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Sample records for oxygen completely suppress

  1. Matairesinol inhibits angiogenesis via suppression of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Boram; Kim, Ki Hyun; Jung, Hye Jin [Chemical Genomics National Research Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Ho Jeong, E-mail: kwonhj@yonsei.ac.kr [Chemical Genomics National Research Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Matairesinol suppresses mitochondrial ROS generation during hypoxia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Matairesinol exhibits potent anti-angiogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Matairesinol could be a basis for the development of novel anti-angiogenic agents. -- Abstract: Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) are involved in cancer initiation and progression and function as signaling molecules in many aspects of hypoxia and growth factor-mediated signaling. Here we report that matairesinol, a natural small molecule identified from the cell-based screening of 200 natural plants, suppresses mROS generation resulting in anti-angiogenic activity. A non-toxic concentration of matairesinol inhibited the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The compound also suppressed in vitro angiogenesis of tube formation and chemoinvasion, as well as in vivo angiogenesis of the chorioallantoic membrane at non-toxic doses. Furthermore, matairesinol decreased hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} in hypoxic HeLa cells. These results demonstrate that matairesinol could function as a novel angiogenesis inhibitor by suppressing mROS signaling.

  2. The development of a completely automated oxygen isotope mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahern, T.K.

    1980-01-01

    A completely automated mass spectrometer system has been developed to measure the oxygen isotope ratio of carbon dioxide samples. The system has an accuracy of 0.03 percent, and is capable of analyzing more than 100 samples a day. The system uses an Interdata minicomputer as the primary controller. The intelligence of the system is contained within hardware circuits, software within the minicomputer, and firmware written for a Motorola 6802 microprocessor. A microprocessor-based inlet system controller maximizes the throughput of carbon dioxide samples within the inlet system. The inlet system normally contains four different aliquots of carbon dioxide and introduces these samples to the mass spectrometer through a single admittance leak. The system has been used in the analysis of 111 samples of ice taken from the Steele glacier

  3. Complete suppression of in vivo growth of human leukemia cells by specific immunotoxins: nude mouse models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, H.; Seon, B.K.

    1987-01-01

    In this study, immunotoxins containing monoclonal anti-human T-cell leukemia antibodies are shown to be capable of completely suppressing the tumor growth of human T-cell leukemia cells in vivo without any overt undersirable toxicity. These immunotoxins were prepared by conjugating ricin A chain (RA) with our monoclonal antibodies, SN1 and SN2, directed specifically to the human T-cell leukemia cell surface antigens TALLA and GP37, respectively. The authors have shown that these monoclonal antibodies are highly specific for human T-cell leukemia cells and do not react with various normal cells including normal T and B cells, thymocytes, and bone marrow cells. Ascitic and solid human T-cell leukemia cell tumors were generated in nude mice. The ascitic tumor was generated by transplanting Ichikawa cells (a human T-cell leukemia cell) i.p. into nude mice, whereas the solid tumor was generated by transplanting s.c. MOLT-4 cells (a human T-cell leukemia cell line) and x-irradiated human fibrosarcoma cells into x-irradiated nude mice. To investigate the efficacy of specific immunotoxins in suppression the in vivo growth of the ascitic tumor, they divided 40 nude mice that were injected with Ichikawa cells into four groups. None of the mice in group 4 that were treated with SN1-RA and SN2-RA showed any signs of a tumor or undesirable toxic effects for the 20 weeks that they were followed after the transplantation. Treatment with SN1-RA plus SN2-RA completely suppressed solid tumor growth in 4 of 10 nude mice carrying solid tumors and partially suppressed the tumor growth in the remaining 6 nude mice. These results strongly suggest that SN1-RA and SN2-RA may be useful for clinical treatment

  4. Complete Suppression of the m=2/n=1 NTM Using ECCD on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; La Haye, R.J.; Luce, T.C.; Humphreys, D.A.; Lohr, J.; Prater, R.; Austin, M.E.; Harvey, R.W.; Wade, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Complete suppression of the m=2/n=1 neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) is reported for the first time using electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) to noninductively generate current at the radius of the island O-point. Experiments on the DIII-D tokamak show that the maximum shrinkage of the m=2/n=1 island amplitude occurs when the ECCD location coincides with the q=2 surface. Estimates of the ECCD radial profile width from the island shrinkage are consistent with ray tracing calculations but may allow for a factor-of-1.5 broadening from electron radial transport

  5. COMPLETE SUPPRESSION OF THE m=2/n-1 NEOCLASSICAL TEARING MODE USING ELECTRON CYCLOTRON CURRENT DRIVE ON DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PETTY, CC; LAHAYE, LA; LUCE, TC; HUMPHREYS, DA; HYATT, AW; PRATER, R; STRAIT, EJ; WADE, MR

    2003-01-01

    A271 COMPLETE SUPPRESSION OF THE M=2/N-1 NEOCLASSICAL TEARING MODE USING ELECTRON CYCLOTRON CURRENT DRIVE ON DIII-D. The first suppression of the important and deleterious m=2/n=1 neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) is reported using electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) to replace the ''missing'' bootstrap current in the island O-point. Experiments on the DIII-D tokamak verify the maximum shrinkage of the m=2/n=1 island occurs when the ECCD location coincides with the q = 2 surface. The DIII-D plasma control system is put into search and suppress mode to make small changes in the toroidal field to find and lock onto the optimum position, based on real time measurements of dB θ /dt, for complete m=2/n=1 NTM suppression by ECCD. The requirements on the ECCD for complete island suppression are well modeled by the modified Rutherford equation for the DIII-D plasma conditions

  6. Live Candida albicans Suppresses Production of Reactive Oxygen Species in Phagocytes▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellington, Melanie; Dolan, Kristy; Krysan, Damian J.

    2009-01-01

    Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important aspect of phagocyte-mediated host responses. Since phagocytes play a crucial role in the host response to Candida albicans, we examined the ability of Candida to modulate phagocyte ROS production. ROS production was measured in the murine macrophage cell line J774 and in primary phagocytes using luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence. J774 cells, murine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), human monocytes, and human PMN treated with live C. albicans produced significantly less ROS than phagocytes treated with heat-killed C. albicans. Live C. albicans also suppressed ROS production in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages from C57BL/6 mice, but not from BALB/c mice. Live C. albicans also suppressed ROS in response to external stimuli. C. albicans and Candida glabrata suppressed ROS production by phagocytes, whereas Saccharomyces cerevisiae stimulated ROS production. The cell wall is the initial point of contact between Candida and phagocytes, but isolated cell walls from both heat-killed and live C. albicans stimulated ROS production. Heat-killed C. albicans has increased surface exposure of 1,3-β-glucan, a cell wall component that can stimulate phagocytes. To determine whether surface 1,3-β-glucan exposure accounted for the difference in ROS production, live C. albicans cells were treated with a sublethal dose of caspofungin to increase surface 1,3-β-glucan exposure. Caspofungin-treated C. albicans was fully able to suppress ROS production, indicating that suppression of ROS overrides stimulatory signals from 1,3-β-glucan. These studies indicate that live C. albicans actively suppresses ROS production in phagocytes in vitro, which may represent an important immune evasion mechanism. PMID:18981256

  7. Complete suppression of Pfirsch-Schlueter current in a toroidal l=3 stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yasuhiko; Wakatani, Masahiro; Yokoyama, Masayuki; Pustovitov, V.D.

    1999-10-01

    Pfirsch-Schlueter (P-S) current is an inherent property of a finite pressure toroidal equilibrium of tokamak and stellarator. However, it was pointed out recently (V.D. Pustovitov, Nuclear Fusion 36 (1996) 583) that the P-S current would be suppressed completely if the external vertical field could be adjusted to satisfy the condition Ω= in an l=3 stellarator. Here Ω= 2 >/B 0 2 -2ε cosθ, l is a pole number, |B tilde| the vacuum helical magnetic field, B 0 the toroidal field, ε the inverse aspect ratio, θ the poloidal angle and denotes the average over the toroidal angle. An example of such a stellarator equilibrium is presented in this paper. For this stellarator equilibrium, behavior of rotational transform and Boozer magnetic spectrum is clarified when the pressure is increased. Both formation of helical magnetic axis and reduction of toroidal curvature are important ingredients to reduce the P-S current. However, the collisionless particle confinement is not improved in this example. (author)

  8. Moscatilin Inhibits Lung Cancer Cell Motility and Invasion via Suppression of Endogenous Reactive Oxygen Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akkarawut Kowitdamrong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of death among cancer patients worldwide, and most of them have died from metastasis. Migration and invasion are prerequisite processes associated with high metastasis potential in cancers. Moscatilin, a bibenzyl derivative isolated from the Thai orchid Dendrobium pulchellum, has been shown to have anticancer effect against numerous cancer cell lines. However, little is known regarding the effect of moscatilin on cancer cell migration and invasion. The present study demonstrates that nontoxic concentrations of moscatilin were able to inhibit human nonsmall cell lung cancer H23 cell migration and invasion. The inhibitory effect of moscatilin was associated with an attenuation of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS, in which hydroxyl radical (OH∙ was identified as a dominant species in the suppression of filopodia formation. Western blot analysis also revealed that moscatilin downregulated activated focal adhesion kinase (phosphorylated FAK, Tyr 397 and activated ATP-dependent tyrosine kinase (phosphorylated Akt, Ser 473, whereas their parental counterparts were not detectable changed. In conclusion, our results indicate the novel molecular basis of moscalitin-inhibiting lung cancer cell motility and invasion and demonstrate a promising antimetastatic potential of such an agent for lung cancer therapy.

  9. Pseudomonas syringae enhances herbivory by suppressing the reactive oxygen burst in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Simon C; Humphrey, Parris T; Chevasco, Daniela; Ausubel, Frederick M; Pierce, Naomi E; Whiteman, Noah K

    2016-01-01

    Plant-herbivore interactions have evolved in the presence of plant-colonizing microbes. These microbes can have important third-party effects on herbivore ecology, as exemplified by drosophilid flies that evolved from ancestors feeding on plant-associated microbes. Leaf-mining flies in the genus Scaptomyza, which is nested within the paraphyletic genus Drosophila, show strong associations with bacteria in the genus Pseudomonas, including Pseudomonas syringae. Adult females are capable of vectoring these bacteria between plants and larvae show a preference for feeding on P. syringae-infected leaves. Here we show that Scaptomyza flava larvae can also vector P. syringae to and from feeding sites, and that they not only feed more, but also develop faster on plants previously infected with P. syringae. Our genetic and physiological data show that P. syringae enhances S. flava feeding on infected plants at least in part by suppressing anti-herbivore defenses mediated by reactive oxygen species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanisms of Complete Turbulence Suppression in Turbidity Currents Driven by Mono-Disperse and Bi-Disperse Suspensions of Sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrugesh S. Shringarpure

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Turbidity currents are submarine flows where the sediment fluid mixture (heavy current drives along the sloping ocean floor displacing the surrounding clear fluid (light ambient. Under the influence of gravity, the suspended sediments drive the current and at the same time settle down on the ocean bed. The interplay of turbulent mixing and settling sediments leads to stable stratification of sediments in the turbidity current. In previous studies (Cantero et al. 2009b; Cantero et al., 2009a; Cantero et al., 2012a; Talling et al., 2007 it was observed that strong settling tendency (large sediment sizes could cause complete turbulence suppression. In this study, we will analyse this process of complete turbulence suppression by means of direct numerical simulations (DNS of turbidity currents. In wall bounded unstratified flows, it has been long established that turbulence is sustained by the process of auto-generation of near-wall hairpin like and quasi-streamwise turbulent vortical structures. It was also identified that auto-generation is possible only when the strength of the turbulent structures is greater than a threshold value (Zhou et. al., 1996. Through quadrant analysis of Reynolds stress events and visualization of turbulent vortical structures, we observe that stratification by sediments lead to damping and spatial re-distribution of turbulent vortical structures in the flow. We propose that complete turbulence suppression is brought about by a total shutdown in the auto-generation process of the existing turbulent structures in the flow. We also identify three parameters – Reynolds number (Reτ, Richardson number (Riτ and sediment settling velocity (V˜z that quantify the process of turbulence suppression. A criterion for complete turbulence suppression is also proposed which can be defined as a critical value for RiτV˜z. This critical value is a function of Ret and based on simulations, experiments and field observations it

  11. Hypoxia Tolerance and Metabolic Suppression in Oxygen Minimum Zone Euphausiids: Implications for Ocean Deoxygenation and Biogeochemical Cycles

    KAUST Repository

    Seibel, Brad A.

    2016-08-10

    The effects of regional variations in oxygen and temperature levels with depth were assessed for the metabolism and hypoxia tolerance of dominant euphausiid species. The physiological strategies employed by these species facilitate prediction of changing vertical distributions with expanding oxygen minimum zones and inform estimates of the contribution of vertically migrating species to biogeochemical cycles. The migrating species from the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP), Euphausia eximia and Nematoscelis gracilis, tolerate a Partial Pressure (PO2) of 0.8 kPa at 10 °C (∼15 µM O2) for at least 12 h without mortality, while the California Current species, Nematoscelis difficilis, is incapable of surviving even 2.4 kPa PO2 (∼32 µM O2) for more than 3 h at that temperature. Euphausia diomedeae from the Red Sea migrates into an intermediate oxygen minimum zone, but one in which the temperature at depth remains near 22 °C. Euphausia diomedeae survived 1.6 kPa PO2 (∼22 µM O2) at 22 °C for the duration of six hour respiration experiments. Critical oxygen partial pressures were estimated for each species, and, for E. eximia, measured via oxygen consumption (2.1 kPa, 10 °C, n = 2) and lactate accumulation (1.1 kPa, 10 °C). A primary mechanism facilitating low oxygen tolerance is an ability to dramatically reduce energy expenditure during daytime forays into low oxygen waters. The ETP and Red Sea species reduced aerobic metabolism by more than 50% during exposure to hypoxia. Anaerobic glycolytic energy production, as indicated by whole-animal lactate accumulation, contributed only modestly to the energy deficit. Thus, the total metabolic rate was suppressed by ∼49–64%. Metabolic suppression during diel migrations to depth reduces the metabolic contribution of these species to vertical carbon and nitrogen flux (i.e., the biological pump) by an equivalent amount. Growing evidence suggests that metabolic suppression is a widespread strategy among migrating

  12. Small suppression of the complete fusion of {sup 6}Li + {sup 28}Si reaction at near barrier energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Mandira [Bose Institute, Department of Physics, Kolkata (India); Lubian, J. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Fisica, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2017-11-15

    The incomplete fusion cross section of the {sup 6}Li + {sup 28}Si weakly bound system at above barrier energies was deduced from the measured γ-ray cross sections. The complete fusion cross section was estimated from the measured total fusion and incomplete fusion cross section and is found to be 85-100% of the total fusion cross section. The coupled channel calculation has been performed considering ground and first excited states of {sup 28}Si target. The fusion cross section estimated from coupled channel calculation shows good agreement with measured total fusion cross section at higher energies. The suppression of about 15% of the fusion cross section predicted by coupled channel calculation shows good agreement with the complete fusion cross section. The effect of the channel couplings on the elastic scattering angular distribution is also investigated. (orig.)

  13. Topical oxygen therapy results in complete wound healing in diabetic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Janelle; Lu, Suzanne; McLaren, Ann-Marie; Perry, Julie A; Cross, Karen M

    2016-11-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are a significant problem in an aging population. Fifteen percent of diabetics develop a DFU over their lifetime, which can lead to potential amputation. The 5-year survival rate after amputation is 31%, which is greater than the lifetime risk of mortality from cancer. Topical oxygen is a promising technique for the adjunctive therapy of chronic wounds including DFUs, but few controlled studies exist to support its clinical adoption. The aim of this study was to compare a portable topical oxygen delivery system in patients with nonhealing DFUs to standard best practice. Twenty patients were randomized into a topical oxygen group (n = 10), and a nonplacebo control group with regular dressings and standard care (n = 10), and attended the diabetic foot clinic once weekly for 8 weeks. Ulcer surface area over time was analyzed using standardized digital imaging software. DFUs were present without healing for a mean duration of 76 weeks prior to the study. They found a significant difference in healing rate between patients receiving topical oxygen and those receiving standard care. Topical oxygen, therefore, represents a potentially exciting new technology to shorten healing time in patients with nonhealing DFUs. More prospective randomized and powered studies are needed to determine the benefits of topical oxygen, but our current results are very promising. © 2016 by the Wound Healing Society.

  14. Oxygen suppression in boiling water reactors. Phase 2. Annual report 1981, December 2, 1980-December 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burley, E.L.

    1982-07-01

    A hydrogen addition test will be performed in the Dresden-2 reactor of Commonwealth Edison Company during 1982. Up to 2 ppM hydrogen will be added to and dissolved in the reactor feedwater to reverse the radiolysis reaction in the reactor core and suppress oxgen concentration in the primary coolant. At low oxygen levels the propensity of stressed and sensitized 304 stainless steel toward intergranular stress corrosion cracking is greatly reduced. The test will answer outstanding questions and uncertainties in the areas of water chemistry, equipment design and materials performance. Nine special sample facilities will be prepared in the primary coolant, main stream, feedwater/condensate, and offgas systems. Instrumentation will be available to measure hydrogen, oxygen, conductivity, pH, soluble and insoluble corrosion products, and electrochemical potentials. In addition, an autoclave in which confirming constant extension rate tests can be conducted in reactor water will be provided

  15. A Comparison of Urge Intensity and the Probability of Tic Completion During Tic Freely and Tic Suppression Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Matt W; Nicotra, Cassandra M; Kelly, Laura M; Woods, Douglas W; Ricketts, Emily J; Perry-Parrish, Carisa; Reynolds, Elizabeth; Hankinson, Jessica; Grados, Marco A; Ostrander, Rick S; Walkup, John T

    2014-03-01

    Tic-suppression-based treatments (TSBTs) represent a safe and effective treatment option for Chronic Tic Disorders (CTDs). Prior research has demonstrated that treatment naive youths with CTDs have the capacity to safely and effectively suppress tics for prolonged periods. It remains unclear how tic suppression is achieved. The current study principally examines how effective suppression is achieved and preliminary correlates of the ability to suppress tics. Twelve youths, ages 10 to 17 years, with moderate-to-marked CTDs participated in an alternating sequence of tic freely and reinforced tic suppression conditions during which urge intensity and tic frequency were frequently assessed. Probability of tics occurring was half as likely following high-intensity urges during tic suppression (31%) in contrast to low-intensity urges during tic freely conditions (60%). Age was not associated with ability to suppress. Intelligence indices were associated with or trended toward greater ability to suppress tics. Attention difficulties were not associated with ability to suppress but were associated with tic severity. In contrast to our "selective suppression" hypothesis, we found participants equally capable of suppressing their tics regardless of urge intensity during reinforced tic suppression. Tic suppression was achieved with an "across-the-board" effort to resist urges. Preliminary data suggest that ability to suppress may be associated with general cognitive variables rather than age, tic severity, urge severity, and attention. Treatment naive youths appear to possess a capacity for robust tic suppression. TSBTs may bolster these capacities and/or enable their broader implementation, resulting in symptom improvement. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Epigenetic suppression of potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 expression in inflammatory pain induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C-R; Cheng, J-K; Wu, C-H; Chen, K-H; Liu, C-K

    2017-02-01

    Multiple mechanisms contribute to the stimulus-evoked pain hypersensitivity that may be experienced after peripheral inflammation. Persistent pathological stimuli in many pain conditions affect the expression of certain genes through epigenetic alternations. The main purpose of our study was to investigate the role of epigenetic modification on potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 (KCC2) gene expression in the persistence of inflammatory pain. Persistent inflammatory pain was induced through the injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in the left hind paw of rats. Acetyl-histone H3 and H4 level was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation in the spinal dorsal horn. Pain behaviour and inhibitory synaptic function of spinal cord were determined before and after CFA injection. KCC2 expression was determined by real time RT-PCR and Western blot. Intrathecal KCC2 siRNA (2 μg per 10 μL per rat) or HDAC inhibitor (10 μg per 10 μL per rat) was injected once daily for 3 days before CFA injection. Persistent inflammatory pain epigenetically suppressed KCC2 expression through histone deacetylase (HDAC)-mediated histone hypoacetylation, resulting in decreased inhibitory signalling efficacy. KCC2 knock-down caused by intrathecal administration of KCC2 siRNA in naïve rats reduced KCC2 expression in the spinal cord, leading to sensitized pain behaviours and impaired inhibitory synaptic transmission in their spinal cords. Moreover, intrathecal HDAC inhibitor injection in CFA rats increased KCC2 expression, partially restoring the spinal inhibitory synaptic transmission and relieving the sensitized pain behaviour. These findings suggest that the transcription of spinal KCC2 is regulated by histone acetylation epigenetically following CFA. Persistent pain suppresses KCC2 expression through HDAC-mediated histone hypoacetylation and consequently impairs the inhibitory function of inhibitory interneurons. Drugs such as HDAC inhibitors that suppress the influences of

  17. A Technique for Decreasing Reactivity of Coal Material to Suppress the Oxygen Absorption Process

    OpenAIRE

    Timofeeva, S. S.; Lugovtsova, Nataliya Yurievna; Gubanova, А. R.

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the mechanisms of self-ignition formation in coal liable to spontaneous combustion, on the basis of experimental works performed to analyze heat and mass transfer in the coal-air system. A new approach was developed to the coal self-heating suppression and thermodynamic control of the oxidation process. The influence of coal moisture content and thermal behaviour of air in the cooling process was studied during moisture evaporation.

  18. ATP-Dependent C–F Bond Cleavage Allows the Complete Degradation of 4-Fluoroaromatics without Oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Tiedt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Complete biodegradation of the abundant and persistent fluoroaromatics requires enzymatic cleavage of an arylic C–F bond, probably the most stable single bond of a biodegradable organic molecule. While in aerobic microorganisms defluorination of fluoroaromatics is initiated by oxygenases, arylic C–F bond cleavage has never been observed in the absence of oxygen. Here, an oxygen-independent enzymatic aryl fluoride bond cleavage is described during the complete degradation of 4-fluorobenzoate or 4-fluorotoluene to CO2 and HF in the denitrifying Thauera aromatica: the ATP-dependent defluorination of 4-fluorobenzoyl-coenzyme A (4-F-BzCoA to benzoyl-coenzyme A (BzCoA and HF, catalyzed by class I BzCoA reductase (BCR. Adaptation to growth with the fluoroaromatics was accomplished by the downregulation of a promiscuous benzoate-CoA ligase and the concomitant upregulation of 4-F-BzCoA-defluorinating/dearomatizing BCR on the transcriptional level. We propose an unprecedented mechanism for reductive arylic C–F bond cleavage via a Birch reduction-like mechanism resulting in a formal nucleophilic aromatic substitution. In the proposed anionic 4-fluorodienoyl-CoA transition state, fluoride elimination to BzCoA is favored over protonation to a fluorinated cyclic dienoyl-CoA.

  19. Oxygen at nanomolar levels reversibly suppresses process rates and gene expression in anammox and denitrification in the oxygen minimum zone off northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsgaard, Tage; Stewart, Frank J; Thamdrup, Bo; De Brabandere, Loreto; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Canfield, Don E; DeLong, Edward F

    2014-10-28

    A major percentage (20 to 40%) of global marine fixed-nitrogen loss occurs in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). Concentrations of O2 and the sensitivity of the anaerobic N2-producing processes of anammox and denitrification determine where this loss occurs. We studied experimentally how O2 at nanomolar levels affects anammox and denitrification rates and the transcription of nitrogen cycle genes in the anoxic OMZ off Chile. Rates of anammox and denitrification were reversibly suppressed, most likely at the enzyme level. Fifty percent inhibition of N2 and N2O production by denitrification was achieved at 205 and 297 nM O2, respectively, whereas anammox was 50% inhibited at 886 nM O2. Coupled metatranscriptomic analysis revealed that transcripts encoding nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ), nitrite reductase (nirS), and nitric oxide reductase (norB) decreased in relative abundance above 200 nM O2. This O2 concentration did not suppress the transcription of other dissimilatory nitrogen cycle genes, including nitrate reductase (narG), hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzo), and nitrite reductase (nirK). However, taxonomic characterization of transcripts suggested inhibition of narG transcription in gammaproteobacteria, whereas the transcription of anammox narG, whose gene product is likely used to oxidatively replenish electrons for carbon fixation, was not inhibited. The taxonomic composition of transcripts differed among denitrification enzymes, suggesting that distinct groups of microorganisms mediate different steps of denitrification. Sulfide addition (1 µM) did not affect anammox or O2 inhibition kinetics but strongly stimulated N2O production by denitrification. These results identify new O2 thresholds for delimiting marine nitrogen loss and highlight the utility of integrating biogeochemical and metatranscriptomic analyses. The removal of fixed nitrogen via anammox and denitrification associated with low O2 concentrations in oceanic oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) is a major sink in

  20. Effect of oxygen defects on transport properties and Tc of YBa2Cu3O6+x: Displacement energy for plane and chain oxygen and implications for irradiation-induced resistivity and Tc suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolpygo, S.K.; Lin, J.; Gurvitch, M.; Hou, S.Y.; Phillips, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of electron irradiation with energy from 20 to 120 keV on the resistivity, Hall coefficient, and superconducting critical temperature T c of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x thin films has been studied. The threshold energy of incident electrons for T c suppression has been found, and the displacement energy for oxygen in CuO 2 planes has been evaluated as 8.4 eV for irradiation along the c axis. The kinetics of production of the in-plane oxygen vacancies has been studied and found to be governed by athermal recombination of vacancy-interstitial pairs. The evaluated recombination volume constitutes about 21 unit cells. The increase in the T-linear resistivity slope and Hall coefficient at unchanged T c was observed in irradiations with subthreshold incident energies and was ascribed to the effect of chain oxygen displacements. The upper limit on the displacement energy for chain oxygen has been estimated as 2.8 eV. In x=0.9 samples the T c suppression by in-plane oxygen defects and increase in residual resistivity have been found to be, respectively, -280 K and 1.5 mΩcm per defect in the unit cell. It is shown that T c suppression by in-plane oxygen defects is a universal function of the transport impurity scattering rate and can be described qualitatively by pair-breaking theory for d-wave superconductors with nonmagnetic potential scatterers. Evaluation of scattering and pair-breaking rates as well as the scattering cross section and potential is given. A comparison of the influence of in-plane oxygen defects on transport properties with that of other in-plane defects, such as Zn and Ni substitutions for Cu, is also made. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  1. Oxygen consumption and cytochrome exidase activity of axolotl limbs muscle tissue in restoration of regenerative ability suppressed by X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teplits, N A [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Biologii Razvitiya

    1975-01-01

    The rate of oxygen use and activity of cytochrome oxidase in a homogenate of mitochondria and nuclei of muscle tissue of axolotl limbs after suppression of their regenerative capability by x irradiation and their restoration was studied experimentally. With suppression of the regenative capability the use of oxygen was depressed. Cytochrome oxidase activity in the homogenate and mitochondria decreased compared to that of the intact limb, in the nuclei of muscle tissue it was the same or greater. With restoration of the regenerative capability of the limbs the respiration rate of the homogenate and the mitochondria increased, accompanied by increased cytochrome oxidase activity. In the nuclei the cytochrome oxidase activity did not change in the blastema stage and sharply decreased in the limb formation state.

  2. Hypoxia Tolerance and Metabolic Suppression in Oxygen Minimum Zone Euphausiids: Implications for Ocean Deoxygenation and Biogeochemical Cycles

    KAUST Repository

    Seibel, Brad A.; Schneider, Jillian L.; Kaartvedt, Stein; Wishner, Karen F.; Daly, Kendra L.

    2016-01-01

    respiration experiments. Critical oxygen partial pressures were estimated for each species, and, for E. eximia, measured via oxygen consumption (2.1 kPa, 10 °C, n = 2) and lactate accumulation (1.1 kPa, 10 °C). A primary mechanism facilitating low oxygen

  3. Complete suppression of boron transient-enhanced diffusion and oxidation-enhanced diffusion in silicon using localized substitutional carbon incorporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, M. S.; Chang, C.-L.; Sturm, J. C.; Büyüklimanli, T.

    1998-12-01

    In this letter, we show the ability, through introduction of a thin Si1-x-yGexCy layer, to eliminate the enhancement of enhanced boron diffusion in silicon due to an oxidizing surface or ion implant damage. This reduction of diffusion is accomplished through a low-temperature-grown thin epitaxial Si1-x-yGexCy layer which completely filters out excess interstitials introduced by oxidation or ion implant damage. We also quantify the oxidation-enhanced diffusion (OED) and transient-enhanced diffusion (TED) dependence on substitutional carbon level, and further report both the observation of carbon TED and OED, and its dependence on carbon levels.

  4. Complete suppression of viral gene expression is associated with the onset and progression of lymphoid malignancy: observations in Bovine Leukemia Virus-infected sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burny Arsène

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During malignant progression, tumor cells need to acquire novel characteristics that lead to uncontrolled growth and reduced immunogenicity. In the Bovine Leukemia Virus-induced ovine leukemia model, silencing of viral gene expression has been proposed as a mechanism leading to immune evasion. However, whether proviral expression in tumors is completely suppressed in vivo was not conclusively demonstrated. Therefore, we studied viral expression in two selected experimentally-infected sheep, the virus or the disease of which had features that made it possible to distinguish tumor cells from their nontransformed counterparts. Results In the first animal, we observed the emergence of a genetically modified provirus simultaneously with leukemia onset. We found a Tax-mutated (TaxK303 replication-deficient provirus in the malignant B-cell clone while functional provirus (TaxE303 had been consistently monitored over the 17-month aleukemic period. In the second case, both non-transformed and transformed BLV-infected cells were present at the same time, but at distinct sites. While there was potentially-active provirus in the non-leukemic blood B-cell population, as demonstrated by ex-vivo culture and injection into naïve sheep, virus expression was completely suppressed in the malignant B-cells isolated from the lymphoid tumors despite the absence of genetic alterations in the proviral genome. These observations suggest that silencing of viral genes, including the oncoprotein Tax, is associated with tumor onset. Conclusion Our findings suggest that silencing is critical for tumor progression and identify two distinct mechanisms-genetic and epigenetic-involved in the complete suppression of virus and Tax expression. We demonstrate that, in contrast to systems that require sustained oncogene expression, the major viral transforming protein Tax can be turned-off without reversing the transformed phenotype. We propose that suppression

  5. Oxygen at nanomolar levels reversibly suppresses process rates and gene expression in anammox and denitrification in the oxygen minimum zone off Northern Chil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Tage; Stewart, Frank J.; Thamdrup, Bo

    2014-01-01

    at nanomolar levels affects anammox and denitrification rates and the transcription of nitrogen cycle genes in the anoxic OMZ off Chile. Rates of anammox and denitrification were reversibly suppressed, most likely at the enzyme level. Fiftypercent inhibition of N2 and N2O production by denitrification...

