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Sample records for oxygen isopropyl alcohol

  1. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21...

  2. 21 CFR 173.240 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Isopropyl alcohol. 173.240 Section 173.240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Solvents...

  3. Alkylation of toluene with isopropyl alcohol over SAPO-5 catalyst

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Isopropylation of toluene with isopropyl alcohol was studied over the large pore silicon alu- mino phosphate molecular sieves (SAPO-5) with varying Si content. Toluene conversion was found to increase with increase in the Si of the catalysts. The effect of temperature on yields of cymene was studied in the range ...

  4. Ethanol-based cleanser versus isopropyl alcohol to decontaminate stethoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecat, Paul; Cropp, Elliott; McCord, Gary; Haller, Nairmeen Awad

    2009-04-01

    Approximately 1 in 20 hospital admissions is complicated by a health care-associated infection. Stethoscopes may play a role in spreading nosocomial infections. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an ethanol-based cleanser (EBC) compared with isopropyl alcohol pads in reducing bacterial contamination of stethoscope diaphragms. Stethoscopes were cultured from medical professionals on 4 medical floors before and after cleaning with either EBC or isopropyl alcohol pads. The numbers of colony-forming units (cfu) grown were compared between the 2 cleaners and to baseline values. A total of 99 stethoscopes were cultured (49 EBC; 50 isopropyl alcohol), and all were positive for growth. After cleaning, 28.28% of the stethoscopes were growth-free (12 EBC; 16 isopropyl alcohol). Cleaning with EBC and isopropyl alcohol pads significantly reduced the cfu counts (by 92.8% and 92.5%, respectively), but neither was found to be statistically superior (F = 1.22; P = .2721). Cleaning a stethoscope diaphragm using either EBC or isopropyl alcohol led to a significant reduction in bacterial growth in culture. As an extension of the hand, a stethoscope should be cleaned with the same frequency as the hands. The simultaneous cleaning of hands and stethoscope may further increase compliance with current standards.

  5. Isopropyl alcohol tank installed at A-3 Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    An isopropyl alcohol (IPA) tank is lifted into place at the A-3 Test Stand being built at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center. Fourteen IPA, water and liquid oxygen (LOX) tanks are being installed to support the chemical steam generators to be used on the A-3 Test Stand. The IPA and LOX tanks will provide fuel for the generators. The water will allow the generators to produce steam that will be used to reduce pressure inside the stand's test cell diffuser, enabling operators to simulate altitudes up to 100,000 feet. In that way, operators can perform the tests needed on rocket engines being built to carry humans back to the moon and possibly beyond. The A-3 Test Stand is set for completion and activation in 2011.

  6. Study of catalysts prepared on the basis of synthetic zeolite of A-type in the reaction of oxidation of isopropyl alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, A.M; Matiev, K.I; Mirgashimov, F.M; Kuliev, F.D; Mejidov, N.J

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Partial oxidation of isopropyl alcohol into acetone at the zeolite of A-type modified by ions copper and palladium at the temperature interval 150-230 degree C, of volume velocity 2400 H - 1 under different ratio alcohol-oxygen-helium at atmoshpheric pressure has been studied. It has been established that the conversion of isopropyl alcohol on zeolites CuPdNaA and CuPdCaA is noticable however selective by acetone alcohol, modofoed zeolites, acetone

  7. Enhancement of Esterification of Propionic Acid with Isopropyl Alcohol by Pervaporation Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit P. Rathod

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing cost of raw materials and energy, there is an increasing inclination of chemical process industries toward new processes that result in lesser waste generation, greater efficiency, and substantial yield of the desired products. Esterification is a chemical reaction in which two reactants carboxylic acid and alcohol react to form an ester and water. This reaction is a reversible reaction and the equilibrium conversion can be altered by varying the process parameters. Pervaporation reactor can enhance the conversion by shifting the equilibrium of reversible esterification reactions. Polyvinyl alcohol-polyether sulfone composite hydrophilic membrane was used for pervaporation-assisted esterification of propionic acid with isopropyl alcohol. The experiments were carried out in the presence of sulphuric acid as a catalyst at 50°C to 80°C with various reactants ratios. The esterification was carried out for catalyst loadings of 0.089 kmol/m3 to 0.447 kmol/m3. The molar ratios of isopropyl to propionic acid used for the experiment were 1 to 1.5. Maximum conversion was obtained for the ratio of 1.4. Also effect of other parameters such as process temperature and catalyst concentration was discussed. It was found that the use of pervaporation reactor increased the conversion of the propionic acid considerably.

  8. Laser photochemical studies on di-isopropyl ether for oxygen-18 enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathi, P.; Kumar, Awadhesh; Ghosh, Ayan; Nayak, A.K.; Parthasarathy, V.; Nataraju, V.; Jadhav, K.A.; Babu, K.Rajendra; Sarkar, S.K.

    2013-05-01

    Oxygen-18 is needed for the production of Fluorine-18 in medical cyclotron for use in positron emission tomography. This report deals with our work on Oxygen-18 selective photo dissociation of natural di-isopropyl ether under various conditions leading to various oxygen bearing products having different levels of 18 O enrichment. Apart from obtaining 18 O enrichment in products 2-propanol and acetaldehyde, we have observed unusually high enrichment (about 39%) in another photoproduct, acetone, as measured by mass spectrometry. This new finding is attributed to 18 O selective secondary reaction channels which is supported by molecular orbital calculations. The investigation required characterization and quantitative estimation of various chemical species, viz., di-isopropyl ether, acetaldehyde, acetone and isopropanol by various instrumental methods of analysis. These methods include gas chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and quadrupole mass spectrometry. Detailed Gas Chromatographic (GC) studies summarize the interference problems encountered for quantitatively identifying different photo-products and establish the right experimental conditions for optimum separation. This exercise is extremely useful for an isotope enrichment scheme as it generates a valuable database to understand the processes involved for both selectivity enhancement and degradation. (author)

  9. Iron (III) oxyhydroxide in isopropyl alcohol preparation, characterization and solvothermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, E.L.C.N.; Jafelicci Junior, M.

    1989-01-01

    Iron (III) nitrate hydrolysis was carried out in isopropyl alcohol solution by an aqueous amonia gas stream resulting in iron (III) oxyhydroxide sol. It has been investigated in this work the solvothermal treatment of this colloidal system at 120 0 C and 24 hours. Iron (III) oxyhydroxide freshly obtained and solvothermally treated. Samples were dryed by lyophilization. Products obtained were characterized by the following techniques: spectrophotometric iron analysis by 1,10-orthophenantroline complexation method, powder X-ray diffraction, vibrational infrared spectra and differential thermal analysis. After solvothermal treatment resulting product was crystallized into hematite, while freshly iron (III) oxyhydroxide was non crystalline. Both of them are very active powder, showing high water adsorption [pt

  10. Single-shot femtosecond laser ablation of gold surface in air and isopropyl alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashov, S. I.; Saraeva, I. N.; Lednev, V. N.; Pershin, S. M.; Rudenko, A. A.; Ionin, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    Single-shot IR femtosecond-laser ablation of gold surfaces in ambient air and liquid isopropyl alcohol was studied by scanning electron microscopy characterization of crater topographies and time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy of ablative plumes in regimes, typical for non-filamentary and non-fragmentation laser production of nanoparticle sols. Despite one order of magnitude shorter (few nanoseconds) lifetimes and almost two orders of magnitude lower intensities of the quenched ablative plume emission in the alcohol ambient at the same peak laser fluence, craters for the dry and wet conditions appeared with rather similar nanofoam-like spallative topographies and the same thresholds. These facts envision the underlying surface spallation as one of the basic ablation mechanisms relevant for both dry and wet advanced femtosecond laser surface nano/micro-machining and texturing, as well as for high-throughput femtosecond laser ablative production of colloidal nanoparticles by MHz laser-pulse trains via their direct nanoscale jetting from the nanofoam in air and fluid environments.

  11. Linear free energy relationships in heterogeneous catalysis--13. The dehydration of aliphatic alcohols over silica-alumina. [N-butyl alcohol, sec. -butyl or isopropyl alcohol, tert. -butyl alcolol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Take, J; Matsumoto, T; Yoneda, Y

    1978-01-01

    The dehydration of n-butyl alcohol at 120/sup 0/-166/sup 0/C, sec.-butyl or isopropyl alcohol at 100/sup 0/-145/sup 0/C, and tert.-butyl alcohol at 54/sup 0/-80/sup 0/C, over silica/alumina catalyst was zero order in alcohol at 0.01-0.1 atm, and the activation energies were 35.3, 31.7, 32.0, and 29.9 kcal/mol, respectively. The zero-order rate constants were mainly affected by the activation energies since the preexponential factors varied little except for tert.-butyl alcohol. A linear relationship was found between the activation energy or the logarithm of the zero-order rate constant and the heterolytic bond dissociation energy for the carbon-oxygen bond in alcohols D(R/sup +/OH/sup -/). The activation energy increased and the rate constant decreased with increasing D(R/sup +/OH/sup -/). The results indicate that dehydration is E1 over this catalyst, but a similar correlation was observed based on published data for dehydration over alumina, which follows an E2 mechanism, indicating that heterolytic cleavage of the C-O bond is rate-determining in both mechanisms.

  12. The Use of Liquid Isopropyl Alcohol and Hydrogen Peroxide Gas Plasma to Biologically Decontaminate Spacecraft Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, J. K.; Tudryn, Carissa D.; Choi, Sun J.; Eulogio, Sebastian E.; Roberts, Timothy J.; Tudryn, Carissa D.

    2006-01-01

    Legitimate concern exists regarding sending spacecraft and their associated hardware to solar system bodies where they could possibly contaminate the body's surface with terrestrial microorganisms. The NASA approved guidelines for sterilization as set forth in NPG 8020.12C, which is consistent with the biological contamination control objectives of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), recommends subjecting the spacecraft and its associated hardware to dry heat-a dry heat regimen that could potentially employ a temperature of 110(deg)C for up to 200 hours. Such a temperature exposure could prove detrimental to the spacecraft electronics. The stimulated growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in metallic interconnects and/or thermal degradation of organic materials composing much of the hardware could take place over a prolonged temperature regimen. Such detrimental phenomena would almost certainly compromise the integrity and reliability of the electronics. Investigation of sterilization procedures in the medical field suggests that hydrogen peroxide (H202) gas plasma (HPGP) technology can effectively function as an alternative to heat sterilization, especially for heat-sensitive items. Treatment with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) in liquid form prior to exposure of the hardware to HPGP should also prove beneficial. Although IPA is not a sterilant, it is frequently used as a disinfectant because of its bactericidal properties. The use of IPA in electronics cleaning is widely recognized and has been utilized for many years with no adverse affects reported. In addition, IPA is the principal ingredient of the test fluid used in ionic contamination testers to assess the amount of ionic contamination found on the surfaces of printed wiring assemblies. This paper will set forth experimental data confirming the feasibility of the IPA/H202 approach to reach acceptable microbial reduction (MR) levels of spacecraft electronic hardware. In addition, a proposed process flow in

  13. Baby Shampoo Versus Povidone-Iodine or Isopropyl Alcohol in Reducing Eyelid Skin Bacterial Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Giancarlo A; Nguyen, Christine V; Yonkers, Marc A; Tao, Jeremiah P

    Baby shampoo is used as an alternative surgical skin preparation, but the evidence supporting its use is scarce with no descriptions of efficacy in the periocular region. The authors compare the efficacy of baby shampoo, povidone-iodine (PI, Betadine) and isopropyl alcohol (IA) in reducing eyelid skin bacterial load. Prospective, randomized, comparative, and interventional trial. Bacterial load on adult, human eyelid skin was quantitated before and after cleansing with 1) dilute baby shampoo, 2) 10% PI, or 3) 70% IA. Paired skin swabs were collected from a 1 cm area of the upper eyelid of subjects before and after a standardized surgical scrub technique. Samples were cultured on 5% sheep blood agar for 24 hours. The number of colony forming units (CFU) was assessed and bacterial load per square centimeter of eyelid skin was quantified. Baseline and postcleansing samples were assessed from 42 eyelids of 42 subjects (n = 14 for each of baby shampoo, PI, and IA). Before cleansing, similar amounts of bacterial flora were grown from all specimens (median log CFU/cm = 2.04 before baby shampoo, 2.01 before PI, 2.11 before IA; p > 0.05). All 3 cleansing agents significantly reduced the bacterial load (p shampoo, 0.39 after PI, 0.59 after IA; p > 0.05). Change from baseline in bacterial load was statistically similar for all 3 agents (median reduction in log CFU/cm = 1.28 with baby shampoo, 1.57 with PI, 1.40 with IA; p > 0.05). These corresponded to bacterial load reductions of 96.3%, 96.6%, and 98.4% for baby shampoo, PI, and IA, respectively. Baby shampoo achieved comparable diminution in eyelid skin bacterial load to PI or IA. These data suggest baby shampoo may be an effective preoperative cleansing agent.

  14. Effects of temperature and solvent concentration on the solvent crystallization of palm-based dihydroxystearic acid with isopropyl alcohol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gregory F.L.Koay; Teong-Guan Chuah; Sumaiya Zainal-Abidin; Salmiah Ahmad; Thomas S.Y.Choong

    2012-01-01

    Palm-based dihydroxystearic acid of 69.55% purity was produced in a 500-kg-per-batch operation pilot plant and purified through solvent crystallization in a custom fabricated simultaneous batch crystallizer unit.The effects of temperature and solvent concentration on yield,particle size distribution and purity were studied.The purity was higher,while the yield and particle size were lower and smaller,respectively,at higher temperature and solvent concentration.The solvent crystallization process efficiency was rated at 66-69% when carried out with 70-80% isopropyl alcohol at 20 ℃.

  15. Effect of Al_2O_3 Nanoparticles Additives on the Density, Saturated Vapor Pressure, Surface Tension and Viscosity of Isopropyl Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhelezny, Vitaly; Geller, Vladimir; Semenyuk, Yury; Nikulin, Artem; Lukianov, Nikolai; Lozovsky, Taras; Shymchuk, Mykola

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents results of an experimental study of the density, saturated vapor pressure, surface tension and viscosity of Al_2O_3 nanoparticle colloidal solutions in isopropyl alcohol. Studies of the thermophysical properties of nanofluids were performed at various temperatures and concentrations of Al_2O_3 nanoparticles. The paper gives considerable attention to a turbidimetric analysis of the stability of nanofluid samples. Samples of nanofluids remained stable over the range of parameters of the experiments, ensuring the reliability of the thermophysical property data for the Al_2O_3 nanoparticle colloidal solutions in isopropyl alcohol. The studies show that the addition of Al_2O_3 nanoparticles leads to an increase of the density, saturated vapor pressure and viscosity, as well as a decrease for the surface tension of isopropyl alcohol. The information reported in this paper on the various thermophysical properties for the isopropyl alcohol/Al_2O_3 nanoparticle model system is useful for the development of thermodynamically consistent models for predicting properties of nanofluids and correct modeling of the heat exchange processes.

  16. Regeneration of granular activated carbon saturated with acetone and isopropyl alcohol via a recirculation process under H2O2/UV oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horng, Richard S; Tseng, I-Chin

    2008-06-15

    This study examines a water-based system, coupling an adsorber and a photoreactor, for regeneration of granular activated carbon (GAC) saturated with acetone and isopropyl alcohol (IPA). Through water recirculation the regeneration reaction was operated in both intermittent and continuous ultraviolet illumination modes. With a periodic dosage of hydrogen peroxide not only was regeneration efficient but it was also catalyzed by GAC in the adsorber. The concentrations of acetone, solution chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH and organic residues on GAC surfaces were measured during regenerations. Both pH and solution COD were found to correlate with regeneration completion as measured by organic residue on GAC surfaces in four regeneration cycles with acetone. Solution pH decreased to the acidic values and then returned to near its original value when organic residues were 0.085-0.255 mg/g GAC, that is, destruction efficiency of adsorbed acetone on the GAC surface was more than 99%. Likewise, solution COD became low (properties in each of eight cycles: adsorptive capacities were 95+/-7 mg acetone/g GAC and 87+/-3 mg IPA/g GAC, and breakthrough time was 0.86+/-0.05 for acetone and 0.78+/-0.03 h for IPA. An economic assessment of the system showed that the operating cost was about 0.04 USD for treating every gram of acetone in the air.

  17. The Effect of Tin Addition to ZnO Nanosheet Thin Films for Ethanol and Isopropyl Alcohol Sensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Yuliarto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The requirements of green environmental and public health monitoring have become stricter along with greater world attention for global warming. The most common pollutants in the environment that need tightened control are volatile organic compounds (VOC. Compared to other kinds of sensors, semiconductor sensors have certain advantages, including high sensitivity, fast response, simplicity, high reliability and low cost. In this work, ZnO and Sn-doped ZnO nanostructure materials with high surface nanosheet areas were synthesized using chemical bath deposition. The X-ray diffraction patterns could be indexed according to crystallinity mainly to a hexagonal wurzite ZnO structure. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM results showed that in all samples, the thin films after the addition of Sn consisted of many kinds of microstructure patterns on a nanoscale, with various sheet shapes. The sensor performance characterizations showed that VOC levels as low as 3 vol% of isopropyl alcohol (IPA and ethanol could be detected at sensitivities of 83.86% and 85.57%, respectively. The highest sensitivity of all sensors was found at an Sn doping of 1.4 at%. This high sensor sensitivity is a result of the high surface area and Sn doping, which in turn produced a higher absorption of the targeted gas.

  18. OXYGEN MANAGEMENT DURING ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    MOENNE VARGAS, MARÍA ISABE

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen additions are a common practice in winemaking, as oxygen has a positive effect in fermentative kinetics, biomass synthesis and improvement of color, structure and :flavor in treated wines. However, most oxygen additions are carried out heuristically through pump-over operations solely on a know-how basis, which is difficult to manage in terms of the exact quantity of oxygen transferred to the fermenting must. It is important to estímate the amount of oxygen added because...

  19. Analysis of plastic residues in maple sap and syrup collected from tubing systems sanitized with isopropyl alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Lagacé

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A plastic tubing system operated under vacuum is usually used to collect sap from maple trees during spring time to produce maple syrup. This system is commonly sanitized with isopropyl alcohol (IPA to remove microbial contamination colonizing the system during the sugar season. Questions have been raised whether IPA would contribute to the leaching of plastic residues in maple sap and syrup coming from sanitized systems. First, an extraction experiment was performed in the lab on commercial plastic tubing materials that were submitted to IPA under harsh conditions. The results of the GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of many compounds that served has target for further tests. Secondly, tests were done on early and mid-season maple sap and syrup coming from many sugarbushes using IPA or not to determine potential concentrations of plastic residues. Results obtained from sap and syrup samples showed that no quantifiable (< 1–75 μg/L concentration of any plastic molecules tested was determined in all samples coming from IPA treated or not treated systems. However, some samples of first sap run used as a rinse solution to be discarded before the season start and that were coming from non sanitized or IPA sanitized systems, showed quantifiable concentrations of chemical residue such as ultraviolet protector (octabenzone. These results show that IPA can be safely used to sanitize maple sap collection system in regards to the leaching of plastic residues in maple sap and syrup and reinforced the need to thoroughly rinse the tubing system at the beginning of the season for both sanitized and non sanitized systems. Keywords: Food science, Food safety, Materials chemistry

  20. Isobaric (vapour + liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for (di-n-propyl ether + n-propyl alcohol + water) and (diisopropyl ether + isopropyl alcohol + water) systems at 100 kPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lladosa, Estela; Monton, Juan B.; Burguet, MaCruz; Torre, Javier de la

    2008-01-01

    Isobaric (vapour + liquid + liquid) equilibria were measured for the (di-n-propyl ether + n-propyl alcohol + water) and (diisopropyl ether + isopropyl alcohol + water) system at 100 kPa. The apparatus used for the determination of (vapour + liquid + liquid) equilibrium data was an all-glass dynamic recirculating still with an ultrasonic homogenizer couple to the boiling flask. The experimental data demonstrated the existence of a heterogeneous ternary azeotrope for both ternary systems. The (vapour + liquid + liquid) equilibria data were found to be thermodynamically consistent for both systems. The experimental data were compared with the estimation using UNIQUAC and NRTL models and the prediction of UNIFAC model

  1. Isopropanol alcohol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbing alcohol poisoning; Isopropyl alcohol poisoning ... Isopropyl alcohol can be harmful if it is swallowed or gets in the eyes. ... These products contain isopropanol: Alcohol swabs Cleaning supplies ... Rubbing alcohol Other products may also contain isopropanol.

  2. Biomolecular Chemistry of Isopropyl Fibrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Niharika; Kotheimer, Amenda; Miller, Chad; Zeller, Matthias; Rath, Nigam P.

    2012-01-01

    Isopropyl 2-[4-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-phenoxy]-2-methylpropanoic acid and isopropyl 2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropanoate, also known as fenofibrate and isopropyl clofibrate, are hypolipidemic agents of the fibrate family. In a previously reported triclinic structure of fenofibrate (polymorph I) the methyl groups of the isopropyl moiety (iPr) are located symmetrically about the carboxylate group. We report a new monoclinic form (polymorph II) of fenofibrate and a first structural description of isopropyl clofibrate, and in these the methyl groups are placed asymmetrically about the carboxylate group. In particular the dihedral (torsion) angle between the hydrogen atom on the secondary C and the C atom of the carboxyl group makes a 2.74° angle about the ester O-C bond in the symmetric fenofibrate structure of polymorph I, whereas the same dihedral angle is 45.94° in polymorph II and -30.9° in the crystal structure of isopropyl clofibrate. Gas phase DFT geometry minimizations of fenofibrate and isopropyl clofibrate result in lowest energy conformations for both molecules with a value of about ± 30° for this same angle between the O=C-O-C plane and the C-H bond of the iPr group. A survey of crystal structures containing an iPr ester group reveals that the asymmetric conformation is predominant. Although the hydrogen atom on the secondary C atom of the isopropyl group is located at a comparable distance from the carbonyl oxygen in the symmetric and asymmetric fenofibrate (2.52 and 2.28 Å) and the isopropyl clofibrate (2.36 Å) structures, this hydrogen atom participates in a puckered five membered ring arrangement in the latter two that is unlike the planar arrangement found in symmetric fenofibrate (polymorph I). Polar molecular surface area (PSA) values indicate fenofibrate and isopropyl clofibrate are less able to act as acceptors of hydrogen bonds than their corresponding acid derivatives. Surface area calculations show dynamic polar molecular surface area (PSAd

  3. A novel UV-photolysis approach with acetone and isopropyl alcohol for the rapid determination of fluoride in organofluorine-containing drugs by spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullapudi, Venkata Balarama Krishna; Dheram, Karunasagar

    2018-01-01

    A UV photolysis decomposition (UVPD) method for the determination of fluoride in fluorine containing pharmaceuticals by spectrophotometry is reported. It is based on the use of high intensity UV-irradiation in the presence of a digesting solution comprising a mixture of acetone and isopropanol. For the optimization of the UVPD procedure, three bulk drugs (levofloxacin, nebivolol and efavirenz) were chosen as representatives of three diverse compounds containing a single fluorine atom, two fluorine atoms, and trifluoromethyl groups respectively. Operational conditions of the UVPD method, such as concentration and volume of reagents (acetone and isopropyl alcohol), and UV irradiation time (1-6 minutes) were optimized. The efficiency of digestion was evaluated by the determination of fluoride in sample digests. Using the developed method, it was possible for complete conversion of the organofluoride to free fluoride ion for its subsequent determination by spectrophotometry based on bleaching of Zr-xylenol orange-color complex. Quantitative recovery (>98%) of the fluorine in the drug samples could be achieved using a mixture of 2% acetone + 2% isopropyl alcohol + 0.003% Na 2 CO 3 in just 5 minutes of UV irradiation, which can be considered an important aspect considering the difficulties involved in the cleavage of the CF bond. Accuracy was evaluated by comparison of results obtained by the UVPD method with the values estimated using formula weight of the compound and no statistical difference was observed between the results. Therefore, the proposed method is suitable for application in routine analysis of fluoride in organofluorine-containing drugs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Electrochemical and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Study of the Mechanism of Oxidation of Phenazine-di-N-oxide in the Presence of Isopropyl alcohol at Glassy Carbon and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulakovskaya, S.I.; Kulikov, A.V.; Sviridova, L.N.; Stenina, E.V.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The mechanism of oxidation of phenazine-di-N-oxide in the presence of isopropyl alcohol was studied. • The results are explained in terms of the E 1 C 1 E 2 C 2 mechanism of the two-stage electrode process. • The total two-electron catalytic oxidation of i-PrOH in the complex with the phenazine-di-N-oxide radical cation was assumed to occur. - Abstract: The mechanism of oxidation of phenazine-di-N-oxide in the presence of isopropyl alcohol was studied by cyclic voltammetry at glassy carbon (GC) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) electrodes in 0.1 M LiClO 4 solutions in acetonitrile. The adsorption of phenazine-di-N-oxide at SWCNT electrode in 0.1 M LiClO 4 solution in acetonitrile was investigated by measurement of the dependence of the differential double layer capacitance of the electrode C on potential E. The effect of isopropyl alcohol on the shape of cyclic voltammograms (CVs) of phenazine-di-N-oxide and the intensity of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) signal of its radical cation was investigated. The catalytic currents were recorded at the oxidation of phenazine-di-N-oxide at SWCNT and GC electrodes in the presence of isopropyl alcohol. The results were explained in terms of the E 1 C 1 E 2 C 2 mechanism of two-stage electrode process characterized by catalytic current recorded at the second electrode stage. The overall two-electron catalytic oxidation of isopropyl alcohol in complex with the phenazine-di-N-oxide radical cation was assumed to occur. It was shown that SWCNT electrodes can be used in the electrocatalytic oxidation of organic compounds in the presence of electrochemically generated phenazine-di-N-oxide radical cation

  5. Study of dementia associated with alcoholism using N-isopropyl-p-(/sup 123/I) iodoamphetamine SPECT and 2 tesla magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Toshiro; Uchida, Tsunehisa; Yokoyama, Yoji and others

    1988-08-01

    Using DSM-III-R criteria, five patients (ages 46 approx. 76 years) were diagosed as having DAA (dementia associated with alcoholism). An investigation was conducted using a ring-type single proton emission tomography system with N-isopropyl-p-(/sup 123/I) iodoamphetamine (IMP) and a magnetic resonance imaging system with a superconductive 2 tesla magnet. IMP uptake was measured 25 approx. 30 minutes after injection. Bilateral IMP uptake reduction was seen in all of the patients. The distribution of the reduced IMP uptake showed in the temporal region of all patients ; the frontal region in four of the patients and the occipital region in two of the patients. The reduction of IMP uptake was irregular, generally mild, and less severe than that of Alzheimer type dementia. The MRI study showed cortical atrophy, especially in the frontal and temporal areas, and also showed enlargement of the lateral and third ventricles. The reduced IMP uptake corresponded to cerebral atrophy and ventricular dilatation on the SE image (TR 3000, TE 60 or 82). These results indicate that the IMP SPECT and MRI studies are useful in examining DAA patients and in the classification of other types of dementia.

  6. Outbreak of carbon tetrachloride poisoning in a color printing factory related to the use of isopropyl alcohol and an air conditioning system in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, J F; Wang, J D; Shih, T S; Lan, F L

    1987-01-01

    Three workers from a color printing factory were admitted to community hospitals in 1985 with manifestations of acute hepatitis. One of the three had superimposed acute renal failure and pulmonary edema. An investigation was subsequently conducted at the plant to determine the etiology of the outbreak and the prevalence of liver disease among the remaining workers. Comprehensive medical evaluations were conducted, which included physical examinations, liver function tests, and serological screening for hepatitis. Seventeen of 25 workers from the plant had abnormal liver function tests 10 days after the outbreak, and a significant association was found between the presence of abnormal liver function tests and a history of recently having worked inside any of three rooms in which an interconnecting air conditioning system had been installed to cool the printing machines. After further investigation, it was determined that the incident occurred following inadvertent use of carbon tetrachloride to clean a pump in the printing machine. A simulation of the pump cleaning operation revealed ambient air levels of carbon tetrachloride of 300-500 ppm. Ultimately, it was concluded that the outbreak was in all likelihood due to the combined use of carbon tetrachloride and isopropyl alcohol in the cleaning operation. This outbreak underscores the importance of adopting appropriate industrial hygiene measures in a rapidly industrializing nation such as Taiwan.

  7. Study of dementia associated with alcoholism using N-isopropyl-p-[123I] iodoamphetamine SPECT and 2 tesla magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Toshiro; Uchida, Tsunehisa; Yokoyama, Yoji

    1988-01-01

    Using DSM-III-R criteria, five patients (ages 46 ∼ 76 years) were diagosed as having DAA (dementia associated with alcoholism). An investigation was conducted using a ring-type single proton emission tomography system with N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] iodoamphetamine (IMP) and a magnetic resonance imaging system with a superconductive 2 tesla magnet. IMP uptake was measured 25 ∼ 30 minutes after injection. Bilateral IMP uptake reduction was seen in all of the patients. The distribution of the reduced IMP uptake showed in the temporal region of all patients ; the frontal region in four of the patients and the occipital region in two of the patients. The reduction of IMP uptake was irregular, generally mild, and less severe than that of Alzheimer type dementia. The MRI study showed cortical atrophy, especially in the frontal and temporal areas, and also showed enlargement of the lateral and third ventricles. The reduced IMP uptake corresponded to cerebral atrophy and ventricular dilatation on the SE image (TR 3000, TE 60 or 82). These results indicate that the IMP SPECT and MRI studies are useful in examining DAA patients and in the classification of other types of dementia. (author)

  8. Analytical Method Development and Validation for the Quantification of Acetone and Isopropyl Alcohol in the Tartaric Acid Base Pellets of Dipyridamole Modified Release Capsules by Using Headspace Gas Chromatographic Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Valavala

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive, accurate, robust headspace gas chromatographic method was developed for the quantitative determination of acetone and isopropyl alcohol in tartaric acid-based pellets of dipyridamole modified release capsules. The residual solvents acetone and isopropyl alcohol were used in the manufacturing process of the tartaric acid-based pellets of dipyridamole modified release capsules by considering the solubility of the dipyridamole and excipients in the different manufacturing stages. The method was developed and optimized by using fused silica DB-624 (30 m × 0.32 mm × 1.8 µm column with the flame ionization detector. The method validation was carried out with regard to the guidelines for validation of analytical procedures Q2 demanded by the International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH. All the validation characteristics were meeting the acceptance criteria. Hence, the developed and validated method can be applied for the intended routine analysis.

  9. GAS PHASE SELECTIVE PHOTOXIDATION OF ALCOHOLS USING LIGHT-ACTIVATED TITANIUM DIOXIDE AND MOLECULAR OXYGEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gas Phase Selective Oxidation of Alcohols Using Light-Activated Titanium Dioxide and Molecular Oxygen Gas phase selective oxidations of various primary and secondary alcohols are studied in an indigenously built stainless steel up-flow photochemical reactor using ultravi...

  10. Green synthesis of isopropyl myristate in novel single phase medium Part II: Packed bed reactor (PBR) studies

    OpenAIRE

    Vadgama, Rajeshkumar N.; Odaneth, Annamma A.; Lali, Arvind M.

    2015-01-01

    Isopropyl myristate is a useful functional molecule responding to the requirements of numerous fields of application in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industry. In the present work, lipase-catalyzed production of isopropyl myristate by esterification of myristic acid with isopropyl alcohol (molar ratio of 1:15) in the homogenous reaction medium was performed on a bench-scale packed bed reactors, in order to obtain suitable reaction performance data for upscaling. An immobilized lipase B fr...

  11. Green synthesis of isopropyl myristate in novel single phase medium Part I: Batch optimization studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadgama, Rajeshkumar N; Odaneth, Annamma A; Lali, Arvind M

    2015-12-01

    Isopropyl myristate finds many applications in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries as an emollient, thickening agent, or lubricant. Using a homogeneous reaction phase, non-specific lipase derived from Candida antartica, marketed as Novozym 435, was determined to be most suitable for the enzymatic synthesis of isopropyl myristate. The high molar ratio of alcohol to acid creates novel single phase medium which overcomes mass transfer effects and facilitates downstream processing. The effect of various reaction parameters was optimized to obtain a high yield of isopropyl myristate. Effect of temperature, agitation speed, organic solvent, biocatalyst loading and batch operational stability of the enzyme was systematically studied. The conversion of 87.65% was obtained when the molar ratio of isopropyl alcohol to myristic acid (15:1) was used with 4% (w/w) catalyst loading and agitation speed of 150 rpm at 60 °C. The enzyme has also shown good batch operational stability under optimized conditions.

  12. A gold-immobilized microchannel flow reactor for oxidation of alcohols with molecular oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Naiwei; Matsumoto, Tsutomu; Ueno, Masaharu; Miyamura, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Shū

    2009-01-01

    Golden capillaries: A gold-immobilized capillary column reactor allows oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds using molecular oxygen. These capillary columns (see picture) can be used for at least four days without loss of activity.

  13. Influence of kaolin addition on the dynamics of oxygen mass transport in polyvinyl alcohol dispersion coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Nyflött, Åsa; Axrup, Lars; Gunilla, Carlsson; Järnström, Lars; Lestelius, Magnus; Moons, Ellen; Wahlström, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    The permeability of dispersion barriers produced from polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) and kaolin clay blends coated onto polymeric supports has been studied by employing two different measurement methods: the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) and the ambient oxygen ingress rate (AOIR). Coatings with different thicknesses and kaolin contents were studied. Structural information of the dispersion-barrier coatings was obtained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning ele...

  14. Polymer growth rate in a wire chamber with oxygen, water, or alcohol gas additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyarski, Adam M.

    2009-01-01

    The rate of polymer growth on wires was measured in a wire chamber while the chamber was aged initially with helium:isobutane (80:20) gas, and then with either oxygen, water, or alcohol added to the gas. At the completion of the aging process for each gas mixture, the carbon content on the wires was measured in a scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) instrument. The same physical wires were used in all the gas mixtures, allowing measurement of polymer build-up or polymer depletion by each gas additive. It is found that the rate of polymer growth is not changed by the presence of oxygen, water, or alcohol. Conjecture that oxygen reduces breakdown by removing polymer deposits on field wires is negated by these measurements. Instead, it appears that the reduced breakdown is due to lower resistance in the polymer from oxygen ions being transported into the polymer. It is also observed that field wires bombarded by the electrons in the SEM and then placed back into the chamber show an abundance of single electrons being emitted, indicating that electron charge is trapped in the polymer layer and that a high electric field is necessary to remove the charge.

  15. Green synthesis of isopropyl myristate in novel single phase medium Part I: Batch optimization studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshkumar N. Vadgama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Isopropyl myristate finds many applications in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries as an emollient, thickening agent, or lubricant. Using a homogeneous reaction phase, non-specific lipase derived from Candida antartica, marketed as Novozym 435, was determined to be most suitable for the enzymatic synthesis of isopropyl myristate. The high molar ratio of alcohol to acid creates novel single phase medium which overcomes mass transfer effects and facilitates downstream processing. The effect of various reaction parameters was optimized to obtain a high yield of isopropyl myristate. Effect of temperature, agitation speed, organic solvent, biocatalyst loading and batch operational stability of the enzyme was systematically studied. The conversion of 87.65% was obtained when the molar ratio of isopropyl alcohol to myristic acid (15:1 was used with 4% (w/w catalyst loading and agitation speed of 150 rpm at 60 °C. The enzyme has also shown good batch operational stability under optimized conditions.

  16. Pulse radiolysis of malachite green leucocyanide in alcoholic solvents, the influence of oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grodkowski, J; Stuglik, Z; Wieczorek, G [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1992-04-01

    The solutions of malachite green leucocyanide (MGCN) in methanol, n-propanol and 2-propanol were investigated using pulse radiolysis. In the presence of oxygen, MG{sup +}-carbonium ions were radiolytically formed in two different time steps. The yield of MG{sup +} in the slower process was dependent on oxygen concentration and was proportional to the yield of intermediate MG radicals. The yield of MG was about ten times higher in 2-propanol than in methanol and n-propanol solutions. The reactants responsible for MG oxidation to MG{sup +} were RO{sub 2}, hydroxyalkylperoxyl radicals derived from alcohols. The rate constant for MG reaction with RO{sub 2} were estimated as (6.5{+-}1) x 10{sup 8}M{sup -1}s{sup -1}. The molar extinction coefficient of MG was calculated. (author).

  17. Pulse radiolysis of malachite green leucocyanide in alcoholic solvents, the influence of oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodkowski, J.; Stuglik, Z.; Wieczorek, G.

    1992-01-01

    The solutions of malachite green leucocyanide (MGCN) in methanol, n-propanol and 2-propanol were investigated using pulse radiolysis. In the presence of oxygen, MG + -carbonium ions were radiolytically formed in two different time steps. The yield of MG + in the slower process was dependent on oxygen concentration and was proportional to the yield of intermediate MG radicals. The yield of MG was about ten times higher in 2-propanol than in methanol and n-propanol solutions. The reactants responsible for MG oxidation to MG + were RO 2 , hydroxyalkylperoxyl radicals derived from alcohols. The rate constant for MG reaction with RO 2 were estimated as (6.5±1) x 10 8 M -1 s -1 . The molar extinction coefficient of MG was calculated. (author)

  18. Molecular origin of the selectivity differences between palladium and gold-palladium in benzyl alcohol oxidation: Different oxygen adsorption properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savara, Aditya Ashi [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chan-Thaw, Carine E. [Univ. degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Sutton, Jonathan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Di [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Prati, Laura [Univ. degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Villa, Alberto [Univ. degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy)

    2016-12-22

    The same mechanism and microkinetic model used for benzyl alcohol oxidation over Pd/C was shown to apply to benzyl alcohol oxidation over AuPd/C. Almost all of the selectivity differences could be explained by a decrease in oxygen adsorption on AuPd. After isolating oxygen adsorption as being the origin of the selectivity differences, density functional theory was used to investigate the oxygen adsorption properties of a pure Pd surface, a pure Au surface, and an alloyed AuPd surface. Finally, the calculations showed that Au–Pd alloying decreased the oxygen adsorption properties relative to pure Pd, which explained the selectivity differences, consistent with the microkinetic modeling.

  19. Room temperature alcohol sensing by oxygen vacancy controlled TiO2 nanotube array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, A.; Dutta, K.; Bhowmik, B.; Bhattacharyya, P.; Chattopadhyay, P. P.

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen vacancy (OV) controlled TiO 2 nanotubes, having diameters of 50–70 nm and lengths of 200–250 nm, were synthesized by electrochemical anodization in the mixed electrolyte comprising NH 4 F and ethylene glycol with selective H 2 O content. The structural evolution of TiO 2 nanoforms has been studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Variation in the formation of OVs with the variation of the structure of TiO 2 nanoforms has been evaluated by photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sensor characteristics were correlated to the variation of the amount of induced OVs in the nanotubes. The efficient room temperature sensing achieved by the control of OVs of TiO 2 nanotube array has paved the way for developing fast responding alcohol sensor with corresponding response magnitude of 60.2%, 45.3%, and 36.5% towards methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol, respectively.

  20. Green synthesis of isopropyl myristate in novel single phase medium Part II: Packed bed reactor (PBR) studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadgama, Rajeshkumar N; Odaneth, Annamma A; Lali, Arvind M

    2015-12-01

    Isopropyl myristate is a useful functional molecule responding to the requirements of numerous fields of application in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industry. In the present work, lipase-catalyzed production of isopropyl myristate by esterification of myristic acid with isopropyl alcohol (molar ratio of 1:15) in the homogenous reaction medium was performed on a bench-scale packed bed reactors, in order to obtain suitable reaction performance data for upscaling. An immobilized lipase B from Candida antartica was used as the biocatalyst based on our previous study. The process intensification resulted in a clean and green synthesis process comprising a series of packed bed reactors of immobilized enzyme and water dehydrant. In addition, use of the single phase reaction system facilitates efficient recovery of the product with no effluent generated and recyclability of unreacted substrates. The single phase reaction system coupled with a continuous operating bioreactor ensures a stable operational life for the enzyme.

  1. Green synthesis of isopropyl myristate in novel single phase medium Part II: Packed bed reactor (PBR studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshkumar N. Vadgama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Isopropyl myristate is a useful functional molecule responding to the requirements of numerous fields of application in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industry. In the present work, lipase-catalyzed production of isopropyl myristate by esterification of myristic acid with isopropyl alcohol (molar ratio of 1:15 in the homogenous reaction medium was performed on a bench-scale packed bed reactors, in order to obtain suitable reaction performance data for upscaling. An immobilized lipase B from Candida antartica was used as the biocatalyst based on our previous study. The process intensification resulted in a clean and green synthesis process comprising a series of packed bed reactors of immobilized enzyme and water dehydrant. In addition, use of the single phase reaction system facilitates efficient recovery of the product with no effluent generated and recyclability of unreacted substrates. The single phase reaction system coupled with a continuous operating bioreactor ensures a stable operational life for the enzyme.

  2. The impact of oxygen on the final alcohol content of wine fermented by a mixed starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Pilar; Rojas, Virginia; Quirós, Manuel; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2015-05-01

    We have developed a wine fermentation procedure that takes advantage of the metabolic features of a previously characterized Metschnikowia pulcherrima strain in order to reduce ethanol production. It involves the use of M. pulcherrima/Saccharomyces cerevisiae mixed cultures, controlled oxygenation conditions during the first 48 h of fermentation, and anaerobic conditions thereafter. The influence of different oxygenation regimes and initial inoculum composition on yeast physiology and final ethanol content was studied. The impact of oxygenation on yeast physiology goes beyond the first aerated step and influences yields and survival rates during the anaerobic stage. The activity of M. pulcherrima in mixed oxygenated cultures resulted in a clear reduction in ethanol yield, as compared to S. cerevisiae. Despite relatively low initial cell numbers, S. cerevisiae always predominated in mixed cultures by the end of the fermentation process. Strain replacement was faster under low oxygenation levels. M. pulcherrima confers an additional advantage in terms of dissolved oxygen, which drops to zero after a few hours of culture, even under highly aerated conditions, and this holds true for mixed cultures. Alcohol reduction values about 3.7 % (v/v) were obtained for mixed cultures under high aeration, but they were associated to unacceptable volatile acidity levels. In contrast, under optimized conditions, only 0.35 g/L acetic acid was produced, for an alcohol reduction of 2.2 % (v/v), and almost null dissolved oxygen during the process.

  3. Treatment of chlorofluorocarbons in alcohol solutions by γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimokawa, Toshinari; Nakagawa, Seiko; Sawai, Teruko

    1995-01-01

    A study was done on dechlorination of 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (CFC113) in neutral and alkaline alcohol solutions by means of γ-irradiation. The dechlorination yield (G (Cl - )) was found to depend on the kind of alcohol used as solvents and the presence of hydroxide ion. The order of G (Cl - ) value in alkaline solution was isopropyl alcohol>> ethyl alcohol > methyl alcohol. It was suggested that the high yield obtained in alkaline isopropyl alcohol solution is explained by a chain process in dechlorination reaction. In case of alkaline isopropyl alcohol solution, CFC113 was dechlorinated to lower chlorinated ethane, and 1,1-dichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroetane was a main product. We have discussed on the chain dechlorination mechanism in alkaline isopropyl alcohol solution. (author)

  4. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because that's how many accidents occur. What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  5. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  6. Alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Junior, L.

    1988-01-01

    The alcohol production as a secondary energy source, the participation of the alcohol in Brazilian national economic and social aspects are presented. Statistical data of alcohol demand compared with petroleum by-products and electricity are also included. (author)

  7. Room temperature alcohol sensing by oxygen vacancy controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotube array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazra, A.; Dutta, K.; Bhowmik, B.; Bhattacharyya, P., E-mail: pb-etc-besu@yahoo.com [Nano-Thin Films and Solid State Gas Sensor Devices Laboratory, Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology (IIEST), Shibpur, Howrah (India); Chattopadhyay, P. P. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology (IIEST), Shibpur, Howrah (India)

    2014-08-25

    Oxygen vacancy (OV) controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotubes, having diameters of 50–70 nm and lengths of 200–250 nm, were synthesized by electrochemical anodization in the mixed electrolyte comprising NH{sub 4}F and ethylene glycol with selective H{sub 2}O content. The structural evolution of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Variation in the formation of OVs with the variation of the structure of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been evaluated by photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sensor characteristics were correlated to the variation of the amount of induced OVs in the nanotubes. The efficient room temperature sensing achieved by the control of OVs of TiO{sub 2} nanotube array has paved the way for developing fast responding alcohol sensor with corresponding response magnitude of 60.2%, 45.3%, and 36.5% towards methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol, respectively.

  8. PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AN OXYGEN-LABILE, NAD-DEPENDENT ALCOHOL-DEHYDROGENASE FROM DESULFOVIBRIO-GIGAS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HENSGENS, CMH; VONCK, J; VANBEEUMEN, J; VANBRUGGEN, EFJ; HANSEN, TA

    A NAD-dependent, oxygen-labile alcohol dehydrogenase was purified from Desulfovibrio gigas. It was decameric, with subunits of M(r) 43,000. The best substrates were ethanol (K(m), 0.15 mM) and 1-propanol (K(m), 0.28 mM). N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis showed that the enzyme belongs to the

  9. Oxidation and Destruction of Polyvinyl Alcohol under the Combined Action of Ozone-Oxygen Mixture and Hydrogen Peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimin, Yu. S.; Kutlugil'dina, G. G.; Mustafin, A. G.

    2018-03-01

    The oxidative transformations of a polyvinyl alcohol in aqueous solutions are studied under the simultaneous action of the two oxidizing agents, an ozone-oxygen mixture and a hydrogen peroxide. Effective parameters a and b, which characterize the first and second channels of carboxyl group accumulation, respectively, grow linearly upon an increase in the initial concentration of H2O2. After the temperature dependence of a and b parameters (331-363 K) in a PVA + O3 + O2 + H2O2 + H2O reaction system is studied, the parameters of the activation of COOH group accumulation are found (where PVA is a polyvinyl alcohol). New data on the effect process conditions (length of oxidation, temperature, and hydrogen peroxide concentration) have on the degree of destructive transformations of polyvinyl alcohol in the investigated reaction system are obtained.

  10. Gas phase toluene isopropylation over high silica mordenite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    reaction on medium pore HZSM-5 zeolites differing in crystal size and ... effect of various parameters on the yield and cy- ... toluene. (DIPT) + water (cymene isopropylation) .... tain the stability of the mordenite catalysts. .... From the slope of the.

  11. Efficient oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds with molecular oxygen catalyzed by N-hydroxyphthalimide combined with a Co species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahama; Yoshino; Keitoku; Sakaguchi; Ishii

    2000-10-06

    Highly efficient catalytic oxidation of alcohols with molecular oxygen by N-hydroxyphthalimide (NHPI) combined with a Co species was developed. The oxidation of 2-octanol in the presence of catalytic amounts of NHPI and Co(OAc)2 under atmospheric dioxygen in AcOEt at 70 degrees C gave 2-octanone in 93% yield. The oxidation was significantly enhanced by adding a small amount of benzoic acid to proceed smoothly even at room temperature. Primary alcohols were oxidized by NHPI in the absence of any metal catalyst to form the corresponding carboxylic acids in good yields. In the oxidation of terminal vic-diols such as 1,2-butanediol, carbon-carbon bond cleavage was induced to give one carbon less carboxylic acids such as propionic acid, while internal vic-diols were selectively oxidized to 1,2-diketones.

  12. [Alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zima, T

    1996-07-14

    Alcohol is one of the most widely used addictive substances. It can be assumed that everybody encounters alcohol--ethanol in various forms and concentrations in the course of their lives. A global and social problem of our civilization is alcohol consumption which has a rising trend. Since 1989 the consumption of alcoholic beverages is rising and the mean annual consumption of concentrated ethanol per head is cea 10 litres. In ethanol abuse the organism is damaged not only by ethanol alone but in particular by substances formed during its metabolism. Its detailed knowledge is essential for the knowledge and investigations of the metabolic and toxic effect of ethanol on the organism. Ingested alcohol is in 90-98% eliminated from the organism by three known metabolic pathways: 1-alcohol dehydrogenase, 2-the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system and 3-catalase. Alcohol is a frequent important risk factor of serious "diseases of civilization" such as IHD, hypertension, osteoporosis, neoplastic diseases. Cirrhosis of the liver and chronic pancreatitis are the well known diseases associated with alcohol ingestion and also their most frequent cause. It is impossible to list all organs and diseases which develop as a result of alcohol consumption. It is important to realize that regular and "relatively" small amounts in the long run damage the organism and may be even fatal.

  13. Biodistribution of N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Hiroaki; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Watanabe, Katsushi; Ueda, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Tadatoshi

    1987-01-01

    Biodistribution of N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) was experimentally studied for evaluating the usefullness of this radiopharmaceuticals for cerebral perfusion scintigraphy. IMP labeled with radioactive iodine (I-125, I-131), was injected intravenously in awake animals. The activity in the brain of male ddY mice injected 3.7 kBq (0.1 μCi) of I-125 IMP reached 8.0 (%Dose/g) at 10 min. after injection and it was almost constant till 120 min. Activity in the lung and heart was the highest just after injection, and rapidly decreased in the constant level lasting 30 min. to 120 min. Activity in the liver increased slowly and reached peak level at 60 min. Autoradiograms of male ddY mice injected 1.85 MBq (50 μCi) of I-131 IMP showed almost same activity in the spinal cord as the brain. Activities of I-131 IMP in normal brain of Sprague-Dawley rats injected 7.4 MBq (200 μCi) of I-131 IMP were 2.68 - 3.2 (%Dose/g) in the cerebral cortex and 0.59 - 0.66 (%Dose/g) in the white matter at 1 min. after injection. Activities in the cerebral cortex were slightly increased at 60 min. after injection and the activities in the white matter increased markedly at 60 min. and 6 hrs. after injection. The cerebral cortex to white matter ratios were about 5 at 1 min. or 10 min. and about 1 at 60 min. or 6 hrs. after injection. Autoradiograms of normal and ischemic rat brain showed local cerebral blood flow image, but the contrast between the gray matter and the white matter decreased at 60 min. or 6 hrs. Our study on the biodistribution of IMP showed the usefullness of this agent in cerebral perfusion imaging, and may be informative for the interpretation of images. (author)

  14. Polymerization of allyl alcohol by radiation to obtain microencapsulated structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usanmaz, A.; Saricilar, S.

