammox at all times. Interestingly, in both spring and summer maximum potential N removal rates were observed in the oxycline, where a greater availability of oxygen was observed (maximum O2 fluctuation between 270 and 40 µmol L-1) relative to the hypoxic bottom waters ( multiple N-cycling processes are modulating the isotopic nitrate composition over the shelf off central Chile during spring and summer. N removal processes in this coastal system appear to be related to the availability and distribution of oxygen and particles, which are a source of organic matter and the fuel for the production of other electron donors (i.e. ammonium) and acceptors (i.e. nitrate and nitrite) after its remineralization. These results highlight the links between several pathways involved in N loss. They also establish that different mechanisms supported by alternative N substrates are responsible for substantial accumulation of N2O, which are frequently observed as hotspots in the

  11. Nitrogen patterns in subsurface waters of the Yzeron stream: effect of combined sewer overflows and subsurface-surface water mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucour, A M; Bariac, T; Breil, P; Namour, P; Schmitt, L; Gnouma, R; Zuddas, P

    2013-01-01

    Urbanization subjects streams to increased nitrogen loads. Therefore studying nitrogen forms at the interface between urban stream and groundwater is important for water resource management. In this study we report results on water δ(18)O and nitrogen forms in subsurface waters of a stream (Yzeron, France). The sites studied were located upstream and downstream of combined sewer overflows (CSO) in a rural area and a periurban area, respectively. Water δ(18)O allowed us to follow the mixing of subsurface water with surface water. Dissolved organic nitrogen and organic carbon of fine sediment increased by 20-30% between rural and periurban subsurface waters in the cold season, under high flow. The highest nitrate levels were observed in rural subsurface waters in the cold season. The lowest nitrate levels were found in periurban subsurface waters in the warm season, under low flow. They corresponded to slow exchange of subsurface waters with channel water. Thus reduced exchange between surface and subsurface waters and organic-matter-rich input seemed to favor nitrate reduction in the downstream, periurban, subsurface waters impacted by CSO.

  12. Puget Sound Dissolved Oxygen Modeling Study: Development of an Intermediate Scale Water Quality Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khangaonkar, Tarang; Sackmann, Brandon S.; Long, Wen; Mohamedali, Teizeen; Roberts, Mindy

    2012-10-01

    The Salish Sea, including Puget Sound, is a large estuarine system bounded by over seven thousand miles of complex shorelines, consists of several subbasins and many large inlets with distinct properties of their own. Pacific Ocean water enters Puget Sound through the Strait of Juan de Fuca at depth over the Admiralty Inlet sill. Ocean water mixed with freshwater discharges from runoff, rivers, and wastewater outfalls exits Puget Sound through the brackish surface outflow layer. Nutrient pollution is considered one of the largest threats to Puget Sound. There is considerable interest in understanding the effect of nutrient loads on the water quality and ecological health of Puget Sound in particular and the Salish Sea as a whole. The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) contracted with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a coupled hydrodynamic and water quality model. The water quality model simulates algae growth, dissolved oxygen, (DO) and nutrient dynamics in Puget Sound to inform potential Puget Sound-wide nutrient management strategies. Specifically, the project is expected to help determine 1) if current and potential future nitrogen loadings from point and non-point sources are significantly impairing water quality at a large scale and 2) what level of nutrient reductions are necessary to reduce or control human impacts to DO levels in the sensitive areas. The project did not include any additional data collection but instead relied on currently available information. This report describes model development effort conducted during the period 2009 to 2012 under a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) cooperative agreement with PNNL, Ecology, and the University of Washington awarded under the National Estuary Program

  13. Improvement of Taihu water quality by the technology of immobilized nitrogen cycle bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhengkui; Zhang Weidong; Zhu Jiating; Pu Peimin; Hu Weipin; Hu Chunhua; Chen Baojun; Li Bo; Cheng Xiaoying; Zhang Shengzhao; Fan Yunqi

    2002-01-01

    Experimental studies were carried out on the purification of eutrophic Taihu Lake water by dynamic experiment using immobilized nitrogen cycle bacteria (INCB). The results showed that the eutrophic water of Taihu Lake can be purified effectively as it passes through the experimental reactor into which some immobilized nitrogen cycle bacteria were put. The removal efficiencies for Total N (TN), NH 4 + -N with immobilized nitrogen cycle bacteria were 72.4% and 85.6%, respectively. It was found that the immobilized nitrogen cycle bacteria also have purificatory effect on eutrophic water of Taihu Lake at winter temperature (7 degree C), and that the removal efficiencies for Total N (TN), NH 4 + -N were 55.6%, and 58.9%, respectively. The removal efficiencies for TN and NH 4 + -N depend on the time the water stays in the experimental reactor

  14. The effect of nitrogen and sulphur on the agronomical and water use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of nitrogen and sulphur on the agronomical and water use efficiencies of canola (Brassica napus L.) grown in selected localities of the Western Cape province, South Africa. Wonder Ngezimana, Gert A. Agenbag ...

  15. Polyol synthesis in Aspergillus niger : influence of oxygen availability, carbon and nitrogen sources on the metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diano, Audrey; Bekker-Jensen, S; Dynesen, Jens Østergaard

    2006-01-01

    Polyol production has been studied in Aspergillus niger under different conditions. Fermentations have been run using high concentration of glucose or xylose as carbon source and ammonium or nitrate as nitrogen source. The growth of biomass, as freely dispersed hyphae, led to an increase of medium...

  16. General Solvent-dependent Strategy toward Enhanced Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Graphene/Metal Oxide Nanohybrids: Effects of Nitrogen-containing Solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Wei-Yao; Chen, Wei-Quan; Chiu, Yu-Hsiang; Ho, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Chun-Hu

    2016-11-01

    A general solvent-dependent protocol directly influencing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in metal oxide/graphene nanohybrids has been demonstrated. We conducted the two-step synthesis of cobalt oxide/N-doped graphene nanohybrids (CNG) with solvents of water, ethanol, and dimethylformamide (DMF), representing tree typical categories of aqueous, polar organic, and organic N-containing solvents commonly adopted for graphene nanocomposites preparation. The superior ORR performance of the DMF-hybrids can be attributed to the high nitrogen-doping, aggregation-free hybridization, and unique graphene porous structures. As DMF is the more effective N-source, the spectroscopic results support a catalytic nitrogenation potentially mediated by cobalt-DMF coordination complexes. The wide-distribution of porosity (covering micro-, meso-, to macro-pore) and micron-void assembly of graphene may further enhance the diffusion kinetics for ORR. As the results, CNG by DMF-synthesis exhibits the high ORR activities close to Pt/C (i.e. only 8 mV difference of half-wave potential with electron transfer number of 3.96) with the better durability in the alkaline condition. Additional graphene hybrids comprised of iron and manganese oxides also show the superior ORR activities by DMF-synthesis, confirming the general solvent-dependent protocol to achieve enhanced ORR activities.

  17. Oxygen isotope fractionation between bird bone phosphate and drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, Romain; Angst, Delphine; Legendre, Serge; Buffetaut, Eric; Fourel, François; Adolfssen, Jan; André, Aurore; Bojar, Ana Voica; Canoville, Aurore; Barral, Abel; Goedert, Jean; Halas, Stanislaw; Kusuhashi, Nao; Pestchevitskaya, Ekaterina; Rey, Kevin; Royer, Aurélien; Saraiva, Antônio Álamo Feitosa; Savary-Sismondini, Bérengère; Siméon, Jean-Luc; Touzeau, Alexandra; Zhou, Zhonghe; Lécuyer, Christophe

    2017-06-01

    Oxygen isotope compositions of bone phosphate (δ18Op) were measured in broiler chickens reared in 21 farms worldwide characterized by contrasted latitudes and local climates. These sedentary birds were raised during an approximately 3 to 4-month period, and local precipitation was the ultimate source of their drinking water. This sampling strategy allowed the relationship to be determined between the bone phosphate δ18Op values (from 9.8 to 22.5‰ V-SMOW) and the local rainfall δ18Ow values estimated from nearby IAEA/WMO stations (from -16.0 to -1.0‰ V-SMOW). Linear least square fitting of data provided the following isotopic fractionation equation: δ18Ow = 1.119 (±0.040) δ18Op - 24.222 (±0.644); R 2 = 0.98. The δ18Op-δ18Ow couples of five extant mallard ducks, a common buzzard, a European herring gull, a common ostrich, and a greater rhea fall within the predicted range of the equation, indicating that the relationship established for extant chickens can also be applied to birds of various ecologies and body masses. Applied to published oxygen isotope compositions of Miocene and Pliocene penguins from Peru, this new equation computes estimates of local seawater similar to those previously calculated. Applied to the basal bird Confuciusornis from the Early Cretaceous of Northeastern China, our equation gives a slightly higher δ18Ow value compared to the previously estimated one, possibly as a result of lower body temperature. These data indicate that caution should be exercised when the relationship estimated for modern birds is applied to their basal counterparts that likely had a metabolism intermediate between that of their theropod dinosaur ancestors and that of advanced ornithurines.

  18. Design and application of new type of oxygen supplier for water and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new oxygen supplier was designed to inject both ozone and air into the water under high pressure. The oxygen transfer coefficient (KLa) of the system with air and ozone were 0.0264 and 0.4900, respectively. The oxygen transfer efficiencies of the system with ozone and air were 73.58 and 52.17%, respectively.

  19. Convergence of EU nitrogen surplus, the RDP indicator of water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhard, S.; Linderhof, V.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), EU Nitrate Directive and EU Rural Development Policy (RDP) aim to improve water quality. The nutrient content of water can be decreased by reducing nitrogen emission. In this article a novel approach is applied to the evaluation of the impact of Agri

  20. Model of an aquaponic system for minimised water, energy and nitrogen requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes Lastiri, D.; Slinkert, T.; Cappon, H.J.; Baganz, D.; Staaks, G.; Keesman, K.J.

    2016-01-01

    Water and nutrient savings can be established by coupling water streams between interacting processes. Wastewater from production processes contains nutrients like nitrogen (N), which can and should be recycled in order to meet future regulatory discharge demands. Optimisation of interacting water

  1. Nitrogen Nutrition of Sugar Beet as Affected by Water Salinity, Proline Acid and Nitrogen Forms Using 15N Tracer Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Aziz, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted under green house condition using sugar beet as a test crop. Saline water (sea water) was applied at different levels. i.e. fresh water, 4 and 8 dSm -1 . Labelled urea and ammonium sulphate (5% a.e.) were applied at rate of 120 kg N fed -1 . Also; proline amino acid was sprayed at rate of 25, and 50 ppm. Basal recommended doses of P and K were applied. Crop leaves and tuber yield were severely affected by sea water salinity. These parameters were improved by adding proline acid. Effect of proline acid was significantly varied according to rate of addition, water salinity levels and N forms. In this respect, the improvement of leaves and tuber was more pronounced at rate of 50 ppm proline under 8 dSm -1 salinity when plants fertilized with ammonium sulfate. Another picture was drawn with urea, where the improvement was detected at rate of 25 ppm proline, under 4dSm -1 water salinity level. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sodium uptake by leaves and tuber of sugar beet plants were significantly improved by addition of 50 ppm proline under 4 and /or 8 dSm -1 salinity levels. Nitrogen uptake was higher in tuber and fertilization with urea than those of leaves and ammonium sulfate, respectively. Other nutrients were varied according to N forms and proline levels. Nitrogen use efficiency was enhanced by spraying proline, despite of addition rates, and negatively affected by increasing salinity levels. In this regard, no big significant difference was detected between urea and ammonium sulfat

  2. Effects of Water and Nitrogen Addition on Ecosystem Carbon Exchange in a Meadow Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunbo; Jiang, Qi; Yang, Zhiming; Sun, Wei; Wang, Deli

    2015-01-01

    A changing precipitation regime and increasing nitrogen deposition are likely to have profound impacts on arid and semiarid ecosystem C cycling, which is often constrained by the timing and availability of water and nitrogen. However, little is known about the effects of altered precipitation and nitrogen addition on grassland ecosystem C exchange. We conducted a 3-year field experiment to assess the responses of vegetation composition, ecosystem productivity, and ecosystem C exchange to manipulative water and nitrogen addition in a meadow steppe. Nitrogen addition significantly stimulated aboveground biomass and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), which suggests that nitrogen availability is a primary limiting factor for ecosystem C cycling in the meadow steppe. Water addition had no significant impacts on either ecosystem C exchange or plant biomass, but ecosystem C fluxes showed a strong correlation with early growing season precipitation, rather than whole growing season precipitation, across the 3 experimental years. After we incorporated water addition into the calculation of precipitation regimes, we found that monthly average ecosystem C fluxes correlated more strongly with precipitation frequency than with precipitation amount. These results highlight the importance of precipitation distribution in regulating ecosystem C cycling. Overall, ecosystem C fluxes in the studied ecosystem are highly sensitive to nitrogen deposition, but less sensitive to increased precipitation. PMID:26010888

  3. The biogeochemistry of bioenergy landscapes: carbon, nitrogen, and water considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, G Philip; Hamilton, Stephen K; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Parton, William J

    2011-06-01

    The biogeochemical liabilities of grain-based crop production for bioenergy are no different from those of grain-based food production: excessive nitrate leakage, soil carbon and phosphorus loss, nitrous oxide production, and attenuated methane uptake. Contingent problems are well known, increasingly well documented, and recalcitrant: freshwater and coastal marine eutrophication, groundwater pollution, soil organic matter loss, and a warming atmosphere. The conversion of marginal lands not now farmed to annual grain production, including the repatriation of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and other conservation set-aside lands, will further exacerbate the biogeochemical imbalance of these landscapes, as could pressure to further simplify crop rotations. The expected emergence of biorefinery and combustion facilities that accept cellulosic materials offers an alternative outcome: agricultural landscapes that accumulate soil carbon, that conserve nitrogen and phosphorus, and that emit relatively small amounts of nitrous oxide to the atmosphere. Fields in these landscapes are planted to perennial crops that require less fertilizer, that retain sediments and nutrients that could otherwise be transported to groundwater and streams, and that accumulate carbon in both soil organic matter and roots. If mixed-species assemblages, they additionally provide biodiversity services. Biogeochemical responses of these systems fall chiefly into two areas: carbon neutrality and water and nutrient conservation. Fluxes must be measured and understood in proposed cropping systems sufficient to inform models that will predict biogeochemical behavior at field, landscape, and regional scales. Because tradeoffs are inherent to these systems, a systems approach is imperative, and because potential biofuel cropping systems and their environmental contexts are complex and cannot be exhaustively tested, modeling will be instructive. Modeling alternative biofuel cropping systems converted

  4. Regional gradients in surface sediment nitrogen isotopes as a reflection of nutrient cycling and oxygen deficiency in upwelling areas off Peru and Namibia (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, R. R.; Mollier-Vogel, E.; Martinez, P.

    2010-12-01

    The sedimentary d15N signal is commonly considered as a reflection of the marine nutrient cycling and related biochemical processes in the overlying water masses. In the modern ocean all processes together result in a mean d15N value of about 5 to 6 per mill for dissolved nitrate. Deviations from this value are considered as a product mainly of nitrogen fixation and nitrate supply causing lower values, while nitrate utilization and denitrification, as well as organic matter degradation tend to shift the signal to higher values. As denitrification is only occurring under conditions of strong oxygen limitation in the water column outstandingly high d15N values in sediment records are commonly taken as indirect evidence for strong oxygen minimum conditions in the past. By comparing surface sediment values from coastal upwelling areas off Namibia and Peru, we test whether such an approach is applicable. Only the Peruvian system is characterized by a pronounced oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) that extends across the shelf and slope far into the Eastern Equatorial Pacific. For comparison we present new results for the Peruvian margin between 2°N and 20°S within and below the Peruvian OMZ in combination with a similar data set from the Namibian margin with an OMZ restricted to the inner shelf. The Peruvian sediment data is furthermore compared to d15N of dissolved nitrate in the overlying water column to better understand how regional oceanography effects the water column d15N and thus the sediment surface signal. Productivity and nitrate uptake is maximal at the position of local and perennial upwelling cells in both systems. However, due to continuous nutrient supply into the upwelling systems sedimentary d15N values on the outer shelves and slopes reveal an increase of only about 2 to 3 per mill over the mean ocean value. Only where extreme oxygen deficiency occurs, as off Peru between 10 and 20 S, the sedimentary d15N signal reaches very high values above 10 per mill

  5. Production and correlation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in gas- and liquid-phase generated by helium plasma jets under different pulse widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijie; Zhou, Chunxi; Liu, Dingxin; Xu, Dehui; Xia, Wenjie; Cui, Qingjie; Wang, Bingchuan; Kong, Michael G.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present the effects of the pulse width (PW) on the plasma jet's discharge characteristics, particularly focusing on the production and correlation of the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) in gas- and liquid-phase. It is found that the length of plasma jet plume first increases before the PW of 10 μs, then gradually decreases and finally almost remains unchanged beyond 150 μs. The plasma bullet disappears after the falling edge of the voltage pulse at low PW, while it terminates far ahead of the falling edge of voltage pulse at high PW. This is mainly attributed to accumulation of space charges that lead to weakening of the reduced electric field with an increase of PW from low to high. More important, it is found that the excited reactive species, the positive and negative ions from plasma jet, and the concentrations of NO2- and NO3- in deionized water exposed to plasma jet also display the first increasing and then decreasing change trend with increase of PW, while the concentration of H2O2 in water almost displays the linearly increasing trend. This mainly results from the formation of the H3O+ and HO2-, as well as their ion water clusters that can produce more OH radicals to be converted into H2O2, while the NO2- and NO3- in gas phase can transport into water and exist most stably in water. The water cluster formation at gas-liquid interface is an important key process that can affect the chemical nature and dose of aqueous RONS in water; this is beneficial for understanding how the RONS are formed in liquid-phase.

  6. Impacts of Human Induced Nitrogen Deposition on Ecosystem Carbon Sequestration and Water Balance in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, M.; Yang, D.; Tang, J.; Lei, H.

    2017-12-01

    Enhanced plant biomass accumulation in response to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration could dampen the future rate of increase in CO2 levels and associated climate warming. However, many experiments around the world reported that nitrogen availability could limit the sustainability of the ecosystems' response to elevated CO2. In the recent 20 years, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, primarily from fossil fuel combustion, has increased sharply about 25% in China and meanwhile, China has the highest carbon emission in the world, implying a large opportunity to increase vegetation greenness and ecosystem carbon sequestration. Moreover, the water balance of the ecosystem will also change. However, in the future, the trajectory of increasing nitrogen deposition from fossil fuel use is to be controlled by the government policy that shapes the energy and industrial structure. Therefore, the historical and future trajectories of nitrogen deposition are likely very different, and it is imperative to understand how changes in nitrogen deposition will impact the ecosystem carbon sequestration and water balance in China. We here use the Community Land Model (CLM 4.5) to analyze how the change of nitrogen deposition has influenced and will influence the ecosystem carbon and water cycle in China at a high spatial resolution (0.1 degree). We address the following questions: 1) what is the contribution of the nitrogen deposition on historical vegetation greenness? 2) How does the change of nitrogen deposition affect the carbon sequestration? 3) What is its influence to water balance? And 4) how different will be the influence of the nitrogen deposition on ecosystem carbon and water cycling in the future?

  7. [Nitrogen and water cycling of typical cropland in the North China Plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Hong-wei; Shen, Yan-jun; Liu, Chang-ming

    2015-01-01

    Intensive fertilization and irrigation associated increasing grain production has led to serious groundwater depletion and soil/water pollution in the North China Plain (NCP). Intensive agriculture changes the initial mass and energy balance, and also results in huge risks to the water/soil resources and food security regionally. Based on the research reports on the nitrogen cycle and water cycle in typical cropland (winter wheat and summer corn) in the NCP during the past 20 years, and the meteorological data, field experiments and surveys, we calculated the nitrogen cycle and water-cycle for this typical cropland. Annual total nitrogen input were 632 kg N . hm-2, including 523 kg N . hm-2 from commercial fertilizer, 74 kg N . hm-2 from manure, 23 kg N . hm-2 from atmosphere, and 12 kg N . hm-2 from irrigation. All of annual outputs summed to 532 kg N . hm-2 including 289 kg N . hm-2 for crop, 77 kg N . hm-2 staying in soil profile, leaching 104 kg N . hm-2, 52 kg N . hm-2 for ammonia volatilization, 10 kg N . hm-2 loss in nitrification and denitrification. Uncertainties of the individual cases and the summary process lead to the unbalance of nitrogen. For the dominant parts of the field water cycle, annual precipitation was 557 mm, irrigation was 340 mm, while 762 mm was for evapotranspiration and 135 mm was for deep percolation. Considering uncertainties in the nitrogen and water cycles, coupled experiments based on multi-disciplines would be useful for understanding mechanisms for nitrogen and water transfer processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere-continuum (SPAC) , and the interaction between nitrogen and water, as well as determining the critical threshold values for sustainability of soil and water resources in the NCP.

  8. Kinetics of oxygen exchange between bisulfite ion and water as studied by oxygen-17 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horner, D.A.

    1984-08-01

    The nuclear magnetic relaxation times of oxygen-17 have been measured in aqueous sodium bisulfite solutions in the pH range from 2.5 to 5 as a function of temperature, pH, and S(IV) concentration, at an ionic strength of 1.0 m. The rate law for oxygen exchange between bisulfite ion and water was obtained from an analysis of the data, and is consistent with oxygen exchange occurring via the reaction SO 2 + H 2 O right reversible H + + SHO 3 - . The value of k/sub -1/ is in agreement with relaxation measurements. Direct spectroscopic evidence was found for the existence of two isomers of bisulfite ion: one with the proton bonded to the sulfur (HSO 3 - ) and the other with the proton bonded to an oxygen (SO 3 H - ). (The symbol SHO 3 - in the above chemical equation refers to both isomeric forms of bisulfite ion.) The relative amounts of the two isomers were determined as a function of temperature, and the rate and mechanism of oxygen exchange between the two was investigated. One of the two isomers, presumably SO 3 H - , exchanges oxygens with water much more rapidly than does the other. A two-pulse sequence was developed which greatly diminished the solvent peak in the NMR spectrum

  9. Utilization of tritiated water dilution technique in determination of nitrogen partitioning in cashmere goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Linfeng; Yang Gaiqing; Liu Ping; Zhang Shijun

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate nitrogen partitioning in local cashmere goats, six Inner Mogolia White Cashmere goats between 2 to 2.5 years old were used to determine the nitrogen partitioning in cashmere goats. The total retained nitrogen (TN) in body, distribution of body nitrgen and hair nitrogen were measured by general digestive and metabolism method combined with tritiated water dilution technique. Results showed that the combined methods were ideal for determining body nitrgen (BN) and hair nitrogen (fur nitrogen, FN) of Cashmere goats. There were obvious significance between BN and FN in different seasons. In telogen, BN and FN partitioning was 75.7% ± 0.62% and 24.3% ± 0.62%, respectively. Whereas, it changed to 66.6% ± 2.2% and 33.4% ± 2.2% in anagen. BN partitioning decreased when the season changed from telogen to anagen, while FN partitioning increased, which indicated that more nitrogen substance was partitioned to body growth in telogen, and more nitrogen substance was distribute to cashmere growth in anagen. These transformation were related to the changing of photoperiod and some hormones, such as melatonin (MT), prolactin (PRL) and IGF-I. It could be concluded that tritiated water dilution technique can be used to detect body protein content as well as BN, combining general digestive and metabolism experiment, FN partitoning can be determined. BN and FN partitoning varied with the season in cashmere goats because of hormones changing. (authors)

  10. Oxygen amendment on growth and nitrogen-use efficiency of flooded Italian Basil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flooding is a frequent and often unavoidable cause of stress, in vegetable production in Florida. Flooding results in hypoxia i.e., oxygen deficiency. This study was conducted with traditional Italian basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), cv. Genovese OG, treated with either a fast- or slow-release solid oxy...

  11. Ruthenium supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes for the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabena, LF

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available between 0 and 10 wt.%. The activity of the prepared nanocatalysts toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was characterized using the rotating disk electrode and voltammetry techniques. The ORR activity was higher at lower concentrations of Ru on N...

  12. Farmer driven national monitoring of nitrogen concentrations in drainage water in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piil, Kristoffer; Lemming, Camilla; Kolind Hvid, Søren; Knudsen, Leif

    2014-05-01

    Field drains are often considered to short circuit the hydrological cycle in agricultural catchments and lead to an increased risk of nitrogen loss to the environment. Because of increased regulation of agricultural practices due to catchment management plans, resulting from the implementation of the water frame directive, Danish farmers pushed for a large scale monitoring of nitrogen loss from field drains. Therefore, the knowledge centre for agriculture, Denmark, organized a three year campaign where farmers and local agricultural advisory centres collected water samples from field drains three to five times during the winter season. Samples were analysed for nitrate and total nitrogen. Combined, more than 600 drains were monitored over the three years. During the first two years of monitoring, average winter concentrations of total nitrogen ranged from 0.1 mg N L-1 to 31.1 mg N L-1, and the fraction of total nitrogen present as nitrate ranged from 0% to 100%. This variation is much larger than what is observed in the Danish national monitoring and assessment programme, which monitors only a few drains in selected catchments. Statistical analysis revealed that drainage water nitrogen concentrations were significantly correlated to the cropping system and the landscape type (high ground/lowlands/raised seabed) in which the monitored fields were situated. The average total nitrogen concentration was more than 2 mg N L-1 lower on raised seabed than on high ground, and the average fraction of total nitrogen present as nitrate was more than 20% lower. This indicates that substantial nitrate reduction occurs at or above the drain depth on raised sea flats, in particular in the north of Denmark. This inherent nitrogen retention on raised seabed is not taken into account in the current environmental regulation, nor in the first generation catchment management plans. The monitoring program demonstrated large variation in nitrogen concentrations in drainage water, in

  13. Toward enhanced hydrogen generation from water using oxygen permeating LCF membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xiao-Yu; Chang, Le; Uddi, Mruthunjaya; Kirchen, Patrick; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2015-01-01

    and flow rates on the feed and sweep sides on the water thermolysis rate and oxygen flux. A single step reaction mechanism is proposed for surface reactions, and three-resistance permeation models are derived. Results show that water thermolysis

  14. Pure oxygen for the urban water waste treatment; Oxigeno puro para tratamiento de aguas residuales urbanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estevez Pastor, F.S.; Ferrer Gaztambide, J. [EDAR La China (Spain)

    1995-11-01

    The pilot plant for waste water treatment in La China (Spain) is described. This plant used pure oxygen for the waste water treatment. The best depuration, the flexibility to experiment the fluctuations of flow and change are studied. (Author)

  15. Small-scale experimental study of vaporization flux of liquid nitrogen released on water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalaswami, Nirupama; Olewski, Tomasz; Véchot, Luc N; Mannan, M Sam

    2015-10-30

    A small-scale experimental study was conducted using liquid nitrogen to investigate the convective heat transfer behavior of cryogenic liquids released on water. The experiment was performed by spilling five different amounts of liquid nitrogen at different release rates and initial water temperatures. The vaporization mass fluxes of liquid nitrogen were determined directly from the mass loss measured during the experiment. A variation of initial vaporization fluxes and a subsequent shift in heat transfer mechanism were observed with changes in initial water temperature. The initial vaporization fluxes were directly dependent on the liquid nitrogen spill rate. The heat flux from water to liquid nitrogen determined from experimental data was validated with two theoretical correlations for convective boiling. It was also observed from validation with correlations that liquid nitrogen was found to be predominantly in the film boiling regime. The substantial results provide a suitable procedure for predicting the heat flux from water to cryogenic liquids that is required for source term modeling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Remote sensing of nitrogen and water stress in wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilling, A.K.; O'Leary, G.J.; Ferwerda, J.G.; Jones, S.D.; Fitzgerald, G.J.; Rodriguez, D.; Belford, R.