  6. Suppression of aqueous corrosion of La(Fe0.88Si0.12)13 by reducing dissolved oxygen concentration for high-performance magnetic refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujieda, S.; Fukamichi, K.; Suzuki, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The aqueous corrosion of La(Fe 0.88 Si 0.12 ) 13 and its suppression were investigated. • The lattice expansion after immersion was caused by the hydrogen absorption. • The itinerant-electron metamagnetic transition became indistinct after immersion. • The aqueous corrosion was suppressed by reducing the dissolved oxygen concentration. - Abstract: The itinerant-electron metamagnetic transition of La(Fe 0.88 Si 0.12 ) 13 becomes indistinct after immersion in distilled-water containing about 8 ppm of the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration because of aqueous corrosion. However, the aqueous corrosion of La(Fe 0.88 Si 0.12 ) 13 is significantly suppressed by reducing the DO concentration. Thus, isothermal magnetic entropy change after immersion for 30 days in deaerated distilled-water with a DO concentration less than 0.1 ppm is larger than that after immersion for 5 days in distilled-water containing about 8 ppm of the DO concentration. Consequently, the reduction of the DO concentration is effective for preservation of the excellent magnetocaloric effects of La(Fe 0.88 Si 0.12 ) 13 in an aqueous solution, which is a promising heat transfer fluid of room-temperature magnetic refrigeration

  7. Suppression of oxygen diffusion by thin Al2O3 films grown on SrTiO3 studied using a monoenergetic positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uedono, A.; Kiyohara, M.; Yasui, N.; Yamabe, K.

    2005-01-01

    The annealing behaviors of oxygen vacancies introduced by the epitaxial growth of thin SrTiO 3 and Al 2 O 3 films on SrTiO 3 substrates were studied by using a monoenergetic positron beam. The films were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy without using an oxidant. The Doppler broadening spectra of the annihilation radiation were measured as a function of the incident positron energy for samples fabricated under various growth conditions. The line-shape parameter S, corresponding to the annihilation of positrons in the substrate, was increased by the film growth, suggesting diffusion of oxygen from the substrate into the film and a resultant introduction of vacancies (mainly oxygen vacancies). A clear correlation between the value of S and the substrate conductivity was obtained. From isochronal annealing experiments, the Al 2 O 3 thin film was found to suppress the penetration of oxygen from the atmosphere for annealing temperatures below 600 deg. C. Degradation of the film's oxygen blocking property occurred due to the annealing at 700 deg. C, and this was attributed to the oxidation of the Al 2 O 3 by the atmosphere and the resultant introduction of vacancy-type defects

  8. Oral Administration of Shark Type II Collagen Suppresses Complete Freund’s Adjuvant-Induced Rheumatoid Arthritis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui Wu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Shark type II collagen (SCII is extracted as a glycoprotein from the cartilage of blue shark (Prionace glauca. We aim to confirm the effects of oral tolerance of SCII on inflammatory and immune responses to the ankle joint of rheumatoid-arthritis rats induced by Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA. Materials and Methods: The onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA was observed 14 ± x days after injection of CFA. Rats in the control group were treated with acetic acid by oral administration (0.05 mmol kg−1d−1, days 14–28, while rats in experimental groups were treated by oral administration with SCII (1 or 3 mg kg−1d−1, days 14–28, Tripterygium wilfordii polyglycosidium (TWP (10 mg kg−1d−1, days 14–28, and bovine type II collagen from US (US-CII (1 mg kg−1d−1, days 14–28, respectively. The severity of arthritis was evaluated by the articular swelling. The immunological indexes observed included delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH reaction, the level of interleukins 10 (IL-10 in rat blood serum and morphological characterization. Mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC was performed to investigate the relationship between T cell apoptosis and specific immune tolerance induced by SCII. Results: Treatment with SCII for 2 weeks significantly attenuated the acute inflammation. The rats orally administrated with SCII at the level of 3 mg kg−1d−1 (SCII 3 and US-CII had decreased DTH reaction compared with rats in control group. Rats treated with SCII 3 had the highest level of IL-10 with 102 pg/mL. SCII with concentration of 10 μg/L could help to significantly enhance level of Fas/Apo-1 in T cell in vitro. The result of histological staining indicated that the recovery of the articular membranes of ankle joint in SCII 3 group was greatly enhanced. Conclusions: Our results suggest that appropriate dose of SCII can not only ameliorate symptoms but also modify the disease process of Complete-Freunds-Adjuvant-induced arthritis. Oral

  9. Catechol Groups Enable Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging-Mediated Suppression of PKD-NFkappaB-IL-8 Signaling Pathway by Chlorogenic and Caffeic Acids in Human Intestinal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Soon Shin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlorogenic acid (CHA and caffeic acid (CA are phenolic compounds found in coffee, which inhibit oxidative stress-induced interleukin (IL-8 production in intestinal epithelial cells, thereby suppressing serious cellular injury and inflammatory intestinal diseases. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of CHA and CA, both of which inhibited hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced IL-8 transcriptional activity. They also significantly suppressed nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB transcriptional activity, nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit, and phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK. Additionally, upstream of IKK, protein kinase D (PKD was also suppressed. Finally, we found that they scavenged H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS and the functional moiety responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of CHA and CA was the catechol group. Therefore, we conclude that the presence of catechol groups in CHA and CA allows scavenging of intracellular ROS, thereby inhibiting H2O2-induced IL-8 production via suppression of PKD-NF-κB signaling in human intestinal epithelial cells.

  10. Health information technology interventions enhance care completion, engagement in HIV care and treatment, and viral suppression among HIV-infected patients in publicly funded settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shade, Starley B; Steward, Wayne T; Koester, Kimberly A; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Myers, Janet J

    2015-04-01

    The National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS) emphasizes the use of technology to facilitate coordination of comprehensive care for people with HIV. We examined the effect of six health information technology (HIT) interventions in a Ryan White-funded Special Projects of National Significance (SPNS) on care completion services, engagement in HIV care, and viral suppression. Interventions included use of surveillance data to identify out-of-care individuals, extending access to electronic health records to support service providers, use of electronic laboratory ordering and prescribing, and development of a patient portal. Data from a sample of electronic patient records from each site were analyzed to assess changes in utilization of comprehensive care (prevention screening, support service utilization), engagement in primary HIV medical care (receipt of services and use of antiretroviral therapy), and viral suppression. We used weighted generalized estimating equations to estimate outcomes while accounting for the unequal contribution of data and differences in the distribution of patient characteristics across sites and over time. We observed statistically significant changes in the desired direction in comprehensive care utilization and engagement in primary care outcomes targeted by each site. Five of six sites experienced statistically significant increases in viral suppression. These results provide additional support for the use of HIT as a valuable tool for achieving the NHAS goal of providing comprehensive care for all people living with HIV. HIT has the potential to increase utilization of services, improve health outcomes for people with HIV, and reduce community viral load and subsequent transmission of HIV. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com For affiliation see end of article.

  11. Oxygen at Nanomolar Levels Reversibly Suppresses Process Rates and Gene Expression in Anammox and Denitrification in the Oxygen Minimum Zone off Northern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Dalsgaard, Tage; Stewart, Frank J.; Thamdrup, Bo; De Brabandere, Loreto; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Canfield, Don E.; DeLong, Edward

    2014-01-01

    A major percentage (20 to 40%) of global marine fixed-nitrogen loss occurs in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). Concentrations of O[subscript 2] and the sensitivity of the anaerobic N[subscript 2]-producing processes of anammox and denitrification determine where this loss occurs. We studied experimentally how O[subscript 2] at nanomolar levels affects anammox and denitrification rates and the transcription of nitrogen cycle genes in the anoxic OMZ off Chile. Rates of anammox and denitrification w...

  12. Dynamin-related protein inhibitor downregulates reactive oxygen species levels to indirectly suppress high glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maimaitijiang, Alimujiang; Zhuang, Xinyu; Jiang, Xiaofei; Li, Yong, E-mail: 11211220031@fudan.edu.cn

    2016-03-18

    Hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells is a pathogenic mechanism common in diabetic vascular complications and is a putatively important therapeutic target. This study investigated multiple levels of biology, including cellular and organellar changes, as well as perturbations in protein synthesis and morphology. Quantitative and qualitative analysis was utilized to assess the effect of mitochondrial dynamic changes and reactive oxygen species(ROS) levels on high-glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. The data demonstrated that the mitochondrial fission inhibitor Mdivi-1 and downregulation of ROS levels both effectively inhibited the high-glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Downregulation of ROS levels played a more direct role and ROS levels were also regulated by mitochondrial dynamics. Increased ROS levels induced excessive mitochondrial fission through dynamin-related protein (Drp 1), while Mdivi-1 suppressed the sensitivity of Drp1 to ROS levels, thus inhibiting excessive mitochondrial fission under high-glucose conditions. This study is the first to propose that mitochondrial dynamic changes and ROS levels interact with each other and regulate high-glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. This finding provides novel ideas in understanding the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular remodeling and intervention. - Highlights: • Mdivi-1 inhibits VSMC proliferation by lowering ROS level in high-glucose condition. • ROS may be able to induce mitochondrial fission through Drp1 regulation. • Mdivi-1 can suppress the sensitivity of Drp1 to ROS.

  13. Systemic depletion of L-cyst(e)ine with cyst(e)inase increases reactive oxygen species and suppresses tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Shira L; Saha, Achinto; Liu, Jinyun; Tadi, Surendar; Tiziani, Stefano; Yan, Wupeng; Triplett, Kendra; Lamb, Candice; Alters, Susan E; Rowlinson, Scott; Zhang, Yan Jessie; Keating, Michael J; Huang, Peng; DiGiovanni, John; Georgiou, George; Stone, Everett

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cells experience higher oxidative stress from reactive oxygen species (ROS) than do non-malignant cells because of genetic alterations and abnormal growth; as a result, maintenance of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) is essential for their survival and proliferation. Under conditions of elevated ROS, endogenous L-cysteine (L-Cys) production is insufficient for GSH synthesis. This necessitates uptake of L-Cys that is predominantly in its disulfide form, L-cystine (CSSC), via the xCT(-) transporter. We show that administration of an engineered and pharmacologically optimized human cyst(e)inase enzyme mediates sustained depletion of the extracellular L-Cys and CSSC pool in mice and non-human primates. Treatment with this enzyme selectively causes cell cycle arrest and death in cancer cells due to depletion of intracellular GSH and ensuing elevated ROS; yet this treatment results in no apparent toxicities in mice even after months of continuous treatment. Cyst(e)inase suppressed the growth of prostate carcinoma allografts, reduced tumor growth in both prostate and breast cancer xenografts and doubled the median survival time of TCL1-Tg:p53 -/- mice, which develop disease resembling human chronic lymphocytic leukemia. It was observed that enzyme-mediated depletion of the serum L-Cys and CSSC pool suppresses the growth of multiple tumors, yet is very well tolerated for prolonged periods, suggesting that cyst(e)inase represents a safe and effective therapeutic modality for inactivating antioxidant cellular responses in a wide range of malignancies.

  14. Repetitive Hyperbaric Oxygenation Attenuates Reactive Astrogliosis and Suppresses Expression of Inflammatory Mediators in the Rat Model of Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Lavrnja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The exact mechanisms by which treatment with hyperbaric oxygen (HBOT exerts its beneficial effects on recovery after brain injury are still unrevealed. Therefore, in this study we investigated the influence of repetitive HBOT on the reactive astrogliosis and expression of mediators of inflammation after cortical stab injury (CSI. CSI was performed on male Wistar rats, divided into control, sham, and lesioned groups with appropriate HBO. The HBOT protocol was as follows: 10 minutes of slow compression, 2.5 atmospheres absolute (ATA for 60 minutes, and 10 minutes of slow decompression, once a day for 10 consecutive days. Data obtained using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analyses revealed that repetitive HBOT applied after the CSI attenuates reactive astrogliosis and glial scarring, and reduces expression of GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin, and ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1 both at gene and tissue levels. In addition, HBOT prevents expression of CD40 and its ligand CD40L on microglia, neutrophils, cortical neurons, and reactive astrocytes. Accordingly, repetitive HBOT, by prevention of glial scarring and limiting of expression of inflammatory mediators, supports formation of more permissive environment for repair and regeneration.

  15. Natriuretic peptide receptor A inhibition suppresses gastric cancer development through reactive oxygen species-mediated G2/M cell cycle arrest and cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Ji-Wei; Wang, Wei-Zhi; Zhi, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Qun; Li, Bo-Wen; Wang, Lin-Jun; Xie, Kun-Ling; Tao, Jin-Qiu; Tang, Jie; Wei, Song; Zhu, Yi; Xu, Hao; Zhang, Dian-Cai; Yang, Li; Xu, Ze-Kuan

    2016-10-01

    Natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPRA), the major receptor for atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), has been implicated in tumorigenesis; however, the role of ANP-NPRA signaling in the development of gastric cancer remains unclear. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated that NPRA expression was positively associated with gastric tumor size and cancer stage. NPRA inhibition by shRNA induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, cell death, and autophagy in gastric cancer cells, due to accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Either genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of autophagy led to caspase-dependent cell death. Therefore, autophagy induced by NPRA silencing may represent a cytoprotective mechanism. ROS accumulation activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). ROS-mediated activation of JNK inhibited cell proliferation by disturbing cell cycle and decreased cell viability. In addition, AMPK activation promoted autophagy in NPRA-downregulated cancer cells. Overall, our results indicate that the inhibition of NPRA suppresses gastric cancer development and targeting NPRA may represent a promising strategy for the treatment of gastric cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Curcumin and EGCG Suppress Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease 1 and Induce Complete Remission in B-cell Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem M. Neenaa

    2011-12-01

    in combination with curcumin and the green tea extract epigallocatechin-3 gallate (EGCG on the viability of patients’ peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs lymphocytes.Results: Treatment of patients with the combination of curcumin and EGCG, significantly lower cytoplasmic APE1 and the levels of the transcription factor were lower than those predicted from the effects of the CHOP agents (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone alone, especially with a blunting of the remarkable increases in NF- êB activation induced by CHOP. Eighteen of the patients had a CR (18/30, and twelve patients had PR (12/30 within 9 month treatment and followed up to 12 months. They remain disease-free a mean of 8.6 y (range, 7.9–9.2 y after this combination therapy.Conclusion: Optimal patient benefit might be obtained in follicular lymphoma when administering curcumin up-front in combination with chemotherapy and EGCG treatment. The combination of curcumin with EGCG resulted in a synergistic antitumor activity and that with CHOP agents in additivity or sub-additivity, down-regulated the expression of all NF-êB regulated gene products, leading to the suppression of angiogenesis, metastasis and entering in complete remission as indicated by â2-microglobulin and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels.

  17. Rescue of proinflammatory cytokine-inhibited chondrogenesis by the antiarthritic effect of melatonin in synovium mesenchymal stem cells via suppression of reactive oxygen species and matrix metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaozhen; Xu, Yong; Chen, Sijin; Tan, Zifang; Xiong, Ke; Li, Yan; Ye, Yun; Luo, Zong-Ping; He, Fan; Gong, Yihong

    2014-03-01

    Cartilage repair by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) often occurs in diseased joints in which the inflamed microenvironment impairs chondrogenic maturation and causes neocartilage degradation. In this environment, melatonin exerts an antioxidant effect by scavenging free radicals. This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective effects of melatonin on human MSCs in a proinflammatory cytokine-induced arthritic environment. MSCs were induced toward chondrogenesis in the presence of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) with or without melatonin. Levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), hydrogen peroxide, antioxidant enzymes, and cell viability were then assessed. Deposition of glycosaminoglycans and collagens was also determined by histological analysis. Gene expression of chondrogenic markers and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. In addition, the involvement of the melatonin receptor and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in chondrogenesis was investigated using pharmacologic inhibitors. The results showed that melatonin significantly reduced ROS accumulation and increased SOD expression. Both IL-1β and TNF-α had an inhibitory effect on the chondrogenesis of MSCs, but melatonin successfully restored the low expression of cartilage matrix and chondrogenic genes. Melatonin prevented cartilage degradation by downregulating MMPs. The addition of luzindole and SOD inhibitors abrogated the protective effect of melatonin associated with increased levels of ROS and MMPs. These results demonstrated that proinflammatory cytokines impair the chondrogenesis of MSCs, which was rescued by melatonin treatment. This chondroprotective effect was potentially correlated to decreased ROS, preserved SOD, and suppressed levels of MMPs. Thus, melatonin provides a new strategy for promoting cell-based cartilage regeneration in diseased or injured joints. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  18. COMPLETE SUPPRESSION OF THE M/N = 2/1 NEOCLASSICAL TEARING MODE USING RADIALLY LOCALIZED ELECTRON CYCLOTRON CURRENT DRIVE ON DIII-D AND THE REQUIREMENTS FOR ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LAHAYE, RJ; LUCE, TC; PETTY, CC; HUMPHREYS, DA; HYATT, AW; PERKINS, FW; PRATER, R; STRAIT, EJ; WADE, MR

    2003-01-01

    A271 COMPLETE SUPPRESSION OF THE M/N = 2/1 NEOCLASSICAL TEARING MODE USING RADIALLY LOCALIZED ELECTRON CYCLOTRON CURRENT DRIVE ON DIII-D AND THE REQUIREMENTS FOR ITER. DIII-D experiments demonstrate the first real-time feedback control of the relative location of a narrow beam of microwaves to completely suppress and eliminate a growing tearing mode at the q = 2 surface. long wavelength tearing modes such as the m/n = 2/1 instability are particularly deleterious to tokamak operation. Confinement is seriously degraded by the island, plasma rotation can cease (mode-lock) and disruption can occur. The neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) becomes unstable due to the presence of a helically-perturbed bootstrap current and can be stabilized by replacing the missing bootstrap current in the island O-point by precisely located co-electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD). The optimum position is found when the DIII-D plasma control system (PCS) is put into a search and suppress mode that makes small radial shifts (in about 1 cm steps) in the ECCD location based on minimizing the Mirnov amplitude. Requirements for ITER are addressed

  19. Suppression of aqueous corrosion of La(Fe{sub 0.88}Si{sub 0.12}){sub 13} by reducing dissolved oxygen concentration for high-performance magnetic refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujieda, S., E-mail: fujieda@tagen.tohoku.ac.jp; Fukamichi, K.; Suzuki, S.

    2014-07-05

    Highlights: • The aqueous corrosion of La(Fe{sub 0.88}Si{sub 0.12}){sub 13} and its suppression were investigated. • The lattice expansion after immersion was caused by the hydrogen absorption. • The itinerant-electron metamagnetic transition became indistinct after immersion. • The aqueous corrosion was suppressed by reducing the dissolved oxygen concentration. - Abstract: The itinerant-electron metamagnetic transition of La(Fe{sub 0.88}Si{sub 0.12}){sub 13} becomes indistinct after immersion in distilled-water containing about 8 ppm of the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration because of aqueous corrosion. However, the aqueous corrosion of La(Fe{sub 0.88}Si{sub 0.12}){sub 13} is significantly suppressed by reducing the DO concentration. Thus, isothermal magnetic entropy change after immersion for 30 days in deaerated distilled-water with a DO concentration less than 0.1 ppm is larger than that after immersion for 5 days in distilled-water containing about 8 ppm of the DO concentration. Consequently, the reduction of the DO concentration is effective for preservation of the excellent magnetocaloric effects of La(Fe{sub 0.88}Si{sub 0.12}){sub 13} in an aqueous solution, which is a promising heat transfer fluid of room-temperature magnetic refrigeration.

  20. Oxygen and sodium plasma-implanted nickel-titanium shape memory alloy: A novel method to promote hydroxyapatite formation and suppress nickel leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Y.L.; Yeung, K.W.K.; Lu, W.W.; Ngan, A.H.W.; Luk, K.D.K.; Chan, D.; Wu, S.L.; Liu, X.M.; Chu, Paul K.; Cheung, K.M.C.

    2007-01-01

    This study aims at modifying the surface bioactivity of NiTi by sodium and oxygen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII). Sodium ions were implanted into oxygen plasma-implanted NiTi and untreated NiTi. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that more sodium was implanted into the oxygen pre-implanted sample in comparison with the untreated surface. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) detected calcium and phosphorus rich deposits on both samples after immersion in simulated body fluids for 7 and 21 days. Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) conducted on the deposits dissolved in diluted hydrochloric acid showed more calcium on the oxygen PIII samples. The improved corrosion resistance of the oxygen PIII NiTi was retained after sodium PIII as evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization tests. Better spreading and proliferation of osteoblasts were also observed on the treated samples

  1. Oxygen Distributions-Evaluation of Computational Methods, Using a Stochastic Model for Large Tumour Vasculature, to Elucidate the Importance of Considering a Complete Vascular Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob H Lagerlöf

    Full Text Available To develop a general model that utilises a stochastic method to generate a vessel tree based on experimental data, and an associated irregular, macroscopic tumour. These will be used to evaluate two different methods for computing oxygen distribution.A vessel tree structure, and an associated tumour of 127 cm3, were generated, using a stochastic method and Bresenham's line algorithm to develop trees on two different scales and fusing them together. The vessel dimensions were adjusted through convolution and thresholding and each vessel voxel was assigned an oxygen value. Diffusion and consumption were modelled using a Green's function approach together with Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The computations were performed using a combined tree method (CTM and an individual tree method (ITM. Five tumour sub-sections were compared, to evaluate the methods.The oxygen distributions of the same tissue samples, using different methods of computation, were considerably less similar (root mean square deviation, RMSD≈0.02 than the distributions of different samples using CTM (0.001< RMSD<0.01. The deviations of ITM from CTM increase with lower oxygen values, resulting in ITM severely underestimating the level of hypoxia in the tumour. Kolmogorov Smirnov (KS tests showed that millimetre-scale samples may not represent the whole.The stochastic model managed to capture the heterogeneous nature of hypoxic fractions and, even though the simplified computation did not considerably alter the oxygen distribution, it leads to an evident underestimation of tumour hypoxia, and thereby radioresistance. For a trustworthy computation of tumour oxygenation, the interaction between adjacent microvessel trees must not be neglected, why evaluation should be made using high resolution and the CTM, applied to the entire tumour.

  2. Suppression of slow capacitance relaxation phenomenon in Pt/Ba0.3Sr0.7TiO3/Pt thin film ferroelectric structures by annealing in oxygen atmosphere

    KAUST Repository

    Altynnikov, A. G.

    2014-01-27

    The impact of oxygen annealing on the switching time of ferroelectric thin film capacitor structures Pt/Ba0.3Sr0.7TiO3/Pt was investigated. The response of their capacitance on pulsed control voltages before and after annealing was experimentally measured. It was demonstrated that the annealing results in suppression of the capacitance slow relaxation processes and increase of the threshold control voltages. These structures can therefore be attractive for fabrication of fast acting microwave devices. © 2014 Author(s).

  3. Rap1 signaling is required for suppression of Ras-generated reactive oxygen species and protection against oxidative stress in T lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remans, Philip H. J.; Gringhuis, Sonja I.; van Laar, Jacob M.; Sanders, Marjolein E.; Papendrecht-van der Voort, Ellen A. M.; Zwartkruis, Fried J. T.; Levarht, E. W. Nivine; Rosas, Marcela; Coffer, Paul J.; Breedveld, Ferdinand C.; Bos, Johannes L.; Tak, Paul P.; Verweij, Cornelis L.; Reedquist, Kris A.

    2004-01-01

    Transient production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays an important role in optimizing transcriptional and proliferative responses to TCR signaling in T lymphocytes. Conversely, chronic oxidative stress leads to decreased proliferative responses and enhanced transcription of inflammatory gene

  4. Complete Decomposition of Li 2 CO 3 in Li–O 2 Batteries Using Ir/B 4 C as Noncarbon-Based Oxygen Electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Shidong; Xu, Wu; Zheng, Jianming; Luo, Langli; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bowden, Mark E.; Liu, Bin; Wang, Chong-Min; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2017-02-10

    Incomplete decomposition of Li2CO3 during charge process is a critical barrier for rechargeable Li-O2 batteries. Here we report complete decomposition of Li2CO3 in Li-O2 batteries using ultrafine iridium-decorated boron carbide (Ir/B4C) nanocomposite as oxygen electrode. The systematic investigation on charging the Li2CO3 preloaded Ir/B4C electrode in an ether-based electrolyte demonstrates that Ir/B4C electrode can decompose Li2CO3 with an efficiency close to 100% at below 4.37 V. In contrast, the bare B4C without Ir electrocatalyst can only decompose 4.7% of preloaded Li2CO3. The reaction mechanism of Li2CO3 decomposition in the presence of Ir/B4C electrocatalyst has been further investigated. A Li-O2 battery using Ir/B4C as oxygen electrode material shows highly enhanced cycling stability than that using bare B4C oxygen electrode. These results clearly demonstrate that Ir/B4C is an effecitive oxygen electrode amterial to completely decompose Li2CO3 at relatively low charge voltages and is of significant importance in improving the cycle performanc of aprotic Li-O2 batteries.

  5. A case of the interval form of carbon monoxide poisoning with apallic syndrome resulted in complete recovery after treatment with oxygen at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuishi, Takeshi; Motomura, Hiroshi; Boku, Shoji; Mori, Koichi.

    1984-01-01

    A 44-year-old male patient had apallic syndrome 32 days after 12-hour coma resulting from acute carbon monoxide poisoning and could return to the social life by undergoing fifty oxygen treatments at high pressure. EEG revealed no low voltage, which is usually seen in cases of apallic syndrome. Cranial CT scan revealed that low density areas in the white matter of the brain had improved with improvement of clinical symptoms. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. Selective reduction of nitric oxide over Cu/ZSM-5: The role of oxygen in suppressing catalyst deactivation by carbonaceous deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d' Itri, Julie L; Sachtler, Wolfgang M.H. [V.N. Ipatieff Laboratory, Center for Catalysis and Surface Science, Departments of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States)

    1993-06-15

    The role of oxygen in the selective reduction of nitrogen monoxide by either propane or propene over 'excessively' ion-exchanged Cu/ZSM-5 has been studied. In a wide temperature region and in the absence of additives such as steam, propane is a more effective reductant than propene; with propane and in the presence of oxygen reduction of nitric oxide to nitrogen approaches 100% above 600 K. The difference in effectiveness is due to the different degree of catalyst deactivation by carbonaceous deposits: more carbonaceous material is deposited from propene than from propane. Temperature-programmed oxidation shows that above 600 K the rate of oxidation of carbonaceous deposits by oxygen is significant. The amount of such carbonaceous deposits is, therefore, lower when catalytic tests above 600 K are done in the presence of oxygen. At very high temperatures, the in situ volatilization of the deposits by reaction with oxygen keeps the catalyst surface clean in the steady state of nitric oxide reduction.

  7. EEG Suppression Associated with Apneic Episodes in a Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evonne Low

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the EEG findings from an ex-preterm neonate at term equivalent age who presented with intermittent but prolonged apneic episodes which were presumed to be seizures. A total of 8 apneic episodes were captured (duration 23–376 seconds during EEG monitoring. The baseline EEG activity was appropriate for corrected gestational age and no electrographic seizure activity was recorded. The average baseline heart rate was 168 beats per minute (bpm and the baseline oxygen saturation level was in the mid-nineties. Periods of complete EEG suppression lasting 68 and 179 seconds, respectively, were recorded during 2 of these 8 apneic episodes. Both episodes were accompanied by bradycardia less than 70 bpm and oxygen saturation levels of less than 20%. Short but severe episodes of apnea can cause complete EEG suppression in the neonate.

  8. Suppressed oxygen extraction and degradation of LiNixMnyCozO2 cathodes at high charge cut-off voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Zhang, Jiandong; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhu, Zihua; Polzin, Bryant J.; Trask, Steve; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chongmin; Zhang, Jiguang

    2017-09-01

    The capacity degradation mechanism in lithium nickel-manganese-cobalt oxide (NMC) cathodes (LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC333) and LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 (NMC442)) during high-voltage (cut-off of 4.8 V) operation has been investigated. In contrast to NMC442, NMC333 exhibits rapid structural changes including severe micro-crack formation and phase transformation from a layered to a disordered rock-salt structure, as well as interfacial degradation during high-voltage cycling, leading to a rapid increase of the electrode resistance and fast capacity decline. The fundamental reason behind the poor structural and interfacial stability of NMC333 was found to be correlated to its high Co content and the significant overlap between the Co3+/4+ t(2g) and O2- 2p bands, resulting in oxygen removal and consequent structural changes at high voltages. In addition, oxidation of the electrolyte solvents by the extracted oxygen species generates acidic species, which then attack the electrode surface and form highly resistive LiF. These findings highlight that both the structural and interfacial stability should be taken into account when tailoring cathode materials for high voltage battery systems

  9. Exposure to elevated pCO2 does not exacerbate reproductive suppression of Aurelia aurita jellyfish polyps in low oxygen environments

    KAUST Repository

    Treible, LM

    2017-08-15

    Eutrophication-induced hypoxia is one of the primary anthropogenic threats to coastal ecosystems. Under hypoxic conditions, a deficit of O2 and a surplus of CO2 will concurrently decrease pH, yet studies of hypoxia have seldom considered the potential interactions with elevated pCO2 (reduced pH). Previous studies on gelatinous organisms concluded that they are fairly robust to low oxygen and reduced pH conditions individually, yet the combination of stressors has only been examined for ephyrae. The goals of this study were to determine the individual and interactive effects of hypoxia and elevated pCO2 on the asexual reproduction and aerobic respiration rates of polyps of the scyphozoan Aurelia aurita during a manipulative experiment that ran for 36 d. pCO2 and pO2 were varied on a diel basis to closely mimic the diel conditions observed in the field. Exposure to low dissolved oxygen (DO) reduced asexual budding of polyps by ~50% relative to control conditions. Under hypoxic conditions, rates of respiration were elevated during an initial acclimation period (until Day 8), but respiration rates did not differ between DO levels under prolonged exposure. There was no significant effect of increased pCO2 on either asexual reproduction or aerobic respiration, suggesting that elevated pCO2 (reduced pH) did not exacerbate the negative reproductive effects of hypoxia on A. aurita polyps.