    1989-01-01

    Allyl alcohol was polymerized by radiation under various conditions. The limiting conversions were about 30 % in bulk, 35 % when containing 0.03 mole fraction AlCl 3 and 50 % when water was contained at 27 % (v/v). Irradiation was done with Co-60 gamma rays at room temperature and under vacuum. The presence of oxygen did not cause any change in the reaction rate. Molecular weights were determined by viscosity and cryoscopic methods. K and α values were found to be 3.57 x 10 -4 and 0.62 for solutions in methanol at 25degC. The polymers up to about 10 % conversion were viscous liquids having microcapsular structures: at high conversions, they became hard and glassy. The microencapsulated structures were also retained in solutions in methanol, acetone, and isopropyl alcohol. The samples were insoluble in water, benzene, and toluence. (author)

  15. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria to change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  16. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, to struggle with the strangle: Oxygen availability in fatty livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anavi, Sarit; Madar, Zecharia; Tirosh, Oren

    2017-10-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver disease in Western countries. Oxygen is a central component of the cellular microenvironment, which participate in the regulation of cell survival, differentiation, functions and energy metabolism. Accordingly, sufficient oxygen supply is an important factor for tissue durability, mainly in highly metabolic tissues, such as the liver. Accumulating evidence from the past few decades provides strong support for the existence of interruptions in oxygen availability in fatty livers. This outcome may be the consequence of both, impaired systemic microcirculation and cellular membrane modifications which occur under steatotic conditions. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding the main factors which can affect oxygen supply in fatty liver. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of initial lipid content and oxygen supply on alcoholic fermentation in champagne-like musts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochando, Thomas; Mouret, Jean-Roch; Humbert-Goffard, Anne; Sablayrolles, Jean-Marie; Farines, Vincent

    2017-08-01

    Available nitrogen, lipids, or oxygen are nutrients with major impact on the kinetics of winemaking fermentation. Assimilable nitrogen is usually the growth-limiting nutrient which availability determines the fermentation rate and therefore the fermentation duration. In some particular cases, as in Champagne, grape musts have high available nitrogen content and low turbidity, i.e., below 50 Nephelometric Turbidity Unit (NTU). In the case of low turbidity, the availability of lipids, particularly phytosterols, becomes limiting. In this situation, control of oxygenation, which is necessary for lipid synthesis by yeast, is particularly crucial during fermentation. To mimic and understand these situations, a synthetic medium simulating the average composition of a Champagne must was used. This medium contained phytosterol (mainly β-sitosterol) concentrations ranging from 0 to 8mg/L corresponding to turbidity between 10 and 90 NTU. Population reached during the stationary phase and the maximum fermentation rate are conditioned by the initial phytosterol concentration determining the amount of nitrogen consumption. An early loss of viability was observed when the lipid concentrations were very low. For example, the viability continuously decreased during the stationary phase to a final value of 50% for an initial phytosterol concentration of 1mg/L. In some fermentations, 10mg/L oxygen were added at the end of the growth phase to combine the effects of initial content of phytosterols in the musts and the de novo synthesis of ergosterol and unsaturated fatty acids induced by oxygen addition. Effect of oxygen supply on the fermentation kinetics was particularly significant for media with low phytosterol contents. For example, the maximum fermentation rate was increased by 1.4-fold and the fermentation time was 70h shorter with oxygen addition in the medium containing 2mg/L of phytosterols. As a consequence of the oxygen supply, for the media containing 3, 5 and 8mg/L of

  18. Isopropylation of benzene with 2-propanol over substituted large ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The catalytic performance of these materials was tested for isopropylation of benzene with 2-propanol at 250, 300, 350 and 400°C. The products were cumene, -DIPB (-diisopropylbenzene) and -DIPB (-diisopropylbenzene). MnAPO-5 was found to be more active than the other catalysts. Maximum conversion (20%) ...

  19. Isopropylation of benzene with 2-propanol over substituted large ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3. The major draw- back of these catalysts is their corrosive and envi- ronmentally hazardous ... catalytic activity towards vapor phase isopropylation of benzene with ... 2 cm i.d. The glass reactor was heated to the requi- site temperature with ...

  20. Gas phase toluene isopropylation over high silica mordenite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mordenite (HM) catalysts with three different Si/Al ratios were compared for their activity and selectivities in gas phase toluene isopropylation with isopropanol. Catalyst with Si/Al ratio 44.9 offered better cumene selectivity, hence, it was chosen for detailed kinetic investigations. The influence of various process parameters ...

  1. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to do. Wondering if adding a glass of wine or beer might help lower your blood glucose if it is high? The effects of alcohol can be unpredictable and it is not recommended as a treatment for high blood glucose. The risks likely outweigh any benefit that may be seen in blood glucose alone. ...

  2. Subtle differences in the hydrogen bonding of alcohol to divalent oxygen and sulfur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Lin; Tang, Shanshan; Hansen, Anne Schou

    2017-01-01

    complexes are more stable and form stronger hydrogen bonds compared to complexes with MeOH and EtOH, which are comparable, and only for the stronger hydrogen bond donor (TFE) are the small differences in acceptor molecules highlighted. The equilibrium constant for complex formation was determined from......The Osingle bondH⋯O and Osingle bondH⋯S hydrogen bonds were investigated by gas phase FTIR spectroscopy of alcohol–dimethylether and alcohol–dimethylsulfide complexes, with alcohols of increasing hydrogen bond donor strength; methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH) and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE). The TFE...

  3. Alcohols/Ethers as Oxygenates in Diesel Fuel: Properties of Blended Fuels and Evaluation of Practiacl Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N.; Aakko, P. [TEC Trans Energy Consulting Ltd (Finland); Niemi, S.; Paanu, T. [Turku Polytechnic (Finland); Berg, R. [Befri Konsult (Sweden)

    2005-03-15

    Oxygenates blended into diesel fuel can serve at least two purposes. Components based on renewable feedstocks make it possible to introduce a renewable component into diesel fuel. Secondly, oxygenates blended into diesel fuel might help to reduce emissions. A number of different oxygenates have been considered as components for diesel fuel. These oxygenates include various alcohols, ethers, esters and carbonates. Of the oxygenates, ethanol is the most common and almost all practical experiences have been generated from the use of diesel/ethanol blends (E-diesel). Biodiesel was not included in this study. Adding ethanol to diesel will reduce cetane, and therefore, both cetane improver and lubricity additives might be needed. Diesel/ethanol emulsions obtained with emulsifiers or without additives are 'milky' mixtures. Micro-emulsions of ethanol and diesel can be obtained using additives containing surfactants or co-solvents. The microemulsions are chemically and thermodynamically stable, they are clear and bright blends, unlike the emulsions. Storage and handling regulations for fuels are based on the flash point. The problem with, e.g., ethanol into diesel is that ethanol lowers the flash point of the blend significantly even at low concentrations. Regarding safety, diesel-ethanol blends fall into the same category as gasoline. Higher alcohols are more suitable for diesel blending than ethanol. Currently, various standards and specifications set rather tight limits for diesel fuel composition and properties. It should be noted that, e.g., E-diesel does not fulfil any current diesel specification and it cannot, thus, be sold as general diesel fuel. Some blends have already received approvals for special applications. The critical factors of the potential commercial use of these blends include blend properties such as stability, viscosity and lubricity, safety and materials compatibility. The effect of the fuel on engine performance, durability and emissions

  4. Alcohols/Ethers as Oxygenates in Diesel Fuel: Properties of Blended Fuels and Evaluation of Practiacl Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N; Aakko, P [TEC Trans Energy Consulting Ltd (Finland); Niemi, S; Paanu, T [Turku Polytechnic (Finland); Berg, R [Befri Konsult (Sweden)

    2005-03-15

    Oxygenates blended into diesel fuel can serve at least two purposes. Components based on renewable feedstocks make it possible to introduce a renewable component into diesel fuel. Secondly, oxygenates blended into diesel fuel might help to reduce emissions. A number of different oxygenates have been considered as components for diesel fuel. These oxygenates include various alcohols, ethers, esters and carbonates. Of the oxygenates, ethanol is the most common and almost all practical experiences have been generated from the use of diesel/ethanol blends (E-diesel). Biodiesel was not included in this study. Adding ethanol to diesel will reduce cetane, and therefore, both cetane improver and lubricity additives might be needed. Diesel/ethanol emulsions obtained with emulsifiers or without additives are 'milky' mixtures. Micro-emulsions of ethanol and diesel can be obtained using additives containing surfactants or co-solvents. The microemulsions are chemically and thermodynamically stable, they are clear and bright blends, unlike the emulsions. Storage and handling regulations for fuels are based on the flash point. The problem with, e.g., ethanol into diesel is that ethanol lowers the flash point of the blend significantly even at low concentrations. Regarding safety, diesel-ethanol blends fall into the same category as gasoline. Higher alcohols are more suitable for diesel blending than ethanol. Currently, various standards and specifications set rather tight limits for diesel fuel composition and properties. It should be noted that, e.g., E-diesel does not fulfil any current diesel specification and it cannot, thus, be sold as general diesel fuel. Some blends have already received approvals for special applications. The critical factors of the potential commercial use of these blends include blend properties such as stability, viscosity and lubricity, safety and materials compatibility. The effect of the fuel on engine performance, durability and emissions is also

  5. Pathophysiologic study of chronic infarcts with I-123 isopropyl iodo-amphetamine (IMP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raynaud, C; Rancurel, G; Samson, Y

    1987-01-01

    Seventeen chronic cerebral infarcts were investigated by a highly sensitive, dedicated brain single photon emission computerized tomography system using 123I-isopropyl iodoamphetamine (IMP) and 133Xe. IMP uptake was measured 10 minutes, 2 hours, and 5 hours after injection, and regional cerebral...... blood flow was measured with 133Xe. In 4 cases a positron emission tomography system was used to measure the rCBF and the regional metabolic rate of oxygen with C15O2 and 15O2. The results obtained allowed us to identify 2 abnormal zones. One, the "central area," was characterized by a severe decrease...... ischemic neuronal loss. The results stress the important role played by the peripheral area, which may be useful in establishing the prognosis and evaluating the efficacy of therapy in individual stroke cases....

  6. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 9: Mixed Alcohols From Syngas -- State of Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is for Task 9, Mixed Alcohols from Syngas: State of Technology, as part of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Task 9 supplements the work previously done by NREL in the mixed alcohols section of the 2003 technical report Preliminary Screening--Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas.

  7. The Hydrolysis of Di-Isopropyl Methylphosphonate in Ground Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sega, G.A., Tomkins, B.A., Griest, W.H., Bayne, C.K.

    1997-12-31

    Di-isopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) is a byproduct from the manufacture of the nerve agent Sarin. The persistence of DIMP in the ground water is an important question in evaluating the potential environmental impacts of DIMP contamination. The half-life of DIMP in ground water at 10 deg C was estimated to be 500 years with a 95% confidence interval of 447 to 559 years from measurements of the hydrolysis rates at temperatures between 70 to 98 deg C.Extrapolation of the kinetics to 10 deg C used the Arrhenius equation, and calculation of the half-life assumed first-order kinetics. Inorganic phosphate was not detected.

  8. 2-Isopropyl-4,7-dimethyl-1-nitronaphthalene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Benharref

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available All the non-H atoms of the title compound, C15H17NO2, except the CH3 groups of the isopropyl unit and the O atoms of the nitro group, lie on a crystallographic mirror plane. The dihedral angle between the naphthalene plane and the nitro group is constrained to be 90° by symmetry. In the crystal, molecules are linked by π–π interactions [centroid–centroid separation = 3.6591 (4 Å] and stacked along the b-axis direction.

  9. Improving cerebral oxygenation, cognition and autonomic nervous system control of a chronic alcohol abuser through a three-month running program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Aranha Cabral

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The abusive use of alcohol has shown to be associated to cerebral damage, impaired cognition, poor autonomic nervous control, impaired cardiovascular health, increased levels of stress and anxiety, depression symptoms and poor quality of life. Aerobic exercise has shown to be an efficient tool to reduce and overcome these issues. In this case report, a patient (forty-four years old, male under treatment in public psychiatric hospital, classified as having a substance use disorder, underwent a three-month running program. The maximal oxygen consumption increased from 24.2ml/kg/min to 30.1ml/kg/min, running time increased from 6min to 45min (650% and distance covered from 765m to 8700m (1037.2%. In prefrontal cortex oxygenation, oxyhemoglobin levels improved by 76.1%, deoxyhemoglobin decreased 96.9% and total hemoglobin increased 78.8% during exercise. Reaction time in the cognitive test during rest decreased 23%, and the number of correct answers increased by 266.6%. Parasympathetic cardiac parameters increased in several heart rate variability indices. Thus, we conclude that running exercise performed by an alcoholic patient hospitalized in a psychiatric hospital improves cerebral function, cognition and cardiovascular health. Keywords: Alcohol addiction, Near infrared spectroscopy, Prefrontal cortex, Running exercise, Treatment

  10. Synthesis of 2-Isopropyl Naphthalene Catalyzed by Et3NHCl-AlCl3 Ionic Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chenmin; Qi Xin; Tang Xiangyang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, 2-isopropyl naphthalene has been synthesized by the reaction of naphthalene and isopropyl bromide, using triethylamine hydrochloride-aluminum chloride ionic liquid as the catalyst. The effect of the catalyst composition, the reaction time, the reaction temperature, the ionic liquid dosage, as well as the molar ratio of the reagents on the 2-isopropyl naphthalene yield was systematically investigated. The optimal reaction conditions cover:an AlCl3 to Et3NHCl ratio of 2.0, a reaction time of 3 h, a reaction temperature of 15.0℃, a volume fraction of ionic liquid to the mixture (isopropyl bromide, n-dodecane and n-hexane) of 9%, and a naphthalene/isopropyl bromide molar ratio of 4.0. Under the optimal reaction condi-tions, the conversion of isopropyl bromide reached 98%and the selectivity of 2-isopropyl naphthalene was equal to 80%. The test results veriifed good catalytic activity upon using Et3NHCl-AlCl3 ionic liquid as the catalyst for alkylation of naph-thalene with isopropyl bromide. The activity of the ionic liquid remains unchanged after it has been recycled for 4 times.

  11. Dosage direct des alcools dans les carburols par chromatographie en phase gazeuse Direct Gas Chromatographie Determination of Alcohols in Gasolines Blended by Oxygenated Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petroff N.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans cette étude, on décrit une méthode de chromatographie en phase gazeuse utilisant une colonne remplie ; elle permet de doser, sans préfractionnement, les alcools jusqu'aux butanols dans les carburols (carburants additionnés de composés oxygénés. La phase stationnaire sélectionnée est le glycérol. This report describes a gas chromatographie method using a packed column. It allows the direct determination of alcohols up to butanols in gasolines blended with oxygenated compounds without prefractionation. Glycerol has been selected as stationary phase.

  12. Influence of argon/oxygen atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge treatment on desizing and scouring of poly (vinyl alcohol) on cotton fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Shujing; Gao Zhiqiang; Sun Jie; Yao Lan; Qiu Yiping

    2009-01-01

    The effect of argon/oxygen atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) treatment on desizing and scouring of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) on cotton fabric was studied with respect to the treatment duration of 1, 2, 4 and 6 min. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that oxygen concentration increased for the plasma treated PVA film. Solubility measurement revealed that plasma treatment increased PVA solubility in hot washing but less effective in cold washing. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the fiber surfaces were as clean as unsized fibers after 6 min treatment followed by hot washing. Wickability analysis indicated that the capillary heights of plasma treated fabrics increased significantly as the plasma treatment duration increased. The results of the yarn tensile strength test showed that the plasma treatment did not have a negative effect on fabric tensile strength.

  13. Biosynthesis of higher alcohol flavour compounds by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: impact of oxygen availability and responses to glucose pulse in minimal growth medium with leucine as sole nitrogen source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa Vidal, Esteban; de Morais, Marcos Antonio; François, Jean Marie; de Billerbeck, Gustavo M

    2015-01-01

    Higher alcohol formation by yeast is of great interest in the field of fermented beverages. Among them, medium-chain alcohols impact greatly the final flavour profile of alcoholic beverages, even at low concentrations. It is widely accepted that amino acid metabolism in yeasts directly influences higher alcohol formation, especially the catabolism of aromatic and branched-chain amino acids. However, it is not clear how the availability of oxygen and glucose metabolism influence the final higher alcohol levels in fermented beverages. Here, using an industrial Brazilian cachaça strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we investigated the effect of oxygen limitation and glucose pulse on the accumulation of higher alcohol compounds in batch cultures, with glucose (20 g/l) and leucine (9.8 g/l) as the carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Fermentative metabolites and CO2 /O2 balance were analysed in order to correlate the results with physiological data. Our results show that the accumulation of isoamyl alcohol by yeast is independent of oxygen availability in the medium, depending mainly on leucine, α-keto-acids and/or NADH pools. High-availability leucine experiments showed a novel and unexpected accumulation of isobutanol, active amyl alcohol and 2-phenylethanol, which could be attributed to de novo biosynthesis of valine, isoleucine and phenylalanine and subsequent outflow of these pathways. In carbon-exhausted conditions, our results also describe, for the first time, the metabolization of isoamyl alcohol, isobutanol, active amyl alcohol but not of 2-phenylethanol, by yeast strains in stationary phase, suggesting a role for these higher alcohols as carbon source for cell maintenance and/or redox homeostasis during this physiological phase. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Influence of Food with High Moisture Content on Oxygen Barrier Property of Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA)/Vermiculite Nanocomposite Coated Multilayer Packaging Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Min; Lee, Min Hyeock; Ko, Jung A; Kang, Dong Ho; Bae, Hojae; Park, Hyun Jin

    2018-02-01

    This study investigates the potential complications in applying nanoclay-based waterborne coating to packaging films for food with high moisture content. Multilayer packaging films were prepared by dry laminating commercially available polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/vermiculite nanocomposite coating films and linear low-density polyethylene film, and the changes in oxygen barrier properties were investigated according to different relative humidity using 3 types of food simulants. When the relative humidity was above 60%, the oxygen permeability increased sharply, but this was reversible. Deionized water and 3% acetic acid did not cause any large structural change in the PVA/vermiculite nanocomposite but caused a reversible deterioration of the oxygen barrier properties. In contrast, 50% ethanol, a simulant for the semifatty food, induced irreversible structural changes with deterioration of the oxygen barrier property. These changes are due to the characteristics of PVA rather than vermiculite. We believe this manuscript would be of interest to the wide group of researchers, organizations, and companies in the field of developing nanoclay-based gas barrier packaging for foods with high moisture content. Hence, we wish to diffuse our knowledge to the scientific community. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Smooth isoindolinone formation from isopropyl carbamates via Bischler-Napieralski-type cyclization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Satoshi; Onozuka, Masao; Yoshida, Yuko; Ide, Mitsuaki; Saikawa, Yoko; Nakata, Masaya

    2014-01-17

    Isopropyl carbamates derived from benzylamines provide isoindolinones by treatment with phosphorus pentoxide at room temperature. Utility of this Bischler-Napieralski-type cyclization and a new mechanism involving a carbamoyl cation for rationalization of this smooth conversion are discussed.

  16. Brain SPECT with 123I-isopropyl amphetamine in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, H.J.; Reske, S.N.; Rasche, A.; Reichmann, K.; Winkler, C.

    1983-01-01

    Ten patients were studied with N-isopropyl I-123 p-iodoamphetamine. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was carried out by hand of a rotating gamma camera system (Gammatome T9000/CGR, high resolution collimator). During 1 rotation (360 0 ) 64 frames (4k matrix) were acquired within 20 min 1 hour after injection of 6.5 mCi I-123 labeled amphetamine. The content of I-124 was less than 2%. After reconstruction of transverse slices coronar and sagittal reconstructions were rapidly performed using an array processor. Nine patients suffered from epilepsy and one from severe migraine. Excellent differentiation between gray and white matter of the cerebral cortex and the basal ganglia was evident in all of the cases. In 2 out of 3 patients with epilepsy and negative CT results SPECT revealed circumscribed areas with increased amphetamine uptake in accordance with the EEG findings. In 4 out of 6 cases with positive CT findings SPECT lesions with diminished amphetamine uptake could be established. One patient with severe migraine showed focal increased amphetamine uptake in accordance with the respective clinical results. (orig.)

  17. Hydrophobic hydration of poly-N-isopropyl acrylamide: a matter of the mean energetic state of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischofberger, I.; Calzolari, D. C. E.; de Los Rios, P.; Jelezarov, I.; Trappe, V.

    2014-03-01

    The enthalpically favoured hydration of hydrophobic entities, termed hydrophobic hydration, impacts the phase behaviour of numerous amphiphiles in water. Here, we show experimental evidence that hydrophobic hydration is strongly determined by the mean energetics of the aqueous medium. We investigate the aggregation and collapse of an amphiphilic polymer, poly-N-isopropyl acrylamide (PNiPAM), in aqueous solutions containing small amounts of alcohol and find that the thermodynamic characteristics defining the phase transitions of PNiPAM evolve relative to the solvent composition at which the excess mixing enthalpy of the water/alcohol mixtures becomes minimal. Such correlation between solvent energetics and solution thermodynamics extends to other mixtures containing neutral organic solutes that are considered as kosmotropes to induce a strengthening of the hydrogen bonded water network. This denotes the energetics of water as a key parameter controlling the phase behaviour of PNiPAM and identifies the excess mixing enthalpy of water/kosmotrope mixtures as a gauge of the kosmotropic effect on hydrophobic assemblies.

  18. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the ...

  19. Information draft on the development of air standards for isopropyl benzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Isopropyl benzene, also commonly referred to as cumene, is a colourless liquid with a sharp, penetrating odour. It is derived from the distillation of coal tar, naphtha and petroleum. It is used mainly as an intermediate in the production of phenol, acetone, and alpha-methyl styrene, all of which are components in plastic resins. Isopropyl benzene is also used as a solvent and thinner for paints and enamels and as an octane booster in aviation gasoline. In 1996, reported atmospheric releases in Canada amounted to 16.4 tonnes, of which 9.1 tonnes were from Ontario sources. Isopropyl benzene is not a significant threat to health in low concentrations. Inhalation exposure can cause dizziness, light-headedness and fainting. Contact with isopropyl benzene can irritate the skin, eyes, nose and mouth. The current Ontario half-hour interim Point of Impingement (OPI) standard and the one-hour Ambient Air Quality Criterion (AAQC) are both set at 100 microgram/cubic meter on the basis of the odour nuisance property of the substance. A review of applicable literature from world-wide sources (and summarized in this report) reveal that four US agencies have developed air quality criteria for isopropyl benzene based on the health effects of the compound. These criteria range from 9 to 585 micrograms/cubic meter for an annual average basis and from 87 to 400 microgram/cubic meter on a 24-hour basis. 40 refs., 1 tab., appendix.

  20. Phagocytosis and production of reactive oxygen species by peripheral blood phagocytes in patients with different stages of alcohol-induced liver disease: effect of acute exposure to low ethanol concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Schäfer, C.; Paulus, S. B.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In rodents, the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) after chronic alcohol feeding was shown to depend on the activity of enzymes that are necessary for production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in phagocytes. The aim of this study was to determine the formation of ROS...... by resting and challenged phagocytes of patients with different stages of ALD in the presence of ethanol concentrations commonly found in the blood of alcohol abusers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The release of ROS and the phagocytosis of bacteria by neutrophils and monocytes obtained from 60 patients, who were...... produced significantly more ROS than those of healthy controls. Basal values of ROS production from neutrophils correlated closely to markers of the severity of ALD. ROS formation was depressed dose-dependently by ethanol in the healthy controls but not in alcohol abusers. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the ROS...

  1. Wetting, Solubility and Chemical Characteristics of Plasma-Polymerized 1-Isopropyl-4-Methyl-1,4-Cyclohexadiene Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakaria Ahmad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on the wetting, solubility and chemical composition of plasma polymer thin films provide an insight into the feasibility of implementing these polymeric materials in organic electronics, particularly where wet solution processing is involved. In this study, thin films were prepared from 1-isopropyl-4-methyl-1,4-cyclohexadiene (γ-Terpinene using radio frequency (RF plasma polymerization. FTIR showed the polymers to be structurally dissimilar to the original monomer and highly cross-linked, where the loss of original functional groups and the degree of cross-linking increased with deposition power. The polymer surfaces were hydrocarbon-rich, with oxygen present in the form of O–H and C=O functional groups. The oxygen content decreased with deposition power, with films becoming more hydrophobic and, thus, less wettable. The advancing and receding contact angles were investigated, and the water advancing contact angle was found to increase from 63.14° to 73.53° for thin films prepared with an RF power of 10 W to 75 W. The wetting envelopes for the surfaces were constructed to enable the prediction of the surfaces’ wettability for other solvents. The effect of roughness on the wetting behaviour of the films was insignificant. The polymers were determined to resist solubilization in solvents commonly used in the deposition of organic semiconducting layers, including chloroform and chlorobenzene, with higher stability observed in films fabricated at higher RF power.

  2. Application of integrated ozone and granular activated carbon for decolorization and chemical oxygen demand reduction of vinasse from alcohol distilleries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadavifar, Mojtaba; Younesi, Habibollah; Zinatizadeh, Ali Akbar; Mahdad, Faezeh; Li, Qin; Ghasemi, Zahra

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the treatment of the distilleries vinasse using a hybrid process integrating ozone oxidation and granular activated carbons (GAC) in both batch and continuous operation mode. The batch-process studies have been carried out to optimize initial influent pH, GAC doses, the effect of the ozone (O3) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations on chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal of the distilleries vinasse. The continuous process was carried out on GAC and ozone treatment alone as well as the hybrid process comb both methods to investigate the synergism effectiveness of the two methods for distilleries vinasse COD reduction and color removal. In a continuous process, the Yan model described the experimental data better than the Thomas model. The efficiency of ozonation of the distilleries vinasse was more effective for color removal (74.4%) than COD removal (25%). O3/H2O2 process was not considerably more effective on COD and color removal. Moreover, O3/GAC process affected negatively on the removal efficiency by reducing COD and color from distilleries vinasse. The negative effect decreased by increasing pH value of the influent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. First Electrochemical Method of Nitrothal-Isopropyl Determination in Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Guziejewski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was the use of square wave adsorptive stripping voltammetry (SWAdSV in conjunction with a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE for the determination of nitrothal-isopropyl. It was found that optimal SW technique parameters were frequency, 200 Hz; amplitude, 50 mV; and step potential, 5 mV. Accumulation time and potential were studied to select the optimal conditions in adsorptive stripping voltammetry: 45 s at 0.0 V, respectively. The calibration curve (SWSV was linear in the nitrothal-isopropyl concentration range from 2.0 × 10−7 to 2.0 × 10−6 mol L−1 with detection limit of 3.46 × 10−8 mol L−1. The repeatability of the method was determined at a nitrothal-isopropyl concentration level equal to 6.0 × 10−7 mol L−1 and expressed as RSD = 5.5% (n=6. The proposed method was successfully validated by studying the recovery of nitrothal-isopropyl in spiked environmental samples.

  4. Synthesis 1, 3-bis (4-bromophenyl-5-isopropyl-1, 3, 5-triazacyclohexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. LEFRADA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Condensation of an isopropylamine and an 4-bromoaniline with formaline in basic solution to give 1, 3-bis (4-bromophenyl-5- (isopropyl- 1, 3, 5- triazicyaclohexane. Through the interaction of rapid Schiff base, Structures of this compound have been elucidated by spectroscopic methods; IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR. Their purities were confirmed by elemental analyses.

  5. Thallium-201 diethyldithiocarbamate: an alternative to iodine-123 N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruine, J. F.; van Royen, E. A.; Vyth, A.; de Jong, J. M.; van der Schoot, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    The study of cerebral blood flow by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) requires lipophilic radiopharmaceuticals. The high cost and limited availability of N-isopropyl-p-[I-123]-iodoamphetamine ( [123I]IMP) led us to search for alternatives. Following our recent development of

  6. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... 466 KB] No. 81: Exploring Treatment Options for Alcohol Use Disorders [ PDF - 539K] No. 80: Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: ...

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly (ether imide)s Containing Phthalazinone and Isopropyl Moieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A novel poly(ether imide)s containing phthalazinone and isopropyl moieties derived from 2-(4-aminophenyl)-4-[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]-phthalazin-l-one and bisphenol-A diphthalic anhydride was synthesized by one-step solution condensation polymerization in m-cresol. The polymer was characterized by FTIR, NMR, molecular weights, glass transition temperature,thermal degradation temperature and WAXD.

  8. Metabolic lung scanning with N-isopropyl-I-123-p-iodoamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touya, J.; Akber, S.F.; Rashimian, J.; Bennett, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanisms of uptake of N-Isopropyl-I-123-p-Iodoamphetamine (IMP) in the lung was studied in dogs. It has been concluded that this amine is taken in low specificity - high capacity endothelial receptors. Competitive effect of propranolol guanethidine, amphetamine and ketanine for the binding sites of IMP in the pulmonary endothelial cells was observed. These results show that IMP can be an agent for nonparticulate lung perfusion scans as well as for metabolic lung scans

  9. Synthesis of N-isopropyl p-[123I]iodoamphetamine via organoborane chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabalka, G.W.; Varma, R.S.; Gai, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Iodine-123 labeled amphetamines have proven to be excellent cerebral perfusion tracers. The radioiodination of aromatic amines is generally achieved via high temperature substitution reactions which are prone to side reactions. The authors report that N-isopropyl p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine, and other iodophenylamines, are readily synthesized from the corresponding air stable, boronic acids. The reaction is based on the no-carrier-added radioiodination sequence developed in their laboratory

  10. Correlation of vapor - liquid equilibrium data for acetic acid - isopropanol - water - isopropyl acetate mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Mandagarán

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A correlation procedure for the prediction of vapor - liquid equilibrium of acetic acid - isopropanol - water - isopropyl acetate mixtures has been developed. It is based on the NRTL model for predicting liquid activity coefficients, and on the Hayden-O'Connell second virial coefficients for predicting the vapor phase of systems containing association components. When compared with experimental data the correlation shows a good agreement for binary and ternary data. The correlation also shows good prediction for reactive quaternary data.

  11. Production of alcohols and other oxygenates from fossil fuels and renewables : final report for IEA Alternative Motor Fuels Agreement Program of research and development on alternative motor fuels, Annex 4/Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vancea, L. (comp.) [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1995-07-01

    The objective of the International Energy Agency's (IEA's) Alternative Motor Fuels Agreement Program was to exchange information on the production of alcohols and other oxygenates between 6 participating countries including Canada, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Sweden and the United States. Various production methods were reviewed in an effort to identify potential areas of cooperative research programs. The original scope was to examine the production of alcohols and other oxygenates from fossil fuels only, but some participants examined their production from renewables. This report provided a brief description of the Annex and the list of participants. It presented the Operating Agent's Report and contained a summary of the contributions submitted by participating countries by topic. In Canada, Iogen of Ottawa, Ontario has conducted a study on the energy, carbon and economic budgets estimated for wheat grain, corn grain, wheat straw, and switchgrass. Iogen has developed a process for fermenting wheat straw and switchgrass into ethanol. Most research has focused on enzymatic hydrolysis processes because of the low yields inherent in dilute acid hydrolysis processes. Enzymes hydrolyze the cellulose to glucose without producing any degradation products, thereby yielding high quantity products with no toxicity. Future bioethanol production will probably be cellulosic-based rather than grain-based. refs., tabs., figs.

  12. Production of alcohols and other oxygenates from fossil fuels and renewables : final report for IEA Alternative Motor Fuels Agreement Program of research and development on alternative motor fuels, Annex 4/Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vancea, L [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1995-07-01

    The objective of the International Energy Agency's (IEA's) Alternative Motor Fuels Agreement Program was to exchange information on the production of alcohols and other oxygenates between 6 participating countries including Canada, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Sweden and the United States. Various production methods were reviewed in an effort to identify potential areas of cooperative research programs. The original scope was to examine the production of alcohols and other oxygenates from fossil fuels only, but some participants examined their production from renewables. This report provided a brief description of the Annex and the list of participants. It presented the Operating Agent's Report and contained a summary of the contributions submitted by participating countries by topic. In Canada, Iogen of Ottawa, Ontario has conducted a study on the energy, carbon and economic budgets estimated for wheat grain, corn grain, wheat straw, and switchgrass. Iogen has developed a process for fermenting wheat straw and switchgrass into ethanol. Most research has focused on enzymatic hydrolysis processes because of the low yields inherent in dilute acid hydrolysis processes. Enzymes hydrolyze the cellulose to glucose without producing any degradation products, thereby yielding high quantity products with no toxicity. Future bioethanol production will probably be cellulosic-based rather than grain-based. refs., tabs., figs.

  13. Crystal morphology modification by the addition of tailor-made stereocontrolled poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Tommy; Baldursdottir, Stefania; Hietala, Sami

    2012-01-01

    . One such additive is the thermosensitive polymer poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM). The use of PNIPAM as a crystallization additive provides a possibility to affect viscosity at separation temperatures and nucleation and growth rates at higher temperatures. In this study, novel PNIPAM derivatives......; the morphology of crystals changed from needle to dendritic shape. Additionally, the amphiphilic nature of PNIPAM increased the solubility of nitrofurantoin in water. PNIPAMs with varying molecular weights and stereoregularities resulted in similar changes in the crystal habit of the drug regardless of whether...

  14. Synthesis, labelling and biodistribution of N-isopropyl 131I-p-iodoamhetamine (131IAMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, N.; Reveco, P.; Mena, P.; Gil, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    It is possible to synthesize N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IAMP) through differents schemes, being the most feasible the iodination of phenylacetic acid. The labelling of this compound with radioidine, by isotope exchange in presence or absence of Cu (II) as catalyst, presents less activity concentration in brain than using Cu (II) with an excess of ascorbic acid as reducing agent of Cu (II). The use of ascorbic acid in excess allow the formation of Cu (I) in-situ, which may form an Ar-Cu-I complex, favouring the isotope nucleophilic substitution reaction, obtaining 131 IAMP higher radiochemical purity and better cerebral uptake. (Author)

  15. Kinetics and mechanisms of the oxidation of alcohols and hydroxylamines by hydrogen peroxide, catalyzed by methyltrioxorhenium, MTO, and the oxygen binding properties of cobalt Schiff base complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zauche, Timothy [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-02-12

    Catalysis is a very interesting area of chemistry, which is currently developing at a rapid pace. A great deal of effort is being put forth by both industry and academia to make reactions faster and more productive. One method of accomplishing this is by the development of catalysts. Enzymes are an example of catalysts that are able to perform reactions on a very rapid time scale and also very specifically; a goal for every man-made catalyst. A kinetic study can also be carried out for a reaction to gain a better understanding of its mechanism and to determine what type of catalyst would assist the reaction. Kinetic studies can also help determine other factors, such as the shelf life of a chemical, or the optimum temperature for an industrial scale reaction. An area of catalysis being studied at this time is that of oxygenations. Life on this earth depends on the kinetic barriers for oxygen in its various forms. If it were not for these barriers, molecular oxygen, water, and the oxygenated materials in the land would be in a constant equilibrium. These same barriers must be overcome when performing oxygenation reactions on the laboratory or industrial scale. By performing kinetic studies and developing catalysts for these reactions, a large number of reactions can be made more economical, while making less unwanted byproducts. For this dissertation the activation by transition metal complexes of hydrogen peroxide or molecular oxygen coordination will be discussed.

  16. Effects of low-molecular weight alcohols on bacterial viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Adrian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol based solutions are among the most convenient and wide spread aid in the prevention of nosocomial infections. The current study followed the efficacy of several types and isomers of alcohols on different bacterial species. Seven alcohols (ethyl, n-propyl, iso-propyl, n-butyl, iso-butyl, tert-butyl alcohol, and ethylene glycol were used to evaluate their minimal inhibitory and bactericidal effects by microdilution method on bacteria that express many phenotypical characteristics: different cell-wall structure (Gram positive/negative bacteria, capsule production (Klebsiella pneumoniae, antibiotic resistance (MRSA vs MSSA or high environmental adaptability (Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: The best inhibitory effect was noticed for n-propyl, followed by iso-propyl, n-butyl, and iso-butyl alcohols with equal values. Ethylene glycol was the most inefficient alcohol on all bacteria. In K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa, the bactericidal concentrations were higher than the inhibitory one, and to a level similar to that encountered for most of the Gram-positive bacteria. Among Gram-positive cocci, E. faecalis presented the lowest susceptibility to alcohols. Conclusions: All alcohols presented good effect on bacteria, even in low concentrations. Compared to ethanol as standard, there are better alternatives that can be used as antimicrobials, namely longer-chain alcohols such as propyl or butyric alcohols and their iso- isomers. Ethylene glycol should be avoided, due to its toxicity hazard and low antimicrobial efficacy. Bacterial phenotype (highly adaptable bacteria, biofilm formation and structure (cell wall structure, presence of capsule may drastically affect the responsiveness to the antimicrobial activity of alcohols, leading to higher bactericidal than inhibitory concentrations.

  17. Brain perfusion image using N-isopropyl-p-(/sup 123/I) iodoamphetamine. Detection of interhemispheric difference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Seki, Hiroyasu; Ishida, Hiroko

    1984-12-01

    In brain perfusion images using N-isopropyl-p-(/sup 123/I)iodoamphetamine and rotating gamma camera emission computed tomography, brain maps showing laterality indices (LI) were made for the purpose of detecting intrahemispheric differences. Left (L) and right (R) leteral images were made by adding sagittal section images in each hemisphere, respectively. LI was calculated as follows. LI=100(1 + (R-L)/(R + L)). The normal ranges (mean +- 2 s.d.) of the indices determined by those obtained in five normal right-handed subjects were 103 +- 4 and 103 +- 10 for brain mean and each pixel, respectively. Out of 25 measurements in 22 right-handed patients with cerebrovascular accidents, brain mean LI beyond the normal limits and areas showing abnormal regional LI were observed in 5 (20%) and 21 (84%) measurements, respectively. On the other hand, X-ray CT showed low density areas in only 12 (48%). These brain maps were clinically useful for detecting and quantifying interhemispheric differences in brain perfusion images with N-isopropyl-p-(/sup 123/I)iodoamphetamine. (author). Contains 48 refs.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Iso-propyl cyanide rotational study (Kolesnikova+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikova, L.; Alonso, E. R.; Mata, S.; Cernicharo, J.; Alonso, J. L.

    2018-02-01

    A detailed analysis of the rotational spectra of the interstellar iso-propyl cyanide has been carried out up to 480GHz using three different high-resolution spectroscopic techniques. Jet-cooled broadband chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy from 6 to 18GHz allowed us to measure and analyze the ground-state rotational transitions of all singly substituted 13C and 15N isotopic species in their natural abundances. The monohydrate of iso-propyl cyanide, in which the water molecule bounds through a stronger O-H...N and weaker bifurcated (C-H)2...O hydrogen bonds in a Cs configuration, has also been detected in the supersonic expansion. Stark-modulation spectroscopy in the microwave and millimeter wave range from 18 to 75GHz allowed us to analyze the vibrational satellite pattern arising from pure rotational transitions in the low-lying vibrational excited states. Finally, assignments and measurements were extended through the millimeter and submillimeter wave region. The room temperature rotational spectra made possible the assignment and analysis of pure rotational transitions in 19 vibrationally excited states. Significant perturbations were found above 100GHz in most of the observed excited states. Due to the complexity of the interactions and importance of this astrophysical region for future radioastronomical detection, both a graphical plot approach and a coupled fit have been used to assign and measure almost 10000 new lines. (1 data file).

  19. A Comprehensive Rotational Study of Interstellar Iso-propyl Cyanide up to 480 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesniková, L.; Alonso, E. R.; Mata, S.; Cernicharo, J.; Alonso, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    A detailed analysis of the rotational spectra of the interstellar iso-propyl cyanide has been carried out up to 480 GHz using three different high-resolution spectroscopic techniques. Jet-cooled broadband chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy from 6 to 18 GHz allowed us to measure and analyze the ground-state rotational transitions of all singly substituted 13C and 15N isotopic species in their natural abundances. The monohydrate of iso-propyl cyanide, in which the water molecule bounds through a stronger O-H⋯N and weaker bifurcated (C-H)2⋯O hydrogen bonds in a C s configuration, has also been detected in the supersonic expansion. Stark-modulation spectroscopy in the microwave and millimeter wave range from 18 to 75 GHz allowed us to analyze the vibrational satellite pattern arising from pure rotational transitions in the low-lying vibrational excited states. Finally, assignments and measurements were extended through the millimeter and submillimeter wave region. The room temperature rotational spectra made possible the assignment and analysis of pure rotational transitions in 19 vibrationally excited states. Significant perturbations were found above 100 GHz in most of the observed excited states. Due to the complexity of the interactions and importance of this astrophysical region for future radioastronomical detection, both a graphical plot approach and a coupled fit have been used to assign and measure almost 10,000 new lines.

  20. Brain perfusion image using N-isopropyl-p-[123I] iodoamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Seki, Hiroyasu; Ishida, Hiroko

    1984-01-01

    In brain perfusion images using N-Isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] Iodoamphetamine and rotating gamma camera emission computed tomography, brain maps showing laterality indices (LI) were made for the purpose of detecting ineterhemispheric differences. Left (L) and right (R) leteral images were made by adding sagittal section images in each hemisphere, respectively. LI was calculated as follows. LI=100(1+(R-L)/(R+L)). The normal ranges (mean+-2 s.d.) of the indices determined by those obtained in five normal right-handed subjects were 103+-4 and 103+-10 for brain mean and each pixel, respectively. Out of 25 measurements in 22 righthanded patients with cerebrovascular accidents, brain mean LI beyond the normal limits and areas showing abnormal regional LI were observed in 5 (20%) and 21 (84%) measurements, respectively. On the other hand, X-ray CT showed low density areas in only 12 (48%). These brain maps were clinically useful for detecting and quantifying interhemispheric differences in brain perfusion images with N-Isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] Iodoamphetamine. (author)

  1. Role of the adsorbed oxygen species in the selective electrochemical reduction of CO{sub 2} to alcohols and carbonyls on copper electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Duff, Cecile S.; Lawrence, Matthew J.; Rodriguez, Paramaconi [School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-09

    The electrochemical reduction of CO{sub 2} into fuels has gained significant attention recently as source of renewable carbon-based fuels. The unique high selectivity of copper in the electrochemical reduction of CO{sub 2} to hydrocarbons has called much interest in discovering its mechanism. In order to provide significant information about the role of oxygen in the electrochemical reduction of CO{sub 2} on Cu electrodes, the conditions of the surface structure and the composition of the Cu single crystal electrodes were controlled over time. This was achieved using pulsed voltammetry, since the pulse sequence can be programmed to guarantee reproducible initial conditions for the reaction at every fraction of time and at a given frequency. In contrast to the selectivity of CO{sub 2} reduction using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric methods, a large selection of oxygenated hydrocarbons was found under alternating voltage conditions. Product selectivity towards the formation of oxygenated hydrocarbon was associated to the coverage of oxygen species, which is surface-structure- and potential-dependent. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Role of the adsorbed oxygen species in the selective electrochemical reduction of CO_2 to alcohols and carbonyls on copper electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Duff, Cecile S.; Lawrence, Matthew J.; Rodriguez, Paramaconi

    2017-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of CO_2 into fuels has gained significant attention recently as source of renewable carbon-based fuels. The unique high selectivity of copper in the electrochemical reduction of CO_2 to hydrocarbons has called much interest in discovering its mechanism. In order to provide significant information about the role of oxygen in the electrochemical reduction of CO_2 on Cu electrodes, the conditions of the surface structure and the composition of the Cu single crystal electrodes were controlled over time. This was achieved using pulsed voltammetry, since the pulse sequence can be programmed to guarantee reproducible initial conditions for the reaction at every fraction of time and at a given frequency. In contrast to the selectivity of CO_2 reduction using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric methods, a large selection of oxygenated hydrocarbons was found under alternating voltage conditions. Product selectivity towards the formation of oxygenated hydrocarbon was associated to the coverage of oxygen species, which is surface-structure- and potential-dependent. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. A clinical study of auditory hallucination by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-[123I] iodoamphetamine (IMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyobu, Tsuyoshi; Inao, Gyoshun; Ii, Masayasu; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Hisada, Kinichi.

    1988-01-01

    SPECT images with N-isopropyl-p-I-123 iodoamphetamine (IMP) were reviewed in 24 right-handed patients with hallucination (H Group), comprising schizophrenic disorder (20), alcohol hallucinosis (2), epileptic hallucinosis (one), and organic mental disorder (one), and 50 subjects without hallucination (non-H Group), consisting of 39 patients with mental or organic central nervous system disorder and 11 healthy volunteers. Early SPECT images showed an increased uptake of IMP in the auditory area and angular gyrus in 23 patients of H Group and 3 persons of non-H Group. A similar uptake of IMP was seen on delayed SPECT images in 12 patients of H Group and 4 patients with a history of hallucination of non-H Group. There were no SPECT findings specific to diseases. For schizophrenic patients, increased and decreased uptakes of IMP were seen in the striatolimbic region and in the bilateral frontal lobes, respectively, irrespective of hallucination. Factors contributing to increased uptake of IMP are discussed. (Namekawa, K.) 84 refs

  4. Use of technetium-99m-di-isopropyl-iminodiacetic acid imaging in the demonstration of a biliary-bronchial fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savitch, I.; Esser, J.D.; Levin, J. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Krige, L.P.; Kew, M.C. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Medicine)

    1984-05-12

    A case is described in which technetium-99m-di-isopropyl-iminodiacetic acid imaging was used to trace the passage of bile from its site of leakage into an amoebic liver abscess, through a fistulous tract connecting the liver abscess with an abscess in the right lower lobe of the lung, and into the upper respiratory tract.

  5. Synthesis of beta zeolite with mesopores from a milk containing precursor and its performance in naphthalene isopropylation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tokarová, V.; Šťávová, G.; Nováková, J.; Stiborová, S.; Kašpárek, A.; Zukal, Arnošt

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 222, č. 1 (2017), s. 343-356 ISSN 1878-5190 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Beta zeolite * Mesopores * Naphthalene isopropylation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 1.264, year: 2016

  6. Synthesis of 1-isopropyl-3-acyl-5-methyl-benzimidazolone Derivatives and Their Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaopeng Wei

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of N-acylated analogues of 1-isopropyl-3-acyl-5-methyl-benzimidazolone were synthesized. Bioassay results indicated that analogues 5-07 and 5-19 exhibited the most potency against Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Analogues 5-02, 5-07, 5-12, 5-15, 5-19, 5-20 and 5-25 could effectively inhibit the spore germination of Botrytis cinerea. The relationship between structure and their antimicrobial activity (SAR has also been discussed according to aliphatic acids and aromatic acids derivatives, respectively. This implied that the N-acylated derivatives of 5-methyl-benzimidazolone might be potential antimicrobial agents.

  7. Crystal structure of 1-isopropyl-4,7-dimethyl-3-nitronaphthalene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Benharref

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C15H17NO2, was synthesized from a mixture of α-himachalene (2-methylene-6,6,9-trimethylbicyclo[5.4.01,7]undec-8-ene and β-himachalene (2,6,6,9-tetramethylbicyclo[5.4.01,7]undeca-1,8-diene, which were isolated from an oil of the Atlas cedar (Cedrus Atlantica. The naphthalene ring system makes dihedral angles of 68.6 (2 and 44.3 (2°, respectively, with its attached isopropyl C/C/C plane and the nitro group. In the crystal, molecules held together by a C—H...O interaction, forming a chain along [-101].

  8. Crystal structure of isopropyl 2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate: a pharmacopoeia reference standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Isaiev

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C11H14O3, is used as a pharmacopoeia reference standard for determining impurities in the drug Pregabalin, used for the treatment of epilepsy and diabetic neuropathic pain. The molecule is far from being planar, with the dihedral angle between the planes of the aromatic ring and the carboxyl fragment (O—C=O being 76.1 (6°. The isopropyl substituent is located in a synperiplanar position relative to the C=O bond and is turned so that the C—O—C—H torsion angle is −43.7°. In the crystal, bifurcated O—H...(O,O hydrogen bonds, enclosing R12(5 ring motifs, lead to the formation of chains propagating along the c-axis direction. Inversion-related chains are linked by the C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming undulating layers lying parallel to the bc plane.

  9. SPECT brain imaging with N-isopropyl [123I]-p-iodoamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, B.L.; Hill, T.C.; Magistretti, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    N-isopropyl-[ 123 I]-p-iodoamphetamine is a lipophilic tracer that passes readily across the blood-brain barrier and is retained long enough to permit planar and tomographic imaging. Its distribution in the brain is proportional to blood flow, and its brain concentration remains unchanged between 30 min and 1 hr after intravenous injection. Tomographic imaging demonstrates increased activity in the gray matter, basal ganglia, and thalamus as would be expected with a cerebral perfusion tracer. In patients with acute cerebral infarction, decreased perfusion occurs immediately with the onset of symptoms. The technique also has utility in epilepsy in defining the abnormal focus in patients with medically intractable temporal-lobe epilepsy. This technique should prove to be a routine nuclear medicine procedure for the evaluation of cerebral perfusion

  10. Methyl and isopropyl N-methylanthranilates attenuate diclofenac- and ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulović, Niko S; Jovanović, Ivan; Ilić, Ivan R; Randjelović, Pavle J; Stojanović, Nikola M; Miltojević, Ana B

    2013-11-19

    Two natural alkaloids, methyl (M) and isopropyl (I) N-methylanthranilates, with recently demonstrated significant pharmacological activities, were assayed for their possible overall effect on intact gastric mucosa and their protective properties towards the onset of gastric lesions induced by diclofenac (a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, NSAID) or ethanol. The influence of I and M on gastric mucosa integrity was assessed by oral administration in doses of 200mg/kg. The gastroprotective action of I and M in doses of 50, 100 and 200mg/kg was analyzed in the diclofenac and ethanol-induced gastric lesion models in rats. After the treatment, the stomachs of the animals were analyzed (captured by a digital camera). Ulcer scoring, morphometric and histopathological analyses of the stomachs were done. The oral application of these compounds on their own, even in quite high doses (200mg/kg) did not induce gastric lesions. Both alkaloids exerted a very strong antiulcer activity, even in low doses (50mg/kg), by decreasing the number of lesions caused by the application of either diclofenac or ethanol, eliminating them completely or reducing them to a form of mucosal hyperemia. Their possible mechanism of action was discussed and due to their many positive properties including anxiolytic, antidepressant, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective activities, as well as a cheap and simple synthetic route for their preparation, methyl and isopropyl N-methylanthranilates, both alike, might represent a cost effective alternative sought for in the treatment of peptic ulcers and/or new safer NSAIDs for pain management. © 2013.

  11. Development of PdM (M = Ni, Cu, Ag) electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline medium in the absence and presence of alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isidoro, Roberta Alvarenga

    2015-01-01

    Pd/C, Pd Cu/C, Pd Ni/C and Pd Ag/C electrocatalysts were produced by microwave method to be used as cathode in alkaline fuel cell in the absence and presence of alcohol. This method showed to be effective for the materials production, the particles exhibited good dispersion in carbon support and it produced electrocatalysts with a particle size of about 3.5 nm, according to XRD and TEM analysis. In cyclic voltammetry is observed that Pd Cu/C and Pd Ni/C electrocatalysts has higher active area with higher amount of Cu and Ni, respectively. Rotating ring disk analysis in the electrocatalysts showed that the amount of peroxide produced was at most 4%. This data is similar to Koutecky-Levich analysis, once for both the ORR occurs via 4 electrons. Materials stability analysis showed that they kept or improve performance in ORR, comparing the data before and after 1000 voltammetric cycles. Tolerance tests in methanol and ethanol were performed in a half cell in all electrocatalysts compositions. In presence of methanol and ethanol the compositions 50:50, to all materials studied, showed less influence in the presence of alcohol in ORR linear scan. In alkaline fuel cell Pd Ag/C 70:30 showed better performance for ORR in presence of methanol and Pd Ni/C 70:30 showed better performance for ORR in ethanol presence. (author)

  12. Catalytic Conversion of Bio-Oil to Oxygen-Containing Fuels by Acid-Catalyzed Reaction with Olefins and Alcohols over Silica Sulfuric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingwen Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Crude bio-oil from pine chip fast pyrolysis was upgraded with olefins (1-octene, cyclohexene, 1,7-octadiene, and 2,4,4-trimethylpentene plus 1-butanol (iso-butanol, t-butanol and ethanol at 120 °C using a silica sulfuric acid (SSA catalyst that possesses a good catalytic activity and stability. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR analysis showed that upgrading sharply increased ester content and decreased the amounts of levoglucosan, phenols, polyhydric alcohols and carboxylic acids. Upgrading lowered acidity (pH value rose from 2.5 to >3.5, removed the unpleasant odor and increased hydrocarbon solubility. Water content dramatically decreased from 37.2% to about 7.0% and the heating value increased from 12.6 MJ·kg−1 to about 31.9 MJ·kg−1. This work has proved that bio-oil upgrading with a primary olefin plus 1-butanol is a feasible route where all the original heating value of the bio-oil plus the added olefin and alcohol are present in the resulting fuel.

