WorldWideScience

Sample records for oxygen dc plasma

  1. Modelling chemical reactions in dc plasma inside oxygen bubbles in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, N; Ishii, Y; Yasuoka, K

    2012-01-01

    Plasmas generated inside oxygen bubbles in water have been developed for water purification. Zero-dimensional numerical simulations were used to investigate the chemical reactions in plasmas driven by dc voltage. The numerical and experimental results of the concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and ozone in the solution were compared with a discharge current between 1 and 7 mA. Upon increasing the water vapour concentration inside bubbles, we saw from the numerical results that the concentration of hydrogen peroxide increased with discharge current, whereas the concentration of ozone decreased. This finding agreed with the experimental results. With an increase in the discharge current, the heat flux from the plasma to the solution increased, and a large amount of water was probably vaporized into the bubbles.

  2. Modelling chemical reactions in dc plasma inside oxygen bubbles in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, N.; Ishii, Y.; Yasuoka, K.

    2012-02-01

    Plasmas generated inside oxygen bubbles in water have been developed for water purification. Zero-dimensional numerical simulations were used to investigate the chemical reactions in plasmas driven by dc voltage. The numerical and experimental results of the concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and ozone in the solution were compared with a discharge current between 1 and 7 mA. Upon increasing the water vapour concentration inside bubbles, we saw from the numerical results that the concentration of hydrogen peroxide increased with discharge current, whereas the concentration of ozone decreased. This finding agreed with the experimental results. With an increase in the discharge current, the heat flux from the plasma to the solution increased, and a large amount of water was probably vaporized into the bubbles.

  3. A study of the plasma electronegativity in an argon-oxygen pulsed-dc sputter magnetron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, S D; Dodd, R; Edwards, A; Bradley, J W

    2010-01-01

    Using Langmuir probe-assisted laser photodetachment, the temporal evolution of the O - density was determined in the bulk plasma of a unipolar pulsed-dc magnetron. The source was operated in reactive mode, at a fixed nominal on-time power of 100 W, sputtering Ti in argon-oxygen atmospheres at 1.3 Pa pressure, but over a variation of duty cycles from 5% to 50% and oxygen partial pressures of 10% and 50% of the total pressure. In the plasma on-time, for all duty cycles the negative ion density (n - ) rises marginally reaching values typically less than 2 x 10 15 m -3 with negative ion-to-electron density ratios, α - falls by about 20-30% as fast O - species created at the cathode exit the system. This is followed by a rapid rise in n - to values at least 2 or 3 times that in the on-time. The rate of rise of n - and its maximum value both increase with decreasing duty cycle. In the off-time, the electron density falls rapidly (initial decay rates of several tens of μs), and therefore the afterglow plasma becomes highly electronegative, with α reaching 4.6 and 14.4 for 10% and 50% oxygen partial pressure, respectively. The rapid rise in n - in the afterglow (in which the electron temperature falls from about 5 to 0.5 eV) is attributed to the dissociative attachment of highly excited oxygen metastables, which themselves are created in the pulse on-time. At the lowest duty of 5%, the long-term O - decay times are several hundred μs. Langmuir probe characteristics show the clear signature that negative ions dominate over the electrons in the off-time. From the ion and electron saturation current ratios, α has been estimated in some chosen cases and found to agree within a factor between 2 and 10 with those obtained more directly from the photodetachment method.

  4. Plasma chemical and electrical modelling of a negative DC corona in pure oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soria, C [Departamento de Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Pontiga, F [Departamento de FIsica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Castellanos, A [Departamento de Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2004-02-01

    A complex plasma chemical and electrical model of a negative stationary wire-to-cylinder corona discharge in pure oxygen is presented. The corona discharge is assumed to have axial and azimuthal symmetry. The experimental current-voltage characteristic is required as input data, but there are no other adjustable or empirical parameters. The experimental validation of the results of the model comes from its prediction of the ozone concentration. The role played by different reactions and species is analysed in detail using the results of the simulation. The effect of the gas temperature and of the decomposition of ozone at the electrodes is also investigated. The agreement between the model and the experiments is excellent when the effect of ozone decomposition at the electrodes is taken into account.

  5. Plasma chemical and electrical modelling of a negative DC corona in pure oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soria, C; Pontiga, F; Castellanos, A

    2004-01-01

    A complex plasma chemical and electrical model of a negative stationary wire-to-cylinder corona discharge in pure oxygen is presented. The corona discharge is assumed to have axial and azimuthal symmetry. The experimental current-voltage characteristic is required as input data, but there are no other adjustable or empirical parameters. The experimental validation of the results of the model comes from its prediction of the ozone concentration. The role played by different reactions and species is analysed in detail using the results of the simulation. The effect of the gas temperature and of the decomposition of ozone at the electrodes is also investigated. The agreement between the model and the experiments is excellent when the effect of ozone decomposition at the electrodes is taken into account

  6. Effect of Si on DC arc plasma generation from Al-Cr and Al-Cr-Si cathodes used in oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirkov, I.; Landälv, L.; Göthelid, E.; Ahlgren, M.; Eklund, P.; Rosen, J.

    2017-02-01

    Al2O3 alloyed with Cr is an important material for the tooling industry. It can be synthesized from an arc discharge using Al-Cr cathodes in an oxygen atmosphere. Due to formation of Al-rich oxide islands on the cathode surface, the arc process stability is highly sensitive to oxygen pressure. For improved stability, the use of Al0.70Cr0.25Si0.05 cathodes has previously been suggested, where Si may reduce island formation. Here, we have investigated the effect of Si by comparing plasma generation and thin film deposition from Al0.7Cr0.3 and Al0.7Cr0.25Si0.05 cathodes. Plasma ion composition, ion energies, ion charge states, neutral species, droplet formation, and film composition have been characterized at different O2 flow rates for arc currents of 60 and 90 A. Si and related compounds are detected in plasma ions and in plasma neutrals. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis show that the cathode composition and the film composition are the same, with Si present in droplets as well. The effect of Si on the process stability, ion energies, and ion charge states is found to be negligible compared to that of the arc current. The latter is identified as the most relevant parameter for tuning the properties of the reactive discharge. The present work increases the fundamental understanding of plasma generation in a reactive atmosphere, and provides input for the choice of cathode composition and process parameters in reactive DC arc synthesis.

  7. Sterilization by oxygen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Adir Jose; Mansano, Ronaldo Domingues; Andreoli Pinto, Terezinha de Jesus; Ruas, Ronaldo; Silva Zambon, Luis da; Silva, Monica Valero da; Verdonck, Patrick Bernard

    2004-07-31

    The use of polymeric medical devices has stimulated the development of new sterilization methods. The traditional techniques rely on ethylene oxide, but there are many questions concerning the carcinogenic properties of the ethylene oxide residues adsorbed on the materials after processing. Another common technique is the gamma irradiation process, but it is costly, its safe operation requires an isolated site and it also affects the bulk properties of the polymers. The use of a gas plasma is an elegant alternative sterilization technique. The plasma promotes an efficient inactivation of the micro-organisms, minimises the damage to the materials and presents very little danger for personnel and the environment. Pure oxygen reactive ion etching type of plasmas were applied to inactivate a biologic indicator, the Bacillus stearothermophilus, to confirm the efficiency of this process. The sterilization processes took a short time, in a few minutes the mortality was complete. In situ analysis of the micro-organisms' inactivating time was possible using emission spectrophotometry. The increase in the intensity of the 777.5 nm oxygen line shows the end of the oxidation of the biologic materials. The results were also observed and corroborated by scanning electron microscopy.

  8. A dc non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma microjet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, WeiDong; Lopez, Jose L.

    2012-06-01

    A direct current (dc), non-thermal, atmospheric-pressure plasma microjet is generated with helium/oxygen gas mixture as working gas. The electrical property is characterized as a function of the oxygen concentration and show distinctive regions of operation. Side-on images of the jet were taken to analyze the mode of operation as well as the jet length. A self-pulsed mode is observed before the transition of the discharge to normal glow mode. Optical emission spectroscopy is employed from both end-on and side-on along the jet to analyze the reactive species generated in the plasma. Line emissions from atomic oxygen (at 777.4 nm) and helium (at 706.5 nm) were studied with respect to the oxygen volume percentage in the working gas, flow rate and discharge current. Optical emission intensities of Cu and OH are found to depend heavily on the oxygen concentration in the working gas. Ozone concentration measured in a semi-confined zone in front of the plasma jet is found to be from tens to ˜120 ppm. The results presented here demonstrate potential pathways for the adjustment and tuning of various plasma parameters such as reactive species selectivity and quantities or even ultraviolet emission intensities manipulation in an atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma source. The possibilities of fine tuning these plasma species allows for enhanced applications in health and medical related areas.

  9. A dc non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma microjet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Weidong; Lopez, Jose L

    2012-01-01

    A direct current (dc), non-thermal, atmospheric-pressure plasma microjet is generated with helium/oxygen gas mixture as working gas. The electrical property is characterized as a function of the oxygen concentration and show distinctive regions of operation. Side-on images of the jet were taken to analyze the mode of operation as well as the jet length. A self-pulsed mode is observed before the transition of the discharge to normal glow mode. Optical emission spectroscopy is employed from both end-on and side-on along the jet to analyze the reactive species generated in the plasma. Line emissions from atomic oxygen (at 777.4 nm) and helium (at 706.5 nm) were studied with respect to the oxygen volume percentage in the working gas, flow rate and discharge current. Optical emission intensities of Cu and OH are found to depend heavily on the oxygen concentration in the working gas. Ozone concentration measured in a semi-confined zone in front of the plasma jet is found to be from tens to ∼120 ppm. The results presented here demonstrate potential pathways for the adjustment and tuning of various plasma parameters such as reactive species selectivity and quantities or even ultraviolet emission intensities manipulation in an atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma source. The possibilities of fine tuning these plasma species allows for enhanced applications in health and medical related areas. (paper)

  10. Treatment of hazardous wastes by DC thermal plasma arc discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toru, Iwao; Yafang, Liu; Furuta, N.; Tsuginori, Inaba

    2001-01-01

    The temperature of the DC thermal plasma arc discharge is discussed, and examples of the waste treatment for the inorganic compounds such as fly ash, asbestos, and for the organic compounds such as the toxic dioxines and TBT by using the DC plasma arc discharge are shown. In addition, the plasma treatment by using a radiant power emitted from the DC plasma arc discharge is also shown as another new kind of ones. (authors)

  11. Synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles by dc arc dusty plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthilkumar, K., E-mail: akskumar.phy@gmail.com; Senthilkumar, O. [Shimane University, Research Project Promotion Institute (Japan); Morito, S.; Ohba, T.; Fujita, Y. [Shimane University, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Optical emission signals of a dc arc plasma system that was used for generating ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) have been investigated in gas phase as a function of chamber pressure and arc current. In this technique, a commercially available zinc 4N rod is used as a zinc source, as well as anode in the dc circuit and ambient air as an oxygen source. A carbon rod acts as the cathode. The optical transitions of Zn(I) and O(I) in addition, excitation of high energy states of N{sub 2}, CN, and atomic nitrogen lines were observed in OES due to increase of electron temperature than gas temperature (T{sub e} > T{sub g}) by reducing the chamber pressure from 760 torr to lower pressures. The as-prepared NPs show good crystalline quality with hexagonal wurtzite structure and the particle size was ranging from few nm to 100 nm in the form of rod and spherical morphologies. The impurity nature and structural properties of as-prepared NPs by dc arc plasma experiments were correlated with OES and Raman spectroscopy.

  12. Synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles by dc arc dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senthilkumar, K.; Senthilkumar, O.; Morito, S.; Ohba, T.; Fujita, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Optical emission signals of a dc arc plasma system that was used for generating ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) have been investigated in gas phase as a function of chamber pressure and arc current. In this technique, a commercially available zinc 4N rod is used as a zinc source, as well as anode in the dc circuit and ambient air as an oxygen source. A carbon rod acts as the cathode. The optical transitions of Zn(I) and O(I) in addition, excitation of high energy states of N 2 , CN, and atomic nitrogen lines were observed in OES due to increase of electron temperature than gas temperature (T e > T g ) by reducing the chamber pressure from 760 torr to lower pressures. The as-prepared NPs show good crystalline quality with hexagonal wurtzite structure and the particle size was ranging from few nm to 100 nm in the form of rod and spherical morphologies. The impurity nature and structural properties of as-prepared NPs by dc arc plasma experiments were correlated with OES and Raman spectroscopy.

  13. Breakdown of highly excited oxygen in a DC electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, N.P.; Ionin, A.A.; Klimachev, Yu.M.; Sinitsin, D.V.; Yuryshev, N.N.; Deryugin, A.A.; Kochetov, I.V.; Napartovich, A.P.

    2000-01-01

    The breakdown of oxygen in a dc electric field is studied. A high concentration of oxygen molecules in the a 1 Δ g excited state is obtained in a purely chemical reactor. A decrease in the breakdown voltage at degrees of excitation exceeding 50% is observed. The theoretical decrement in the breakdown voltage obtained by solving the Boltzmann equation is in good agreement with the experimental data

  14. Energy Balance in DC Arc Plasma Melting Furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Peng; Meng Yuedong; Yu Xinyao; Chen Longwei; Jiang Yiman; Nie Guohua; Chen Mingzhou

    2009-01-01

    In order to treat hazardous municipal solid waste incinerator's (MSWI) fly ash, a new DC arc plasma furnace was developed. Taking an arc of 100 V/1000 A DC as an example, the heat transfer characteristics of the DC arc plasma, ablation of electrodes, heat properties of the fly ash during melting, heat transfer characteristics of the flue gas, and heat loss of the furnace were analyzed based on the energy conservation law, so as to achieve the total heat information and energy balance during plasma processing, and to provide a theoretical basis for an optimized design of the structure and to improve energy efficiency. (plasma technology)

  15. Study of the physical discharge properties of a Ar/O2 DC plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhordari, A.; Ganjovi, A.; Mirzaei, I.; Falahat, A.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the physical properties of plasma discharge in a manufactured DC plasma jet operating with the Ar/O2 gaseous mixture are studied. Moreover, the optical emission spectroscopy technique is used to perform the experimental measurements. The obtained emission spectra are analyzed and, the plasma density, rotational, vibrational and electronic temperature are calculated. The NO emission lines from {NO }γ( A2 Σ^{+} \\to {X}2 Πr ) electronic transition are observed. It is seen that, at the higher argon contributions in Ar/O2 gaseous mixture, the emission intensities from argon ions will increase. Moreover, while the vibrational and excitation temperatures are increased at the higher input DC currents, they will decrease at the higher Ar percentages in the Ar/O2 gaseous mixture. Furthermore, at the higher DC currents and Ar contributions, both the plasma electron density and dissociation fraction of oxygen atoms are increased.

  16. -3000 V dc bias Ti oxidation by inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia-Alvarado, R; Lopez-Callejas, R; Barocio, S R; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Pena-Eguiluz, R; Munoz-Castro, A E; De la Piedad-Beneitez, A; De la Rosa-Vazquez, J

    2008-01-01

    Broadening the outer oxidized layer of titanium by means of plasmas commands considerable interest in the biomedical research area due to its potential in human biocompatibility enhancement. Some early results of titanium substrate superficial oxidation experiments which have been conducted in a cylindrical vessel inductively coupled to a 13.56 MHz RF generator with a 500 W output are presented. The oxidation process was carried out in a 20 % oxygen and 80 % argon mixture at work pressures in the 5x10 -3 -1 mbar range, while the samples were dc biased down to -3000 V. The substrate temperature appears to be directly dependent on this voltage, reaching 685 deg. C at the maximum bias when a diffusive oxidation process gives rise to the TiO 2 and α-TiO rutile phases. These were characterized by means of x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy revealing atomic percentage concentrations of oxygen, with respect to those of titanium, between 68 and 13 at.%. The optimum modified layer depth reached 5 μm at a 5x10 -2 mbar work pressure.

  17. Research on Two-channel Interleaved Two-stage Paralleled Buck DC-DC Converter for Plasma Cutting Power Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xi-jun; Qu, Hao; Yao, Chen

    2014-01-01

    As for high power plasma power supply, due to high efficiency and flexibility, multi-channel interleaved multi-stage paralleled Buck DC-DC Converter becomes the first choice. In the paper, two-channel interleaved two- stage paralleled Buck DC-DC Converter powered by three-phase AC power supply...

  18. DC plasma arc melter technology for waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, R.A.; Wittle, J.K.; Trescot, J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the features and benefits of a breakthrough DC Arc Melter for the permanent treatment of all types of solid wastes including nonhazardous, hazardous and radioactive. This DC Arc Furnace system, now commercially available, is the low cost permanent solution for solid waste pollution prevention and remediation. Concern over the effective disposal of wastes generated by the industrial society, worldwide, has prompted development of technologies to address the problem. For the most part these technologies have resulted in niche solutions with limited application. The only solution that has the ability to process almost all wastes, and to recover/recycle metallic and inorganic matter, is the group of technologies known as melters. Melters have distinct advantages over traditional technologies such as incineration because melters operate at higher temperatures, are relatively unaffected by changes in the waste stream, produce a vitrified stable product, and have the capability to recover/recycle slag, metals and gas. The system, DC Plasma Arc Melter, has the lowest capital, maintenance and operating cost of any melter technology because of its patented DC Plasma Arc with graphite electrode. DC Plasma Arc Melter systems are commercially available in sizes from 50 kg/batch or 250--3,000 kg/hr on a continuous feed basis. This paper examines the design and operating benefits of a DC Plasma Arc Melter System

  19. PIII Plasma Density Enhancement by a New DC Power Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Callejas, R.; Godoy-Cabrera, O. G.; Granda-Gutierrez, E. E.; Piedad-Beneitez, A. de la; Munoz-Castro, A. E.; Valencia A, R.; Barocio, S. R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Pena-Eguiluz, R.

    2006-01-01

    In practical terms, those plasmas produced by a DC voltage power supply do not attain densities above the 108 to 109 cm-3 band. Here we present a power supply, controlled in current and voltage, which has been successfully designed and constructed delivering plasma densities in the orders of 109 - 1010 cm-3. Its experimental performance test was conducted within one toroidal and one cylindrical chambers capable of 29 and 35 litres, respectively, using nitrogen gas. The DC plasma was characterized by a double electric probe. Several physical phenomena present in the PIII process have been keenly investigated including plasma sheath dynamics, interaction of plasma and surface, etc. In this paper we analyze the effect of the implantation voltage, plasma density and pulse time in the PIII average heating power and fluence density

  20. In situ dc oxygen-discharge cleaning system for optical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, T.; Shidara, T.; Tanaka, K.; Yagishita, A.; Sato, S.

    1989-01-01

    In situ dc oxygen-discharge cleaning arrangements have been developed at the Photon Factory for the removal of carbon contamination from optical surfaces. A high cleaning rate could be achieved by producing an oxygen plasma close to the optical elements with special care taken to avoid any harmful effects from the discharge; contaminant carbon was completely removed within a few hours, at most. This short exposure time and the use of dry oxygen gas resulted in a restoration of the original ultrahigh vacuum without a bakeout. Results with a Seya-Namioka beamline for gas-phase experiments showed a flux enhancement amounting to a factor of 50, and results with a grasshopper beamline showed a nearly complete recovery of the light intensity, even at the carbon K edge

  1. Dependence of plasma characteristics on dc magnetron sputter parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, S.Z.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma discharge characteristics of a dc magnetron system were measured by a single Langmuir probe at the center axis of the dual-side process chamber. Plasma potential, floating potential, electron and ion densities, and electron temperature were extracted with varying dc power and gas pressure during sputter deposition of a metal target; strong correlations were shown between these plasma parameters and the sputter parameters. The electron density was controlled mostly by secondary electron generation in constant power mode, while plasma potential reflects the confinement space variation due to change of discharge voltage. When discharge pressure was varied, plasma density increases with the increased amount of free stock molecules, while electron temperature inversely decreased, due to energy-loss collision events. In low-pressure discharges, the electron energy distribution function measurements show more distinctive bi-Maxwellian distribution, with the fast electron temperature gradually decreases with increased gas pressure

  2. Aligned Carbon Nanotubes Array by DC Glow Plasma Etching for Supercapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Luo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To open the end of carbon nanotubes and make these ends connect with functional carboxyl group, aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs arrays was etched by DC glow oxygen-argon plasma. With these open-ended carbon nanotubes array as electrode materials to build supercapacitor, we found that the capacity (32.2 F/g increased significantly than that of pure carbon nanotubes (6.7 F/g.

  3. DC graphite plasma arc melter technology for waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, R.A.; Wittle, J.K.; Trescot, J.; Wilver, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the features and benefits of a DC Arc Melter for the permanent treatment of all types of solid wastes including nonhazardous, hazardous and radioactive. This DC Arc Melter system is the low cost permanent solution for solid waste pollution prevention and remediation. Concern over the effective disposal of wastes generated by our industrial society, worldwide, has prompted development of technologies to address the problem. The only solution that has the ability to process almost all wastes, and to recover/recycle metallic and inorganic matter, is the group of technologies known as melters. Melters have distinct advantages over traditional technologies such as incineration because melters; operate at higher temperatures, are relatively unaffected by changes in the waste stream, produce a vitrified stable product, reduce gaseous emissions, and have the capability to recover/recycle slag, metals and gas. The system, DC Plasma Arc Melter, has the lowest capital, maintenance and operating cost of any melter technology because of its patented DC Plasma Arc with graphite electrode. DC Plasma Arc Melter systems are available in sizes from 50 kg/batch or 250-3,000 kg/hr on a continuous basis

  4. Automation of Aditya tokamak plasma position control DC power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arambhadiya, Bharat, E-mail: bharat@ipr.res.in; Raj, Harshita; Tanna, R.L.; Edappala, Praveenlal; Rajpal, Rachana; Ghosh, Joydeep; Chattopadhyay, P.K.; Kalal, M.B.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Plasma position control is very essential for obtaining repeatable high temperature, high-density discharges of longer durations in tokomak. • The present capacitor bank has limitations of maximum current capacity and position control beyond 200 ms. • The installation of a separate set of coils and a DC power supply can control the plasma position beyond 200 ms. • A high power thyristor (T588N1200) triggers for DC current pulse of 300 A fires precisely at required positions to modify plasma position. • The commissioning is done for the automated in-house, quick and reliable solution. - Abstract: Plasma position control is essential for obtaining repeatable high temperature, high-density discharges of longer duration in tokamaks. Recently, a set of external coils is installed in the vertical field mode configuration to control the radial plasma position in ADITYA tokamak. The existing capacitor bank cannot provide the required current pulse beyond 200 ms for position control. This motivated to have a DC power supply of 500 A to provide current pulse beyond 200 ms for the position control. The automatization of the DC power supply mandated interfaces with the plasma control system, Aditya Pulse Power supply, and Data acquisition system for coordinated discharge operation. A high current thyristor circuit and a timer circuit have been developed for controlling the power supply automatically for charging vertical field coils of Aditya tokamak. Key protection interlocks implemented in the development ensure machine and occupational safety. Fiber-optic trans-receiver isolates the power supply with other subsystems, while analog channel is optically isolated. Commissioning and testing established proper synchronization of the power supply with tokamak operation. The paper discusses the automation of the DC power supply with main circuit components, timing control, and testing results.

  5. Dust acoustic waves in a dc glow-discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molotkov, V.I.; Nefedov, A.P.; Torchinskii, V.M.; Fortov, V.E.; Khrapak, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    The spontaneous excitation of low-frequency oscillations of the macroparticle density in ordered dust structures levitating in standing striations of a dc glow discharge is discovered. It is concluded on the basis of a simplified linear model of an ideal collisionless plasma that the observed instability is caused by the drift motion of ions relative to the dust, which leads to the excitation of dust acoustic oscillations of the plasma

  6. DC arc plasma disposal of printed circuit board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jianjun; Shenzhen Univ., Shenzhen; Shi Jiabiao; Meng Yuedong; Liu Zhengzhi

    2004-01-01

    A new solid waste disposal technology setup with DC arc plasma is presented. Being different from conventional combustion or burning such as incineration, it is based on a process called controlled high-temperature pyrolysis, the thermal destruction and recovery process. The results of vitrification of the circuit board are presented. The properties of vitrified product including hardness and leaching test results are presented. The final product (vitrified material) and air emission from the plasma treatment is environmentally acceptable. (authors)

  7. Characterization of DC argon plasma jet at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Jianhua; Ma Zengyi; Pan Xinchao; Cen Kefa; Bruno, C

    2006-01-01

    An original DC double anode plasma torch operating with argon at atmospheric pressure which provides a long time and highly stable plasma jet is analyzed through its electrical and optical signals. Effects of gas flow rate and current intensity on the arc dynamics behaviour are studied using standard diagnostic tools such as FFT and correlation function. An increasing current-voltage characteristic is reported for different argon flow rates. It is noted that the takeover mode is characteristic for argon plasma jet and arc fluctuations in our case are mainly induced by the undulation of torch power supply. Furthermore, the excitation temperatures and electron densities of the plasma jet inside and outside the arc chamber have been determined by means of optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The criteria for the existence of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) in plasma is then discussed. The results show that argon plasma jet at atmospheric pressure under our experimental conditions is close to LTE. (authors)

  8. dc-plasma-sprayed electronic-tube device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, T.T.

    1982-01-29

    An electronic tube and associated circuitry which is produced by dc plasma arc spraying techniques is described. The process is carried out in a single step automated process whereby both active and passive devices are produced at very low cost. The circuitry is extremely reliable and is capable of functioning in both high radiation and high temperature environments. The size of the electronic tubes produced are more than an order of magnitude smaller than conventional electronic tubes.

  9. Desizing of Starch Containing Cotton Fabrics Using Near Atmospheric Pressure, Cold DC Plasma Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasath, A.; Sivaram, S. S.; Vijay Anand, V. D.; Dhandapani, Saravanan

    2013-03-01

    An attempt has been made to desize the starch containing grey cotton fabrics using the DC plasma with oxygen as the gaseous medium. Process conditions of the plasma reactor were optimized in terms of distance between the plates (3.2 cm), applied voltage (600 V) and applied pressure (0.01 bar) to obtain maximum desizing efficiency. No discolouration was observed in the hot water extracts of the desized sample in presence of iodine though relatively higher solvent extractable impurities (4.53 %) were observed in the plasma desized samples compared to acid desized samples (3.38 %). Also, significant weight loss, improvements in plasma desized samples were observed than that of grey fabrics in terms of drop absorbency.

  10. Discharge Characteristics of DC Arc Water Plasma for Environmental Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sooseok; Watanabe, Takayuki; Li Tianming

    2012-01-01

    A water plasma was generated by DC arc discharge with a hafnium embedded rod-type cathode and a nozzle-type anode. The discharge characteristics were examined by changing the operation parameter of the arc current. The dynamic behavior of the arc discharge led to significant fluctuations in the arc voltage and its frequency. Analyses of the high speed image and the arc voltage waveform showed that the arc discharge was in the restrike mode and its frequency varied within several tens of kilohertz according to the operating conditions. The larger thermal plasma volume was generated by the higher flow from the forming steam with a higher restrike frequency in the higher arc current conditions. In addition, the characteristics of the water plasma jet were investigated by means of optical emission spectroscopy to identify the abundant radicals required in an efficient waste treatment process. (plasma technology)

  11. Numerical simulation of a DC double anode arc plasma torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lunjiang; Tang Deli; Zhu Hailong

    2012-01-01

    A 2D axisymmetric numerical simulation of DC double anode plasma torch was done by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software FLUENT to improve the efficiency of the waste treatment, which is on the basis of the magnetic fluid dynamics (MHD) theory and uses the method of magnetic vector potential, and the simulation method is based on SIMPLE algorithm. The temperature and speed distributions of the plasma, and so on were obtained. The results show that the temperature of plasma decreases with increasing the axial distance, and increases with increasing the amplitude of the arc current. The velocity first increases and then decreases with the axial distance increase, and increase with the arc current increase. The temperature and the speed at the export of the plasma torch both decrease when the radial distance increases. Those results are in agreement with the experimental results. (authors)

  12. DC plasma ion implantation in an inductively coupled RF plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silawatshananai, C.; Matan, N.; Pakpum, C.; Pussadee, N.; Srisantitam, P.; Davynov, S.; Vilaithong, T.

    2004-01-01

    Various modes of plasma ion implantation have been investigated in a small inductively coupled 13.6 MHz RF plasma source. Plasma ion implantation with HVDC(up to -10 kV bias) has been investigated in order to incorporate with the conventional implantation of diamond like carbon. In this preliminary work, nitrogen ions are implanted into the stainless steel sample with a dose of 5.5 x 10 -2 cm for a short implanting time of 7 minutes without target cooling. Surface properties such as microhardness, wear rate and the friction coefficient have been improved. X-ray and SEM analyses show distinct structural changes on the surface. A combination of sheath assisted implantation and thermal diffusion may be responsible for improvement in surface properties. (orig.)

  13. Understanding plasma spraying process and characteristics of DC-arc plasma gun (PJ-100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Ružić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal spray processes are a group of coating processes used to apply metallic or non-metallic coatings. In these processes energy sources are used to heat the coating material (in the form of powder, wire, or rod form to a molten or semi-molten state and accelerated towards a prepared surface by either carrier gases or atomization jets. In plasma spraying process, the spraying material is generally in the form of powder and requires a carrier gas to feed the powder into the plasma jet, which is passing between the hot cathode and the cylindrical nozzle-shaped anode. The design of DC plasma gun (PJ - 100 is designed and manufactured in Serbia. Plasma spaying process, the powder injection with the heat, momentum and mass transfers between particles and plasma jet, and the latest developments related to the production of DC plasma gun are described in this article.

  14. The influence of target oxygen on the YBa2Cu3O6+δ DC Magnetron sputtering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, G.; Selinder, T.I.; Helmersson, U

    1990-01-01

    The oxygen partial pressure and the target potential have been monitored under a range of process conditions during single target dc magnetron sputtering of Y-Ba-Cu-O. The introduced sputtering gas consisted in all but one instance of pure argon and hence the oxygen present in the plasma originated mainly from the target. During the first hours of sputtering the oxygen partial pressure was of the same magnitude as the argon pressure (3.0 Pa). As the oxygen was released from the target and subsequently removed by pumping, the target potential increased and the film composition became more stoichiometric. After 30-40 hours of sputtering the target potential and the oxygen pressure stabilized and the film composition was equal to that of the stoichiometric target. If an oxygen flow exceeding a critical level was mixed into the sputtering gas the target potential and the deposition rate decreased swiftly. This was due to target oxidation, further manifested in changing plasma and target colours. In some instances the stabilization after 'presputtering' was incomplete and oscillations in target voltage and oxygen partial pressure were observed. The fluctuations made it virtually impossible to obtain stoichiometric films. The oscillative behaviour of the sputtering process is tentatively explained by a target temperature dependent oxygen diffusion. (au)

  15. Discharge Characteristics of DC Arc Water Plasma for Environmental Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianming; Sooseok, Choi; Takayuki, Watanabe

    2012-12-01

    A water plasma was generated by DC arc discharge with a hafnium embedded rod-type cathode and a nozzle-type anode. The discharge characteristics were examined by changing the operation parameter of the arc current. The dynamic behavior of the arc discharge led to significant fluctuations in the arc voltage and its frequency. Analyses of the high speed image and the arc voltage waveform showed that the arc discharge was in the restrike mode and its frequency varied within several tens of kilohertz according to the operating conditions. The larger thermal plasma volume was generated by the higher flow from the forming steam with a higher restrike frequency in the higher arc current conditions. In addition, the characteristics of the water plasma jet were investigated by means of optical emission spectroscopy to identify the abundant radicals required in an efficient waste treatment process.

  16. Disposal of olive mill wastewater with DC arc plasma method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahimoglu, Beycan; Yilmazoglu, M Zeki

    2018-07-01

    Olive mill wastewater is an industrial waste, generated as a byproduct of olive oil production process and generally contains components such as organic matter, suspended solids, oil, and grease. Although various methods have been developed to achieve the disposal of this industrial wastewater, due to the low cost, the most common disposal application is the passive storage in the lagoons. The main objective of this study is to reduce pollution parameters in olive mill wastewater and draw water to discharge limits by using plasma technology. Plasma-assisted disposal of olive mill wastewater method could be an alternative disposal technique when considering potential utilization of treated water in agricultural areas and economic value of flammable plasma gas which is the byproduct of disposal process. According to the experimental results, the rates of COD (chemical oxygen demand) and BOD (biological oxygen demand) of olive mill wastewater are decreased by 94.42% and 95.37%, respectively. The dissolved oxygen amount is increased from 0.36 to 6.97 mg/l. In addition, plasma gas with high H 2 content and treated water that can be used in agricultural areas for irrigation are obtained from non-dischargeable wastewater. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cold atmospheric plasma jet in an axial DC electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Li, E-mail: lilin@gwu.edu, E-mail: keidar@gwu.edu; Keidar, Michael, E-mail: lilin@gwu.edu, E-mail: keidar@gwu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) jet is currently intensively investigated as a tool for new and potentially transformative cancer treatment modality. However, there are still many unknowns about the jet behavior that requires attention. In this paper, a helium CAP jet is tested in an electrostatic field generated by a copper ring. Using Rayleigh microwave scattering method, some delays of the electron density peaks for different ring potentials are observed. Meanwhile, a similar phenomenon associated with the bullet velocity is found. Chemical species distribution along the jet is analyzed based on the jet optical emission spectra. The spectra indicate that a lower ring potential, i.e., lower DC background electric field, can increase the amount of excited N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}{sup +}, He, and O in the region before the ring, but can decrease the amount of excited NO and HO almost along the entire jet. Combining all the results above, we discovered that an extra DC potential mainly affects the temporal plasma jet properties. Also, it is possible to manipulate the chemical compositions of the jet using a ring with certain electric potentials.

  18. Synthesis of ZnO nanopowders by DC thermal plasma for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soo-Jung; Choi, Jinsub [Department of Chemical Engineering, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Dong-Wha, E-mail: dwpark@inha.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-01

    Highlights: ► ZnO nanopowders were synthesized using DC thermal plasma process. ► Type and flow rate of reaction gas were controlled as experimental variables. ► Various morphologies were identified by changing the reaction gas. ► The photovoltaic performances were promoted by removing the unreacted precursors. ► DSSCs based on 1D nanostructure ZnO show the enhanced energy conversion efficiency. -- Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanopowders were synthesized from commercially available micro-sized zinc powders (Aldrich Co., 98%, 10 μm) by a DC thermal plasma process at atmospheric pressure. The micro-sized zinc powders were vaporized in the plasma region, after which the plasma processing equipment was rapidly quenched, resulting in the formation of ZnO nanopowders with a size of less than 300 nm. Two different reaction gases of oxygen and carbon dioxide were used as the oxygen source and each gas flow rate was controlled as a process variable. The obtained ZnO nanopowders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). All synthesized ZnO nanopowders showed high crystalline wurtzite structures and the differences in their morphologies were strongly dependent on the operating variables. The photocurrent–voltage (J–V) curve of the ZnO nanopowders with a dye of ruthenium (II) 535 bis-TBA (N719, Solaronix) in redox electrolyte showed an overall energy conversion efficiency (η) of 2.54%, demonstrating that the application of the mass-producible ZnO nanopowders by thermal plasma processing to DSSC was feasible.

  19. Plasma spheroidization of iron powders in a non-transferred DC thermal plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.; Selvarajan, V.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the results of plasma spheroidization of iron powders using a DC non-transferred plasma spray torch are presented. The morphology of the processed powders was characterized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy (OM). The percentages of spheroidized powders were calculated by the shape factors such as the Irregularity Parameter (IP) and Roundness (RN). A maximum of 83% of spheroidization can be achieved. The spheroidization results are compared with the theoretical estimation and they are found to be in good agreement. The phase composition of the spheroidized powder was analyzed by XRD. The effect of plasma jet temperature and plasma gas flow rate on spheroidization is discussed. At low plasma gas flow rates and at high plasma jet temperatures, the percentage of spheroidization is high

  20. Current transfer in dc non-transferred arc plasma torches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorui, S; Sahasrabudhe, S N; Das, A K

    2010-01-01

    Fundamentals of current transfer to the anodes in dc non-transferred arc plasma torches are investigated. Specially designed anodes made of three mutually isolated sections and external dc axial magnetic fields of various strengths are utilized to explore the conditions for different diffused and constricted attachments of the arc with the anode. A number of new facts are revealed in the exercise. Under constricted attachment, formation of arc root takes place. Spontaneous and magnetically induced movements of the arc root, their dependence on the arc current and the strength of the external magnetic field, most probable arc root velocity, variation of the root velocity with strength of the applied magnetic field, the effect of swirl on the rotational speed of the arc root are some of the important features investigated. Two new techniques are introduced: one for measurement of the arc root diameter and the other for determination of the negative electric field in the boundary layer over the anode. While the first one exploits the rigid column behaviour of the arcs, the second one utilizes the shooting back of the residual electrons over an arc spot. Sample calculations are provided.

  1. Study on Characteristics of Constricted DC Plasma Using Particle-In-Cell Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Jong Gap; Park, Yeong Shin; Hwang, Yong Seok

    2010-01-01

    In dc glow discharge, when anode size is smaller than cathode, very small and bright plasma ball occurs in front of anode. This plasma is called constricted dc plasma and characterized by a high plasma density in positive glow, so called plasma ball, compared to the conventional dc plasma. For the reason, this plasma is utilized to ion or electron beam sources since the beam currents are enhanced by the dense anode glow. However, correlations between characteristics of the plasma (plasma density, electron temperature and space potential) and discharge conditions (anode size, discharge voltage, discharge current, pressure) have been a little investigated definitely clear in previous study because of the trouble of a diagnosis. The plasma ball which is the most essential part of the constricted plasma is too small to diagnose precisely without disturbing plasma. Therefore, we tried to analyze the constricted plasma through computer simulation with Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code. In this study, simulation result of constricted dc plasma as well as conventional dc glow discharge will be addressed and compared with each others

  2. Sterilization by pure oxygen plasma and by oxygen-hydrogen peroxide plasma: an efficacy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscariol, M R; Moreira, A J; Mansano, R D; Kikuchi, I S; Pinto, T J A

    2008-04-02

    Plasma is an innovative sterilization method characterized by a low toxicity to operators and patients, and also by its operation at temperatures close to room temperatures. The use of different parameters for this method of sterilization and the corresponding results were analyzed in this study. A low-pressure inductive discharge was used to study the plasma sterilization processes. Oxygen and a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide were used as plasma source gases. The efficacy of the processes using different combinations of parameters such as plasma-generation method, type of gas, pressure, gas flow rate, temperature, power, and exposure time was evaluated. Two phases were developed for the processes, one using pure oxygen and the other a mixture of gases. Bacillus subtilis var. niger ATCC 9372 (Bacillus atrophaeus) spores inoculated on glass coverslips were used as biological indicators to evaluate the efficacy of the processes. All cycles were carried out in triplicate for different sublethal exposure times to calculate the D value by the enumeration method. The pour-plate technique was used to quantify the spores. D values of between 8 and 3 min were obtained. Best results were achieved at high power levels (350 and 400 W) using pure oxygen, showing that plasma sterilization is a promising alternative to other sterilization methods.

  3. Destruction of acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene and pyrene by a dc gliding arc plasma reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang; Tu, Xin; Li, Xiaodong; Wang, Yu; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jianhua

    2010-08-15

    In this study, four kinds of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) i.e. acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene and pyrene are used as targets for investigation of PAHs treatment process assisted by dc gliding arc discharge. The effects of carrier gas and external resistance on the PAHs decomposition process are discussed. The results indicate that the destruction rate can be achieved to the highest with the carrier gas of oxygen and the external resistance of 50 kOmega independent of type of PAHs. Furthermore, experimental results suggest that destruction energy efficiency of gliding arc plasma would be improved by treating higher concentration pollutants. Based on the analysis of experimental results, possible destruction mechanisms in different gas discharge are discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Destruction of acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene and pyrene by a dc gliding arc plasma reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Liang; Tu Xin; Li Xiaodong; Wang Yu; Chi Yong; Yan Jianhua

    2010-01-01

    In this study, four kinds of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) i.e. acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene and pyrene are used as targets for investigation of PAHs treatment process assisted by dc gliding arc discharge. The effects of carrier gas and external resistance on the PAHs decomposition process are discussed. The results indicate that the destruction rate can be achieved to the highest with the carrier gas of oxygen and the external resistance of 50 kΩ independent of type of PAHs. Furthermore, experimental results suggest that destruction energy efficiency of gliding arc plasma would be improved by treating higher concentration pollutants. Based on the analysis of experimental results, possible destruction mechanisms in different gas discharge are discussed.

  5. Influence of DC plasma modification on the selected properties and the geometrical surface structure of polylactide prior to autocatalytic metallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraczewski, Krzysztof, E-mail: kmm@ukw.edu.pl [Kazimierz Wielki University, Chodkiewicza 30, 85-064 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Rytlewski, Piotr [Kazimierz Wielki University, Chodkiewicza 30, 85-064 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Malinowski, Rafał [Institute for Engineering of Polymer Materials and Dyes, Marii Skłodowskiej-Curie 55, 87-100 Toruń (Poland); Tracz, Adam [Centre for Molecular and Macromolecular Studies of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Sienkiewicza 112, 90-363 Łódź (Poland); Żenkiewicz, Marian [Institute for Engineering of Polymer Materials and Dyes, Marii Skłodowskiej-Curie 55, 87-100 Toruń (Poland)

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents the results of studies to determine the applicability of plasma modification in the process of polylactide (PLA) surface preparation prior to the autocatalytic metallization. The polylactide plasma modification was carried out in an oxygen or nitrogen chemistry. The samples were tested with the following methods: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), goniometry and electron spectrophotometry (XPS). Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images were demonstrated. The results of surface free energy calculations, performed based on the results of the contact angle measurements have been presented. The results of the qualitative (degree of oxidation or nitridation) and quantitative analysis of the chemical composition of the polylactide surface layer have also been described. The results of the studies show that the DC plasma modification performed in the proposed condition is a suitable as a method of surface preparation for the polylactide metallization. - Highlights: • We modified polylactide surface layer with plasma generated in oxygen or nitrogen. • We tested selected properties and surface structure of modified samples. • DC plasma modification can be used to prepare the PLA surface for metallization. • For better results metallization should be preceded by sonication process.

  6. Particle melting and particle/plasma interactions in DC and RF plasmas: a modeling study. (Volumes I and II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, D.Y.C.

    1987-01-01

    Integral process models were developed to predict particle melting in both DC and RF plasmas. Specifically, a numerical model has been developed to predict the temperature history of particles injected in a low pressure DC plasma jet. The temperature and velocity fields of the plasma jet are predicted as a free jet by solving the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations using a spatial marching scheme. Correction factors were introduced to take into account non continuum effects encountered in the low pressure environment. The plasma jet profiles as well as the particle/plasma interactions under different jet pressure ratios (from underexpanded to overexpanded) were investigated. The flow and temperature fields in the RF plasma torch are calculated using the axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations based on the primitive variables, along with pseudo two-dimensional electromagnetic field equations. Particle trajectories and heat transfer characteristics in both DC and RF plasmas are calculated using predicted plasma jet profiles. Particle melting efficiencies in both DC and RF plasmas are evaluated and compared using model alloy systems. Based on the theoretical considerations, an alternative route of plasma spraying process (hybrid plasma spraying process) is proposed. An evaluation of particle melting in hybrid plasma jets had indicated that further improvement in deposit properties could be made

  7. [Automatic adjustment control system for DC glow discharge plasma source].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zhen-zhen; Wang, Yong-qing; Li, Xiao-jia; Wang, Hai-zhou; Shi, Ning

    2011-03-01

    There are three important parameters in the DC glow discharge process, the discharge current, discharge voltage and argon pressure in discharge source. These parameters influence each other during glow discharge process. This paper presents an automatic control system for DC glow discharge plasma source. This system collects and controls discharge voltage automatically by adjusting discharge source pressure while the discharge current is constant in the glow discharge process. The design concept, circuit principle and control program of this automatic control system are described. The accuracy is improved by this automatic control system with the method of reducing the complex operations and manual control errors. This system enhances the control accuracy of glow discharge voltage, and reduces the time to reach discharge voltage stability. The glow discharge voltage stability test results with automatic control system are provided as well, the accuracy with automatic control system is better than 1% FS which is improved from 4% FS by manual control. Time to reach discharge voltage stability has been shortened to within 30 s by automatic control from more than 90 s by manual control. Standard samples like middle-low alloy steel and tin bronze have been tested by this automatic control system. The concentration analysis precision has been significantly improved. The RSDs of all the test result are better than 3.5%. In middle-low alloy steel standard sample, the RSD range of concentration test result of Ti, Co and Mn elements is reduced from 3.0%-4.3% by manual control to 1.7%-2.4% by automatic control, and that for S and Mo is also reduced from 5.2%-5.9% to 3.3%-3.5%. In tin bronze standard sample, the RSD range of Sn, Zn and Al elements is reduced from 2.6%-4.4% to 1.0%-2.4%, and that for Si, Ni and Fe is reduced from 6.6%-13.9% to 2.6%-3.5%. The test data is also shown in this paper.

  8. Plasma-Oxygen Interaction During Thin Films Deposition by Laser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this contribution we study the effect of the oxygen pressure on the plasma dynamics during the ablation of oxides materials into an oxygen gas. The study was done using fast imaging and ion probe techniques. Both techniques revealed that a threshold oxygen pressure is needed to initiate the plume oxygen interaction.

  9. Relationship between the DC Bias and Debye Length in a Complex Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Jie; Reyes, Jorge C.; Creel, James; Hyde, Truell

    2007-01-01

    The levitation height of a dust particle layer within a RF discharge plasma sheath is known to be related to the DC bias, the background pressure, and the Debye length. In this paper, a new experimental technique for measurement of the Debye length is introduced. This technique is based on the relationship between an externally applied DC bias and the particle levitation height and shows that under appropriate conditions, the addition of an externally applied DC bias provides a mechanism for ...

  10. Influence of DC arc jets on flow fields analyzed by an integrated numerical model for a DC-RF hybrid plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jun Ho; Park, Jin Myung; Hong, Sang Hee

    2008-01-01

    The influence of DC arc jets on the flow fields in a hybrid plasma torch is numerically analyzed by an integrated direct current-radio frequency (DC-RF) plasma model based on magneto-hydrodynamic formulations. The calculated results reveal that the increase in DC arc gas flow rate raises the axial flow velocity along the central column of the DC-RF hybrid plasma together with the enhanced backflow streams in the peripheral wall region. The temperature profiles on the torch exit plane are little affected due to the reheating process of the central column by the combined RF plasma. Accordingly, the exit enthalpy emitted from the DC-RF hybrid torch can be concentrated to the central column of the plasma and controlled by adjusting the DC arc gas flow rate. The swirl in the sheath gas flow turns out to have the opposite effect on the DC arc gas flow rate. The swirling motion of the sheath gas can reduce the back flows near the induction tube wall as well as the axial velocities in the central column of the plasma. Accordingly, the swirl in the sheath gas flow can be used for the functional operation of the DC-RF hybrid plasma along with the DC arc gas flow rate to suppress the back flows at the wall region and to reduce the excessive interactions between the DC arc jet and the ambient RF plasmas. The effects of DC input current on the flow fields of hybrid plasma are similar to those of the DC arc gas flow rate, but the axial velocities for the higher current relatively quickly decay along the centerline. This is in contrast to the increase in the axial velocity remaining in proportion to the increase in the DC arc gas flow rate all the way up to the exit of the DC-RF hybrid plasma. Accordingly, the present integrated numerical analysis suggests that the hybrid plasma field profiles and the entrainment of ambient air from the torch exit are controllable by adjusting the DC arc gas flow rate, the DC input current and swirl in the sheath gas flow taking advantage of

  11. DC Glow Discharge Plasma, Containing Dust Particles: Self Organization and Peculiarities of Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molotkov, V.I.; Pustyl'nik, M.Y.; Torchinskij, V.M.; Fortov, V.E.

    2003-01-01

    Dust particles, immersed in a plasma, acquire charge due to which they may be electrostatically trapped in a plasma. The energy of the interaction of the dust particles may be enough to transfer the dust component to nonideal and even crystalline state. This phenomenon is observed in various plasmas. In the present work a review of the investigations of strongly nonideal dusty plasma of the dc glow discharge striations is given. The formation of plasma crystals, liquids and plasma liquid crystals is considered. Typical phenomenon a for the dc discharge dusty plasma, such as coexistence of different phases in a single structure, convective motions, dust acoustic instability, are underlined. Results of the experiments on different external influences on dusty plasma structures are stated. It is shown that external influences may be used for measuring of the particle charge and field of forces acting on a dust grain levitating in a plasma. (author)

  12. Effect of Fluctuations of DC Current on Properties of Plasma Jet Generated in Plasma Spraying Torch with Gerdien Arc

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabovský, Milan; Kopecký, Vladimír; Chumak, Oleksiy; Kavka, Tetyana; Mašláni, Alan; Sember, Viktor; Ctibor, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2009), s. 229-240 ISSN 1093-3611 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Plasma torch * dc arc * plasma jet * fluctuations * plasma spraying Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.333, year: 2009 http://www.begellhouse.com/journals/57d172397126f956,4e2a92412d8c6bb5.html

  13. Biochar activated by oxygen plasma for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Dubey, Mukul; Kharel, Parashu; Gu, Zhengrong; Fan, Qi Hua

    2015-01-01

    Biochar, also known as black carbon, is a byproduct of biomass pyrolysis. As a low-cost, environmental-friendly material, biochar has the potential to replace more expensive synthesized carbon nanomaterials (e.g. carbon nanotubes) for use in future supercapacitors. To achieve high capacitance, biochar requires proper activation. A conventional approach involves mixing biochar with a strong base and baking at a high temperature. However, this process is time consuming and energy inefficient (requiring temperatures >900 °C). This work demonstrates a low-temperature (characteristics are studied. Significant enhancement of the capacitance is achieved: 171.4 F g-1 for a 5-min oxygen plasma activation, in comparison to 99.5 F g-1 for a conventional chemical activation and 60.4 F g-1 for untreated biochar. This enhancement of the charge storage capacity is attributed to the creation of a broad distribution in pore size and a larger surface area. The plasma activation mechanisms in terms of the evolution of the biochar surface and microstructure are further discussed.

  14. Dynamics of runaway tails with time-dependent sub-Dreicer dc fields in magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghaddam-Taaheri, E.; Vlahos, L.

    1987-01-01

    The evolution of runaway tails driven by sub-Dreicer time-dependent dc fields in a magnetized plasma are studied numerically using a quasilinear code based on the Ritz--Galerkin method and finite elements. It is found that the runaway tail maintained a negative slope during the dc field increase. Depending on the values of the dc electric field at t = 0 and the electron gyrofrequency to the plasma frequency ratio the runaway tail became unstable to the anomalous Doppler resonance or remained stable before the saturation of the dc field at some maximum value. The systems that remained stable during this stage became unstable to the anomalous Doppler or the Cerenkov resonances when the dc field was kept at the saturation level or decreased. Once the instability is triggered, the runaway tail is isotropized

  15. Dynamics of runaway tails with time-dependent sub-Dreicer dc fields in magnetized plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam-Taaheri, E.; Vlahos, L.

    1987-01-01

    The evolution of runaway tails driven by sub-Dreicer time-dependent dc fields in a magnetized plasma are studied numerically using a quasi-linear code based on the Ritz-Galerkin method and finite elements. It is found that the runaway tail maintained a negative slope during the dc field increase. Depending on the values of the dc electric field at t = 0 and the electron gyrofrequency to the plasma frequency ratio the runaway tail became unstable to the anomalous Doppler resonance or remained stable before the saturation of the dc field at some maximum value. The systems that remained stable during this stage became unstable to the anomalous Doppler or the Cerenkov resonances when the dc field was kept at the saturation level or decreased. Once the instability is triggered, the runaway tail is isotropized.

  16. Nonvolatile memory effect of tungsten nanocrystals under oxygen plasma treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shih-Cheng; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chen, Wei-Ren; Lo, Yuan-Chun; Wu, Kai-Ting; Sze, S.M.; Chen, Jason; Liao, I.H.; Yeh, Fon-Shan

    2010-01-01

    In this work, an oxygen plasma treatment was used to improve the memory effect of nonvolatile W nanocrystal memory, including memory window, retention and endurance. To investigate the role of the oxygen plasma treatment in charge storage characteristics, the X-ray photon-emission spectra (XPS) were performed to analyze the variation of chemical composition for W nanocrystal embedded oxide both with and without the oxygen plasma treatment. In addition, the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses were also used to identify the microstructure in the thin film and the size and density of W nanocrystals. The device with the oxygen plasma treatment shows a significant improvement of charge storage effect, because the oxygen plasma treatment enhanced the quality of silicon oxide surrounding the W nanocrystals. Therefore, the data retention and endurance characteristics were also improved by the passivation.

  17. Computational study of sheath structure in oxygen containing plasmas at medium pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrach, Rudolf; Novak, Stanislav; Ibehej, Tomas; Hrachova, Vera

    2016-09-01

    Plasma mixtures containing active species are used in many plasma-assisted material treatment technologies. The analysis of such systems is rather difficult, as both physical and chemical processes affect plasma properties. A combination of experimental and computational approaches is the best suited, especially at higher pressures and/or in chemically active plasmas. The first part of our study of argon-oxygen mixtures was based on experimental results obtained in the positive column of DC glow discharge. The plasma was analysed by the macroscopic kinetic approach which is based on the set of chemical reactions in the discharge. The result of this model is a time evolution of the number densities of each species. In the second part of contribution the detailed analysis of processes taking place during the interaction of oxygen containing plasma with immersed substrates was performed, the results of the first model being the input parameters. The used method was the particle simulation technique applied to multicomponent plasma. The sheath structure and fluxes of charged particles to substrates were analysed in the dependence on plasma pressure, plasma composition and surface geometry.

  18. A two-temperature chemical non-equilibrium modeling of DC arc plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Haiyang; Wu Bin

    2011-01-01

    To a better understanding of non-equilibrium characteristics of DC arc plasma,a two-dimensional axisymmetric two-temperature chemical non-equilibrium (2T-NCE) model is applied for direct current arc argon plasma generator with water-cooled constrictor at atmospheric pressure. The results show that the electron temperature and heavy particle temperature has a relationship under different working parameters, indicating that DC arc plasma has a strong non-equilibrium characteristic, and the variation is obvious. (authors)

  19. Investigation on Plasma Jet Flow Phenomena During DC Air Arc Motion in Bridge-Type Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Guofu; Bo, Kai; Chen, Mo; Zhou, Xue; Qiao, Xinlei

    2016-05-01

    Arc plasma jet flow in the air was investigated under a bridge-type contacts in a DC 270 V resistive circuit. We characterized the arc plasma jet flow appearance at different currents by using high-speed photography, and two polished contacts were used to search for the relationship between roughness and plasma jet flow. Then, to make the nature of arc plasma jet flow phenomena clear, a simplified model based on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory was established and calculated. The simulated DC arc plasma was presented with the temperature distribution and the current density distribution. Furthermore, the calculated arc flow velocity field showed that the circular vortex was an embodiment of the arc plasma jet flow progress. The combined action of volume force and contact surface was the main reason of the arc jet flow. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51307030, 51277038)

  20. DC Thermal Plasma Design and Utilization for the Low Density Polyethylene to Diesel Oil Pyrolysis Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam A. Gabbar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The exponential increase of plastic production produces 100 million tonnes of waste plastics annually which could be converted into hydrocarbon fuels in a thermal cracking process called pyrolysis. In this research work, a direct current (DC thermal plasma circuit is designed and used for conversion of low density polyethylene (LDPE into diesel oil in a laboratory scale pyrolysis reactor. The experimental setup uses a 270 W DC thermal plasma at operating temperatures in the range of 625 °C to 860 °C for a low density polyethylene (LDPE pyrolysis reaction at pressure = −0.95, temperature = 550 °C with τ = 30 min at a constant heating rate of 7.8 °C/min. The experimental setup consists of a vacuum pump, closed system vessel, direct current (DC plasma circuit, and a k-type thermocouple placed a few millimeters from the reactant sample. The hydrocarbon products are condensed to diesel oil and analyzed using flame ionization detector (FID gas chromatography. The analysis shows 87.5% diesel oil, 1,4-dichlorobenzene (Surr, benzene, ethylbenzene and traces of toluene and xylene. The direct current (DC thermal plasma achieves 56.9 wt. % of diesel range oil (DRO, 37.8 wt. % gaseous products and minimal tar production. The direct current (DC thermal plasma shows reliability, better temperature control, and high thermal performance as well as the ability to work for long operation periods.

  1. Surface interaction of polyimide with oxygen ECR plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddaf, M.; Balasubramanian, C.; Alegaonkar, P.S.; Bhoraskar, V.N.; Mandle, A.B.; Ganeshan, V.; Bhoraskar, S.V.

    2004-01-01

    Polyimide (Kapton-H), was subjected to atomic oxygen from an electron cyclotron resonance plasma. An optical emission spectrometer was used to characterize the atomic oxygen produced in the reactor chamber. The energy of the ions was measured using a retarding field analyzer, placed near the substrate. The density of atomic oxygen in the plasma was estimated using a nickel catalytic probe. The surface wettability of the polyimide samples monitored by contact angle measurements showed considerable improvement when treated with plasma. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic studies showed that the atomic oxygen in the plasma is the main specie affecting the surface chemistry and adhesion properties of polyimide. The improvement in the surface wettability is attributed to the high degree of cross-linking and large concentration of polar groups generated in the surface region of polyimide, after plasma treatment. The changes in the surface region of polyimide were observed by atomic force microscopic analysis

  2. Surface interaction of polyimide with oxygen ECR plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, M.; Balasubramanian, C.; Alegaonkar, P. S.; Bhoraskar, V. N.; Mandle, A. B.; Ganeshan, V.; Bhoraskar, S. V.

    2004-07-01

    Polyimide (Kapton-H), was subjected to atomic oxygen from an electron cyclotron resonance plasma. An optical emission spectrometer was used to characterize the atomic oxygen produced in the reactor chamber. The energy of the ions was measured using a retarding field analyzer, placed near the substrate. The density of atomic oxygen in the plasma was estimated using a nickel catalytic probe. The surface wettability of the polyimide samples monitored by contact angle measurements showed considerable improvement when treated with plasma. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic studies showed that the atomic oxygen in the plasma is the main specie affecting the surface chemistry and adhesion properties of polyimide. The improvement in the surface wettability is attributed to the high degree of cross-linking and large concentration of polar groups generated in the surface region of polyimide, after plasma treatment. The changes in the surface region of polyimide were observed by atomic force microscopic analysis.

  3. Three-dimensional modelling of a dc non-transferred arc plasma torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Heping; Chen Xi

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) modelling results are presented concerning a direct current (dc) non-transferred arc plasma torch with axisymmetrical geometrical configuration and axisymmetrical boundary conditions. It is shown that the arc is locally attached at the anode surface of the plasma torch, and the heat transfer and plasma flow within the torch are of 3D features. The predicted arc root location at the anode surface and arc voltage of the torch are very consistent with corresponding experimental results. (author)

  4. Calculation of DC Arc Plasma Torch Voltage- Current Characteristics Based on Steebeck Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnedenko, V.G.; Ivanov, A.A.; Pereslavtsev, A.V.; Tresviatsky, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    The work is devoted to the problem of the determination of plasma torches parameters and power sources parameters (working voltage and current of plasma torch) at the predesigning stage. The sequence of calculation of voltage-current characteristics of DC arc plasma torch is proposed. It is shown that the simple Steenbeck model of arc discharge in cylindrical channel makes it possible to carry out this calculation. The results of the calculation are confirmed by the experiments

  5. Chromatic monitoring of dc plasma torches: The latest developments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Djakov, B. E.; Enikov, R.; Oliver, D.H.; Hrabovský, Milan; Kopecký, Vladimír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 2 (2006), s. 170-173 ISSN 1612-8850 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/05/0669 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : chromatic monitoring * on-line control * plasma jet * plasma torch * powder Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.298, year: 2006

  6. Rapid, directed transport of DC-SIGN clusters in the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Weinreb, Violetta; Ridilla, Marc; Betts, Laurie; Patel, Pratik; de Silva, Aravinda M; Thompson, Nancy L; Jacobson, Ken

    2017-11-01

    C-type lectins, including dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), are all-purpose pathogen receptors that exist in nanoclusters in plasma membranes of dendritic cells. A small fraction of these clusters, obvious from the videos, can undergo rapid, directed transport in the plane of the plasma membrane at average speeds of more than 1 μm/s in both dendritic cells and MX DC-SIGN murine fibroblasts ectopically expressing DC-SIGN. Surprisingly, instantaneous speeds can be considerably greater. In MX DC-SIGN cells, many cluster trajectories are colinear with microtubules that reside close to the ventral membrane, and the microtubule-depolymerizing drug, nocodazole, markedly reduced the areal density of directed movement trajectories, suggesting a microtubule motor-driven transport mechanism; by contrast, latrunculin A, which affects the actin network, did not depress this movement. Rapid, retrograde movement of DC-SIGN may be an efficient mechanism for bringing bound pathogen on the leading edge and projections of dendritic cells to the perinuclear region for internalization and processing. Dengue virus bound to DC-SIGN on dendritic projections was rapidly transported toward the cell center. The existence of this movement within the plasma membrane points to an unexpected lateral transport mechanism in mammalian cells and challenges our current concepts of cortex-membrane interactions.

  7. Characteristics and Thermal Efficiency of a Non-transferred DC Plasma Spraying Torch Under Low Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Shicong; Ye Minyou; Zhang Xiaodong; Guo Wenkang; Xu Ping

    2008-01-01

    Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of a non-transferred DC arc plasma spray torch operated in argon at vacuum are reported. The arc voltage is of negative characteristics for a current below 200 A, flat for a current between 200 A to 250 A and positive for a current beyond 250 A. The voltage increases slowly with the increase in carrier gas of arc. The rate of change in voltage with currents is about 3∼4 V/100 A at a gas flow rate of about 1∼1.5 V/10 standard liter per minute (slpm). The I-V characteristics of the DC plasma torch are of a shape of hyperbola. Arc power increases with the argon flow rate, and the thermal efficiency of the torch acts in a similar way. The thermal efficiency of the non-transferred DC plasmatron is about 65∼78%. (low temperature plasma)

  8. Acoustic signature analysis of the interaction between a dc plasma jet and a suspension liquid jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rat, V; Coudert, J F

    2009-01-01

    Suspension plasma spraying allows forming finely structured coatings by injecting suspensions of ceramic particles within a dc plasma jet. The electric arc motion in dc plasma torch is the main acoustic source which is modified by the injection of suspension. The analyses of cross-correlations between the arc voltage and the acoustic signal show a decrease in time propagations due to local cooling of the plasma jet when injecting suspensions. Moreover, power spectra highlight acoustic amplifications below a certain frequency threshold and attenuations above. A simplified model of the frequency acoustic response of a two-phase vaporizing mixture is used to interpret experimental measurements. These acoustic effects are due to the dynamics of thermal transfers between vaporizing liquid and plasma.

  9. Plasma Extraction of Oxygen from Martian Atmosphere, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Plasma techniques are proposed for the extraction of oxygen from the abundant carbon dioxide contained in the Martian atmosphere (96 % CO2). In this process, CO2 is...

  10. Fabrication of a Spherical Titanium Powder by Combined Combustion Synthesis and DC Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi S.H.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Combustion synthesis is capable of producing many types of refractory and ceramic materials, as well as metals, with a relatively lower cost and shorter time frame than other solid state synthetic techniques. TiO2 with Mg as reductant were dry mixed and hand compacted into a 60 mm diameter mold and then combusted under an Ar atmosphere. Depending on the reaction parameters (Mg concentration 2 ≤ α ≤ 4, the thermocouples registered temperatures between 1160°C and 1710°C · 3 mol of Mg gave the optimum results with combustion temperature (Tc and combustion velocity (Uc values of 1372°C and 0.26 cm/s respectively. Furthermore, this ratio also had the lowest oxygen concentration in this study (0.8 wt%. After combustion, DC plasma treatment was carried out to spheroidize the Ti powder for use in 3D printing. The characterization of the final product was performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and N/O analysis.

  11. Electrical and optical properties of reactive DC magnetron sputtered silver oxide thin films: role of oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar Barik, Ullash; Srinivasan, S; Nagendra, C L; Subrahmanyam, A

    2003-04-01

    Silver oxide thin films have been prepared on soda lime glass substrates at room temperature (300 K) by reactive DC Magnetron sputtering technique using pure silver metal target; the oxygen flow rates have been varied in the range 0.00-2.01 sccm. The X-ray diffraction data on these films show a systematic change from metallic silver to silver (sub) oxides. The electrical resistivity increases with increasing oxygen flow. The films show a p-type behavior (by both Hall and Seebeck measurements) for the oxygen flow rates of 0.54, 1.09 and 1.43 sccm. The refractive index of the films (at 632.8 nm) decreases with increasing oxygen content and is in the range 1.167-1.145, whereas the p-type films show a higher refractive index (1.186-1.204). The work function of these silver oxide films has been measured by Kelvin Probe technique. The results, in specific, the p-type conductivity in the silver oxide films, have been explained on the basis of the theory of partial ionic charge proposed by Sanderson.

  12. Electrical and optical properties of reactive DC magnetron sputtered silver oxide thin films: role of oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar Barik, Ullash; Srinivasan, S.; Nagendra, C.L.; Subrahmanyam, A.

    2003-01-01

    Silver oxide thin films have been prepared on soda lime glass substrates at room temperature (300 K) by reactive DC Magnetron sputtering technique using pure silver metal target; the oxygen flow rates have been varied in the range 0.00-2.01 sccm. The X-ray diffraction data on these films show a systematic change from metallic silver to silver (sub) oxides. The electrical resistivity increases with increasing oxygen flow. The films show a p-type behavior (by both Hall and Seebeck measurements) for the oxygen flow rates of 0.54, 1.09 and 1.43 sccm. The refractive index of the films (at 632.8 nm) decreases with increasing oxygen content and is in the range 1.167-1.145, whereas the p-type films show a higher refractive index (1.186-1.204). The work function of these silver oxide films has been measured by Kelvin Probe technique. The results, in specific, the p-type conductivity in the silver oxide films, have been explained on the basis of the theory of partial ionic charge proposed by Sanderson

  13. Methods and Apparatus for Pulsed-DC Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuator and Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corke, Thomas C. (Inventor); Kaszeta, Richard (Inventor); Gold, Calman (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A plasma generating device intended to induce a flow in a fluid via plasma generation includes a dielectric separating two electrodes and a power supply. The first electrode is exposed to a fluid flow while the second electrode is positioned under the dielectric. The power supply is electrically coupled to a switch and the first and second electrodes. When the power supply is energized by repeated action of the switch, it causes a pulsed DC current between the electrodes which causes the fluid to ionize generating a plasma. The generation of the plasma induces a force with a velocity component in the fluid.