    2007-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is the largest agricultural input in many Australian cropping systems and applying the right amount of N in the right place at the right physiological stage is a significant challenge for wheat growers. Optimizing N uptake could reduce input costs and minimize potential off-site

  17. Applicability of oxygenated water chemistry for PWR secondary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermansson, H.P. [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Takiguchi, H.; Otoha, K. [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Introduction of oxygenated water chemistry (OWC) in PWR secondary side is considered as a means to reduce the transportation of corrosion products into the steam generator and thus also minimizing crevice deposits and subsequent materials problems. One main concern, however, is the risk of inter-granular attack (IGA) in crevices. In order to study effects on crevice tube IGA by OWC, a series of experiments were performed in a steam generator (SG) simulating loop. This comprised a SG tube and a tube support plate (TSP) together forming the crevice. The over-all objective of the work accounted here was to demonstrate that it is possible to operate the steam generator secondary side with OWC without causing intolerable IGA or other types of attack on the tube in the crevice area. Tubes of sensitized Alloy 600 were exposed during a total of nine experiments in an autoclave using a TSP/tube arrangement with an asymmetric crevice design. Experiments were performed at high and low pH and potential under open and packed crevice conditions. The aggressiveness of the crevice environment was also further increased by addition of carbonate and chloride. Furthermore the tube was pressurized. Experimental parameters were monitored on the primary side as well as in the secondary bulk phase and in the crevice. (authors)

  18. Nitrogen ligation to manganese in the photosynthetic oxygen-evolving complex: Continuous-wave and pulsed EPR studies of Photosystem II particles containing 14N or 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeRose, V.J.; Yachandra, V.K.; McDermott, A.E.; Britt, R.D.; Sauer, K.; Klein, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    The possibility of nitrogen ligation to the Mn in the oxygen-evolving complex from photosystem II was investigated with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopies using 14 N- and 15 N-labeled preparations. Oxygen-evolving preparations were isolated from a thermophilic cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp., grown on a medium containing either 14 NO 3 - or 15 NO - 3 as the sole source of nitrogen. The substructure on the multiline EPR signal, which arises from Mn in the S 2 state of the enzyme, was measured with continuous-wave EPR. No changes were detected in the substructure peak positions upon substitution of 15 N for 14 N, indicating that this substructure is not due to superhyperfine coupling from nitrogen ligands. To detect potential nitrogen ligands with superhyperfine couplings of lesser magnitude than could be observed with conventional EPR methods, electron spin-echo envelope modulation experiments were also performed on the multiline EPR signal. The Fourier transform of the light-minus-dark time domain ESEEM data shows a peak at 4.8 MHz in 14 N samples which is absent upon substitution with 15 N. This gives unambiguous evidence for weak hyperfine coupling of nitrogen to the Mn of the oxygen-evolving complex. Possible origins of this nitrogen interaction are discussed

  19. Fatigue crack growth characteristics of nitrogen-alloyed type 347 stainless under operating conditions of a pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Ki Deuk; Hong, Seok Min; Kim, Dae Whan; Lee, Bong Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Nuclear Materials Safety Research Division, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon Jin [Hanyang University, Division of materials science and engineering, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The fatigue crack growth behavior of Type 347 (S347) and Type 347N (S347N) stainless steel was evaluated under the operating conditions of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). These two materials showed different fatigue crack growth rates (FCGRs) according to the changes in dissolved oxygen content and frequency. Under the simulated PWR conditions for normal operation, the FCGR of S347N was lower than that of S347 and insensitive to the changes in PWR water conditions. The higher yield strength and better corrosion resistance of the nitrogen-alloyed Type 347 stainless steel might be a main cause of slower FCGR and more stable properties against changes in environmental conditions.

  20. Determination of Biochemical Oxygen Demand of Area Waters: A Bioassay Procedure for Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    A graphical method for determining the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) for a body of water is described. In this bioassay, students collect a sample of water from a designated site, transport it to the laboratory, and evaluate the amount of oxygen consumed by naturally occurring bacteria during a 5-day incubation period. An accuracy check,…

  1. Electrical conductivity and equation of state of liquid nitrogen, oxygen, benzene, and 1-butene shocked to 60 GPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements are reported for the electrical conductivity of liquid nitrogen (N 2 ), oxygen (O 2 ) and benzene (C 6 H 6 ), and Hugoniot equation of state of liquid 1-butene (C 4 H 8 ) under shock compressed conditions. The conductivity data span 7 x 10 -4 to 7 x 10 1 Ω -1 cm -1 over a dynamic pressure range 18.1 to 61.5 GPa and are discussed in terms of amorphous semiconduction models which include such transport phenomena as hopping, percolation, pseudogaps, and metallization. Excellent agreement is found between the equation-of-state measurements, which span a dynamic pressure range 12.3 to 53.8 GPa, and Ree's calculated values which assume a 2-phase mixture consisting of molecular hydrogen and carbon in a dense diamond-like phase. There is a 2-1/2 fold increase in the thermal pressure contribution over a less dense, stoichiometrically equivalent liquid. 90 refs., 48 figs., 8 tabs

  2. Unravelling chemical priming machinery in plants: the role of reactive oxygen-nitrogen-sulfur species in abiotic stress tolerance enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Chrystalla; Savvides, Andreas; Christou, Anastasis; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2016-10-01

    Abiotic stresses severely limit crop yield and their detrimental effects are aggravated by climate change. Chemical priming is an emerging field in crop stress management. The exogenous application of specific chemical agents before stress events results in tolerance enhancement and reduction of stress impacts on plant physiology and growth. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the remarkable effects of chemical priming on plant physiology remain to be elucidated. Reactive oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur species (RONSS) are molecules playing a vital role in the stress acclimation of plants. When applied as priming agents, RONSS improve stress tolerance. This review summarizes the recent knowledge on the role of RONSS in cell signalling and gene regulation contributing to abiotic stress tolerance enhancement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fixed-nitrogen loss associated with sinking zooplankton carcasses in a coastal oxygen minimum zone (Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Lundgaard, Ann Sofie Birch; Morales Ramirez, Alvaro

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in the ocean are of key importance for pelagic fixed-nitrogen loss (N-loss) through microbial denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). Recent studies document that zooplankton is surprisingly abundant in and around OMZs and that the microbial community...... associated with carcasses of a large copepod species mediates denitrification. Here, we investigate the complex N-cycling associated with sinking zooplankton carcasses exposed to the steep O2 gradient in a coastal OMZ (Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica). 15N-stable-isotope enrichment experiments revealed...... that the carcasses of abundant copepods and ostracods provide anoxic microbial hotspots in the pelagic zone by hosting intense anaerobic N-cycle activities even in the presence of ambient O2. Carcass-associated anaerobic N-cycling was clearly dominated by dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) at up...

  4. Sliding mode control of dissolved oxygen in an integrated nitrogen removal process in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, C; Young, H; Antileo, C; Bornhardt, C

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a sliding mode controller (SMC) for dissolved oxygen (DO) in an integrated nitrogen removal process carried out in a suspended biomass sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The SMC performance was compared against an auto-tuning PI controller with parameters adjusted at the beginning of the batch cycle. A method for cancelling the slow DO sensor dynamics was implemented by using a first order model of the sensor. Tests in a lab-scale reactor showed that the SMC offers a better disturbance rejection capability than the auto-tuning PI controller, furthermore providing reasonable performance in a wide range of operation. Thus, SMC becomes an effective robust nonlinear tool to the DO control in this process, being also simple from a computational point of view, allowing its implementation in devices such as industrial programmable logic controllers (PLCs).

  5. Water and nitrogen use efficiency under limited water supply for maize to increase land productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craciun, I.; Craciun, M.

    1995-01-01

    As drought is the main environmental factor limiting productivity, the study of plant response to water deficit has been one of the major research topics. The increasing of maize evapotranspiration ET does not always mean the increase of efficiency because, the brightest ET value does not always mean the highest grain yield value, AS the result of the mechanisms relating to the grain yield and ET which are far from simple. The rain amount and distribution during the reproductive stage is the main meteorological factor in flouncing yield. In our study 1991, the high soil moisture content determines a reduction of maize grain yield, in the wet years due to excess of water under irrigation conditions which normally limits root development as a result of insufficient oxygen for transpiration and lac ha of nitrate formation, the yield response to water deficit of different hybrids is of major importance in production planing. The available water supply would be directed towards fully meeting requirements of the hybrids with the higher K sub y over the restricted area and for the hybrids with a lower K sub y, the overall production will increase by extending the area under irrigation, without fully meeting water requirement provided water deficit do not exceed critical values.1 tab; 9 figs (Author)

  6. Benefits of oxygen and nitrogen plasma treatment in Vero cell affinity to poly(lactide-co-glycolide acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rodrigues Esposito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell adhesion on materials surface is critical because this phenomenon occurs before other events, as cell spreading, cell migration and cell differentiation. it is commonly accepted that the adhesion of cells on solid substrate is influenced by several substratum surface properties, such as wettability, surface charge, roughness and topography. plasma technique is a convenient method for modifying surface properties of materials without affecting physical properties. in this study, poly(lactide-co-glycolide, plga, membranes were modified by oxygen and nitrogen plasma to improve polymer hydrophilicity and verify their effect on vero cells culture. the plga membranes, which were characterized by sem and contact angle, showed increased surface rugosity and narrower contact angles. cell adhesion, cytotoxicity assay, sem and cytochemistry analysis showed that plasma treatment was beneficial to cell growth by improving cell-polymer interaction. Cell adhesion on materials surface is critical because this phenomenon occurs before other events, as cell spreading, cell migration and cell differentiation. It is commonly accepted that the adhesion of cells on solid substrate is influenced by several substratum surface properties, such as wettability, surface charge, roughness and topography. Plasma technique is a convenient method for modifying surface properties of materials without affecting physical properties. In this study, poly(lactide-co-glycolide, PLGA, membranes were modified by oxygen and nitrogen plasma to improve polymer hydrophilicity and verify their effect on Vero cells culture. The PLGA membranes, which were characterized by SEM and contact angle, showed increased surface rugosity and narrower contact angles. Cell adhesion, cytotoxicity assay, SEM and cytochemistry analysis showed that plasma treatment was beneficial to cell growth by improving cell-polymer interaction.

  7. The Oxygen and Nitrogen Abundance of Leo A and GR 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zee, L.; Skillman, E. D.; Haynes, M. P.

    1999-05-01

    Gas phase abundances are one of the best measures of the intrinsic metallicity of low mass galaxies. We recently obtained low resolution long slit optical spectra of several HII regions in Leo A and GR 8 with the Palomar 5m telescope. Previous studies of the resolved stellar population of Leo A indicated that the stars have metallicities approximately 2% of solar (Tolstoy et al. 1998). Preliminary analysis of the HII region spectra, and that of a planetary nebula, indicates that the gas phase oxygen abundance of Leo A is approximately 3% of solar. This confirms the result of Skillman et al. (1989), who also derived an oxygen abundance for Leo A from a planetary nebula. Similarly, for GR 8 we find a mean oxygen abundance of 5% of solar. For all the HII regions, the derived log(N/O) is -1.5 +/- 0.1, as has been found for other low metallicity systems. These new observations of multiple HII regions in Leo A and GR 8 confirm that metals in low mass galaxies are well mixed.

  8. Studies with Water Absorbing Polymers: II Nitrogen Retention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agrogel is a water absorbing polymer that swells and forms gelatinous mass with water. The mass can retain water and nutrients and release it slowly over time. These characteristics have stimulated interest in their use, especially for greenhouse crop production, where watering is frequent resulting in leaching of soil ...

  9. The effect of plutonium dioxide water surface coverage on the generation of hydrogen and oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veirs, Douglas K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crowder, Mark L. [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2012-06-20

    The conditions for the production of oxygen during radiolysis of water adsorbed onto plutonium dioxide powder are discussed. Studies in the literature investigating the radiolysis of water show that both oxygen and hydrogen can be generated from water adsorbed on high-purity plutonium dioxide powder. These studies indicate that there is a threshold in the amount of water below which oxygen is not generated. The threshold is associated with the number of monolayers of adsorbed water and is shown to occur at approximately two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water. Material in equilibrium with 50% relative humidity (RH) will be at the threshold for oxygen generation. Using two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water as the threshold for oxygen production, the total pressure under various conditions is calculated assuming stoichiometric production of hydrogen and oxygen. The specific surface area of the oxide has a strong effect on the final partial pressure. The specific surface areas resulting in the highest pressures within a 3013 container are evaluated. The potential for oxygen generation is mitigated by reduced relative humidity, and hence moisture adsorption, at the oxide surface which occurs if the oxide is warmer than the ambient air. The potential for oxygen generation approaches zero as the temperature difference between the ambient air and the material approaches 6 C.

  10. High-Resolution Electron Energy Loss Studies of Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Nitric Oxide, and Nitrous Oxide Adsorption on Germanium Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entringer, Anthony G.

    The first high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) studies of the oxidation and nitridation of germanium surfaces are reported. Both single crystal Ge(111) and disordered surfaces were studied. Surfaces were exposed to H, O_2, NO, N _2O, and N, after cleaning in ultra-high vacuum. The Ge surfaces were found to be non-reactive to molecular hydrogen (H_2) at room temperature. Exposure to atomic hydrogen (H) resulted hydrogen adsorption as demonstrated by the presence of Ge-H vibrational modes. The HREEL spectrum of the native oxide of Ge characteristic of nu -GeO_2 was obtained by heating the oxide to 200^circC. Three peaks were observed at 33, 62, and 106 meV for molecular oxygen (O_2) adsorbed on clean Ge(111) at room temperature. These peaks are indicative of dissociative bonding and a dominant Ge-O-Ge bridge structure. Subsequent hydrogen exposure resulted in a shift of the Ge-H stretch from its isolated value of 247 meV to 267 meV, indicative of a dominant +3 oxidation state. A high density of dangling bonds and defects and deeper oxygen penetration at the amorphous Ge surface result in a dilute bridge structure with a predominant +1 oxidation state for similar exposures. Molecules of N_2O decompose at the surfaces to desorbed N_2 molecules and chemisorbed oxygen atoms. In contrast, both oxygen and nitrogen are detected at the surfaces following exposure to NO molecules. Both NO and N_2O appear to dissociate and bond at the top surface layer. Molecular nitrogen (N_2) does not react with the Ge surfaces, however, a precursor Ge nitride is observed at room temperature following exposure to nitrogen atoms and ions. Removal of oxygen by heating of the NO-exposed surface to 550^circC enabled the identification of the Ge-N vibrational modes. These modes show a structure similar to that of germanium nitride. This spectrum is also identical to that of the N-exposed surface heated to 550^circC. Surface phonon modes of the narrow-gap semiconducting

  11. Simultaneous reduction and nitrogen functionalization of graphene oxide using lemon for metal-free oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Halima; Ahmed, Mohammad Shamsuddin; Cho, Sung; Jeon, Seungwon

    2017-12-01

    Inspire by the vision of finding a simple and green method for simultaneous reduction and nitrogen (N)-functionalization of graphene oxide (GO), a N-rich reduced graphene oxide (rGO) has been synthesized through a facile and ecofriendly hydrothermal strategy while most of the existing methods are involving with multiple steps and highly toxic reducing agents that are harmful to human health and environment. In this paper, the simultaneous reduction and N-functionalization of GO using as available lemon juice (denoted as Lem-rGO) for metal-free electrocatalysis towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is described. The proposed method is based on the reduction of GO using of the reducing and the N-precursor capability of ascorbic acid and citric acid as well as the nitrogenous compounds, respectively, that containing in lemon juice. The resultant Lem-rGO has higher reduction degree, higher specific surface area and better crystalline nature with N-incorporation than that of well investigated ascorbic acid and citric acid treated rGO. As a result, it shows better ORR electrocatalytic activity in respect to the improved onset potential, electron transfer rate and kinetics than those typical rGO catalysts. Moreover, it shows a significant tolerance to the anodic fuels and durability than the Pt/C during ORR.

  12. Power control of water reactors using nitrogen 16 activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gariod, R.; Merchie, F.; O'byrne, G.

    1964-01-01

    At the Grenoble Nuclear Research Centre, the open-core swimming pool reactors Melusine (2 MW) and Siloe (15 MW) are controlled at a constant overall power using nitrogen-16 channels. The conventional linear control channels react instantaneously to the rapid power fluctuations, this being necessary for the safety of the reactors, but their power indications are erroneous since they are affected by local deformations of the thermal flux caused by the compensation movements of the control rods. The nitrogen-16 channels on the other hand give an indication of the overall power proportional to the mean fission flux and independent of the rod movements, but their response time is 15 seconds, A constant overall power control is thus possible by a slow correction of the reference signal given by the automatic control governed by thu linear channels by means of a correction term given by the 'N-16' channels: This is done automatically in Melusine and manually in Siloe. (authors) [fr

  13. [Nitrogen and phosphate pollution characteristics and eutrophication evaluation for typical urban landscape waters in Hefei City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ru-Zhong; Liu, Ke-Feng; Qian, Jing; Yang, Ji-Wei; Zhang, Pian-Pian

    2014-05-01

    To understand the water environment regimes of the city-circling water system in Hefei City, six typical landscape waters were chosen to investigate pollution characteristics of nitrogen and phosphate and evaluate water eutrophication level according to the monitoring data of water physicochemical characteristics and chlorophyll content from September 2012 to July 2013. Study results showed that (1) the six waters mentioned above have been seriously polluted by nitrogen and phosphorus loadings, with the monthly mean values of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations far exceeding the universally accepted threshold values of water eutrophication; (2) the nitrogen contents in the waters of Nanfeihe River, Heichiba and Yuhuatang scenic spots exhibited a markedly monthly variation, and both TP and PO(3-)(4)-P in Nanfeihe River showed a fluctuated characteristic with high concentrations while presenting a significant upward trend in Yuhuatang scenic spot; (3) the average values of TN/TP ratios for Yuhuatang and Heichiba scenic spots were 104.7 and 158.3, respectively, and the ratios for Baohe Park, Yinhe Park, Xiaoyaojin Park, and city segment of Nanfeihe River were 16.8, 18.7, 6.4 and 16.8, respectively, indicating that the scenic waters of Yuhuatang and Heichiba were phosphate-limited whereas Xiaoyaojin Park was nitrogen-limited; (4) all the six scenic waters were, in general, subsumed under just two broad categories, namely Hechiba scenic spot and Nanfeihe River, which were seriously polluted, and clustered together, and the others fall into the second class; and (5) water eutrophication appraisal result indicated that the six waters were all in the state of eutrophication, and could be arranged in the order of eutrophication level, Yinhe Park > Heichiba scenic spot > city segment of Nanfeihe River > Xiaoyaojin Park > Yuhuatang scenic spot > Baohe Park.

  14. Nitrogen accumulation in lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) under water deficit stress

    OpenAIRE

    Vasileva Viliana; Vasilev Emil

    2013-01-01

    In order to study nitrogen accumulation in aboveground and root dry mass in lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) under water deficit stress, a pot experiment was carried out at the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria. The plants were grown under optimum water supply (75-80% FC) and 10-days water deficit stress was simulated at the stage of budding by interrupting the irrigation until soil moisture was reduced to 37-40% FC. Mineral nitrogen fertilization (ammonium nitrate) at the doses of 40, ...

  15. Water resources conservation and nitrogen pollution reduction under global food trade and agricultural intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Wenfeng; Yang, Hong; Liu, Yu; Kummu, Matti; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Liu, Junguo; Schulin, Rainer

    2018-01-01

    Global food trade entails virtual flows of agricultural resources and pollution across countries. Here we performed a global-scale assessment of impacts of international food trade on blue water use, total water use, and nitrogen (N) inputs and on N losses in maize, rice, and wheat production. We

  16. Reducing nitrogen leaching from fertilizers to surface waters: catchment specific indicators of economic benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Levin, Gregor; Odgaard, Mette Vestergaard

    2018-01-01

    We explore with impact pathway methodology the economic benefits of reducing nitrogen leaching to transitional surface waters, as expected for a proportionality test under the EU’s Water Framework Directive article 4. Ten different catchments is analyzed for a policy scenario where downstream dis...

  17. Remote Sensing of Vegetation Nitrogen Content for Spatially Explicit Carbon and Water Cycle Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. L.; Miller, J. R.; Chen, J. M.

    2009-05-01

    Foliage nitrogen concentration is a determinant of photosynthetic capacity of leaves, thereby an important input to ecological models for estimating terrestrial carbon and water budgets. Recently, spectrally continuous airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery has proven to be useful for retrieving an important related parameter, total chlorophyll content at both leaf and canopy scales. Thus remote sensing of vegetation biochemical parameters has promising potential for improving the prediction of global carbon and water balance patterns. In this research, we explored the feasibility of estimating leaf nitrogen content using hyperspectral remote sensing data for spatially explicit estimation of carbon and water budgets. Multi-year measurements of leaf biochemical contents of seven major boreal forest species were carried out in northeastern Ontario, Canada. The variation of leaf chlorophyll and nitrogen content in response to various growth conditions, and the relationship between them,were investigated. Despite differences in plant type (deciduous and evergreen), leaf age, stand growth conditions and developmental stages, leaf nitrogen content was strongly correlated with leaf chlorophyll content on a mass basis during the active growing season (r2=0.78). With this general correlation, leaf nitrogen content was estimated from leaf chlorophyll content at an accuracy of RMSE=2.2 mg/g, equivalent to 20.5% of the average measured leaf nitrogen content. Based on this correlation and a hyperspectral remote sensing algorithm for leaf chlorophyll content retrieval, the spatial variation of leaf nitrogen content was inferred from the airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery acquired by Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI). A process-based ecological model Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) was used for estimating terrestrial carbon and water budgets. In contrast to the scenario with leaf nitrogen content assigned as a constant value without

  18. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanoparticles for Oxygen Reduction Prepared via a Crushing Method Involving a High Shear Mixer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Shi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of agricultural wastes such as fresh banana peels (BPs is an environmental issue. In this work, fresh BPs were successfully transformed into nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticles (N-CNPs by using a high shear mixer facilitated crushing method (HSM-FCM followed by carbonization under Ar atmosphere. Ammonia-activated N-CNPs (N-CNPs-NH3 were prepared via subsequent ammonia activation treatments at a high temperature. The as-prepared N-CNPs and N-CNPs-NH3 materials both exhibited high surface areas (above 700 m2/g and mean particle size of 50 nm. N-CNPs-NH3 showed a relatively higher content of pyridinic and graphitic N compared to N-CNPs. In alkaline media, N-CNPs-NH3 showed superior performances as an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR catalyst (E0 = −0.033 V, J = 2.4 mA/cm2 compared to N-CNPs (E0 = 0.07 V, J = 1.8 mA/cm2. In addition, N-CNPs-NH3 showed greater oxygen reduction stability and superior methanol crossover avoidance than a conventional Pt/C catalyst. This study provides a novel, simple, and scalable approach to valorize biomass wastes by synthesizing highly efficient electrochemical ORR catalysts.

  19. Response of Pearl Millet to nitrogen as affected by water deficit

    OpenAIRE

    Diouf , O.; Brou , Yao Télesphore; Diouf , M.; Sarr , B.; Eyletters , M.; Roy-Macauley , H.; Delhaye , J.

    2004-01-01

    International audience; In the Sahelian zone, low soil N could be as limiting as drought in pearl millet production. Although growth and crop productivity depend on several biochemical reactions in which the nitrogen metabolism plays a great role, there is little information available on how N uptake and key enzymes, nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase, are affected by nitrogen and water interaction in millet. For this purpose, the millet variety cv. Souna III was grown in the field du...

  20. Bacterial Degradation of Nitrogenous Energetic Compounds (NEC) in Coastal Waters and Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-10

    isotope values in the upper bay; C) DOC appears to be high in lignin concentration, especially in the Patuxent River. Figure 12. Bacterial...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, lignin ; Suen et al. 1996). We hypothesized that nitrogenous energetics will be transient in nitrogen-limited...water, TNT nitro groups can be reduced to amines (Barrows et al. 1996) affecting its reactivity (Achtnich et al. 2000). The presence of reduced

  1. Data and prediction of water content of high pressure nitrogen, methane and natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folas, Georgios; Froyna, E.W.; Lovland, J.

    2007-01-01

    New data for the equilibrium water content of nitrogen, methane and one natural gas mixture are presented. The new binary data and existing binary sets were compared to calculated values of dew point temperature using both the CPA (Cubic-Plus-Association) EoS and the GERG-water EoS. CPA is purely...... predictive (i.e. all binary interaction parameters are set equal to 0), while GERG-water uses a temperature dependent interaction parameter fitted to published data. The GERG-water model is proposed as an ISO standard for determining the water content of natural gas. The data sets for nitrogen cover...... conclusion is that GERG-water must be used with caution outside its specified working range. For some selected natural gas mixtures the two models also perform very much alike. The water content of the mixtures decreases with increasing amount of heavier components, and it seems that both models slightly...

  2. Development of a non-cryogenic nitrogen/oxygen supply system. [for spacecraft environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Modular components were refined or replaced to improve the performance of the electrolysis module in a system which generates both oxygen and hydrogen from hydrazine hydrate. Significant mechanical and electrical performance improvements were achieved in the cathode. Improvements were also made in the phase separation area but at considerable cost in time and money and to the detriment of other investigative areas. Only the pump/bubble separator failed in a manner necessitating redesign. Its failure was, however, due to its being operated above the temperature range for which it was designed. The basic electrolysis cell design was not changed.

  3. Nano-Aluminum Reaction with Nitrogen in the Burn Front of Oxygen-Free Energetic Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tappan, B. C.; Son, S. F.; Moore, D. S.

    2006-01-01

    Nano-particulate aluminum metal was added to the high nitrogen energetic material triaminoguanidium azotetrazolate (TAGzT) in order to determine the effects on decomposition behavior. Standard safety testing (sensitivity to impact, spark and friction) are reported and show that the addition of nano-Al actually decreases the sensitivity of the pure TAGzT. Thermo-equilibrium calculations (Cheetah) indicate that the all of the Al reacts to form AlN in TAGzT decomposition, and the calculated specific impulses are reported. T-Jump/FTIR spectroscopy was performed on the neat TAGzT. Emission spectra were collected to determine the temperature of AlN formation in combustion. Burning rates were also collected, and the effects of nano-Al on rates are discussed

  4. A mesocosm study using four native Hawaiian plants to assess nitrogen accumulation under varying surface water nitrogen concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unser, C U; Bruland, G L; Hood, A; Duin, K

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of nitrogen (N) by native Hawaiian riparian plants from surface water was measured under a controlled experimental mesocosm setting. Four species, Cladium jamaicense, Cyperus javanicus, Cyperus laevigatus, and Cyperus polystachyos were tested for their ability to survive in coconut fiber coir log media with exposure to differing N concentrations. It was hypothesized that the selected species would have significantly different tissue total nitrogen (TN) concentrations, aboveground biomass, and TN accumulation rates because of habitat preference and physiological growth differences. A general linear model (GLM) analysis of variance (ANOVA) determined that species differences accounted for the greatest proportion of variance in tissue TN concentration, aboveground biomass growth, and accumulation rates, when compared with the other main effects (i.e. N concentration, time) and their interactions. A post hoc test of means demonstrated that C. jamaicense had significantly higher tissue TN concentration, aboveground biomass growth, and accumulation rates than the other species under all N concentrations. It was also hypothesized that tissue TN concentrations and biomass growth would increase in plants exposed to elevated N concentrations, however data did not support this hypothesis. Nitrogen accumulation rates by species were controlled by differences in plant biomass growth.