  10. Exposure to elevated pCO2 does not exacerbate reproductive suppression of Aurelia aurita jellyfish polyps in low oxygen environments

    KAUST Repository

    Treible, LM; Pitt, KA; Klein, SG; Condon, RH

    2017-01-01

    Eutrophication-induced hypoxia is one of the primary anthropogenic threats to coastal ecosystems. Under hypoxic conditions, a deficit of O2 and a surplus of CO2 will concurrently decrease pH, yet studies of hypoxia have seldom considered the potential interactions with elevated pCO2 (reduced pH). Previous studies on gelatinous organisms concluded that they are fairly robust to low oxygen and reduced pH conditions individually, yet the combination of stressors has only been examined for ephyrae. The goals of this study were to determine the individual and interactive effects of hypoxia and elevated pCO2 on the asexual reproduction and aerobic respiration rates of polyps of the scyphozoan Aurelia aurita during a manipulative experiment that ran for 36 d. pCO2 and pO2 were varied on a diel basis to closely mimic the diel conditions observed in the field. Exposure to low dissolved oxygen (DO) reduced asexual budding of polyps by ~50% relative to control conditions. Under hypoxic conditions, rates of respiration were elevated during an initial acclimation period (until Day 8), but respiration rates did not differ between DO levels under prolonged exposure. There was no significant effect of increased pCO2 on either asexual reproduction or aerobic respiration, suggesting that elevated pCO2 (reduced pH) did not exacerbate the negative reproductive effects of hypoxia on A. aurita polyps.

  11. Nitro-oleic acid ameliorates oxygen and glucose deprivation/re-oxygenation triggered oxidative stress in renal tubular cells via activation of Nrf2 and suppression of NADPH oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Huibin; Xue, Xia; Liu, Gang; Guan, Guangju; Liu, Haiying; Sun, Lina; Zhao, Long; Wang, Xueling; Chen, Zhixin

    2016-01-01

    Nitroalkene derivative of oleic acid (OA-NO 2 ), due to its ability to mediate revisable Michael addition, has been demonstrated to have various biological properties and become a therapeutic agent in various diseases. Though its antioxidant properties have been reported in different models of acute kidney injury (AKI), the mechanism by which OA-NO 2 attenuates intracellular oxidative stress is not well investigated. Here, we elucidated the anti-oxidative mechanism of OA-NO 2 in an in vitro model of renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Human tubular epithelial cells were subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation/re-oxygenation (OGD/R) injury. Pretreatment with OA-NO 2 (1.25 μM, 45 min) attenuated OGD/R triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and subsequent mitochondrial membrane potential disruption. This action was mediated via up-regulating endogenous antioxidant defense components including superoxide dismutase (SOD1), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), and γ-glutamyl cysteine ligase modulatory subunits (GCLM). Moreover, subcellular fractionation analyses demonstrated that OA-NO 2 promoted nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2- related factor-2 (Nrf2) and Nrf2 siRNA partially abrogated these protective effects. In addition, OA-NO 2 inhibited NADPH oxidase activation and NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) and p22 phox up-regulation after OGD/R injury, which was not relevant to Nrf2. These results contribute to clarify that the mechanism of OA-NO 2 reno-protection involves both inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity and induction of SOD1, Nrf2-dependent HO-1, and GCLM.

  12. The absence of ion-regulatory suppression in the gills of the aquatic air-breathing fish Trichogaster lalius during oxygen stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Hsueh-Hsi; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Lin, Hui-Chen

    2015-01-01

    The strategy for most teleost to survive in hypoxic or anoxic conditions is to conserve energy expenditure, which can be achieved by suppressing energy-consuming activities such as ion regulation. However, an air-breathing fish can cope with hypoxic stress using a similar adjustment or by enhancing gas exchange ability, both behaviorally and physiologically. This study examined Trichogaster lalius, an air-breathing fish without apparent gill modification, for their gill ion-regulatory abilities and glycogen utilization under a hypoxic treatment. We recorded air-breathing frequency, branchial morphology, and the expression of ion-regulatory proteins (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase) in the 1(st) and 4(th) gills and labyrinth organ (LO), and the expression of glycogen utilization (GP, glycogen phosphorylase protein expression and glycogen content) and other protein responses (catalase, CAT; carbonic anhydrase II, CAII; heat shock protein 70, HSP70; hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, HIF-1α; proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA; superoxidase dismutase, SOD) in the gills of T. lalius after 3 days in hypoxic and restricted conditions. No morphological modification of the 1(st) and 4(th) gills was observed. The air-breathing behavior of the fish and CAII protein expression both increased under hypoxia. Ion-regulatory abilities were not suppressed in the hypoxic or restricted groups, but glycogen utilization was enhanced within the groups. The expression of HIF-1α, HSP70 and PCNA did not vary among the treatments. Regarding the antioxidant system, decreased CAT enzyme activity was observed among the groups. In conclusion, during hypoxic stress, T. lalius did not significantly reduce energy consumption but enhanced gas exchange ability and glycogen expenditure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Concurrent suppression of NF-κB, p38 MAPK and reactive oxygen species formation underlies the effect of a novel compound isolated from Curcuma comosa Roxb. in LPS-activated microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiamvoraphong, Nittaya; Jantaratnotai, Nattinee; Sanvarinda, Pantip; Tuchinda, Patoomratana; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Thampithak, Anusorn; Sanvarinda, Pimtip

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of (3S)-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-7-phenyl-(6E)-6-hepten-3-ol, also known as compound 092, isolated from Curcuma comosa Roxb on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated highly aggressive proliferating immortalized (HAPI) microglial cell lines. Nitric oxide (NO) production was determined using the Griess reaction, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA. Western blotting was used to determine the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators and their related upstream proteins. Compound 092 suppressed NO production and iNOS expression in LPS-stimulated HAPI cells. These effects originated from the ability of compound 092 to attenuate the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB as determined by the reduction in p-NF-κB and p-IκB kinase (IKK) protein levels. Compound 092 also significantly lowered LPS-activated intracellular reactive oxygen species production and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. Compound 092 suppresses microglial activation through attenuation of p38 MAPK and NF-κB activation. Compound 092 thus holds the potential to treat neurodegenerative disorders associated with neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. γ-Oryzanol suppresses COX-2 expression by inhibiting reactive oxygen species-mediated Erk1/2 and Egr-1 signaling in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Soon Young; Kim, Heon-Woong; Jang, Hwan-Hee; Hwang, Yu-Jin; Choe, Jeong-Sook; Kim, Jung-Bong; Lim, Yoongho; Lee, Young Han

    2017-09-16

    Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 produces prostanoids, which contribute to inflammatory responses. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB is a key transcription factor mediating COX-2 expression. γ-Oryzanol is an active component in rice bran oil, which inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated COX-2 expression by inhibiting NF-κB. However, the inhibition of COX-2 expression by γ-oryzanol independently of NF-κB is poorly understood. We found that LPS upregulated Egr-1 expression at the transcriptional level. Forced expression of Egr-1 trans-activated the Cox-2 promoter independently of NF-κB. In contrast, silencing of Egr-1 abrogated LPS-mediated COX-2 expression. LPS produced reactive oxygen species (ROS), which, in turn, induced Egr-1 expression via the Erk1/2 MAPK pathway. ROS scavenging activity of γ-oryzanol suppressed Egr-1 expression by inhibiting the Erk1/2 MAPK pathway. Our results suggest that γ-oryzanol inhibits LPS-mediated COX-2 expression by suppressing Erk1/2-mediated Egr-1 expression. This study supports that γ-oryzanol may be useful for ameliorating LPS-mediated inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Tetramethylpyrazine suppresses transient oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced connexin32 expression and cell apoptosis via the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathway in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Gu; Yuan, Libang; Cai, Lin; Ran, Maorong; Zhang, Yulan; Gong, Huaqu; Dai, Xuemei; Wu, Wei; Dong, Hailong

    2014-01-01

    Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) has been widely used in China as a drug for the treatment of various diseases. Recent studies have suggested that TMP has a protective effect on ischemic neuronal damage. However, the exact mechanism is still unclear. This study aims to investigate the mechanism of TMP mediated ischemic hippocampal neurons injury induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). The effect of TMP on hippocampal neurons viability was detected by MTT assay, LDH release assay and apoptosis rate was measured by flow cytometry. TMP significantly suppressed neuron apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. TMP could significantly reduce the elevated levels of connexin32 (Cx32) induced by OGD. Knockdown of Cx32 by siRNA attenuated OGD injury. Moreover, our study showed that viability was increased in siRNA-Cx32-treated-neurons, and neuron apoptosis was suppressed by activating Bcl-2 expression and inhibiting Bax expression. Over expression of Cx32 could decrease neurons viability and increase LDH release. Furthermore, OGD increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38, whose inhibitors relieved the neuron injury and Cx32 up-regulation. Taken together, TMP can reverse the OGD-induced Cx32 expression and cell apoptosis via the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways.

  16. Tetramethylpyrazine suppresses transient oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced connexin32 expression and cell apoptosis via the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathway in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Gong

    Full Text Available Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP has been widely used in China as a drug for the treatment of various diseases. Recent studies have suggested that TMP has a protective effect on ischemic neuronal damage. However, the exact mechanism is still unclear. This study aims to investigate the mechanism of TMP mediated ischemic hippocampal neurons injury induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD. The effect of TMP on hippocampal neurons viability was detected by MTT assay, LDH release assay and apoptosis rate was measured by flow cytometry. TMP significantly suppressed neuron apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. TMP could significantly reduce the elevated levels of connexin32 (Cx32 induced by OGD. Knockdown of Cx32 by siRNA attenuated OGD injury. Moreover, our study showed that viability was increased in siRNA-Cx32-treated-neurons, and neuron apoptosis was suppressed by activating Bcl-2 expression and inhibiting Bax expression. Over expression of Cx32 could decrease neurons viability and increase LDH release. Furthermore, OGD increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38, whose inhibitors relieved the neuron injury and Cx32 up-regulation. Taken together, TMP can reverse the OGD-induced Cx32 expression and cell apoptosis via the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways.

  17. Insights into thermal diffusion of germanium and oxygen atoms in HfO2/GeO2/Ge gate stacks and their suppressed reaction with atomically thin AlOx interlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Shingo; Asahara, Ryohei; Minoura, Yuya; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji; Sako, Hideki; Kawasaki, Naohiko; Yamada, Ichiko; Miyamoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The thermal diffusion of germanium and oxygen atoms in HfO 2 /GeO 2 /Ge gate stacks was comprehensively evaluated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry combined with an isotopic labeling technique. It was found that 18 O-tracers composing the GeO 2 underlayers diffuse within the HfO 2 overlayers based on Fick's law with the low activation energy of about 0.5 eV. Although out-diffusion of the germanium atoms through HfO 2 also proceeded at the low temperatures of around 200 °C, the diffusing germanium atoms preferentially segregated on the HfO 2 surfaces, and the reaction was further enhanced at high temperatures with the assistance of GeO desorption. A technique to insert atomically thin AlO x interlayers between the HfO 2 and GeO 2 layers was proven to effectively suppress both of these independent germanium and oxygen intermixing reactions in the gate stacks

  18. Insights into thermal diffusion of germanium and oxygen atoms in HfO{sub 2}/GeO{sub 2}/Ge gate stacks and their suppressed reaction with atomically thin AlO{sub x} interlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Shingo, E-mail: Shingo-Ogawa@trc.toray.co.jp [Toray Research Center, Inc., 3-3-7 Sonoyama, Otsu, Shiga 520-8567 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Asahara, Ryohei; Minoura, Yuya; Hosoi, Takuji, E-mail: hosoi@mls.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Sako, Hideki; Kawasaki, Naohiko; Yamada, Ichiko; Miyamoto, Takashi [Toray Research Center, Inc., 3-3-7 Sonoyama, Otsu, Shiga 520-8567 (Japan)

    2015-12-21

    The thermal diffusion of germanium and oxygen atoms in HfO{sub 2}/GeO{sub 2}/Ge gate stacks was comprehensively evaluated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry combined with an isotopic labeling technique. It was found that {sup 18}O-tracers composing the GeO{sub 2} underlayers diffuse within the HfO{sub 2} overlayers based on Fick's law with the low activation energy of about 0.5 eV. Although out-diffusion of the germanium atoms through HfO{sub 2} also proceeded at the low temperatures of around 200 °C, the diffusing germanium atoms preferentially segregated on the HfO{sub 2} surfaces, and the reaction was further enhanced at high temperatures with the assistance of GeO desorption. A technique to insert atomically thin AlO{sub x} interlayers between the HfO{sub 2} and GeO{sub 2} layers was proven to effectively suppress both of these independent germanium and oxygen intermixing reactions in the gate stacks.

  19. Relationships between chemical oxygen demand (COD) components and toxicity in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor/aerobic completely stirred reactor system treating Kemicetine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sponza, Delia Teresa, E-mail: delya.sponza@deu.edu.tr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eyluel University, Buca Kaynaklar Campus, Tinaztepe, 35160 Izmir (Turkey); Demirden, Pinar, E-mail: pinar.demirden@kozagold.com [Environmental Engineer, Koza Gold Company, Environmental Department, Ovacik, Bergama Izmir (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    In this study the interactions between toxicity removals and Kemicetine, COD removals, intermediate products of Kemicetine and COD components (CODs originating from slowly degradable organics, readily degradable organics, inert microbial products and from the inert compounds) were investigated in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR)/aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system with a real pharmaceutical wastewater. The total COD and Kemicetine removal efficiencies were 98% and 100%, respectively, in the sequential ABR/CSTR systems. 2-Amino-1 (p-nitrophenil)-1,3 propanediol, l-p-amino phenyl, p-amino phenol and phenol were detected in the ABR as the main readily degradable inter-metabolites. In the anaerobic ABR reactor, the Kemicetin was converted to corresponding inter-metabolites and a substantial part of the COD was removed. In the aerobic CSTR reactor the inter-metabolites produced in the anaerobic reactor were completely removed and the COD remaining from the anerobic reactor was biodegraded. It was found that the COD originating from the readily degradable organics did not limit the anaerobic degradation process, while the CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and from the inert microbial products significantly decreased the anaerobic ABR reactor performance. The acute toxicity test results indicated that the toxicity decreased from the influent to the effluent of the aerobic CSTR reactor. The ANOVA test statistics showed that there was a strong linear correlation between acute toxicity, CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and inert microbial products. A weak correlation between acute toxicity and CODs originating from the inert compounds was detected.

  20. Relationships between chemical oxygen demand (COD) components and toxicity in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor/aerobic completely stirred reactor system treating Kemicetine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sponza, Delia Teresa; Demirden, Pinar

    2010-01-01

    In this study the interactions between toxicity removals and Kemicetine, COD removals, intermediate products of Kemicetine and COD components (CODs originating from slowly degradable organics, readily degradable organics, inert microbial products and from the inert compounds) were investigated in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR)/aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system with a real pharmaceutical wastewater. The total COD and Kemicetine removal efficiencies were 98% and 100%, respectively, in the sequential ABR/CSTR systems. 2-Amino-1 (p-nitrophenil)-1,3 propanediol, l-p-amino phenyl, p-amino phenol and phenol were detected in the ABR as the main readily degradable inter-metabolites. In the anaerobic ABR reactor, the Kemicetin was converted to corresponding inter-metabolites and a substantial part of the COD was removed. In the aerobic CSTR reactor the inter-metabolites produced in the anaerobic reactor were completely removed and the COD remaining from the anerobic reactor was biodegraded. It was found that the COD originating from the readily degradable organics did not limit the anaerobic degradation process, while the CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and from the inert microbial products significantly decreased the anaerobic ABR reactor performance. The acute toxicity test results indicated that the toxicity decreased from the influent to the effluent of the aerobic CSTR reactor. The ANOVA test statistics showed that there was a strong linear correlation between acute toxicity, CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and inert microbial products. A weak correlation between acute toxicity and CODs originating from the inert compounds was detected.

  1. Influence of oxygen concentration on ethylene removal using dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Motodate, Takuma; Takaki, Koichi; Koide, Shoji

    2018-01-01

    Ethylene gas is decomposed using a dielectric barrier discharge plasma reactor for long-period preservation of fruits and vegetables. The oxygen concentration in ambient gas is varied from 2 to 20% to simulate the fruit and vegetable transport container. The experimental results show that the efficiency of ethylene gas decomposition increases with decreasing oxygen concentration. The reactions of ethylene molecules with ozone are analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The analysis results show that the oxidization process by ozone is later than that by oxygen atoms. The amount of oxygen atoms that contribute to ethylene removal increases with decreasing oxygen concentration because the reaction between oxygen radicals and oxygen molecules is suppressed at low oxygen concentrations. Ozone is completely removed and the energy efficiency of C2H4 removal is increased using manganese dioxide as a catalyst.

  2. Suppression of self-organized surface nanopatterning on GaSb/InAs multilayers induced by low energy oxygen ion bombardment by using simultaneously sample rotation and oxygen flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beainy, Georges; Cerba, Tiphaine; Bassani, Franck; Martin, Mickaël; Baron, Thierry; Barnes, Jean-Paul

    2018-05-01

    Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is a well-adapted analytical method for the chemical characterization of concentration profiles in layered or multilayered materials. However, under ion beam bombardment, initially smooth material surface becomes morphologically unstable. This leads to abnormal secondary ion yields and depth profile distortions. In this contribution, we explore the surface topography and roughening evolution induced by O2+ ion bombardment on GaSb/InAs multilayers. We demonstrate the formation of nanodots and ripples patterning according to the ion beam energy. Since the latter are undesirable for ToF-SIMS analysis, we managed to totally stop their growth by using simultaneously sample rotation and oxygen flooding. This unprecedented coupling between these two latter mechanisms leads to a significant enhancement in depth profiles resolution.

  3. Partridgeberry polyphenols protect rat primary cortical neurons from oxygen-glucose deprivation-reperfusion-induced injury via suppression of inflammatory adipokines and regulation of HIF-1α and PPARγ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhullar, Khushwant S; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective ability of partridgeberry polyphenols in rat primary cortical neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) injury in vitro and explore the underlying therapeutic mechanism(s). The OGD/R injury was induced in rat primary cortical neurons by incubation with deoxygenated glucose-free medium in a hypoxia chamber. The strongest activity in this regard was exhibited by partridgeberry-derived PPF2 and PPF3, i.e. the flavan-3-ol- and flavonol-rich polyphenol fractions of partridgeberry (P ≤ 0.05). Moreover, partridgeberry polyphenol pre-treatment reduced the membrane damage in primary neurons, as measured by the lactose dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, PPF2 and PPF3 pre-treatment (100 µg ml(-1)) for 24 hours, before OGD/R, resulted in the strongest suppression of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α induction by OGD/R injury, compared with the control group (P ≤ 0.05). Additionally, the protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) and PPARγ, quantified by ELISA presented a significant modulation following PPFs treatment (100 µg ml(-1)), favorably toward neuroprotection, compared with the respective controls after OGD/R injury in vitro (P ≤ 0.05). In summary, partridgeberry polyphenols at concentrations of 1-100 µg ml(-1), significantly induced a decline in OGD/R injury-triggered apoptosis in vitro, suppressed the inflammatory biomarkers in primary neurons, and modulated the activity of HIF-1α and proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) following hypoxic injury.

  4. Suppressed Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarine Romdenh-Romluc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.

  5. Punica granatum L. Fruit Aqueous Extract Suppresses Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated p53/p65/miR-145 Expressions followed by Elevated Levels of irs-1 in Alloxan-Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, Ehsan; Montasser Kouhsari, Shideh; Izad, Maryam

    2018-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an apoptosis inducer in pancreatic β-cells that stimulates p53/p65 mediated microRNA (miR)-145 expression. Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) is an antioxidant fruit that attenuates ROS generation. This study examines the effects of pomegranate fruit aqueous extract (PGE) on the levels of ROS, p53, p65, miR-145, and its target insulin receptor substrate 1 (irs-1) mRNA in Alloxan-diabetic male Wistar rats. In this experimental study, diabetic rats received different doses of PGE. The effects of the PGE polyphenols were examined through a long-term PGE treatment period model, followed by an evaluation of the plasma and tissue contents of free fatty acids (FFAs), triglycerides (TG), and glycogen compared with diabetic controls (DC) and normal controls (NC). We used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to investigate the modulation of p53, p65, miR-145, and irs-1 expression levels. There was a noticeable reduction in fasting blood glucose (FBG) and ROS generation compared to DC. We observed marked decreases in p53, p65, miR-145 expression levels followed by an elevated level of irs-1, which contributed to improvement in insulin sensitivity. PGE administration downregulated miR-145 levels in Alloxan-diabetic Wistar rats by suppression of ROS-mediated p53 and p65 overexpression. Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.

  6. Regulation of IgE antibody production by serum molecules. II. Strain-specificity of the suppressive activity of serum from complete Freund's adjuvant-immune low responder mouse donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, D.H.; Tung, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    IgE antibody production in mice of high and low IgE responder phenotypes, respectively, can be appreciably enhanced in magnitude after low-dose whole-body x irradiation. Such enhanced responses, as well as adoptive secondary IgE responses, can be markedly suppressed by passive transfer of CFA-immune serum in low responder strains, but not in high responder strains. The studies presented here demonstrate that the suppressive activity of CFA-immune serum on IgE antibody production is strain specific. This is true even in reciprocal combinations of low IgE responder SJL and C57BL/6 mice, in which it was shown that serum capable of suppressing mice of the isologous strain was ineffective in diminishing IgE antibody production in the other low responder strain. Absence of suppressive activity in CFA-immune sera obtained from H-2 haplotypes while sharing many similarities in the background genome and, conversely, effective suppressive activity of H-2 congenic donor sera when H-2-identities between donor and recipient mice existed, strongly suggested a role, at least in part, of H-2 genes in dictating the strain specificity of such suppressive activity. Additional experiments provided evidence for a possible role of macrophages in catabolism of the active molecules in CFA-immune sera. These observations, together with those presented in the preceding paper, may provide valuable insight toward successful development of appropriate manipulations that could ultimately convert high IgE responder individuals into low responders

  7. Regulation of IgE antibody production by serum molecules. I. Serum from complete Freund's adjuvant-immune donors suppresses irradiation-enhanced IgE production in low responder mouse strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, A.S.; Chiorazzi, N.; Katz, D.H.

    1978-01-01

    Exposure of mice to low doses of x irradiation at or near the time of primary immunization with 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP)-Ascaris suum extract (ASC) results in substantial enhancement of IgE anti-DNP antibody responses; the IgG antibody responses of such mice do not increase after such manipulations. This selective enhancement of IgE antibody production occurs in mice of both high and low IgE responder phenotype, although the extent of enhancement compared to unmanipulated control animals is more striking in low IgE responder mice. The studies presented here demonstrate that the irradiation-enhanced IgE antibody responses of low responder SJL and C57BL/6 mice as well as of intermediate responder AKR mice can be effectively suppressed by passive transfer of CFA-immune serum obtained from isologous donor mice. Moreover, adoptive secondary IgE antibody responses in SJL recipients of primed syngeneic spleen cells can be totally abolished by passive transfer of CFA-immune serum or ascitic fluid from CFA-immune mice. The suppressive activity of CFA-immune serum can be diminished or eliminated by exposure of CFA-primed donor mice to low dose x irradiation at an appropriate point during the priming regimen, after a single inoculation of CFA, and before collection of serum. Low dose x irradiation was not effective in eliminating suppressive activity of CFA-induced ascites fluid obtained from donor mice inoculated repeatedly with CFA. In contrast to the capacity of CFA-immune serum from isologous donors to suppress irradiation-enhanced IgE responses of low responder mice, similar sera or ascites fluids were ineffective in suppressing irradiation-enhanced responses of high responder BALB/c or (SJL x BALB/c)F 1 hybrid mice

  8. Interocular suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuna, Ana Rita; Almeida Neves Carrega, Filipa; Nunes, Amélia Fernandes

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this work is to quantify the suppressive imbalance, based on the manipulation of ocular luminance, between a group of subjects with normal binocular vision and a group of subjects with amblyopia. The result reveals that there are statistically significant differences in interocular dominance between two groups, evidencing a greater suppressive imbalance in amblyopic subjects. The technique used, proved to be a simple, easy to apply and economic method, for quantified ocular dominance. It is presented as a technique with the potential to accompany subjects with a marked dominance in one of the eyes that makes fusion difficult.

  9. Pseudo Jahn–Teller distortion for a tricyclic carbon sulfide (C{sub 6}S{sub 8}) and its suppression in S-oxygenated dithiine (C{sub 4}H{sub 4}(SO{sub 2}){sub 2})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratik, Saied Md.; Chowdhury, Chandra; Bhattacharjee, Rameswar; Jahiruddin, Sk.; Datta, Ayan, E-mail: spad@iacs.res.in

    2015-10-16

    Highlights: • DFT calculations show that sulfur rich cyclic molecules are generally distorted. • Such distortions are shown to arise from Pseudo Jahn–Teller (PJT) effects. • Low OMO–UMO gaps leads to strong vibronic instability for these systems. • Increasing the OMO–UMO gaps by substituting electronegative groups on the cyclic rings decreases PJT effects. • Suppressed PJT instability lead to planar sulfur rich cyclic molecules. - Abstract: The tricyclic carbon-sulfide, C{sub 6}S{sub 8} molecule containing two S-atoms in the 1,4-position of the central six-membered ring and one disulfide (S−S) and one thione (C=S) bond on the five membered rings on its either side (1) possesses a “butterfly flapping” type distorted ground state in the gas-phase and also in β-phase of the crystal. For the isolated molecule, better consideration of the S…S non-bonding interactions in the dithiine ring in the bent form at the M06-2X/6-31+G(d,p) level leads to a significant barrier for inversion of 2.4 kcal/mol which is 2–3 times more than that previously obtained by Weber and Dolg at the B3LYP/cc-pVTZ level due to underestimation of dispersion interactions at the B3LYP level. The origin of the distortion leading to lowering of symmetry for 1 (C{sub 2h} → C{sub 2}) is traced to vibronic mixing between the ground state (Ag) and the low lying excited states of A{sub u} symmetry through the a{sub u} normal mode, a (1A{sub g} + 1A{sub u} + 2A{sub u} + 3A{sub u}) × a{sub u} pseudo Jahn–Teller effect (PJTE) problem. Based on fitting of the ground state APES to the lowest root of the 4 × 4 secular determinant, we calculate the linear vibronic coupling constants (F{sub 0i}) between the relevant states. Similar in class to 1, the S-oxygenated derivative of dithiine, C{sub 4}H{sub 4}(SO{sub 2}){sub 2} (2) unlike most other dithiines, remains planar. The absence of the butterfly-type puckered structure in 2 is traced to the enhanced gap (Δ{sub 0}) and very small

  10. Effective suppression of bystander effects by DMSO treatment of irradiated CHO cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashino, Genro; Prise, K.M.; Suzuki, Keiji

    2007-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that irradiated cells produce some signals which interact with non-exposed cells in the same population via a bystander effect. Here, we examined whether dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is effective in suppressing radiation induced bystander effects in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and repair deficient xrs5 cells. When 1 Gy-irradiated CHO cells were treated with 0.5% DMSO for 1 hr before irradiation, the induction of micronuclei in irradiated cells was suppressed to 80% of that in non-treated irradiated cells. The suppressive effect of DMSO on the formation of bystander signals was examined and the results demonstrated that 0.5% DMSO treatment of irradiated cells completely suppressed the induction of micronuclei by the bystander effect in non-irradiated cells. It is suggested that irradiated cells ceased signal formation for bystander effects by the action of DMSO. To determine the involvement of reactive oxygen species on the formation of bystander signals, we examined oxidative stress levels using the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) staining method in irradiated populations. The results showed that the treatment of irradiated cells with 0.5% DMSO did not suppress oxidative stress levels. These results suggest that the prevention of oxidative stress is independent of the suppressive effect of DMSO on the formation of the bystander signal in irradiated cells. It is suggested that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in irradiated cells is not a substantial trigger of a bystander signal. (author)

  11. Oxygen toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. van der Westhuizen

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen has been discovered about 200 years ago. Since then the vital physiological involvement of oxygen in various biologi­cal processes, mainly energy production, has been established. However, in the body molecular oxygen can be converted to toxic oxygen metabolites such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen. These toxic metabolites are produced mainly in the mitochondria, plasma membranes and endoplasmic reticulum.

  12. The Effect of Acceptor and Donor Doping on Oxygen Vacancy Concentrations in Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slouka, Christoph; Kainz, Theresa; Navickas, Edvinas; Walch, Gregor; Hutter, Herbert; Reichmann, Klaus; Fleig, Jürgen

    2016-11-22

    The different properties of acceptor-doped (hard) and donor-doped (soft) lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics are often attributed to different amounts of oxygen vacancies introduced by the dopant. Acceptor doping is believed to cause high oxygen vacancy concentrations, while donors are expected to strongly suppress their amount. In this study, La 3+ donor-doped, Fe 3+ acceptor-doped and La 3+ /Fe 3+ -co-doped PZT samples were investigated by oxygen tracer exchange and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in order to analyse the effect of doping on oxygen vacancy concentrations. Relative changes in the tracer diffusion coefficients for different doping and quantitative relations between defect concentrations allowed estimates of oxygen vacancy concentrations. Donor doping does not completely suppress the formation of oxygen vacancies; rather, it concentrates them in the grain boundary region. Acceptor doping enhances the amount of oxygen vacancies but estimates suggest that bulk concentrations are still in the ppm range, even for 1% acceptor doping. Trapped holes might thus considerably contribute to the charge balancing of the acceptor dopants. This could also be of relevance in understanding the properties of hard and soft PZT.