  14. Resonant Excitation of Boundary Layer Instability of DC Arc Plasma Jet by Current Modulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Vladimír; Hrabovský, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 6 (2011), s. 827-838 ISSN 0272-4324 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : dc arc jet * plasma jet oscillations * boundary layer instability * frequency spectra Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.602, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/v160841757161758/

  15. Tailoring of materials by atomic oxygen from ECR plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddaf, Munzer; Bhoraskar, S.V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: An intense source of oxygen finds important applications in many areas of science, technology and industry. It has been successfully used for surface activation and cleaning in the electronic, chemical and automotive industries. Atomic oxygen and interaction with materials have also a significant importance in space science and technology. This paper describes the detailed studies related to the surface modification and processing of different materials, which include metals and polymers by atomic oxygen produced in microwave assisted electron cyclotron resonance plasma. The energy distribution of ions was measured as a function of plasma parameters and density measurements were supplemented by catalytic probe using nickel and oxidation of silver surface

  16. Megawatt low-temperature DC plasma generator with divergent channels of gas-discharge tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzhiev, M. Kh.; Isakaev, E. Kh.; Tyuftyaev, A. S.; Yusupov, D. I.; Sargsyan, M. A.

    2017-04-01

    We have developed and studied a new effective megawatt double-unit generator of low-temperature argon plasma, which belongs to the class of dc plasmatrons and comprises the cathode and anode units with divergent gas-discharge channels. The generator has an efficiency of about 80-85% and ensures a long working life at operating currents up to 4000 A.

  17. Characterization of a Fabry--Perot interferometer and a dc arc plasma jet for spectrochemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    A system involving the use of a Fabry--Perot interferometer in combination with a dc arc plasma jet has been constructed and characterized for spectrochemical analysis. Parameters such as flow rate ratio, observation region, electrode composition and orifice size have been considered. Improvements such as noise reduction and dry aerosol introduction of samples were suggested.

  18. Characterization of a Fabry--Perot interferometer and a dc arc plasma jet for spectrochemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    A system involving the use of a Fabry--Perot interferometer in combination with a dc arc plasma jet has been constructed and characterized for spectrochemical analysis. Parameters such as flow rate ratio, observation region, electrode composition and orifice size have been considered. Improvements such as noise reduction and dry aerosol introduction of samples were suggested

  19. Antimicrobial properties of uncapped silver nanoparticles synthesized by DC arc thermal plasma technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Manish; Patil, Rajendra; Karmakar, Soumen; Bhoraskar, Sudha; Rane, Sunit; Gade, Wasudev; Amalnerkar, Dinesh

    2012-02-01

    We, herein, report the antimicrobial properties of uncapped silver nanoparticles for a Gram positive model organism, Bacillus subtilis. Uncapped silver nanoparticles have been prepared using less-explored DC arc thermal plasma technique by considering its large scale generation capability. It is observed that the resultant nanoparticles show size as well as optical property dependent antimicrobial effect.

  20. Tailoring properties of reduced graphene oxide by oxygen plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratowicz, Izabela; Nadolska, Małgorzata; Şahin, Samet; Łapiński, Marcin; Prześniak-Welenc, Marta; Sawczak, Mirosław; Yu, Eileen H.; Sadowski, Wojciech; Żelechowska, Kamila

    2018-05-01

    We report an easily controllable, eco-friendly method for tailoring the properties of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) by means of oxygen plasma. The effect of oxygen plasma treatment time (1, 5 and 10 min) on the surface properties of rGO was evaluated. Physicochemical characterization using microscopic, spectroscopic and thermal techniques was performed. The results revealed that different oxygen-containing groups (e.g. carboxyl, hydroxyl) were introduced on the rGO surface enhancing its wettability. Furthermore, upon longer treatment time, other functionalities were created (e.g. quinones, lactones). Moreover, external surface of rGO was partially etched resulting in an increase of the material surface area and porosity. Finally, the oxygen plasma-treated rGO electrodes with bilirubin oxidase were tested for oxygen reduction reaction. The study showed that rGO treated for 10 min exhibited twofold higher current density than untreated rGO. The oxygen plasma treatment may improve the enzyme adsorption on rGO electrodes by introduction of oxygen moieties and increasing the porosity.

  1. Thermal plasma treatment of stormwater sediments: comparison between DC non-transferred and partially transferred arc plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, O L; Guo, Y; Chang, J S; Saito, N

    2015-01-01

    The disposal of enormous amount of stormwater sediments becomes an emerging worldwide problem. Stormwater sediments are contaminated by heavy metals, phosphorus, trace organic and hydrocarbons, and cannot be disposed without treatment. Thermal plasma decontamination technology offers a high decomposition rate in a wide range of toxic organic compound and immobilization of heavy metal. In this study, we compared the treatment results between two different modes of thermal plasma: (1) a non-transferred direct current (DC) mode and (2) a partial DC-transferred mode. The reductions of total organic carbon (TOC) were, respectively, 25% and 80% for non-transferred and partially transferred plasma, respectively. Most of the toxic organic compounds were converted majorly to CxHy. In the gaseous emission, the accumulated CxHy, CO, NO and H2S were significantly higher in partially transferred mode than in non-transferred mode. The solid analysis demonstrated that the concentrations of Ca and Fe were enriched by 500% and 40%, respectively. New chemical compositions such as KAlSi3O8, Fe3O4, NaCl and CaSO4 were formed after treatment in partially DC-transferred mode. The power inputs were 1 and 10 kW, respectively, for non-transferred DC mode and a partially DC-transferred mode. With a lower energy input, non-transferred plasma treatment can be used for decontamination of sediments with low TOC and metal concentration. Meanwhile, partially transferred thermal plasma with higher energy input is suitable for treating sediments with high TOC percentage and volatile metal concentration. The organic compounds are converted into valuable gaseous products which can be recycled as an energy source.

  2. Characteristic study of DC electric Arc plasma igniter jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Yudan; He Liming; Du Hongliang; Wang Feng; Chen Xin

    2012-01-01

    The spectrometer was adopted to measure the emission spectrum of Ar plasma jet at the igniter exit. Boltzmann curve slope method was applied to calculate the jet electron temperature. Ionization equilibrium equation was used to calculate jet temperature and measure the laws that jet length, jet velocity, electron temperature and jet temperature of igniter exit change with arc current and inlet Ar flow rate. Whether the electron temperature could be used to replace jet temperature in aircraft plasma arc jet was also discussed. The experiment results show that arc current reduces with the rising of inlet Ar flow rate; exit jet length and velocity increase with the rising of arc current, and increase at first and then reduce with the rising of inlet Ar flow rate; exit electron temperature, electron density and jet temperature increase with the rising of arc current and reduce with the rising of inlet Ar flow rate. (authors)

  3. Effects of applied dc radial electric fields on particle transport in a bumpy torus plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of applied dc radial electric fields on particle transport in a bumpy torus plasma is studied. The plasma, magnetic field, and ion heating mechanism are operated in steady state. Ion kinetic temperature is more than a factor of ten higher than electron temperature. The electric fields raise the ions to energies on the order of kilovolts and then point radially inward or outward. Plasma number density profiles are flat or triangular across the plasma diameter. It is suggested that the radial transport processes are nondiffusional and dominated by strong radial electric fields. These characteristics are caused by the absence of a second derivative in the density profile and the flat electron temperature profiles. If the electric field acting on the minor radius of the toroidal plasma points inward, plasma number density and confinement time are increased.

  4. Direct measurements of particle transport in dc glow discharge dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, E. Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Many recent experiments in dc glow discharge plasmas have shown that clouds of dust particles can be suspended near the biased electrodes. Once formed, the dust clouds have well defined boundaries while particle motion within the clouds can be quite complex. Because the dust particles in the cloud can remain suspended in the plasma for tens of minutes, it implies that the particles have a low diffusive loss rate and follow closed trajectories within the cloud. In the experiments discussed in this paper, direct measurements of the dust particle velocities are made using particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. From the velocity measurements, a reconstruction of the three-dimensional transport of the dust particles is performed. A qualitative model is developed for the closed motion of the dust particles in a dc glow discharge dusty plasma. (orig.)

  5. Reactive-ion etching of nylon fabric meshes using oxygen plasma for creating surface nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salapare, Hernando S.; Darmanin, Thierry; Guittard, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Reactive-ion etching (RIE) is employed to nylon 6,6 fabrics to achieve surface texturing and improved wettability. • FTIR spectra of the treated samples exhibited decreased transmittance of amide and carboxylic acid groups due to etching. • Etching is enhanced for higher power plasma treatments and for samples with larger mesh sizes. • Decreased crystallinity was achieved after plasma treatment. • Higher power induced higher negative DC self-bias voltage on the samples that favored anisotropic and aggressive etching. - Abstract: A facile one-step oxygen plasma irradiation in reactive ion etching (RIE) configuration is employed to nylon 6,6 fabrics with different mesh sizes to achieve surface nanostructures and improved wettability for textile and filtration applications. To observe the effects of power and irradiation time on the samples, the experiments were performed using constant irradiation time in varying power and using constant power in varying irradiation times. Results showed improved wettability after the plasma treatment. The FTIR spectra of all the treated samples exhibited decreased transmittance of the amide and carboxylic acid groups due to surface etching. The changes in the surface chemistry are supported by the SEM data wherein etching and surface nanostructures were observed for the plasma-treated samples. The etching of the surfaces is enhanced for higher power plasma treatments. The thermal analysis showed that the plasma treatment resulted in decreased crystallinity. Surface chemistry showed that the effects of the plasma treatment on the samples have no significant difference for all the mesh sizes. However, surface morphology showed that the sizes of the surface cracks are the same for all the mesh sizes but samples with larger mesh sizes exhibited enhanced etching as compared to the samples with smaller mesh sizes. Higher power induced higher negative DC self-bias voltage on the samples that

  6. SU-8 etching in inductively coupled oxygen plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kristian Hagsted; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Jensen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Structuring or removal of the epoxy based, photo sensitive polymer SU-8 by inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) was investigated as a function of plasma chemistry, bias power, temperature, and pressure. In a pure oxygen plasma, surface accumulation of antimony from the photo......-initiator introduced severe roughness and reduced etch rate significantly. Addition of SF6 to the plasma chemistry reduced the antimony surface concentration with lower roughness and higher etch rate as an outcome. Furthermore the etch anisotropy could be tuned by controlling the bias power. Etch rates up to 800 nm...

  7. Magnetic field approaches in dc thermal plasma modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freton, P; Gonzalez, J J; Masquere, M; Reichert, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The self-induced magnetic field has an important role in thermal plasma configurations generated by electric arcs as it generates velocity through Lorentz forces. In the models a good representation of the magnetic field is thus necessary. Several approaches exist to calculate the self-induced magnetic field such as the Maxwell-Ampere formulation, the vector potential approach combined with different kinds of boundary conditions or the Biot and Savart (B and S) formulation. The calculation of the self-induced magnetic field is alone a difficult problem and only few papers of the thermal plasma community speak on this subject. In this study different approaches with different boundary conditions are applied on two geometries to compare the methods and their limitations. The calculation time is also one of the criteria for the choice of the method and a compromise must be found between method precision and computation time. The study shows the importance of the current carrying path representation in the electrode on the deduced magnetic field. The best compromise consists of using the B and S formulation on the walls and/or edges of the calculation domain to determine the boundary conditions and to solve the vector potential in a 2D system. This approach provides results identical to those obtained using the B and S formulation over the entire domain but with a considerable decrease in calculation time.

  8. Self-organization as the cause of different states of dc and hf discharge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozneanu, E.; Dimitriu, D.; Gaman, C.; Furtuna, C.; Filep, E.; Sanduloviciu, M.

    2004-01-01

    Dc and hf gas discharges used in industrial devices are strongly nonlinear media whose characteristics and behavior critically depend on the type of the device and on the way and the amount of energy injected into the system. Consequently, considering a certain industrial device, it is possible to select, by gradually changing the injected energy, the working regimes that offer the most suitable conditions for a certain practical applications. The consideration of the nonlinear behavior of gaseous conductors (plasmas), created in dc and hf electric fields, and implicitly of the self-organizing phenomena at their origin become important for certain applications (Authors)

  9. A comparison of reactive plasma pre-treatments on PET substrates by Cu and Ti pulsed-DC and HIPIMS discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audronis, M., E-mail: m.audronis@yahoo.co.uk [Gencoa Ltd, Physics Road, Speke, Liverpool, L24 9HP (United Kingdom); Hinder, S.J. [The Surface Analysis Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Mack, P. [ThermoFisher Scientific Ltd, Imberhorne Lane, East Grinstead, Sussex, RH19 1UB (United Kingdom); Bellido-Gonzalez, V. [Gencoa Ltd, Physics Road, Speke, Liverpool, L24 9HP (United Kingdom); Bussey, D.; Matthews, A. [Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Baker, M.A. [The Surface Analysis Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-30

    PET web samples have been treated by magnetically enhanced glow discharges powered using either medium frequency pulse direct current (p-DC) or low frequency high power pulse (HIPIMS) sources. The plasma pre-treatment processes were carried out in an Ar-O{sub 2} atmosphere using either Cu or Ti sputter targets. XPS, AFM and sessile drop water contact angle measurements have been employed to examine changes in surface chemistry and morphology for different pre-treatment process parameters. Deposition of metal oxide onto the PET surface is observed as a result of the sputter magnetron-based glow discharge web treatment. Using the Cu target, both the p-DC and HIPIMS processes result in the formation of a thin CuO layer (with a thickness between 1 and 11 nm) being deposited onto the PET surface. Employing the Ti target, both p-DC and HIPIMS processes give rise to a much lower concentration of Ti (< 5 at.%), in the form of TiO{sub 2} on the PET treated surface. The TiO{sub 2} is probably distributed as an island-like distribution covering the PET surface. Presence of Cu and Ti oxide constituents on the treated PET is beneficial in aiding the adhesion but alone (i.e. without oxygen plasma activation) is not enough to provide very high levels of hydrophilicity as is clear from sessile drop water contact angle measurements on aged samples. Exposure to the plasma treatments leads to a small amount of roughening of the substrate surface, but the average surface roughness in all cases is below 2.5 nm. The PET structure at the interface with a coating is mostly or wholly preserved. The oxygen plasma treatment, metal oxide deposition and surface roughening resulting from the HIPIMS and p-DC treatments will promote adhesion to any subsequent thin film that is deposited immediately following the plasma treatment.

  10. Investigation of Dusts Effect and Negative Ion in DC Plasmas by Electric Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hye Taek; Kang, Inje; Bae, Min-Keun; Park, Insun; Lee, Seunghwa; Jeong, Seojin; Chung, Kyu-Sun

    2017-10-01

    Dust is typically negatively charged by electron attachment whose thermal velocities are fast compared to that of the heavier ions. The negatively charged particles can play a role of negative ions which affect the quasi-neutrality of background plasma. To investigate effect of metal dusts and negative ion on plasma and materials, metal dusts are injected into background Ar plasma which is generated by tungsten filament using dust dispenser on Cubical Plasma Device (CPD). The CPD has following conditions: size =24x24x24cm3, plasma source =DC filament plasma (ne 1x10x1010, Te 2eV), background gas =Ar, dusts =tungsten powder (diameter 1.89micron). The dust dispenser is developed to quantitate of metal dust by ultrasonic transducer. Electronegative plasmas are generated by adding O2 + Ar plasma to compare negative ion and dust effect. A few grams of micron-sized dusts are placed in the dust dispenser which is located at the upper side of the Cubical Plasma Device. The falling particles by dust dispenser are mainly charged up by the collection of the background plasma. The change in parameters due to negative ion production are characterized by measuring the floating and plasma potential, electron temperature and negative ion density using electric probes.

  11. Periodic long-range transport in a large volume dc glow discharge dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Edward Jr.; Amatucci, William E.; Compton, Christopher; Christy, Brian; Jackson, Jon David

    2003-01-01

    In an earlier paper, the authors reported on observations of a variety of particle transport phenomena observed in DUPLEX--the DUsty PLasma EXperiment at the Naval Research Laboratory [E. Thomas, Jr., W. E. Amatucci, C. Compton, and B. Christy, Phys. Plasmas 9, 3154 (2002)]. DUPLEX is a large, transparent polycarbonate cylinder that is 40 cm in radius and 80 cm in height. dc glow discharge argon plasmas are generated in DUPLEX. In this paper, the authors expand upon one particular feature of particle transport in DUPLEX, the long-range (i.e., greater than 15 cm), periodic (T∼2.5 min) transport of suspended alumina particles through the plasma. A detailed description of this particle motion through the plasma is presented. Finally, a qualitative model describing the phenomena that lead to this transport is also given

  12. Study of aerosol sample interaction with dc plasma in the presence of oscillating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiljkovic, M.M.; Pavlovic, M.S.; Savovic, J.; Kuzmanovic, M.; Marinkovic, M.

    2005-01-01

    Oscillating magnetic field was used to study the efficiency of the aerosol sample introduction into the dc plasma. At atmospheric plasmas, the effect of magnetic field is reduced to Lorentz forces on the current carrying plasma, which produces motion of the plasma. The motion velocity of dc plasma caused by oscillating magnetic field was correlated to spectral emission enhancement of analytes introduced as aerosols. Emission enhancement is the consequence of the reduced barrier to introduction of analyte species and aerosol particles into the hot plasma region. Two hypotheses described in the literature for the origin of the barrier are considered: (i) barrier induced by temperature field is based upon the thermophoretic forces on the aerosol particles when their radius is comparable to the molecular free path in the surrounding gas and (ii) barrier induced by radial electric field, recently described, that originates from gradients of charged particles in radial direction. Correlation between ionization energy of the analyte atoms with experimental emission enhancement obtained by the use of oscillating magnetic field indicates that mechanism (ii) based upon the radial electric field is predominant. The ultimate emission enhancement and possible analytical advantage is discussed

  13. Simulation Study of an Extended Density DC Glow Toroidal Plasma Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granda-Gutierrez, E. E.; Piedad-Beneitez, A. de la; Lopez-Callejas, R.; Godoy-Cabrera, O. G.; Benitez-Read, J. S.; Pacheco-Sotelo, J. O.; Pena-Eguiluz, R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Valencia A, R.; Barocio, S. R.

    2006-01-01

    Conventional wisdom assigns the DC glow discharge regime to plasma currents below ∼500 mA values, beyond which the discharge falls into the anomalous glow and the turbulent arc regimes. However, we have found evidence that, during toroidal discharges, this barrier can be ostensibly extended up to 800 mA. Thus, a computer simulation has been applied to the evolution of the main electrical characteristics of such a glow discharge plasma in a toroidal vessel in order to design and construct a respective voltage/current controlled source. This should be able to generate a DC plasma in the glow regime with which currents in the range 10-3-100 A can be experimented and 109-1010 cm-3 plasma densities can be achieved to PIII optimization purposes. The plasma is modelled as a voltage-controlled current source able to be turned on whenever the breakdown voltage is reached across the gap between the anode and the vessel wall. The simulation outcome fits well our experimental measurements showing that the plasma current obeys power laws that are dependent on the power current and other control variables such as the gas pressure

  14. Fluorophore-based sensor for oxygen radicals in processing plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, Faraz A.; Shohet, J. Leon; Sabat, Grzegorz; Sussman, Michael R.; Nishi, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    A high concentration of radicals is present in many processing plasmas, which affects the processing conditions and the properties of materials exposed to the plasma. Determining the types and concentrations of free radicals present in the plasma is critical in order to determine their effects on the materials being processed. Current methods for detecting free radicals in a plasma require multiple expensive and bulky instruments, complex setups, and often, modifications to the plasma reactor. This work presents a simple technique that detects reactive-oxygen radicals incident on a surface from a plasma. The measurements are made using a fluorophore dye that is commonly used in biological and cellular systems for assay labeling in liquids. Using fluorometric analysis, it was found that the fluorophore reacts with oxygen radicals incident from the plasma, which is indicated by degradation of its fluorescence. As plasma power was increased, the quenching of the fluorescence significantly increased. Both immobilized and nonimmobilized fluorophore dyes were used and the results indicate that both states function effectively under vacuum conditions. The reaction mechanism is very similar to that of the liquid dye

  15. Fluorophore-based sensor for oxygen radicals in processing plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, Faraz A.; Shohet, J. Leon, E-mail: shohet@engr.wisc.edu [Plasma Processing and Technology Laboratory and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Sabat, Grzegorz; Sussman, Michael R. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Nishi, Yoshio [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    A high concentration of radicals is present in many processing plasmas, which affects the processing conditions and the properties of materials exposed to the plasma. Determining the types and concentrations of free radicals present in the plasma is critical in order to determine their effects on the materials being processed. Current methods for detecting free radicals in a plasma require multiple expensive and bulky instruments, complex setups, and often, modifications to the plasma reactor. This work presents a simple technique that detects reactive-oxygen radicals incident on a surface from a plasma. The measurements are made using a fluorophore dye that is commonly used in biological and cellular systems for assay labeling in liquids. Using fluorometric analysis, it was found that the fluorophore reacts with oxygen radicals incident from the plasma, which is indicated by degradation of its fluorescence. As plasma power was increased, the quenching of the fluorescence significantly increased. Both immobilized and nonimmobilized fluorophore dyes were used and the results indicate that both states function effectively under vacuum conditions. The reaction mechanism is very similar to that of the liquid dye.

  16. Low Pressure DC Glow Discharge Air Plasma Surface Treatment of Polyethylene (PE) Film for Improvement of Adhesive Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandiyaraj, Krishnasamy Navaneetha; Yoganand, Paramasivam; Selvarajan, Vengatasamy; Deshmukh, Rajendrasing R.; Balasubramanian, Suresh; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram

    2013-01-01

    The present work deals with the change in surface properties of polyethylene (PE) film using DC low pressure glow discharge air plasma and makes it useful for technical applications. The change in hydrophilicity of the modified PE film surface was investigated by measuring contact angle and surface energy as a function of exposure time. Changes in the morphological and chemical composition of PE films were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The improvement in adhesion was studied by measuring T-peel and lap-shear strength. The results show that the wettability and surface energy of the PE film has been improved due to the introduction of oxygen-containing polar groups and an increase in surface roughness. The XPS result clearly shows the increase in concentration of oxygen content and the formation of polar groups on the polymer surface. The AFM observation on PE film shows that the roughness of the surface increased due to plasma treatment. The above morphological and chemical changes enhanced the adhesive properties of the PE film surfaces, which was confirmed by T-peel and lap-shear tests.

  17. Dynamic behaviour of dc double anode plasma torch at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, X; Cheron, B G; Yan, J H; Cen, K F

    2007-01-01

    An original dc double anode plasma torch which provides a long-time and highly stable atmospheric plasma jet has been devised for the purpose of hazardous waste treatment. The arc fluctuations and dynamic behaviour of the argon and argon-nitrogen plasma jets under different operating conditions have been investigated by means of classical tools, such as the statistic method, fast Fourier transform (FFT) and correlation analysis. In our experiments, the takeover mode is identified as the fluctuation characteristic of the argon plasma jet while the restrike mode is typical in the argon-nitrogen plasma dynamic behaviour. In the case of pure argon, the FFT and correlation calculation results of electrical signals exhibit the only characteristic frequency of 150 Hz, which originates from the torch power and is independent of any change in the operating conditions. It indicates that the nature of fluctuations in an argon plasma jet is mainly induced by the undulation of the tri-phase rectified power supply. In contrast, besides the same low frequency bulk fluctuation, the dynamic behaviour of the argon-nitrogen plasma jet at high frequency (4.1 kHz) is ascribed to the rapid motion of both arc roots on the anode surface. In addition, it is found that each arc root attachment is rather diffused than located at a fixed position on the anode wall in the argon plasma jet, while constricted arc roots occur when nitrogen is added into argon as the plasma working gas

  18. Studies of internal stress in diamond films prepared by DC plasma chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wanlu; Gao Jinying; Liao Kejun; Liu Anmin

    1992-01-01

    The internal stress in diamond thin films deposited by DC plasma CVD was studied as a function of methane concentration and deposited temperature. Experimental results have shown that total stress in diamond thin films is sensitive to the deposition conditions. The results also indicate that the compressive stress can be explained in terms of amorphous state carbon and hydrogen, and tensile stress is ascribed to the grain boundary relaxation model due to high internal surface area and microstructure with voids

  19. Parameters of the plasma of a dc pulsating discharge in a supersonic air flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibkov, V. M., E-mail: shibkov@phys.msu.ru; Shibkova, L. V.; Logunov, A. A. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    A dc discharge in a cold (T = 200 K) supersonic air flow at a static pressure of 200–400 Torr was studied experimentally. The excited unsteady pulsating discharge has the form of a thin plasma channel with a diameter of ≤1 mm, stretched downstream the flow. Depending on the discharge current, the pulsation frequency varies from 800 to 1600 Hz and the electron temperature varies from 8000 to 15000 K.

  20. The study on diamond-coated insert by DC plasma jet CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Kesong; Dai Mingjiang; Song Jinbing; Kuang Tongchun; Liu Zhengyi

    2001-01-01

    Diamond coating were deposited on cemented carbide inserts by DC plasma jet CVD. The cemented carbide inserts were pretreated by methods including chemical etching of Co, Ar/H 2 plasma etching. The characteristics of diamond film, interface structure, adhesion strength and film stress were analysized by different methods such as SEM, XRD, Raman spectrum etc. A comparing experiment of cutting Al - 22 % Si alloy was carried out with diamond-coated cemented carbide inserts and uncoated cemented carbide inserts. The results show that the diamond-coated cemented carbide insert has a great advantage for cutting abrasive high content Al - Si alloy. (author)

  1. Challenges in process integration of catalytic DC plasma synthesis of vertically aligned carbon nanofibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melechko, Anatoli V; Pearce, Ryan C; Hensley, Dale K; Simpson, Michael L; McKnight, Timothy E

    2011-01-01

    The ability to synthesize free-standing, individual carbon nanofibres (CNFs) aligned perpendicularly to a substrate has enabled fabrication of a large array of devices with nanoscale functional elements, including electron field emission sources, electrochemical probes, neural interface arrays, scanning probes, gene delivery arrays and many others. This was made possible by development of a catalytic plasma process, with DC bias directing the alignment of nanofibres. Successful implementation of prototypical devices has uncovered numerous challenges in the integration of this synthesis process as one of the steps in device fabrication. This paper is dedicated to these engineering and fundamental difficulties that hinder further device development. Relatively high temperature for catalytic synthesis, electrical conductivity of the substrate to maintain DC discharge and other difficulties place restrictions on substrate material. Balancing non-catalytic carbon film deposition and substrate etching, non-uniformity of plasma due to growth of the high aspect ratio structures, plasma instabilities and other factors lead to challenges in controlling the plasma. Ultimately, controlling the atomistic processes at the catalyst nanoparticle (NP) and the behaviour of the NP is the central challenge of plasma nanosynthesis of vertically aligned CNFs.

  2. Treatment of refractory powders by a novel, high enthalpy dc plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershin, L.; Mitrasinovic, A.; Mostaghimi, J.

    2013-06-01

    Thermophysical properties of CO2-CH4 mixtures at high temperatures are very attractive for materials processing. In comparison with argon, at the same temperature, such a mixture possesses much higher enthalpy and higher thermal conductivity. At high temperatures, CO2-CH4 mixture has a complex composition with strong presence of CO which, in the case of powder treatment, could reduce oxidation. In this work, a dc plasma torch with graphite cathode was used to study the effect of plasma gas composition on spheroidization of tungsten carbide and alumina powders. Two different gas compositions were used to generate the plasma while the torch current was kept at 300 A. Various techniques were employed to assess the average concentration of carbides and oxides and the final shape of the treated powders. Process parameters such as input power and plasma gas composition allow controlling the degree of powder oxidation and spheroidization of high melting point ceramic powders.

  3. Treatment of refractory powders by a novel, high enthalpy dc plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pershin, L; Mitrasinovic, A; Mostaghimi, J

    2013-01-01

    Thermophysical properties of CO 2 –CH 4 mixtures at high temperatures are very attractive for materials processing. In comparison with argon, at the same temperature, such a mixture possesses much higher enthalpy and higher thermal conductivity. At high temperatures, CO 2 –CH 4 mixture has a complex composition with strong presence of CO which, in the case of powder treatment, could reduce oxidation. In this work, a dc plasma torch with graphite cathode was used to study the effect of plasma gas composition on spheroidization of tungsten carbide and alumina powders. Two different gas compositions were used to generate the plasma while the torch current was kept at 300 A. Various techniques were employed to assess the average concentration of carbides and oxides and the final shape of the treated powders. Process parameters such as input power and plasma gas composition allow controlling the degree of powder oxidation and spheroidization of high melting point ceramic powders. (paper)

  4. Antioxidants may Attenuate Plasma Erythropoietin Decline after Hyperbaric Oxygen Diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutzbauer, T S; Schneider, M; Neubauer, B; Weiss, M; Tetzlaff, K

    2015-11-01

    According to previous studies, plasma erythropoietin (EPO) may decrease after hyperbaric oxygen exposure due to oxidative stress. It is hypothesized that the decrease of EPO can be attenuated by oxygen free radical scavengers.The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether EPO plasma levels can be influenced by oral application of vitamin C and E before repeated hyperbaric oxygen exposure during diving. 16 healthy male police task force divers performed 3 morning dives on oxygen within a regular diving schedule on 3 consecutive days. They were randomized into either the placebo group or the vitamin group, receiving 1 g ascorbic acid and 600 IU D-α-tocopherol orally 60 min before the dive. Blood samples for EPO measurement were taken on days 1, 2, and 3 at T1, T3 and T5 60 min before and at T2, T4 and T6 60 min after each dive, respectively. A moderate decrease of EPO was observed beginning at T3 until T6 in the placebo group. The EPO concentrations in the vitamin group did not show relevant variations compared to baseline. Radical scavenging vitamins C and D may counteract hyperbaric oxygen related mechanisms reducing EPO production in hyperbaric oxygen exposure during diving. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Characterization of atomic oxygen from an ECR plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddaf, M; Bhoraskar, V N; Mandale, A B; Sainkar, S R; Bhoraskar, S V

    2002-01-01

    A low-power microwave-assisted electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma system is shown to be a powerful and effective source of atomic oxygen (AO) useful in material processing. A 2.45 GHz microwave source with maximum power of 600 W was launched into the cavity to generate the ECR plasma. A catalytic nickel probe was used to determine the density of AO. The density of AO is studied as a function of pressure and axial position of the probe in the plasma chamber. It was found to vary from ∼1x10 20 to ∼10x10 20 atom m -3 as the plasma pressure was varied from 0.8 to 10 mTorr. The effect of AO in oxidation of silver is investigated by gravimetric analysis. The stoichiometric properties of the oxide are studied using the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as well as energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The degradation of the silver surface due to sputtering effect was viewed by scanning electron spectroscopy. The sputtering yield of oxygen ions in the plasma is calculated using the TRIM code. The effects of plasma pressure and the distance from the ECR zone on the AO density were also investigated. The density of AO measured by oxidation of silver is in good agreement with results obtained from the catalytic nickel probe

  6. Characterization of atomic oxygen from an ECR plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, M.; Bhoraskar, V. N.; Mandale, A. B.; Sainkar, S. R.; Bhoraskar, S. V.

    2002-11-01

    A low-power microwave-assisted electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma system is shown to be a powerful and effective source of atomic oxygen (AO) useful in material processing. A 2.45 GHz microwave source with maximum power of 600 W was launched into the cavity to generate the ECR plasma. A catalytic nickel probe was used to determine the density of AO. The density of AO is studied as a function of pressure and axial position of the probe in the plasma chamber. It was found to vary from ~1×1020 to ~10×1020 atom m-3 as the plasma pressure was varied from 0.8 to 10 mTorr. The effect of AO in oxidation of silver is investigated by gravimetric analysis. The stoichiometric properties of the oxide are studied using the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as well as energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The degradation of the silver surface due to sputtering effect was viewed by scanning electron spectroscopy. The sputtering yield of oxygen ions in the plasma is calculated using the TRIM code. The effects of plasma pressure and the distance from the ECR zone on the AO density were also investigated. The density of AO measured by oxidation of silver is in good agreement with results obtained from the catalytic nickel probe.

  7. Characterization of atomic oxygen from an ECR plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naddaf, M [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Solid State Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Bhoraskar, V N [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Solid State Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Mandale, A B [National Chemical Laboratory, Pashan, Pune 411008 (India); Sainkar, S R [National Chemical Laboratory, Pashan, Pune 411008 (India); Bhoraskar, S V [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Solid State Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2002-11-01

    A low-power microwave-assisted electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma system is shown to be a powerful and effective source of atomic oxygen (AO) useful in material processing. A 2.45 GHz microwave source with maximum power of 600 W was launched into the cavity to generate the ECR plasma. A catalytic nickel probe was used to determine the density of AO. The density of AO is studied as a function of pressure and axial position of the probe in the plasma chamber. It was found to vary from {approx}1x10{sup 20} to {approx}10x10{sup 20} atom m{sup -3} as the plasma pressure was varied from 0.8 to 10 mTorr. The effect of AO in oxidation of silver is investigated by gravimetric analysis. The stoichiometric properties of the oxide are studied using the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as well as energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The degradation of the silver surface due to sputtering effect was viewed by scanning electron spectroscopy. The sputtering yield of oxygen ions in the plasma is calculated using the TRIM code. The effects of plasma pressure and the distance from the ECR zone on the AO density were also investigated. The density of AO measured by oxidation of silver is in good agreement with results obtained from the catalytic nickel probe.

  8. Application of Steenbeck's minimum principle for three-dimensional modelling of DC arc plasma torches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Heping; Pfender, E; Chen, Xi

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, physical/mathematical models for the three-dimensional, quasi-steady modelling of the plasma flow and heat transfer inside a non-transferred DC arc plasma torch are described in detail. The Steenbeck's minimum principle (Finkelnburg W and Maecker H 1956 Electric arcs and thermal plasmas Encyclopedia of Physics vol XXII (Berlin: Springer)) is employed to determine the axial position of the anode arc-root at the anode surface. This principle postulates a minimum arc voltage for a given arc current, working gas flow rate, and torch configuration. The modelling results show that the temperature and flow fields inside the DC non-transferred arc plasma torch show significant three-dimensional features. The predicted anode arc-root attachment position and the arc shape by employing Steenbeck's minimum principle are reasonably consistent with experimental observations. The thermal efficiency and the torch power distribution are also calculated in this paper. The results show that the thermal efficiency of the torch always ranges from 30% to 45%, i.e. more than half of the total power input is taken away by the cathode and anode cooling water. The special heat transfer mechanisms at the plasma-anode interface, such as electron condensation, electron enthalpy and radiative heat transfer from the bulk plasma to the anode inner surface, are taken into account in this paper. The calculated results show that besides convective heat transfer, the contributions of electron condensation, electron enthalpy and radiation to the anode heat transfer are also important (∼30% for parameter range of interest in this paper). Additional effects, such as the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium plasma state near the electrodes, the transient phenomena, etc, need to be considered in future physical/mathematical models, including corresponding measurements

  9. Band gap effects of hexagonal boron nitride using oxygen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevak Singh, Ram; Leong Chow, Wai [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Yingjie Tay, Roland [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Temasek Laboratories-NTU, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Hon Tsang, Siu [Temasek Laboratories-NTU, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Mallick, Govind [Temasek Laboratories-NTU, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21005 (United States); Tong Teo, Edwin Hang, E-mail: htteo@ntu.edu.sg [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2014-04-21

    Tuning of band gap of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) has been a challenging problem due to its inherent chemical stability and inertness. In this work, we report the changes in band gaps in a few layers of chemical vapor deposition processed as-grown h-BN using a simple oxygen plasma treatment. Optical absorption spectra show a trend of band gap narrowing monotonically from 6 eV of pristine h-BN to 4.31 eV when exposed to oxygen plasma for 12 s. The narrowing of band gap causes the reduction in electrical resistance by ∼100 fold. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results of plasma treated hexagonal boron nitride surface show the predominant doping of oxygen for the nitrogen vacancy. Energy sub-band formations inside the band gap of h-BN, due to the incorporation of oxygen dopants, cause a red shift in absorption edge corresponding to the band gap narrowing.

  10. Band gap effects of hexagonal boron nitride using oxygen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevak Singh, Ram; Leong Chow, Wai; Yingjie Tay, Roland; Hon Tsang, Siu; Mallick, Govind; Tong Teo, Edwin Hang

    2014-01-01

    Tuning of band gap of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) has been a challenging problem due to its inherent chemical stability and inertness. In this work, we report the changes in band gaps in a few layers of chemical vapor deposition processed as-grown h-BN using a simple oxygen plasma treatment. Optical absorption spectra show a trend of band gap narrowing monotonically from 6 eV of pristine h-BN to 4.31 eV when exposed to oxygen plasma for 12 s. The narrowing of band gap causes the reduction in electrical resistance by ∼100 fold. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results of plasma treated hexagonal boron nitride surface show the predominant doping of oxygen for the nitrogen vacancy. Energy sub-band formations inside the band gap of h-BN, due to the incorporation of oxygen dopants, cause a red shift in absorption edge corresponding to the band gap narrowing

  11. Singular Sheet Etching of Graphene with Oxygen Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haider Al-Mumen; Fubo Rao; Wen Li; Lixin Dong

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a simple and controllable post-synthesis method for engineering the number of graphene layers based on oxygen plasma etching. Singular sheet etching(SSE) of graphene was achieved with the optimum process duration of 38 seconds. As a demonstration of this SSE process, monolayer graphene films were produced from bilayer graphenes. Experimental investigations verified that the oxygen plasma etching removes a single layer graphene sheet in an anisotropic fashion rather than anisotropic mode. In addition,etching via the oxygen plasma at the ground electrodes introduced fewer defects to the bottom graphene layer compared with the conventional oxygen reactive ion etching using the powered electrodes. Such defects can further be reduced with an effective annealing treatment in an argon environment at 900-1000?C. These results demonstrate that our developed SSE method has enabled a microelectronics manufacturing compatible way for single sheet precision subtraction of graphene layers and a potential technique for producing large size graphenes with high yield from multilayer graphite materials.

  12. Singular Sheet Etching of Graphene with Oxygen Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haider Al-Mumen; Fubo Rao; Wen Li; Lixin Dong

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a simple and controllable post-synthesis method for engineering the number of graphene layers based on oxygen plasma etching. Singular sheet etching (SSE) of graphene was achieved with the optimum process duration of 38 seconds. As a demonstration of this SSE process, monolayer graphene films were produced from bilayer graphenes. Experimental investigations verified that the oxygen plasma etching removes a single layer graphene sheet in an anisotropic fashion rather than anisotropic mode. In addition, etching via the oxygen plasma at the ground electrodes introduced fewer defects to the bottom graphene layer compared with the conventional oxygen reactive ion etching using the powered electrodes. Such defects can further be reduced with an effective annealing treatment in an argon environment at 900-1000◦C. These results demonstrate that our developed SSE method has enabled a microelectronics manufacturing compatible way for single sheet precision subtraction of graphene layers and a potential technique for producing large size graphenes with high yield from multilayer graphite materials.

  13. New perspectives on the dynamics of AC and DC plasma arcs exposed to cross-fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, Youssef; Rohani, Vandad; Cauneau, François; Fulcheri, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Interactions between an arc and external fields are crucially important for the design and the optimization of modern plasma torches. Multiple studies have been conducted to help better understand the behavior of DC and AC current arcs exposed to external and ‘ self-induced ’ magnetic fields, but the theoretical foundations remain very poorly explored. An analytical investigation has therefore been carried out in order to study the general behavior of DC and AC arcs under the effect of random cross-fields. A simple differential equation describing the general behavior of a planar DC or AC arc has been obtained. Several dimensionless numbers that depend primarily on arc and field parameters and the main arc characteristics (temperature, electric field strength) have also been determined. Their magnitude indicates the general tendency pattern of the arc evolution. The analytical results for many case studies have been validated using an MHD numerical model. The main purpose of this investigation was deriving a practical analytical model for the electric arc, rendering possible its stabilization and control, and the enhancement of the plasma torch power. (paper)

  14. New perspectives on the dynamics of AC and DC plasma arcs exposed to cross-fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, Youssef; Rohani, Vandad; Cauneau, François; Fulcheri, Laurent

    2017-02-01

    Interactions between an arc and external fields are crucially important for the design and the optimization of modern plasma torches. Multiple studies have been conducted to help better understand the behavior of DC and AC current arcs exposed to external and ‘self-induced’ magnetic fields, but the theoretical foundations remain very poorly explored. An analytical investigation has therefore been carried out in order to study the general behavior of DC and AC arcs under the effect of random cross-fields. A simple differential equation describing the general behavior of a planar DC or AC arc has been obtained. Several dimensionless numbers that depend primarily on arc and field parameters and the main arc characteristics (temperature, electric field strength) have also been determined. Their magnitude indicates the general tendency pattern of the arc evolution. The analytical results for many case studies have been validated using an MHD numerical model. The main purpose of this investigation was deriving a practical analytical model for the electric arc, rendering possible its stabilization and control, and the enhancement of the plasma torch power.

  15. Osteoblast response to oxygen functionalised plasma polymer surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Jonathan M.

    2001-01-01

    Thin organic films with oxygen-carbon functionalities were deposited from plasmas containing vapour of the small organic compounds: allyI alcohol, methyl vinyl ketone and acrylic acid with octadiene. Characterisation of the deposits was carried out using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, in conjunction with chemical derivatisation, and this showed that plasma polymers retained high levels of original monomer functionality when the plasmas were sustained at low power for a given monomer vapour flow rate. High levels of attachment of rat osteosarcoma (ROS 17/2.8) cells were observed on surfaces that had high concentrations of hydroxyl and carbonyl functionalities and intermediate concentrations of carboxyl functionality. Cells did not attach to the octadiene plasma polymer. Cell attachment to carboxyl and methyl functionalised self-assembled monolayers increased with increasing concentration of surface carboxyl groups. Adsorption of the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin to acrylic acid/octadiene plasma copolymers was studied by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays and by I 125 radiolabelling. Fibronectin adsorbed in largest amounts to surfaces with intermediate concentrations of carboxyl functionality. Spreading of ROS cells and rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) was characterised by computer image analysis. Cell spreading in media containing 10% serum, on a surface deposited from a plasma of 5 O/o acrylic acid was much greater than on the octadiene plasma polymer while most extensive cell spreading was observed on these surfaces when preadsorbed with fibronectin. Growth (proliferation) of BMSC was assessed over nine days and was found to be faster on an 50% acrylic acid plasma polymer than on tissue culture polystyrene or a hydrocarbon plasma polymer, though cell growth was fastest on fibronectin precoated substrates. Expression of cellular alkaline phosphatase, collagen and calcium reached similar levels on the 50% acrylic acid plasma polymer, tissue culture

  16. Osteoblast response to oxygen functionalised plasma polymer surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Jonathan M

    2001-07-01

    Thin organic films with oxygen-carbon functionalities were deposited from plasmas containing vapour of the small organic compounds: allyI alcohol, methyl vinyl ketone and acrylic acid with octadiene. Characterisation of the deposits was carried out using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, in conjunction with chemical derivatisation, and this showed that plasma polymers retained high levels of original monomer functionality when the plasmas were sustained at low power for a given monomer vapour flow rate. High levels of attachment of rat osteosarcoma (ROS 17/2.8) cells were observed on surfaces that had high concentrations of hydroxyl and carbonyl functionalities and intermediate concentrations of carboxyl functionality. Cells did not attach to the octadiene plasma polymer. Cell attachment to carboxyl and methyl functionalised self-assembled monolayers increased with increasing concentration of surface carboxyl groups. Adsorption of the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin to acrylic acid/octadiene plasma copolymers was studied by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays and by I{sup 125} radiolabelling. Fibronectin adsorbed in largest amounts to surfaces with intermediate concentrations of carboxyl functionality. Spreading of ROS cells and rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) was characterised by computer image analysis. Cell spreading in media containing 10% serum, on a surface deposited from a plasma of 5 O/o acrylic acid was much greater than on the octadiene plasma polymer while most extensive cell spreading was observed on these surfaces when preadsorbed with fibronectin. Growth (proliferation) of BMSC was assessed over nine days and was found to be faster on an 50% acrylic acid plasma polymer than on tissue culture polystyrene or a hydrocarbon plasma polymer, though cell growth was fastest on fibronectin precoated substrates. Expression of cellular alkaline phosphatase, collagen and calcium reached similar levels on the 50% acrylic acid plasma polymer, tissue

  17. Non-equilibrium nitrogen DC-arc plasma treatment of TiO2 nanopowder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Gonzalez-Aguilar, José; Traisnel, Noel; Berger, Marie-Hélène; Repoux, Monique; Fulcheri, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Non-equilibrium nitrogen DC-arc plasma treatment of a commercial TiO2 anatase nanopowder was examined to obtain nitrogen-doped TiO2. By using a non-thermal discharge at low current (150 mA) and high voltage (1200 V) using pure N2 gas, light yellowish-gray TiO2 powder was successfully obtained within a short period of 5-10 min. XPS and TEM-EELS studies confirmed the existence of doped nitrogen. Due to the relatively mild conditions (plasma power of 180 W), metastable anatase structure and fine crystallite size of TiO2 (ca. 10 nm) were maintained after the plasma treatment. The in-flight powder treatment system used in this study is promising for various type of powder treatment.

  18. Silica nanoparticles produced by DC arc plasma from a solid raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmachev, P. V.; Vlasov, V. A.; Skripnikova, N. K.

    2017-05-01

    Plasma synthesis of SiO2 nanoparticles in experimental atmospheric pressure plasma reactor on the basis of DC arc plasma generator was presented in this paper. Solid high-silica raw materials such as diatomite from Kamyshlovskoye deposit in Russia, quartzite from Chupinskoye deposit in Russia and milled window glass were used. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized based on their morphology, chemical composition and size distribution. Scanning electron microscopy, laser diffractometry, nitrogen absorption (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to characterize the synthesized products. The obtained silica nanoparticles are agglomerated, have spherical shape and primary diameters between 10-300 nm. All samples of synthesized nanopowders were compared with commercial nanopowders.

  19. Oxygen Plasma Treatment of Rubber Surface by the Atmospheric Pressure Cold Plasma Torch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Bong-ju; Kusano, Yukihiro; Kato, Nobuko

    1997-01-01

    adhesive. The adhesion property was improved by treatment of the rubber compound with plasma containing oxygen radicals. Physical and chemical changes of the rubber surface as a result of the plasma treatment were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and fourier transform......A new application of the atmospheric cold plasma torch has been investigated. Namely, the surface treatment of an air-exposed vulcanized rubber compound. The effect of plasma treatment was evaluated by the bondability of the treated rubber compound with another rubber compound using a polyurethane...

  20. Optical characterization of single-crystal diamond grown by DC arc plasma jet CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hei, Li-fu; Zhao, Yun; Wei, Jun-jun; Liu, Jin-long; Li, Cheng-ming; Lü, Fan-xiu

    2017-12-01

    Optical centers of single-crystal diamond grown by DC arc plasma jet chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were examined using a low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) technique. The results show that most of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) complexes are present as NV- centers, although some H2 and H3 centers and B-aggregates are also present in the single-crystal diamond because of nitrogen aggregation resulting from high N2 incorporation and the high mobility of vacancies under growth temperatures of 950-1000°C. Furthermore, emissions of radiation-induced defects were also detected at 389, 467.5, 550, and 588.6 nm in the PL spectra. The reason for the formation of these radiation-induced defects is not clear. Although a Ni-based alloy was used during the diamond growth, Ni-related emissions were not detected in the PL spectra. In addition, the silicon-vacancy (Si-V)-related emission line at 737 nm, which has been observed in the spectra of many previously reported microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) synthetic diamonds, was absent in the PL spectra of the single-crystal diamond prepared in this work. The high density of NV- centers, along with the absence of Ni-related defects and Si-V centers, makes the single-crystal diamond grown by DC arc plasma jet CVD a promising material for applications in quantum computing.

  1. Atomic Oxygen Energy in Low Frequency Hyperthermal Plasma Ashers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K R.; Kneubel, Christian A.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental and analytical analysis of the atomic oxygen erosion of pyrolytic graphite as well as Monte Carlo computational modeling of the erosion of Kapton H (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) polyimide was performed to determine the hyperthermal energy of low frequency (30 to 35 kHz) plasma ashers operating on air. It was concluded that hyperthermal energies in the range of 0.3 to 0.9 eV are produced in the low frequency air plasmas which results in texturing similar to that in low Earth orbit (LEO). Monte Carlo computational modeling also indicated that such low energy directed ions are fully capable of producing the experimentally observed textured surfaces in low frequency plasmas.

  2. Study on effect of plasma surface treatments for diamond deposition by DC arc plasmatron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, In-Je; Joa, Sang-Beom; Lee, Heon-Ju

    2013-11-01

    To improve the thermal conductivity and wear resistance of ceramic materials in the field of renewable energy technologies, diamond coating by plasma processing has been carried out in recent years. This study's goal is to improve diamond deposition on Al2O3 ceramic substrates by plasma surface treatments. Before diamond deposition was carried out in a vacuum, plasma surface treatments using Ar gas were conducted to improve conditions for deposition. We also conducted plasma processing for diamond deposition on Al2O3 ceramic substrates using a DC arc Plasmatron. The Al2O3 ceramic substrates with diamond film (5 x 15 mm2), were investigated by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) and XRD (X-ray Diffractometer). Then, the C-H stretching of synthetic diamond films by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) was studied. We identified nanocrystalline diamond films on the Al2O3 ceramic substrates. The results showed us that the deposition rate of diamond films was 2.3 microm/h after plasma surface treatments. Comparing the above result with untreated ceramic substrates, the deposition rate improved with the surface roughness of the deposited diamond films.

  3. Analysis of the neutral drag force in a dc glow discharge dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Edward Jr.; Williams, Jeremiah

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report on a series of experiments that use carefully applied perturbations to a dust cloud to reproducibly investigate the formation of the microparticle cloud and the formation of dust cloud-plasma interface. Here, one micron diameter alumina microparticles are suspended in an argon dc glow discharge plasma. A perturbing voltage pulse is applied to the cathode, causing a momentary disruption in the confinement of the dust cloud. After the perturbation, the cloud reforms, typically with a central 'mass' and two 'streams' of particles that are flowing into the cloud from both sides. Through the use of stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (stereo-PIV), the complete three-dimensional velocity of the microparticles can be measured. The particles in the streams are used as test particles to characterize the forces acting upon the microparticles. Analysis of the experimental measurements suggests that the effective neutral drag force may be lower than expected

  4. Arc Voltage Fluctuation in DC Laminar and Turbulent Plasma Jets Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Wenxia; Meng Xian; Wu Chengkang

    2006-01-01

    Arc voltage fluctuations in a direct current (DC) non-transferred arc plasma generator are experimentally studied, in generating a jet in the laminar, transitional and turbulent regimes. The study is with a view toward elucidating the mechanism of the fluctuations and their relationship with the generating parameters, arc root movement and flow regimes. Results indicate that the existence of a 300 Hz alternating current (AC) component in the power supply ripples does not cause the transition of the laminar plasma jet into a turbulent state. There exists a high frequency fluctuation at 4 kHz in the turbulent jet regime. It may be related to the rapid movement of the anode attachment point of the arc

  5. Novel high-frequency energy-efficient pulsed-dc generator for capacitively coupled plasma discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah Al; Furuta, Hiroshi; Hatta, Akimitsu

    2018-03-01

    The circuit design, assembly, and operating tests of a high-frequency and high-voltage (HV) pulsed dc generator (PDG) for capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) discharge inside a vacuum chamber are reported. For capacitive loads, it is challenging to obtain sharp rectangular pulses with fast rising and falling edges, requiring intense current for quick charging and discharging. The requirement of intense current generally limits the pulse operation frequency. In this study, we present a new type of PDG consisting of a pair of half-resonant converters and a constant current-controller circuit connected with HV solid-state power switches that can deliver almost rectangular high voltage pulses with fast rising and falling edges for CCP discharge. A prototype of the PDG is assembled to modulate from a high-voltage direct current (HVdc) input into a pulsed HVdc output, while following an input pulse signal and a set current level. The pulse rise time and fall time are less than 500 ns and 800 ns, respectively, and the minimum pulse width is 1 µs. The maximum voltage for a negative pulse is 1000 V, and the maximum repetition frequency is 500 kHz. During the pulse on time, the plasma discharge current is controlled steadily at the set value. The half-resonant converters in the PDG perform recovery of the remaining energy from the capacitive load at every termination of pulse discharge. The PDG performed with a high energy efficiency of 85% from the HVdc input to the pulsed dc output at a repetition rate of 1 kHz and with stable plasma operation in various discharge conditions. The results suggest that the developed PDG can be considered to be more efficient for plasma processing by CCP.

  6. Novel high-frequency energy-efficient pulsed-dc generator for capacitively coupled plasma discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah Al; Furuta, Hiroshi; Hatta, Akimitsu

    2018-03-01

    The circuit design, assembly, and operating tests of a high-frequency and high-voltage (HV) pulsed dc generator (PDG) for capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) discharge inside a vacuum chamber are reported. For capacitive loads, it is challenging to obtain sharp rectangular pulses with fast rising and falling edges, requiring intense current for quick charging and discharging. The requirement of intense current generally limits the pulse operation frequency. In this study, we present a new type of PDG consisting of a pair of half-resonant converters and a constant current-controller circuit connected with HV solid-state power switches that can deliver almost rectangular high voltage pulses with fast rising and falling edges for CCP discharge. A prototype of the PDG is assembled to modulate from a high-voltage direct current (HVdc) input into a pulsed HVdc output, while following an input pulse signal and a set current level. The pulse rise time and fall time are less than 500 ns and 800 ns, respectively, and the minimum pulse width is 1 µs. The maximum voltage for a negative pulse is 1000 V, and the maximum repetition frequency is 500 kHz. During the pulse on time, the plasma discharge current is controlled steadily at the set value. The half-resonant converters in the PDG perform recovery of the remaining energy from the capacitive load at every termination of pulse discharge. The PDG performed with a high energy efficiency of 85% from the HVdc input to the pulsed dc output at a repetition rate of 1 kHz and with stable plasma operation in various discharge conditions. The results suggest that the developed PDG can be considered to be more efficient for plasma processing by CCP.

  7. Experimental investigation of plasma dynamics in dc and short-pulse magnetron discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Sang-Hun; In, Jung-Hwan; Chang, Hong-Young

    2006-01-01

    The spatiotemporal evolution of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) and of plasma parameters such as the electron density, the electron temperature and the plasma and floating potentials has been investigated using spatially and temporally resolved single Langmuir probe measurements in dc and mid-frequency, short-pulse magnetron discharges with a repetition frequency of 10 kHz and a duty cycle of 10%. In the pulsed discharge of the short duty cycle, a peak electron temperature higher than 10 eV was observed near the cathode fall region during the early phase of the pulse-on, which is about three times higher than the steady-state value of the electron temperature in the dc discharge. The temporal evolution of the measured EEDFs showed the initial efficient electron heating during the early phase of the pulse-on and the subsequent relaxation of electron energy by the inelastic collisions and the diffusive loss. The high-energy electrons generated during the pulse-on phase diffused the downstream region toward the grounded substrate, resulting in a bi-Maxwellian EEDF consisting of the background low-energy electrons and the high-energy electrons. The results of the spatially and temporally resolved probe measurements will be presented and the enhanced efficiency of the electron heating in the short-pulse discharge will be explained on the basis of the global model of a pulsed discharge

  8. Numerical simulation of Trichel pulses of negative DC corona discharge based on a plasma chemical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyue; Lan, Lei; Lu, Hailiang; Wang, Yu; Wen, Xishan; Du, Xinyu; He, Wangling

    2017-10-01

    A numerical simulation method of negative direct current (DC) corona discharge based on a plasma chemical model is presented, and a coaxial cylindrical gap is adopted. There were 15 particle species and 61 kinds of collision reactions electrons involved, and 22 kinds of reactions between ions are considered in plasma chemical reactions. Based on this method, continuous Trichel pulses are calculated on about a 100 us timescale, and microcosmic physicochemical process of negative DC corona discharge in three different periods is discussed. The obtained results show that the amplitude of Trichel pulses is between 1-2 mA, and that pulse interval is in the order of 10-5 s. The positive ions produced by avalanche ionization enhanced the electric field near the cathode at the beginning of the pulse, then disappeared from the surface of cathode. The electric field decreases and the pulse ceases to develop. The negative ions produced by attachment slowly move away from the cathode, and the electric field increases gradually until the next pulse begins to develop. The positive and negative ions with the highest density during the corona discharge process are O4+ and O3- , respectively.

  9. A study of the solid and gaseous products generated by a dc plasma torch under coal and steam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuthe, T.G.; Chang, J.S.; Irons, G.A.; Lu, W.K.; Berezin, A.A.; Chu, E.Y.

    1988-01-01

    In this work, the solid and gaseous products generated by a DC plasma torch under simultaneous coal powder and supersaturated steam injection are examined. A range of steam (0.75[g/min]) and coal powder (0-10[g/min]) were injected into the hot argon plasma and the product gases were analyzed by gas chromatographic techniques, an optical multichannel analyzer and infrared CO and CO/sub 2/ analyzers. The solid product generated by the present process was analyzed using neutron activation analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicate that the most common product constituents consisted of simple compounds such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Detailed analysis using infra-red analyzers and gas chromatographic techniques showed that the product gas contained significant amounts of H/sub 2/(--2[%], CO(0.5-4.5[%]) and CO/sub 2/(0.5-1.0[%]) gases, where approximately 80 (%) was still argon gas. Evidence was found of slight amounts of OH, but no significant amount of CH/sub 2/ compounds were detected. The energy yields of the CO/sub 2/ and CO production rates were in the range of 4-10 and 5-25 [g/kWhr] respectively. The produced gas CO:CO/sub 2/ concentration ratio was approximately in the order of 10. Neutron activation analysis shows that the solid product generated in the present process is significantly different from the ash produced by a conventional coal fired furnace. The overall concentrations of trace oxides are significantly lower in the solid product than in conventional ash, tending to support the hypothesis that the solid product is a coke rather than an ash. The conditions in the plasma torch also seem to favour the removal of Ca, S and Si oxides from the coal. Downstream temperature analysis indicates the product gas can be heated from 600 to 1500(K) depending on the torch operating conditions and injectant flowrates

  10. The influence of ethanol addition on the spatial emission distribution of traces in a vertical argon stabilized DC arc plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIJA TODOROVIC

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The plasma of a vertical argon stabilized DC arc at atmospheric pressure is applied as a spectrochemical source. The lateral distributions of relative spectral line intensities of some trace elements (Zn, Pt, Cd, Mg, Ca and Al introduced into the plasma in the form of aqueous and ethanol–aqueous solutions were experimentally determined. These distributions were correlated with the calculated equilibrium plasma composition of the arc plasma. On the basis of the obtained results, an explanation of the influence of ethanol addition on the radiation densities from an arc plasma is given.

  11. Sterilization Effect of Wet Oxygen Plasma in the Bubbling Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamazawa, Kaoru; Shintani, Hideharu; Tamazawa, Yoshinori; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi

    2015-01-01

    A new low-temperature sterilization method to replace the ethylene oxide gas sterilization is needed. Strong bactericidal effects of OH and O2H radicals are well known. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sterilization effect of wet oxygen ("O2+H2O") plasma in the bubbling method, confirming the effect of humidity. Sterility assurance was confirmed by using a biological indicator (Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC7953, Namsa, USA). One hundred and eight samples (10(5) spores/carrier) were divided into three groups of 36 in each for treatment with a different type of gas (O2, O2+H2O, Air+H2O). Plasma processing was conducted using a plasma ashing apparatus (13.56 MHz, PACK-3(®), Y. A. C., Japan) under various gas pressures (13, 25, 50 Pa) and gas flows (50, 100, 200 sccm). Fixed plasma treatment parameters were power at 150 W, temperature of 60 ℃, treatment time of 10 min. The samples after treatment were incubated in trypticase soy broth at 58 ℃ for 72 h. The negative culture rate in the "O2+H2O" group was significantly (Mantel-Haenszel procedure, pbubbling method which is the method of introducing vapor into the chamber. The bubbling method seems able to generate OH and O2H radicals in a stable way.

  12. Surface modification of 17-4PH stainless steel by DC plasma nitriding and titanium nitride film duplex treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, F.; Leng, Y.X.; Huang, N.; Bai, B.; Zhang, P.Ch.

    2007-01-01

    17-4PH stainless steel was modified by direct current (DC) plasma nitriding and titanium nitride film duplex treatment in this study. The microstructure, wear resistance and corrosion resistance were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), pin-on-disk tribological test and polarization experiment. The results revealed that the DC plasma nitriding pretreatment was in favor of improving properties of titanium nitride film. The corrosion resistance and wear resistance of duplex treatment specimen was more superior to that of only coated titanium nitride film

  13. Influence of a transverse magnetic field on arc root movements in a dc plasma torch: Diamagnetic effect of arc column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Keun Su

    2009-01-01

    The effect of a transverse magnetic field on the anodic arc root movement inside a dc plasma torch has been investigated. The arc voltage fluctuation, which represents the degree of the arc instability, was reduced to 28.6% of the original value and the high frequency components in the voltage signal also decreased in their magnitudes. The inherent arc instability in a dc thermal plasma torch seems to be suppressed by a diamagnetic effect of the arc column. Furthermore, the measured voltage wave forms indicated that the arc root attachment mode would be controllable by a transverse magnetic field

  14. Plasma Spraying of Copper by Hybrid Water-Gas DC Arc Plasma Torch

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavka, Tetyana; Matějíček, Jiří; Ctibor, Pavel; Mašláni, Alan; Hrabovský, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2011), s. 760-774 ISSN 1059-9630 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : copper coatings * hybrid water-gas torch * metallic particle oxidation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.812, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/78n3736855261197/fulltext.pdf

  15. The hydrogen and oxygen content of self-supporting carbon foils prepared by dc glow discharge in ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tait, N.R.S.; Tolfree, D.W.L.; John, P.; Odeh, I.M.; Thomas, M.J.K.; Tricker, M.J.; Wilson, J.J.B.; England, J.B.A.; Newton, D.

    1980-01-01

    The hydrogen and oxygen content of self-supporting carbon films produced by dc glow discharge have been determined using a precise method involving the elastic scattering of 25 MeV α-particles. The number of carbon-hydrogen bonds has been determined for similar samples using infrared spectroscopy. The results are compared with those for samples made by the carbon arc process. Assuming that the glow discharge carbon contains graphitic regions surrounded by amorphous tetrahedrally bonded material to which hydrogen can attach, a simple estimate is made of the relative numbers of carbon atoms in the two forms. (orig.)

  16. Computer simulations of an oxygen inductively coupled plasma used for plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinck, S; Bogaerts, A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an O 2 inductively coupled plasma used for plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of Al 2 O 3 thin films is investigated by means of modeling. This work intends to provide more information about basic plasma properties such as species densities and species fluxes to the substrate as a function of power and pressure, which might be hard to measure experimentally. For this purpose, a hybrid model developed by Kushner et al is applied to calculate the plasma characteristics in the reactor volume for different chamber pressures ranging from 1 to 10 mTorr and different coil powers ranging from 50 to 500 W. Density profiles of the various oxygen containing plasma species are reported as well as fluxes to the substrate under various operating conditions. Furthermore, different orientations of the substrate, which can be placed vertically or horizontally in the reactor, are taken into account. In addition, special attention is paid to the recombination process of atomic oxygen on the different reactor walls under the stated operating conditions. From this work it can be concluded that the plasma properties change significantly in different locations of the reactor. The plasma density near the cylindrical coil is high, while it is almost negligible in the neighborhood of the substrate. Ion and excited species fluxes to the substrate are found to be very low and negligible. Finally, the orientation of the substrate has a minor effect on the flux of O 2 , while it has a significant effect on the flux of O. In the horizontal configuration, the flux of atomic oxygen can be up to one order of magnitude lower than in the vertical configuration.

  17. Development of solid oxide fuel cells by applying DC and RF plasma deposition technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller, G.; Henne, R.; Lang, M.; Mueller, M. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Institut fuer Technische Thermodynamik, Postfach 800370, 70503 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    Based on advanced plasma deposition technology with both DC and RF plasmas DLR Stuttgart has developed a concept of a planar SOFC with consecutive deposition of all layers of a thin-film cell onto a porous metallic substrate support. This concept is an alternative approach to conventionally used sintering techniques for SOFC fabrication without needing any sintering steps or other thermal post-treatment. Furthermore, is has the potential to be developed into an automated continous production process. For both stationary and mobile applications, adequate stack designs and stack technologies have been developed. Future development work will focus on light-weight stacks to be applied as an Auxillary Power Unit (APU) for on-board electricity supply in passenger cars and airplanes. This paper describes the plasma deposition technologies used for cell fabrication and the DLR spray concept including the resulting stack designs. The current status of development and recent progress with respect to materials development and electrochemical characterization of single cells and short-stacks is presented. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. dc-Hydrogen plasma induced defects in bulk n-Ge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyamhere, C., E-mail: cloud.nyamhere@nmmu.ac.za [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Venter, A.; Murape, D.M. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Auret, F.D.; Coelho, S.M.M. [Department of Physics, University of the Pretoria, Lynnwood Road, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa); Botha, J.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2012-08-01

    Bulk antimony doped germanium (n-Ge) has been exposed to a dc-hydrogen plasma. Capacitance-voltage depth profiles revealed extensive near surface passivation of the shallow donors as evidenced by {approx}a 1.5 orders of magnitude reduction in the free carrier concentration up to depth of {approx}3.2 {mu}m. DLTS and Laplace-DLTS revealed a prominent electron trap 0.30 eV below the conduction (E{sub C} -0.30 eV). The concentration of this trap increased with plasma exposure time. The depth profile for this defect suggested a uniform distribution up to 1.2 {mu}m. Annealing studies show that this trap, attributed to a hydrogen-related complex, is stable up to 200 Degree-Sign C. Hole traps, or vacancy-antimony centers, common in this material after high energy particle irradiation, were not observed after plasma exposure, an indication that this process does not create Frenkel (V-I) pairs.