  5. Effect of dissolved oxygen on nitrogen removal and process control in aerobic granular sludge reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xiangjuan; Gao Dawen

    2010-01-01

    A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with aerobic granular sludge was operated to determine the effect of different DO concentrations on biological nitrogen removal process and to investigate the spatial profiles of DO, ORP and pH as online control parameters in such systems. The results showed that DO concentration had a significant effect on nitrification efficiencies and the profiles of DO, ORP and pH. The specific nitrification rate was decreased from 0.0595 mgNH 4 + -N/(gMLSS min) to 0.0251 mgNH 4 + -N/(gMLSS min) after DO concentration was dropped off from 4.5 mg/L to 1.0 mg/L. High DO concentration improved the nitrification and increased the volumetric NH 4 + -N removal. Low DO concentration enhanced TIN removal, while prolonged the nitrification duration. Also there existed a good correlation between online control parameters (ORP, pH) and nutrient (COD, NH 4 + -N, NO 2 - -N, NO 3 - -N) variations in aerobic granular sludge reactor when DO was 2.5 mg/L, 3.5 mg/L and 4.5 mg/L. However it was difficult to identify the end of nitrification and denitrification when DO was 1.0 mg/L, due to no apparent bending points on ORP and pH curves. In conclusion, the optimal DO concentration was suggested at 2.5 mg/L as it not only achieved high nitrogen removal efficiency and decreased the reaction duration, but also saved operation cost by aeration and mixing.

  6. Carbon and nitrogen uptake of calcareous benthic foraminifera along a depth-related oxygen gradient in the OMZ of the Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annekatrin Julie Enge

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Foraminifera are an important faunal element of the benthos in oxygen-depleted settings such as Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs where they can play a relevant role in the processing of phytodetritus. We investigated the uptake of phytodetritus (labeled with 13C and 15N by cal-careous foraminifera in the 0-1 cm sediment horizon under different oxygen concentrations within the OMZ in the eastern Arabian Sea. The in situ tracer experiments were carried out along a depth transect on the Indian margin over a period of 4 to 10 days. The uptake of phy-todetrital carbon within 4 days by all investigated species shows that phytodetritus is a rele-vant food source for foraminifera in OMZ sediments. The decrease of total carbon uptake from 540 to 1100 m suggests a higher demand for carbon by species in the low-oxygen core region of the OMZ or less food competition with macrofauna. Especially Uvigerinids showed high uptake of phytodetrital carbon at the lowest oxygenated site. Variation in the ratio of phytodetrital carbon to nitrogen between species and sites indicates that foraminiferal carbon and nitrogen use can be decoupled and different nutritional demands are found between spe-cies. Lower ratio of phytodetrital carbon and nitrogen at 540 m could hint for greater demand or storage of food-based nitrogen, ingestion or hosting of bacteria under almost anoxic condi-tions. Shifts in the foraminiferal assemblage structure (controlled by oxygen or food availabil-ity and in the presence of other benthic organisms account for observed changes in the pro-cessing of phytodetritus in the different OMZ habitats. Foraminifera dominate the short-term processing of phytodetritus in the OMZ core but are less important in the lower OMZ bounda-ry region of the Indian margin as biological interactions and species distribution of foraminif-era change with depth and oxygen levels.

  7. Dissolved nitrogen in drinking water resources of farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    of the total drinking water needs. Dry season vegetable farmers also prepare their nur- sery beds close to streams and use surface water for irri- gation. The proximity of nurseries to streams results in clearing of stream bank vegetation to accommodate nur- series. Pollution of stream water and depletion of their resources ...

  8. The determination of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen in TiCsub(x)Nsub(y)Osub(z) with the Auger electron spectroscopy (AES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, H.; Nold, E.; Miller, H.T.

    1980-01-01

    The possibility of determining the carbon, nitrogen and oxygen contents in TiCsub(x)Nsub(y)Osub(z) with the Auger-electron-spectroscopy (AES) is discussed. As an example the concentration dependence over the cross section of 1 μm thick TiN-layers is presented. (orig.)

  9. Biomass-Derived Oxygen and Nitrogen Co-Doped Porous Carbon with Hierarchical Architecture as Sulfur Hosts for High-Performance Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a facile strategy to synthesize oxygen and nitrogen co-doped porous carbon (ONPC is reported by one-step pyrolysis of waste coffee grounds. As-prepared ONPC possesses highly rich micro/mesopores as well as abundant oxygen and nitrogen co-doping, which is applied to sulfur hosts as lithium/sulfur batteries’ appropriate cathodes. In battery testing, the sulfur/oxygen and nitrogen co-doped porous carbon (S/ONPC composite materials reveal a high initial capacity of 1150 mAh·g−1 as well as a reversible capacity of 613 mAh·g−1 after the 100th cycle at 0.2 C. Furthermore, when current density increases to 1 C, a discharge capacity of 331 mAh·g−1 is still attainable. Due to the hierarchical porous framework and oxygen/nitrogen co-doping, the S/ONPC composite exhibits a high utilization of sulfur and good electrochemical performance via the immobilization of the polysulfides through strong chemical binding.

  10. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of geothermal waters in the southern hachimantai area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubaya, Osamu; Etchu, Hiroshi; Takenaka, Teruo; Yoshida, Yutaka.

    1985-01-01

    Geothermal waters from the Matsukawa and Kakkonda Geothermal Plants, wells at Amihari-Motoyu, and Nyuto and Tazawako areas were isotopically studied. The geothermal waters from Mutsukawa, Kakkonda and Amihari-Motoyu have hydrogen isotope ratios similar to the local meteoric waters, while have higher oxygen isotope ratios than the local meteoric waters. This relationship of hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios, that is called ''oxygen shift'', means that these geothermal waters are meteoric waters undergone the oxygen isotope exchange with rocks at high temperature of underground. The exygen shifts are 2 -- 3 per mil in Matsukawa and Kakkonda, and 7 per mil in Amihari-Motoyu. This difference may be important to understand the processe of water-rock interaction in this area. The geothermal waters at Nyuto and Tazawako areas also show 2 -- 3 per mil oxygen shift. The steam from the Tazawako-cho well and the hot spring water form the Tsurunoyu are estimated to be vapor and liquid phases separated form a single geothermal water of NaCl type, though the hot water from the Tsurunoyu is diluted with shallow meteoric water. (author)

  11. Fractionation of oxygen isotopes between mammalian bone-phosphate and environmental drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luz, B.; Kolodny, V.; Horowitz, M.

    1984-01-01

    The delta 18 O of mammalian bone-phosphate varies linearly with delta 18 O of environmental water, but is not in isotopic equilibrium with that water. This situation is explained by a model of delta 18 O in body water in which the important fluxes of exchangeable oxygen through the body are taken into account. Fractionation of oxygen isotopes between body and environmental drinking water is dependent on the rates of drinking and respiration. Isotopic fractionation can be estimated from physiological data and the estimates correlate very well with observed fractionation. Species whose water consumption is large relative to its energy expenditure is sensitive to isotopic ratio changes in environmental water. (author)

  12. Co@Co3O4 nanoparticle embedded nitrogen-doped carbon architectures as efficient bicatalysts for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Chunling; Zhang, Li; Xu, Guancheng; Sun, Zhipeng; Zhao, Aihua; Jia, Dianzeng

    2018-01-01

    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) play crucial roles in efficient energy conversion and storage solutions. Here, Co@Co3O4 nanoparticle embedded nitrogen-doped carbon architectures (denoted as Co@Co3O4/NCs) are prepared via a simple two-step and in situ approach by carbonization and subsequent oxidation of Co-MOF containing high contents of carbon and nitrogen. When evaluated as electrocatalyst towards both ORR and OER in a KOH electrolyte solution, the as-fabricated Co@Co3O4/NC-2 exhibits similar ORR catalytic activity to the commercial Pt/C catalyst, but superior stability and good methanol tolerance. Furthermore, the as-fabricated catalysts also show promising catalytic activity for OER. The effective catalytic activities originate from the synergistic effects between well wrapped Co@Co3O4 nanoparticles and nitrogen doped carbon structures.

  13. The Influence of Physical Forcing on Bottom-water Dissolved Oxygen within the Caloosahatchee River Estuary, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC), a numerical estuarine and coastal ocean circulation hydrodynamic model, was used to simulate the distribution of dissolved oxygen (DO), salinity, temperature, nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), and chlorophyll a in the Caloosahatchee Riv...

  14. Water Induced Surface Reconstruction of the Oxygen (2x1) covered Ru(0001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Sabine; Cabrera-Sanfelix, Pepa; Stass, Ingeborg; Sanchez-Portal, Daniel; Arnau, Andres; Salmeron, Miquel

    2010-08-06

    Low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT) were used to study the adsorption of water on a Ru(0001) surface covered with half monolayer of oxygen. The oxygen atoms occupy hcp sites in an ordered structure with (2x1) periodicity. DFT predicts that water is weakly bound to the unmodified surface, 86 meV compared to the ~;;200 meV water-water H-bond. Instead, we found that water adsorption causes a shift of half of the oxygen atoms from hcp sites to fcc sites, creating a honeycomb structure where water molecules bind strongly to the exposed Ru atoms. The energy cost of reconstructing the oxygen overlayer, around 230 meV per displaced oxygen atom, is more than compensated by the larger adsorption energy of water on the newly exposed Ru atoms. Water forms hydrogen bonds with the fcc O atoms in a (4x2) superstructure due to alternating orientations of the molecules. Heating to 185 K results in the complete desorption of the water layer, leaving behind the oxygen honeycomb structure, which is metastable relative to the original (2x1). This stable structure is not recovered until after heating to temperatures close to 260K.

  15. Nitrogen-doped carbon-supported cobalt-iron oxygen reduction catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenay, Piotr; Wu, Gang

    2014-04-29

    A Fe--Co hybrid catalyst for oxygen reaction reduction was prepared by a two part process. The first part involves reacting an ethyleneamine with a cobalt-containing precursor to form a cobalt-containing complex, combining the cobalt-containing complex with an electroconductive carbon supporting material, heating the cobalt-containing complex and carbon supporting material under conditions suitable to convert the cobalt-containing complex and carbon supporting material into a cobalt-containing catalyst support. The second part of the process involves polymerizing an aniline in the presence of said cobalt-containing catalyst support and an iron-containing compound under conditions suitable to form a supported, cobalt-containing, iron-bound polyaniline species, and subjecting said supported, cobalt-containing, iron bound polyaniline species to conditions suitable for producing a Fe--Co hybrid catalyst.

  16. Chemical reactivity of hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms at temperatures below 100 k

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgee, H. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The synthesis of unusual compounds by techniques employing cryogenic cooling to retard their very extreme reactivity was investigated. Examples of such species that were studied are diimide (N2H2), cyclobutadiene (C4H4), cyclopropanone (C3H4O), oxirene (C2H2O), and many others. Special purpose cryogenically cooled inlet arrangements were designed such that the analyses incurred no warm-up of the cold, and frequently explosively unstable, compounds. Controlled energy electron impact techniques were used to measure critical potentials and to develop the molecular energetics and thermodynamics of these molecules and to gain some insight into their kinetic characteristics as well. Three and four carbon strained ring molecules were studied. Several reactions of oxygen and hydrogen atoms with simple molecules of H, N, C, and O in hard quench configurations were studied. And the quench stabilization of BH3 was explored as a model system in cryochemistry.

  17. Dissolved oxygen mapping: A powerful tool for site assessments and ground water monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, W.A.; Kimball, G.

    1992-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen concentration profiles often provide an excellent indication of the natural biological activity of microorganisms in ground water. The analysis of dissolved oxygen in ground water also provides a rapid, inexpensive method for determining the areal extent of contaminant plumes containing aerobically degraded compounds such as petroleum hydrocarbons. Indigenous hydrocarbon degrading organisms are present at most petroleum product spills giving this technique an almost universal application for dissolved hydrocarbons in ground water. Data from several sites will be presented to demonstrate the relationship between oxygen and dissolved contaminant concentrations. The inverse relationship between oxygen concentrations and dissolved contaminants can be used in many ways. During the initial site assessment, rapid on-site testing of ground water can provide real time data to direct drilling by identification of potentially contaminated locations. Several analytical techniques are available that allow field analysis to be performed in less than five minutes. Dissolved oxygen testing also provides an inexpensive way to monitor hydrocarbon migration without expensive gas chromatography. Often a plume of oxygen depleted ground water extends farther downgradient than the dissolved hydrocarbon plume. The depletion of oxygen in a well can provide an early warning system that detects upgradient contamination before the well is impacted by detectable levels of contaminants. Another application is the measurement of the natural degradation potential for aerobic remediation. If an aerobic in-situ remediation is used, dissolved oxygen monitoring provides an inexpensive method to monitor the progress of the remediation

  18. Synthesis and reactivity of compounds containing ruthenium-carbon, -nitrogen, and -oxygen bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartwig, J.F.

    1990-12-01

    The products and mechanisms of the thermal reactions of several complexes of the general structure (PMe 3 ) 4 Ru(X)(Y) and (DMPM) 2 Ru(X)(Y) where X and Y are hydride, aryl, and benzyl groups, have been investigated. The mechanism of decomposition depends critically on the structure of the complex and the medium in which the thermolysis is carried out. The alkyl hydride complexes are do not react with alkane solvent, but undergo C-H activation processes with aromatic solvents by several different mechanisms. Thermolysis of (PMe 3 ) 4 Ru(Ph)(Me) or (PMe 3 ) 4 Ru(Ph) 2 leads to the ruthenium benzyne complex (PMe 3 ) 4 Ru(η 2 -C 6 H 4 ) (1) by a mechanism which involves reversible dissociation of phosphine. In many ways its chemistry is analogous to that of early rather than late organo transition metal complexes. The synthesis, structure, variable temperature NMR spectroscopy and reactivity of ruthenium complexes containing aryloxide or arylamide ligands are reported. These complexes undergo cleavage of a P-C bond in coordinated trimethylphosphine, insertion of CO and CO 2 and hydrogenolysis. Mechanistic studies on these reactions are described. The generation of a series of reactive ruthenium complexes of the general formula (PMe 3 ) 4 Ru(R)(enolate) is reported. Most of these enolates have been shown to bind to the ruthenium center through the oxygen atom. Two of the enolate complexes 8 and 9 exist in equilibrium between the O- and C-bound forms. The reactions of these compounds are reported, including reactions to form oxygen-containing metallacycles. The structure and reactivity of these ruthenium metallacycles is reported, including their thermal chemistry and reactivity toward protic acids, electrophiles, carbon monoxide, hydrogen and trimethylsilane. 243 refs., 10 tabs

  19. Synthesis and reactivity of compounds containing ruthenium-carbon, -nitrogen, and -oxygen bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwig, J.F.

    1990-12-01

    The products and mechanisms of the thermal reactions of several complexes of the general structure (PMe{sub 3}){sub 4}Ru(X)(Y) and (DMPM){sub 2}Ru(X)(Y) where X and Y are hydride, aryl, and benzyl groups, have been investigated. The mechanism of decomposition depends critically on the structure of the complex and the medium in which the thermolysis is carried out. The alkyl hydride complexes are do not react with alkane solvent, but undergo C-H activation processes with aromatic solvents by several different mechanisms. Thermolysis of (PMe{sub 3}){sub 4}Ru(Ph)(Me) or (PMe{sub 3}){sub 4}Ru(Ph){sub 2} leads to the ruthenium benzyne complex (PMe{sub 3}){sub 4}Ru({eta}{sup 2}-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}) (1) by a mechanism which involves reversible dissociation of phosphine. In many ways its chemistry is analogous to that of early rather than late organo transition metal complexes. The synthesis, structure, variable temperature NMR spectroscopy and reactivity of ruthenium complexes containing aryloxide or arylamide ligands are reported. These complexes undergo cleavage of a P-C bond in coordinated trimethylphosphine, insertion of CO and CO{sub 2} and hydrogenolysis. Mechanistic studies on these reactions are described. The generation of a series of reactive ruthenium complexes of the general formula (PMe{sub 3}){sub 4}Ru(R)(enolate) is reported. Most of these enolates have been shown to bind to the ruthenium center through the oxygen atom. Two of the enolate complexes 8 and 9 exist in equilibrium between the O- and C-bound forms. The reactions of these compounds are reported, including reactions to form oxygen-containing metallacycles. The structure and reactivity of these ruthenium metallacycles is reported, including their thermal chemistry and reactivity toward protic acids, electrophiles, carbon monoxide, hydrogen and trimethylsilane. 243 refs., 10 tabs.

  20. Nitrogen removal and water microbiota in grass carp culture following supplementation with Bacillus licheniformis BSK-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Quan; Zhang, Xiaoping; Lee, Khui Hung; Wang, Yibing; Yu, Kan; Shen, Wenying; Fu, Luoqin; Shu, Miaoan; Li, Weifen

    2015-11-01

    This experiment was designed to study the effects of Bacillus licheniformis BSK-4 on nitrogen removal and microbial community structure in a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) culture. The selected strain Bacillus licheniformis BSK-4 significantly decreased nitrite, nitrate and total nitrogen levels in water over an extended, whereas increased ammonia level. Pyrosequencing showed that Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes were dominant in grass carp culture water. Compared with the control group, the number of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were increased, while Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes decreased in treatment group. At the genus level, some genera, such as Bacillus, Prosthecobacter, Enterococcus, etc., appear only in the treatment, while many other genera exist only in the control group; Lactobacillus, Luteolibacter, Phenylobacterium, etc. were increased in treatment group compared to those in control group. As above, the results suggested that supplementation with B. licheniformis BSK-4 could remove some nitrogen and cause alterations of the microbial composition in grass carp water.

  1. Effect of mineral nitrogen fertilization on growth characteristics of lucerne under induced water deficiency stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasileva, V.; Vasilev, E.; Athar, M.

    2011-01-01

    Utility of lucerne crop fertilization with nitrogen fertilizer has been discussed in literature with controversy. In this study experiment was conducted to determine the effect of mineral nitrogen at the doses of 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg N/kg on some characteristics of lucerne under induced water deficiency stress at the stage of budding in a pot trial. It was found that mineral nitrogen at the doses of 120 and 160 mg N/kg soil increased the productivity of dry top mass by 17 and 23% in conditions of optimum moisture, and by 9% in conditions of water deficiency stress at the dose of 80 mg N/kg soil. Application of mineral nitrogen at the dose of 120 and 160 mg N/kg soil increased the quantity of dry root mass by 43 and 38% for the conditions of optimum moisture, and by 54-56% for conditions of water deficiency stress. Mineral nitrogen fertilizing at the dose of 40 mg N/kg soil had the lowest suppressive effect on the nodulation (11%). The dose of 160 mg N/kg soil was found to be toxic to nodulation. The dose of 80 mg N/kg soil, at which the crop had the lowest sensitivity to water deficiency stress, was optimal for lucerne development. (author)

  2. OPTIMUM, CRITICAL AND THRESHOLD VALUES FOR WATER OXYGENATION FOR MULLETS (MUGILIDAE AND FLATFISHES (PLEURONECTIDAE IN ONTOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shekk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the optimum, critical, and threshold values of water oxygenation for embryos, larvae and fingerlings of mullets and flatfishes under different temperature conditions. Methodology. Oxygen consumption was studied in chronic experiments with «interrupted flow» method with automatic fixation of dissolved oxygen in water with the aid of an oxygen sensor and automatic, continuous recording of the obtained results. «Critical» (Pcrit., and the «threshold» (Pthr. oxygen tension in the water have been determined. Findings. Under optimum conditions, the normal embryogenesis of mullets and flatfish to the gastrulation stage, provided 90–130% oxygen saturation. The critical content was 80–85%, the threshold – 65–70% of the saturation. At the stage of «movable embryo» depending on water temperature and fish species, the optimum range of water oxygenation was within 70‒127.1%. The most tolerant to oxygen deficiency was flounder Platichthys luscus (Pcrit – 25.4–27,5; Pthr. – 20.5–22.5%, the least resistant to hypoxia was striped mullet Mugil серhalus (Pcrit. – 50–60; Pthr. – 35–40%. The limits of the critical and threshold concentration of dissolved oxygen directly depended on the temperature and salinity, at which embryogenesis occurred. An increase in water temperature and salinity resulted in an increase in critical and threshold values for oxygen tension embryos. Mullet and flatfish fingerlings in all stages of development had a high tolerance to hypoxia, which increased as they grew. They were resistant to the oversaturation of water with oxygen. The most demanding for the oxygen regime are larvae and fingerlings of striped mullet and Liza aurata. Hypoxia tolerance of Psetta maeoticus (Psetta maeoticus and flounder at all stages of development is very high. The fingerlings of these species can endure reduction of the dissolved oxygen in water to 2.10 and 1.65 mgO2/dm3 respectively for a long time

  3. Catchment features controlling nitrogen dynamics in running waters above the tree line (central Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Balestrini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of nitrogen cycling in mountain areas has a long tradition, as it was applied to better understand and describe ecosystem functioning, as well as to quantify long-distance effects of human activities on remote environments. Nonetheless, very few studies, especially in Europe, have considered catchment features controlling nitrogen dynamics above the tree line with focus on running waters. In this study, relationships between some water chemistry descriptors – including nitrogen species and dissolved organic carbon (DOC – and catchment characteristics were evaluated for a range of sites located above the tree line (1950–2650 m a.s.l. at Val Masino, in the central Italian Alps. Land cover categories as well as elevation and slope were assessed at each site. Water samples were collected during the 2007 and 2008 snow free periods, with a nearly monthly frequency. In contrast to dissolved organic nitrogen, nitrate concentrations in running waters showed a spatial pattern strictly connected to the fractional extension of tundra and talus in each basin. Exponential models significantly described the relationships between maximum NO3 and the fraction of vegetated soil cover (negative relation and talus (positive relation, explaining almost 90% of nitrate variation in running waters. Similarly to nitrate but with an opposite behavior, DOC was positively correlated with vegetated soil cover and negatively correlated with talus. Therefore, land cover can be considered one of the most important factors affecting water quality in high-elevation catchments with contrasting effects on N and C pools.

  4. Nitrogen-isotope ratios of nitrate in ground water under fertilized fields, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flipse, W.J.; Bonner, F.T.

    1985-01-01

    Ground-water samples from two heavily fertilized sites in Suffolk County, New York, were collected through the 1978 growing season and analyzed for nitrate-N concentrations and nitrogen-isotope ratios. Six wells were at a potato farm; six were on a golf course. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the 15N/14N ratios (??15N values) of fertilizer are increased during transit from land surface to ground water to an extent which would preclude use of this ratio to distinguish agricultural from animal sources of nitrate in ground water. Ground water at both sites contained a greater proportion of 15N than the fertilizers being applied. At the potato farm, the average ??15N value of the fertilizers was 0.2???; the average ??15N value of the ground-water nitrate was 6.2???. At the golf course, the average ??15N value of the fertilizers was -5.9???, and that of ground-water nitrate was 6.5???. The higher ??15N values of ground-water nitrate are probably caused by isotopic fractionation during the volatile loss of ammonia from nitrogen applied in reduced forms (NH4+ and organic-N). The ??15N values of most ground-water samples from both areas were less than 10???, the upper limit of the range characteristic of agricultural sources of nitrate; these sources include both fertilizer nitrate and nitrate derived from increased mineralization of soil nitrogen through cultivation. Previous studies have shown that the ??15N values of nitrate derived from human or animal waste generally exceed 10???. The nitrogen-isotope ratios of fertilizer-derived nitrate were not altered to an extent that would make them indistinguishable from animal-waste-derived nitrates in ground water.Ground-water samples from two heavily fertilized sites in Suffolk County, New York, were collected through the 1978 growing season and analyzed for nitrate-N concentrations and nitrogen-isotope ratios. Six wells were at a potato farm; six were on a golf course. The purpose of this study was to

  5. Calibration of Soil Available Nitrogen and Water Content with Grain Yield of Dry land Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Feiziasl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nitrogen (N is one of the most important growth-limiting nutrients for dryland wheat. Mineral nitrogen or ammonium (NH4+ and nitrate (NO3− are two common forms of inorganic nitrogen that can serve as limiting factors for plant growth. Nitrogen fertilization in dryland area can increase the use of soil moisture, and improve wheat yields to some extent. Many researchers have been confirmed interactions between water stress and nitrogen fertilizers on wheat, especially under field conditions. Because of water stress affects forms of nitrogen uptake that leads to disorder in plant metabolism, reduction in grain yield and crop quality in dryland condition. On the other hand, use of suitable methods for determining nitrogen requirement can increase dryland wheat production. However, nitrogen recommendations should be based on soil profile content or precipitation. An efficient method for nitrogen fertilizer recommendation involves choosing an effective soil extractant and calibrating soil nitrogen (Total N, NO3− andNH4+ tests against yield responses to applied nitrogen in field experiments. Soil testing enables initial N supply to be measured and N supply throughout the season due to mineralization to be estimated. This study was carried out to establish relationship between nitrogen forms (Total N, NO3− andNH4+ in soil and soil profile water content with plant response for recommendation of nitrogen fertilizer. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in split-split plot in a RCBD in Dryland Agricultural Research Institute (DARI, Maragheh, Iranwhere N application times (fall, 2/3 in fall and 1/3 in spring were assigned to the main plots, N rates to sub plot (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg/ha, and 7 dryland wheat genotypes to sub-sub plots (Azar2, Ohadi, Rasad and 1-4 other genotypes in three replications in 2010-2011. Soil samples were collected from 0-20, 20-40, 40-60 and 60-80 cm in sub-sub plots in shooting stage (ZGS32. Ammonium

  6. Measurement and interpretation of low levels of dissolved oxygen in ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A.F.; Peterson, M.L.; Solbau, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    A Rhodazine-D colorimetric technique was adapted to measure low-level dissolved oxygen concentrations in ground water. Prepared samples containing between 0 and 8.0 ??moles L-1 dissolved oxygen in equilibrium with known gas mixtures produced linear spectrophotometric absorbance with a lower detection limit of 0.2 ??moles L-1. Excellent reproducibility was found for solutions ranging in composition from deionized water to sea water with chemical interferences detected only for easily reduced metal species such as ferric ion, cupric ion, and hexavalent chromium. Such effects were correctable based on parallel reaction stoichiometries relative to oxygen. The technique, coupled with a downhole wire line tool, permitted low-level monitoring of dissolved oxygen in wells at the selenium-contaminated Kesterson Reservoir in California. Results indicated a close association between low but measurable dissolved oxygen concentrations and mobility of oxidized forms of selenium. -from Authors

  7. Nitrogen Uptake in Soils under Different Water Table Depths ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A mathematical model was used to examine the interactions of NH4 + transport to rice roots, as well as to calculate root length densities required to relate N uptake to concentrations of NH4 + in solution around the rooting medium for three water treatments: water table 30 cm below the surface, 15 cm below the surface and ...

  8. Denitrification rates and excess nitrogen gas concentrations in the Arabian Sea oxygen deficient zone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devol, A; Uhlenhopp, A; Naqvi, S.W.A; Brandes, J.A; Jayakumar, D.A; Naik, H.; Gaurin, S.; Codispoti, L.A.; Yoshinari, T.

    Rates of canonical, i.e. heterotrophic, water-column denitrification were measured by sup(15)N incubation techniques at a number of coastal and open ocean stations in the Arabian Sea. Measurements of N2 :Ar gas ratios were also made to obtain...