  13. Molybdenum-catalyzed conversion of diols and biomass-derived polyols to alkenes using isopropyl alcohol as reductant and solvent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Johannes Rytter; Lupp, Daniel; Gorfo, Ayele Teshome

    2015-01-01

    %. The DODH of erythritol yields 39% 2,5-dihydrofuran, while the DODH of the proposed intermediate 1,4-anhydroerythritol yields 75%. The mechanism of the DODH of 1,4-anhydroerythritol was investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT), and the rate-determining step (24.1 kcal/mol) was found...

  14. Post-Synthesis Modification of SSZ-35 Zeolite to Enhance the Selectivity in p-Xylene Alkylation with Isopropyl Alcohol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musilová, Zuzana; Zones, S. I.; Čejka, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 53, 3-4 (2010), s. 273-282 ISSN 1022-5528 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS400400560; GA ČR GD203/08/H032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : SSZ-35 * surface modification * p-xylene * 2,5-dimethylcumene Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.359, year: 2010

  15. The Effect of Zeolite Structure on the Activity and Selectivity in p-Xylene Alkylation with Isopropyl Alcohol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musilová, Zuzana; Kubů, Martin; Burton, A. W.; Zones, S. I.; Voláková, Martina; Čejka, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 131, 3-4 (2009), s. 393-400 ISSN 1011-372X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS400400560; GA ČR GD203/08/H032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : SSZ-35 * SSZ-33 * p-xylene * alkylation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.021, year: 2009

  16. Catalytic activity of laminated compounds of graphite with transitions metals in decomposition of alcohols and formic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, Yu.N.; Lapkina, N.D.; Vol'pin, M.E.

    1976-01-01

    The catalytic activity is studied of laminated graphite compounds with Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Mo, W and Mn both in the reduced and oxidized forms in gas phase decomposition reactions of isopropyl, n-butyl, cyclohexyl, and 4-tret-butylcyclohexyl alcohols, and also formic acid. All the catalysts are shown to be active in the reactions where isopropyl and n-butyl alcohols undergo decomposition. The laminated compounds of graphite with Co and Ni both in the oxidized and reduction form are the most active catalysts of the selective decomposition of alcohols to aldehydes and ketones, and also formic acid to CO 2 and H 2 . The kinetics of a number of reactions is found to obey the second order equation with allowance made for the system volume

  17. A simple synthesis of 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-erythro-hexonic acid isopropyl ester, a key sugar for the bacterial population living under metallic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, Claire M; Renard, Brice-Loïc; Grison, Claude

    2014-02-01

    2-Keto-3-deoxy-D-erythro-hexonic acid (KDG) is the key intermediate metabolite of the Entner Doudoroff (ED) pathway. A simple, efficient and stereoselective synthesis of KDG isopropyl ester is described in five steps from 2,3-O-isopropylidene-D-threitol with an overall yield of 47%. KDG isopropyl ester is studied as an attractive marker of a functional Entner Doudoroff pathway. KDG isopropyl ester is used to promote growth of ammonium producing bacterial strains, showing interesting features in the remediation of heavy-metal polluted soils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. ALCOHOL I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the increase in alcohol marketing activities by the transnational alcohol corporations in Nigeria .... were recorded with a digital device with ..... era (i.e., before alcohol industry was es- tablished in ..... university student drinking: A na-.

  19. Theoretical investigation of molecular structure and vibrational spectra of 4,5-bis-(2-isopropyl-5- methylphenoxy) phthalonitrile molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avci, D.

    2005-01-01

    The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies of 4,5-bis-(2-isopropyl-5- methylphenoxy) phthalonitrile in the ground state have been calculated using the Hartree- Fock (HF) and density functional method (B3LYP) with 6-31G(d) basis set. The optimized geometric bond lengths and bond angles obtained by using HF and DFT (B3LYP) show the best agreement with the experimental data. Comparison of the observed fundamental vibrational frequencies of 4,5-bis-(2-isopropyl-5-methylphenoxy) phthalonitrile with calculated results by density functional B3LYP and Hartree-Fock methods indicate that B3LYP is superior to the scaled Hartree-Fock approach for molecular vibrational problems

  20. A facile synthesis of sodium 3-[1-[sup 14]C]-ethyl-7-isopropyl-1-azulenesulfonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Takeshi; Yanagisawa, Takashi; Tomiyama, Tsuyoshi [Kotobuki Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Nagano (Japan). Research Labs.; Okazaki, Mitsuo [Shinshu Univ., Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Applied Biology

    1994-01-01

    Sodium 3-ethyl-7-isopropyl-1-azulenesulfonate 1, a new therapeutic agent for stomatitis, pharyngitis and ophthalmia was labelled with carbon-14 in the ethyl group attached to the azulene ring for use in metabolic studies. [sup 14]C-labelled 1 with a specific activity of 1.98 GBq/mmol was prepared in four steps in 39.3% overall chemical yield from [1-[sup 14]C]acetic acid sodium salt. (Author).

  1. Barley seed radiosensitivity following post-hydration in oxygen-, nitrogen- and nitrous oxide-saturated water, 1; Influence of caffeine and t-butyl alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.P.; Kesavan, P.C. (Jawaharlal Nehru Univ., New Delhi (India). School of Life Sciences)

    1990-06-01

    Dry ({approx}3.5 and 4.0 per cent moisture content) barley seeds were exposed to 350 Gy of {sup 60}Co-{gamma}-rays in vacuo and post-hydrated at 4degC for 8 h in O{sub 2}-, N{sub 2}-, or N{sub 2}O-saturated water. The effect of caffeine and t-butyl alcohol (t-BuOH) dissolved in the post-hydration medium on the magnitude of damage developing under these three different gaseous circumstances was studied. The post-irradiation damage and its modification by caffeine and t-BuOH was assessed in terms of 8-day-old seedling injury, peroxidase activity and total peroxides in the 8-day-old seedlings. Post-irradiation O{sub 2}-saturated hydration caused maximal 8-day-old seedling injury, and increased peroxidase activity with concomitant reduction in total peroxides. Both caffeine and t-BuOH afforded significant radioprotection against post-irradiation O{sub 2}-dependent damage. Post-irradiation N{sub 2}O-saturated hydration was even more significantly radioprotective than the N{sub 2}-saturated post-hydration. Under these circumstances, t-BuOH exerted no effect whatsoever on the N{sub 2}- and N{sub 2}O-mediated post-irradiation damage. Caffeine, on the other hand, significantly potentiated these two components of damage. A brief consideration of the physicochemical events which possibly account for the observed effects is presented. (author).

  2. Experimental study on liver accumulation of N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosuda, Shigeru (Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital (Japan)); Kawahara, Shunji; Ishibashi, Akihiko; Tamura, Kohei; Kubo, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1990-06-01

    In order to clarify the mechanism of N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) liver accumulation, liver dynamic study by the portal injection of {sup 123}I-IMP and liver microautoradiography by {sup 125}I-IMP were performed using 5, 2 male rats, respectively. The initial uptake of {sup 123}I-IMP in the liver was very high and thereafter {sup 123}I-IMP showed relatively rapid wash-out (count ratio of lung to liver at 10 min after the injection was 0.12, 0.15). On the other hand, the addition of 5 mg, 8 mg ketamine hydrochloride decreased the initial {sup 123}I-IMP liver uptake and its lung accumulation was noted immediately after the injection (count ratio of lung to liver at 10 min was 0.20). Microautoradiography of the liver using {sup 125}I-IMP showed grain density in the central vein and sinusoids, but not in the liver parenchymal cell. These results suggest that non-specific amine receptor (binding site) may exist in the endothelial cell in the central vein, although the number of experimental rats in this series was small for conclusion. (author).

  3. Evaluation of SPECT with N-isopropyl[I-123]-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) in epileptic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambu, Toshikazu; Itoh, Kazuo; Sumi, Tetsuo; Furudate, Masayori; Irie, Goro

    1988-01-01

    Brain SPECT scintigrams with N-Isopropyl[I-123]-p-Iodoamphetamine (IMP) were reviewed and compared with the EEG findings in 21 epileptic patients (22 SPECT images) with normal CT. Thirteen of 22 SPECT images showed abnormal low uptake and 7 of them corresponded to the EEG focus. In order to obtain the quantitative analysis, the count ratio of the focus side to the opposite I-123 content in fixed ROI was measured for each case, but no statistically significant correlation for the frequency or the duration of epilepsy was found. EEG is not considered to be favorite standard for localizing epileptic foci, especially in deep cerebral region, and that may be one of the main reason for the incomplete correlation. In the qualitative study, however, the cases with frequent epileptic attack were more likely to show abnormal findings. I-123 IMP SPECT can now be considered as having a significant clinical role for the diagnosis and management of patients with epilepsy. (author)

  4. N-isopropyl I-123 p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) brain SPECT in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Toshimitsu; Nishikawa, Junichi; Kosaka, Noboru; Ohtake, Tohru; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Iio, Masahiro [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1989-09-01

    Eighteen patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 5 patients with Pick disease (PD), 6 patients with other types of degenerative dementia (O) and 12 age-matched normal control subjects (N) were studied using N-isopropyl p-(I-123)iodoamphetamine (I-123 IMP) with SPECT. Regional to cerebellar activity (R/CE) ratio and frontal to parietal (F/R) activity ratio were evaluated in each case. I-123 IMP-SPECT revealed focal abnormality in all cases in AD, PD, O group, while XCT and/or MRI were normal or showed cerebral atrophy without focal abnormal density or intensity. In AD group, R/CE ratio in all the regions except for bilateral Rolandic area and left primary visual cortex were significantly lower (p<0.05 or p<0.01) than that in N group, and F/P ratio were significantly higher (p<0.01) than that in P and O group. In conclusion, I-123 IMP-SPECT is useful to detect focal perfusion abnormality in dementia and may be of value in differentiating Alzheimer's disease from dementia of non-Alzheimer type. (author).

  5. Clinical evaluation of brain perfusion scintigraphy using N-isopropyl-p-[123I]-iodoamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimbo, Shin-ichiro; Yamamoto, Itsuo; Yagi, Kenji; Misaki, Takashi; Dokoh, Shigeharu

    1989-01-01

    The present study includes 16 patients with symptoms related to cerebrovascular insufficiency, who were randomly selected from out outpatient clinic of internal medicine. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 111∼185 MBq (3∼5 mCi) of N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]-iodoamphetamine (IMP) was performed 20 min and 3 hr after intravenous administration of the tracer, and compared to the image of conventional X-ray computed tomography (X-CT). Out of twelve cases with significant findings in X-CT, 9 showed corresponding changes in perfusion in SPECT with IMP, and the remaining 3 did not. In a patient with cerebral infarction, SPECT revealed a perfusion defect whereas her X-CT was negative, thereby proved to be useful in determining the focus of clinically suspected stroke. There were some other cases in which findings in SPECT and X-CT were discordant. From our series of scans, SPECT seemed useful in detecting responsible sites of neurological deficits in early and, occasionally, remote phases of cerebrovascular accidents, while X-CT appeared superior in finding smaller lesions. (author)

  6. N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine receptors in normal and cancerous tissue of the human lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Eiko; Mishima, Michiaki; Kawakami, Kenzo; Sakai, Naoki; Sugiura, Naoharu; Kuno, Kenshi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Clinical Physiology; Taniguchi, Takashi [Kyoto Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Neurobiology

    1993-04-01

    N-Isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) receptors in normal human lung tissue were characterized using a radioligand binding assay with iodine-125 IMP as the ligand. Saturation binding studies revealed the presence of two binding sites with dissociation constant (K[sub d]) values of 53[+-]2 and 4687[+-]124 nM and maximum binding capacity (Bmax) values of 7[+-]1 and 133[+-]27 pmol/mg protein (n=5) respectively. The IC[sub 50] values of various amines were as follows: IMP, 9x10[sup -5] M; propranolol, 5x10[sup -4] M; haloperidol, 6x10[sup -4] M; ketamine, 9x10[sup -3] M; dopamine, 1x10[sup -2] M. The IMP receptors of cancerous tissue obtained from human lung also had two binding sites with K[sub d] values of 54[+-]2 and 5277[+-]652 nM and Bmax values of 7[+-]1 and 103[+-]21 pmol/mg protein (n=3) respectively. There was no significant difference in binding parameters between normal and cancerous lung tissue. These results demonstrate the existence of IMP receptors and suggest that cancer does not affect the nature of IMP receptors in human lung tissue. (orig.).

  7. Isopropyl Myristate-Modified Polyether-Urethane Coatings as Protective Barriers for Implantable Medical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohpour, Nima; Wasikiewicz, Jaroslaw M.; Moshaverinia, Alireza; Paul, Deepen; Rehman, Ihtesham U.; Vadgama, Pankaj

    2009-01-01

    Polyurethane films have potential applications in medicine, especially for packaging implantable medical devices. Although polyether-urethanes have superior mechanical properties and are biocompatible, achieving water resistance is still a challenge. Polyether based polyurethanes with two different molecular weights (PTMO1000, PTMO2000) were prepared from 4,4’-diphenylmethane diisocyanate and poly(tetra-methylene oxide). Polymer films were introduced using different concentrations (0.5-10 wt %) of isopropyl myristate lipid (IPM) as a non-toxic modifying agent. The physical and mechanical properties of these polymers were characterised using physical and spectroscopy techniques (FTIR, Raman, DSC, DMA, tensile testing). Water contact angle and water uptake of the membranes as a function of IPM concentration was also determined accordingly. The FTIR and Raman data indicate that IPM is dispersed in polyurethane at ≤ 2wt% and thermal analysis confirmed this miscibility to be dependent on soft segment length. Modified polymers showed increased tensile strength and failure strain as well as reduced water uptake by up to 24% at 1-2 wt% IPM.

  8. Isopropyl Myristate-Modified Polyether-Urethane Coatings as Protective Barriers for Implantable Medical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Vadgama

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethane films have potential applications in medicine, especially for packaging implantable medical devices. Although polyether-urethanes have superior mechanical properties and are biocompatible, achieving water resistance is still a challenge. Polyether based polyurethanes with two different molecular weights (PTMO1000, PTMO2000 were prepared from 4,4’-diphenylmethane diisocyanate and poly(tetra-methylene oxide. Polymer films were introduced using different concentrations (0.5-10 wt % of isopropyl myristate lipid (IPM as a non-toxic modifying agent. The physical and mechanical properties of these polymers were characterised using physical and spectroscopy techniques (FTIR, Raman, DSC, DMA, tensile testing. Water contact angle and water uptake of the membranes as a function of IPM concentration was also determined accordingly. The FTIR and Raman data indicate that IPM is dispersed in polyurethane at ≤ 2wt% and thermal analysis confirmed this miscibility to be dependent on soft segment length. Modified polymers showed increased tensile strength and failure strain as well as reduced water uptake by up to 24% at 1-2 wt% IPM.

  9. N-isopropyl I-123 p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) brain SPECT in dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, Toshimitsu; Kosaka, Noboru; Nishikawa, Junichi; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Ohtake, Tohru; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Iwata, Makoto; Shimizu, Teruo; Iio, Masahiro

    1988-01-01

    Six patients of Alzheimer's disease (AD), two patients of Pick disease (PD) and two patients of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) were studied with N-Isopropyl I-123 p-Iodoamphetamine (IMP) with SPECT. The pattern of IMP uptake in these demented groups were compared with that in five agematched normal controls and correlated with MRI and XCT. In all AD cases, SPECT revealed focal reduction of IMP uptake in frontal (6/6), parietal (6/6) and temporal (6/6) cortex, although MRI and XCT were normal. In both PD case, SPECT showed focal reduction of IMP uptake in frontal (1/2) and temporal (2/2) cortex with moderate labor atrophy on MRI and XCT. In both CJD case, SPECT showed diffuse reduction of IMP uptake in cerebral cortex in spite of no abnormality on MRI and XCT. These findings suggest that SPECT can detect earlier diseased process of AD and CJD than MRI or XCT and that SPECT may be helpful for the differential diagnosis of non-vascular dementia. (author)

  10. N-isopropyl I-123 p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) brain SPECT in dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Toshimitsu; Kosaka, Noboru; Nishikawa, Junichi; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Ohtake, Tohru; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Iwata, Makoto; Shimizu, Teruo; Iio, Masahiro

    1988-12-01

    Six patients of Alzheimer's disease (AD), two patients of Pick disease (PD) and two patients of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) were studied with N-Isopropyl I-123 p-Iodoamphetamine (IMP) with SPECT. The pattern of IMP uptake in these demented groups were compared with that in five agematched normal controls and correlated with MRI and XCT. In all AD cases, SPECT revealed focal reduction of IMP uptake in frontal (6/6), parietal (6/6) and temporal (6/6) cortex, although MRI and XCT were normal. In both PD case, SPECT showed focal reduction of IMP uptake in frontal (1/2) and temporal (2/2) cortex with moderate labor atrophy on MRI and XCT. In both CJD case, SPECT showed diffuse reduction of IMP uptake in cerebral cortex in spite of no abnormality on MRI and XCT. These findings suggest that SPECT can detect earlier diseased process of AD and CJD than MRI or XCT and that SPECT may be helpful for the differential diagnosis of non-vascular dementia.

  11. Brain SPECT with /sup 123/I-isopropyl amphetamine in epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biersack, H.J.; Reske, S.N.; Rasche, A.; Reichmann, K.; Winkler, C.; Froescher, W.; Kluenenberg, H.

    1983-04-01

    Ten patients were studied with N-isopropyl I-123 p-iodoamphetamine. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was carried out by hand of a rotating gamma camera system (Gammatome T9000/CGR, high resolution collimator). During 1 rotation (360/sup 0/) 64 frames (4k matrix) were acquired within 20 min 1 hour after injection of 6.5 mCi I-123 labeled amphetamine. The content of I-124 was less than 2%. After reconstruction of transverse slices coronar and sagittal reconstructions were rapidly performed using an array processor. Nine patients suffered from epilepsy and one from severe migraine. Excellent differentiation between gray and white matter of the cerebral cortex and the basal ganglia was evident in all of the cases. In 2 out of 3 patients with epilepsy and negative CT results SPECT revealed circumscribed areas with increased amphetamine uptake in accordance with the EEG findings. In 4 out of 6 cases with positive CT findings SPECT lesions with diminished amphetamine uptake could be established. One patient with severe migraine showed focal increased amphetamine uptake in accordance with the respective clinical results.

  12. Cerebral dynamics of N-isopropyl-(123I)p-iodoamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutzig, H.; Schober, O.; Gielow, P.; Friedrich, R.; Becker, H.; Dietz, H.; Hundeshagen, H.

    1986-01-01

    Temporal changes in the distribution of N-isopropyl-(123I)p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) within the brain are measured with serial tomographic imaging. In the cerebellum there is a decrease in activity of 42% from the early [15-45 min postinjection (p.i.)] to the late (210-240 min p.i.) scan, while in the cortex the decrease is 18%, and in the basal ganglia there is no decrease within this time. In brain tumors there was no IMP uptake in the early as well as in the late scans, regardless of tumor type, perfusion rate, or blood-brain barrier dysfunction. In 11 of 43 patients with a cerebral infarction a real increase of 123I activity (mean +21%) was seen in the late images. This ''filling in'' phenomena might be useful in selecting patients for bypass surgery. In these patients the diaschisis cerebelli, seen in the early scans, disappeared in the late images. The regional distribution of IMP changes with time; spatial ratios might be blurred by temporal changes. High-flow areas such as visio-auditory centers can be delineated clearly after stimulation in fast early scans; in these areas the pharmacokinetics of 123I are different from other cortex regions. To get the full information from the IMP brain uptake, both spatial and temporal variation must be measured

  13. Anxiolytic-like effect of Carvacrol (5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol) in mice: involvement with GABAergic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Francisca Helvira Cavalcante; Venâncio, Edith Teles; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; de França Fonteles, Marta Maria; de Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes; Viana, Glauce Socorro Barros; de Sousa, Francisca Cléa Florenço

    2010-08-01

    Carvacrol (5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol) is a monoterpenic phenol present in the essencial oil of many plants. It is the major component of the essential oil fraction of oregano and thyme. This work presents the behavioral effects of carvacrol in animal models of elevated plus maze (EPM), open field, Rotarod and barbiturate-induced sleeping time tests in mice. Carvacrol (CVC) was administered orally, in male mice, at single doses of 12.5; 25 and 50 mg/kg while diazepam 1 or 2 mg/kg was used as standard drug and flumazenil (2.5 mg/kg) was used to elucidate the possible anxiolytic mechanism of CVC on the plus maze test. The results showed that CVC, at three doses, had no effect on the spontaneous motor activity in the Rotarod test nor in the number of squares crossed in the open-field test. However, CVC decreased the number of groomings in the open-field test. In the plus maze test, CVC, at three doses significantly increased all the observed parameters in the EPM test and flumazenil was able to reverse the effects of diazepam and CVC. Therefore, CVC did not alter the sleep latency and sleeping time in the barbiturate-induced sleeping time test. These results show that CVC presents anxiolytic effects in the plus maze test which are not influenced by the locomotor activity in the open-field test.

  14. Clinical relevance of n-isopropyl-(/sup 123/I)p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podreka, I.; Holl, K.; Dal Bianco, P.; Goldenberg, G.; Wimberger, D.; Auff, E.; Brucke, T.

    1986-01-01

    SPECT studies of the brain were performed by means of N-isopropyl-(/sup 123/I)p-iodoamphertamine and a double head rotating scintillation camera. Energy spectra showed an increase of scattered radiation proportional to the geometrical resolution of the used Tc-collimators. This is due to the higher lead content and thin septa (septum-penetration of high energy photons of /sup 123/I, scattering in the crystal) of HRES or UHRES collimators. A LEAP collimator (14 mm FWHM resolution in the reconstructed image) is the most suitable one (sufficient resolution - relatively low scatter-fraction) for /sup 123/I labeled tracers. With a multiple window technique scatter correction was performed. The width and position of the scatter windows were estimated in phantom studies. Further steps of data processing (prereconstructional filtering, analytical attenuation compensation), leading to an improvement of the final set of cross sections, are described. Clinical cases (Alzheimers, Huntingtons, Parkinson disease, Moya Moya, stroke and partial complex seizures) and stimulation (acoustic memory tasks, visual stimulations) studies in normal volunteers are presented, and results are compared with PET-data known from recent literature

  15. N-isopropyl I-123 p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) brain SPECT in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, Toshimitsu; Nishikawa, Junichi; Kosaka, Noboru; Ohtake, Tohru; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Iio, Masahiro

    1989-01-01

    Eighteen patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 5 patients with Pick disease (PD), 6 patients with other types of degenerative dementia (O) and 12 age-matched normal control subjects (N) were studied using N-isopropyl p-[I-123]iodoamphetamine (I-123 IMP) with SPECT. Regional to cerebellar activity (R/CE) ratio and frontal to parietal (F/R) activity ratio were evaluated in each case. I-123 IMP-SPECT revealed focal abnormality in all cases in AD, PD, O group, while XCT and/or MRI were normal or showed cerebral atrophy without focal abnormal density or intensity. In AD group, R/CE ratio in all the regions except for bilateral Rolandic area and left primary visual cortex were significantly lower (p<0.05 or p<0.01) than that in N group, and F/P ratio were significantly higher (p<0.01) than that in P and O group. In conclusion, I-123 IMP-SPECT is useful to detect focal perfusion abnormality in dementia and may be of value in differentiating Alzheimer's disease from dementia of non-Alzheimer type. (author)

  16. Chloridrate of N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine labeled with Iodine-131. Biological distribution in laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colturato, Maria Tereza; Muramoto, Emiko; Carvalho, Olga Goncalves de

    2000-01-01

    The development of this work was based on a great interest from the medical class in the utilization of chloridrate of N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) labeled with 123 I, for brain perfusion evaluation. Studies were performed to optimize the labeling parameters of IMP with 131 I using nucleophilic substitution: temperature and, time reaction, ascorbic acid mass, pH and relation IMP mass/radioiodo activity, and stability of the final product. Radiochemistry purity method used showed to be efficient, quick and of easily handling for routine production. Biological distribution studies were performed in mice to determine the percent administered dose in the blood, different organs and whole body after intravenous administration of the radiopharmaceutical. The product crossed the intact blood brain barrier, allowing a follow up of further studies after the intravenous administration of the radiopharmaceutical. The principal elimination route 131 I-IMP was the urinary. Based on the results from radiochemical purity, stability and biological behavior in laboratory animals, we concluded that the studied radiopharmaceutical presents all ideal characteristics for clinical use in brain studies in nuclear medicine. (author)

  17. Effects of cigarette smoking on iodine 123 N-isopropyl-f-iodoamphetamine clearance from the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kunihiko; Harada, Satoshi; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Yanagisawa, Toru

    1991-01-01

    Iodine 123 N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP), originally developed as a brain scanning agent, is also taken up by the lung. To evaluate the effects of cigarette smoking on the kinetics of IMP in the lung, we studied 123 I-IMP clearance from the lung in 18 volunteers (8 non-smokers and 10 smokers). After the injection of 111 MBq of 123 I-IMP into the medial cubital vein, the time-activity curve for 60 min and the regional activity using 1 frame per minute and a 64x64 matrix were obtained. The 123 I-IMP clearance curve was described as follows: C(t)=A 1 e ( -k 1 t)+A 2 e ( -k 2 t)(A 1 , A 2 : intercepts, and k 1 , k 2 : slopes of the exponential components). 123 I-IMP clearance was delayed in smokers, and k 2 was smaller in smokers. Also, a correlation between k 1 , k 2 , and the number of cigarettes smoked per day was found (r=-0.65, r=-0.74, respectively, P 123 I-IMP in the lung indicate lung metabolic disorders due to cigarette smoking. (orig.)

  18. Clinical evaluation of brain perfusion scintigraphy using N-isopropyl-p-( sup 123 I)-iodoamphetamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimbo, Shin-ichiro; Yamamoto, Itsuo; Yagi, Kenji; Misaki, Takashi; Dokoh, Shigeharu (Kyoto City Hospital (Japan))

    1989-10-01

    The present study includes 16 patients with symptoms related to cerebrovascular insufficiency, who were randomly selected from out outpatient clinic of internal medicine. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 111{approx}185 MBq (3{approx}5 mCi) of N-isopropyl-p-({sup 123}I)-iodoamphetamine (IMP) was performed 20 min and 3 hr after intravenous administration of the tracer, and compared to the image of conventional X-ray computed tomography (X-CT). Out of twelve cases with significant findings in X-CT, 9 showed corresponding changes in perfusion in SPECT with IMP, and the remaining 3 did not. In a patient with cerebral infarction, SPECT revealed a perfusion defect whereas her X-CT was negative, thereby proved to be useful in determining the focus of clinically suspected stroke. There were some other cases in which findings in SPECT and X-CT were discordant. From our series of scans, SPECT seemed useful in detecting responsible sites of neurological deficits in early and, occasionally, remote phases of cerebrovascular accidents, while X-CT appeared superior in finding smaller lesions. (author).

  19. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  20. Japan Flavour and Fragrance Materials Association's (JFFMA) safety assessment of food-flavouring substances uniquely used in Japan that belong to the class of aliphatic primary alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, acetals and esters containing additional oxygenated functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kenji; Hasegawa-Baba, Yasuko; Sekiya, Fumiko; Hayashi, Shim-Mo; Mirokuji, Yoshiharu; Okamura, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Shinpei; Ono, Atsushi; Nakajima, Madoka; Degawa, Masakuni; Ozawa, Shogo; Shibutani, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio

    2017-09-01

    We performed a safety evaluation using the procedure devised by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) of the following four flavouring substances that belong to the class of 'aliphatic primary alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, acetals, and esters containing additional oxygenated functional groups' and are uniquely used in Japan: butyl butyrylacetate, ethyl 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate, 3-hydroxyhexanoic acid and methyl hydroxyacetate. Although no genotoxicity study data were found in the published literature, none of the four substances had chemical structural alerts predicting genotoxicity. All four substances were categorised as class I by using Cramer's classification. The estimated daily intake of each of the four substances was determined to be 0.007-2.9 μg/person/day by using the maximised survey-derived intake method and based on the annual production data in Japan in 2001, 2005 and 2010, and was determined to be 0.250-600.0 μg/person/day by using the single-portion exposure technique and based on average-use levels in standard portion sizes of flavoured foods. Both of these estimated daily intake ranges were below the threshold of toxicological concern for class I substances, which is 1800 μg/person/day. Although no information from in vitro and in vivo toxicity studies for the four substances was available, these substances were judged to raise no safety concerns at the current levels of intake.

  1. Oxygen toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. van der Westhuizen

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen has been discovered about 200 years ago. Since then the vital physiological involvement of oxygen in various biologi­cal processes, mainly energy production, has been established. However, in the body molecular oxygen can be converted to toxic oxygen metabolites such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen. These toxic metabolites are produced mainly in the mitochondria, plasma membranes and endoplasmic reticulum.

  2. Crystal morphology modification by the addition of tailor-made stereocontrolled poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Tommy; Baldursdottir, Stefania; Hietala, Sami; Rades, Thomas; Kapp, Sebastian; Nuopponen, Markus; Kalliomäki, Katriina; Tenhu, Heikki; Rantanen, Jukka

    2012-07-02

    The use of additives in crystallization of pharmaceuticals is known to influence the particulate properties critically affecting downstream processing and the final product performance. Desired functionality can be build into these materials, e.g. via optimized synthesis of a polymeric additive. One such additive is the thermosensitive polymer poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM). The use of PNIPAM as a crystallization additive provides a possibility to affect viscosity at separation temperatures and nucleation and growth rates at higher temperatures. In this study, novel PNIPAM derivatives consisting of both isotactic-rich and atactic blocks were used as additives in evaporative crystallization of a model compound, nitrofurantoin (NF). Special attention was paid to possible interactions between NF and PNIPAM and the aggregation state of PNIPAM as a function of temperature and solvent composition. Optical light microscopy and Raman and FTIR spectroscopy were used to investigate the structure of the NF crystals and possible interaction with PNIPAM. A drastic change in the growth mechanism of nitrofurantoin crystals as monohydrate form II (NFMH-II) was observed in the presence of PNIPAM; the morphology of crystals changed from needle to dendritic shape. Additionally, the amphiphilic nature of PNIPAM increased the solubility of nitrofurantoin in water. PNIPAMs with varying molecular weights and stereoregularities resulted in similar changes in the crystal habit of the drug regardless of whether the polymer was aggregated or not. However, with increased additive concentration slower nucleation and growth rates of the crystals were observed. Heating of the crystallization medium resulted in phase separation of the PNIPAM. The phase separation had an influence on the achieved crystal morphology resulting in fewer, visually larger and more irregular dendritic crystals. No proof of hydrogen bond formation between PNIPAM and NF was observed, and the suggested mechanism for

  3. Clinical applications of brain spect with N-isopropyl-123I-p-iodoamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretti, J.L.; Sergent, A.; Raynaud, C.; Baron, J.C.; Samson, Y.; Lassen, N.; Bourdoiseau, M.

    1985-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with N-isopropyl- 123 I-p-iodoamphetamine (IAMP-I-123) was used for 250 patients suffering from brain disorders, comprising brain tumours (36), normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) (23), cerebrovascular pathologies (127) and partial epilepsy (64). Brain tumours were found to be hypoactive, whatever the grade and nature. Frontal hypoactivity was found in NPH patients, and IAMP-I-123 perfusion was improved after cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) lumbar drainage, giving a good predictive criterion of clinical outcome after CSF diversion. For cerebrovascular disorders, it was possible to obtain with IAMP-I-123 SPECT larger pictures of hypoactive areas than the pictures of hypodense lesions obtained with X-ray CT scans; other hypoactive areas that could not be observed with CT were also delineated by IAMP-I-123 SPECT. The hypoactive areas found in constituted infarctions can present two types of kinetics - those which are 'persistent' (still present on delayed scans performed 5 h after IAMP-I-123 injection) and those which disappear with time, thereby suggesting hypofunctional parenchyma without tissue impairment. IAMP-I-123 SPECT was proved to be useful in assessing ischaemia, especially in reversible ischaemia patients, by defining the affected arterial territory and guiding complementary arteriographic exploration in view of surgical procedures. IAMP-I-123 SPECT was able to accurately delineate the affected parenchymal areas. It could also be of help in the follow-up of the efficiency of drug therapy and surgery, and it can be regarded as a good predictive criterion for stroke rehabilitation. The results obtained with IAMP-I-123 indicate that the lesional and epileptogenic areas in epileptic patients are hypoactive. The localization of these territories by IAMP-I-123 SPECT correlates well with other, more accurate, neuroradiological and stereotactic techniques. (author)

  4. Distribution of N-isopropyl-p-(I-123)iodoamphetamine among the peripheral blood components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumazaki, Satoshi; Oriuchi, Noboru; Tomiyoshi, Katsumi; Inoue, Tomio; Sasaki, Yasuhito.

    1990-01-01

    With the purpose to clarify dynamics of N-isopropyl-p-[I-123]iodoamphetamine (I-123 IMP) in the blood stream its binding to the peripheral blood components was determined by in vitro experiment. I-123 IMP was added to the peripheral venous blood obtained from healthy volunteers to be incubated for different length of time (0-30 min) at 37deg C. The blood was then separated into blood cells and plasma. From the latter platelet rich plasma were separated. Radioactivity in each blood component was counted in a well type scintillation counter respectively. To evaluate the affinity of I-123 IMP to red blood cell the component containing blood cells were washed repeatedly with salines. It was found that the fraction of radioactivity in the blood cell component was 68.0±6.3% (m±1 S.D.), which was higher than that in the plasma (32.0%±6.3%). The radioactivity in the platelet-rich plasma was only 1.7±1.1% of the total I-123 IMP activity. This percentage did not change by the incubation time. When Tc-99m DTPA was incubated with blood, radioactivity in the blood cell component was only 22.5%, which is further lowered by 32±2.1% after each washing to reach 6.8% after three times washing. In contrast the radioactivity of I-123 IMP in blood cell component remained as high as 31.1% after eight times washing. Almost constant fraction (8.20±0.57%) of radioactivity was freed into supernate by each washing. These findings suggest that a certain specific binding mechanism is involved in the binding of I-123 IMP to red blood cells. (author)

  5. The distribution of N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine in experimental ischemic brain of the mongolian gerbil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinnouchi, Seishi; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Katsushi; Ueda, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Tadatoshi

    1988-01-01

    We studied the distribution of N-isopropyl-p-[I-131]-iodoamphetamine (IMP) in permanent and temporary ischemic brains of mongolian gerbils. For the permanent ischemic brain model, the right common carotid artery was ligated under ether anesthesia. For the temporary ischemic brain model, the right common carotid artery was clamped by a clip and recirculated at 3 hours thereafter. After given time intervals, 1.35 MBq (50 μCi) of IMP was injected intravenously into 17 gerbils (permanent ischemic brain model), 18 gerbils (temporary ischemic brain model) which had severe neurological symptoms, and 3 normal gerbils for controls. One minute, 10 minutes, 1 hour and 6 hours after the injection, gerbils were sacrified and autoradiography of the brain was performed. The activity of IMP in various parts of the brain was calculated from each autoradiogram. In permanent ischemic brains, low perfusion areas were observed in the right cerebral hemisphere, the brain stem (5 ∼ 20 % of normal value), and in the left hemisphere (40 ∼ 60 % of normal value). In temporary ischemic brains, focal areas of increased activity were observed in the right cerebral hemisphere and the thalamus from 10 minutes to 24 hours after recirculation. The high activity disappeared rapidly at 10 minutes after the injection. It seemed that this high activity represented luxury perfusion in the region with severe tissue damage. In the left hemisphere, almost complete recovery of perfusion occurred at 1 ∼ 3 days after recirculation. These results suggested the possibility of IMP to demonstrate cerebral ischemia, luxury perfusion and diaschisis. (author)

  6. A study on regional cerebral blood flow measurement by N-isopropyl-p-[I-123]iodoamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Hiroyasu

    1986-01-01

    In vivo characteristics of N-isopropyl-p-[I-123]iodoamphetamine (I-123 IMP) as a potential agent for imaging regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were fundamentally studied, and the clinical value of gamma camera rotating SPECT with I-123 IMP was assessed. Brain autoradiography in rats revealed that brain uptake of I-123 IMP is comparable to that described for C-14 iodoantipyrin. In a healthy volunteer, brain uptake was 8.5 % of injected dose at 1.5 hr. Significant uptake of I-123 IMP was observed in the lungs and liver, but not observed in the eyeball or pancreas. Radiation absorbed doses per mCi of I-123 IMP were 0.142 in the brain, 0.178 in the lungs, 0.130 in the liver, 0.038 in the ovaries, 0.027 in the testes, and 0.042 in the total body. A rotating gamma camera for SPECT gave the same linear response to radioactivity as a ring detector, although the latter had better sensitivity and resolution than the former. An increased rCBF was observed with physiological stimulation including left hand movement, reading, and listening, providing three-dimensional mapping of regional cerebral function for kinesthesia. Fifty-three measurements of rCBF were clinically acquired in 42 patients with cerebrovascular disorder. Mean rCBF ranged from 11 to 40 ml/100 g/min. SPECT with I-123 IMP had a significantly high ability to detect ischemic lesions compared with X-ray CT (83 % vs. 41 %). These results indicate the potential benefits of this modality in evaluating cerebral pathophysiology, treatment efficacy, and surgical indications. (Namekawa, K.)

  7. Extraction of hafnium with chelating agents from aqueous-alcoholic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hala, J.; Prihoda, J.

    1975-01-01

    The extraction was studied of hafnium into solutions of N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine, 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone and di-n-butylphosphoric acid in benzene, toluene, chloroform and tetrachloromethane from aqueous alcoholic solutions with a formal acidity of 2M-HClO 4 . Methyl-, ethyl-, n- and isopropyl- and tert-butyl alcohol were used as organic components in the mixed aqueous-organic phase. In the extraction into N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine the presence of the alcohols resulted in synergic effects analogous to the previously described extraction by substituted benzoylpyrazolone. With the other two extractants, the effect of the alcohols was antagonistic, due to the interaction of alcohol or water with the reagent in the organic phase, and to the decrease in the reagent distribution constant. (author)

  8. Using positive-ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and H/D exchange study phosphoryl group transfer reactions involved in amino acid ester isopropyl phosphoramidates of Brefeldin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Mei-Juan; Zhang, He; Liao, Chao; Qiu, Ying-Kun; Fang, Hua; Zheng, Zhen-Yu; Gao, Xiang; Zhao, Yu-Fen; Wu, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ESI-MS n , HRMS and H/D exchange were used. • The fragmentation pathways of NPAAE-BFA in ESI-MS n were described. • Fragment ions involved in phosphorus group’s rearrangement reactions were observed. • Two rearrangement mechanisms about phosphorylation–dephosphorylation were proposed. - Abstract: As mini-chemical models, amino acid ester isopropyl phosphoramidates of Brefeldin A (compounds 2a–2d) were synthesized and investigated by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in combination with H/D exchange. To further confirm the fragments’s structures, off-line Fourier transform resonance tandem mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS/MS) was also performed. The fragmentation rules of compounds 2a–2d have been summarized and the plausible schemes for the fragmentation pathways were proposed. In this study, one dephosphorylated ion and two phosphorylated ions were observed in ESI-MS 2 spectra of [M + Na] + ions for compounds 2a–2d. The possible mechanisms about phosphorylation and dephosphorylation were proposed and confirmed by H/D exchange. For the “dephosphorylation” rearrangement, a nitrogen atom was migrated from the phosphoryl group to the carbon atom of Brefeldin A’s backbone with losing a molecule of C 3 H 7 PO 3 (122 Da). For the “phosphorylation” rearrangement, an oxygen atom of one phosphoryl group attacked the sideward phosphorus atom to form a nine-member ring intermediate, then two steps of C-H covalent bond cleavage with consecutive migration of hydrogen atom to lose a molecule of C 16 H 20 O 2 (244 Da). The two proposed rearrangement mechanisms about phosphoryl group transfer might be valuable for the structure analysis of other analogs and provide insights into elucidating the dynamic process of the phosphorylation–dephosphorylation of proteins

  9. Using positive-ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and H/D exchange study phosphoryl group transfer reactions involved in amino acid ester isopropyl phosphoramidates of Brefeldin A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Mei-Juan; Zhang, He; Liao, Chao; Qiu, Ying-Kun [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiang-An South Road, Xiamen 361102 (China); Fang, Hua [The Third Institute of Oceanography of the State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen 361005 (China); Zheng, Zhen-Yu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Gao, Xiang [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiang-An South Road, Xiamen 361102 (China); Zhao, Yu-Fen [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiang-An South Road, Xiamen 361102 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wu, Zhen, E-mail: wuzhen@xmu.edu.cn [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiang-An South Road, Xiamen 361102 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ESI-MS{sup n}, HRMS and H/D exchange were used. • The fragmentation pathways of NPAAE-BFA in ESI-MS{sup n} were described. • Fragment ions involved in phosphorus group’s rearrangement reactions were observed. • Two rearrangement mechanisms about phosphorylation–dephosphorylation were proposed. - Abstract: As mini-chemical models, amino acid ester isopropyl phosphoramidates of Brefeldin A (compounds 2a–2d) were synthesized and investigated by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in combination with H/D exchange. To further confirm the fragments’s structures, off-line Fourier transform resonance tandem mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS/MS) was also performed. The fragmentation rules of compounds 2a–2d have been summarized and the plausible schemes for the fragmentation pathways were proposed. In this study, one dephosphorylated ion and two phosphorylated ions were observed in ESI-MS{sup 2} spectra of [M + Na]{sup +} ions for compounds 2a–2d. The possible mechanisms about phosphorylation and dephosphorylation were proposed and confirmed by H/D exchange. For the “dephosphorylation” rearrangement, a nitrogen atom was migrated from the phosphoryl group to the carbon atom of Brefeldin A’s backbone with losing a molecule of C{sub 3}H{sub 7}PO{sub 3} (122 Da). For the “phosphorylation” rearrangement, an oxygen atom of one phosphoryl group attacked the sideward phosphorus atom to form a nine-member ring intermediate, then two steps of C-H covalent bond cleavage with consecutive migration of hydrogen atom to lose a molecule of C{sub 16}H{sub 20}O{sub 2} (244 Da). The two proposed rearrangement mechanisms about phosphoryl group transfer might be valuable for the structure analysis of other analogs and provide insights into elucidating the dynamic process of the phosphorylation–dephosphorylation of proteins.

  10. Alcohol Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Trkovská, Jana

    2017-01-01

    The thesis concerns itself with alcohol advertising. Alcohol is the most widespread habit-forming substance, yet its consumption is permitted in most countries all around the world, possibly restricted by the age of consumers only. Drinking alcohol cannot be either regulated or prohibited today. It has become commonplace for the majority of our lives. Being aware of its apparent risks, however, there is an effort to regulate at least alcohol advertising. The main objective of this work was to...

  11. The results of the toxicity and hazard studies of isopropyl meta-carborane with single administration to laboratory animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushkov G.G.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Intensive research on the chemistry of borohydrides and the creation of high-energy fuels led to the discovery of a completely new type of organoboron compounds, which were collectively called carboranes. Taking into account the scope of application of organoboron compounds in various branches of human economic activity, we present for publication the quantitative data of a toxicological study of the higher isomer of carboranes of isopropyl meta-carborane at the level of a single injection into the laboratory animals through the mouth and lungs. Background. Supplementing data on toxicity and the hazard of organoboron compounds requires the study of the response of the organism to the action of isopropyl meta-carborane. The purpose of the study: identification of possible features and specificity of the toxic effect of carboranes on the example of isopropyl meta-carborane. Methods. The object of the study is nonlinear laboratory animals: rats, mice and rabbits contained in standard vivarium conditions, with observance of the rules of humane treatment of animals. Traditional methods of research (physiological, hematological, morphological have been used. Statistical processing of data was carried out using the programs «Microsoft Office Excel 2007» and «Biostat». Differences were considered statistically significant at p ≤ 0.05, using a parametric test. Results. Acute toxicity parameters were obtained, which allowed the substance to be classified as moderately hazardous (3rd hazard class according to GOST 12.1.007, which does not have selective irritant, pneumotoxic and fibrogenic effects. Conclusion. Thus, the predominant influence of the substance is established objectively with a single exposure to the blood system as its toxicological feature, and its effect on spermatozoa is a specificity of the action, which stimulates the study of this carborane under conditions of chronic administration to the animals.

  12. Extraction of hafnium by 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyralozone from aqueous-alcoholic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hala, J.; Prihoda, J.

    1975-01-01

    Extraction of hafnium by 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone (HL) in benzene, toluene, chloroform and tetrachloromethane from aqueous-alcoholic solutions of the formal acidity of 2M-HClO 4 was studied. Methyl, ethyl, n- and isopropyl, tert-butyl and allyl alcohol as well as ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and propylene glycol were used as organic components of the mixed aqueous-organic phase. Their presence in some cases resulted in a synergic increase in the distribution ratio of hafnium. The increase is interpreted using the results of a slope analysis and measurements of the alcohol distribution and the relative permittivity of the organic phase. It is suggested that HfL 4 molecules were solvated by alcohol molecules in the organic phase. At high alcohol concentration synergism changed into antagonism. This was caused by changes in the distribution of HL and its interaction with the alcohol in the organic phase. (author)

  13. Regional cerebral blood flow in Parkinson's disease measured with N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odano, Ikuo; Nishihara, Mamiko; Hayashi, Hiroko; Higuchi, Shoichi; Sakai, Kunio; Ishikawa, Atsushi; Ibayashi, Katsuhiko.

    1992-01-01

    N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT studies were performed on 21 patients (13 females; 45-73 yrs) with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and 10 age-matched normal controls (39-69 yrs). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was quantitatively measured by the arterial blood sampling method. When compared with normal controls, global CBF, and rCBF in the frontal cortex and in the basal ganglia were reduced 22.1% (p 123 I-IMP SPECT imaging is useful for evaluation and follow-up of patients with PD. (author)

  14. N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine SPECT in MELAS syndrome: Comparison with CT and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, M.; Ishikawa, N.; Yoshizawa, T.; Takeda, T.; Akisada, M.

    1991-01-01

    Regional cerebral perfusion was studied in three patients with the mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome, using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (IMP). Accumulation of the tracer was relatively decreased in the parietooccipital regions and also in the frontotemporal regions after stroke-like episodes. However, quantitative regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurement showed that rCBF was relatively well preserved even at these sites, and a hyperemic state was observed at the sites of normal accumulation. IMP SPECT may be useful in the diagnosis and assessment of the progress of the MELAS syndrome

  15. Physicochemical studies of mixed surfactant microemulsions with isopropyl myristate as oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Soumik; Kundu, Kaushik; Saha, Swapan K; Paul, Bidyut K

    2013-07-15

    The present study is focused on evaluation of interfacial compositions and thermodynamic properties of w/o mixed surfactant [(sodium dodecylsulfate, SDS/polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether, Brij-35)/1-pentanol (Pn)/isopropyl myristate (IPM)] microemulsions under various physicochemical conditions by the dilution method. The number of moles of Pn at the interface (n(a)(i)) and bulk oil (n(a)(o)), and various thermodynamic parameters [viz. standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG(o→i)(0)), standard enthalpy (ΔH(o→i)(0)), and standard entropy (ΔS(o→i)(0)) of the transfer of Pn from bulk oil to the interface] have been found to be dependent on the molar ratio of water to surfactant (ω), concentration of Brij-35 (X(Brij-35)), and temperature. Temperature-insensitive microemulsions with zero specific heat capacity (ΔC(p)(0))(o→i) have been formed at specific compositions. The intrinsic enthalpy change of the transfer process (ΔH(0))(o→i)* has been evaluated from linear correlation between ΔH(o→i)(0) and ΔS(o→i)(0) at different experimental temperatures. The present report also aims at a precise characterization on the basis of molecular interactions between the constituents and provides insight into the nature of the oil/water interfaces of these systems by conductivity and dynamic light scattering studies as a function of ω and X(Brij-35). Conductivity studies reveal that incorporation of Brij-35 in non-percolating water/SDS/Pn/IPM systems makes them favorable for ω-induced percolation behavior up to X(Brij-35) ≤ 0.5. But further addition of Brij-35 causes a decrease in conductivity with increasing ω. Furthermore, the hydrodynamic diameters of the microemulsion droplets increase with increase in both X(Brij-35) and ω. Correlations of the results in terms of the evaluated physicochemical parameters have been attempted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Oxygen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their breathing to dangerously low levels. Will I need oxygen when I sleep? Usually if you use supplemental oxygen during the ... your health care provider tells you you only need to use oxygen for exercise or sleep. Even if you feel “fine” off of your ...

  17. Alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin, P

    1961-01-04

    The addition of C/sub 6-10/ alcohols to the fermenting sugar solutions, increased the yield of alcohol by 1.5 to 5%. The best additives were (additive, % additive in sugar solution, % increased in yield of alcohol): hexanol, 0.03, 2.5; heptanol, 0.05, 3; nonanol, 0.01, 3; 2-ethylbutanol, 0.05, 4; 2-ethylhexanol, 0.05, 5; a mixture of C/sub 7-9/ alcohols from the Oxo synthesis, 0.05, 4.5, and a mixture of C/sub 10/ alcohols 0.05, 3.

  18. Oxygen Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Solmes

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available LTOT is prescribed for people with chronic lung disease in whom there is a decrease in the ability of the lungs to supply enough oxygen to the body. The heart is obliged to pump faster to meet the body's oxygen requirements. This may place undue stress on the heart, resulting in palpitations, dizziness and fatigue. A low oxygen level in arterial blood is also harmful to the heart, the brain and the pulmonary blood vessels. Oxygen therapy is used to break this cycle. A person with low blood oxygen will often be able to accomplish more with less fatigue with the help of supplemental oxygen therapy. Shortness of breath is a mechanical problem resulting from the effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Oxygen therapy may or may not reduce shortness of breath, but it will help the lungs and heart to function with less stress.