  19. dc-Hydrogen plasma induced defects in bulk n-Ge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyamhere, C.; Venter, A.; Murape, D.M.; Auret, F.D.; Coelho, S.M.M.; Botha, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Bulk antimony doped germanium (n-Ge) has been exposed to a dc-hydrogen plasma. Capacitance-voltage depth profiles revealed extensive near surface passivation of the shallow donors as evidenced by ∼a 1.5 orders of magnitude reduction in the free carrier concentration up to depth of ∼3.2 μm. DLTS and Laplace-DLTS revealed a prominent electron trap 0.30 eV below the conduction (E C -0.30 eV). The concentration of this trap increased with plasma exposure time. The depth profile for this defect suggested a uniform distribution up to 1.2 μm. Annealing studies show that this trap, attributed to a hydrogen-related complex, is stable up to 200 °C. Hole traps, or vacancy-antimony centers, common in this material after high energy particle irradiation, were not observed after plasma exposure, an indication that this process does not create Frenkel (V-I) pairs.

  20. Surface Wettability of Oxygen Plasma Treated Porous Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen plasma treatment on porous silicon (p-Si surfaces was studied as a practical and effective means to modify wetting properties of as-fabricated p-Si surfaces, that is, contact angles of the p-Si materials. P-Si samples spanning a wide range of surface nanostructures have been fabricated which were subjected to a series of oxygen plasma treatments. Reduction of the p-Si surface contact angles has been systematically observed, and the surface activation rate constant as a function of different pore geometries has been analyzed to achieve an empirical equation. The underlying diffusion mechanisms have been discussed by taking into account of different pore diameters of p-Si samples. It is envisaged that such an approach as well as the corresponding empirical equation may be used to provide relevant process guidance in order to achieve precise control of p-Si contact angles, which is essential for many p-Si applications especially in biosensor areas.

  1. Control of plasma layer in a fusion reactor correlated to DC motor control using PSO-ANFIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahapatra, Sakuntala; Daniel, Raju; Dey, Deep Narayan

    2013-01-01

    Plasma position and shape control is very crucial for the overall performance of the fusion reactor such as Tokamak. The quality of the discharge in the Saskatchewan TORus-Modified (STOR-M) tokamak is strongly related to the position of the plasma column within the discharge vessel. If the plasma column approaches too near the wall, then either minor or complete disruption occurs. Consequently it is necessary to be able to control dynamically the position of the plasma column throughout the entire discharge. Now a day's most fusion reactor employs the traditional PID controller for the confinement of plasma layer. Fuzzy logic is used for the control of Plasma layer. In this paper we have used the hybrid of PSO-ANFIS technique to control the speed of a DC motor. We have used two input parameters like speed, torque and output is firing angle. In our work first order Sugeno fuzzy model is taken with three rules and the parameters of Gaussian membership function is controlled by the PSO technique. PSO-ANFIS speed controller obtains better dynamic behavior and superior performance of the DC motor speed control. Similar approach can be correlated to the control of plasma layer. For the plasma control two inputs can be taken as plasma position ΔH and the plasma current and the single output, the control decision u(t). (author)

  2. Formation of Ti-N graded bioceramic layer by DC hollow-cathode plasma nitriding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Chuan-lin

    2004-01-01

    Ti-N graded ceramic layer was formed on titanium by using DC hollow-cathode plasma nitriding technique. The structure of Ti-N layer was analyzed using X-ray diffractometry(XRD) with Cu Kα radiation, and the microhardness( HV0.1) was measured from the surface to inner along the cross section of Ti-N layer. The results indicate that the Ti-N graded layer is composed of ε-Ti2 N, δ-TiN and α-Ti(N) phases. Mechanism discussion shows that hollow-cathode discharge can intensify gas ionization, increase current density and enhance the nitriding potential, which directly increases the thickness of the diffusion coatings compared with traditional nitriding methods.

  3. Generation mechanism of hydrogen peroxide in dc plasma with a liquid electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Nozomi; Ishibashi, Naoto

    2018-04-01

    The production mechanism of liquid-phase H2O2 in dc driven plasma in O2 and Ar with a water electrode was investigated. When a water anode was used, the concentration of H2O2 increased linearly with the treatment time. The production rate was proportional to the discharge current, and there was no dependence on the gap distance. On the other hand, the production rate was much smaller with a water anode. We concluded that the production of gas-phase H2O2 in the cathode sheath just above a water cathode and diffusion of this H2O2 into the water constitute the key mechanism in the production of liquid-phase H2O2.

  4. Uncapped silver nanoparticles synthesized by DC arc thermal plasma technique for conductor paste formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Manish; Pawar, Amol; Karmakar, Soumen; Seth, Tanay; Raut, Varsha; Rane, Sunit; Bhoraskar, Sudha; Amalnerkar, Dinesh

    2009-11-01

    Uncapped silver nanoparticles were synthesized by DC arc thermal plasma technique. The synthesized nanoparticles were structurally cubic and showed wide particle size variation (between 20-150 nm). Thick film paste formulated from such uncapped silver nanoparticles was screen-printed on alumina substrates and the resultant `green' films were fired at different firing temperatures. The films fired at 600 °C revealed better microstructure properties and also yielded the lowest value of sheet resistance in comparison to those corresponding to conventional peak firing temperature of 850 °C. Our findings directly support the role of silver nanoparticles in substantially depressing the operative peak firing temperature involved in traditional conductor thick films technology.

  5. Oxidation of vanadium metal in oxygen plasma and their characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rabindar Kumar; Singh, Megha; Kumar, Prabhat; Reddy, G. B.

    2015-09-01

    In this report, the role of oxygen plasma on oxidation of vanadium (V) metal and the volatilization of its oxides has been studied as a function of source (V metal strip) temperature (Tss) and oxygen partial pressure (PO2). The presence of O2-plasma not only enhances the oxidation rate but also ficilitates in transport of oxide molecules from metal to substrate, as confirmed by the simultanous deposition of oxide film onto substrate. Both the oxidized metal strips and oxide films deposited on substrates are characterized separately. The structural and vibrational results evidence the presence of two different oxide phases (i.e. orthorhombic V2O5 and monocilinic V O2) in oxide layers formed on V metal strips, whereas the oxide films deposited on substrates exhibit only orthorhombic phase (i.e. V2O5). The decrease in peak intensities recorded from heated V metal strips on increasing Tss points out the increment in the rate of oxide volatilization, which also confirms by the oxide layer thickness measurements. The SEM results show the noticeable surface changes on V-strips as the function of Tss and PO2 and their optimum values are recorded to be 500 ˚ C and 7.5 × 10-2 Torr, respectively to deposit maximum thick oxide film on substrate. The formation of microcracks on oxidized V-strips, those responsible to countinue oxidation is also confirmed by SEM results. The compositional study of oxide layers formed on V-strips, corroborates their pureness and further assures about the existence of mixed oxide phases. The effect of oxygen partial pressure on oxidation of V-metal has also been discussed in the present report. All the results are well in agreement to each other.

  6. Effect of DC Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation on Surface Characteristics and Corrosion Resistance of Zirconium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Sowa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Zr is a valve metal, the biocompatibility of which is at least on par with Ti. Recently, numerous attempts of the formation of bioactive coatings on Zr by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO in solutions that were based on calcium acetate and calcium β-glycerophosphate were made. In this study, the direct current (DC PEO of commercially pure zirconium in the solutions that contained Ca(H2PO22, Ca(HCOO2, and Mg(CH3COO2 was investigated. The treatment was conducted at 75 mA/cm2 up to 200, 300, or 400 V. Five process stages were discerned. The treatment at higher voltages resulted in the formation of oxide layers that had Ca/P or (Mg+Ca/P ratios that were close to that of hydroxyapatite (Ca/P = 1.67, determined by SEM/EDX. The corrosion resistance studies were performed using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and DC polarization methods. R(Q[R(QR] circuit model was used to fit the EIS data. In general, the coatings that were obtained at 200 V were the most corrosion resistant, however, they lacked the porous structure, which is typical for PEO coatings, and is sought after in the biomedical applications. The treatment at 400 V resulted in the formation of the coatings that were more corrosion resistant than those that were obtained at 300 V. This was determined mainly by the prevailing plasma regime at the given process voltage. The pitting resistance of Zr was also improved by the treatment, regardless of the applied process conditions.

  7. Modulating Protein Adsorption on Oxygen Plasma Modified Polysiloxane Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marletta, G.

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper we report the study on the adsorption behaviour of three model globular proteins, Human Serum Albumin, Lactoferrin and Egg Chicken Lysozyme onto both unmodified surfaces of a silicon-based polymer and the corresponding plasma treated surfaces. In particular, thin films of hydrophobic polysiloxane (about 90 degree of static water contact angle, WCA) were converted by oxygen plasma treatment at reduced pressure into very hydrophilic phases of SiOx (WCA less than 5 degree). The kinetics of protein adsorption processes were investigated by QCM-D technique, while the chemical structure and topography of the protein adlayer have been studied by Angular resolved-XPS and AFM respectively. It turned out that Albumin and Lysozyme exhibited the opposite preferential adsorption respectively onto the hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces, while Lactoferrin did not exhibit significant differences. The observed protein behaviour are discussed both in terms of surface-dependent parameters, including surface free energy and chemical structure, and in terms of protein-dependent parameters, including charge as well as the average molecular orientation in the adlayers. Finally, some examples of differential adsorption behaviour of the investigated proteins are reported onto nanopatterned polysiloxane surfaces consisting of hydrophobic nanopores surrounded by hydrophilic (plasma-treated) matrix and the reverse

  8. Effects of oxygen plasma treatment on domestic aramid fiber III reinforced bismaleimide composite interfacial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chen; Wang, Jing; Chen, Ping; Feng, Jiayue; Cui, Jinyuan; Yang, Faze

    2017-12-01

    Domestic Aramid Fiber III (DAF III) was modified by oxygen plasma treatment. The fiber surface characteristics was observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The results showed that oxygen plasma treatment changed surface morphologies. The effects of oxygen plasma treatment on DAF III reinforced bismaleimides (BMI) composite bending and interfacial properties were investigated, respectively. The ILSS value increased from 49.3 MPa to 56.0 MPa (by 13.5%) after oxygen plasma treatment. The bending strength changed a little. Furthermore, the composite rupture mode changed from interfacial rupture to fiber or resin bulk rupture.

  9. EXPERIMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC POWER GENERATOR UNDER DC ARC PLASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayokunle Oluwaseun Ayeleso

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The generation of electric power through the conventional systems (thermal and hydroelectric is no longer sufficient to meet the increasing industrial and commercial usage. Therefore, an alternative energy conversion system is currently being sought. The aim of the presented study is to develop a direct energy conversion system (Magnetohydrodynamics, MHD generator to generate electric power using plasma. Additionally, the generator electric response is investigated based on the Faraday’s principle of electromagnetism and fluid dynamics. For this purpose, a rectangular MHD generator prototype with segmented electrodes was constructed and subjected to continuous plasma from a DC arc source at test facilities available in the Western Cape region (South Africa. Subsequently, the terminal voltages at the middle-electrodes were measured one after another across 1, 100 and 470 Ω load resistors. In all experiments, the absolute time-averages of the measured terminal voltage across each load resistor were similar, which indicates a generation of power. The maximum power of the order 0.203mW was obtained when 1 Ω resistor was connected to the middle-electrodes. Conclusively, these results validate the measurement approach of the MHD generator with segmented electrodes and could be used to design a large MHD unit that can be incorporated to the existing conventional thermal plant to improve their cyclic thermal efficiency.

  10. Mechanisms of polymer degradation using an oxygen plasma generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colony, Joe A.; Sanford, Edward L.

    1987-01-01

    An RF oxygen plasma generator was used to produce polymer degradation which appears to be similar to that which has been observed in low Earth orbit. Mechanisms of this type of degradation were studied by collecting the reaction products in a cryogenic trap and identifying the molecular species using infrared, mass spectral, and X-ray diffraction techniques. No structurally dependent species were found from Kapton, Teflon, or Saran polymers. However, very reactive free radical entities are produced during the polymer degradation, as well as carbon dioxide and water. Reactions of the free radicals with the glass reaction vessel, with copper metal in the cold trap, and with a triphenyl phosphate scavenger in the cold trap, demonstrated the reactivity of the primary products.

  11. Resonant mode for a dc plasma spray torch by means of pressure–voltage coupling: application to synchronized liquid injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krowka, J; Rat, V; Coudert, J F

    2013-01-01

    Electric arc instabilities in dc plasma torches result in non-homogeneous treatment of nanosized solid particles injected into the plasma jets. In the particular case of suspension plasma spraying, large discrepancies in the particles trajectories and thermal histories make the control of coating properties more difficult to achieve. In this paper, a new approach of arc dynamics highlights the existence of different resonant modes and the possibility of their coupling. This study leads us to design a special plasma torch working in a very regular pulsed regime. Then, an innovative injection system based on the drop-on-demand method synchronized with the plasma oscillations is presented as an efficient method to control the dynamics of plasma/particles interactions. (paper)

  12. Plasma Methane Pyrolysis for Spacecraft Oxygen Loop Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Z. W.

    2018-01-01

    Life support is a critical function of any crewed space vehicle or habitat. Human life support systems on the International Space Station (ISS) include a number of atmosphere revitalization (AR) technologies to provide breathable air and a comfortable living environment to the crew. The Trace Contaminant Control System removes harmful volatile organic compounds and other trace contaminants from the circulating air. The Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) removes metabolic carbon dioxide (CO2) and returns air to the cabin. Humidity is kept at comfortable levels by a number of condensing heat exchangers. The Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) electrolyzes water to produce oxygen for the crew and hydrogen (H2) as a byproduct. A Sabatier reaction-based CO2 Reduction Assembly (CRA) was launched to the ISS in 2009 and became fully operational in June 2011.The CRA interfaces with both the OGA and CDRA. Carbon dioxide from the CDRA is compressed and stored in tanks until hydrogen is available from OGA water electrolysis. When the OGA is operational and there is CO2 available, the CRA is activated and produces methane and water via the Sabatier reaction shown in Equation 1... One approach to achieve these higher recovery rates builds upon the ISS AR architecture and includes adding a methane post-processor to recover H2 from CRA methane. NASA has been developing the Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) to fill the role of a methane post-processor.

  13. Modified DLC coatings prepared in a large-scale reactor by dual microwave/pulsed-DC plasma-activated chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbella, C.; Bialuch, I.; Kleinschmidt, M.; Bewilogua, K.

    2008-01-01

    Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) films find abundant applications as hard and protective coatings due to their excellent mechanical and tribological performances. The addition of new elements to the amorphous DLC matrix tunes the properties of this material, leading to an extension of its scope of applications. In order to scale up their production to a large plasma reactor, DLC films modified by silicon and oxygen additions have been grown in an industrial plant of 1m 3 by means of pulsed-DC plasma-activated chemical vapour deposition (PACVD). The use of an additional microwave (MW) source has intensified the glow discharge, partly by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR), accelerating therefore the deposition process. Hence, acetylene, tetramethylsilane (TMS) and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) constituted the respective gas precursors for the deposition of a-C:H (DLC), a-C:H:Si and a-C:H:Si:O films by dual MW/pulsed-DC PACVD. This work presents systematic studies of the deposition rate, hardness, adhesion, abrasive wear and water contact angle aimed to optimize the technological parameters of deposition: gas pressure, relative gas flow of the monomers and input power. This study has been completed with measures of the atomic composition of the samples. Deposition rates around 1 μm/h, typical for standard processes held in the large reactor, were increased about by a factor 10 when the ionization source has been operated in ECR mode

  14. Properties and etching rates of negative ions in inductively coupled plasmas and dc discharges produced in Ar/SF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draghici, M.; Stamate, E.

    2010-01-01

    Negative ion production is investigated in a chamber with transversal magnetic filter operated in dc or inductively coupled plasma (ICP) modes in Ar/SF 6 gas mixtures. Plasma parameters are evaluated by mass spectrometry and Langmuir probe for different discharge conditions. The density ratio of negative ion to electron exceeded 300 in dc mode while it was below 100 in the ICP mode. The possibility to apply a large positive bias to an electrode without affecting the plasma potential and the transition from a negative sheath to anodic glow are also investigated. The etching rates by positive and negative ions are evaluated on silicon substrate for different Ar/SF 6 gas ratios. The etching rate by negative ions was with less than 5% smaller than that by positive ions.

  15. Properties and etching rates of negative ions in inductively coupled plasmas and dc discharges produced in Ar/SF6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draghici, Mihai; Stamate, Eugen

    2010-01-01

    of negative ion to electron exceeded 300 in dc mode while it was below 100 in the ICP mode. The possibility to apply a large positive bias to an electrode without affecting the plasma potential and the transition from a negative sheath to anodic glow are also investigated. The etching rates by positive...... and negative ions are evaluated on silicon substrate for different Ar/SF6 gas ratios. The etching rate by negative ions was with less than 5% smaller than that by positive ions.......Negative ion production is investigated in a chamber with transversal magnetic filter operated in dc or inductively coupled plasma (ICP) modes in Ar/SF6 gas mixtures. Plasma parameters are evaluated by mass spectrometry and Langmuir probe for different discharge conditions. The density ratio...

  16. Work function modifications of graphite surface via oxygen plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duch, J.; Kubisiak, P.; Adolfsson, K. H.; Hakkarainen, M.; Golda-Cepa, M.; Kotarba, A.

    2017-10-01

    The surface modification of graphite by oxygen plasma was investigated experimentally (X-ray diffraction, nanoparticle tracking analysis, laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry, thermogravimetry, water contact angle) and by molecular modelling (Density Functional Theory). Generation of surface functional groups (mainly sbnd OHsurf) leads to substantial changes in electrodonor properties and wettability gauged by work function and water contact angle, respectively. The invoked modifications were analyzed in terms of Helmholtz model taking into account the theoretically determined surface dipole moment of graphite-OHsurf system (μ = 2.71 D) and experimentally measured work function increase (from 0.75 to 1.02 eV) to determine the sbnd OH surface coverage (from 0.70 to 1.03 × 1014 groups cm-2). Since the plasma treatment was confined to the surface, the high thermal stability of the graphite material was preserved as revealed by the thermogravimetric analysis. The obtained results provide a suitable quantitative background for tuning the key operating parameters of carbon electrodes: electronic properties, interaction with water and thermal stability.

  17. A study of the transient plasma potential in a pulsed bi-polar dc magnetron discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, J W; Karkari, S K; Vetushka, A

    2004-01-01

    The temporal evolution of the plasma potential, V p , in a pulsed dc magnetron plasma has been determined using the emissive probe technique. The discharge was operated in the 'asymmetric bi-polar' mode, in which the discharge voltage changes polarity during part of the pulse cycle. The probe measurements, with a time-resolution of 20 ns or better, were made along a line above the racetrack, normal to the plane of the cathode target, for a fixed frequency (100 kHz), duty cycle (50%), argon pressure (0.74 Pa) and discharge power (583 W). At all the measured positions, V p was found to respond to the large and rapid changes in the cathode voltage, V d , during the different phases of the pulse cycle, with V p always more positive than V d . At a typical substrate position (>80 mm from the target), V p remains a few volts above the most positive surface in the discharge at all times. In the 'on' phase of the pulse, the measurements show a significant axial electric field is generated in the plasma, with the plasma potential dropping by a total of about 30 V over a distance of 70 mm, from the bulk plasma to a position close to the beginning of the cathode fall. This is consistent with measurements made in the dc magnetron. During the stable 'reverse' phase of the discharge, for distances greater than 18 mm from the target, the axial electric field is found to collapse, with V p elevated uniformly to about 3 V above V d . Between the target and this field-free region an ion sheath forms, and the current flowing to the target is still an ion current in this 'reverse' period. During the initial 200 ns of the voltage 'overshoot' phase (between 'on' and 'reverse' phases), V d reached a potential of +290 V; however, close to the target, V p was found to attain a much higher value, namely +378 V. Along the line of measurement, the axial electric field reverses in direction in this phase, and an electron current of up to 9 A flows to the target. The spatial and temporal

  18. Destruction of inorganic municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in a DC arc plasma furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Ni, Guohua; Jiang, Yiman; Chen, Longwei; Chen, Mingzhou; Meng, Yuedong

    2010-09-15

    Due to the toxicity of dioxins, furans and heavy metals, there is a growing environmental concern on municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash in China. The purpose of this study is directed towards the volume-reduction of fly ash without any additive by thermal plasma and recycling of vitrified slag. This process uses extremely high-temperature in an oxygen-starved environment to completely decompose complex waste into very simple molecules. For developing the proper plasma processes to treat MSWI fly ash, a new crucible-type plasma furnace was built. The melting process metamorphosed fly ash to granulated slag that was less than 1/3 of the volume of the fly ash, and about 64% of the weight of the fly ash. The safety of the vitrified slag was tested. The properties of the slag were affected by the differences in the cooling methods. Water-cooled and composite-cooled slag showed more excellent resistance against the leaching of heavy metals and can be utilized as building material without toxicity problems. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative study of nanocomposites prepared by pulsed and dc sputtering combined with plasma polymerization suitable for photovoltaic device applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Amreen A. [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Guwahati, Assam (India); Pal, Arup R., E-mail: arpal@iasst.gov.in [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Guwahati, Assam (India); Kar, Rajib [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Bailung, Heremba; Chutia, Joyanti [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Guwahati, Assam (India); Patil, Dinkar S. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai (India)

    2014-12-15

    Plasma processing, a single step method for production of large area composite films, is employed to deposit plasma polymerized aniline-Titanium dioxide (PPani-TiO{sub 2}) nanocomposite thin films. The deposition of PPani-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite films are made using reactive magnetron sputtering and plasma polymerization combined process. This study focuses on the direct comparison between continuous and pulsed dc magnetron sputtering techniques of titanium in combination with rf plasma polymerization of aniline. The deposited PPani-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite films are characterized and discussed in terms of structural, morphological and optical properties. A self powered hybrid photodetector has been developed by plasma based process. The proposed method provides a new route where the self-assembly of molecules, that is, the spontaneous association of atomic or molecular building blocks under plasma environment, emerge as a successful strategy to form well-defined structural and morphological units of nanometer dimensions. - Highlights: • PPani-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite by pulsed and dc sputtering with rf plasma polymerization. • In-situ and Ex-situ H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} doping in PPani-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite. • PPani-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite based self-powered-hybrid photodetector.

  20. Comparative study of nanocomposites prepared by pulsed and dc sputtering combined with plasma polymerization suitable for photovoltaic device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Amreen A.; Pal, Arup R.; Kar, Rajib; Bailung, Heremba; Chutia, Joyanti; Patil, Dinkar S.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma processing, a single step method for production of large area composite films, is employed to deposit plasma polymerized aniline-Titanium dioxide (PPani-TiO 2 ) nanocomposite thin films. The deposition of PPani-TiO 2 nanocomposite films are made using reactive magnetron sputtering and plasma polymerization combined process. This study focuses on the direct comparison between continuous and pulsed dc magnetron sputtering techniques of titanium in combination with rf plasma polymerization of aniline. The deposited PPani-TiO 2 nanocomposite films are characterized and discussed in terms of structural, morphological and optical properties. A self powered hybrid photodetector has been developed by plasma based process. The proposed method provides a new route where the self-assembly of molecules, that is, the spontaneous association of atomic or molecular building blocks under plasma environment, emerge as a successful strategy to form well-defined structural and morphological units of nanometer dimensions. - Highlights: • PPani-TiO 2 nanocomposite by pulsed and dc sputtering with rf plasma polymerization. • In-situ and Ex-situ H 2 SO 4 doping in PPani-TiO 2 nanocomposite. • PPani-TiO 2 nanocomposite based self-powered-hybrid photodetector

  1. Oxygen plasma treatments of jute fibers in improving the mechanical properties of jute/HDPE composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sever, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, 35100, Izmir (Turkey); Erden, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ege University, 35100, Izmir (Turkey); Guelec, H.A. [Department of Food Engineering, Yuzuncu Yil University, 65250, Van (Turkey); Seki, Y., E-mail: yoldas.seki@deu.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Dokuz Eylul University, 35160, Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Sarikanat, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ege University, 35100, Izmir (Turkey)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} To improve mechanical properties of jute/HDPE composites, jute fabric was subjected to oxygen plasma treatment. {yields} LF and RF plasma systems at different plasma powers were used for treatment. {yields} In LF system, interlaminar shear strength, tensile and flexure strengths showed a tendency to increase at plasma powers of 30 and 60 W. - Abstract: The surfaces of jute fabrics have been oxygen plasma treated using low frequency (LF) and radio frequency (RF) plasma systems at different plasma powers (30, 60, and 90 W) for 15 min to improve the mechanical properties of jute fiber/HDPE (high density polyethylene) composites. The effect of oxygen plasma treatment on the functional groups of jute fibers was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Effects of oxygen plasma treatments on the mechanical properties of jute fiber/HDPE composites were investigated by means of tensile, flexure, and short-beam shear tests. Surface morphology of the fractured surfaces of composites was observed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). When RF plasma system was used, the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) values of the composites increased with increasing plasma power. Similarly, in LF plasma system, ILSS values showed a tendency to increase at plasma powers of 30 and 60 W. However, increasing of plasma power to 90 W decreased the ILSS value of jute/HDPE composite. Also, tensile and flexure strengths of the composites showed similar trends.

  2. Oxygen plasma treatments of jute fibers in improving the mechanical properties of jute/HDPE composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sever, K.; Erden, S.; Guelec, H.A.; Seki, Y.; Sarikanat, M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → To improve mechanical properties of jute/HDPE composites, jute fabric was subjected to oxygen plasma treatment. → LF and RF plasma systems at different plasma powers were used for treatment. → In LF system, interlaminar shear strength, tensile and flexure strengths showed a tendency to increase at plasma powers of 30 and 60 W. - Abstract: The surfaces of jute fabrics have been oxygen plasma treated using low frequency (LF) and radio frequency (RF) plasma systems at different plasma powers (30, 60, and 90 W) for 15 min to improve the mechanical properties of jute fiber/HDPE (high density polyethylene) composites. The effect of oxygen plasma treatment on the functional groups of jute fibers was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Effects of oxygen plasma treatments on the mechanical properties of jute fiber/HDPE composites were investigated by means of tensile, flexure, and short-beam shear tests. Surface morphology of the fractured surfaces of composites was observed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). When RF plasma system was used, the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) values of the composites increased with increasing plasma power. Similarly, in LF plasma system, ILSS values showed a tendency to increase at plasma powers of 30 and 60 W. However, increasing of plasma power to 90 W decreased the ILSS value of jute/HDPE composite. Also, tensile and flexure strengths of the composites showed similar trends.

  3. Decorative black TiCxOy film fabricated by DC magnetron sputtering without importing oxygen reactive gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Katsushi; Wakabayashi, Masao; Tsukakoshi, Yukio; Abe, Yoshiyuki

    2016-02-01

    Decorative black TiCxOy films were fabricated by dc (direct current) magnetron sputtering without importing the oxygen reactive gas into the sputtering chamber. Using a ceramic target of titanium oxycarbide (TiC1.59O0.31), the oxygen content in the films could be easily controlled by adjustment of total sputtering gas pressure without remarkable change of the carbon content. The films deposited at 2.0 and 4.0 Pa, those are higher pressure when compared with that in conventional magnetron sputtering, showed an attractive black color. In particular, the film at 4.0 Pa had the composition of TiC1.03O1.10, exhibited the L* of 41.5, a* of 0.2 and b* of 0.6 in CIELAB color space. These values were smaller than those in the TiC0.29O1.38 films (L* of 45.8, a* of 1.2 and b* of 1.2) fabricated by conventional reactive sputtering method from the same target under the conditions of gas pressure of 0.3 Pa and optimized oxygen reactive gas concentration of 2.5 vol.% in sputtering gas. Analysis of XRD and XPS revealed that the black film deposited at 4.0 Pa was the amorphous film composed of TiC, TiO and C. The adhesion property and the heat resisting property were enough for decorative uses. This sputtering process has an industrial advantage that the decorative black coating with color uniformity in large area can be easily obtained by plain operation because of unnecessary of the oxygen reactive gas importing which is difficult to be controlled uniformly in the sputtering chamber.

  4. Use of dc Ar microdischarge with nonlocal plasma for identification of metal samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudryavtsev, A. A., E-mail: akud@ak2138.spb.edu [St. Petersburg State University, 7-9 Universitetskaya nab., 199034 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Stefanova, M. S.; Pramatarov, P. M. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee Blvd., 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2015-04-07

    The possibility of using the collisional electron spectroscopy (CES) method for the detection of atoms from metal samples is experimentally verified. The detection and identification of metal atoms from a Pt sample in the nonlocal plasma of short (without positive column) dc Ar microdischarge at intermediate pressures (5–30 Torr) is realized in this work. Cathode sputtering is used for atomization of the metal under analysis. The identification of the analyzed metal is made from the energy spectra of groups of fast nonlocal electrons—characteristic electrons released in the Penning ionization of the Pt atoms by Ar metastable atoms and molecules. The acquisition of the electron energy spectra is performed using an additional electrode—a sensor located at the boundary of the discharge volume. The Pt characteristic Penning electrons form the maxima in the electron energy spectra at the energies of their appearance, which are 2.6 eV and 1.4 eV. From the measured energy of the maxima, identification of the metal atoms is accomplished. The characteristic Ar maxima due to pair collisions between Ar metastable atoms and molecules and super-elastic collisions are also recorded. This study demonstrates the possibility of creating a novel microplasma analyzer for atoms from metal samples.

  5. Tribological behavior of an austenitic stainless steel AISI 316L nitrurated by DC-pulsed plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Las Heras, E; Walther, F; Corengia, P.A; Quinteiro, M.O; Cabo, A; Bruhl, S; Sommadossi, S

    2004-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are widely used in different applications because they withstands corrosion. Ionic nitruration has proven to be an adequate technique for modifying this type of steel, in order to improve its resistance to wear without diminishing its resistance to corrosion. While many publications have reported improvements in the tribological properties of the nitrurated AISI 316, systematic studies that evaluate this behavior using industrial equipment for its thermochemical treatment are of interest. This work studied the tribological behavior of an AISI 316L steel nitrurated by DC pulsed plasma in an industrial machine in an atmosphere of 25% N 2 and 75% H 2 for 20 h at 400 o C by means of abrasion tests under different conditions in an A 135 Amsler-disk machine. In order to characterize the abraded samples microhardness, optic and scanning electron microscopy profiles to determine the abrasion mechanisms were performed. The results showed substantial improvement in the abrasion resistance of the nitrurated samples compared to the non nitrurated ones and the different abrasion mechanisms are discussed to explain the test results (CW)

  6. Electrochemical Impedance and Polarization Corrosion Studies of Tantalum Surface Modified by DC Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Sowa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tantalum has recently become an actively researched biomaterial for the bone reconstruction applications because of its excellent corrosion resistance and successful clinical records. However, a bare Ta surface is not capable of directly bonding to the bone upon implantation and requires some method of bioactivation. In this study, this was realized by direct current (DC plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO. Susceptibility to corrosion is a major factor determining the service-life of an implant. Therefore, herein, the corrosion resistance of the PEO coatings on Ta was investigated in Ringer’s solution. The coatings were formed by galvanostatic anodization up to 200, 300 and 400 V, after which the treatment was conducted potentiostatically until the total process time amounted to 5 min. Three solutions containing Ca(H2PO22, Ca(HCOO2 and Mg(CH3COO2 were used in the treatment. For the corrosion characterization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization techniques were chosen. The coatings showed the best corrosion resistance at voltages low enough so that the intensive sparking was absent, which resulted in the formation of thin films. The impedance data were fitted to the equivalent electrical circuits with two time constants, namely R(Q[R(QR] and R(Q[R(Q[RW

  7. Synthesis of SiO(x) powder using DC arc plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chan-Ok; Park, Dong-Wha

    2013-02-01

    SiO(x) was prepared by DC arc plasma and applied to the anode material of lithium ion batteries. A pellet of a mixture of Si and SiO2 was used as the raw material. The ratios of the silicon and silicon dioxide (SiO2) mixtures were varied by controlling the Si-SiO2 molar ratio (Si-SiO2 = 1-4). Hydrogen gas was used as the reduction atmosphere in the chamber. The prepared SiO(x) was collected on the chamber wall. The obtained SiO(x) was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD and TEM showed that the phase composition of the prepared particles was composed of amorphous SiO(x) and crystalline Si. The prepared SiO(x) showed wire and spherical morphology. XPS indicated the bonding state and 'x' value of the prepared SiO(x), which was close to one. The result of prepared SiO(x) is discussed from thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. The electrochemical behavior of the silicon monoxide anode was investigated.

  8. The improvement of the detection power of a U-shaped DC plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGAN MARKOVIC

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of the operating parameters of U-shpaed DC arc plasma and spectrometer parameters has been undertaken to explore the possibilities of improving its detection power. It is demonstrated, with a U-shaped arc as an example, that the limits of detection, in addition to well-defined parameters as described by Boumans and Winge, depend on the signal integration time. It is shown that with increasing integration time, the limits of detection are decreased within some limits and that the precision and concentration sensitivity are improved as well. A mathematical expression for the dependence of the detection limit on the integration time is presented. To increase the reliability of the measurement of the mentioned parameters, the working conditions were optimized for the following analytes: Ag, Al, Au, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Pd, Pt, and V. The obtained limits of detection are comparable or better than those obtained by ICP for the elements studied. Itwas estimed that the possibility exists for their further improvement up to 10 times.

  9. Temporal development of the plasma composition of a pulsed aluminum plasma stream in the presence of oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, J.M.; Anders, A.; Brown, I.G.; Hjoervarsson, B.; Hultman, L.

    1999-01-01

    We describe the temporal development of the plasma composition of pulsed aluminum plasma streams at various oxygen pressures. The plasma was formed with a vacuum arc plasma source and the time resolved plasma composition was measured with time-of-flight charge-to-mass spectrometry. The temporal development of the plasma composition as well as the Al average ion charge state was found to be a strong function of the oxygen pressure. Oxygen and hydrogen concentrations of up to 0.36 and 0.32, respectively, were found in the first 50 μs of the pulse at oxygen pressures of ≥5x10 -5 Torr. The average charge state of aluminum ions was found to vary from +1.2 to +2.5 depending on the oxygen pressure and the time elapsed after ignition of the arc. These results are of fundamental importance for the understanding of the evolution of the composition (through the plasma composition) and microstructure (through the Al ion flux energy) of alumina thin films produced by pulsed, reactive aluminum plasmas. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  10. Equidensitometry: a method for characterising the structure of plasmas. Qualitative characterisation of the lanthanum d.c. arc by equidensitometry of monochromatic arc photographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittrich, K.; Niebergall, K.; Roessler, H.

    1976-01-01

    A new method has been developed for the experimental characterization of d.c. arc plasmas. The method consists of the combination of the spectral photography of d.c. arc plasmas with a slitless, stigmatic plane-grating spectrograph and the characterization of the photographs with the aid of photographic equidensitometry. The principles of the method are described. The method is used for the investigation of a lanthanum d.c. arc plasma. The qualitative results of the measurements of the axial distributions of the light emission and lanthanum and calcium particle concentrations in the arc are discussed. The limitations and shortcomings of the method are pointed out. (author)

  11. Electrical and optical properties of reactive dc magnetron sputtered silver-doped indium oxide thin films: role of oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subrahmanyam, A.; Barik, U.K.

    2006-01-01

    Silver-doped indium oxide thin films have been prepared on glass and quartz substrates at room temperature (300 K) by a reactive dc magnetron sputtering technique using an alloy target of pure indium and silver (80:20 at. %). During sputtering, the oxygen flow rates are varied in the range 0.00-2.86 sccm keeping the magnetron power constant at 40 W. The resistivity of these films is in the range 10 0 -10 -3 Ωcm and they show a negative temperature coefficient of resistivity. The films exhibit p-type conductivity at an oxygen flow rate of 1.71 sccm. The work function of these silver-indium oxide films has been measured by a Kelvin probe technique. The refractive index of the films (at 632.8 nm) varies in the range 1.13-1.20. Silver doping in indium oxide narrows the band gap of indium oxide (3.75 eV). (orig.)

  12. Electrical and optical properties of reactive dc magnetron sputtered silver-doped indium oxide thin films: role of oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subrahmanyam, A; Barik, U K [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Chennai (India)

    2006-07-15

    Silver-doped indium oxide thin films have been prepared on glass and quartz substrates at room temperature (300 K) by a reactive dc magnetron sputtering technique using an alloy target of pure indium and silver (80:20 at. %). During sputtering, the oxygen flow rates are varied in the range 0.00-2.86 sccm keeping the magnetron power constant at 40 W. The resistivity of these films is in the range 10{sup 0}-10{sup -3} {omega}cm and they show a negative temperature coefficient of resistivity. The films exhibit p-type conductivity at an oxygen flow rate of 1.71 sccm. The work function of these silver-indium oxide films has been measured by a Kelvin probe technique. The refractive index of the films (at 632.8 nm) varies in the range 1.13-1.20. Silver doping in indium oxide narrows the band gap of indium oxide (3.75 eV). (orig.)

  13. Tribological properties of nitrogen-containing amorphous carbon film produced by dc plasma chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Wazumi, Koichiro; Tanaka, Akihiro; Koga, Yoshinori

    2003-01-01

    The nitrogen-contained amorphous carbon (a-C:N) films were deposited in a dc plasma chemical vapor deposition system with different substrate bias voltages. The structural, mechanical, and tribological properties of the a-C:N films were investigated. The influence of the bias voltage on the tribological behaviors of the a-C:N films was evaluated under various environments (dry air, O 2 , N 2 , and vacuum) using a ball-on-disk friction tester. It showed that the sp 3 C and hydrogen concentration of the a-C:N films decreases with increasing the bias voltage. However, the nitrogen concentration increases with increasing the bias voltage. As a result, the hardness and internal stress decrease and the critical load for fracturing increases as the substrate bias increases. For the tribological properties of the a-C:N films, the friction coefficient of the films slightly decreases in the environments of N 2 , O 2 , or dry air, but increases slightly in the vacuum environment by increasing the bias voltage. It indicates that the incorporated nitrogen in the a-C:N films would decrease the friction coefficient of the films in N 2 or O 2 environments, but slightly increases the friction coefficient of the films in a vacuum. The excellent wear resistance of the a-C:N films, in the level of 10 -9 -10 -8 mm 3 /Nm, can be observed in N 2 , vacuum, and dry air environments. In addition, the effect of the bias voltage on the wear rate of the a-C:N films becomes less obvious by nitrogen incorporation. So, we suggest the incorporated nitrogen, which bonded to carbon and restrained the increase of the fraction of sp 2 C-C, would restrain the wear of the a-C:N films in different environments, especially in dry air

  14. DC-driven plasma gun: self-oscillatory operation mode of atmospheric-pressure helium plasma jet comprised of repetitive streamer breakdowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingxing; Shashurin, Alexey

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents and studies helium atmospheric pressure plasma jet comprised of a series of repetitive streamer breakdowns, which is driven by pure DC high voltage (self-oscillatory behavior). The repetition frequency of the breakdowns is governed by the geometry of discharge electrodes/surroundings and gas flow rate. Each next streamer is initiated when the electric field on the anode tip recovers after the previous breakdown and reaches the breakdown threshold value of about 2.5 kV cm-1. One type of the helium plasma gun designed using this operational principle is demonstrated. The gun operates on about 3 kV DC high voltage and is comprised of the series of the repetitive streamer breakdowns at a frequency of about 13 kHz.

  15. Factors Determining the Oxygen Permeability of Biological Membranes: Oxygen Transport Across Eye Lens Fiber-Cell Plasma Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subczynski, Witold Karol; Widomska, Justyna; Mainali, Laxman

    2017-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-label oximetry allows the oxygen permeability coefficient to be evaluated across homogeneous lipid bilayer membranes and, in some cases, across coexisting membrane domains without their physical separation. The most pronounced effect on oxygen permeability is observed for cholesterol, which additionally induces the formation of membrane domains. In intact biological membranes, integral proteins induce the formation of boundary and trapped lipid domains with a low oxygen permeability. The effective oxygen permeability coefficient across the intact biological membrane is affected not only by the oxygen permeability coefficients evaluated for each lipid domain but also by the surface area occupied by these domains in the membrane. All these factors observed in fiber cell plasma membranes of clear human eye lenses are reviewed here.

  16. Effect of Oxygen Partial Pressure on the Electrical and Optical Properties of DC Magnetron Sputtered Amorphous TiO2 Films

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra Sekhar, M.; Kondaiah, P.; Radha Krishna, B.; Uthanna, S.

    2013-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films were deposited on p-Si (100) and Corning glass substrates held at room temperature by DC magnetron sputtering at different oxygen partial pressures in the range 9 × 10−3–9 × 10−2 Pa. The influence of oxygen partial pressure on the structural, electrical, and optical properties of the deposited films was systematically studied. XPS studies confirmed that the film formed at an oxygen partial pressure of 6×10−2 Pa was nearly stoichiometric. TiO2 films formed at...

  17. Oxidation of Inconel 625 superalloy upon treatment with oxygen or hydrogen plasma at high temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vesel, A.; Drenik, A.; Elersic, K.; Mozetič, M.; Kovač, J.; Gyergyek, T.; Stöckel, Jan; Varju, Jozef; Pánek, Radomír; Balat-Pichelin, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 305, June (2014), s. 674-682 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Inconel * Oxidation * High temperature * Oxygen plasma * Hydrogen plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.711, year: 2014 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169433214007119

  18. Advancement of In-Flight Alumina Powder Spheroidization Process with Water Droplet Injection Using a Small Power DC-RF Hybrid Plasma Flow System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Juyong; Takana, Hidemasa; Park, Sangkyu; Nishiyama, Hideya

    2012-09-01

    The correlation between plasma thermofluid characteristics and alumina powder spheroidization processes with water droplet injection using a small power DC-RF hybrid plasma flow system was experimentally clarified. Micro-sized water droplets with a low water flow rate were injected into the tail of thermal plasma flow so as not to disturb the plasma flow directly. Injected water droplets were vaporized in the thermal plasma flow and were transported upstream in the plasma flow to the torch by the backflow. After dissociation of water, the production of hydrogen was detected by the optical emission spectroscopy in the downstream RF plasma flow. The emission area of the DC plasma jet expanded and elongated in the vicinity of the RF coils. Additionally, the emission area of RF plasma flow enlarged and was visible as red emission in the downstream RF plasma flow in the vicinity below the RF coils due to hydrogen production. Therefore, the plasma flow mixed with produced hydrogen increased the plasma enthalpy and the highest spheroidization rate of 97% was obtained at a water flow rate of 15 Sm l/min and an atomizing gas flow rate of 8 S l/min using a small power DC-RF hybrid plasma flow system.

  19. An in vitro investigation of bacteria-osteoblast competition on oxygen plasma-modified PEEK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rochford, Edward T. J.; Subbiahdoss, Guruprakash; Moriarty, T. Fintan; Poulsson, Alexandra H. C.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Richards, R. Geoff

    2014-01-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) films were oxygen plasma treated to increase surface free energy and characterized by X-ray photoelectron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and water contact angles. A parallel plate flow chamber was used to measure Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus,

  20. V-I curves and plasma parameters in a high density DC glow discharge generated by a current-source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granda-Gutierrez, E E; Lopez-Callejas, R; Piedad-Beneitez, A de la; BenItez-Read, J S; Pacheco-Sotelo, J O; Pena-Eguiluz, R; A, R Valencia; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Barocio, S R

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen DC glow discharges, conducted in a cylindrical geometry, have been characterized using a new current-source able to provide 10 -3 - 3 A for the sustainment of the discharge, instead of a conventional voltage-source. The V-I characteristic curves obtained from these discharges were found to fit the general form i(v) = A(p)v k(p) , whereby the plasma itself can be modeled as a voltage-controlled current-source. We conclude that the fitting parameters A and k, which mainly depend on the gas pressure p, are strongly related to the plasma characteristics, so much so that they can indicate the pressure interval in which the maximum plasma density is located, with values in the order of 10 16 m -3 at reduced discharge potential (300-600 V) and low working pressure (10 -1 - 10 1 Pa)

  1. Effect of oxygen partial pressure on the structural and optical properties of dc sputtered ITO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerkache, L.; Layadi, A.; Mosser, A.

    2009-01-01

    We present results on the effect of the partial pressure of oxygen (ppo) on the structural and optical properties of tin-doped indium oxide, In 2 O 3 :Sn (ITO), thin films deposited on glass substrates by reactive dc diode sputtering. The deposition rate decreases with increasing ppo. The ppo did not affect the chemical composition of the ITO films as inferred from X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). From X-ray diffraction, we find out that the samples have crystalline structure in the ppo range 2 x 10 -4 to 6 x 10 -4 mbar and are amorphous outside this range. These samples have a preferred orientation for ppo between 2 x 10 -4 and 4.5 x 10 -4 mbar, but as the ppo increased beyond 4.7 x 10 -4 mbar, the texture dominates. This change occurs for the same substrate temperature (about 130 deg. C). The grain size decreases as the ppo increases. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) have been used to investigate the surface roughness and the morphology of these samples. The optical transmission is greater than 90% in the visible region and does depend on the ppo. The refractive index n values are found to be in the 1.68-1.86 range. The energy gap values are between 3.1 and 3.5 eV.

  2. Influence of oxygen gas on characteristics of self-organized luminous pattern formation observed in an atmospheric dc glow discharge using a liquid electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Naoki; Uchida, Satoshi; Tochikubo, Fumiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Self-organized luminous pattern formation is observed in the liquid surface of an atmospheric dc glow discharge using a liquid electrode with a miniature helium flow. The factors affecting pattern formation are the gap length, discharge current, helium mass flow rate and polarity. The pattern shape depends on the conductivity and temperature of the liquid electrode. A variety of patterns were observed by changing the conductivity and temperature of the liquid. We clarified that the self-organized pattern formation depends on the amount of electronegative gas, such as oxygen, in the gas in the electrode gap. When an oxygen gas flow was fed to the liquid surface from the outside in an obliquely downward direction, namely, the amount of oxygen gas on the liquid surface was increased locally, self-organized pattern formation was observed in the region with the increased amount of oxygen gas. When the amount of oxygen in the gas in the gap was changed by using a sheath flow system, the appearance of the pattern changed. The presence of oxygen gas strongly affected the self-organized pattern formation of the atmospheric dc discharge using a liquid anode. (paper)

  3. Analysis of the expanding thermal argon-oxygen plasma gas phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hest, van M.F.A.M.; Haartsen, J.R.; Weert, van M.H.M.; Schram, D.C.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    An expanding thermal argon plasma into which oxygen is injected has been analyzed by means of Langmuir and Pitot probe measurements. Information is obtained on the ion d. profile and the flow pattern in the downstream plasma. A combination of Langmuir and Pitot probe measurements provide information

  4. Analysis of processes in DC arc plasma torches for spraying that use air as plasma forming gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, V; Ivanov, D; Toropchin, A

    2014-01-01

    Developed in Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University technological processes of air-plasma spraying of wear-resistant, regenerating, hardening and decorative coatings used in number of industrial areas are described. The article contains examples of applications of air plasma spraying of coatings as well as results of mathematical modelling of processes in air plasma torches for spraying

  5. Effect of geometry on the surface characteristics of steel components AISI 4140 nitrited by DC-pulsed plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calahonra, C; De Las Heras, E; De La Serena, F; Corengia, P; Ybarra, G; Svoboda, H

    2004-01-01

    Steel AISI 4140 pieces containing cylindrical pinholes with different diameters and depths were nitrited by plasma, in an atmosphere of 25% N 2 + 75% H 2 under a DC-pulsed glow discharge for 15 h. The samples were nitrited to study the influence of the sizes of the pinholes on the uniformity of the compound layer, on the depth of the zone of diffusion and on the surface and subsurface micro-hardness. The results showed that nitriding pieces with pinholes introduces variations in the electric parameters and modifies the uniformity of the coat of compounds formed, altering the mechanical properties of the surface and subsurface (CW)

  6. Fabrication of amorphous silica nanowires via oxygen plasma treatment of polymers on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuojie; She, Didi; Chen, Qinghua; Li, Yanmei; Wu, Wengang

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate a facile non-catalytic method of fabricating silica nanowires at room temperature. Different polymers including photoresists, parylene C and polystyrene are patterned into pedestals on the silicon substrates. The silica nanowires are obtained via the oxygen plasma treatment on those pedestals. Compared to traditional strategies of silica nanowire fabrication, this method is much simpler and low-cost. Through designing the proper initial patterns and plasma process parameters, the method can be used to fabricate various regiment nano-scale silica structure arrays in any laboratory with a regular oxygen-plasma-based cleaner or reactive-ion-etching equipment.

  7. Improvement of In-Flight Alumina Spheroidization Process Using a Small Power Argon DC-RF Hybrid Plasma Flow System by Helium Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takana, Hidemasa; Jang, Juyong; Igawa, Junji; Nakajima, Tomoki; Solonenko, Oleg P.; Nishiyama, Hideya

    2011-03-01

    For the further improvement of in-flight alumina spheroidization process with a low-power direct-current radiofrequency (DC-RF) hybrid plasma flow system, the effect of a small amount of helium gas mixture in argon main gas and also the effect of increasing DC nozzle diameter on powder spheroidization ratio have been experimentally clarified with correlating helium gas mixture percentage, plasma enthalpy, powder in-flight velocity, and temperature. The alumina spheroidization ratio increases by helium gas mixture as a result of enhancement of plasma enthalpy. The highest spheroidization ratio is obtained by 4% mixture of helium in central gas with enlarging nozzle diameter from 3 to 4 mm, even under the constant low input electric power given to a DC-RF hybrid plasma flow system.

  8. Using oxygen plasma treatment to improve the performance of electrodes for capacitive water deionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojati-Talemi, Pejman; Zou, Linda; Fabretto, Manrico; Short, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    An oxygen plasma treatment was employed to modify the surface of carbon electrodes used in capacitive deionization (CDI). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of samples showed that oxygen plasma is mainly attaching oxygenated groups on the PTFE binder used in these electrodes. By functionalizing the binder it can increase the hydrophilicity of the electrode surface and increase the available specific surface area. 2.5 min of plasma treatment resulted in the largest improvement of CDI performance of electrodes. Thermodynamic study of CDI performance showed that the modified electrodes followed Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms resulting from the increased interaction between the enhanced electrodes and water. The kinetic study showed that the CDI process followed a pseudo-first order adsorption kinetics. The calculated adsorption rate constants suggested that plasma modification can accelerate ion adsorption of electrodes

  9. Influence of an External DC Electric Current on Plasma Cleaning Rate: an Application on the Enlarged Plasma-Surface Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xaplanteris, Constantine L.; Filippaki, Eleni D.

    2013-01-01

    During the last decades many researchers have been occupied with other plasma applications apart from the big challenge which the thermonuclear fusion poses. Many experiments have been carried out on the plasma behavior in contact with a solid surface; when the surface material consists of chemical compounds (e.g. oxides of metals), then the plasma chemistry takes place. The present paper contains the final experimental and theoretical work of Plasma Laboratory at “Demokritos , which consists of an elaboration of plasma sheath parameters adapted to experimental conditions, a suitable choice of plasma gases (either H 2 or N 2 ), and an electric potential current enforcement on objects. Additionally, a brief theory is given to explain the results, with a short reference to both boundary phenomena in thermonuclear reactors and low pressure plasma of glow discharges, so as to reveal the similarities and differences of these two cases. An extensive examination of the treated objects by X-ray diffraction method (XRD) gives results in agreement with the theoretical predictions. Using this improvement on plasma restoration system, (a combination of electric current on metallic object into suitable plasma), it is shown that better results can be achieved on the cleaning and conservation of archaeological objects. (plasma technology)

  10. Numerical simulation of heat transfer and fluid flow in a DC plasma-arc device for waste thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Jing; Li, Yaojian; Xu, Yongxiang; Sheng, Hongzhi

    2010-01-01

    In this work, Magnetic Fluid dynamics (MHD) model is used to stimulate the electromagnetic field, heat transfer and fluid flow in a DC non-transferred arc plasma torch. Through the coupled iterative computation about the electromagnetic equations described by magnetic vector potential format and the modified fluid dynamics equations, the electric potential, temperature and velocity distributions in the torch are obtained. The fluid-solid coupled computation method is applied to treat the electric current and heat transfer at the interface between the electrodes and fluid. The location of arc root attachment at the inside surface of anode and the arc voltage of the torch that we have predicted are very consistent with the corresponding experimental results. The calculated results of the torch are applied to the numerical simulation of the plasma jets under the laminar and turbulent condition. (author)

  11. Comparative Observation of Ar, Ar-H2 and Ar-N2 DC Arc Plasma Jets and Their Arc Root Behaviour at Reduced Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Wenxia; Meng Xian; Li Teng; Chen Xi; Wu Chengkang

    2007-01-01

    Results observed experimentally are presented, about the DC arc plasma jets and their arc-root behaviour generated at reduced gas pressure without or with an applied magnetic field. Pure argon, argon-hydrogen or argon-nitrogen mixture was used as the plasma-forming gas. A specially designed copper mirror was used for a better observation of the arc-root behaviour on the anode surface of the DC non-transferred arc plasma torch. It was found that in the cases without an applied magnetic field, the laminar plasma jets were stable and approximately axisymmetrical. The arc-root attachment on the anode surface was completely diffusive when argon was used as the plasma-forming gas, while the arc-root attachment often became constrictive when hydrogen or nitrogen was added into the argon. As an external magnetic field was applied, the arc root tended to rotate along the anode surface of the non-transferred arc plasma torch

  12. Modification of ink-jet paper by oxygen-plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesel, A [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana 1000 (Slovenia); Mozetic, M [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana 1000 (Slovenia); Hladnik, A [Pulp and Paper Institute, Bogisiceva 8, Ljubljana 1001 (Slovenia); Dolenc, J [Pulp and Paper Institute, Bogisiceva 8, Ljubljana 1001 (Slovenia); Zule, J [Pulp and Paper Institute, Bogisiceva 8, Ljubljana 1001 (Slovenia); Milosevic, S [Institute of Physics, Bijenicka 46, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia); Krstulovic, N [Institute of Physics, Bijenicka 46, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia); Klanjsek-Gunde, M [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, Ljubljana 1000 (Slovenia); Hauptmann, N [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, Ljubljana 1000 (Slovenia)

    2007-06-21

    A study on oxygen-plasma treatment of ink-jet paper is presented. Paper was exposed to a weakly ionized, highly dissociated oxygen plasma with an electron temperature of 5 eV, a positive-ion density of 8 x 10{sup 15} m{sup -3} and a density of neutral oxygen atoms of 5 x 10{sup 21} m{sup -3}. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was applied as a method for detection of the reaction products during the plasma treatment of the paper. OES spectra between 250 and 1000 nm were measured continuously during the plasma treatment. The wettability of the samples before and after the plasma treatment was determined by measuring the contact angle of a water drop. The appearance of the surface-functional groups was determined by using high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), while changes in the surface morphology were monitored with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Already after 1 s of the plasma treatment the surface, which was originally hydrophobic, changed to hydrophilic, as indicated by a high absorption rate of a water drop into the paper. The OES showed a rapid increase of the CO and OH bands for the first few seconds of the plasma treatment, followed by a slow decrease during the next 40 s. The intensity of the O atom line showed reversed behaviour. The XPS analyses showed a gradual increase of oxygen-rich functional groups on the surface, while SEM analyses did not show significant modification of the morphology during the first 10 s of the plasma treatment. The results were explained by degradation of the alkyl ketene dimer sizing agent during the first few seconds of the oxygen-plasma treatment.

  13. Modification of ink-jet paper by oxygen-plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesel, A; Mozetic, M; Hladnik, A; Dolenc, J; Zule, J; Milosevic, S; Krstulovic, N; Klanjsek-Gunde, M; Hauptmann, N

    2007-01-01

    A study on oxygen-plasma treatment of ink-jet paper is presented. Paper was exposed to a weakly ionized, highly dissociated oxygen plasma with an electron temperature of 5 eV, a positive-ion density of 8 x 10 15 m -3 and a density of neutral oxygen atoms of 5 x 10 21 m -3 . Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was applied as a method for detection of the reaction products during the plasma treatment of the paper. OES spectra between 250 and 1000 nm were measured continuously during the plasma treatment. The wettability of the samples before and after the plasma treatment was determined by measuring the contact angle of a water drop. The appearance of the surface-functional groups was determined by using high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), while changes in the surface morphology were monitored with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Already after 1 s of the plasma treatment the surface, which was originally hydrophobic, changed to hydrophilic, as indicated by a high absorption rate of a water drop into the paper. The OES showed a rapid increase of the CO and OH bands for the first few seconds of the plasma treatment, followed by a slow decrease during the next 40 s. The intensity of the O atom line showed reversed behaviour. The XPS analyses showed a gradual increase of oxygen-rich functional groups on the surface, while SEM analyses did not show significant modification of the morphology during the first 10 s of the plasma treatment. The results were explained by degradation of the alkyl ketene dimer sizing agent during the first few seconds of the oxygen-plasma treatment

  14. Dc to ac field conversion due to leaky-wave excitation in a plasma slab behind an ionization front

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostin, V A; Vvedenskii, N V

    2015-01-01

    We present a way for generating coherent tunable electromagnetic radiation through dc to ac field conversion by an ionization front. The conversion is caused by the excitation of leaky waves behind the transversely limited ionization front propagating in a uniform electrostatic field. This differs significantly from the well-known dc-to-ac-radiation-converter models which consider Doppler-like frequency conversion by a transversely unlimited ionization front propagating in a spatially periodic electric field. We explore the dispersion properties and excitation of these leaky waves radiated through the transverse plasma boundary at the Cherenkov angle to the direction of propagation of a superluminal ionization front as dependent on the parameters of the plasma produced and on the speed of the ionization front. It is shown that not only the center frequency but also the duration and waveform of the generated pulse may significantly depend on the speed of the ionization front. The results indicate the possibility of using such converters based on planar photoconductive antennas to create sources of microwave and terahertz radiation with controllable waveforms that are transformed from video to radio pulse when the angle of incident ionizing radiation is tuned. (paper)

  15. Structural evolution of Ti destroyable interlayer in large-size diamond film deposition by DC arc plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianchao; Li, Chengming; Liu, Jinlong; Wei, Junjun; Chen, Liangxian; Hua, Chenyi; Yan, Xiongbo

    2016-05-01

    The addition of titanium (Ti) interlayer was verified to reduce the residual stress of diamond films by self-fracturing and facilitate the harvest of a crack-free free-standing diamond film prepared by direct current (DC) arc plasma jet. In this study, the evolution of the Ti interlayer between large-area diamond film and substrate was studied and modeled in detail. The evolution of the interlayer was found to be relevant to the distribution of the DC arc plasma, which can be divided into three areas (arc center, arc main, and arc edge). The formation rate of titanium carbide (TiC) in the arc main was faster than in the other two areas and resulted in the preferred generation of crack in the diamond film in the arc main during cooling. Sandwich structures were formed along with the growth of TiC until the complete transformation of the Ti interlayer. The interlayer released stress via self-fracture. Avoiding uneven fragile regions that formed locally in the interlayer and achieving cooperatively released stress are crucial for the preparation of large crack-free diamond films.

  16. Combined effect of protein and oxygen on reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the plasma treatment of tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Nishtha; Szili, Endre J.; Oh, Jun-Seok; Hong, Sung-Ha; Michelmore, Andrew; Graves, David B.; Hatta, Akimitsu; Short, Robert D.

    2015-09-01

    The influence of protein and molecular, ground state oxygen (O2) on the plasma generation, and transport of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) in tissue are investigated. A tissue target, comprising a 1 mm thick gelatin film (a surrogate for real tissue), is placed on top of a 96-well plate; each well is filled with phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) containing one fluorescent or colorimetric reporter that is specific for one of three RONS (i.e., H2O2, NO2-, or OH•) or a broad spectrum reactive oxygen species reporter (2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein). A helium cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) jet contacts the top of the gelatin surface, and the concentrations of RONS generated in PBS are measured on a microplate reader. The data show that H2O2, NO2-, or OH• are generated in PBS underneath the target. Independently, measurements are made of the O2 concentration in the PBS with and without the gelatin target. Adding bovine serum albumin protein to the PBS or gelatin shows that protein either raises or inhibits RONS depending upon the O2 concentration. Our results are discussed in the context of plasma-soft tissue interactions that are important in the development of CAP technology for medicine, biology, and food manufacturing.

  17. Effects of oxygen plasma treatment power on Aramid fiber III/BMI composite humidity resistance properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Shi, Chen; Feng, Jiayue; Long, Xi; Meng, Lingzhi; Ren, Hang

    2018-01-01

    The effects of oxygen plasma treatment power on Aramid Fiber III chemical structure and its reinforced bismaleimides (BMI) composite humidity resistance properties were investigated in this work. The aramid fiber III chemical structure under different plasma treatment power were measured by FTIR. The composite bending strength and interlinear shear strength with different plasma treatment power before and after absorption water were tested respectively. The composite rupture morphology was observed by SEM. The FTIR results showed that oxygen plasma treatment do not change the fiber bulk chemical structure. The composite humidity resistance of bending strength and interlinear shear strength are similar for untreated and plasma treated samples. The retention rate of composite bending strength and interlinear shear strength are about 75% and 94%, respectively. The composite rupture mode turns to be the fiber failure after water absorption.

  18. Enhanced Hydrophilicity and Biocompatibility of Dental Zirconia Ceramics by Oxygen Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chou Wu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface properties play a critical role in influencing cell responses to a biomaterial. The objectives of this study were (1 to characterize changes in surface properties of zirconia (ZrO2 ceramic after oxygen plasma treatment; and (2 to determine the effect of such changes on biological responses of human osteoblast-like cells (MG63. The results indicated that the surface morphology was not changed by oxygen plasma treatment. In contrast, oxygen plasma treatment to ZrO2 not only resulted in an increase in hydrophilicity, but also it retained surface hydrophilicity after 5-min treatment time. More importantly, surface properties of ZrO2 modified by oxygen plasma treatment were beneficial for cell growth, whereas the surface roughness of the materials did not have a significant efficacy. It is concluded that oxygen plasma treatment was certified to be effective in modifying the surface state of ZrO2 and has the potential in the creation and maintenance of hydrophilic surfaces and the enhancement of cell proliferation and differentiation.

  19. Photoluminescence wavelength variation of monolayer MoS2 by oxygen plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Su; Nam, Giwoong; Park, Seki; Kim, Hyun; Han, Gang Hee; Lee, Jubok; Dhakal, Krishna P.; Leem, Jae-Young; Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Jeongyong

    2015-01-01

    We performed nanoscale confocal photoluminescence (PL), Raman, and absorption spectral imaging measurements to investigate the optical and structural properties of molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) monolayers synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method and subjected to oxygen plasma treatment for 10 to 120 s under high vacuum (1.3 × 10 −3 Pa). Oxygen plasma treatment induced red shifts of ~ 20 nm in the PL emission peaks corresponding to A and B excitons. Similarly, the peak positions corresponding to A and B excitons of the absorption spectra were red-shifted following oxygen plasma treatment. Based on the confocal PL, absorption, and Raman microscopy results, we suggest that the red-shifting of the A and B exciton peaks originated from shallow defect states generated by oxygen plasma treatment. - Highlights: • Effects of oxygen plasma on optical properties of monolayer MoS 2 were investigated. • Confocal photoluminescence, Raman, and absorption spectral maps are presented. • Wavelength tuning up to ~ 20 nm for the peak emission wavelength was achieved

  20. Photoluminescence wavelength variation of monolayer MoS{sub 2} by oxygen plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Su [Center for Integrated Nanostructure Physics (CINAP), Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Giwoong [Department of Nanoscience & Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seki; Kim, Hyun [Center for Integrated Nanostructure Physics (CINAP), Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Gang Hee [Center for Integrated Nanostructure Physics (CINAP), Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jubok; Dhakal, Krishna P. [Center for Integrated Nanostructure Physics (CINAP), Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Leem, Jae-Young [Department of Nanoscience & Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Hee [Center for Integrated Nanostructure Physics (CINAP), Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeongyong, E-mail: j.kim@skku.edu [Center for Integrated Nanostructure Physics (CINAP), Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-01

    We performed nanoscale confocal photoluminescence (PL), Raman, and absorption spectral imaging measurements to investigate the optical and structural properties of molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) monolayers synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method and subjected to oxygen plasma treatment for 10 to 120 s under high vacuum (1.3 × 10{sup −3} Pa). Oxygen plasma treatment induced red shifts of ~ 20 nm in the PL emission peaks corresponding to A and B excitons. Similarly, the peak positions corresponding to A and B excitons of the absorption spectra were red-shifted following oxygen plasma treatment. Based on the confocal PL, absorption, and Raman microscopy results, we suggest that the red-shifting of the A and B exciton peaks originated from shallow defect states generated by oxygen plasma treatment. - Highlights: • Effects of oxygen plasma on optical properties of monolayer MoS{sub 2} were investigated. • Confocal photoluminescence, Raman, and absorption spectral maps are presented. • Wavelength tuning up to ~ 20 nm for the peak emission wavelength was achieved.

  1. Oxygen functionalization of MWCNTs in RF-dielectric barrier discharge Ar/O2 plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, E.; Ogawa, D.; Nakamura, K.