  9. Ralstonia solanacearum uses inorganic nitrogen metabolism for virulence, ATP production, and detoxification in the oxygen-limited host xylem environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsing, Beth L; Truchon, Alicia N; Gonzalez-Orta, Enid T; Milling, Annett S; Allen, Caitilyn

    2015-03-17

    Genomic data predict that, in addition to oxygen, the bacterial plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum can use nitrate (NO3(-)), nitrite (NO2(-)), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrous oxide (N2O) as terminal electron acceptors (TEAs). Genes encoding inorganic nitrogen reduction were highly expressed during tomato bacterial wilt disease, when the pathogen grows in xylem vessels. Direct measurements found that tomato xylem fluid was low in oxygen, especially in plants infected by R. solanacearum. Xylem fluid contained ~25 mM NO3(-), corresponding to R. solanacearum's optimal NO3(-) concentration for anaerobic growth in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that R. solanacearum uses inorganic nitrogen species to respire and grow during pathogenesis by making deletion mutants that each lacked a step in nitrate respiration (ΔnarG), denitrification (ΔaniA, ΔnorB, and ΔnosZ), or NO detoxification (ΔhmpX). The ΔnarG, ΔaniA, and ΔnorB mutants grew poorly on NO3(-) compared to the wild type, and they had reduced adenylate energy charge levels under anaerobiosis. While NarG-dependent NO3(-) respiration directly enhanced growth, AniA-dependent NO2(-) reduction did not. NO2(-) and NO inhibited growth in culture, and their removal depended on denitrification and NO detoxification. Thus, NO3(-) acts as a TEA, but the resulting NO2(-) and NO likely do not. None of the mutants grew as well as the wild type in planta, and strains lacking AniA (NO2(-) reductase) or HmpX (NO detoxification) had reduced virulence on tomato. Thus, R. solanacearum exploits host NO3(-) to respire, grow, and cause disease. Degradation of NO2(-) and NO is also important for successful infection and depends on denitrification and NO detoxification systems. The plant-pathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum causes bacterial wilt, one of the world's most destructive crop diseases. This pathogen's explosive growth in plant vascular xylem is poorly understood. We used biochemical and genetic approaches to show

  10. Response of nitrogen-fixing water fern Azolla biofertilization to rice crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneshwari, K; Singh, Pawan Kumar

    2015-08-01

    The water fern Azolla harbors nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae as symbiont in its dorsal leaves and is known as potent N 2 fixer. Present investigation was carried out to study the influence of fresh Azolla when used as basal incorporation in soil and as dual cropped with rice variety Mahsoori separately and together with and without chemical nitrogen fertilizer in pots kept under net house conditions. Results showed that use of Azolla as basal or dual or basal plus dual influenced the rice crop positively where use of fern as basal plus dual was superior and served the nitrogen requirement of rice. There was marked increase in plant height, number of effective tillers, dry mass and nitrogen content of rice plants with the use of Azolla and N-fertilizers alone and other combinations. The use of Azolla also increased organic matter and potassium contents of the soil.

  11. [Coupling effects of periodic rewatering after drought stress and nitrogen fertilizer on growth and water and nitrogen productivity of Coffea arabica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Kun; Liu, Xiao Gang; Zhang, Yan; Han, Zhi Hui; Yu, Ning; Yang, Qi Liang; Liu, Yan Wei

    2017-12-01

    The effects of periodic rewatering after drought stress and nitrogen fertilizer on growth, yield, photosynthetic characteristics of leaves and water and nitrogen productivity of Coffea arabica (Katim P7963) were studied under different nitrogen application levels in 2.5 consecutive years. Irrigation (periodic rewatering after drought stress) and nitrogen were designed as two factors, with four modes of irrigation, namely, full irrigation (I F-F : 100%ET 0 +100%ET 0 , ET 0 was reference crop evapotranspiration), rewatering after light drought stress (I L-F : 80%ET 0 +100%ET 0 ), rewatering after moderate drought stress (I M-F : 60%ET 0 +100%ET 0 ) and rewatering after severe drought stress (I S-F : 40%ET 0 +100%ET 0 ), and three levels of nitrogen, namely, high nitrogen (N H : 750 kg N·hm -2 each time), middle nitrogen (N M : 500 kg N·hm -2 each time), low nitrogen (N L : 250 kg N·hm -2 each time), and nitrogen was equally applied for 4 times. The results showed that irrigation and nitrogen had significant effect on plant height, stem diameter, yield and water and nitrogen productivity of C. arabica, and plant height and stem diameter showed S-curve with the day ordinal number, and leaf photosynthesis decreased significantly under drought stress but most photosynthesis index recovered somewhat after rewatering. Compared with I F-F , I L-F increased dry bean yield by 6.9%, while I M-F and I S-F decreased dry bean yield by 15.2% and 38.5%, respectively; I L-F and I M-F increased water use efficiency by 18.8% and 6.0%, respectively, while I S-F decreased water use efficiency by 12.1%; I L-F increased nitrogen partial productivity by 6.1%, while I M-F and I S-F decreased nitrogen partial productivity by 14.0% and 36.0%, respectively. Compared with N H , N M increased dry bean yield and water use efficiency by 20.9% and 19.3%, while N L decreased dry bean yield and water use efficiency by 42.4% and 41.9%, respectively; N M and N L increased nitrogen partial

  12. Interactive effects of reactive nitrogen and climate change on US water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, J.; Bernhardt, E. S.; Finlay, J. C.; Chan, F.; Nolan, B. T.; Howarth, B.; Hall, E.; Boyer, E. W.

    2011-12-01

    Water resources and aquatic ecosystems are increasingly strained by withdrawals for agriculture and drinking water supply, nitrogen and other pollutant inputs, and climate change. We describe current and projected effects of the interactions of reactive nitrogen (N) and climate change on water resources of the United States. As perturbations to the N cycle intensify in a warmer less predictable climate, interactions will negatively affect the services we expect of our water resources. There are also feedbacks to the climate system itself through the production of greenhouse gases. We conclude: 1. Nitrogen concentrations will increase in the nation's waters from increased N loading and higher N mineralization rates. N export from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems exhibits a high sensitivity to climate variations. 2. Consequences range from eutrophication and acidification, which reduce natural biodiversity and harm economically valuable fisheries, to adverse impacts on human health. 3. Extreme flood events have the potential to transport N rapidly long distances downstream from its source. 4. A recent national assessment found 67% of streams derived more than 37% of their total nitrate load from base flow often derived from groundwater. Long residence times for groundwater nitrate below agricultural fields may cause benefits from proper N management practices to take decades to be realized under current and future climates. 5. Streams, wetlands, rivers, lakes, estuaries and continental shelves are hotspots for denitrification. Maintenance of N removal capacity thus a critical component of eutrophication management under changing climate and land use conditions. 6. The amount of N inputs from fertilizer and manure use, human population, and deposition is tightly coupled with hydrology to influence the rates and proportion of N emitted to the atmosphere as N2O. About 20% of global N2O emissions come from groundwater, lakes, rivers, and estuaries; stream and wetland

  13. Synergistic effect of Nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon/graphene with enhanced catalytic performance for oxygen reduction reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Dewang; Yuan, Wenjing; Li, Cun; Song, Jiming; Xie, Anjian, E-mail: anjx@163.com; Shen, Yuhua, E-mail: s_yuhua@163.com

    2017-01-30

    Graphical abstract: This work demonstrates an example for turning rubbish into valuable products and addresses the disposal issue of waste biomass simultaneously for environment clean. And the typical sample exhibits excellent catalytic performance toward ORR, which is similar to that of commercial Pt/C. - Highlights: • This work demonstrates an example for turning rubbish into valuable products and addresses the disposal issue of waste biomass. • The HPC/RGO composite not only prevents the aggregation of RGO, but also takes advantage of the synergy between them. • This method was accessible, without using any activator, which is an effective strategy for the large scale application of FCs. - Abstract: Developing efficient and economical catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is important to promote the commercialization of fuel cells. Here, we report a simple and environmentally friendly method to prepare nitrogen (N) –doped hierarchical porous carbon (HPC)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composites by reusing waste biomass (pomelo peel) coupled with graphene oxide (GO). This method is green, low-cost and without using any acid or alkali activator. The typical sample (N-HPC/RGO-1) contains 5.96 at.% nitrogen and larger BET surface area (1194 m{sup 2}/g). Electrochemical measurements show that N-HPC/RGO-1 exhibits not only a relatively positive onset potential and high current density, but also considerable methanol tolerance and long-term durability in alkaline media as well as in acidic media. The electron transfer number is close to 4, which means that it is mostly via a four-electron pathway toward ORR. The excellent catalytic performance of N-HPC/RGO-1 is due to the synergistic effect of the inherent interwoven network structure of HPC, the good electrical conductivity of RGO, and the heteroatom doping for the composite. More importantly, this work demonstrates a good example for turning discarded rubbish into valuable functional products and

  14. Tungsten carbide encapsulated in nitrogen-doped carbon with iron/cobalt carbides electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jie; Chen, Jinwei, E-mail: jwchen@scu.edu.cn; Jiang, Yiwu; Zhou, Feilong; Wang, Gang; Wang, Ruilin, E-mail: rl.wang@scu.edu.cn

    2016-12-15

    Graphical abstract: A hybrid catalyst was prepared via a quite green and simple method to achieve an one-pot synthesis of the N-doping carbon, tungsten carbides, and iron/cobalt carbides. It exhibited comparable electrocatalytic activity, higher durability and ability to methanol tolerance compared with commercial Pt/C to ORR. - Highlights: • A novel type of hybrid Fe/Co/WC@NC catalysts have been successfully synthesized. • The hybrid catalyst also exhibited better durability and methanol tolerance. • Multiple effective active sites of Fe{sub 3}C, Co{sub 3}C, WC, and NC help to improve catalytic performance. - Abstract: This work presents a type of hybrid catalyst prepared through an environmental and simple method, combining a pyrolysis of transition metal precursors, a nitrogen-containing material, and a tungsten source to achieve a one-pot synthesis of N-doping carbon, tungsten carbides, and iron/cobalt carbides (Fe/Co/WC@NC). The obtained Fe/Co/WC@NC consists of uniform Fe{sub 3}C and Co{sub 3}C nanoparticles encapsulated in graphitized carbon with surface nitrogen doping, closely wrapped around a plate-like tungsten carbide (WC) that functions as an efficient oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst. The introduction of WC is found to promote the ORR activity of Fe/Co-based carbide electrocatalysts, which is attributed to the synergistic catalysts of WC, Fe{sub 3}C, and Co{sub 3}C. Results suggest that the composite exhibits comparable electrocatalytic activity, higher durability, and ability for methanol tolerance compared with commercial Pt/C for ORR in alkaline electrolyte. These advantages make Fe/Co/WC@NC a promising ORR electrocatalyst and a cost-effective alternative to Pt/C for practical application as fuel cell.

  15. Reduced-graphene-oxide supported tantalum-based electrocatalysts: Controlled nitrogen doping and oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyun; Mo, Qijie; Guo, Yulin; Chen, Nana; Gao, Qingsheng

    2018-03-01

    Controlled N-doping is feasible to engineer the surface stoichiometry and the electronic configuration of metal-oxide electrocatalysts toward efficient oxygen reduction reactions (ORR). Taking reduced graphene oxide supported tantalum-oxides (TaOx/RGO) for example, this work illustrated the controlled N-doping in both metal-oxides and carbon supports, and the contribution to the improved ORR activity. The active N-doped TaOx/RGO electrocatalysts were fabricated via SiO2-assisted pyrolysis, in which the amount and kind of N-doping were tailored toward efficient electrocatalysis. The optimal nanocomposites showed a quite positive half-wave potential (0.80 V vs. RHE), the excellent long-term stability, and the outstanding tolerance to methanol crossing. The improvement in ORR was reasonably attributed to the synergy between N-doped TaOx and N-doped RGO. Elucidating the importance of controlled N-doping for electrocatalysis, this work will open up new opportunities to explore noble-metal-free materials for renewable energy applications.

  16. Ordered hierarchically porous carbon codoped with iron and nitrogen as electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chengwei; Zhong, Hexiang; Yao, Lan; Liu, Sisi; Xu, Zhuang; Zhang, Huamin

    2014-12-01

    N-doped carbon catalysts have attracted great attention as potential alternatives to expensive Pt-based catalysts used in fuel cells. Herein, an ordered hierarchically porous carbon codoped with N and Fe (Fe-NOHPC) is prepared by an evaporation-induced self-assembly process followed by carbonization under ammonia. The soft template and Fe species promote the formation of the porous structure and facilitate the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR).The catalyst possesses an ordered hierarchically porous structure with a large surface area (1172.5 m(2) g(-1) ) and pore volume of 1.03 cm(3) g(-1) . Compared to commercial 20% Pt/C, it exhibits better ORR catalytic activity and higher stability as well as higher methanol tolerance in an alkaline electrolyte, which demonstrates its potential use in fuel cells as a nonprecious cathode catalyst. The N configuration, Fe species, and pore structure of the catalysts are believed to correlate with its high catalytic activity. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Sibutramine provokes apoptosis of aortic endothelial cells through altered production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Yoshifumi; Shibata, Akinobu; Okumura, Naoko; Ikari, Akira; Sasajima, Yasuhide; Suenami, Koichi; Sato, Kiyohito; Takekoshi, Yuji; El-Kabbani, Ossama; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    Overdose administration of sibutramine, a serotonin-noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor, is considered to elicit severe side effects including hypertension, whose pathogenic mechanism remains unclear. Here, we found that 48-h incubation with >10μM sibutramine provokes apoptosis of human aortic endothelial (HAE) cells. Treatment with the lethal concentration of sibutramine facilitated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), altered expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress response genes (heat shock protein 70 and C/EBP homologous protein), and inactivated 26S proteasome-based proteolysis. The treatment also decreased cellular level of nitric oxide (NO) through lowering of expression and activity of endothelial NO synthase. These results suggest that ROS production and depletion of NO are crucial events in the apoptotic mechanism and may be linked to the pathogenesis of vasoconstriction elicited by the drug. Compared to sibutramine, its metabolites (N-desmethylsibutramine and N-didesmethylsibutramine) were much less cytotoxic to HAE cells, which hardly metabolized sibutramine. In contrast, both the drug and metabolites showed low cytotoxicity to hepatic HepG2 cells with high metabolic potency and expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. The cytotoxicity of sibutramine to HepG2 and Chang Liver cells was remarkably augmented by inhibition and knockdown of CYP3A4. This study also suggests an inverse relationship between sibutramine cytotoxicity and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism into the N-desmethyl metabolites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Oxygen isotopic composition of sulphates from some mineral waters and mine waters in western Bohemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smejkal, V.

    1979-01-01

    Two main genetic types of sulphate can be distinguished according to the delta 18 O(SO 4 2- ) measurements in sulphate-rich mineral and mine waters of western Bohemia - sulphates in descending mine waters and in weathered outcrops of graphitic pyrite slates from areas outside Tertiary basins, which originated in recent time by the oxidation of sulphides in the presence of atmospheric oxygen, have delta 18 O values from -2.1 to -6.1 per mille SMOW; and sulphates from springs of mineral waters of the renowned spas of Karlovy Vary, Frantiskovy Lazne and Marianske Lazne show distinctly heavier delta 18 O values - from +4.0 to +6.4 per mille, with maximum of values between +5.0 and +6.0 per mille. Similar delta 18 O values have been established in thenardites and in gypsum in Miocene claystones and in sulphates of some mine waters in the nearby Tertiary Cheb and Sokolov Basins. The presented results indicate that sulphates in mineral waters of the Karlovy Vary type originate mainly by leaching of Miocene sulphates and not by present-day oxidation of sulphidic sulphur. (author)

  19. Determining Permissible Oxygen and Water Vapor Transmission Rate for Non-Retort Military Ration Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    OXYGEN AND WATER VAPOR TRANSMISSION RATE FOR NON- RETORT MILITARY RATION PACKAGING by Danielle Froio Alan Wright Nicole Favreau and Sarah...ANSI Std. Z39.18 RETORT STORAGE SHELF LIFE RETORT POUCHES SENSORY ANALYSIS OXYGEN CRACKERS PACKAGING SENSORY... Packaging for MRE. (a) MRE Retort Pouch Quad-Laminate Structure; (b) MRE Non- retort Pouch Tri-Laminate Structure

  20. Solubility of corrosion products of plain steel in oxygen-containing water solutions at high parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynova, O.I.; Samojlov, Yu.F.; Petrova, T.I.; Kharitonova, N.L.

    1983-01-01

    Technique for calculation of solubility of iron corrosion products in oxygen-containing aqueous solutions in the 298-573 K temperature range is presented. Solubility of corrosion products of plain steel in deeply-desalinizated water in the presence of oxygen for the such range of the temperatures is experimentally determined. Rather good convergence between calculated and experimental data is noted

  1. Oxygen deficiency impacts on burying habitats for lesser sandeel, Ammodytes tobianus, in the inner Danish waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Jane; Ærtebjerg, Gunni; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf

    2009-01-01

    Starting in 1980s, the inner Danish waters have yearly been exposed to seasonal oxygen deficiency (hypoxia). Through spatial–temporal interpolation of monitoring data (1998–2005), we investigated oxygen deficiency impacts on suitable burying habitats for lesser sandeel (Ammodytes tobianus...

  2. The dynamics of dissolved oxygen concentration for water quality monitoring and assessment in polder ditches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeningen, R.

    1983-01-01

    This study deals with the use of the dynamics of dissolved oxygen concentration for water quality assessment in polder ditches. The dynamics of the dissolved oxygen concentration, i.e. the temporal and spatial variations in a few polder ditches under a range of natural, pollution and management

  3. Nitrogen species in drinking water indicate potential exposure pathway for Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niagolova, Nedialka; McElmurry, Shawn P.; Voice, Thomas C.; Long, David T.; Petropoulos, Evangelos A.; Havezov, Ivan; Chou, Karen; Ganev, Varban

    2005-01-01

    This study explored two hypotheses relating elevated concentrations of nitrogen species in drinking water and the disease Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN). Drinking water samples were collected from a variety of water supplies in both endemic and non-endemic villages in the Vratza and Montana districts of Bulgaria. The majority of well water samples exceeded US drinking water standards for nitrate + nitrite. No statistically significant difference was observed for any of the nitrogen species between villages classified as endemic and non-endemic. Other constituents (sodium, potassium and chloride) known to be indicators of anthropogenic pollution were also found at elevated concentrations and all followed the order wells > springs > taps. This ordering coincides with the proximity of human influences to the water sources. Our results clearly establish an exposure pathway between anthropogenic activity and drinking water supplies, suggesting that the causative agent for BEN could result from surface contamination. - Water in villages affected and unaffected by Balkan Endemic Nephropathy had no significant differences in nitrogen compounds

  4. Effects of diagenesis on strontium, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen concentration and isotopic composition of bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Bruce K.; Deniro, Michael J.; Schoeninger, Margaret J.; De Paolo, Donald J.; Hare, P. E.

    1986-09-01

    Paleodietary analysis based on variations in the trace element and stable isotopic composition of inorganic and organic phases in fossil bone depends on the assumption that measured values reflect in vivo values. To test for postmortem alteration, we measured 87Sr /86Sr , 13C /12C , 18O /16O and 15N /14N ratios and Sr concentrations in modern and prehistoric (610 to 5470 yr old) bones of animals with marine or terrestrial diets from Greenland. Bones from modern terrestrial feeders have substantially lower Sr concentrations and more radiogenic 87Sr /86Sr ratios than those from modern marine feeders. This contrast was not preserved in the prehistoric samples, which showed almost complete overlap for both Sr concentration and isotopic composition in bones from the two types of animals. Leaching experiments, X-ray diffraction analysis and infrared spectroscopy indicate that alteration of the Sr concentration and isotopic composition in prehistoric bone probably results from nearly complete exchange with groundwater. Oxygen isotope ratios in fossil apatite carbonate also failed to preserve the original discrimination between modern terrestrial and marine feeders. The C isotope ratio of apatite carbonate did not discriminate between animals with marine or terrestrial diets in the modern samples. Even so, the ranges of apatite δ 13C values in prehistoric bone are more scattered than in modern samples for both groups, suggesting alteration had occurred. δ 13C and δ 15N values of collagen in modern bone are distinctly different for the two feeding types, and this distinction is preserved in most of the prehistoric samples. Our results suggest that postmortem alteration of dietary tracers in the inorganic phases of bone may be a problem at all archaeological sites and must be evaluated in each case. While collagen analyzed in this study was resistant to alteration, evaluation of the possibility of diagenetic alteration of its isotopic composition in bones from other

  5. Sibutramine provokes apoptosis of aortic endothelial cells through altered production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morikawa, Yoshifumi [Forensic Science Laboratory, Gifu Prefectural Police Headquarters, Gifu 500-8501 (Japan); Shibata, Akinobu; Okumura, Naoko; Ikari, Akira [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, Gifu 501-1196 (Japan); Sasajima, Yasuhide; Suenami, Koichi; Sato, Kiyohito; Takekoshi, Yuji [Forensic Science Laboratory, Gifu Prefectural Police Headquarters, Gifu 500-8501 (Japan); El-Kabbani, Ossama [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Matsunaga, Toshiyuki, E-mail: matsunagat@gifu-pu.ac.jp [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, Gifu 501-1196 (Japan)

    2017-01-01

    Overdose administration of sibutramine, a serotonin-noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor, is considered to elicit severe side effects including hypertension, whose pathogenic mechanism remains unclear. Here, we found that 48-h incubation with > 10 μM sibutramine provokes apoptosis of human aortic endothelial (HAE) cells. Treatment with the lethal concentration of sibutramine facilitated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), altered expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress response genes (heat shock protein 70 and C/EBP homologous protein), and inactivated 26S proteasome-based proteolysis. The treatment also decreased cellular level of nitric oxide (NO) through lowering of expression and activity of endothelial NO synthase. These results suggest that ROS production and depletion of NO are crucial events in the apoptotic mechanism and may be linked to the pathogenesis of vasoconstriction elicited by the drug. Compared to sibutramine, its metabolites (N-desmethylsibutramine and N-didesmethylsibutramine) were much less cytotoxic to HAE cells, which hardly metabolized sibutramine. In contrast, both the drug and metabolites showed low cytotoxicity to hepatic HepG2 cells with high metabolic potency and expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. The cytotoxicity of sibutramine to HepG2 and Chang Liver cells was remarkably augmented by inhibition and knockdown of CYP3A4. This study also suggests an inverse relationship between sibutramine cytotoxicity and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism into the N-desmethyl metabolites. - Highlights: • Treatment with sibutramine, an anorexiant, induces endothelial cell apoptosis. • The apoptotic mechanism includes induction of ROS and NO depletion. • There is an inverse relationship between sibutramine cytotoxicity and its metabolism.

  6. Investigation of tungsten mass transfer in rarefied air oxygen and water vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evsikov, A.S.; Makeev, A.A.; Lyubimova, L.L.; Sinyavskij, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of oxygen and water vapor effect on the rate of tungsten evaporation are presented. Methods for carrying out an experiment are presented. The experiments are carried out at the 2600 degC tungsten wire temperature and the pressure of oxygen and water vapors (2x10 -3 -5) Pa. Registration of final products of mass transfer is carried out by the DRON-2.0 diffractometer using a detachable substrate. Empirical dependence taking into account oxygen and water vapor effect on the rate of tungsten evaporation is suggested. It is marked that air oxygen and water vapor increase evaporation rate uniformly the difference is observed only in final products of interaction

  7. A Nitrogen Inventory of Major Water Regions Across the USA as a Benchmark for Future Progress in Mitigating Nitrogen Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, E. W.; Galloway, J. N.; Alexander, R. B.

    2012-12-01

    We present a contemporary inventory of reactive nitrogen (Nr) inputs and, air, and surface waters throughout major water regions in the United States. Inputs of Nr to the nation and the world have been increasing, largely due to human activities associated with food production and energy consumption via the combustion of fossil fuels and biofuels. Despite the obvious essential benefits of a plentiful supply of food and energy, the adverse consequences associated with the accumulation of Nr in the environment are large. Most of the Nr created by anthropogenic activities is released to the environment, often with unintended negative consequences. The greater the inputs of Nr to the landscape, the greater the potential for negative effects, caused by greenhouse gas production, ground level ozone, acid deposition, and Nr overload that can contribute to climate change, degradation of soils and vegetation, acidification of surface waters, coastal eutrophication, hypoxia and habitat loss. Here, we present a consistent accounting method for quantifying Nr sources and transport that was used in our inventory, and discuss associated data needs for tallying Nr inputs at regional scales. The inventory is a necessary tool for exploring the role of Nr contributed to the environment from various sources (e.g., from fertilizers, manure, biological fixation, human waste, atmospheric deposition) and from various industrial sectors (e.g., from agriculture, transportation, electricity generation). Agriculture and use of fertilizers to produce food, feed, and fiber (including bioenergy and biological nitrogen fixation) and combustion of fossil fuels are the largest sources of Nr released into the environment in the USA. Our inventory can be used as a benchmark of the current Nr situation against which future progress can be assessed in varying regions of the country, amidst changing Nr inputs and implementation of policy and management strategies to mitigate Nr pollution.

  8. The effect of nitrogen and oxygen plasma on the wear properties and adhesion strength of the diamond-like carbon film coated on PTFE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, K.; Hirakuri, K.K.

    2008-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) using a radiofrequency plasma chemical vapour deposition method. Prior to DLC coating, the PTFE substrates were modified with O 2 and N 2 plasma to enhance the adhesion strength of the DLC film to the substrate. The effect of the plasma pre-treatment on the chemical composition and the surface energy of the plasma pre-treated PTFE surface was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and static water contact angle measurement, respectively. A pull-out test and a ball-on-disc test were carried out to evaluate the adhesion strength and the wear properties of the DLC-coated PTFE. In the N 2 plasma pre-treatment, the XPS result indicated that defluorination and the nitrogen grafting occurred on the plasma pre-treated PTFE surface, and the water contact angle decreased with increasing the plasma pre-treatment time. In the O 2 plasma pre-treatment, no grafting of the oxygen occurred, and the water contact angle slightly increased with the treatment time. In the pull-out test, the adhesion strength of the DLC film to the PTFE substrate was improved with the plasma pre-treatment to the PTFE substrate, and N 2 plasma pre-treatment was more effective than the O 2 plasma pre-treatment. In the ball-on-disc test, the DLC film with the N 2 plasma pre-treatment showed good wear resistance, compared with that with O 2 plasma pre-treatment

  9. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. yield as affected by nitrogen fertilization and different water regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Ferreira-Santos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to its origin and hardiness, safflower is usually cultivated in low-fertility soils with few inputs and no irrigation. In Brazil, little is known about its response to nitrogen (N and irrigation. This study was carried out near the city of Engenheiro Coelho, SP, Brazil, in 2014, in order to determine the effect of increasing nitrogen application rates (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 550 and 600 kg ha-1 on safflower cultivation under irrigation and rainfed conditions. The use of irrigation during drought periods allowed stress reduction and significantly increased yield components and grain yield. Safflower yield was influenced by the interaction between water regimes and nitrogen rates. Grain yield may vary depending on several factors, however, maximum yield was achieved with rates of 208 and 214 kg N ha-1 under irrigation and rainfed conditions, respectively. For oil yield, 200 kg N ha-1 were sufficient, regardless of the water regime.

  10. Nitrogen in soil water at five nitrogen-enriched forest sites in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ring, Eva

    2001-01-01

    Increased inputs of N to forest land may increase acidification and eutrophication. This thesis deals with N in soil water at 50 cm depth in N-enriched coniferous forests in Sweden. The experimental sites were enriched in N, either by fertilization or deposition. Soil water was collected by suction cups at varying degrees of N enrichment, after clear felling at two sites in central (Billingsjoen) and S Sweden (Farabol), and in three closely situated Norway spruce stands in SW Sweden. Billingsjoen was fertilized with ammonium nitrate at totals of 360-1800 kg N ha -1 , and Farabol with urea at totals of 600 kg N ha -1 . At clearfelling, which was performed six and seven years after the last fertilization, the soil N storage was increased by fertilization at Billingsjoen but not at Farabol. At Billingsjoen, the soil-water concentration of nitrate increased with increasing N dose. The increased nitrate concentrations reduced pH by up to nearly two units. In the eighth year after clear felling, the effects on all major cations and anions in the control, the 360 and 1800 kg N ha -1 treatments were examined. At the high N dose, nitrate and aluminium had significantly increased, and the pH and acid-neutralizing capacity had decreased, compared with the control and the low N dose. At Farabol, the estimated total leaching of nitrate-N in the control surpassed that of the N treatment by approximately 40%. The difference in leaching appears attributable to the greater biomass and N storage of the field-layer vegetation in the N treatment than in the control. At Farabol, the field-layer vegetation seems to have acted as an important sink for N as opposed to the Billingsjoen clearcut where the field layer was sparse. The Norway spruce stands in SW Sweden had a similar N deposition, but the concentrations of nitrate in soil water and estimated leaching rates differed substantially. In the soil with the highest leaching rate, potential nitrification was largest and the C to N

  11. Water vapor-nitrogen absorption at CO2 laser frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, J. C.; Thomas, M. E.; Nordstrom, R. J.; Damon, E. K.; Long, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper reports the results of a series of pressure-broadened water vapor absorption measurements at 27 CO2 laser frequencies between 935 and 1082 kaysers. Both multiple traversal cell and optoacoustic (spectrophone) techniques were utilized together with an electronically stabilized CW CO2 laser. Comparison of the results obtained by these two methods shows remarkable agreement, indicating a precision which has not been previously achieved in pressure-broadened studies of water vapor. The data of 10.59 microns substantiate the existence of the large (greater than 200) self-broadening coefficients determined in an earlier study by McCoy. In this work, the case of water vapor in N2 at a total pressure of 1 atm has been treated.