  19. PREPARATION AND CATALYTIC ACTIVITY FOR ISOPROPYL BENZENE CRACKING OF Co, Mo AND Co/Mo-Al2O3-PILLARED MONTMORILLONITE CATALYSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanudin Hasanudin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been prepared Co, Mo and Co/Mo-Al2O3-pillared montmorillonite catalysts using montmorillonite clay  as raw material. The structure and porosity of the catalysts were determined using N2 adsorption-desorption and FT-IR spectroscopy analysis methods. Isopropyl benzene cracking using these catalysts were used to test the catalytic activity and performance of Co, Mo and Co/Mo-Al2O3-pillared montmorillonites.  Characterization results showed that pillarization resulted in the increase of the total pore volume and specific surface area of the clay. Meanwhile, transition metals (Co, Mo and Co/Mo loaded on Al2O3-pillared monmorillonites could increase the catalytic activity of the catalysts for isopropyl benzene cracking significantly.   Keywords: pillared monmorillonite, isopropyl benzene  and cracking catalyst

  20. A Comparison Study: The New Extended Shelf Life Isopropyl Ester PMR Technology versus The Traditional Methyl Ester PMR Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, William B.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Sivko, Gloria S.

    2005-01-01

    Polymerization of Monomeric Reactants (PMR) monomer solutions and carbon cloth prepregs of PMR II-50 and VCAP-75 were prepared using both the traditional limited shelf life methanol based PMR approach and a novel extended shelf life isopropanol based PMR approach. The methyl ester and isopropyl ester based PMR monomer solutions and PMR prepregs were aged for up to four years at freezer and room temperatures. The aging products formed were monitored using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The composite processing flow characteristics and volatile contents of the aged prepregs were also correlated versus room temperature storage time. Composite processing cycles were developed and six ply cloth laminates were fabricated with prepregs after various extended room temperature storage times. The composites were then evaluated for glass transition temperature (Tg), thermal decomposition temperature (Td), initial flexural strength (FS) and modulus (FM), long term (1000 hours at 316 C) thermal oxidative stability (TOS), and retention of FS and FM after 1000 hours aging at 316 C. The results for each ester system were comparable. Freezer storage was found to prevent the formation of aging products for both ester systems. Room temperature storage of the novel isopropyl ester system increased PMR monomer solution and PMR prepreg shelf life by at least an order of magnitude while maintaining composite properties.

  1. Hepatocyte oxidant stress and alcoholic liver disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conde de la Rosa, L.; Moshage, H.; Nieto, N.

    Acute and chronic alcohol consumption increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and enhances lipid peroxidation of lipids, proteins, and DNA. The mechanism by which alcohol causes cell injury is still not clear but a major role for ROS and lipid peroxidation-end products is

  2. Phase equilibrium properties of binary and ternary systems containing di-isopropyl ether + 1-butanol + benzene at 313.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villamanan, Rosa M.; Martin, M. Carmen; Chamorro, Cesar R.; Villamanan, Miguel A.; Segovia, Jose J.

    2006-01-01

    (Vapour + liquid) equilibria data of (di-isopropyl ether + 1-butanol + benzene) (di-isopropyl ether + 1-butanol) and (1-butanol + benzene) have been measured at T = 313.15 K using an isothermal total pressure cell. Data reduction by Barker's method provides correlations for the excess molar Gibbs energy using the Margules equation for the binary systems and the Wohl expansion for the ternary. The Wilson, NRTL and UNIQUAC models have been applied successfully to both the binary and the ternary systems reported here

  3. Effects of supplementation with 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid isopropyl ester on splanchnic amino acid metabolism and essential amino acid mobilization in postpartum transition Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbach, Kristine Foged; Larsen, Mogens; Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid isopropyl ester (HMBi) supplementation on splanchnic AA metabolism, essential AA (EAA) mobilization, and plasma AA status in postpartum transition dairy cows. The EAA mobilization was calculated by differ......The present study aimed to investigate the effects of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid isopropyl ester (HMBi) supplementation on splanchnic AA metabolism, essential AA (EAA) mobilization, and plasma AA status in postpartum transition dairy cows. The EAA mobilization was calculated...

  4. Alcohol synthesis from CO or CO.sub.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Dagle, Robert A [Richland, WA; Holladay, Jamelyn D [Kennewick, WA; Cao, Chunshe [Houston, TX; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; White, James F [Richland, WA; Elliott, Douglas C [Richland, WA; Stevens, Don J [Richland, WA

    2010-12-28

    Methods for producing alcohols from CO or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 utilizing a palladium-zinc on alumina catalyst are described. Methods of synthesizing alcohols over various catalysts in microchannels are also described. Ethanol, higher alcohols, and other C.sub.2+ oxygenates can produced utilizing Rh--Mn or a Fisher-Tropsch catalyst.

  5. Quantitative analysis of O-isopropyl methylphosphonic acid in serum samples of Japanese citizens allegedly exposed to sarin: Estimation of internal dosage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Hulst, A.G.; Platenburg, D.H.J.M.; Polhuijs, M.; Benschop, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    A convenient and rapid micro-anion exchange liquid chromatography (LC) tandem electrospray mass spectrometry (MS) procedure was developed for quantitative analysis in serum of O-isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA), the hydrolysis product of the nerve agent sarin. The mass spectrometric procedure

  6. The use of technetium-99m-di-isopropyl-iminodiacetic acid imaging in the demonstration of a biliary-bronchial fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitch, I.; Esser, J.D.; Levin, J.; Krige, L.P.; Kew, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    A case is described in which technetium-99m-di-isopropyl-iminodiacetic acid imaging was used to trace the passage of bile from its site of leakage into an amoebic liver abscess, through a fistulous tract connecting the liver abscess with an abscess in the right lower lobe of the lung, and into the upper respiratory tract

  7. Poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)-block-poly(n-butyl acrylate) thermoresponsive amphiphilic copolymers: synthesis, characterization and self-assembly behavior in aqueous solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škvarla, J.; Zedník, J.; Šlouf, Miroslav; Pispas, S.; Štěpánek, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 61, December (2014), s. 124-132 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020118 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : thermoresponsive block copolymers * poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) * light scattering Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.005, year: 2014

  8. Prediction of language and neurologic recovery after cerebral infarction with SPECT imaging using N-isopropyl-p-(I-123) iodoamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushnell, D.L.; Gupta, S.; Mlcoch, A.G.; Barnes, W.E.

    1989-01-01

    Fourteen patients (10 with left-sided and 4 with right-sided cerebral infarction) were prospectively studied with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-(I-123) iodoamphetamine (IMP, SPECTamine) to determine its usefulness in predicting neurologic/language recovery after cerebral infarction. All neuro-SPECT imaging was performed within 30 days after infarction. Detailed assessment of neurologic and/or language recovery (after 3 months) was carried out prospectively in each patient. Patients with smaller volume IMP defects in the region of infarction demonstrated significantly better neurologic and language recovery than patients with large IMP defects. Analysis of the IMP ''redistribution'' phenomenon failed to demonstrate definitively a relationship with clinical recovery. It was concluded that the volume of the IMP defect can aid in predicting recovery potential after cerebral infarction

  9. Brain scintigraphy with N-isopropyl [123I] p-iodoamphetamine (123I IMP) in patients with various cerebral diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshibuchi, Masao; Kanda, Teturo; Sato, Mitutaka; Miyagi, Jun; Ohtake, Hisasi; Suhara, Tetuya; Mori, Atuyoshi.

    1988-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography(SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]-iodoamphet amine(IMP) was utilized in 99 patients with various cerebral diseases and 3 healthy volunteers. By IMP SPECT, demaged area was observed as wider and faster in time than with X-ray CT or MRI. The nidus was visualized as defect of IMP in cases of AVM. In patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, IMP SPECT was more useful for detecting of post hemorrhagic symptomatic vasospasm compared to X-ray CT or MRI. IMP SPECT was also useful to the differential diagnosis in cases of dementia. Grossed cerebellar diaschisis(CCD) was observed in 26 out of 67 cases (39 %) studied. In epilepsy the low uptake areas of IMP in the bilateral occipital lobes were observed in IMP SPECT. (author)

  10. Regional blood perfusion in childhood partial seizure using N-isopropyl-p-[I-123]iodoamphetamine and single photon emission CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michihiro, Narumi; Kurosawa, Yumiko; Hibio, Shuichi; Ishihara, Hiroaki; Ariizumi, Motomizu

    1989-01-01

    Single photon emission CT (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p-[I-123]iodoamphetamine was performed in 20 pediatric patients with partial seizure to examine regional blood perfusion. In detecting location of abnormality, SPECT and EEG were concordant in 13 patients (65%) and discordant in 4 patients (20%). In 7 patients undergoing SPECT one to 4 years after seizure onset, decreased blood perfusion corresponded to focal abnormality on EEG. In other 9 patiets in whom SPECT was performed within one year, however, location of abnormality on SPECT did not necessarily concur with that on EEG. These findings suggest that brain lesions are not focal but extensive at the early stage of partial seizure and that they are becoming focal with the mature of the central nervous system. (Namekawa, K)

  11. Crystal structure of N′-[(E-(1S,3R-(3-isopropyl-1-methyl-2-oxocyclopentylmethylidene]-4-methylbenzenesulfonohydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tymann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C17H24N2O3S, was synthesized in order to determine the relative configuration of the corresponding β-keto aldehyde. In the U-shaped molecule, the five-membered ring approximates an envelope, with the methylene C atom adjacent to the quaternary C atom being the flap, and the methyl and isopropyl substituents lying to the same side of the ring. The dihedral angles between the four nearly coplanar atoms of the five-membered ring and the flap and the aromatic ring are 35.74 (15 and 55.72 (9°, respectively. The bond angles around the S atom are in the range from 103.26 (12 to 120.65 (14°. In the crystal, molecules are linked via N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a chain along the a axis.

  12. Clinical utility of N-isopropyl-p-[123I] iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP) for SPECT in epileptic children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taki, Kuniyasu; Seto, Hikaru; Futatsuya, Ryusuke; Kakishita, Masao; Seki, Hiroyasu.

    1989-01-01

    A regional cerebral perfusion study was performed in epileptic children using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP). A total of 22 patients with epilepsy underwent both a 123 I-IMP brain perfusion study and X-ray CT. Eighteen had positive and four had negative perfusion study results. Of the eighteen patients with positive perfusion study results, two were positive on X-ray CT. In these two patients, the areas of perfusion defects were larger than those of low density on X-ray CT. In only four patients did the areas of perfusion defects correspond to the sites of abnormal EEG. In conclusion, 123 I-IMP perfusion study is of great clinical value in pediatric epileptic cases. (author)

  13. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 33960 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  14. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... lead to lifelong damage. DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can ...

  15. NIAAA Alcohol Treatment Navigator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What Is Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD)? What Types of Alcohol Treatment Are Available? ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What is alcohol use disorder (AUD)? A health condition that can improve with ...

  16. Microbial electrode sensor for alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikuma, M [Ajinomoto Co., Inc., Kawasaki, Japan; Kubo, T; Yasuda, T; Karube, I; Suzuki, S

    1979-10-01

    A microbial electrode consisting of immobilized microorganisms, a gas permeable Teflon membrane, and an oxygen electrode was prepared for the continuous determination of methyl and ethyl alcohols. Immobilized Trichosporon brassicae was employed for a microbial electrode sensor for ethyl alcohol. When a sample solution containing ethyl alcohol was injected into a microbial electrode system, the current of the electrode decreased markedly with time until a steady state was reached. The response time was within 10 min by the steady state method and within 6 min by the pulse method. A linear relationship was observed between the current decrease and the concentration of ethyl alcohol below 22.5 mg/liter. The current was reproducible within +- 6% of the relative error when a sample solution containing 16.5 mg/liter ethyl alcohol. The standard deviation was 0.5 mg/liter in 40 experiments. The selectivity of the microbial electrode sensor for ethyl alcohol was satisfactory. The microbial electrode sensor was applied to a fermentation broth of yeasts and satisfactory comparative results were obtained (correlation coefficient 0.98). The current output of the microbial electrode sensor was almost constant for more than three weeks and 2100 assays. A microbial electrode sensor using immobilized bacteria for methyl alcohol was also described.

  17. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 whi...

  18. Alcohol Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ingredients commonly found in alcoholic beverages, especially in beer or wine, can cause intolerance reactions. These include: Sulfites or other preservatives Chemicals, grains or other ingredients Histamine, a byproduct of fermentation or brewing In some cases, reactions can be ...

  19. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than eight breaths a minute) Irregular breathing (a gap of more than 10 seconds between breaths) Blue- ... about alcohol by their parents and who report close relationships with their parents are less likely to ...

  20. Alcoholic neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently inspecting the feet and shoes to reduce injury caused by pressure or objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent ...

  1. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... daily rhythm for various functions (e.g., body temperature or blood pressure) that is controlled by certain “ ... A special section delves more deeply into specific classes of genes and their relationship to alcoholism. The ...

  2. Effect of linear alcohol molecular size on the self-assembly of fullerene whiskers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, Maher S.; Todd, T. Kyle; Busbee, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The longer the alcohol molecule, the shorter the length of the assembled whisker. → Interaction between alcohol and fullerene solvent is the key factor. → The stronger the alcohol/solvent interaction, the longer the whisker. - Abstract: The recent development of self-assembled fullerene whiskers and wires has created an enormous potential and resolved a serious challenge for utilizing such unique class of carbon material in advanced nano-scale, molecular-based electronic, optical, and thermal devices. In this paper we investigate, the self-assembly of C 60 molecules into one-dimensional whiskers using a series of linear alcohols H(CH 2 ) n OH, with n changing from 1 (methanol) to 3 (isopropyl alcohol), to elucidate the effect of alcohol molecular size on the size distribution of the self-assemble fullerene whiskers. Our results show that the length of the produced fullerene whiskers is affected by the molecular size of the alcohol used in the process. The crucial role played by solvent/alcohol interaction in the assembly process is discussed. In addition, Raman spectroscopy measurements support the notion that the self-assembled whiskers are primarily held by depletion forces and no evidence of fullerene polymerization was observed.

  3. Alcohol fuels program technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-07-01

    The last issue of the Alcohol Fuels Process R/D Newsletter contained a work breakdown structure (WBS) of the SERI Alcohol Fuels Program that stressed the subcontracted portion of the program and discussed the SERI biotechnology in-house program. This issue shows the WBS for the in-house programs and contains highlights for the remaining in-house tasks, that is, methanol production research, alcohol utilization research, and membrane research. The methanol production research activity consists of two elements: development of a pressurized oxygen gasifier and synthesis of catalytic materials to more efficiently convert synthesis gas to methanol and higher alcohols. A report is included (Finegold et al. 1981) that details the experimental apparatus and recent results obtained from the gasifier. The catalysis research is principally directed toward producing novel organometallic compounds for use as a homogeneous catalyst. The utilization research is directed toward the development of novel engine systems that use pure alcohol for fuel. Reforming methanol and ethanol catalytically to produce H/sub 2/ and CO gas for use as a fuel offers performance and efficiency advantages over burning alcohol directly as fuel in an engine. An application of this approach is also detailed at the end of this section. Another area of utilization is the use of fuel cells in transportation. In-house researchers investigating alternate electrolyte systems are exploring the direct and indirect use of alcohols in fuel cells. A workshop is being organized to explore potential applications of fuel cells in the transportation sector. The membrane research group is equipping to evaluate alcohol/water separation membranes and is also establishing cost estimation and energy utilization figures for use in alcohol plant design.

  4. Peroxide formation and kinetics of sodium dissolution in alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidaran, P.; Chandran, K.; Ganesan, V.; Periaswami, G.

    1997-01-01

    Suitable techniques for sodium removal and decontamination of sodium wetted components of Liquid Metal Fast Reactors (LMFRs) are necessary both for repair, reuse and decommissioning of such components. Among the methods followed for sodium removal, alcohol dissolution is usually employed for small components like bellow sealed valves, gripping tools to handle core components and sodium sampling devices (primary and secondary). One of the concerns in the alcohol dissolution method is the possible role of peroxide formation in the ethoxy group during storage and handling leading to explosion. This paper describes the study of peroxide formation in ethyl carbitol and butyl cellosolve as well as some of the results of dissolution kinetic studies carried out in our laboratory using different alcohols. The peroxide formation of ethyl carbitol and butyl cellosolve were studied by iodometric technique. It has been found that the peroxide formation is less in sodium containing alcohol than in pure one. Ethyl carbitol, butyl cellosolve and Jaysol-SS (mixture of ethyl alcohol, methyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol and methyl isobutyl ketone) were used in dissolution kinetics studies. The effects due to area and orientation of the fresh sodium surface have also been investigated. The reaction rates were studied in the temperature range of 303-343 K. The rate of dissolution was estimated by measuring the sodium content of alcohol at periodic intervals. It is found that the reaction rate varies in the order of ethyl alcohol-water mixture > Jaysol-SS > butyl cellosolve > ethyl carbitol. While cleaning sodium using alcohol, the concentration of alcohol is held essentially constant throughout the process. The rate of reaction depends only on the amount of sodium and follows pseudo-first order kinetics. Increase in surface area has a marked impact on the dissolution rate at lower temperatures while at higher temperatures, the temperature factor overrides the effect due to surface area

  5. (1S*,3R*,5S*,7S*-4,4,8,8-Tetrachloro-1-isopropyl-5-methyltricyclo[5.1.0.03,5]octane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koblandy M. Turdybekov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C12H16Cl4, is a derivative of the natural product 1-isopropyl-4-methylcyclohexa-1,4-diene, and represents a diastereomer with two trans-fused cyclopropane rings. Both enantiomers are present in the non-centrosymmetric polar space group Pna21. The central cyclohexane ring is planar within 0.02 (1 Å. The C atoms of dichloromethylene groups deviate from this plane by 1.19 (1 and −1.26 (1 Å, whereas the isopropyl and methyl groups are oriented more equatorially, deviating by 0.71 (1 and −0.87 (1 Å, respectively.

  6. Oxygen safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sure you have working smoke detectors and a working fire extinguisher in your home. If you move around the house with your oxygen, you may need more than one fire extinguisher in different locations. Smoking can be very dangerous. No one should smoke ...

  7. Oxygen therapy - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathe increased amounts of oxygen to get normal levels of oxygen in their blood. Oxygen therapy provides babies with the extra oxygen. Information Oxygen is a gas that the cells in your body need to work properly. The ...

  8. N-isopropyl- sup 123 I-p-iodoamphetamine uptake mechanism in the lung - is it dependent on pH, lipophilicity or pK sub a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akber, S.F. (Texas Medical School, Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Radiology)

    1991-12-01

    The uptake and binding mechanism of biogenic amines in the lungs has been studied extensively with no conclusive results. The competition between N-isopropyl-{sup 123}I-p-iodo amphetamines ({sup 123}I-IMP) and propranolol and {sup 123}I-IMP and ketamine, in the lungs suggest that the pK{sub a} value of the biogenic amines has a significant role to play in the mechanism of uptake and retention of biogenic amines in the lungs. (orig.).

  9. N-isopropyl-123I-p-iodoamphetamine uptake mechanism in the lung - is it dependent on pH, lipophilicity or pKa?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akber, S.F.

    1991-01-01

    The uptake and binding mechanism of biogenic amines in the lungs has been studied extensively with no conclusive results. The competition between N-isopropyl- 123 I-p-iodo amphetamines ( 123 I-IMP) and propranolol and 123 I-IMP and ketamine, in the lungs suggest that the pK a value of the biogenic amines has a significant role to play in the mechanism of uptake and retention of biogenic amines in the lungs. (orig.) [de

  10. Frozen concentration fluctuations in a poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) gel studied by neutron spin echo and small-angle neutron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Koizumi, S; Richter, D; Schwahn, D; Faragó, B; Annaka, M

    2002-01-01

    By employing neutron spin echo and small-angle neutron scattering, we determined the structure factor of the frozen concentration fluctuations on nano-length scales in a swollen poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) gel. The frozen contribution, showing a plateau at the low scattering wavenumber q (0.02 A sup - sup 1), is intimately related to the abnormal butterfly scattering pattern appearing at low q under deformation. (orig.)

  11. Increased accumulation of N-isopropyl-p-(123I)-iodoamphetamine in two cases with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and strokelike episodes (MELAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, K.; Ono, S.; Fukunaga, M.; Morita, R.; Yasuda, T.; Higashi, Y.; Terao, A.

    1989-01-01

    We present two cases with mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and strokelike episodes (MELAS), which showed both increased and decreased accumulation of N-isopropyl-p-( 123 I)-iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The increased accumulation of the tracer occurred before low density appeared on conventional computed tomography, suggesting that 123 I-IMP SPECT may be useful in pathophysiological study of MELAS. (orig.)

  12. Demonstration and quantitation of pharmacological inhibition of pulmonary uptake of N-isopropyl-123I-p-Iodoamphetamine by propanolol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akber, S.F.

    1989-01-01

    The first-pass pulmonary extraction values of N-Isopropyl- 123 I-p-Iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) in pretreated dogs decreases from 90 to 62% as the amount of propranolol increases from 0 to 20 mg. The first-pass pulmonary extraction values of 123 I-IMP in dogs with a simultaneous bolus injection of propranolol decreases from 90 to 62% as the amount of propranolol increases from 0 to 10 mg. The pulmonary extraction of 123 I-IMP with a simultaneous bolus injection of ketamine and 123 I-IMP decreases from 90 to 64% as the ketamine dose increases from 0 to 100 mg. These results suggest that the pulmonary uptake of 123 I-IMP may be at least partially mediated by receptors. They also indicate that endothelial metabolic cell function may be a useful index of early lung pathology. Furthermore, studies of the degree of lung uptake may be a sensitive index of pathologic states in which alterations of amine binding sites have occurred. (orig.) [de

  13. NMR Investigation of the complexation of (S-2-isopropyl- 1-(o-nitrophenylsulfonylaziridine with -cyclodextrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Z. Sliman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aziridines are known to undergo hydrolysis in the presence of cyclodextrins, whereas the latter are largely investigated as potential vectors of biologically active compounds. Despite this easy cyclodextrin-induced cleavage of aziridines in aqueous medium, it was of interest to find out a model aziridine derivative that would be sufficiently water-stable and form a stable complex with b-cyclodextrin in aqueous medium, so that it could be used as a reference in future formulations or vectorization work. Among compounds we have investigated, we found out that only (S-2-isopropyl-1-(o-nitrophenylsulfonylaziridine complied with the above-mentioned solubility and stability requirements. NMR studies of the inclusion complex of this derivative with b-cyclodextrin provided useful parameters related to the stoichiometry of the complex and the association constant Ka. The geometry of the complex was assessed by 2D-ROESY experiments, suggesting a deep insertion of the aziridine into the cavity of b-cyclodextrin.

  14. A new graphic method for evaluation of distribution volume on N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odano, Ikuo; Takahashi, Naoya; Ohtaki, Hiroh; Noguchi, Eikichi; Hatano, Masayoshi; Yamasaki, Yoshihiro; Nishihara, Mamiko; Ohkubo, Masaki; Yokoi, Takashi.

    1993-01-01

    We developed a new graphic method using N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) and SPECT of the brain, the graph on which all three parameters, cerebral blood flow, distribution volume (V d ) and delayed count to early count ratio (Delayed/Early ratio), were able to be evaluated simultaneously. The kinetics of 123 I-IMP in the brain was analyzed by a 2-compartment model, and a standard input function was prepared by averaging the time activity curves of 123 I-IMP in arterial blood on 6 patients with small cerebral infarction etc. including 2 normal controls. Being applied this method to the differential diagnosis between Parkinson's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy, we were able to differentiate both with a glance, because the distribution volume of the frontal lobe significantly decreased in Parkinson's disease (Mean±SD; 26±6 ml/g). This method was clinically useful. We think that the distribution volume of 123 I-IMP may reflect its retention mechanism in the brain, and the values are related to amine, especially to dopamine receptors and its metabolism. (author)

  15. Double-radionuclide autoradiographic method using N-isopropyl-iodoamphetamine for sequential measurements of local cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrenovitch, T.P.; Clayton, C.B.; Strong, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A double-radionuclide autoradiographic method has been assessed for sequential determinations of local CBF (LCBF). It is based on two successive intravascular injections of N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) labelled with different radionuclides, whose concentrations can later be differentiated in the same tissue section using double-radionuclide autoradiography. Previous studies suggested that the distribution of IMP, up to 30 min after its administration, still represents LCBFs. Our data indicate that, provided the tracer is injected directly into the left ventricle, there is little back diffusion from normal brain to blood under physiological conditions for at least 35 min following the tracer injection and an injection of unlabelled IMP, in a dose larger than that used for blood flow determination, does not displace any labelled IMP previously taken up by the brain, nor does it displace any labelled IMP previously accumulated in the lung that would lead to secondary brain uptake. On the basis of these results, we conclude that sequential autoradiographic determinations of LCBF using IMP labelled with different radionuclides is possible. This is a promising experimental method for the simultaneous investigation of changes in LCBF in several CNS structures

  16. Monitoring of regional cerebral blood flow by single photon emission tomography of I123-N-isopropyl-iodoamphetamine in epileptics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magistretti, P.L.; Uren, R.F.; Parker, J.A.; Royal, H.D.; Front, D.; Kolodny, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    In some patients with epileptic disorders it is difficult to accurately localize the seizure focus especially in the case of deep lesions. In an attempt to provide better localization of such foci we have used single photon emission tomography (SPECT) of a new radiopharmaceutical I 123 -N-isopropyl-iodoamphetamine (IMP) to measure regional cerebral blood flow (RCBF) in the ictal and interictal phases. Eight patients were studied. The location of the seizure focus was determined by intraoperative corticography operative findings and pathology in 5 patients and by neuropsychological testing and long-term EEG monitoring in the other three. The SPECT scan accurately localized the seizure focus in all patients. This modality also allowed the functional state of the seizure focus to be assessed. In five of the thirteen studies there was increased RCBF at the seizure focus. On four of these occasions the patients reported symptoms typical of their seizures. In the asymptomatic patient the focally increased RCBF corresponded with a very active superficial epileptic focus on EEG. These preliminary results suggest that SPECT scans of RCBF, will have considerable utility in the management of epileptics. This is particularly the case as the necessary instrumentation is already available in many hospitals, thus minimizing the cost of widespread application

  17. Transplacental effects of 3,5-dimethyl-3'-isopropyl-L-thyronine on fetal hypothyroidism in primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachrach, L.K.; Dibattista, D.; Burrow, G.N.; Holland, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    Pregnant Rhesus monkeys treated with 131I at midgestation become hypothyroid and produce fetuses without demonstrable thyroid tissue. In an effort to prevent both maternal and fetal hypothyroidism, we treated 131I-treated pregnant monkeys with 3,5-dimethyl-3'-isopropyl-L-thyronine (DIMIT), a thyroid hormone analog with structural changes which facilitate placental transfer. Five pregnant monkeys were treated with 131I (mCi/kg) at 83-87 days of gestation. One week later, three monkeys were started on treatment with DIMIT (10 micrograms kg-1 day-1, im) and two on im L-T4 (2 micrograms kg-1 day-1). Treatment was continued until delivery by Caesarian section at 152-157 days of gestation. None of the DIMIT-treated mothers became clinically hypothyroid, nor did they have elevated serum TSH concentrations despite low serum levels of T3 and T4. T4-treated mothers were also maintained clinically and biochemically euthyroid. At delivery, infants of DIMIT-treated mothers had normal respiratory function and skeletal maturation. Basal and TRH-stimulated TSH concentrations were suppressed in two of the three infants. By contrast, both T4-treated infants resembled untreated cretinous newborns and died soon after delivery from respiratory failure. Serum TSH concentrations were elevated and skeletal maturation was markedly delayed in these animals. We conclude that DIMIT administration to 131I-treated monkeys prevents clinical and biochemical hypothyroidism in the mother and prevents the major clinical manifestations of cretinism in the fetus

  18. The influence of age on N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine accumulation in the human heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajo, Masayuki; Nakabeppu, Yoshiaki; Iwashita, Shinji; Shinohara, Shinji

    1990-01-01

    Variations in heart intensity in the 30 min and 4 hr chest images of the radiolabelled lipophilic amine, N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) were observed in 130 patients with lung diseases, aged 23 to 85 yrs. The heart intensity had a significant positive linear correlation with age (r=0.43 at 30 min, 0.66 at 4 hr). The ratio of 4 hr heart intensity to 30 min heart intensity also had a positive linear correlation (r=0.59), suggesting slower clearance of the radioactivity from the heart in older than in younger patients during this interval. Other parameters including sex, EKG findings, liver function, blood pressure, the presence of diabetes mellitus and smoking history had no relationship to heart intensity. A significant difference between heart intensities in bronchogenic carcinoma and pneumonia patient groups might be probably due to the age difference between the two groups. Therefore heart intensity in the 4 hr 123 I-IMP image may reflect certain metabolic and/or myocardial changes with aging. (author)

  19. Formation, thermodynamic properties, microstructures and antimicrobial activity of mixed cationic/non-ionic surfactant microemulsions with isopropyl myristate as oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Soumik; Kundu, Kaushik; Das, Sajal; Poddar, Madhumita; Saha, Swapan K; Paul, Bidyut K

    2014-09-15

    Modification of the interface by blending of surfactants produces considerable changes in the elastic rigidity of the interface, which in turn affects the physicochemical properties of w/o microemulsions. Hence, it could be possible to tune the thermodynamic properties, microstructures and antimicrobial activity of microemulsions by using ionic/non-ionic mixed surfactants and polar lipophilic oil, which are widely used in biologically relevant systems. The present report was aimed at precise characterization of mixed cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether microemulsions stabilized in 1-pentanol (Pn) and isopropyl myristate at different physicochemical conditions by employing phase studies, the dilution method, conductivity, DLS, FTIR (with HOD probing) and (1)H NMR measurements. Further, microbiological activities at different compositions were examined against two bacterial strains Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli at 303 K. The formation of mixed surfactant microemulsions was found to be spontaneous at all compositions, whereas it was endothermic at equimolar composition. FTIR and (1)H NMR measurements showed the existence of bulk-like, bound and trapped water molecules in confined environments. Interestingly, composition dependence of both highest and lowest inhibitory effects was observed against the bacterial strains, whereas similar features in spontaneity of microemulsion formation were also evidenced. These results suggested a close relationship between thermodynamic stability and antimicrobial activities. Such studies on polar lipophilic oil derived mixed surfactant microemulsions have not been reported earlier. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Studies on brain blood-flow with N-isopropyl-(I-123)p-iodoamphetamine in dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Akinori [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)

    1989-06-01

    A differentiation between patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT) and patients with multi-infarct dementia (MID) was attempted in this paper. Twenty normal subjects, 20 SDAT and 20 MID patients were studied with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-(I-123)p-iodoamphetamine ({sup 123}I-IMP). SPECT was started 10 minutes after the injection of 3.0 mCi {sup 123}I-IMP. Eight anatomical regions (region of interest, ROI) were examined at the level of the basal ganglia and ten at the level of the centrum semiovale. The count ratio of each ROI to the average was calculated and tested with Student's t-test of mean differences. The ratios of right inferior frontal region and superior frontal region were significantly lower in the SDAT patients than in the normal subjects. The left superior frontal region showed lower mean ratios in SDAT patients, but the difference was not statistically significant. This study supports the suggestion that there is frontal region hypofunction in SDAT patients. SPECT with {sup 123}I-IMP is a useful method in the non-invasive assessment of cerebral pathophysiology in dementia. (author).

  1. Scintigraphy of cerebral blood flow with N-isopropyl-p-[123I]-iodoamphetamine in cerebrovascular accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sone, Teruki; Fukunaga, Masao; Otsuka, Nobuaki

    1985-01-01

    In 20 patients with cerebrovascular accident, cerebral blood flow was estimated with N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]-iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) using a rotating gamma camera, and the findings were compared with those of X-CT or angiography. 123 I-IMP study demonstrated the areas of diminished cerebral blood flow in 14 cases. X-CT also demonstrated lesions in 14 cases, however, 123 I-IMP study delineated the lesions more precisely corresponding to the neurological findings. In cases with cerebellar hemorrhage or reversible ischemic neurological deficit (RIND), the lesion could be established only by 123 I-IMP study. It was demonstrated by 123 I-IMP study that vascular stenosis or abnormal vessels seen on angiography in patients with vertebro-basilar insufficiency or venous angioma was not necessarily accompanied by diminished blood flow. It was shown that scintigraphy with 123 I-IMP was a non-invasive, safe and extremely useful method to estimate the regional cerebral blood flow. (author)

  2. Studies on brain blood-flow with N-isopropyl-(I-123)p-iodoamphetamine in dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Akinori

    1989-01-01

    A differentiation between patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT) and patients with multi-infarct dementia (MID) was attempted in this paper. Twenty normal subjects, 20 SDAT and 20 MID patients were studied with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-(I-123)p-iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP). SPECT was started 10 minutes after the injection of 3.0 mCi 123 I-IMP. Eight anatomical regions (region of interest, ROI) were examined at the level of the basal ganglia and ten at the level of the centrum semiovale. The count ratio of each ROI to the average was calculated and tested with Student's t-test of mean differences. The ratios of right inferior frontal region and superior frontal region were significantly lower in the SDAT patients than in the normal subjects. The left superior frontal region showed lower mean ratios in SDAT patients, but the difference was not statistically significant. This study supports the suggestion that there is frontal region hypofunction in SDAT patients. SPECT with 123 I-IMP is a useful method in the non-invasive assessment of cerebral pathophysiology in dementia. (author)

  3. Regional cerebral blood flow in Parkinson's disease measured with N-isopropyl-p-[[sup 123]I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odano, Ikuo; Nishihara, Mamiko; Hayashi, Hiroko; Higuchi, Shoichi; Sakai, Kunio [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Ishikawa, Atsushi; Ibayashi, Katsuhiko

    1992-09-01

    N-isopropyl-p-[[sup 123]I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT studies were performed on 21 patients (13 females; 45-73 yrs) with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and 10 age-matched normal controls (39-69 yrs). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was quantitatively measured by the arterial blood sampling method. When compared with normal controls, global CBF, and rCBF in the frontal cortex and in the basal ganglia were reduced 22.1% (p<0.01), 25.0% (p<0.05) and 25.6% (p<0.01), respectively. The reduction of rCBF in the basal ganglia was significantly correlated (p<0.05) with symptoms such as gait disturbance, frozen gait and motor disability score. However, no significant correlation was observed between the severity of dementia and any regional reduction of CBF, including the frontal or parietal cortices. These data show that the severity of dementia in PD may be related to other factors but not with CBF. Quantification of rCBF with [sup 123]I-IMP SPECT imaging is useful for evaluation and follow-up of patients with PD. (author).

  4. Single photon emission computed tomography with N-isopropyl-p-[123I] iodoamphetamine in dementia of the Alzheimer type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunoda, Masahiko; Fujii, Tsutomu; Tanii, Yasuyuki; Yasui, Shinichi; Yuasa, Satoru; Shimizu, Akinori; Kurachi, Masayoshi; Seki, Hiroyasu; Fukuta, Tsutomu.

    1989-01-01

    Correlation between brain uptake of N-isopropyl-p-[I-123]iodoamphetamine (I-123 IMP), as shown on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans, and clinical stages was examined in 8 patients with Alzheimer type dementia. The patients were clinically staged as Stage I (3), Stage II (3), or Stage III (2). The count ratio of each cerebral lobe to the cerebellum was calculated on horizontal SPECT scans. Stage I patients had a decreased I-123 IMP uptake in the temporal and parietal lobes. The decreased uptake in these areas became marked in Stage II patients, with diffusely slight uptake of I-123 IMP in the brain. In Stage III patients, the uptake of I-123 IMP was markedly decreased in the whole brain, including temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes. For five patients of Stage II and III, bilateral differences in the cerebral hemispheres were observed, corresponding to neurologic symptoms. Iodine-123 IMP SPECT was thus considered useful in clinically evaluating Alzheimer type dementia and in determining degenerative process of this disease. (Namekawa, K)

  5. Quantitative assessment of cerebral blood flow employing the Rutland method using N-isopropyl-(123I)-p-iodoamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigeru; Kitano, Tokio.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate clinical usefulness as the quantitative assessment of the cerebral blood flow by venous sampling supersede arterial sampling using N-isopropyl-( 123 I)-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) and single-photon emission computed tomography. The method employed Ono's report using the Rutland method. The mean value of total cerebral blood flow by arterial sampling was 388.0±79.4 (standard deviation) ml/min, and that by venous sampling was 448.5±110.3 ml/min. The value of temporal lobe, including basal ganglia where there was no evidence of neurological, electroencephalographic, and other imaging findings was 44.0±3.8 ml/100g/min using arterial sampling and 49.7±6.0 ml/100g/min using venous sampling. (n=22, mean age 57.6) The value of cases with poor peripheral circulation varied a great deal between the arterial and venous samplings. There was a good correlation between arterial and venous samplings in 76 patients without poor peripheral circulation. In conclusion, this method is available for noninvasive quantitative assessment of the cerebral blood flow in patients without poor peripheral circulation. (author)

  6. Regional quantitative noninvasive assessment of cerebral perfusion and function with N-Isopropyl-[123I]p-iodoamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Schulthess, G.K.; Ketz, E.; Schubiger, P.A.; Bekier, A.

    1985-01-01

    Although several reports on the clinical usefulness of N-isopropyl-[ 123 I]p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) in the diagnosis of cerebral disease have appeared in the literature, quantitative, noninvasive measurements of regional cerebral blood flow with this method pose difficulties because cerebral IMP uptake not only depends on cerebral perfusion but also on cerebral function. Rather than trying to develop a method to measure cerebral perfusion with IMP, the authors have chosen to test a method to quantitatively evaluate planar and emission computed tomographic (ECT) studies by comparing the data obtained in patients with established pathology with the data obtained in a group of normal individuals. Using this method, absolute cerebral IMP uptake (counts/pixel/mCi/min) and planar anterior right-left ratios were obtained. Also measured were right-left ratios obtained from 12 paired regions in three ECT slices. The evaluation of the patients cerebral IMP uptake asymmetries relative to the normal standard values is a useful adjunct to qualitative image analysis in assessing the presence ans severity of disease, as qualitative analysis is prone to false-positive and negative results. Cerebral IMP uptake as measured in cts/pixel/mCi/min is abnormal only in severe cerebral disease and therefore generally a less helpful parameter

  7. N-isopropyl I-123 p-iodoamphetamine brain scintigraphy with SPECT in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Toshimitsu; Kosaka, Noboru; Nishikawa, Junichi; Ohtake, Tohru; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Iio, Masahiro

    1988-10-01

    Two patients of clinically diagnosed Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) were examined with N-Isopropyl I-123 p-Iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT, MRI and XCT. Both patient has myoclonus and severe conscious disturbance with periodic synchronized discharge (PSD) on EEG. SPECT images were obtained using GE400AC/T. Regional IMP uptake was determined by calculating the ratio of each cortical regional to cerebellar IMP uptake (cortico-cerebellar ratio: CCR) and compared with that of five normal controls. In both case, CCR was remarkably decreased in all cortical areas, although XCT or MRI shows no abnormality except slight cortical atrophy. It suggests that metabolic and functional changes proceed morphological abnormality seen on XCT or MRI. In one case of CJD, serial studies of SPECT and XCT were performed after three months of interval. CCR in second study was higher than in first study, while XCT revealed remarkable brain atrophy including cerebrum, pons and cerebellum. It can be interpreted as regional differences of disease process. In conclusion, I-123 IMP-SPECT is useful for the earlier detection of lesions in CJD.

  8. N-isopropyl I-123 p-iodoamphetamine brain scintigraphy with SPECT in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, Toshimitsu; Kosaka, Noboru; Nishikawa, Junichi; Ohtake, Tohru; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Iio, Masahiro

    1988-01-01

    Two patients of clinically diagnosed Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) were examined with N-Isopropyl I-123 p-Iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT, MRI and XCT. Both patient has myoclonus and severe conscious disturbance with periodic synchronized discharge (PSD) on EEG. SPECT images were obtained using GE400AC/T. Regional IMP uptake was determined by calculating the ratio of each cortical regional to cerebellar IMP uptake [cortico-cerebellar ratio: CCR] and compared with that of five normal controls. In both case, CCR was remarkably decreased in all cortical areas, although XCT or MRI shows no abnormality except slight cortical atrophy. It suggests that metabolic and functional changes proceed morphological abnormality seen on XCT or MRI. In one case of CJD, serial studies of SPECT and XCT were performed after three months of interval. CCR in second study was higher than in first study, while XCT revealed remarkable brain atrophy including cerebrum, pons and cerebellum. It can be interpreted as regional differences of disease process. In conclusion, I-123 IMP-SPECT is useful for the earlier detection of lesions in CJD. (author)

  9. Diagnosis of Joseph disease by means of N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Naoya; Nishihara, Mamiko; Odano, Ikuo; Sakai, Kunio; Yuasa, Tatsuhiko.

    1993-01-01

    Using N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) and single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT), we studied the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 4 Japanese patients who had been clinically diagnosed as having Joseph disease. This is the first report of rCBF measurement by means of [ 123 I]-IMP SPECT in patients with Joseph disease. Cerebellar atrophy was evaluated by means of a 5-rating scale as defined by X-ray computed tomography (X-CT). As compared with 10 normal controls (mean cerebellar CBF±SD: 66.9±6.6 ml/100 g/min), the regional CBF of the patients with Joseph disease was found to decrease significantly in the cerebellum (mean±SD: 52.8±5.3 ml/100 g/min). However, no significant relationship was found between the decrease in rCBF in the cerebellum and the degree of cerebellar atrophy as shown by X-CT. The regional CBF in the cerebellum decreased little in one patient who had severe cerebellar atrophy or in two who showed moderate atrophy. [ 123 I]-IMP SPECT demonstrates the pathological and metabolic changes in the cerebellum that do not appear on X-CT or MRI. IMP SPECT is thus shown to be useful for the diagnosis of patients with Joseph disease. (author)

  10. Fundamental Flotation Behaviors of Chalcopyrite and Galena Using O-Isopropyl-N-Ethyl Thionocarbamate as a Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Bu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Copper and lead are two important and widely used metals in industry. Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2 is associated with galena (PbS in ore, and it has been a research hotspot in separating galena from chalcopyrite by flotation. In this study, the flotation behaviors of chalcopyrite and galena were studied through flotation tests, adsorption measurements, solution chemistry calculation, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and molecular dynamics (MD simulations. The results show that the floatability of chalcopyrite is better than that of galena in the presence of O-isopropyl-N-ethyl thionocarbamate (IPETC, and the recovery difference between chalcopyrite and galena is about 20% when IPETC is 7 × 10−4 mol/L at pH 9.5, while the floatability difference between the two minerals is significant. Competitive adsorption of OH− and IPETC on mineral surfaces leads to lower floatability of galena than that of chalcopyrite. IPETC is able to remove the hydration layer on mineral surfaces and then adsorb on active sites. The floatability of minerals is enhanced with the increase of their hydrophobicity. This study provides a reference to separate galena from chalcopyrite.

  11. Biphasic Equilibrium Dialysis of Poly(N-Isopropyl Acrylamide Nanogels Synthesized at Decreased Temperatures for Targeted Delivery of Thermosensitive Bioactives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Musial

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogel nanoparticles, referred to also as nanogels, are of special interest for medical and pharmaceutical applications. Due to small size in the range below the diameter of the capillaries, they are proposed as drug delivery carriers. The aim of the study was to estimate the influence of composition and reaction conditions during synthesis of poly-N-isopropyl acrylamide cross-linked by polyethylene glycol diacrylate on the purification rates of the polymer. Six types of thermosensitive nanogels were prepared by surfactant-free dispersion polymerization and assessed in terms of process yield, composition, and size at temperatures below and over volume phase temperature. During the diffusion of impurities, in the course of dialysis, assessed by the conductometric method, the remarkable influence of temperature and initiator concentration on the process was revealed. The release rates varied in the range between 9.63 · 10−2 and 1.39 · 10−1 h−1 in the first stage of the process, whereas in the second stage they were between 2.09 · 10−2 and 6.28 · 10−2 h−1. The evaluated time to obtain acceptable purity of the preparation was estimated to be in the range of 18 days. More detailed research should be directed towards the influence of the structure of obtained material on the purification process.

  12. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exams and Tests Tests may include: Arterial blood gases (measures the acid/base balance and oxygen level ... 2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM ...

  13. Assessment of the roles of reactive oxygen species in the UV and visible light photocatalytic degradation of cyanotoxins and water taste and odor compounds using C-TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotiou, Theodora; Triantis, Theodoros M; Kaloudis, Triantafyllos; O'Shea, Kevin E; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Hiskia, Anastasia

    2016-03-01

    Visible light (VIS) photocatalysis has large potential as a sustainable water treatment process, however the reaction pathways and degradation processes of organic pollutants are not yet clearly defined. The presence of cyanobacteria cause water quality problems since several genera can produce potent cyanotoxins, harmful to human health. In addition, cyanobacteria produce taste and odor compounds, which pose serious aesthetic problems in drinking water. Although photocatalytic degradation of cyanotoxins and taste and odor compounds have been reported under UV-A light in the presence of TiO2, limited studies have been reported on their degradation pathways by VIS photocatalysis of these problematic compounds. The main objectives of this work were to study the VIS photocatalytic degradation process, define the reactive oxygen species (ROS) involved and elucidate the reaction mechanisms. We report carbon doped TiO2 (C-TiO2) under VIS leads to the slow degradation of cyanotoxins, microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN), while taste and odor compounds, geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, were not appreciably degraded. Further studies were carried-out employing several specific radical scavengers (potassium bromide, isopropyl alcohol, sodium azide, superoxide dismutase and catalase) and probes (coumarin) to assess the role of different ROS (hydroxyl radical OH, singlet oxygen (1)O2, superoxide radical anion [Formula: see text] ) in the degradation processes. Reaction pathways of MC-LR and CYN were defined through identification and monitoring of intermediates using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for VIS in comparison with UV-A photocatalytic treatment. The effects of scavengers and probes on the degradation process under VIS, as well as the differences in product distributions under VIS and UV-A, suggested that the main species in VIS photocatalysis is [Formula: see text] , with OH and (1)O2 playing minor roles in the degradation

  14. LET effect on irradiation of hydroxyphthal imide in alcohol solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, S.; Murakami, T.

    2005-01-01

    Hydroxyphthalimide(C 6 H 4 (CO) 2 -NOH) was irradiated with C ion (290MeV/u) in isopropyl alcohol, methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile. LET was 13.2 and 26.5 keV/m. Dose was 5 and 10 kGy. A little amount of phthalimide was produced. The G value of the production of phthalimide by ion irradiation was less than that by -irradiation except for in methanol. In methanol solution, the production rate of phthalimide increased with increasing the value of LET. The amount of the substitution for C 6 H 4 (CO) 2 -NOD in methanol-d decreased by ion irradiation. These results suggest that the reaction mechanism in ion irradiation is different from -irradiation. (author)

  15. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... experience alcohol’s longer-term effects, which can include: Alcohol use disorder Health problems Increased risk for certain cancers In ...

  16. Development of technology for the alkylation of hydroquinone with aliphatic alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bolotov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research of technology of alkylation of hydroquinone, propyl, isopropyl, isobutyl and tert-butyl alcohols in the presence of concentrated phosphoric acid. The temperature of the alkylation reaction was maintained between 70–72 °С. On the basis of literature data and preliminary investigations the reaction was performed for 4 hours. Upon completion of the reaction, we removed the unreacted hydroquinone, aliphatic alcohol and phosphoric acid are added to a solution of distilled water (solvent corresponding connections and sodium bicarbonate to slightly acidic (pH 5–6. For separation from the reaction medium of alkylhydroquinones in the reaction mixture was added benzene in which the original hydroquinone dissolves much less. Concentration of the benzene extract alkylhydroquinones conducted by Stripping the solvent under vacuum at temperatures above 70 °С in air atmosphere. Higher temperature vacuum distillation AIDS in the oxidation of alkylhydroquinones to alkylphenones. Precipitated after crystallization, alkylhydroquinones were dried under vacuum in a drying pistol at 56 °С. Dried products were identified by defining the melting temperature, the study of spectral characteristics and qualitative reactions with FeCl3. We also studied the solubility of alkylhydroquinones in various solvents, which showed low solubility of alkylhydroquinones in water, benzene, toluene and higher solubility in propyl and isopropyl alcohols and in acetone. Analysis of the results shows that the obtained alkylhydroquinones are not chemically pure compounds, and contain in their composition of admixture source of hydroquinone. Qualitative reactions of solutions of alkylhydroquinones with FeCl3 solution differ from the corresponding reaction of a solution of hydroquinone. The results of investigations of electronic absorption spectra of alkylhydroquinones and source of hydroquinone in isopropyl alcohol solution did not

  17. Small-angle neutron scattering study of D2O-alcohol solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Arrigo, G.

    1990-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements have been carried out on heavy water solutions of ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol, t-butyl alcohol and butoxyethanol between 5 and 37 0 C at the concentrations where ultrasonic attenuation exhibits peak values. The wavevector dependence and the absolute intensity of the scattered intensities were analysed according to a microscopic model of the solutions in terms of aggregated complexes. The results indicate that at 25 0 C there exist either alcohol 'micelle-like' structures or alcohol-heavy water complexes which increase on going from the lower to higher alcohol solutions. As temperature increases from 25 to 37 0 C a higher aggregation is observed in butyl alcohol and butoxyethanol solutions. This behaviour is attributed to the demixing tendency of these systems at high temperatures. On going from 25 to 5 0 C the aggregation increases again. This trend is associated with the anomalous behaviour of the specific heat and ultrasonic attenuation of these systems. The occurrence of a low-temperature phase transition suggested by these anomalies is supported by our results. (author)

  18. Brazilian Twin Registry: A Bright Future for Twin Studies/Twin Research: Twin Study of Alcohol Consumption and Mortality; Oxygen Uptake in Adolescent Twins/In the News: Superfecundated Twins In Vietnam; Adolescent Twin Relations; Twin and Triplet Co-Workers; A Special Twin Ultrasound; Monozygotic Twins With Different Skin Color; Identical Twin Returns from Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2016-06-01

    The establishment of the Brazilian Twin Registry for the study of genetic, social, and cultural influences on behavior is one of eleven newly funded projects in the Department of Psychology at the University of São Paulo. These 11 interrelated projects form the core of the university's Center for Applied Research on Well-Being and Human Behavior. An overview of the planned twin research and activities to date is presented. Next, two recent twin studies are reviewed, one on the relationship between alcohol consumption and mortality, and the other on factors affecting maximal oxygen uptake. Twins cited in the media include the first identified superfecundated twins in Vietnam, adolescent twin relations, twins and triplets who work together, monozygotic twins with different skin tones and a co-twin control study that addresses the effects of space travel.

  19. Characterization of brush cells of the cerebellum treated by prolonged exposure of the sample to isopropyl alcohol variant of argentic impregnation

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Graterol, Elbert Oberto; García Oduber, Sogeilys Milagro; Laguna Campos, Edgar José; Salas Méndez, Mario Javier

    2014-01-01

    Las células cepillo son neuronas glutamatérgicas de la capa granular en la corteza cerebelosa que constan de 3 (tres) o más subtipos, caracterizados por fenotipos químicamente distintos, propiedades intrínsecas para formar sinapsis y patrones de descarga particulares. Dichas células no fueron identificadas por métodos de impregnación argéntica hasta 1994, cuando Mugnaini realiza su descripción. En este trabajo presentamos una variante de impregnación argéntica, en el cual las muestras son sum...