    2017-07-01

    The oxygenation of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was performed via a radio frequency dielectric barrier discharge (RF-DBD) in an Ar/{{\\text{H}}2}\\text{O} plasma mixture. The relative intensity of the Ar/{{\\text{O}}2} plasma species was characterized by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The effects of treatment time, RF power and oxygen gas percentage on the chemical composition and surface morphology of MWCNTs were investigated by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The results of FTIR and XPS revealed the presence of oxygen-containing functional groups on the MWCNTs treated in an Ar/{{\\text{O}}2} plasma at an RF power of 50 W and pressure of 400 Pa. The amount of oxygen functional groups (C=O, C-O, and O-COO) also increased by increasing treatment time up to 6 min, but slightly decreased when treatment time was increased by 10 min. The increase of oxygen gas percentage in the plasma mixture does not affect the oxygen content in the treated MWCNTs. Meanwhile, MWCNTs treated at high power (80 W) showed a reduction in oxygen functional groups in comparison with low RF power conditions. The Raman analysis was consistent with the XPS and FTIR results. The integrity of the nanotube patterns also remained damaged as observed by FE-SEM images. The MWCNTs treated in RF-DBD using the Ar/{{\\text{O}}2} plasma mixture showed improved dispersibility in deionized water. A correlation between the OES data and the observed surface characterization for an improved understanding of the functionalization of MWCNTs in Ar/{{\\text{O}}2} plasma was presented.

  2. Influence of N-O chemistry on the excitation of alkali metals by a non-transferred DC plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeyrinen, Ville; Oikari, Risto; Hernberg, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    Excitation of Na(3p) and K(4p) states by a high velocity non-transferred direct current plasma jet was studied. A turbulent nitrogen plasma jet was discharged into an atmosphere consisting of nitrogen and oxygen, laden with trace amounts of alkali. The line reversal temperatures of Na and K depend on the molar fraction of oxygen and may deviate considerably from the gas temperature. The reaction pressure was 0.1 MPa. The measured line reversal temperatures were reproduced by a simple chemical model. At temperatures near 2000 K non-equilibrium is caused by association of nitrogen atoms by the Zeldovich mechanism, which affects the vibrational temperature of nitrogen molecules. Near 1000 K excitation may also take place due to a chemiluminescent mechanism between alkali metals and ozone

  3. Bacteria killing effect of pulsed plasmas in oxygen+air at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akan, T.

    2005-01-01

    Bacteria Killing Method. The high voltage pulsed plasma is a non-equilibrium plasma and generates UV photons, ozone and active oxygen. The aim of this paper is to present a simple device to generate plasma able to kill efficiently bacteria. One of the probes charged with bacteria, was kept as a control probes (not exposed to the pulsed plasma), the rest of the probes were exposed to the pulsed plasma and afterwards compared with above mentioned control probe (reference sample). During treatment the bacteria were exposed to the active atoms, molecules, charged particles and photons generated by the pulsed plasma. The temperature of the support of samples with bacteria exposed to plasma increased during the treatment with only 1-2 degrees. Full killing time of Staphylococcus species as low as 3 minutes have been obtained quite easily

  4. Total hydrogen and oxygen fluxes in the edge plasma of tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastelewicz, H.

    1988-01-01

    A relativistic model of the edge plasma of tokamaks is described considering the primary neutral fluxes emitted from limiter and wall. The primary neutrals, which determine essentially the particle flux balance in the plasma edge, the scrape-off layer plasma and the particles adsorbed at limiter and wall are treated as separate subsystems which are iteratively coupled through the mutual particle sinks and sources. The model is used for the calculation of total hydrogen and oxygen fluxes in edge plasma of tokamaks. The results for different fractions of and contributions to the total fluxes are illustrated and discussed

  5. Effect of oxygen plasma treatment on adhesion improvement of Au deposited on Pa-c substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Hoon; Hwang, Kyo Seon; Kim, Tae Song; Seong, Jin Wook; Yoon, Ki Hyun; Ahn, Sae Young

    2004-01-01

    Adhesion of gold on parylene C (Pa-c) is a major hurdle in achieving reliable and durable performance for biosensor application due to the hydrophobicity of Pa-c. It is, therefore, imperative to put efforts to improve adhesion between Au and Pa-c. In this reseach, oxygen plasma treatment for adhesion improvement was performed on Pa-c surfaces at various plasma powers and times. To analyze the relation of surface energy and roughness to adhesion promotion, we used several techniques such as contact-angle, surface-energy, surface-roughness, and adhesion analyses. As the oxygen plasma power and time were increased, the surface roughness of Pa-c increased. Also, Au films had larger and more uniform grain sizes as the oxygen plasma power and time were increased. Untreated surfaces revealed a contact angle of 108 .deg. , but the contact angle drastically decreased in the initial stage of oxygen plasma treatment and slowly decreased with increasing power and time to values of 27.3 and 34, respectively. From the adhesion analysis, adhesion was improved as the plasma power or time was increased. The improvement of adhesion is related to an increase in roughness as well as carbonyl groups.

  6. Effect of Feed Forms on the Results of Melting of Fly Ash by a DC Plasma Arc Furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Mingzhou; Meng Yuedong; Shi Jiabiao; Ni Guohua; Jiang Yiman; Yu Xinyao; Zhao Peng

    2009-01-01

    Fly ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) without preprocessing (original fly ash, OFA) was melted by a direct current (DC) plasma arc furnace to investigate how the feed forms governed the results. Dioxins in flue gas from stack and bag-filter ash (BFA) were detected. The distribution of heavy metals of Pb, Cd, As, and Cr along the flue gas process system was analyzed. Through a comparison of the results for dioxins and heavy metals in this study and previous work, carrying-over of fly ash particles with the flue gas stream can be deduced. Based on the magnetic induction equation and Navier-Stokes equations, a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model for the plasma arc was developed to describe the particle-carrying effect. The results indicate that, a. when melted, the feed forms of MSWI fly ash affect the results significantly; b. it is not preferable to melt MSWI fly ash directly, and efforts should be made to limit the mass transfer of OFA from the plasma furnace. (plasma technology)

  7. Synthesis of few-layer graphene on a Ni substrate by using DC plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hyuk; Castro, Edward Joseph; Hwang, Yong Gyoo; Lee, Choong Hun

    2011-01-01

    In this work, few-layer graphene (FLG) was successfully grown on polycrystalline Ni a large scale by using DC plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (DC PE-CVD), which may serve as an alternative route in large-scale graphene synthesis. The synthesis time had an effect on the quality of the graphene produced. The applied DC voltage, on the other hand, influenced the minimization of the defect densities in the graphene grown. We also present a method of producing a free-standing polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)/graphene membrane on a FeCl 3(aq) solution, which could then be transferred to the desired substrate.

  8. DC Langmuir Probe for Measurement of Space Plasma: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Oyama

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we discuss the in situ measurement of the electron temperature in the ionosphere/plasmasphere by means of DC Langmuir probes. Major instruments which have been reported are a conventional DC Langmuir probe, whose probe voltage is swept; a pulsed probe, which uses pulsed bias voltage; a rectification probe, which uses sinusoidal signal; and a resonance cone probe, which uses radio wave propagation. The content reviews past observations made with the instruments above. We also discuss technical factors that should be taken into account for reliable measurement, such as problems related to the contamination of electrodes and the satellite surface. Finally, we discuss research topics to be studied in the near future.

  9. Direct current insulator based dielectrophoresis (DC-iDEP) microfluidic chip for blood plasma separation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) integrated microfluidics has been a powerful tool for new developments in analytical chemistry. These microfluidic systems enable the miniaturization, integration and automation of complex biochemical assays through the reduction of reagent use and enabling portability.Cell and particle separation in microfluidic systems has recently gained significant attention in many sample preparations for clinical procedures. Direct-current insulator-based dielectrophoresis (DC-iDEP) ...

  10. AC/DC/pulsed-power modulator for corona-plasma generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariaans, T.H.P.; Pemen, A.J.M.; Winands, G.J.J.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Liu, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Gas-cleaning techniques using nonthermal plasma are slowly introduced into industry nowadays. In this paper, we present a novel power modulator for the efficient generation of large-volume corona plasma. No expensive high-voltage components are required. Switching is done at an intermediate voltage

  11. The Influence of Anode Inner Contour on Atmospheric DC Plasma Spraying Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In thermal plasma spraying process, anode nozzle is one of the most important components of plasma torch. Its inner contour controls the characteristics of plasma arc/jet, determining the motion and heating behaviors of the in-flight particles and hence influencing the coating quality. In this study, the effects of anode inner contour, standard cylindrical nozzle, and cone-shaped Laval nozzle with conical shape diverging exit (CSL nozzle on the arc voltage, net power, thermal efficiency, plasma jet characteristics, in-flight particle behaviors, and coating properties have been systematically investigated under atmospheric plasma spraying conditions. The results show that the cylindrical nozzle has a higher arc voltage, net power, and thermal efficiency, as well as the higher plasma temperature and velocity at the torch exit, while the CSL nozzle has a higher measured temperature of plasma jet. The variation trends of the plasma jet characteristics for the two nozzles are comparable under various spraying parameters. The in-flight particle with smaller velocity of CSL nozzle has a higher measured temperature and melting fraction. As a result, the coating density and adhesive strength of CSL nozzle are lower than those of cylindrical nozzle, but the deposition efficiency is greatly improved.

  12. Diamond films deposited by oxygen-enhanced linear plasma chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kromka, Alexander; Babchenko, Oleg; Ižák, Tibor; Varga, Marián; Davydova, Marina; Krátká, Marie; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 6 (2013), s. 509-514 ISSN 2164-6627 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA ČR GAP108/12/0996 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diamond films * process gas chemistry * pulsed microwave plasma * surface conductivity of diamond Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  13. Analysis of the expanding thermal argon-oxygen plasma gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hest, M F A M van; Haartsen, J R; Weert, M H M van; Schram, D C; Sanden, M C M van de

    2003-01-01

    An expanding thermal argon plasma into which oxygen is injected has been analysed by means of Langmuir and Pitot probe measurements. Information is obtained on the ion density profile and the flow pattern in the downstream plasma. A combination of Langmuir and Pitot probe measurements provide information on the total ion flux generated by the plasma source (cascaded arc). It has been found that the ion diffusion is mainly determined by the background pressure in the expansion vessel and the arc current. The ion density is determined by the total power input into the plasma as well as the gas flow in the plasma source. There is an optimum in the power transfer used for ionization from plasma source to the feed gas. Interaction of oxygen with the plasma results in a decrease in the argon ion density and the plasma beam radius. The recirculation pattern of the downstream plasma has been investigated experimentally using the Pitot probe. Due to the low downstream pressure (10-30 Pa), the conventional compressible Pitot probe theory no longer applies. It is concluded that viscous effects start to play an important role at these low pressures and should be taken into account in the analysis of the Pitot probe measurements

  14. Influence of driving frequency on oxygen atom density in O2 radio frequency capacitively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitajima, Takeshi; Noro, Kouichi; Nakano, Toshiki; Makabe, Toshiaki

    2004-01-01

    The influence of the driving frequency on the absolute oxygen atom density in an O 2 radio frequency (RF) capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) was investigated using vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy with pulse modulation of the main plasma. A low-power operation of a compact inductively coupled plasma light source was enabled to avoid the significant measurement errors caused by self-absorption in the light source. The pulse modulation of the main plasma enabled accurate absorption measurement for high plasma density conditions by eliminating background signals due to light emission from the main plasma. As for the effects of the driving frequency, the effect of VHF (100 MHz) drive on oxygen atom production was small because of the modest increase in plasma density of electronegative O 2 in contrast to the significant increase in electron density previously observed for electropositive Ar. The recombination coefficient of oxygen atoms on the electrode surface was obtained from a decay rate in the afterglow by comparison with a diffusion model, and it showed agreement with previously reported values for several electrode materials

  15. Oxygen plasma etching of silver-incorporated diamond-like carbon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marciano, F.R., E-mail: fernanda@las.inpe.b [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Laboratorio Associado de Sensores e Materiais (LAS), Av. dos Astronautas 1758, Sao Jose dos Campos, 12227-010, SP (Brazil); Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA), Pca. Marechal Eduardo Gomes, 50-Sao Jose dos Campos, 12228-900, SP (Brazil); Bonetti, L.F. [Clorovale Diamantes Industria e Comercio Ltda, Estr. do Torrao de Ouro, 500-Sao Jose dos Campos, 12229-390, SP (Brazil); Pessoa, R.S.; Massi, M. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA), Pca. Marechal Eduardo Gomes, 50-Sao Jose dos Campos, 12228-900, SP (Brazil); Santos, L.V.; Trava-Airoldi, V.J. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Laboratorio Associado de Sensores e Materiais (LAS), Av. dos Astronautas 1758, Sao Jose dos Campos, 12227-010, SP (Brazil)

    2009-08-03

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) film as a solid lubricant coating represents an important area of investigation related to space devices. The environment for such devices involves high vacuum and high concentration of atomic oxygen. The purpose of this paper is to study the behavior of silver-incorporated DLC thin films against oxygen plasma etching. Silver nanoparticles were produced through an electrochemical process and incorporated into DLC bulk during the deposition process using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. The presence of silver does not affect significantly DLC quality and reduces by more than 50% the oxygen plasma etching. Our results demonstrated that silver nanoparticles protect DLC films against etching process, which may increase their lifetime in low earth orbit environment.

  16. Oxygen plasma etching of silver-incorporated diamond-like carbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, F.R.; Bonetti, L.F.; Pessoa, R.S.; Massi, M.; Santos, L.V.; Trava-Airoldi, V.J.

    2009-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) film as a solid lubricant coating represents an important area of investigation related to space devices. The environment for such devices involves high vacuum and high concentration of atomic oxygen. The purpose of this paper is to study the behavior of silver-incorporated DLC thin films against oxygen plasma etching. Silver nanoparticles were produced through an electrochemical process and incorporated into DLC bulk during the deposition process using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. The presence of silver does not affect significantly DLC quality and reduces by more than 50% the oxygen plasma etching. Our results demonstrated that silver nanoparticles protect DLC films against etching process, which may increase their lifetime in low earth orbit environment.

  17. Titanium nitride plasma-chemical synthesis with titanium tetrachloride raw material in the DC plasma-arc reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpichev, D. E.; Sinaiskiy, M. A.; Samokhin, A. V.; Alexeev, N. V.

    2017-04-01

    The possibility of plasmochemical synthesis of titanium nitride is demonstrated in the paper. Results of the thermodynamic analysis of TiCl4 - H2 - N2 system are presented; key parameters of TiN synthesis process are calculated. The influence of parameters of plasma-chemical titanium nitride synthesis process in the reactor with an arc plasmatron on characteristics on the produced powders is experimentally investigated. Structure, chemical composition and morphology dependencies on plasma jet enthalpy, stoichiometric excess of hydrogen and nitrogen in a plasma jet are determined.

  18. The determination of the electron collision cross sections for the momentum transfer in potassium by measuring the DC conductivity of a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luknarova, M.; Veis, S.

    1976-01-01

    The DC conductivity of a thermally produced plasma in a plasma diode has been measured in pure potassium vapour. The plasma diode consists of two tungsten electrodes heated to a temperature of 2200 K. A simple theory for determining the influence of the plasma sheaths on the measured conductivity was developed and experimental conditions were established under which the potential drops across the sheaths could be neglected. By measuring the DC conductivity of the plasma at temperatures ranging from 1250 to 1600 K the potassium momentum-transfer cross section has been obtained. The measured cross section (2.37 +- 0.24) x 10 -14 cm 2 at 1500 K is in good agreement with results of other workers. Results for the work function of tungsten in potassium vapour were also obtained. (author)

  19. Numerical and experimental study on a pulsed-dc plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X. Y.; Pei, X. K.; Lu, X. P.; Liu, D. W.

    2014-06-01

    A numerical and experimental study of plasma jet propagation in a low-temperature, atmospheric-pressure, helium jet in ambient air is presented. A self-consistent, multi-species, two-dimensional axially symmetric plasma model with detailed finite-rate chemistry of helium-air mixture composition is used to provide insights into the propagation of the plasma jet. The obtained simulation results suggest that the sheath forms near the dielectric tube inner surface and shields the plasma channel from the tube surface. The strong electric field at the edge of the dielectric field enhances the ionization in the air mixing layer; therefore, the streamer head becomes ring-shaped when the streamer runs out of the tube. The avalanche-to-streamer transition is the main mechanism of streamer advancement. Penning ionization dominates the ionization reactions and increases the electrical conductivity of the plasma channel. The simulation results are supported by experimental observations under similar discharge conditions.

  20. On the modulation of oxygen sensitivity of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films: effects of moisture and dc bias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yihao; Koley, Goutam [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Oxygen sensing characteristics of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film at room temperature have been investigated through conductivity measurements using interdigitated metal finger patterned devices. We observed that the O{sub 2} sensitivity gets affected very significantly in presence of moisture, as well as with applied dc bias. The O{sub 2} sensitivity was found to increase several times in moist ambient compared to dry ambient condition. Higher dc bias also dramatically improved the sensitivity, which varied more than two orders of magnitude as the dc bias was increased from 0.5 to 10 V. We propose that the observed increase in sensitivity in presence of moisture is caused by enhanced surface electron density on In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film resulting from the donation of electrons caused by the chemisorbed water molecules. The adsorption of O{sub 2} molecules, which subsequently formed O{sub 2}{sup -} ions, leads to chemical gating of the sensor devices, which under larger dc bias produced a higher fractional change in current leading to higher sensitivity. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Computational study of plasma-solid interaction in DC glow discharge in argon plasma at medium pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havlickova, E; Bartos, P; Hrach, R

    2007-01-01

    In the presented contribution two groups of techniques of computational physics-fluid modelling and non self-consistent particle technique were used to study plasma-solid interaction in argon plasma. We focused both on the physical processes taking place in the sheath at various pressures and on the problems of computational physics. The attention was given to preparation of two-dimensional fluid models with realistic assumptions about physical processes taking place in plasma during the plasma-solid interaction, further to improvement of the non self-consistent technique of particle modelling, where the external electric field was obtained either from the fluid model or directly from the trajectories of charged particles and finally to efficiency of individual algorithms

  2. Deposition of Lanthanum Strontium Cobalt Ferrite (LSCF) Using Suspension Plasma Spraying for Oxygen Transport Membrane Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, E. S. C.; Kesler, O.

    2015-08-01

    Suspension plasma spray deposition was utilized to fabricate dense lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite oxygen separation membranes (OSMs) on porous metal substrates for mechanical support. The as-sprayed membranes had negligible and/or reversible material decomposition. At the longer stand-off distance (80 mm), smooth and dense membranes could be manufactured using a plasma with power below approximately 81 kW. Moreover, a membrane of 55 μm was observed to have very low gas leakage rates desirable for OSM applications. This thickness could potentially be decreased further to improve oxygen diffusion by using metal substrates with finer surface pores.

  3. Diagnostics of Plasma Jet Generated in Water/Argon DC Arc Torch.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hurba, Oleksiy; Hlína, Michal; Hrabovský, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2016), s. 5-8 ISSN 2336-2626. [Symposium on Physics of Switching Arc 2015, FSO 2015 /21./. Nové Město na Moravě, 07.09.2015-11.09.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-19444S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : thermal plasma jet * electric probes * schlieren photography * enthalpy probe Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics)

  4. Evaluation of bonding between oxygen plasma treated polydimethyl siloxane and passivated silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, K C [Bioelectronics/BioMEMS Laboratory, Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Singapore Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Liao, E [Semiconductor Process Technologies Laboratory, Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Singapore Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Ong, W L [Bioelectronics/BioMEMS Laboratory, Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Singapore Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Wong, J D S [Semiconductor Process Technologies Laboratory, Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Singapore Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Agarwal, A [Bioelectronics/BioMEMS Laboratory, Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Singapore Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Nagarajan, R [Semiconductor Process Technologies Laboratory, Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Singapore Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Yobas, L [Bioelectronics/BioMEMS Laboratory, Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Singapore Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore)

    2006-04-01

    Oxygen plasma treatment has been used extensively to bond polydimethyl siloxane to polydimethyl siloxane or glass in the rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices. This study aimed to improve the bonding quality of polydimethyl siloxane to passivated silicon using oxygen plasma treatment, and also to evaluate the bonding quality. Four types of passivated silicon were used: phosphosilicate glass, undoped silicate glass, silicon nitride and thermally grown silicon dioxide. Bonding strength was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively using manual peel and mechanical shear tests respectively. Through peel tests we found that the lowering of plasma pressure from 500 to 30 mTorr and using a plasma power between 20 to 60 W helped to improve the bond quality for the first three types of passivation. Detailed analysis and discussion were conducted to explain the discrepancy between the bonding strength results and peeling results. Our results suggested that polydimethyl siloxane can be effectively bonded to passivated silicon, just as to polydimethyl siloxane or glass.

  5. Examining the Effects of Oxygen Plasma on Physical and Dyeing Properties of Some Cellulose Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilara KOCAK

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cotton, Agava Americana and artichoke fibers were treated with plasma with oxygen gas in Diener Vacuum Plasma for 1, 3 and 5 minutes, with 40 kHz low frequency and at 0.3 mbar pressure. After the plasma treatment, fibers' weight loss %, tensile strength, elongation, fiber diameter, surface topography (SEM, colour changes, and light and washing fastness properties were investigated. A positive increase was observed for mechanical and fastness properties after 5 min plasma treatment. The effects of plasma treatments on dyeing properties of fibers were studied. Dyeing properties of plasma treated fibers were improved after 3 min. treatment. SEM results were also proved the improved physical properties and colour changes due to the rough surface structure.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.9368

  6. Oxygen plasma assisted end-opening and field emission enhancement in vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, A.; Roy, S.S.; Hazra, K.S.; Wadhwa, S.; Ray, S.C.; Mitra, S.K.; Misra, D.S.; McLaughlin, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We showed Ar/O 2 plasma can be effective for the end opening of aligned CNTs. ► The field emission property was dramatically enhanced after plasma modification. ► Microstructures were clearly understood by Raman and SEM analysis. ► Surface wet-ability at various functionalised conditions was studied. - Abstract: This paper highlights the changes in micro-structural and field emission properties of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) via oxygen plasma treatment. We find that exposure of very low power oxygen plasma (6 W) at 13.56 MHz for 15–20 min, opens the tip of vertically aligned CNTs. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images were used to identify the quality and micro-structural changes of the nanotube morphology and surfaces. Raman spectra showed that the numbers of defects were increased throughout the oxygen plasma treatment process. In addition, the hydrophobic nature of the VACNTs is altered significantly and the contact angle decreases drastically from 110° to 40°. It was observed that the electron field emission (EFE) characteristics are significantly enhanced. The turn-on electric field (ETOE) of CNTs decreased from ∼0.80 V μm −1 (untreated) to ∼0.60 V μm −1 (oxygen treated). We believe that the open ended VACNTs would be immensely valuable for applications such as micro/nanofluidic based filtering elements and display devices.

  7. Oxidation of the persistent compounds in the oxygen-hydrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brozek, V.; Novak, M.; Vonka, P.; Kopecky, V.; Hrabovsky, M.

    1995-01-01

    The effectiveness of plasma-chemical decomposition of the persistent halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CCl 4 , CF 2 Cl 2 , CF 3 Cl 3 and C 6 Cl 6 ) was examined by the analysis of emergent products in the dependence on the next parameters of the plasma-chemical reactor: power of the plasmatron; geometry of the plasmatic cone; velocity of flow of the gases by reaction chamber; stoichiometry of the ratio of the oxygen-air-water

  8. Investigation of oxygen plasma treatment on the device performance of solution-processed a-IGZO thin film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu, Haifeng; Zhou, Qianfei; Yue, Lan; Zhang, Qun

    2013-01-01

    We reported the impact of oxygen plasma treatment on solution-processed amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs). Plasma-treated devices showed higher mobility, larger on/off current ratio, but a monotonically increased SS with plasma treatment time as well. The phenomenon was mainly due to two components in oxygen plasma, atomic oxygen and O 2 + , according to the photoluminescence (PL) measurement. Atomic oxygen reacted with oxygen vacancies in channel layer resulting in an improved mobility, and O 2 + tends to aggregated at the surface acting as trapping states simultaneously. Our study suggests that moderate oxygen plasma treatment can be adopted to improve the device performance, while O 2 + should be eliminated to obtain good interfacial states.

  9. Glovebox enclosed dc plasma source for the determination of metals in plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    The direct current plasma source of a Beckman Spectraspan IIIB emission spectrometer was enclosed in a glovebox at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in December 1982. Since that time, the system has been used for the routine determination of alloy and impurity metals in plutonium. This paper presents the systematic steps involved in developing the glovebox and gives information regarding performance of the plasma in the glovebox and the effectiveness of containment of plutonium. 8 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Surface chemistry of water-dispersed detonation nanodiamonds modified by atmospheric DC plasma afterglow

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štenclová, Pavla; Celedova, V.; Artemenko, Anna; Jirásek, Vít; Jíra, Jaroslav; Rezek, B.; Kromka, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 62 (2017), s. 38973-38980 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01687S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diamond nanoparticles * explosive detonation * barrier discharge * absorption * oxidation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.108, year: 2016

  11. An optical emission spectroscopy study of the plasma generated in the DC HF CVD nucleation of diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larijani, M.M. [Nuclear Research Centre for Agriculture and Medicine, AEOI, P.O. Box 31485-498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: mmojtahedzadeh@nrcam.org; Le Normand, F. [Groupe Surfaces-Interfaces, IPCMS, UMR 7504 CNRS, BP 20, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Cregut, O. [Groupe Surfaces-Interfaces, IPCMS, UMR 7504 CNRS, BP 20, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)

    2007-02-15

    Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was used to study the plasma generated by the activation of the gas phase CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2} both by hot filaments and by a plasma discharge (DC HF CVD) during the nucleation of CVD diamond. The effects of nucleation parameters, such as methane concentration and extraction potential, on the plasma chemistry near the surface were investigated. The density of the diamond nucleation and the quality of the diamond films were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman scattering, respectively. The OES results showed that the methane concentration influenced strongly the intensity ratio of H{sub {beta}}-H{sub {alpha}} implying an increase of electron mean energy, as well as CH, CH{sup +}, C{sub 2}. A correlation between the relative increase of CH{sup +} and the diamond nucleation density was found, conversely the increase of C{sub 2} contributed to the introduction of defects in the diamond nuclei.

  12. Distribution of Fe atom density in a dc magnetron sputtering plasma source measured by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibagaki, K.; Nafarizal, N.; Sasaki, K.; Toyoda, H.; Iwata, S.; Kato, T.; Tsunashima, S.; Sugai, H.

    2003-10-01

    Magnetron sputtering discharge is widely used as an efficient method for thin film fabrication. In order to achieve the optimized fabrication, understanding of the kinetics in plasmas is essential. In the present work, we measured the density distribution of sputtered Fe atoms using laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy. A dc magnetron plasma source with a Fe target was used. An area of 20 × 2 mm in front of the target was irradiated by a tunable laser beam having a planar shape. The picture of laser-induced fluorescence on the laser beam was taken using an ICCD camera. In this way, we obtained the two-dimensional image of the Fe atom density. As a result, it has been found that the Fe atom density observed at a distance of several centimeters from the target is higher than that adjacent to the target, when the Ar gas pressure was relatively high. It is suggested from this result that some gas-phase production processes of Fe atoms are available in the plasma. This work has been performed under the 21st Century COE Program by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan.

  13. Characterization of DC magnetron plasma in Ar/Kr/N2 mixture during deposition of (Cr,Al)N coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobzin, K; Bagcivan, N; Theiß, S; Brugnara, R; Bibinov, N; Awakowicz, P

    2017-01-01

    Reactive sputter deposition of (Cr,Al)N coatings in DC magnetron plasmas containing Ar/Kr/N 2 mixtures is characterized by applying a combination of voltage–current measurement, optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and numerical simulation. Theoretical and experimental methods supplement each other and their combination permits us to obtain the most reliable information about the processes by physical vapor deposition. Gas temperature ( T g ) and plasma parameters, namely electron density n e and electron temperature T e are determined by spatial resolved measurements of molecular nitrogen photoemission. Steady-state densities of Cr and Al atoms are measured using OES. The sputtering of Cr and Al atoms is simulated using the TRIDYN code, measured electric current and applied voltage. Transport of sputtered atoms through the plasma volume is simulated by adopting a Monte-Carlo code. In order to quantify the ‘poisoning’ of the target surface with nitrogen, simulated steady state densities of Al and Cr atoms at different states of poisoning and at different distances from the target are compared with the measured densities. In addition, simulated fluxes of Cr and Al atoms to the substrate are compared with the measured deposition rates of the (Cr,Al)N coating. (paper)

  14. Effect of Feed Forms on the Results of Melting of Fly Ash by a DC Plasma Arc Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingzhou; Meng, Yuedong; Shi, Jiabiao; Ni, Guohua; Jiang, Yiman; Yu, Xinyao; ZHAO, Peng

    2009-10-01

    Fly ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) without preprocessing (original fly ash, OFA) was melted by a direct current (DC) plasma arc furnace to investigate how the feed forms governed the results. Dioxins in flue gas from stack and bag-filter ash (BFA) were detected. The distribution of heavy metals of Pb, Cd, As, and Cr along the flue gas process system was analyzed. Through a comparison of the results for dioxins and heavy metals in this study and previous work, carrying-over of fly ash particles with the flue gas stream can be deduced. Based on the magnetic induction equation and Navier-Stokes equations, a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model for the plasma arc was developed to describe the particle-carrying effect. The results indicate that, a. when melted, the feed forms of MSWI fly ash affect the results significantly; b. it is not preferable to melt MSWI fly ash directly, and efforts should be made to limit the mass transfer of OFA from the plasma furnace.

  15. Electron cyclotron wave absorption by the fast tail generated by the dc electric field in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giruzzi, G.; Krivenski, V.; Fidone, I.; Ziebell, L.F.

    1985-03-01

    Wave damping near the electron gyrofrequency in a tokamak plasma with the energetic tail generated by the dc electric field is investigated. The electron tail is computed by a Fokker-Planck initial value code as a function of the relevant parameter Esub(parallel)/Esub(c)=Esub(parallel)Tsub(e)/(2πsub(e)c 3 Λ). It is shown that in most cases of physical interest strong damping of the e-mode occurs for oblique propagation. The results are of relevance for studies of ECRH in present-day tokamaks and in future reactors where a mildly relativistic electron tail is naturally present for large tsub(e). Special emphasis is therefore given to wave absorption for frequencies f significantly below the central electron gyrofrequency, and to the associated rf-driven current

  16. Physics and engineering of singlet delta oxygen production in low-temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionin, A A; Kochetov, I V; Napartovich, A P; Yuryshev, N N

    2007-01-01

    An overview is presented of experimental and theoretical research in the field of physics and engineering of singlet delta oxygen (SDO) production in low-temperature plasma of various electric discharges. Attention is paid mainly to the SDO production with SDO yield adequate for the development of an electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser (DOIL). The review comprises a historical sketch describing the main experimental results on SDO physics in low-temperature plasma obtained since the first detection of SDO in electric discharge in the 1950s and the first attempt to launch a DOIL in the 1970s up to the mid-1980s when several research groups started their activity aimed at DOIL development, stimulated by success in the development of a chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL). A detailed analysis of theoretical and experimental research on SDO production in electric discharge from the mid-1980s to the present, when the first DOIL has been launched, is given. Different kinetic models of oxygen low-temperature plasma are compared with the model developed by the authors. The latter comprises electron kinetics based on the accompanying solution of the electron Boltzmann equation, plasma chemistry including reactions of excited molecules and numerous ion-molecular reactions, thermal energy balance and electric circuit equation. The experimental part of the overview is focused on the experimental methods of SDO detection including experiments on the measurements of the Einstein coefficient for SDO transition a 1 Δ g - X 3 Σ g - and experimental procedures of SDO production in self-sustained and non-self-sustained discharges and analysis of different plasma-chemical processes occurring in oxygen low-temperature plasma which brings limitation to the maximum SDO yield and to the lifetime of the SDO in an electric discharge and its afterglow. Quite recently obtained results on gain and output characteristics of DOIL and some projects aimed at the development of high-power DOIL

  17. Plasma surface treatment to improve surface charge accumulation and dissipation of epoxy resin exposed to DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Lin, Haofan; Zhang, Shuai; Xie, Qin; Ren, Chengyan; Shao, Tao

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, deposition by non-thermal plasma is used as a surface modification technique to change the surface characteristics of epoxy resin exposed to DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages. The corresponding surface characteristics in both cases of DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages before and after the modification are compared and investigated. The measurement of the surface potential provides the surface charge distribution, which is used to show the accumulation and dissipation process of the surface charges. Morphology observations, chemical composition and electrical parameters measurements are used to evaluate the treatment effects. The experimental results show that, before the plasma treatment, the accumulated surface charges in the case of the DC voltage are more than that in the case of the nanosecond-pulse voltage. Moreover, the decay rate of the surface charges for the DC voltage is higher than that for the nanosecond-pulse voltage. However, the decay rate is no more than 41% after 1800 s for both types of voltages. After the plasma treatment, the maximum surface potentials decrease to 57.33% and 32.57% of their values before treatment for the DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages, respectively, indicating a decrease in the accumulated surface charges. The decay rate exceeds 90% for both types of voltages. These changes are mainly attributed to a change in the surface nanostructure, an increase in conductivity, and a decrease in the depth of energy level.

  18. Plasma surface treatment to improve surface charge accumulation and dissipation of epoxy resin exposed to DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Lin, Haofan; Zhang, Shuai; Ren, Chengyan; Shao, Tao; Xie, Qin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, deposition by non-thermal plasma is used as a surface modification technique to change the surface characteristics of epoxy resin exposed to DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages. The corresponding surface characteristics in both cases of DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages before and after the modification are compared and investigated. The measurement of the surface potential provides the surface charge distribution, which is used to show the accumulation and dissipation process of the surface charges. Morphology observations, chemical composition and electrical parameters measurements are used to evaluate the treatment effects. The experimental results show that, before the plasma treatment, the accumulated surface charges in the case of the DC voltage are more than that in the case of the nanosecond-pulse voltage. Moreover, the decay rate of the surface charges for the DC voltage is higher than that for the nanosecond-pulse voltage. However, the decay rate is no more than 41% after 1800 s for both types of voltages. After the plasma treatment, the maximum surface potentials decrease to 57.33% and 32.57% of their values before treatment for the DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages, respectively, indicating a decrease in the accumulated surface charges. The decay rate exceeds 90% for both types of voltages. These changes are mainly attributed to a change in the surface nanostructure, an increase in conductivity, and a decrease in the depth of energy level. (paper)

  19. Atmospheric plasma generates oxygen atoms as oxidizing species in aqueous solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hefny, M.M.; Pattyn, C.; Lukeš, Petr; Benedikt, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 40 (2016), s. 404002 ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14080 Grant - others:European Cooperation in Science and Technology(XE) COST TD1208 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : atmospheric pressure plasma * transport of reactive species * reactive oxygen species * aqueous phase chemistry * plasma and liquids * phenol aqueous chemistry Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0022-3727/49/40/404002

  20. Intrinsic ZnO films fabricated by DC sputtering from oxygen-deficient targets for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cell application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chongyin Yang; DongyunWan; Zhou Wang; Fuqiang Huang

    2011-01-01

    Intrinsic zinc oxide films, normally deposited by radio frequency (RF) sputtering, are fabricated by direct current (DC) sputtering. The oxygen-deficient targets are prepared via a newly developed double crucible method. The 800-nm-thick film obtaines significantly higher carrier mobility compareing with that of the 800-nm-thick ZnO film. This is achieved by the widely used RF sputtering, which favors the prevention of carrier recombination at the interfaces and reduction of the series resistance of solar cells. The optimal ZnO film is used in a Cu (In, Ga) Se2 (CIGS) solar cell with a high efficiency of 11.57%. This letter demonstrates that the insulating ZnO films can be deposited by DC sputtering from oxygen-deficient ZnO targets to lower the cost of thin film solar cells.%Intrinsic zinc oxide films,normally deposited by radio frequency (RF) sputtering,are fabricated by direct current (DC) sputtering.The oxygen-deficient targets are prepared via a newly developed double crucible method.The 800-nm-thick film obtaines significantly higher carrier mobility compareing with that of the 800-nm-thick ZnO film.This is achieved by the widely used RF sputtering,which favors the prevention of carrier recombination at the interfaces and reduction of the series resistance of solar cells.The optimal ZnO film is used in a Cu (In,Ga) Se2 (C1GS) solar cell with a high efficiency of 11.57%.This letter demonstrates that the insulating ZnO films can be deposited by DC sputtering from oxygen-deficient ZnO targets to lower the cost of thin film solar cells.High resistance transparent intrinsic zinc oxide (i-ZnO)thin film has been widely nsed as the front electrode in transparent electronics and photovoltaic devices because of its low cost and nontoxicity.Owing to its unique characteristics of high transparency and adjustable resistivity in a certain range,the use of i-ZnO thin films as diffusion barrier layers of a-Si/μc-Si,CdTe,and CIGS thin-film solar cells has been advantageous

  1. Molecular Dynamics Insights into Water-Parylene C Interface: Relevance of Oxygen Plasma Treatment for Biocompatibility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Golda-Cepa, M.; Kulig, W.; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Kotarba, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 19 (2017), s. 16685-16693 ISSN 1944-8244 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-06792S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : molecular dynamics * contact angle * surface free energy * parylene C * biomaterials oxygen plasma Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 7.504, year: 2016

  2. Molecular Dynamics Insights into Water-Parylene C Interface: Relevance of Oxygen Plasma Treatment for Biocompatibility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Golda-Cepa, M.; Kulig, W.; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Kotarba, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 19 (2017), s. 16685-16693 ISSN 1944-8244 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : molecular dynamics * contact angle * surface free energy * parylene C * biomaterials oxygen plasma Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 7.504, year: 2016

  3. An in vitro investigation of bacteria-osteoblast competition on oxygen plasma-modified PEEK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochford, Edward T J; Subbiahdoss, Guruprakash; Moriarty, T Fintan; Poulsson, Alexandra H C; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J; Richards, R Geoff

    2014-12-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) films were oxygen plasma treated to increase surface free energy and characterized by X-ray photoelectron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and water contact angles. A parallel plate flow chamber was used to measure Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and U-2 OS osteosarcomal cell-line adhesion to the PEEK films in separate monocultures. In addition, bacteria and U-2 OS cells were cocultured to model competition between osteoblasts and contaminating bacteria for the test surfaces. Plasma treatment of the surfaces increased surface oxygen content and decreased the hydrophobicity of the materials, but did not lead to a significant difference in bacterial or U-2 OS cell adhesion in the monocultures. In the S. epidermidis coculture experiments, the U-2 OS cells adhered in greater numbers on the treated surfaces compared to the untreated PEEK and spread to a similar extent. However, in the presence of S. aureus, cell death of the U-2 OS occurred within 10 h on all surfaces. The results of this study suggest that oxygen plasma treatment of PEEK may maintain the ability of osteoblast-like cells to adhere and spread, even in the presence of S. epidermidis contamination, without increasing the risk of preoperative bacterial adhesion. Therefore, oxygen plasma-treated PEEK remains a promising method to improve implant surface free energy for osseointegration. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Radiative losses and electron cooling rates for carbon and oxygen plasma impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchand, R.; Bonnin, X.

    1992-01-01

    Radiative losses and electron cooling rates are calculated for carbon and oxygen ions under conditions relevant to fusion plasmas. Both rates are calculated with the most recent recommended atomic data. A modified coronal model which includes the effects of metastable states is described and used to calculate the rates. Comparisons with other approaches are also discussed. (author). 36 ref, figs

  5. Atomic oxygen production scaling in a nanosecond-pulsed externally grounded dielectric barrier plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Brian; Schmidt, Jacob; Ganguly, Biswa; Scofield, James

    2014-10-01

    Atomic oxygen production is studied in a capillary dielectric barrier plasma jet that is externally grounded and driven with a 20-ns risetime positive unipolar pulsed voltage at pulse repetition rates up to 25 kHz. The power coupled to the discharge can be easily increased by increasing the pulse repetition rate. At a critical turnover frequency, determined by the net energy density coupled to the discharge, the plasma chemistry abruptly changes. This is indicated by increased plasma conductance and a transition in reactive oxygen species production from an ozone-dominated production regime below the turnover frequency to atomic-oxygen-dominated production at higher pulse rates. Here, we characterize atomic oxygen production scaling using spatially- and temporally-resolved two-photon absorption laser-induced-fluorescence (TALIF). Quantitative results are obtained via calibration with xenon using a similar laser excitation and collection system. These results are compared with quantitative ozone and discharge power measurements using a helium gas flow with oxygen admixtures up to 3%.

  6. Characterization of atomic oxygen in a Hollow Cathode Radio-Frequency Plasma and study its efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddaf, M.; Saloum, S.

    2011-01-01

    The atomic oxygen (AO) generated in the remote oxygen plasma of the HCD-L300 source, has been fully diagnosed by various conventional techniques. The density of AO was found to vary from (1-10)x10 1 9 m - 3 depending on the operating conditions and parameters. The interaction of the oxygen plasma with silver and gold thin films is investigated by gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The effect of AO on surface wetting and energy of polymeric materials is also investigated by using contact angle measurements and analysis technique. From applied point of view, production of super hydrophobic Teflon surface and the significant enhancement in the surface free energy of polyimide and polyamide are considered the most important obtained results in the present work. (author)

  7. Radio-frequency oxygen-plasma-enhanced pulsed laser deposition of IGZO films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Man Chou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the crystalline structures, optical transmittance, surface and cross-sectional morphologies, chemical compositions, and electrical properties of indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO-based thin films deposited on glass and silicon substrates through pulsed laser deposition (PLD incorporated with radio-frequency (r.f.-generated oxygen plasma. The plasma-enhanced pulsed laser deposition (PEPLD-based IGZO thin films exhibited a c-axis-aligned crystalline (CAAC structure, which was attributed to the increase in Zn-O under high oxygen vapor pressure (150 mTorr. High oxygen vapor pressure (150 mTorr and low r.f. power (10 W are the optimal deposition conditions for fabricating IGZO thin films with improved electrical properties.

  8. Radio-frequency oxygen-plasma-enhanced pulsed laser deposition of IGZO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Man; Lai, Chih-Chang; Chang, Chih-Wei; Wen, Kai-Shin; Hsiao, Vincent K. S.

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate the crystalline structures, optical transmittance, surface and cross-sectional morphologies, chemical compositions, and electrical properties of indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO)-based thin films deposited on glass and silicon substrates through pulsed laser deposition (PLD) incorporated with radio-frequency (r.f.)-generated oxygen plasma. The plasma-enhanced pulsed laser deposition (PEPLD)-based IGZO thin films exhibited a c-axis-aligned crystalline (CAAC) structure, which was attributed to the increase in Zn-O under high oxygen vapor pressure (150 mTorr). High oxygen vapor pressure (150 mTorr) and low r.f. power (10 W) are the optimal deposition conditions for fabricating IGZO thin films with improved electrical properties.

  9. Surface Modification of Asymmetric Polysulfone/Polyethylene Glycol Membranes by DC Ar-Glow Discharge Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalad Yuenyao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polysulfone/polyethylene glycol (PSF/PEG membranes were prepared by dry/wet phase inversion method. Effects of direct current glow discharge plasma using argon as working gas on morphological structures and gas separation properties of membranes were studied. Alteration of membrane characteristics were analyzed by various techniques like contact angle, scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. Gas separation properties were measured in terms of permeation and ideal O2/N2 selectivity. Results showed that hydrophilic and gas separation properties of PSF/PEG membranes increased by plasma surface modification. It was also shown that the dosage of PEG and plasma treatment affected the morphological structures and mechanical and gas separation properties. The macro voids and transmembrane structure disappeared with a little amount of PEG dosage. Pore size and mechanical strength tend to decrease with increasing PEG dosage up to 10 wt%. Glass transition temperature (Tg receded from 201.8 to 143.7°C for pure PSF and PSF/PEG with PEG dosage of 10 wt%. O2 and N2 gases permeation through the 10-minute plasma treated membranes tend to increase. However, the permeation strongly dispersed when treatment time was more extended.

  10. Carbon deposition using an expanding cascaded arc d.c. plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.J.; Buuron, A.J.M.; Schram, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    In this work a strongly flowing cascaded arc burning on an argon-hydrogen mixture is used to dissociate and ionize hydrocarbons which are injected inside a nozzle which is mounted in the anode of the arc. The thermal plasma (T ˜ 10 000 K, p ˜ 0.5 bar) will then expand supersonically into a vessel

  11. Characteristics of ITO films with oxygen plasma treatment for thin film solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Seob [Department of Photoelectronics Information, Chosun College of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eungkwon [Digital Broadcasting Examination, Korean Intellectual Property Office, Daejeon, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Byungyou [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Cheoncheon-dong, 300, Jangan-gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jaehyoeng, E-mail: jaehyeong@skku.edu [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Cheoncheon-dong, 300, Jangan-gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The effect of O{sub 2} plasma treatment on the surface and the work function of ITO films. - Highlights: • ITO films were prepared on the glass substrate by RF magnetron sputtering method. • Effects of O{sub 2} plasma treatment on the properties of ITO films were investigated. • The work function of ITO film was changed from 4.67 to 5.66 eV by plasma treatment. - Abstract: The influence of oxygen plasma treatment on the electro-optical and structural properties of indium-tin-oxide films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering method were investigated. The films were exposed at different O{sub 2} plasma powers and for various durations by using the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system. The resistivity of the ITO films was almost constant, regardless of the plasma treatment conditions. Although the optical transmittance of ITO films was little changed by the plasma power, the prolonged treatment slightly increased the transmittance. The work function of ITO film was changed from 4.67 eV to 5.66 eV at the plasma treatment conditions of 300 W and 60 min.

  12. Oxygen Plasma Treatment on 3D-Printed Chitosan/Gelatin/Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Min; Yang, Seong-Won; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Byung-Hoon

    2017-04-01

    The 3D hydroxyapatite/gelatin/chitosan composite scaffolds were fabricated by 3D printing technique. The scaffolds were treated by oxygen plasma to improve the bioactivity and its surface characterization and in vitro cell culture were investigated. The scaffolds exhibited the good porosity and interconnectivity of pores. After oxygen plasma etching, roughness and wettability on the scaffolds surface are increased. Plasma treated scaffolds showed higher proliferation than that of untreated scaffolds. Oxygen plasma treatment could be used as potential tool to enhance the biocompatibility on the 3D composite scaffolds.

  13. Propagation characteristics of dust–acoustic waves in presence of a floating cylindrical object in the DC discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhary, Mangilal; Mukherjee, S.; Bandyopadhyay, P.

    2016-01-01

    The experimental observation of the self–excited dust acoustic waves (DAWs) and its propagation characteristics in the absence and presence of a floating cylindrical object is investigated. The experiments are carried out in a direct current (DC) glow discharge dusty plasma in a background of argon gas. Dust particles are found levitated at the interface of plasma and cathode sheath region. The DAWs are spontaneously excited in the dust medium and found to propagate in the direction of ion drift (along the gravity) above a threshold discharge current at low pressure. Excitation of such a low frequency wave is a result of the ion–dust streaming instability in the dust cloud. Characteristics of the propagating dust acoustic wave get modified in the presence of a floating cylindrical object of radius larger than that of the dust Debye length. Instead of propagation in the vertical direction, the DAWs are found to propagate obliquely in the presence of the floating object (kept either vertically or horizontally). In addition, a horizontally aligned floating object forms a wave structure in the cone shaped dust cloud in the sheath region. Such changes in the propagation characteristics of DAWs are explained on the basis of modified potential (or electric field) distribution, which is a consequence of coupling of sheaths formed around the cylindrical object and the cathode.

  14. Propagation characteristics of dust–acoustic waves in presence of a floating cylindrical object in the DC discharge plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, Mangilal, E-mail: mangilal@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mukherjee, S.; Bandyopadhyay, P. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2016-08-15

    The experimental observation of the self–excited dust acoustic waves (DAWs) and its propagation characteristics in the absence and presence of a floating cylindrical object is investigated. The experiments are carried out in a direct current (DC) glow discharge dusty plasma in a background of argon gas. Dust particles are found levitated at the interface of plasma and cathode sheath region. The DAWs are spontaneously excited in the dust medium and found to propagate in the direction of ion drift (along the gravity) above a threshold discharge current at low pressure. Excitation of such a low frequency wave is a result of the ion–dust streaming instability in the dust cloud. Characteristics of the propagating dust acoustic wave get modified in the presence of a floating cylindrical object of radius larger than that of the dust Debye length. Instead of propagation in the vertical direction, the DAWs are found to propagate obliquely in the presence of the floating object (kept either vertically or horizontally). In addition, a horizontally aligned floating object forms a wave structure in the cone shaped dust cloud in the sheath region. Such changes in the propagation characteristics of DAWs are explained on the basis of modified potential (or electric field) distribution, which is a consequence of coupling of sheaths formed around the cylindrical object and the cathode.

  15. a Novel Method for Improving Plasma Nitriding Efficiency: Pre-Magnetization by DC Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaci, Halim; Yetim, Ali Fatih; Bozkurt, Yusuf Burak; Çelik, Ayhan

    2017-06-01

    In this study, a novel pre-magnetization process, which enables easy diffusion of nitrogen, was used to enhance plasma nitriding efficiency. Firstly, magnetic fields with intensities of 1500G and 2500G were applied to the untreated samples before nitriding. After the pre-magnetization, the untreated and pre-magnetized samples were plasma nitrided for 4h in a gas mixture of 50% N2-50% H2 at 500∘C and 600∘C. The structural, mechanical and morphological properties of samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), microhardness tester and surface tension meter. It was observed that pre-magnetization increased the surface energy of the samples. Therefore, both compound and diffusion layer thicknesses increased with pre-magnetization process before nitriding treatment. As modified layer thickness increased, higher surface hardness values were obtained.

  16. Analytical interpretation of arc instabilities in a DC plasma spray torch: the role of pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rat, V.; Coudert, J. F.

    2016-06-01

    Arc instabilities in a plasma spray torch are investigated experimentally and theoretically thanks to a linear simplified analytical model. The different parameters that determine the useful properties of the plasma jet at the torch exit, such as specific enthalpy and speed, but also pressure inside the torch and time variations of the flow rate are studied. The work is particularly focused on the link between the recorded arc voltage and the pressure in the cathode cavity. A frequency analysis of the recorded voltage and pressure allows the separation of different contributions following their spectral characteristics and highlights a resonance effect due to Helmholtz oscillations; these oscillations are responsible for the large amplitude fluctuations of all the parameters investigated. The influence of heat transfer, friction forces and residence time of the plasma in the nozzle are taken into account, thanks to different characteristics’ times. The volume of the cathode cavity in which the cold gas is stored before entering the arc region appears to be of prime importance for the dynamics of instabilities, particularly for the non-intuitive effect that induces flow-rate fluctuations in spite of the fact that the torch is fed at a constant flow rate.

  17. Study of oxygen diluted silane plasmas applied for the deposition of silicium oxyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magni, D.

    2001-09-01

    Plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition of thin films such as silicon dioxide is used in many applications such as the insulator production in semiconductor technology or anticorrosion coating in packaging industry as a substitute for aluminium which is less ecological. Oxygen diluted silane plasmas are often utilized to produce SiO 2 film, but the tendency is to work with organosilicon precursors such as HMDSO (hexamethyldisiloxane ) described as non-toxic and requiring less stringent safety and costly installation. In this study, the species in gaseous phase and the powder produced in oxygen-diluted HMDSO plasmas were experimentally characterized in a radiofrequency (RF) capacitively-coupled reactor at 13.56 MHz. Some aspects of plasma enhanced deposition of SiO 2 were studied in a RF magnetron reactor . The gaseous phase of the oxygen-diluted plasmas were studied by infrared absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry .The complementarity of these diagnostics allowed to show that the dominant species in gaseous phase come from the homogeneous reaction between oxygen and the radical CH x (with x 1,2 and 3), abundantly produced in the plasma. Two principal pathways were shown to occur. A first way leads to hydrocarbon formation such as methane (CH 4 ) and acetylene (C 2 H 2 ), whose partial pressures are close to 2 %. A second way leads to the formation of molecules from the combustion of CH x , such as formaldehyde (CH 2 O), formic acid (CH 2 O 2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and water. Moreover it is shown that the CO 2 results from a heterogeneous reaction between the carbon on the surfaces and the oxygen coming from the plasma. At low dilution conditions, the partial pressures of CO and CO 2 were estimated at 25 and 10 % of the total pressure respectively. In argon or helium diluted HMDSO plasmas, methane, acetylene and hydrogen are the main stable molecules produced in the gaseous phase. Particle formation in oxygen-diluted HMDSO

  18. Distribution of energetic oxygen and hydrogen in the near-Earth plasma sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, E. A.; Grigorenko, E. E.; Haaland, S. E.; Daly, P. W.; Delcourt, D. C.; Luo, H.; Kistler, L. M.; Dandouras, I.

    2015-05-01

    The spatial distributions of different ion species are useful indicators for plasma sheet dynamics. In this statistical study based on 7 years of Cluster observations, we establish the spatial distributions of oxygen ions and protons at energies from 274 to 955 keV, depending on geomagnetic and solar wind (SW) conditions. Compared with protons, the distribution of energetic oxygen has stronger dawn-dusk asymmetry in response to changes in the geomagnetic activity. When the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is directed southward, the oxygen ions show significant acceleration in the tail plasma sheet. Changes in the SW dynamic pressure (Pdyn) affect the oxygen and proton intensities in the same way. The energetic protons show significant intensity increases at the near-Earth duskside during disturbed geomagnetic conditions, enhanced SW Pdyn, and southward IMF, implying there location of effective inductive acceleration mechanisms and a strong duskward drift due to the increase of the magnetic field gradient in the near-Earth tail. Higher losses of energetic ions are observed in the dayside plasma sheet under disturbed geomagnetic conditions and enhanced SW Pdyn. These observations are in agreement with theoretical models.

  19. Surface characterization of the chitosan membrane after oxygen plasma treatment and its aging effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yingjun; Yin Shiheng; Ren Li; Zhao Lianna

    2009-01-01

    Chitosan has received considerable attention for biomedical applications in recent years because of its biocompatibility and biodegradability. In this paper, angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) was carried out to investigate the chemical groups' spatial orientation on the chitosan membrane surface. Oxygen plasma treatment was also employed to improve the surface hydrophilicity of the chitosan membrane. The results of ARXPS revealed the distribution of surface polar groups, such as-OH and O=CNH 2 toward the membrane bulk, which was the origin of the chitosan membrane surface hydrophobicity. The contact angle measurements and XPS results indicated that oxygen plasma treatment can markedly improve the surface hydrophilicity and surface energy of the chitosan membrane by incorporating oxygen-containing polar groups. With the existence of the aging process, the influence of plasma treatment was not permanent, it faded with storage time. The ARXPS result discovered that the reorientation of polar functional groups generated by plasma treatment toward the membrane bulk was primarily responsible for the aging effect.

  20. Atmospheric non-thermal argon-oxygen plasma for sunflower seedling growth improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matra, Khanit

    2018-01-01

    Seedling growth enhancement of sunflower seeds by DC atmospheric non-thermal Ar-O2 plasma has been proposed. The plasma reactor was simply designed by the composition of multi-pin electrodes bonded on a solderable printed circuit board (PCB) anode. A stable plasma was exhibited in the non-periodical self-pulsing discharge mode during the seed treatment. The experimental results showed that non-thermal plasma treatment had a significant positive effect on the sunflower seeds. Ar-O2 mixed gas ratio, treatment time and power source voltage are the important parameters affecting growth stimulation of sunflower sprouts. In this research, the sunflower seeds treated with 3:3 liters per minute (LPM) of Ar-O2 plasma at a source voltage of 8 kV for 1 min showed the best results in stimulating the seedling growth. The results in this case showed that the dry weight and average shoot length of the sunflower sprouts were 1.79 and 2.69 times higher and heavier than those of the untreated seeds, respectively.

  1. Surface modification of electrospun fibre meshes by oxygen plasma for bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandakumar, A; Tahmasebi Birgani, Z; Santos, D; Mentink, A; Auffermann, N; Moroni, L; Van Blitterswijk, C; Habibovic, P; Van der Werf, K; Bennink, M

    2013-01-01

    Plasma treatment is a method to modify the physicochemical properties of biomaterials, which consequently may affect interactions with cells. Based on the rationale that physical cues on the surface of culture substrates and implants, such as surface roughness, have proven to alter cell behaviour, we used electrospinning to fabricate fibrous three-dimensional scaffolds made of a poly (ethylene oxide terephthalate)/poly (butylene terephthalate) copolymer to mimic the physical microenvironment of extracellular matrix and applied radio-frequency oxygen plasma treatment to create nanoscale roughness. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed a fibre diameter of 5.49 ± 0.96 µm for as-spun meshes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements determined an exponential increase of surface roughness with plasma treatment time. An increase in hydrophilicity after plasma treatment was observed, which was associated with higher oxygen content in plasma treated scaffolds compared to untreated ones. A more pronounced adsorption of bovine serum albumin occurred on scaffolds treated with plasma for 15 and 30 min compared to untreated fibres. Clinically relevant human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) were cultured on untreated, 15 and 30 min treated scaffolds. SEM analysis confirmed cell attachment and a pronounced spindle-like morphology on all scaffolds. No significant differences were observed between different scaffolds regarding the amount of DNA, metabolic activity and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity after 7 days of culture. The amount of ALP positive cells increased between 7 and 21 days of culture on both untreated and 30 min treated meshes. In addition, ALP staining of cells on plasma treated meshes appeared more pronounced than on untreated meshes after 21 days of culture. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed significant upregulation of bone sialoprotein and osteonectin expression on oxygen plasma treated fibres compared to untreated fibres in

  2. Oxygen plasma assisted end-opening and field emission enhancement in vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, A. [NIBEC, School of Engineering, University of Ulster, Jordanstown, BT37 0QB (United Kingdom); Roy, S.S., E-mail: sinharoy@ualberta.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6T 2G8 (Canada); Hazra, K.S. [Department of Physics, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai-400076 (India); Wadhwa, S. [NIBEC, School of Engineering, University of Ulster, Jordanstown, BT37 0QB (United Kingdom); Ray, S.C. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, WITS 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa); Mitra, S.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6T 2G8 (Canada); Misra, D.S. [Department of Physics, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai-400076 (India); McLaughlin, J.A. [NIBEC, School of Engineering, University of Ulster, Jordanstown, BT37 0QB (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We showed Ar/O{sub 2} plasma can be effective for the end opening of aligned CNTs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The field emission property was dramatically enhanced after plasma modification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructures were clearly understood by Raman and SEM analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface wet-ability at various functionalised conditions was studied. - Abstract: This paper highlights the changes in micro-structural and field emission properties of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) via oxygen plasma treatment. We find that exposure of very low power oxygen plasma (6 W) at 13.56 MHz for 15-20 min, opens the tip of vertically aligned CNTs. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images were used to identify the quality and micro-structural changes of the nanotube morphology and surfaces. Raman spectra showed that the numbers of defects were increased throughout the oxygen plasma treatment process. In addition, the hydrophobic nature of the VACNTs is altered significantly and the contact angle decreases drastically from 110 Degree-Sign to 40 Degree-Sign . It was observed that the electron field emission (EFE) characteristics are significantly enhanced. The turn-on electric field (ETOE) of CNTs decreased from {approx}0.80 V {mu}m{sup -1} (untreated) to {approx}0.60 V {mu}m{sup -1} (oxygen treated). We believe that the open ended VACNTs would be immensely valuable for applications such as micro/nanofluidic based filtering elements and display devices.

  3. Experimental study of the hollow cathode radio-frequency plasma mixture: Argon-Oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saloum, S.; Naddaf, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents experimental results of plasma gas mixture Ar-O 2 for different mixing ratios in radio-frequency hollow cathode plasma. The following plasma parameters have been investigated: The electronic temperature, plasma potential, floating potential, emission atomic lines intensities, as a function of some variables, where the effect of power has been studied in the range [100-300 W], and the effect of pressure has been studied in the range [0.05-0.3 mbar]. The effect of relative composition has been studied for a fixed power and pressure. Two diagnostic techniques have been employed: Optical emission spectroscopy and langmuir probe. The most important result of this study is the ability to measure the relative atomic density of oxygen by optical emission spectroscopy, where the maximum of this density is obtained for the mixture 40% Ar - 60% O 2 . (author)

  4. Ionized gas (plasma) delivery of reactive oxygen species (ROS) into artificial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sung-Ha; Jenkins, A Toby A; Szili, Endre J; Short, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to enhance our understanding of how reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated ex situ by ionized gas (plasma), can affect the regulation of signalling processes within cells. A model system, comprising of a suspension of phospholipid vesicles (cell mimics) encapsulating a ROS reporter, was developed to study the plasma delivery of ROS into cells. For the first time it was shown that plasma unequivocally delivers ROS into cells over a sustained period and without compromising cell membrane integrity. An important consideration in cell and biological assays is the presence of serum, which significantly reduced the transfer efficiency of ROS into the vesicles. These results are key to understanding how plasma treatments can be tailored for specific medical or biotechnology applications. Further, the phospholipid vesicle ROS reporter system may find use in other studies involving the application of free radicals in biology and medicine. (fast track communication)

  5. Ionized gas (plasma) delivery of reactive oxygen species (ROS) into artificial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Ha; Szili, Endre J.; Jenkins, A. Toby A.; Short, Robert D.

    2014-09-01

    This study was designed to enhance our understanding of how reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated ex situ by ionized gas (plasma), can affect the regulation of signalling processes within cells. A model system, comprising of a suspension of phospholipid vesicles (cell mimics) encapsulating a ROS reporter, was developed to study the plasma delivery of ROS into cells. For the first time it was shown that plasma unequivocally delivers ROS into cells over a sustained period and without compromising cell membrane integrity. An important consideration in cell and biological assays is the presence of serum, which significantly reduced the transfer efficiency of ROS into the vesicles. These results are key to understanding how plasma treatments can be tailored for specific medical or biotechnology applications. Further, the phospholipid vesicle ROS reporter system may find use in other studies involving the application of free radicals in biology and medicine.

  6. Non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge plasma induces angiogenesis through reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Krishna Priya; Friedman, Gary; Fridman, Alexander; Clyne, Alisa Morss

    2012-01-07

    Vascularization plays a key role in processes such as wound healing and tissue engineering. Non-thermal plasma, which primarily produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), has recently emerged as an efficient tool in medical applications including blood coagulation, sterilization and malignant cell apoptosis. Liquids and porcine aortic endothelial cells were treated with a non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge plasma in vitro. Plasma treatment of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and serum-free medium increased ROS concentration in a dose-dependent manner, with a higher concentration observed in serum-free medium compared with PBS. Species concentration inside cells peaked 1 h after treatment, followed by a decrease 3 h post treatment. Endothelial cells treated with a plasma dose of 4.2 J cm(-2) had 1.7 times more cells than untreated samples 5 days after plasma treatment. The 4.2 J cm(-2) plasma dose increased two-dimensional migration distance by 40 per cent compared with untreated control, while the number of cells that migrated through a three-dimensional collagen gel increased by 15 per cent. Tube formation was also enhanced by plasma treatment, with tube lengths in plasma-treated samples measuring 2.6 times longer than control samples. A fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) neutralizing antibody and ROS scavengers abrogated these angiogenic effects. These data indicate that plasma enhanced proliferation, migration and tube formation is due to FGF-2 release induced by plasma-produced ROS. Non-thermal plasma may be used as a potential tool for applying ROS in precise doses to enhance vascularization.

  7. Fabrication of aligned carbon nanotubes on Cu catalyst by dc plasma-enhanced catalytic decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhejuan [Department of Physics, Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, East China Normal University, North Zhongshan Road 3663, 200062 Shanghai (China); Shakerzadeh, Maziar; Tay, Beng Kang; Li Xiaocheng; Tan Chongwei [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue 50, 639798 Singapore (Singapore); Lin Lifeng; Guo Pingsheng; Feng Tao [Department of Physics, Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, East China Normal University, North Zhongshan Road 3663, 200062 Shanghai (China); Sun Zhuo, E-mail: zsun@phy.ecnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, East China Normal University, North Zhongshan Road 3663, 200062 Shanghai (China)

    2009-04-01

    Aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (ACNTs) are deposited using copper (Cu) catalyst on Chromium (Cr)-coated substrate by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at temperature of 700 deg. C. Acetylene gas has been used as the carbon source while ammonia is used for diluting and etching. The thicknesses of Cu films on Cr-coated Si (100) substrates are controlled by deposition time of magnetron sputtering. The growth behaviors and quality of ACNTs are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy. The different performance of ACNTs on various Cu films is explained by referring to the graphitic order as detected by Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that the ACNTs are formed in tip-growth model where Cu is used as a novel catalyst, and the thickness of Cu films is responsible to the diameter and quality of synthesized CNTs.

  8. Dielectronic recombination of carbon, oxygen and iron in low-density and high-temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yukiharu; Kasai, Satoshi; Tazima, Teruhiko

    1977-03-01

    The coefficient of dielectronic recombination, which is one of the important atomic processes in tokamak plasmas, is evaluated by a semiclassical method neglecting the effects of the density and the radiation fields. Those of carbon, oxygen and iron, which play important roles in such as plasma resistivity and energy losses, are calculated numerically in the range of the electron temperature of 10 eV - 10 keV. Compared with the results obtained from Burgess equation, which is most useful for the ions with effective nuclear charge z 25 such as molybdenum. (auth.)