  12. Catchment hydrochemical processes controlling acidity and nitrogen in forest stream water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foelster, Jens

    2001-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition of air pollutants has been a severe threat to terrestrial and forest ecosystems for several decades. In Sweden sulphur deposition has caused acidification of soils and runoff, while nitrogen deposition only had a minor or local impact on runoff quality so far. During the last three decades, emission control has caused a decline in sulphur deposition, whereas nitrogen deposition on the other hand, has continued to increase to a rate several times above the natural background level. Long term changes in runoff acidity and nitrogen chemistry after these changes in deposition are of great concern. Monitoring of small, well-defined catchments including hydrochemistry of precipitation, soil and runoff, is a valuable tool for addressing this concern. When interpreting runoff data from such sites, the near-stream zone has been identified to be of crucial importance. The main objective for this thesis was to explain how catchment processes were related to short-term variation and long-term trends in the hydrochemistry of forest stream water. The field work was conducted on the strongly acidified and nitrogen limited Kindla catchment, with a special emphasis on the relationship between the near-stream zone and both stream acidity and nitrogen leaching. Furthermore, time series of hydrochemistry in forest stream water from 13 catchments were analysed for changes in acidity and nitrogen leaching. In three of these sites, soil water from E- and B-horizons was also analysed with regards to these questions. The investigations revealed that the near-stream zone was a net source of acidity in runoff at Kindla due to leaching of organic acids, although this contribution was overshadowed by sulphate from upland soils and deposition. The near-stream zone was also the main source for both organic nitrogen and nitrate to the stream, but the leaching rate was low, especially for inorganic nitrogen. In the 13 reference streams, sulphate concentrations declined in

  13. Water quality and processes affecting dissolved oxygen concentrations in the Blackwater River, Canaan Valley, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, M.C.; Wiley, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    The water quality and environmental processes affecting dissolved oxygen were determined for the Blackwater River in Canaan Valley, West Virginia. Canaan Valley is oval-shaped (14 miles by 5 miles) and is located in the Allegheny Mountains at an average elevation of 3,200 feet above sea level. Tourism, population, and real estate development have increased in the past two decades. Most streams in Canaan Valley are a dilute calcium magnesium bicarbonate-type water. Streamwater typicaly was soft and low in alkalinity and dissolved solids. Maximum values for specific conductance, hardness, alkalinity, and dissolved solids occurred during low-flow periods when streamflow was at or near baseflow. Dissolved oxygen concentrations are most sensitive to processes affecting the rate of reaeration. The reaeration is affected by solubility (atmospheric pressure, water temperature, humidity, and cloud cover) and processes that determine stream turbulence (stream depth, width, velocity, and roughness). In the headwaters, photosynthetic dissolved oxygen production by benthic algae can result in supersaturated dissolved oxygen concentrations. In beaver pools, dissolved oxygen consumption from sediment oxygen demand and carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand can result in dissolved oxygen deficits.

  14. The role of vibrationally excited oxygen and nitrogen in the D and E regions of the ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pavlov

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of a study of the effect of vibrationally excited oxygen, O*2, and nitrogen, N*2, on the electron density, Ne, and the electron temperature, Te, in the D and E regions. The sources of O*2 are O-atom recombination, the photodissociation of O3, and the reaction of O3 with O at D region altitudes. The first calculations of O*2( j number densities, Nj, are obtained by solving continuity equations for the models of harmonic and anharmonic oscillator energy levels, j=1-22. It is found that day time values of Nj are less than nighttime values. We also show that the photoionization of O*2 ( j ≥ 11 by Lα-radiation has no influence on the D region Ne. In the nighttime D region the photoionization O*2 ( j ≥ 11 by scattered Lα-radiation can be a new source of O+2. We show that the N*2 and O*2 de-excitation effect on the electron temperature is small in the E region of the ionosphere and cannot explain experimentally observed higher electron temperatures.

  15. Improving biomass-derived carbon by activation with nitrogen and cobalt for supercapacitors and oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Man; Jin, Xin; Wang, Linan; Sun, Mengjia; Tang, Yang; Chen, Yongmei; Sun, Yanzhi; Yang, Xiaojin; Wan, Pingyu

    2017-07-01

    Biomass-derived carbon by activation with nitrogen and cobalt (denoted as NPACCo) was prepared by one-pot pyrolysis of pomelo peel with melamine, cobalt nitrate and potassium hydroxide, followed by acid leaching. NPACCo possesses high content of quaternary-N (2.5%) and pyridinic-N (1.7%), co-existences of amorphous and short-range ordered carbon, high specific surface area and pore structure with majority of micropores and small mesopores. As electrode material of supercapacitors, NPACCo exhibits high specific capacitance and good rate capability. At ultrahigh rate of 50 A g-1 (135 mA cm-2), the capacitance of NPACCo remains 246 F g-1, which is 6.3, 1.9 and 3.2 times as high as that of other three materials (PC, PAC and NPAC). The as-assembled symmetric supercapacitor of NPACCo delivers high energy density, high power density and excellent cycling stability. With respect to oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), NPACCo exhibits high onset potential (0.87 V), high half-wave potential (0.78 V), excellent methanol tolerance and low yield of H2O2. The ORR properties of NPACCo are comparable or superior to those of commercial Pt/C. This investigation of pomelo peel-based NPACCo would be valuable for development of both supercapacitor and ORR.

  16. Novel Co3O4 Nanoparticles/Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Composites with Extraordinary Catalytic Activity for Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaobing; Chen, Juan; Chen, Yuqing; Feng, Pingjing; Lai, Huixian; Li, Jintang; Luo, Xuetao

    2018-03-01

    Herein, Co3O4 nanoparticles/nitrogen-doped carbon (Co3O4/NPC) composites with different structures were prepared via a facile method. Structure control was achieved by the rational morphology design of ZIF-67 precursors, which were then pyrolyzed in air to obtain Co3O4/NPC composites. When applied as catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), the M-Co3O4/NPC composites derived from the flower-like ZIF-67 showed superior catalytic activities than those derived from the rhombic dodecahedron and hollow spherical ZIF-67. The former M-Co3O4/NPC composite displayed a small over-potential of 0.3 V, low onset potential of 1.41 V, small Tafel slope of 83 mV dec-1, and a desirable stability. (94.7% OER activity was retained after 10 h.) The excellent performance of the flower-like M-Co3O4/NPC composite in the OER was attributed to its favorable structure. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Memristive behaviour of Si-Al oxynitride thin films: the role of oxygen and nitrogen vacancies in the electroforming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blázquez, O.; Martín, G.; Camps, I.; Mariscal, A.; López-Vidrier, J.; Ramírez, J. M.; Hernández, S.; Estradé, S.; Peiró, F.; Serna, R.; Garrido, B.

    2018-06-01

    The resistive switching properties of silicon-aluminium oxynitride (SiAlON) based devices have been studied. Electrical transport mechanisms in both resistance states were determined, exhibiting an ohmic behaviour at low resistance and a defect-related Poole‑Frenkel mechanism at high resistance. Nevertheless, some features of the Al top-electrode are generated during the initial electroforming, suggesting some material modifications. An in-depth microscopic study at the nanoscale has been performed after the electroforming process, by acquiring scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images. The direct observation of the devices confirmed features on the top electrode with bubble-like appearance, as well as some precipitates within the SiAlON. Chemical analysis by electron energy loss spectroscopy has demonstrated that there is an out-diffusion of oxygen and nitrogen ions from the SiAlON layer towards the electrode, thus forming silicon-rich paths within the dielectric layer and indicating vacancy change to be the main mechanism in the resistive switching.

  18. Nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur containing heterocyclic compounds as analgesic drugs used as modulators of the nitroxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salat, Kinga; Moniczewski, Andrzej; Librowski, Tadeusz

    2013-03-01

    Numerous lines of evidence suggest that heterocyclic compounds used as analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-migraine agents can be potent regulators of the nitroxidative stress and targeting free nitrogen and oxygen radicals is a very promising strategy for future pain management. Both classical analgesics (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioid drugs) and many analgesic adjuvants, including desipramine, duloxetine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, escitalopram, phenytoin or carbamazepine and α-lipoic acid can modulate the balance between pro-oxidant and antioxidant processes in the mammalian tissues and these properties of drugs such as indomethacin, meloxicam, tenoxicam, valdecoxib or some metabolites of analgesic drugs formed by the activity of tissue peroxidases may contribute to their clinical efficacy and drug-related toxic effects, including gastrointestinal ulcers, hepatic failure, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, neutropenia, opiate-induced hyperalgesia and tolerance. The antioxidant capacities of novel heterocyclic compounds, including the compounds acting either by prevention of formation or catalyzed decomposition of peroxynitrite anion (ONOO-), namely the peroxynitrite decomposition catalysts or as superoxide (O2 •-)-scavengers which are the functional mimetics of superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes (SODm), as well as the derivatives of 6-nitro-3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-Nacylhydrazone (LASSBio-881) or γ-butyrolactone (LPP1, BM113, BM113A, BM138 and BM138A) are also discussed as potent and promising future heterocyclic analgesics.

  19. Generation and Role of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species Induced by Plasma, Lasers, Chemical Agents, and Other Systems in Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Nayansi; Ryu, Jae Jun

    2017-01-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) has been found to occur during inflammatory procedures, during cell ischemia, and in various crucial developmental processes such as cell differentiation and along cell signaling pathways. The most common sources of intracellular RONS are the mitochondrial electron transport system, NADH oxidase, and cytochrome P450. In this review, we analyzed the extracellular and intracellular sources of reactive species, their cell signaling pathways, the mechanisms of action, and their positive and negative effects in the dental field. In dentistry, ROS can be found—in lasers, photosensitizers, bleaching agents, cold plasma, and even resin cements, all of which contribute to the generation and prevalence of ROS. Nonthermal plasma has been used as a source of ROS for biomedical applications and has the potential for use with dental stem cells as well. There are different types of dental stem cells, but their therapeutic use remains largely untapped, with the focus currently on only periodontal ligament stem cells. More research is necessary in this area, including studies about ROS mechanisms with dental cells, along with the utilization of reactive species in redox medicine. Such studies will help to provide successful treatment modalities for various diseases. PMID:29204250

  20. Facile Synthesis of Nitrogen and Oxygen Co-Doped Clews of Carbon Nanobelts for Supercapacitors with Excellent Rate Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Yu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Facile synthesis of carbon materials with high heteroatom content, large specific surface area (SSA and hierarchical porous structure is critical for energy storage applications. In this study, nitrogen and oxygen co-doped clews of carbon nanobelts (NCNBs with hierarchical porous structures are successfully prepared by a carbonization and subsequent activation by using ladder polymer of hydroquinone and formaldehyde (LPHF as the precursor and ammonia as the activating agent. The hierarchical porous structures and ultra-high SSA (up to 2994 m2 g−1 can effectively facilitate the exchange and transportation of electrons and ions. Moreover, suitable heteroatom content is believed to modify the wettability of the carbon material. The as-prepared activated NCNBs-60 (the NCNBs activated by ammonia at 950 °C for 60 min possess a high capacitance of 282 F g−1 at the current density of 0.25 A g−1, NCNBs-45 (the NCNBs are activated by ammonia at 950 °C for 45 min and show an excellent capacity retention of 50.2% when the current density increase from 0.25 to 150 A g−1. Moreover, the NCNBs-45 electrode exhibits superior electrochemical stability with 96.2% capacity retention after 10,000 cycles at 5.0 A g−1. The newly prepared NCNBs thus show great potential in the field of energy storage.

  1. Real-Time, Non-Intrusive Detection of Liquid Nitrogen in Liquid Oxygen at High Pressure and High Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jagdish P.; Yueh, Fang-Yu; Kalluru, Rajamohan R.; Harrison, Louie

    2012-01-01

    An integrated fiber-optic Raman sensor has been designed for real-time, nonintrusive detection of liquid nitrogen in liquid oxygen (LOX) at high pressures and high flow rates in order to monitor the quality of LOX used during rocket engine ground testing. The integrated sensor employs a high-power (3-W) Melles Griot diode-pumped, solid-state (DPSS), frequency-doubled Nd:YAG 532- nm laser; a modified Raman probe that has built-in Raman signal filter optics; two high-resolution spectrometers; and photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) with selected bandpass filters to collect both N2 and O2 Raman signals. The PMT detection units are interfaced with National Instruments Lab- VIEW for fast data acquisition. Studies of sensor performance with different detection systems (i.e., spectrometer and PMT) were carried out. The concentration ratio of N2 and O2 can be inferred by comparing the intensities of the N2 and O2 Raman signals. The final system was fabricated to measure N2 and O2 gas mixtures as well as mixtures of liquid N2 and LOX

  2. Electrical conductivity and equation of state of liquid nitrogen, oxygen, benzene, and 1-butene shocked to 60 GPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, D.C.

    1986-10-08

    Measurements are reported for the electrical conductivity of liquid nitrogen (N/sub 2/), oxygen (O/sub 2/) and benzene (C/sub 6/H/sub 6/), and Hugoniot equation of state of liquid 1-butene (C/sub 4/H/sub 8/) under shock compressed conditions. The conductivity data span 7 x 10/sup -4/ to 7 x 10/sup 1/ ..cap omega../sup -1/cm/sup -1/ over a dynamic pressure range 18.1 to 61.5 GPa and are discussed in terms of amorphous semiconduction models which include such transport phenomena as hopping, percolation, pseudogaps, and metallization. Excellent agreement is found between the equation-of-state measurements, which span a dynamic pressure range 12.3 to 53.8 GPa, and Ree's calculated values which assume a 2-phase mixture consisting of molecular hydrogen and carbon in a dense diamond-like phase. There is a 2-1/2 fold increase in the thermal pressure contribution over a less dense, stoichiometrically equivalent liquid. 90 refs., 48 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Radiobiological investigations of soft X-rays near carbon, nitrogen, oxygen K-shell edges on Aspergillus oryzae spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.; Jiang, S. P.; Wan, L. B.; Ma, X. D.; Li, M. F.

    2008-01-01

    Soft X-rays at carbon, nitrogen, oxygen K-shell edges have special radiobiological effects. Using Aspergillus oryzae spores as sample, the radiation effects of soft X-rays near the K-shell edges of C, N and O elements from synchrotron radiation were investigated. Also the dose depositions of different X-ray energies in spore were discussed. At the same time, the spores were irradiated by gamma rays from 60 Co and relative biological effects were compared with those produced by soft X-rays. The results showed that soft X-rays near K-shell edges of O element had higher ability of radiation damage than that of X-rays near K-shell edges of C and N elements as compared with one another. But they all had higher killing abilities per unit dose than that of gamma rays from 60 Co. The relative biological effects (RBEs), the comparison of dose to gamma rays at 10% survival level, of the three soft X-rays were 1.65, 1.73 and 1.91, respectively. (authors)

  4. Oxygen and nitrogen plasma etching of three-dimensional hydroxyapatite/chitosan scaffolds fabricated by additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Sung-Woon; Kim, Byung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) chitosan and hydroxyapatite (HAp)/chitosan (CH) scaffolds were fabricated by additive manufacturing, then their surfaces were etched with oxygen (O2) and nitrogen (N2) plasma. O2 and N2 plasma etching was performed to increase surface properties such as hydrophilicity, roughness, and surface chemistry on the scaffolds. After etching, hydroxyapatite was exposed on the surface of 3D HAp/CH scaffolds. The surface morphology and chemical properties were characterized by contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and attenuated total reflection Fourier infrared spectroscopy. The cell viability of 3D chitosan scaffolds was examined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The differentiation of preosteoblast cells was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase assay. The cell viability was improved by O2 and N2 plasma etching of 3D chitosan scaffolds. The present fabrication process for 3D scaffolds might be applied to a potential tool for preparing biocompatible scaffolds.

  5. Yield Traits and Water and Nitrogen Use Efficiencies of Bell Pepper Grown in Plastic-Greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Candido

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of a two-year study assessing the effects of nitrogen fertilization and irrigation regimes on yield traits and on water and nitrogen use efficiency of greenhouse-grown bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.. The trials involved the combination of four N doses (0, 100, 200, 300 kg ha-1 with two irrigation regimes (100% restitution of ETc; repeated cycles of water stress starting from fruit set. In the second year, the crop was transplanted one month earlier than in the first year and was mulched with plastic sheeting. The highest yield in both years was obtained by associating 100% restitution of ETc and the N dose of 200 kg ha-1. The marketable yields were 37 and 72 t ha-1 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. Doubling of the yield in the second year was probably due to the earlier transplantation and mulching, confirming the numerous benefits of the latter technique. The water deficit imposed during the late flowering-early fruit set phase had negative effects on the crop, with declines of the marketable yield of up to 44% due to the reduced number and weight of the fruit and the increased waste, mainly peppers with blossom-end rot, cracking, sun-burn and malformations. The peppers grown under water stress were richer in dry matter and soluble solids. The yield declines due to water deficit varied in relation to the N dose, as confirmed by the numerous interactions recorded between irrigation regime and nitrogen level.Without nitrogen fertilization, the quantity and quality of the fruits remained unchanged, while the maximum dose (300 kg ha-1 enhanced the negative effects of the water deficit on the number (-52% and weight (-161% of marketable peppers. Moreover, the waste peppers reached 31% of the total production (by weight, with over 21% affected by blossom-end rot. Water stress led to a drastic reduction of the total above-ground dry biomass (40% and a significant decrease of nitrogen absorption by the plant (54% with preferential

  6. Bromorhodamines - new singlet oxygen photosensitizers for oxidative water and wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slivka, L.; Alekseeva, V.; Kuznetsova, N.; Marinina, L.; Savvina, L.; Kaliya, O.; Lukyanets, E.; Vorozhtsov, G. [Organic Intermediates and Dyes Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Krasnovsky, A.; Butorina, D. [Inst. of Biochemistry RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-01

    The cationic mono-, di- and tetrabromoderivatives of rhodamine 123 have been synthesized and studied as sensitizers for singlet oxygen formation in application for oxidative water treatment. Singlet oxygen quantum yields for compounds under investigation have been determined by using its near IR luminescence at 1270 nm. Bromorhodamines123 have been shown to sensitize the formation of singlet oxygen in aqueous solution with high quantum yields. Efficient oxidation of tryptophan in aqueous solutions sensitized by dibromorhodamine 123 has been demonstrated. This dye was tested as sensitizer for photodynamic treatment of water contaminated with coliform bacteria. It was shown to participate in the photosensitization of coliform bacteria, resulting in their efficient killing. (orig.)

  7. Are nitrate exports in stream water linked to nitrogen fluxes in decomposing foliar litter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn B. Piatek; Mary Beth. Adams

    2011-01-01

    The central hardwood forest receives some of the highest rates of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, which results in nitrate leaching to surface waters. Immobilization of N in foliar litter during litter decomposition represents a potential mechanism for temporal retention of atmospherically deposited N in forest ecosystems. When litter N dynamics switch to the N-...

  8. Water and nitrogen dynamics in rotational woodlots of five tree species in western Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyadzi, G.I.; Janssen, B.H.; Otsyina, R.M.; Booltink, H.W.G.; Ong, C.K.; Oenema, O.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of woodlots of five tree species, continuous maize (Zea mays L.) and natural fallow on soil water and nitrogen dynamics in western Tanzania. The tree species evaluated were Acacia crassicarpa (A. Cunn. ex Benth.), Acacia julifera ( Berth.),

  9. Environmental Systems Simulations for Carbon, Energy, Nitrogen, Water, and Watersheds: Design Principles and Pilot Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lant, C.; Pérez Lapena, B.; Xiong, W.; Kraft, S.; Kowalchuk, R.; Blair, M.

    2016-01-01

    Guided by the Next Generation Science Standards and elements of problem-based learning, four human-environment systems simulations are described in brief—carbon, energy, water, and watershed—and a fifth simulation on nitrogen is described in more depth. These science, technology, engineering, and

  10. Effect of water intake on the nitrogen balance of sheep fed a low or a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of water intake on the nitrogen balance of sheep fed a low or a medium protein diet. JG van der Walt, EA Boomker, A Meintjes, WA Schultheiss. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  11. The water vapor nitrogen process for removing sodium from LMFBR components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crippen, M D; Funk, C W; Lutton, J M [Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Richland (United States)

    1978-08-01

    Application and operation of the Water Vapor-Nitrogen Process for removing sodium from LMFBR components is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on recent efforts to verify the technological bases of the process, to refine the values of process parameters and to ensure the utility of the process for cleaning and requalifying components. (author)

  12. WATER CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF CASTOR BEAN PARAGUAÇÚ CULTIVAR SUBMITTED TO NITROGEN FERTILIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Helena Garófalo Chaves; Hans Raj Ghey; Susane Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Although the productivity of castor bean reduces under water deficit it is considered resistant to low precipitation conditions, thus constituting an alternative form of income for the semi-arid. The scarce information about the effect of nitrogen fertilization on water consumption and efficiency of use motivated this study. The study was conducted in a greenhouse located at the Federal University of Campina Grande – Campus I, with plants arranged in a factorial design with three replications...

  13. The stress corrosion cracking of type 316 stainless steel in oxygenated and chlorinated high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congleton, J.; Shih, H.C.; Shoji, T.; Parkins, R.N.

    1985-01-01

    Slow strain rate stress corrosion tests have been performed on Type 316 stainless steel in 265 C water containing from 0 to 45 ppm oxygen and from < 0.1 to 1000 ppm chloride. The main difference between the present data and previously published results, the latter mainly for Type 304 stainless steel, is that as well as cracking occurring in water containing high oxygen and chloride, it is shown that a cracking regime exists at very low oxygen contents for a wide range of chloride contents. The type of cracking varies with the oxygen and chloride content of the water and the most severe cracking was of comparable extent in both the gauge length and the necked region of the specimen. The least severe cracking only caused cracks to occur in the necked region of the specimen and there was a range of oxygen and chloride contents in which no cracking occurred. The rest potential for annealed Type 316 stainless steel has been mapped for a wide range of oxygen and chloride content waters and it is shown that at 265 C the 'no-cracking' regime of the oxygen-chloride diagram corresponds to potentials in the range -200 to +150 mV(SHE). (author)

  14. Prospects for detecting oxygen, water, and chlorophyll on an exo-Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Timothy D; Spiegel, David S

    2014-09-16

    The goal of finding and characterizing nearby Earth-like planets is driving many NASA high-contrast flagship mission concepts, the latest of which is known as the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST). In this article, we calculate the optimal spectral resolution R = λ/δλ and minimum signal-to-noise ratio per spectral bin (SNR), two central design requirements for a high-contrast space mission, to detect signatures of water, oxygen, and chlorophyll on an Earth twin. We first develop a minimally parametric model and demonstrate its ability to fit synthetic and observed Earth spectra; this allows us to measure the statistical evidence for each component's presence. We find that water is the easiest to detect, requiring a resolution R ≳ 20, while the optimal resolution for oxygen is likely to be closer to R = 150, somewhat higher than the canonical value in the literature. At these resolutions, detecting oxygen will require approximately two times the SNR as water. Chlorophyll requires approximately six times the SNR as oxygen for an Earth twin, only falling to oxygen-like levels of detectability for a low cloud cover and/or a large vegetation covering fraction. This suggests designing a mission for sensitivity to oxygen and adopting a multitiered observing strategy, first targeting water, then oxygen on the more favorable planets, and finally chlorophyll on only the most promising worlds.

  15. Nitrogen use efficiency evaluation of aerobic rice under field capacity water potential using {sup 15}N isotopic tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahid, Ahmad Nazrul Abd, E-mail: a-nazrul@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my [Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahim, Sahibin Abd, E-mail: haiyan@ukm.edu.my [Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahim, Khairuddin Abdul; Harun, Abdul Rahim [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency use of the nitrogen fertilizer on aerobic rice varieties MR219-4 and MR219-9 which were grown aerobically under field capacity water potential at the controlled environment area or shield house. Direct {sup 15}N isotope tracer method was used in this study, whereby the {sup 15}N isotope was utilized as a tracer for nitrogen nutrient uptake. {sup 15}N isotope presence in the samples is determined by using emission spectrometer analysis and percentage of total nitrogen is determined by using Kjeldahl method. {sup 15}N atom access value contained in the sample will be used in determining the effectiveness of the use of nitrogen in fertilizers through the specific calculation formulas. In this work, the data several data of nitrogen derived from fertilizer (Ndff), total nitrogen, nitrogen uptake and nitrogen use efficiency was obtained.

  16. Nitrogen use efficiency evaluation of aerobic rice under field capacity water potential using 15N isotopic tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, Ahmad Nazrul Abd; Rahim, Sahibin Abd; Rahim, Khairuddin Abdul; Harun, Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency use of the nitrogen fertilizer on aerobic rice varieties MR219-4 and MR219-9 which were grown aerobically under field capacity water potential at the controlled environment area or shield house. Direct 15 N isotope tracer method was used in this study, whereby the 15 N isotope was utilized as a tracer for nitrogen nutrient uptake. 15 N isotope presence in the samples is determined by using emission spectrometer analysis and percentage of total nitrogen is determined by using Kjeldahl method. 15 N atom access value contained in the sample will be used in determining the effectiveness of the use of nitrogen in fertilizers through the specific calculation formulas. In this work, the data several data of nitrogen derived from fertilizer (Ndff), total nitrogen, nitrogen uptake and nitrogen use efficiency was obtained

  17. Investigation of electric discharge treatment of water for ammonium nitrogen removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, O.B.; Shubin, B.G.

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of water purification from ammonium nitrogen using pulsed electric discharge in water-air mixtures was investigated. The model solution of chlorous ammonium was used in experiments. The concentration of ions ammonium was about 300 mg/l. Achieved reduction of ammonium concentration was about 35%. In this paper the mechanism of this process is discussed. The ways to increasing efficiency of this method are proposed

  18. Evaluation of soil water and plant nitrogen Status by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichardt, K.; Kirda, C.; Zapata, F.; Hardarson, G.; Axmann, H.

    1984-01-01

    Methodologies used to estimate soil water and nitrogen status of crops in field experiments are studied. Sampling procedures in a pasture experiment, consisting of three soil transects of 1.8 x 96m, one bare, one cropped to rye grass and one to alfafa, are discussed. Data are analysed with respect to soil water contents measured through the use of neutron probes, N fertilizer uptake using 15 N labelled fertilizer and N 2 fixation, also using isotopic methodology. (Author) [pt

  19. Ruthenium supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes for the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline electrolyte; Poster

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabena, LF

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available . Recently, several researchers have shown that nitrogen modified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are good electrocatalyst supports and that they enhance the electrocatalytic activity for the ORR. Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) prepared via thermal chemical...