  20. Optimization of labeling conditions of n-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine chloridate (IMP) with radioiodine. Biological distribution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colturato, Maria Tereza

    2000-01-01

    The development of this work was based on a great interest from the medical community in the utilization of N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine chloridate (IMP) labeled with 123 l, for brain perfusion evaluation. The IMP was initially characterized by: Melting Point (MP), Infrared Spectrophotometry (IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry (NMR), Elemental Analysis and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). After having chosen the ideal method (nucleophilic substitution) to label IMP with that used Cu(I) as reducing agent and ascorbic acid as catalyzing of Cu(II), studies were performed to optimize the labeling parameters of 123 l-IMP: temperature reaction, time reaction, ascorbic acid mass, pH and molar ratio, and stability of the final product. The quality control method (ascending paper chromatographic) used to determine the radiochemistry purity showed to be efficient, fast and of easily handling for routine production. Biological distribution studies were performed with laboratory animals (mice) to determine the percent administered dose in the blood, different organs and whole body after intravenous administration of the radiopharmaceutical. Toxicological evaluation and in vitro study to determine the plasmatic protein binding were also done. The data of the biological distribution in mice have shown that the product crossed the intact blood brain barrier, for a enough time to obtain brain scintigraphic image, thus, allowing a follow up of further studies after the intravenous administration of the radiopharmaceutical. The 123 l-IMP showed a blood clearance and then the principal elimination route was the urinary. The kinetic study of 123 l-IMP, submitting blood samples data to BIEXP.BAS program, showed a biexponential pattern which allowed demonstrating that the compound presents a first phase of quick distribution and a second one slower corresponding to the equilibrium and elimination. Based on the results from radiochemical purity, stability and

  1. Delayed lung scintigraphy with N-isopropyl-I-123-p-iodoamphetamine in lung cancer and inflammatory disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suematsu, Toru; Narabayashi, Isamu; Takada, Yoshiki and others

    1989-01-01

    Lung studies with N-Isopropyl-I-123-p-Iodoamphetamine (IMP) were performed on patients with lung cancer or inflammatory disease. In the present study, we evaluated the usefulness of the delayed scintigraphy. The subjects consisted of 27 patients with lung cancer (34 lesions), 3 with radiation pneumonitis, 2 with interstitial pneumonitis, 2 with old tuberculous lesion (tuberculomas), 1 with diffuse panbronchiolitis, 1 with pneumonia and 1 with lung abscess. The delayed scintigraphy was performed 24 hr after intravenous injection of 3 mCi IMP, in sitting position. In 10 patients, SPECT images were obtained following the delayed scintigraphy. Delayed scintigraphic appearances of lung cancer were classified into 5 types, high IMP uptake in the area congruent with the lesion of atelectasis and/or obstructive pneumonia (Type I), high IMP uptake in the area surrounded the tumor (Type II), a defect in the area consistent with the tumor and no high IMP uptake in the area surrounded the tumor (Type III), high IMP uptake in the area almost congruent with the tumor (Type IV) and no significant change (Type V). Excluding 10 lesions with Type IV or V, no IMP uptake was seen in the areas congruent with the tumors. Type II was the most frequently observed pattern. Normal scintigrams (Type V) were observed in 8 lesions, whose sizes were fairly small. There was no definite trend caused by difference in histological types of cancers. In 8 patients with viable inflammatory disease of the lung, the delayed scintigrams showed high IMP uptake in the areas congruent with the abnormalities on chest roentgenograms. On the other hand, no uptake was seen in the old tuberculous lesions. (J.P.N.).

  2. Delayed lung scintigraphy with N-isopropyl-I-123-p-iodoamphetamine in lung cancer and inflammatory disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suematsu, Toru; Narabayashi, Isamu; Takada, Yoshiki

    1989-01-01

    Lung studies with N-Isopropyl-I-123-p-Iodoamphetamine (IMP) were performed on patients with lung cancer or inflammatory disease. In the present study, we evaluated the usefulness of the delayed scintigraphy. The subjects consisted of 27 patients with lung cancer (34 lesions), 3 with radiation pneumonitis, 2 with interstitial pneumonitis, 2 with old tuberculous lesion (tuberculomas), 1 with diffuse panbronchiolitis, 1 with pneumonia and 1 with lung abscess. The delayed scintigraphy was performed 24 hr after intravenous injection of 3 mCi IMP, in sitting position. In 10 patients, SPECT images were obtained following the delayed scintigraphy. Delayed scintigraphic appearances of lung cancer were classified into 5 types, high IMP uptake in the area congruent with the lesion of atelectasis and/or obstructive pneumonia (Type I), high IMP uptake in the area surrounded the tumor (Type II), a defect in the area consistent with the tumor and no high IMP uptake in the area surrounded the tumor (Type III), high IMP uptake in the area almost congruent with the tumor (Type IV) and no significant change (Type V). Excluding 10 lesions with Type IV or V, no IMP uptake was seen in the areas congruent with the tumors. Type II was the most frequently observed pattern. Normal scintigrams (Type V) were observed in 8 lesions, whose sizes were fairly small. There was no definite trend caused by difference in histological types of cancers. In 8 patients with viable inflammatory disease of the lung, the delayed scintigrams showed high IMP uptake in the areas congruent with the abnormalities on chest roentgenograms. On the other hand, no uptake was seen in the old tuberculous lesions. (J.P.N.)

  3. Effectiveness of isopropyl myristate/cyclomethicone D5 solution of removing cuticular hydrocarbons from human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnett Eric

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the treatment of human head lice infestation, healthcare providers are increasingly concerned about lice becoming resistant to existing pesticide treatments. Traditional pesticides, used to control these pests, have a neurological mechanism of action. This publication describes a topical solution with a non-traditional mechanism of action, based on physical disruption of the wax layer that covers the cuticle of the louse exoskeleton. This topical solution has been shown clinically to cure 82% of patients with only a 10-minute treatment time, repeated once after 7 days. All insects, including human head lice, have a wax-covered exoskeleton. This wax, composed of hydrocarbons, provides the insect with protection against water loss and is therefore critical to its survival. When the protective wax is disrupted, water loss becomes uncontrollable and irreversible, leading to dehydration and death. A specific pattern of hydrocarbons has been found in all of the head louse cuticular wax studied. Iso-octane effectively removes these hydrocarbons from human head lice’s cuticular wax. Methods A method of head louse cuticle wax extraction and analysis by gas chromatography was developed. Human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis were collected from infested patients and subjected to any of three extraction solvents comprising either the test product or one of two solvents introduced as controls. A gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID was used to determine the presence of hydrocarbons in the three head lice extracts. Results In the study reported herein, the test product isopropyl myristate/cyclomethicone D5 (IPM/D5 was shown to perform comparably with iso-octane, effectively extracting the target hydrocarbons from the cuticular wax that coats the human head louse exoskeleton. Conclusions Disruption of the integrity of the insect cuticle by removal of specific hydrocarbons found in the cuticular wax

  4. Regional cerebral blood flow measurement using N-isopropyl-p-[123I] iodoamphetamine and rotating gamma camera emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Seki, Hiroyasu; Ishida, Hiroko

    1985-01-01

    Thirty-one regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements were performed on 26 patients with cerebrovascular accidents using N-Isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] Iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) and rotating gamma camera emission computed tomography (ECT). The equation for determining rCBF is as follows: F=100.R.Cb/(N.A), where F is rCBF in ml/100 g/min., R is the constant withdrawal rate of arterial blood in ml/min., Cb is the brain activity concentration in μCi/g, A is the total activity (5 min.) in the withdrawal arterial whole blood in μCi and N is the fraction of A that is true tracer activity (0.75). In determining Cb at 5 min. after injection, reconstructed counts from 35 min. to 59 min. were corrected to represent those from 4 min. to 5 min. with the use of time activity curve for the entire brain immediately after injection to 30 min. Reconstructed counts of central region in tomographic image were corrected 118% of the obtained values from the result of the countingrate ratio between peripheral and central regions of interests obtained from phantom study. Brain mean blood flow values were distributed from 11 to 39 ml/100 g/min. In 119 cortical regions obtained from 11 measurements in 9 patients, there was a significant correlation (r=0.41, p 123 I-IMP and rotating gamma camera ECT and those from 133 Xe inhalation method. rCBF measurement using 123 I-IMP and rotating gamma camera ECT is not only relatively noninvasive measurement for the entire brain but also three-dimensional evaluation. Besides, it is superior in spatial resolution and accuracy to conventional 133 Xe clearance method. (author)

  5. [Alcohol intake--a two-edged sword. Part 1: metabolism and pathogenic effects of alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströhle, Alexander; Wolters, Maike; Hahn, Andreas

    2012-08-01

    From the biomedical point of view alcohol is a Janus-faced dietary component with a dose-dependent effect varying from cardiovascular protection to cytotoxicity. Alcohol is absorbed in the upper gastrointestinal tract by passive diffusion, is quickly distributed throughout body water and is mostly eliminated through oxidation. The enzymatically-catalyzed oxidative degradation to acetaldehyde and further to acetate is primarily localized in the liver. In case of a low blood alcohol concentration (0.5 per thousand) are increasingly oxidized by the microsomal ethanoloxidizing system (MEOS). Alcohol consumption induces several metabolic reactions as well as acute effects on the central nervous system. Chronic alcohol consumption to some extent irreparably damages nearly every organ with the liver being particularly concerned. There are three stages of alcohol-induced liver disease (fatty liver, alcohol hepatitis, liver cirrhosis) and the liver damages mainly result from reaction products of alcohol degradation (acetaldehyde, NADH and reactive oxygen species). An especially dreaded clinical complication of the alcohol-induced liver disease is the hepatic encephalopathy. Its pathogenesis is a multifactorial and self-perpetuating process with the swelling of astrocytes being a crucial point. Swollen astrocytes induce several reactions such as oxidative/nitrosative stress, impaired signal transduction, protein modifications and a modified gene expression profile. The swelling of astrocytes and the change in neuronal activity are attributed to several neurotoxins, especially ammonia and aromatic amino acids. In alcohol addicted subjects multiple micronutrient deficiencies are common. The status of folic acid, thiamine, pyridoxine and zinc is especially critical.

  6. Reported Adverse Health Effects in Children from Ingestion of Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers - United States, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cynthia; Kieszak, Stephanie; Wang, Alice; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua; Wolkin, Amy

    2017-03-03

    Hand sanitizers are effective and inexpensive products that can reduce microorganisms on the skin, but ingestion or improper use can be associated with health risks. Many hand sanitizers contain up to 60%-95% ethanol or isopropyl alcohol by volume, and are often combined with scents that might be appealing to young children. Recent reports have identified serious consequences, including apnea, acidosis, and coma in young children who swallowed alcohol-based (alcohol) hand sanitizer (1-3). Poison control centers collect data on intentional and unintentional exposures to hand sanitizer solutions resulting from various routes of exposure, including ingestion, inhalation, and dermal and ocular exposures. To characterize exposures of children aged ≤12 years to alcohol hand sanitizers, CDC analyzed data reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS).* The major route of exposure to both alcohol and nonalcohol-based (nonalcohol) hand sanitizers was ingestion. The majority of intentional exposures to alcohol hand sanitizers occurred in children aged 6-12 years. Alcohol hand sanitizer exposures were associated with worse outcomes than were nonalcohol hand sanitizer exposures. Caregivers and health care providers should be aware of the potential dangers associated with hand sanitizer ingestion. Children using alcohol hand sanitizers should be supervised and these products should be kept out of reach from children when not in use.

  7. Alcoholism and Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alec; Linnoila, Markku

    1986-01-01

    Reviews knowledge about suicide in alcoholism: how commonly suicide among alcoholics occurs; which alcoholics commit suicide and why; suicide among alcoholic women and alcoholic physicians; possible predisposing biological factors; possible linkages with depression, adverse life events, and personality disorder; and future research and directions.…

  8. Synthesis, in vitro and in vivo antimalarial assessment of sulfide, sulfone and vinyl amide-substituted 1,2,4-trioxanes prepared via thiol-olefin co-oxygenation (TOCO) of allylic alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amewu, Richard; Gibbons, Peter; Mukhtar, Amira; Stachulski, Andrew V; Ward, Stephen A; Hall, Charlotte; Rimmer, Karen; Davies, Jill; Vivas, Livia; Bacsa, John; Mercer, Amy E; Nixon, Gemma; Stocks, Paul A; O'Neill, Paul M

    2010-05-07

    Thiol-Olefin Co-Oxygenation (TOCO) methodology has been applied to the synthesis of a small library of weak base and polar 1,2,4-trioxanes. The 1,2,4-trioxane units synthesised exhibit remarkable stability as they survive base catalysed hydrolysis and mixed anhydride/amine coupling reactions. This unique stability feature has enabled a range of novel substitution patterns to be incorporated within the spiro 1,2,4-trioxane unit. Selected analogues express potent in vitro nM antimalarial activity, low cytotoxicity and oral activity in the Plasmodium berghei mouse model of malaria.

  9. Indirect Liquefaction of Biomass to Transportation Fuels Via Mixed Oxygenated Intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric C.D.

    2016-11-14

    This paper presents a comparative techno-economic analysis of four emerging conversion pathways from biomass to gasoline-, jet-, and diesel-range hydrocarbons via indirect liquefaction with specific focus on pathways utilizing oxygenated intermediates. The processing steps include: biomass-to-syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, conversion of syngas to alcohols/oxygenates followed by conversion of alcohols/oxygenates to hydrocarbon blendstocks via dehydration, oligomerization, and hydrogenation.

  10. A facile stereospecific synthesis of the ( sup 2 H sub 6 )-isopropyl-labelled metoprolol enantiomers from (2R)- and (2S)-glycidyl 3-nitrobenzenesulfonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, S.S.; Nelson, W.L. (Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (USA). Dept. of Medicinal Chemistry)

    1990-12-01

    Enantiomers of metoprolol containing six deuterium atoms in the isopropyl methyl groups were prepared in two steps from the sodium salt of 4-(2-methoxyethyl)phenol (3) and the commercially available (2R)-and (2S)-glycidyl 3-nitrobenzenesulfonates ((2R)-2 and (2S)-2). The resulting (2R)- and (2S)-epoxides were opened using ({sup 2}H{sub 6})-isopropylamine. The enantiomeric excesses were 93 and 95% for the deuterated (2R)- and (2S)-enantiomers of metoprolol ((2R)-1 and (2S)-1), respectively, as determined by chiral column HPLC. (author).

  11. catalysed selective oxidation of benzyl alcohols using TEMPO and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A general scheme for the oxidation of benzyl alcohols catalyzed by silica functionalized copper (II) has been designed. TEMPO, a free radical, assists this oxidation that was initiated by molecular oxygen which converts it to a primary oxidant. This catalytic combination i.e. SiO2 -Cu(II) in presence of TEMPO and oxygen ...

  12. Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be increased in women because their digestive system may be less able to process alcohol, thus increasing the amount of alcohol reaching the liver. Genetic makeup Genetic makeup is thought to be involved because alcoholic liver disease often ...

  13. Alcohol Use Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following ...

  14. Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol use disorder” or AUD. AUD is a chronic relapsing brain disease characterized by compulsive alcohol use, loss of control over alcohol intake, and a negative emotional state when not using. ...

  15. Process Development for Reactive-Ion Etching of Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) Utilizing a Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) Etch Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Nichols, Matthew L Chin, Sina Najmaei, Eugene Zakar, and Madan Dubey Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL Approved for public...EBL; Vistec EBPG5000+) with an exposure dose of 850 μC/cm2 and development in 25 mL of isopropyl alcohol (IPA): 10 mL methyl isobutyl ketone for...deposition EBL electron beam lithography IPA isopropyl alcohol MoS2 molybdenum disulfide O2 oxygen PMMA poly(methyl methacrylate) RIE reactive

  16. Percutaneous Absorption and Metabolism of Ketoprofen Isopropyl Ester via Excised Nude Mouse‘s and Monkey’s Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUQuan-gang; HUJin-hong

    2003-01-01

    Aim:To study percutaneous absorption and metabolism of ketoprofen isopropyl ester (KPE)via excised nude mouse's and monkey's skin.Methods:Excised skin was prepared by surgical excision and enzyme digestion.Sideby-side diffusion cells were used for in vitro permeation studies.The concentrations of KPE and its metabolite in samples were assayed by HPLC.Results:All KPE penetration through whole thickness skin and stripped skin was metabolized to ketoprofen(KP).the concentration of which in the reciiver solution increased linearly with time.As to the nude mouse skin.the steady-state flux of KP through whole thickness skin was 2.5 times that of KPE through the whloe thickness skin,but the KP and KPE remaining in the whole thickness skin after the finishing of KPE penetration was 22.2 times in compered with the KP remaining in the whole thickness skin after the finshing of KP penetration.The rate of formation of the steady state KP from KPE throught dermis was significantly lower than that of KPE through the whole thickness skin.In he monkey skin,the rate of formation of the steady-state KP from KPE through the whole thickness skin was 0.7 times that from KPE through stripped skin.The KP and KPE remaining in the whole thickness skin after the finishing of KPE penetration was 2.0 time that in the stripped skin after the finishing of KPE penetration.The rate of fornation of the steady-state KP from KPE through dermis was lower than that from KPE through the whole thickness skin and the stripped skin.the KP remaining in dermis after the finsihing of KPE penetration was also significantly lower than the KP remaining in the whole thickness skin and the stripped skin after the finishing of KPE penetration.Conclusion:KP esters are of benefit to imporove the local action of KP.and skin esterase metabolism mainly develops in the epidermis.

  17. 21 CFR 177.2280 - 4,4′-Isopropyl-idenedi-phenol-epichloro-hydrin thermo-setting epoxy resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with mixed dimers and trimers of unsaturated C18 monobasic fatty acids derived from animal and... basic thermosetting epoxy resin is made by reacting 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol with epi-chloro-hydrin...′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin basic resin and limited to use in contact with alcoholic beverages containing not...

  18. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Alcohol Use Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links to Other Websites About Us More CDC Alcohol Topics CDC Alcohol Portal Excessive Alcohol Use Binge ... of alcohol screening and counseling for all women Alcohol Use Quiz Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  19. Alcoholism: a systemic proinflammatory condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Reimers, Emilio; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco; Martín-González, María Candelaria; Fernández-Rodríguez, Camino María; Quintero-Platt, Geraldine

    2014-10-28

    Excessive ethanol consumption affects virtually any organ, both by indirect and direct mechanisms. Considerable research in the last two decades has widened the knowledge about the paramount importance of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of many of the systemic manifestations of alcoholism. These cytokines derive primarily from activated Kupffer cells exposed to Gram-negative intestinal bacteria, which reach the liver in supra-physiological amounts due to ethanol-mediated increased gut permeability. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) that enhance the inflammatory response are generated both by activation of Kupffer cells and by the direct metabolic effects of ethanol. The effects of this increased cytokine secretion and ROS generation lie far beyond liver damage. In addition to the classic consequences of endotoxemia associated with liver cirrhosis that were described several decades ago, important research in the last ten years has shown that cytokines may also induce damage in remote organs such as brain, bone, muscle, heart, lung, gonads, peripheral nerve, and pancreas. These effects are even seen in alcoholics without significant liver disease. Therefore, alcoholism can be viewed as an inflammatory condition, a concept which opens the possibility of using new therapeutic weapons to treat some of the complications of this devastating and frequent disease. In this review we examine some of the most outstanding consequences of the altered cytokine regulation that occurs in alcoholics in organs other than the liver.

  20. Utilisation de produits organiques oxygénés comme carburants et combustibles dans les moteurs. Deuxième partie : Les différentes filières d'obtention des carburols. Analyse technico-économique Using Oxygenated Organic Products As Fuels in Engines. Part Two: Different Systems for Producing Alcohol Fuels. Technico-Economic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauvel A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Parmi les produits à même d'être substitués aux hydrocarbures pour la constitution des carburants, les composés organiques oxygénés occupent une place prépondérante à cause de leurs caractéristiques favorables à la combustion dans les moteurs, qu'ils soient employés purs ou mélangés (seuls ou à plusieurs aux hydrocarbures, constituants des carburants classiques. Dans cet article, ces composés oxygénés sont désignés sous le nom de carburols. Alors que l'objet de la première partie de l'étude a été d'examiner les conséquences techniques de l'emploi de ces produits sur les circuits de distribution et le fonctionnement des véhicules, il s'agit dans la présente partie d'analyser les caractéristiques technico-économiques de leur fabrication. En particulier, on y aborde successivement les points suivants : - disponibilités en matières premières : ressources fossiles et végétales ; - analyse technique des divers modes d'obtention - analyse économique ; - programmes nationaux. Among products that can be substituted for hydrocarbons for producing fuels, oxygenated organic compounds occupy a preponderant position because of their favorable characteristics for combustion in engines whether they are used in a pure form or in mixtures (alone or severally with hydrocarbons which are used to make up conventional fuels. In this article these oxygenated compounds are given the name carburols (alcohol fuels. Whereas the aim of Part 1 was to examine the technical consequences of using such products in distribution circuits and for vehicle operating, Part 2 is an analysis of the technico-economic aspects of manufacturing them. In particular, the following points are taken up successively: (a availabilities of raw materials. fossil and vegetebal resources; (b technical analysis of various production methods; (c economic analysis; (d national programs. Depending on the amounts involved, a distinction is made among alternative

  1. Synthesis of 6-Methyl-9-propyldibenzothiophene-4-ol amended to 9-isopropyl-6-methyldibenzothiophene-4-ol. Final technical report, July 25, 1991--January 25, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenbraun, E.J.

    1992-02-17

    This is a draft final technical report on Task 1 of a contract to synthesize 6-Methyl-9-propyldibenzothiophene-4-ol, as amended to 9- isopropyl-6-methyldibenzothiophene-4-ol. This report is a compilation of data presented in earlier reports. The first annual report dealt with an attempted synthesis of 4-methoxy-6-methyl-9- propyldibenzothiophene (the original target compound), the successful synthesis and delivery of 200 grams of the sulfide 1,4-diethyl-2- [(2{prime}-methoxyphenyl)-thio]benzene, and initial work on a new synthesis route for the preparation of the new target compound 9- isopropyl-6-methyldibenzothiophene-4-ol. The change to the new target compound and the new synthesis route became necessary when it was learned that the sulfide mixture could not be cyclized to the substituted dibenzothiophene mixture. The second annual report described the successful preparation of 45 g of the new target compound using the new synthesis route. Subsequently funds were provided to synthesize an additional 45 g of the new target using the same reaction scheme. This task was recently completed.

  2. Features of changes in concentration of pituitary thyroid hormone and thyroid hormones in the blood of two-month rats with experimental hypothyroidism before and after operations with N-(2-methoxybenzoyl)-O-isopropyl-α, β-dehydrothyrozine choline ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khachatryan, T.S.; Topuzyan, V.O.

    2013-01-01

    The features of pituitary thyroid hormone concentration and thyroid hormones in the blood of rats with experimental hypothyroidism before and after injections of N-(2-methoxybenzoyl)-O-isopropyl-α, β-dehydrothyrozine choline ester were investigated. A sharp increase of pituitary thyroid hormone level and a sharp decrease of the level of thyroid hormones in the blood of two-month rats with hypothyroidism have been established. Under the action of N-(2-methoxybenzoyl)-O-isopropyl--α, β-dehydrothyrozine choline ester the decrease of pituitary thyroid hormone concentration and the increase of thyroid hormones level in the rats' blood have been observed and reached their values in intact animals

  3. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a baby when a mother drinks alcohol during pregnancy. Causes Using alcohol during pregnancy can cause the same risks as using alcohol in general. But it poses extra risks to the unborn baby. When a pregnant woman drinks ... use during pregnancy. Larger amounts of alcohol appear to increase the ...

  4. Turning to alcohol?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiboro, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    Brazil is examining whether turning to alcohol could solve its problems. The fuel alcohol producers are lobbying hard for the government to increase the use of alcohol to fuel the country's cars. Not only does using alcohol reduce CO 2 , runs the argument, but the Kyoto agreement might just attract international financing for the project. (author)

  5. Clearinghouse: alcohol and poppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Ten articles from magazines and journals are referenced on the subjects of alcohol and poppers. Topics include alcohol consumption and HIV/AIDS-related risky sexual behavior, alcohol and drug abuse, and self-esteem, gender, and alcohol use. Contact information is provided.

  6. Children of Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krois, Deborah Helen

    Although alcoholism has long been considered a serious problem, the impact of parental alcoholism on children has only recently begun to receive attention from researchers and clinicians. A review of the empirical literature on children of alcoholics was conducted and it was concluded that children raised in an alcoholic family are at increased…

  7. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... categories: 4 » Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) » Partial FAS (pFAS) » Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND) » Alcohol-Related Birth ... either prenatally, after birth, or both Partial FAS (pFAS) Partial FAS (pFAS) involves prenatal alcohol exposure, and ...

  8. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C; Tanski, Susanne E; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D

    2016-02-01

    Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  10. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  11. Selective heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation of ketone (C═O) to alcohol (OH) by magnetite nanoparticles following Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Muhammad Tariq; Balouch, Aamna; Rajar, Kausar; Sirajuddin; Brohi, Imdad Ali; Umar, Akrajas Ali

    2015-04-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles were successfully synthesized and effectively employed as heterogeneous catalyst for hydrogenation of ketone moiety to alcohol moiety by NaBH4 under the microwave radiation process. The improvement was achieved in percent recovery of isopropyl alcohol by varying and optimizing reaction time, power of microwave radiations and amount of catalyst. The catalytic study revealed that acetone would be converted into isopropyl alcohol (IPA) with 99.5% yield in short period of reaction time, using 10 μg of magnetite NPs (Fe3O4). It was observed that the catalytic hydrogenation reaction, followed second-order of reaction and the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic mechanism, which elucidated that both reactants get adsorb onto the surface of silica coated magnetite nanocatalyst to react. Consequently, the rate-determining step was the surface reaction of acetone and sodium borohydride. The current study revealed an environment friendly conversion of acetone to IPA on the basis of its fast, efficient, and highly economical method of utilization of microwave irradiation process and easy catalyst recovery.

  12. 聚合物微球固载的N-羟基邻苯二甲酰亚胺在分子氧氧化苯甲醇反应过程中的催化特性%Catalytic characteristics of N-hydroxyphthalimide immobilized on polymer microspheres in oxidation of benzyl alcohol by molecular oxygen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓林; 黄建龙; 高保娇; 门吉英

    2015-01-01

    以甲基丙烯酸缩水甘油酯(GMA)和甲基丙烯酸甲酯(MMA)的交联共聚微球 GMA/MMA 为基质,经过几步大分子反应在微球表面合成与固载了 N-羟基邻苯二甲酰亚胺(NHPI),形成固载有 NHPI 的聚合物微球GMA/MMA-NHPI。将 GMA/MMA-NHPI 与 Co(OAc)2组成共催化体系,用于分子氧氧化苯甲醇的反应过程。研究结果表明,GMA/MMA-NHPI与Co(OAc)2所构成的共催化体系在温和条件(65℃和常压氧气)下可有效地实现苯甲醇的分子氧氧化过程,将其深度氧化为苯甲酸,显示出较好的催化活性和高的选择性(苯甲酸的选择性为96%)。主催化剂GMA/MMA-NHPI固载的NHPI与助催化剂Co(OAc)2适宜的摩尔比为20:1;主催化剂所含NHPI的摩尔分数为底物的10%时催化剂的用量比较适宜。固体催化剂GMA/MMA-NHPI还具有良好的再循环使用性能。%Crosslinked polymeric microspheres GMA/MMA of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) were prepared, and then N-hydroxyphthalimide (NHPI) was synthesized and immobilized on GMA/MMA microspheres through several polymer reaction steps, resulting in the functionalized microspheres GMA/MMA-NHPI. The solid catalyst GMA/MMA-NHPI in combination with Co(OAc)2 was used in aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol. Experimental results showed that the composite catalyst consisting of GMA/MMA-NHPI and Co(OAc)2 could effectively catalyze aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol by molecular oxygen under mild conditions (65℃ and normal pressure). Benzyl alcohol was deeply oxidized to benzoic acid. Although benzyl alcohol conversion rate was not very high, catalytic activity was satisfactory and benzoic acid selectivity was as high as 96%. The appropriate molar ratio of immobilized NHPI on GMA/MMA-NHPI microspheres to Co(OAc)2 was 20:1, and the appropriate amount of GMA/MMA-NHPI was 10% (mol) of the substrate. The solid catalyst GMA/MMA-NHPI microspheres showed good recycling and reusing

  13. Artificial oxygen transport protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, P. Leslie

    2014-09-30

    This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

  14. Global alcohol policy and the alcohol industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The WHO is preparing its global strategy on alcohol, and, in so doing, has been asked to consult with the alcohol industry on ways it could contribute in reducing the harm done by alcohol. This review asks which is more effective in reducing harm: the regulatory approaches that the industry does not favour; or the educational approaches that it does favour. The current literature overwhelmingly finds that regulatory approaches (including those that manage the price, availability, and marketing of alcohol) reduce the risk of and the experience of alcohol-related harm, whereas educational approaches (including school-based education and public education campaigns) do not, with industry-funded education actually increasing the risk of harm. The alcohol industry should not be involved in making alcohol policy. Its involvement in implementing policy should be restricted to its role as a producer, distributor, and marketer of alcohol. In particular, the alcohol industry should not be involved in educational programmes, as such involvement could actually lead to an increase in harm.

  15. Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

    2011-08-01

    This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

  16. Evaluation of cerebral perfusion imaging with N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) in the cases of antiphospholipid syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Toru; Nanbu, Ichiro; Tohyama, Junko; Ohba, Satoru

    1995-01-01

    Five cases of antiphospholipid syndrome with mild headache, but without any neurological deficits and abnormal findings by CT and MRI, were examined by cerebral blood perfusion SPECT using N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] iodoamphetamine (IMP). Although three cases were performed quantification of cerebral blood flow with a microsphere method simultaneously, their values were within normal limits. Two of them showed focal low perfusion areas. One case had relatively low perfusion areas in the bilateral occipital lobes and the right temporal lobe, which improved after treatment. One of two had low perfusion in the bilateral occipital lobes. Other three cases only showed ununiformity of radioisotope uptake on the cerebral blood perfusion SPECT. Low perfusion areas in antiphospholipid syndrome might be caused by microarterial thrombosis, microvenous thrombosis or spasms, although they could be reversible. As early irreversible progress of cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood flow SPECT should be performed in cases of antiphospholipid syndrome with neurological complainments. (author)

  17. Analysis and assessment for the intrapulmonary kinetics of N-isopropyl-I-123-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) in diffuse respiratory diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujishima, Seitaro

    1992-01-01

    We investigated intrapulmonary kinetics of N-isopropyl-I-123-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) in patients with diffuse respiratory diseases. Subjects studied were 4 healthy nonsmoking controls (age≥40), 3 young healthy nonsmokers (age 1 ) was smaller than that to the slow compartment (A 2 ). There was no difference in the A 1 to A 2 ratio among the groups. We then analyzed the slopes of the fast and slow compartments (k 1 , k 2 ). There was no difference in k 1 among the groups. On the other hand, k 2 was larger in young healthy nonsmokers and smaller in healthy smokers, the patients with IPF, sarcoidosis and CPE than k 2 in nonsmoking controls. Furthermore, k 2 decreased in inverse proportion to age. We concluded that k 2 could be a valuable index to detect changes of IMP, a lipophilic amine, metabolism in the lungs. (author)

  18. Estructura cristalina del N-isopropil-2-ciano-3(5'-nitrofurilacrilamida Crystal structure of N-isopropyl-2-cyano-3(5'-nitrofurylacrylamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Pomés Hernandéz

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available C11H11N3O4 , Mr = 249.23, triclinic, , a = 5.453(1, b = 22.873(5, c = 4.893(1 Å, a = 94.47(3, b = 96.36(3, g = 86.27(3º, V = 603.7(8ų,Z = 2, Dx = 1.371 Mg/m-3,l(Cu Ka1 = 1.54178Å, m = 0.86mm-1, room temperature. The crystal structure of N-isopropyl-2-cyano-3(5'-nitrofuryl - acrylamide has been determined by Direct Methods and refined to R = 0.086 for 797 observed reflections. The molecules in the crystal are packed at normal van der Waals forces and by an hydrogen bond between N1-H1...02i (N1...02i: 2.910(1Å, with i=x,y,z+1.

  19. N-isopropyl-[123I]p-iodoamphetamine: single-pass brain uptake and washout; binding to brain synaptosomes; and localization in dog and monkey brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winchell, H.S.; Horst, W.D.; Braun, L.; Oldendorf, W.H.; Hattner, R.; Parker, H.

    1980-01-01

    The kinetics of N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine in rat brains were determined by serial measurements of brain uptake index (BUI) after intracarotid injection; also studied were its effects on amine uptake and release in rat's brain cortical synaptosomes; and its in vivo distribution in the dog and monkey. No specific localization in brain nuclei of the dog was seen, but there was progressive accumulation in the eyes. Rapid initial brain uptake in the ketamine-sedated monkey was noted, and further slow brain uptake occurred during the next 20 min but without retinal localization. High levels of brain activity were maintained for several hours. The quantitative initial single-pass clearance of the agent in the brain suggests its use in evaluation of regional brain perfusion. Its interaction with brain amine-binding sites suggests its possible application in studies of cerebral amine metabolism

  20. Evaluation of cerebral perfusion imaging with N-isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) in the cases of antiphospholipid syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Toru; Nanbu, Ichiro; Tohyama, Junko; Ohba, Satoru [Nagoya City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1995-01-01

    Five cases of antiphospholipid syndrome with mild headache, but without any neurological deficits and abnormal findings by CT and MRI, were examined by cerebral blood perfusion SPECT using N-isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}I] iodoamphetamine (IMP). Although three cases were performed quantification of cerebral blood flow with a microsphere method simultaneously, their values were within normal limits. Two of them showed focal low perfusion areas. One case had relatively low perfusion areas in the bilateral occipital lobes and the right temporal lobe, which improved after treatment. One of two had low perfusion in the bilateral occipital lobes. Other three cases only showed ununiformity of radioisotope uptake on the cerebral blood perfusion SPECT. Low perfusion areas in antiphospholipid syndrome might be caused by microarterial thrombosis, microvenous thrombosis or spasms, although they could be reversible. As early irreversible progress of cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood flow SPECT should be performed in cases of antiphospholipid syndrome with neurological complainments. (author).

  1. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) findings using N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP) in schizophrenia and atypical psychosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, Hidemichi; Hayashi, Takuji; Mitsugi, Ohara

    1994-01-01

    As a basis for possible classification of schinzophrenic psychoses into schizophrenia and atypical psychosis, we studied the brain functional differences among 16 schizophrenic patients, 16 atypical psychosis patients and 16 healthy volunteers by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] iodoamphetamine. As a result, schizophrenics showed hypofrontality. On the other hand, atypical psychotics had no such hypofrontality but showed a reduced uptake rate in the right thalamic region. No influence of sex, duration of illness and medication was confirmed by the findings. The results suggest that schizophrenics might have some lesions in the frontal regions, whereas atypical psychotics might have no such lesions, but dysfunction in the right thalamic region. Consequently, the SPECT findings as least indicate possibly different etiologies for schizophrenia and atypical psychosis. (author)

  2. Role of morphine administration with 99m-technetium-labelled di-isopropyl iminodiacetic acid in the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louridas, G.; Botha, J.R.; Esser, J.D.; Savitch, I.; Vas, M.; Levin, J.; Myburgh, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Patients presenting with a clinical diagnosis suggestive of acute cholecystitis had a 99m-technetium-labelled di-isopropyl iminodiacetic acid (DISIDA) scan. Two groups of patients were investigated. In group 1, 66 patients underwent cholescintigraphy and after 60 minutes morphine was given to all patients whose gallbladders had not filled. The accuracy rate of this procedure was 91%, sensitivity 83%, specificity 97%, positive predictive value 96,2% and negative predictive value 87,5%. In group 2, 97 patients had cholescintigraphy with morphine being administered at the beginning of the procedure. The accuracy rate of this investigation was 97,9%, sensitivity 100%, specificity 96,6%, positive predictive value 95% and negative predictive value 100%. We recommend the early use of morphine in all patients undergoing a DISIDA scan for acute cholecystitis

  3. Evaluation of surgical treatment using N-isopropyl p[123I]iodoamphetamine and ringed gamma camera single photon computed tomography in patients with cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshibuchi, Masao; Sato, Mitsutaka; Muramoto, Masato; Kim, I.; Ohtake, Hisashi.

    1988-01-01

    The evaluation of surgical treatment via N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine( 123 I-IMP) and a ringtyped SPECT instrument on 25 patients undergoing operation for the treatment of cerebrovascular disease was analyzed using 50 test results obtained by means of 123 IMP SPECT. The difference between a ratio of count on the healthy side to that on the diseased side measured before operation and that measured after operation was found to be over 3.8 % in patients showing the improvement of clinical symptoms and below 1.6 % in patients showing no improvement. Among patients undergoing to removal of hematoma, the difference was calculated to be over 10 % when clinical symptoms were improved, and to be minus figures when no improvement was attained. The method employed in this study was confirmed to be useful because it is easy to perform in a non-invasive way, and numerically expresses the state of patients before and after operation. (author)

  4. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) findings using N-isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}I]iodoamphetamine ({sup 123}I-IMP) in schizophrenia and atypical psychosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suga, Hidemichi; Hayashi, Takuji; Mitsugi, Ohara [Aichi Medical Univ., Nagakute (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    As a basis for possible classification of schinzophrenic psychoses into schizophrenia and atypical psychosis, we studied the brain functional differences among 16 schizophrenic patients, 16 atypical psychosis patients and 16 healthy volunteers by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}I] iodoamphetamine. As a result, schizophrenics showed hypofrontality. On the other hand, atypical psychotics had no such hypofrontality but showed a reduced uptake rate in the right thalamic region. No influence of sex, duration of illness and medication was confirmed by the findings. The results suggest that schizophrenics might have some lesions in the frontal regions, whereas atypical psychotics might have no such lesions, but dysfunction in the right thalamic region. Consequently, the SPECT findings as least indicate possibly different etiologies for schizophrenia and atypical psychosis. (author).

  5. Consumo de alcohol alcoholismo

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Páez, Pablo E.; Fundación Valle de Lili

    1999-01-01

    ¿Qué es el alcohol?/¿Cómo actual el alcohol en el organismo?/¿Qué efectos causa?/Efectos por el consumo crónico/¿El consumo de alcohol durante el embarazo afecta el embrión?/¿Qué otras consecuencias tiene el consumo de alcohol?/¿Cuándo se considera que una persona tiene problemas con su consumo de alcohol?/¿Cuándo se debe sospechar que alguien tiene problemas con el consumo de alcohol?/Características del saber beber adecuadamente?/¿Cuales son las alternativas de tratamiento para este problem...

  6. Radiation chemistry of alternative fuel oxygenates - substituted ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezyk, S. P.; Cooper, W. J.; Bartels, D. M.; Tobien, T.; O'Shea, K. E.

    1999-01-01

    The electron beam process, an advanced oxidation and reduction technology, is based in the field of radiation chemistry. Fundamental to the development of treatment processes is an understanding of the underlying chemistry. The authors have previously evaluated the bimolecular rate constants for the reactions of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and with this study have extended their studies to include ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) with the hydroxyl radical, hydrogen atom and solvated electron using pulse radiolysis. For all of the oxygenates the reaction with the hydroxyl radical appears to be of primary interest in the destruction of the compounds in water. The rates with the solvated electron are limiting values as the rates appear to be relatively low. The hydrogen atom rate constants are relatively low, coupled with the low yield in radiolysis, they concluded that these are of little significance in the destruction of the alternative fuel oxygenates (and MTBE)

  7. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (thesis provides novel warranted epidemiological information about AH that shows increasing incidence and mortality rates. Consequently, it reiterates the fact that AH is a life-threatening disease and suggests that AH is an

  8. The Effect of Alcohol on Bead Performance of Encapsulated Iron Using Deacetylated Glucomannan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardhani Dyah H.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of encapsulation to protect iron from inhibitor degradation or oxidation depends on many factors including the excipient characteritics. Glucomannan, a neutral heterosaccharide, has a potential for the excipient. To improve the excipient performances, glucomannan is deacetylated to remove the acetyl groups by reacted with Na2CO3. This deacylated glucomannan is subject to bead formation after iron loading. The alcohol solution is commonly used in bead forming as dehydration medium during the encapsulation process. The objective of this work was to study the effect of alcohol on the bead performance of encapsulated iron using deacetylated glucomannan. The bead forming was conducted by dropping the excipient into ethanol and isopropyl alcohol (IPA solution at various concentrations (50, 60, 70, 80 and 90% and two condition temperatures (27-30° and 7-10°C. The encapsulation samples were subject to yield (YE and efficiency of encapsulation (EE. The concentration of alcohol showed a positive impact on the yield and efficiency of encapsulation. Ethanol has a better performance compared with that of IPA regarding yield and efficiency of encapsulation. The optimum of yield bead formation (69.67% and highest EE (66.80% were obtained at 90% ethanol. Temperature of dehydration did not affect the YE and EE significantly.

  9. Atmospheric oxidation of selected alcohols and esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K H; Cavalli, F

    2001-03-01

    The decision whether it is appropriate and beneficial for the environment to deploy specific oxygenated organic compounds as replacements for traditional solvent types requires a quantitative assessment of their potential atmospheric impacts including tropospheric ozone and other photooxidant formation. This involves developing chemical mechanisms for the gasphase atmospheric oxidation of the compounds which can be reliably used in models to predict their atmospheric reactivity under a variety of environmental conditions. Until this study, there was very little information available concerning the atmospheric fate of alcohols and esters. The objectives of this study were to measure the atmospheric reaction rates and to define atmospheric reaction mechanisms for the following selected oxygenated volatile organic compounds: the alcohols, 1-butanol and 1-pentanol, and the esters, methyl propionate and dimethyl succinate. The study has successfully addressed these objectives. (orig.)

  10. Activation of prefrontal cortex and anterior thalamus in alcoholic subjects on exposure to alcohol-specific cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M S; Anton, R F; Bloomer, C; Teneback, C; Drobes, D J; Lorberbaum, J P; Nahas, Z; Vincent, D J

    2001-04-01

    Functional imaging studies have recently demonstrated that specific brain regions become active in cocaine addicts when they are exposed to cocaine stimuli. To test whether there are regional brain activity differences during alcohol cue exposure between alcoholic subjects and social drinkers, we designed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol involving alcohol-specific cues. Ten non-treatment-seeking adult alcoholic subjects (2 women) (mean [SD] age, 29.9 [9.9] years) as well as 10 healthy social drinking controls of similar age (2 women) (mean [SD] age, 29.4 [8.9] years) were recruited, screened, and scanned. In the 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging scanner, subjects were serially rated for alcohol craving before and after a sip of alcohol, and after a 9-minute randomized presentation of pictures of alcoholic beverages, control nonalcoholic beverages, and 2 different visual control tasks. During picture presentation, changes in regional brain activity were measured with the blood oxygen level-dependent technique. Alcoholic subjects, compared with the social drinking subjects, reported higher overall craving ratings for alcohol. After a sip of alcohol, while viewing alcohol cues compared with viewing other beverage cues, only the alcoholic subjects had increased activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the anterior thalamus. The social drinkers exhibited specific activation only while viewing the control beverage pictures. When exposed to alcohol cues, alcoholic subjects have increased brain activity in the prefrontal cortex and anterior thalamus-brain regions associated with emotion regulation, attention, and appetitive behavior.

  11. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  12. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or more than 14 drinks per week for men. What is the evidence that alcohol drinking is a cause of cancer? Based on extensive reviews of research studies , there is a strong scientific consensus of an association between alcohol drinking ...

  13. Genetics of Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ena C; Soundy, Timothy J; Hu, Yueshan

    2017-05-01

    Consuming excessive amounts of alcohol has the potential to modify an individual's brain and lead to alcohol dependence. Alcohol use leads to 88,000 deaths every year in the U.S. alone and can lead to other health issues including cancers, such as colorectal cancer, and mental health problems. While drinking behavior varies due to environmental factors, genetic factors also contribute to the risk of alcoholism. Certain genes affecting alcohol metabolism and neurotransmitters have been found to contribute to or inhibit the risk. Geneenvironment interactions may also play a role in the susceptibility of alcoholism. With a better understanding of the different components that can contribute to alcoholism, more personalized treatment could cater to the individual. This review discusses the major genetic factors and some small variants in other genes that contribute to alcoholism, as well as considers the gene-environmental interactions. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  14. Children of alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.

  15. an Unrecorded Alcohol Beverage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Chemical analysis of volatile compounds fromkhadi, an unrecorded alcoholic beverage from Botswana, was ... quality, some of them may be contaminated and toxic, thereby ... home-brewed alcoholic beverages exist in Botswana and are.

  16. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol can harm your baby at any stage during a pregnancy. That includes the earliest stages, before ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Children who are born with ...

  17. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  18. What We Fund - Alcohol

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    NCDP

    Analysis of the regulatory environment (national ... Predicting and evaluating policy impact. PA. N ... constrain the use of a holistic approach engaging ... alcohol, and ultra-processed food and drink industries, ... Alcohol and Other Drugs, 2003.

  19. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Alcohol Facts and Statistics Print version Alcohol Use in the United States: ... 1238–1245, 2004. PMID: 15010446 National Center for Statistics and Analysis. 2014 Crash Data Key Findings (Traffic ...

  20. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have problems with alcohol if you: Are a young adult under peer pressure Have depression, bipolar disorder , anxiety disorders , or schizophrenia Can easily obtain alcohol Have low self-esteem Have problems with relationships Live a stressful lifestyle ...

  1. The effect of the position of oxygen group to the aromatic ring to emission performance in a heavy-duty diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, L.; Boot, M.D.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the soot-NOx trade-off and fuel efficiency of various aromatic oxygenates is investigated in a modern DAF heavy-duty diesel engine. All oxygenates were blended to diesel fuel such that the blend oxygen concentration was 2.59 wt.-%. The oxygenates in question, anisole, benzyl alcohol

  2. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  3. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines

  4. Going the distance with ethyl alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hairston, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    If all had gone according to plan, ethyl alcohol would be in the driver's seat now, cruising down the highway and getting ready to speed into high gear. Instead, this renewable fuel, chemical reagent and solvent is navigating a complex obstacle course, watching warily for sharp turns and mixed signals. Globally, the supply and demand for all grades of ethyl alcohol is awry. Production of industrial-grade material is running at full throttle and prices are going up. Much of the upheaval over ethanol can be traced to the US Environmental Protection Agency and the renewable oxygenate standard (ROS) of the Clean Air Act. Under ROS, 15% of oxygenates used in gasoline sold this year was to be derived from a renewable source. Next month, that percentage was to have been doubled to 30%. Enticed by projections of upwards of 2 billion gal/yr of fermentation alcohol to comply with ROS, producers rushed to expand capacity. But to the producers' dismay, EPA was forced to backpedal on ROS. When representatives of the petroleum industry filed suit and won a stay, EPA rescinded its ROS regulation and ethanol producers were left in the lurch. High prices for corn is also putting the squeeze on inventories of industrial alcohol. Synthetic ethanol production, from ethylene for example, is booming, however. This paper discusses the ethanol market factors

  5. Alcohol biosensing by polyamidoamine (PAMAM)/cysteamine/alcohol oxidase-modified gold electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Mehriban; Yuksel, Merve; Geyik, Caner; Odaci, Dilek; Bluma, Arne; Höpfner, Tim; Beutel, Sascha; Scheper, Thomas; Timur, Suna

    2010-01-01

    A highly stable and sensitive amperometric alcohol biosensor was developed by immobilizing alcohol oxidase (AOX) through Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers on a cysteamine-modified gold electrode surface. Ethanol determination is based on the consumption of dissolved oxygen content due to the enzymatic reaction. The decrease in oxygen level was monitored at -0.7 V vs. Ag/AgCl and correlated with ethanol concentration. Optimization of variables affecting the system was performed. The optimized ethanol biosensor showed a wide linearity from 0.025 to 1.0 mM with 100 s response time and detection limit of (LOD) 0.016 mM. In the characterization studies, besides linearity some parameters such as operational and storage stability, reproducibility, repeatability, and substrate specificity were studied in detail. Stability studies showed a good preservation of the bioanalytical properties of the sensor, 67% of its initial sensitivity was kept after 1 month storage at 4 degrees C. The analytical characteristics of the system were also evaluated for alcohol determination in flow injection analysis (FIA) mode. Finally, proposed biosensor was applied for ethanol analysis in various alcoholic beverage as well as offline monitoring of alcohol production through the yeast cultivation. Copyright 2010 American Institute of Chemical Engineers

  6. Biogeochemistry: Oxygen burrowed away

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meysman, F.J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Multicellular animals probably evolved at the seafloor after a rise in oceanic oxygen levels. Biogeochemical model simulations suggest that as these animals started to rework the seafloor, they triggered a negative feedback that reduced global oxygen.

  7. Oxygen transport membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof.......The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof....

  8. Aerobic oxidation of alcohols in visible light on Pd-grafted Ti cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The titanium cluster with the reduced band gap has been synthesized having the palladium nanoparticles over the surface, which not only binds to the atmospheric oxygen but also catalyzes the oxidation of alcohols under visible light.

  9. Genetics and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  10. Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2014-01-01

    This article is concerned with the evolution of atmospheric oxygen concentrations through the Proterozoic Eon. In particular, this article will seek to place the history of atmospheric oxygenation through the Proterozoic Eon in the context of the evolving physical environment including the history...... of continental growth and volcanic outgassing, as well as biogeochemical processing of elements within the oceans. The author will seek to explore constraints on the history of oxygenation and understand which processes have regulated oxygen through this eon....

  11. Oxygen evolution reaction catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, Joel A.; Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Jones, Ryan J.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Shinde, Aniketa A.

    2016-09-06

    An Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER) catalyst includes a metal oxide that includes oxygen, cerium, and one or more second metals. In some instances, the cerium is 10 to 80 molar % of the metals in the metal oxide and/or the catalyst includes two or more second metals. The OER catalyst can be included in or on an electrode. The electrode can be arranged in an oxygen evolution system such that the Oxygen Evolution Reaction occurs at the electrode.

  12. On molybdenum (6) alcoholates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turova, N.Ya.; Kessler, V.G.

    1990-01-01

    Synthesis techniques for molybdenum (6) alcoholates of MoO(OR) 4 (1) and MoO 2 (OR) 2 (2) series by means of exchange interaction of corresponding oxychloride with MOR (M=Li, Na) are obtained. These techniques have allowed to prepare 1(R=Me, Et, i-Pr) and 2(R=Me, Et) with 70-98 % yield. Methylates are also prepared at ether interchange of ethylates by methyl alcohol. Metal anode oxidation in corresponding alcohol may be used for 1 synthesis. Physicochemical properties of both series alcoholates, solubility in alcohols in particular, depend on their formation conditions coordination polymerism. Alcoholates of 1 are rather unstable and tend to decomposition up to 2 and ether. It is suggested to introduce NaOR microquantities to stabilize those alcoholates

  13. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Light to moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties; however, the magnitude of protection depends on other factors and may be confined to some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relationship between alcohol and coronary heart disease...... (CHD). The cardioprotective effect of alcohol seems to be larger among middle-aged and elderly adults than among young adults, who do not have a net beneficial effect of a light to moderate alcohol intake in terms of reduced all-cause mortality. The levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD is lowest...... and the levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD exceeds the risk among abstainers are lower for women than for men. The pattern of drinking seems important for the apparent cardioprotective effect of alcohol, and the risk of CHD is generally lower for steady versus binge drinking. Finally, there is some...