  9. Microstructural and optical properties of A-Si: H deposited by DC plasma glow discharge of electrode polarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, R.; Danker, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    A method for deducing the density of valence electrons and the average atomic separation of Si atoms in a-Si:H are presented. Refractive index and optical absorption experimental data on a variety of dc glow discharge deposited a-Si:H samples are utilized to deduce the two parameters. The density of valence electrons depict values in the range (1.47-6.15)x10 22 cm -3 while the average atomic spacing varies within 3.13-4.61 A. The existence of microvoids and regions of rich silicon-hydride phase are proposed to account for this. Comparisons of the electrical conductivity, optical parameters and vibrational modes are done for cathode and anode deposited a-Si:H samples. Conductivity for both types of samples are the same at around 1.3x10 -9 (Ωcm) -1 , but significant differences are observed in the values of the refractive index n and the optical gap Eg of the cathode (4.06, 1.95 eV) and anode (3.13, 2.34 eV) samples. Observations on the infrared spectrum of the two a-Si:H samples suggests that the anode sample contain appreciable amount and a higher proportion of oxygen, as identified by the 2080cm -1 shift of the Si-H stretching mode, while a strong Si-H 3 symmetric deformation mode is proposed to occur in the cathode sample

  10. Improved stability of OLEDs with mild oxygen plasma treated PEDOT:PSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yunfei; Yuan Yongbo; Cao Lingfang; Zhang Jie; Pang Hongqi; Lian Jiarong; Zhou Xiang

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate improved stability of OLEDs with mild oxygen plasma-treated poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as anode buffer layer. The devices with treated PEDOT:PSS layer exhibited dramatically enhanced lifetime by a factor of 9 compared to the control devices. We investigated the substantial changes in surface morphology of PEDOT:PSS layer after the mild oxygen plasma treatment by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. We found that the appropriate treatment can form uniformly distributed nano scaled hillocks/islands on the surface of PEDOT:PSS layer, which possibly result in improved contact to hole transport layer and thus enhanced lifetime of the devices

  11. Oxygen Plasma Modification of Poss-Coated Kapton(Registered TradeMark) HN Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, C. J.; Belcher, M. A.; Ghose, S.; Connell, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    The surface energy of a material depends on both surface composition and topographic features. In an effort to modify the surface topography of Kapton(Registered TradeMark) HN film, organic solutions of a polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane, octakis(dimethylsilyloxy)silsesquioxane (POSS), were spray-coated onto the Kapton(Registered TradeMark) HN surface. Prior to POSS application, the Kapton(Registered TradeMark) HN film was activated by exposure to radio frequency (RF)-generated oxygen plasma. After POSS deposition and solvent evaporation, the films were exposed to various durations of RF-generated oxygen plasma to create a topographically rich surface. The modified films were characterized using optical microscopy, attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM). The physical properties of the modified films will be presented.

  12. Laser diagnostics of atomic hydrogen and oxygen production in rf and microwave plasma discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preppernau, B.L.

    1993-01-01

    The research for this thesis involved the application of two-photon allowed laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF) to the study of atomic hydrogen and oxygen production in industrial scale radio-frequency and microwave plasma discharge apparatus. Absolute atomic hydrogen concentration profiles were measured in a Gaseous Electronics Conference Reference Cell installed at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio operating with a simple H 2 discharge. Two-dimensional atomic hydrogen concentration profiles were also measured in an ASTEX HPMM microwave plasma diamond deposition reactor during actual diamond growth. In addition absolute atomic oxygen concentrations were measured in the ASTEX system. Particular attention as paid to refining the concentration calibration technique and in determining a correction to account for the collisional quenching of excited state fluorescence in high pressure gases

  13. Effect of low temperature oxygen plasma treatment on microstructure and adhesion force of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Deng, Heijun; Xue, Wei; Wang, Quan

    2018-01-01

    Graphene has attracted strong attention due to its unique mechanical, electrical, thermal and magnetic properties. In this work, we investigate the effect of low temperature oxygen plasma treatment on microstructure and adhesion force of single-layer graphene (SLG). Low temperature oxygen plasma is used to treat SLG grown by chemical vapor deposition through varying the exposure time. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy are utilized to identify changes before and after treatment. Raman spectra of treated graphene reveal that peak intensity of the characteristic D and D' peaks increase. Meanwhile, degradation of the G and 2D peaks in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that abundant Csbnd OH and Cdbnd O functional groups are introduced into graphene after treatment. AFM investigation shows that surface roughness and adhesion force of treated graphene increase significantly firstly and then slowly. Therefore, this work would offer a practical route to improve the performance of graphene-based devices.

  14. Control and enhancement of the oxygen storage capacity of ceria films by variation of the deposition gas atmosphere during pulsed DC magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltayeb, Asmaa; Vijayaraghavan, Rajani K.; McCoy, Anthony; Venkatanarayanan, Anita; Yaremchenko, Aleksey A.; Surendran, Rajesh; McGlynn, Enda; Daniels, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    In this study, nanostructured ceria (CeO2) films are deposited on Si(100) and ITO coated glass substrates by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering using a CeO2 target. The influence on the films of using various gas ambients, such as a high purity Ar and a gas mixture of high purity Ar and O2, in the sputtering chamber during deposition are studied. The film compositions are studied using XPS and SIMS. These spectra show a phase transition from cubic CeO2 to hexagonal Ce2O3 due to the sputtering process. This is related to the transformation of Ce4+ to Ce3+ and indicates a chemically reduced state of CeO2 due to the formation of oxygen vacancies. TGA and electrochemical cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies show that films deposited in an Ar atmosphere have a higher oxygen storage capacity (OSC) compared to films deposited in the presence of O2. CV results specifically show a linear variation with scan rate of the anodic peak currents for both films and the double layer capacitance values for films deposited in Ar/O2 mixed and Ar atmosphere are (1.6 ± 0.2) × 10-4 F and (4.3 ± 0.5) × 10-4 F, respectively. Also, TGA data shows that Ar sputtered samples have a tendency to greater oxygen losses upon reduction compared to the films sputtered in an Ar/O2 mixed atmosphere.

  15. Surface monofunctionalized polymethyl pentene hollow fiber membranes by plasma treatment and hemocompatibility modification for membrane oxygenators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Wang, Weiping; Zheng, Zhi; Fan, Wenling; Mao, Chun; Shi, Jialiang; Li, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The hemocompatibility of polymethyl pentene (PMP) hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) was improved through surface modification for membrane oxygenator applications. The modification was performed stepwise with the following: (1) oxygen plasma treatment, (2) functionalization of monosort hydroxyl groups through NaBH4 reduction, and (3) grafting 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) or heparin. SEM, ATR-FTIR, and XPS analyses were conducted to confirm successful grafting during the modification. The hemocompatibility of PMP HFMs was analyzed and compared through protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, and coagulation tests. Pure CO2 and O2 permeation rates, as well as in vitro gas exchange rates, were determined to evaluate the mass transfer properties of PMP HFMs. SEM results showed that different nanofibril topographies were introduced on the HFM surface. ATR-FTIR and XPS spectra indicated the presence of functionalization of monosort hydroxyl group and the grafting of MPC and heparin. Hemocompatibility evaluation results showed that the modified PMP HFMs presented optimal hemocompatibility compared with pristine HFMs. Gas permeation results revealed that gas permeation flux increased in the modified HFMs because of dense surface etching during the plasma treatment. The results of in vitro gas exchange rates showed that all modified PMP HFMs presented decreased gas exchange rates because of potential surface fluid wetting. The proposed strategy exhibits a potential for fabricating membrane oxygenators for biomedical applications to prevent coagulation formation and alter plasma-induced surface topology and composition.

  16. The modification of nanocomposite hybrid polymer surfaces by exposure to oxygen containing plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Ashley; Zimmermann, Katherine; Augustine, Brian; Hughes, Chris; Chusuei, Charles

    2006-11-01

    The wetting properties of the surfaces of the nanocomposite hybrid polymer poly[(propylmethacryl-heptaisobutyl- polyhedral oligomeric silsequioxane)-co-(methylmethacrylate)] (POSS-PMMA)has been studied before and after exposure to plasmas containing oxygen. The contact angle of water droplets on the surface showed a substantial decrease after plasma exposure indicating an increase in the hydrophilicity of the surface. A model was developed in which the plasma preferentially removed organic material including both the PMMA backbone and isobutyl groups from the corners of the POSS cages leaving behind a surface characterized by the silicon oxide-like POSS material. Measurements of surface concentrations of oxygen, silicon, and carbon by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed an increase in the amount of oxygen and silicon compared to carbon and the appropriate chemical shifts were observed in the XPS data to support the model of Si-O enrichment on the surface. Variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements also supported the model and these results will be presented.

  17. Improved electrochemical performances of oxygen plasma treated LiMn2O4 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C C; Chiu, K-F; Lin, K M; Lin, H C; Yang, C-R; Wang, F M

    2007-01-01

    LiMn 2 O 4 spinel thin films were deposited by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering followed by annealing at 600 0 C in air.The films were then post-treated with an rf driven oxygen plasma. The crystallization and surface morphology of LiMn 2 O 4 thin films were seen to change with rf power. The treated samples were tested under harsh conditions such as deep discharge to 1.5 V and cycling at elevated temperature of 60 0 C to verify the electrochemical performances of LiMn 2 O 4 cathodes. The oxygen plasma treatments improved the electrochemical properties of LiMn 2 O 4 thin films significantly. As the cells were cycled in the range of 4.5-2.0 V at 60 0 C, the samples treated at a proper rf power of 50 W exhibited an initial capacity greater than ∼400 mAh g -1 with reasonable cycling stability. The results were attributed to the change of morphology and the formation of a surface layer induced by the oxygen plasma irradiation

  18. Effects of topographical and mechanical property alterations induced by oxygen plasma modification on stem cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Kulangara, Karina; Lam, Ruby T S; Dharmawan, Rena; Leong, Kam W

    2012-10-23

    Polymeric substrates intended for cell culture and tissue engineering are often surface-modified to facilitate cell attachment of most anchorage-dependent cell types. The modification alters the surface chemistry and possibly topography. However, scant attention has been paid to other surface property alterations. In studying oxygen plasma treatment of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), we show that oxygen plasma treatment alters the surface chemistry and, consequently, the topography and elasticity of PDMS at the nanoscale level. The elasticity factor has the predominant effect, compared with the chemical and topographical factors, on cell adhesions of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The enhanced focal adhesions favor cell spreading and osteogenesis of hMSCs. Given the prevalent use of PDMS in biomedical device construction and cell culture experiments, this study highlights the importance of understanding how oxygen plasma treatment would impact subsequent cell-substrate interactions. It helps explain inconsistency in the literature and guides preparation of PDMS-based biomedical devices in the future.

  19. Surface activation of cyclo olefin polymer by oxygen plasma discharge: a molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soberon, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Thermoplastic substrates made of cyclo olefin polymer (COP) are treated with oxygen plasma discharges to introduce polar groups at the surface. This is the first step in the process of surface functionalization of COP substrates used in biosensor devices. A molecular dynamics model of basic COP structure is implemented using the second-generation reactive empirical bond order (REBO) potentials for hydrocarbon–oxygen interactions. The model includes covalent bond and Van der Waals interactions. The bombardment of a COP surface with mono-energetic atomic oxygen ions, energy in the range 1-35 eV, is simulated and reported here. The dynamics of the substrate modification reveals that the substrate top layer is de-hydrogenated and subsequently builds up an oxygen–carbon matrix layer, ∼10 Å thick. Analysis of the modified substrates indicates that surface yield is predominantly peroxide groups. (paper)

  20. Influence of dust particles on the neon spectral line intensities at the uniform positive column of dc discharge at the space apparatus “Plasma Kristall-4”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usachev, A. D.; Zobnin, A. V.; Shonenkov, A. V.; Lipaev, A. M.; Molotkov, V. I.; Petrov, O. F.; Fortov, V. E.; Pustyl'nik, M. Y.; Fink, M. A.; Thoma, M. A.; Thomas, H. M.; Padalka, G. I.

    2018-01-01

    Influence of the elongated dust cloud on the intensities of different neon spectral lines in visible and near ir spectral ranges in the uniform positive column has been experimentally investigated using the Russian-European space apparatus “Plasma Kristall-4” (SA PK-4) on board of the International Space Station (ISS). The investigation was performed in the low pressure (0.5 mbar) direct current (dc, 1 mA) gas discharge in neon. Microgravity allowed us to perform experiments with a large dust cloud in the steady-state regime. To avoid the dust cloud drift in the dc electric field a switching dc polarity discharge mode has been applied. During the experiment a dust cloud of 9 mm in diameter in the discharge tube of 30 mm in diameter with the length of about 100 mm has been observed in the steady-state regime. In this regard, the intensities of neon spectral lines corresponding to 3p → 3s electronic transitions have increased by a factor of 1.4 times, while the intensities of neon spectral lines corresponding to 3d → 3p electronic transitions have increased by a factor of 1.6 times. The observed phenomenon is explained on the basis of the Schottky approach by a self-consistent rising dc electric field in the dusty plasma cloud resulting in an increase of the electron temperature.

  1. Effect of the diameter and depth of pinholes on surface characteristics in the DC pulse plasma nitriding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calahonra, M.C.G; Egidi, D.A; Svoboda, H; Corengia, P

    2006-01-01

    The ion nitriding treatment is a process widely used in steel alloys to improve the material's properties; such as surface hardness, resistance to wear, fatigue life and resistance to corrosion. But geometric changes in the components can produce during the nitriding process different effects on the behavior of the plasma, such as local variations in the electric field, an empty cathode effect, etc. These in turn can affect among other factors the local temperature and therefore the kinetics of the process, generating variations in the compound layer thicknesses and zone of diffusion, and micro-hardness profile. These heterogeneities limit the effectiveness of the plasma nitriding process, where control and duplication of the surface modification are most important. This work aims to study the effect of the geometry of the pieces treated with ionic nitriding, especially the effect of the orifices. An understanding of the operating mechanisms is sought in order to predict the development of the compound layer and zone of diffusion inside the pinholes. A series of orifices with different diameters and depths were machine made in AISI 4140 quenched and tempered cylindrical steel test pieces. The diameters analyzed were 2, 4, 6, 10 and 12 mm, while the depths studied were 3, 8 and 15 mm, resulting in 15 different configurations. The samples were nitrided by DC-pulse plasma in an industrial reactor, using a mixture of 75% H 2 - 25% N 2 , during 15 hours at a temperature of 500 o C. The nitrided test pieces were characterized with transverse sections using optic and scanning electron microscopy and Vickers micro-hardness profiles, measuring the thicknesses of white layer and zone of diffusion on the wall and base of the orifices. The results show that the sizes of the pinholes made in AISI 4140 steel greatly influence the uniformity and continuity of the compound layers and zones of diffusion. 'Critical diameters' for pinholes were also defined, underneath which the

  2. Changes in Peak Oxygen Uptake and Plasma Volume in Fit and Unfit Subjects Following Exposure to a Simulation of Microgravity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Convertino, Victor

    1997-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that the magnitude of reduction in plasma volume and work capacity following exposure to simulated microgravity is dependent on the initial level of aerobic fitness, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak...

  3. Characterization of In-Flight Processing of Alumina Powder Using a DC-RF Hybrid Plasma Flow System at Constant Low Operating Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, H.; Onodera, M.; Igawa, J.; Nakajima, T.

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study is to provide the optimum operating conditions for enhancing in-flight alumina particle heating as much as possible for particle spheroidization and aggregation of melted particles using a DC-RF hybrid plasma flow system even at constant low operating power based on the thermofluid considerations. It is clarified that the swirl flow and higher operating pressure enhance the particle melting and aggregation of melted particles coupled with increasing gas temperature downstream of a plasma uniformly in the radial direction at constant electrical discharge conditions.

  4. Characterization of Porous Phosphate Coatings Enriched with Magnesium or Zinc on CP Titanium Grade 2 under DC Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Rokosz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to study and determine the effect of voltage increasing from 500 up to 650 VDC on chemical and electrochemical properties of the obtained porous coatings with plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO processes, known also as micro arc oxidation (MAO. In the present paper, the chemical and electrochemical characterization of porous phosphate coatings enriched with magnesium or zinc on commercially pure (CP Titanium Grade 2 under DC-PEO obtained in electrolytes based on concentrated 85% analytically pure H3PO4 (98 g/mole acid with additions of 500 g·L−1 of zinc nitrate Zn(NO32∙6H2O or magnesium nitrate Mg(NO32∙6H2O, are described. These materials were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES. It was found that the voltage of PEO process has influence on the chemical composition and thickness of the obtained porous coatings as well as on their electrochemical behavior. The higher the potential of PEO treatment, the higher the amount of zinc-to-phosphorus ratio for zinc enriched coatings was obtained, whereas in magnesium enriched coatings, the average amount of magnesium detected in PEO coating is approximately independent of the PEO voltages. Based on XPS studies, it was found out that most likely the top 10 nm of porous coatings is constructed of titanium (Ti4+, magnesium (Mg2+, zinc (Zn2+, and phosphates PO43− and/or HPO42− and/or H2PO4− and/or P2O74−. On the basis of GDOES studies, a four-sub-layer model of PEO coatings is proposed. Analysis of the potentiodynamic corrosion curves allowed to conclude that the best electrochemical repeatability was noted for magnesium and zinc enriched coatings obtained at 575 VDC.

  5. Development of the DC-RF Hybrid Plasma Source and the Application to the Etching and Texturing of the Silicon Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hun

    2011-02-01

    Plasma used in dry etching, thin film deposition and surface treatment for display or semiconductor industries are operating at low pressures in general. However, low pressure processing is very costly due to the use of vacuum equipment and vacuum components. Subsequent wet processing is environmentally undesirable due to the use of a large amount of chemicals. Also, the usage of vacuum processing increases fabrication cost and decreases productivity. If stable atmospheric plasmas can be used, not only the decrease in processing costs but also the increase in productivity could be obtained. New DC arc plasmatron with a hot rod cathode and cold nozzle anode was developed and its V-A (Volt-Ampere) characteristics were investigated. Outlook of the measured V-A characteristics cleared the question of the stability of arc burning in the new DC arc plasmatron. The plasmatron that has a stable operations with distributed anode spot could possibly be applied to plasma chemical processing. And measured value of the erosion rate for copper anode is m Cu 3.6x10 -10 g/C which is better than corresponding data for thermo-ionic emission cathodes made of tungsten mw ∼10 -9 g/C. These facts mean that plasmatron durability reaches ∼10 3 h. The low anode erosion rate is related to the large surface of arc-anode contact due to distributed anode arc spot, which reduces the current density. Unique characteristics of the new plasma source concerning its durability and plasma purity at rather low temperatures make it an interesting tool for technical applications, such as etching/deposition and chemical reaction. To apply a plasma processing, the T-type plasmatron was modified to A-type. The A-type plasmatron was used to activate the CF 4 and SF 6 gases in etching experiments at atmospheric and low pressure. To reduce the recombination rate of the activated gas particles inside a plasmatron and let them preserve their activated state outside, the whole device was installed outside of

  6. Studies on the electrical properties of reactive DC magnetron-sputtered indium-doped silver oxide thin films: The role of oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subrahmanyam, A [Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Barik, Ullash Kumar [Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2007-03-15

    Indium ({approx}10 at.%)-doped silver oxide (AIO) thin films have been prepared on glass substrates at room temperature (300 K) by reactive DC magnetron sputtering technique using an alloy target made of pure (99.99%) silver and indium (90:10 at.%) metals. The oxygen flow rates have been varied in the range 0.00-3.44 sccm during sputtering. The X-ray diffraction data on these indium-doped silver oxide films show polycrystalline nature. With increasing oxygen flow rate, the carrier concentration, the Hall mobility and the electron mean free path decrease. These films show a very low positive temperature coefficient of resistivity {approx}3.40x10{sup -8} ohm-cm/K. The work function values for these films (measured by Kelvin probe technique) are in the range 4.81-5.07 eV. The high electrical resistivity indicate that the films are in the island state (size effects). Calculations of the partial ionic charge (by Sanderson's theory) show that indium doping in silver oxide thin films enhance the ionicity.

  7. Studies on the electrical properties of reactive DC magnetron-sputtered indium-doped silver oxide thin films: The role of oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subrahmanyam, A.; Barik, Ullash Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Indium (∼10 at.%)-doped silver oxide (AIO) thin films have been prepared on glass substrates at room temperature (300 K) by reactive DC magnetron sputtering technique using an alloy target made of pure (99.99%) silver and indium (90:10 at.%) metals. The oxygen flow rates have been varied in the range 0.00-3.44 sccm during sputtering. The X-ray diffraction data on these indium-doped silver oxide films show polycrystalline nature. With increasing oxygen flow rate, the carrier concentration, the Hall mobility and the electron mean free path decrease. These films show a very low positive temperature coefficient of resistivity ∼3.40x10 -8 ohm-cm/K. The work function values for these films (measured by Kelvin probe technique) are in the range 4.81-5.07 eV. The high electrical resistivity indicate that the films are in the island state (size effects). Calculations of the partial ionic charge (by Sanderson's theory) show that indium doping in silver oxide thin films enhance the ionicity

  8. Plasma ATP concentration and venous oxygen content in the forearm during dynamic handgrip exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askew Christopher D

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been proposed that adenosine triphosphate (ATP released from red blood cells (RBCs may contribute to the tight coupling between blood flow and oxygen demand in contracting skeletal muscle. To determine whether ATP may contribute to the vasodilatory response to exercise in the forearm, we measured arterialised and venous plasma ATP concentration and venous oxygen content in 10 healthy young males at rest, and at 30 and 180 seconds during dynamic handgrip exercise at 45% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC. Results Venous plasma ATP concentration was elevated above rest after 30 seconds of exercise (P Conclusions Collectively these results indicate that ATP in the plasma originated from the muscle microcirculation, and are consistent with the notion that deoxygenation of the blood perfusing the muscle acts as a stimulus for ATP release. That ATP concentration was elevated just 30 seconds after the onset of exercise also suggests that ATP may be a contributing factor to the blood flow response in the transition from rest to steady state exercise.

  9. Quartz-crystal microbalance study for characterizing atomic oxygen in plasma ash tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.K.; Sakthivel, P.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses the measurement of atomic oxygen (AO) concentrations in an oxygen discharge using a quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM). This is a device that has been previously used for monitoring thin-film deposition, among several other applications. The sensor consists of a silver-coated quartz crystal that oscillates at its specific resonant frequency (typically, at about 6 MHz), which is dependent on the mass of the crystal. When exposed to AO, the silver oxidizes rapidly, resulting in a change in its mass, and a consequent change in this frequency. The frequency change is measured with a counter, and when plotted versus time, it may be fit to a standard diffusion-limited oxide-growth model. This model is then used to determine the specific AO flux to the crystal, and by inference, to the wafer. Initial results of QCM measurements in the FusionGemini Plasma Asher (GPL TM -standard downstream microwave asher) and FusionGemini Enhanced Strip (GES TM -fluorine compatible enhanced strip asher) are presented in this article. The results indicate AO densities of the order of 10 12 cm -3 on the wafer. There is a marked increase in AO concentration with addition of nitrogen into the plasma, and a decrease in AO concentration with increasing pressure at constant flow. Effects of increasing the total plasma volume in the enhanced strip tool on AO production are discussed

  10. Identification of deep trap energies and influences of oxygen plasma ashing on semiconductor carrier lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprowski, A; Humbel, O; Plappert, M; Krenn, H

    2015-01-01

    We have performed an analytical study of the effects of oxygen plasma ashing processes in semiconductor device fabrication and its impact on minority carrier lifetime in high voltage semiconductor devices. Our work includes a critical background study of life time killing mechanisms by deep traps imparted into the semiconductor by barrel plasma ashing. The Elymat technique provides the opportunity to measure lifetime and diffusion length of minority carriers and surface photo voltage (SPV) measurement was used to analyse influences of process parameters such as photoresist, time budget and positioning in the process chamber. It was shown that in microwave plasma processes the diffusion length changes severely with tempering at 200 °C, whereas RF-plasma processes show a significant process time-dependence. Batch tools in general suffer from a strong first wafer effect which could be correlated with the static electrical parameters of the semiconductor devices. The trap identities were detected by using deep level transient spectroscopy and the chemical species of the traps has been proven by inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The deep-bandgap trap energies are reliable fingerprints of the chosen process parameters such as process time and of resist-influences. By microwave plasma processes intrinsic Fe and FeB-complex levels were identified and a good agreement with the SPV-measurement and electrical device characteristic was shown. RF-plasma processes impart levels attributed to Pt levels and an additional level, which could be identified as a trap level probably forming a complex of Pt and H. (paper)

  11. Surface modification effects of fluorine-doped tin dioxide by oxygen plasma ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Peng; Liu, Cai; Zhang, Jingquan; Wu, Lili; Li, Wei; Feng, Lianghuan; Zeng, Guanggen; Wang, Wenwu

    2018-04-01

    SnO2:F (FTO), as a kind of transparent conductive oxide (TCO), exhibits excellent transmittance and conductivity and is widely used as transparency electrodes in solar cells. It's very important to modifying the surface of FTO for it plays a critical role in CdTe solar cells. In this study, modifying effects of oxygen plasma on FTO was investigated systematically. Oxygen plasma treatment on FTO surface with ion accelerating voltage ranged from 0.4 kV to 1.6 kV has been processed. The O proportion of surface was increased after ion implantation. The Fermi level of surface measurement by XPS valance band spectra was lowered as the ion accelerating voltage increased to 1.2 kV and then raised as accelerating voltage was elevated to 1.6 kV. The work function measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy increased after ion implanting, and it was consistent with the variation of Fermi level. The change of energy band structure of FTO surface mainly originated from the surface composition variation. As FTO conduction was primarily due to oxyanion hole, the carrier was electron and its concentration was reduced while O proportion was elevated at the surface of FTO, as a result, the Fermi level lowered and the work function was enlarged. It was proved that oxygen plasma treatment is an effective method to modulate the energy band structure of the surface as well as other properties of FTO, which provides much more space for interface and surface modification and then photoelectric device performance promotion.

  12. About the 'enlightenment' of nonideal hydrogen-oxygen plasma at a electron concentration Ne19 cm-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorovich, O.A.

    2013-01-01

    The results of experimental determination of the emissivity of the hydrogen-oxygen plasma pulsed discharge in water and their comparison with calculations. It is shown that when concentrations nonideal plasma N e >3 centre dot 10 18 cm -3 , is observed 'enlightenment' of plasma. The reduction of a emitting ability . can be more order in the N e =3 centre dot 10 19 cm -3 and increases with increasing electron concentration.

  13. Study of sterilization-treatment in pure and N- doped carbon thin films synthesized by inductively coupled plasma assisted pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javid, Amjed [Center for Advanced Plasma Surface Technology (CAPST), NU-SKKU Joint Institute for Plasma Nano-Materials (IPNM), Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Textile Processing, National Textile University, Faisalabad 37610 (Pakistan); Kumar, Manish, E-mail: manishk@skku.edu [Center for Advanced Plasma Surface Technology (CAPST), NU-SKKU Joint Institute for Plasma Nano-Materials (IPNM), Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jeon Geon, E-mail: hanjg@skku.edu [Center for Advanced Plasma Surface Technology (CAPST), NU-SKKU Joint Institute for Plasma Nano-Materials (IPNM), Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Pure and N-doped nanocrystallie carbon films are synthesized by ICP assisted pulsed DC plasma process. • ICP power induces the increase in average graphitic crystallite size from 4.86 nm to 6.42 nm. • Beneficial role of ICP source assistance to achieve high sputtering throughput (deposition rate ∼55 nm/min). • Post-sterilization electron-transport study shows N-doped carbon films having promising stability. - Abstract: Electrically-conductive nanocrystalline carbon films, having non-toxic and non-immunogenic characteristics, are promising candidates for reusable medical devices. Here, the pure and N- doped nanocrystalline carbon films are deposited by the assistance of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) in an unbalanced facing target pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering process. Through the optical emission spectroscopy study, the role of ICP assistance and N-doping on the reactive components/radicals during the synthesis is presented. The N-doping enhances the three fold bonding configurations by increasing the ionization and energies of the plasma species. Whereas, the ICP addition increases the plasma density to control the deposition rate and film structure. As a result, sputtering-throughput (deposition rate: 31–55 nm/min), electrical resistivity (4–72 Ωcm) and water contact angle (45.12°–54°) are significantly tailored. Electric transport study across the surface microchannel confirms the superiority of N-doped carbon films for sterilization stability over the undoped carbon films.

  14. Analysis of plasma protein adsorption onto DC-Chol-DOPE cationic liposomes by HPLC-CHIP coupled to a Q-TOF mass spectrometer

    KAUST Repository

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Caracciolo, Giulio; Caruso, Giuseppe; Cavaliere, Chiara; Pozzi, Daniela; Samperi, Roberto; Laganà , Aldo

    2010-01-01

    Plasma protein adsorption is regarded as a key factor in the in vivo organ distribution of intravenously administered drug carriers, and strongly depends on vector surface characteristics. The present study aimed to characterize the "protein corona" absorbed onto DC-Chol-DOPE cationic liposomes. This system was chosen because it is one of the most efficient and widely used non-viral formulations in vitro and a potential candidate for in vivo transfection of genetic material. After incubation of human plasma with cationic liposomes, nanoparticle-protein complex was separated from plasma by centrifugation. An integrated approach based on protein separation by one-dimensional 12% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by the automated HPLC-Chip technology coupled to a high-resolution mass spectrometer was employed for protein corona characterization. Thirty gel lanes, approximately 2 mm, were cut, digested and analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. Fifty-eight human plasma proteins adsorbed onto DC-Chol-DOPE cationic liposomes were identified. The knowledge of the interactions of proteins with liposomes can be exploited for future controlled design of colloidal drug carriers and possibly in the controlled creation of biocompatible surfaces of other devices that come into contact with proteins in body fluids. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Analysis of plasma protein adsorption onto DC-Chol-DOPE cationic liposomes by HPLC-CHIP coupled to a Q-TOF mass spectrometer

    KAUST Repository

    Capriotti, Anna Laura

    2010-09-22

    Plasma protein adsorption is regarded as a key factor in the in vivo organ distribution of intravenously administered drug carriers, and strongly depends on vector surface characteristics. The present study aimed to characterize the "protein corona" absorbed onto DC-Chol-DOPE cationic liposomes. This system was chosen because it is one of the most efficient and widely used non-viral formulations in vitro and a potential candidate for in vivo transfection of genetic material. After incubation of human plasma with cationic liposomes, nanoparticle-protein complex was separated from plasma by centrifugation. An integrated approach based on protein separation by one-dimensional 12% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by the automated HPLC-Chip technology coupled to a high-resolution mass spectrometer was employed for protein corona characterization. Thirty gel lanes, approximately 2 mm, were cut, digested and analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. Fifty-eight human plasma proteins adsorbed onto DC-Chol-DOPE cationic liposomes were identified. The knowledge of the interactions of proteins with liposomes can be exploited for future controlled design of colloidal drug carriers and possibly in the controlled creation of biocompatible surfaces of other devices that come into contact with proteins in body fluids. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  16. Treatment of the oily waste sludges through thermal plasma in absence of oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda J, G.; Pacheco S, J.

    2001-01-01

    The thermal plasma process in absence of oxygen for the degradation of oily waste sludges was evaluated. These residues are commonly generated in the petrochemical industry and are considered hazardous wastes according to the present environmental regulations. The process was operated using difference residence times and the characteristics of the gaseous by products and residual soils were determined. The efficiency of organic matter degradation was 99.99%. The attained volume reduction, under the best conditions was 95.5%. The residual soils were composed of carbon and clays. The residual gases have low molecular weight. The resulting final wastes were non-hazardous and could be disposed of in landfills. (Author)

  17. Radiation losses from oxygen and iron impurities in a high temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, C.; Michelis, C. de; Mattioli, M.

    1976-06-01

    Radiation and ionization losses due to impurities present in a high temperature plasma have been calculated for a light element (oxygen), which is completely stripped in the core of existing Tokamak discharges, and a heavy one (iron), which is only partially stripped. Two extreme cases have been treated: in the first one coronal equilibrium is reached; the radiated power is then equal to the product of the electron density, the impurity density, and a function of the electron temperature; in the second one impurities recycle with a constant radial velocity v 0 in a background plasma; radiation and ionization losses are proportional to the impurity flux and are a decreasing function of the diffusion velocity. The results presented can be used to evaluate losses in a practical case [fr

  18. Hydrogen uptake in alumina thin films synthesized from an aluminum plasma stream in an oxygen ambient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, J.M.; Anders, A.; Hjoervarsson, B.; Petrov, I.; Macak, K.; Helmersson, U.; Sundgren, J.

    1999-01-01

    We describe the hydrogen uptake during the synthesis of alumina films from H 2 O present in the high vacuum gas background. The hydrogen concentration in the films was determined by the 1 H( 15 N,αγ) 12 C nuclear resonance reaction. Furthermore, we show the presence of hydrogen ions in the plasma stream by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The hydrogen content increased in both the film and the plasma stream, as the oxygen partial pressure was increased. On the basis of these measurements and thermodynamic considerations, we suggest that an aluminum oxide hydroxide compound is formed, both on the cathode surface as well as in the film. The large scatter in the data reported in the literature for refractive index and chemical stability of alumina thin films can be explained on the basis of the suggested aluminum oxide hydroxide formation. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  19. Oxidation of Inconel 625 superalloy upon treatment with oxygen or hydrogen plasma at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesel, Alenka; Drenik, Aleksander; Elersic, Kristina; Mozetic, Miran; Kovac, Janez [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gyergyek, Tomaz [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Trzaska 25, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Stockel, Jan; Varju, Jozef; Panek, Radomir [Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Ze Slovankou 3, Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Balat-Pichelin, Marianne, E-mail: marianne.balat@promes.cnrs.fr [PROMES-CNRS Laboratory, 7 rue du four solaire, 66120 Font Romeu Odeillo (France)

    2014-06-01

    Initial stages of Inconel 625 superalloy (Ni{sub 60}Cr{sub 30}Mo{sub 10}Ni{sub 4}Nb{sub 1}) oxidation upon short treatment with gaseous plasma at different temperatures up to about 1600 K were studied. Samples were treated for different periods up to a minute by oxygen or hydrogen plasma created with a microwave discharge in the standing-wave mode at a pressure of 40 Pa and a power 500 W. Simultaneous heating of the samples was realized by focusing concentrated solar radiation from a 5 kW solar furnace directly onto the samples. The morphological changes upon treatment were monitored using scanning electron microscopy, compositional depth profiling was performed using Auger electron spectroscopy, while structural changes were determined by X-ray diffraction. The treatment in oxygen plasma caused formation of metal oxide clusters of three dimensional crystallites initially rich in nickel oxide with the increasing chromium oxide content as the temperature was increasing. At about 1100 K iron and niobium oxides prevailed on the surface causing a drop of the material emissivity at 5 μm. Simultaneously the NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} compound started growing at the interface between the oxide film and bulk alloy and the compound persisted up to temperatures close to the Inconel melting point. Intensive migration of minority alloying elements such as Fe and Ti was observed at 1600 K forming mixed surface oxides of sub-micrometer dimensions. The treatment in hydrogen plasma with small admixture of water vapor did not cause much modification unless the temperature was close to the melting point. At such conditions aluminum segregated on the surface and formed well-defined Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals.

  20. Oxidation of Inconel 625 superalloy upon treatment with oxygen or hydrogen plasma at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesel, Alenka; Drenik, Aleksander; Elersic, Kristina; Mozetic, Miran; Kovac, Janez; Gyergyek, Tomaz; Stockel, Jan; Varju, Jozef; Panek, Radomir; Balat-Pichelin, Marianne

    2014-06-01

    Initial stages of Inconel 625 superalloy (Ni60Cr30Mo10Ni4Nb1) oxidation upon short treatment with gaseous plasma at different temperatures up to about 1600 K were studied. Samples were treated for different periods up to a minute by oxygen or hydrogen plasma created with a microwave discharge in the standing-wave mode at a pressure of 40 Pa and a power 500 W. Simultaneous heating of the samples was realized by focusing concentrated solar radiation from a 5 kW solar furnace directly onto the samples. The morphological changes upon treatment were monitored using scanning electron microscopy, compositional depth profiling was performed using Auger electron spectroscopy, while structural changes were determined by X-ray diffraction. The treatment in oxygen plasma caused formation of metal oxide clusters of three dimensional crystallites initially rich in nickel oxide with the increasing chromium oxide content as the temperature was increasing. At about 1100 K iron and niobium oxides prevailed on the surface causing a drop of the material emissivity at 5 μm. Simultaneously the NiCr2O4 compound started growing at the interface between the oxide film and bulk alloy and the compound persisted up to temperatures close to the Inconel melting point. Intensive migration of minority alloying elements such as Fe and Ti was observed at 1600 K forming mixed surface oxides of sub-micrometer dimensions. The treatment in hydrogen plasma with small admixture of water vapor did not cause much modification unless the temperature was close to the melting point. At such conditions aluminum segregated on the surface and formed well-defined Al2O3 crystals.

  1. Effect of oxygen atoms dissociated by non-equilibrium plasma on flame of methane oxygen and argon pre-mixture gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Haruaki; Yoshinaga, Tomokazu; Sasaki, Koichi

    2014-10-01

    For more efficient way of combustion, plasma-assisted combustion has been investigated by many researchers. But it is very difficult to clarify the effect of plasma even on the flame of methane. Because there are many complex chemical reactions in combustion system. Sasaki et al. has reported that the flame length of methane and air premixed burner shortened by irradiating microwave power. They also measured emission from Second Positive Band System of nitrogen during the irradiation. The emission indicates existence of high energy electrons which are accelerated by the microwave. The high energy electrons also dissociate oxygen molecules easily and oxygen atom would have some effects on the flame. But the dissociation ratio of oxygen molecules by the non-equilibrium plasma is significantly low, compared to that in the combustion reaction. To clarify the effect of dissociated oxygen atoms on the flame, dependence of dissociation ratio of oxygen on the flame has been examined using CHEMKIN. It is found that in the case of low dissociation ratio of 10-6, the ignition of the flame becomes slightly earlier. It is also found that in the case of high dissociation ratio of 10-3, the ignition time becomes significantly earlier by almost half. This work was supported by KAKENHI (22340170).

  2. Preparation of Ag-containing diamond-like carbon films on the interior surface of tubes by a combined method of plasma source ion implantation and DC sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatada, R.; Flege, S.; Bobrich, A.; Ensinger, W.; Dietz, C.; Baba, K.; Sawase, T.; Watamoto, T.; Matsutani, T.

    2014-08-01

    Adhesive diamond-like carbon (DLC) films can be prepared by plasma source ion implantation (PSII), which is also suitable for the treatment of the inner surface of a tube. Incorporation of a metal into the DLC film provides a possibility to change the characteristics of the DLC film. One source for the metal is DC sputtering. In this study PSII and DC sputtering were combined to prepare DLC films containing low concentrations of Ag on the interior surfaces of stainless steel tubes. A DLC film was deposited using a C2H4 plasma with the help of an auxiliary electrode inside of the tube. This electrode was then used as a target for the DC sputtering. A mixture of the gases Ar and C2H4 was used to sputter the silver. By changing the gas flow ratios and process time, the resulting Ag content of the films could be varied. Sample characterizations were performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, a ball-on-disk test was performed to investigate the tribological properties of the films. The antibacterial activity was determined using Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.

  3. Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidant in Seminal Plasma and Their Impact on Male Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Eid Hammadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Spermatozoa generate reactive oxygen species (ROS in physiological amounts, which play arole in sperm functions during sperm capacitation, acrosome reaction (AR, and oocyte fusion. Inaddition, damaged sperm are likely to be the source of ROS. The most important ROS producedby human sperm are hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals. Besides, humanseminal plasma and sperm possess an antioxidant system to scavenge ROS and prevent ROS relatedcellular damage. Under normal circumstances, there is an appropriate balance between oxidants andantioxidants. A shift in the levels of ROS towards pro-oxidants in semen can induce oxidative stress(OS on spermatozoa.Male infertility is associated with increased ROS and decreased total antioxidant activity in theseminal plasma. ROS induce nuclear DNA strand breaks. Besides, due to a high polyunsaturatedfatty acid content human sperm plasma membranes are highly sensitive to ROS induced lipidperoxidation thus decreasing membrane fluidity. This will result in increased lipid peroxidation(LPO, decreased sperm motility, viability, function and ultimately lead to infertility. The protectiveaction of antioxidants against the deleterious effect of ROS on cellular lipids, proteins and DNA hasbeen supported by several scientific studies.The purpose of the present review is to address the possible relationship between ROS andantioxidants production in seminal plasma, and the role they may play in influencing the outcomeof assisted reproductive technology (ART.

  4. Oxygen-plasma-modified biomimetic nanofibrous scaffolds for enhanced compatibility of cardiovascular implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Pappa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds have been extensively used in several biomedical applications for tissue engineering due to their morphological resemblance to the extracellular matrix (ECM. Especially, there is a need for the cardiovascular implants to exhibit a nanostructured surface that mimics the native endothelium in order to promote endothelialization and to reduce the complications of thrombosis and implant failure. Thus, we herein fabricated poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds, to serve as coatings for cardiovascular implants and guide tissue regeneration. Oxygen plasma treatment was applied in order to modify the surface chemistry of the scaffold and its effect on cell attachment and growth was evaluated. The conditions of the surface modification were properly adjusted in order to define those conditions of the treatment that result in surfaces favorable for cell growth, while maintaining morphological integrity and mechanical behavior. Goniometry (contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS measurements were used to evaluate the morphological and chemical changes induced by the plasma treatment. Moreover, depth-sensing nanoindentation was performed to study the resistance of the plasma-treated scaffolds to plastic deformation. Lastly, the cell studies indicated that all scaffolds were cytocompatible, with the plasma-treated ones expressing a more pronounced cell viability and adhesion. All the above findings demonstrate the great potential of these biomimetic tissue-engineering constructs as efficient coatings for enhanced compatibility of cardiovascular implants.

  5. Anxiety-induced plasma norepinephrine augmentation increases reactive oxygen species formation by monocytes in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, Kenichi; Matsui, Tokuzo; Maeda, Kensaku; Nakamura, Munehiro; Watanabe, Takanori; Kiriike, Nobuo

    2006-06-01

    An association between anxiety and depression and increased blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular disease risk has not been firmly established. We examined the hypothesis that anxiety and depression lead to increased plasma catecholamines and to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mononuclear cells (MNC) in hypertensive individuals. We also studied the role of BP in this effect. In Protocol 1, a cross-sectional study was performed in 146 hypertensive patients to evaluate whether anxiety and depression affect BP and ROS formation by MNC through increasing plasma catecholamines. In Protocol 2, a 6-month randomized controlled trial using a subtherapeutic dose of the alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist doxazosin (1 mg/day) versus placebo in 86 patients with essential hypertension was performed to determine whether the increase in ROS formation by MNC was independent of BP. In Protocol 1, a significant relationship was observed between the following: trait anxiety and plasma norepinephrine (r = 0.32, P anxiety may increase plasma norepinephrine and increase ROS formation by MNC independent of BP in hypertensive patients.

  6. Rapid Hydrophilization of Model Polyurethane/Urea (PURPEG Polymer Scaffolds Using Oxygen Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Zaplotnik

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethane/urea copolymers based on poly(ethylene glycol (PURPEG were exposed to weakly ionized, highly reactive low-pressure oxygen plasma to improve their sorption kinetics. The plasma was sustained with an inductively coupled radiofrequency generator operating at various power levels in either E-mode (up to the forward power of 300 W or H-mode (above 500 W. The treatments that used H-mode caused nearly instant thermal degradation of the polymer samples. The density of the charged particles in E-mode was on the order of 1016 m−3, which prevented material destruction upon plasma treatment, but the density of neutral O-atoms in the ground state was on the order of 1021 m−3. The evolution of plasma characteristics during sample treatment in E-mode was determined by optical emission spectroscopy; surface modifications were determined by water adsorption kinetics and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; and etching intensity was determined by residual gas analysis. The results showed moderate surface functionalization with hydroxyl and carboxyl/ester groups, weak etching at a rate of several nm/s, rather slow activation down to a water contact angle of 30° and an ability to rapidly absorb water.

  7. Micro-texturing into DLC/diamond coated molds and dies via high density oxygen plasma etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunata Ersyzario Edo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC and Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD-diamond films have been widely utilized not only as a hard protective coating for molds and dies but also as a functional substrate for bio-MEMS/NEMS. Micro-texturing into these hard coated molds and dies provides a productive tool to duplicate the original mother micro-patterns onto various work materials and to construct any tailored micro-textures for sensors and actuators. In the present paper, the high density oxygen plasma etching method is utilized to make micro-line and micro-groove patterns onto the DLC and diamond coatings. Our developing oxygen plasma etching system is introduced together with characterization on the plasma state during etching. In this quantitative plasma diagnosis, both the population of activated species and the electron and ion densities are identified through the emissive light spectroscopy and the Langmuir probe method. In addition, the on-line monitoring of the plasmas helps to describe the etching process. DLC coated WC (Co specimen is first employed to describe the etching mechanism by the present method. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD diamond coated WC (Co is also employed to demonstrate the reliable capacity of the present high density oxygen plasma etching. This oxygen plasma etching performance is discussed by comparison of the etching rates.

  8. Modifying TiO{sub 2} surface architecture by oxygen plasma to increase dye sensitized solar cell efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajmohan, Gayathri Devi [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong Waurn Ponds, Victoria 3216 (Australia); Dai, Xiujuan J., E-mail: jane.dai@deakin.edu.au [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong Waurn Ponds, Victoria 3216 (Australia); Tsuzuki, Takuya; Lamb, Peter R. [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong Waurn Ponds, Victoria 3216 (Australia); Plessis, Johan du [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476 V, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia); Huang, Fuzhi; Cheng, Yi-Bing [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2013-10-31

    Oxygen plasma treatment of TiO{sub 2} films has been used to improve the efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells. Both a commercial TiO{sub 2} sample and a TiO{sub 2} thin film synthesized by a sol-gel technique were treated using a custom built inductively coupled plasma apparatus. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that oxygen-plasma treatment increased the number of oxygen functional groups (hydroxyl groups) and introduced some Ti{sup 3+} species on the surface of TiO{sub 2}. A sample solar cell with plasma treated TiO{sub 2} showed an overall solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 4.3%, about a 13% increase over untreated TiO{sub 2}. The photon conversion efficiency for the plasma treated TiO{sub 2} was 34% higher than untreated TiO{sub 2}. This enhanced cell-performance is partly due to increased dye adsorption from an increase in surface oxygen functional groups and also may be partly due to Ti{sup 3+} states on the surface of TiO{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Oxygen plasma is used to generate hydroxyl groups on the surface of TiO{sub 2} • Parallel study was conducted using a spin coated TiO{sub 2} and a Commercial TiO{sub 2} film. • The plasma functionalization caused increased dye uptake. • Some species in Ti{sup 3+} state are also generated after oxygen plasma. • Dye sensitised solar cell with functionalised electrode showed improved efficiency.

  9. Advanced DC/DC converters

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Fang Lin

    2003-01-01

    DC/DC conversion techniques have undergone rapid development in recent decades. With the pioneering work of these authors, DC/DC converters have now moved into their sixth generation. This book offers a concise, practical presentation of DC/DC converters, summarizing the spectrum of conversion tecnologies and presentingmany new ideas and more than 100 new topologies. Nowhere else in the literature are DC/DC converters so logically sorted and systematically introduced, and nowhere else can readers find detailed information on prototype topologies that represent a major contribution to modern power engineering. More than 320 figures, 60 tables, and 500 formulae facilitate understand and provide precise data.

  10. Measurement of ozone production scaling in a helium plasma jet with oxygen admixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Brian; Ganguly, Biswa

    2012-10-01

    Capillary dielectric barrier plasma jet devices that generate confined streamer-like discharges along a rare gas flow can produce significant quantities of reactive oxygen species with average input powers ranging from 100 mW to >1 W. We have measured spatially-resolved ozone production in a He plasma jet with O2 admixture concentrations up to 5% using absorption spectroscopy of the O3 Hartley band system. A 20-ns risetime, 10-13 kV positive unipolar voltage pulse train was used to power the discharge, with pulse repetition rates varied from 1-20 kHz. The discharge was operated in a transient glow mode to scale the input power by adjusting the gap width between the anode and downstream cathodic plane. Peak ozone number densities in the range of 10^16 - 10^17 cm-3 were measured. At a given voltage, the density of ozone increased monotonically up to 3% O2 admixture (6 mm gap) as the peak discharge current decreased by an order of magnitude. Ozone production increased with distance from the capillary, consistent with observations by other groups. Atomic oxygen production inferred from O-atom 777 nm emission intensity did not scale with ozone as the input power was increased. The spatial distribution of ozone and scaling with input power will be presented.

  11. Patterned Well-Aligned ZnO Nanorods Assisted with Polystyrene Monolayer by Oxygen Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ji Choi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide is known as a promising material for sensing devices due to its piezoelectric properties. In particular, the alignment of ZnO nanostructures into ordered nanoarrays is expected to improve the device sensitivity due to the large surface area which can be utilized to capture significant quantities of gas particles. However, ZnO nanorods are difficult to grow on the quartz substrate with well-ordered shape. So, we investigated nanostructures by adjusting the interval distance of the arranged ZnO nanorods using polystyrene (PS spheres of various sizes (800 nm, 1300 nm and 1600 nm. In addition, oxygen plasma treatment was used to specify the nucleation site of round, patterned ZnO nanorod growth. Therefore, ZnO nanorods were grown on a quartz substrate with a patterned polystyrene monolayer by the hydrothermal method after oxygen plasma treatment. The obtained ZnO nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM.

  12. Determination of the neutral oxygen atom density in a plasma reactor loaded with metal samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozetic, Miran; Cvelbar, Uros

    2009-08-01

    The density of neutral oxygen atoms was determined during processing of metal samples in a plasma reactor. The reactor was a Pyrex tube with an inner diameter of 11 cm and a length of 30 cm. Plasma was created by an inductively coupled radiofrequency generator operating at a frequency of 27.12 MHz and output power up to 500 W. The O density was measured at the edge of the glass tube with a copper fiber optics catalytic probe. The O atom density in the empty tube depended on pressure and was between 4 and 7 × 1021 m-3. The maximum O density was at a pressure of about 150 Pa, while the dissociation fraction of O2 molecules was maximal at the lowest pressure and decreased with increasing pressure. At about 300 Pa it dropped below 10%. The measurements were repeated in the chamber loaded with different metallic samples. In these cases, the density of oxygen atoms was lower than that in the empty chamber. The results were explained by a drain of O atoms caused by heterogeneous recombination on the samples.

  13. Surface modification of argon/oxygen plasma treated vulcanized ethylene propylene diene polymethylene surfaces for improved adhesion with natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basak, Ganesh C.; Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit; Neogi, Sudarsan; Bhowmick, Anil K.

    2011-01-01

    Vulcanized ethylene propylene diene polymethylene (EPDM) rubber surface was treated in a radio frequency capacitatively coupled low pressure argon/oxygen plasma to improve adhesion with compounded natural rubber (NR) during co-vulcanization. The plasma modified surfaces were analyzed by means of contact angle measurement, surface energy, attenuated total reflection-infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray sulfur mapping and atomic force microscopy. Several experimental variables such as plasma power, length of exposure time and composition of the argon-oxygen gas mixture were considered. It was delineated that plasma treatment changed both surface composition and roughness, and consequently increased peel strength. The change in surface composition was mainly ascribed to the formation of C-O and -C=O functional groups on the vulcanized surfaces. A maximum of 98% improvement in peel strength was observed after plasma treatment.

  14. Surface modification of argon/oxygen plasma treated vulcanized ethylene propylene diene polymethylene surfaces for improved adhesion with natural rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basak, Ganesh C. [Rubber Technology Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit [Department of Polymer Science and Technology, University of Calcutta, Calcutta 700 009 (India); Neogi, Sudarsan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Bhowmick, Anil K., E-mail: anilkb@rtc.iitkgp.ernet.in [Rubber Technology Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2011-01-15

    Vulcanized ethylene propylene diene polymethylene (EPDM) rubber surface was treated in a radio frequency capacitatively coupled low pressure argon/oxygen plasma to improve adhesion with compounded natural rubber (NR) during co-vulcanization. The plasma modified surfaces were analyzed by means of contact angle measurement, surface energy, attenuated total reflection-infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray sulfur mapping and atomic force microscopy. Several experimental variables such as plasma power, length of exposure time and composition of the argon-oxygen gas mixture were considered. It was delineated that plasma treatment changed both surface composition and roughness, and consequently increased peel strength. The change in surface composition was mainly ascribed to the formation of C-O and -C=O functional groups on the vulcanized surfaces. A maximum of 98% improvement in peel strength was observed after plasma treatment.

  15. Impact of plasma jet vacuum ultraviolet radiation on reactive oxygen species generation in bio-relevant liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonowski, H.; Hammer, M. U.; Reuter, S. [Center for Innovation Competence plasmatis, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology, INP Greifswald e.V. Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Bussiahn, R.; Weltmann, K.-D.; Woedtke, Th. von [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology, INP Greifswald e.V. Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Plasma medicine utilizes the combined interaction of plasma produced reactive components. These are reactive atoms, molecules, ions, metastable species, and radiation. Here, ultraviolet (UV, 100–400 nm) and, in particular, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, 10–200 nm) radiation generated by an atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet were investigated regarding plasma emission, absorption in a humidified atmosphere and in solutions relevant for plasma medicine. The energy absorption was obtained for simple solutions like distilled water (dH{sub 2}O) or ultrapure water and sodium chloride (NaCl) solution as well as for more complex ones, for example, Rosewell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI 1640) cell culture media. As moderate stable reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) was studied. Highly reactive oxygen radicals, namely, superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup •−}) and hydroxyl radicals ({sup •}OH), were investigated by the use of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. All species amounts were detected for three different treatment cases: Plasma jet generated VUV and UV radiation, plasma jet generated UV radiation without VUV part, and complete plasma jet including all reactive components additionally to VUV and UV radiation. It was found that a considerable amount of radicals are generated by the plasma generated photoemission. From the experiments, estimation on the low hazard potential of plasma generated VUV radiation is discussed.

  16. Effect of Low-Pressure Nitrogen DC Plasma Treatment on the Surface Properties of Biaxially Oriented Polypropylene, Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) and Polyvinyl Chloride Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, S. Hamideh; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Pilehvar, Soheil; Esmaeili, Sina; Zargham, Shamim; Hashemi, S. Ebrahim; Jodat, Hamzeh

    2013-01-01

    In this study, commercial biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films were treated with nitrogen plasma over different exposure times in a Pyrex tube surrounded by a DC variable magnetic field. The chemical changes that appeared on the surface of the samples were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy after treatment for 2 min, 4 min and 6 min in a nitrogen plasma chamber. Effects of the plasma treatment on the surface topographies and contact angles of the untreated and plasma treated films were also analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and a contact angle measuring system. The results show that the plasma treated films become more hydrophilic with an enhanced wettability due to the formation of some new polar groups on the surface of the treated films. Moreover, at higher exposure times, the total surface energy in all treated films increased while a reduction in contact angle occurred. The behavior of surface roughness in each sample was completely different at higher exposure times. (plasma technology)

  17. [Biocompatibility of poly-L-lactic acid/Bioglass-guided bone regeneration membranes processed with oxygen plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Zeng, Shu-Guang; Gao, Wen-Feng

    2015-04-01

    To prepare and characterize a nano-scale fibrous hydrophilic poly-L-lactic acid/ Bioglass (PLLA/BG) composite membrane and evaluate its biocompatibility as a composite membrane for guiding bone regeneration (GBR). PLLA/BG-guided bone regeneration membrane was treated by oxygen plasma to improved its hydrophilicity. The growth of MG-63 osteoblasts on the membrane was observed using Hoechst fluorescence staining, and the biocompatibility of the membrane was evaluated by calculating the cells adhesion rate and proliferation rate. Osteogenesis of MG-63 cells was assessed by detecting alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and the formation of calcified nodules and cell morphology changes were observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The cell adhesion rates of PLLA/BG-guided bone regeneration membrane treated with oxygen plasma were (30.570±0.96)%, (47.27±0.78)%, and (66.78±0.69)% at 1, 3, and 6 h, respectively, significantly higher than those on PLLA membrane and untreated PLLA/BG membrane (Pmembranes increased with time, but highest on oxygen plasma-treated PLLA/BG membrane (Pplasma treatment of the PLLA/BG membrane promoted cell adhesion. The membranes with Bioglass promoted the matrix secretion of the osteoblasts. Under SEM, the formation of calcified nodules and spindle-shaped cell morphology were observed on oxygen plasma-treated PLLA/BG membrane. Oxygen plasma-treated PLLA/BG composite membrane has good biocompatibility and can promote adhesion, proliferation and osteogenesis of the osteoblasts.

  18. Oxygen plasma effects on zero resistance behavior of Yb,Er-doped YBCO (123) based superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Helmut; Rathmann, Dirk [Department of Physics, Biophysics, and Photosynthesis, Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Banko, Franziska; Steinhart, Martin [Physical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry of New Materials, University of Osnabrueck (Germany); Nordmann, Joerg; Voss, Benjamin [Inorganic Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry of New Materials, University of Osnabrueck (Germany); Walder, Lorenz [Organic Chemistry, Molecular Electrochemistry, Institute of Chemistry of New Materials, University of Osnabrueck (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Rare-earth doped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-δ} samples were synthesized starting from the corresponding oxides Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CuO as well as Ba(OH){sub 2} by heating to 950 C under air. The doping concentrations were adjusted to 15 % Yb, 7 % Er and 20 % Yb, 15 % Er, respectively, with respect to the yttrium content. The orthogonal phased (123) YBCO ceramics were exposed to an oxygen plasma for 140 and 380 min. Zero resistance temperature (T{sub c,0}) was determined by measuring the resistivity-temperature dependence using a classical four point measurement approach. Under optimal conditions with respect to the material composition and the oxygen treatment an unusual high zero resistance temperature of 97.5 K (T{sub c,onset} ∼ 101 K) was achieved. This represents an increase of T{sub c,0} by 7.5 K. The oxygen treatment could not be monitored by IR spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The results showed good reproducibility. (Copyright copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. STUDENT AWARD FINALIST: Oxygen Pathways in Streamer Discharge for Transient Plasma Ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, S. J.; Bowman, S.; Singleton, D.; Watrous, J.; Carter, C.; Lempert, W.; Gundersen, M. A.

    2011-10-01

    The use of streamers for the ignition of fuels, also known as transient plasma ignition (TPI), has been shown in a variety of engines to improve combustion through decreased ignition delay, increased lean burn capability and increased energy release relative to conventional spark ignition. The mechanisms behind these improvements, however, remain poorly understood. Temperature measurements by optical emission spectroscopy demonstrate that ignition by TPI is a nonthermal process, and thus is almost entirely dependent on the production and presence of electron impact-created active species in the discharge afterglow. Of particular interest are active oxygen species due to their relatively long lifetimes at high pressures and the pivotal role they play in combustion reactions. In order to elucidate the oxygen pathways, here we report the investigation of the temporal evolution of the populations of atomic oxygen and ozone by use of two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (TALIF) and UV absorption, respectively. Experimental results are presented and compared to kinetic modeling of the streamers. Future experiments are proposed to better understand the physics behind TPI. Supported by NSF, AFOSR, NumerEx-ONR, AFRL-WPAFB.

  20. A study on rare gas - oxygen reactions excited by low temperature plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Hiroaki; Kiuchi, Kiyoshi; Saburi, Tei; Fukaya, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The concentration of radioactive rare gases like Xe and Kr in nuclear fuels on PWRs and BWRs increases promptly with dependent on the burn-up ratio. These gases are affect to the long performance of nuclear fuel elements due to accumulate in gap between cladding and fuel, because it has the low thermal conductivity. It is also required to develop the practical means to correct these gases including in the off-gas in nuclear plants for inhibiting the environmental pollution. On the present study, we carried out the fundamental research to evaluate the chemical reactivity of these gases under heavy irradiation. We proposed the new excitation mechanism of these gases by expecting the formation of low energy plasma under irradiation. The chemical reactivity on rare gas-oxygen system was examined by using the low energy plasma driven reaction apparatus installed the RF excitation source. The density of electrons and lower pressure limit for the RF excitation was depended on the ionization energy of each gas. It is clarified that Xe is easy to form gaseous oxide due to the high excitation efficiency in low energy plasma. (author)

  1. Oxygen activation at the plasma membrane: relation between superoxide and hydroxyl radical production by isolated membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyno, Eiri; Mary, Véronique; Schopfer, Peter; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja

    2011-07-01

    Production of reactive oxygen species (hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide) was studied using EPR spin-trapping techniques and specific dyes in isolated plasma membranes from the growing and the non-growing zones of hypocotyls and roots of etiolated soybean seedlings as well as coleoptiles and roots of etiolated maize seedlings. NAD(P)H mediated the production of superoxide in all plasma membrane samples. Hydroxyl radicals were only produced by the membranes of the hypocotyl growing zone when a Fenton catalyst (FeEDTA) was present. By contrast, in membranes from other parts of the seedlings a low rate of spontaneous hydroxyl radical formation was observed due to the presence of small amounts of tightly bound peroxidase. It is concluded that apoplastic hydroxyl radical generation depends fully, or for the most part, on peroxidase localized in the cell wall. In soybean plasma membranes from the growing zone of the hypocotyl pharmacological tests showed that the superoxide production could potentially be attributed to the action of at least two enzymes, an NADPH oxidase and, in the presence of menadione, a quinone reductase.

  2. A radio-frequency nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma operating with argon and oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moravej, M.; Yang, X.; Hicks, R.F.; Penelon, J.; Babayan, S.E.

    2006-01-01

    A capacitively coupled, atmospheric pressure plasma has been developed that produces a high concentration of reactive species at a gas temperature below 300 deg. C. The concentration of ground-state oxygen atoms produced by the discharge was measured by NO titration, and found to equal 1.2 vol %, or 1.2±0.4x10 17 cm -3 , using 6.0 vol % O 2 in argon at 150 W/cm 3 . The ozone concentration determined at the same conditions was 4.3±0.5x10 14 cm -3 . A model of the gas phase reactions was developed and yielded O atom and O 3 concentrations in agreement with experiment. This plasma source etched Kapton registered at 5.0 μm/s at 280 deg. C and an electrode-to-sample spacing of 1.5 cm. This fast etch rate is attributed to the high O atom flux generated by the plasma source

  3. Two-and-one-half-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the plasma sheet in the presence of oxygen ions: The plasma sheet oscillation and compressional Pc 5 waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Li; Liu Zhenxing; Cao Jinbin

    2002-01-01

    Two-and-one-half-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the multicomponent plasma sheet with the velocity curl term in the magnetic equation are represented. The simulation results can be summarized as follows: (1) There is an oscillation of the plasma sheet with the period on the order of 400 s (Pc 5 range); (2) the magnetic equator is a node of the magnetic field disturbance; (3) the magnetic energy integral varies antiphase with the internal energy integral; (4) disturbed waves have a propagating speed on the order of 10 km/s earthward; (5) the abundance of oxygen ions influences amplitude, period, and dissipation of the plasma sheet oscillation. It is suggested that the compressional Pc 5 waves, which are observed in the plasma sheet close to the magnetic equator, may be caused by the plasma sheet oscillation, or may be generated from the resonance of the plasma sheet oscillation with some Pc 5 perturbation waves coming from the outer magnetosphere

  4. Fluctuation-Coupling of Cathode Cavity Pressure and Arc Voltage in a dc Plasma Torch with a Long Inter-Electrode Channel at Reduced Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jin-Wen; Huang He-Ji; Pan Wen-Xia

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuations of cathode cavity pressure and arc voltage are observed experimentally in a dc plasma torch with a long inter-electrode channel. The results show that they have the same frequency of around 4 kHz under typical experimental conditions. The observed phase difference between the pressure and the voltage, which is influenced by the path length between the pressure sensor and the cathode cavity, varies with different input powers. Combined with numerical simulation, the position of the pressure perturbation origin is estimated, and the results show that it is located at 0.01–0.05 m upstream of the inter-electrode channel outlet

  5. Improvement of Surface Wettability and Hydrophilization of Poly-paraphenylene benzobisoxazole Fiber with Fibrillation Combined Oxygen Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwen Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new surface modification method fibrillation combined with oxygen plasma treatment to improve the wettability and hydrophily of PBO fiber was studied in this paper. The surface chemical structure and morphology of PBO fiber were characterized by the methods of FTIR, XPS and SEM. The wettability and hydrophlic characters changes on the surface were evaluated by the dynamic contact angle system and image analysis. The results show that the increase surface roughness by fibrillation could improve the wettability. Fibrillation combined oxygen plasma treatment has a better effect than oxygen plasma treatment to improve the wettability and hdyrophlization of PBO fiber. The specific area of PBO fiber increased to 10.7 m2/g from 0.7 m2/g, contact angle decreased to 43.2° from 84.4° and WRV increased to 208.4% from 13.7%. The modified fibers have a good dispersion in water for hydrophilization improvement.

  6. Femtosecond, two-photon laser-induced-fluorescence imaging of atomic oxygen in an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jacob B.; Sands, Brian L.; Kulatilaka, Waruna D.; Roy, Sukesh; Scofield, James; Gord, James R.

    2015-06-01

    Femtosecond, two-photon-absorption laser-induced-fluorescence (fs-TALIF) spectroscopy is employed to measure space- and time-resolved atomic-oxygen distributions in a nanosecond, repetitively pulsed, externally grounded, atmospheric-pressure plasma jet flowing helium with a variable oxygen admixture. The high-peak-intensity, low-average-energy femtosecond pulses result in increased TALIF signal with reduced photolytic inferences. This allows 2D imaging of absolute atomic-oxygen number densities ranging from 5.8   ×   1015 to 2.0   ×   1012cm-3 using a cooled CCD with an external intensifier. Xenon is used for signal and imaging-system calibrations to quantify the atomic-oxygen fluorescence signal. Initial results highlight a transition in discharge morphology from annular to filamentary, corresponding with a change in plasma chemistry from ozone to atomic oxygen production, as the concentration of oxygen in the feed gas is changed at a fixed voltage-pulse-repetition rate. In this configuration, significant concentrations of reactive oxygen species may be remotely generated by sustaining an active discharge beyond the confines of the dielectric capillary, which may benefit applications that require large concentrations of reactive oxygen species such as material processing or biomedical devices.

  7. Effect of plasma immersion on crystallinity of V2O5 film grown by dc reactive sputtering at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Hee; Kim, Joosun; Yoon, Young Soo

    2005-01-01

    Vanadium oxide thin films were grown at room temperature by direct current reactive sputtering. To investigate the effect of plasma immersion on the crystallinity of as-grown film, we immersed samples in plasma during the deposition process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements show that as-deposited thin films immersed in plasma are crystalline, whereas those not immersed in the plasma are amorphous. Images taken with scanning electron microscopy show that the surface of films exposed to plasma have a different morphology to the surface of films not exposed to plasma. The Li-intercalation feature of as-deposited films immersed in plasma shows the typical behavior of crystalline vanadium oxide; such behavior is unsuitable for the cathode of thin film batteries (TFBs). These results indicate that direct current plasma promotes the growth of crystalline vanadium oxide films

  8. Magnetic properties of Co-N films deposited by ECR nitrogen/argon plasma with DC negative-biased Co target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.; Zhang, Y.C.; Yang, K.; Liu, H.X.; Zhu, X.D., E-mail: xdzhu@ustc.edu.cn; Zhou, H.Y.