  13. The Effect of Acceptor and Donor Doping on Oxygen Vacancy Concentrations in Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Slouka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The different properties of acceptor-doped (hard and donor-doped (soft lead zirconate titanate (PZT ceramics are often attributed to different amounts of oxygen vacancies introduced by the dopant. Acceptor doping is believed to cause high oxygen vacancy concentrations, while donors are expected to strongly suppress their amount. In this study, La3+ donor-doped, Fe3+ acceptor-doped and La3+/Fe3+-co-doped PZT samples were investigated by oxygen tracer exchange and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in order to analyse the effect of doping on oxygen vacancy concentrations. Relative changes in the tracer diffusion coefficients for different doping and quantitative relations between defect concentrations allowed estimates of oxygen vacancy concentrations. Donor doping does not completely suppress the formation of oxygen vacancies; rather, it concentrates them in the grain boundary region. Acceptor doping enhances the amount of oxygen vacancies but estimates suggest that bulk concentrations are still in the ppm range, even for 1% acceptor doping. Trapped holes might thus considerably contribute to the charge balancing of the acceptor dopants. This could also be of relevance in understanding the properties of hard and soft PZT.

  14. Suppressed Sr segregation and performance of directly assembled La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ oxygen electrode on Y2O3-ZrO2 electrolyte of solid oxide electrolysis cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Na; He, Shuai; Li, Na; Zhang, Qi; Rickard, William D. A.; Chen, Kongfa; Zhang, Teng; Jiang, San Ping

    2018-04-01

    Active and stable oxygen electrode is probably the most important in the development of solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) technologies. Herein, we report the successful development of mixed ionic and electronic conducting (MIEC) La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) perovskite oxides directly assembled on barrier-layer-free yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte as highly active and stable oxygen electrodes of SOECs. Electrolysis polarization effectively induces the formation of electrode/electrolyte interface, similar to that observed under solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operation conditions. However, in contrast to the significant performance decay under SOFC operation conditions, the cell with directly assembled LSCF oxygen electrodes shows excellent stability, tested for 300 h at 0.5 A cm-2 and 750 °C under SOEC operation conditions. Detailed microstructure and phase analysis reveal that Sr segregation is inevitable for LSCF electrode, but anodic polarization substantially suppresses Sr segregation and migration to the electrode/electrolyte interface, leading to the formation of stable and efficient electrode/electrolyte interface for water and CO2 electrolysis under SOECs operation conditions. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of using directly assembled MIEC cobaltite based oxygen electrodes on barrier-layer-free YSZ electrolyte of SOECs.

  15. Oxygen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their breathing to dangerously low levels. Will I need oxygen when I sleep? Usually if you use supplemental oxygen during the ... your health care provider tells you you only need to use oxygen for exercise or sleep. Even if you feel “fine” off of your ...

  16. Compton suppression gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.; Iskander, F.Y.; Niset, M.; Heydorn, K.

    2002-01-01

    In the past decade there have been many studies to use Compton suppression methods in routine neutron activation analysis as well as in the traditional role of low level gamma ray counting of environmental samples. On a separate path there have been many new PC based software packages that have been developed to enhance photopeak fitting. Although the newer PC based algorithms have had significant improvements, they still suffer from being effectively used in weak gamma ray lines in natural samples or in neutron activated samples that have very high Compton backgrounds. We have completed a series of experiments to show the usefulness of Compton suppression. As well we have shown the pitfalls when using Compton suppression methods for high counting deadtimes as in the case of neutron activated samples. We have also investigated if counting statistics are the same both suppressed and normal modes. Results are presented in four separate experiments. (author)

  17. Oxygen Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Solmes

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available LTOT is prescribed for people with chronic lung disease in whom there is a decrease in the ability of the lungs to supply enough oxygen to the body. The heart is obliged to pump faster to meet the body's oxygen requirements. This may place undue stress on the heart, resulting in palpitations, dizziness and fatigue. A low oxygen level in arterial blood is also harmful to the heart, the brain and the pulmonary blood vessels. Oxygen therapy is used to break this cycle. A person with low blood oxygen will often be able to accomplish more with less fatigue with the help of supplemental oxygen therapy. Shortness of breath is a mechanical problem resulting from the effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Oxygen therapy may or may not reduce shortness of breath, but it will help the lungs and heart to function with less stress.

  18. Suppression of slow capacitance relaxation phenomenon in Pt/Ba0.3Sr0.7TiO3/Pt thin film ferroelectric structures by annealing in oxygen atmosphere

    KAUST Repository

    Altynnikov, A. G.; Gagarin, A. G.; Gaidukov, M. M.; Tumarkin, A. V.; Petrov, P. K.; Alford, N.; Kozyrev, A. B.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of oxygen annealing on the switching time of ferroelectric thin film capacitor structures Pt/Ba0.3Sr0.7TiO3/Pt was investigated. The response of their capacitance on pulsed control voltages before and after annealing was experimentally

  19. Hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of a diabetic foot ulcer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davenport, Colin

    2011-02-01

    Although simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant improves most complications of type 1 diabetes, suppression of the immune system increases the risk for infection. The authors report the case of a patient who, despite receiving a simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant, subsequently developed neuro-ischemic ulcers of his right foot requiring repeated amputations. He then developed an infected ulcer of his remaining right big toe, with significant implications for his mobility. This ulcer proved resistant to multiple courses of antibiotics and care in a specialist foot clinic but resolved completely following a course of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The role of hyperbaric oxygen in diabetic foot ulcers is not yet fully established but should be considered in resistant cases with vascular insufficiency and a significant infective component.

  20. Hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of a diabetic foot ulcer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davenport, Colin

    2012-02-01

    Although simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant improves most complications of type 1 diabetes, suppression of the immune system increases the risk for infection. The authors report the case of a patient who, despite receiving a simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant, subsequently developed neuro-ischemic ulcers of his right foot requiring repeated amputations. He then developed an infected ulcer of his remaining right big toe, with significant implications for his mobility. This ulcer proved resistant to multiple courses of antibiotics and care in a specialist foot clinic but resolved completely following a course of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The role of hyperbaric oxygen in diabetic foot ulcers is not yet fully established but should be considered in resistant cases with vascular insufficiency and a significant infective component.

  1. Suppressed oxygen extraction and degradation of LiNixMnyCozO2 cathodes at high charge cut-off voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Zhang, Jiandong; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhu, Zihua; Polzin, Bryant J.; Trask, Steve; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chongmin; Zhang, Jiguang

    2017-09-01

    The capacity degradation mechanism in lithium nickel–manganese–cobalt oxide (NMC) cathodes (LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC333) and LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 (NMC442)) during high-voltage (cut-off of 4.8 V) operation has been investigated. In contrast to NMC442, NMC333 exhibits rapid structural changes including severe micro-crack formation and phase transformation from a layered to a disordered rock-salt structure, as well as interfacial degradation during high-voltage cycling, leading to a rapid increase of the electrode resistance and fast capacity decline. The fundamental reason behind the poor structural and interfacial stability of NMC333 was found to be correlated to its high Co content and the significant overlap between the Co3+/4+ t2g and O2- 2p bands, resulting in oxygen removal and consequent structural changes at high voltages. In addition, oxidation of the electrolyte solvents by the extracted oxygen species generates acidic species, which then attack the electrode surface and form highly resistive LiF. These findings highlight that both the structural and interfacial stability should be taken into account when tailoring cathode materials for high voltage battery systems.

  2. Dexamethasone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    DST; ACTH suppression test; Cortisol suppression test ... During this test, you will receive dexamethasone. This is a strong man-made (synthetic) glucocorticoid medicine. Afterward, your blood is drawn ...

  3. Deconstructing continuous flash suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Eunice; Blake, Randolph

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we asked to what extent the depth of interocular suppression engendered by continuous flash suppression (CFS) varies depending on spatiotemporal properties of the suppressed stimulus and CFS suppressor. An answer to this question could have implications for interpreting the results in which CFS influences the processing of different categories of stimuli to different extents. In a series of experiments, we measured the selectivity and depth of suppression (i.e., elevation in co...

  4. Synthetic Oligodeoxynucleotides Containing Multiple Telemeric TTAGGG Motifs Suppress Inflammasome Activity in Macrophages Subjected to Oxygen and Glucose Deprivation and Reduce Ischemic Brain Injury in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    Full Text Available The immune system plays a fundamental role in both the development and pathobiology of stroke. Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that have come to be recognized as critical players in the inflammation that ultimately contributes to stroke severity. Inflammasomes recognize microbial and host-derived danger signals and activate caspase-1, which in turn controls the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. We have shown that A151, a synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide containing multiple telemeric TTAGGG motifs, reduces IL-1β production by activated bone marrow derived macrophages that have been subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation and LPS stimulation. Further, we demonstrate that A151 reduces the maturation of caspase-1 and IL-1β, the levels of both the iNOS and NLRP3 proteins, and the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential within such cells. In addition, we have demonstrated that A151 reduces ischemic brain damage and NLRP3 mRNA levels in SHR-SP rats that have undergone permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. These findings clearly suggest that the modulation of inflammasome activity via A151 may contribute to a reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokine production by macrophages subjected to conditions that model brain ischemia and modulate ischemic brain damage in an animal model of stroke. Therefore, modulation of ischemic pathobiology by A151 may have a role in the development of novel stroke prevention and therapeutic strategies.

  5. Oxygen safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sure you have working smoke detectors and a working fire extinguisher in your home. If you move around the house with your oxygen, you may need more than one fire extinguisher in different locations. Smoking can be very dangerous. No one should smoke ...

  6. Oxygen therapy - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathe increased amounts of oxygen to get normal levels of oxygen in their blood. Oxygen therapy provides babies with the extra oxygen. Information Oxygen is a gas that the cells in your body need to work properly. The ...

  7. Suppression of stratified explosive interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, M.K.; Shamoun, B.I.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics

    1998-01-01

    Stratified Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) experiments with Refrigerant-134a and water were performed in a large-scale system. Air was uniformly injected into the coolant pool to establish a pre-existing void which could suppress the explosion. Two competing effects due to the variation of the air flow rate seem to influence the intensity of the explosion in this geometrical configuration. At low flow rates, although the injected air increases the void fraction, the concurrent agitation and mixing increases the intensity of the interaction. At higher flow rates, the increase in void fraction tends to attenuate the propagated pressure wave generated by the explosion. Experimental results show a complete suppression of the vapor explosion at high rates of air injection, corresponding to an average void fraction of larger than 30%. (author)

  8. Deconstructing continuous flash suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eunice; Blake, Randolph

    2012-03-08

    In this paper, we asked to what extent the depth of interocular suppression engendered by continuous flash suppression (CFS) varies depending on spatiotemporal properties of the suppressed stimulus and CFS suppressor. An answer to this question could have implications for interpreting the results in which CFS influences the processing of different categories of stimuli to different extents. In a series of experiments, we measured the selectivity and depth of suppression (i.e., elevation in contrast detection thresholds) as a function of the visual features of the stimulus being suppressed and the stimulus evoking suppression, namely, the popular "Mondrian" CFS stimulus (N. Tsuchiya & C. Koch, 2005). First, we found that CFS differentially suppresses the spatial components of the suppressed stimulus: Observers' sensitivity for stimuli of relatively low spatial frequency or cardinally oriented features was more strongly impaired in comparison to high spatial frequency or obliquely oriented stimuli. Second, we discovered that this feature-selective bias primarily arises from the spatiotemporal structure of the CFS stimulus, particularly within information residing in the low spatial frequency range and within the smooth rather than abrupt luminance changes over time. These results imply that this CFS stimulus operates by selectively attenuating certain classes of low-level signals while leaving others to be potentially encoded during suppression. These findings underscore the importance of considering the contribution of low-level features in stimulus-driven effects that are reported under CFS.

  9. Completely continuous and weakly completely continuous abstract ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An algebra A is called right completely continuous (right weakly completely continuous) ... Moreover, some applications of these results in group algebras are .... A linear subspace S(G) of L1(G) is said to be a Segal algebra, if it satisfies the.

  10. Overcoming fixation with repeated memory suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angello, Genna; Storm, Benjamin C; Smith, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Fixation (blocks to memories or ideas) can be alleviated not only by encouraging productive work towards a solution, but, as the present experiments show, by reducing counterproductive work. Two experiments examined relief from fixation in a word-fragment completion task. Blockers, orthographically similar negative primes (e.g., ANALOGY), blocked solutions to word fragments (e.g., A_L_ _GY) in both experiments. After priming, but before the fragment completion test, participants repeatedly suppressed half of the blockers using the Think/No-Think paradigm, which results in memory inhibition. Inhibiting blockers did not alleviate fixation in Experiment 1 when conscious recollection of negative primes was not encouraged on the fragment completion test. In Experiment 2, however, when participants were encouraged to remember negative primes at fragment completion, relief from fixation was observed. Repeated suppression may nullify fixation effects, and promote creative thinking, particularly when fixation is caused by conscious recollection of counterproductive information.

  11. Thought Suppression in Patients With Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Miklowitz, David J.; Alatiq, Yousra; Geddes, John R.; Goodwin, Guy M.; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2010-01-01

    Suppression of negative thoughts has been observed under experimental conditions among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) but has never been examined among patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Patients with BD (n = 36), patients with MDD (n = 20), and healthy controls (n = 20) completed a task that required unscrambling 6-word strings into 5-word sentences, leaving out 1 word. The extra word allowed the sentences to be completed in a negative, neutral, or ?hyperpositive? (manic/goa...

  12. Sodium fire suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  13. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  14. Suppression of vortex shedding around a square cylinder using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    control of vortex shedding of square cylinders using blowing or suction. ... also showed complete suppression of vortex shedding if suction velocity falls between 0.40 .... equations such that mass balance (continuity) is satisfied simultaneously.

  15. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumachi, Wataru; Fukuda, Akira; Kitaguchi, Hidemi; Shimizu, Toshiaki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To relieve and absorb impact wave vibrations caused by steam and non-condensed gases releasing into the pressure suppression chamber at the time of an accident. Structure: The reactor container is filled with inert gases. A safety valve attached main steam pipe is provided to permit the excessive steam to escape, the valve being communicated with the pressure suppression chamber through an exhaust pipe. In the pressure suppression chamber, a doughnut-like cylindrical outer wall is filled at its bottom with pool water to condense the high temperature vapor released through the exhaust pipe. A head portion of a vent tube which leads the exhaust pipe is positioned at the top, and a down comer and an exhaust vent tube are locked by means of steady rests. At the bottom is mounted a pressure adsorber device which adsorbs a pressure from the pool water. (Kamimura, M.)

  16. Thyroxin hormone suppression treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the important modalities of treatment of thyroid cancer (TC) after surgery is the administration of thyroxin as an adjuvant treatment. The analysis supports the theory that thyroid suppression plays an important role in patient management. 300 μg of thyroxin, as this is an adequate dose for suppression is given. Ideally the dose should be tailored by testing s-TSH levels. However, since a large number of the patients come from out station cities and villages this is impractical. We therefore depend on clinical criteria of hyperthyroid symptoms and adjust the dose. Very few patients need such adjustment

  17. Free radical scavenger edaravone suppresses X-ray-induced apoptosis through p53 inhibition in MOLT-4 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasano, Nakashi; Shiraishi, Kenshiro; Igaki, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Enomoto, Atsushi; Hosoi, Yoshio; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa; Miyagawa, Kiyoshi; Katsumura, Yosuke

    2007-01-01

    Edaravone, a clinical drug used widely for the treatment of acute cerebral infarction, is reported to scavenge free radicals. In the present study, we investigated the radioprotective effect of edaravone on X-ray-induced apoptosis in MOLT-4 cells. Apoptosis was determined by the dye exclusion test, Annexin V binding assay, cleavage of caspase, and DNA fragmentation. We found that edaravone significantly suppressed the X-ray-induced apoptosis. The amount of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was determined by the chloromethyl-2', 7'-dichlorodihydro-fluorescein diacetate system. We found that the intracellular ROS production by X-irradiation was completely suppressed by the addition of edaravone. The accumulation and phosphorylation of p53 and the expression of p21 WAF1 , a target protein of p53, which were induced by X-irradiation, were also suppressed by adding edaravone. We conclude that the free radical scavenger edaravone suppresses X-ray-induced apoptosis in MOLT-4 cells by inhibiting p53. (author)

  18. Free radical scavenger edaravone suppresses X-ray-induced apoptosis through p53 inhibition in MOLT-4 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasano, Nakashi; Shiraishi, Kenshiro; Igaki, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Keiichi [Tokyo Univ., Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Enomoto, Atsushi; Hosoi, Yoshio; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa; Miyagawa, Kiyoshi [Tokyo Univ., Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Katsumura, Yosuke [Tokyo Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Tokyo (Japan)

    2007-11-15

    Edaravone, a clinical drug used widely for the treatment of acute cerebral infarction, is reported to scavenge free radicals. In the present study, we investigated the radioprotective effect of edaravone on X-ray-induced apoptosis in MOLT-4 cells. Apoptosis was determined by the dye exclusion test, Annexin V binding assay, cleavage of caspase, and DNA fragmentation. We found that edaravone significantly suppressed the X-ray-induced apoptosis. The amount of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was determined by the chloromethyl-2', 7'-dichlorodihydro-fluorescein diacetate system. We found that the intracellular ROS production by X-irradiation was completely suppressed by the addition of edaravone. The accumulation and phosphorylation of p53 and the expression of p21{sup WAF1}, a target protein of p53, which were induced by X-irradiation, were also suppressed by adding edaravone. We conclude that the free radical scavenger edaravone suppresses X-ray-induced apoptosis in MOLT-4 cells by inhibiting p53. (author)

  19. Latino College Completion: Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  20. Latino College Completion: Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  1. Completeness, supervenience and ontology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maudlin, Tim W E

    2007-01-01

    In 1935, Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen raised the issue of the completeness of the quantum description of a physical system. What they had in mind is whether or not the quantum description is informationally complete, in that all physical features of a system can be recovered from it. In a collapse theory such as the theory of Ghirardi, Rimini and Weber, the quantum wavefunction is informationally complete, and this has often been taken to suggest that according to that theory the wavefunction is all there is. If we distinguish the ontological completeness of a description from its informational completeness, we can see that the best interpretations of the GRW theory must postulate more physical ontology than just the wavefunction

  2. Completeness, supervenience and ontology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maudlin, Tim W E [Department of Philosophy, Rutgers University, 26 Nichol Avenue, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-1411 (United States)

    2007-03-23

    In 1935, Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen raised the issue of the completeness of the quantum description of a physical system. What they had in mind is whether or not the quantum description is informationally complete, in that all physical features of a system can be recovered from it. In a collapse theory such as the theory of Ghirardi, Rimini and Weber, the quantum wavefunction is informationally complete, and this has often been taken to suggest that according to that theory the wavefunction is all there is. If we distinguish the ontological completeness of a description from its informational completeness, we can see that the best interpretations of the GRW theory must postulate more physical ontology than just the wavefunction.

  3. Effects of thought suppression on episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, E; Merckelbach, H; Muris, P

    1997-11-01

    Subjects were shown a short film fragment. Following this, one group of subjects (n = 26) was instructed to suppress their thoughts about the film, while the other group (n = 24) received no instructions. After 5 hrs subjects returned to the laboratory and completed a questionnaire testing their memory about the film. Results showed that suppression subjects reported a higher frequency of thoughts about the film than control subjects. No evidence was obtained for Wegner, Quillian, and Houston's (1996; Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 680-691) claim that suppression has an undermining effect on memory for chronology. Possible causes for the differences between the results as obtained by Wegner et al., and those found in the present study are discussed. These causes may pertain to the experimental design, but also to differences in emotional impact of the stimulus material that was used in both studies.

  4. Pressure suppressing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Makoto.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the pressure in the reactor container from excessively increasing even when vapor leaks from the dry well to a space of the suppression chamber, without passing though the suppression pool at the time of loss of coolant accident. Constitution: When vapor of a high temperature and a high pressure at the time of loss of coolant accident flows from the dry well to the suppression chamber without passing through suppression pool water, vapor dose not condense with pool water, and therefore the pressure within the chamber abnormally increases. For this reason, this abnormal pressure is detected by a pressure detector thereby to start the operations of a blower and a pump. By starting the blower, the pressure in the dry well becomes lower than the pressure in the chamber, and vapor entirely passes through the pool water and entirely condenses with the pool water. By starting the pump, the pool water is sprayed over the space of the chamber, and vapor in the space is condensed. (Yoshino, Y.)

  5. Sterilization by oxygen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Adir Jose; Mansano, Ronaldo Domingues; Andreoli Pinto, Terezinha de Jesus; Ruas, Ronaldo; Silva Zambon, Luis da; Silva, Monica Valero da; Verdonck, Patrick Bernard

    2004-07-31

    The use of polymeric medical devices has stimulated the development of new sterilization methods. The traditional techniques rely on ethylene oxide, but there are many questions concerning the carcinogenic properties of the ethylene oxide residues adsorbed on the materials after processing. Another common technique is the gamma irradiation process, but it is costly, its safe operation requires an isolated site and it also affects the bulk properties of the polymers. The use of a gas plasma is an elegant alternative sterilization technique. The plasma promotes an efficient inactivation of the micro-organisms, minimises the damage to the materials and presents very little danger for personnel and the environment. Pure oxygen reactive ion etching type of plasmas were applied to inactivate a biologic indicator, the Bacillus stearothermophilus, to confirm the efficiency of this process. The sterilization processes took a short time, in a few minutes the mortality was complete. In situ analysis of the micro-organisms' inactivating time was possible using emission spectrophotometry. The increase in the intensity of the 777.5 nm oxygen line shows the end of the oxidation of the biologic materials. The results were also observed and corroborated by scanning electron microscopy.

  6. Complete Ureteral Avulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gupta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Complete avulsion of the ureter is one of the most serious complications of ureteroscopy. It requires open or laparoscopic intervention for repair. This case report emphasizes its management and presents recommendations for prevention in current urological practice.

  7. Artificial oxygen transport protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, P. Leslie

    2014-09-30

    This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

  8. Hydrogen/oxygen injection stopping method for nuclear power plant and emergent hydrogen/oxygen injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Ryoichi; Ota, Masamoto; Takagi, Jun-ichi; Hirose, Yuki

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for suppressing increase of electroconductivity of reactor water during operation of a BWR type reactor, upon occurrence of reactor scram of the plant or upon stopping of hydrogen/oxygen injection due to emergent stoppage of an injection device so as not to deteriorate the integrity of a gas waste processing system upon occurrence of scram. Namely, when injection of hydrogen/oxygen is stopped during plant operation, the injection amount of hydrogen is reduced gradually. Subsequently, injection of hydrogen is stopped. With such procedures, the increase of electroconductivity of reactor water can be suppressed upon stoppage of hydrogen injection. When injection of hydrogen/oxygen is stopped upon shut down of the plant, the amount of hydrogen injection is changed depending on the change of the feedwater flow rate, and then the plant is shut down while keeping hydrogen concentration of feedwater to a predetermined value. With such procedures, increase of the reactor water electroconductivity can be suppressed upon stoppage of hydrogen injection. Upon emergent stoppage of the hydrogen/oxygen injection device, an emergent hydrogen/oxygen injection device is actuated to continue the injection of hydrogen/oxygen. With such procedures, elevation of reactor water electroconductivity can be suppressed. (I.S.)

  9. J/Ψ suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giubellino, P.; Abreu, M.C.; Alessandro, B.; Alexa, C.; Arnaldi, R.; Astruc, J.; Atayan, M.; Baglin, C.; Baldit, A.; Bedjidian, M.; Bellaiche, F.; Beole, S.; Boldea, V.; Bordalo, P.; Bussiere, A.; Capony, V.; Casagrande, L.; Castor, J.; Chambon, T.; Chaurand, B.; Chevrot, I.; Cheynis, B.; Chiavassa, E.; Cicalo, C.; Comets, M.P.; Constantinescu, S.; Cruz, J.; De Falco, A.; De Marco, N.; Dellacasa, G.; Devaux, A.; Dita, S.; Drapier, O.; Espagnon, B.; Fargeix, J.; Filippov, S.N.; Fleuret, F.; Force, P.; Gallio, M.; Gavrilov, Y.K.; Gerschel, C.; Giubellino, P.; Golubeva, M.B.; Gonin, M.; Grigorian, A.A.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Guber, F.F.; Guichard, A.; Gulkaninan, H.; Hakobyan, R.; Haroutunian, R.; Idzik, M.; Jouan, D.; Karavitcheva, T.L.; Kluberg, L.; Kurepin, A.B.; Le Bornec, Y.; Lourenco, C.; Mac Cormick, M.; Macciotta, P.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Mourgues, S.; Musso, A.; Ohlsson-Malek, F.; Petiau, P.; Piccotti, A.; Pizzi, J.R.; Prado da Silva, W.L.; Puddu, G.; Quintans, C.; Racca, C.; Ramello, L.; Ramos, S.; Rato-Mendes, P.; Riccati, L.; Romana, A.; Sartori, S.; Saturnini, P.; Scomparin, E.; Serci, S.; Shahoyan, R.; Silva, S.; Soave, C.; Sonderegger, P.; Tarrago, X.; Temnikov, P.; Topilskaya, N.S.; Usai, G.; Vale, C.; Vercellin, E.; Willis, N.

    1999-01-01

    The cross section for J/Ψ production in Pb-Pb interactions at 158 GeV per nucleon is measured at the CERN SPS by the NA50 experiment. The final results from the 1995 run are presented here together with preliminary ones from the high-statistics 1996 run. An anomalous J/Ψ suppression is observed in Pb-Pb collisions as compared to extrapolations of the previous results obtained by the NA38 experiment with proton and lighter ion beams. The results of the two runs are in good agreement. The results from the 1996 run allow the study of the onset of the anomalous suppression within the same set of data, showing evidence of a sharp change of behaviour around a value of neutral transverse energy, as measured by our electromagnetic calorimeter, of about 50 GeV

  10. Completeness of Lyapunov Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    the vector field, which allows the generation of a complete abstraction. To compute the functions that define the subdivision of the state space in an algorithm, we formulate a sum of squares optimization problem. This optimization problem finds the best subdivisioning functions, with respect to the ability......This paper addresses the generation of complete abstractions of polynomial dynamical systems by timed automata. For the proposed abstraction, the state space is divided into cells by sublevel sets of functions. We identify a relation between these functions and their directional derivatives along...

  11. Construction completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Construction Completion Report documents the major construction projects at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site and related information on contracts, schedules, and other areas which affected construction. This report is not intended to be an exhaustive detailed analysis of construction, but is a general overview and summary of the WIPP construction. 10 refs., 29 figs

  12. Complete Rerouting Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stidsen, Thomas K.; Kjærulff, Peter

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present a new protection method: Complete Rerouting. This is the most capacity e cient protection method for circuit switched networks and it is, to the best of our knowledge, the first time it has been described. We implement a column generation algorithm and test the performance...

  13. Complete French Teach Yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Gaelle

    2010-01-01

    The best-selling complete course for a fun and effective way to learn French. This ISBN is for the paperback book. The corresponding audio support (ISBN: 9781444100068) is also available. The book and audio support can also be purchased as a pack (ISBN: 9781444100051).

  14. Completeness of Lyapunov Abstraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Wisniewski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we continue our study on discrete abstractions of dynamical systems. To this end, we use a family of partitioning functions to generate an abstraction. The intersection of sub-level sets of the partitioning functions defines cells, which are regarded as discrete objects. The union of cells makes up the state space of the dynamical systems. Our construction gives rise to a combinatorial object - a timed automaton. We examine sound and complete abstractions. An abstraction is said to be sound when the flow of the time automata covers the flow lines of the dynamical systems. If the dynamics of the dynamical system and the time automaton are equivalent, the abstraction is complete. The commonly accepted paradigm for partitioning functions is that they ought to be transversal to the studied vector field. We show that there is no complete partitioning with transversal functions, even for particular dynamical systems whose critical sets are isolated critical points. Therefore, we allow the directional derivative along the vector field to be non-positive in this work. This considerably complicates the abstraction technique. For understanding dynamical systems, it is vital to study stable and unstable manifolds and their intersections. These objects appear naturally in this work. Indeed, we show that for an abstraction to be complete, the set of critical points of an abstraction function shall contain either the stable or unstable manifold of the dynamical system.

  15. Dual completion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamedov, N Ya; Kadymova, K S; Dzhafarov, Sh T

    1963-10-28

    One type of dual completion method utilizes a single tubing string. Through the use of the proper tubing equipment, the fluid from the low-productive upper formation is lifted by utilizing the surplus energy of a submerged pump, which handles the production from the lower stratum.

  16. A complete woman

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    treated me like a son in the way he encouraged my education, while my mother ... cine gives me a lot of satisfaction when I see my patients getting cured. Teaching ... thing in life as a complete woman in different roles – daughter, wife, mother ...

  17. The complete cosmicomics

    CERN Document Server

    Calvino, Italo

    2014-01-01

    The definitive edition of Calvino’s cosmicomics, bringing together all of these enchanting stories—including some never before translated—in one volume for the first time. In Italo Calvino’s cosmicomics, primordial beings cavort on the nearby surface of the moon, play marbles with atoms, and bear ecstatic witness to Earth’s first dawn. Exploring natural phenomena and the origins of the universe, these beloved tales relate complex scientific concepts to our common sensory, emotional, human world. Now, The Complete Cosmicomics brings together all of the cosmicomic stories for the first time. Containing works previously published in Cosmicomics, t zero, and Numbers in the Dark, this single volume also includes seven previously uncollected stories, four of which have never been published in translation in the United States. This “complete and definitive collection” (Evening Standard) reconfirms the cosmicomics as a crowning literary achievement and makes them available to new generations of reader...

  18. CMS Is Finally Completed

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Yet another step in the completion of the Large Hadron Collider was taken yesterday morning, as the final element of the Compact Muon Solenoid was lowered nearly 100 meters bellow ground. After more than eight years of work at the world's most powerful particle accelerator, scientists hope that they will be able to start initial experiments with the LHC until the end of this year.

  19. LEAR construction completed

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    In July 1982, LEAR construction was completed, the individual systems had been dry-tested. On 16 July, the first 50 MeV (309 MeV/c) protons from Linac 1 were injected and circulated. On 11 October, the first antiprotons from the AA, decelerated in the PS to 609 MeV/c, were injected. Also in 1982, acceleration, deceleration and stochastic cooling were successfully tested. See 9007366 for a more detailed description. See also 8201061, 8204131, 8309026.