  20. Pulsating potentiometric titration technique for assay of dissolved oxygen in water at trace level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, P; Ananthanarayanan, R; Malathi, N; Rajiniganth, M P; Murali, N; Swaminathan, P

    2010-06-11

    A simple but high performance potentiometric titration technique using pulsating sensors has been developed for assay of dissolved oxygen (DO) in water samples down to 10.0 microg L(-1) levels. The technique involves Winkler titration chemistry, commonly used for determination of dissolved oxygen in water at mg L(-1) levels, with modification in methodology for accurate detection of end point even at 10.0 microg L(-1) levels DO present in the sample. An indigenously built sampling cum pretreatment vessel has been deployed for collection and chemical fixing of dissolved oxygen in water samples from flowing water line without exposure to air. A potentiometric titration facility using pulsating sensors developed in-house is used to carry out titration. The power of the titration technique has been realised in estimation of very dilute solution of iodine equivalent to 10 microg L(-1) O(2). Finally, several water samples containing dissolved oxygen from mg L(-1) to microg L(-1) levels were successfully analysed with excellent reproducibility using this new technique. The precision in measurement of DO in water at 10 microg L(-1) O(2) level is 0.14 (n=5), RSD: 1.4%. Probably for the first time a potentiometric titration technique has been successfully deployed for assay of dissolved oxygen in water samples at 10 microg L(-1) levels. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pulsating potentiometric titration technique for assay of dissolved oxygen in water at trace level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, P.; Ananthanarayanan, R.; Malathi, N.; Rajiniganth, M.P.; Murali, N.; Swaminathan, P.

    2010-01-01

    A simple but high performance potentiometric titration technique using pulsating sensors has been developed for assay of dissolved oxygen (DO) in water samples down to 10.0 μg L -1 levels. The technique involves Winkler titration chemistry, commonly used for determination of dissolved oxygen in water at mg L -1 levels, with modification in methodology for accurate detection of end point even at 10.0 μg L -1 levels DO present in the sample. An indigenously built sampling cum pretreatment vessel has been deployed for collection and chemical fixing of dissolved oxygen in water samples from flowing water line without exposure to air. A potentiometric titration facility using pulsating sensors developed in-house is used to carry out titration. The power of the titration technique has been realised in estimation of very dilute solution of iodine equivalent to 10 μg L -1 O 2 . Finally, several water samples containing dissolved oxygen from mg L -1 to μg L -1 levels were successfully analysed with excellent reproducibility using this new technique. The precision in measurement of DO in water at 10 μg L -1 O 2 level is 0.14 (n = 5), RSD: 1.4%. Probably for the first time a potentiometric titration technique has been successfully deployed for assay of dissolved oxygen in water samples at 10 μg L -1 levels.

  2. Influence of Water Activated by Far infrared Porous Ceramics on Nitrogen Absorption in the Pig Feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Junping; Liu, Jie; Liang, Jinsheng; Zhang, Hongchen; Ding, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Under modern and, intensive feeding livestock and poultry density has increased, and brought a deterioration of the farm environment. The livestock and their excrement generate harmful gases such as ammonia, etc. which restricted the sustainable development and improvement of production efficiency of animal husbandry. In this paper, a new kind of far infrared porous ceramics was prepared to activate, the animal drinking water. The activated water and common water were then supplied to pigs, and the fresh pig feces of experimental group and:control group were collected on a regular basis. The residual protein content in feces was tested by Kjeldahl nitrogen method to study the influence law of the porous ceramics on absorbing nitrogen element in animal feces. The results showed that compared with the control group, the protein content in the experimental group decreased on average by 39.2%. The activated drinking water was conducive to the absorption of nitrogen in pig feed. The clusters of water molecules became smaller under the action of the porous ceramics. Hence, they were easy to pass through the water protein channel on the cell membrane for speeding up the metabolism.

  3. Response of Cotton to Irrigation Methods and Nitrogen Fertilization: Yield Components, Water-Use Efficiency, Nitrogen Uptake, and Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.

    2009-01-01

    Efficient crop use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer is critical from economic and environmental viewpoints, especially under irrigated conditions. Cotton yield parameters, fiber quality, water- and N-use efficiency responses to N, and irrigation methods in northern Syria were evaluated. Field trials were conducted for two growing seasons on a Chromoxerertic Rhodoxeralf soil. Treatments consisted of drip fertigation, furrow irrigation, and five different rates of N fertilizer (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg N /ha). Cotton was irrigated when soil moisture in the specified active root depth was 80% of the field capacity as indicated by the neutron probe. Seed cotton yield was higher than the national average (3,928 kg/ha) by at least 12% as compared to all treatments. Lint properties were not negatively affected by the irrigation method or N rates. Water savings under drip fertigation ranged between 25 and 50% of irrigation water relative to furrow irrigation. Crop water-use efficiencies of the drip-fertigated treatments were in most cases 100% higher than those of the corresponding furrow-irrigated treatments. The highest water demand was during the fruit-setting growth stage. It was also concluded that under drip fertigation, 100 -150 N kg/ha was adequate and comparable with the highest N rates tested under furrow irrigation regarding lint yield, N uptake, and recovery. Based on cotton seed yield and weight of stems, the overall amount of N removed from the field for the drip-fertigated treatments ranged between 101-118 kg and 116-188 N/ha for 2001 and 2002, respectively. The N removal ranged between 94-113 and 111-144 kg N/ha for the furrow-irrigated treatments for 2001 and 2002, respectively. (author)

  4. Combined impact of water column oxygen and temperature on internal oxygen status and growth of Zostera marina seedlings and adult shoots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Ane-Marie Løvendahl; Borum, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) occasionally experiences severe die-offs during warm summer periods with variable water column oxygen partial pressures (pO). Eelgrass is known to be very intolerant to tissue anoxia with reduced growth and increasing mortality after ≤12h anoxia in the dark...... at temperatures of ≥25°C. In the present study we experimentally examine the impact of combined water column oxygen and temperature on oxygen dynamics in leaf meristems of seedlings and adult shoots to better understand how stressful environmental conditions affect eelgrass oxygen dynamics and subsequent growth...... and mortality. There was a strong interaction between water column oxygen and temperature on meristem pO implying that eelgrass is rather resistant to unfavorable oxygen conditions in winter but becomes increasingly vulnerable in summer, especially at high temperatures. At 25°C meristems became anoxic...

  5. Treatment of iron(II)-rich acid mine water with limestone and oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajane, G B; Maree, J P; Panichev, N

    2014-01-01

    The main components of acid mine water are free acid, sulphate, and Fe²⁺. Limestone is the most cost-effective alkali that can be used for neutralization. The purpose of this investigation was to identify conditions where Fe²⁺ is removed with limestone and simultaneously oxidized with oxygen to Fe³⁺, in a polyvinyl chloride pipe under pressure. Gypsum scaling is prevented by passing rubber balls through the pipe of the so-called Oxygen-Pipe-Neutralization (OPeN) process pilot plant. Two synthetic waters were treated: (A) acid mine water containing 123 mg L⁻¹ Fe²⁺ representing gold mine water, and (B) acid mine water containing 6,032 mg L⁻¹ Fe²⁺ representing coal mine water. Batch studies were carried out in a pipe reactor and showed that the rate of Fe²⁺ oxidation depended on the Fe²⁺ concentration, oxygen pressure, amount of recycled sludge, limestone dosage and the mixing rate. Continuous studies in an OPeN process pilot plant resulted in 100% removal of total acidity from synthetic coal mine water and a 98% removal from synthetic gold mine water. Fe²⁺ was removed completely as precipitated Fe(OH)₃ from both synthetic coal and gold mine water at around pH 7 at 200 and 100 kPa oxygen pressure, respectively.

  6. Quality of jackfruit seedlings under saline water stress and nitrogen fertilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ítalo Fernandes de Oliveira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The lack of good quality water for agriculture purposes regarding salts and quantity in relation to demand for the plants has, for more than 30 years, been forcing the use of restrictive water because of salinity issues in agricultural production systems worldwide. In Brazil, the situation is no different, in the semi-arid areas, there are reports of losses of seed germination, initial growth of seedlings and yield of crops of commercial importance due to the salinity of the water used in irrigation systems. Therefore, an experiment was carried out from June to September/2014 in a protected environment, with a plastic film on the upper base and a thin screen against insects on the sides, to evaluate the effects of salinity interaction between water irrigation and nitrogen fertilisation sources on soil salinity, initial plant growth and the quality of the jackfruit seedlings. The treatments were distributed in randomised blocks, in the factorial scheme 5 × 3, reference irrigation water of 0.3, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 dS m-1, in soil with and without ammonium sulfate and urea. An increase in the salinity of the irrigation water to 1.32 and 1.70 dS m-1 on the substrate without nitrogen stimulated an increase in the number of leaves and leaf area of the jackfruit seedlings. The ammonium sulfate was the nitrogen source that mainly contributed to the increase of soil salinity and to the reduction of the quality index of the seedlings. Despite the reduction of the Dickson quality index due to the salinity of the irrigation water and the nitrogen sources, the seedlings were suitable for cultivation.

  7. Nitrogen transformations in a waterhyacinth-based water treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhead, K.K.; Reddy, K.R.; Graetz, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Fate of added 15 NH 4 -N and 15 NO 3 -N in waterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms]-based water treatment system was evaluated under controlled conditions. Labeled 15 NH 4 -N uptake by waterhyacinth exceeded 15 NO 3 -N uptake. Total 15 N recovery by waterhyacinth ranged from 57 to 72% for added 15 NO 3 -N and 70 to 89% for added 15 NH 4 -N. Both sediment and detritus were potential sources of N for waterhyacinths. Waterhyacinths cultured in sewage effluent removed 55% of the added 15 NH 4 -N and 14% of the added 15 NO 3 -N, respectively. Three to 44% of the added 15 NH 4 -N was lost through nitrification in the water column and subsequent denitrification in the underlying sediments, whereas 24 to 86% of the added 15 NO 3 -N was lost through denitrification. In a system without plants, 13 to 89% of the added 15 NH 4 -N and 48 to 96% of the added 15 NO 3 -N were lost from the system through a combination of nitrification/denitrification and NH 3 volatilization

  8. Study on the preparation and stability of uranium carbide samples for the determination of oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen by fusion under high vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Garcia, M.

    1966-01-01

    In view of the high reactivity of uranium carbide, the method employed for the preparation of the sample for the analysis of its gas content: oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen, has a decisive influence on the analytical results. The variation in the O 2 , H 2 and N 2 content of the uranium carbide has been studied in this paper with the methods utilized for the sample preparation (grinding and cutting). (Author) 9 refs

  9. Oxygen reduction reaction properties of nitrogen-incorporated nanographenes synthesized using in-liquid plasma from mixture of ethanol and iron phthalocyanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Tomoki; Kondo, Hiroki; Takeda, Keigo; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hiramatsu, Mineo; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2018-04-01

    Nanographenes were synthesized using in-liquid plasma from a mixture of iron phthalocyanine and ethanol. In a previous study, micrometer-scale flakes with nitrogen incorporation were obtained. A nonprecious metal catalytic activity was observed with 3.13 electrons in an oxygen reduction reaction under an acidic solute condition. Large-surface-area, high-graphene-crystallinity, and iron-carbon-bonding sites were found owing to a high catalytic activity in Fe-N/nanographene.

  10. Yield of Ozone, Nitrite Nitrogen and Hydrogen Peroxide Versus Discharge Parameter Using APPJ Under Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bingyan; Wen Wen; Zhu Changping; Wang Yuan; Gao Ying; Fei Juntao; He Xiang; Yin Cheng; Jiang Yongfeng; Chen Longwei

    2016-01-01

    Discharge plasma in and in contact with water can be accompanied with ultraviolet radiation and electron impact, thus can generate hydroxyl radicals, ozone, nitrite nitrogen and hydrogen peroxide. In this paper, a non-equilibrium plasma processing system was established by means of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet immersed in water. The hydroxyl intensities and discharge energy waveforms were tested. The results show that the positive and negative discharge energy peaks were asymmetric, where the positive discharge energy peak was greater than the negative one. Meanwhile, the yield of ozone and nitrite nitrogen was enhanced with the increase of both the treatment time and the discharge energy. Moreover, the pH value of treated water was reduced rapidly and maintained at a lower level. The residual concentration of hydrogen peroxide in APPJ treated water was kept at a low level. Additionally, both the efficiency energy ratio of the yield of ozone and nitrite nitrogen and that of the removal of p-nitrophenol increased as a function of discharge energy and discharge voltage. The experimental results were fully analyzed and the chemical reaction equations and the physical processes of discharges in water were given. (paper)

  11. Modelling mitigation options to reduce diffuse nitrogen water pollution from agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouraoui, Fayçal; Grizzetti, Bruna

    2014-01-15

    Agriculture is responsible for large scale water quality degradation and is estimated to contribute around 55% of the nitrogen entering the European Seas. The key policy instrument for protecting inland, transitional and coastal water resources is the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Reducing nutrient losses from agriculture is crucial to the successful implementation of the WFD. There are several mitigation measures that can be implemented to reduce nitrogen losses from agricultural areas to surface and ground waters. For the selection of appropriate measures, models are useful for quantifying the expected impacts and the associated costs. In this article we review some of the models used in Europe to assess the effectiveness of nitrogen mitigation measures, ranging from fertilizer management to the construction of riparian areas and wetlands. We highlight how the complexity of models is correlated with the type of scenarios that can be tested, with conceptual models mostly used to evaluate the impact of reduced fertilizer application, and the physically-based models used to evaluate the timing and location of mitigation options and the response times. We underline the importance of considering the lag time between the implementation of measures and effects on water quality. Models can be effective tools for targeting mitigation measures (identifying critical areas and timing), for evaluating their cost effectiveness, for taking into consideration pollution swapping and considering potential trade-offs in contrasting environmental objectives. Models are also useful for involving stakeholders during the development of catchments mitigation plans, increasing their acceptability. © 2013.

  12. Electrochemical Synthesis of Ammonia from Water and Nitrogen using a Pt/GDC/Pt Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Nam; Yoo, Chung-Yul; Joo, Jong Hoon; Yu, Ji Haeng; Sharma, Monika; Yoon, Hyung Chul; Jeoung, Hana; Song, Ki Chang

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical ammonia synthesis from water and nitrogen using a Pt/GDC/Pt cell was experimentally investigated. Electrochemical analysis and ammonia synthesis in the moisture-saturated nitrogen environment were performed under the operating temperature range 400-600 .deg. C and the applied potential range OCV (Open Circuit Voltage)-1.2V. Even though the ammonia synthesis rate was augmented with the increase in the operating temperature (i.e.. increase in the applied current) under the constant potential, the faradaic efficiency was decreased because of the limitation of dissociative chemisorption of nitrogen on the Pt electrode. The maximum synthesis rate of ammonia was 3.67x10 -11 mols -1 cm -2 with 0.1% faradaic efficiency at 600 .deg. C

  13. Electrochemical Synthesis of Ammonia from Water and Nitrogen using a Pt/GDC/Pt Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Nam; Yoo, Chung-Yul; Joo, Jong Hoon; Yu, Ji Haeng; Sharma, Monika; Yoon, Hyung Chul [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeoung, Hana; Song, Ki Chang [Konyang University, Nonsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Electrochemical ammonia synthesis from water and nitrogen using a Pt/GDC/Pt cell was experimentally investigated. Electrochemical analysis and ammonia synthesis in the moisture-saturated nitrogen environment were performed under the operating temperature range 400-600 .deg. C and the applied potential range OCV (Open Circuit Voltage)-1.2V. Even though the ammonia synthesis rate was augmented with the increase in the operating temperature (i.e.. increase in the applied current) under the constant potential, the faradaic efficiency was decreased because of the limitation of dissociative chemisorption of nitrogen on the Pt electrode. The maximum synthesis rate of ammonia was 3.67x10{sup -11} mols{sup -1}cm{sup -2} with 0.1% faradaic efficiency at 600 .deg. C.

  14. The effect of molybdenum addition on SCC susceptibility of stainless steels in oxygenated high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, Masatsune; Kawamoto, Teruaki

    1978-01-01

    The effect of molybdenum addition on the SCC susceptibility of sensitized stainless steel in oxygenated high temperature water has been studied through the creviced bent beam SCC test (CBB test) and A262E intergranular corrosion test. The molybdenum addition improved the SCC susceptibility of sensitized stainless steels in oxygenated high temperature water not only by delaying the sensitization at lower temperatures but also by increasing the material resistance to the SCC under a given degree of sensitization. These laboratory test results reveal that the molybdenum addition is quite beneficial for improving the SCC susceptibility of stainless steel pipe weld joints in boiling water reactor environment. (auth.)

  15. Improving the capacity of lithium-sulfur batteries by tailoring the polysulfide adsorption efficiency of hierarchical oxygen/nitrogen-functionalized carbon host materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Artur; Janek, Jürgen; Brezesinski, Torsten

    2017-03-22

    The use of monolithic carbons with structural hierarchy and varying amounts of nitrogen and oxygen functionalities as sulfur host materials in high-loading lithium-sulfur cells is reported. The primary focus is on the strength of the polysulfide/carbon interaction with the goal of assessing the effect of (surface) dopant concentration on cathode performance. The adsorption capacity - which is a measure of the interaction strength between the intermediate lithium polysulfide species and the carbon - was found to scale almost linearly with the nitrogen level. Likewise, the discharge capacity of lithium-sulfur cells increased linearly. This positive correlation can be explained by the favorable effect of nitrogen on both the chemical and electronic properties of the carbon host. The incorporation of additional oxygen-containing surface groups into highly nitrogen-functionalized carbon helped to further enhance the polysulfide adsorption efficiency, and therefore the reversible cell capacity. Overall, the areal capacity could be increased by almost 70% to around 3 mA h cm -2 . We believe that the design parameters described here provide a blueprint for future carbon-based nanocomposites for high-performance lithium-sulfur cells.

  16. Determining water and nitrogen balances for beneficial management practices using lysimeters at Wagna test site (Austria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klammler, Gernot; Fank, Johann

    2014-11-15

    The shallow Murtal aquifer south of Graz, Austria, provides easily withdrawable groundwater, which is supplied as drinking water without any chemical treatment. The aquifer is also used intensively by agriculture. Common agricultural management practices are the main source for diffuse nitrogen leaching and high groundwater nitrate concentrations. To safeguard the coexisting use of these two important resources, lysimeters are operated at the agricultural test site Wagna, Austria, and the influence of two beneficial management practices--low nitrogen input and organic farming--on nitrogen leaching towards groundwater is investigated. The technical lysimeter design as presented here consists of: (1) high-resolution weighing cells, (2) a suction controlled lower boundary condition for sucking off seepage water, thus emulating undisturbed field conditions, (3) comparative soil temperature, water content and matrix potential measurements inside and outside the lysimeter at different depths, (4) an installation of the lysimeters directly into test plots and (5) a removable upper lysimeter ring enabling machinery soil tillage. Our results indicate that oasis effects or fringe effects of the lysimeter cylinder on unsaturated water flow did not occur. Another lysimeter cultivated with lawn is operated for observing grass-reference evapotranspiration, which resulted in good agreement with calculated grass-reference evapotranspiration according to the FAO-Penman-Monteith method. We conclude that lysimeters installed at Wagna test site did not show any fringe effects and, thus, are appropriate tools for measuring water balance elements and nitrogen leaching of arable and grass land at point scale. Furthermore, our results for the period of 2005 to 2011 show that beneficial management practices reduced nitrate leaching and, hence, may allow for a sustainable coexistence of drinking water supply and agriculture in the Murtal aquifer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  17. Efficient Visible Light Nitrogen Fixation with BiOBr Nanosheets of Oxygen Vacancies on the Exposed {001} Facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Shang, Jian; Ai, Zhihui; Zhang, Lizhi

    2015-05-20

    Even though the well-established Haber-Bosch process has been the major artificial way to "fertilize" the earth, its energy-intensive nature has been motivating people to learn from nitrogenase, which can fix atmospheric N2 to NH3 in vivo under mild conditions with its precisely arranged proteins. Here we demonstrate that efficient fixation of N2 to NH3 can proceed under room temperature and atmospheric pressure in water using visible light illuminated BiOBr nanosheets of oxygen vacancies in the absence of any organic scavengers and precious-metal cocatalysts. The designed catalytic oxygen vacancies of BiOBr nanosheets on the exposed {001} facets, with the availability of localized electrons for π-back-donation, have the ability to activate the adsorbed N2, which can thus be efficiently reduced to NH3 by the interfacial electrons transferred from the excited BiOBr nanosheets. This study might open up a new vista to fix atmospheric N2 to NH3 through the less energy-demanding photochemical process.

  18. Water hardness and the effects of Cd on oxygen consumption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRINIE

    2004-01-01

    Jan 1, 2004 ... regulatory and acid-base balance disturbances (Goss and Wood,. 1988). An increase in .... tanks, tap water and from a borehole at the farm Rooipoort 29 ..... lethal environmental copper exposure on the energy metabolism of.

  19. Detection and Characterization of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in Biological Systems by Monitoring Species-Specific Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Micael; Zielonka, Jacek; Karoui, Hakim; Sikora, Adam; Michalski, Radosław; Podsiadły, Radosław; Lopez, Marcos; Vasquez-Vivar, Jeannette; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Ouari, Olivier

    2018-05-20

    Since the discovery of the superoxide dismutase enzyme, the generation and fate of short-lived oxidizing, nitrosating, nitrating, and halogenating species in biological systems has been of great interest. Despite the significance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in numerous diseases and intracellular signaling, the rigorous detection of ROS and RNS has remained a challenge. Recent Advances: Chemical characterization of the reactions of selected ROS and RNS with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin traps and fluorescent probes led to the establishment of species-specific products, which can be used for specific detection of several forms of ROS and RNS in cell-free systems and in cultured cells in vitro and in animals in vivo. Profiling oxidation products from the ROS and RNS probes provides a rigorous method for detection of those species in biological systems. Formation and detection of species-specific products from the probes enables accurate characterization of the oxidative environment in cells. Measurement of the total signal (fluorescence, chemiluminescence, etc.) intensity does not allow for identification of the ROS/RNS formed. It is critical to identify the products formed by using chromatographic or other rigorous techniques. Product analyses should be accompanied by monitoring of the intracellular probe level, another factor controlling the yield of the product(s) formed. More work is required to characterize the chemical reactivity of the ROS/RNS probes, and to develop new probes/detection approaches enabling real-time, selective monitoring of the specific products formed from the probes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 1416-1432.

  20. DISEQUILIBRIUM CARBON, OXYGEN, AND NITROGEN CHEMISTRY IN THE ATMOSPHERES OF HD 189733b AND HD 209458b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, Julianne I.; Visscher, C.; Fortney, J. J.; Showman, A. P.; Lewis, N. K.; Griffith, C. A.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Shabram, M.; Friedson, A. J.; Marley, M. S.; Freedman, R. S.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a one-dimensional photochemical and thermochemical kinetics and diffusion model to study the effects of disequilibrium chemistry on the atmospheric composition of 'hot-Jupiter' exoplanets. Here we investigate the coupled chemistry of neutral carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen species on HD 189733b and HD 209458b and we compare the model results with existing transit and eclipse observations. We find that the vertical profiles of molecular constituents are significantly affected by transport-induced quenching and photochemistry, particularly on the cooler HD 189733b; however, the warmer stratospheric temperatures on HD 209458b help maintain thermochemical equilibrium and reduce the effects of disequilibrium chemistry. For both planets, the methane and ammonia mole fractions are found to be enhanced over their equilibrium values at pressures of a few bar to less than an mbar due to transport-induced quenching, but CH 4 and NH 3 are photochemically removed at higher altitudes. Disequilibrium chemistry also enhances atomic species, unsaturated hydrocarbons (particularly C 2 H 2 ), some nitriles (particularly HCN), and radicals like OH, CH 3 , and NH 2 . In contrast, CO, H 2 O, N 2 , and CO 2 more closely follow their equilibrium profiles, except at pressures ∼ 2 O, and N 2 are photochemically destroyed and CO 2 is produced before its eventual high-altitude destruction. The enhanced abundances of CH 4 , NH 3 , and HCN are expected to affect the spectral signatures and thermal profiles of HD 189733b and other relatively cool, transiting exoplanets. We examine the sensitivity of our results to the assumed temperature structure and eddy diffusion coefficients and discuss further observational consequences of these models.

  1. Lipoteichoic acid from Staphylococcus aureus induces lung endothelial cell barrier dysfunction: role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Barton Pai

    Full Text Available Tunneled central venous catheters (TCVCs are used for dialysis access in 82% of new hemodialysis patients and are rapidly colonized with Gram-positive organism (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus biofilm, a source of recurrent infections and chronic inflammation. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA, a cell wall ribitol polymer from Gram-positive organisms, mediates inflammation through the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2. The effect of LTA on lung endothelial permeability is not known. We tested the hypothesis that LTA from Staphylococcus aureus induces alterations in the permeability of pulmonary microvessel endothelial monolayers (PMEM that result from activation of TLR2 and are mediated by reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (RONS. The permeability of PMEM was assessed by the clearance rate of Evans blue-labeled albumin, the activation of the TLR2 pathway was assessed by Western blot, and the generation of RONS was measured by the fluorescence of oxidized dihydroethidium and a dichlorofluorescein derivative. Treatment with LTA or the TLR2 agonist Pam((3CSK((4 induced significant increases in albumin permeability, IκBα phosphorylation, IRAK1 degradation, RONS generation, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS activation (as measured by the p-eNOS(ser1177:p-eNOS(thr495 ratio. The effects on permeability and RONS were effectively prevented by co-administration of the superoxide scavenger Tiron, the peroxynitrite scavenger Urate, or the eNOS inhibitor L-NAME and these effects as well as eNOS activation were reduced or prevented by pretreatment with an IRAK1/4 inhibitor. The results indicate that the activation of TLR2 and the generation of ROS/RNS mediates LTA-induced barrier dysfunction in PMEM.