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • A new method of synthesizing Co-N films containing Co{sub 4}N phase. • Tunable magnetic properties achieved in ECR plasma CVD. • The change of magnetic properties is related to atoms mobility on substrate and the concentration of active species in plasma vapor. - Abstract: By introducing DC negative-biased Co target in the Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) nitrogen/argon plasma, the Co-N films containing Co{sub 4}N phase were synthesized on Si(100) substrate. Effects of processing parameters on magnetic properties of the films are investigated. It is found that magnetic properties of Co-N films vary with N{sub 2}/Ar flow ratio, substrate temperature, and target biasing voltage. The saturation magnetization M{sub s} decreased by increasing the N{sub 2}/Ar gas flow ratio or decreasing target biasing voltage, while the coercive field H{sub c} increased, which is ascribed to the variation of relative concentration for N or Co active species in plasma vapor. The magnetic properties present complex dependency with growth temperature, which is related to the atom mobility on the substrate affected by the growth temperature. This study exhibits a potential of ECR plasma chemical vapor deposition to synthesize the interstitial compounds and tune magnetic properties of films.

  9. DC-pulse atmospheric-pressure plasma jet and dielectric barrier discharge surface treatments on fluorine-doped tin oxide for perovskite solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jui-Hsuan; Cheng, I.-Chun; Hsu, Cheng-Che; Chen, Jian-Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Nitrogen DC-pulse atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) and nitrogen dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) were applied to pre-treat fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates for perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Nitrogen DC-pulse APPJ treatment (substrate temperature: ~400 °C) for 10 s can effectively increase the wettability, whereas nitrogen DBD treatment (maximum substrate temperature: ~140 °C) achieved limited improvement in wettability even with increased treatment time of 60 s. XPS results indicate that 10 s APPJ, 60 s DBD, and 15 min UV-ozone treatment of FTO glass substrates can decontaminate the surface. A PSC fabricated on APPJ-treated FTO showed the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.90%; by contrast, a PSC with nitrogen DBD-treated FTO shows slightly lower PCE of 12.57% which was comparable to that of a PSC on FTO treated by a 15 min UV-ozone process. Both nitrogen DC-pulse APPJ and nitrogen DBD can decontaminate FTO substrates and can be applied for the substrate cleaning step of PSC.

  10. Irradiation of silver and agar/silver nanoparticles with argon, oxygen glow discharge plasma, and mercury lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud M; Abdel-Wahab, Essam A; El-Maaref, A A; Rawway, Mohammed; Shaaban, Essam R

    2014-01-01

    The irradiation effect of argon, oxygen glow discharge plasma, and mercury lamp on silver and agar/silver nanoparticle samples is studied. The irradiation time dependence of the synthesized silver and agar/silver nanoparticle absorption spectra and their antibacterial effect are studied and compared. In the agar/silver nanoparticle sample, as the irradiation time of argon glow discharge plasma or mercury lamp increases, the peak intensity and the full width at half maximum, FWHM, of the surface plasmon resonance absorption band is increased, however a decrease of the peak intensity with oxygen glow plasma has been observed. In the silver nanoparticle sample, as the irradiation time of argon, oxygen glow discharge plasma or mercury lamp increases, the peak intensity of the surface plasmon resonance absorption band is increased, however, there is no significant change in the FWHM of the surface plasmon resonance absorption band. The SEM results for both samples showed nanoparticle formation with mean size about 50 nm and 40 nm respectively. Throughout the irradiation time with the argon, oxygen glow discharge plasma or mercury lamp, the antibacterial activity of several kinds of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria has been examined.

  11. 3D Numerical Analysis of the Arc Plasma Behavior in a Submerged DC Electric Arc Furnace for the Production of Fused MgO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhen; Wang Ninghui; Li Tie; Cao Yong

    2012-01-01

    A three dimensional steady-state magnetohydrodynamic model is developed for the arc plasma in a DC submerged electric arc furnace for the production of fused MgO. The arc is generated in a small semi-enclosed space formed by the graphite electrode, the molten bath and unmelted raw materials. The model is first used to solve a similar problem in a steel making furnace, and the calculated results are found to be in good agreement with the published measurements. The behavior of arcs with different arc lengths is also studied in the furnace for MgO production. From the distribution of the arc pressure on the bath surface it is shown that the arc plasma impingement is large enough to cause a crater-like depression on the surface of the MgO bath. The circulation of the high temperature air under the electrode may enhance the arc efficiency, especially for a shorter arc.

  12. Longitudinal Relationship between Plasma Reactive Oxygen Metabolites and Periodontal Condition in the Maintenance Phase of Periodontal Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Machida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The present cohort study describes the longitudinal relationship between plasma oxidative status and periodontitis progression during the maintenance phase of treatment. Materials and Methods. Forty-five patients (mean age 58.8 years were monitored from 2008 to 2013. Periodontal conditions, including probing pocket depth (PPD and clinical attachment level (CAL, were recorded. Measurements of plasma reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM and biologic antioxidant potential (BAP were performed to evaluate plasma oxidative status. The patients were assigned into 2 groups as low and high plasma ROM level using a cut-off value which was median of plasma ROM level at baseline. Results. In the subjects with low plasma ROM level at baseline, changes in mean CAL were positively correlated with changes in plasma ROM levels, bleeding on probing, and plaque control record, but not with PPD. In the subjects with high plasma ROM at baseline, changes in CAL were significantly associated with only PPD at baseline. On the other hands there were no significant associations between changes in CAL and those in plasma BAP levels. Conclusions. When plasma ROM level in periodontitis patients was low, increases in plasma ROM level were associated with those in CAL during the maintenance phase of treatment.

  13. Research on killing Escherichia Coli by reactive oxygen species based on strong ionization discharging plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y J; Tian, Y P; Zhang, Z T; Li, R H; Cai, L J; Gao, J Y

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species solution produced by strong ionization discharging plasma was used to kill Escherichia coli by spraying. Several effect factors such as pH value, solution temperature, spraying time and exposure time were observed in this study, and their effects on killing rate of Escherichia coli were discussed and analysed. Results show that the treating efficiency of ROS solution for Escherichia coli is higher in alkaline solution than that in acid solution. The killing rate of Escherichia coli increases while the spraying time and exposure time are longer and the temperature is lower. The effects of different factors on killing rate of Escherichia coli are as follows: spraying time > pH value > exposure time > solution temperature.

  14. Charge state distribution studies of pure and oxygen mixed krypton ECR plasma - signature of isotope anomaly and gas mixing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pravin; Mal, Kedar; Rodrigues, G

    2016-11-01

    We report the charge state distributions of the pure, 25% and 50% oxygen mixed krypton plasma to shed more light on the understanding of the gas mixing and the isotope anomaly [A. G. Drentje, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63 (1992) 2875 and Y Kawai, D Meyer, A Nadzeyka, U Wolters and K Wiesemann, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 10 (2001) 451] in the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas. The krypton plasma was produced using a 10 GHz all-permanent-magnet ECR ion source. The intensities of the highly abundant four isotopes, viz. 82 Kr (~11.58%), 83 Kr (~11.49%), 84 Kr (~57%) and 86 Kr (17.3%) up to ~ +14 charge state have been measured by extracting the ions from the plasma and analysing them in the mass and the energy using a large acceptance analyzer-cum-switching dipole magnet. The influence of the oxygen gas mixing on the isotopic krypton ion intensities is clearly evidenced beyond +9 charge state. With and without oxygen mixing, the charge state distribution of the krypton ECR plasma shows the isotope anomaly with unusual trends. The anomaly in the intensities of the isotopes having quite closer natural abundance, viz. 82 Kr, 86 Kr and 83 Kr, 86 Kr is prominent, whereas the intensity ratio of 86 Kr to 84 Kr shows a weak signature of it. The isotope anomaly tends to disappear with increasing oxygen mixing in the plasma. The observed trends in the intensities of the krypton isotopes do not follow the prediction of linear Landau wave damping in the plasma. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Anti-corrosion performance of oxidized and oxygen plasma-implanted NiTi alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, Ray W.Y.; Ho, Joan P.Y.; Liu, Xuanyong; Chung, C.Y.; Chu, Paul K.; Yeung, Kelvin W.K.; Lu, William W.; Cheung, Kenneth M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Nickel-titanium shape memory alloys are useful orthopedic biomaterials on account of its super-elastic and shape memory properties. However, the problem associated with out-diffusion of harmful nickel ions in prolonged use inside the human body raises a critical safety concern. Titanium oxide films are deemed to be chemically inert and biocompatible and hence suitable to be the barrier layers to impede the leaching of Ni from the NiTi substrate to biological tissues and fluids. In the work reported in this paper, we compare the anti-corrosion efficacy of oxide films produced by atmospheric-pressure oxidation and oxygen plasma ion implantation. Our results show that the oxidized samples do not possess improved corrosion resistance and may even fare worse than the untreated samples. On the other hand, the plasma-implanted surfaces exhibit much improved corrosion resistance. Our work also shows that post-implantation annealing can further promote the anti-corrosion capability of the samples

  16. Plasma osmolality and oxygen consumption of perch Perca fluviatilis in response to different salinities and temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Emil Aputsiaq Flindt; Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2017-01-01

    with salinity at 10 and 20° C. Maximum metabolic rate (MMR) and aerobic scope was lowest at salinity of 15 at 5° C, yet at 20° C, they were lowest at a salinity of 0. A cost of osmoregulation (SMR at a salinity of 0 and 15 compared with SMR at a salinity of 10) could only be detected at a salinity of 15 at 20...... of osmoregulation (28%) at a salinity of 15 at 20° C indicates that the cost of osmoregulation in P. fluviatilis increases with temperature under hyperosmotic conditions and a power analysis showed that the cost of osmoregulation could be lower than 12·5% under other environmental conditions. The effect of salinity......The present study determined the blood plasma osmolality and oxygen consumption of the perch Perca fluviatilis at different salinities (0, 10 and 15) and temperatures (5, 10 and 20° C). Blood plasma osmolality increased with salinity at all temperatures. Standard metabolic rate (SMR) increased...

  17. High performance solution-deposited amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors by oxygen plasma treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Cha, Dong Kyu; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2012-01-01

    decrease in oxygen vacancy and residual hydrocarbon concentration in the a-IGZO films, as well as an improvement in the dielectric/channel interfacial roughness. As a result, the TFTs with O2-plasma treated a-IGZO channel layers showed three times higher

  18. Spectroscopic study of thermal plasma jet generated by a hybrid water-argon stabilized DC arc torch

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sember, Viktor

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2003), s. 17-22 ISSN 1093-3611 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK2043105; GA ČR GA202/01/1563 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma jet, spectroscopy, mixing Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.116, year: 2003

  19. Modification of low temperature deposited LiMn2O4 thin film cathodes by oxygen plasma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chen Chung; Chiu, Kuo-Feng; Lin, Kun Ming; Lin, Hsin Chih

    2009-01-01

    Lithium manganese oxides have been deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputter deposition with relatively lower annealing temperatures and then post-treated with a radio frequency (rf) driven oxygen plasma. Following oxygen plasma irradiation, the film properties were modified, and the performance of the thin film cathode has been enhanced. The electrochemical properties of the treated thin-film cathodes were characterized and compared. The results showed that the samples with moderate plasma treatment also maintained good cyclic properties as cycled at a wide range potential window of 2.0 V-4.5 V. Its electrochemical properties were significantly improved by this process, even though the films were prepared under low annealing temperature.

  20. Study of oxygen diluted silane plasmas applied for the deposition of silicium oxyde; Etudes des plasmas organoscilicies dilues en oxygene utilises pour la deposition d'oxyde de silicium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magni, D. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2001-09-01

    Plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition of thin films such as silicon dioxide is used in many applications such as the insulator production in semiconductor technology or anticorrosion coating in packaging industry as a substitute for aluminium which is less ecological. Oxygen diluted silane plasmas are often utilized to produce SiO{sub 2} film, but the tendency is to work with organosilicon precursors such as HMDSO (hexamethyldisiloxane ) described as non-toxic and requiring less stringent safety and costly installation. In this study, the species in gaseous phase and the powder produced in oxygen-diluted HMDSO plasmas were experimentally characterized in a radiofrequency (RF) capacitively-coupled reactor at 13.56 MHz. Some aspects of plasma enhanced deposition of SiO{sub 2} were studied in a RF magnetron reactor . The gaseous phase of the oxygen-diluted plasmas were studied by infrared absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry .The complementarity of these diagnostics allowed to show that the dominant species in gaseous phase come from the homogeneous reaction between oxygen and the radical CH{sub x} (with x 1,2 and 3), abundantly produced in the plasma. Two principal pathways were shown to occur. A first way leads to hydrocarbon formation such as methane (CH{sub 4}) and acetylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}), whose partial pressures are close to 2 %. A second way leads to the formation of molecules from the combustion of CH{sub x}, such as formaldehyde (CH{sub 2}O), formic acid (CH{sub 2}O{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and water. Moreover it is shown that the CO{sub 2} results from a heterogeneous reaction between the carbon on the surfaces and the oxygen coming from the plasma. At low dilution conditions, the partial pressures of CO and CO{sub 2} were estimated at 25 and 10 % of the total pressure respectively. In argon or helium diluted HMDSO plasmas, methane, acetylene and hydrogen are the main stable molecules produced in the gaseous

  1. Properties of thin films deposited from HMDSO/O2 induced remote plasma: Effect of oxygen fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saloum, S.; Naddaf, M.; Al-Khaled, B.

    2008-01-01

    Thin films deposited from hexamethyle disiloxane (HMDSO)/O 2 mixture excited in a radio-frequency hollow cathode discharge system have been investigated for their structural, optical and corrosive properties as a function of oxygen fraction χo 2 (χo 2 =0, 0.38, 0.61, 0.76 and 0.90). It is found that the effect of oxygen fraction on films properties is related to O 2 dissociation degree (αd) behavior in pure oxygen plasma. αd has been investigated by actinometry optical emission spectroscopy (AOES) combined with double langmuir probe measurements, a maximum of O 2 dissociation degree of 15% has been obtained for 50 sccm flow rate of O 2 (χo 2 =0.61 in HMDSO/O 2 plasma). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and optical measurements showed that the behavior of both identified IR group densities and deposition rate as a function of oxygen fraction is similar to that of O 2 dissociation degree. The inorganic nature of the films depends significantly on oxygen fraction, the best inorganic structure of deposited films has been obtained for 62% HMDSO content in the mixture HMDSO/O 2 (χo 2 =0.38). The refractive index for deposited films from pure HMDSO(χo 2 =0) has been found to be higher than that of films deposited from HMDSO/O 2 mixture. In HMDSO/O 2 plasma, it has a behavior similar to that of deposition rate, and it is comparable to that of quartz. The effect of oxygen fraction on the corrosive properties of thin films deposited on steel has been investigated. It is found that the measured corrosion current density in 0.1 M KCI solution decreases with the addition of O 2 to HMDSO plasma, and it is minimum for χo 2 =0.38. (author)

  2. Functionalization of Cellulose Fibres with Oxygen Plasma and ZnO Nanoparticles for Achieving UV Protective Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Jazbec

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-pressure oxygen plasma created by an electrodeless radiofrequency (RF discharge was applied to modify the properties of cellulosic fibrous polymer (cotton in order to improve adsorption properties towards zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles and to achieve excellent ultraviolet (UV protective properties of cotton fabric. The chemical and physical surface modifications of plasma-treated cotton fabric were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The mechanical properties of plasma-treated samples were evaluated, measuring strength and elongation of the fabrics. The quantity of zinc on the ZnO-functionalized cotton samples was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS and the effectiveness of plasma treatment for UV protective properties of cotton fabrics was evaluated using UV-VIS spectrometry, measuring the UV protection factor (UPF. The results indicated that longer plasma treatment times cause higher concentration of oxygen functional groups on the surface of fibres and higher surface roughness of fibres. These two conditions are crucial in increasing the content of ZnO nanoparticles on the fibres, providing excellent UV protective properties of treated cotton, with UPF factor up to 65.93.

  3. Kinetics of highly vibrationally excited O2(X) molecules in inductively-coupled oxygen plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annušová, Adriana; Marinov, Daniil; Booth, Jean-Paul; Sirse, Nishant; Lino da Silva, Mário; Lopez, Bruno; Guerra, Vasco

    2018-04-01

    The high degree of vibrational excitation of O2 ground state molecules recently observed in inductively coupled plasma discharges is investigated experimentally in more detail and interpreted using a detailed self-consistent 0D global kinetic model for oxygen plasmas. Additional experimental results are presented and used to validate the model. The vibrational kinetics considers vibrational levels up to v = 41 and accounts for electron impact excitation and de-excitation (e-V), vibration-to-translation relaxation (V-T) in collisions with O2 molecules and O atoms, vibration-to-vibration energy exchanges (V-V), excitation of electronically excited states, dissociative electron attachment, and electron impact dissociation. Measurements were performed at pressures of 10–80 mTorr (1.33 and 10.67 Pa) and radio frequency (13.56 MHz) powers up to 500 W. The simulation results are compared with the absolute densities in each O2 vibrational level obtained by high sensitivity absorption spectroscopy measurements of the Schumann–Runge bands for O2(X, v = 4–18), O(3 P) atom density measurements by two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (TALIF) calibrated against Xe, and laser photodetachment measurements of the O‑ negative ions. The highly excited O2(X, v) distribution exhibits a shape similar to a Treanor-Gordiets distribution, but its origin lies in electron impact e-V collisions and not in V-V up-pumping, in contrast to what happens in all other molecular gases known to date. The relaxation of vibrational quanta is mainly due to V-T energy-transfer collisions with O atoms and to electron impact dissociation of vibrationally excited molecules, e+O2(X, v)→O(3P)+O(3P).

  4. Influence of substrate dc bias on crystallinity of silicon films grown at a high rate from inductively-coupled plasma CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosku, N.; Murakami, H.; Higashi, S.; Miyazaki, S.

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of substrate bias on the microcrystalline film growth from inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) of H 2 -diluted SiH 4 at 250 deg. C to get an insight on the role of ion and electron incidence for the crystallization. By applying dc bias voltage to the substrate in the range of -20 ∼ 20 V during the film growth, the crystallinity is improved significantly with no significant change in the deposition rate, but in contrast the application of biases as high as ±50 V degrades the crystallinity. These results indicate that the incidence of ions or electrons with a moderate energy to the growing film surface promotes the nucleation and the growth of crystallites. Also, the optimum bias condition for the crystallization is changed with the antenna-substrate distance, which suggests the contribution of hydrogen radical flux to the crystalline film growth

  5. PULLOUT BEHAVIOR OF OXYGEN PLASMA TREATED POLYMER FIBERS FROM CEMENT MATRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Trejbal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to describe bonding properties between surface treated polymer fibers and a cement matrix. In order to increase an interaction between the matrix and fiber surfaces, two fiber types having approx. 0.5 mm in diameter were modified by mean of oxygen plasma treatment. Surface physical changes of treated fibers were examined using SEM morphology observation and interfacial adhesion mechanical tests. The principle of mechanical tests rested on a single fiber pulling out from the matrix (cement paste, CEM I 42.5 R, w/c 0.4. The embedded length was equal to 50 % of original fiber length (50 mm, where the fiber free-end displacement and force resisting to the displacement were monitored. It was pointed out that interfacial shear stress needed to break the bond between the modified fibers and the matrix increased almost by 15–65 % if compared to reference fibers. When the fiber free-end displacement reached to 3.5 mm, the shear strength increased almost twice.

  6. Two dimensional PMMA nanofluidic device fabricated by hot embossing and oxygen plasma assisted thermal bonding methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhifu; Sun, Lei; Zou, Helin; Cheng, E.

    2015-05-01

    A method for obtaining a low-cost and high-replication precision two-dimensional (2D) nanofluidic device with a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) sheet is proposed. To improve the replication precision of the 2D PMMA nanochannels during the hot embossing process, the deformation of the PMMA sheet was analyzed by a numerical simulation method. The constants of the generalized Maxwell model used in the numerical simulation were calculated by experimental compressive creep curves based on previously established fitting formula. With optimized process parameters, 176 nm-wide and 180 nm-deep nanochannels were successfully replicated into the PMMA sheet with a replication precision of 98.2%. To thermal bond the 2D PMMA nanochannels with high bonding strength and low dimensional loss, the parameters of the oxygen plasma treatment and thermal bonding process were optimized. In order to measure the dimensional loss of 2D nanochannels after thermal bonding, a dimension loss evaluating method based on the nanoindentation experiments was proposed. According to the dimension loss evaluating method, the total dimensional loss of 2D nanochannels was 6 nm and 21 nm in width and depth, respectively. The tensile bonding strength of the 2D PMMA nanofluidic device was 0.57 MPa. The fluorescence images demonstrate that there was no blocking or leakage over the entire microchannels and nanochannels.

  7. High performance solution-deposited amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors by oxygen plasma treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.

    2012-05-16

    Solution-deposited amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors(TFTs) with high performance were fabricated using O2-plasma treatment of the films prior to high temperature annealing. The O2-plasma treatment resulted in a decrease in oxygen vacancy and residual hydrocarbon concentration in the a-IGZO films, as well as an improvement in the dielectric/channel interfacial roughness. As a result, the TFTs with O2-plasma treated a-IGZO channel layers showed three times higher linear field-effect mobility compared to the untreated a-IGZO over a range of processing temperatures. The O2-plasma treatment effectively reduces the required processing temperature of solution-deposited a-IGZO films to achieve the required performance.

  8. Effect of N{sub 2} and Ar gas on DC arc plasma generation and film composition from Ti-Al compound cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhirkov, Igor, E-mail: igozh@ifm.liu.se; Rosen, Johanna [Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Oks, Efim [Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, 2/3 Akademichesky Avenue, 634055 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-07

    DC arc plasma from Ti, Al, and Ti{sub 1−x}Al{sub x} (x = 0.16, 0.25, 0.50, and 0.70) compound cathodes has been characterized with respect to plasma chemistry (charged particles) and charge-state-resolved ion energy for Ar and N{sub 2} pressures in the range 10{sup −6} to 3 × 10{sup −2} Torr. Scanning electron microscopy was used for exploring the correlation between the cathode and film composition, which in turn was correlated with the plasma properties. In an Ar atmosphere, the plasma ion composition showed a reduction of Al of approximately 5 at. % compared to the cathode composition, while deposited films were in accordance with the cathode stoichiometry. Introducing N{sub 2} above ∼5 × 10{sup −3} Torr, lead to a reduced Al content in the plasma as well as in the film, and hence a 1:1 correlation between the cathode and film composition cannot be expected in a reactive environment. This may be explained by an influence of the reactive gas on the arc mode and type of erosion of Ti and Al rich contaminations, as well as on the plasma transport. Throughout the investigated pressure range, a higher deposition rate was obtained from cathodes with higher Al content. The origin of generated gas ions was investigated through the velocity rule, stating that the most likely ion velocities of all cathode elements from a compound cathode are equal. The results suggest that the major part of the gas ions in Ar is generated from electron impact ionization, while gas ions in a N{sub 2} atmosphere primarily originate from a nitrogen contaminated layer on the cathode surface. The presented results provide a contribution to the understanding processes of plasma generation from compound cathodes. It also allows for a more reasonable approach to the selection of composite cathode and experimental conditions for thin film depositions.

  9. dc glow-discharge cleaning for accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.S.; Hseuh, H.C.

    1982-01-01

    Average pressure of 1 x 10 -11 torr and vacuum stability are necessary for the successful operation of the proton storage rings such as ISABELLE. Vacuum degassing at high temperature and in situ bake-out will reduce the thermoout-gassing rate of the beam tubes to approx. 10 -13 Tl/cm 2 sec, therefore achieving the required static pressure. The vacuum instability caused by beam-induced ion desorption can be solved by dc glow discharge cleaning. With evidence from this study, the present understanding of glow discharge in a cylindrically symmetric geometry is reviewed. Argon and argon/oxygen mixture serve as plasmas in the glow. The role of oxygen in cleaning the beam tubes during the glow discharge is demonstrated experimentally. Glow discharge cleaning with and without bake-out is also studied

  10. Oxygen plasma treatment and deposition of CNx on a fluorinated polymer matrix composite for improved erosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muratore, C.; Korenyi-Both, A.; Bultman, J. E.; Waite, A. R.; Jones, J. G.; Storage, T. M.; Voevodin, A. A.

    2007-01-01

    The use of polymer matrix composites in aerospace propulsion applications is currently limited by insufficient resistance to erosion by abrasive media. Erosion resistant coatings may provide necessary protection; however, adhesion to many high temperature polymer matrix composite (PMC) materials is poor. A low pressure oxygen plasma treatment process was developed to improve adhesion of CN x coatings to a carbon reinforced, fluorinated polymer matrix composite. Fullerene-like CN x was selected as an erosion resistant coating for its high hardness-to-elastic modulus ratio and elastic resilience which were expected to reduce erosion from media incident at different angles (normal or glancing) relative to the surface. In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to evaluate the effect of the plasma treatment on surface chemistry, and electron microscopy was used to identify changes in the surface morphology of the PMC substrate after plasma exposure. The fluorine concentration at the surface was significantly reduced and the carbon fibers were exposed after plasma treatment. CN x coatings were then deposited on oxygen treated PMC substrates. Qualitative tests demonstrated that plasma treatment improved coating adhesion resulting in an erosion resistance improvement of a factor of 2 compared to untreated coated composite substrates. The combination of PMC pretreatment and coating with CN x reduced the erosion rate by an order of magnitude for normally incident particles

  11. Development of a fluid model for DC arc plasma torches and its integration with downstream models of atmospheric plasma spray particle plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannamela, Michael J., III

    The plasma spray process uses plasma flames to melt micron sized particles of e.g. ceramic and propel the droplets to impinge upon and freeze to the target workpiece, forming a functional coating. Variations in the process arise from many sources, and because sensing of the process is imperfect one is motivated to pursue a modeling approach. This dissertation models the major elements of the process; the torch that produces the plasma flame, the jet of hot plasma issuing from the torch, and the plume of particles conveyed and heated by the jet. The plasma in the torch is modeled by a one-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) approach and it is found that the MHD equations can accurately predict the power dissipated in the bulk of the plasma, while special treatment is required in regions near the electrodes. Treatment of the cathode region is eased since it can be de-coupled from the bulk flow. Treatment of the anode region aims to extract the correct amount of power from the plasma. With MHD in the bulk and these special conditions at the electrode boundaries, the net power into the plasma can be matched with experiment. For one simulation of an SG-100 torch operating at 500A, the measured net power was 7.0kW while the computed net power was 7.1kW. Using outlet information from the torch, the impact of plasma arc oscillations on the free jet and on the in-flight particle states is predicted. The model of the plasma jet is validated against the existing LAVA code, and is able to predict the fraction of entrained air in the jet to within 20% of the experimental value. The variations in particle states due to the arc fluctuations are found to be similar in size to variations due to changes in particle injection velocity, and so cannot be neglected when considering particle state distributions. The end result of this work is to make available a complete chain of models for the plasma spray process, from torch input conditions to in-flight particle state.

  12. The role of Ar plasma treatment in generating oxygen vacancies in indium tin oxide thin films prepared by the sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Deuk-Kyu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seoul, 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Misra, Mirnmoy; Lee, Ye-Eun [Department of BioNano Technology, Gachon University, 1342 Seong-nam dae-ro, Seong-nam si, Gyeonggi-do, 13120 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Sung-Doo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seoul, 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Myoung, Jae-Min, E-mail: jmmyoung@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seoul, 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae Il, E-mail: t2.lee77@gachon.ac.kr [Department of BioNano Technology, Gachon University, 1342 Seong-nam dae-ro, Seong-nam si, Gyeonggi-do, 13120 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Indium tin oxide thin film with about 41 nm thickness was obtained by the sol-gel process. • Thin film exhibited low resistivity. • Sheet resistance of thin film decreases with Ar plasma treatment time. • Ar plasma treatment on thin film does not alter the crystal structure and optical properties of the ITO thin-film. • There is no significant change in oxygen vacancies after 20 min of plasma treatment. - Abstract: Argon (Ar) plasma treatment was carried out to reduce the sheet resistance of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films. The Ar plasma treatment did not cause any significant changes to the crystal structure, surface morphology, or optical properties of the ITO thin films. However, an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study confirmed that the concentration of oxygen vacancies in the film dramatically increased with the plasma treatment time. Thus, we concluded that the decrease in the sheet resistance was caused by the increase in the oxygen vacancy concentration in the film. Furthermore, to verify how the concentration of oxygen vacancies in the film increased with the Ar plasma treatment time, cumulative and continuous plasma treatments were conducted. The oxygen vacancies were found to be created by surface heating via the outward thermal diffusion of oxygen atoms from inside the film.

  13. Plasma Deposited Thin Iron Oxide Films as Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz JOZWIAK

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using plasma deposited thin films of iron oxides as electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC was examined. Results of energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analysis indicated that the plasma deposit consisted mainly of FeOX structures with the X parameter close to 1.5. For as deposited material iron atoms are almost exclusively in the Fe3+ oxidation state without annealing in oxygen containing atmosphere. However, the annealing procedure can be used to remove the remains of carbon deposit from surface. The single cell test (SCT was performed to determine the suitability of the produced material for ORR. Preliminary results showed that power density of 0.23 mW/cm2 could be reached in the tested cell.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.1.14406

  14. Formation of cerussite and hydrocerussite during adsorption of lead from aqueous solution on oxidized carbons by cold oxygen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Velasco Maldonado, Paola S. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aguascalientes, Av. Adolfo López Mateos No. 1801 Ote. C.P, Aguascalientes, Ags, 20256 (Mexico); Hernández-Montoya, Virginia, E-mail: virginia.hernandez@yahoo.com.mx [Instituto Tecnologico de Aguascalientes, Av. Adolfo López Mateos No. 1801 Ote. C.P, Aguascalientes, Ags, 20256 (Mexico); Concheso, A.; Montes-Morán, Miguel A. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, INCAR-CSIC, Apartado 73, E-33080, Oviedo (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The formation of cerussite and hydrocerussite was observed on the carbon surface. • Occurrence of CaCO{sub 3} on the carbons surface plays a crucial role in the formation. • The carbons were prepared by carbonization and oxidation with cold oxygen plasma. • Oxidation with cold oxygen plasma increases the formation of these compounds. - Abstract: A new procedure of elimination of Pb{sup 2+} from aqueous solution using carbon adsorbents, in which high amounts of cerussite and hydrocerussite are deposited on the carbon surfaces, is reported. The procedure includes the preparation of carbons from selected lignocellulosic wastes (pecan nut shells and peach stones) by single carbonization and further oxidation with cold oxygen plasma. The materials prior and after the oxidation treatment were characterized using elemental analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM/EDX analysis, adsorption of N{sub 2} at −196 °C and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The adsorption of Pb{sup 2+} was carried out in batch systems under constant agitation. The formation of cerussite and hydrocerussite on the spent carbon surfaces was confirmed by XRD, SEM/EDX and FT-IR. A Pb{sup 2+} removal mechanism is proposed in which a co-precipitation of lead nitrate and calcium carbonate would render the formation of the lead carbonates. In such mechanism, the occurrence of CaCO{sub 3} on the surface of the adsorbents plays a crucial role. The presence of calcium carbonate on the precursors is understood on the basis of the thermal evolution of calcium oxalate originally present in the biomass. The oxygen plasma treatment helps to expose the calcium carbonate nanocrystals thus improving dramatically the removal capacity of Pb{sup 2+}. Accordingly, retention capacities as high as 63 mg of Pb{sup 2+} per gram of adsorbent have been attained.

  15. Formation of cerussite and hydrocerussite during adsorption of lead from aqueous solution on oxidized carbons by cold oxygen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Velasco Maldonado, Paola S.; Hernández-Montoya, Virginia; Concheso, A.; Montes-Morán, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The formation of cerussite and hydrocerussite was observed on the carbon surface. • Occurrence of CaCO_3 on the carbons surface plays a crucial role in the formation. • The carbons were prepared by carbonization and oxidation with cold oxygen plasma. • Oxidation with cold oxygen plasma increases the formation of these compounds. - Abstract: A new procedure of elimination of Pb"2"+ from aqueous solution using carbon adsorbents, in which high amounts of cerussite and hydrocerussite are deposited on the carbon surfaces, is reported. The procedure includes the preparation of carbons from selected lignocellulosic wastes (pecan nut shells and peach stones) by single carbonization and further oxidation with cold oxygen plasma. The materials prior and after the oxidation treatment were characterized using elemental analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM/EDX analysis, adsorption of N_2 at −196 °C and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The adsorption of Pb"2"+ was carried out in batch systems under constant agitation. The formation of cerussite and hydrocerussite on the spent carbon surfaces was confirmed by XRD, SEM/EDX and FT-IR. A Pb"2"+ removal mechanism is proposed in which a co-precipitation of lead nitrate and calcium carbonate would render the formation of the lead carbonates. In such mechanism, the occurrence of CaCO_3 on the surface of the adsorbents plays a crucial role. The presence of calcium carbonate on the precursors is understood on the basis of the thermal evolution of calcium oxalate originally present in the biomass. The oxygen plasma treatment helps to expose the calcium carbonate nanocrystals thus improving dramatically the removal capacity of Pb"2"+. Accordingly, retention capacities as high as 63 mg of Pb"2"+ per gram of adsorbent have been attained.

  16. Measurement of Stark width of some Ar I transitions and the investigation of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) in an atmospheric d.c. argon plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakshi, V.

    1988-01-01

    The Stark widths of seven Ar I transitions are reported. Axial line shape data from an atmospheric d.c. argon plasma jet were Abel-inverted to obtain radial line shapes. The electron-density was determined by Stark width measurements of the hydrogen H β transition. In the electron-density region of ≤6 x 10 22 m -3 the experimental Ar I Stark widths are fitted to a linear dependence on the electron-density. Values of Stark width extrapolated to other electron densities are compared to measurements reported in the literature on the 4s-4p array. Experimental values are up to 45% smaller than those predicted by Griem's theory of Stark broadening. Conditions for local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) to exist in an atmospheric argon plasma jet were studied. The experiment measures the emission coefficient of seven Ar I transitions and the line shape of the hydrogen H beta transition. After transforming the side-on data into radial space the excited neutral argon atom-density and the electron-density are determined. It is found LTE does not exist below an electron-density of 6 x 10 33 m -3 in the experimental conditions

  17. Milliwatt dc/dc Inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, C. W.

    1983-01-01

    Compact dc/dc inverter uses single integrated-circuit package containing six inverter gates that generate and amplify 100-kHz square-wave switching signal. Square-wave switching inverts 10-volt local power to isolated voltage at another desired level. Relatively high operating frequency reduces size of filter capacitors required, resulting in small package unit.

  18. Optical emission and mass spectroscopy of plasma processes in reactive DC pulsed magnetron sputtering of aluminium oxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Michal; Bulíř, Jiří; Pokorný, Petr; Bočan, Jiří; Fitl, Přemysl; Lančok, Ján; Musil, Jindřich

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2010), 697-700 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100718; GA AV ČR KAN400100653; GA ČR GP202/09/P324 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : reactive magnetron sputtering * alumina * plasma spectroscopy * mass spectroscopy * optical emission spectroscopy Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.412, year: 2010

  19. Measurement of potentials in the wake region of an unmagnetized plasma by using a DC-heated emissive probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yong Ho; Chung, Kyu Sun

    1995-01-01

    An emissive probe was designed and manufactured to measure the floating and the space potentials of a plasma in the wake region. The 'floating potential method', among various schemes, was used for the measurement and analysis. To generate the wake, a plane artificial satellite with a circular shape was introduced into a simply discharged argon plasma without a magnetic field. Potentials along the radial direction in and out of the wake region of the artificial satellite were measured, and the plasma parameters were compared in both regions. In the wake region, the floating potential was higher than that out of the wake; the space potential was approximately equal to that out of the wake; when a positive voltage was applied to the artificial satellite, the floating and the space potentials were lower than those out of the wake; and when a negative voltage was applied to the artificial satellite, the floating potential was higher and the space potential was lower than the corresponding potentials out of the wake. (author)

  20. Decomposition of naphthalene by dc gliding arc gas discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang; Li, Xiaodong; Tu, Xin; Wang, Yu; Lu, Shengyong; Yan, Jianhua

    2010-01-14

    Gliding arc discharge has been proved to be effective in treatment of gas and liquid contaminants. In this study, physical characteristics of dc gliding arc discharge and its application to naphthalene destruction are investigated with different external resistances and carrier gases. The decomposition rate increases with increasing of oxygen concentration and decreases with external resistance. This value can be achieved up to 92.3% at the external resistance of 50 kOmega in the oxygen discharge, while the highest destruction energy efficiency reaches 3.6 g (kW h)(-1) with the external resistance of 93 kOmega. Possible reaction pathways and degradation mechanisms in the plasma with different gases are proposed by qualitative analysis of postdestructed products. In the air and oxygen gliding arc discharges, the naphthalene degradation is mainly governed by reactions with oxygen-derived radicals.

  1. Application of Nanofibrillated Cellulose on BOPP/LDPE Film as Oxygen Barrier and Antimicrobial Coating Based on Cold Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Lu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The application of nanofibrillated cellulose (NC films in packaging industry has been hindered by its lack of heat-sealing ability. Incorporation of NC films with the biaxially oriented polypropylene/low density polyethylene (BOPP/LDPE laminates can take advantage of each material and endow the films with novel functions for food packaging applications. In this study, a coating that consists of NC and nisin was applied onto a cold plasma treated BOPP/LDPE film to fabricate a novel active packaging with an improved oxygen barrier performance and an added antimicrobial effect. The results showed that cold plasma treatment improved the surface hydrophilicity of BOPP/LDPE films for better attachment of the coatings. NC coatings significantly enhanced oxygen barrier property of the BOPP/LDPE film, with an oxygen transmission rate as low as 24.02 cc/m2·day as compared to that of the non-coated one (67.03 cc/m2·day. The addition of nisin in the coating at a concentration of 5 mg/g caused no significant change in barrier properties but imparted the film excellent antimicrobial properties, with a growth inhibition of L. monocytogenes by 94%. All films exhibit satisfying mechanical properties and transparency, and this new film has the potential to be used as antimicrobial and oxygen barrier packaging.

  2. Oxygen toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. van der Westhuizen

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen has been discovered about 200 years ago. Since then the vital physiological involvement of oxygen in various biologi­cal processes, mainly energy production, has been established. However, in the body molecular oxygen can be converted to toxic oxygen metabolites such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen. These toxic metabolites are produced mainly in the mitochondria, plasma membranes and endoplasmic reticulum.

  3. An atmospheric-pressure cold plasma leads to apoptosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by accumulating intracellular reactive oxygen species and calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, R N; Zhang, Q; Tian, Y; Su, B; Zhang, J; Fang, J; Feng, H Q; Liang, Y D

    2013-01-01

    A non-thermal plasma is known to induce apoptosis of various cells but the mechanism is not yet clear. A eukaryotic model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiaewas used to investigate the cellular and biochemical regulations of cell apoptosis and cell cycle after an atmospheric-pressure cold plasma treatment. More importantly, intracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) was first involved in monitoring the process of plasma-induced apoptosis in this study. We analysed the cell apoptosis and cell cycle by flow cytometry and observed the changes in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca 2+ concentration, cell mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ m ) as well as nuclear DNA morphology via fluorescence staining assay. All experimental results indicated that plasma-generated ROS leads to the accumulation of intracellular ROS and Ca 2+ that ultimately contribute to apoptosis associated with cell cycle arrest at G1 phase through depolarization of Δψ m and fragmenting nuclear DNA. This work provides a novel insight into the physical and biological mechanism of apoptosis induced by a plasma which could benefit for promoting the development of plasmas applied to cancer therapy. (paper)

  4. Effect of oxygen plasma on field emission characteristics of single-wall carbon nanotubes grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Avshish; Parveen, Shama; Husain, Samina; Ali, Javid; Zulfequar, Mohammad [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia (A Central University), New Delhi 110025 (India); Harsh [Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Husain, Mushahid, E-mail: mush-reslab@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia (A Central University), New Delhi 110025 (India); Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India)

    2014-02-28

    Field emission properties of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) grown on iron catalyst film by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition system were studied in diode configuration. The results were analysed in the framework of Fowler-Nordheim theory. The grown SWCNTs were found to be excellent field emitters, having emission current density higher than 20 mA/cm{sup 2} at a turn-on field of 1.3 V/μm. The as grown SWCNTs were further treated with Oxygen (O{sub 2}) plasma for 5 min and again field emission characteristics were measured. The O{sub 2} plasma treated SWCNTs have shown dramatic improvement in their field emission properties with emission current density of 111 mA/cm{sup 2} at a much lower turn on field of 0.8 V/μm. The as grown as well as plasma treated SWCNTs were also characterized by various techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy before and after O{sub 2} plasma treatment and the findings are being reported in this paper.

  5. Benefits of oxygen and nitrogen plasma treatment in Vero cell affinity to poly(lactide-co-glycolide acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rodrigues Esposito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell adhesion on materials surface is critical because this phenomenon occurs before other events, as cell spreading, cell migration and cell differentiation. it is commonly accepted that the adhesion of cells on solid substrate is influenced by several substratum surface properties, such as wettability, surface charge, roughness and topography. plasma technique is a convenient method for modifying surface properties of materials without affecting physical properties. in this study, poly(lactide-co-glycolide, plga, membranes were modified by oxygen and nitrogen plasma to improve polymer hydrophilicity and verify their effect on vero cells culture. the plga membranes, which were characterized by sem and contact angle, showed increased surface rugosity and narrower contact angles. cell adhesion, cytotoxicity assay, sem and cytochemistry analysis showed that plasma treatment was beneficial to cell growth by improving cell-polymer interaction. Cell adhesion on materials surface is critical because this phenomenon occurs before other events, as cell spreading, cell migration and cell differentiation. It is commonly accepted that the adhesion of cells on solid substrate is influenced by several substratum surface properties, such as wettability, surface charge, roughness and topography. Plasma technique is a convenient method for modifying surface properties of materials without affecting physical properties. In this study, poly(lactide-co-glycolide, PLGA, membranes were modified by oxygen and nitrogen plasma to improve polymer hydrophilicity and verify their effect on Vero cells culture. The PLGA membranes, which were characterized by SEM and contact angle, showed increased surface rugosity and narrower contact angles. Cell adhesion, cytotoxicity assay, SEM and cytochemistry analysis showed that plasma treatment was beneficial to cell growth by improving cell-polymer interaction.

  6. Oxygen and sodium plasma-implanted nickel-titanium shape memory alloy: A novel method to promote hydroxyapatite formation and suppress nickel leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Y.L.; Yeung, K.W.K.; Lu, W.W.; Ngan, A.H.W.; Luk, K.D.K.; Chan, D.; Wu, S.L.; Liu, X.M.; Chu, Paul K.; Cheung, K.M.C.

    2007-01-01

    This study aims at modifying the surface bioactivity of NiTi by sodium and oxygen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII). Sodium ions were implanted into oxygen plasma-implanted NiTi and untreated NiTi. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that more sodium was implanted into the oxygen pre-implanted sample in comparison with the untreated surface. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) detected calcium and phosphorus rich deposits on both samples after immersion in simulated body fluids for 7 and 21 days. Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) conducted on the deposits dissolved in diluted hydrochloric acid showed more calcium on the oxygen PIII samples. The improved corrosion resistance of the oxygen PIII NiTi was retained after sodium PIII as evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization tests. Better spreading and proliferation of osteoblasts were also observed on the treated samples

  7. Fluctuation characteristics of arc voltage and jet flow in a non-transferred dc plasma generated at reduced pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, W X; Guo, Z Y; Meng, X; Huang, H J; Wu, C K

    2009-01-01

    A torch with a set of inter-electrode inserts between the cathode and the anode/nozzle with a wide nozzle exit was designed to generate plasma jets at chamber pressures of 500-10 000 Pa. The variation of the arc voltage was examined with the change in working parameters such as gas flow rate and chamber pressure. The fluctuation in the arc voltage was recorded with an oscilloscope, and the plasma jet fluctuation near the torch exit was observed with a high-speed video camera and detected with a double-electrostatic probe. Results show that the 300 Hz wave originated from the tri-phase rectified power supply was always detected under all generating conditions. Helmholtz oscillations over 3000 Hz was detected superposed on the 300 Hz wave at gas flow rates higher than 8.8 slm with a peak to valley amplitude lower than 5% of the average voltage value. No appreciable voltage fluctuation caused by the irregular arc root movement is detected, and mechanisms for the arc voltage and jet flow fluctuations are discussed.

  8. Tailoring nanomaterial products through electrode material and oxygen partial pressure in a mini-arc plasma reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Shumao; Mattson, Eric C.; Lu, Ganhua; Hirschmugl, Carol; Gajdardziska-Josifovska, Marija; Chen Junhong

    2012-01-01

    Nanomaterials with controllable morphology and composition are synthesized by a simple one-step vapor condensation process using a mini-arc plasma source. Through systematic investigation of mini-arc reactor parameters, the roles of carrier gas, electrode material, and precursor on producing diverse nanomaterial products are revealed. Desired nanomaterial products, including tungsten oxide nanoparticles (NPs), tungsten oxide nanorods (NRs), tungsten oxide and tin oxide NP mixtures and pure tin dioxide NPs can thus be obtained by tailoring reaction conditions. The amount of oxygen in the reactor is critical to determining the final nanomaterial product. Without any precursor material present, a lower level of oxygen in the reactor favors the production of W 18 O 49 NRs with tungsten as cathode, while a high level of oxygen produces more round WO 3 NPs. With the presence of a precursor material, amorphous particles are favored with a high ratio of argon:oxygen. Oxygen is also found to affect tin oxide crystallization from its amorphous phase in the thermal annealing. Results from this study can be used for guiding gas phase nanomaterial synthesis in the future.

  9. Modulation of electrical properties in Cu/n-type InP Schottky junctions using oxygen plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hogyoung; Jung, Chan Yeong; Hyun Kim, Se; Cho, Yunae; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Using current–voltage (I–V) measurements, we investigated the effect of oxygen plasma treatment on the temperature-dependent electrical properties of Cu/n-type indium phosphide (InP) Schottky contacts at temperatures in the range 100–300 K. Changes in the electrical parameters were evident below 180 K for the low-plasma-power sample (100 W), which is indicative of the presence of a wider distribution of regions of low barrier height. Modified Richardson plots were used to obtain Richardson constants, which were similar to the theoretical value of 9.4 A cm −2 K −2 for n-type InP. This suggests that, for all the samples, a thermionic emission model including a spatially inhomogeneous Schottky barrier can be used to describe the charge transport phenomena at the metal/semiconductor interface. The voltage dependence of the reverse-bias current revealed that Schottky emission was dominant for the untreated and high-plasma-power (250 W) samples. For the low-plasma-power sample, Poole–Frenkel emission was dominant at low voltages, whereas Schottky emission dominated at higher voltages. Defect states and nonuniformity of the interfacial layer appear to be significant in the reverse-bias charge transport properties of the low-plasma-power sample. (paper)

  10. Investigation of the relevant kinetic processes in the initial stage of a double-arcing instability in oxygen plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, B.; Prevosto, L.; Chamorro, J. C.; Minotti, F. O.; Kelly, H.

    2018-05-01

    A numerical investigation of the kinetic processes in the initial (nanosecond range) stage of the double-arcing instability was developed. The plasma-sheath boundary region of an oxygen-operated cutting torch was considered. The energy balance and chemistry processes in the discharge were described. It is shown that the double-arcing instability is a sudden transition from a diffuse (glow-like) discharge to a constricted (arc-like) discharge in the plasma-sheath boundary region arising from a field-emission instability. A critical electric field value of ˜107 V/m was found at the cathodic part of the nozzle wall under the conditions considered. The field-emission instability drives in turn a fast electronic-to-translational energy relaxation mechanism, giving rise to a very fast gas heating rate of at least ˜109 K/s, mainly due to reactions of preliminary dissociation of oxygen molecules via the highly excited electronic state O2(B3Σu-) populated by electron impact. It is expected that this fast oxygen heating rate further stimulates the discharge contraction through the thermal instability mechanism.

  11. Singlet oxygen in the low-temperature plasma of an electron-beam-sustained discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, N. P.; Ionin, A. A.; Klimachev, Yu. M.; Kotkov, A. A.; Kochetov, I. V.; Napartovich, A. P.; Podmar'kov, Yu. P.; Rulev, O. A.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.; Frolov, M. P.; Yuryshev, N. N.

    2006-01-01

    Results are presented from experimental and theoretical studies of the production of singlet delta oxygen in a pulsed electron-beam-sustained discharge ignited in a large (∼18-1) volume at a total gas mixture pressure of up to 210 Torr. The measured yield of singlet oxygen reaches 10.5%. It is found that varying the reduced electric field from ∼2 to ∼11 kV/(cm atm) slightly affects singlet oxygen production. It is shown experimentally that an increase in the gas mixture pressure or the specific input energy reduces the duration of singlet oxygen luminescence. The calculated time evolution of the singlet oxygen concentration is compared with experimental results

  12. Silver nanoparticles as a key feature of a plasma polymer composite layer in mitigation of charge injection into polyethylene under dc stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milliere, L; Makasheva, K; Laurent, C; Despax, B; Boudou, L; Teyssedre, G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to limit charge injection from a semi-conducting electrode into low density polyethylene (LDPE) under dc field by tailoring the polymer surface using a silver nanoparticles-containing layer. The layer is composed of a plane of silver nanoparticles embedded in a semi-insulating organosilicon matrix deposited on the polyethylene surface by a plasma process. Size, density and surface coverage of the nanoparticles are controlled through the plasma process. Space charge distribution in 300 μm thick LDPE samples is measured by the pulsed-electroacoustic technique following a short term (step-wise voltage increase up to 50 kV mm −1 , 20 min in duration each, followed by a polarity inversion) and a longer term (up to 12 h under 40 kV mm −1 ) protocols for voltage application. A comparative study of space charge distribution between a reference polyethylene sample and the tailored samples is presented. It is shown that the barrier effect depends on the size distribution and the surface area covered by the nanoparticles: 15 nm (average size) silver nanoparticles with a high surface density but still not percolating form an efficient barrier layer that suppress charge injection. It is worthy to note that charge injection is detected for samples tailored with (i) percolating nanoparticles embedded in organosilicon layer; (ii) with organosilicon layer only, without nanoparticles and (iii) with smaller size silver particles (<10 nm) embedded in organosilicon layer. The amount of injected charges in the tailored samples increases gradually in the samples ranking given above. The mechanism of charge injection mitigation is discussed on the basis of complementary experiments carried out on the nanocomposite layer such as surface potential measurements. The ability of silver clusters to stabilize electrical charges close to the electrode thereby counterbalancing the applied field appears to be a key factor in explaining the charge injection

  13. Effects of duty cycle on microstructure and corrosion behavior of TiC coatings prepared by DC pulsed plasma CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanaghi, Ali; Rouhaghdam, Ali Reza Sabour; Ahangarani, Shahrokh; Chu, Paul K.; Farahani, Taghi Shahrabi

    2012-01-01

    Titanium carbide coatings are deposited on hot-work steel (H 11 ) by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) and the dependence of the corrosion behavior on fabrication parameters is investigated. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Raman and electrochemical tests are used to study the structure as well as corrosion behaviors. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction reveals the (2 0 0) plane implying that the TiC coatings are deposited via the kinetics-limited crystal growth mechanism and under thermodynamically stable conditions. The SEM results indicate that the formation of a homogeneous and uniform titanium carbide nanostructure coatings. Potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance tests performed in 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 and 0.05 M NaCl show that the TiC coating produced using a 40% duty cycle possesses high corrosion resistance in both media. The R p values of the TiC coating (50% duty cycle) in 0.05 M NaCl and the other TiC coating (40% duty cycle) in 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 are approximately four and sixteen orders of magnitude higher than that of the bare steel, respectively. Our results reveal that the duty cycles not only affect the structure and morphology of the coatings but also influence the electrochemical properties.

  14. Comparative investigation of novel hetero gate dielectric and drain engineered charge plasma TFET for improved DC and RF performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Dharmendra Singh; Verma, Abhishek; Sharma, Dheeraj; Tirkey, Sukeshni; Raad, Bhagwan Ram

    2017-11-01

    Tunnel-field-effect-transistor (TFET) has emerged as one of the most prominent devices to replace conventional MOSFET due to its ability to provide sub-threshold slope below 60 mV/decade (SS ≤ 60 mV/decade) and low leakage current. Despite this, TFETs suffer from ambipolar behavior, lower ON-state current, and poor RF performance. To address these issues, we have introduced drain and gate work function engineering with hetero gate dielectric for the first time in charge plasma based doping-less TFET (DL TFET). In this, the usage of dual work functionality over the drain region significantly reduces the ambipolar behavior of the device by varying the energy barrier at drain/channel interface. Whereas, the presence of dual work function at the gate terminal increases the ON-state current (ION). The combined effect of dual work function at the gate and drain electrode results in the increment of ON-state current (ION) and decrement of ambipolar conduction (Iambi) respectively. Furthermore, the incorporation of hetero gate dielectric along with dual work functionality at the drain and gate electrode provides an overall improvement in the performance of the device in terms of reduction in ambipolarity, threshold voltage and sub-threshold slope along with improved ON-state current and high frequency figures of merit.

  15. A new design approach for enhancement of DC/RF characteristics with improved ambipolar conduction of charge plasma TFET: proposal, and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Mohd.; Sharma, Dheeraj; Yadav, Shivendra; Soni, Deepak; Bajaj, Varun

    2018-04-01

    This article presents a new device structure to suppress ambipolarity with enhanced electrostatic characteristics of charge plasma TFET (CP-TFET). Here, implantation of a metal angle (MA) of low workfunction inside the high-k dielectric (HfO2) layer near source/channel interface gives excellent improvement in DC and RF characteristics of the proposed device. Deposition of MA is advantageous to increase abruptness of source/channel junction for reducing the tunneling barrier. Along with MA placement, the metal electrode, which is placed over the silicon wafer for inducing N+ drain region, is divided into the two parts of low and high workfunctions. The workfunction of the part of metal electrode near the channel region is taken comparatively higher than the other part to restrict the tunneling of holes at drain/channel junction under negative bias (-V_gs) condition. Such concept induces asymmetrical concentration of charge carriers in the drain region, which widens the tunneling barrier at the drain/channel interface. Consequently, the proposed device shows better RF performance along with suppressed ambipolar conduction. Furthermore, reliability of conventional and proposed structures has been tested in terms of linearity. Simultaneously, the effect of workfunction and length variation of MA on the device characteristics is analyzed in optimization section of the article.

  16. Surface stoichiometry modification and improved DC/RF characteristics by plasma treated and annealed AlGaN/GaN HEMTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Bhanu B.; Takhar, Kuldeep; Jha, Jaya; Ganguly, Swaroop; Saha, Dipankar

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate that N2 and O2 plasma treatment followed by rapid thermal annealing leads to surface stoichiometry modification in a AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor. Both the source/drain access and gate regions respond positively improving the transistor characteristics albeit to different extents. Characterizations indicate that the surface show the characteristics of that of a higher band-gap material like AlxOy and GaxOy along with N-vacancy in the sub-surface region. The N-vacancy leads to an increased two-dimensional electron gas density. The formation of oxides lead to a reduced gate leakage current and surface passivation. The DC characteristics show increased transconductance, saturation drain current, ON/OFF current ratio, sub-threshold swing and lower ON resistance by a factor of 2.9, 2.0, 103.3 , 2.3, and 2.1, respectively. The RF characteristics show an increase in unity current gain frequency by a factor of 1.7 for a 500 nm channel length device.

  17. Sintering Behavior of Spark Plasma Sintered SiC with Si-SiC Composite Nanoparticles Prepared by Thermal DC Plasma Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yeon-Tae; Naik, Gautam Kumar; Lim, Young-Bin; Yoon, Jeong-Mo

    2017-11-01

    The Si-coated SiC (Si-SiC) composite nanoparticle was prepared by non-transferred arc thermal plasma processing of solid-state synthesized SiC powder and was used as a sintering additive for SiC ceramic formation. Sintered SiC pellet was prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) process, and the effect of nano-sized Si-SiC composite particles on the sintering behavior of micron-sized SiC powder was investigated. The mixing ratio of Si-SiC composite nanoparticle to micron-sized SiC was optimized to 10 wt%. Vicker's hardness and relative density was increased with increasing sintering temperature and holding time. The relative density and Vicker's hardness was further increased by reaction bonding using additional activated carbon to the mixture of micron-sized SiC and nano-sized Si-SiC. The maximum relative density (97.1%) and Vicker's hardness (31.4 GPa) were recorded at 1800 °C sintering temperature for 1 min holding time, when 0.2 wt% additional activated carbon was added to the mixture of SiC/Si-SiC.

  18. Sintering Behavior of Spark Plasma Sintered SiC with Si-SiC Composite Nanoparticles Prepared by Thermal DC Plasma Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yeon-Tae; Naik, Gautam Kumar; Lim, Young-Bin; Yoon, Jeong-Mo

    2017-11-25

    The Si-coated SiC (Si-SiC) composite nanoparticle was prepared by non-transferred arc thermal plasma processing of solid-state synthesized SiC powder and was used as a sintering additive for SiC ceramic formation. Sintered SiC pellet was prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) process, and the effect of nano-sized Si-SiC composite particles on the sintering behavior of micron-sized SiC powder was investigated. The mixing ratio of Si-SiC composite nanoparticle to micron-sized SiC was optimized to 10 wt%. Vicker's hardness and relative density was increased with increasing sintering temperature and holding time. The relative density and Vicker's hardness was further increased by reaction bonding using additional activated carbon to the mixture of micron-sized SiC and nano-sized Si-SiC. The maximum relative density (97.1%) and Vicker's hardness (31.4 GPa) were recorded at 1800 °C sintering temperature for 1 min holding time, when 0.2 wt% additional activated carbon was added to the mixture of SiC/Si-SiC.

  19. Discharge Characteristic of VHF-DC Superimposed Magnetron Sputtering System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Hirotaka; Fukuoka, Yushi; Fukui, Takashi; Takada, Noriharu; Sasai, Kensuke

    2014-10-01

    Magnetron plasmas are one of the most important tools for sputter deposition of thin films. However, energetic particles from the sputtered target such as backscattered rare gas atoms or oxygen negative ions from oxide targets sometimes induce physical and chemical damages as well as surface roughening to the deposited film surface during the sputtering processes. To suppress kinetic energy of such particles, superposition of RF or VHF power to the DC power has been investigated. In this study, influence of the VHF power superposition on the DC target voltage, which is important factor to determine kinetic energy of high energy particles, is investigated. In the study, 40 MHz VHF power was superimposed to an ITO target and decrease in the target DC voltage was measured as well as deposited film deposition properties such as deposition rate or electrical conductivity. From systematic measurement of the target voltage, it was revealed that the target voltage can be determined by a very simple parameter, i.e., a ratio of VHF power to the total input power (DC and VHF powers) in spite of the DC discharge current. Part of this work was supported by ASTEP, JST.

  20. Comparison of NO titration and fiber optics catalytic probes for determination of neutral oxygen atom concentration in plasmas and postglows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozetic, Miran; Ricard, Andre; Babic, Dusan; Poberaj, Igor; Levaton, Jacque; Monna, Virginie; Cvelbar, Uros

    2003-01-01

    A comparative study of two different absolute methods NO titration and fiber optics catalytic probe (FOCP) for determination of neutral oxygen atom density is presented. Both methods were simultaneously applied for measurements of O density in a postglow of an Ar/O 2 plasma created by a surfatron microwave generator with the frequency of 2.45 GHz an adjustable output power between 30 and 160 W. It was found that the two methods gave similar results. The advantages of FOCP were found to be as follows: it is a nondestructive method, it enables real time measuring of the O density, it does not require any toxic gas, and it is much faster than NO titration. The advantage of NO titration was found to be the ability to measure O density in a large range of dissociation of oxygen molecules

  1. Study of low resistivity and high work function ITO films prepared by oxygen flow rates and N2O plasma treatment for amorphous/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shahzada Qamar; Oh, Woong-Kyo; Kim, Sunbo; Ahn, Shihyun; Le, Anh Huy Tuan; Park, Hyeongsik; Lee, Youngseok; Dao, Vinh Ai; Velumani, S; Yi, Junsin

    2014-12-01

    Pulsed DC magnetron sputtered indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited on glass substrates with lowest resistivity of 2.62 x 10(-4) Ω x cm and high transmittance of about 89% in the visible wavelength region. We report the enhancement of ITO work function (Φ(ITO)) by the variation of oxygen (O2) flow rate and N2O surface plasma treatment. The Φ(ITO) increased from 4.43 to 4.56 eV with the increase in O2 flow rate from 0 to 4 sccm while surface treatment of N2O plasma further enhanced the ITO work function to 4.65 eV. The crystallinity of the ITO films improved with increasing O2 flow rate, as revealed by XRD analysis. The ITO work function was increased by the interfacial dipole resulting from the surface rich in O- ions and by the dipole moment formed at the ITO surface during N2O plasma treatment. The ITO films with high work functions can be used to modify the front barrier height in heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) solar cells.

  2. Effect of substrate temperature on the structure of amorphous oxygenated hydrocarbon films grown with a pulsed supersonic methane plasma flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedoseeva, Yu. V., E-mail: fedoseeva@niic.nsc.ru [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Pozdnyakov, G.A. [Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Okotrub, A.V.; Kanygin, M.A. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Nastaushev, Yu. V. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Vilkov, O.Y. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Bulusheva, L.G. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • A deposition of supersonic methane plasma flow on silicon substrate produces amorphous oxygenated hydrocarbon (CO{sub x}H{sub y}) film. • The thickness, composition, and wettability of the film depend on the substrate temperature. • A rise of the substrate temperature from 500 to 700 °C promotes the sp{sup 3}-hybridization carbon formation. - Abstract: Since amorphous oxygenated hydrocarbon (CO{sub x}H{sub y}) films are promising engineering materials a study of the structure and composition of the films depending on the conditions of synthesis is important for controlling of their physicochemical properties. Here, we used the methods of scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy to reveal changes in the chemical connectivity of CO{sub x}H{sub y} films grown on silicon substrates heated to 300, 500, and 700 °C using a supersonic flow of methane plasma. It was found that the CO{sub x}H{sub y} films, deposited at 300 and 500 °C, were mainly composed of the sp{sup 2}-hybridized carbon areas with various oxygen species. A rise of the substrate temperature caused an increase of the portion of tetrahedral carbon atoms as well as carboxyl and hydroxyl groups. With growth of the substrate temperature, the film thickness reduced monotonically from 400 to 180 nm, while the film adhesion improved substantially. The films, deposited at lower temperatures, showed high hydrophilicity due to porosity and presence of oxygenated groups both at the surface and in the bulk.

  3. Cytocompatibility studies of vertically-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes: Raw material and functionalized by oxygen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, A.O., E-mail: loboao@yahoo.com [Laboratorio Associado de Sensores e Materiais, INPE, Sao Jose dos Campos/SP (Brazil); Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, ITA, Sao Jose dos Campos/SP (Brazil); Laboratorio de Nanotecnologia Biomedica, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Sao Jose dos Campos/SP (Brazil); Corat, M.A.F. [Centro Multidisciplinar para Investigacao Biologica na Area da Ciencia em Animais de Laboratorio, CEMIB, UNICAMP, Campinas/SP (Brazil); Antunes, E.F. [Laboratorio Associado de Sensores e Materiais, INPE, Sao Jose dos Campos/SP (Brazil); Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, ITA, Sao Jose dos Campos/SP (Brazil); Ramos, S.C. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, ITA, Sao Jose dos Campos/SP (Brazil); Pacheco-Soares, C. [Laboratorio de Dinamica de Compartimentos Celulares, UNIVAP, Sao Jose dos Campos/SP (Brazil); and others

    2012-05-01

    It was presented a strong difference on cell adhesion and proliferation of functionalized vertically-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube (VACNT) scaffolds compared to raw-VACNT. Biocompatibility in vitro tests were performed on raw-VACNT after superficial modification by oxygen plasma, which changes its superhydrophobic character to superhydrophilic. Two cytocompatibility tests were applied: 1) total lactate dehydrogenase colorimetric assay for the study of proliferating cells; and 2) cellular adhesion by scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that superhydrophilic VACNT scaffolds stimulate cell growth with proliferation up to 70% higher than normal growth of cell culture.

  4. Numerical simulation of physicochemical interactions between oxygen atom and phosphatidylcholine due to direct irradiation of atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasma to biological membrane with quantum mechanical molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Satoshi; Yoshida, Taketo; Tochikubo, Fumiyoshi

    2017-10-01

    Plasma medicine is one of the most attractive applications using atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasma. With respect to direct contact of the discharge plasma with a biological membrane, reactive oxygen species play an important role in induction of medical effects. However, complicated interactions between the plasma radicals and membrane have not been understood well. In the present work, we simulated elemental processes at the first stage of physicochemical interactions between oxygen atom and phosphatidylcholine using the quantum mechanical molecular dynamics code in a general software AMBER. The change in the above processes was classified according to the incident energy of oxygen atom. At an energy of 1 eV, the abstraction of a hydrogen atom and recombination to phosphatidylcholine were simultaneously occurred in chemical attachment of incident oxygen atom. The exothermal energy of the reaction was about 80% of estimated one based on the bond energies of ethane. An oxygen atom over 10 eV separated phosphatidylcholine partially. The behaviour became increasingly similar to physical sputtering. The reaction probability of oxygen atom was remarkably high in comparison with that of hydrogen peroxide. These results suggest that we can uniformly estimate various physicochemical dynamics of reactive oxygen species against membrane lipids.