  20. SHIVA laser: nearing completion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaze, J.A.; Godwin, R.O.

    1977-01-01

    Construction of the Shiva laser system is nearing completion. This laser will be operating in fall 1977 and will produce over 20 terawatts of focusable power in a subnanosecond pulse. Fusion experiments will begin early in 1978. It is anticipated that thermonuclear energy release equal to one percent that of the incident light energy will be achieved with sub-millimeter deuterium-tritium targets. From other experiments densities in excess of a thousand times that of liquid are also expected

  1. The pressure suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aust, E.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear plants with boiling water reactors have a safety containment with a pressure suppression system (PSS). Proceeding on significant self-developments, today the three PSS-lines of General Electric Co. (GE), Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) and ASEA-ATOM are predominant, which are currently represented by the MARK III type, the KWU type 72 and the BWR 75 containment. In addition, there are special developments for the nuclear ship propulsion and for the pressurized water reactors in the Soviet Union. Key design values of the PSS allow a first valuation of its loads during a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident. (orig.) [de

  2. SCT Barrel Assembly Complete

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Batchelor

    As reported in the April 2005 issue of the ATLAS eNews, the first of the four Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) barrels, complete with modules and services, arrived safely at CERN in January of 2005. In the months since January, the other three completed barrels arrived as well, and integration of the four barrels into the entire barrel assembly commenced at CERN, in the SR1 building on the ATLAS experimental site, in July. Assembly was completed on schedule in September, with the addition of the innermost layer to the 4-barrel assembly. Work is now underway to seal the barrel thermal enclosure. This is necessary in order to enclose the silicon tracker in a nitrogen atmosphere and provide it with faraday-cage protection, and is a delicate and complicated task: 352 silicon module powertapes, 352 readout-fibre bundles, and over 400 Detector Control System sensors must be carefully sealed into the thermal enclosure bulkhead. The team is currently verifying the integrity of the low mass cooling system, which must be d...

  3. Oxygen flooding and sample cooling during depth profiling of HfSiON thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miwa, Shiro [Materials Analysis Center, Materials Laboratories, Sony Corporation, 4-16-1 Okata, Atsugi 243-0021 (Japan)], E-mail: Shiro.Miwa@jp.sony.com

    2008-12-15

    A combination of oxygen flooding and. Cs primary ion bombardment can suppress the enhancement of the secondary ion signal at the surface and at the interface of a thin HfSiON layer on a Si substrate. The surface concentration of both Cs and O during Cs primary ion bombardment with oxygen flooding was higher than that without oxygen flooding, as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. When the sample was cooled to about -150 deg. C, the enhancement of the secondary ion signal could be suppressed at a lower oxygen pressure.

  4. Biogeochemistry: Oxygen burrowed away

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meysman, F.J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Multicellular animals probably evolved at the seafloor after a rise in oceanic oxygen levels. Biogeochemical model simulations suggest that as these animals started to rework the seafloor, they triggered a negative feedback that reduced global oxygen.

  5. Oxygen transport membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof.......The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof....

  6. Spin transport in oxygen adsorbed graphene nanoribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vipin

    2018-04-01

    The spin transport properties of pristine graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) have been most widely studied using theoretical and experimental tools. The possibilities of oxidation of fabricated graphene based nano electronic devices may change the device characteristics, which motivates to further explore the properties of graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONRs). Therefore, we present a systematic computational study on the spin polarized transport in surface oxidized GNR in antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin configuration using density functional theory combined with non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method. It is found that the conductance in oxidized GNRs is significantly suppressed in the valance band and the conduction band. A further reduction in the conductance profile is seen in presence of two oxygen atoms on the ribbon plane. This change in the conductance may be attributed to change in the surface topology of the ribbon basal plane due to presence of the oxygen adatoms, where the charge transfer take place between the ribbon basal plane and the oxygen atoms.

  7. Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2014-01-01

    This article is concerned with the evolution of atmospheric oxygen concentrations through the Proterozoic Eon. In particular, this article will seek to place the history of atmospheric oxygenation through the Proterozoic Eon in the context of the evolving physical environment including the history...... of continental growth and volcanic outgassing, as well as biogeochemical processing of elements within the oceans. The author will seek to explore constraints on the history of oxygenation and understand which processes have regulated oxygen through this eon....

  8. Oxygen evolution reaction catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, Joel A.; Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Jones, Ryan J.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Shinde, Aniketa A.

    2016-09-06

    An Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER) catalyst includes a metal oxide that includes oxygen, cerium, and one or more second metals. In some instances, the cerium is 10 to 80 molar % of the metals in the metal oxide and/or the catalyst includes two or more second metals. The OER catalyst can be included in or on an electrode. The electrode can be arranged in an oxygen evolution system such that the Oxygen Evolution Reaction occurs at the electrode.

  9. [Domiciliary oxygen therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Kafi, S

    2010-09-01

    In Belgium, oxygen therapy is becoming more and more accessible. When oxygen is needed for short periods or for special indications as palliative care, an agreement between mutual insurance companies and pharmacists allows the practitioner the home installation of gazeous oxygen cylinder or of oxygen concentrator. When long term oxygen therapy (LTOT) is indicated for patients with respiratory insufficiency, the pneumologist must first ask the INAMI the authorization to install one of the following modalities: oxygen concentrator with or without demand oxygen delivery cylinder and liquid oxygen. The goal of LTOT is to increase survival and quality of life. The principal and well accepted indication for LTOT is severe hypoxemia. The beneficial effects of oxygen therapy limited at night or on exertion are controversial. In order to increase patient's autonomy, oxygen can be prescribed for ambulation, respecting prescription's rules. At each step of oxygen therapy implementing (indication, choice of the device and follow-up) the patient under oxygen may benefit from a joint approach between the general practitioner and the chest specialist.

  10. Aircraft Oxygen Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    An Oxygen Enriched Air System for the AV-8A Harrier (NADC-81198-60).” 70 Horch , T., et. al. “The F-16 Onboard Oxygen Generating System: Performance...Only and Safety Privileged). Horch , T., Miller, R., Bomar, J., Tedor, J., Holden, R., Ikels, K., & Lozano, P. (1983). The F-16 Onboard Oxygen

  11. Radiation effluent suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Atsushi.

    1992-01-01

    In a radiation release suppression system upon accident, an electromotive valve, a pneumatic operation valve or a manual operation valve is disposed to gas ventilation pipelines which are extended from both of a dry well and a wet well of a reactor container to a stuck. In addition, a combination filter of a metal fiber filter made of stainless steel etc. and an activated carbon fiber filter is disposed in the midway of pipelines in a reactor building. With such a constitution, the inside of the container can be depressurized (prevention of ruptures) and the amount of radioactive substances released to circumstances is remarkably suppressed by the effect of radioactive substance capturing effect of the metal fiber filter made of stainless steel etc. disposed in the vent pipe in the container and a radioactive substance capturing effect by the combination filter of the metal fiber filter made of stainless steel, etc. and the activated carbon fiber filter disposed in the gas ventilation pipelines even upon occurrence of an accident exceeding design basis. Systems can be simplified and minimized, and cost down can also be attained. (N.H.)

  12. Planck-suppressed operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assassi, Valentin; Baumann, Daniel; Green, Daniel; McAllister, Liam

    2014-01-01

    We show that the recent Planck limits on primordial non-Gaussianity impose strong constraints on light hidden sector fields coupled to the inflaton via operators suppressed by a high mass scale Λ. We study a simple effective field theory in which a hidden sector field is coupled to a shift-symmetric inflaton via arbitrary operators up to dimension five. Self-interactions in the hidden sector lead to non-Gaussianity in the curvature perturbations. To be consistent with the Planck limit on local non-Gaussianity, the coupling to any hidden sector with light fields and natural cubic couplings must be suppressed by a very high scale Λ > 10 5 H. Even if the hidden sector has Gaussian correlations, nonlinearities in the mixing with the inflaton still lead to non-Gaussian curvature perturbations. In this case, the non-Gaussianity is of the equilateral or orthogonal type, and the Planck data requires Λ > 10 2 H

  13. Complete pancreas traumatic transsection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hodžić

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a case of a twenty-year old male with complete pancreas breakdown in the middle of its corpus, which was caused by a strong abdomen compression, with injuries of the spleen, the firstjejunumcurve,mesocolon transversum, left kidney, and appereance of retroperitoneal haemathoma. Surgical treatment started 70 minutes after the injury. The treatment consisted of left pancreatectomy with previous spleenectomy, haemostasis of ruptured mesocolon transversum blood vessels, left kidney exploration, suturing of the firstjejunumcurvelession and double abdomen drainage. Posttraumatic pancreatitis which appeared on the second postoperative day and prolonged drain secretion were successfully solved by conservative treatment.

  14. Complete rerouting protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stidsen, Thomas K.; Kjærulff, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Protection of communication against network failures is becoming increasingly important and in this paper we present the most capacity efficient protection method possible, the complete rerouting protection method, when requiring that all communication should be restored in case of a single link...... network failure. We present a linear programming model of the protection method and a column generation algorithm. For 6 real world networks, the minimal restoration overbuild network capacity is between 13% and 78%. We further study the importance of the density of the network, derive analytical bounds...

  15. Completion of treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lief, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    The outline of the lecture included the following topics: entering prescription; plan printout; print and transfer DDR; segment BEV; export to R and V; physician approval; and second check. Considerable attention, analysis and discussion. The summary is as follows: Treatment planning completion is a very responsible process which requires maximum attention; Should be independently checked by the planner, physicist, radiation oncologist and a therapist; Should not be done in a last minute rush; Proper communication between team members; Properly set procedure should prevent propagation of an error by one individual to the treatment: the error should be caught by somebody else. (P.A.)

  16. TestComplete cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Alpaev, Gennadiy

    2013-01-01

    A practical cookbook, with a perfect package of simple, medium, and advanced recipes targeted at basic programmers as well as expert software testers, who will learn to create, manage, and run automated tests. It is packed with problem-solving recipes that are supported by simple examples.If you are a software tester or a programmer who is involved with testing automation using TestComplete, this book is ideal for you! You will be introduced to the very basics of using the tool, as well as polish any previously gained knowledge in using the tool. If you are already aware of programming basics,

  17. Complete atrioventricular canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, Raffaele; Limongelli, Giuseppe

    2006-04-05

    Complete atrioventricular canal (CAVC), also referred to as complete atrioventricular septal defect, is characterised by an ostium primum atrial septal defect, a common atrioventricular valve and a variable deficiency of the ventricular septum inflow. CAVC is an uncommon congenital heart disease, accounting for about 3% of cardiac malformations. Atrioventricular canal occurs in two out of every 10,000 live births. Both sexes are equally affected and a striking association with Down syndrome was found. Depending on the morphology of the superior leaflet of the common atrioventricular valve, 3 types of CAVC have been delineated (type A, B and C, according to Rastelli's classification). CAVC results in a significant interatrial and interventricular systemic-to-pulmonary shunt, thus inducing right ventricular pressure and volume overload and pulmonary hypertension. It becomes symptomatic in infancy due to congestive heart failure and failure to thrive. Diagnosis of CAVC might be suspected from electrocardiographic and chest X-ray findings. Echocardiography confirms it and gives anatomical details. Over time, pulmonary hypertension becomes irreversible, thus precluding the surgical therapy. This is the reason why cardiac catheterisation is not mandatory in infants (less than 6 months) but is indicated in older patients if irreversible pulmonary hypertension is suspected. Medical treatment (digitalis, diuretics, vasodilators) plays a role only as a bridge toward surgery, usually performed between the 3rd and 6th month of life.

  18. Complete atrioventricular canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limongelli Giuseppe

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complete atrioventricular canal (CAVC, also referred to as complete atrioventricular septal defect, is characterised by an ostium primum atrial septal defect, a common atrioventricular valve and a variable deficiency of the ventricular septum inflow. CAVC is an uncommon congenital heart disease, accounting for about 3% of cardiac malformations. Atrioventricular canal occurs in two out of every 10,000 live births. Both sexes are equally affected and a striking association with Down syndrome was found. Depending on the morphology of the superior leaflet of the common atrioventricular valve, 3 types of CAVC have been delineated (type A, B and C, according to Rastelli's classification. CAVC results in a significant interatrial and interventricular systemic-to-pulmonary shunt, thus inducing right ventricular pressure and volume overload and pulmonary hypertension. It becomes symptomatic in infancy due to congestive heart failure and failure to thrive. Diagnosis of CAVC might be suspected from electrocardiographic and chest X-ray findings. Echocardiography confirms it and gives anatomical details. Over time, pulmonary hypertension becomes irreversible, thus precluding the surgical therapy. This is the reason why cardiac catheterisation is not mandatory in infants (less than 6 months but is indicated in older patients if irreversible pulmonary hypertension is suspected. Medical treatment (digitalis, diuretics, vasodilators plays a role only as a bridge toward surgery, usually performed between the 3rd and 6th month of life.

  19. Barnett shale completions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schein, G. [BJ Services, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Fractured shales yield oil and gas in various basins across the United States. A map indicating these fractured shale source-reservoir systems in the United States was presented along with the numerous similarities and differences that exist among these systems. Hydrocarbons in the organic rich black shale come from the bacterial decomposition of organic matter, primary thermogenic decomposition of organic matter or secondary thermogenic cracking of oil. The shale may be the reservoir or other horizons may be the primary or secondary reservoir. The reservoir has induced micro fractures or tectonic fractures. This paper described the well completions in the Barnett Shale in north Texas with reference to major players, reservoir properties, mineralogy, fluid sensitivity, previous treatments, design criteria and production examples. The Barnett Shale is an organic, black shale with thickness ranging from 100 to 1000 feet. The total organic carbon (TOC) averages 4.5 per cent. The unit has undergone high rate frac treatments. A review of the vertical wells in the Barnett Shale was presented along with the fracture treatment schedule and technology changes. A discussion of refracturing opportunities and proppant settling and transport revealed that additional proppant increases fluid recovery and enhances production. Compatible scale inhibitors and biocides can be beneficial. Horizontal completions in the Barnett Shale have shown better results than vertical wells, as demonstrated in a production comparison of 3 major horizontal wells in the basin. tabs., figs.

  20. Oxygen configurations in silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelikowsky, James R.; Chadi, D. J.; Binggeli, N.

    2000-01-01

    We propose a transition state for oxygen in silica. This state is produced by the insertion of an oxygen molecule into the Si-O-Si bond, i.e., it consists of producing a Si-O-O-O-Si bond. This state allows molecular oxygen diffusion in silica without breaking the molecular O 2 bond and it is energetically more stable than a peroxy configuration. This configuration may allow for exchange of molecular oxygen with the oxygen in the silica framework. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  1. How best to assess suppression in patients with high anisometropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinrong; Hess, Robert F; Chan, Lily Y L; Deng, Daming; Chen, Xiang; Yu, Minbin; Thompson, Benjamin S

    2013-02-01

    We have recently described a rapid technique for measuring suppression using a dichoptic signal/noise task. Here, we report a modification of this technique that allows for accurate measurements to be made in amblyopic patients with high levels of anisometropia. This was necessary because aniseikonic image size differences between the two eyes can provide a cue for signal/noise segregation and, therefore, influence suppression measurement in these patients. Suppression was measured using our original technique and with a modified technique whereby the size of the signal and noise elements was randomized across the stimulus to eliminate size differences as a cue for task performance. Eleven patients with anisometropic amblyopia, five with more than 5 diopters (D) spherical equivalent difference (SED), six with less than 5 D SED between the eyes, and 10 control observers completed suppression measurements using both techniques. Suppression measurements in controls and patients with less than 5 D SED were constant across the two techniques; however, patients with more than 5 D SED showed significantly stronger suppression on the modified technique with randomized element size. Measurements made with the modified technique correlated with the loss of visual acuity in the amblyopic eye and were in good agreement with previous reports using detailed psychophysical measurements. The signal/noise technique for measuring suppression can be applied to patients with high levels of anisometropia and aniseikonia if element size is randomized. In addition, deeper suppression is associated with a greater loss of visual acuity in patients with anisometropic amblyopia.

  2. GOGOL: ACADEMIC AND COMPLETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri V. Mann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ever-increasing international interest to Gogol explains the necessity of publishing a new edition of his works. The present Complete Collection of Gogol’s Works and Letters is an academic edition prepared and published by the A. M. Gorky Institute of World Literature of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It draws on rich experience of studying and publishing Gogol’s heritage in Russia but at the same time questions and underscores Gogol’s relevance for the modern reader and his place in the world culture of our time. It intends to fill in the gaps left by the previous scholarly tradition that failed to recognize some of Gogol’s texts as part of his heritage. Such are, for example, dedicatory descriptions in books and business notes. The present edition accounts not only for the completeness of texts but also for their place within the body of Gogol’s work, as part of his life-long creative process. By counterpoising different editions, it attempts to trace down the dynamics of Gogol’s creative thought while at the same time underscores the autonomy and relevance of each period in his career. For example, this collection publishes two different versions (editions of the same work: while the most recent version has become canonical at the expense of the preceding one, the latter still preserves its meaning and historical relevance. The present edition has the advantage over its predecessors since it has an actual, physical opportunity to erase the gaps, e.g. to publish the hitherto unpublished texts. However, the editors realize that new, hitherto unknown gaps may appear and the present edition will become, in its turn, outdated. At this point, there will be a necessity in the new edition.

  3. Comparative Metatranscriptomics of Wheat Rhizosphere Microbiomes in Disease Suppressive and Non-suppressive Soils for Rhizoctonia solani AG8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L. Hayden

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The soilborne fungus Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG 8 is a major pathogen of grain crops resulting in substantial production losses. In the absence of resistant cultivars of wheat or barley, a sustainable and enduring method for disease control may lie in the enhancement of biological disease suppression. Evidence of effective biological control of R. solani AG8 through disease suppression has been well documented at our study site in Avon, South Australia. A comparative metatranscriptomic approach was applied to assess the taxonomic and functional characteristics of the rhizosphere microbiome of wheat plants grown in adjacent fields which are suppressive and non-suppressive to the plant pathogen R. solani AG8. Analysis of 12 rhizosphere metatranscriptomes (six per field was undertaken using two bioinformatic approaches involving unassembled and assembled reads. Differential expression analysis showed the dominant taxa in the rhizosphere based on mRNA annotation were Arthrobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. for non-suppressive samples and Stenotrophomonas spp. and Buttiauxella spp. for the suppressive samples. The assembled metatranscriptome analysis identified more differentially expressed genes than the unassembled analysis in the comparison of suppressive and non-suppressive samples. Suppressive samples showed greater expression of a polyketide cyclase, a terpenoid biosynthesis backbone gene (dxs and many cold shock proteins (csp. Non-suppressive samples were characterised by greater expression of antibiotic genes such as non-heme chloroperoxidase (cpo which is involved in pyrrolnitrin synthesis, and phenazine biosynthesis family protein F (phzF and its transcriptional activator protein (phzR. A large number of genes involved in detoxifying reactive oxygen species (ROS and superoxide radicals (sod, cat, ahp, bcp, gpx1, trx were also expressed in the non-suppressive rhizosphere samples most likely in response to the infection of wheat

  4. Motor cortex stimulation suppresses cortical responses to noxious hindpaw stimulation after spinal cord lesion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Ji, Yadong; Voulalas, Pamela J; Keaser, Michael; Xu, Su; Gullapalli, Rao P; Greenspan, Joel; Masri, Radi

    2014-01-01

    Motor cortex stimulation (MCS) is a potentially effective treatment for chronic neuropathic pain. The neural mechanisms underlying the reduction of hyperalgesia and allodynia after MCS are not completely understood. To investigate the neural mechanisms responsible for analgesic effects after MCS. We test the hypothesis that MCS attenuates evoked blood oxygen-level dependent signals in cortical areas involved in nociceptive processing in an animal model of chronic neuropathic pain. We used adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10) that received unilateral electrolytic lesions of the right spinal cord at the level of C6 (SCL animals). In these animals, we performed magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to study the analgesic effects of MCS. On the day of fMRI experiment, 14 days after spinal cord lesion, the animals were anesthetized and epidural bipolar platinum electrodes were placed above the left primary motor cortex. Two 10-min sessions of fMRI were performed before and after a session of MCS (50 μA, 50 Hz, 300 μs, for 30 min). During each fMRI session, the right hindpaw was electrically stimulated (noxious stimulation: 5 mA, 5 Hz, 3 ms) using a block design of 20 s stimulation off and 20 s stimulation on. A general linear model-based statistical parametric analysis was used to analyze whole brain activation maps. Region of interest (ROI) analysis and paired t-test were used to compare changes in activation before and after MCS in these ROI. MCS suppressed evoked blood oxygen dependent signals significantly (Family-wise error corrected P cortex and the prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest that, in animals with SCL, MCS attenuates hypersensitivity by suppressing activity in the primary somatosensory cortex and prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Screening for suppression in young children: the Polaroid Suppression test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pott, J.W.R.; Oosterveen, DK; Van Hof-van Duin, J

    1998-01-01

    Background: Assessment of monocular visual impairment during screening of young children is often hampered by lack of cooperation. Because strabismus, amblyopia, or anisometropia may lead to monocular suppression during binocular viewing conditions, a test was developed to screen far suppression in

  6. Metabolic Prosthesis for Oxygenation of Ischemic Tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenbaum, Elias [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    This communication discloses new ideas and preliminary results on the development of a "metabolic prosthesis" for local oxygenation of ischemic tissue under physiological neutral conditions. We report for the first time the selective electrolysis of physiological saline by repetitively pulsed charge-limited electrolysis for the production of oxygen and suppression of free chlorine. For example, using 800 A amplitude current pulses and <200 sec pulse durations, we demonstrated prompt oxygen production and delayed chlorine production at the surface of a shiny 0.85 mm diameter spherical platinum electrode. The data, interpreted in terms of the ionic structure of the electric double layer, suggest a strategy for in situ production of metabolic oxygen via a new class of "smart" prosthetic implants for dealing with ischemic disease such as diabetic retinopathy. We also present data indicating that drift of the local pH of the oxygenated environment can be held constant using a feedback-controlled three electrode electrolysis system that chooses anode and cathode pair based on pH data provided by local microsensors. The work is discussed in the context of diabetic retinopathy since surgical techniques for multielectrode prosthetic implants aimed at retinal degenerative diseases have been developed.

  7. Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan

    2014-06-17

    An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.

  8. Ambient oxygen promotes tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Joong Sung

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen serves as an essential factor for oxidative stress, and it has been shown to be a mutagen in bacteria. While it is well established that ambient oxygen can also cause genomic instability in cultured mammalian cells, its effect on de novo tumorigenesis at the organismal level is unclear. Herein, by decreasing ambient oxygen exposure, we report a ∼50% increase in the median tumor-free survival time of p53-/- mice. In the thymus, reducing oxygen exposure decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage and RAG recombinase, both of which are known to promote lymphomagenesis in p53-/- mice. Oxygen is further shown to be associated with genomic instability in two additional cancer models involving the APC tumor suppressor gene and chemical carcinogenesis. Together, these observations represent the first report directly testing the effect of ambient oxygen on de novo tumorigenesis and provide important physiologic evidence demonstrating its critical role in increasing genomic instability in vivo.

  9. Theory and development of fluorescence-based optochemical oxygen sensors: oxygen optodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, N; Lübbers, D W

    1987-01-01

    As the preceding considerations concerning the physical and technical features of oxygen optodes have demonstrated, fluorescence-based optochemical oxygen sensors possess certain advantages and peculiarities compared to conventionally applied electrochemical sensors such as polarographic oxygen electrodes. First, in contrast to oxygen electrodes, oxygen measurements with oxygen optodes do not suffer from distortions caused by the reference electrodes. In addition, because of the polarographic process, platinum electrodes continuously consume oxygen, which falsifies the results, especially when small sample volumes or long-term measurements, or both, are involved, whereas the sensor layer of oxygen optodes must only be equilibrated. Moreover, the surface of the platinum wire has to be catalytically clean in order to obtain a plateau of the polarogram and, consequently, to achieve a low rest current at zero PO2. Unfortunately, the demand for catalytically clean platinum surfaces turns out to be rather critical, since surface contamination occurs even with membranized electrodes, resulting in the well-known phenomenon of "electrode poisoning." The question of the specificity of oxygen electrodes also must be considered. In this context, CO2 and halothane may interfere with oxygen measurements, whereas fluorescence quenching is unaffected by CO2 and halothane affects the measurements only slightly, depending on the special indicator used. Furthermore, because of the flow dependence, oxygen measurements with the oxygen electrode show a distinct "stirring effect" caused by the turbulence in front of the electrode, which disturbs the diffusion field. Because of the completely different physical principle of fluorescence optical sensors, such influences are not observed with oxygen optodes. In addition, isolation and shielding of electrical circuits found in electrodes are not necessary for optodes. Furthermore, the sensitivity of oxygen optodes can be tuned to the desired

  10. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Toyokazu.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a pressure suppression device for a gas cooled reactor wherein the coolant is discharged in a reactor building by a loss-of-coolant accident or the like, the increase in the pressure and temperature is controlled and thermal energy of the discharged coolant of high temperature and high pressure can be absorbed. Constitution: A low heat source unit is provided at the upper part in an inner space of a reactor building provided around the reactor, and at the upper part of the low heat source unit a stirring fan for mixing gas within the building, and a low heat source circulating the low heat source through a pipe is connected to the low heat source unit. The low heat source unit is provided with the pipe arranged in a spiral shape at the upper part of the space of the unit, and a large number of fins are provided at the outer surface of the pipe for increasing the transmission area and improve the heat exchange. When the coolant of high temperature and high pressure has been lost in the building, the thermal energy of the coolant is absorbed by the low heat source unit. (Aizawa, K.)

  11. Fractional order absolute vibration suppression (AVS) controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevi, Yoram

    2017-04-01

    Absolute vibration suppression (AVS) is a control method for flexible structures. The first step is an accurate, infinite dimension, transfer function (TF), from actuation to measurement. This leads to the collocated, rate feedback AVS controller that in some cases completely eliminates the vibration. In case of the 1D wave equation, the TF consists of pure time delays and low order rational terms, and the AVS controller is rational. In all other cases, the TF and consequently the controller are fractional order in both the delays and the "rational parts". The paper considers stability, performance and actual implementation in such cases.

  12. Cold suppresses agonist-induced activation of TRPV1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, M-K; Wang, S

    2011-09-01

    Cold therapy is frequently used to reduce pain and edema following acute injury or surgery such as tooth extraction. However, the neurobiological mechanisms of cold therapy are not completely understood. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a capsaicin- and heat-gated nociceptive ion channel implicated in thermosensation and pathological pain under conditions of inflammation or injury. Although capsaicin-induced nociception, neuropeptide release, and ionic currents are suppressed by cold, it is not known if cold suppresses agonist-induced activation of recombinant TRPV1. We demonstrate that cold strongly suppressed the activation of recombinant TRPV1 by multiple agonists and capsaicin-evoked currents in trigeminal ganglia neurons under normal and phosphorylated conditions. Cold-induced suppression was partially impaired in a TRPV1 mutant that lacked heat-mediated activation and potentiation. These results suggest that cold-induced suppression of TRPV1 may share a common molecular basis with heat-induced potentiation, and that allosteric inhibition may contribute, in part, to the cold-induced suppression. We also show that combination of cold and a specific antagonist of TRPV1 can produce an additive suppression. Our results provide a mechanistic basis for cold therapy and may enhance anti-nociceptive approaches that target TRPV1 for managing pain under inflammation and tissue injury, including that from tooth extraction.

  13. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested

  14. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested.

  15. Influence of Isovalent Impurity Ge on Nucleation and Morphology of Supersaturated Oxygen Precipitate in CZSi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The effects of Ge in CZSi on the density and the rate of nucleation of supersaturated oxygen precipitation at lower annealing temperatures were examined.It is discovered that rod-like precipitation was suppressed when annealing at 700℃,but Ge has no effect on the morphology and the growth of oxygen precipitation at annealing temperatures more than 900℃.The results indicated that Ge neither acted as center of nucleation nor was involved in oxygen precipitation and its defect.

  16. Validation of SPARC, a suppression pool aerosol capture model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owczarski, P.C.; Winegardner, W.K.

    1985-09-01

    A study of the potential for atmospheric release in hypothetical severe core melt accidents in BWRs with suppression pools was recently completed using a prototype of the SPARC code. The process of validating SPARC using an experimental data base is the concern of this paper

  17. Concatenated image completion via tensor augmentation and completion

    OpenAIRE

    Bengua, Johann A.; Tuan, Hoang D.; Phien, Ho N.; Do, Minh N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel framework called concatenated image completion via tensor augmentation and completion (ICTAC), which recovers missing entries of color images with high accuracy. Typical images are second- or third-order tensors (2D/3D) depending if they are grayscale or color, hence tensor completion algorithms are ideal for their recovery. The proposed framework performs image completion by concatenating copies of a single image that has missing entries into a third-order tensor,...

  18. The Relevance of Hyperbaric Oxygen to Combat Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    and Hyperbaric Conditions [les Questions medicales a caractere oprationel liees aux conditions hypobares ou hyperbares ] To order the complete...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO 11081 TITLE: The Relevance of Hyperbaric Oxygen to Combat Medicine...following component part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADPO11059 thru ADP011100 UNCLASSIFIED 25-1 The Relevance of Hyperbaric Oxygen to

  19. Thyroid suppression test with dextrothyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, D.; Fridman, J.; Ribeiro, H.B.