  2. Stable carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen, isotope analysis of plants from a South Asian tropical forest: Implications for primatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Patrick; Blumenthal, Scott A; Dittus, Wolfgang; Wedage, Oshan; Lee-Thorp, Julia A

    2017-06-01

    Stable isotope analysis of primate tissues in tropical forest contexts is an increasingly popular means of obtaining information about niche distinctions among sympatric species, including preferences in feeding height, forest canopy density, plant parts, and trophism. However, issues of equifinality mean that feeding height, canopy density, as well as the plant parts and plant species consumed, may produce similar or confounding effects. With a few exceptions, researchers have so far relied largely on general principles and/or limited plant data from the study area as references for deducing the predominant drivers of primate isotope variation. Here, we explore variation in the stable carbon (δ 13 C), nitrogen (δ 15 N), and oxygen (δ 18 O) isotope ratios of 288 plant samples identified as important to the three primate species from the Polonnaruwa Nature Sanctuary, Sri Lanka, relative to plant part, season, and canopy height. Our results show that plant part and height have the greatest effect on the δ 13 C and δ 18 O measurements of plants of immediate relevance to the primates, Macaca sinica, Semnopithecus priam thersites, and Trachypithecus vetulus, living in this monsoonal tropical forest. We find no influence of plant part, height or season on the δ 15 N of measured plants. While the plant part effect is particularly pronounced in δ 13 C between fruits and leaves, differential feeding height, and plant taxonomy influence plant δ 13 C and δ 18 O differences in addition to plant organ. Given that species composition in different regions and forest types will differ, the results urge caution in extrapolating general isotopic trends without substantial local baselines studies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Screening nitrogen-rich bases and oxygen-rich acids by theoretical calculations for forming highly stable salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueli; Gong, Xuedong

    2014-08-04

    Nitrogen-rich heterocyclic bases and oxygen-rich acids react to produce energetic salts with potential application in the field of composite explosives and propellants. In this study, 12 salts formed by the reaction of the bases 4-amino-1,2,4-trizole (A), 1-amino-1,2,4-trizole (B), and 5-aminotetrazole (C), upon reaction with the acids HNO3 (I), HN(NO2 )2 (II), HClO4 (III), and HC(NO2 )3 (IV), are studied using DFT calculations at the B97-D/6-311++G** level of theory. For the reactions with the same base, those of HClO4 are the most exothermic and spontaneous, and the most negative Δr Gm in the formation reaction also corresponds to the highest decomposition temperature of the resulting salt. The ability of anions and cations to form hydrogen bonds decreases in the order NO3 (-) >N(NO2 )2 (-) >ClO4 (-) >C(NO2 )3 (-) , and C(+) >B(+) >A(+) . In particular, those different cation abilities are mainly due to their different conformations and charge distributions. For the salts with the same anion, the larger total hydrogen-bond energy (EH,tot ) leads to a higher melting point. The order of cations and anions on charge transfer (q), second-order perturbation energy (E2 ), and binding energy (Eb ) are the same to that of EH,tot , so larger q leads to larger E2 , Eb , and EH,tot . All salts have similar frontier orbitals distributions, and their HOMO and LUMO are derived from the anion and the cation, respectively. The molecular orbital shapes are kept as the ions form a salt. To produce energetic salts, 5-aminotetrazole and HClO4 are the preferred base and acid, respectively. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Oxygen and air nanobubble water solution promote the growth of plants, fishes, and mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Ebina

    Full Text Available Nanobubbles (<200 nm in diameter have several unique properties such as long lifetime in liquid owing to its negatively charged surface, and its high gas solubility into the liquid owing to its high internal pressure. They are used in variety of fields including diagnostic aids and drug delivery, while there are no reports assessing their effects on the growth of lives. Nanobubbles of air or oxygen gas were generated using a nanobubble aerator (BUVITAS; Ligaric Company Limited, Osaka, Japan. Brassica campestris were cultured hydroponically for 4 weeks within air-nanobubble water or within normal water. Sweetfish (for 3 weeks and rainbow trout (for 6 weeks were kept either within air-nanobubble water or within normal water. Finally, 5 week-old male DBA1/J mice were bred with normal free-chaw and free-drinking either of oxygen-nanobubble water or of normal water for 12 weeks. Oxygen-nanobubble significantly increased the dissolved oxygen concentration of water as well as concentration/size of nanobubbles which were relatively stable for 70 days. Air-nanobubble water significantly promoted the height (19.1 vs. 16.7 cm; P<0.05, length of leaves (24.4 vs. 22.4 cm; P<0.01, and aerial fresh weight (27.3 vs. 20.3 g; P<0.01 of Brassica campestris compared to normal water. Total weight of sweetfish increased from 3.0 to 6.4 kg in normal water, whereas it increased from 3.0 to 10.2 kg in air-nanobubble water. In addition, total weight of rainbow trout increased from 50.0 to 129.5 kg in normal water, whereas it increased from 50.0 to 148.0 kg in air-nanobubble water. Free oral intake of oxygen-nanobubble water significantly promoted the weight (23.5 vs. 21.8 g; P<0.01 and the length (17.0 vs. 16.1 cm; P<0.001 of mice compared to that of normal water. We have demonstrated for the first time that oxygen and air-nanobubble water may be potentially effective tools for the growth of lives.

  5. [Microbial community in nitrogen cycle of aquaculture water of the Pearl River Delta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaolong; Luo, Jianfei; Lin, Weitie; Tian, Guoliang

    2012-05-04

    In order to study the characteristic of nitrogen transport, the community structure and diversity of related microorganisms in aquaculture water of the Pearl River Delta. We established an artificial aquaculture ecosystem to study the microbial community of 15N-stable isotope probing (15N-SIP) labeled nitrogen transport microorganisms. The 15N-labeled DNA was separated by CsCl-ethidium bromide density gradient centrifugation, and was used to construct 16S rRNA gene clone libraries of bacteria and archaea. Phylogenetic analysis shows that 19 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) from bacterial library were clustered in Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes. Proteobacteria (99.2%) was the dominant group, mainly consisted of Comamonas (15.7%), Nitrosomonas (12.4%), Enterobacteriaceae (11.5%) and Nitrobacter (11.5%). From archaeal library 9 OTUs were divided into 3 phyla: Thaumarchaeota, Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. We successfully elucidated the microbial community of nitrogen transport microorganisms in aquaculture water of Pearl River Delta by using 15N-SIP. The data of the community will provide essential information for isolating nitrogen degrading microorganism, and provide scientific basis for creating a healthy aquaculture environment.

  6. Export of dissolved carbonaceous and nitrogenous substances in rivers of the "Water Tower of Asia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Bin; Sillanpää, Mika; Kang, Shichang; Yan, Fangping; Li, Zhiguo; Zhang, Hongbo; Li, Chaoliu

    2018-03-01

    Rivers are critical links in the carbon and nitrogen cycle in aquatic, terrestrial, and atmospheric environments. Here riverine carbon and nitrogen exports in nine large rivers on the Tibetan Plateau - the "Water Tower of Asia" - were investigated in the monsoon season from 2013 to 2015. Compared with the world average, concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, 30.7mg/L) were high in river basins of the plateau due to extensive topographic relief and intensive water erosion. Low concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, 1.16mg/L) were likely due to the low temperature and unproductive land vegetation environments. Average concentrations of riverine DIN (0.32mg/L) and DON (0.35 mg/L) on the Tibetan Plateau were close to the world average. However, despite its predominantly pristine environment, discharge from agricultural activities and urban areas of the plateau has raised riverine N export. In addition, DOC/DON ratio (C/N, ~6.5) in rivers of the Tibetan Plateau was much lower than the global average, indicating that dissolved organic carbon in the rivers of this region might be more bioavailable. Therefore, along with global warming and anthropogenic activities, increasing export of bioavailable riverine carbon and nitrogen from rivers of the Tibetan Plateau can be expected in the future, which will possibly influence the regional carbon and nitrogen cycle. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Fertilizer nitrogen leaching in relation to water regime and the fertilizer placement method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, A.T.A.; Khadr, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at the farm of Sids Experimental Station, Ministry of Agriculture, Middle Egypt, to evaluate the effect of the water regime and fertilizer placement method on the leaching of urea fertilizer under field conditions. Ordinary and heavy irrigations were the water regimes, while side-banding and surface broadcasting were the fertilizer placement methods. Wheat (Giza 158, local variety) was planted, and urea labelled with 15 N at the rate of 100 kg N/ha was added at planting. The data obtained showed that in general the leaching process of urea fertilizer, as evaluated from the amounts of fertilizer nitrogen residues, is not uniform even within replicates. This is despite the fact that the average total amount of fertilizer nitrogen residues in the soil profile to a depth of 125 cm is almost the same in the different treatments. Data also show that the bulk of fertilizer nitrogen residues is accumulated in the surface soil layers, especially at 0-25 cm. Only 10% of the fertilizer nitrogen is detected below 75 cm and up to 125 cm depth of the soil profile. It could be concluded that urea leaching (amount and depth) under these conditions is affected mainly by the soil characteristics, namely soil pores. This is in addition to some other factors that cause variable concentrations in the soil solution leaving the root zone. (author)

  8. Oxygen- and water-induced degradation of an inverted polymer solar cell: the barrier effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager Madsen, Morten; Norrman, Kion; Krebs, Frederik C

    2011-01-01

    The work focuses on the degradation of performance induced by both water and oxygen in an inverted geometry organic photovoltaic device with emphasis on the accumulated barrier effect of the layers comprising the layer stack. By studying the exchange of oxygen in the zinc oxide (ZnO) layer...... in the humid atmosphere, correlating well with a long observed lifetime in the same atmosphere.© 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers....

  9. Feasibility Analysis of Liquefying Oxygen Generated from Water Electrolysis Units on Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Frank F.

    2009-01-01

    Concepts for liquefying oxygen (O2) generated from water electrolysis subsystems on the Lunar surface were explored. Concepts for O2 liquefaction units capable of generating 1.38 lb/hr (0.63 kg/hr) liquid oxygen (LOX) were developed. Heat and mass balance calculations for the liquefaction concepts were conducted. Stream properties, duties of radiators, heat exchangers and compressors for the selected concepts were calculated and compared.

  10. Hollow Nanospheres with Fluorous Interiors for Transport of Molecular Oxygen in Water

    KAUST Repository

    Vu, Khanh B.

    2016-08-11

    A dispersion system for saturated fluorocarbon (SFC) liquids based on permeable hollow nanospheres with fluorous interiors is described. The nanospheres are well dispersible in water and are capable of immediate uptake of SFCs. The nanosphere shells are gas-permeable and feature reactive functional groups for easy modification of the exterior. These features make the SFC-filled nanospheres promising vehicles for respiratory oxygen storage and transport. Uptake of molecular oxygen into nanosphere-stabilized SFC dispersions is demonstrated.

  11. Competition between trees and grasses for both soil water and mineral nitrogen in dry savannas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donzelli, D; De Michele, C; Scholes, R J

    2013-09-07

    The co-existence of trees and grasses in savannas in general can be the result of processes involving competition for resources (e.g. water and nutrients) or differential response to disturbances such as fire, animals and human activities; or a combination of both broad mechanisms. In moist savannas, the tree-grass coexistence is mainly attributed to of disturbances, while in dry savannas, limiting resources are considered the principal mechanism of co-existence. Virtually all theoretical explorations of tree-grass dynamics in dry savannas consider only competition for soil water. Here we investigate whether coexistence could result from a balanced competition for two resources, namely soil water and mineral nitrogen. We introduce a simple dynamical resource-competition model for trees and grasses. We consider two alternative hypotheses: (1) trees are the superior competitors for nitrogen while grasses are superior competitors for water, and (2) vice-versa. We study the model properties under the two hypotheses and test each hypothesis against data from 132 dry savannas in Africa using Kendall's test of independence. We find that Hypothesis 1 gets much more support than Hypothesis 2, and more support than the null hypothesis that neither is operative. We further consider gradients of rainfall and nitrogen availability and find that the Hypothesis 1 model reproduces the observed patterns in nature. We do not consider our results to definitively show that tree-grass coexistence in dry savannas is due to balanced competition for water and nitrogen, but show that this mechanism is a possibility, which cannot be a priori excluded and should thus be considered along with the more traditional explanations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nitrogen removal on recycling water process of wastewater treatment plant effluent using subsurface horizontal wetland with continuous feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazkiaturrizki, T.; Soewondo, P.; Handajani, M.

    2018-01-01

    Recycling water is a generic term for water reclamation and reuse to solve the scarcity of water. Constructed wetlands have been recognized as providing many benefits for wastewater treatment including water supply and control by recycling water. This research aims to find the best condition to significantly remove nitrogen using constructed wetland for recycling water of Bojongsoang Waste Water Treatment Plan (WWTP) effluent. Using media of soil, sand, gravel, and vegetation (Typha latifolia and Scirpus grossus) with an aeration system, BOD and COD parameters have been remarkably reduced. On the contrary, the removal efficiency for nitrogen is only between 50-60%. Modifications were then conducted by three step of treatment, i.e., Step I is to remove BOD/COD using Typha latifolia with an aeration system, Step II is todecrease nitrogen using Scirpus grossus with/without aeration, and Step III isto complete the nitrogen removal with denitrification process by Glycine max without aeration. Results of the research show that the nitrogen removal has been successfully increased to a high efficiency between 80-99%. The combination of aeration system and vegetation greatly affects the nitrogen removal. The vegetation acts as the organic nitrogen consumer (plant uptake) for amino acids, nitrate, and ammonium as nutrition, as well as theoxygen supplier to the roots so that aerobic microsites are formed for ammonification microorganisms.

  13. Toward enhanced hydrogen generation from water using oxygen permeating LCF membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xiao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    © the Owner Societies. Hydrogen production from water thermolysis can be enhanced by the use of perovskite-type mixed ionic and electronic conducting (MIEC) membranes, through which oxygen permeation is driven by a chemical potential gradient. In this work, water thermolysis experiments were performed using 0.9 mm thick La0.9Ca0.1FeO3-δ (LCF-91) perovskite membranes at 990 °C in a lab-scale button-cell reactor. We examined the effects of the operating conditions such as the gas species concentrations and flow rates on the feed and sweep sides on the water thermolysis rate and oxygen flux. A single step reaction mechanism is proposed for surface reactions, and three-resistance permeation models are derived. Results show that water thermolysis is facilitated by the LCF-91 membrane especially when a fuel is added to the sweep gas. Increasing the gas flow rate and water concentration on the feed side or the hydrogen concentration on the sweep side enhances the hydrogen production rate. In this work, hydrogen is used as the fuel by construction, so that a single-step surface reaction mechanism can be developed and water thermolysis rate parameters can be derived. Both surface reaction rate parameters for oxygen incorporation/dissociation and hydrogen-oxygen reactions are fitted at 990 °C. We compare the oxygen fluxes in water thermolysis and air separation experiments, and identify different limiting steps in the processes involving various oxygen sources and sweep gases for this 0.9 mm thick LCF-91 membrane. In the air feed-inert sweep case, the bulk diffusion and sweep side surface reaction are the two limiting steps. In the water feed-inert sweep case, surface reaction on the feed side dominates the oxygen permeation process. Yet in the water feed-fuel sweep case, surface reactions on both the feed and sweep sides are rate determining when hydrogen concentration in the sweep side is in the range of 1-5 vol%. Furthermore, long term studies show that the surface

  14. Microbial methane production in oxygenated water column of an oligotrophic lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossart, Hans-Peter; Frindte, Katharina; Dziallas, Claudia; Eckert, Werner; Tang, Kam W.

    2011-01-01

    The prevailing paradigm in aquatic science is that microbial methanogenesis happens primarily in anoxic environments. Here, we used multiple complementary approaches to show that microbial methane production could and did occur in the well-oxygenated water column of an oligotrophic lake (Lake Stechlin, Germany). Oversaturation of methane was repeatedly recorded in the well-oxygenated upper 10 m of the water column, and the methane maxima coincided with oxygen oversaturation at 6 m. Laboratory incubations of unamended epilimnetic lake water and inoculations of photoautotrophs with a lake-enrichment culture both led to methane production even in the presence of oxygen, and the production was not affected by the addition of inorganic phosphate or methylated compounds. Methane production was also detected by in-lake incubations of lake water, and the highest production rate was 1.8–2.4 nM⋅h−1 at 6 m, which could explain 33–44% of the observed ambient methane accumulation in the same month. Temporal and spatial uncoupling between methanogenesis and methanotrophy was supported by field and laboratory measurements, which also helped explain the oversaturation of methane in the upper water column. Potentially methanogenic Archaea were detected in situ in the oxygenated, methane-rich epilimnion, and their attachment to photoautotrophs might allow for anaerobic growth and direct transfer of substrates for methane production. Specific PCR on mRNA of the methyl coenzyme M reductase A gene revealed active methanogenesis. Microbial methane production in oxygenated water represents a hitherto overlooked source of methane and can be important for carbon cycling in the aquatic environments and water to air methane flux. PMID:22089233

  15. The effects of lead, water hardness and pH on oxygen consumption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Closed system respirometry was performed on captive juvenile Tilapia sparrmanii exposed for 96 hours to a range of Pb-acetate concentrations in hard and soft water to determine the effect of Pb in relation to water hardness and pH. For hard and soft water with a pH above 7.51 no change in the resting specific oxygen ...

  16. 99 Tc NMR determination of the oxygen isotope content in 18 O-enriched water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Valerii P; Kirakosyan, Gayana А; German, Konstantin E

    2018-03-01

    99 Tc NMR has been suggested as an original method of evaluating the content of oxygen isotopes in oxygen-18-enriched water, a precursor for the production of radioisotope fluorine-18 used in positron emission tomography. To this end, solutions of NH 4 TcO 4 or NaTcO 4 (up to 0.28 mol/L) with natural abundance of oxygen isotopes in virgin or recycled 18 O-enriched water have been studied by 99 Tc NMR. The method is based on 16 O/ 17 O/ 18 O intrinsic isotope effects in the 99 Tc NMR chemical shifts, and the statistical distribution of oxygen isotopes in the coordination sphere of TcO 4 - and makes it possible to quantify the composition of enriched water by measuring the relative intensities of the 99 Tc NMR signals of the Tc 16 O 4-n 18 O n - isotopologues. Because the oxygen exchange between TcO 4 - and enriched water in neutral and alkaline solutions is characterized by slow kinetics, gaseous HCl was bubbled through a solution for a few seconds to achieve the equilibrium distribution of oxygen isotopes in the Tc coordination sphere without distortion of the oxygen composition of the water. Pertechnetate ion was selected as a probe due to its high stability in solutions and the significant 99 Tc NMR shift induced by a single 16 O→ 18 O substitution (-0.43 ± 0.01 ppm) in TcO 4 - and spin coupling constant 1 J( 99 Tc- 17 O) (131.46 Hz) favourable for the observation of individual signals of Tc 16 O 4-n 18 O n - isotopologues. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Metabolic and transcriptomic response of the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain EC1118 after an oxygen impulse under carbon-sufficient, nitrogen-limited fermentative conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Marcelo; Aceituno, Felipe F; Slater, Alex W; Almonacid, Leonardo I; Melo, Francisco; Agosin, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    During alcoholic fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is exposed to continuously changing environmental conditions, such as decreasing sugar and increasing ethanol concentrations. Oxygen, a critical nutrient to avoid stuck and sluggish fermentations, is only discretely available throughout the process after pump-over operation. In this work, we studied the physiological response of the wine yeast S. cerevisiae strain EC1118 to a sudden increase in dissolved oxygen, simulating pump-over operation. With this aim, an impulse of dissolved oxygen was added to carbon-sufficient, nitrogen-limited anaerobic continuous cultures. Results showed that genes related to mitochondrial respiration, ergosterol biosynthesis, and oxidative stress, among other metabolic pathways, were induced after the oxygen impulse. On the other hand, mannoprotein coding genes were repressed. The changes in the expression of these genes are coordinated responses that share common elements at the level of transcriptional regulation. Beneficial and detrimental effects of these physiological processes on wine quality highlight the dual role of oxygen in 'making or breaking wines'. These findings will facilitate the development of oxygen addition strategies to optimize yeast performance in industrial fermentations. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A greenhouse experiment for the identification of spectral indices for crop water and nitrogen status assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino Gallina, Pietro; Bechini, Luca; Cabassi, Giovanni; Cavalli, Daniele; Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Corti, Martina; Ferrante, Antonio; Martinetti, Livia; Masseroni, Daniele; Morgutti, Silvia; Nocito, Fabio Francesco; Facchi, Arianna

    2015-04-01

    Improvements in crop production depend on the correct adoption of agronomic and irrigation management strategies. The use of high spatial and temporal resolution monitoring methods may be used in precision agriculture to improve the efficiency in water and nutrient input management, guaranteeing the environmental sustainability of agricultural productions. In the last decades, many indices for the monitoring of water or nitrogen status of crops were developed by using multispectral images and, more recently, hyperspectral and thermal images acquired by satellite of airborne platforms. To date, however, comprehensive studies aimed at identifying indices as independent as possible for the management of the two types of stress are still scarce in the literature. Moreover, the chemometric approach for the statistical analysis of the acquired images is not yet widely experienced in this research area. In this context, this work presents the set-up of a greenhouse experiment that will start in February 2015 in Milan (Northern Italy), which aims to the objectives described above. The experiment will be carried out on two crops with a different canopy geometry (rice and spinach) subjected to four nitrogen treatments, for a total of 96 pots. Hyperspectral scanner and thermal images will be acquired at four phenological stages. At each phenological phase, acquisitions will be conducted on one-fourth of the pots, in the first instance in good water conditions and, subsequently, at different time steps after the cessation of irrigation. During the acquisitions, measurements of leaf area index and biomass, chlorophyll and nitrogen content in the plants, soil water content, stomatal conductance and leaf water potential will be performed. Moreover, on leaf samples, destructive biochemical analysis will be conducted to evaluate the physiological stress status of crops in the light of different irrigation and nutrient levels. Multivariate regression analysis between the acquired

  19. Nitrate-nitrogen levels in rural drinking water: Is there an association with age-related macular degeneration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Barbara E K; McElroy, Jane A; Klein, Ronald; Howard, Kerri P; Lee, Kristine E

    2013-01-01

    We examined the association of nitrate-nitrogen exposure from rural private drinking water and incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). All participants in the Beaver Dam Eye Study (53916 improvement plan code) completed a questionnaire and had an ocular examination including standardized, graded fundus photographs at five examinations. Only information from rural residents in that study are included in this report. Data from an environmental monitoring study with probabilistic-based agro-chemical sampling, including nitrate-nitrogen, of rural private drinking water were available. Incidence of early AMD was associated with elevated nitrate-nitrogen levels in rural private drinking water supply (10.0% for low, 19.2% for medium, and 26.1% for high nitrate-nitrogen level in the right eye). The odds ratios (ORs) were 1.77 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-2.78) for medium and 2.88 (95% CI: 1.59-5.23) for high nitrate-nitrogen level. Incidence of late AMD was increased for those with medium or high levels of nitrate-nitrogen compared to low levels (2.3% for low and 5.1% for the medium or high nitrate-nitrogen level, for the right eye). The OR for medium or high nitrate-nitrogen groups was 2.80 (95% CI: 1.07-7.31) compared to the low nitrate-nitrogen group.

  20. The evaluation of secondary system oxygen-scavenging chemicals using a water-circulating rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, M.W. [Nuclear Dept., HMS Sultan (United Kingdom)

    2002-07-01

    To assess the efficiency, mode of action and possible by-products of chemical dosing agents, e.g. oxygen scavengers, a circulating water rig was constructed. The rig uses a demineralized water supply as a source of make-up water to fill a recirculating loop of approx. 10 litres volume. The rig pipework is made of polythene with standard off-the shelf pipe fittings and connectors. The following parameters can be measured within the rig: pH and conductivity measured by in-line monitor, dissolved oxygen level, temperature. The system has already been used for some preliminary testing. The following oxygen scavengers have been used for tests: ascorbic acid (vitamin C), N,N-diethyl-hydroxylamine (DEHA), Hydroquinone, hydrazine hydrate and anhydrous sodium sulfite. (authors)

  1. The evaluation of secondary system oxygen-scavenging chemicals using a water-circulating rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, M.W.

    2002-01-01

    To assess the efficiency, mode of action and possible by-products of chemical dosing agents, e.g. oxygen scavengers, a circulating water rig was constructed. The rig uses a demineralized water supply as a source of make-up water to fill a recirculating loop of approx. 10 litres volume. The rig pipework is made of polythene with standard off-the shelf pipe fittings and connectors. The following parameters can be measured within the rig: pH and conductivity measured by in-line monitor, dissolved oxygen level, temperature. The system has already been used for some preliminary testing. The following oxygen scavengers have been used for tests: ascorbic acid (vitamin C), N,N-diethyl-hydroxylamine (DEHA), Hydroquinone, hydrazine hydrate and anhydrous sodium sulfite. (authors)

  2. A highly efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction: phosphorus and nitrogen co-doped hierarchically ordered porous carbon derived from an iron-functionalized polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chengwei; Zhong, Hexiang; Li, Xianfeng; Yao, Lan; Zhang, Huamin

    2016-01-01

    Heteroatom-doped carbon materials have shown respectable activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media. However, the performances of these materials are not satisfactory for energy conversion devices, such as fuel cells. Here, we demonstrate a new type of phosphorus and nitrogen co-doped hierarchically ordered porous carbon (PNHOPC) derived from an iron-functionalized mesoporous polymer through an evaporation-induced self-assembly process that simultaneously combines the carbonization and nitrogen doping processes. The soft template and the nitrogen doping process facilitate the formation of the hierarchically ordered structure for the PNHOPC. The catalyst possesses a large surface area (1118 cm2 g-1) and a pore volume of 1.14 cm3 g-1. Notably, it exhibits excellent ORR catalytic performance, superior stability and methanol tolerance in acidic electrolytes, thus making the catalyst promising for fuel cells. The correlations between the unique pore structure and the nitrogen and phosphorus configuration of the catalysts with high catalytic activity are thoroughly investigated.Heteroatom-doped carbon materials have shown respectable activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media. However, the performances of these materials are not satisfactory for energy conversion devices, such as fuel cells. Here, we demonstrate a new type of phosphorus and nitrogen co-doped hierarchically ordered porous carbon (PNHOPC) derived from an iron-functionalized mesoporous polymer through an evaporation-induced self-assembly process that simultaneously combines the carbonization and nitrogen doping processes. The soft template and the nitrogen doping process facilitate the formation of the hierarchically ordered structure for the PNHOPC. The catalyst possesses a large surface area (1118 cm2 g-1) and a pore volume of 1.14 cm3 g-1. Notably, it exhibits excellent ORR catalytic performance, superior stability and methanol tolerance in acidic

  3. Application of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes of waters in Tengchong hydrothermal systems of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Minzi; Hou Fagao; Lin Ruifen; Ni Baoling

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results obtained for hydrothermal systems in Tengchong by using deuterium, oxygen-18 and tritium as natural tracers. On the basis of deuterium and oxygen-18 analyses of 69 thermal springs and some other meteoric, surface and underground water samples it has been confirmed that all geothermal waters are originally meteoric, but the δD of hot spring waters is often lighter than that of local surface and underground waters. It seems that the recharging water is from higher elevations and far from the thermal areas. The differences in oxygen-18 and deuterium contents between thermal springs and deep thermal waters have been calculated for single-stage steam separation from 276 deg. C to 96 deg. C. The oxygen isotope shift of deep thermal water produced by water-rock reactions is of 1.57 per mille and part of the observed oxygen isotope shift of thermal springs seems to have occurred due to subsurface boiling. The tritium content ( 18 O three subsurface processes would have been distinguished, they are subsurface boiling, mixing-subsurface boiling and subsurface boiling-mixing. The springs formed by subsurface boiling have tritium content of less than 5 TU. The tritium content of 5-10 TU is for springs formed by mixing-subsurface boiling and 10-20 TU is for subsurface boiling-mixing. The tritium content of geothermal water in Hot Sea, geothermal field seems higher than that of the Geysers U.S.A. and Wairakei N.Z. It would show that the circulation time of the thermal water in Hot Sea geothermal system is not so long, the reservoir is quite good with percolation and the recharging water is sufficiently enough. The most important applications of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes of water in geothermal study are in two ways, as tracers of water origins and as tracers of reservoir processes. This paper discussed these two aspects of Tengchong hydrothermal systems. 6 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  4. Achieving low effluent NO3-N and TN concentrations in low influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) ratio without using external carbon source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiashun; Oleyiblo, Oloche James; Xue, Zhaoxia; Otache, Y. Martins; Feng, Qian

    2015-07-01

    Two mathematical models were used to optimize the performance of a full-scale biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated treatment plant, a plug-flow bioreactors operated in a 3-stage phoredox process configuration, anaerobic anoxic oxic (A2/O). The ASM2d implemented on the platform of WEST2011 software and the BioWin activated sludge/anaerobic digestion (AS/AD) models were used in this study with the aim of consistently achieving the designed effluent criteria at a low operational cost. Four ASM2d parameters (the reduction factor for denitrification , the maximum growth rate of heterotrophs (µH), the rate constant for stored polyphosphates in PAOs ( q pp), and the hydrolysis rate constant ( k h)) were adjusted. Whereas three BioWin parameters (aerobic decay rate ( b H), heterotrophic dissolved oxygen (DO) half saturation ( K OA), and Y P/acetic) were adjusted. Calibration of the two models was successful; both models have average relative deviations (ARD) less than 10% for all the output variables. Low effluent concentrations of nitrate nitrogen (N-NO3), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) were achieved in a full-scale BNR treatment plant having low influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) ratio (COD/TKN). The effluent total nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen concentrations were improved by 50% and energy consumption was reduced by approximately 25%, which was accomplished by converting the two-pass aerobic compartment of the plug-flow bioreactor to anoxic reactors and being operated in an alternating mode. Findings in this work are helpful in improving the operation of wastewater treatment plant while eliminating the cost of external carbon source and reducing energy consumption.