  5. Atmospheric plasma generates oxygen atoms as oxidizing species in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hefny, Mohamed Mokhtar; Pattyn, Cedric; Benedikt, Jan; Lukes, Petr

    2016-01-01

    A remote microscale atmospheric pressure plasma jet ( µ APPJ) with He, He/H 2 O, He/O 2 , and He/O 2 /H 2 O gas mixtures was used to study the transport of reactive species from the gas phase into the liquid and the following aqueous phase chemistry. The effects induced by the µ APPJ in water were quantitatively studied using phenol as a chemical probe and by measuring H 2 O 2 concentration and pH values. These results were combined with the analysis of the absolute densities of the reactive species and the modeling of convective/diffusion transport and recombination reactions in the effluent of the plasma jet. Additionally, modified plasma jets were used to show that the role of emitted photons in aqueous chemistry is negligible for these plasma sources. The fastest phenol degradation was measured for the He/O 2 plasma, followed by He/H 2 O, He/O 2 /H 2 O, and He plasmas. The modeled quantitative flux of O atoms into the liquid in the He/O 2 plasma case was highly comparable with the phenol degradation rate and showed a very high transfer efficiency of reactive species from the plasma into the liquid, where more than half of the O atoms leaving the jet nozzle entered the liquid. The results indicate that the high oxidative effect of He/O 2 plasma was primarily due to solvated O atoms, whereas OH radicals dominated the oxidative effects induced in water by plasmas with other gas mixtures. These findings help to understand, in a quantitative way, the complex interaction of cold atmospheric plasmas with aqueous solutions and will allow a better understanding of the interaction of these plasmas with water or buffered solutions containing biological macromolecules, microorganisms, or even eukaryotic cells. Additionally, the µ APPJ He/O 2 plasma source seems to be an ideal tool for the generation of O atoms in aqueous solutions for any future studies of their reactivity. (paper)

  6. Aging of oxygen and hydrogen plasma discharge treated a-C:H and ta-C coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Svenja; Schulze, Marcus; Morasch, Jan; Hesse, Sabine; Hussein, Laith; Krell, Lisa; Schnagl, Johann; Stark, Robert W.; Narayan, Suman

    2016-05-01

    Surface modification with gas plasma is an efficient and easy way to improve the surface energy and the tribological behavior of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings, e.g., in biomedical implants or as protective coatings. However, the long-term performance of the plasma treated DLC coatings is not fully clear. We thus studied the long-term stability of two kinds of DLC coatings, namely (a) hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) and (b) tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) treated at different radio frequency (RF) power and time of oxygen (O2) and hydrogen (H2) plasma. Their surface properties, e.g. surface wettability, structure and tribological behavior, were studied at regular intervals for a period of two months using contact angle goniometer, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), lateral force microscopy (LFM) and ball on disc apparatus. The surface energy of both the coatings decreased upon aging. The higher the RF power and time of treatment, the higher was the hydrophobicity upon aging. XPS analysis showed that the increase in hydrophobicity could be due to adsorption of unavoidable volatile organic components in the atmosphere. The H2 plasma treated ta-C was capable of rearranging its structural bonds upon aging. The nano-friction measurements by LFM showed that the coefficient of friction of plasma treated a-C:H and ta-C decreased upon aging. The results indicate that the surface properties of plasma treated a-C:H and ta-C are not stable on long-term and are influenced by the environmental conditions.

  7. Characteristics of SiOx-containing hard film prepared by low temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using hexamethyldisilazane or vinyltrimethylsilane and post oxygen plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Yi-Syuan; Liu, Wan-Yu; Wu, Hsin-Ming [Department of Materials Engineering, Tatung University, Taipei, 104, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ko-Shao, E-mail: kschen@ttu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Engineering, Tatung University, Taipei, 104, Taiwan (China); Cech, Vladimir [Institute of Materials Chemistry, Brno University of Technology (Czech Republic)

    2017-03-01

    This study, monomers of hexamethyldisilazane (HMDSZ) and vinyltrimethylsilane (VTMS) were respectively used to deposit on the surface of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Oxygen plasma treatment follows the HMDSZ and VTMS deposition to produce a hydrophilic surface film on the deposited surface. Time for HMDSZ and VTMS plasma deposition was changed to investigate its influences on water contact angle, deposited film thickness, refractive index, and friction coefficient properties. The surface morphologies of the processed samples were observed by scanning electron microscope and their chemical compositions were measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. At 550 nm wavelength, the optical transmittance of PET after the HMDSZ treatment decreases from 89% to 83%, but increases from 89% to 95% for the VTMS treatment. With increase in HMDSZ and VTMS deposition times, the film thickness increases and the refractive index decreases. Result revealed by XPS, SiO{sub 2} film is formed on the sample surface after the O{sub 2} plasma treatment. The film adhesion capability by the HMDSZ+O{sub 2} and VTMS+O{sub 2} treatment was stronger than that by the HMDSZ and VTMS treatment only. The SiOx films produced by HMDSZ+O{sub 2} and VTMS+O{sub 2} treatment can increase the film hardness and improve light transmittance. - Highlights: • With increase in HMDSZ and VTMS deposition times, the film thickness increases and the refractive index decreases. • The optical transmittance of PET after the VTMS treatment increases from 89% to 95%. • The SiO{sub 2} films deposited by HMDSZ+O{sub 2} and VTMS+O{sub 2} plasma can increase the film hardness and improve light transmittance. • It is expected that they can be applied to the optical transmittance protective film on plastic substrate in the future.

  8. Aging of oxygen and hydrogen plasma discharge treated a-C:H and ta-C coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, Svenja [Physics of Surfaces, Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 16, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); BMW Group, Hufelandstraße 4, 80788 Munich (Germany); Schulze, Marcus [Physics of Surfaces, Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 16, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 10, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Morasch, Jan [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Surface Science Division, Jovanka-Bonschits-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Hesse, Sabine [Physics of Surfaces, Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 16, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 10, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Hussein, Laith [Eduard-Zintl-Institut, Department of Chemistry, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 12, 64287, Darmstadt (Germany); Krell, Lisa; Schnagl, Johann [BMW Group, Hufelandstraße 4, 80788 Munich (Germany); Stark, Robert W. [Physics of Surfaces, Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 16, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 10, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); and others

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • The water CA of O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} plasma treated a-C:H and ta-C changes from hydrophillic to hydrophobic on aging. • XPS study indicates that the decrease in surface energy of plasma treated a-C:H and ta-C could be due to adsorption of organic component from air. • The COFLFM of O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} plasma treated a-C:H and ta-C decreased upon aging. • The COF of glycerol lubricated ta-C showed no sign of change upon aging. - Abstract: Surface modification with gas plasma is an efficient and easy way to improve the surface energy and the tribological behavior of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings, e.g., in biomedical implants or as protective coatings. However, the long-term performance of the plasma treated DLC coatings is not fully clear. We thus studied the long-term stability of two kinds of DLC coatings, namely (a) hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) and (b) tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) treated at different radio frequency (RF) power and time of oxygen (O{sub 2}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) plasma. Their surface properties, e.g. surface wettability, structure and tribological behavior, were studied at regular intervals for a period of two months using contact angle goniometer, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), lateral force microscopy (LFM) and ball on disc apparatus. The surface energy of both the coatings decreased upon aging. The higher the RF power and time of treatment, the higher was the hydrophobicity upon aging. XPS analysis showed that the increase in hydrophobicity could be due to adsorption of unavoidable volatile organic components in the atmosphere. The H{sub 2} plasma treated ta-C was capable of rearranging its structural bonds upon aging. The nano-friction measurements by LFM showed that the coefficient of friction of plasma treated a-C:H and ta-C decreased upon aging. The results indicate that the surface properties of plasma treated a‐C:H and ta‐C are not stable on long-term and are

  9. Population Pharmacokinetics of Meropenem in Plasma and Subcutis in Patients on Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanberg, Pelle; Öbrink-Hansen, Kristina; Thorsted, Anders

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe meropenem pharmacokinetics (PK) in plasma and/or subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCT) in critically ill patients receiving ECMO treatment, and to develop a population PK model to simulate alternative dosing regimens and modes of administration. We...... conducted a prospective observational study. Ten patients on ECMO treatment received meropenem (1 or 2 g) intravenously over 5 min every 8 hours. Serial SCT concentrations were determined using microdialysis and compared with plasma concentrations. A population PK model of SCT and plasma data was developed...... infusion would be needed for 100%fT>MIC and 100%fT>4xMIC to be obtained. Meropenem plasma and SCT concentrations were associated with estimated creatinine-clearance (eCLCr). Simulations showed that in patients with increased eCLCr, dose increment or continuous infusion may be needed to obtain therapeutic...

  10. Surface behavior of polyamide 6 modified by barrier plasma in oxygen and nitrogen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, I.; Popelka, A.; Valentín, M.; Chodák, I.; Špírková, Milena; Tóth, A.; Kleinová, A.; Sedliačik, J.; Lehocký, M.; Maronek, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 1 (2014), s. 31-38 ISSN 1023-666X Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : adhesion * AFM * barrier plasma Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.264, year: 2014

  11. Oxygen Barrier Coating Deposited by Novel Plasma-enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Juan; Benter, M.; Taboryski, Rafael Jozef

    2010-01-01

    We report the use of a novel plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition chamber with coaxial electrode geometry for the SiOx deposition. This novel plasma setup exploits the diffusion of electrons through the inner most electrode to the interior samples space as the major energy source. This confi......We report the use of a novel plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition chamber with coaxial electrode geometry for the SiOx deposition. This novel plasma setup exploits the diffusion of electrons through the inner most electrode to the interior samples space as the major energy source...... effect of single-layer coatings deposited under different reaction conditions was studied. The coating thickness and the carbon content in the coatings were found to be the critical parameters for the barrier property. The novel barrier coating was applied on different polymeric materials...

  12. Dissociation kinetics of iodine in oxygen-containing electrical discharge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, A.I.; Klopovskii, K.S.; Rakhimova, T.V.; Samorodov, V.A.

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the kinetics of gaseous media containing oxygen and iodine molecules have been stimulated to a substantial degree by the search for ways of improving iodine-oxygen lasers and by the need for information on loss processes for atmospheric ozone. Results are presented from an experimental study and numerical simulations of the kinetics of the dissociation of iodine in self-sustained volume discharges in high-pressure O 2 :Ar:I 2 mixtures. It is shown that the well-studied mechanism for dissociation based on excitation of iodine molecules in successive collisions with singlet oxygen and excited iodine atoms is supplanted by a substantially different mechanism involving the creation and loss of 10 radicals when the densities of atomic oxygen and ozone are high enough. It is also shown that iodine fractions as low as ∼10 -3 in the mixture lead to rapid loss of ozone molecules while less than 18% of the discharge energy is expended in the production of singlet oxygen

  13. Electrostatic probe and calorimetric measurements in a DC cathodic arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepone, Alejandro; Marquez, Adriana; Kelly, Hector; Grondona, Diana

    2001-01-01

    Several results obtained from measurements with spherical Langmuir probes and a calorimetric technique in a dc cathodic arc are presented. The arc is operated at a current level of 100 A, with a Copper cathode, and with Oxygen gas at a pressure in the range 0.005 divide 0.2 mbar. The measurements were performed at different axial positions in the discharge chamber. It is found that the electron temperature decreases for larger axial positions or higher pressures, but the derivation of reliable values for the ion density and kinetic energy require the consideration of atomic processes between the plasma and gas particles

  14. Experiments on cleaning effects of TDC, GDC and ECR-DC in the JFT-2M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Miura, Y.; Ohtsuka, H.; Suzuki, N.; Yamauchi, T.; Tani, T.; Mori, M.

    1987-01-01

    The cleaning effects of Taylor-type discharge cleaning (TDC), glow discharge cleaning (GDC) and ECR discharge cleaning (ECR-DC) were studied in the JFT-2M tokamak by comparing the properties of resulting tokamak plasmas, by observing the surface composition of samples and by residual gas analysis. The operational parameters of the three discharge cleaning techniques were as follows; the plasma current for TDC is 20 kA, the DC current for GDC is 3 A and the RF power for ECR-DC is 2.3 kW. Parameters of the tokamak plasmas such as loop voltages, radiation losses, spectra emission of oxygen, maximum mean electron densities and profiles of electron temperature were improved as the TDC and ECR-DC proceeded. Changes in the surface composition of samples were measured by Auger electron spectrosopy. The results showed that during the TDC and ECR-DC oxygen was reduced, while GDC reduced mainly carbon. Residual gas analysis performed during discharge cleaning corroborated these results. (orig.)

  15. Effects of oxygen gas flow rates and Ga contents on structural properties of Ga-doped ZnO films prepared by ion-plating with a DC arc discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasako, Tomoaki; Nomoto, Junichi; Makino, Hisao; Yamamoto, Naoki; Shirakata, Sho; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Structural properties of highly c-axis oriented polycrystalline Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films prepared by ion-plating with a DC arc discharge were studied in terms of the oxygen gas flow rate (F O2 ) introduced into the chamber during the deposition process and the Ga 2 O 3 content in the GZO sintered pellet. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements revealed that the GZO films have the residual compressive stress along the a-axis direction (in-plane) and the tensile stress along the c-axis direction (out-of-plane). The increase in F O2 or the increase in Ga 2 O 3 content was effective for relaxing the in-plane compressive stress induced by the so-called atomic peening effect. The positive correlation between the carrier concentration (n) and the primitive cell volume (V) would be due to the incorporation of Ga atoms substituting Zn sites (Ga Zn s) together with the generation of n-type intrinsic defects or complex defects. - Highlights: • Films of Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films were deposited by ion-plating with a DC arc discharge. • Structural properties of GZO films were examined by X-ray diffraction measurements. • GZO films had the residual compressive stress along the a-axis direction. • There was the correlation between the carrier concentration and the cell volume.

  16. Effects of oxygen gas flow rates and Ga contents on structural properties of Ga-doped ZnO films prepared by ion-plating with a DC arc discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terasako, Tomoaki, E-mail: terasako.tomoaki.mz@ehime-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama-shi, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Nomoto, Junichi; Makino, Hisao; Yamamoto, Naoki [Research Institute, Kochi University of Technology, 185 Miyanokuchi, Tosayamada-cho, Kami-shi, Kochi 782-8502 (Japan); Shirakata, Sho [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama-shi, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Yamamoto, Tetsuya [Research Institute, Kochi University of Technology, 185 Miyanokuchi, Tosayamada-cho, Kami-shi, Kochi 782-8502 (Japan)

    2015-12-01

    Structural properties of highly c-axis oriented polycrystalline Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films prepared by ion-plating with a DC arc discharge were studied in terms of the oxygen gas flow rate (F{sub O2}) introduced into the chamber during the deposition process and the Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} content in the GZO sintered pellet. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements revealed that the GZO films have the residual compressive stress along the a-axis direction (in-plane) and the tensile stress along the c-axis direction (out-of-plane). The increase in F{sub O2} or the increase in Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} content was effective for relaxing the in-plane compressive stress induced by the so-called atomic peening effect. The positive correlation between the carrier concentration (n) and the primitive cell volume (V) would be due to the incorporation of Ga atoms substituting Zn sites (Ga{sub Zn}s) together with the generation of n-type intrinsic defects or complex defects. - Highlights: • Films of Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films were deposited by ion-plating with a DC arc discharge. • Structural properties of GZO films were examined by X-ray diffraction measurements. • GZO films had the residual compressive stress along the a-axis direction. • There was the correlation between the carrier concentration and the cell volume.

  17. High-rate deposition of photocatalytic TiO2 films by oxygen plasma assist reactive evaporation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Tetsuya; Kuniyoshi, Yuji; Aoki, Wataru; Ezoe, Sho; Endo, Tatsuya; Hoshi, Yoichi

    2008-01-01

    High-rate deposition of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) film was attempted using oxygen plasma assisted reactive evaporation (OPARE) method. Photocatalytic properties of the film were investigated. During the deposition, the substrate temperature was fixed at 400 deg. C. The film deposition rate can be increased by increasing the supply of titanium atoms to the substrate, although oversupply of the titanium atoms causes oxygen deficiency in the films, which limits the deposition rate. The film structure depends strongly on the supply ratio of oxygen molecules to titanium atoms O 2 /Ti and changes from anatase to rutile structure as the O 2 /Ti supply ratio increased. Consequently, the maximum deposition rates of 77.0 nm min -1 and 145.0 nm min -1 were obtained, respectively, for the anatase and rutile film. Both films deposited at such high rates showed excellent hydrophilicity and organic decomposition performance. Even the film with rutile structure deposited at 145.0 nm min -1 had a contact angle of less than 2.5 deg. by UV irradiation for 5.0 h and an organics-decomposition performance index of 8.9 [μmol l -1 min -1 ] for methylene blue

  18. Modelling of the heat transfer during oxygen atoms recombination on metallic surfaces in a plasma reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavadias, S; Cauquot, P; Amouroux, J

    1997-01-01

    Space shuttle overheating during the re-entry phase, due to catalytic oxygen recombination on the thermal protection system, is a problem of practical and theoretical interest. The energy transfer is characterised by the product of the accommodation and the recombination coefficients. Previous

  19. A Unidirectional DC-DC Autotransformer for DC Grid Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional unidirectional DC-DC converters for DC grid application employ DC-AC-DC two-stage conversion technology and suffer from high converter cost and power loss. To solve these issues, a unidirectional step-up DC-DC autotransformer (UUDAT and a unidirectional step-down DC-DC autotransformer (DUDAT are studied. The UUDAT and DUDAT are composed of a series connection of diode bridges and voltage source converters. Topologies of UUDAT and DUDAT are detailed. The harmonic and un-controllability issues are discussed. Control and possible application scenarios for UUDAT and DUDAT are depicted. DC fault isolation mechanism and the methods of dimensioning the voltage and power ratings of the components in UUDAT and DUDAT are studied. Extensive simulations on power system level and experiments on a UUDAT and DUDAT prototype verified their technical feasibility.

  20. Study of short atmospheric pressure dc glow microdischarge in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Anatoly; Bogdanov, Eugene; Chirtsov, Alexander; Emelin, Sergey

    2011-10-01

    The results of experiments and simulations of short (without positive column) atmospheric pressure dc glow discharge in air are presented. We used metal steel electrodes with a gap of 5-100 microns. The experimental voltage-current characteristic's (VAC) have a constant or slightly increasing form at low gap. The most stable microdischarges were burning with a flat cathode and rounded anode, when the length of the discharge is automatically established near the minimum of the Paschen curve by changing their binding on the anode. In this case microdischarge was stable and it had growing VAC. For simulations we used 2D fluid model with kinetic description of electrons. We solved the balance equations for the vibrationally- and the electronically-excited states of a nitrogen and oxygen molecules; nitrogen and oxygen atoms; ozone molecule; and different nitrogen and oxygen ions with different plasmochemical reactions between them. Simulations predicted the main regions of the dc glow discharges including cathode and anode sheath and plasma of negative glow, Faraday dark space and transition region. Gas heating plays an important role in shaping the discharge profiles. The results of experiments and simulations of short (without positive column) atmospheric pressure dc glow discharge in air are presented. We used metal steel electrodes with a gap of 5-100 microns. The experimental voltage-current characteristic's (VAC) have a constant or slightly increasing form at low gap. The most stable microdischarges were burning with a flat cathode and rounded anode, when the length of the discharge is automatically established near the minimum of the Paschen curve by changing their binding on the anode. In this case microdischarge was stable and it had growing VAC. For simulations we used 2D fluid model with kinetic description of electrons. We solved the balance equations for the vibrationally- and the electronically-excited states of a nitrogen and oxygen molecules; nitrogen

  1. Studies on the reactive deposition of TiN{sub x} and TiO{sub x} in a DC magnetron plasma; Untersuchungen zur reaktiven Abscheidung von TiN{sub x} und TiO{sub x} in einem DC-Magnetronplasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrehde, Stefan

    2009-10-30

    In the present thesis experiments in a magnetron coating plasma on the (reactive) deposition of Ti, Ti{sub x}, and TiO{sub x} layers were performed. The aim was to meet by correlation of measurements of the ion and energy current on the substrate during the coating procedure with studies of the properties of the deposed layers statements about the connections of deposition conditions and layer properties. The layers deposed in the argon plasma without reactive gas contained beside titanium as main component also small concentrations of oxygen in the range of 8..15%, no completely pure respectively metallic titanium layers could be deposed. In the layers deposed in the argon-nitrogen plasma the increasing nitrogen admixture to the plasma leads mto an increasing nitridation of the layers. The measurements of the crystal structure show higher macroscopical stresses in the layers deposed in the unbalanced mode. From the combination of the higher thicknesses and densities of the layers deposed in the unbalanced mode in this operation mode of the magnetron higher deposition rates result. In the argon-oxygen plasma at increasing oxygen part it comes to a distinct increasement of the oxygen concentration at simultaneous decreasement of the relative titanium concentration in the deposed layers. The deposition in the unbalanced mode leads against the that in the balanced mode to a slightly lower oxygen concentration in the layers. The measurements of the crystal structure show also a lower oxygen insertion and tendentially lower macroscopical stresses in the layers deposed in the unbalanced mode. The measured densities of the layers deposed in the unbalanced mode are distinctly lower than to be expected, and above all smaller than those of the layers deposed in the balanced mode.

  2. Oxygen plasma treatment of HKUST-1 for porosity retention upon exposure to moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jaeyeon; Jung, Jin-Woo; Park, Hyo Yul; Cho, Chang-Hee; Park, Jinhee

    2017-11-07

    Despite their remarkable properties, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) present vulnerable structures that are sensitive to moisture; therefore, their application to real field situations is challenging. Herein, an O 2 plasma technique was introduced as a new method for the activation and protection of porosity in HKUST-1. In an unprecedented manner, O 2 plasma-treated HKUST-1 retains its porosity after a long exposure to moisture as compared to pristine HKUST-1. Porosity retention was examined by N 2 adsorption/desorption measurements of non-activated HKUST-1 after exposure to moisture.

  3. Surface modification of a natural zeolite by treatment with cold oxygen plasma: Characterization and application in water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Velasco-Maldonado, Paola S.; Hernández-Montoya, Virginia; Montes-Morán, Miguel A.; Vázquez, Norma Aurea-Rangel; Pérez-Cruz, Ma. Ana

    2018-03-01

    In the present work the possible surface modification of natural zeolite using cold oxygen plasma was studied. The sample with and without treatment was characterized using nitrogen adsorption isotherms at -196 °C, FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM/EDX analysis and X-Ray Diffraction. Additionally, the two samples were used for the removal of lead and acid, basic, reactive and food dyes in batch systems. The natural zeolite was found to be a mesoporous material with a low specific surface area (23 m2/g). X-ray patterns confirmed that clinoptilolite was the main crystal structure present in the natural zeolite. The molecular properties of dyes and the zeolitic structure were studied using molecular simulation, with the purpose to understand the adsorption mechanism. The results pointed out that only the roughness of the clinoptilolite was affected by the plasma treatment, whereas the specific surface area, chemical functionality and crystal structure remained constant. Finally, adsorption results confirmed that the plasma treatment had no significant effects on the dyes and lead retention capacities of the natural zeolite.

  4. Speed associated with plasma pH, oxygen content, total protein and urea in an 80 km race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R M; Hess, T M; Williams, C A; Kronfeld, D S; Griewe-Crandell, K M; Waldron, J E; Graham-Thiers, P M; Gay, L S; Splan, R K; Saker, K E; Harris, P A

    2002-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that endurance performance may be related quantitatively to changes in blood, we measured selected blood variables then determined their reference ranges and associations with speed during an 80 km race. The plan had 46 horses in a 2 x 2 factorial design testing a potassium-free electrolyte mix and a vitamin supplement. Blood samples were collected before the race, at 21, 37, 56 and 80 km, and 20 min after finishing, for assay of haematocrit, plasma pH, pO2, pCO2, [Na+], [K+], [Ca++], [Mg++], [Cl-], lactate, glucose, urea, cortisol, alpha-tocopherol, ascorbate, creatine kinase, aspartate amino transferase, lipid hydroperoxides, total protein, albumin and creatinine, and erythrocyte glutathione and glutathione peroxidase. Data from 34 finishers were analysed statistically. Reference ranges for resting and running horses were wide and overlapping and, therefore, limiting with respect to evaluation of individual horses. Speed correlations were most repeatable, with variables reflecting blood oxygen transport (enabling exercise), acidity and electrolytes (limiting exercise) and total protein (enabling then, perhaps, limiting). Stepwise regressions also included plasma urea concentration (limiting). The association of speed with less plasma acidity and urea suggests the potential for fat adaptation and protein restriction in endurance horses, as found previously in Arabians performing repeated sprints. Conditioning horses fed fat-fortified and protein-restricted diets may not only improve performance but also avoid grain-associated disorders.

  5. Oxygen and nitrogen plasma etching of three-dimensional hydroxyapatite/chitosan scaffolds fabricated by additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Sung-Woon; Kim, Byung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) chitosan and hydroxyapatite (HAp)/chitosan (CH) scaffolds were fabricated by additive manufacturing, then their surfaces were etched with oxygen (O2) and nitrogen (N2) plasma. O2 and N2 plasma etching was performed to increase surface properties such as hydrophilicity, roughness, and surface chemistry on the scaffolds. After etching, hydroxyapatite was exposed on the surface of 3D HAp/CH scaffolds. The surface morphology and chemical properties were characterized by contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and attenuated total reflection Fourier infrared spectroscopy. The cell viability of 3D chitosan scaffolds was examined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The differentiation of preosteoblast cells was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase assay. The cell viability was improved by O2 and N2 plasma etching of 3D chitosan scaffolds. The present fabrication process for 3D scaffolds might be applied to a potential tool for preparing biocompatible scaffolds.

  6. Surface recombination of oxygen atoms in O2 plasma at increased pressure: II. Vibrational temperature and surface production of ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopaev, D. V.; Malykhin, E. M.; Zyryanov, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    Ozone production in an oxygen glow discharge in a quartz tube was studied in the pressure range of 10-50 Torr. The O3 density distribution along the tube diameter was measured by UV absorption spectroscopy, and ozone vibrational temperature TV was found comparing the calculated ab initio absorption spectra with the experimental ones. It has been shown that the O3 production mainly occurs on a tube surface whereas ozone is lost in the tube centre where in contrast the electron and oxygen atom densities are maximal. Two models were used to analyse the obtained results. The first one is a kinetic 1D model for the processes occurring near the tube walls with the participation of the main particles: O(3P), O2, O2(1Δg) and O3 molecules in different vibrational states. The agreement of O3 and O(3P) density profiles and TV calculated in the model with observed ones was reached by varying the single model parameter—ozone production probability (\\gamma_{O_{3}}) on the quartz tube surface on the assumption that O3 production occurs mainly in the surface recombination of physisorbed O(3P) and O2. The phenomenological model of the surface processes with the participation of oxygen atoms and molecules including singlet oxygen molecules was also considered to analyse \\gamma_{O_{3}} data obtained in the kinetic model. A good agreement between the experimental data and the data of both models—the kinetic 1D model and the phenomenological surface model—was obtained in the full range of the studied conditions that allowed consideration of the ozone surface production mechanism in more detail. The important role of singlet oxygen in ozone surface production was shown. The O3 surface production rate directly depends on the density of physisorbed oxygen atoms and molecules and can be high with increasing pressure and energy inputted into plasma while simultaneously keeping the surface temperature low enough. Using the special discharge cell design, such an approach opens up the

  7. Surface recombination of oxygen atoms in O2 plasma at increased pressure: II. Vibrational temperature and surface production of ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopaev, D V; Malykhin, E M; Zyryanov, S M

    2011-01-01

    Ozone production in an oxygen glow discharge in a quartz tube was studied in the pressure range of 10-50 Torr. The O 3 density distribution along the tube diameter was measured by UV absorption spectroscopy, and ozone vibrational temperature T V was found comparing the calculated ab initio absorption spectra with the experimental ones. It has been shown that the O 3 production mainly occurs on a tube surface whereas ozone is lost in the tube centre where in contrast the electron and oxygen atom densities are maximal. Two models were used to analyse the obtained results. The first one is a kinetic 1D model for the processes occurring near the tube walls with the participation of the main particles: O( 3 P), O 2 , O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) and O 3 molecules in different vibrational states. The agreement of O 3 and O( 3 P) density profiles and T V calculated in the model with observed ones was reached by varying the single model parameter-ozone production probability (γ O 3 ) on the quartz tube surface on the assumption that O 3 production occurs mainly in the surface recombination of physisorbed O( 3 P) and O 2 . The phenomenological model of the surface processes with the participation of oxygen atoms and molecules including singlet oxygen molecules was also considered to analyse γ O 3 data obtained in the kinetic model. A good agreement between the experimental data and the data of both models-the kinetic 1D model and the phenomenological surface model-was obtained in the full range of the studied conditions that allowed consideration of the ozone surface production mechanism in more detail. The important role of singlet oxygen in ozone surface production was shown. The O 3 surface production rate directly depends on the density of physisorbed oxygen atoms and molecules and can be high with increasing pressure and energy inputted into plasma while simultaneously keeping the surface temperature low enough. Using the special discharge cell design, such an approach opens up

  8. Aquaregia and Oxygen Plasma Treatments on Fluorinated Tin Oxide for Assembly of PLEDs Devices Using OC1C10-PPV as Emissive Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Roberto SANTOS

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work were carried out treatments with oxygen plasma and aquaregia on fluorinated tin oxide (FTO films varying the treatment times. After treatments, the samples were analyzed by techniques measurements: sheet resistance, thickness, Hall effect, transmittance and superficial roughness. Devices using FTO/PEDOT:PSS/OC1C10-PPV/Al were assembled. In this experiment some variations were observed by sheet resistance and thickness and Hall effect measurements indicated most elevated carriers concentration and resistivity for aquaregia than that oxygen plasma. The roughness was elevated for the first minutes with treatment by aquaregia too. In the I-V curves the aquaregia devices presented the lowest threshold voltage for 30 minutes and devices treated by oxygen plasma presented a behavior most resistivity different of typical curves for PLEDs devices.

  9. Influence of the residual oxygen in the plasma immersion ion implantation (PI3) processing of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, M.; Silva, A.R.; Mello, Carina B.; Silva, G.; Reuther, H.; Oliveira, V.S.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the effects of the contaminants present in the vacuum chamber of the PI3 system, in particular, the residual oxygen, which results in the formation of the oxide compounds on the surface and hence is responsible for the high implantation energies required to achieve reasonably thick treated layers. We used a mass spectrometer (RGA) with a quadruple filter to verify the composition of the residual vacuum and pressure of the elements present in the chamber. Initially we found a high proportion of residual oxygen in a vacuum with a pressure of 1 × 10 −3 Pa. Minimizing the residual oxygen percentage in about 80%, by efficient cleaning of the chamber walls and by improving the gas feeding process, we mitigated the formation of oxides during the PI3 process. Therefore we achieved a highly efficient PI3 processing obtaining implanted layers reaching about 50 nm, even in cases such as an aluminum alloy, where is very difficult to nitrogen implant at low energies. We performed nitrogen PI3 treatment of SS304 and Al7075 using pulses of only 3 kV and 15 × 10 −6 s at 1 kHz with an operating pressure of 1 Pa.

  10. Visible photoluminescence from plasma-polymerized-organosilicone thin films deposited from HMDSO/O2 induced remote plasma: effect of oxygen fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, M.; Saloum, S.

    2008-09-01

    Visible photoluminescence (PL) from thin films deposited on silicon wafers by remote plasma polymerization of the hexamethyledisiloxane (HMDSO)/O2 mixture in a radio-frequency hollow cathode discharge reactor has been investigated as a function of different oxygen fractions ( \\chi _{O_2 } =0 , 0.38, 0.61, 0.76 and 0.9). At room temperature, the film deposited at \\chi _{O_2 } =0 exhibits a strong, broad PL band peak centred at around 537.6 nm. A blue shift and a considerable decrease (~one order) in the intensity of the PL peak are observed after the addition of oxygen. Furthermore, in contrast to the film deposited from pure HMDSO, the low temperature (15 K) PL spectra of the film deposited from different HMDSO/O2 mixtures exhibit two separated 'green-blue' and 'yellow-green' PL peaks. The PL behaviour of the deposited films is correlated with their structural and morphological properties, investigated by using Fourier transform infrared, atomic force microscope and contact angle techniques. In addition, it is found from spectrophotometry measurements that the deposited films have relatively low absorption coefficients (in the range 100-500 cm-1) in the spectral range of their PL emission, attractive for possible integrated optics devices.

  11. Visible photoluminescence from plasma-polymerized-organosilicone thin films deposited from HMDSO/O2 induced remote plasma: effect of oxygen fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddaf, M.; Saloum, S.

    2009-01-01

    Visible photoluminescence (PL) from thin films deposited on silicon wafers by remote plasma polymerization of the hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO)/O 2 mixture in a radio-frequency hollow cathode discharge reactor has been investigated as a function of different oxygen fractions (χ0 2 0.38, 0.61, 0.76 and 0.9). At room temperature, the film deposited at exhibits a strong, broad PL band peak centred at around 537.6 nm. A blue shift and a considerable decrease (∼one order) in the intensity of the PL peak are observed after the addition of oxygen. Furthermore, in contrast to the film deposited from pure HMDSO, the low temperature (15 K) PL spectra of the film deposited from different HMDSO/O 2 mixtures exhibit two separated green-blue and yellow-green PL peaks. The PL behaviour of the deposited films is correlated with their structural and morphological properties, investigated by using Fourier transform infrared, atomic force microscope and contact angle techniques. In addition, it is found from spectrophotometry measurements that the deposited films have relatively low absorption coefficients (in the range 100-500 cm -1 ) in the spectral range of their PL emission, attractive for possible integrated optics devices. (authors)

  12. Visible photoluminescence from plasma-polymerized-organosilicone thin films deposited from HMDSO/O{sub 2} induced remote plasma: effect of oxygen fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naddaf, M; Saloum, S [Department of Physics, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS), PO Box 6091 Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)], E-mail: scientific6@aec.org.sy

    2008-09-07

    Visible photoluminescence (PL) from thin films deposited on silicon wafers by remote plasma polymerization of the hexamethyledisiloxane (HMDSO)/O{sub 2} mixture in a radio-frequency hollow cathode discharge reactor has been investigated as a function of different oxygen fractions ({chi}{sub O{sub 2}}=0, 0.38, 0.61, 0.76 and 0.9). At room temperature, the film deposited at ({chi}{sub O{sub 2}}=0 exhibits a strong, broad PL band peak centred at around 537.6 nm. A blue shift and a considerable decrease ({approx}one order) in the intensity of the PL peak are observed after the addition of oxygen. Furthermore, in contrast to the film deposited from pure HMDSO, the low temperature (15 K) PL spectra of the film deposited from different HMDSO/O{sub 2} mixtures exhibit two separated 'green-blue' and 'yellow-green' PL peaks. The PL behaviour of the deposited films is correlated with their structural and morphological properties, investigated by using Fourier transform infrared, atomic force microscope and contact angle techniques. In addition, it is found from spectrophotometry measurements that the deposited films have relatively low absorption coefficients (in the range 100-500 cm{sup -1}) in the spectral range of their PL emission, attractive for possible integrated optics devices.

  13. Visible photoluminescence from plasma-polymerized-organosilicone thin films deposited from HMDSO/O2 induced remote plasma: effect of oxygen fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddaf, M; Saloum, S

    2008-01-01

    Visible photoluminescence (PL) from thin films deposited on silicon wafers by remote plasma polymerization of the hexamethyledisiloxane (HMDSO)/O 2 mixture in a radio-frequency hollow cathode discharge reactor has been investigated as a function of different oxygen fractions (χ O 2 =0, 0.38, 0.61, 0.76 and 0.9). At room temperature, the film deposited at (χ O 2 =0 exhibits a strong, broad PL band peak centred at around 537.6 nm. A blue shift and a considerable decrease (∼one order) in the intensity of the PL peak are observed after the addition of oxygen. Furthermore, in contrast to the film deposited from pure HMDSO, the low temperature (15 K) PL spectra of the film deposited from different HMDSO/O 2 mixtures exhibit two separated 'green-blue' and 'yellow-green' PL peaks. The PL behaviour of the deposited films is correlated with their structural and morphological properties, investigated by using Fourier transform infrared, atomic force microscope and contact angle techniques. In addition, it is found from spectrophotometry measurements that the deposited films have relatively low absorption coefficients (in the range 100-500 cm -1 ) in the spectral range of their PL emission, attractive for possible integrated optics devices

  14. Effect of ambient pressure on the crystalline phase of nano TiO2 particles synthesized by a dc thermal plasma reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, I.; Karmakar, Soumen; Kulkarni, Naveen V.; Nawale, Ashok B.; Mathe, V. L.; Das, A. K.; Bhoraskar, S. V.

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) with varying percentages of anatase and rutile phases is reported. This was achieved by controlling the operating pressure in a transferred-arc, direct current thermal plasma reactor in which titanium vapors are evaporated, and then exposed to ambient oxygen. The average particle size remained around 15 nm in each case. The crystalline structure of the as-synthesized nanoparticles of TiO 2 was studied with X-ray diffraction analysis; whereas the particle morphology was investigated with the help of transmission electron microscopy. The precursor species responsible for the growth of these nanoparticles was studied with the help of optical emission spectroscopy. As inferred from the X-ray diffraction analysis, the relative abundance of anatase TiO 2 was found to be dominant when synthesized at 760 Torr, and the same showed a decreasing trend with decreasing chamber pressure. The study also reveals that anatase TiO 2 is a more effective photocatalytic agent in degrading methylene blue by comparison to its rutile phase.

  15. Reactions on catalytic probe surface during oxygen plasma treatment of polyether sulphone: Reakcije na površini katalitične sonde med plazemsko obdelavo polieter sulfona:

    OpenAIRE

    Mozetič, Miran

    1998-01-01

    Experiments on the behavior of a nickel catalytic probe during activation of the surface of polyether sulphone in oxygen plasma are described. The temperature of the probe mounted 30 cm apart from inductively coupled RF oxygen plasma was measured for the case of empty dischaarge vessel and the case a sample with the dimensions of 8 cm x 1.2 cm x 0.4 cm was mounted in the middle of the discharge coil. It was found that both the maximum temperature and the first time derivative of the probe was...

  16. Modelling of an intermediate pressure microwave oxygen discharge reactor: from stationary two-dimensional to time-dependent global (volume-averaged) plasma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemaneci, Efe; Graef, Wouter; Rahimi, Sara; Van Dijk, Jan; Kroesen, Gerrit; Carbone, Emile; Jimenez-Diaz, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A microwave-induced oxygen plasma is simulated using both stationary and time-resolved modelling strategies. The stationary model is spatially resolved and it is self-consistently coupled to the microwaves (Jimenez-Diaz et al 2012 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 45 335204), whereas the time-resolved description is based on a global (volume-averaged) model (Kemaneci et al 2014 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 23 045002). We observe agreement of the global model data with several published measurements of microwave-induced oxygen plasmas in both continuous and modulated power inputs. Properties of the microwave plasma reactor are investigated and corresponding simulation data based on two distinct models shows agreement on the common parameters. The role of the square wave modulated power input is also investigated within the time-resolved description. (paper)

  17. Step-Up DC-DC converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouzesh, Mojtaba; Siwakoti, Yam P.; Gorji, Saman A.

    2017-01-01

    on the general law and framework of the development of next-generation step-up dc-dc converters, this paper aims to comprehensively review and classify various step-up dc-dc converters based on their characteristics and voltage-boosting techniques. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of these voltage...

  18. Type of precursor and synthesis of silicon oxycarbide (SiOxCyH) thin films with a surfatron microwave oxygen/argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walkiewicz-Pietrzykowska, Agnieszka; Espinos, J. P.; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R.

    2006-01-01

    Siliconelike thin films (i.e., SiO x C y H z ) were prepared in a microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition reactor from structurally different organosilicon precursors [i.e., hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO), dimethylsilane (DMS), and tetramethylsilane (TMS)]. The films were deposited at room temperature by using different oxygen/argon ratios in the plasma gas. By changing the type of precursor and the relative concentration of oxygen in the plasma, thin films with different compositions (i.e., O/C ratio) and properties are obtained. In general, raising the oxygen concentration in the plasma produces the progressive removal of the organic moieties from the films whose composition and structure then approach those of silicon dioxide. The deposition rate was highly dependent on the type of precursor, following the order HMDSO>>DMS>TMS. The polarizabilities, optical band gaps, and surface free energy of the films also depended on the thin film composition and structure. It is proposed that the Si-O bonds existing in HMDSO is the main factor controlling the distinct reactivity of this precursor and is also responsible for the different compositions and properties of the SiO x C y H z thin films prepared with very low or no oxygen in the plasma gas

  19. [Protective effect of pretreatment of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. f. alba plasma against oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced injury of cultured rat hippocampal neurons by inhibiting apoptosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei-Yi; Zhang, Yan-Bo; Zuo, Huan; Liu, Li-Li; Niu, Jing-Zhong

    2012-02-25

    The present study was to investigate the effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. f. alba (SMA) pharmacological pretreatment on apoptosis of cultured hippocampal neurons from neonate rats under oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Cultured hippocampal neurons were randomly divided into five groups (n = 6): normal plasma group, low dose SMA plasma (2.5%) group, middle dose SMA plasma (5%) group, high dose SMA plasma (10%) group and control group. The hippocampal neurons were cultured and treated with plasma from adult Wistar rats intragastrically administered with saline or aqueous extract of SMA. The apoptosis of neurons was induced by glucose-free Earle's solution containing 1 mmol/L Na2S2O4 and labeled by MTT and Annexin V/PI double staining. Moreover, protein expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax were detected by immunofluorescence. The results showed that few apoptotic cells were observed in control group, whereas the number of apoptotic cells was greatly increased in normal plasma group and low dose SMA plasma group. Both middle and high dose SMA plasma could protect cultured hippocampal neurons from apoptosis induced by OGD (P control, normal plasma and low dose SMA plasma groups, middle and high dose SMA plasma groups both showed significantly higher levels of Bcl-2 (P neurons by up-regulating the expression of Bcl-2 and down-regulating the expression of Bax.

  20. Oxygen plasma etching of graphene: A first-principles dynamical inspection of the reaction mechanisms and related activation barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Kenichi; Boero, Mauro; Shigeta, Yasuteru; Oshiyama, Atsushi; Dept. of Applied Physics Team; Institute of Physics and Chemistry of Strasbourg (IPCMS) Collaboration; Department Of Materials Engineering Science Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Oxygen plasma etching is a crucial step in the fabrication of electronic circuits and has recently received a renovated interest in view of the realization of carbon-based nanodevices. In an attempt at unraveling the atomic-scale details and to provide guidelines for the control of the etching processes mechanisms, we inspected the possible reaction pathways via reactive first principles simulations. These processes involve breaking and formation of several chemical bonds and are characterized by different free-energy barriers. Free-energy sampling techniques (metadynamics and blue moon), used to enhance the standard Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics, provide us a detailed microscopic picture of the etching of graphene surfaces and a comprehensive scenario of the activation barriers involved in the various steps. MEXT, Japan - contract N. 22104005

  1. The fabrication of diversiform nanostructure forests based on residue nanomasks synthesized by oxygen plasma removal of photoresist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao Haiyang; Wu Di; Wu Wengang; Hao Yilong [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xu Jun, E-mail: wuwg@ime.pku.edu.c [Electron Microscopy Laboratory, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2009-11-04

    A simple lithography-free approach for fabricating diversiform nanostructure forests is presented. The key technique of the approach is that randomly distributed nanoscale residues can be synthesized on substrates simply by removing photoresist with oxygen plasma bombardment. These nanoresidues can function as masks in the subsequent etching process for nanopillars. By further spacer and then deep etching processes, a variety of forests composed of regular, tulip-like or hollow-head nanopillars as well as nanoneedles are successfully achieved in different etching conditions. The pillars have diameters of 30-200 nm and heights of 400 nm-3 {mu}m. The needles reach several microns in height, with their tips less than 10 nm in diameter. Moreover, microstructures containing these nanostructure forests, such as surface microchannels, have also been fabricated. This approach is compatible with conventional micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) fabrication.

  2. The fabrication of diversiform nanostructure forests based on residue nanomasks synthesized by oxygen plasma removal of photoresist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Haiyang; Wu Di; Wu Wengang; Hao Yilong; Xu Jun

    2009-01-01

    A simple lithography-free approach for fabricating diversiform nanostructure forests is presented. The key technique of the approach is that randomly distributed nanoscale residues can be synthesized on substrates simply by removing photoresist with oxygen plasma bombardment. These nanoresidues can function as masks in the subsequent etching process for nanopillars. By further spacer and then deep etching processes, a variety of forests composed of regular, tulip-like or hollow-head nanopillars as well as nanoneedles are successfully achieved in different etching conditions. The pillars have diameters of 30-200 nm and heights of 400 nm-3 μm. The needles reach several microns in height, with their tips less than 10 nm in diameter. Moreover, microstructures containing these nanostructure forests, such as surface microchannels, have also been fabricated. This approach is compatible with conventional micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) fabrication.

  3. The spatial distribution of temperature and oxygen deficiency in spark-plasma sintered superconducting Bi-based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govea-Alcaide, E.; Pérez-Fernández, J.E.; Machado, I.F.; Jardim, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    Pre-reacted powders of (Bi–Pb) 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10+δ (Bi-2223) were consolidated by using the spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique under vacuum and at different consolidate temperatures T D . X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the dominant phase in all SPS samples is the Bi-2223 phase, but traces of the Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 10+x (Bi-2212) phase were identified. We have found that the transport properties of SPS samples depend on their oxygen content because the SPS process is performed under vacuum. Simulations by using the finite element method (FEM) were performed for determining the actual temperature in which powders are consolidated. From these results we have inferred that SPS samples are oxygen deficient and such a deficiency is more marked near the grain boundaries, suggesting the occurrence of grains with core–shell morphology. We also argued that the width of the shell depends on the consolidation temperature, a feature corroborated by the FEM simulations

  4. Composition, structure and morphology of oxide layers formed on austenitic stainless steel by oxygen plasma immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anandan, C.; Rajam, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    Oxygen ions were implanted in to austenitic stainless steel by plasma immersion ion implantation at 400 deg. C. The implanted samples were characterized by XPS, GIXRD, micro-Raman, AFM, optical and scanning electron microscopies. XPS studies showed the presence of Fe in elemental, as Fe 2+ in oxide form and as Fe 3+ in the form of oxyhydroxides in the substrate. Iron was present in the oxidation states of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ in the implanted samples. Cr and Mn were present as Cr 3+ and Mn 2+ , respectively, in both the substrate and implanted samples. Nickel remained unaffected by implantation. GIXRD and micro-Raman studies showed the oxide to be a mixture of spinel and corundum structures. Optical and AFM images showed an island structure on underlying oxide. This island structure was preserved at different thicknesses. Further, near the grain boundaries more oxide growth was found. This is explained on the basis of faster diffusion of oxygen in the grain boundary regions. Measurement of total hemispherical optical aborptance, α and emittance, ε of the implanted sample show that it has good solar selective properties

  5. Generation and Role of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species Induced by Plasma, Lasers, Chemical Agents, and Other Systems in Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Nayansi; Ryu, Jae Jun

    2017-01-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) has been found to occur during inflammatory procedures, during cell ischemia, and in various crucial developmental processes such as cell differentiation and along cell signaling pathways. The most common sources of intracellular RONS are the mitochondrial electron transport system, NADH oxidase, and cytochrome P450. In this review, we analyzed the extracellular and intracellular sources of reactive species, their cell signaling pathways, the mechanisms of action, and their positive and negative effects in the dental field. In dentistry, ROS can be found—in lasers, photosensitizers, bleaching agents, cold plasma, and even resin cements, all of which contribute to the generation and prevalence of ROS. Nonthermal plasma has been used as a source of ROS for biomedical applications and has the potential for use with dental stem cells as well. There are different types of dental stem cells, but their therapeutic use remains largely untapped, with the focus currently on only periodontal ligament stem cells. More research is necessary in this area, including studies about ROS mechanisms with dental cells, along with the utilization of reactive species in redox medicine. Such studies will help to provide successful treatment modalities for various diseases. PMID:29204250

  6. Hemocompatibility and oxygenation performance of polysulfone membranes grafted with polyethylene glycol and heparin by plasma-induced surface modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiping; Zheng, Zhi; Huang, Xin; Fan, Wenling; Yu, Wenkui; Zhang, Zhibing; Li, Lei; Mao, Chun

    2017-10-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and heparin (Hep) were grafted onto polysulfone (PSF) membrane by plasma-induced surface modification to prepare PSF-PEG-Hep membranes used for artificial lung. The effects of plasma treatment parameters, including power, gas type, gas flow rate, and treatment time, were investigated, and different PEG chains were bonded covalently onto the surface in the postplasma grafting process. Membrane surfaces were characterized by water contact angle, PEG grafting degree, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, critical water permeability pressure, and scanning electron microscopy. Protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, and coagulation tests showed significant improvement in the hemocompatibility of PSF-PEG-Hep membranes compared to pristine PSF membrane. Gas exchange tests through PSF-PEG6000-Hep membrane showed that when the flow rate of porcine blood reached 5.0 L/min, the permeation fluxes of O 2 and CO 2 reached 192.6 and 166.9 mL/min, respectively, which were close to the gas exchange capacity of a commercial membrane oxygenator. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1737-1746, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. In vitro study of 3D PLGA/n-HAp/β-TCP composite scaffolds with etched oxygen plasma surface modification in bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Hee-Sang [Department of Dental Materials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, 309 Pilmun-daero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 61452 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Sang-Chul [Department of Environmental Engineering, Sunchon National University, 255 Jungang-ro, Sunchon 57922 (Korea, Republic of); Kook, Min-Suk [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 61186 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Hoon, E-mail: kim5055@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Dental Materials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, 309 Pilmun-daero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 61452 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • PLGA and PLGA/n-HAp/β-TCP scaffolds were successfully fabricated by 3D printing. • Oxygen plasma etching increases the wettability and surface roughness. • Bioceramics and oxygen plasma etching and could be used to improve the cell affinity. - Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds have many advantageous properties for bone tissue engineering application, due to its controllable properties such as pore size, structural shape and interconnectivity. In this study, effects on oxygen plasma surface modification and adding of nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) on the 3D PLGA/n-HAp/β-TCP scaffolds for improving preosteoblast cell (MC3T3-E1) adhesion, proliferation and differentiation were investigated. The 3D PLGA/n-HAp/β-TCP scaffolds were fabricated by 3D Bio-Extruder equipment. The 3D scaffolds were prepared with 0°/90° architecture and pore size of approximately 300 μm. In addition 3D scaffolds surface were etched by oxygen plasma to enhance the hydrophilic property and surface roughness. After oxygen plasma treatment, the surface chemistry and morphology were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. And also hydrophilic property was measured by contact angle. The MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation and differentiation were investigated by MTT assay and ALP activity. In present work, the 3D PLGA/HAp/beta-TCP composite scaffold with suitable structure for the growth of osteoblast cells was successfully fabricated by 3D rapid prototyping technique. The surface hydrophilicity and roughness of 3D scaffold increased by oxygen plasma treatment had a positive effect on cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Furthermore, the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cell was significantly enhanced by adding of n-HAp and β-TCP on 3D PLGA scaffold. As a result, combination of bioceramics and oxygen plasma treatment showed a synergistic effect on

  8. Specific Effects of Oxygen Molecule and Plasma on Thin-Film Growth of Y-Ba-Cu-O and Bi-Sr-(Ca)-Cu-O Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Tamio; Horie, Munehiro; Hirate, Naoki; Itoh, Katsutoshi; Yamada, Satoshi; Tada, Masaki; Itoh, Ken-ichi; Sugiyama, Morihiro; Sano, Shinji; Watabe, Kinji

    1998-07-01

    Thin films of a-oriented YBa2Cu3Ox (YBCO), Ca-doped c-oriented Bi2(Sr,Ca)2CuOx and nondoped c-oriented Bi2Sr2CuOx (Bi2201) were prepared at low temperatures by ion beam sputtering with supply of oxygen molecules or plasma. The plasma enhances crystal growth of the a-YBCO and Ca-doped Bi2201 phases. This can be interpreted in terms of their higher surface energies. The growth and quality of nondoped Bi2201 are improved with the supply of oxygen molecules. This particular result could be interpreted by the collision process between the oxygen molecules and the sputtered particles.

  9. The effect of nitrogen and oxygen plasma on the wear properties and adhesion strength of the diamond-like carbon film coated on PTFE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, K.; Hirakuri, K.K.

    2008-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) using a radiofrequency plasma chemical vapour deposition method. Prior to DLC coating, the PTFE substrates were modified with O 2 and N 2 plasma to enhance the adhesion strength of the DLC film to the substrate. The effect of the plasma pre-treatment on the chemical composition and the surface energy of the plasma pre-treated PTFE surface was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and static water contact angle measurement, respectively. A pull-out test and a ball-on-disc test were carried out to evaluate the adhesion strength and the wear properties of the DLC-coated PTFE. In the N 2 plasma pre-treatment, the XPS result indicated that defluorination and the nitrogen grafting occurred on the plasma pre-treated PTFE surface, and the water contact angle decreased with increasing the plasma pre-treatment time. In the O 2 plasma pre-treatment, no grafting of the oxygen occurred, and the water contact angle slightly increased with the treatment time. In the pull-out test, the adhesion strength of the DLC film to the PTFE substrate was improved with the plasma pre-treatment to the PTFE substrate, and N 2 plasma pre-treatment was more effective than the O 2 plasma pre-treatment. In the ball-on-disc test, the DLC film with the N 2 plasma pre-treatment showed good wear resistance, compared with that with O 2 plasma pre-treatment

  10. DC Home Appliances for DC Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD KAMRAN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper strengthens the idea of DC distribution system for DC microgrid consisting of a building of 50 apartments. Since the war of currents AC system has been dominant because of the paucity of research in the protection of the DC system. Now with the advance research in power electronics material and components, generation of electricity is inherently DC as by solar PV, fuel cell and thermoelectric generator that eliminates the rectification process. Transformers are replaced by the power electronics buck-boost converters. DC circuit breakers have solved the protection problems for both DC transmission and distribution system. In this paper 308V DC microgrid is proposed and home appliances (DC internal are modified to operate on 48V DC from DC distribution line. Instead of using universal and induction motors in rotary appliances, BLDC (Brushless DC motors are proposed that are highly efficient with minimum electro-mechanical and no commutation losses. Proposed DC system reduces the power conversion stages, hence diminishes the associated power losses and standby losses that boost the overall system efficiency. So in view of all this a conventional AC system can be replaced by a DC system that has many advantages by cost as well as by performance

  11. Step-Up DC-DC converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouzesh, Mojtaba; Siwakoti, Yam P.; Gorji, Saman A.

    2017-01-01

    on the general law and framework of the development of next-generation step-up dc-dc converters, this paper aims to comprehensively review and classify various step-up dc-dc converters based on their characteristics and voltage-boosting techniques. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of these voltage......DC-DC converters with voltage boost capability are widely used in a large number of power conversion applications, from fraction-of-volt to tens of thousands of volts at power levels from milliwatts to megawatts. The literature has reported on various voltage-boosting techniques, in which......-boosting techniques and associated converters are discussed in detail. Finally, broad applications of dc-dc converters are presented and summarized with comparative study of different voltage-boosting techniques....

  12. Improvement in the Sensitivity of PbO Doped Tin Oxide Thick Film Gas Sensor by RF and Microwave Oxygen Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. SRIVASTAVA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present work efforts have been made to analyze the effect of oxygen plasma and PbO doping on the sensitivity of SnO2-based thick film gas sensor for methanol, propanol and acetone. The effect of substrate temperature on the response of dual frequency (RF and microwave plasma treated thick film sensor array has also been studied. To achieve this, three sensor arrays (each with four tin oxide sensors doped with different (1 %, 2 %, 3 % and 4 % PbO concentrations were fabricated by thick film technology and then treated with oxygen plasma for various durations (5 min, 10 min. and 15 min.. The plasma treated sensors were found to possess appreciably high sensitivity at room temperature in comparison to untreated sensor. The sensitivity showed the increasing trend with plasma exposure time and 15 minutes exposure time was found to be most suitable as the sensitivity of the plasma treated sensors for this duration were high towards all the chosen vapors with maximum (97 % value for propanol. The sensitivity of the sensors were found to be increasing gradually as PbO concentration was varied from 1- 4%.

  13. DC electric springs with DC/DC converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qingsong; Cheng, Ming; Jiang, Yunlei

    2016-01-01

    The concept of DC electric spring (DCES) was recently proposed to solve the stability issue caused by integrating intermittent renewable energy sources (RESs) to DC microgrids. In this paper, a new topology of DCES is proposed based on DC/DC converters. The proposed DCES consists of a bi-directio......The concept of DC electric spring (DCES) was recently proposed to solve the stability issue caused by integrating intermittent renewable energy sources (RESs) to DC microgrids. In this paper, a new topology of DCES is proposed based on DC/DC converters. The proposed DCES consists of a bi...... and/or constant discharging for batteries is adopted and four operating modes are analyzed as charging-positive, charging-negative, discharging-positive and discharging-negative modes. An additional mechanism for fast charging or fast discharging is also designed to secure normal operation...... of batteries. With the proposed DCES, the power fluctuations due to intermittent RESs can be passed to non-critical loads (NCLs) and batteries while power on critical loads (CLs) is kept stable. This is possibly the first attempt to design a DCES with only DC/DC converters. The performances of the proposed...

  14. Modification of polycarbonate surface in oxidizing plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovtsyn, A. A.; Smirnov, S. A.; Shikova, T. G.; Kholodkov, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    The properties of the surface of the film polycarbonate Lexan 8010 were experimentally studied after treatment in a DC discharge plasma in oxygen and air at pressures of 50-300 Pa and a discharge current of 80 mA. The contact angles of wetting and surface energies are measured. The topography of the surface was investigated by atomic force microscopy. The chemical composition of the surface was determined from the FT-IR spectroscopy data in the variant of total internal reflection, as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Treatment in the oxidizing plasma leads to a change in morphology (average roughness increases), an increase in the surface energy, and the concentration of oxygen-containing groups (hydroxyl groups, carbonyl groups in ketones or aldehydes and in oxyketones) on the surface of the polymer. Possible reasons for the difference in surface properties of polymer under the action of oxygen and air plasma on it are discussed.

  15. Oral Administration of the Japanese Traditional Medicine Keishibukuryogan-ka-yokuinin Decreases Reactive Oxygen Metabolites in Rat Plasma: Identification of Chemical Constituents Contributing to Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Matsubara

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient detoxification and/or overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS induce cellular and tissue damage, and generated reactive oxygen metabolites become exacerbating factors of dermatitis. Keishibukuryogan-ka-yokuinin (KBGY is a traditional Japanese medicine prescribed to treat dermatitis such as acne vulgaris. Our aim was to verify the antioxidant properties of KBGY, and identify its active constituents by blood pharmacokinetic techniques. Chemical constituents were quantified in extracts of KBGY, crude components, and the plasma of rats treated with a single oral administration of KBGY. Twenty-three KBGY compounds were detected in plasma, including gallic acid, prunasin, paeoniflorin, and azelaic acid, which have been reported to be effective for inflammation. KBGY decreased level of the diacron-reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs in plasma. ROS-scavenging and lipid hydroperoxide (LPO generation assays revealed that gallic acid, 3-O-methylgallic acid, (+-catechin, and lariciresinol possess strong antioxidant activities. Gallic acid was active at a similar concentration to the maximum plasma concentration, therefore, our findings indicate that gallic acid is an important active constituent contributing to the antioxidant effects of KBGY. KBGY and its active constituents may improve redox imbalances induced by oxidative stress as an optional treatment for skin diseases.

  16. Surface modification of carbon/epoxy prepreg using oxygen plasma and its effect on the delamination resistance behavior of carbon/epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.H.; Rhee, K.Y.; Kim, H.J.; Jung, D.H.

    2007-01-01

    It was shown in previous study that the fracture toughness of carbon/epoxy laminated composites could be significantly improved by modifying the surface of the prepreg using Ar + irradiation in an oxygen environment. In this study, the surface of carbon/epoxy prepreg was modified using an oxygen plasma to improve the delamination resistance behavior of carbon/epoxy laminated composites. The variation of the contact angle on the prepreg surface was determined as a function of the modification time, in order to determine the optimal modification time. An XPS analysis was conducted to investigate the chemical changes on the surface of the prepreg caused by the plasma modification. Mode I delamination resistance curves of the composites with and without surface modification were plotted as a function of the delamination increment. The results showed that the contact angle varied from ∼64 o to ∼47 o depending on the modification time and reached a minimum for a modification time of 30 min. The XPS analysis showed that the hydrophilic carbonyl C=O group was formed by the oxygen plasma modification. The results also showed that the delamination resistance behavior was significantly improved by the plasma modification of the prepreg. This improvement was caused by the better layer-to-layer adhesion as well as increased interfacial strength between the fibers and matrix

  17. Energy band structure and electrical properties of Ga-oxide/GaN interface formed by remote oxygen plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Taishi; Taoka, Noriyuki; Ohta, Akio; Truyen, Nguyen Xuan; Yamada, Hisashi; Takahashi, Tokio; Ikeda, Mitsuhisa; Makihara, Katsunori; Nakatsuka, Osamu; Shimizu, Mitsuaki; Miyazaki, Seiichi

    2018-06-01

    The energy band structure of a Ga-oxide/GaN structure formed by remote oxygen plasma exposure and the electrical interface properties of the GaN metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) capacitors with the SiO2/Ga-oxide/GaN structures with postdeposition annealing (PDA) at various temperatures have been investigated. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy clarified that the formed Ga-oxide layer is neither a single nor polycrystalline phase with high crystallinity. We found that the energy band offsets at the conduction band minimum and at the valence band maximum between the Ga-oxide layer and the GaN surface were 0.4 and 1.2 ± 0.2 eV, respectively. Furthermore, capacitance–voltage (C–V) characteristics revealed that the interface trap density (D it) is lower than the evaluation limit of Terman method without depending on the PDA temperatures, and that the SiO2/Ga-oxide stack can work as a protection layer to maintain the low D it, avoiding the significant decomposition of GaN at the high PDA temperature of 800 °C.

  18. Absolute atomic oxygen and nitrogen densities in radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure cold plasmas: Synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet high-resolution Fourier-transform absorption measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, K.; O'Connell, D.; Gans, T.; Oliveira, N. de; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L.; Booth, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive atomic species play a key role in emerging cold atmospheric pressure plasma applications, in particular, in plasma medicine. Absolute densities of atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen were measured in a radio-frequency driven non-equilibrium plasma operated at atmospheric pressure using vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) absorption spectroscopy. The experiment was conducted on the DESIRS synchrotron beamline using a unique VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer. Measurements were carried out in plasmas operated in helium with air-like N 2 /O 2 (4:1) admixtures. A maximum in the O-atom concentration of (9.1 ± 0.7)×10 20 m −3 was found at admixtures of 0.35 vol. %, while the N-atom concentration exhibits a maximum of (5.7 ± 0.4)×10 19 m −3 at 0.1 vol. %

  19. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, J.

    1990-05-01

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an 55 Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed

  20. A resonant dc-dc power converter assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a resonant DC-DC power converter assembly comprising a first resonant DC-DC power converter and a second resonant DC-DC power converter having identical circuit topologies. A first inductor of the first resonant DC-DC power converter and a second inductor of the s......The present invention relates to a resonant DC-DC power converter assembly comprising a first resonant DC-DC power converter and a second resonant DC-DC power converter having identical circuit topologies. A first inductor of the first resonant DC-DC power converter and a second inductor...... of the second resonant DC-DC power converter are configured for magnetically coupling the first and second resonant DC-DC power converters to each other to forcing substantially 180 degrees phase shift, or forcing substantially 0 degree phase shift, between corresponding resonant voltage waveforms of the first...

  1. Nanotexture Optimization by Oxygen Plasma of Mesoporous Silica Thin Film for Enrichment of Low Molecular Weight Peptides Captured from Human Serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ye; Peng, Yang; Brousseau, Louis; Bouamrani, Ali; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the optimization of mesoporous silica thin films by nanotexturing using oxygen plasma versus thermal oxidation. Calcination in oxygen plasma provides superior control over pore formation with regard to the pore surface and higher fidelity to the structure of the polymer template. The resulting porous film offers an ideal substrate for the selective partitioning of peptides from complex mixtures. The improved chemico-physical characteristics of porous thin films (pore size distribution, nanostructure, surface properties and pore connectivity) were systematically characterized with XRD, Ellipsometry, FTIR, TEM and N2 adsorption/desorption. The enrichment of low molecular weight proteins captured from human serum on mesoporous silica thin films fabricated by both methodologies were investigated by comparison of their MALDI-TOF MS profiles. This novel on-chip fractionation technology offers advantages in recovering the low molecular weight peptides from human serum, which has been recognized as an informative resource for early diagnosis of cancer and other diseases. PMID:21179395

  2. Plasma lactate and stress hormones in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during stepwise decreasing oxygen levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vianen, GJ; Van den Thillart, GEEJM; Van Kampen, M; Van Heel, TI; Steffens, AB

    By measuring the lactate response it is possible to determine whether a teleost is able to adapt to a certain oxygen level. It is hypothesized that recovery will occur at oxygen levels above the critical oxygen level (PO2)(crit) reflected by a transient lactate increase. In contrast, continuous

  3. Surface preparation of gold nanostructures on glass by ultraviolet ozone and oxygen plasma for thermal atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, Cady A., E-mail: lancaster@chem.utah.edu; Shumaker-Parry, Jennifer S., E-mail: shumaker-parry@chem.utah.edu

    2016-08-01

    Thin film deposition to create robust plasmonic nanomaterials is a growing area of research. Plasmonic nanomaterials have tunable optical properties and can be used as substrates for surface-enhanced spectroscopies. Due to the surface sensitivity and the dependence of the near-field behavior on structural details, degradation from cleaning or spectroscopic interrogation causes plasmonic nanostructures to lose distinctive localized surface plasmon resonances or exhibit diminished optical near-field enhancements over time. To decrease degradation, conformal thin films of alumina are deposited on nanostructured substrates using atomic layer deposition. While film growth on homogenous surfaces has been studied extensively, atomic layer deposition-based film growth on heterogeneous nanostructured surfaces is not well characterized. In this report, we have evaluated the impact of oxygen plasma and ultraviolet ozone pre-treatments on Au nanoparticle substrates for thin film growth by monitoring changes in plasmonic response and nanostructure morphology. We have found that ultraviolet ozone is more effective than oxygen plasma for cleaning gold nanostructured surfaces, which is in contrast to bulk films of the same material. Our results show that oxygen plasma treatment negatively impacts the nanostructure and alumina coating based on both scanning electron microscopy analysis of morphology and changes in the plasmonic response. - Highlights: • Plasmonic response indicates oxygen plasma damages Au structures and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films. • Ultraviolet ozone (UVO) re-activates aged Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-coated Au nanostructures. • UVO treatments do not damage Au or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-coated nanostructures.