    1978-01-01

    The classic thyroid suppression test with triiodothyronine (l-T 3 ) has been shown to be efficient as an auxiliary method in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases, but should not be performed on elderly patients or on those with heart disease or a tendency to tachycardia. Since these subjects seem able to support a short period of dextro-thyronine (d-T 4 ) feeding, we compared the effect of d-T 4 and l-T 3 on the 24 hours thyroid uptake in euthyroid and hyperthyroid subjects. After basal radio-iodine uptake determination, 99 patients without hyperthyroidism and 27 with Graves' disease were randomly divided in 2 groups; one received 100μg of l-T 3 per day and the other 4 mg of d-T 4 per day, both groups being treated for a period of 10 days. At the end of this suppression period the 24 hours radio-iodine uptake was measured again and the percentual suppression index (S.I.) calculated. Since the comparison of the two groups showed no difference between the suppressive effect of l-T 3 and d-T 4 in euthyroid subjects, while dextro-thyronine, as levo-triiodothyronine, did not suppress the 24 hours uptake of hyperthyroid patients, l-T 3 or d-T 4 can be used interchangeably to test thyroid suppressibility. In the euthyroid subjects the normal range for the post-suppression uptake was 0-17.1% and for the suppression index 54,7.100% [pt

  20. Suppressed Charmed B Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoek, Hella Leonie [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-06-02

    This thesis describes the measurement of the branching fractions of the suppressed charmed B0 → D*- a0+ decays and the non-resonant B0 → D*- ηπ+ decays in approximately 230 million Υ(4S) → B$\\bar{B}$ events. The data have been collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in California. Theoretical predictions of the branching fraction of the B0 → D*- a{sub 0}+ decays show large QCD model dependent uncertainties. Non-factorizing terms, in the naive factorization model, that can be calculated by QCD factorizing models have a large impact on the branching fraction of these decay modes. The predictions of the branching fractions are of the order of 10-6. The measurement of the branching fraction gives more insight into the theoretical models. In general a better understanding of QCD models will be necessary to conduct weak interaction physics at the next level. The presence of CP violation in electroweak interactions allows the differentiation between matter and antimatter in the laws of physics. In the Standard Model, CP violation is incorporated in the CKM matrix that describes the weak interaction between quarks. Relations amongst the CKM matrix elements are used to present the two relevant parameters as the apex of a triangle (Unitarity Triangle) in a complex plane. The over-constraining of the CKM triangle by experimental measurements is an important test of the Standard Model. At this moment no stringent direct measurements of the CKM angle γ, one of the interior angles of the Unitarity Triangle, are available. The measurement of the angle γ can be performed using the decays of neutral B mesons. The B0 → D*- a0+ decay is sensitive to the angle γ and, in comparison to the current decays that are being employed, could significantly

  1. p-topological Cauchy completions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wig

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The duality between “regular” and “topological” as convergence space properties extends in a natural way to the more general properties “p-regular” and “p-topological.” Since earlier papers have investigated regular, p-regular, and topological Cauchy completions, we hereby initiate a study of p-topological Cauchy completions. A p-topological Cauchy space has a p-topological completion if and only if it is “cushioned,” meaning that each equivalence class of nonconvergent Cauchy filters contains a smallest filter. For a Cauchy space allowing a p-topological completion, it is shown that a certain class of Reed completions preserve the p-topological property, including the Wyler and Kowalsky completions, which are, respectively, the finest and the coarsest p-topological completions. However, not all p-topological completions are Reed completions. Several extension theorems for p-topological completions are obtained. The most interesting of these states that any Cauchy-continuous map between Cauchy spaces allowing p-topological and p′-topological completions, respectively, can always be extended to a θ-continuous map between any p-topological completion of the first space and any p′-topological completion of the second.

  2. Structure completion for facade layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Lubin; Musialski, Przemyslaw; Liu, Ligang; Wonka, Peter

    2014-01-01

    completion with large missing parts is an ill-posed problem. Therefore, we combine two sources of information to derive our solution: the observed shapes and a database of complete layouts. The problem is also very difficult, because shape positions

  3. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  4. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch

    2005-01-01

    The oxygen tension of the optic nerve is regulated by the intraocular pressure and systemic blood pressure, the resistance in the blood vessels and oxygen consumption of the tissue. The oxygen tension is autoregulated and moderate changes in intraocular pressure or blood pressure do not affect...... the optic nerve oxygen tension. If the intraocular pressure is increased above 40 mmHg or the ocular perfusion pressure decreased below 50 mmHg the autoregulation is overwhelmed and the optic nerve becomes hypoxic. A disturbance in oxidative metabolism in the cytochromes of the optic nerve can be seen...... at similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human...

  5. Pathology of oxygen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Autor, Anne Pomeroy

    1982-01-01

    This volume has been designed to provide those interested in oxygen toxicity with a working knowledge of advancement in the field with the intention that the topics described in each chapter will be immediately useful...

  6. Using oxygen at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at Home Tell your local fire department, electric company, and telephone company that you use oxygen in your home. They ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  7. Pathology of oxygen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Autor, Anne Pomeroy

    1982-01-01

    .... The book is divided into three general sections. The first and smallest section of the book explains the molecular and biochemical basis of our current understanding of oxygen radical toxicity as well as the means by which normal aerobic cells...

  8. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, M; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Eysteinsson, T

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide.......To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide....

  9. Ekstrakorporal oxygenering ved legionellapneumoni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uslu, Bülent; Steensen, Morten

    2009-01-01

    We present a case report with a 49-year-old woman with legionella pneumonia and fulminant respiratory failure. Despite maximal conventional respirator treatment with positive pressure ventilation, 100% oxygen and pharmacological treatment in an intensive care unit, further deterioration with hypo......We present a case report with a 49-year-old woman with legionella pneumonia and fulminant respiratory failure. Despite maximal conventional respirator treatment with positive pressure ventilation, 100% oxygen and pharmacological treatment in an intensive care unit, further deterioration...

  10. Intraportal islet oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszynski, Thomas M; Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S; Papas, Klearchos K

    2014-05-01

    Islet transplantation (IT) is a promising therapy for the treatment of diabetes. The large number of islets required to achieve insulin independence limit its cost-effectiveness and the number of patients who can be treated. It is believed that >50% of islets are lost in the immediate post-IT period. Poor oxygenation in the early post-IT period is recognized as a possible reason for islet loss and dysfunction but has not been extensively studied. Several key variables affect oxygenation in this setting, including (1) local oxygen partial pressure (pO(2)), (2) islet oxygen consumption, (3) islet size (diameter, D), and (4) presence or absence of thrombosis on the islet surface. We discuss implications of oxygen-limiting conditions on intraportal islet viability and function. Of the 4 key variables, the islet size appears to be the most important determinant of the anoxic and nonfunctional islet volume fractions. Similarly, the effect of thrombus formation on the islet surface may be substantial. At the University of Minnesota, average size distribution data from clinical alloislet preparations (n = 10) indicate that >150-µm D islets account for only ~30% of the total islet number, but >85% of the total islet volume. This suggests that improved oxygen supply to the islets may have a profound impact on islet survivability and function since most of the β-cell volume is within large islets which are most susceptible to oxygen-limiting conditions. The assumption that the liver is a suitable islet transplant site from the standpoint of oxygenation should be reconsidered. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  11. Singlet oxygen quenching by oxygen in tetraphenyl-porphyrin solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedic, Roman; Korinek, Miloslav; Molnar, Alexander; Svoboda, Antonin; Hala, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Time-resolved measurement of singlet oxygen infrared phosphorescence is a powerful tool for determination of quantum yields and kinetics of its photosensitization. This technique was employed to investigate in detail the previously observed effect of singlet oxygen quenching by oxygen. The question whether the singlet oxygen is quenched by oxygen in ground or in excited state was addressed by study of two complementary dependencies of singlet oxygen lifetimes: on dissolved oxygen concentration and on excitation intensity. Oxygen concentration dependence study of meso-tetra(4-sulphonato)phenylporphyrin (TPPS 4 ) phosphorescence kinetics showed linearity of the dependence of TPPS 4 triplet state rate-constant. Corresponding bimolecular quenching constant of (1.5±0.1)x10 9 l/mol s was obtained. On the other hand, rate constants of singlet oxygen depopulation exhibit nonlinear dependence on oxygen concentration. Comparison of zero oxygen concentration-extrapolated value of singlet oxygen lifetime of (6.5±0.4) μs to (3.7±0.1) μs observed under air-saturated conditions indicates importance of the effect of quenching of singlet oxygen by oxygen. Upward-sloping dependencies of singlet oxygen depopulation rate-constant on excitation intensity evidence that singlet oxygen is predominantly quenched by oxygen in excited singlet state

  12. Suppressive effects of 17β-estradiol on tributyltin-induced neuronal injury via Akt activation and subsequent attenuation of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Yasuhiro; Fujitani, Noriko; Kawami, Tomohito; Adachi, Chika; Ishida, Atsuhiko; Yamazaki, Takeshi

    2014-03-18

    Neuroactive steroids are reported to protect neurons from various harmful compounds; however, the protective mechanisms remain largely unclear. In this study, we examined the suppressive effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) on tributyltin (TBT)-induced neurotoxicity. Organotypic hippocampal slices were prepared from neonatal rats and then cultured. Cell death was assayed by propidium iodide uptake. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined by dihydroethidium staining. Protein phosphorylation was evaluated by immunoblotting. Pretreatment of the slices with E2 dose-dependently attenuated the neuronal injury induced by TBT. An estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI182,780 abrogated these neuroprotective effects. The de novo protein synthesis inhibitors actinomycin D and cycloheximide showed no effects on the neuroprotective mechanism, indicating that a nongenomic pathway acting via the estrogen receptor may be involved in the neuroprotection conferred by E2. E2 suppressed the ROS production and lipid peroxidation induced by TBT, and these effects were almost completely canceled by ICI182,780. TBT decreased Akt phosphorylation, and this reduction was suppressed by E2. An Akt inhibitor, triciribine, attenuated the decreases in both the ROS production and neuronal injury mediated by E2. E2 enhances the phosphorylation of Akt, thereby attenuating the oxidative stress and subsequent neuronal injury induced by TBT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Beyond viral suppression of HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V.; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Barton, Simon E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a new Global Health Sector Strategy on HIV for 2016-2021. It establishes 15 ambitious targets, including the '90-90-90' target calling on health systems to reduce under-diagnosis of HIV, treat a greater number of those diagnosed......, and ensure that those being treated achieve viral suppression. DISCUSSION: The WHO strategy calls for person-centered chronic care for people living with HIV (PLHIV), implicitly acknowledging that viral suppression is not the ultimate goal of treatment. However, it stops short of providing an explicit target...... for health-related quality of life. It thus fails to take into account the needs of PLHIV who have achieved viral suppression but still must contend with other intense challenges such as serious non-communicable diseases, depression, anxiety, financial stress, and experiences of or apprehension about HIV...

  14. Overgeneral memory and suppression of trauma memories in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeld, Sabine; Ehlers, Anke; Böllinghaus, Inga; Rief, Winfried

    2007-04-01

    The study investigated the relationship between the suppression of trauma memories and overgeneral memory in 42 assault survivors with and without PTSD. Overgeneral memory (OGM) was assessed with a standard autobiographical memory test (AMT). Participants completed two further AMTs under the instructions to either suppress or not suppress assault memories, in counterbalanced order. Participants with PTSD retrieved fewer and more general memories when following the suppression instruction than participants without PTSD, but not under the control instruction. OGM correlated with PTSD symptom severity, and measures of cognitive avoidance. The results are discussed with reference to current theories of overgeneral memory and its possible relationship with PTSD.

  15. Closed Loop Control of Oxygen Delivery and Oxygen Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    were used for this study and were connected via a USB cable to allow communication. The ventilator was modified to allow closed loop control of oxygen...connected via a USB cable to allow communication. The ventilator was modified to allow closed loop control of oxygen based on the oxygen saturation...2017-4119, 28 Aug 2017. oximetry (SpO2) and intermittent arterial blood sampling for arterial oxygen tension (partial pressure of oxygen [PaO2]) and

  16. Aging and repeated thought suppression success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann E Lambert

    Full Text Available Intrusive thoughts and attempts to suppress them are common, but while suppression may be effective in the short-term, it can increase thought recurrence in the long-term. Because intentional suppression involves controlled processing, and many aspects of controlled processing decline with age, age differences in thought suppression outcomes may emerge, especially over repeated thought suppression attempts as cognitive resources are expended. Using multilevel modeling, we examined age differences in reactions to thought suppression attempts across four thought suppression sequences in 40 older and 42 younger adults. As expected, age differences were more prevalent during suppression than during free monitoring periods, with younger adults indicating longer, more frequent thought recurrences and greater suppression difficulty. Further, younger adults' thought suppression outcomes changed over time, while trajectories for older adults' were relatively stable. Results are discussed in terms of older adults' reduced thought recurrence, which was potentially afforded by age-related changes in reactive control and distractibility.

  17. Novel "Elements" of Immune Suppression within the Tumor Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusamy, Devikala; Clever, David; Eil, Robert; Restifo, Nicholas P

    2017-06-01

    Adaptive evolution has prompted immune cells to use a wide variety of inhibitory signals, many of which are usurped by tumor cells to evade immune surveillance. Although tumor immunologists often focus on genes and proteins as mediators of immune function, here we highlight two elements from the periodic table-oxygen and potassium-that suppress the immune system in previously unappreciated ways. While both are key to the maintenance of T-cell function and tissue homeostasis, they are exploited by tumors to suppress immuno-surveillance and promote metastatic spread. We discuss the temporal and spatial roles of these elements within the tumor microenvironment and explore possible therapeutic interventions for effective and promising anticancer therapies. Cancer Immunol Res; 5(6); 426-33. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Major events in Neogene oxygen isotopic records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennett, J.P.; Hodell, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Changes in oxygen isotopic ratios of foraminiferal calcite during the cainozoic have been one of the primary tools for investigating the history of Arctic and Antarctic glaciation, although interpretations of the oxygen isotopic record differ markedly. The ambiguity in interpretation results mainly from the partitioning of temperature from ice volume effects in delta 18 O changes. Oxygen isotopic records for the Cainozoic show an increase in delta 18 O values towards the present, reflecting gradual cooling and increased glaciation of the Earth's climate since the late Cretaceous. A variety of core material from the South Atlantic and South-west Pacific oceans are investigated. This composite data represents one of the most complete available with which to evaluate the evolution of glaciation during the Neogene. Expansion of ice shelves in Antarctica undoubtedly accompanied the increased glaciation of the northern hemisphere, since eustatic sea-level lowering would positively reinforce ice growth on Antarctica

  19. Accentuation-suppression and scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Bundesen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    The limitations of the visual short-term memory (VSTM) system have become an increasingly popular field of study. One line of inquiry has focused on the way attention selects objects for encoding into VSTM. Using the framework of the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA; Bundesen, 1990 Psychological...... a scaling mechanism modulating the decision bias of the observer and also through an accentuation-suppression mechanism that modulates the degree of subjective relevance of objects, contracting attention around fewer, highly relevant objects while suppressing less relevant objects. These mechanisms may...

  20. Effect of nitrogen and oxygen on radiolysis of iodide solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasawa, H; Endo, M [Hitachi Ltd., Power and Industrial System R+D Divisions, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    The effect of nitrogen and oxygen on radiolysis of iodide solution was examined. Direct decomposition of nitrogen by {gamma}-radiation produced nitric acid to decrease a water pH. This resulted in the iodine formation in the radiolysis of iodide solution. Hydrogen peroxide was produced by the radiolysis of water containing oxygen. This worked a reducing agent to suppress the formation of iodine in the radiolysis of iodide solution. In the analytical model, fourteen iodine species were considered and reaction scheme consisted in 124 reactions. The analytical model could estimate the oxidation state of iodide ions. (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  1. Macroscopic results for a novel oxygenated silicon material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, S.J.; Da Via', C.; Karpenko, A.

    2002-01-01

    High-resistivity FZ silicon diodes have been processed in order to increase their oxygen dimer (O 2i ) concentration. Deep level transient spectroscopy measurements have been performed after proton irradiation showing that the formation of the VO centre is suppressed. The substrates had a starting resistivity of 2-4 kΩ cm, with an oxygen concentration of 10 15 and 10 17 cm -3 . Results for doping changes, leakage current and annealing behaviour after irradiation with 24 GeV/c protons are shown

  2. Macroscopic results for a novel oxygenated silicon material

    CERN Document Server

    Watts, S J; Karpenko, A

    2002-01-01

    High-resistivity FZ silicon diodes have been processed in order to increase their oxygen dimer (O sub 2 sub i) concentration. Deep level transient spectroscopy measurements have been performed after proton irradiation showing that the formation of the VO centre is suppressed. The substrates had a starting resistivity of 2-4 k OMEGA cm, with an oxygen concentration of 10 sup 1 sup 5 and 10 sup 1 sup 7 cm sup - sup 3. Results for doping changes, leakage current and annealing behaviour after irradiation with 24 GeV/c protons are shown.

  3. Completeness theorems in transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweifel, P.F.

    1984-01-01

    Ever since K. M.; Case's famous 1960 paper, transport theorists have been studying the questions of full- and half-range completeness for various transport type equations. The purpose of this note is to try to define exactly what is meant by completeness as it is needed, and used, in solving transport equations and to discuss some of the various techniques which have been, or might be, used to verify completeness. Attention is restricted to the question of full-range completeness. As a paradigm the generalized form of the transport equation first introduced by Beals is adopted

  4. Reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen in the presence of sulfite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weres, O.; Tsao, L.

    1983-01-14

    Commonly, abatement of hydrogen sulfide emission from a geothermal powerplant requires that hydrogen sulfide dissolved in the cooling water be eliminated by chemical reaction. Oxidation by atmospheric oxygen is the preferred reaction, but requires a suitable catalyst. Nickel is the most potent and thereby cheapest catalyst for this purpose. One mg/L nickel in the cooling water would allow 99% removal of hydrogen sulfide to be attained. A major drawback of catalytic air oxidation is that colloidal sulfur is a major reaction product; this causes rapid sludge accumulation and deposition of sulfur scale. We studied the kinetics and product distribution of the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen, catalyzed by nickel. Adding sodium sulfite to the solution completely suppresses formation of colloidal sulfur by converting it to thiosulfate. The oxidation reaction is an autocatalytic, free radical chain reaction. A rate expression for this reaction and a detailed reaction mechanism were developed. Nickel catalyzes the chain initiation step, and polysulfidoradical ions propagate the chains. Several complexes of iron and cobalt were also studied. Iron citrate and iron N-hydroxyEDTA are the most effective iron based catalysts. Uncomplexed cobalt is as effective as nickel, but forms a precipitate of cobalt oxysulfide and is too expensive for practical use. 33 figures, 9 tables.

  5. Reaction of Hydrogen Sulfide with Oxygen in the Presence ofSulfite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weres, Oleh; Tsao, Leon

    1983-01-01

    Commonly, abatement of hydrogen sulfide emissions from a geothermal powerplant requires that hydrogen sulfide dissolved in the cooling water be eliminated by chemical reaction. Oxidation by atmospheric oxygen is the preferred reaction, but requires a suitable catalyst. Nickel is the most potent and thereby cheapest catalyst for this purpose. One Mg/L nickel in the cooling water would allow 99% removal of hydrogen sulfide to be attained. A major drawback of catalytic air oxidation is that colloidal sulfur is a major reaction product; this causes rapid sludge accumulation and deposition of sulfur scale. The authors studied the kinetics and product distribution of the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen, catalyzed by nickel. Adding sodium sulfite to the solution completely suppresses formation of colloidal sulfur by converting it to thiosulfate. The oxidation reaction is an autocatalytic, free radical chain reaction. A rate expression for this reaction and a detailed reaction mechanism were developed. Nickel catalyzes the chain initiation step, and polysulfidoradical ions propagate the chains. Several complexes of iron and cobalt were also studied. Iron citrate and iron N-hydroxyEDT are the most effective iron based catalysts. Uncomplexed cobalt is as effective as nickel, but forms a precipitate of cobalt oxysulfide and is too expensive for practical use.

  6. Gas turbines with complete continuous combustion of the fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, C

    1976-10-21

    The invention concerns a gas turbine plant with complete continuous combustion of the fuel. The fuel is taken to a gas generator in which the preheated fuel is catalytically converted at high temperature in a fuel mixture using an oxygen carrier. Heating of the fuel takes place in a heat exchanger which is situated in the outlet pipe of the turbine. The efficiency is increased and the emission of noxious gas is kept as low as possible using the heat exchanger as a fuel evaporator and by using part of the waste formed in the combustion chamber to carry oxygen to the gas generator via an outlet pipe.

  7. Oxygen Dependent Biocatalytic Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Asbjørn Toftgaard

    Enzyme catalysts have the potential to improve both the process economics and the environ-mental profile of many oxidation reactions especially in the fine- and specialty-chemical industry, due to their exquisite ability to perform stereo-, regio- and chemo-selective oxida-tions at ambient...... to aldehydes and ketones, oxyfunctionalization of C-H bonds, and epoxidation of C-C double bonds. Although oxygen dependent biocatalysis offers many possibilities, there are numerous chal-lenges to be overcome before an enzyme can be implemented in an industrial process. These challenges requires the combined...... far below their potential maximum catalytic rate at industrially relevant oxygen concentrations. Detailed knowledge of the en-zyme kinetics are therefore required in order to determine the best operating conditions and design oxygen supply to minimize processing costs. This is enabled...

  8. Oxygen therapy reduces postoperative tachycardia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stausholm, K; Kehlet, H; Rosenberg, J

    1995-01-01

    Concomitant hypoxaemia and tachycardia in the postoperative period is unfavourable for the myocardium. Since hypoxaemia per se may be involved in the pathogenesis of postoperative tachycardia, we have studied the effect of oxygen therapy on tachycardia in 12 patients randomly allocated to blinded...... air or oxygen by facemask on the second or third day after major surgery. Inclusion criteria were arterial hypoxaemia (oxygen saturation 90 beat.min-1). Each patient responded similarly to oxygen therapy: an increase in arterial oxygen saturation and a decrease...... in heart rate (p oxygen has a positive effect on the cardiac oxygen delivery and demand balance....

  9. Hyperbaric oxygen and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, R.; Hamilton-Farrell, M.R.; Kleij, A.J. van der

    2005-01-01

    Background: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy is the inhalation of 100% oxygen at a pressure of at least 1.5 atmospheres absolute (150 kPa). It uses oxygen as a drug by dissolving it in the plasma and delivering it to the tissues independent of hemoglobin. For a variety of organ systems, HBO is known to promote new vessel growth into areas with reduced oxygen tension due to poor vascularity, and therewith promotes wound healing and recovery of radiation-injured tissue. Furthermore, tumors may be sensitized to irradiation by raising intratumoral oxygen tensions. Methods: A network of hyperbaric facilities exists in Europe, and a number of clinical studies are ongoing. The intergovernmental framework COST B14 action 'Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy' started in 1999. The main goal of the Working Group Oncology is preparation and actual implementation of prospective study protocols in the field of HBO and radiation oncology in Europe. Results: In this paper a short overview on HBO is given and the following randomized clinical studies are presented: (a) reirradiation of recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck after HBO sensitization; (b) role of HBO in enhancing radiosensitivity on glioblastoma multiforme; (c) osseointegration in irradiated patients; adjunctive HBO to prevent implant failures; (d) the role of HBO in the treatment of late irradiation sequelae in the pelvic region. The two radiosensitization protocols (a, b) allow a time interval between HBO and subsequent irradiation of 10-20 min. Conclusion: Recruitment of centers and patients is being strongly encouraged, detailed information is given on www.oxynet.org. (orig.)

  10. Radiation chemistry of aqueous solutions of hydrazine at elevated temperatures: Pt. 2. Solutions containing oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buxton, G.V.; Stuart, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    Here, we investigate the effects of oxygen on the radiation chemistry of hydrazine at elevated temperatures. The chemistry of this system is important to reactor coolant chemistry, particularly under start-up conditions when hydrazine is added to suppress corrosion which would otherwise be caused by the ingress of oxygen. The radiation chemistry of aqueous solutions of hydrazine has been investigated previously in the presence of oxygen by Ershov et al., but only at room temperature. In those experiments, both steady-state γ-radiolysis and pulse radiolysis were used to deduce the mechanism of decomposition of hydrazine in the presence of oxygen. (author)

  11. Novel nanostructured oxygen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Alan James

    New government regulations and industry requirements for medical oxygen sensors require the development of alternate materials and process optimization of primary sensor components. Current oxygen sensors are not compliant with the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive. This work focused on two areas. First, was finding suitable readily available materials for the sensor anodes. Second was optimizing the processing of the sensor cathode membrane for reduced delamination. Oxygen sensors were made using tin (Sn) and bismuth (Bi) electrodes, potassium hydroxide (KOH) and acetic acid (CH3COOH) electrolytes with platinum (Pt) and gold (Au) reference electrodes. Bi electrodes were fabricated by casting and pressing processes. Electrochemical characterization of the Sn and Bi electrodes was performed by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and sensing characterization per BSEN ISO 21647:2009 at various oxygen percentages, 0%, 20.9% and 100% oxygen levels with an automated test apparatus. The Sn anode with both electrolyte solutions showed good oxygen sensing properties and performance in a sensor. This system shows promise for replacement of Pb electrodes as required by the RoHS Directive. The Bi anode with Au cathode in both KOH and CH3COOH electrolytes showed acceptable performance and oxygen sensing properties. The Bi anodes fabricated by separate manufacturing methods demonstrated effectiveness for use in medical oxygen sensors. Gold thin films were prepared by magnetron sputtering on Flouroethylene Polymer (FEP) films. The FEP substrate temperature ranged from -77°C to 50°C. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and 4-point resistivity characterized the effects of substrate temperature to Au thin film particle size. XRD peak broadening and resistivity measurements showed a strong correlation of particle size to FEP substrate temperature. Particle size at 50°C was 594A and the -77°C particle size was 2.4 x 103A. Substrate

  12. Stimulus-dependent suppression of chaos in recurrent neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, Kanaka; Abbott, L. F.; Sompolinsky, Haim

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal activity arises from an interaction between ongoing firing generated spontaneously by neural circuits and responses driven by external stimuli. Using mean-field analysis, we ask how a neural network that intrinsically generates chaotic patterns of activity can remain sensitive to extrinsic input. We find that inputs not only drive network responses, but they also actively suppress ongoing activity, ultimately leading to a phase transition in which chaos is completely eliminated. The critical input intensity at the phase transition is a nonmonotonic function of stimulus frequency, revealing a 'resonant' frequency at which the input is most effective at suppressing chaos even though the power spectrum of the spontaneous activity peaks at zero and falls exponentially. A prediction of our analysis is that the variance of neural responses should be most strongly suppressed at frequencies matching the range over which many sensory systems operate.

  13. OXYGEN MANAGEMENT DURING ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    MOENNE VARGAS, MARÍA ISABE

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen additions are a common practice in winemaking, as oxygen has a positive effect in fermentative kinetics, biomass synthesis and improvement of color, structure and :flavor in treated wines. However, most oxygen additions are carried out heuristically through pump-over operations solely on a know-how basis, which is difficult to manage in terms of the exact quantity of oxygen transferred to the fermenting must. It is important to estímate the amount of oxygen added because...

  14. Latino College Completion: New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  15. Latino College Completion: United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  16. Latino College Completion: South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  17. Latino College Completion: North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  18. Latino College Completion: New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  19. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment for radiation proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tony Choon Seng; Joseph, David; Oxer, Harry

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Our objective was to assess, retrospectively, the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen treatment in radiation proctitis in all patients who have completed treatment for this disease at the Fremantle Hyperbaric Oxygen Unit. This unit is the only one of its kind in Western Australia. Methods and Materials: Patients were assessed by a review of hospital records, blood bank records, and clinic review (if this was convenient), and all patients responded to a telephone survey. Patients were questioned regarding radiation proctitis symptoms and the degree to which each had improved. Results: Most patients had previously been treated with radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma. Patients with proctitis mainly suffered from bleeding, diarrhoea, incontinence, and pain. In more than half of these patients, symptoms partially or completely resolved after hyperbaric oxygen treatment. Conclusion: Radiation-induced proctitis is a difficult clinical problem to treat and will probably become more significant with the rising incidence of diagnosis of prostate cancer. Hyperbaric Oxygen should be considered in the treatment of radiation-induced proctitis. Further prospective trials with strict protocol guidelines are warranted

  20. a Study of Oxygen Precipitation in Heavily Doped Silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graupner, Robert Kurt

    processes. This could lead to more effective control and use of oxygen precipitation for gettering. One of the principal purposes of this thesis is the extension of the infrared interstitial oxygen measurement technique to situations outside the measurement capacities of the standard technique. These situations include silicon slices exhibiting interfering precipitate absorption bands and heavily doped n-type silicon wafers. A new method is presented for correcting for the effect of multiple reflections in silicon wafers with optically rough surfaces. The technique for the measurement of interstitial oxygen in heavily doped n-type wafers is then used to perform a comparative study of oxygen precipitation in heavily antimony doped (.035 ohm-cm) silicon and lightly doped p-type silicon. A model is presented to quantitatively explain the observed suppression of defect formation in heavily doped n-type wafers.

  1. Structure completion for facade layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Lubin

    2014-11-18

    (Figure Presented) We present a method to complete missing structures in facade layouts. Starting from an abstraction of the partially observed layout as a set of shapes, we can propose one or multiple possible completed layouts. Structure completion with large missing parts is an ill-posed problem. Therefore, we combine two sources of information to derive our solution: the observed shapes and a database of complete layouts. The problem is also very difficult, because shape positions and attributes have to be estimated jointly. Our proposed solution is to break the problem into two components: a statistical model to evaluate layouts and a planning algorithm to generate candidate layouts. This ensures that the completed result is consistent with the observation and the layouts in the database.

  2. Oxygen and the evolution of metabolic pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, L. L.

    1986-01-01

    While a considerable amount of evidence has been accumulated about the history of oxygen on this planet, little is known about the relative amounts to which primitive cells might have been exposed. One clue may be found in the metabolic pathways of extant microorganisms. While eucaryotes are principally aerobic organisms, a number are capable of anaerobic growth by fermentation. One such eucaryotic microorganism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, will grow in the complete absence of oxygen when supplemented with unsaturated fatty acid and sterol. Oxygen-requiring enzymes are involved in the synthesis of both of these compounds. Studies have demonstrated that the oxidative desaturation of palmitic acid and the conversion of squalene to sterols occur in the range of 10-(3) to 10(-2) PAL. Thus, if the oxygen requirements of these enzymatic processes are an indication, eucaryotes might be more primitive than anticipated from the microfossil record. Results of studies on the oxygen requirements for sterol and unsaturated fatty acid synthesis in a more primitive procaryotic system are also discussed.

  3. Silibinin activates AMP-activated protein kinase to protect neuronal cells from oxygen and glucose deprivation-re-oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhi; Ding, Sheng-quan; Shen, Ya-fang

    2014-11-14

    In this study, we explored the cytoprotective potential of silibinin against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced neuronal cell damages, and studied underling mechanisms. In vitro model of ischemic stroke was created by keeping neuronal cells (SH-SY5Y cells and primary mouse cortical neurons) in an OGD condition followed by re-oxygenation. Pre-treatment of silibinin significantly inhibited OGD/re-oxygenation-induced necrosis and apoptosis of neuronal cells. OGD/re-oxygenation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) reduction were also inhibited by silibinin. At the molecular level, silibinin treatment in SH-SY5Y cells and primary cortical neurons led to significant AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling activation, detected by phosphorylations of AMPKα1, its upstream kinase liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and the downstream target acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (ACC). Pharmacological inhibition or genetic depletion of AMPK alleviated the neuroprotective ability of silibinin against OGD/re-oxygenation. Further, ROS scavenging ability by silibinin was abolished with AMPK inhibition or silencing. While A-769662, the AMPK activator, mimicked silibinin actions and suppressed ROS production and neuronal cell death following OGD/re-oxygenation. Together, these results show that silibinin-mediated neuroprotection requires activation of AMPK signaling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Complexity of Products of Some Complete and Complete Bipartite Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Daoud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of spanning trees in graphs (networks is an important invariant; it is also an important measure of reliability of a network. In this paper, we derive simple formulas of the complexity, number of spanning trees, of products of some complete and complete bipartite graphs such as cartesian product, normal product, composition product, tensor product, and symmetric product, using linear algebra and matrix analysis techniques.