  14. [Domiciliary oxygen therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Kafi, S

    2010-09-01

    In Belgium, oxygen therapy is becoming more and more accessible. When oxygen is needed for short periods or for special indications as palliative care, an agreement between mutual insurance companies and pharmacists allows the practitioner the home installation of gazeous oxygen cylinder or of oxygen concentrator. When long term oxygen therapy (LTOT) is indicated for patients with respiratory insufficiency, the pneumologist must first ask the INAMI the authorization to install one of the following modalities: oxygen concentrator with or without demand oxygen delivery cylinder and liquid oxygen. The goal of LTOT is to increase survival and quality of life. The principal and well accepted indication for LTOT is severe hypoxemia. The beneficial effects of oxygen therapy limited at night or on exertion are controversial. In order to increase patient's autonomy, oxygen can be prescribed for ambulation, respecting prescription's rules. At each step of oxygen therapy implementing (indication, choice of the device and follow-up) the patient under oxygen may benefit from a joint approach between the general practitioner and the chest specialist.

  15. Aircraft Oxygen Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    An Oxygen Enriched Air System for the AV-8A Harrier (NADC-81198-60).” 70 Horch , T., et. al. “The F-16 Onboard Oxygen Generating System: Performance...Only and Safety Privileged). Horch , T., Miller, R., Bomar, J., Tedor, J., Holden, R., Ikels, K., & Lozano, P. (1983). The F-16 Onboard Oxygen

  16. Oxygen dependency of germinating Brassica seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2016-02-01

    Establishing plants in space, Moon or Mars requires adaptation to altered conditions, including reduced pressure and composition of atmospheres. To determine the oxygen requirements for seed germination, we imbibed Brassica rapa seeds under varying oxygen concentrations and profiled the transcription patterns of genes related to early metabolism such as starch degradation, glycolysis, and fermentation. We also analyzed the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and measured starch degradation. Partial oxygen pressure (pO2) greater than 10% resulted in normal germination (i.e., protrusion of radicle about 18 hours after imbibition) but lower pO2 delayed and reduced germination. Imbibition in an oxygen-free atmosphere for three days resulted in no germination but subsequent transfer to air initiated germination in 75% of the seeds and the root growth rate was transiently greater than in roots germinated under ambient pO2. In hypoxic seeds soluble sugars degraded faster but the content of starch after 24 h was higher than at ambient oxygen. Transcription of genes related to starch degradation, α-amylase (AMY) and Sucrose Synthase (SUS), was higher under ambient O2 than under hypoxia. Glycolysis and fermentation pathway-related genes, glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK), fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (ALD), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), LDH, and ADH, were induced by low pO2. The activity of LDH and ADH was the highest in anoxic seeds. Germination under low O2 conditions initiated ethanolic fermentation. Therefore, sufficient oxygen availability is important for germination before photosynthesis provides necessary oxygen and the determination of an oxygen carrying capacity is important for uniform growth in space conditions.

  17. Gold nanoparticle catalyzed oxidation of alcohols - From biomass to commodity chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarning, Esben; Christensen, Claus H.

    2007-01-01

    and glycerol are rich in alcohol functionalities. Thus, a key step in utilizing these resources lies in the conversion of this functional group. Benign oxidations involving oxygen as the stoichiometric oxidant are important from both an environmental and economical perspective. Recently, it has become clear...... that supported gold nanoparticles are highly active catalysts for oxidizing alcohols and aldehydes using oxygen as the oxidant. This perspective will focus on the use of gold nanoparticles in the oxidation of renewables....

  18. Singlet oxygenation in microemulsion catalysed by vanadium chloroperoxidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renirie, R.; Pierlot, C.; Wever, R.; Aubry, J.-M.

    2009-01-01

    Non-ionic microemulsions compatible with the enzyme vanadium chloroperoxidase were designed to perform singlet oxygenation of apolar substrates. The media were based on mono- and polydisperse ethoxylated fatty alcohols (CiEj). octane and aqueous buffer. "Fish" diagrams were determined to identify

  19. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patients to better address how stress affects their motivation to drink. Early screening also is vital. For ... C.; Hong, K.A.; et al Enhanced negative emotion and alcohol craving, and altered physiological responses following ...

  20. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF Strong Family Relationships Can Prevent Alcohol and Drug Use Among Teens - دری (Dari) MP3 Karen Chemical Dependency Taskforce of Minnesota What Is Addiction? - English PDF What Is Addiction? - دری (Dari) PDF ...

  1. Oxygen configurations in silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelikowsky, James R.; Chadi, D. J.; Binggeli, N.

    2000-01-01

    We propose a transition state for oxygen in silica. This state is produced by the insertion of an oxygen molecule into the Si-O-Si bond, i.e., it consists of producing a Si-O-O-O-Si bond. This state allows molecular oxygen diffusion in silica without breaking the molecular O 2 bond and it is energetically more stable than a peroxy configuration. This configuration may allow for exchange of molecular oxygen with the oxygen in the silica framework. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  2. Alcohol Advertising and Alcohol Consumption by Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Dhaval Dave

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically estimate the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of brand capital is used to explain the effects of advertising on consumption. The industry response function and the evidence from prior studies indicate that the empirical strategy should maximize the variance in the advertising data. The approach in this paper to maximizing the variance in advertising data is to employ cross sectional data. The Monitoring th...

  3. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Paoletti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exerts teratogenic effects in all the gestation times, with peculiar features in relationship to the trimester of pregnancy in which alcohol is assumed. Alcohol itself and its metabolites modify DNA synthesis, cellular division, cellular migration and the fetal development. The characteristic facies of feto-alcoholic syndrome (FAS-affected baby depends on the alcohol impact on skull facial development during the first trimester of pregnancy. In association there are cerebral damages with a strong defect of brain development up to the life incompatibility. Serious consequences on fetal health also depends on dangerous effects of alcohol exposure in the organogenesis of the heart, the bone, the kidney, sensorial organs, et al. It has been demonstrated that maternal binge drinking is a high factor risk of mental retardation and of delinquent behaviour. Unfortunately, a lower alcohol intake also exerts deleterious effects on fetal health. In several countries of the world there is a high alcohol use, and this habit is increased in the women. Therefore, correct information has to be given to avoid alcohol use by women in the preconceptional time and during the pregnancy. Preliminary results of a study performed by the authors show that over 80% of pregnant and puerperal women are not unaware that more than 2 glasses of alcohol/week ingested during pregnancy can create neurological abnormalities in the fetus. However, after the information provided on alcoholic fetopathy, all women are conscious of the damage caused by the use of alcohol to the fetus during pregnancy. This study confirms the need to provide detailed information on the negative effects of alcohol on fetal health. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  4. Deuterium isotope fractionation between ortho-alkyl substituted phenols and t-butylthiol in oxygen bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wawer, A.; Jelenska-Kazimierczuk, M.; Szydlowski, J.

    1998-01-01

    Equilibrium isotope effect in the exchange reaction of deuterium between phenol(P), 2-isopropyl phenol (IPP), 2,6-diisopropyl phenol (DIPP), 2,6-diterbutyl phenol (DTBP) and tertbutylthiol (TBT) has been studied in 296 K. The fractionation factors (α) have been measured in cyclohexane and carbon tetrachloride solutions and in a few oxygen bases: acetone, 1,4-dioxane, ethyl formate, ethyl ether, tetrahydrofurane, N,N-dimethylformamide, dimethylsulfoxide and hexamethylphosphoramide. Using chemical shifts of phenol OH protons, the thermodynamic parameters of complex formation with the oxygen bases have been determined. The experimental data show that lnα correlates with the formation enthalpy of the phenol-oxygen base complex in DIPP-TBT-base system but there is no simple correlation in IPP-TBT-base system. Furthermore, it was found that in DTBT-TBT-base system lnα depends linearly on the basicity of the solvent (DN parameters). On the other hand, lnα correlates with acidic parameters of the solvents (AN) in IPP-TBT-base and P-TBT-base systems. All above correlations are explained by taking into account two competition processes: self association of phenol molecules and their solvation by oxygen bases. (author)

  5. Substrate specificity of flavin-dependent vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Penicillium simplicissimum. Evidence for the production of 4-hydroxycinnamyl alcohols from 4-allylphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraaije, M W; Veeger, C; van Berkel, W J

    1995-11-15

    The substrate specificity of the flavoprotein vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Penicillium simplicissimum was investigated. Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase catalyzes besides the oxidation of 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohols, the oxidative deamination of 4-hydroxybenzylamines and the oxidative demethylation of 4-(methoxymethyl)phenols. During the conversion of vanillylamine to vanillin, a transient intermediate, most probably vanillylimine, is observed. Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase weakly interacts with 4-hydroxyphenylglycols and a series of catecholamines. These compounds are converted to the corresponding ketones. Both enantiomers of (nor)epinephrine are substrates for vanillyl-alcohol oxidase, but the R isomer is preferred. Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase is most active with chavicol and eugenol. These 4-allylphenols are converted to coumaryl alcohol and coniferyl alcohol, respectively. Isotopic labeling experiments show that the oxygen atom inserted at the C gamma atom of the side chain is derived from water. The 4-hydroxycinnamyl alcohol products and the substrate analog isoeugenol are competitive inhibitors of vanillyl alcohol oxidation. The binding of isoeugenol to the oxidized enzyme perturbs the optical spectrum of protein-bound FAD. pH-dependent binding studies suggest that vanillyl-alcohol oxidase preferentially binds the phenolate form of isoeugenol (pKa < 6, 25 degrees C). From this and the high pH optimum for turnover, a hydride transfer mechanism involving a p-quinone methide intermediate is proposed for the vanillyl-alcohol-oxidase-catalyzed conversion of 4-allylphenols.

  6. Investigation of regional cerebral blood flow in alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome with 123I-IMP SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Makoto; Nomura, Soichiro; Kato, Motoichiro; Nakazawa, Tsuneyuki.

    1995-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was determined quantitatively by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) in 6 patients with alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome (A group). The findings were compared with concurrently available findings from 6 alcoholic patients with no evidence of cerebral disordres such as Korsakoff's syndrome and dementia (B group) and 4 healthy persons (C group). In both A and B groups, diffuse decrease in blood flow was significantly observed in the entire brain, as compared with the C group; no significant difference in the decreased blood flow existed between the A and B groups. According to the WAIS results, the patients in the A group were classified as 'typical Korsakoff's syndrome' (full IQ of 90 or more) and as 'serious Korsakoff's syndrome' (full IQ of 89 or less). rCBF in the thalamus was significantly lower in the A group of patients with typical Korsakoff's syndrome than the B group. These findings may reflect the variety of alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome. This may also have an implication for the possible classification of several types in this syndrome. (N.K.)

  7. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Foppa

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies have attributed a protective effect to alcohol consumption on the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Alcohol intake in the amount of one to two drinks per day results in an estimated 20-40% reduction in cardiovascular events. An additional protective effect, according to major cohort studies, has been attributed to wine, probably due to antioxidant effects and platelet antiaggregation agents. On the other hand, the influence of different patterns of alcohol consumption and environmental factors may explain a great part of the additional effect of wine. Protection may be mediated by modulation of other risk factors, because alcohol increases HDL-C, produces a biphasic response on blood pressure, and modulates the endothelial function, while it neither increases body weight nor impairs glucose-insulin homeostasis. Alcohol may also have a direct effect on atherogenesis. Despite these favorable effects, the current evidence is not enough to justify prescribing alcohol to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  8. Alcohol, aggression, and violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Škrila

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between alcohol and aggression has long been recognized, but the systematic research to understand the causal basis for this relationship and the processes that underlie it has only been undertaken in the past 25 years. In the article the most important mechanisms, by which alcohol affects behavior, are explained. Aggression in persons with alcohol dependence and the connection between antisocial (dissocial personality disorder, alcohol and aggression are described. In addition different forms of aggression or violence, that have been committed under the influence of alcohol, such as inter-partner violence, sexual assault, child abuse, crime and traffic accidents are described.Conclusions: The research findings can be used in the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related aggression.

  9. Alcohol in moderation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone; Lockshin, Larry; Louviere, Jordan J.

    2011-01-01

    products identified, which are jointly purchased with low alcohol wines. The effect of a tax increase on substitution patterns between alcoholic beverages is examined. Methodology: In a discrete choice experiment, based on their last purchase, consumers select one or several different alcoholic beverages......Purpose: The study examines the market potential for low and very low alcohol wine products under two different tax regimes. The penetration and market share of low alcohol wine are estimated under both tax conditions. Consumers’ alcoholic beverage purchase portfolios are analysed and those...... into a purchase basket. An experimental design controlled the beverages’ price variation. Applying an intra-individual research design, respondents’ purchases were simulated under current and increased taxes. Findings: A market potential for low and very low wine products of up to ten percent of the wine market...

  10. Synthesis of carbon-14 labelled cis-malonato [(4R,5R)-4,5-bis(aminomethyl)-2-isopropyl-1,3-dioxolane] platinum(II) (SKI 2053R)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae-Kee; Kim, Youngseok; Rim, Jonggill; Kim, Ganghyeok; Gam, Jongsik; Song, Sungkun; Yoo, Kwanghee; Kim, Key H.

    1994-01-01

    The synthesis of 14 C-labelled cis-malonato[(4R,5R)-4,5-bis(aminomethyl)-2-isopropyl-1,3-dioxolan e]platinum(II) from [1,4- 14 C] D-tartaric acid is described. The overall radiochemical yield of the product in a eight-step sequence was 23.8% and radiochemical purity was 98.5%. (author)

  11. Alcohol Consumption in Students

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Drinking behaviour among university students is a serious public health concern. Reasons for drinking are complex and many factors contribute to this behaviour. Previous research has established links between personality factors and alcohol consumption and also between metacognitions and alcohol consumption. Few studies have looked into how personality traits and metacognitions interact. This study investigated the relationships between personality, metacognitions and alcohol consumption in a...

  12. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jin Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.

  13. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  14. Demonstration and quantitation of pharmacological inhibition of pulmonary uptake of N-isopropyl- sup 123 I-p-Iodoamphetamine by propanolol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akber, S.F. (California Univ., Los Angeles (USA). Nuclear Medicine Div.)

    1989-06-01

    The first-pass pulmonary extraction values of N-Isopropyl-{sup 123}I-p-Iodoamphetamine ({sup 123}I-IMP) in pretreated dogs decreases from 90 to 62% as the amount of propranolol increases from 0 to 20 mg. The first-pass pulmonary extraction values of {sup 123}I-IMP in dogs with a simultaneous bolus injection of propranolol decreases from 90 to 62% as the amount of propranolol increases from 0 to 10 mg. The pulmonary extraction of {sup 123}I-IMP with a simultaneous bolus injection of ketamine and {sup 123}I-IMP decreases from 90 to 64% as the ketamine dose increases from 0 to 100 mg. These results suggest that the pulmonary uptake of {sup 123}I-IMP may be at least partially mediated by receptors. They also indicate that endothelial metabolic cell function may be a useful index of early lung pathology. Furthermore, studies of the degree of lung uptake may be a sensitive index of pathologic states in which alterations of amine binding sites have occurred. (orig.).

  15. Quantification of brain perfusion SPECT with N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine using noninvasive microsphere method. Estimation of arterial input by dynamic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Sugihara, Hideki; Taniguchi, Yoshimitsu; Aoki, Etsuo; Furuichi, Kenji; Miyazaki, Yoshiharu.

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a noninvasive method to quantify brain perfusion SPECT with 123 I-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) using serial dynamic planar imaging of the initial transit phase. The method is based on the microsphere model, but does not require arterial sampling. Serial dynamic planar imaging was performed for 6 min after the bolus injection of IMP (167 MBq in 1.5 ml), followed by additional planar imaging at 20 min and SPECT scan thereafter. The total arterial input to the brain during the initial 5 min after injection was estimated by the injected dose, with the correction of the lung retention, divided by cardiac output (CO). CO was estimated from the initial transit of IMP in the right heart. Cardiac output index (COI), obtained from the integral of the first transit of IMP in the right heart divided by the injected dose, was calibrated by CO measured by Doppler ultrasonography. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) obtained by this method in normal subjects was acceptable. However, the results may be influenced by the injection technique, and careful attention should be considered for clinical application of this method. (author)

  16. The effects of mixtures of potassium amyl xanthate (PAX and isopropyl ethyl thionocarbamate (IPETC collectors on grade and recovery in the froth flotation of a nickel sulfide ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westhein Maree

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Potassium amyl xanthate (PAX and sodium isobutyl xanthate (SIBX are commonly used collectors in both the bulk and selective froth flotation of sulfide ores. These thiol xanthate collectors are conventionally mixed together as well as with more selective thiol collectors such as dithiophosphates (DTP and dithiocarbamates (DTC, in order to improve selectivity. With deteriorating nickel sulfide ores, more selective collectors and collector mixtures are desired for the efficient extraction of nickel. Thionocarbamates (TC are another group of thiol collectors used for selective froth flotation of sulfide minerals. Thionocarbamates are especially used in the selective froth flotation of chalcopyrite over pyrite and galena, but little is known about its selectivity with regards to nickel. Thionocarbamates are also more stable over larger pH ranges in comparison to xanthates and they possess beneficial frothing properties. This study compared the effects of using potassium amyl xanthate (PAX, isopropyl ethyl thionocarbamate (IPETC, sodium isobutyl xanthate (SIBX and their mixtures in the froth flotation of a pentlandite ore. In the mixtures of PAX or SIBX with IPETC, the xanthate accounted for 95.5 mol% and for the PAX and SIBX mixture a 50:50 mixture was used. This study showed that the highest cumulative nickel grades were obtained with PAX, SIBX and there mixture. The highest cumulative nickel recoveries were obtained with IPETC and its mixtures with PAX and SIBX (50–62%. Keywords: Nickel sulfide, Xanthate, Thionocarbamate, Grade, Recovery

  17. 2,2′-Bis{8-[(benzylaminomethylidene]-1,6-dihydroxy-5-isopropyl-3-methylnaphthalen-7(8H-one}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukhrat M. Hakberdiev

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C44H44N2O6, contains two independent molecules with similar conformations. The dihydronaphthalene ring systems are approximately planar [maximum deviations = 0.036 (2, 0.128 (2, 0.0.24 (2 and 0.075 (2 Å]. The dihedral angle between two dihydronaphthalene ring systems is 83.37 (4° in one molecule and 88.99 (4° in the other. The carbonyl O atom is linked with the adjacent hydroxy and imino groups via intramolecular O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds. In the crystal, molecules are linked through O—H...O hydrogen bonds into layers parallel to (001, and adjacent layers are further stacked by π–π interactions between dihydronaphthalene and phenyl rings into a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture. In the crystal, one of the isopropyl groups is disordered over two positions with an occupancy ratio of 0.684 (8:0.316 (8.

  18. A new graphic method for evaluation of distribution volume on N-isopropyl-p-[[sup 123]I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odano, Ikuo; Takahashi, Naoya; Ohtaki, Hiroh; Noguchi, Eikichi; Hatano, Masayoshi; Yamasaki, Yoshihiro; Nishihara, Mamiko (Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Ohkubo, Masaki; Yokoi, Takashi

    1993-10-01

    We developed a new graphic method using N-isopropyl-p-[[sup 123]I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) and SPECT of the brain, the graph on which all three parameters, cerebral blood flow, distribution volume (V[sub d]) and delayed count to early count ratio (Delayed/Early ratio), were able to be evaluated simultaneously. The kinetics of [sup 123]I-IMP in the brain was analyzed by a 2-compartment model, and a standard input function was prepared by averaging the time activity curves of [sup 123]I-IMP in arterial blood on 6 patients with small cerebral infarction etc. including 2 normal controls. Being applied this method to the differential diagnosis between Parkinson's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy, we were able to differentiate both with a glance, because the distribution volume of the frontal lobe significantly decreased in Parkinson's disease (Mean[+-]SD; 26[+-]6 ml/g). This method was clinically useful. We think that the distribution volume of [sup 123]I-IMP may reflect its retention mechanism in the brain, and the values are related to amine, especially to dopamine receptors and its metabolism. (author).

  19. New design of N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP) lung imaging in the patient with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Eiko; Mishima, Michiaki; Kawakami, Kenzo; Sakai, Naoki; Sugiura, Naoharu; Ohi, Motoharu; Kuno, Kenshi; Taniguchi, Takashi; Itoh, Harumi.

    1995-01-01

    N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) was injected intravenously into primary non small cell lung carcinoma patients (n=17). The average pixel count ratios of the cancerous area to the whole lung was measured in the initial and delayed images. In the initial image, this ratio was less than 1.0 for the entire group of patients, and was thought to reflect decreased blood flow in the cancerous tissues. The rate of counts within a ROI in the delayed image to counts in the same ROI in the initial image was also calculated and called the remain rate. The remain rate (delayed count/initial count) was significantly higher in the cancerous area than in the whole lung (0.65±0.30, median 0.62, 0.38±0.05, median 0.38, p<0.01). This observation was thought to be due to a relative decrease in the blood flow and the accumulation of IMP, which forms pools within the alveolar spaces of the cancerous areas. The image prepared with the remain rate revealed a hot image in the cancerous regions, even when this was not apparent in the delayed image. The remain rate image may therefore be useful in the identification of cancerous areas in lung tissue if it is used in comparison with the initial image. (author)

  20. Theoretical and experimental assessment of the kinetic properties of N-isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}I]iodoamphetamine in the human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Kentaro; Nakajima, Keiji; Maeda, Minoru [Juntendo Univ., Shizuoka (Japan). Izunagaoka Hospital

    1993-12-01

    The effect of the loss of radioactivity from the human brain on the measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using N-isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) was evaluated by measuring rCBF in 10 normal male volunteers from 0.5 to 30 minutes after intravenous administration. rCBF was calculated by the operational equation, which assumes no product loss. Brain tissue and arterial blood concentration data were plotted according to a multiple-time/graphic evaluation technique. Data were fitted to the kinetic three-compartment model to estimate four kinetic rate constants to evaluate activity loss from the brain. These studies showed that loss of activity from the brain is negligible during the first 5 minutes, but after 7.5 minutes the loss becomes significantly higher with time. The present study corroborates the necessity for using single photon emission computed tomographic images measured within 5 minutes of IMP injection to quantify rCBF. (author).

  1. A new graphic method for evaluation of distribution volume on N-isopropyl-p-[[sup 123]I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odano, Ikuo; Takahashi, Naoya; Ohtaki, Hiroh; Noguchi, Eikichi; Hatano, Masayoshi; Yamasaki, Yoshihiro; Nishihara, Mamiko [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Ohkubo, Masaki; Yokoi, Takashi

    1993-10-01

    We developed a new graphic method using N-isopropyl-p-[[sup 123]I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) and SPECT of the brain, the graph on which all three parameters, cerebral blood flow, distribution volume (V[sub d]) and delayed count to early count ratio (Delayed/Early ratio), were able to be evaluated simultaneously. The kinetics of [sup 123]I-IMP in the brain was analyzed by a 2-compartment model, and a standard input function was prepared by averaging the time activity curves of [sup 123]I-IMP in arterial blood on 6 patients with small cerebral infarction etc. including 2 normal controls. Being applied this method to the differential diagnosis between Parkinson's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy, we were able to differentiate both with a glance, because the distribution volume of the frontal lobe significantly decreased in Parkinson's disease (Mean[+-]SD; 26[+-]6 ml/g). This method was clinically useful. We think that the distribution volume of [sup 123]I-IMP may reflect its retention mechanism in the brain, and the values are related to amine, especially to dopamine receptors and its metabolism. (author).

  2. Polyurethane Membranes Modified with Isopropyl Myristate as a Potential Candidate for Encapsulating Electronic Implants: A Study of Biocompatibility and Water Permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepen Paul

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Medical polyurethanes have shown good bio-stability and mechanical properties and have been used as coating for implantable medical devices. However, despite their excellent properties, they are relatively permeable to liquid water and water vapour which is a drawback for electronic implant encapsulation. In this study polyether polyurethanes with different soft segment molecular weights were modified by incorporating isopropyl myristate (IPM, as a hydrophobic modifying agent, and the effect of IPM on water resistant and biocompatibility of membranes were investigated. IPM changed the surface properties of the polyurethane film and reduced its surface energy. Polyurethane films were found to be stable with IPM concentrations of 1–5 wt% based upon their chemistry; however it leached out in BSA at higher concentrations. Though, low concentrations of IPM reduced both liquid water and water vapour permeability; at higher IPM content liquid permeability did not improved significantly. In general, the polyurethane materials showed much lower water permeability compared with currently used silicone packaging material for electronic implants. In addition, cytotoxicity assessment of IPM containing polyurethanes showed no evidence of cytotoxcity up to 5 wt% IPM.

  3. Regional cerebral blood flow measured with N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine single-photon emission tomography in patients with Joseph disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Naoya; Odano, Ikuo; Nishihara, Mamiko; Yuasa, Tatsuhiko; Sakai, Kunio

    1994-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in five Japanese patients who were clinically diagnosed as having Joseph disease, also called Machado-Joseph disease or Azorean disease, using N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) and single-photon emission tomography (SPET). Cerebellar atrophy was evaluated by a five-step rating scale as defined on X-ray computed tomography (X-CT). Compared with ten age-matched normal controls (mean cerebellar CBF ± SD: 66.9 ± 6.6 ml/100 g/min), rCBF in patients with Joseph disease was significantly decreased in the cerebellum (mean ± SD: 50.2 ± 7.3 ml/100 g/min). No significant relationship, however, was found between the decrease in rCBF in the cerebellum and the degree of cerebellar atrophy on X-CT. rCBF in the cerebellum was minimally decreased in one patient who had severe cerebellar atrophy and in two patients with moderate atrophy. These data may support the findings that Purkinje cells in the cerebellum are almost normal in Joseph disease, and that the granular and molecular layers remain intact in spite of cortical atrophy of the cerebellum. It is concluded that [ 123 I]-IMP SPET is able to identify pathological and metabolic changes in the cerebellum that do not appear on X-CT or magnetic resonance imaging, and thus is useful for the diagnosis of Joseph disease. (orig.)

  4. Assessment of the Thermodynamic Properties of DL-p-Mentha-1,8-diene, 4-Isopropyl-1-Methylcyclohexene (DL-limonene) by Inverse Gas Chromatography (IGC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshchi, Negin; Abbasian, Ali; Larijani, Kambiz

    2018-05-10

    Limonene is a colorless liquid hydrocarbon and had been investigated as a plasticizer for many plastics. Prediction of solubility between different materials is an advantage in many ways, one of the most convenient ways to know the compatibility of materials is to determine the degree of solubility of them in each other. The concept of "solubility parameter" can help practitioners in this way.In this study, inverse gas chromatography (IGC) method at infinite dilution was used for determination of the thermodynamic properties of DL-p-mentha-1,8-diene, 4-Isopropyl-1-methylcyclohexene (DL-limonene). The interaction between DL-limonene and 13 solvents were examined in the temperature range of 63-123°C through the assessment of the thermodynamic sorption parameters, the parameters of mixing at infinite dilution, the weight fraction activity coefficient and the Flory-Huggins interaction parameters. Additionally, the solubility parameter for DL-limonene and the temperature dependence of these parameters was investigated as well.Results show that there is a temperature dependence in solubility parameter, which increases by decreasing temperature. However, there were no specific dependence between interaction parameters and temperature, but chemical structure appeared to have a significant effect on them as well as on the type and strength of intermolecular interactions between DL-limonene and investigated solvents. The solubility parameter δ2 of DL-limonene determined to be 19.20 (J/cm3)0.5 at 25°C.

  5. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) findings using N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP) in schizophrenia and atypical psychosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, Hidemichi

    1993-01-01

    Sixteen schizophrenic patients, 16 atypical psychosis patients, and 16 healthy volunteers were subjected to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the brain using N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP). The basal ganglia region was in particular examined not only in transverse sections, but in coronal sections. Schizophrenics showed significantly decreased uptake rates in the bilateral frontal regions and increased uptakes in the bilateral basal ganglia. On the other hand, atypical psychotics had a reduced uptake rate only in the right thalamic region, compared to the controls. The increased uptake rates in the basal ganglia were associated with auditory hallucination, but gender difference, duration of illness and dose of neuroleptics had no influence on these SPECT findings. The results suggest that schizophrenics might have some lesions in the frontal area of the brain, whereas atypical psychotics might have no lesion in the frontal region but dysfunction in the right thalamic region. Subsequently, using only SPECT findings, all the cases were divided by cluster analysis into 4 groups and a residue group. Schizophrenics distributed mainly in the 2 groups that have lesion in the frontal regions. Atypical psychotics distributed principally in the other 2 groups that have alterations in the bilateral thalamic region. The present study suggests that schizophrenia and atypical psychosis might have different etiologies. (author)

  6. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) findings using N-isopropyl-p-[[sup 123]I]iodoamphetamine ([sup 123]I-IMP) in schizophrenia and atypical psychosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suga, Hidemichi (Aichi Medical Univ., Nagakute (Japan))

    1993-05-01

    Sixteen schizophrenic patients, 16 atypical psychosis patients, and 16 healthy volunteers were subjected to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the brain using N-isopropyl-p-[[sup 123]I]iodoamphetamine ([sup 123]I-IMP). The basal ganglia region was in particular examined not only in transverse sections, but in coronal sections. Schizophrenics showed significantly decreased uptake rates in the bilateral frontal regions and increased uptakes in the bilateral basal ganglia. On the other hand, atypical psychotics had a reduced uptake rate only in the right thalamic region, compared to the controls. The increased uptake rates in the basal ganglia were associated with auditory hallucination, but gender difference, duration of illness and dose of neuroleptics had no influence on these SPECT findings. The results suggest that schizophrenics might have some lesions in the frontal area of the brain, whereas atypical psychotics might have no lesion in the frontal region but dysfunction in the right thalamic region. Subsequently, using only SPECT findings, all the cases were divided by cluster analysis into 4 groups and a residue group. Schizophrenics distributed mainly in the 2 groups that have lesion in the frontal regions. Atypical psychotics distributed principally in the other 2 groups that have alterations in the bilateral thalamic region. The present study suggests that schizophrenia and atypical psychosis might have different etiologies. (author).

  7. Oxidative degradation of alternative gasoline oxygenates in aqueous solution by ultrasonic irradiation: Mechanistic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Duk Kyung, E-mail: dkim@aum.edu [Department of Physical Science, Auburn University Montgomery, Montgomery, AL 36117 (United States); O' Shea, Kevin E., E-mail: osheak@fiu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, University Park, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Cooper, William J. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Urban Water Research Center, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2175 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Widespread pollution has been associated with gasoline oxygenates of branched ethers methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), and tert-amyl ether (TAME) which enter groundwater. The contaminated plume develops rapidly and treatment for the removal/destruction of these ethers is difficult when using conventional methods. Degradation of MTBE, with biological methods and advanced oxidation processes, are rather well known; however, fewer studies have been reported for degradation of alternative oxygenates. Degradation of alternative gasoline oxygenates (DIPE, ETBE, and TAME) by ultrasonic irradiation in aqueous oxygen saturation was investigated to elucidate degradation pathways. Detailed degradation mechanisms are proposed for each gasoline oxygenate. The common major degradation pathways are proposed to involve abstraction of {alpha}-hydrogen atoms by hydroxyl radicals generated during ultrasound cavitation and low temperature pyrolytic degradation of ETBE and TAME. Even some of the products from {beta}-H abstraction overlap with those from high temperature pyrolysis, the effect of {beta}-H abstraction was not shown clearly from product study because of possible 1,5 H-transfer inside cavitating bubbles. Formation of hydrogen peroxide and organic peroxides was also determined during sonolysis. These data provide a better understanding of the degradation pathways of gasoline oxygenates by sonolysis in aqueous solutions. The approach may also serve as a model for others interested in the details of sonolysis. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gasoline oxygenates (ETBE, TAME, DIPE) were completely degraded after 6 hours under ultrasonic irradiation in O{sub 2} saturation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The major degradation pathways were proposed to involve abstraction of {alpha}-hydrogen atoms by hydroxyl radicals and low temperature pyrolytic degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of {beta

  8. Alcohol-related interpretation bias in alcohol-dependent patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, M.L.; Pawelczack, S.; Rinck, M.; Lindenmeyer, J.; Souren, P.M.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Becker, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Models of addictive behaviors postulate that implicit alcohol-related memory associations and biased interpretation processes contribute to the development and maintenance of alcohol misuse and abuse. The present study examined whether alcohol-dependent patients (AP) show an

  9. Palladium-based nanocatalysts for alcohol electrooxidation in alkaline media

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modibedi, RM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available in the electrocatalytic oxidation of alcohols in alkaline media compared to platinum catalysts. Recent efforts have focused on the discovery of palladium-based electrocatalysts with little or no platinum for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). This chapter is an overview...

  10. Ethyl Alcohol Extract of Hizikia fusiforme Induces Caspase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethyl Alcohol Extract of Hizikia fusiforme Induces Caspase-dependent Apoptosis in Human Leukemia U937 Cells by Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species. C-H Kang, S-H Kang, S-H Boo, S-Y Park, D-O Moon, G-Y Kim ...

  11. Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan

    2014-06-17

    An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.

  12. Ambient oxygen promotes tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Joong Sung

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen serves as an essential factor for oxidative stress, and it has been shown to be a mutagen in bacteria. While it is well established that ambient oxygen can also cause genomic instability in cultured mammalian cells, its effect on de novo tumorigenesis at the organismal level is unclear. Herein, by decreasing ambient oxygen exposure, we report a ∼50% increase in the median tumor-free survival time of p53-/- mice. In the thymus, reducing oxygen exposure decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage and RAG recombinase, both of which are known to promote lymphomagenesis in p53-/- mice. Oxygen is further shown to be associated with genomic instability in two additional cancer models involving the APC tumor suppressor gene and chemical carcinogenesis. Together, these observations represent the first report directly testing the effect of ambient oxygen on de novo tumorigenesis and provide important physiologic evidence demonstrating its critical role in increasing genomic instability in vivo.

  13. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, Henry

    2002-03-01

    The question addressed in this review is whether aggregate alcohol advertising increases alcohol consumption among college students. Both the level of alcohol-related problems on college campuses and the level of alcohol advertising are high. Some researchers have concluded that the cultural myths and symbols used in alcohol advertisements have powerful meanings for college students and affect intentions to drink. There is, however, very little empirical evidence that alcohol advertising has any effect on actual alcohol consumption. The methods used in this review include a theoretical framework for evaluating the effects of advertising. This theory suggests that the marginal effect of advertising diminishes at high levels of advertising. Many prior empirical studies measured the effect of advertising at high levels of advertising and found no effect. Those studies that measure advertising at lower, more disaggregated levels have found an effect on consumption. The results of this review suggest that advertising does increase consumption. However, advertising cannot be reduced with limited bans, which are likely to result in substitution to other available media. Comprehensive bans on all forms of advertising and promotion can eliminate options for substitution and be potentially more effective in reducing consumption. In addition, there is an increasing body of literature that suggests that alcohol counteradvertising is effective in reducing the alcohol consumption of teenagers and young adults. These findings indicate that increased counteradvertising, rather than new advertising bans, appears to be the better choice for public policy. It is doubtful that the comprehensive advertising bans required to reduce advertising would ever receive much public support. New limited bans on alcohol advertising might also result in less alcohol counteradvertising. An important topic for future research is to identify the counteradvertising themes that are most effective with

  14. Cu-catalyzed aerobic oxidative esterification of acetophenones with alcohols to α-ketoesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuezhao; Ding, Wen; Lin, Yuanguang; Song, Qiuling

    2015-02-06

    Copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidative esterification of acetophenones with alcohols using molecular oxygen has been developed to form a broad range of α-ketoesters in good yields. In addition to reporting scope and limitations of our new method, mechanism studies are reported that reveal that the carbonyl oxygen in the ester mainly originated from dioxygen.

  15. Alcohol and older drivers' crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Researchers have examined the effects of alcohol consumption : on older adults functioning, and some have : addressed alcohols effects on older drivers crash risk. : Generally, the findings have shown that alcohol is less : likely to be a fa...

  16. Alcohol's Effects on the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Effects on the Body Alcohol's Effects on the Body Drinking too much – on a single occasion or ... your health. Here’s how alcohol can affect your body: Brain: Alcohol interferes with the brain’s communication pathways, ...

  17. Alcohol Use and Hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Marion G.; Terrault, Norah A.

    2002-01-01

    Excess alcohol consumption can worsen the course and outcome of chronic hepatitis C. It is important to distinguish between alcohol abuse, which must be treated on its own merits, and the effect of alcohol use on progression, severity, and treatment of hepatitis C. Most studies on the effects of alcohol on hepatitis C have focused on patients, with high levels of daily alcohol intake. Indeed, the adverse effects of light and moderate amounts of alcohol intake on hepatitis C virus (HCV) infect...

  18. Drugs and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Victor F.

    1978-01-01

    Millions of people in this country take medications, and millions drink alcohol. Both are drugs and have effects on the organs and systems with which they or their metabolites come in contact. This short article discusses some of the combined effects of prescribed drugs and alcohol on some systems, with special emphasis on the liver. PMID:712865

  19. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  1. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jeong Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  2. Alcohol and Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraushaar, Kevin W.

    Increased constraints on access to alcohol resulted from the closure of the sole hotels in two "experimental" towns. This afforded a natural experiment to study the effects of the change in availability of alcohol on consumption. Dependent measures were derived from public records of liquor sales by all licensed premises, and from…

  3. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA LUZ PROTASIO L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD, ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day, especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications.

  4. Neurological complications of alcoholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Nikiforov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nervous system lesions associated with chronic alcohol intoxication are common in clinical practice. They lead to aggravated alcoholic disease, its more frequent recurrences, and intensified pathological craving for alcohol. Neurological pathology in turn occurs with frequent exacerbations. The interaction of diseases, age, and medical  pathomorphism modifies the clinical presentation and course of the  major pathology, as well as comorbidity, the nature and severity of  complications, worsens quality of life in a patient, and makes the  diagnostic and treatment process difficult. The paper discusses the  classification, clinical variants, biochemical and molecular biological  aspects of various complications of alcoholic disease. It considers its  most common form, in particular alcoholic polyneuropathy, as well as its rarer variants, such as hemorrhagic encephalopathy with a subacute course (Gayet–Wernicke encephalopathy.

  5. Alcoholic hallucinosis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Werner Griciunas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Case report of patient who has been an alcoholic for 40 years and, after reducing alcohol intake, developed auditory and visual hallucinations, which caused behavior change. Neurological issues, electrolyte disturbances and other organ dysfunctions were excluded as cause of said change. After intake of haloperidol and risperidone, the patient had regression of symptoms and denied having presented hallucinatory symptoms. The Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais – 5ª edição (DSM-V includes alcoholic hallucinosis in the Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder (alcohol, beginning during abstinence; however, the document is not yet very well accepted among the medical community. The difficulty of the team to confirm the diagnosis of alcoholic hallucinosis lies in the differential diagnosis, as Delirium tremens and severe withdrawal syndrome with psychotic symptoms. Thus, psychopathological differentiation is important, as well as continuity of research and collaboration of other clinical teams in the evaluation.

  6. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pentoxifylline in alcoholic hepatitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS......, clinicaltrials.gov, and full text searches were conducted until August 2009. Manufacturers and authors were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised clinical trials of pentoxifylline in participants with alcoholic hepatitis compared to control were selected for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...

  7. Electrodeposition of Pd based binary catalysts on Carbon paper via surface limited redox-replacement reaction for oxygen reduction reaction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modibedi, RM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs) continue to extensive attention as potential power sources for portable and stationary applications. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) involving the four electron transfer remains a challenge for DAFCs due to its...

  8. Comparative TEA for Indirect Liquefaction Pathways to Distillate-Range Fuels via Oxygenated Intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Talmadge, Michael; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Gray, Michael; Dagle, Robert; Padmaperuma, Asanga; Gerber, Mark; Sahir, Asad; Tao, Ling; Zhang, Yanan

    2017-03-03

    This paper presents a comparative techno-economic analysis of five conversion pathways from biomass to gasoline-, jet-, and diesel-range hydrocarbons via indirect liquefaction with specific focus on pathways utilizing oxygenated intermediates (derived either via thermochemical or biochemical conversion steps). The four emerging pathways of interest are compared with one conventional pathway (Fischer-Tropsch) for the production of the hydrocarbon blendstocks. The processing steps of the four emerging pathways include: biomass-to-syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, conversion of syngas to alcohols/oxygenates, followed by conversion of alcohols/oxygenates to hydrocarbon blendstocks via dehydration, oligomerization, and hydrogenation. We show that the emerging pathways via oxygenated intermediates have the potential to be cost competitive with the conventional Fischer-Tropsch process. The evaluated pathways and the benchmark process generally exhibit similar fuel yields and carbon conversion efficiencies. The resulting minimum fuel selling prices are comparable to the benchmark at approximately $3.60 per gallon-gasoline equivalent, with potential for two new pathways to be more economically competitive. Additionally, the coproduct values can play an important role in the economics of the processes with oxygenated intermediates derived via syngas fermentation. Major cost drivers for the integrated processes are tied to achievable fuel yields and conversion efficiency of the intermediate steps, i.e., the production of oxygenates/alcohols from syngas and the conversion of oxygenates/alcohols to hydrocarbon fuels.

  9. Alcoholics' selective attention to alcohol stimuli: automated processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormark, K M; Laberg, J C; Nordby, H; Hugdahl, K

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated alcoholics' selective attention to alcohol words in a version of the Stroop color-naming task. Alcoholic subjects (n = 23) and nonalcoholic control subjects (n = 23) identified the color of Stroop versions of alcohol, emotional, neutral and color words. Manual reaction times (RTs), skin conductance responses (SCRs) and heart rate (HR) were recorded. Alcoholics showed overall longer RTs than controls while both groups were slower in responding to the incongruent color words than to the other words. Alcoholics showed longer RTs to both alcohol (1522.7 milliseconds [ms]) and emotional words (1523.7 ms) than to neutral words (1450.8 ms) which suggests that the content of these words interfered with the ability to attend to the color of the words. There was also a negative correlation (r = -.41) between RT and response accuracy to alcohol words for the alcoholics, reflecting that the longer time the alcoholics used to respond to the color of the alcohol words, the more incorrect their responses were. The alcoholics also showed significantly greater SCRs to alcohol words (0.16 microSiemens) than to any of the other words (ranging from 0.04-0.08 microSiemens), probably reflecting the emotional significance of the alcohol words. Finally, the alcoholics evidenced smaller HR acceleration to alcohol (1.9 delta bpm) compared to neutral (2.8 delta bpm), which could be related to difficulties alcoholics experience in terminating their attention to the alcohol words. These findings indicate that it is difficult for alcoholics to regulate their attention to alcohol stimuli, suggesting that alcoholics' processing of alcohol information is automated.

  10. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested

  11. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested.

  12. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... million people, while Alabama has the least. Alcohol dependence (alcoholism) was identified as a factor in 30% ... alcohol content or mixing alcohol with energy drinks. Caffeine can mask alcohol's effects and cause people to ...

  13. Acute effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate, on cardiovascular parameters in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Itoh, Takeo, E-mail: titoh@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Shiraishi, Hiroaki [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Maeno, Yoshitaka [Department of Forensic Medical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Arima, Yosuke; Torikoshi, Aiko; Namera, Akira [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Makita, Ryosuke [Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hiroshima Cosmopolitan University, Hiroshima (Japan); Yoshizumi, Masao [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology and Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Nagao, Masataka [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2013-10-01

    The organophosphorus compound sarin irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase. We examined the acute cardiovascular effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate (BIMP), in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. Intravenous administration of BIMP (0.8 mg/kg; the LD50 value) induced a long-lasting increase in blood pressure and tended to increase heart rate. In rats pretreated with the non-selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist atropine, BIMP significantly increased both heart rate and blood pressure. In atropine-treated rats, hexamethonium (antagonist of ganglionic nicotinic receptors) greatly attenuated the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure without changing the BIMP-induced increase in heart rate. In rats treated with atropine plus hexamethonium, intravenous phentolamine (non-selective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist) plus propranolol (non-selective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) completely blocked the BIMP-induced increases in blood pressure and heart rate. In atropine-treated rats, the reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (1 mg/kg) induced a transient increase in blood pressure, but had no effect on heart rate. These results suggest that in anaesthetized rats, BIMP induces powerful stimulation of sympathetic as well as parasympathetic nerves and thereby modulates heart rate and blood pressure. They may also indicate that an action independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition contributes to the acute cardiovascular responses induced by BIMP. - Highlights: • A sarin-like agent BIMP markedly increased blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. • Muscarinic receptor blockade enhanced the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure. • Ganglionic nicotinic receptor blockade attenuated the BIMP-induced response. • Blockade of α- as well as β-receptors attenuated the BIMP-induced response.

  14. Regional cerebral blood flow changes in schizophrenia and endogenous depression by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-( sup 123 I)iodoamphetamine (IMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaya, Toshinori (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-06-01

    Regional cerebral blood flows (rCBF) were measured in patients with schizophrenia and endogenous depression by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-({sup 123}I)iodoamphetamine (IMP). The subjects were 20 patients with shizophrenia, 32 patients with endogenous depression and 20 normal controls. The patients with depression were divided into 3 groups; unmedicated, medicated patients in depressive state, and medicated patients in remited state. The rCBF were calculated by the corticocerebellar ratio (CCR), which was expressed as a ratio of activity per pixel in cortical regions of interest to the activity per pixel in the cerebellum. The results were as follows. In patients with schizophrenia the marked decrease in rCBF in bilateral frontal regions and the lower rCBF in the left than in the right hemisphere were observed. There was no significant correlation between the mean rCBF and BPRS (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale) in patients with shizophrenia. In patients with depression the decrease in rCBF in overall cerebral regions and the lower rCBF in the left than in the right hemisphere were observed in both groups in depressive state. These changes were normalized in remited state, though there was no significant difference in rCBF between on medication and off medication. There was significantly negative correlation between the mean rCBF and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale in patients with depression. These results support the previously reported 'hypofrontality' and the left hemispheric dysfunction in shizophrenia. In depressive patients the overall cerebral dysfunction was revealed more remarkablly in the left than in the right hemisphere, which was normalized following the improvement of depressive symptoms. Furthermore, it was suggested that the applications of IMP-SPECT could be useful for the diagnosis and research for the cerebral function in mental illness. (author) 59 refs.

  15. Regional cerebral blood flow measurement using N-isopropyl-p-(/sup 123/I) iodoamphetamine and rotating gamma camera emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Seki, Hiroyasu; Ishida, Hiroko (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1985-01-01

    Thirty-one regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements were performed on 26 patients with cerebrovascular accidents using N-Isopropyl-p-(/sup 123/I) Iodoamphetamine (/sup 123/I-IMP) and rotating gamma camera emission computed tomography (ECT). The equation for determining rCBF is as follows: F=100.R.Cb/(N.A), where F is rCBF in ml/100 g/min., R is the constant withdrawal rate of arterial blood in ml/min., Cb is the brain activity concentration in ..mu..Ci/g, A is the total activity (5 min.) in the withdrawal arterial whole blood in ..mu..Ci and N is the fraction of A that is true tracer activity (0.75). In determining Cb at 5 min. after injection, reconstructed counts from 35 min. to 59 min. were corrected to represent those from 4 min. to 5 min. with the use of time activity curve for the entire brain immediately after injection to 30 min. Reconstructed counts of central region in tomographic image were corrected 118% of the obtained values from the result of the counting rate ratio between peripheral and central regions of interest obtained from phantom study. Brain mean blood flow values were distributed from 11 to 39 ml/100 g/min. In 119 cortical regions obtained from 11 measurements in 9 patients, there was a significant correlation (r=0.41, p < 0.001) between rCBF values obtained from /sup 123/I-IMP and rotating gamma camera ECT and those from /sup 133/Xe inhalation method. rCBF measurement using /sup 123/I-IMP and rotating gamma camera ECT is not only relatively noninvasive measurement for the entire brain but also three-dimensional evaluation. Besides, it is superior in spatial resolution and accuracy to conventional /sup 133/Xe clearance method.

  16. Quantifying regional cerebral blood flow with N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine and SPECT by one-point sampling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odano, Ikuo; Takahashi, Naoya; Noguchi, Eikichi; Ohtaki, Hiro; Hatano, Masayoshi; Yamazaki, Yoshihiro; Higuchi, Takeshi; Ohkubo, Masaki.

    1994-01-01

    We developed a new non-invasive technique; one-point sampling method, for quantitative measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine and SPECT. Although the continuous withdrawal of arterial blood and octanol treatment of the blood are required in the conventional microsphere method, the new technique dose not require these two procedures. The total activity of 123 I-IMP obtained by the continuous withdrawal of arterial blood is inferred by the activity of 133 I-IMP obtained by the one point arterial sample using a regression line. To determine when one point sampling time was optimum for inferring integral input function of the continuous withdrawal and whether the treatment of sampled blood for octanol fraction was required, we examined a correlation between the total activity of arterial blood withdrawn from 0 to 5 min after the injection and the activity of one point sample obtained at time t, and calculated a regression line. As a result, the minimum % error for the inference using the regression line was obtained at 6 min after the 123 I-IMP injection, moreover, the octanol treatment was not required. Then examining an effect on the values of rCBF when the sampling time was deviated from 6 min, we could correct the values in approximately 3% error when the sample was obtained at 6±1 min after the injection. The one-point sampling method provides accurate and relatively non-invasive measurement of rCBF without octanol extraction of arterial blood. (author)

  17. Regional cerebral blood flow changes in schizophrenia and endogenous depression by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (IMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaya, Toshinori

    1989-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flows (rCBF) were measured in patients with schizophrenia and endogenous depression by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine (IMP). The subjects were 20 patients with shizophrenia, 32 patients with endogenous depression and 20 normal controls. The patients with depression were divided into 3 groups; unmedicated, medicated patients in depressive state, and medicated patients in remited state. The rCBF were calculated by the corticocerebellar ratio (CCR), which was expressed as a ratio of activity per pixel in cortical regions of interest to the activity per pixel in the cerebellum. The results were as follows. In patients with schizophrenia the marked decrease in rCBF in bilateral frontal regions and the lower rCBF in the left than in the right hemisphere were observed. There was no significant correlation between the mean rCBF and BPRS (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale) in patients with shizophrenia. In patients with depression the decrease in rCBF in overall cerebral regions and the lower rCBF in the left than in the right hemisphere were observed in both groups in depressive state. These changes were normalized in remited state, though there was no significant difference in rCBF between on medication and off medication. There was significantly negative correlation between the mean rCBF and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale in patients with depression. These results support the previously reported 'hypofrontality' and the left hemispheric dysfunction in shizophrenia. In depressive patients the overall cerebral dysfunction was revealed more remarkablly in the left than in the right hemisphere, which was normalized following the improvement of depressive symptoms. Furthermore, it was suggested that the applications of IMP-SPECT could be useful for the diagnosis and research for the cerebral function in mental illness. (author) 59 refs

  18. Analysis and assessment for the intrapulmonary kinetics of N-isopropyl-I-123-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) in diffuse respiratory diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujishima, Seitaro (Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-01-01

    We investigated intrapulmonary kinetics of N-isopropyl-I-123-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) in patients with diffuse respiratory diseases. Subjects studied were 4 healthy nonsmoking controls (age{>=}40), 3 young healthy nonsmokers (age<40), 4 healthy smokers, 8 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), 2 with sarcoidosis, and 4 with chronic pulmonary emphysema (CPE). All studies were performed after obtaining informed consent. Ages were matched among the groups except the group of young healthy nonsmokers. We calculated the lung initial extraction fraction (E value) of IMP using Tc-99m human serum albumin as an intravascular reference tracer with deconvolution method. We also analyzed the lung IMP washout curve by a two-compartmental model. The mean E value for the nonsmoking controls was 0.977, indicating almost all IMP injected was taken up by the lungs at the initial passage. There was no difference in the E value among the groups. With regard to the lung IMP washout analysis, the distribution to the fast compartment (A{sub 1}) was smaller than that to the slow compartment (A{sub 2}). There was no difference in the A{sub 1} to A{sub 2} ratio among the groups. We then analyzed the slopes of the fast and slow compartments (k{sub 1}, k{sub 2}). There was no difference in k{sub 1} among the groups. On the other hand, k{sub 2} was larger in young healthy nonsmokers and smaller in healthy smokers, the patients with IPF, sarcoidosis and CPE than k{sub 2} in nonsmoking controls. Furthermore, k{sub 2} decreased in inverse proportion to age. We concluded that k{sub 2} could be a valuable index to detect changes of IMP, a lipophilic amine, metabolism in the lungs. (author).