  5. Dissolved organic nitrogen and its biodegradable portion in a water treatment plant with ozone oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhawan, Tanush; Simsek, Halis; Kasi, Murthy; Knutson, Kristofer; Prüβ, Birgit; McEvoy, John; Khan, Eakalak

    2014-05-01

    Biodegradability of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) has been studied in wastewater, freshwater and marine water but not in drinking water. Presence of biodegradable DON (BDON) in water prior to and after chlorination may promote formation of nitrogenous disinfectant by-products and growth of microorganisms in the distribution system. In this study, an existing bioassay to determine BDON in wastewater was adapted and optimized, and its application was tested on samples from four treatment stages of a water treatment plant including ozonation and biologically active filtration. The optimized bioassay was able to detect BDON in 50 μg L(-1) as N of glycine and glutamic solutions. BDON in raw (144-275 μg L(-1) as N), softened (59-226 μg L(-1) as N), ozonated (190-254 μg L(-1) as N), and biologically filtered (17-103 μg L(-1) as N) water samples varied over a sampling period of 2 years. The plant on average removed 30% of DON and 68% of BDON. Ozonation played a major role in increasing the amount of BDON (31%) and biologically active filtration removed 71% of BDON in ozonated water. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The response of winter wheat to water stress and nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, F.; Qi, M.; Wang, H.; Changjiu, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The response of winter wheat to water stress imposed at different crop growth stages by deficit irrigation and fertilizer use under several schemes of irrigation were evaluated on fine sandy soil and sand loam soil. The results showed that according to grain yield response factor K, the order of sensitive growth stages of winter wheat to water stress in decreasing sequence were booting to flowering ( K= 0.90), winter afterward to booting ( K= 0.69), flowering to milking ( K= 0.44) and milking to ripening ( K= 0.25). Field water efficiency would get 16.7 kg/mm.ha when no water stress in growth period, and when water stress has occurred in some growth stages, the value of it decreased by 5 - 20 percent. It was also found that high fertilizer application rate without split application would not significantly influence the yield on fine sandy soil. But schedule of irrigation affected the translocation of nitrogen in the plant. When water stress occurred in later growth stage, the ratio of NUE in gain to straw decreased, and fertilizer was available for crop only about one month after fertilizer application, excessive fertilizer rate would result in decrease of NUE by leaching of nitrogen in sandy soil. Total recovery of fertilizer at harvest was half amount of application. 6 refs; 10 tabs; ( author)

  7. Effect of liquid nitrogen flow rate on solidification of stagnant water in a horizontal tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    Five experiments are conducted to study the effect of liquid nitrogen flow rate on the solidification of stagnant water inside a horizontal stainless steel tube of inner diameter 19.6 cm and 12 mm thick. This tube simulates the down-comer of the nuclear reactor ET-R R-1. The apparatus design is mentioned more detail description. The results show that for the first experiment where the liquid nitrogen flow rate is 30 1/hr, the progress of solidification of water has stopped at a diameter of 12 cm. By increasing the flow rate from 30 1/hr to 40,50 and 60 1/hr, the time of freezing the water inside the tube is decreased from 86 to 67 and 60 minutes respectively. By increasing the liquid nitrogen flow rate to 70 1/hr, there is no much effect on the time of frozen. In all experiments, where the solidification is happened, the ice block formed inside the tube is subjected to a pressure of 3 at mg least, and is succeed to withstand this pressure without any leak. 7 figs

  8. Advancements in oxygen generation and humidity control by water vapor electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, D. B.; Sudar, M.; Lee, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Regenerative processes for the revitalization of manned spacecraft atmospheres or other manned habitats are essential for realization of long-term space missions. These processes include oxygen generation through water electrolysis. One promising technique of water electrolysis is the direct conversion of the water vapor contained in the cabin air to oxygen. This technique is the subject of the present program on water vapor electrolysis development. The objectives were to incorporate technology improvements developed under other similar electrochemical programs and add new ones; design and fabricate a mutli-cell electrochemical module and a testing facility; and demonstrate through testing the improvements. Each aspect of the water vapor electrolysis cell was reviewed. The materials of construction and sizing of each element were investigated analytically and sometime experimentally. In addition, operational considerations such as temperature control in response to inlet conditions were investigated. Three specific quantitative goals were established.

  9. Influence of Adsorbed Water on the Oxygen Evolution Reaction on Oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siahrostami, Samira; Vojvodic, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    We study the interface between adsorbed water and stoichiometric, defect-free (110) rutile oxide surfaces of TiO2, RuO2, and IrO2 in order to understand how water influences the stabilities of the intermediates of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). In our model the water is treated as explicitly...... molecules binding to bridging oxygens. The third chain interacts weakly and predominantly with the H2O molecules of the second layer, resembling bulk water. We find that the stability of the water layer close to the oxide surface is almost the same as the one found on flat metal surfaces, such as the Pt(111...... of RuO2 and IrO2, while it is increased by similar to 0.4 eV for TiO2....

  10. Optimising nitrogen elimination performance in an urban waste water treatment plant by regulating the air supply.; Optimizacion del rendimiento de eliminacion de nitrogeno en una EDAR urbana mediante la regulacion de la aportacion de aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filter, M.; Rodriguez-Roda, I.; Colprin, J.; Poch, M.

    2002-07-01

    This study sought to optimise the performance of the biological elimination of nitrogen in an urban waste water treatment plant that was not designed to eliminate nutrients. Previous studies had indicated that regulating the air flow could have a decisive effects in guaranteeing the existence of aerobic and anoxic areas in the biological reactor, which are necessary conditions for the nitrification/denitrification process to take place. The air flow was regulated manually in accordance with the monitoring of the dissolved oxygen content and the daily analyses of nitrogen in the effluent. The results show that during the seven months of the study, nitrogen elimination performance was high and nitrogen in the effluent was below the legal limit at all times. (Author) 5 refs.

  11. Radiation dosimetry for bolus administration of oxygen-15-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brihaye, C.; Depresseux, J.C.; Comar, D.

    1995-01-01

    The authors describe the development of a biokinetic model which permits an estimation of organ activities and the dosimetry of a bolus of 15 O-water. The aim of this study was to estimate time-activity functions and deduce the cumulated activities in different organs so that the radiation absorbed dose values can be estimated. The model used includes the right heart chambers, lungs, left heart chambers, brain, liver, kidneys, muscles, gasrointestinal tract and the remainder of the body. Activity in an organ will decay by physical decay with the decay constant, γ, and can diffuse in the organ. An exception is the heart, where blood is ejected from the heart chambers. Depending on the location of the organ in relation to the blood sampling point, organ activities can be calculated by convolution or deconvolution. The radiation absorbed dose values were estimated and an effective dose equivalent H E of 1.16 μSv/MBq (4.32 mrem/mCi) as well as an effective dose E of 1.15 μSv/MBq (4.25 mrem/mCi) were calculated. The cumulated activities in select organs measured by PET gave good agreement with the values calculated by this model. The values of effective dose equivalent and effective dose for bolus administration of 15 O-water calculated from the absorbed doses estimated by the proposed kinetic model are almost three times higher than those previously published. A total of 8700 MBq (235 mCi) of 15 O-water can be administered if an effective dose of 10 mSv (1 rem) is accepted. 32 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Comparative Study of Water and Nitrogen Fertilizer Application on Potato Crop under Fertigation and Surface Irrigating Systems by Using Labeled Nitrogen (15N)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah Haidara, H. M.; Amin Alkirshi, A. H.; Saleh Husien, A.

    2007-01-01

    This research activity was conducted at Central Highland Research Station Farm-Dhamar, on potato Crop (Diamant cv.), during three seasons of 2000, 2001, and 2003.The objective of this activity was to study the Nitrogen Fertilizer Use Efficiency (WUE) which applied in different dosages with irrigation water (fertigation) and one dosage to the soil under surface irrigation, by using Labeled nitrogen fertilizer ( 15N ), comparing the quantity of irrigation water applied through Drip irrigation method and surface irrigation and its effect on WUE and yield of potato crop. The basic experiment was planted in randomized completely block design (RCBD) with five replications during 2000 season and six replication in 2001.and five treatments were tested (N1= 50kg N/ha, N2 =100kg N/ha, N3=150kg N/ha and N4=200kgN/ha as fertigated treatments under drip irrigation and Ns = 150kg N/ha as surface Nitrogen Application under surface irrigation. While in the 2003 season Verification trial was conducted with two replications, two treatments and RCB design. Results indicated that using Drip irrigation method in application of water saved 38% of irrigation water as compared to Surface irrigation. Fertigated treatments (N1, N2, N3 and N4) were, significantly superior to Surface Nitrogen Application treatment (NS), fertigated treatment (N3) gave the highest values of WUE which were 5.3, 6.4 and 6.1 kg/m3 for the three seasons (2000, 2001, 2003 respectively) with an average of 5.9 kg/m3 comparing to the surface Nitrogen Application treatment (NS) which gave the less yield per unit of water which was 3.8, 3.6 and 3.9 kg /m3 for the three seasons 2000, 2001 and 2003 respectively with an average of 3.7 kg/m3.The Average yield of potato tubers for (N3) treatment in the three seasons was 30 .3 t/ha comparing to the (NS) treatment, which gave an average of 29,5t/ha.The fertigatetd treatment (N1) recorded the highest efficient use of nitrogen Fertilizer followed by (N3) compare to the surface

  13. Metatranscriptomic and metagenomic description of the bacterial nitrogen metabolism in waste water wet oxidation effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Crovadore

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is a common method for reducing the amount of sludge solids in used waters and enabling biogas production. The wet oxidation process (WOX improves anaerobic digestion by converting carbon into methane through oxidation of organic compounds. WOX produces effluents rich in ammonia, which must be removed to maintain the activity of methanogens. Ammonia removal from WOX could be biologically operated by aerobic granules. To this end, granulation experiments were conducted in 2 bioreactors containing an activated sludge (AS. For the first time, the dynamics of the microbial community structure and the expression levels of 7 enzymes of the nitrogen metabolism in such active microbial communities were followed in regard to time by metagenomics and metatranscriptomics. It was shown that bacterial communities adapt to the wet oxidation effluent by increasing the expression level of the nitrogen metabolism, suggesting that these biological activities could be a less costly alternative for the elimination of ammonia, resulting in a reduction of the use of chemicals and energy consumption in sewage plants. This study reached a strong sequencing depth (from 4.4 to 7.6 Gb and enlightened a yet unknown diversity of the microorganisms involved in the nitrogen pathway. Moreover, this approach revealed the abundance and expression levels of specialised enzymes involved in nitrification, denitrification, ammonification, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA and nitrogen fixation processes in AS. Keywords: Applied sciences, Biological sciences, Environmental science, Genetics, Microbiology

  14. [Effect of Different Purple Parent Rock on Removal Rates of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Organics in Landscape Water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xue-jiao; Liu, Xiao-chen; Li, Zhen-lun; Shi, Wen-hao; Yang, Shan

    2015-05-01

    In order to understand the impacts of physicochemical properties of purple parent rock on the removal rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and organics in landscape water systems, four types of purple parent rocks including Peng-lai-zhen Formation (S1) , Sha-xi-miao Formation (S2) , Fei-xian-guan Formation (S3) and Sui-ning Formation (S4) , which distribute widely in Chongqing, were selected and autoclaved, and added to unsterile landscape water collected from Chong-de Lake in Southwest University, and the landscape water only was used as control. And several indicators such as total nitrogen and phosphorus and so on of every disposal were investigated periodically. The results indicated that: (1) The highest removal rates of total nitrogen, total phosphorus and Ammonia nitrogen were observed in Sl, which were 45.1%, 62.3% and 90%, respectively; the highest removal rate of COD was 94.5% in S4; the ammonia nitrogen content in the purple parent rocks was not obviously changed before and after the experiments, which indicated that the adsorption of ammonia nitrogen on purple parent rock surface was not the main reason for the decrease of ammonia nitrogen in water. (2) Arsenate had inhibitory effect on the sulfate-reducing bacteria, while copper and magnesium had promoting effect on gram-negative bacteria. (3) The microbial diversity was positively correlated to total nitrogen in water. (4) Based on the PCA analyses of microbial community structure and environmental factors, the mineral elements released from parent rock affected the structure and composition of microbial community in the test water, and then influenced the removal rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and organics in water systems.

  15. Regulation Effects of Water and Nitrogen on the Source-Sink Relationship in Potato during the Tuber Bulking Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenting; Xiong, Binglin; Wang, Shiwen; Deng, Xiping; Yin, Lina; Li, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    The source-sink relationship determines crop yield, and it is largely regulated by water and nutrients in agricultural production. This has been widely investigated in cereals, but fewer studies have been conducted in root and tuber crops such as potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). The objective of this study was to investigate the source-sink relationship in potato and the regulation of water and nitrogen on the source-sink relationship during the tuber bulking stage. A pot experiment using virus-free plantlets of the Atlantic potato cultivar was conducted, using three water levels (50%, 70% and 90% of field capacity) and three nitrogen levels (0, 0.2, 0.4 g N∙kg−1 soil). The results showed that, under all water and nitrogen levels, plant source capacity were small at the end of the experiment, since photosynthetic activity in leaves were low and non-structural reserves in underground stems were completely remobilized. While at this time, there were very big differences in maximum and minimum tuber number and tuber weight, indicating that the sink tuber still had a large potential capacity to take in assimilates. These results suggest that the source-supplied assimilates were not sufficient enough to meet the demands of sink growth. Thus, we concluded that, unlike cereals, potato yield is more likely to be source-limited than sink-limited during the tuber bulking stage. Water and nitrogen are two key factors in potato production management. Our results showed that water level, nitrogen level and the interaction between water and nitrogen influence potato yield mainly through affecting source capacity via the net photosynthetic rate, total leaf area and leaf life span. Well-watered, sufficient nitrogen and well-watered combined with sufficient nitrogen increased yield mainly by enhancing the source capacity. Therefore, this suggests that increasing source capacity is more crucial to improve potato yield. PMID:26752657

  16. Automated system measuring triple oxygen and nitrogen isotope ratios in nitrate using the bacterial method and N2 O decomposition by microwave discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Shohei; Savarino, Joel; Kamezaki, Kazuki; Ishino, Sakiko; Dyckmans, Jens; Fujinawa, Tamaki; Caillon, Nicolas; Barbero, Albane; Mukotaka, Arata; Toyoda, Sakae; Well, Reinhard; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2016-12-30

    Triple oxygen and nitrogen isotope ratios in nitrate are powerful tools for assessing atmospheric nitrate formation pathways and their contribution to ecosystems. N 2 O decomposition using microwave-induced plasma (MIP) has been used only for measurements of oxygen isotopes to date, but it is also possible to measure nitrogen isotopes during the same analytical run. The main improvements to a previous system are (i) an automated distribution system of nitrate to the bacterial medium, (ii) N 2 O separation by gas chromatography before N 2 O decomposition using the MIP, (iii) use of a corundum tube for microwave discharge, and (iv) development of an automated system for isotopic measurements. Three nitrate standards with sample sizes of 60, 80, 100, and 120 nmol were measured to investigate the sample size dependence of the isotope measurements. The δ 17 O, δ 18 O, and Δ 17 O values increased with increasing sample size, although the δ 15 N value showed no significant size dependency. Different calibration slopes and intercepts were obtained with different sample amounts. The slopes and intercepts for the regression lines in different sample amounts were dependent on sample size, indicating that the extent of oxygen exchange is also dependent on sample size. The sample-size-dependent slopes and intercepts were fitted using natural log (ln) regression curves, and the slopes and intercepts can be estimated to apply to any sample size corrections. When using 100 nmol samples, the standard deviations of residuals from the regression lines for this system were 0.5‰, 0.3‰, and 0.1‰, respectively, for the δ 18 O, Δ 17 O, and δ 15 N values, results that are not inferior to those from other systems using gold tube or gold wire. An automated system was developed to measure triple oxygen and nitrogen isotopes in nitrate using N 2 O decomposition by MIP. This system enables us to measure both triple oxygen and nitrogen isotopes in nitrate with comparable precision

  17. Air-water oxygen exchange in a large whitewater river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Robert O.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.

    2012-01-01

    Air-water gas exchange governs fluxes of gas into and out of aquatic ecosystems. Knowing this flux is necessary to calculate gas budgets (i.e., O2) to estimate whole-ecosystem metabolism and basin-scale carbon budgets. Empirical data on rates of gas exchange for streams, estuaries, and oceans are readily available. However, there are few data from large rivers and no data from whitewater rapids. We measured gas transfer velocity in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, as decline in O2 saturation deficit, 7 times in a 28-km segment spanning 7 rapids. The O2 saturation deficit exists because of hypolimnetic discharge from Glen Canyon Dam, located 25 km upriver from Lees Ferry. Gas transfer velocity (k600) increased with slope of the immediate reach. k600 was -1 in flat reaches, while k600 for the steepest rapid ranged 3600-7700 cm h-1, an extremely high value of k600. Using the rate of gas exchange per unit length of water surface elevation (Kdrop, m-1), segment-integrated k600 varied between 74 and 101 cm h-1. Using Kdrop we scaled k600 to the remainder of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. At the scale corresponding to the segment length where 80% of the O2 exchanged with the atmosphere (mean length = 26.1 km), k600 varied 4.5-fold between 56 and 272 cm h-1 with a mean of 113 cm h-1. Gas transfer velocity for the Colorado River was higher than those from other aquatic ecosystems because of large rapids. Our approach of scaling k600 based on Kdrop allows comparing gas transfer velocity across rivers with spatially heterogeneous morphology.

  18. Field trials show the fertilizer value of nitrogen in irrigation water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Cahn

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased regulatory activity designed to protect groundwater from degradation by nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N is focusing attention on the efficiency of agricultural use of nitrogen (N. One area drawing scrutiny is the way in which growers consider the NO3-N concentration of irrigation water when determining N fertilizer rates. Four drip-irrigated field studies were conducted in the Salinas Valley evaluating the impact of irrigation water NO3-N concentration and irrigation efficiency on the N uptake efficiency of lettuce and broccoli crops. Irrigation with water NO3-N concentrations from 2 to 45 milligrams per liter were compared with periodic fertigation of N fertilizer. The effect of irrigation efficiency was determined by comparing an efficient (110% to 120% of crop evapotranspiration, ETc and an inefficient (160% to 200% of ETc irrigation treatment. Across these trials, NO3-N from irrigation water was at least as efficiently used as fertilizer N; the uptake efficiency of irrigation water NO3-N averaged approximately 80%, and it was not affected by NO3-N concentration or irrigation efficiency.

  19. A Plant-Based Proxy for the Oxygen Isotope Ratio of Atmospheric Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliker, B.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric water vapor is a major component of the global hydrological cycle, but the isotopic balance of vapor is largely unknown. It is shown here that the oxygen isotope ratio of leaf water in the epiphytic Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish Moss) is controlled by the oxygen isotope ratio of atmospheric water vapor in both field and lab studies. Assuming that the leaf-water isotopic signature (and hence the atmospheric water vapor signature) is recorded in plant organic material, the atmospheric water vapor oxygen isotope ratios for Miami, Florida (USA) were reconstructed for several years from 1878 to 2005 using contemporary and herbarium specimens. T. usneoides ranges from Virginia, USA southwards through the tropics to Argentina, and the CAM epiphytic lifeform is widespread in other species. Therefore, epiphytes may be used to reconstruct the isotope ratio of atmospheric water for spatial scales that span over 60° of latitude and temporal scales that cover the last century of global temperature increase.

  20. Understanding the circulation of geothermal waters in the Tibetan Plateau using oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Hongbing; Zhang, Yanfei; Zhang, Wenjie; Kong, Na; Zhang, Qing; Huang, Jingzhong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Unique geothermal resources in Tibetan Plateau were discussed. • Isotopes were used to trace circulation of geothermal water. • Magmatic water mixing dominates geothermal water evolution. - Abstract: With the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, many of the world’s rarest and most unique geothermal fields have been developed. This study aims to systematically analyze the characteristics of the hydrogen and oxygen isotopic data of geothermal, river, and lake waters to understand the circulation of groundwater and to uncover the mechanism of geothermal formation in the Tibetan Plateau. Field observations and isotopic data show that geothermal water has higher temperatures and hydraulic pressures, as well as more depleted D and 18 O isotopic compositions than river and lake waters. Thus, neither lakes nor those larger river waters are the recharge source of geothermal water. Snow-melt water in high mountains can vertically infiltrate and deeply circulate along some stretching tensile active tectonic belts or sutures and recharge geothermal water. After deep circulation, cold surface water evolves into high-temperature thermal water and is then discharged as springs at the surface again in a low area, under high water-head difference and cold–hot water density difference. Therefore, the large-scale, high-temperature, high-hydraulic-pressure geothermal systems in the Tibetan Plateau are developed and maintained by rapid groundwater circulation and the heat source of upwelled residual magmatic water. Inevitably, the amount of geothermal water will increase if global warming accelerates the melting of glaciers in high mountains

  1. Analysing impact of oxygen and water exposure on roll-coated organic solar cell performance using impedance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arredondo, B.; Romero, B.; Beliatis, M. J.

    2018-01-01

    In this work we study the degradation of roll-coated flexible inverted organic solar cells in different atmospheres. We demonstrate that impedance spectroscopy is a powerful tool for elucidating degradation mechanisms; it is used here to distinguish the different degradation mechanisms due to water...... and oxygen. Identical cells were exposed to different accelerated degradation environments using water only, oxygen only, and both water and oxygen simultaneously, all of them enhanced with UV light. The photocurrent is dramatically reduced in the oxygen-degraded samples. Impedance measurements indicate...... of degradation differs for the water and oxygen degraded samples. While oxygen + UV light decreases the conductivity of the PEDOT:PSS layer, water + UV light changes the PEDOT:PSS work function inducing a depletion region at the anode....

  2. Evaluation of dissolved oxygen and organic substances concentrations in water of the nature reserve Alluvium Zitavy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palaticka, A.; Noskovic, J.; Babosova, M.

    2007-01-01

    In 2006 concentrations of dissolved oxygen and organic substances were evaluated in water in the Nature Reserve Alluvium Zitavy (indirect method based on their oxidation by K 2 Cr 2 0 7 was used). The results are represented in mg of O 2 · dm -3 . Taking of samples took place in 6 sampling sites in regular month intervals. Based on obtained data and according to the standard STN 75 7221 (Water quality -The classification of the water surface quality) water in individual sampling sites was ranked into the classes of the .water surface quality. From the data it is clear that the concentrations of dissolved oxygen and organic substances in the Nature Reserve Alluvium Zitavy changed in dependence on sampling sites and time. The highest mean concentrations of dissolved oxygen in dependence on sampling time were found out in spring months and the lowest concentrations in summer months. They ranged from 1.6 mg 0 2 · dm -3 (July) to 9.0 mg O 2 · dm -3 (March). Falling dissolved oxygen values can be related to successive increase of water temperature, thus good conditions were created for decomposition of organic matter by microorganisms in water and sediments in which they use dissolved oxygen. In dependence on sampling place the highest mean concentration of dissolved oxygen was in sampling site No. 4 (6.0 mg 0 2 · dm -3 ) which is situated in the narrowest place in the NR. The lowest value was in sampling site No. 2 (3.6 mg 0 2 · dm -3 ) which is a typical wetland ecosystem. High mean values of COD Cr in dependence on sampling time were determined in summer months and low values during winter moths. Dependence of COD Cr values on sampling site was also manifested. The lowest mean value was obtained in sampling site No. 4 (59.5 mg · dm -3 ) and the highest value in sampling site No. 5 (97.1 mg · dm -3 ) which is also a typical wetland. Based on the results and according to the STN 75 7221 we ranked water in all sampling sites into the 5 th class of the water

  3. Electrolytic separation factors for oxygen isotopes in light and heavy water solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulens, J.; Olmstead, W.J.; Longhurst, T.H.; Gale, K.L.; Rolston, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The electrolytic separation factor, α, has been measured for /sup 17/O and /sup 18/O at Pt and Ni anodes in both light and heavy water solutions of 6M KOH as a function of current density. For oxygen-17, isotopic separation effects were not observed, within the experimental uncertainty of +-2%, under all conditions studied. For oxygen-18, there is a small difference of 2% in α values between Pt and Ni in both light and heavy water solutions, but there is no significant difference in α values between light and heavy water solutions. In light waters solutions, the separation factor at Pt is small, α(/sup 18/O) ≤ 1.02 for i ≥ 0.1 A/cm/sub 2/. This value agrees reasonably well with theoretical estimates

  4. Onion crop yield submitted to water and nitrogen levels by drip system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Carvalho Vilas Boas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim this work was evaluate the effects of water and nitrogen (N levels, supplied by drip system, on yield and water use efficiency of onion crop (Allium cepa L.. The experiment was carried at the experimental area of DEG/UFLA, in a randomized block statistical design was used, in a factorial scheme 4 x 4, with three replicates. Four irrigation depths based on Class A evaporation tanks (50, 100, 150 and 200% and four N doses (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1 were supplied through irrigation water (fertigation. It can be concluded that higher yields (total bulbs and of marketable bulbs and higher average marketable bulbs mass were obtained with the irrigation depth of 512.7 mm (100% Class A and 180 kg ha-1 of N. Water use efficiency decreased linearly as irrigation depths increased and N rate decreased.

  5. Effects of different irrigation regimes on fruit production, oil quality, water use efficiency and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency of pumpkin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Hamzei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Effect of different irrigation regimes and nitrogen fertilizer on percentage of grain fatty acids, yield, water and nitrogen use efficiency of pumpkin was studies as split plot based on complete randomized block design with three replications in growing season of 2013. Irrigation treatments (320, 420, 600 and 900 mm ha-1 were se as main plots and nitrogen fertilizer (0, 130, 260, 390 and 520 kg urea ha-1 were allocated in subplots. The effect of irrigation and nitrogen on all traits was significant. Also, interaction of irrigation × nitrogen had significant effect on all traits except WUE and NUE. The Highest values of linoleic fatty acid (33.99%, fruit yield (4.40 kg m-2, grain yield (1.53 kg m-2 and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency (32.27 kg fruit/kg urea were achieved at consumption of 600 mm water ha-1 and application of 390 kg urea ha-1. The highest water use efficiency for fruit and grain yield; 56.61 and 1.10 kg mm-1, were revealed at 600 mm irrigation water ha-1. Between nitrogen levels, maximum and minimum WUE for fruit and grain yield were achieved at 390 kg urea and non application of urea treatments, respectively. Also, maximum agronomic nitrogen efficiency belonged to 390 kg urea and minimum this trait with 33 reductions was revealed at 520 kg urea. Based on the results of this research and with considering of water and nitrogen use efficiency, irrigation of pumpkin plants with 600 mm water ha-1 and consumption of 390 kg urea ha-1 was identified as a suitable treatment.

  6. Fluorescence Indices for the Proximal Sensing of Powdery Mildew, Nitrogen Supply and Water Deficit in Sugar Beet Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Leufen, Georg; Noga, Georg; Hunsche, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Using potted sugar beet plants we aimed to investigate the suitability of four fluorescence indices to detect and differentiate the impact of nitrogen supply, water deficit and powdery mildew in two sugar beet cultivars (Beta vulgaris L.). Plants were grown inside a polytunnel under two nitrogen levels combined with water deficit or full irrigation. Changes in plant physiology were recorded at two physiological stages with a multiparametric handheld fluorescence sensor and a fluorescence ima...

  7. Synergistic interaction and controllable active sites of nitrogen and sulfur co-doping into mesoporous carbon sphere for high performance oxygen reduction electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Taeseob; Kim, Myeongjin; Park, Dabin; Kim, Jooheon

    2018-05-01

    Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped mesoporous carbon sphere (NSMCS) was prepared as a metal-free catalyst by an economical and facile pyrolysis process. The mesoporous carbon spheres were derived from sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as the carbon source and the nitrogen and sulfur dopants were derived from urea and p-benzenedithiol, respectively. The doping level and chemical states of nitrogen and sulfur in the prepared NSMCS can be easily adjusted by controlling the pyrolysis temperature. The NSMCS pyrolyzed at 900 °C (NSMCS-900) exhibited higher oxygen reduction reaction activity than the mesoporous carbon sphere doped solely with nitrogen or sulfur, due to the synergistic effect of co-doping. Among all the NSMCS sample