  5. Emotional suppression in torture survivors: Relationship to posttraumatic stress symptoms and trauma-related negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Angela; Garber, Benjamin; Ahmed, Ola; Asnaani, Anu; Cheung, Jessica; Hofmann, Stefan G; Huynh, Ly; Liddell, Belinda; Litz, Brett T; Pajak, Rosanna; Bryant, Richard A

    2016-08-30

    While clinical reports suggest that torture survivors may try to suppress their emotions during torture, little is known about the use of emotional suppression following torture. In this study, 82 refugees and asylum-seekers (including 33 torture survivors) completed self-report measures of trait suppression, PTSD symptoms and baseline negative affect before being exposed to images depicting scenes of interpersonal trauma. The use of suppression while viewing the images was indexed and negative affect was measured both immediately after viewing the images and following a five minute rest period. Findings indicated that torture survivors did not show higher rates of trait suppression or state emotional suppression during the experimental session compared to non-torture survivors. However, torture survivors who endorsed state suppression higher levels of distress, and this relationship was especially strong for those with more severe PTSD symptoms. In contrast, there was a negative relationship between state suppression and distress for non-torture survivors with high levels of PTSD symptoms. These findings suggest that, while torture exposure does not lead to greater use of suppression, it does influence the impact of suppression on emotional responses to stimuli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Pedersen, D B; Eysteinsson, T

    2004-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetazolamide and dorzolamide raise optic nerve oxygen tension (ONPO(2)) in pigs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether timolol, which belongs to another group of glaucoma drugs called beta...

  7. Home Oxygen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cold it can hurt your skin. Keep a fire extinguisher close by, and let your fire department know that you have oxygen in your ... any symptoms of illness. Medicare, Medicaid, and Commercial Insurance Certain insurance policies may pay for all your ...

  8. Central oxygen pipeline failure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    surgical intensive care unit (ICU), with two patients on full ventilation and ... uncertainty around the cause of the failure and the restoration, .... soon as its level also falls below three tons. Should ... (properly checked and closed prior to each anaesthetic). ... in use at the time of the central oxygen pipeline failure at Tygerberg.

  9. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is not a novel therapy in the true sense of the ... Intention-to-treat analysis showed benefit for ECMO, with a relative risk ... no doubt that VV-ECMO is an advance in medical technology, and that.

  10. Depth of suppression in anisometropic amblyopia (with or without microtropia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Alison Y; Stevenson, Clare

    2012-01-01

    There are conflicting reports concerning the relationship between depth of suppression and level of amblyopia in strabismics. Little attention has been given to anisometropes. This study examines the density of suppression in anisometropic amblyopes, with or without microtropia, and investigates whether there is a relationship with level of amblyopia. Patients with anisometropia (defined as a difference of 1D or 0.5 D cyl), binocular single vision and a difference in corrected visual acuity of at least 0.1 logMAR between eyes were recalled. The degree of amblyopia was expressed as the interocular difference using the Bailey-Lovie logMAR chart. Stereoacuity (Titmus test), binocular alignment and fixation were recorded. The depth of suppression was measured using the neutral density filter bar together with the Worth four dot test at 4.5m (subtending an angle of 0.5 degrees). Best spherical equivalent (BSE) was calculated to represent anisometropia. Thirteen participants aged 8.3 years to 12.1 years (mean 9.7 years) completed the study. No significant correlation was present (r=0.10, p=0.74) between the depth of suppression and degree of amblyopia. However, there was a correlation between depth of suppression and level of stereoacuity (r=0.59, p=0.03). Six participants had microtropia and showed stronger suppression (p=0.03) and worse stereoacuity (p=0.001) than the pure anisometropes. No evidence was found of a relationship between density of suppression and amblyopia in this cohort of anisometropic amblyopes.

  11. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-05-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, in situ neutron diffraction was used to characterize the chemical and structural properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} (here after as L2SF55T) specimen, which was subject to measurements of neutron diffraction from room temperature to 900 C in N{sub 2}. Space group of R3c was found to result in a better refinement and is used in this study. The difference for crystal structure, lattice parameters and local crystal chemistry for LSFT nearly unchanged when gas environment switched from air to N{sub 2}. Stable crack growth studies on Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were done at room temperature in air. A bridge-compression fixture was fabricated to achieve stable pre-cracks from Vickers indents. Post fracture evaluation indicated stable crack growth from the indent and a regime of fast fracture. Post-fracture X-ray data of the OTM fractured at 1000 C in environment were refined by FullProf code and results indicate a distortion of the parent cubic perovskite to orthorhombic structure with reduced symmetry. TGA-DTA studies on the post-fracture samples also indicated residual effect arising from the thermal and stress history of the samples. The thermal and chemical expansion of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} were studied at 800 {le} T {le} 1000 C and at {approx} 1 x 10{sup -15} {le} pO{sub 2} {le} 0.21 atm. The thermal expansion coefficient of the sample was calculated from the dilatometric analysis in the temperature range between room temperature and 1200 C in air. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of

  12. Distinguishing among potential mechanisms of singleton suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspelin, Nicholas; Luck, Steven J

    2018-04-01

    Previous research has revealed that people can suppress salient stimuli that might otherwise capture visual attention. The present study tests between 3 possible mechanisms of visual suppression. According to first-order feature suppression models , items are suppressed on the basis of simple feature values. According to second-order feature suppression models , items are suppressed on the basis of local discontinuities within a given feature dimension. According to global-salience suppression models , items are suppressed on the basis of their dimension-independent salience levels. The current study distinguished among these models by varying the predictability of the singleton color value. If items are suppressed by virtue of salience alone, then it should not matter whether the singleton color is predictable. However, evidence from probe processing and eye movements indicated that suppression is possible only when the color values are predictable. Moreover, the ability to suppress salient items developed gradually as participants gained experience with the feature that defined the salient distractor. These results are consistent with first-order feature suppression models, and are inconsistent with the other models of suppression. In other words, people primarily suppress salient distractors on the basis of their simple features and not on the basis of salience per se. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  14. Ocean Ridges and Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmuir, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The history of oxygen and the fluxes and feedbacks that lead to its evolution through time remain poorly constrained. It is not clear whether oxygen has had discrete steady state levels at different times in Earth's history, or whether oxygen evolution is more progressive, with trigger points that lead to discrete changes in markers such as mass independent sulfur isotopes. Whatever this history may have been, ocean ridges play an important and poorly recognized part in the overall mass balance of oxidants and reductants that contribute to electron mass balance and the oxygen budget. One example is the current steady state O2 in the atmosphere. The carbon isotope data suggest that the fraction of carbon has increased in the Phanerozoic, and CO2 outgassing followed by organic matter burial should continually supply more O2 to the surface reservoirs. Why is O2 not then increasing? A traditional answer to this question would relate to variations in the fraction of burial of organic matter, but this fraction appears to have been relatively high throughout the Phanerozoic. Furthermore, subduction of carbon in the 1/5 organic/carbonate proportions would contribute further to an increasingly oxidized surface. What is needed is a flux of oxidized material out of the system. One solution would be a modern oxidized flux to the mantle. The current outgassing flux of CO2 is ~3.4*1012 moles per year. If 20% of that becomes stored organic carbon, that is a flux of .68*1012 moles per year of reduced carbon. The current flux of oxidized iron in subducting ocean crust is ~2*1012 moles per year of O2 equivalents, based on the Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios in old ocean crust compared to fresh basalts at the ridge axis. This flux more than accounts for the incremental oxidizing power produced by modern life. It also suggests a possible feedback through oxygenation of the ocean. A reduced deep ocean would inhibit oxidation of ocean crust, in which case there would be no subduction flux of oxidized

  15. Trend of Complete Hydatidiform Mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Thapa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Complete Hydatidiform mole is one of the most frequent abnormal pregnancies. This review studies the trend of complete mole in Paropakar Maternity and Women's hospital and clinical ability to detect it. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 504 cases of complete hydatidiform mole recorded at Paropakar maternity and women's hospital, Kathmandu, during 2058-2065 B.S. Medical records were reviewed and incidence, clinical presentation and method of diagnosis were studied. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 13,9117 births and 504 complete moles, 12 partial moles, 48 persistent gestational tumours, six choriocarcinoma and four invasive moles recorded in the hospital. The incidence of complete mole was one per 276 births. It was prevalent among women younger than 29 years (80% and among the primigravidae (36.7%. More than 90% women presented in the first half of their pregnancy and vaginal bleeding was the main complaint (68.3%. Suction evacuation, dilation and evacuation followed by sharp curettage and abdominal hysterectomy were performed in 80.6%, 17.6% and 1.2% of the women respectively. Persistent mole and choriocarcinoma developed in 9.5% and 0.4% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Complete mole has the highest incidence. It affects mostly younger women and presents with vaginal bleeding most of the time, usually in the first half of their pregnancy. Keywords: complete hydatidiform mole, gestational trophoblastic disease, persistent gestational tumours.

  16. Oxygen diffusion in monazite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Nakamura, M.; Watson, E. B.

    2004-09-01

    We report measurements of oxygen diffusion in natural monazites under both dry, 1-atm conditions and hydrothermal conditions. For dry experiments, 18O-enriched CePO4 powder and monazite crystals were sealed in Ag-Pd capsules with a solid buffer (to buffer at NNO) and annealed in 1-atm furnaces. Hydrothermal runs were conducted in cold-seal pressure vessels, where monazite grains were encapsulated with 18O-enriched water. Following the diffusion anneals, oxygen concentration profiles were measured with Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) using the reaction 18O(p,α)15N. Over the temperature range 850-1100 °C, the Arrhenius relation determined for dry diffusion experiments on monazite is given by: Under wet conditions at 100 MPa water pressure, over the temperature range 700-880 °C, oxygen diffusion can be described by the Arrhenius relationship: Oxygen diffusion under hydrothermal conditions has a significantly lower activation energy for diffusion than under dry conditions, as has been found the case for many other minerals, both silicate and nonsilicate. Given these differences in activation energies, the differences between dry and wet diffusion rates increase with lower temperatures; for example, at 600 °C, dry diffusion will be more than 4 orders of magnitude slower than diffusion under hydrothermal conditions. These disparate diffusivities will result in pronounced differences in the degree of retentivity of oxygen isotope signatures. For instance, under dry conditions (presumably rare in the crust) and high lower-crustal temperatures (∼800 °C), monazite cores of 70-μm radii will preserve O isotope ratios for about 500,000 years; by comparison, they would be retained at this temperature under wet conditions for about 15,000 years.

  17. Influence of projectile α-breakup threshold on complete fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, A.; Subinit Roy; Pradhan, M.K.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Basu, P.; Dasmahapatra, B.; Bhattacharya, T.; Bhattacharya, S.; Basu, S.K.; Chatterjee, A.; Tripathi, V.; Kailas, S.

    2006-01-01

    Complete fusion excitation functions for B11,10+Tb159 have been measured at energies around the respective Coulomb barriers, and the existing complete fusion measurements for Li7+Tb159 have been extended to higher energies. The measurements show significant reduction of complete fusion cross sections at above-barrier energies for both the reactions, B10+Tb159 and Li7+Tb159, when compared to those for B11+Tb159. The comparison shows that the extent of suppression of complete fusion cross sections is correlated with the α-separation energies of the projectiles. Also, the two reactions, B10+Tb159 and Li7+Tb159 were found to produce incomplete fusion products at energies near the respective Coulomb barriers, with the α-particle emitting channel being the favoured incomplete fusion process in both the cases

  18. Consequences of stereotype suppression and internal suppression motivation : A self-regulation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordijn, Ernestine H; Hindriks, Inge; Koomen, W; Dijksterhuis, Ap; van Knipppenberg, A.

    The present research studied the effects of suppression of stereotypes on subsequent stereotyping. Moreover, the moderating influence of motivation to suppress stereotypes was examined. The first three experiments showed that suppression of stereotypes leads to the experience of engaging in

  19. Radiation effects on the behavior of carbon and oxygen impurities and the role of Ge in Czochralski grown Si upon annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Londos, C. A.; Andrianakis, A.; Emtsev, V.; Ohyama, H.

    2009-01-01

    The annealing behavior of the oxygen and carbon impurities in Czochralski grown silicon (Cz-Si) was investigated in electron- and neutron-irradiated materials. The irradiated samples were subjected to isochronal anneals of up to ∼1000 deg. C, and the evolution of oxygen and carbon concentrations was monitored by means of infrared spectroscopy from the amplitudes of the 1106 and 605 cm -1 bands of the two impurities correspondingly. It was found that the electron irradiation does not affect the temperature of annealing of oxygen, although in the neutron-irradiated samples the oxygen band begins to decay in the spectra at a lower temperature than that in the nonirradiated samples. This behavior could be determined by supersaturation of vacancies mainly liberated from disordered regions in the latter material. This assists the oxygen aggregation process. Regarding carbon evolution, it was found that in the irradiated samples the annealing out of the 605 cm -1 band occurs at a lower temperature than that of the nonirradiated samples. Prior to the onset of decay of the 605 cm -1 band an inverse annealing stage was observed in the irradiated samples, indicating partial restoration of substitutional carbon. The general behavior was discussed with respect to the supersaturation of intrinsic defects, mainly self-interstitials. As a result, large C N (Si I ) M complexes are formed. There are two processes running in parallel: the recovery of substitutional carbon from carbon-related defects and C N (Si I ) M complexes and the transformation of C N (Si I ) M complexes to SiC-based precipitates. Noticeably, in electron-irradiated Ge-doped Si the inverse annealing stage of substitutional carbon is suppressed. Furthermore, our results showed that the Ge doping of Cz-Si of up to 2x10 20 cm -3 does not practically affect the temperature at which oxygen and carbon are completely lost in irradiated Cz-Si:Ge.

  20. Large Hadron Collider nears completion

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Installation of the final component of the Large Hadron Collider particle accelerator is under way along the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva, Switzerland. When completed this summer, the LHC will be the world's largest and most complex scientific instrument.

  1. Complete Blood Count (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids Deal With Injections and Blood Tests Blood Culture Anemia Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Blood Test: Hemoglobin Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Word! Complete Blood Count (CBC) Medical Tests and Procedures ( ...

  2. Monitoring Completed Navigation Projects Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bottin, Jr., Robert R

    2001-01-01

    ... (MCNP) Program. The program was formerly known as the Monitoring Completed Coastal Projects Program, but was modified in the late 1990s to include all navigation projects, inland as well as coastal...

  3. Complete colonic duplication in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghnejad Tabari, Ahmad; Mirshemirani, Alireza; Khaleghnejad Tabari, Nasibeh

    2012-01-01

    Complete colonic duplication is a very rare congenital anomaly that may have different presentations according to its location and size. Complete colonic duplication can occur in 15% of gastrointestinal duplication. We report two cases of complete colonic duplications, and their characteristics. We present two patients with complete colonic duplication with different types and presentations. Case 1: A 2- year old boy presented to the clinic with abdominal protrusion, difficulty to defecate, chronic constipation and mucosal prolaps covered bulging (rectocele) since he was 6 months old. The patient had palpable pelvic mass with doughy consistency. Rectal exam confirmed perirectal mass with soft consistency. The patient underwent a surgical operation that had total tubular colorectal duplication with one blind end and was treated with simple fenestration of distal end, and was discharged without complication. After two years follow up, he had normal defecation and good weight gain. Case 2: A 2 -day old infant was referred with imperforate anus and complete duplication of recto-sigmoid colon, diphallus, double bladder, and hypospadiasis. After clinical and paraclinical investigations, he underwent operations in several stages in different periods, and was discharged without complications. After four years follow up, he led a normal life. The patients with complete duplication have to be examined carefully because of the high incidence of other systemic anomalies. Treatment includes simple resection of distal common wall, fenestration, and repair other associated anomalies.

  4. Intermittent Aeration Suppresses Nitrite-Oxidizing Bacteria in Membrane-Aerated Biofilms: A Model-Based Explanation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Yunjie; Domingo Felez, Carlos; Plósz, Benedek G.

    2017-01-01

    . On the basis of dissolved oxygen (DO), ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate profiles within the biofilm and in the bulk, a 1-dimensional nitrifying biofilm model was developed and calibrated. The model was utilized to explore the potential mechanisms of NOB suppression associated with intermittent aeration...... nitritation, strategies to suppress nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) are needed, which are ideally grounded on an understanding of underlying mechanisms. In this study, a nitrifying MABR was operated under intermittent aeration. During eight months of operation, AOB dominated, while NOB were suppressed...... during intermittent aeration was mostly explained by periodic inhibition caused by free ammonia due to periodic transient pH upshifts. Dissolved oxygen limitation did not govern NOB suppression. Different intermittent aeration strategies were then evaluated for nitritation success in intermittently...

  5. Strangeness Suppression and Color Deconfinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satz, Helmut

    2018-02-01

    The relative multiplicities for hadron production in different high energy collisions are in general well described by an ideal gas of all hadronic resonances, except that under certain conditions, strange particle rates are systematically reduced. We show that the suppression factor γs, accounting for reduced strange particle rates in pp, pA and AA collisions at different collision energies, becomes a universal function when expressed in terms of the initial entropy density s0 or the initial temperature T of the produced thermal medium. It is found that γs increases from about 0.5 to 1.0 in a narrow temperature range around the quark-hadron transition temperature Tc ≃ 160 MeV. Strangeness suppression thus disappears with the onset of color deconfinement; subsequently, full equilibrium resonance gas behavior is attained.

  6. Chk1 suppressed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meuth Mark

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The role of Chk1 in the cellular response to DNA replication stress is well established. However recent work indicates a novel role for Chk1 in the suppression of apoptosis following the disruption of DNA replication or DNA damage. This review will consider these findings in the context of known pathways of Chk1 signalling and potential applications of therapies that target Chk1.

  7. Micro-oxygenation of red wine: techniques, applications, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, Leigh M; Clark, Andrew C; Scollary, Geoff R

    2011-02-01

    Wine micro-oxygenation (MOX) is the controlled addition of oxygen to wine in a manner designed to ensure that complete mass transfer of molecular oxygen from gaseous to dissolved state occurs. MOX was initially developed to improve the body, structure, and fruitfulness in red wines with high concentrations of tannins and anthocyanins, by replicating the ingress of oxygen thought to arise from barrel maturation, but without the need for putting all wine to barrel. This review describes the operational parameters essential for the effective performance of the micro-oxidation process as well as the chemical and microbiological outcomes. The methodologies for introducing oxygen into the wine, the rates of oxygen addition, and their relationship to oxygen solubility in the wine matrix are examined. The review focuses on the techniques used for monitoring the MOX process, including sensory assessment, physicochemical properties, and the critical balance of the rate of oxygen addition in relation to maintaining the sulfur dioxide concentration. The chemistry of oxygen reactivity with wine components, the changes in wine composition that occur as a consequence of MOX, and the potential for wine spoilage if proper monitoring is not adopted are examined. Gaps in existing knowledge are addressed focusing on the limitations associated with the transfer of concepts from research trials in small volume tanks to commercial practice, and the dearth of kinetic data for the various chemical and physical processes that are claimed to occur during MOX.

  8. In-Flight Suppressant Deployment Temperatures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bein, Donald

    2006-01-01

    .... An assessment is made of the model output versus some aircraft measurement data, fire suppressant boiling point criterion, as well as the history of altitude/temperature at which fire suppressants have been deployed...

  9. Origin of photosynthetic oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerster, Richard; Dupuy, Jacques; Guerin de Montgareuil, Pierre

    From the comparison of isotopic exchange kinetics between C 18 O 2 and the water of algae suspensions or aerial leaves subjected to alternating darkness and light, it becomes possible to calculate the isotopic abundance of the CO 2 involved in the photochemical process; this value has been compared to those of the intracellular water and of the evolved O 2 . Kinetics of the appearance of 18 O in the oxygen produced by algae suspended in enriched water are also presented [fr

  10. Oxygen injection facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Masamoto; Hirose, Yuki

    1998-01-01

    A compressor introduces air as a starting material and sends it to a dust removing device, a dehumidifying device and an adsorption/separation system disposed downstream. The facility of the present invention is disposed in the vicinity of an injection point and installed in a turbine building of a BWR type reactor having a pipeline of a feedwater system to be injected. The adsorbing/separation system comprises an adsorbing vessel and an automatic valve, and the adsorbing vessel is filled with an adsorbent for selectively adsorbing nitrogen. Zeolite is used as the adsorbent. Nitrogen in the air passing through the adsorbing vessel is adsorbed and removed under a pressurized condition, and a highly concentrated oxygen gas is formed. The direction of the steam of the adsorbed nitrogen is changed by an opening/closing switching operation of an automatic valve and released to the atmosphere (the pressure is released). Generated oxygen gas is stored under pressure in a tank, and injected to the pipeline of the feedwater system by an oxygen injection conduit by way of a flow rate control valve. In the adsorbing vessel, steps of adsorption, separation and storage under pressure are repeated successively. (I.N.)

  11. ITM oxygen for gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, P.A.; Foster, E.P. [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Gunardson, H.H. [Air Products Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2005-11-01

    This paper described a newly developed air separation technology called Ionic Transport Membrane (ITM), which reduces the overall cost of the gasification process. The technology is well suited for advanced energy conversion processes such as integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) that require oxygen and use heavy carbonaceous feedstocks such as residual oils, bitumens, coke and coal. It is also well suited for traditional industrial applications for oxygen and distributed power. Air Products Canada Limited developed the ceramic membrane air separation technology that can reduce the cost of pure oxygen by more than 30 per cent. The separation technology achieves a capital cost reduction of 30 per cent and an energy reduction of 35 per cent over conventional cryogenic air separation. ITM is an electrochemical process that integrates well with the gasification process and an IGCC option for producing electricity from the waste heat generated from gasification. This paper described the integration of ITM technology with both the gasification and IGCC processes and showed the attractive economics of ITM. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  12. The fate of completed intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Francis T; Einstein, Gilles O

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this research was to determine whether and how people deactivate prospective memory (PM) intentions after they have been completed. One view proposes that PM intentions can be deactivated after completion, such that they no longer come to mind and interfere with current tasks. Another view is that now irrelevant completed PM intentions exhibit persisting activation, and continue to be retrieved. In Experiment 1, participants were given a PM intention embedded within the ongoing task during Phase 1, after which participants were told either that the PM task had been completed or suspended until later. During Phase 2, participants were instructed to perform only the ongoing task and were periodically prompted to report their thoughts. Critically, the PM targets from Phase 1 reappeared in Phase 2. All of our measures, including thoughts reported about the PM task, supported the existence of persisting activation. In Experiment 2, we varied conditions that were expected to mitigate persisting activation. Despite our best attempts to promote deactivation, we found evidence for the persistence of spontaneous retrieval in all groups after intentions were completed. The theoretical and practical implications of this potential dark side to spontaneous retrieval are discussed.

  13. Installation for the suppression of sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.N.; Payne, J.F.B.; Lee, C.J.; Rowe, D.M.J.

    1979-01-01

    The basic operating principles are discussed of a passive baffle-catch tray fire suppression system for sodium fires. A new design is described incorporating increased compartmentalization of the collecting and drainage parts of the device. The burning and smoke generation rates from trays with varying aperture sizes were measured. From the experiments it was found that the burning rate and smoke generation rates could be related satisfactorily to the aperture areas. For the smallest aperture size ( 2 ) it was found that the smoke release was considerably less than that from a fire of the same area, because the smoke deposited on the underside of the baffle. A re-ignition problem was found, where pillars of sodium oxide (wicks) grow upward from the surface of the drained sodium and begin to burn when level with the baffle aperature. From a knowledge of the rate of growth of the wicks, trays may be made sufficiently deep to avoid the problem. Self acting valves were developed which allow the passage of sodium through the aperture and close when drainage is complete. These devices were shown to effect complete extinction of the drained sodium. Using the designs proposed it is possible to construct a system that will reduce the smoke emission from the drained sodium by a factor approaching 10 3 , without the use of valves, or with the self acting valves developed, reduce the emission from the drained sodium to approximately zero. (author)

  14. Dislocation behavior of surface-oxygen-concentration controlled Si wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asazu, Hirotada; Takeuchi, Shotaro; Sannai, Hiroya; Sudo, Haruo; Araki, Koji; Nakamura, Yoshiaki; Izunome, Koji; Sakai, Akira

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated dislocation behavior in the surface area of surface-oxygen-concentration controlled Si wafers treated by a high temperature rapid thermal oxidation (HT-RTO). The HT-RTO process allows us to precisely control the interstitial oxygen concentration ([O i ]) in the surface area of the Si wafers. Sizes of rosette patterns, generated by nano-indentation and subsequent thermal annealing at 900 °C for 1 h, were measured for the Si wafers with various [O i ]. It was found that the rosette size decreases in proportion to the − 0.25 power of [O i ] in the surface area of the Si wafers, which were higher than [O i ] of 1 × 10 17 atoms/cm 3 . On the other hand, [O i ] of lower than 1 × 10 17 atoms/cm 3 did not affect the rosette size very much. These experimental results demonstrate the ability of the HT-RTO process to suppress the dislocation movements in the surface area of the Si wafer. - Highlights: • Surface-oxygen-concentration controlled Si wafers have been made. • The oxygen concentration was controlled by high temperature rapid thermal oxidation. • Dislocation behavior in the surface area of the Si wafers has been investigated. • Rosette size decreased with increasing of interstitial oxygen atoms. • The interstitial oxygen atoms have a pinning effect of dislocations at the surface

  15. Oxygen chemisorption on a stepped Ru (approx.001) crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrott, S.L.; Praline, G.; Koel, B.E.; White, J.M.; Taylor, T.N.

    1979-01-01

    The 300 K chemisorption of oxygen on a stepped Ru (approx.001) single crystal [17(001) x (100)] gives 2 x 2 complete half-order, 1 x 2 complete or incomplete half-order, and 1 x 1 integral-order LEED patterns depending on oxygen exposure and sample annealing. The corresponding relative AES oxygen signals are 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0, respectively. Under certain surface conditions, the presence of the steps is seen to break the threefold degenerate growth habit of 1 x 2 domains. The 1 x 1 pattern forms at 300 K only after lengthy exposure at relatively high pressure (10 -5 Torr) and is stable to 600 K. Prolonged exposure gives rise to relative AES oxygen signals greater than unity suggesting penetration into the subsurface region

  16. Complete Normal Ordering 1: Foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Skliros, Dimitri P.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to `complete normal order' the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all `cephalopod' Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of `complete normal ordering' (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative i...

  17. In the suppression of regge cut contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, S.P.

    1975-07-01

    It is shown that contributions of reggeon-pomeron cuts are suppressed in amplitudes with opposite natural to the reggeon. This suppression grows logarithmically with energy. The suppression in the πP cut is, however, found to be weak. Consequence on conspiracy is discussed

  18. Oxygen diffusion in zircon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, E. B.; Cherniak, D. J.

    1997-05-01

    Oxygen diffusion in natural, non-metamict zircon was characterized under both dry and water-present conditions at temperatures ranging from 765°C to 1500°C. Dry experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure by encapsulating polished zircon samples with a fine powder of 18O-enriched quartz and annealing the sealed capsules in air. Hydrothermal runs were conducted in cold-seal pressure vessels (7-70 MPa) or a piston cylinder apparatus (400-1000 MPa) on zircon samples encapsulated with both 18O-enriched quartz and 18O water. Diffusive-uptake profiles of 18O were measured in all samples with a particle accelerator, using the 18O(p, α) 15N reaction. For dry experimental conditions at 1100-1500°C, the resulting oxygen diffusivities (24 in all) are well described by: D dry (m 2/s) = 1.33 × 10 -4exp(-53920/T) There is no suggestion of diffusive anisotropy. Under wet conditions at 925°C, oxygen diffusion shows little or no dependence upon P H 2O in the range 7-1000 MPa, and is insensitive to total pressure as well. The results of 27 wet experiments at 767-1160°C and 7-1000 MPa can be described a single Arrhenius relationship: D wet (m 2/s) = 5.5 × 10 -12exp(-25280/T) The insensitivity of oxygen diffusion to P H 2O means that applications to geologic problems can be pursued knowing only whether the system of interest was 'wet' (i.e., P H 2O > 7MPa ) or 'dry'. Under dry conditions (presumably rare in the crust), zircons are extremely retentive of their oxygen isotopic signatures, to the extent that δ 18O would be perturbed at the center of a 200 μm zircon only during an extraordinarily hot and protracted event (e.g., 65 Ma at 900°C). Under wet conditions, δ 18O may or may not be retained in the central regions of individual crystals, cores or overgrowth rims, depending upon the specific thermal history of the system.

  19. Oxygen Transport Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay

    2008-08-30

    The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the

  20. Theory of oxygen isotope exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Otter, M.W.; Boukamp, Bernard A.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Transients for oxygen molecular mass numbers 32, 34 and 36 are derived which can be used for the interpretation of oxygen isotope exchange data based on measurement of concentrations of 16O2, 16O18O and 18O2 in the gas phase. Key parameters in the theory are the rate at which oxygen molecules are

  1. Fire Source Accessibility of Water Mist Fire Suppression Improvement through Flow Method Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jun Ho; Kim, Hyeong Taek; Kim, Yun Jung; Park, Mun Hee [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Recently, nuclear power plants set CO{sub 2} fire suppression system. However it is hard to establish and to maintain and it also has difficulties performing function test. Therefore, it needs to develop a new fire suppression system to replace the existing CO{sub 2} fire suppression systems in nuclear power plant. In fact, already, there exist alternatives - gas fire suppression system or clean fire extinguishing agent, but it is hard to apply because it requires a highly complicated plan. However, water mist fire suppression system which has both water system and gas system uses small amount of water and droplet, so it is excellent at oxygen displacement and more suitable for nuclear power plant because it can avoid second damage caused by fire fighting water. This paper explains about enclosure effect of water mist fire suppression. And it suggests a study direction about water mist fire source approach improvement and enclosure effect improvement, using flow method control of ventilation system. Water mist fire suppression can be influenced by various variable. And flow and direction of ventilation system are important variable. Expectations of the plan for more fire source ventilation system is as in the following. It enhances enclosure effects of water mists, so it improves extinguish performance. Also the same effect as a inert gas injection causes can be achieved. Lastly, it is considered that combustible accessibility of water mists will increase because of descending air currents.