  19. Acute effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate, on cardiovascular parameters in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Itoh, Takeo; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Maeno, Yoshitaka; Arima, Yosuke; Torikoshi, Aiko; Namera, Akira; Makita, Ryosuke; Yoshizumi, Masao; Nagao, Masataka

    2013-01-01

    The organophosphorus compound sarin irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase. We examined the acute cardiovascular effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate (BIMP), in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. Intravenous administration of BIMP (0.8 mg/kg; the LD50 value) induced a long-lasting increase in blood pressure and tended to increase heart rate. In rats pretreated with the non-selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist atropine, BIMP significantly increased both heart rate and blood pressure. In atropine-treated rats, hexamethonium (antagonist of ganglionic nicotinic receptors) greatly attenuated the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure without changing the BIMP-induced increase in heart rate. In rats treated with atropine plus hexamethonium, intravenous phentolamine (non-selective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist) plus propranolol (non-selective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) completely blocked the BIMP-induced increases in blood pressure and heart rate. In atropine-treated rats, the reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (1 mg/kg) induced a transient increase in blood pressure, but had no effect on heart rate. These results suggest that in anaesthetized rats, BIMP induces powerful stimulation of sympathetic as well as parasympathetic nerves and thereby modulates heart rate and blood pressure. They may also indicate that an action independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition contributes to the acute cardiovascular responses induced by BIMP. - Highlights: • A sarin-like agent BIMP markedly increased blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. • Muscarinic receptor blockade enhanced the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure. • Ganglionic nicotinic receptor blockade attenuated the BIMP-induced response. • Blockade of α- as well as β-receptors attenuated the BIMP-induced response

  20. Family Based Prevention of Alcohol and Risky Sex for Older Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-08

    Alcohol Drinking; Alcohol Intoxication; Alcohol Poison; Alcohol-Related Disorders; Alcohol Impairment; Alcohol Withdrawal; Alcohol Abstinence; Alcohol; Harmful Use; Sex Behavior; Sexual Aggression; Sexual Harassment; Relation, Interpersonal

  1. [Metabolic disturbances and ways of their pharmacological correction in acute poisoning with ethanol in patients with chronic alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livanov, G A; Lodyagin, A N; Lubsanova, S V; Kovalenko, A L; Batotsyrenov, B V; Sergeev, O A; Loladze, A T; Andrianov, A Yu

    2015-01-01

    To study an influence of chronic alcoholism on the clinical course and severity of metabolic disturbances in patients with acute poisoning with ethanol and to improve the treatment. Authors examined 93 patients stratified into three groups (acute poisoning with ethanol in patients with chronic alcoholism, without chronic alcoholism and those treated with reamberin). The presence of chronic alcoholism significantly augmented metabolic disturbances and influenced the disturbance of oxygen-transport function and free-radical processes in patients with acute intoxication with ethanol. Using of reamberin in the complex intensive therapy led to the decrease in metabolic disorders, which improved the clinical course of acute poisoning with ethanol in patients with chronic alcoholism.

  2. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol degrad...

  3. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-08-17

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines. Utilizing higher-molecular-weight alcohols as fuels requires careful analysis of their fuel properties. ASTM standards provide fuel property requirements for spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines such as the stability, lubricity, viscosity, and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) properties of blends of higher alcohols. Important combustion properties that are studied include laminar and turbulent flame speeds, flame blowout/extinction limits, ignition delay under various mixing conditions, and gas-phase and particulate emissions. The chapter focuses on the combustion of higher alcohols in reciprocating SI and CI engines and discusses higher alcohol performance in SI and CI engines. Finally, the chapter identifies the sources, production pathways, and technologies currently being pursued for production of some fuels, including n-butanol, iso-butanol, and n-octanol.

  4. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol...... degradation drank approximately 30% more alcohol per week and had a higher risk of everyday and heavy drinking, and of alcoholism. Individuals with ADH1C slow versus fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy drinking Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/25...

  5. Alcohol from whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    A process for ethanol production from whey is described. The lactose is fermented into alcohol via glucose and galactose of yeast. The whey must be pasteurized before fermentation in order to reduce the concentration of microorganisms in the protein fraction. The protein is separated by ultrafiltration. The whey, which is now rather free of bacteria, is introduced into the fermentation unit where yeast cultures are added to it. After fermentation, the yeast slurry is separated and processed into feeding yeast while the mash is passed on to the distillation unit. The alcohol thus produced is of very high quality and may be added to alcoholic beverages.

  6. Molecular Basis of Alcohol-Related Gastric and Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Ja Young

    2017-05-24

    Many meta-analysis, large cohort studies, and experimental studies suggest that chronic alcohol consumption increases the risk of gastric and colon cancer. Ethanol is metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH), catalase or cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) to acetaldehyde, which is then further oxidized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Acetaldehyde has been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a Group 1 carcinogen to humans. The acetaldehyde level in the stomach and colon is locally influenced by gastric colonization by Helicobacter pylori or colonic microbes, as well as polymorphisms in the genes encoding tissue alcohol metabolizing enzymes, especially ALDH2. Alcohol stimulates the uptake of carcinogens and their metabolism and also changes the composition of enteric microbes in a way to enhance the aldehyde level. Alcohol also undergoes chemical coupling to membrane phospholipids and disrupts organization of tight junctions, leading to nuclear translocation of β-catenin and ZONAB, which may contributes to regulation of genes involved in proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Alcohol also generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) by suppressing the expression of antioxidant and cytoprotective enzymes and inducing expression of CYP2E1 which contribute to the metabolic activation of chemical carcinogens. Besides exerting genotoxic effects by directly damaging DNA, ROS can activates signaling molecules involved in inflammation, metastasis and angiogenesis. In addition, alcohol consumption induces folate deficiency, which may result in aberrant DNA methylation profiles, thereby influencing cancer-related gene expression.

  7. Alcohol during pregnancy worsens acute respiratory infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libster, Romina; Ferolla, Fausto M; Hijano, Diego R; Acosta, Patricio L; Erviti, Anabella; Polack, Fernando P

    2015-11-01

    This study explored whether alcohol consumption during pregnancy increased the risk of life-threatening respiratory infections in children. We prospectively evaluated children under the age of two years admitted to hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina, with severe acute respiratory infections during the winters of 2011 and 2012. Information on maternal alcohol consumption during the third trimester of pregnancy was collected using standardised questionnaires and categorised as never, low if it was once a week and high if it was equal or more than once a week. Of the 3423 children hospitalised with acute respiratory infection, 2089 (63.7%) had respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Alcohol consumption during the last trimester was reported by 398 mothers (12.4%) and categorised as low (n = 210, 6.5%) or high (n = 188, 5.9%). A greater effect on life-threatening respiratory infection, defined as oxygen saturation of or up to 87%, was observed with higher alcohol intake due to all viruses and specifically RSV in the logistic regression analyses. Alcohol consumption was strongly associated with life-threatening disease, particularly in boys whose adjusted odds ratio rose from 3.67 to 13.52 when their mothers drank alcohol. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy was associated with life-threatening respiratory infections in boys. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Is proximity to alcohol outlets associated with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedir, Abdu; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Stock, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study examined the associations between distance from residence to the nearest alcohol outlet with alcohol consumption as well as with alcohol-related harm. Methods: Data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and sociodemographics were obtained from the 2011 Danish Drug...... and Alcohol Survey (n=5133) with respondents aged 15–79 years. The information on distances from residence to the nearest alcohol outlets was obtained from Statistics Denmark. Multiple logistic and linear regressions were used to examine the association between distances to outlets and alcohol consumption...... whereas alcohol-related harm was analysed using negative binomial regression. Results: Among women it was found that those living closer to alcohol outlets were more likely to report alcohol-related harm (p

  9. Is proximity to alcohol outlets associated with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seid, Abdu K.; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Stock, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study examined the associations between distance from residence to the nearest alcohol outlet with alcohol consumption as well as with alcohol-related harm. Methods: Data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and sociodemographics were obtained from the 2011 Danish Drug...... and Alcohol Survey (n = 5133) with respondents aged 15–79 years. The information on distances from residence to the nearest alcohol outlets was obtained from Statistics Denmark. Multiple logistic and linear regressions were used to examine the association between distances to outlets and alcohol consumption...... whereas alcohol-related harm was analysed using negative binomial regression. Results: Among women it was found that those living closer to alcohol outlets were more likely to report alcohol-related harm (p

  10. Aetiology and pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, C S

    1993-09-01

    carcinogens and even nutritional factors such as vitamin A. Ethanol causes not only vitamin A depletion but it also enhances its hepatotoxicity. Furthermore, induction of the microsomal pathway contributes to increased acetaldehyde generation, with formation of protein adducts, resulting in antibody production, enzyme inactivation and decreased DNA repair; it is also associated with a striking impairment of the capacity of the liver to utilize oxygen. Moreover, acetaldehyde promotes glutathione depletion, free-radical mediated toxicity and lipid peroxidation. In addition, acetaldehyde affects hepatic collagen synthesis: both in vivo and in vitro (in cultured myofibroblasts and lipocytes), ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde were found to increase collagen accumulation and mRNA levels for collagen. This new understanding of the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease may eventually improve therapy with drugs and nutrients.

  11. Moral judgment of alcohol addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Alcoholism could represent an important factor of crime and different forms of abuse of family members (physical and emotional exist in many alcohol-addict cases, as well as characteristics of immoral behaviour. Objective. The objective of our study was to determine the predominating forms in moral judgment of alcohol addicts, and to examine whether there was any statistically significant difference in moral judgment between alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics from general population. Methods. The sample consisted of 62 subjects, divided into a study (alcoholics and a control group (non-alcoholics from general population. The following instruments were used: social-demographic data, AUDIT, MMPI-201, cybernetic battery of IQ tests (KOG-3 and the TMR moral reasoning test. Results. Mature forms of moral judgment prevailed in both group of subjects, alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics. Regarding mature forms of moral judgment (driven by emotions and cognitive non-alcoholics from the general population had higher scores, but the difference was not statistically significant. Regarding socially adapted and egocentric orientation alcohol addicted persons had higher scores. However, only regarding intuitive-irrational orientation there was a statistically significant difference in the level of moral judgment (p<0.05 between alcoholics and non-alcoholics, in favour of the alcoholics. Conclusion. Moral judgment is not a category differing alcohol addicted persons from those who are not. Nevertheless, the potential destructivity of alcoholism is reflected in lower scores regarding mature orientations in moral judgment.

  12. ALCOHOL AND HEART RHYTHM DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Yusupova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and particularly extension of alcohol consumption in alcohol diseas increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias development and aggravates existing arrhythmias. Patients do not always receive the necessary specific treatment due to lack of detection of the ethanol genesis of these arrhythmias. Management of patients with alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, including its cardiac complications among other cardiac arrhythmias should use both antiarrhythmic and anti-alcohol drugs and antidepressants. Such issues as diagnosis and management of patients with alcohol-induced cardiac arrhythmias are presented.

  13. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2002-06-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube.

  14. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorders (FASDs) National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence Last Updated: November 21, 2017 This article was ... about pre-pregnancy planning, including tips on nutrition, exercise and healthy habits. About Support Us Copyright & Permissions ...

  15. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (NCADD) Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA) Last reviewed: April, 2016 Pregnancy Is it safe? Other Pregnancy topics ') document.write(' ...

  16. Alcohol and radionuclide metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlum, D.D.; Hess, J.O.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of ethanol administration on the deposition and retention of polymeric 239 Pu and 241 Am citrate was studied in the rat. Only in the case of polymeric Pu was there an effect of alcohol administration

  17. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a glass tube. The tube is filled with bands of yellow crystals. The bands in the tube change colors (from yellow to ... Results Mean With the balloon method: 1 green band means that the blood-alcohol level is 0. ...

  18. When alcohol acts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob

    2009-01-01

      Sociological studies into alcohol use seem to find it difficult to deal with the substance itself. Alcohol tends to be reduced to a symbol of a social process and in this way the sociological research loses sight of effects beyond the social. This paper suggests a new theoretical approach...... to the study of alcohol and teenagers' (romantic) relationships, inspired by actor-network theory (ANT). The central feature of ANT is to search for relationships, or rather networks, between all things relevant to the phenomenon. All material and semantic structures, things, persons, discourses, etc....... that influence a given situation are described as actants and are entered into the analysis. The aim of this paper is to propose a way of including materiality in sociological analyses of alcohol and to explore ways of using focus group interview material in ANT-inspired analysis. By analyzing a girl...

  19. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be more vulnerable to brain damage than teen boys who drink. Women also may be more susceptible than men to alcohol-related blackouts, defined as periods of memory loss of events during intoxication without loss of consciousness. ...

  20. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... heavy drinking, most heavy drinkers have developed cirrhosis. Hepatitis C and cirrhosis In general, someone with hepatitis ...

  1. Weight loss and alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Maclean JC. Alcohol consumption and body weight. Health Econ . 2010;19(7):814-832. PMID: 19548203 www. ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  2. Alcohol and Cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol and Cirrhosis Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans and the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting ...

  3. Alcohol and masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemle, R; Mishkind, M E

    1989-01-01

    Alcohol use--and abuse--has always been more prevalent among males than among females. The sex role prescription for men to affirm their masculinity by drinking is a major determinant of this sex difference. This paper reviews the intricate interrelationship between masculinity and both social and alcoholic drinking. A large body of evidence indicates that social drinking is a primary cultural symbol of manliness; portrayals in the media strengthen this association. Less evidence exists to connect masculinity issues with alcoholic dependence, but there has been much speculation: Three psychodynamic theories of alcoholism--the repressed homosexuality, dependency, and power theories--hypothesized that men who drink addictively have the most fragile masculine identities. The 1980s have witnessed a widespread recognition of the dangers of equating drinking and manliness, and societal changes suggest that drinking may be gradually losing its masculine aura.

  4. Alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2018 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:59-60. Carithers RL, McClain C. Alcoholic ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 86. Haines EJ, Oyama LC. ...

  5. Older Adults and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Older Adults A national 2008 survey found that about 40 ... of adults ages 65 and older drink alcohol. Older adults can experience a variety of problems from drinking ...

  6. Non alcoholic steatohepatitis - Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Peter L. M.

    2004-01-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an underdiagnosed liver disease characterized by steatosis, necroinflammation and fibrosis. This disease may eventually develop into cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. NASH is highly prevalent among obese individuals and among patients with diabetes

  7. Alcohol production from whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reesen, L

    1978-01-01

    The continuous production of ethanol from whey permeate, by fermentation of its lactose with Kluyveromyces fragilis, is described. From whey containing 4.4% lactose, production costs were very competitive with those for alcohol from molasses.

  8. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani; Oß wald, Patrick; Hansen, Nils; Kohse-Hö inghaus, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    . While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides

  9. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  10. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch

    2005-01-01

    The oxygen tension of the optic nerve is regulated by the intraocular pressure and systemic blood pressure, the resistance in the blood vessels and oxygen consumption of the tissue. The oxygen tension is autoregulated and moderate changes in intraocular pressure or blood pressure do not affect...... the optic nerve oxygen tension. If the intraocular pressure is increased above 40 mmHg or the ocular perfusion pressure decreased below 50 mmHg the autoregulation is overwhelmed and the optic nerve becomes hypoxic. A disturbance in oxidative metabolism in the cytochromes of the optic nerve can be seen...... at similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human...

  11. Pathology of oxygen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Autor, Anne Pomeroy

    1982-01-01

    This volume has been designed to provide those interested in oxygen toxicity with a working knowledge of advancement in the field with the intention that the topics described in each chapter will be immediately useful...

  12. Using oxygen at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at Home Tell your local fire department, electric company, and telephone company that you use oxygen in your home. They ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  13. Pathology of oxygen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Autor, Anne Pomeroy

    1982-01-01

    .... The book is divided into three general sections. The first and smallest section of the book explains the molecular and biochemical basis of our current understanding of oxygen radical toxicity as well as the means by which normal aerobic cells...

  14. Alcoholic hallucinosis: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara Werner Griciunas; Norton Yoshiaki Kitanishi; Patricia Motta Carvalho; Daniel Azevedo Cavalcante; Leonardo Mattiolli Marini

    2017-01-01

    Case report of patient who has been an alcoholic for 40 years and, after reducing alcohol intake, developed auditory and visual hallucinations, which caused behavior change. Neurological issues, electrolyte disturbances and other organ dysfunctions were excluded as cause of said change. After intake of haloperidol and risperidone, the patient had regression of symptoms and denied having presented hallucinatory symptoms. The Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais – 5ª edição (...

  15. [Alcohol and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seror, E; Chapelon, E; Bué, M; Garnier-Lengliné, H; Lebeaux-Legras, C; Loudenot, A; Lejeune, C

    2009-10-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a major cause of mental retardation in Western countries. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is mainly characterized by pre- and postnatal stunted growth, neurocognitive disorders, and facial dysmorphism. It compromises the intellectual and behavioral prognosis of the child. Prevention tools exist, through better information of health professionals, for optimal care of high-risk women before, during, and after pregnancy, which would decrease the incidence of SAF in the future.

  16. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, M; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Eysteinsson, T

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide.......To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide....

  17. Ekstrakorporal oxygenering ved legionellapneumoni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uslu, Bülent; Steensen, Morten

    2009-01-01

    We present a case report with a 49-year-old woman with legionella pneumonia and fulminant respiratory failure. Despite maximal conventional respirator treatment with positive pressure ventilation, 100% oxygen and pharmacological treatment in an intensive care unit, further deterioration with hypo......We present a case report with a 49-year-old woman with legionella pneumonia and fulminant respiratory failure. Despite maximal conventional respirator treatment with positive pressure ventilation, 100% oxygen and pharmacological treatment in an intensive care unit, further deterioration...

  18. Intraportal islet oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszynski, Thomas M; Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S; Papas, Klearchos K

    2014-05-01

    Islet transplantation (IT) is a promising therapy for the treatment of diabetes. The large number of islets required to achieve insulin independence limit its cost-effectiveness and the number of patients who can be treated. It is believed that >50% of islets are lost in the immediate post-IT period. Poor oxygenation in the early post-IT period is recognized as a possible reason for islet loss and dysfunction but has not been extensively studied. Several key variables affect oxygenation in this setting, including (1) local oxygen partial pressure (pO(2)), (2) islet oxygen consumption, (3) islet size (diameter, D), and (4) presence or absence of thrombosis on the islet surface. We discuss implications of oxygen-limiting conditions on intraportal islet viability and function. Of the 4 key variables, the islet size appears to be the most important determinant of the anoxic and nonfunctional islet volume fractions. Similarly, the effect of thrombus formation on the islet surface may be substantial. At the University of Minnesota, average size distribution data from clinical alloislet preparations (n = 10) indicate that >150-µm D islets account for only ~30% of the total islet number, but >85% of the total islet volume. This suggests that improved oxygen supply to the islets may have a profound impact on islet survivability and function since most of the β-cell volume is within large islets which are most susceptible to oxygen-limiting conditions. The assumption that the liver is a suitable islet transplant site from the standpoint of oxygenation should be reconsidered. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  19. Singlet oxygen quenching by oxygen in tetraphenyl-porphyrin solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedic, Roman; Korinek, Miloslav; Molnar, Alexander; Svoboda, Antonin; Hala, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Time-resolved measurement of singlet oxygen infrared phosphorescence is a powerful tool for determination of quantum yields and kinetics of its photosensitization. This technique was employed to investigate in detail the previously observed effect of singlet oxygen quenching by oxygen. The question whether the singlet oxygen is quenched by oxygen in ground or in excited state was addressed by study of two complementary dependencies of singlet oxygen lifetimes: on dissolved oxygen concentration and on excitation intensity. Oxygen concentration dependence study of meso-tetra(4-sulphonato)phenylporphyrin (TPPS 4 ) phosphorescence kinetics showed linearity of the dependence of TPPS 4 triplet state rate-constant. Corresponding bimolecular quenching constant of (1.5±0.1)x10 9 l/mol s was obtained. On the other hand, rate constants of singlet oxygen depopulation exhibit nonlinear dependence on oxygen concentration. Comparison of zero oxygen concentration-extrapolated value of singlet oxygen lifetime of (6.5±0.4) μs to (3.7±0.1) μs observed under air-saturated conditions indicates importance of the effect of quenching of singlet oxygen by oxygen. Upward-sloping dependencies of singlet oxygen depopulation rate-constant on excitation intensity evidence that singlet oxygen is predominantly quenched by oxygen in excited singlet state

  20. Crystallinity and properties of C60 nanotubes improved by annealing and alcohol-soaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, K.; Matsuishi, K.

    2009-04-01

    Well-uniformed C60 nanotubes were grown at -20 °C with irradiation of red light using C60-saturated pyridine solution and isopropyl alcohol by a liquid-liquid interfacial precipitation method without ultrasonic pulverization. We attempted to improve their crystallinity by two post-treatments; thermal annealing and alcohol-soaking. The crystallinity of as-grown and dried C60 nanotubes, which was poor due to the evaporation of solvent molecules from crystals in the drying process, was improved by annealing around 220 °C for 5 hours in vacuum. Dramatic improvement of crystallinity of as-grown samples was achieved by soaking into methanol and then drying in air. Raman, infrared and X-ray diffraction results suggest that the methanol-soaked samples exhibit a solvated tetragonal structure. The crystallinity improved by methanol-soaking did not degrade after removal of methanol molecules from samples by thermal annealing. Photo-polymerization of the structurally-improved C60 nanotubes was examined to investigate an effect of crystallinity on the polymerization kinetics.

  1. Efficacy and dermal tolerance of a novel alcohol-based skin antiseptic in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannahill, Victoria J; Cogan, Tristan; Allen, Kate; Acutt, Elizabeth; Busschers, Evita

    2018-04-14

    To determine the efficacy and dermal tolerance of a novel alcohol-based skin antiseptic (ABSA) in horses. Experimental study. Systemically healthy horses (n = 25) with no history or clinical signs of skin disease. Four clipped sites on the abdomen were randomly assigned to a skin preparation protocol: saline (negative control; NC), chlorhexidine gluconate followed by isopropyl alcohol (positive control; PC), saline followed by the ABSA (ABSA A), or a commercially available horse shampoo followed by the ABSA (ABSA B). Microbiological swabs were obtained from each site and cultured on MacConkey and mannitol salt agar plates. Colony-forming units were counted 18-24 hours later. All sites were scored for signs of skin reaction before, immediately after, 1 hour after, and 24 hours after skin preparation. The PC, ABSA A, and ABSA B methods reduced skin microbial burden compared with the NC method (P horses required veterinary treatment. The ABSA preparations tested in this study were as effective and well tolerated as a chlorhexidine gluconate-based method, but required less time in healthy horses. The ABSA tested here provides an efficacious, fast-acting, and well-tolerated alternative to achieve skin antisepsis in healthy horses. These results justify further investigation in clinical cases. © 2018 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  2. Crystallinity and properties of C60 nanotubes improved by annealing and alcohol-soaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, K; Matsuishi, K

    2009-01-01

    Well-uniformed C 60 nanotubes were grown at -20 deg. C with irradiation of red light using C 60 -saturated pyridine solution and isopropyl alcohol by a liquid-liquid interfacial precipitation method without ultrasonic pulverization. We attempted to improve their crystallinity by two post-treatments; thermal annealing and alcohol-soaking. The crystallinity of as-grown and dried C 60 nanotubes, which was poor due to the evaporation of solvent molecules from crystals in the drying process, was improved by annealing around 220 deg. C for 5 hours in vacuum. Dramatic improvement of crystallinity of as-grown samples was achieved by soaking into methanol and then drying in air. Raman, infrared and X-ray diffraction results suggest that the methanol-soaked samples exhibit a solvated tetragonal structure. The crystallinity improved by methanol-soaking did not degrade after removal of methanol molecules from samples by thermal annealing. Photo-polymerization of the structurally-improved C 60 nanotubes was examined to investigate an effect of crystallinity on the polymerization kinetics.

  3. Chalcogenide metal centers for oxygen reduction reaction: Activity and tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yongjun; Gago, Aldo; Timperman, Laure; Alonso-Vante, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    This mini-review summarizes materials design methods, oxygen reduction kinetics, tolerance to small organic molecules and fuel cell performance of chalcogenide metal catalysts, particularly, ruthenium (Ru x Se y ) and non-precious transition metals (M x X y : M = Co, Fe and Ni; X = Se and S). These non-platinum catalysts are potential alternatives to Pt-based catalysts because of their comparable catalytic activity (Ru x Se y ), low cost, high abundance and, in particular, a high tolerance to small organic molecules. Developing trends of synthesis methods, mechanism of oxygen reduction reaction and applications in direct alcohol fuel cells as well as the substrate effect are highlighted.

  4. Alcohol drinking pattern and risk of alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Gro; Grønbæk, Morten; Kjær, Mette S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol is the main contributing factor of alcoholic cirrhosis, but less is known about the significance of drinking pattern. METHODS: We investigated the risk of alcoholic cirrhosis among 55,917 participants (aged 50-64years) in the Danish Cancer, Diet, and Health study (1993......-2011). Baseline information on alcohol intake, drinking pattern, and confounders was obtained from a questionnaire. Follow-up information came from national registers. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for alcoholic cirrhosis in relation to drinking frequency, lifetime alcohol amount, and beverage type. RESULTS......: We observed 257 and 85 incident cases of alcoholic cirrhosis among men and women, respectively, none among lifetime abstainers. In men, HR for alcoholic cirrhosis among daily drinkers was 3.65 (95% CI: 2.39; 5.55) compared to drinking 2-4days/week. Alcohol amount in recent age periods (40-49 and 50...

  5. Alcohol-attributable and alcohol-preventable mortality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Becker, Ulrik; Grønbæk, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify alcohol-attributable and -preventable mortality, totally and stratified on alcohol consumption in Denmark 2010, and to estimate alcohol-related mortality assuming different scenarios of changes in alcohol distribution in the population. We estimated alcohol......-attributable and -preventable fractions based on relative risks of conditions causally associated with alcohol from meta-analyses and information on alcohol consumption in Denmark obtained from 14,458 participants in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 and corrected for adult per capita consumption. Cause-specific mortality...... data were obtained from the Danish Register of Causes of Death. In total, 1,373 deaths among women (5.0 % of all deaths) and 2,522 deaths among men (9.5 % of all deaths) were attributable to alcohol, while an estimated number of 765 (2.8 %) and 583 (2.2 %) deaths were prevented by alcohol...

  6. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparing Alcohol Marketing and Alcohol Warning Message Policies Across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettlaufer, Ashley; Cukier, Samantha N; Giesbrecht, Norman

    2017-08-24

    In order to reduce harms from alcohol, evidence-based policies are to be introduced and sustained. To facilitate the dissemination of policies that reduce alcohol-related harms by documenting, comparing, and sharing information on effective alcohol polices related to restrictions on alcohol marketing and alcohol warning messaging in 10 Canadian provinces. Team members developed measurable indicators to assess policies on (a) restrictions on alcohol marketing, and (b) alcohol warning messaging. Indicators were peer-reviewed by three alcohol policy experts, refined, and data were collected, submitted for validation by provincial experts, and scored independently by two team members. The national average score was 52% for restrictions on marketing policies and 18% for alcohol warning message policies. Most provinces had marketing regulations that went beyond the federal guidelines with penalties for violating marketing regulations. The provincial liquor boards' web pages focused on product promotion, and there were few restrictions on sponsorship activities. No province has implemented alcohol warning labels, and Ontario was the sole province to have legislated warning signs at all points-of-sale. Most provinces provided a variety of warning signs to be displayed voluntarily at points-of-sale; however, the quality of messages varied. Conclusions/Importance: There is extensive alcohol marketing with comparatively few messages focused on the potential harms associated with alcohol. It is recommended that governments collaborate with multiple stakeholders to maximize the preventive impact of restrictions on alcohol marketing and advertising, and a broader implementation of alcohol warning messages.

  8. Investigation of regional cerebral blood flow in alcoholic Korsakoff`s syndrome with {sup 123}I-IMP SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Makoto; Nomura, Soichiro [Tachikawa Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kato, Motoichiro; Nakazawa, Tsuneyuki

    1995-05-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was determined quantitatively by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}I]iodoamphetamine ({sup 123}I-IMP) in 6 patients with alcoholic Korsakoff`s syndrome (A group). The findings were compared with concurrently available findings from 6 alcoholic patients with no evidence of cerebral disordres such as Korsakoff`s syndrome and dementia (B group) and 4 healthy persons (C group). In both A and B groups, diffuse decrease in blood flow was significantly observed in the entire brain, as compared with the C group; no significant difference in the decreased blood flow existed between the A and B groups. According to the WAIS results, the patients in the A group were classified as `typical Korsakoff`s syndrome` (full IQ of 90 or more) and as `serious Korsakoff`s syndrome` (full IQ of 89 or less). rCBF in the thalamus was significantly lower in the A group of patients with typical Korsakoff`s syndrome than the B group. These findings may reflect the variety of alcoholic Korsakoff`s syndrome. This may also have an implication for the possible classification of several types in this syndrome. (N.K.).

  9. Comparative techno-economic analysis and process design for indirect liquefaction pathways to distillate-range fuels via biomass-derived oxygenated intermediates upgrading: Liquid Transportation Fuel Production via Biomass-derived Oxygenated Intermediates Upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric C. D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Talmadge, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Jones, Susanne [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Gray, Michel [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Dagle, Robert [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Padmaperuma, Asanga [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Gerber, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Sahir, Asad H. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Tao, Ling [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Zhang, Yanan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA

    2016-09-27

    This paper presents a comparative techno-economic analysis (TEA) of five conversion pathways from biomass to gasoline-, jet-, and diesel-range hydrocarbons via indirect liquefaction with specific focus on pathways utilizing oxygenated intermediates. The four emerging pathways of interest are compared with one conventional pathway (Fischer-Tropsch) for the production of the hydrocarbon blendstocks. The processing steps of the four emerging pathways include: biomass to syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, conversion of syngas to alcohols/oxygenates followed by conversion of alcohols/oxygenates to hydrocarbon blendstocks via dehydration, oligomerization, and hydrogenation. Conversion of biomass-derived syngas to oxygenated intermediates occurs via three different pathways, producing: 1) mixed alcohols over a MoS2 catalyst, 2) mixed oxygenates (a mixture of C2+ oxygenated compounds, predominantly ethanol, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate) using an Rh-based catalyst, and 3) ethanol from syngas fermentation. This is followed by the conversion of oxygenates/alcohols to fuel-range olefins in two approaches: 1) mixed alcohols/ethanol to 1-butanol rich mixture via Guerbet reaction, followed by alcohol dehydration, oligomerization, and hydrogenation, and 2) mixed oxygenates/ethanol to isobutene rich mixture and followed by oligomerization and hydrogenation. The design features a processing capacity of 2,000 tonnes/day (2,205 short tons) of dry biomass. The minimum fuel selling prices (MFSPs) for the four developing pathways range from $3.40 to $5.04 per gasoline-gallon equivalent (GGE), in 2011 US dollars. Sensitivity studies show that MFSPs can be improved with co-product credits and are comparable to the commercial Fischer-Tropsch benchmark ($3.58/GGE). Overall, this comparative TEA study documents potential economics for the developmental biofuel pathways via mixed oxygenates.

  10. Diffusion of Oxygen in Alginate Gels Related to the Kinetics of Methanol Oxidation by Immobilized Hansenula polymorpha Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Harry; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Harder, Willem

    1983-01-01

    In the yeast Hansenula polymorpha an oxygen-requiring enzyme, alcohol oxidase, catalyzes the conversion of methanol into formaldehyde. After growth on methanol cells of the organism were harvested and entrapped in barium-alginate gels. The diffusion of oxygen towards these cells is seriously

  11. Serum protein binding displacement: theoretical analysis using a hypothetical radiopharmaceutical and experimental analysis with 123I-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Keiichi; Nishii, Ryuichi; Shikano, Naoto; Makino, Nobuo; Kuga, Noriyuki; Yoshimoto, Mitsuyoshi; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Nagamachi, Shigeki; Tamura, Shozo; Takamura, Norito

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The binding of radiopharmaceutical to serum proteins is thought to be an important factor that restricts its excretion and accumulation in tissue. We calculated the effect of inhibitors of serum protein binding using a hypothetical radiopharmaceutical. In vitro experiments and protein binding inhibitor-loaded monkey scintigraphy were then conducted using 123 I-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) as the radiopharmaceutical. Methods: Free fraction ratios of radiopharmaceutical were calculated with one radiopharmaceutical, two serum proteins and two specific inhibitors in the steady state at various serum protein concentrations. In vitro protein binding inhibition studies using human, rat and monkey sera were performed with site-selective displacers of specific binding sites: 400 μM 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6MNA; a major nabumeton metabolite) as a serum albumin Site II inhibitor and 400 μM erythromycin (ETC) as an α 1 -acid glycoprotein (AGP) site inhibitor. Scintigraphy with or without 6MNA loading of monkeys was performed. Results: The theoretical findings roughly corresponded to the experimental results. Approximately 75% of IMP bound to serum albumin Site II and AGP in the species examined. The free fraction of IMP (25.0±0.6% for human, 22.8±0.4% for monkey, 23.7±0.3% for rat) increased with loading of specific protein binding inhibitors (6MNA: 28.0±0.3% for human, 24.5±0.7% for monkey, 24.3±0.2% for rat; ETC: 26.3±0.4% for human, 29.5±1.1% for monkey, 26.0±0.7% for rat) and was serum protein concentration dependant based on the results of calculations. Simultaneous administration of 6MNA and ETC produced a higher free fraction ratio of IMP (31.9±1.0% for human, 34.6±0.4% for monkey, 27.0±0.3% for rat) than summation of the single administrations of 6MNA and ETC (domino effect) in human, rat and monkey sera. Rapid cerebral accumulation was observed with 6MNA loading in monkey scintigraphy. Conclusions: 6MNA appears to change

  12. Acute Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and Gun Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branas, Charles C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    A case–control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  13. Alcohol and the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, S; Montalvo, R

    1998-01-01

    Alcoholic pancreatitis may be one of the most serious adverse consequences of alcohol abuse. Its diagnosis, as it has for many years, depends primarily on clinical acumen in interpreting properly the symptoms and signs of abdominal distress, buttressed by elevated pancreatic enzymes (amylase and lipase). More recently, the use of computerized tomography (CT) in selected situations has been both of confirmatory and prognostic value. Severity of abnormality by CT correlates reasonably well with a variety of clinical-laboratory clusters (APACHE system, Ranson's criteria, etc.) and aids in therapy. The pathogenesis of alcoholic pancreatitis is not fully defined. The ultimate picture is one of tissue autolysis by activated proteolytic enzymes. The triggers for such activation, however, are still not known. They are represented by three main theories: (1) large duct obstruction and/or increased permeability relative to pancreatic secretion, (2) small duct obstruction due to proteinaceous precipitates, and (3) a direct toxic-metabolic effect of ethanol on pancreatic acinar cells. While not mutually exclusive, we favor the last hypothesis as being most consistent with the effects of ethanol on other organ systems. The direct effects of ethanol and/or its metabolites may be mediated, at least in part, via oxidative stress or the generation of fatty acid ethyl esters. Autolysis (regardless of proximate mechanism(s)) leads to inflammation likely mediated via release of various cytokines. It also should be appreciated that "acute" pancreatitis (the topic of this chapter) likely represents an acute process within a chronic pancreatic exposure and injury from alcoholic abuse. The key question of why pancreatitis develops in only a small number of alcohol abusers is not resolved. Therapy depends on the severity of alcoholic pancreatitis, which is defined by clinical-laboratory and often CT criteria. Mild pancreatitis usually resolves acutely with alcohol abstention and supportive

  14. Oxygen contribution to phenolic evolution during aging of red wines

    OpenAIRE

    Picariello, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Red wine aging is essentially an oxidative process mainly regulated by wine phenolic composition and storage conditions. Wines contain hydroquinones such as catechol derivatives that undergo redox reactions, reducing oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. These reaction are catalized by metals. Iron(II) species present react with hydrogen peroxide to form hydroxyl radicals in the Fenton reaction. These radicals can then react with alcohols to form aldehydes. Because ethanol is the predomina...

  15. Closed Loop Control of Oxygen Delivery and Oxygen Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    were used for this study and were connected via a USB cable to allow communication. The ventilator was modified to allow closed loop control of oxygen...connected via a USB cable to allow communication. The ventilator was modified to allow closed loop control of oxygen based on the oxygen saturation...2017-4119, 28 Aug 2017. oximetry (SpO2) and intermittent arterial blood sampling for arterial oxygen tension (partial pressure of oxygen [PaO2]) and

  16. Exposure to alcohol advertisements and teenage alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenard, Jerry L; Dent, Clyde W; Stacy, Alan W

    2013-02-01

    This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents' jobs, and parents' education. Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence.

  17. Exposure to Alcohol Advertisements and Teenage Alcohol-Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. METHODS: A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents’ jobs, and parents’ education. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. CONCLUSIONS: Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence. PMID:23359585

  18. Anticonvulsants for alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Silvia; Amato, Laura; Vecchi, Simona; Davoli, Marina

    2010-03-17

    Alcohol abuse and dependence represents a most serious health problem worldwide with major social, interpersonal and legal interpolations. Besides benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants are often used for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal symptoms. Anticonvulsants drugs are indicated for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, alone or in combination with benzodiazepine treatments. In spite of the wide use, the exact role of the anticonvulsants for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal has not yet bee adequately assessed. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of anticonvulsants in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. We searched Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group' Register of Trials (December 2009), PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL (1966 to December 2009), EconLIT (1969 to December 2009). Parallel searches on web sites of health technology assessment and related agencies, and their databases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effectiveness, safety and overall risk-benefit of anticonvulsants in comparison with a placebo or other pharmacological treatment. All patients were included regardless of age, gender, nationality, and outpatient or inpatient therapy. Two authors independently screened and extracted data from studies. Fifty-six studies, with a total of 4076 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Comparing anticonvulsants with placebo, no statistically significant differences for the six outcomes considered.Comparing anticonvulsant versus other drug, 19 outcomes considered, results favour anticonvulsants only in the comparison carbamazepine versus benzodiazepine (oxazepam and lorazepam) for alcohol withdrawal symptoms (CIWA-Ar score): 3 studies, 262 participants, MD -1.04 (-1.89 to -0.20), none of the other comparisons reached statistical significance.Comparing different anticonvulsants no statistically significant differences in the two outcomes considered.Comparing anticonvulsants plus other drugs versus other drugs (3 outcomes considered), results

  19. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  20. Stress, Epigenetics, and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonat, Sachin; Pandey, Subhash C.

    2012-01-01

    Acute and chronic stressors have been associated with alterations in mood and increased anxiety that may eventually result in the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Stress and associated disorders, including anxiety, are key factors in the development of alcoholism because alcohol consumption can temporarily reduce the drinker’s dysphoria. One molecule that may help mediate the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein that regulates the structure and function of the sites where two nerve cells interact and exchange nerve signals (i.e., synapses) and which is involved in numerous physiological processes. Aberrant regulation of BDNF signaling and alterations in synapse activity (i.e., synaptic plasticity) have been associated with the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders and alcoholism. Mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of genetic information without modification of the DNA sequence (i.e., epigenetic mechanisms) may play a role in the complex control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity—for example, by modifying the structure of the DNA–protein complexes (i.e., chromatin) that make up the chromosomes and thereby modulating the expression of certain genes. Studies regarding the epigenetic control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity provide a promising direction to understand the mechanisms mediating the interaction between stress and alcoholism. PMID:23584115

  1. Distribution of motor-alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandberg, Aa.; Saevbark, B.

    1996-10-01

    The study is made on the assumption that Sweden, as a first step, will substitute alcohol fuels for five percent of the gasoline and diesel consumption, i.e. 700-900,000 m 3 alcohol/year, and later increase the alcohol share. Alcohol will be mixed into all gasoline, and one new fuel quality (85 percent alcohol) will be introduced during a ten year period. The cost for adapting the distribution system to alcohol fuels, and for building new service stations etc are also estimated. 15 refs

  2. Oxygen Dependent Biocatalytic Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Asbjørn Toftgaard

    Enzyme catalysts have the potential to improve both the process economics and the environ-mental profile of many oxidation reactions especially in the fine- and specialty-chemical industry, due to their exquisite ability to perform stereo-, regio- and chemo-selective oxida-tions at ambient...... to aldehydes and ketones, oxyfunctionalization of C-H bonds, and epoxidation of C-C double bonds. Although oxygen dependent biocatalysis offers many possibilities, there are numerous chal-lenges to be overcome before an enzyme can be implemented in an industrial process. These challenges requires the combined...... far below their potential maximum catalytic rate at industrially relevant oxygen concentrations. Detailed knowledge of the en-zyme kinetics are therefore required in order to determine the best operating conditions and design oxygen supply to minimize processing costs. This is enabled...

  3. Oxygen therapy reduces postoperative tachycardia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stausholm, K; Kehlet, H; Rosenberg, J

    1995-01-01

    Concomitant hypoxaemia and tachycardia in the postoperative period is unfavourable for the myocardium. Since hypoxaemia per se may be involved in the pathogenesis of postoperative tachycardia, we have studied the effect of oxygen therapy on tachycardia in 12 patients randomly allocated to blinded...... air or oxygen by facemask on the second or third day after major surgery. Inclusion criteria were arterial hypoxaemia (oxygen saturation 90 beat.min-1). Each patient responded similarly to oxygen therapy: an increase in arterial oxygen saturation and a decrease...... in heart rate (p oxygen has a positive effect on the cardiac oxygen delivery and demand balance....

  4. Hyperbaric oxygen and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, R.; Hamilton-Farrell, M.R.; Kleij, A.J. van der

    2005-01-01

    Background: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy is the inhalation of 100% oxygen at a pressure of at least 1.5 atmospheres absolute (150 kPa). It uses oxygen as a drug by dissolving it in the plasma and delivering it to the tissues independent of hemoglobin. For a variety of organ systems, HBO is known to promote new vessel growth into areas with reduced oxygen tension due to poor vascularity, and therewith promotes wound healing and recovery of radiation-injured tissue. Furthermore, tumors may be sensitized to irradiation by raising intratumoral oxygen tensions. Methods: A network of hyperbaric facilities exists in Europe, and a number of clinical studies are ongoing. The intergovernmental framework COST B14 action 'Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy' started in 1999. The main goal of the Working Group Oncology is preparation and actual implementation of prospective study protocols in the field of HBO and radiation oncology in Europe. Results: In this paper a short overview on HBO is given and the following randomized clinical studies are presented: (a) reirradiation of recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck after HBO sensitization; (b) role of HBO in enhancing radiosensitivity on glioblastoma multiforme; (c) osseointegration in irradiated patients; adjunctive HBO to prevent implant failures; (d) the role of HBO in the treatment of late irradiation sequelae in the pelvic region. The two radiosensitization protocols (a, b) allow a time interval between HBO and subsequent irradiation of 10-20 min. Conclusion: Recruitment of centers and patients is being strongly encouraged, detailed information is given on www.oxynet.org. (orig.)

  5. Cue reactivity is associated with duration and severity of alcohol dependence: an FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsika Sjoerds

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: With the progression of substance dependence, drug cue-related brain activation is thought to shift from motivational towards habit pathways. However, a direct association between cue-induced brain activation and dependence duration has not yet been shown. We therefore examined the relationship between alcohol cue-reactivity in the brain, cue-induced subjective craving and alcohol dependence duration and severity. Since alcohol dependence is highly comorbid with depression/anxiety, which may modulate brain responses to alcohol cues, we also examined the relation between comorbid depression/anxiety and cue-reactivity. METHODS: We compared 30 alcohol dependent patients with 15 healthy controls and 15 depression/anxiety patients during a visual alcohol cue-reactivity task using functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygenated level-dependent responses and subjective craving as outcomes. Within the alcohol dependent group we correlated cue-reactivity with alcohol dependence severity and duration, with cue-induced craving and with depression/anxiety levels. RESULTS: Alcohol dependent patients showed greater cue-reactivity in motivational brain pathways and stronger subjective craving than depression/anxiety patients and healthy controls. Depression/anxiety was not associated with cue-reactivity, but depression severity in alcohol dependent patients was positively associated with craving. Within alcohol dependence, longer duration of alcohol dependence was associated with stronger cue-related activation of the posterior putamen, a structure involved in habits, whereas higher alcohol dependence severity was associated with lower cue-reactivity in the anterior putamen, an area implicated in goal-directed behavior preceding habit formation. CONCLUSION: Cue-reactivity in alcohol dependence is not modulated by comorbid depression or anxiety. More importantly, the current data confirm the hypothesis of a ventral to dorsal striatal shift

  6. Atom interaction propensities of oxygenated chemical functions in crystal packings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Jelsch

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The crystal contacts of several families of hydrocarbon compounds substituted with one or several types of oxygenated chemical groups were analyzed statistically using the Hirshfeld surface methodology. The propensity of contacts to occur between two chemical types is described with the contact enrichment descriptor. The systematic large enrichment ratios of some interactions like the O—H...O hydrogen bonds suggests that these contacts are a driving force in the crystal packing formation. The same statement holds for the weaker C—H...O hydrogen bonds in ethers, esters and ketones, in the absence of polar H atoms. The over-represented contacts in crystals of oxygenated hydrocarbons are generally of two types: electrostatic attractions (hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. While Cl...O interactions are generally avoided, in a minority of chloro-oxygenated hydrocarbons, significant halogen bonding does occur. General tendencies can often be derived for many contact types, but outlier compounds are instructive as they display peculiar or rare features. The methodology also allows the detection of outliers which can be structures with errors. For instance, a significant number of hydroxylated molecules displaying over-represented non-favorable oxygen–oxygen contacts turned out to have wrongly oriented hydroxyl groups. Beyond crystal packings with a single molecule in the asymmetric unit, the behavior of water in monohydrate compounds and of crystals with Z′ = 2 (dimers are also investigated. It was found in several cases that, in the presence of several oxygenated chemical groups, cross-interactions between different chemical groups (e.g. water/alcohols; alcohols/phenols are often favored in the crystal packings. While some trends in accordance with common chemical principles are retrieved, some unexpected results can however appear. For example, in crystals of alcohol–phenol compounds, the strong O—H...O hydrogen bonds between

  7. Novel nanostructured oxygen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Alan James

    New government regulations and industry requirements for medical oxygen sensors require the development of alternate materials and process optimization of primary sensor components. Current oxygen sensors are not compliant with the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive. This work focused on two areas. First, was finding suitable readily available materials for the sensor anodes. Second was optimizing the processing of the sensor cathode membrane for reduced delamination. Oxygen sensors were made using tin (Sn) and bismuth (Bi) electrodes, potassium hydroxide (KOH) and acetic acid (CH3COOH) electrolytes with platinum (Pt) and gold (Au) reference electrodes. Bi electrodes were fabricated by casting and pressing processes. Electrochemical characterization of the Sn and Bi electrodes was performed by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and sensing characterization per BSEN ISO 21647:2009 at various oxygen percentages, 0%, 20.9% and 100% oxygen levels with an automated test apparatus. The Sn anode with both electrolyte solutions showed good oxygen sensing properties and performance in a sensor. This system shows promise for replacement of Pb electrodes as required by the RoHS Directive. The Bi anode with Au cathode in both KOH and CH3COOH electrolytes showed acceptable performance and oxygen sensing properties. The Bi anodes fabricated by separate manufacturing methods demonstrated effectiveness for use in medical oxygen sensors. Gold thin films were prepared by magnetron sputtering on Flouroethylene Polymer (FEP) films. The FEP substrate temperature ranged from -77°C to 50°C. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and 4-point resistivity characterized the effects of substrate temperature to Au thin film particle size. XRD peak broadening and resistivity measurements showed a strong correlation of particle size to FEP substrate temperature. Particle size at 50°C was 594A and the -77°C particle size was 2.4 x 103A. Substrate

  8. Continuous alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smidrkal, M; Nejedly, A

    1956-01-01

    Results are given of investigations on the continuous production of ethanol on a laboratory and on a semi-commercial scale. The suggested devices are particularly described. Under constant conditions the production cycle required 12 to 17 days, the acidity being 4.0 to 415 ml. 0.1 N NaOH/100 ml and the concentration of fermented wort 10.5 to 11%. The maximum production from 1 h of fermentation space during 24 h was 8.67 l of absolute alcohol when the efflux was divided into several basins; when the efflux of sweet wort was collected into one basin only, the maximum production was 7.20 l of absolute alcohol. The amount of alcohol produced was 62.20 l/100 kg sugar.