  4. Oxygen reduction reaction properties of nitrogen-incorporated nanographenes synthesized using in-liquid plasma from mixture of ethanol and iron phthalocyanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Tomoki; Kondo, Hiroki; Takeda, Keigo; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hiramatsu, Mineo; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2018-04-01

    Nanographenes were synthesized using in-liquid plasma from a mixture of iron phthalocyanine and ethanol. In a previous study, micrometer-scale flakes with nitrogen incorporation were obtained. A nonprecious metal catalytic activity was observed with 3.13 electrons in an oxygen reduction reaction under an acidic solute condition. Large-surface-area, high-graphene-crystallinity, and iron-carbon-bonding sites were found owing to a high catalytic activity in Fe-N/nanographene.

  5. Forming-free performance of a-SiN x :H-based resistive switching memory obtained by oxygen plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Ma, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Jian; Yang, Huafeng; Sun, Yang; Tan, Dinwen; Li, Wei; Xu, Ling; Chen, Kuiji; Feng, Duan

    2018-06-01

    An a-SiN x -based resistive random access memory (RRAM) device with a forming-free characteristic has significant potentials for the industrialization of the next-generation memories. We demonstrate that a forming-free a-SiN x O y RRAM device can be achieved by an oxygen plasma treatment of ultra-thin a-SiN x :H films. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy reveals that Si dangling bonds with a high density (1019 cm‑3) are distributed in the initial state, which exist in the forms of Si2N≡Si·, SiO2≡Si·, O3≡Si·, and N3≡Si·. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature-dependent current analyses reveal that the silicon dangling bonds induced by the oxygen plasma treatment and external electric field contribute to the low resistance state (LRS). For the high resistance state (HRS), the rupture of the silicon dangling bond pathway is attributed to the partial passivation of Si dangling bonds by H+ and O2‑. Both LRS and HRS transmissions obey the hopping conduction model. The proposed oxygen plasma treatment, introduced to generate a high density of Si dangling bonds in the SiN x O y :H films, provides a new approach to forming-free RRAM devices.

  6. Properties of DLC coatings deposited by dc and dc with superimposed pulsed vacuum arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavaleyev, V.; Walkowicz, J.; Aksyonov, D.S.; Luchaninov, A.A.; Reshetnyak, E.N.; Strel'nitskij, V.E.

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies of the structure, mechanical and tribological properties of DLC coatings deposited in DC and DC with superimposed high current pulse modes of operation vacuum-arc plasma source with the graphite cathode are presented. Imposition the pulses of high current on DC vacuum-arc discharge allows both increase the deposition rate of DLC coating and reduce the residual compressive stress in the coatings what promotes substantial improvement the adhesion to the substrate. Effect of vacuum arc plasma filtration with Venetian blind filter on the deposition rate and tribological characteristics of the coatings analyzed.

  7. Structural and optical properties of titanium dioxide films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering in pure oxygen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asanuma, T.; Matsutani, T.; Liu, C.; Mihara, T.; Kiuchi, M.

    2004-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films were deposited on unheated quartz (SiO 2 ) substrates in 'pure oxygen' plasma by reactive radio-frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering. The structural and optical properties of deposited films were systematically studied by changing the deposition parameters, and it was very recently found that crystalline TiO 2 films grew effectively in pure O 2 atmosphere. For TiO 2 films deposited at a rf power P rf of 200 W, x-ray diffraction patterns show the following features: (a) no diffraction peak was observed at a total sputtering pressure p tot of 1.3 Pa; (b) rutile (110) diffraction was observed at 4.0 Pa, (c) the dominant diffraction was from anatase (101) planes, with additional diffraction from (200), under p tot between 6.7 and 13 Pa. For the deposition at 140 W, however, crystalline films with mixed phases were observed only between 4.0 and 6.7 Pa. The peaks of both the deposition rate and the anatase weight ratio for the films produced at 140 W were found at p tot of approximately 6.7 Pa. This suggests that the nucleation and growth of TiO 2 films were affected by the composition, density, and kinetic energy of the particles impinging on the substrate surface. The optical absorption edge analysis showed that the optical band gap E g and the constant B could sensitively detect the film growth behavior, and determine the film structure and optical absorption. The change in the shape of the fundamental absorption edge is considered to reflect the variation of density and the short-range structural modifications

  8. IGBT Based DC/DC Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akherraz

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an in-depth analytical and experimental investigation of an indirect DC-DC converter. The DC-AC conversion is a full bridge based on IGBT power modules, and the AC-DC conversion is done via a high  frequency AC link and a first diode bridge. The AC link, which consists of snubbing capacitors and a variable air-gap transformer, is analytically designed to fulfill Zero Voltage commutation requirement. The proposed converter is simulated using PSPICE and a prototype is designed built and tested in the laboratory. PSPICE simulation and experimental results are presented and compared.

  9. Replacing the Transfusion of 1–2 Units of Blood with Plasma Expanders that Increase Oxygen Delivery Capacity: Evidence from Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy G. Tsai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available At least a third of the blood supply in the world is used to transfuse 1–2 units of packed red blood cells for each intervention and most clinical trials of blood substitutes have been carried out at this level of oxygen carrying capacity (OCC restoration. However, the increase of oxygenation achieved is marginal or none at all for molecular hemoglobin (Hb products, due to their lingering vasoactivity. This has provided the impetus for the development of “oxygen therapeutics” using Hb-based molecules that have high oxygen affinity and target delivery of oxygen to anoxic areas. However it is still unclear how these oxygen carriers counteract or mitigate the functional effects of anemia due to obstruction, vasoconstriction and under-perfusion. Indeed, they are administered as a low dosage/low volume therapeutic Hb (subsequently further diluted in the circulatory pool and hence induce extremely small OCC changes. Hyperviscous plasma expanders provide an alternative to oxygen therapeutics by increasing the oxygen delivery capacity (ODC; in anemia they induce supra-perfusion and increase tissue perfusion (flow by as much as 50%. Polyethylene glycol conjugate albumin (PEG-Alb accomplishes this by enhancing the shear thinning behavior of diluted blood, which increases microvascular endothelial shear stress, causes vasodilation and lowering peripheral vascular resistance thus facilitating cardiac function. Induction of supra-perfusion takes advantage of the fact that ODC is the product of OCC and blood flow and hence can be maintained by increasing either or both. Animal studies suggest that this approach may save a considerable fraction of the blood supply. It has an additional benefit of enhancing tissue clearance of toxic metabolites.

  10. Differentiating the role of lithium and oxygen in retaining deuterium on lithiated graphite plasma-facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, C. N. [Fusion Safety Program, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625-7113, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States); School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Allain, J. P. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States); Luitjohan, K. E. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Krstic, P. S. [Institute for Advanced Computational Science, Stony Brook University, New York 11794 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); TheoretiK, Knoxville, Tennessee 379XX (United States); Dadras, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Skinner, C. H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Laboratory experiments have been used to investigate the fundamental interactions responsible for deuterium retention in lithiated graphite. Oxygen was found to be present and play a key role in experiments that simulated NSTX lithium conditioning, where the atomic surface concentration can increase to >40% when deuterium retention chemistry is observed. Quantum-classical molecular dynamic simulations elucidated this oxygen-deuterium effect and showed that oxygen retains significantly more deuterium than lithium in a simulated matrix with 20% lithium, 20% oxygen, and 60% carbon. Simulations further show that deuterium retention is even higher when lithium is removed from the matrix. Experiments artificially increased the oxygen content in graphite to ∼16% and then bombarded with deuterium. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed depletion of the oxygen and no enhanced deuterium retention, thus demonstrating that lithium is essential in retaining the oxygen that thereby retains deuterium.

  11. A ReaxFF-based molecular dynamics study of the mechanisms of interactions between reactive oxygen plasma species and the Candida albicans cell wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T.; Shi, L.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zou, L.; Zhang, L.

    2017-10-01

    Atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasmas have attracted significant attention and have been widely used to inactivate pathogens, yet the mechanisms underlying the interactions between plasma-generated species and bio-organisms have not been elucidated clearly. In this paper, reactive molecular dynamics simulations are employed to investigate the mechanisms of interactions between reactive oxygen plasma species (O, OH, and O2) and β-1,6-glucan (a model for the C. albicans cell wall) from a microscopic point of view. Our simulations show that O and OH species can break structurally important C-C and C-O bonds, while O2 molecules exhibit only weak, non-bonded interactions with β-1,6-glucan. Hydrogen abstraction from hydroxyl or CH groups occurs first in all bond cleavage mechanisms. This is followed by a cascade of bond cleavage and double bond formation events. These lead to the destruction of the fungal cell wall. O and OH have similar effects related to their bond cleavage mechanisms. Our simulation results provide fundamental insights into the mechanisms underlying the interactions between reactive oxygen plasma species and the fungal cell wall of C. albicans at the atomic level.

  12. Study on the effect of hydrogen addition on the variation of plasma parameters of argon-oxygen magnetron glow discharge for synthesis of TiO2 films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Saikia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the effect of hydrogen addition on plasma parameters of argon-oxygen magnetron glow discharge plasma in the synthesis of H-doped TiO2 films. The parameters of the hydrogen-added Ar/O2 plasma influence the properties and the structural phases of the deposited TiO2 film. Therefore, the variation of plasma parameters such as electron temperature (Te, electron density (ne, ion density (ni, degree of ionization of Ar and degree of dissociation of H2 as a function of hydrogen content in the discharge is studied. Langmuir probe and Optical emission spectroscopy are used to characterize the plasma. On the basis of the different reactions in the gas phase of the magnetron discharge, the variation of plasma parameters and sputtering rate are explained. It is observed that the electron and heavy ion density decline with gradual addition of hydrogen in the discharge. Hydrogen addition significantly changes the degree of ionization of Ar which influences the structural phases of the TiO2 film.

  13. A resonant dc-dc power converter assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a resonant DC-DC power converter assembly comprising a first resonant DC-DC power converter and a second resonant DC-DC power converter having identical circuit topologies. A first inductor of the first resonant DC-DC power converter and a second inductor of the second resonant DC-DC power converter are configured for magnetically coupling the first and second resonant DC-DC power converters to each other to forcing substantially 180 degrees phase shift, or fo...

  14. Comparative study of total power density at a substrate in pulsed DC magnetron and hollow-cathode plasma jet sputtering systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čada, Martin; Virostko, Petr; Kment, Štěpán; Hubička, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 6, S1 (2009), S247-S252 ISSN 1612-8850. [International Conference on Plasma Surface Engineering /11./. Garmisch Partenkirchen, 15.09.2008-19.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN301370701; GA AV ČR KJB100100707; GA AV ČR KJB100100805; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : calorimeter probe * floating substrate * magnetron * plasma jet * pulsed discharge Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 4.037, year: 2009

  15. Influence of operating parameters on surface properties of RF glow discharge oxygen plasma treated TiO{sub 2}/PET film for biomedical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandiyaraj, K. Navaneetha, E-mail: dr.knpr@gmail.com [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, L and T by pass, Chinniyam Palayam (post), Coimbatore 641062 (India); Deshmukh, R.R. [Department of Physics, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019 (India); Mahendiran, R. [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, L and T by pass, Chinniyam Palayam (post), Coimbatore 641062 (India); Su, Pi-G [Department of Chemistry, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 111, Taiwan (China); Yassitepe, Emre; Shah, Ismat [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, 208 Dupont Hall, Newark (United States); Perni, Stefano [School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Prokopovich, Polina [School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Institute of Medical Engineering and Medical Physics, School of Engineering, Cardiff University (United Kingdom); Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N., E-mail: Nadagouda.Mallikarjuna@epamail.epa.gov [The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, NRMRL, WSWRD, 26W. Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a thin transparent titania (TiO{sub 2}) film was coated on the surface of flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film using the sol–gel method. The surface properties of the obtained TiO{sub 2}/PET film were further improved by RF glow discharge oxygen plasma as a function of exposure time and discharge power. The changes in hydrophilicity of TiO{sub 2}/PET films were analyzed by contact angle measurements and surface energy. The influence of plasma on the surface of the TiO{sub 2}/PET films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) as well as the change in chemical state and composition that were investigated by X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS). The cytotoxicity of the TiO{sub 2}/PET films was analyzed using human osteoblast cells and the bacterial eradication behaviors of TiO{sub 2}/PET films were also evaluated against Staphylococcus bacteria. It was found that the surface roughness and incorporation of oxygen containing polar functional groups of the plasma treated TiO{sub 2}/PET films increased substantially as compared to the untreated one. Moreover the increased concentration of Ti{sup 3+} on the surface of plasma treated TiO{sub 2}/PET films was due to the transformation of chemical states (Ti{sup 4+} → Ti{sup 3+}). These morphological and chemical changes are responsible for enhanced hydrophilicity of the TiO{sub 2}/PET films. Furthermore, the plasma treated TiO{sub 2}/PET film exhibited no citotoxicity against osteoblast cells and antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus bacteria which can find application in manufacturing of biomedical devices. - Graphical abstract: Mechanism of plasma treatment on the surface of TiO{sub 2}/PET films. - Highlights: • Investigated the surface properties of TiO{sub 2}/PET films modified by O{sub 2} plasma • Studied the effect of operating parameters on surface properties of TiO{sub 2}/PET films • Mechanism of the plasma treatment on TiO{sub 2}/PET was clearly investigated.

  16. Characterization of a microwave generated plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root, D.J.; Mahoney, L.; Asmussen, J.

    1986-01-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated a microwave ion beam source without and with static magnetic fields in inert gases and in oxygen gases. This plasma generation configuration also has uses in the areas of plasma processing such as plasma etching, plasma assisted thin flim deposition and plasma assisted oxide growth. These ion beam and plasma processing applications have provided motivation to investigate microwave discharge properties, such as electron density, electron temperature, gas temperature, degree of ionization, etc., of the microwave generated plasma over a wide range of experimental operating conditions. This paper presents the results of experimental measurements which attempt to characterize the experimental microwave discharge in the absence of a static magnetic field. Measurements from a double probe, which is located in the plasma in a zero microwave field region, are presented in argon, xenon and oxygen gases. Variations of plasma density and electron temperature versus absorbed microwave power, gas pressure (0.2 m Torr to 200 m Torr) and discharge diffusion length are presented and compared to dc positive column discharge theory

  17. DC Magnetron sputtering of Y-Ba-Cu-O thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Gunnar.

    1990-01-01

    I have been studying dc magnetron sputtering of thin film YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x , one of the recently discovered high- temperatures superconductors. In the introduction a brief review of the subjects sputtering and superconductivity is given. Since partial pressure measurements, especially for oxygen, have been important in the work I include a short description of the operating principles of mass spectroscopy. Experimental results in addition to what is given in the papers concerning plasma are presented in an appendix at the end of the introduction. (au)

  18. High rate performance of LiMn2O4 cathodes for lithium ion batteries synthesized by low temperature oxygen plasma assisted sol–gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-L.; Chiu, K.-F.; Chen, Y.-R.; Chen, C.C.; Lin, H.C.; Chiang, H.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Nano-crystalline LiMn 2 O 4 thin films have been synthesized by the sol–gel process at low temperature (623 K). The low temperature prepared films are treated by a direct current pulsed oxygen plasma, and tested as cathodes for lithium batteries. The plasma treated films are able to sustain charge–discharge cycles under significant high current density of up to 5.4 A/g corresponding to 45 C for battery operation. The capacity ratio for discharging at 1.2 A/g and 0.024 A/g is over 65%, indicating low internal resistance, which meets the requirement of fast charge and discharge for electric vehicles. The stable high current density performances can be attributed to the formation of a dense surface morphology that is induced by the plasma irradiation. The formation of the surface morphology results in the more uniform current distribution on the film surface, which decreases the interface charge transfer resistances as measured by the electrochemical impedance spectra. - Highlights: • A low temperature process has been used to synthesize LiMn 2 O 4 thin films. • Plasma treatment can reduce the interface charge transfer resistances for LiMn 2 O 4 . • LiMn 2 O 4 cathodes treated by plasma treatment can deliver high rate capability

  19. Effect of oxygen plasma treatment on the electrochemical performance of the rayon and polyacrylonitrile based carbon felt for the vanadium redox flow battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, D.; Babu, D. J.; Langner, J.; Bruns, M.; Pfaffmann, L.; Bhaskar, A.; Schneider, J. J.; Scheiba, F.; Ehrenberg, H.

    2016-11-01

    Oxygen plasma treatment was applied on commercially available graphite felt electrodes based on rayon (GFA) and polyacrylonitrile (GFD). The formation of functional groups on the surface of the felt was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The BET studies of the plasma treated electrodes showed no significant increase in surface area for both the rayon as well as the PAN based felts. Both plasma treated electrodes showed significantly enhanced V3+/V2+ redox activity compared to the pristine electrodes. Since an increase of the surface area has been ruled out for plasma treated electrode the enhanced activity could be attributed to surface functional groups. Interestingly, plasma treated GFD felts showed less electrochemical activity towards V5+/V4+ compared to the pristine electrode. Nevertheless, an overall increase of the single cell performance was still observed as the negative electrode is known to be the performance limiting electrode. Thus, to a great extent the present work helps to preferentially understand the importance of functional groups on the electrochemical activity of negative and positive redox reaction. The study emphasizes the need of highly active electrodes especially at the negative electrode side as inactive electrodes can still facilitate hydrogen evolution and degrade the electrolyte in VRFBs.

  20. Effect of wettability and surface roughness on the adhesion properties of collagen on PDMS films treated by capacitively coupled oxygen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juárez-Moreno, J.A. [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, Calle 43 No. 130, Col. Chuburna de Hidalgo C.P., 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Ávila-Ortega, A. [Facultad de Ingeniería Química—UADY, Periférico Norte Kilómetro 33.5, Col. Chuburna de Hidalgo Inn, C.P. , 97203 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Oliva, A.I. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN–Unidad Mérida, Km. 6 Antigua carretera a Progreso Apdo. Postal 73, Cordemex, 97310 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Avilés, F. [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, Calle 43 No. 130, Col. Chuburna de Hidalgo C.P., 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Cauich-Rodríguez, J.V., E-mail: jvcr@cicy.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, Calle 43 No. 130, Col. Chuburna de Hidalgo C.P., 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Plasma treatment was used as an adhesive tool for PDMS/collagen composite preparation. • Response surface methodology was used for statistical optimization. • A microscopic roughness can also lead to a mechanical interlocking between materials. • Hydroxyl groups on the PDMS surface contribute to the enhanced chemical interactions. • PDMS/collagen composite obtained by plasma treatment exhibited higher peel strength. - Abstract: Direct chemical bonding of biomolecules to the surface of chemically inert polymers such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is not easily achieved. Therefore, pre-activation of such materials, followed by attachment of the biomolecule is necessary. This paper describes a procedure to functionalize a PDMS surface by oxygen-based plasma followed by the adhesion of collagen type I for the preparation of adhesive-free bilayer composite intended as skin substitute. Plasma treatments between 40 and 120 W for 5 to 15 min were used and the extent of surface modification was followed by contact angle, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and adhesion test. It was found that as the plasma power and time were increased, PDMS contact angle decreased while surface roughness increased as revealed by SEM and AFM. The formation of oxygen-containing functional groups at the surface was detected by FTIR. T-peel tests, performed on PDMS treated at 80 W/13 min and covered with collagen showed maximum peel strength of 0.1 N/mm which was 3 times higher than that measured for the untreated bilayer composite. The observed enhancement in the adhesion strength was attributed to the increased mechanical interlocking driven by the increased roughness and the formation of hydrophilic functional groups.

  1. Effect of wettability and surface roughness on the adhesion properties of collagen on PDMS films treated by capacitively coupled oxygen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juárez-Moreno, J.A.; Ávila-Ortega, A.; Oliva, A.I.; Avilés, F.; Cauich-Rodríguez, J.V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Plasma treatment was used as an adhesive tool for PDMS/collagen composite preparation. • Response surface methodology was used for statistical optimization. • A microscopic roughness can also lead to a mechanical interlocking between materials. • Hydroxyl groups on the PDMS surface contribute to the enhanced chemical interactions. • PDMS/collagen composite obtained by plasma treatment exhibited higher peel strength. - Abstract: Direct chemical bonding of biomolecules to the surface of chemically inert polymers such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is not easily achieved. Therefore, pre-activation of such materials, followed by attachment of the biomolecule is necessary. This paper describes a procedure to functionalize a PDMS surface by oxygen-based plasma followed by the adhesion of collagen type I for the preparation of adhesive-free bilayer composite intended as skin substitute. Plasma treatments between 40 and 120 W for 5 to 15 min were used and the extent of surface modification was followed by contact angle, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and adhesion test. It was found that as the plasma power and time were increased, PDMS contact angle decreased while surface roughness increased as revealed by SEM and AFM. The formation of oxygen-containing functional groups at the surface was detected by FTIR. T-peel tests, performed on PDMS treated at 80 W/13 min and covered with collagen showed maximum peel strength of 0.1 N/mm which was 3 times higher than that measured for the untreated bilayer composite. The observed enhancement in the adhesion strength was attributed to the increased mechanical interlocking driven by the increased roughness and the formation of hydrophilic functional groups

  2. Preparation of hydrogenated amorphous carbon films using a microsecond-pulsed DC capacitive-coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition system operated at high frequency up to 400 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah Al; Furuta, Hiroshi; Hatta, Akimitsu

    2018-06-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films are deposited on silicon (Si) substrates using a high-repetition microsecond-pulsed DC plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system from acetylene (C2H2) at a gas pressure of 15 Pa inside a custom-made vacuum chamber. The plasma discharge characteristics, hydrocarbon species, and the microstructure of the resulting films are examined at various pulse repetition rates from 50 to 400 kHz and a fixed duty cycle of 50%. The optical emission spectra confirmed the increase in electron excitation energy from 1.09 to 1.82 eV and the decrease in the intensity ratio of CH/C2 from 1.04 to 0.75 with increasing pulse frequency, indicating the enhanced electron impact dissociation of C2H2 gas. With increasing pulse frequency, the deposition rate gradually increased, reaching a maximum rate of 60 nm/min at 200 kHz, after which a progressive decrease was noted, whereas the deposition area was almost uniform for all the prepared films. Clear trends of increasing sp3 content (amorphization) and decreasing hydrogen (H) content in the films were observed as the pulse repetition rate increased, while most of the hydrogen atoms bonded to carbon atoms by sp3 hybridization rather than by sp2 hybridization.

  3. Effect of organic-buffer-layer on electrical property and environmental reliability of Ga-doped ZnO films prepared by RF plasma assisted DC magnetron sputtering on plastic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinoki, Toshio; Kyuhara, Chika; Agura, Hideaki; Yazawa, Kenji; Kinoshita, Kentaro; Ohmi, Koutoku; Kishida, Satoru

    2010-01-01

    Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) transparent conductive films have been prepared by RF plasma assisted DC magnetron sputtering under a reductive atmosphere on organic-buffer-layer (OBL) coated polyethylene telephthalate (PET) substrates without intentionally heating substrates. Electrical and optical properties, crystallinity, and environmental reliability of the GZO films have been investigated. The distributional characteristic of resistivity is observed in the GZO film deposited on the OBL-coated PET substrates. The high resistivity at facing the erosion area in the source target is reduced by providing the RF plasma and H 2 gas near the substrate, resulting in a uniform distribution of the sheet resistance. It has been also found that the increase of resistivity by an accelerated aging test performed under a storage condition at 60 o C and at a relative humidity of 95% is suppressed by employing the OBL. The OBL suppresses the formation of cracks, which are induced by the aging test. These facts are thought to contribute to a high environmental reliability of GZO films on PET substrates. Values of resistivity, Hall mobility and carrier concentration are obtained: 5.0-20 x 10 -3 Ω cm, 4.0 cm 2 /Vs, and 3.8 x 10 20 cm -3 , respectively. An average transmittance of the GZO film including OBL and PET substrate is 78% in a visible region. The OBL enables to realize the practical use of GZO films on PET sheets.

  4. Influence of Oxygenated Compounds on Reaction Products in a Microwave Plasma Methane Pyrolysis Assembly for Post-Processing of Sabatier Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, J. Matthew; Abney, Morgan B.

    2012-01-01

    The state-of-the-art Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) was delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) in April 2010. The system is designed to accept carbon dioxide from the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly and hydrogen from the Oxygen Generation Assembly. The two gases are reacted in the CRA in a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane. Venting of methane results in an oxygen resupply requirement of about 378 lbs per crew member per year. If the oxygen is supplied as water, the total weight for resupply is about 476 lb per crew member per year. For long-term missions beyond low Earth orbit, during which resupply capabilities will be further limited, recovery of hydrogen from methane is highly desirable. For this purpose, NASA is pursuing development of a Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) capable of recovering hydrogen from methane. Under certain conditions, water vapor and carbon dioxide (nominally intended to be separated from the CRA outlet stream) may be present in the PPA feed stream. Thus, testing was conducted in 2010 to determine the effect of these oxygenated compounds on PPA performance, particularly the effect of inlet carbon dioxide and water variations on the PPA product stream. This paper discusses the test set-up, analysis, and results of this testing.

  5. Model polymer etching and surface modification by a time modulated RF plasma jet: role of atomic oxygen and water vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan, P; Knoll, A J; Wang, H; Oehrlein, G S; Kondeti, V S S K; Bruggeman, P J

    2017-01-01

    The surface interaction of a well-characterized time modulated radio frequency (RF) plasma jet with polystyrene, poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(vinyl alcohol) as model polymers is investigated. The RF plasma jet shows fast polymer etching but mild chemical modification with a characteristic carbonate ester and NO formation on the etched surface. By varying the plasma treatment conditions including feed gas composition, environment gaseous composition, and treatment distance, we find that short lived species, especially atomic O for Ar/1% O 2 and 1% air plasma and OH for Ar/1% H 2 O plasma, play an essential role for polymer etching. For O 2 containing plasma, we find that atomic O initiates polymer etching and the etching depth mirrors the measured decay of O atoms in the gas phase as the nozzle-surface distance increases. The etching reaction probability of an O atom ranging from 10 −4 to 10 −3 is consistent with low pressure plasma research. We also find that adding O 2 and H 2 O simultaneously into Ar feed gas quenches polymer etching compared to adding them separately which suggests the reduction of O and OH density in Ar/O 2 /H 2 O plasma. (letter)

  6. Model polymer etching and surface modification by a time modulated RF plasma jet: role of atomic oxygen and water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, P.; Knoll, A. J.; Wang, H.; Kondeti, V. S. S. K.; Bruggeman, P. J.; Oehrlein, G. S.

    2017-01-01

    The surface interaction of a well-characterized time modulated radio frequency (RF) plasma jet with polystyrene, poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(vinyl alcohol) as model polymers is investigated. The RF plasma jet shows fast polymer etching but mild chemical modification with a characteristic carbonate ester and NO formation on the etched surface. By varying the plasma treatment conditions including feed gas composition, environment gaseous composition, and treatment distance, we find that short lived species, especially atomic O for Ar/1% O2 and 1% air plasma and OH for Ar/1% H2O plasma, play an essential role for polymer etching. For O2 containing plasma, we find that atomic O initiates polymer etching and the etching depth mirrors the measured decay of O atoms in the gas phase as the nozzle-surface distance increases. The etching reaction probability of an O atom ranging from 10-4 to 10-3 is consistent with low pressure plasma research. We also find that adding O2 and H2O simultaneously into Ar feed gas quenches polymer etching compared to adding them separately which suggests the reduction of O and OH density in Ar/O2/H2O plasma.

  7. Full range ZVS DC-DC converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, Rinki; Badapanda, M.K.; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    A 500 V, 24 Amp DC-DC converter with digital signal processor (DSP) based control and protection has been designed, fabricated and tested. Its power circuit consists of IGBT based single phase inverter bridge, ferrite transformer and diode rectifier. All IGBTs in the inverter bridge are operated in zero voltage switching (ZVS) mode to minimize switching losses thereby increasing the efficiency of the converter significantly. The efficiency of this converter is measured to be greater than 97% at full load. In a conventional full bridge inverter, typically ZVS is achieved under full load condition while at light load ZVS is lost. An auxiliary LC circuit has been intentionally incorporated in this converter to achieve ZVS even at light loaded conditions. Detailed simulation of the converter circuit is carried out and crucial waveforms have been presented in this paper. Microchip make dsPIC30F2020 DSP is employed to provide phase shifted PWMs to IGBTs in the inverter bridge. All the crucial parameters are also monitored by this DSP and in case of any unfavorable conditions, the converter is tripped off. Suitable experiments were carried out in this DC-DC converter under different loaded conditions and a close match between the simulated and experimental results were obtained. Such DC-DC converters can be connected in series or parallel for the development of solid state modular power supplies for various applications. (author)

  8. Evaluation of oxygen species during E-H transition in inductively coupled RF plasmas: combination of experimental results with global model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meichsner, Jürgen; Wegner, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Inductively coupled RF plasmas (ICP) in oxygen at low pressure have been intensively studied as a molecular and electronegative model system in the last funding period of the Collaborative Research Centre 24 "Fundamentals of Complex Plasmas". The ICP configuration consists of a planar coil inside a quartz cylinder as dielectric barrier which is immersed in a large stainless steel vacuum chamber. In particular, the E-H mode transition has been investigated, combining experimental results from comprehensive plasma diagnostics as input for analytical rate equation calculation of a volume averaged global model. The averaged density was determined for electrons, negative ions O-, molecular oxygen ground state O2(X3 Σg-) and singlet metastable state O2(a1 Δg) from line-integrated measurements using 160 GHz Gaussian beam microwave interferometry coupled with laser photodetachment experiment and VUV absorption spectroscopy, respectively. Taking into account the relevant elementary processes and rate coefficients from literature together with the measured temperatures and averaged density of electrons, O2(X3 Σg-) and O2(a1 Δg) the steady state density was calculated for O(3P), O2(b1 Σg+), O(1D), O(1S), O3, O-, O2-, and O3-, respectively. The averaged density of negative ions O- from the rate equation calculation is compared with the measured one. The normalized source and loss rates are discussed for O(3P), O2(b1 Σg+) and O-. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Fundamentals of Complex Plasmas", edited by Jürgen Meichsner, Michael Bonitz, Holger Fehske, Alexander Piel.

  9. Development of bonding techniques between tungsten and copper alloy for plasma facing components by HIP method. 1. Bonding between tungsten and oxygen free copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shigeru; Fukaya, Kiyoshi; Ishiyama, Shintaro; Eto, Motokuni; Akiba, Masato

    1999-08-01

    In recent years, it has been considered that W (tungsten) is one of candidate materials for armor tiles of plasma facing components, like first wall or divertor, of fusion reactor. On the other hand, oxygen free high thermal conductivity (OFHC)-copper is proposed as heat sink materials behind the plasma facing materials because of its high thermal conductivity. However, plasma facing components are exposed to cyclic high heat load and heavily irradiated by 14 MeV neutron. Under these conditions, many unfavorable effects, for instance, thermal stresses of bonding interface, irradiation damage and He atom production by nuclear transmutation, will be decreased bonding strength between W and Cu alloys. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a reliable bonding techniques in order to make plasma facing components which can resist them. Then, we started the bonding technology development by hot isostatic press (HIP) method to bond W with Cu alloys. In this experiments, to optimize HIP bonding conditions, four point bending were performed for each bonded conditions at temperature from R.T. to 873 K and we could get the best HIP bonding conditions for W and OFHC-Cu as 1273 K x 2 hours x 147 MPa. To evaluate bonding strength of the specimen bonded at these conditions, tensile tests were also performed at same temperature range. The tensile strength was similar with OFHC-Cu which were treated at same conditions. (author)

  10. Plasma-polymerized SiOx deposition on polymer film surfaces for preparation of oxygen gas barrier polymeric films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, N.

    2003-01-01

    SiOx films were deposited on surfaces of three polymeric films, PET, PP, and Nylon; and their oxygen gas barrier properties were evaluated. To mitigate discrepancies between the deposited SiOx and polymer film, surface modification of polymer films was done, and how the surface modification could contribute to was discussed from the viewpoint of apparent activation energy for the permeation process. The SiOx deposition on the polymer film surfaces led to a large decrease in the oxygen permeation rate. Modification of polymer film surfaces by mans of the TMOS or Si-COOH coupling treatment in prior to the SiOx deposition was effective in decreasing the oxygen permeation rate. The cavity model is proposed as an oxygen permeation process through the SiOx-deposited Nylon film. From the proposed model, controlling the interface between the deposited SiOx film and the polymer film is emphasized to be a key factor to prepare SiOx-deposited polymer films with good oxygen gas barrier properties. (author)

  11. Effect of oxygen plasma treatment on crystal growth mode at pentacene/Ni interface in organic thin-film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bang Joo; Hong, Kihyon; Kim, Woong-Kwon; Kim, Kisoo; Kim, Sungjun; Lee, Jong-Lam

    2010-11-25

    We report how treatment of nickel (Ni) with O(2) plasma affects the polarity of Ni surface, crystallinity of pentacene film on the Ni, and electrical properties of pentacene organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) that use Ni as source-drain electrodes. The polar component of surface energy in Ni surface increased from 8.1 to 43.3 mJ/m(2) after O(2)-plasma treatment for 10 s. From X-ray photoelectron spectra and secondary electron emission spectra, we found that NiO(x) was formed on the O(2)-plasma-treated Ni surface and the work function of O(2)-plasma-treated Ni was 0.85 eV higher than that of untreated Ni. X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy measurements showed that pentacene molecules are well aligned as a thin-film and grains grow much larger on O(2)-plasma-treated Ni than on untreated Ni. This change in the growth mode is attributed to the reduction of interaction energy between pentacene and Ni due to formation of oxide at the Ni/pentacene interface. Thus, O(2)-plasma treatment promoted the growth of well-ordered pentacene film and lowered both the hole injection barrier and the contact resistance between Ni and pentacene by forming NiO(x), enhancing the electrical property of bottom-contact OTFTs.

  12. A highly stable (SnOx-Sn)@few layered graphene composite anode of sodium-ion batteries synthesized by oxygen plasma assisted milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Deliang; Liu, Jiangwen; Li, Xiang; Hu, Renzong; Zeng, Meiqing; Yang, Lichun; Zhu, Min

    2017-05-01

    The (SnOx-Sn)@few layered graphene ((SnOx-Sn)@FLG) composite has been synthesized by oxygen plasma-assisted milling. Owing to the synergistic effect of rapid plasma heating and ball mill grinding, SnOx (1 ≤ x ≤ 2) nanoparticles generated from the reaction of Sn with oxygen are tightly wrapped by FLG nanosheets which are simultaneously exfoliated from expanded graphite, forming secondary micro granules. Inside the granules, the small size of the SnOx nanoparticles enables the fast kinetics for Na+ transfer. The in-situ formed FLG and residual Sn nanoparticles improve the electrical conductivity of the composite, meanwhile alleviate the aggregation of SnOx nanoparticles and relieve the volume change during the cycling, which is beneficial for the cyclic stability for the Na+ storage. As an anode material for sodium-ion batteries, the (SnOx-Sn)@FLG composite exhibits a high reversible capacity of 448 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1 in the first cycle, with 82.6% capacity retention after 250 cycles. Even when the current density increases to 1000 mA g-1, this composite retains 316.5 mAh g-1 after 250 cycles. With superior Na+ storage stability, the (SnOx-Sn)@FLG composite can be a promising anode material for high performance sodium-ion batteries.

  13. Effects of irradiation distance on supply of reactive oxygen species to the bottom of a Petri dish filled with liquid by an atmospheric O{sub 2}/He plasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, Toshiyuki, E-mail: kawasaki@nbu.ac.jp; Kusumegi, Shota; Kudo, Akihiro; Sakanoshita, Tomohiro; Tsurumaru, Takuya; Sato, Akihiro [Department of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nippon Bunri University, Oita, Oita 870-0397 (Japan); Uchida, Giichiro [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu [Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2016-05-07

    The impact of irradiation distances on plasma jet-induced specific effects on the supply of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to the bottom of a Petri dish filled with liquid was investigated using a KI-starch gel reagent that can be employed as a ROS indicator even in water. O{sub 3} exposure experiments without plasma irradiation were also performed to elucidate the specific effects of the plasma jet. Relative concentrations of ROS transported to the bottom were evaluated using absorbance measurements. The results indicated that ROS supply to the bottom is markedly enhanced by the plasma jet irradiation at shorter irradiation distances, whereas similar results could not be obtained for the O{sub 3} exposure. In these cases, the liquid mixing in the depth direction was also enhanced by the plasma jet irradiation only, and the supply of reactive atomic oxygen to the liquid surface was markedly increased as well.

  14. High voltage dc cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjustrom, B

    1965-12-01

    How stress distribution in dc cables varies with temperature and stress level, influence of polarity reversals and space charges, and different types of overvoltage to which dc cable may be subjected are discussed. Design problems, especially as related to corrosion protection and to mechanical stress caused by wire armoring during manufacturing and laying, accessories and work done on test methods, and the possibility of designing 400 to 600 kV dc cables for transmitting 2000 to 4000 MW are described.

  15. Production and correlation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in gas- and liquid-phase generated by helium plasma jets under different pulse widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijie; Zhou, Chunxi; Liu, Dingxin; Xu, Dehui; Xia, Wenjie; Cui, Qingjie; Wang, Bingchuan; Kong, Michael G.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present the effects of the pulse width (PW) on the plasma jet's discharge characteristics, particularly focusing on the production and correlation of the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) in gas- and liquid-phase. It is found that the length of plasma jet plume first increases before the PW of 10 μs, then gradually decreases and finally almost remains unchanged beyond 150 μs. The plasma bullet disappears after the falling edge of the voltage pulse at low PW, while it terminates far ahead of the falling edge of voltage pulse at high PW. This is mainly attributed to accumulation of space charges that lead to weakening of the reduced electric field with an increase of PW from low to high. More important, it is found that the excited reactive species, the positive and negative ions from plasma jet, and the concentrations of NO2- and NO3- in deionized water exposed to plasma jet also display the first increasing and then decreasing change trend with increase of PW, while the concentration of H2O2 in water almost displays the linearly increasing trend. This mainly results from the formation of the H3O+ and HO2-, as well as their ion water clusters that can produce more OH radicals to be converted into H2O2, while the NO2- and NO3- in gas phase can transport into water and exist most stably in water. The water cluster formation at gas-liquid interface is an important key process that can affect the chemical nature and dose of aqueous RONS in water; this is beneficial for understanding how the RONS are formed in liquid-phase.

  16. Pulsed-DC selfsputtering of copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiatrowski, A; Posadowski, W M; Radzimski, Z J

    2008-01-01

    At standard magnetron sputtering conditions (argon pressure ∼0.5 Pa) inert gas particles are often entrapped in the formed films. Inert gas contamination can be eliminated by using the self-sustained magnetron sputtering process because it is done in the absence of the inert gas atmosphere. The self-sustained sputtering (SSS) gives also a unique condition during the transport of sputtered particles to the substrate. It is especially useful for filling high aspect ratio submicron scale structures for microelectronics. So far it has been shown that the self-sputtering process can be sustained in the DC operation mode (DC-SSS) only. The main disadvantage of DC-SSS process is instability related to possible arc formation. Usage of pulsed sputtering, similarly to reactive pulsed magnetron sputtering, could eliminate this problem. In this paper results of pulsed-DC self-sustained magnetron sputtering (pulsed DC-SSS) of copper are presented for the first time. The planar magnetron equipped with a 50 mm in diameter and 6 mm thick copper target was powered by DC-power supply modulated by power switch. The maximum target power was about 11 kW (∼550W/cm 2 ). The magnetron operation was investigated as a function of pulsing frequency (20-100 kHz) and duty factor (50-90%). The discharge extinction pressure was determined for these conditions. The plasma emission spectra (400-410nm range) and deposition rates were observed for both DC and pulsed DC sustained self-sputtering processes. The presented results illustrate that stable pulsed DC-SSS process can be obtained at pulsing frequency in the range of 60-100 kHz and duty factor of 70-90%

  17. Pulsed-DC selfsputtering of copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiatrowski, A.; Posadowski, W. M.; Radzimski, Z. J.

    2008-03-01

    At standard magnetron sputtering conditions (argon pressure ~0.5 Pa) inert gas particles are often entrapped in the formed films. Inert gas contamination can be eliminated by using the self-sustained magnetron sputtering process because it is done in the absence of the inert gas atmosphere. The self-sustained sputtering (SSS) gives also a unique condition during the transport of sputtered particles to the substrate. It is especially useful for filling high aspect ratio submicron scale structures for microelectronics. So far it has been shown that the self-sputtering process can be sustained in the DC operation mode (DC-SSS) only. The main disadvantage of DC-SSS process is instability related to possible arc formation. Usage of pulsed sputtering, similarly to reactive pulsed magnetron sputtering, could eliminate this problem. In this paper results of pulsed-DC self-sustained magnetron sputtering (pulsed DC-SSS) of copper are presented for the first time. The planar magnetron equipped with a 50 mm in diameter and 6 mm thick copper target was powered by DC-power supply modulated by power switch. The maximum target power was about 11 kW (~550W/cm2). The magnetron operation was investigated as a function of pulsing frequency (20-100 kHz) and duty factor (50-90%). The discharge extinction pressure was determined for these conditions. The plasma emission spectra (400-410nm range) and deposition rates were observed for both DC and pulsed DC sustained self-sputtering processes. The presented results illustrate that stable pulsed DC-SSS process can be obtained at pulsing frequency in the range of 60-100 kHz and duty factor of 70-90%.

  18. E-H mode transition in low-pressure inductively coupled nitrogen-argon and oxygen-argon plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Wook; Lee, Hye Lan; Chung, T. H.

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the characteristics of the E-H mode transition in low-pressure inductively coupled N 2 -Ar and O 2 -Ar discharges using rf-compensated Langmuir probe measurements and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). As the ICP power increases, the emission intensities from plasma species, the electron density, the electron temperature, and the plasma potential exhibit sudden changes. The Ar content in the gas mixture and total gas pressure have been varied in an attempt to fully characterize the plasma parameters. With these control parameters varying, the changes of the transition threshold power and the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) are explored. In N 2 -Ar and O 2 -Ar discharges at low-pressures of several millitorr, the transition thresholds are observed to decrease with Ar content and pressure. It is observed that in N 2 -Ar plasmas during the transition, the shape of the EEDF changes from an unusual distribution with a flat hole near the electron energy of 3 eV in the E mode to a Maxwellian distribution in the H mode. However, in O 2 -Ar plasmas, the EEDFs in the E mode at low Ar contents show roughly bi-Maxwellian distributions, while the EEDFs in the H mode are observed to be nearly Maxwellian. In the E and H modes of O 2 -Ar discharges, the dissociation fraction of O 2 molecules is estimated using optical emission actinometry. During the E-H mode transition, the dissociation fraction of molecules is also enhanced.

  19. Family of multiport bidirectional DC-DC converters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, H.; Kotsopoulos, A.; Duarte, J.L.; Hendrix, M.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Multiport DC-DC converters are of potential interest in applications such as generation systems utilising multiple sustainable energy sources. A family of multiport bidirectional DC-DC converters derived from a general topology is presented. The topology shows a combination of DC-link and magnetic

  20. Morphological and Structural Analysis of Polyaniline and Poly(o-anisidine Layers Generated in a DC Glow Discharge Plasma by Using an Oblique Angle Electrode Deposition Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Butoi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on the structural and morphological investigations of polyaniline and poly(o-anisidine polymers generated in a direct current glow discharge plasma, in the vapors of the monomers, without a buffer gas, using an oblique angle-positioned substrate configuration. By atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy we identified the formation of worm-like interlinked structures on the surface of the polyaniline layers, the layers being compact in the bulk. The poly(o-anisidine layers are flat with no kind of structures on their surfaces. By Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy we identified the main IR bands characteristic of polyaniline and poly(o-anisidine, confirming that the polyaniline chemical structure is in the emeraldine form. The IR band from 1070 cm−1 was attributed to the emeraldine salt form of polyaniline as an indication of its doping with H+. The appearance of the IR band at 1155 cm−1 also indicates the conducting protonated of polyaniline. The X-ray diffraction revealed the formation of crystalline domains embedded in an amorphous matrix within the polyaniline layers. The interchain separation length of 3.59 Å is also an indicator of the conductive character of the polymers. The X-ray diffraction pattern of poly(o-anisidine highlights the semi-crystalline nature of the layers. The electrical conductivities of polyaniline and poly(o-anisidine layers and their dependence with temperature are also investigated.

  1. Influence of Microwave Power on the Properties of Hydrogenated Diamond-Like Carbon Films Prepared by ECR Plasma Enhanced DC Magnetron Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ru Lili; Huang Jianjun; Gao Liang; Qi Bing

    2010-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma was applied to enhance the direct current magnetron sputtering to prepare hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (H-DLC) films. For different microwave powers, both argon and hydrogen gas are introduced separately as the ECR working gas to investigate the influence of microwave power on the microstructure and electrical property of the H-DLC films deposited on P-type silicon substrates. A series of characterization methods including the Raman spectrum and atomic force microscopy are used. Results show that, within a certain range, the increase in microwave power affects the properties of the thin films, namely the sp 3 ratio, the hardness, the nanoparticle size and the resistivity all increase while the roughness decreases with the increase in microwave power. The maximum of resistivity amounts to 1.1 x 10 9 Ω · cm. At the same time it is found that the influence of microwave power on the properties of H-DLC films is more pronounced when argon gas is applied as the ECR working gas, compared to hydrogen gas.

  2. Synthesis of Pt nanoparticles as catalysts of oxygen reduction with microbubble-assisted low-voltage and low-frequency solution plasma processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Genki; Chikaoka, Yu; Shiroishi, Hidenobu; Kosaka, Shinpei; Saito, Morihiro; Kameta, Naohiro; Matsuda, Naoki

    2018-04-01

    In the preparation of metallic nanoparticles by conventional solution plasma (SP) techniques, unstable plasma emission becomes an issue when the voltage and frequency of the waves applied between two electrodes placed in solution are lowered to avoid the boiling of the solution. In this study, we confirm that, in the presence of microbubbles, plasma is generated stably at low voltage (440 V) and low frequency (50-100 Hz) and small-size (≤10 nm) Pt nanoparticles (PtNPs) are synthesized in succession using a flow cell. The smallest PtNPs, ∼3.3 nm in diameter, are obtained using half-wave rectification, a tungsten wire anode, and a platinum wire cathode. The PtNPs are characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and thermogravimeter-differential thermal analysis. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is investigated in 0.1 M HClO4 solution on carbon-supported PtNPs using a rotating ring-disk electrode. The catalytic activities per initial electrochemical active surface area of the carbon-supported PtNPs synthesized employing the low-voltage, low-frequency (LVLF)-SP technique is higher than that of the commercially available 20 wt% Pt on Vulcan XC-72R. These results indicate that the LVLF-SP technique is a promising approach to producing carbon-supported PtNPs that catalyze ORR with low energy consumption.

  3. Etching Effect of an Atmospheric DC Arc Plasmatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Se Min; Kim, Ji Hun; Kang, In Je; Lee, Heon Ju

    2010-01-01

    Thermal plasmas (especially arc plasma) were extensively industrialized, principally by aeronautic sector. Cold plasma technologies have been developed in the microelectronics but their vacuum equipment limits their implantation. Plasmas used in dry etching, thin film deposition and surface treatment for display or semiconductor industries are operating at low pressures in very costly due to the use of vacuum equipment and vacuum components. Use of DC arc plasmatrons in welding, soldering, and cutting of metals is well known. A DC-arc plasmatron with high durability was reported to be a suitable device for etching silicon and photo-resist surfaces

  4. In situ dc oxygen‐discharge cleaning system for optical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, Tsuneharu; Shidara, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Kenichiro; Yagishita, Akira; Sato, Shigeru

    1989-01-01

    In situ dc oxygen‐discharge cleaning arrangements have been developed at the Photon Factory for the removal of carbon contamination from optical surfaces. A high cleaning rate could be achieved by producing an oxygen plasma close to the optical elements with special care taken to avoid any harmful effects from the discharge; contaminant carbon was completely removed within a few hours, at most. This short exposure time and the use of dry oxygen gas resulted in a restoration of the original ultrahigh vacuum without a bakeout. Results with a Seya‐Namioka beamline for gas‐phase experiments showed a flux enhancement amounting to a factor of 50, and results with a grasshopper beamline showed a nearly complete recovery of the light intensity, even at the carbon K edge

  5. Effect of surface properties of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles synthesized by dc thermal plasma route on antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhosale, S. V.; Ekambe, P. S.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Mathe, V. L.

    2018-05-01

    The present work reports the role of surface properties of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles on the antimicrobial activity. The NiFe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by gas phase condensation and chemical co-precipitation route. These nanoparticles were extensively investigated using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electro-kinetic property measurements. The HRTEM was used to analyze surface morphology of nickel ferrite nanoparticles obtained by two different routes. Electro-kinetic properties of the nanoparticles under investigation were recorded, analyzed and correlated with the antimicrobial properties. It was observed that nickel ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by thermal plasma route (NFOTP) formed highly stable colloidal solution as compared to chemically synthesized (NFOCP), as the later tends to agglomerate due to low surface charge. The antimicrobial activity of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles were investigated on two Gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, two Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium and one fungal species Candida albicans. It was noted that the surface properties of NiFe2O4 particles have revealing effect on the antimicrobial activity. The NFOTP nanoparticles showed significant activity for gram negative E. coli bacteria however no activity was observed for other bacteria's and fungi under study. Moreover NFOCP particles did not show any significant activity for both bacteria's and fungi. Further, antimicrobial activity of nickel ferrite nanoparticles were studied even for different concentration to obtain the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC).

  6. Programmable dc motor controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, J. E.

    1982-11-01

    A portable programmable dc motor controller, with features not available on commercial instruments was developed for controlling fixtures during welding processes. The controller can be used to drive any dc motor having tachometer feedback and motor requirements not exceeding 30 volts, 3 amperes. Among the controller's features are delayed start time, upslope time, speed, and downslope time.

  7. Plasma-assisted synthesis of monodispersed and robust Ruthenium ultrafine nanocatalysts for organosilane oxidation and oxygen evolution reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnanakumar, E.S.; Ng, W.; Filiz, B.C.; Rothenberg, G.; Wang, S.; Xu, H.; Pastor-Pérez, L.; Pastor-Blas, M.M.; Sepúlveda-Escribano, A.; Yan, N.; Shiju, N.R.

    2017-01-01

    We report a facile and general approach for preparing ultrafine ruthenium nanocatalysts by using a plasma-assisted synthesis at <100 °C. The resulting Ru nanoparticles are monodispersed (typical size 2 nm) and remain that way upon loading onto carbon and TiO2 supports. This gives robust catalysts

  8. Multilevel DC link inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui-Jia

    2003-06-10

    A multilevel DC link inverter and method for improving torque response and current regulation in permanent magnet motors and switched reluctance motors having a low inductance includes a plurality of voltage controlled cells connected in series for applying a resulting dc voltage comprised of one or more incremental dc voltages. The cells are provided with switches for increasing the resulting applied dc voltage as speed and back EMF increase, while limiting the voltage that is applied to the commutation switches to perform PWM or dc voltage stepping functions, so as to limit current ripple in the stator windings below an acceptable level, typically 5%. Several embodiments are disclosed including inverters using IGBT's, inverters using thyristors. All of the inverters are operable in both motoring and regenerating modes.

  9. Manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve K-OMS-2 as catalyst in post plasma-catalysis for trichloroethylene degradation in humid air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Dinh, M.T.; Giraudon, J.-M.; Vandenbroucke, A.M.; Morent, R.; De Geyter, N.; Lamonier, J.-F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Post plasma catalysis: negative DC glow discharge combined with a cryptomelane. • The α-MnO_2 catalyst totally decomposes the NTP generated ozone. • Active oxygen oxidizes the end-up plasma VOC by-products. - Abstract: The total oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in air at low relative humidity (RH = 10%) in the presence of CO_2 (520 ppmv) was investigated in function of energy density using an atmospheric pressure negative DC luminescent glow discharge combined with a cryptomelane catalyst positioned downstream of the plasma reactor at a temperature of 150 °C. When using Non-Thermal Plasma (NTP) alone, it is found a low COx (x = 1–2) yield in agreement with the detection of gaseous polychlorinated by-products in the outlet stream as well as ozone which is an harmful pollutant. Introduction of cryptomelane enhanced trichloroethylene removal, totally inhibited plasma ozone formation and increased significantly the COx yield. The improved performances of the hybrid system were mainly ascribed to the total destruction of plasma generated ozone on cryptomelane surface to produce active oxygen species. Consequently these active oxygen species greatly enhanced the abatement of the plasma non-reacted TCE and completely destroyed the hazardous plasma generated polychlorinated intermediates. The facile redox of Mn species associated with oxygen vacancies and mobility as well as the textural properties of the catalyst might also contribute as a whole to the efficiency of the process.

  10. Manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve K-OMS-2 as catalyst in post plasma-catalysis for trichloroethylene degradation in humid air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Dinh, M.T. [Université Lille, Sciences et Technologies, Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide UMR CNRS UCCS 8181, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); The University of Da-Nang, University of Science and Technology, 54, Nguyen Luong Bang, Da-Nang (Viet Nam); Giraudon, J.-M., E-mail: jean-marc.giraudon@univ-lille1.fr [Université Lille, Sciences et Technologies, Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide UMR CNRS UCCS 8181, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Vandenbroucke, A.M.; Morent, R.; De Geyter, N. [Ghent University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of Applied Physics, Research Unit Plasma Technology, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Lamonier, J.-F. [Université Lille, Sciences et Technologies, Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide UMR CNRS UCCS 8181, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Post plasma catalysis: negative DC glow discharge combined with a cryptomelane. • The α-MnO{sub 2} catalyst totally decomposes the NTP generated ozone. • Active oxygen oxidizes the end-up plasma VOC by-products. - Abstract: The total oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in air at low relative humidity (RH = 10%) in the presence of CO{sub 2} (520 ppmv) was investigated in function of energy density using an atmospheric pressure negative DC luminescent glow discharge combined with a cryptomelane catalyst positioned downstream of the plasma reactor at a temperature of 150 °C. When using Non-Thermal Plasma (NTP) alone, it is found a low COx (x = 1–2) yield in agreement with the detection of gaseous polychlorinated by-products in the outlet stream as well as ozone which is an harmful pollutant. Introduction of cryptomelane enhanced trichloroethylene removal, totally inhibited plasma ozone formation and increased significantly the COx yield. The improved performances of the hybrid system were mainly ascribed to the total destruction of plasma generated ozone on cryptomelane surface to produce active oxygen species. Consequently these active oxygen species greatly enhanced the abatement of the plasma non-reacted TCE and completely destroyed the hazardous plasma generated polychlorinated intermediates. The facile redox of Mn species associated with oxygen vacancies and mobility as well as the textural properties of the catalyst might also contribute as a whole to the efficiency of the process.

  11. The emerging role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in redox biology and some implications for plasma applications to medicine and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, David B

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the closely related reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are often generated in applications of atmospheric pressure plasmas intended for biomedical purposes. These species are also central players in what is sometimes referred to as ‘redox’ or oxidation-reduction biology. Oxidation-reduction biochemistry is fundamental to all of aerobic biology. ROS and RNS are perhaps best known as disease-associated agents, implicated in diabetes, cancer, heart and lung disease, autoimmune disease and a host of other maladies including ageing and various infectious diseases. These species are also known to play active roles in the immune systems of both animals and plants and are key signalling molecules, among many other important roles. Indeed, the latest research has shown that ROS/RNS play a much more complex and nuanced role in health and ageing than previously thought. Some of the most potentially profound therapeutic roles played by ROS and RNS in various medical interventions have emerged only in the last several years. Recent research suggests that ROS/RNS are significant and perhaps even central actors in the actions of antimicrobial and anti-parasite drugs, cancer therapies, wound healing therapies and therapies involving the cardiovascular system. Understanding the ways ROS/RNS act in established therapies may help guide future efforts in exploiting novel plasma medical therapies. The importance of ROS and RNS to plant biology has been relatively little appreciated in the plasma biomedicine community, but these species are just as important in plants. It appears that there are opportunities for useful applications of plasmas in this area as well. (topical review)

  12. The emerging role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in redox biology and some implications for plasma applications to medicine and biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, David B.

    2012-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the closely related reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are often generated in applications of atmospheric pressure plasmas intended for biomedical purposes. These species are also central players in what is sometimes referred to as ‘redox’ or oxidation-reduction biology. Oxidation-reduction biochemistry is fundamental to all of aerobic biology. ROS and RNS are perhaps best known as disease-associated agents, implicated in diabetes, cancer, heart and lung disease, autoimmune disease and a host of other maladies including ageing and various infectious diseases. These species are also known to play active roles in the immune systems of both animals and plants and are key signalling molecules, among many other important roles. Indeed, the latest research has shown that ROS/RNS play a much more complex and nuanced role in health and ageing than previously thought. Some of the most potentially profound therapeutic roles played by ROS and RNS in various medical interventions have emerged only in the last several years. Recent research suggests that ROS/RNS are significant and perhaps even central actors in the actions of antimicrobial and anti-parasite drugs, cancer therapies, wound healing therapies and therapies involving the cardiovascular system. Understanding the ways ROS/RNS act in established therapies may help guide future efforts in exploiting novel plasma medical therapies. The importance of ROS and RNS to plant biology has been relatively little appreciated in the plasma biomedicine community, but these species are just as important in plants. It appears that there are opportunities for useful applications of plasmas in this area as well.

  13. Pulsed dc self-sustained magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiatrowski, A.; Posadowski, W. M.; Radzimski, Z. J.

    2008-01-01

    The magnetron sputtering has become one of the commonly used techniques for industrial deposition of thin films and coatings due to its simplicity and reliability. At standard magnetron sputtering conditions (argon pressure of ∼0.5 Pa) inert gas particles (necessary to sustain discharge) are often entrapped in the deposited films. Inert gas contamination can be eliminated during the self-sustained magnetron sputtering (SSS) process, where the presence of the inert gas is not a necessary requirement. Moreover the SSS process that is possible due to the high degree of ionization of the sputtered material also gives a unique condition during the transport of sputtered particles to the substrate. So far it has been shown that the self-sustained mode of magnetron operation can be obtained using dc powering (dc-SSS) only. The main disadvantage of the dc-SSS process is its instability related to random arc formation. In such case the discharge has to be temporarily extinguished to prevent damaging both the magnetron source and power supply. The authors postulate that pulsed powering could protect the SSS process against arcs, similarly to reactive pulsed magnetron deposition processes of insulating thin films. To put this concept into practice, (i) the high enough plasma density has to be achieved and (ii) the type of pulsed powering has to be chosen taking plasma dynamics into account. In this article results of pulsed dc self-sustained magnetron sputtering (pulsed dc-SSS) are presented. The planar magnetron equipped with a 50 mm diameter and 6 mm thick copper target was used during the experiments. The maximum target power was about 11 kW, which corresponded to the target power density of ∼560 W/cm 2 . The magnetron operation was investigated as a function of pulse frequency (20-100 kHz) and pulse duty factor (50%-90%). The discharge (argon) extinction pressure level was determined for these conditions. The plasma emission spectra (400-410 nm range) and deposition

  14. Long-term stability of superhydrophilic oxygen plasma-modified single-walled carbon nanotube network surfaces and the influence on ammonia gas detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Sungjoon [Department of Biomicrosystem Technology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joonhyub [Department of Control and Instrumentation Engineering, Korea University, 2511 Sejong-ro, Sejong City 339-770 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chanwon [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Joon-Hyung, E-mail: jj1023@chol.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kyonggi University, 154-42 Gwanggyosan-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 16227 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Nam Ki, E-mail: nkmin@korea.ac.kr [Department of Biomicrosystem Technology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Superhydrophilic single-walled carbon nanotube obtained by O{sub 2} plasma treatment voluntarily and non-reversibly reverts to a metastable state. This aerobic aging is an essential process to develop a stable carbon nanotube-based sensor. - Highlights: • Superhydrophilic single-walled carbon nanotube network can be obtained by O{sub 2} plasma-based surface modification. • The modified carbon nanotube surface invariably reverts to a metastable state in a non-reversible manner. • Aerobic aging is essential to stabilize the modified carbon nanotube and the carbon nanotube-based sensing device due to minimized sensor-to-sensor variation. - Abstract: Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) networks are subjected to a low-powered oxygen plasma for the surface modification. Changes in the surface chemical composition and the stability of the plasma-treated SWCNT (p-SWCNT) with aging in air for up to five weeks are studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle analysis. The contact angle decreases from 120° of the untreated hydrophobic SWCNT to 0° for the superhydrophilic p-SWCNT. Similarly, the ratio of oxygen to carbon (O:C) based on the XPS spectra increases from 0.25 to 1.19, indicating an increase in surface energy of the p-SWCNT. The enhanced surface energy is gradually dissipated and the p-SWCNT network loses the superhydrophilic surface property. However, it never revert to the original hydrophobic surface state but to a metastable hydrophilic state. The aging effect on sensitivity of the p-SWCNT network-based ammonia sensor is investigated to show the importance of the aging process for the stabilization of the p-SWCNT. The best sensitivity for monitoring NH{sub 3} gas is observed with the as-prepared p-SWCNT, and the sensitivity decreases as similar as the p-SWCNT loses its hydrophilicity with time goes by. After a large performance degradation during the aging time for about two weeks, the response

  15. COMPARISON OF FEMTOSECOND AND NANOSECOND TWO PHOTON ABSORPTION LASER INDUCED FLUORESCENCE (TALIF) OF ATOMIC OXYGEN IN ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE PLASMAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    were also collected with the CDBDs in an ozone production regime, as shown below in Figure 12. For the ns-TALIF setup, the discharge was operated in...these plasma systems and facilitate the development of model -based predictive capabilities. Diagnostic techniques used to quantify intermediate...quenching rate is defined as ii q q q Q k n=∑ , i.e. the sum of the product of the number density of the quenching species, nq, and its corresponding

  16. Investigation of the growth of In2O3 on Y-stabilized ZrO2(100) by oxygen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourlange, A.; Payne, D.J.; Palgrave, R.G.; Foord, J.S.; Egdell, R.G.; Jacobs, R.M.J.; Schertel, A.; Hutchison, J.L.; Dobson, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Thin films of In 2 O 3 have been grown on Y-stabilised ZrO 2 (100) substrates by oxygen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy over a range of substrate temperatures between 650 o C and 900 o C. Growth at 650 o C leads to continuous but granular films and complete extinction of substrate core level structure in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. However with increasing substrate temperature the films break up into a series of discrete micrometer sized islands. Both the continuous and the island films have excellent epitaxial relationship with the substrate as gauged by X-ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction and lattice imaging in high resolution transmission electron microscopy.

  17. Formation of Pyrylium from Aromatic Systems with a Helium:Oxygen Flowing Atmospheric Pressure Afterglow (FAPA) Plasma Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badal, Sunil P.; Ratcliff, Tyree D.; You, Yi; Breneman, Curt M.; Shelley, Jacob T.

    2017-06-01

    The effects of oxygen addition on a helium-based flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow (FAPA) ionization source are explored. Small amounts of oxygen doped into the helium discharge gas resulted in an increase in abundance of protonated water clusters by at least three times. A corresponding increase in protonated analyte signal was also observed for small polar analytes, such as methanol and acetone. Meanwhile, most other reagent ions (e.g., O2 +·, NO+, etc.) significantly decrease in abundance with even 0.1% v/v oxygen in the discharge gas. Interestingly, when analytes that contained aromatic constituents were subjected to a He:O2-FAPA, a unique (M + 3)+ ion resulted, while molecular or protonated molecular ions were rarely detected. Exact-mass measurements revealed that these (M + 3)+ ions correspond to (M - CH + O)+, with the most likely structure being pyrylium. Presence of pyrylium-based ions was further confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry of the (M + 3)+ ion compared with that of a commercially available salt. Lastly, rapid and efficient production of pyrylium in the gas phase was used to convert benzene into pyridine. Though this pyrylium-formation reaction has not been shown before, the reaction is rapid and efficient. Potential reactant species, which could lead to pyrylium formation, were determined from reagent-ion mass spectra. Thermodynamic evaluation of reaction pathways was aided by calculation of the formation enthalpy for pyrylium, which was found to be 689.8 kJ/mol. Based on these results, we propose that this reaction is initiated by ionized ozone (O3 +·), proceeds similarly to ozonolysis, and results in the neutral loss of the stable CHO2 · radical. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Microwave exposure as a fast and cost-effective alternative of oxygen plasma treatment of indium-tin oxide electrode for application in organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soultati, Anastasia; Kostis, Ioannis; Papadimitropoulos, Giorgos; Zeniou, Angelos; Gogolides, Evangelos; Alexandropoulos, Dimitris; Vainos, Nikos; Davazoglou, Dimitris; Speliotis, Thanassis; Stathopoulos, Nikolaos A.; Argitis, Panagiotis; Vasilopoulou, Maria

    2017-12-01

    Pre-treatment methods are commonly employed to clean as well as to modify electrode surfaces. Many previous reports suggest that modifying the surface properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) by oxygen plasma treatment is a crucial step for the fabrication of high performance organic solar cells. In this work, we propose a fast and cost-effective microwave exposure step for the modification of the surface properties of ITO anode electrodes used in organic solar cells. It is demonstrated that a short microwave exposure improves the hydrophilicity and reduces the roughness of the ITO surface, as revealed by contact angle and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements, respectively, leading to a better quality of the PEDOT:PSS film coated on top of it. Similar results were obtained with the commonly used oxygen plasma treatment of ITO suggesting that microwave exposure is an effective process for modifying the surface properties of ITO with the benefits of low-cost, easy and fast processing. In addition, the influence of the microwave exposure of ITO anode electrode on the performance of an organic solar cell based on the poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C70 butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PC70BM) blend is investigated. The 71% efficiency enhancement obtained in the microwave annea