  9. North America markets for alcohol and alcohol-derived motor fuels and need for tax incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haigwood, B.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. fuel alcohol and ether industry has grown from its infancy in 1979 to approximately 2.9 billion gallons of production capacity in 1991. With the emphasis on clean air, the uncertainties in the Middle East, and fluctuating oil prices, IRI believes the demand for alcohol-derived motor fuels is poised to begin a second phase of expansion. Historically, the two primary alcohol-derived motor fuels sold in the U.S. have been methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and ethanol. There is also a limited but growing use of methanol as 85% blendstock for gasoline. Since 1978, fuel ethanol has provided the U.S. petroleum industry with an additional source of supply, octane, and profit. Its price was based on the price of wholesale gasoline plus available federal and state tax incentives. These incentives allowed ethanol, with production costs of $1.00 to $1.25 per gallon, to compete with gasoline at prices of 40 to 65 per gallon. Without the federal and state tax incentives, it would not be economically feasible to sell or manufacture fuel ethanol. On the other hand, the largest consumption of methanol has been as a feedstock for the production of MTBE, the world's fastest growing chemical over the past seven years. MTBE prices are based on the cost of raising the octane level of gasoline, and this commodity does not receive subsidies. Beginning in 1992, IRI predicts the price relationship between ethanol, MTBE, and gasoline will change as U.S. refiners and marketers are required to include oxygenated fuels (alcohol-derived) in their gasoline. In total, over 60 billion gallons of gasoline will need to be reformulated by the year 2000. The increased demand for oxygen will result in a 2.5-billion gallon deficit of MTBE and 1.2-billion gallon deficit of ethanol by the year 2000. 2 tabs

  10. Receptivity to alcohol marketing predicts initiation of alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lisa; Feighery, Ellen C; Schleicher, Nina C; Fortmann, Stephen P

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the influence of alcohol advertising and promotions on the initiation of alcohol use. A measure of receptivity to alcohol marketing was developed from research about tobacco marketing. Recall and recognition of alcohol brand names were also examined. Data were obtained from in-class surveys of sixth, seventh, and eighth graders at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Participants who were classified as never drinkers at baseline (n = 1,080) comprised the analysis sample. Logistic regression models examined the association of advertising receptivity at baseline with any alcohol use and current drinking at follow-up, adjusting for multiple risk factors, including peer alcohol use, school performance, risk taking, and demographics. At baseline, 29% of never drinkers either owned or wanted to use an alcohol branded promotional item (high receptivity), 12% students named the brand of their favorite alcohol ad (moderate receptivity), and 59% were not receptive to alcohol marketing. Approximately 29% of adolescents reported any alcohol use at follow-up; 13% reported drinking at least 1 or 2 days in the past month. Never drinkers who reported high receptivity to alcohol marketing at baseline were 77% more likely to initiate drinking by follow-up than those were not receptive. Smaller increases in the odds of alcohol use at follow-up were associated with better recall and recognition of alcohol brand names at baseline. Alcohol advertising and promotions are associated with the uptake of drinking. Prevention programs may reduce adolescents' receptivity to alcohol marketing by limiting their exposure to alcohol ads and promotions and by increasing their skepticism about the sponsors' marketing tactics.

  11. Alcohol consumption and the risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria D Coronado

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies addressing the association of alcohol consumption with breast cancer consistently suggest a modest association and a dose-response relationship. The epidemiologic evidence does not point to a single mechanism to explain the association, and several mechanisms have been proposed. Alcohol consumption is shown to increase levels of endogenous estrogens, known risk factors for breast cancer. This hypothesis is further supported by data showing that the alcohol-breast cancer association is limited to women with estrogen-receptor positive tumors. Products of alcohol metabolism are known to be toxic and are hypothesized to cause DNA modifications that lead to cancer. Recent research has focused on genes that influence the rate of alcohol metabolism, with genes that raise blood concentrations of acetaldehyde hypothesized to heighten breast cancer risk. Mounting evidence suggests that antioxidant intake(e.g.folatemayreducealcohol-associatedbreast cancer risk, because it neutralizes reactive oxygen species, a second-stage product of alcohol metabolism. Diets lacking sufficient antioxidant intake, as a result, may further elevate the risk of breast cancer among alcohol consumers. Given that alcohol consumption is increasing worldwide and especially among women in countries of rapid economic growth, a greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying the known alcohol-breast cancer association is warranted.Avoiding overconsumption of alcohol is recommended, especially for women with known risk factors for breast cancer.Diversos estudios epidemiológicos muestran la asociación del consumo de alcohol con el cáncer de mama de forma consistente, lo que sugiere una modesta asociación, y una relación de dosis-respuesta.La evidencia no apunta a un mecanismo único para explicar la asociación y varios mecanismos han sido propuestos. El consumo de alcohol incrementa los niveles endógenos de estrógeno, un riesgo conocido para cáncer de

  12. Acute Alcoholic Hepatitis: Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Paulina K; Lucey, Michael R

    2016-08-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) causes great morbidity and mortality in the United States and throughout the world. Advances in therapy have proven difficult. In part, this reflects challenges in diagnosis, including the distinction between AH and acute-on-chronic liver failure. Liver biopsy is the best method to clarify the cause in circumstances whereby conflicting clinical data confound the diagnosis. All treatment of AH begins with abstinence from alcohol. All patients with AH should be given sufficient nutrition. Prednisolone has become the principal agent for treating patients with severe AH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Koji for alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, T; Ogihara, H

    1956-06-25

    The pressed cake of fermented alcohol mash was used for preparing koji. The cake included considerable amounts of sugar, N-containing materials, enzymes, and vitamins, and gave a high-quality koji for alcohol fermentation. For example, the cake can be mixed with wheat bran and rice husks in the proportion 6:5:0 or 6:2:3 to make koji in the usual way. The saccharification power of the new koji was about 1.1 to 1.2 times as strong as that of usual koji prepared from wheat bran and rice husks.

  14. Fermentative alcohol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  15. The definition of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, J S

    1993-11-01

    Formulations of alcohol dependence are continuously refreshed, in line with changing concepts and altered needs. Two new descriptions have been prepared: the revised WHO criteria for substance use disorders and an educative definition of alcoholism. The major sets of diagnostic criteria provided by WHO and by the American Psychiatric Association are moving closer together but have not solved all the semantic problems. More refined assessments are also available to quicken fulfillment of the long-awaited hope that treatments can be matched to patients.

  16. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dehydrogenase 3 polymorphism, and colorectal adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, E.W.; Wark, P.A.; Ocké, M.C.; Bunschoten, A.; Otten, M.H.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol is a probable risk factor with regard to colorectal neoplasm and is metabolized to the carcinogen acetaldehyde by the genetically polymorphic alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) enzyme. We evaluated whether the association between alcohol and colorectal adenomas is modified by ADH3 polymorphism.

  17. NEUROCOGNITIVE ASSESSMENT OF ALCOHOL INPATIENTSDURING RECOVERY FROM ALCOHOLISM*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilijana Šprah

    2008-05-01

    Our study demonstrated that some alcohol-related cognitive, emotional and motivationaldeficits can also persist to certain extent after several weeks of sobriety. Especially alcoholabstainers with suicidal history revealed a specific neuropsychological profile in this regard. Employed neurocognitive assessment proved as useful approach for clinical evaluation of alcohol abstainers functioning, since cognitive deficits have been also hypothesizedto affect the efficacy of alcoholism treatment

  18. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects in Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancratz, Diane R.

    This literature review defines Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) and considers their causes, diagnoses, prevalence, and educational ramifications. Effects of alcohol during each of the trimesters of pregnancy are summarized. Specific diagnostic characteristics of FAS are listed: (1) growth deficiency, (2) a…

  19. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toolkit American College of Nurse-Midwives – Alcohol and Pregnancy The Arc’s FASD Prevention Project NIH’s National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) NIH/NIAAA Fact Sheet: Fetal Alcohol Exposure ...

  20. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001944.htm Alcohol use and safe drinking To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine, or hard liquor. ...

  1. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fede, Giuseppe; Germani, Giacomo; Gluud, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  2. Effectiveness of passive alcohol sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Author's abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of passive alcohol sensors for youth alcohol enforcement conducted as part of normal or typical police operations. Three municipal police departments of 100 or more sworn ...

  3. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Pedersen, D B; Eysteinsson, T

    2004-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetazolamide and dorzolamide raise optic nerve oxygen tension (ONPO(2)) in pigs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether timolol, which belongs to another group of glaucoma drugs called beta...

  4. Home Oxygen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cold it can hurt your skin. Keep a fire extinguisher close by, and let your fire department know that you have oxygen in your ... any symptoms of illness. Medicare, Medicaid, and Commercial Insurance Certain insurance policies may pay for all your ...

  5. Central oxygen pipeline failure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    surgical intensive care unit (ICU), with two patients on full ventilation and ... uncertainty around the cause of the failure and the restoration, .... soon as its level also falls below three tons. Should ... (properly checked and closed prior to each anaesthetic). ... in use at the time of the central oxygen pipeline failure at Tygerberg.

  6. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is not a novel therapy in the true sense of the ... Intention-to-treat analysis showed benefit for ECMO, with a relative risk ... no doubt that VV-ECMO is an advance in medical technology, and that.

  7. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  8. Ocean Ridges and Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmuir, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The history of oxygen and the fluxes and feedbacks that lead to its evolution through time remain poorly constrained. It is not clear whether oxygen has had discrete steady state levels at different times in Earth's history, or whether oxygen evolution is more progressive, with trigger points that lead to discrete changes in markers such as mass independent sulfur isotopes. Whatever this history may have been, ocean ridges play an important and poorly recognized part in the overall mass balance of oxidants and reductants that contribute to electron mass balance and the oxygen budget. One example is the current steady state O2 in the atmosphere. The carbon isotope data suggest that the fraction of carbon has increased in the Phanerozoic, and CO2 outgassing followed by organic matter burial should continually supply more O2 to the surface reservoirs. Why is O2 not then increasing? A traditional answer to this question would relate to variations in the fraction of burial of organic matter, but this fraction appears to have been relatively high throughout the Phanerozoic. Furthermore, subduction of carbon in the 1/5 organic/carbonate proportions would contribute further to an increasingly oxidized surface. What is needed is a flux of oxidized material out of the system. One solution would be a modern oxidized flux to the mantle. The current outgassing flux of CO2 is ~3.4*1012 moles per year. If 20% of that becomes stored organic carbon, that is a flux of .68*1012 moles per year of reduced carbon. The current flux of oxidized iron in subducting ocean crust is ~2*1012 moles per year of O2 equivalents, based on the Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios in old ocean crust compared to fresh basalts at the ridge axis. This flux more than accounts for the incremental oxidizing power produced by modern life. It also suggests a possible feedback through oxygenation of the ocean. A reduced deep ocean would inhibit oxidation of ocean crust, in which case there would be no subduction flux of oxidized

  9. Aerobic, catalytic oxidation of alcohols in ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Roberto F. de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and simple catalytic system based on RuCl3 dissolved in ionic liquids has been developed for the oxidation of alcohols into aldehydes and ketones under mild conditions. A new fluorinated ionic liquid, 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium pentadecafluorooctanoate, was synthesized and demonstrated better performance that the other ionic liquids employed. Moreover this catalytic system utilizes molecular oxygen as an oxidizing agent, producing water as the only by-product.

  10. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2002-01-01

    Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the Western world today. Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the Western world today. Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  11. On monitoring unrecorded alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Rehm, Jürgen; Poznyak, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Unrecorded alcohol consumption is a global problem, with about 25% of all alcohol consumption concerning this category. There are different forms of unrecorded alcohol, legally produced versus illegally produced, artisanal vs industrially produced, and then surrogate alcohol, which is officially not intended for human consumption. Monitoring and surveillance of unrecorded consumption is not well developed. The World Health Organization has developed a monitoring system, using the Nominal Grou...

  12. Alcohol myopia and goal commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Sevincer, A. Timur; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    According to alcohol myopia theory, acute alcohol consumption leads people to disproportionally focus on the salient rather than the peripheral aspects of a situation. We summarize various studies exploring how myopic processes resulting from acute alcohol intake affect goal commitment. After consuming alcohol student participants felt strongly committed to an important personal goal even though they had low expectations of successfully attaining the goal. However, once intoxicated participan...

  13. The ap?ritif effect: alcohol's effects on the brain's response to food aromas in women

    OpenAIRE

    Eiler, William J.A.; D?emid?i?, Mario; Case, K. Rose; Soeurt, Christina M.; Armstrong, Cheryl L.H.; Mattes, Richard D.; O'Connor, Sean J.; Harezlak, Jaroslaw; Acton, Anthony J.; Considine, Robert V.; Kareken, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Consuming alcohol prior to a meal (an ap?ritif) increases food consumption. This greater food consumption may result from increased activity in brain regions that mediate reward and regulate feeding behavior. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we evaluated the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response to the food aromas of either roast beef or Italian meat sauce following pharmacokinetically controlled intravenous infusion of alcohol. Methods BOLD activation to foo...

  14. Oxygen diffusion in monazite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Nakamura, M.; Watson, E. B.

    2004-09-01

    We report measurements of oxygen diffusion in natural monazites under both dry, 1-atm conditions and hydrothermal conditions. For dry experiments, 18O-enriched CePO4 powder and monazite crystals were sealed in Ag-Pd capsules with a solid buffer (to buffer at NNO) and annealed in 1-atm furnaces. Hydrothermal runs were conducted in cold-seal pressure vessels, where monazite grains were encapsulated with 18O-enriched water. Following the diffusion anneals, oxygen concentration profiles were measured with Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) using the reaction 18O(p,α)15N. Over the temperature range 850-1100 °C, the Arrhenius relation determined for dry diffusion experiments on monazite is given by: Under wet conditions at 100 MPa water pressure, over the temperature range 700-880 °C, oxygen diffusion can be described by the Arrhenius relationship: Oxygen diffusion under hydrothermal conditions has a significantly lower activation energy for diffusion than under dry conditions, as has been found the case for many other minerals, both silicate and nonsilicate. Given these differences in activation energies, the differences between dry and wet diffusion rates increase with lower temperatures; for example, at 600 °C, dry diffusion will be more than 4 orders of magnitude slower than diffusion under hydrothermal conditions. These disparate diffusivities will result in pronounced differences in the degree of retentivity of oxygen isotope signatures. For instance, under dry conditions (presumably rare in the crust) and high lower-crustal temperatures (∼800 °C), monazite cores of 70-μm radii will preserve O isotope ratios for about 500,000 years; by comparison, they would be retained at this temperature under wet conditions for about 15,000 years.

  15. The synthesis of SL-75.212 (Betaxolol) labelled with carbon 14: 1-[4-(2-cyclopropyl methoxyethyl-[1-14C]) phenoxy]-3-isopropyl amino-2-propanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, F.; Beaucourt, J.P.; Pichat, L.

    1982-01-01

    Carbonation with 14 CO 2 of the Grigard reagent 1 gave 4-benzyloxy [carboxyl- 14 C] benzoic acid: 2 (87 % yield). 2 was successively treated in diethyl ether solution with diazomethane and lithium aluminium hydride giving rise to [7- 14 C] 4 benzyloxybenzyl alcohol 4 (82 % yield). Alcohol 4 was transformed into the corresponding chloride 5 when exposed to thionylchloride in ether. 5 was condensed with NaCN in DMF to give the nitrile 6 which was hydrolysed into the acid 7 isolated in a 75 % overall yield from Ba 14 CO 3 . 7 gave the alcohol 9 by successive treatments with diazomethane and LiAlH 4 in ether. 9 with NaH gave the corresponding alkoxide which when condensed with bromomethylcyclopropane gave the ether 10 purified by silicagel column chromatography and isolated with an overall yield of 71 % from Ba 14 CO 3 . Hydrogenolysis of 10 gave the phenol 11. The epoxide 12 was secured by condensation with epichlorhydrin in presence of NaOH. After purification by silicagel column chromatography 10 was opened with isopropylamine leading to the target compound BETAXOLOL 13 isolated as the hydrochloride. After extensive purification by Sephadex G-10 column chromatography, SL 75.212 [ethyl-1- 14 C] was obtained in an overall yield of 26 % from barium [ 14 C] carbonate and a radiochemical purity better than 99 % (specific activity 57 mCi/mole). (author)

  16. Alcohol and the Hispanic Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... States, a standard drink is one that contains about 14 grams of pure alcohol, which is found in: »» 12 ounces of beer with 5 percent alcohol content »» 5 ounces of wine with 12 percent alcohol content »» 1.5 ounces ...

  17. Alcoholism: Development, Consequences, and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Nada J.; Heinemann, M. Edith

    This book is intended to contribute to the theoretical knowledge of alcoholism workers so that the needs of people with alcohol related problems may be met with greater understanding. Contributors to the book represent a variety of disciplines and address a broad spectrum of topics. Part One deals with developmental perspectives of alcoholism,…

  18. Poly(furfuryl alcohol)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper describes a facile hydrothermal approach to the large-scale synthesis of well-dispersed poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) nanospheres with an average diameter of 350 nm in the presence of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP). Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies showed that ...

  19. Alcohol - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... XYZ List of All Topics All Alcohol - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated on 16 April 2018

  20. Alcohol and retinoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crabb, D.W.; Pinairs, J.; Hasanadka, R.

    2001-01-01

    , M. Fang, and David W. Crabb; (2) Alcohol, vitamin A, and beta-carotene: Adverse interactions, by M. A. Leo and Charles S. Lieber; (3) Retinoic acid, hepatic stellate cells, and Kupffer cells, by Hidekazu Tsukamoto, K. Motomura, T. Miyahara, and M. Ohata; (4) Retinoid storage and metabolism in liver...

  1. Fermentative Alcohol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martín, Mariano; Sánchez, Antonio; Woodley, John M.

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter we present some of key principles of bioreactor design for the production of alcohols by fermentation of sugar and syngas . Due to the different feedstocks, a detailed analysis of the hydrodynamics inside the units , bubble columns or stirred tank reactors , the gas-liquid mass...

  2. Alcohol en verkeersveiligheid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SWOV

    1967-01-01

    A review is given on the participation in traffic by consumers of alcoholic beverages and tbe number of "drunken accidents". The investigations and results of these are endorsed with critical comments. A survey is given of the measures that have been and are being considered. The most important

  3. Drugs, Alcohol & Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Christina

    Expectant parents are introduced to the effects of a variety of drugs on the unborn baby. Material is divided into seven sections. Section 1 deals with the most frequently used recreational drugs, including alcohol, marijuana, narcotics, depressants, stimulants, inhalants, and hallucinogens. Sections 2 and 3 focus on the effects of prescription…

  4. Alcohol and Traffic Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Frances Baker, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Seven papers discuss current issues and applied social research concerning alcohol traffic safety. Prevention, policy input, methodology, planning strategies, anti-drinking/driving programs, social-programmatic orientations of Mothers Against Drunk Driving, Kansas Driving Under the Influence Law, New Jersey Driving While Impaired Programs,…

  5. Treatment of simulated wastewater containing n-phenyl-n-isopropyl-p-phenylenediamine using electrolysis system with Ti/TiRuO2 electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Helena Inazaki

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of the electrolytic treatment in the simulated wastewater with aromatic amine n-phenyl-n-isopropyl-p-phenylenediamine (Flexzone 3P® using Ti/TiRuO2 electrodes under 0.025 A/cm² (DC for different electrolysis durations (5; 15; 30; 45 and 60 min. Conductivity, pH, UV-visible spectra, gas chromatograms, toxicity and biodegradation tests were carried out. During the electrolytic treatment the pH decreased and conductivity increased slightly. After 60 min of electrolysis, the concentration of Flexzone 3P decreased by 65.1%. UV-vis spectra and chromatograms of simulated wastewater showed changes in the molecular structure of the aromatic amine. After 5 and 15 min of electrolysis, the simulated wastewater containing the Flexzone 3P showed detoxification by Saccharomyces cerevisiae toxicity test. The electrolysis of 5 min improved the biodegradation of the simulated wastewater containing Flexzone 3P.O presente trabalho apresenta os resultados dos tratamentos eletrolíticos (05; 15; 30; 45 e 60 min no efluente simulado com o composto Flexzone 3P, utilizando-se eletrodos de Ti/TiRuO2, sob 0,025 A cm-2. Após as eletrólises, foram feitas análises de pH, condutividade, espectrofotometria no UV-vis, análise por cromatografia gasosa, ensaios de toxicidade utilizando Saccharomyces cerevisiae e ensaio de respirometria de Bartha. O pH dos efluentes foi diminuindo à medida que aumentou- se o tempo de eletrólise, ao contrário da condutividade, a qual apresentou pequeno aumento. Verificou-se que após 60 min de tratamento foi obtida diminuição da concentração do composto Flexzone 3P em 65,1%. Analisando-se os espectros de UV-vis e cromatogramas do efluente após realização do tratamento eletrolítico, concluiu-se que ocorreram oxidações e transformações de funções orgânicas do composto, durante os tratamentos. Após a realização do tratamento eletrolítico, o efluente simulado apresentou diminuição da

  6. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minahan, D.M.; Nagaki, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    This project is focused on the discovery and evaluation of novel heterogeneous catalyst for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas. Catalysts have been studied and optimized for the production of methanol and isobutanol mixtures which may be used for the downstream synthesis of MTBE or related oxygenates. Higher alcohols synthesis (HAS) from syngas was studied; the alcohols that are produced in this process may be used for the downstream synthesis of MTBE or related oxygenates. This work has resulted in the discovery of a catalyst system that is highly selective for isobutanol compared with the prior art. The catalysts operate at high temperature (400{degrees}C), and consist of a spinel oxide support (general formula AB{sub 2}O{sub 4}, where A=M{sup 2+} and B = M{sup 3+}), promoted with various other elements. These catalysts operate by what is believed to be an aldol condensation mechanism, giving a product mix of mainly methanol and isobutanol. In this study, the effect of product feed/recycle (methanol, ethanol. n-propanol, isopropanol, carbon dioxide and water) on the performance of 10-DAN-55 (spinel oxide based catalyst) at 400{degrees}C, 1000 psi, GHSV = 12,000 and syngas (H{sub 2}/CO) ratio = 1:2 (alcohol addition) and 1:1 (carbon dioxide and water addition) was studied. The effect of operation at high temperatures and pressures on the performance of an improved catalyst formulation was also examined.

  7. Oxygen Response of the Wine Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118 Grown under Carbon-Sufficient, Nitrogen-Limited Enological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceituno, Felipe F.; Orellana, Marcelo; Torres, Jorge; Mendoza, Sebastián; Slater, Alex W.; Melo, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Discrete additions of oxygen play a critical role in alcoholic fermentation. However, few studies have quantitated the fate of dissolved oxygen and its impact on wine yeast cell physiology under enological conditions. We simulated the range of dissolved oxygen concentrations that occur after a pump-over during the winemaking process by sparging nitrogen-limited continuous cultures with oxygen-nitrogen gaseous mixtures. When the dissolved oxygen concentration increased from 1.2 to 2.7 μM, yeast cells changed from a fully fermentative to a mixed respirofermentative metabolism. This transition is characterized by a switch in the operation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and an activation of NADH shuttling from the cytosol to mitochondria. Nevertheless, fermentative ethanol production remained the major cytosolic NADH sink under all oxygen conditions, suggesting that the limitation of mitochondrial NADH reoxidation is the major cause of the Crabtree effect. This is reinforced by the induction of several key respiratory genes by oxygen, despite the high sugar concentration, indicating that oxygen overrides glucose repression. Genes associated with other processes, such as proline uptake, cell wall remodeling, and oxidative stress, were also significantly affected by oxygen. The results of this study indicate that respiration is responsible for a substantial part of the oxygen response in yeast cells during alcoholic fermentation. This information will facilitate the development of temporal oxygen addition strategies to optimize yeast performance in industrial fermentations. PMID:23001663

  8. Oxygen response of the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118 grown under carbon-sufficient, nitrogen-limited enological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceituno, Felipe F; Orellana, Marcelo; Torres, Jorge; Mendoza, Sebastián; Slater, Alex W; Melo, Francisco; Agosin, Eduardo

    2012-12-01

    Discrete additions of oxygen play a critical role in alcoholic fermentation. However, few studies have quantitated the fate of dissolved oxygen and its impact on wine yeast cell physiology under enological conditions. We simulated the range of dissolved oxygen concentrations that occur after a pump-over during the winemaking process by sparging nitrogen-limited continuous cultures with oxygen-nitrogen gaseous mixtures. When the dissolved oxygen concentration increased from 1.2 to 2.7 μM, yeast cells changed from a fully fermentative to a mixed respirofermentative metabolism. This transition is characterized by a switch in the operation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and an activation of NADH shuttling from the cytosol to mitochondria. Nevertheless, fermentative ethanol production remained the major cytosolic NADH sink under all oxygen conditions, suggesting that the limitation of mitochondrial NADH reoxidation is the major cause of the Crabtree effect. This is reinforced by the induction of several key respiratory genes by oxygen, despite the high sugar concentration, indicating that oxygen overrides glucose repression. Genes associated with other processes, such as proline uptake, cell wall remodeling, and oxidative stress, were also significantly affected by oxygen. The results of this study indicate that respiration is responsible for a substantial part of the oxygen response in yeast cells during alcoholic fermentation. This information will facilitate the development of temporal oxygen addition strategies to optimize yeast performance in industrial fermentations.

  9. Proceeding of US Army Corps of Engineers Workshop on Sediment Oxygen Demand Held in Providence, Rhode Island on 21-22 August 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Eutrophication," Mar, Ecol, Prog., Ser. 3, pp 83-91. Pamatmat, M. M. 1971. "Oxygen Consumption by the Seabed. VI. Seasonal Cycle of Chemical Oxydation and...primarily ferrous iron) and easily degraded organic substances (primarily volatile fatty acids and alcohols ) within the sediment interstitial waters...compounds such as volatile fatty acids and alcohols , must be combined with oxygen through the process of microbial metabolism (see the paper by Jacobson

  10. Stability of trapped electrons in thermally modified alcohol-alcohol and alcohol-water glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlebosz, G.; Kalecinski, J.

    1996-01-01

    Absorption spectra of e t - , DTA and dielectric losses measurements of frozen irradiated matrices of different composition of alcohol-water and alcohol-alcohol have been studied as a function of temperature. In ethylene glycol-water and glycerol-water systems irregularity of e t - decay might be caused by inhomogeneity of the glasses. (author)

  11. Radiolysis of benzyl alcohol in aqueous solution by external gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikebuchi, Hideharu; Kido, Yasumasa; Urakubo, Goro

    1977-01-01

    Radiolysis of 0.05% aqueous solution of benzyl alcohol with 60 Co γ-rays ranging from 1 x 10 4 to 7 x 10 5 rad was investigated, in order to presume the change of it contained in radiopharmaceuticals. For both O 2 free and oxygenated solutions, an approximately linear relationship holds between the retaining benzyl alcohol and dose in the range from 1 x 10 5 to 7 x 10 5 rads. The G(-M) values of benzyl alcohol calculated from the relation were 2.34 in the absence and 1.92 in presence of oxygen. In the presence of oxygen, a main product was benzaldehyde and its G value was 0.87. In the absence of oxygen, the main products of the radiolysis were dibenzyl, benzyl phenylcalbinol and hydrobenzoin, which were regarded as the radical-reaction products of PhCH 2 and PhCHOH, and the yield of benzaldehyde was negligible. Irrespective of the presence of oxygen, o- and p-hydroxylated products of benzyl alcohol were found only in small quantity. (auth.)

  12. 76 FR 17140 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; RFA-AA-11-02 Alcohol Induced Metabolic and Hepatic...: Philippe Marmillot, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism...

  13. Origin of photosynthetic oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerster, Richard; Dupuy, Jacques; Guerin de Montgareuil, Pierre

    From the comparison of isotopic exchange kinetics between C 18 O 2 and the water of algae suspensions or aerial leaves subjected to alternating darkness and light, it becomes possible to calculate the isotopic abundance of the CO 2 involved in the photochemical process; this value has been compared to those of the intracellular water and of the evolved O 2 . Kinetics of the appearance of 18 O in the oxygen produced by algae suspended in enriched water are also presented [fr

  14. Preoperative alcoholism and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonnesen, H; Kehlet, H

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preoperative risk assessment has become part of daily clinical practice, but preoperative alcohol abuse has not received much attention. METHODS: A Medline search was carried out to identify original papers published from 1967 to 1998. Relevant articles on postoperative morbidity...... in alcohol abusers were used to evaluate the evidence. RESULTS: Prospective and retrospective studies demonstrate a twofold to threefold increase in postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, the most frequent complications being infections, bleeding and cardiopulmonary insufficiency. Wound complications...... to postoperative morbidity. CONCLUSION: Alcohol consumption should be included in the preoperative assessment of likely postoperative outcome. Reduction of postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers may include preoperative alcohol abstinence to improve organ function, or perioperative alcohol administration...

  15. Oxygen injection facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Masamoto; Hirose, Yuki

    1998-01-01

    A compressor introduces air as a starting material and sends it to a dust removing device, a dehumidifying device and an adsorption/separation system disposed downstream. The facility of the present invention is disposed in the vicinity of an injection point and installed in a turbine building of a BWR type reactor having a pipeline of a feedwater system to be injected. The adsorbing/separation system comprises an adsorbing vessel and an automatic valve, and the adsorbing vessel is filled with an adsorbent for selectively adsorbing nitrogen. Zeolite is used as the adsorbent. Nitrogen in the air passing through the adsorbing vessel is adsorbed and removed under a pressurized condition, and a highly concentrated oxygen gas is formed. The direction of the steam of the adsorbed nitrogen is changed by an opening/closing switching operation of an automatic valve and released to the atmosphere (the pressure is released). Generated oxygen gas is stored under pressure in a tank, and injected to the pipeline of the feedwater system by an oxygen injection conduit by way of a flow rate control valve. In the adsorbing vessel, steps of adsorption, separation and storage under pressure are repeated successively. (I.N.)

  16. ITM oxygen for gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, P.A.; Foster, E.P. [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Gunardson, H.H. [Air Products Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2005-11-01

    This paper described a newly developed air separation technology called Ionic Transport Membrane (ITM), which reduces the overall cost of the gasification process. The technology is well suited for advanced energy conversion processes such as integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) that require oxygen and use heavy carbonaceous feedstocks such as residual oils, bitumens, coke and coal. It is also well suited for traditional industrial applications for oxygen and distributed power. Air Products Canada Limited developed the ceramic membrane air separation technology that can reduce the cost of pure oxygen by more than 30 per cent. The separation technology achieves a capital cost reduction of 30 per cent and an energy reduction of 35 per cent over conventional cryogenic air separation. ITM is an electrochemical process that integrates well with the gasification process and an IGCC option for producing electricity from the waste heat generated from gasification. This paper described the integration of ITM technology with both the gasification and IGCC processes and showed the attractive economics of ITM. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  17. Decarbonylation and hydrogenation reactions of allyl alcohol and acrolein on Pd(110)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, Ratna; Barteau, Mark A.

    1994-11-01

    Allyl alcohol and acrolein reactions on the Pd(110) surface were investigated using temperature programmed desorption. For both unsaturated oxygenates, three coverage-dependent reaction pathways were observed. At low coverages, allyl alcohol decomposed completely to CO, hydrogen and carbonaceous species on the surface. For θ > 0.15 monolayer, ethylene (and small amounts of ethane) desorbed at ca. 295 K. Near saturation coverages, desorption of propanal was detected at ca. 235 K. The parent molecule, allyl alcohol, desorbed only after exposures sufficient to saturate these channels. Acrolein decomposition spectra were similar to those observed for allyl alcohol decomposition on the clean surface. Additional experiments with allyl alcohol on hydrogen- and deuterium-precoveredPd(110) surfaces demonstrated increased hydrogenation of the C 2-hydrocarbon products along with hydrogenation of allyl alcohol to 1-propanol. However, in contrast to previous results for allyl alcohol on the Pd(111) surface, there was no evidence for C-O scission reactions of any C 3 oxygenate on Pd(110).

  18. Exposure to alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption among Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C; Magee, Christopher A

    2011-01-01

    Underage drinking is a major problem in Australia and may be influenced by exposure to alcohol advertising. The objective of the present study was to collect data on 12-17 year old Australian adolescents' exposure to different types of alcohol advertising and examine the association between exposure to advertising and alcohol consumption. A cross-sectional survey of 1113 adolescents aged 12-17 years recruited with a variety of methods to gain a cross-section of participants across metropolitan, regional and rural New South Wales (including independent schools, mall intercepts and online). Participants answered a series of questions assessing adolescents' exposure to alcohol advertising across eight media (including television, Internet and point-of-sale). Alcohol consumption was assessed using three questions (initiation, recent consumption and frequency of consumption in the previous 12 months). The majority indicated that they had been exposed to alcohol advertisements on television, in newspapers and magazines, on the Internet, on billboards/posters and promotional materials and in bottleshops, bars and pubs; exposure to some of these types of alcohol advertisements was associated with increased alcohol consumption, with differences by age and gender. The results are consistent with studies from other countries and suggest that exposure to alcohol advertisements among Australian adolescents is strongly associated with drinking patterns. Given current high levels of drinking among Australian youth, these findings suggest the need to address the high levels of young people's exposure to alcohol advertising.

  19. Oxygen diffusion in zircon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, E. B.; Cherniak, D. J.

    1997-05-01

    Oxygen diffusion in natural, non-metamict zircon was characterized under both dry and water-present conditions at temperatures ranging from 765°C to 1500°C. Dry experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure by encapsulating polished zircon samples with a fine powder of 18O-enriched quartz and annealing the sealed capsules in air. Hydrothermal runs were conducted in cold-seal pressure vessels (7-70 MPa) or a piston cylinder apparatus (400-1000 MPa) on zircon samples encapsulated with both 18O-enriched quartz and 18O water. Diffusive-uptake profiles of 18O were measured in all samples with a particle accelerator, using the 18O(p, α) 15N reaction. For dry experimental conditions at 1100-1500°C, the resulting oxygen diffusivities (24 in all) are well described by: D dry (m 2/s) = 1.33 × 10 -4exp(-53920/T) There is no suggestion of diffusive anisotropy. Under wet conditions at 925°C, oxygen diffusion shows little or no dependence upon P H 2O in the range 7-1000 MPa, and is insensitive to total pressure as well. The results of 27 wet experiments at 767-1160°C and 7-1000 MPa can be described a single Arrhenius relationship: D wet (m 2/s) = 5.5 × 10 -12exp(-25280/T) The insensitivity of oxygen diffusion to P H 2O means that applications to geologic problems can be pursued knowing only whether the system of interest was 'wet' (i.e., P H 2O > 7MPa ) or 'dry'. Under dry conditions (presumably rare in the crust), zircons are extremely retentive of their oxygen isotopic signatures, to the extent that δ 18O would be perturbed at the center of a 200 μm zircon only during an extraordinarily hot and protracted event (e.g., 65 Ma at 900°C). Under wet conditions, δ 18O may or may not be retained in the central regions of individual crystals, cores or overgrowth rims, depending upon the specific thermal history of the system.

  20. Oxygen Transport Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay

    2008-08-30

    The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the

  1. Theory of oxygen isotope exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Otter, M.W.; Boukamp, Bernard A.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Transients for oxygen molecular mass numbers 32, 34 and 36 are derived which can be used for the interpretation of oxygen isotope exchange data based on measurement of concentrations of 16O2, 16O18O and 18O2 in the gas phase. Key parameters in the theory are the rate at which oxygen molecules are

  2. Principles and Materials Aspects of Direct Alkaline Alcohol Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Hao Yu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Direct alkaline alcohol fuel cells (DAAFCs have attracted increasing interest over the past decade because of their favourable reaction kinetics in alkaline media, higher energy densities achievable and the easy handling of the liquid fuels. In this review, principles and mechanisms of DAAFCs in alcohol oxidation and oxygen reduction are discussed. Despite the high energy densities available during the oxidation of polycarbon alcohols they are difficult to oxidise. Apart from methanol, the complete oxidation of other polycarbon alcohols to CO2 has not been achieved with current catalysts. Different types of catalysts, from conventional precious metal catalyst of Pt and Pt alloys to other lower cost Pd, Au and Ag metal catalysts are compared. Non precious metal catalysts, and lanthanum, strontium oxides and perovskite-type oxides are also discussed. Membranes like the ones used as polymer electrolytes and developed for DAAFCs are reviewed. Unlike conventional proton exchange membrane fuel cells, anion exchange membranes are used in present DAAFCs. Fuel cell performance with DAAFCs using different alcohols, catalysts and membranes, as well as operating parameters are summarised. In order to improve the power output of the DAAFCs, further developments in catalysts, membrane materials and fuel cell systems are essential.

  3. Dry alcohol production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  4. Mixed oxygen ion/electron-conducting ceramics for oxygen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, T.R.; Armstrong, B.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Mixed oxygen ion and electron-conducting ceramics are unique materials that can passively separate high purity oxygen from air. Oxygen ions move through a fully dense ceramic in response to an oxygen concentration gradient, charge-compensated by an electron flux in the opposite direction. Compositions in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, perovskites where M=Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N=Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, have been prepared and their electrical, oxygen permeation, oxygen vacancy equilibria, and catalytic properties evaluated. Tubular forms, disks, and asymmetric membrane structures, a thin dense layer on a porous support of the same composition, have been fabricated for testing purposes. In an oxygen partial gradient, the passive oxygen flux through fully dense structures was highly dependent on composition. An increase in oxygen permeation with increased temperature is attributed to both enhanced oxygen vacancy mobility and higher vacancy populations. Highly acceptor-doped compositions resulted in oxygen ion mobilities more than an order of magnitude higher than yttria-stabilized zirconia. The mixed conducting ceramics have been utilized in a membrane reactor configuration to upgrade methane to ethane and ethylene. Conditions were established to balance selectivity and throughput in a catalytic membrane reactor constructed from mixed conducting ceramics.

  5. Methanol Droplet Combustion in Oxygen-Inert Environments in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayagam, Vedha; Dietrich, Daniel L.; Hicks, Michael C.; Williams, Forman A.

    2013-01-01

    The Flame Extinguishment (FLEX) experiment that is currently underway in the Combustion Integrated Rack facility onboard the International Space Station is aimed at understanding the effects of inert diluents on the flammability of condensed phase fuels. To this end, droplets of various fuels, including alkanes and alcohols, are burned in a quiescent microgravity environment with varying amounts of oxygen and inert diluents to determine the limiting oxygen index (LOI) for these fuels. In this study we report experimental observations of methanol droplets burning in oxygen-nitrogen-carbon dioxide and oxygen-nitrogen-helium gas mixtures at 0.7 and 1 atmospheric pressures. The initial droplet size varied between approximately 1.5 mm and 4 mm to capture both diffusive extinction brought about by insufficient residence time at the flame and radiative extinction caused by excessive heat loss from the flame zone. The ambient oxygen concentration varied from a high value of 30% by volume to as low as 12%, approaching the limiting oxygen index for the fuel. The inert dilution by carbon dioxide and helium varied over a range of 0% to 70% by volume. In these experiments, both freely floated and tethered droplets were ignited using symmetrically opposed hot-wire igniters and the burning histories were recorded onboard using digital cameras, downlinked later to the ground for analysis. The digital images yielded droplet and flame diameters as functions of time and subsequently droplet burning rate, flame standoff ratio, and initial and extinction droplet diameters. Simplified theoretical models correlate the measured burning rate constant and the flame standoff ratio reasonably well. An activation energy asymptotic theory accounting for time-dependent water dissolution or evaporation from the droplet is shown to predict the measured diffusive extinction conditions well. The experiments also show that the limiting oxygen index for methanol in these diluent gases is around 12% to

  6. Alcohol advertising and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2002-04-01

    Considerable research now exists that the media may exert a powerful influence on adolescents' drug-taking behavior. Teens view an average of 2,000 beer and wine ads per year in the US. In addition, television shows, movies, and music videos contain considerable amounts of alcohol use. This article will discuss the available research and offers suggestions to make the media healthier for teenagers.

  7. Genetics, systems, and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClearn, G E

    1993-03-01

    Under a variety of rubrics (e.g., complexity, self-constructing systems, dissipative structures), interest has recently burgeoned in applying principles of complex systems to a wide variety of scientific issues. A major concern is with emergent properties of systems not derivable from the properties of components of the systems. In this paper, some elementary aspects of "systems" considerations are applied to phenomena of alcohol pharmacogenetics. It is likely that whole new families of informative phenotypes can be generated by this approach.

  8. Alcohol induced osteopenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, E.; Bremer, G.; Franck, H.

    1986-01-01

    There is a clear evidence of a propensity to fractures and the development of osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and mixed forms in chronic alcoholics. Osteomalacia is associated with impaired vitamin D status, probably due to enzyme induction in liver and kidney and development of a secondary intestinal hyperparathyroidism. The development of osteoporosis is multifactorial, but seems to arise mainly through reduction in bone formation and reduced dietary protein and calcium intake. Low testosterone levels may also contribute to osteoporosis. (orig.) [de

  9. Alcohol induced osteopenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keck, E.; Bremer, G.; Franck, H.

    1986-12-01

    There is a clear evidence of a propensity to fractures and the development of osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and mixed forms in chronic alcoholics. Osteomalacia is associated with impaired vitamin D status, probably due to enzyme induction in liver and kidney and development of a secondary intestinal hyperparathyroidism. The development of osteoporosis is multifactorial, but seems to arise mainly through reduction in bone formation and reduced dietary protein and calcium intake. Low testosterone levels may also contribute to osteoporosis.

  10. [Nationwide survey of alcohol drinking and alcoholism among Japanese adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Yoneatsu; Matsushita, Sachio; Shirasaka, Tomonobu; Hiro, Hisanori; Higuchi, Susumu

    2005-10-01

    To investigate the characteristics of alcohol use among Japanese adults and prevalence of alcohol dependence in Japan, we conducted a nationwide survey on alcohol drinking behavior and alcohol dependence among Japanese adults using a representative sampling method. We sampled 3500 adults from throughout the entire country using a stratified random sampling method with two-step stratification, and carried out a home visit interview survey. A total of 2547 people (72.8%) responded to the survey. The survey period was June, 2003. The questionnaire contained questions about the frequency and quantity of alcohol use, 'hazardous use of alcohol' and 'alcohol dependence' according to the ICD-10 definition, several screening scales on problem use of alcohol (CAGE, KAST, AUDIT), life-time prevalence of 24 alcohol related diseases, smoking status, dysgryphia, and nightcap drinking. The number of respondents was, 1184 males, and 1363 females. Lifetime alcohol drinking, and weekly drinking, and daily drinking rates were 95.1%, 64.4%, and 36.2% for males, 79.0%, 27.5%, and 7.5% for females, respectively. Average daily alcohol consumption was 3.7 units for males, and 2.0 units for females (1 unit = 10 g pure alcohol). The proportion of drinkers who drank alcohol 4 units or more daily was 28.9% for males, and 7.6% for females, and that for 6 units or more was 12.7% for males, and 3.4% for females. The proportion of flasher was 41.2% for males, and 35.0% for females. Among screening questions, problem drinking was most frequently identified using AUDIT (score 12 points or more, 150 persons), followed by KAST (2 points or more, 100 persons) and CAGE (2 points or more, 98 persons). The number of subjects who met the ICD-10 criteria for alcohol dependence was 24, while the number who engaged in hazardous alcohol use was 64. This study revealed that problem drinking and alcohol dependence are a serious problem in Japanese general population. The problem of females drinking may be

  11. [Non alcoholic steatohepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manero, E; Findor, J A; Avagnina, A; de Elizalde, S; Elsner, B

    1994-01-01

    A prospective study of 21 patients with the diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was carried out. All patients had hepatomegaly and in 10 (48%) image studies were consistent with steatosis and/or fibrosis. Biochemically, there was increase of AST, ALT and cholesterol in 48%, of GGT in 52% and of alkaline phosphatase in 38%. 18 patients were obese, 2 of them diabetic, 2 others had a history of exposure to drugs (amiodarone and isopropilic alcohol) and the last one presented hypothyroidism. Liver biopsies were studied using a semiquantitative scale to evaluate the degree of steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis in a scale from 1 to 3. Results showed a medium score of 2.6 for steatosis, 1.5 for inflammation and 1.8 for fibrosis. Four patients had cirrhosis and Mallory bodies were found in 11 cases (52%). NASH is an oligosymptomatic disease that can be found in different clinical conditions, mainly obesity, and is more frequent in women. It is histologically indistinguishable from alcoholic steatohepatitis. It is frequently underdiagnosed clinically and must be taken into account as a possible cause of cryptogenetic cirrhosis.

  12. [DGRW update: alcohol addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelgesang, M

    2011-10-01

    First, epidemiological data and socioeconomic consequences of alcohol addiction are summarized. Research findings, in particular in intervention and evaluation, from 2009-2011 in the field of alcohol addiction treatment are then discussed concerning their relevance for rehabilitation practice. The search was based on PubMed and PSYNDEX. The interventions most frequently evaluated and found most effective in alcohol addiction treatment are cognitive-behavioural interventions. Further topics dealt with are: pharmacological relapse prevention; technologically based therapies (e. g. e-therapy); systemic interventions; 12-steps; effectiveness of addiction treatment as confirmed in large-scale catamnestic studies; treatment of addiction and comorbidity; various subgroups (like elderly people and women); as well as other new and interesting developments such as rehab case management, dovetailing of medical and vocational interventions, stepped-care interventions, rehab management category groups as well as a new focus on individual treatment experiences and the pre-eminence of the therapeutic relationship. Finally, priority areas of future research are described. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Varenicline Reduces Alcohol Intake During Repeated Cycles of Alcohol Reaccess Following Deprivation in Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Janice C; Nicholson, Emily R; Dilley, Julian E; Filosa, Nick J; Rademacher, Logan C; Smith, Teal N

    2017-08-01

    Most alcoholics experience periods of voluntary alcohol abstinence or imposed alcohol deprivation followed by a return to alcohol drinking. This study examined whether varenicline (VAR) reduces alcohol intake during a return to drinking after periods of alcohol deprivation in rats selectively bred for high alcohol drinking (the alcohol preferring or "P" rats). Alcohol-experienced P rats were given 24-hour access to food and water and scheduled access to alcohol (15% and 30% v/v) for 2 h/d. After 4 weeks, rats were deprived of alcohol for 2 weeks, followed by reaccess to alcohol for 2 weeks, and this pattern was repeated for a total of 3 cycles. Rats were fed either vehicle (VEH) or VAR, in doses of 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg BW, at 1 hour prior to onset of the daily alcohol reaccess period for the first 5 days of each of the 3 alcohol reaccess cycles. Low-dose VAR (0.5 mg/kg BW) reduced alcohol intake during the 5 days of drug treatment in alcohol reaccess cycles 1 and 2. Higher doses of VAR (1.0 mg/kg BW and 2.0 mg/kg BW) reduced alcohol intake during the 5 days of treatment in all 3 alcohol reaccess cycles. The decrease in alcohol intake disappeared with termination of VAR treatment in all alcohol reaccess cycles. The results demonstrate that VAR decreases alcohol intake during multiple cycles of alcohol reaccess following alcohol deprivation in rats and suggests that it may prevent a return to heavy alcohol drinking during a lapse from alcohol abstinence in humans with alcohol use disorder. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  14. Alcohol in the city: wherever and whenever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xisca Sureda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol urban environment has been associated with individual alcohol behaviors. We are constantly exposed to a wide variety of alcohol products, its marketing and promotion and signs of alcohol consumption that may influence alcohol-drinking behaviors. In this photo-essay, we include photographs that visually explain the exposure to alcohol in the urban streetscape of Madrid. These photographs show the pervasiveness of alcohol products in this city, which can be found everywhere at any time.

  15. A3.5 Unrecorded alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Vital, Clara; Urbano, Cláudia; Balsa, Casimiro; Österberg, Esa

    2016-01-01

    UID/SOC/04647/2013 Drinking alcohol is an important public health problem. It is an even more important problem when there are many different ways of acquiring the substance. The amounts of alcohol acquired from some sources are recorded and published in official alcohol consumption statistics. Alcohol consumption figures may be based on data on alcohol taxation or data from formal off- and on-premise alcohol sales, while other ways of acquiring alcohol go beyond these official statistics,...

  16. Physician's information about alcohol problems at hospitalisation of alcohol misusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Gluud, C

    1992-01-01

    Information was gathered on recognition and treatment of alcohol problems in the primary and secondary health sectors, the latter represented by a department of hepatology. The general practitioner finds in most cases (18/26, 69%) that it is relevant to advise about a patient's alcohol misuse...... on admission forms when the patient previously has been discharged from another department with this diagnosis. However, if the patient has not previously been hospitalised due to alcohol misuse, information on the diagnosis is only rarely (30/114, 26%) available. This difference is highly significant (P = 0.......0001). The case-recording hospital physician at admission recognises 73% of alcohol misusers who are admitted with a non-alcohol-related diagnosis. When the patient had been evaluated by both the admitting physician and the case-recording hospital physician, information on the alcohol problem occurred...

  17. Alcohol and the young child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, D E

    1984-01-01

    With the increasing availability of alcohol in modern times, the child neglect and abuse portrayed in Hogarth's engraving Gin Lane may once again be witnessed. Reports occur occasionally of alcohol being given deliberately to infants to quieten them, but alcohol poisoning in the slightly older child is not uncommon. The introduction of child-proof containers has altered poisoning figures recently. However, alcohol poisoning tends to occur at ages 3 and 4, that is, about 2 years after the peak of all poisonings in children. This difference may be an indication that alcohol is taken in imitation of parents' drinking, a suggestion which has some support from reported cases of mouthwash poisoning. Holidays and high days where children and alcohol mix, are potentially dangerous periods. Since alcohol poisoning can be fatal, yet if recognised is relatively easily managed, every child with the slightest degree of drowsiness should be suspect until proven or not by blood alcohol. The prevention of alcohol poisoning in the young child consists in protecting the alcohol by lock and key, not setting an example by drinking or gargling in front of children. Many substances such as mouthwash and perfume should also be under supervision. Once actual poisoning has occurred blood sugar is probably more important than the level of blood ethanol and blood sugar levels should be monitored frequently and the child treated with glucose, preferably intravenously.

  18. Alcohol and the work place

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service has observed an increase in the number of personnel suffering from alcohol-related problems in recent years, in spite of the implementation of stricter regulations concerning the consumption of alcohol on the site. The causes of alcohol-related problems are often complex and many-faceted. A family history of alcohol abuse can be a cofactor in excessive drinking. The effects on a person's work are not negligible and should not be ignored. "Alcohol and the work place" is the third part of a campaign designed to raise awareness of the risks of alcohol consumption, which has already dealt with "alcohol and health" and "alcohol and road safety".Many employers have taken steps to confront the problem, and CERN launched a campaign to help its employees suffering from alcohol-related problems over ten years ago. A standing SCC sub-group on the prevention of alcoholism has been set up and Operational Circular No. 8, which defines the role and responsibilities of all parties concerned in the m...

  19. [Current peculiarities of alcoholic psychosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksin, D S; Egorov, A Iu

    2011-01-01

    The follow-up study of alcoholic psychoses in male patients admitted to a clinical department of a psychiatric hospital in 2005-2007 was carried out. Patients with alcoholic psychoses made up from 15 to 30% of all patients. The number of psychosis had seasonal variations with the elevations in spring and autumn, peaks in January, lune and October. Alcoholic delirium morbidity made up from 69 to 82% of the total number of alcoholic psychoses, alcoholic hallucinosis varied from 14 to 27%. Other forms were presented by single cases. In alcoholic delirium hallucinations had brighter, sated character. The most specific were visual hallucinations in the form of zoohallucinations, hallucinations of an oral cavity ("sensation of threads, hair etc"). The most often observable characters were "extraneous people, animal, demons". In alcoholic hallucinosis, verbal contrast hallucinations, making comment hallucinations, visual illusions were most frequent. The family history of mental disorders and alcoholism was noted in 30% of patients with alcoholic psychosis. The probability of occurrence of alcoholic psychoses depended on the quality of consumed drinks. The presence of a cranial-brain injury in the anamnesis considerably aggravated the disease forecast and increased the risk of seizure syndrome.

  20. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Production of oxygenates from synthesis gas---A technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report concentrates on the production of oxygenates from coal via gasification and indirect liquefaction. At the present the majority of oxygenate synthesis programs are at laboratory scale. Exceptions include commercial and demonstration scale plants for methanol and higher alcohols production, and ethers such as MTBE. Research and development work has concentrated on elucidating the fundamental transport and kinetic limitations governing various reactor configurations. But of equal or greater importance has been investigations into the optimal catalyst composition and process conditions for the production of various oxygenates.