  2. The use of appetite suppressants among health sciences undergraduate students in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaran, Carlos; Lazzaretti, Rubia

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of appetite suppressant use among health sciences students in Southern Brazil. Undergraduate students (n=300) from seven health science undergraduate courses of the Universidade de Caxias do Sul completed a questionnaire about the use of substances to suppress appetite. A significant percentage (15%; n=45) of research participants used appetite suppressants at least once in their lives. The most commonly used substances were sympathomimetic stimulant drugs (5%), including amfepramone (3.3%) and fenproporex (1.7%). The lifetime use of appetite suppressants was more prevalent among Nursing (26.7%) and Nutrition (24.4%%) students. There was no reported use of appetite suppressants among medical students. The use of appetite suppressants was significantly more prevalent among women. The majority of those who used these substances did so under medical recommendation. Most of users took appetite suppressants for more than 3 months. Lifetime use of appetite suppressants was substantial, being sympathomimetic stimulant drugs the most commonly used agents. Students enrolled in Nursing and Nutrition courses presented a significantly higher prevalence of lifetime use of appetite suppressants.

  3. Mixed oxygen ion/electron-conducting ceramics for oxygen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, T.R.; Armstrong, B.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Mixed oxygen ion and electron-conducting ceramics are unique materials that can passively separate high purity oxygen from air. Oxygen ions move through a fully dense ceramic in response to an oxygen concentration gradient, charge-compensated by an electron flux in the opposite direction. Compositions in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, perovskites where M=Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N=Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, have been prepared and their electrical, oxygen permeation, oxygen vacancy equilibria, and catalytic properties evaluated. Tubular forms, disks, and asymmetric membrane structures, a thin dense layer on a porous support of the same composition, have been fabricated for testing purposes. In an oxygen partial gradient, the passive oxygen flux through fully dense structures was highly dependent on composition. An increase in oxygen permeation with increased temperature is attributed to both enhanced oxygen vacancy mobility and higher vacancy populations. Highly acceptor-doped compositions resulted in oxygen ion mobilities more than an order of magnitude higher than yttria-stabilized zirconia. The mixed conducting ceramics have been utilized in a membrane reactor configuration to upgrade methane to ethane and ethylene. Conditions were established to balance selectivity and throughput in a catalytic membrane reactor constructed from mixed conducting ceramics.

  4. Structural Completeness in Fuzzy Logics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr; Metcalfe, G.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2009), s. 153-183 ISSN 0029-4527 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : structral logics * fuzzy logics * structural completeness * admissible rules * primitive variety * residuated lattices Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  5. Quantum space and quantum completeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurić, Tajron

    2018-05-01

    Motivated by the question whether quantum gravity can "smear out" the classical singularity we analyze a certain quantum space and its quantum-mechanical completeness. Classical singularity is understood as a geodesic incompleteness, while quantum completeness requires a unique unitary time evolution for test fields propagating on an underlying background. Here the crucial point is that quantum completeness renders the Hamiltonian (or spatial part of the wave operator) to be essentially self-adjoint in order to generate a unique time evolution. We examine a model of quantum space which consists of a noncommutative BTZ black hole probed by a test scalar field. We show that the quantum gravity (noncommutative) effect is to enlarge the domain of BTZ parameters for which the relevant wave operator is essentially self-adjoint. This means that the corresponding quantum space is quantum complete for a larger range of BTZ parameters rendering the conclusion that in the quantum space one observes the effect of "smearing out" the singularity.

  6. Program Costs and Student Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Terri M.; Crosta, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Community colleges are under pressure to increase completion rates, prepare students for the workplace, and contain costs. Colleges need to know the financial implications of what are often perceived as routine decisions: course scheduling, program offerings, and the provision of support services. This chapter presents a methodology for estimating…

  7. Completely integrable operator evolutionary equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, D.V.

    1979-01-01

    The authors present natural generalizations of classical completely integrable equations where the functions are replaced by arbitrary operators. Among these equations are the non-linear Schroedinger, the Korteweg-de Vries, and the modified KdV equations. The Lax representation and the Baecklund transformations are presented. (Auth.)

  8. Globals of Completely Regular Monoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Qian-qian; Gan Ai-ping; Du Xian-kun

    2015-01-01

    An element of a semigroup S is called irreducible if it cannot be expressed as a product of two elements in S both distinct from itself. In this paper we show that the class C of all completely regular monoids with irreducible identity elements satisfies the strong isomorphism property and so it is globally determined.

  9. Complete nitrification by Nitrospira bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daims, Holger; Lebedeva, Elena V.; Pjevac, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia via nitrite to nitrate, has always been considered to be a two-step process catalysed by chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms oxidizing either ammonia or nitrite. No known nitrifier carries out both steps, although complete nitrification should be energetic...

  10. The Completeness Theorem of Godel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL I ARTICLE. The Completeness Theorem of Godel. 2. Henkin's Proof for First Order Logic. S M Srivastava is with the. Indian Statistical,. Institute, Calcutta. He received his PhD from the Indian Statistical. Institute in 1980. His research interests are in descriptive set theory. I Part 1. An Introduction to Math- ematical ...

  11. Spring valve for well completion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbatov, P T

    1966-07-22

    A spring-loaded valve for well completion consists of a housing with a spring-loaded closing element. In order to protect the closing element from corrosion which might lower the pressure drop, the closing element is made in the form of a piston. It is tightly connected with sealing elements. The housing has orifices, overlapping the piston in the initial position.

  12. Largest particle detector nearing completion

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Construction of another part of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the worl's largest particle accelerator at CERN in Switzerland, is nearing completion. The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is oner of the LHC project's four large particle detectors. (1/2 page)

  13. YB0 SERVICES INSTALLATION COMPLETED

    CERN Document Server

    The beauty of the completed YB0 was briefly visible at P5 as preparations continue for Tracker installation. A tremendous effort, lasting 7 months and involving more than 100 workers on the busiest days, resulted in 5700 electrical cables, 780 optical cables with 65k fibre channels, and 550 pipes laid on YB0 for HB, EB and Tracker.

  14. Hepatic Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase 3 Enzyme Suppressed by Type 1 Allergy-Produced Nitric Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanino, Tadatoshi; Bando, Toru; Komada, Akira; Nojiri, Yukie; Okada, Yuna; Ueda, Yukari; Sakurai, Eiichi

    2017-11-01

    Flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) are major mammalian non-cytochrome P450 oxidative enzymes. T helper 2 cell-activated allergic diseases produce excess levels of nitric oxide (NO) that modify the functions of proteins. However, it remains unclear whether allergy-induced NO affects the pharmacokinetics of drugs metabolized by FMOs. This study investigated alterations of hepatic microsomal FMO1 and FMO3 activities in type 1 allergic mice and further examined the interaction of FMO1 and FMO3 with allergy-induced NO. Imipramine (IMP; FMO1 substrate) N- oxidation activity was not altered in allergic mice with high serum NO and immunoglobulin E levels. At 7 days after primary sensitization (PS7) or secondary sensitization (SS7), benzydamine (BDZ; FMO1 and FMO3 substrate) N- oxygenation was significantly decreased to 70% of individual controls. The expression levels of FMO1 and FMO3 proteins were not significantly changed in the sensitized mice. Hepatic inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA level increased 5-fold and 15-fold in PS7 and SS7 mice, respectively, and hepatic tumor necrosis factor- α levels were greatly enhanced. When a selective iNOS inhibitor was injected into allergic mice, serum NO levels and BDZ N- oxygenation activity returned to control levels. NO directly suppressed BDZ N- oxygenation, which was probably related to FMO3-dependent metabolism in comparison with IMP N- oxidation. In hepatic microsomes from PS7 and SS7 mice, the suppression of BDZ N- oxygenation was restored by ascorbate. Therefore, type 1 allergic mice had differentially suppressed FMO3-dependent BDZ N- oxygenation. The suppression of FMO3 metabolism related to reversible S- nitrosyl modifications of iNOS-derived NO. NO is expected to alter FMO3-metabolic capacity-limited drug pharmacokinetics in humans. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  15. Polypyrrole Actuators for Tremor Suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen; Mogensen, Naja; Bay, Lasse

    2003-01-01

    Neurological tremor affecting limbs can be divided into at least 6 different types with frequencies ranging from 2 to about 20 Hz. In order to alleviate the symptoms by suppressing the tremor, sensing and actuation systems able to perform at these frequencies are needed. Electroactive polymers...... exemplify 'soft actuator' technology that may be especially suitable for use in conjunction with human limbs. The electrochemical and mechanical properties of polypyrrole dodecyl benzene sulphonate actuator films have been studied with this application in mind. The results show that the time constants...

  16. Suppression effects on musical and verbal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, Zachary A; Palmer, Caroline

    2007-06-01

    Three experiments contrasted the effects of articulatory suppression on recognition memory for musical and verbal sequences. In Experiment 1, a standard/comparison task was employed, with digit or note sequences presented visually or auditorily while participants remained silent or produced intermittent verbal suppression (saying "the") or musical suppression (singing "la"). Both suppression types decreased performance by equivalent amounts, as compared with no suppression. Recognition accuracy was lower during suppression for visually presented digits than during that for auditorily presented digits (consistent with phonological loop predictions), whereas accuracy was equivalent for visually presented notes and auditory tones. When visual interference filled the retention interval in Experiment 2, performance with visually presented notes but not digits was impaired. Experiment 3 forced participants to translate visually presented music sequences by presenting comparison sequences auditorily. Suppression effects for visually presented music resembled those for digits only when the recognition task required sensory translation of cues.

  17. Complete spacelike immersions with topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    A fairly large class of Lorentz manifolds is defined, called WH normal manifolds, which are approximately those for which timelike infinity is a single point. It is shown that, in such a space, an immersed spacelike hypersurface which is complete must, if it is self-intersecting, not achronal or proper, satisfy strong topological conditions; in particular, if the immersion is injective in the fundamental group, then the hypersurface must be closed, embedded and achronal (i.e. a partial Cauchy surface). WH normal spaces include products of any Riemannian manifold with Minkowski 1-space; in such space, a complete immersed spacelike hypersurface must be immersed as a covering space for the Riemannian factor. (author)

  18. No Evidence for a Food-Related Attention Bias after Thought Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Soetens

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether food-related thought suppression results in an attention bias for food cues. Fifty-nine female students took part in the experiment. All completed a modified exogenous cueing task containing pictures of foods and toys with a similar valence (presentation duration: 250 ms and 1050 ms. Half of the participants were instructed to suppress thoughts about food and the other half was given control instructions, prior to completing the exogenous cueing task. No evidence was found for an enhanced cue validity effect for food cues after food-related thought suppression. Hence, the preliminary results do not provide support for the hypothesis that thought suppression is sufficient to yield an attention bias. Since the study was the first to employ an exogenous cueing task to study the attentional processing of food cues, replication is warranted.

  19. Maturation of cognitive control: delineating response inhibition and interference suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R Brydges

    Full Text Available Cognitive control is integral to the ability to attend to a relevant task whilst suppressing distracting information or inhibiting prepotent responses. The current study examined the development of these two subprocesses by examining electrophysiological indices elicited during each process. Thirteen 18 year-old adults and thirteen children aged 8-11 years (mean=9.77 years completed a hybrid Go/Nogo flanker task while continuous EEG data were recorded. The N2 topography for both response inhibition and interference suppression changed with increasing age. The neural activation associated with response inhibition became increasingly frontally distributed with age, and showed decreases of both amplitude and peak latency from childhood to adulthood, possibly due to reduced cognitive demands and myelination respectively occurring during this period. Interestingly, a significant N2 effect was apparent in adults, but not observed in children during trials requiring interference suppression. This could be due to more diffuse activation in children, which would require smaller levels of activation over a larger region of the brain than is reported in adults. Overall, these results provide evidence of distinct maturational processes occurring throughout late childhood and adolescence, highlighting the separability of response inhibition and interference suppression.

  20. Completeness in Hybrid Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Areces, Carlos; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    We show that basic hybridization (adding nominals and @ operators) makes it possible to give straightforward Henkin-style completeness proofs even when the modal logic being hybridized is higher-order. The key ideas are to add nominals as expressions of type t, and to extend to arbitrary types th......-style intensional models; we build, as simply as we can, hybrid logicover Henkin’s logic...

  1. [Anterior guidance in complete dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, J; Trevelo, A

    1990-01-01

    Although the anterior guidance in complete dentures is not really a guide, the arrangement of the anterior maxillary and mandibular prosthetic teeth, defines a propulsive line called the virtual anterior guidance, a part from the cinematic criterias. The influence of this guide on cuspal movement is superior, in all mandibular points, to the influence of the condylar pathway. If this line is not respected, the practitioner may have to do excessive grindings during occlusal adjustments.

  2. Efficient Completion of Weighted Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Waldmann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider directed graphs with edge labels from a semiring. We present an algorithm that allows efficient execution of queries for existence and weights of paths, and allows updates of the graph: adding nodes and edges, and changing weights of existing edges. We apply this method in the construction of matchbound certificates for automatically proving termination of string rewriting. We re-implement the decomposition/completion algorithm of Endrullis et al. (2006 in our framework, and achieve comparable performance.

  3. Retrievable micro-inserts containing oxygen sensors for monitoring tissue oxygenation using EPR oximetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinguizli, M; Beghein, N; Gallez, B

    2008-01-01

    Tissue oxygenation is a crucial parameter in various physiopathological situations and can influence the therapeutic response of tumours. EPR oximetry is a reliable method for assessing and monitoring oxygen levels in vivo over long periods of time. Among the different paramagnetic oxygen sensors available for EPR oximetry, lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc) is a serious candidate for in vivo applications because of its narrow linewidth and its high signal-to-noise ratio. To enhance the biocompatibility of the sensors, fluoropolymer Teflon AF2400 was used to make cylindrical micro-inserts containing LiPc crystals. This new micro-pellet design has several advantages for in vivo studies, including the possibility of being able to choose the implant size, a high sensor content, the facility of in vivo insertion and complete protection with preservation of the oxygen sensor's characteristics. The response to oxygen and the kinetics of this response were tested using in vivo EPR: no differences were observed between micro-inserts and uncoated LiPc crystals. Pellets implanted in vivo in muscles conserved their responsiveness over a long period of time (∼two months), which is much longer than the few days of stability observed using LiPc crystals without protection by the implant. Finally, evaluation of the biocompatibility of the implants revealed no inflammatory reaction around the implantation area

  4. Complete normal ordering 1: Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ellis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories (in generic spacetime dimension and background perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to ‘complete normal order’ the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all ‘cephalopod’ Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of ‘complete normal ordering’ (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative interactions, and by using a point splitting ‘trick’ we extend this result to theories with derivative interactions, such as those appearing as non-linear σ-models in the world-sheet formulation of string theory. We focus here on theories with trivial vacua, generalising the discussion to non-trivial vacua in a follow-up paper.

  5. Oxygen-Methane Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, Tim

    2012-01-01

    An oxygen-methane thruster was conceived with integrated igniter/injector capable of nominal operation on either gaseous or liquid propellants. The thruster was designed to develop 100 lbf (approximately 445 N) thrust at vacuum conditions and use oxygen and methane as propellants. This continued development included refining the design of the thruster to minimize part count and manufacturing difficulties/cost, refining the modeling tools and capabilities that support system design and analysis, demonstrating the performance of the igniter and full thruster assembly with both gaseous and liquid propellants, and acquiring data from this testing in order to verify the design and operational parameters of the thruster. Thruster testing was conducted with gaseous propellants used for the igniter and thruster. The thruster was demonstrated to work with all types of propellant conditions, and provided the desired performance. Both the thruster and igniter were tested, as well as gaseous propellants, and found to provide the desired performance using the various propellant conditions. The engine also served as an injector testbed for MSFC-designed refractory combustion chambers made of rhenium.

  6. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2000-10-01

    This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

  7. OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN CEPHEIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.

  8. Pressure suppression pool thermal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    A model is developed and verified to describe the thermal mixing that occurs in the pressure suppression pool (PSP) of a commercial BWR. The model is designed specifically for a Mark-I containment and is intended for use in severe accident sequence analyses. The model produces space and time dependent temperature results throughout the PSP and is useful for evaluating the bulk PSP thermal mixing, the condensation effectiveness of the PSP, and the long-term containment integrity. The model is designed to accommodate single or multiple discharging T-quenchers, a PSP circumferential circulation induced by the residual heat removal system discharge, and the thermal stratification of the pool that occurs immediately after the relief valves close. The PSP thermal mixing model is verified by comparing the model predicted temperatures to experimental temperatures that were measured in an operating BWR suppression pool. The model is then used to investigate several PSP thermal mixing problems that include the time to saturate at full relief valve flow, the temperature response to a typical stuck open relief valve scenario, and the effect of operator rotation of the relief valve discharge point

  9. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2005-09-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in

  10. Multibreath alveolar oxygen tension imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Justin; Hamedani, Hooman; Kadlecek, Stephen; Xin, Yi; Shaghaghi, Hoora; Siddiqui, Sarmad; Rossman, Milton D; Rizi, Rahim R

    2016-10-01

    This study tested the ability of a multibreath hyperpolarized HP (3) He MRI protocol to increase the accuracy of regional alveolar oxygen tension (PA O2 ) measurements by lessening the influence of gas-flow artifacts. Conventional single-breath PA O2 measurement has been susceptible to error induced by intervoxel gas flow, particularly when used to study subjects with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Both single-breath and multibreath PA O2 imaging schemes were implemented in seven human subjects (one healthy, three asymptomatic smokers, and three COPD). The number and location of voxels with nonphysiologic PA O2 values generated by intervoxel gas flow were compared between the two protocols. The multibreath scheme resulted in a significantly lower total percentage of nonphysiologic PA O2 values (6.0%) than the single-breath scheme (13.7%) (P = 0.006). PA O2 maps showed several patterns of gas-flow artifacts that were present in the single-breath protocol but mitigated by the multibreath approach. Multibreath imaging also allowed for the analysis of slow-filling areas that presented no signal after a single breath. A multibreath approach enhances the accuracy and completeness of noninvasive PA O2 measurement by significantly lessening the proportion of nonphysiologic values generated by intervoxel gas flow. Magn Reson Med 76:1092-1101, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Post-translational suppression of expression of intestinal brush border enzymes by fructose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1989-01-01

    The two major dietary sugars, fructose and sucrose, were found to suppress effectively the biosynthetic renewal of brush border enzymes in the gut. When studied in cultured explants of pig small intestine mucosa, 10-50 mM concentrations of fructose completely prevented the expression of mature...... cotranslational glycosylation that in turn triggers a rapid proteolytic breakdown. Our findings suggest that renewal of digestive brush border enzymes is transiently suppressed during intake of fructose- or sucrose-rich meals....

  12. Suppression of the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability in the Presence of a Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravi Samtaney

    2003-01-01

    We present numerical evidence from two dimensional simulations that the growth of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is suppressed in the presence of a magnetic field. A bifurcation occurs during the refraction of the incident shock on the density interface which transports baroclinically generated vorticity away from the interface to a pair of slow or intermediate magnetosonic shocks. Consequently, the density interface is devoid of vorticity and its growth and associated mixing is completely suppressed

  13. Medical oxygen and air travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyznicki, J M; Williams, M A; Deitchman, S D; Howe, J P

    2000-08-01

    This report responds to a resolution that asked the American Medical Association (AMA) to take action to improve airport and airline accommodations for passengers requiring medical oxygen. Information for the report was derived from a search of the MEDLINE database and references listed in pertinent articles, as well as through communications with experts in aerospace and emergency medicine. Based on this information, the AMA Council on Scientific Affairs determined that commercial air travel exposes passengers to altitude-related hypoxia and gas expansion, which may cause some passengers to experience significant symptoms and medical complications during flight. Medical guidelines are available to help physicians evaluate and counsel potential passengers who are at increased risk of inflight hypoxemia. Supplemental oxygen may be needed for some passengers to maintain adequate tissue oxygenation and prevent hypoxemic complications. For safety and security reasons, federal regulations prohibit travelers from using their own portable oxygen system onboard commercial aircraft. Many U.S. airlines supply medical oxygen for use during flight but policies and procedures vary. Oxygen-dependent passengers must make additional arrangements for the use of supplemental oxygen in airports. Uniform standards are needed to specify procedures and equipment for the use of medical oxygen in airports and aboard commercial aircraft. Revision of federal regulations should be considered to accommodate oxygen-dependent passengers and permit them to have an uninterrupted source of oxygen from departure to destination.

  14. Work function of oxygen exposed lead and lead/indium alloy films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundlach, K.H.; Hellemann, H.P.; Hoelzl, J.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of indium in superconducting tunnel junctions with lead/indium alloy base electrodes is investigated by measuring the vacuum work function of lead, indium, and lead/indium alloy films. It is found that the anomalous decrease of the work function of lead upon exposure to oxygen, explained by the penetration of oxygen into the inner surface of the lead film, is reversed into a slight increase in work function when some indium is added to the lead. This result indicates that the addition of indium provides a protection by suppressing the penetration of oxygen (and probably other gases) into the interior of the thin film

  15. The role of suppression in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingrong; Thompson, Benjamin; Lam, Carly S Y; Deng, Daming; Chan, Lily Y L; Maehara, Goro; Woo, George C; Yu, Minbin; Hess, Robert F

    2011-06-13

    This study had three main goals: to assess the degree of suppression in patients with strabismic, anisometropic, and mixed amblyopia; to establish the relationship between suppression and the degree of amblyopia; and to compare the degree of suppression across the clinical subgroups within the sample. Using both standard measures of suppression (Bagolini lenses and neutral density [ND] filters, Worth 4-Dot test) and a new approach involving the measurement of dichoptic motion thresholds under conditions of variable interocular contrast, the degree of suppression in 43 amblyopic patients with strabismus, anisometropia, or a combination of both was quantified. There was good agreement between the quantitative measures of suppression made with the new dichoptic motion threshold technique and measurements made with standard clinical techniques (Bagolini lenses and ND filters, Worth 4-Dot test). The degree of suppression was found to correlate directly with the degree of amblyopia within our clinical sample, whereby stronger suppression was associated with a greater difference in interocular acuity and poorer stereoacuity. Suppression was not related to the type or angle of strabismus when this was present or the previous treatment history. These results suggest that suppression may have a primary role in the amblyopia syndrome and therefore have implications for the treatment of amblyopia.

  16. Evolution of male-killer suppression in a natural population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A Hornett

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Male-killing bacteria are widespread in arthropods, and can profoundly alter the reproductive biology of their host species. Here we detail the first case of complete suppression of a male killer. The nymphalid butterfly Hypolimnas bolina is infected with a strain of the bacterium Wolbachia, wBol1, which kills male host embryos in Polynesian populations, but does not do so in many areas of Southeast Asia, where both males and female adults are naturally infected, and wBol1-infected females produce a 1:1 sex ratio. We demonstrate that absence of male killing by wBol1 is associated with dominant zygotic suppression of the action of the male killer. Simulations demonstrate host suppressors of male-killer action can spread very rapidly, and historical data indicating the presence of male killing in Southeast Asia in the very recent past suggests suppressor spread has been a very recent occurrence. Thus, male killer/host interactions are much more dynamic than previously recognised, with rapid and dramatic loss of the phenotype. Our results also indicate that suppression can render male killers completely quiescent, leading to the conclusion that some species that do not currently express a male killer may have done so in the past, and thus that more species have had their biology affected by these parasites than previously believed.

  17. Oxygen effect and intracellular oxygen content (adaptation hypothesis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarmonenko, S P; Ehpshtejn, I M [Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Onkologicheskij Tsentr

    1977-01-01

    Experimental data indicating that a radiomodifying action of hypoxia is dependent on the ''prehistory'' of the irradiated object are considered. This dependence manifests itself in a decreased protective action of acute hypoxia on the hypoxia-adapted objects. To explain this a hypothesis is proposed connecting a degree of cell radiosensitivity modification, determined by the oxygen effect, with the intracellular oxygen content. The latter, in accord with current ideas, is regulated by variations in the diffusion resistance to oxygen shown by the cytoplasmic membranes depending on the energy level of the cell and the degree of its oxygenation.

  18. Oxygen effect and intracellular oxygen content (adaptation hypothesis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarmonenko, S.P.; Ehpshtejn, I.M.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental data indicating that a radiomodifying action of hypoxia is dependent on the ''prehistory'' of the irradiated object are considered. This dependence manifests itself in a decreased protective action of acute hypoxia on the hypoxia-adapted objects. To explain this a hypothesis is proposed connecting a degree of cell radiosensitivity modification, determined by the oxygen effect, with the intracellular oxygen content. The latter, in accord with current ideas, is regulated by variations in the diffusion resistance to oxygen shown by the cytoplasmic membranes depending on the energy level of the cell and the degree of its oxygenation

  19. Mechanism of cutting edge chipping and its suppression in diamond turning of copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Shoichi; Higuchi, Masahiro; Kaneeda, Toshiaki; Higashi, Yasuo; Yokomizo, Seiichi

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the mechanism of cutting edge chipping in diamond turning of copper in terms of the change in Hertzian strength of diamond specimens subjected to thermal histories. The study suggests that the strength of diamond decreases as the result of the propagation of existing surface micro cracks caused by the thermo-chemical erosion of oxygen at the crack tips. The catalytic reaction involving copper is also shown to accelerate the crack propagation. Then, a cutting technique of reduced oxygen atmosphere is proposed to suppress the cutting edge chipping in diamond turning of copper over an extended cutting time. (author)

  20. Juvenile eye growth, when completed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Christensen, Anders S; Fledelius, Christian

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test Sorsby's classical statement of axial eye growth as completed at the age of 13 years, with a view also to differentiating between basic eye growth and juvenile elongation associated with eventual refractive change towards myopia. METHODS: (i) A total of 160 healthy eyes close...... about age 13 as general limit found support from the cross-sectional data, which suggested stable emmetropic eye size from about 11-12 years, with an average apparently outgrown male emmetropic value of 23.5 mm versus females' 22.9 mm. The longitudinal data, however, showed emmetropic growth also beyond...

  1. Projective modules and complete intersections

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Satya

    1997-01-01

    In these notes on "Projective Modules and Complete Intersections" an account on the recent developments in research on this subject is presented. The author's preference for the technique of Patching isotopic isomorphisms due to Quillen, formalized by Plumsted, over the techniques of elementary matrices is evident here. The treatment of Basic Element theory here incorporates Plumstead's idea of the "generalized dimension functions". These notes are highly selfcontained and should be accessible to any graduate student in commutative algebra or algebraic geometry. They include fully self-contained presentations of the theorems of Ferrand-Szpiro, Cowsik-Nori and the techniques of Lindel.

  2. Phosphatidylinositol response and proliferation of oxidative enzyme-activated human T lymphocytes: suppression by plasma lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akeson, A.L.; Scupham, D.W.; Harmony, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol (PI) response and DNA synthesis of neuraminidase and galactose oxidase (NAGO)-stimulated human T lymphocytes are suppressed by low density lipoproteins (LDL). To understand the mechanism of lymphocyte activation more fully, the PI response and DNA synthesis and suppression of these events by LDL in NAGO-stimulated T lymphocytes were characterized. Between 30 min and 6 hr after NAGO stimulation, there was an increase of 32 Pi incorporation into PI without increased incorporation into the phosphorylated forms of PI or into other phospholipids. DNA synthesis as determined by [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation depended on the lymphocyte-accessory monocyte ratio and total cell density. Optimal stimulation of the PI response and DNA synthesis occurred at the same concentration of neuraminidase and galactose oxidase. While the PI response was only partially suppressed by LDL with optimal suppression at 10 to 20 micrograms of protein/ml, DNA synthesis was completely suppressed although at much higher LDL concentrations, greater than 100 micrograms protein/ml. As monocyte numbers are increased, LDL suppression of DNA synthesis is decreased. The ability of NAGO to stimulate the PI response and DNA synthesis in a similar way, and the suppression of both events by LDL, suggests the PI response is important for lymphocyte activation and proliferation. Stimulation of human T lymphocytes by oxidative mitogens, neuraminidase, and galactose oxidase caused increased phosphatidylinositol metabolism and increased DNA synthesis. Both responses were suppressed by low density lipoproteins

  3. Oxygen Reduction on Platinum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesselberger, Markus

    . The influence of the ion adsorption strength, which is observed in the “particle size studies” on the oxygen reduction rate on Pt/C catalysts, is further investigated under similar reaction conditions by infrared spectroscopy. The designed in situ electrochemical ATR-FTIR setup features a high level...... of instrument automation and online data treatment, and provides welldefined mass transport conditions enabling kinetic measurements. A modified electrochemical / spectroscopic interface is presented allowing the exclusive investigation of the Pt/C catalyst layer. Three types of potential dependent adsorption...... adsorption on Pt does not block the ORR directly. Instead, the onset of oxide formation with the concomitant conversion of the anion adsorbate layer is the decisive blocking mechanism....

  4. Reactive Oxygen Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franchina, Davide G.; Dostert, Catherine; Brenner, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    T cells are a central component of defenses against pathogens and tumors. Their effector functions are sustained by specific metabolic changes that occur upon activation, and these have been the focus of renewed interest. Energy production inevitably generates unwanted products, namely reactive...... and transcription factors, influencing the outcome of the T cell response. We discuss here how ROS can directly fine-tune metabolism and effector functions of T cells....... oxygen species (ROS), which have long been known to trigger cell death. However, there is now evidence that ROS also act as intracellular signaling molecules both in steady-state and upon antigen recognition. The levels and localization of ROS contribute to the redox modeling of effector proteins...

  5. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2001-01-01

    Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals. This project has the following 6 main tasks: Task 1--Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. Task 2--Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. Task 3--Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. Task 4--Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. Task 5--Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. Task 6--Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques

  6. Completion of the TRT Barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Gagnon, P

    On February 3, the US-TRT team proudly completed the installation of the 96th barrel TRT module on its support structure in the SR building at CERN. This happy event came after many years of R&D initiated in the nineties by the TA1 team at CERN, followed by the construction of the modules in three American institutes (Duke, Hampton and Indiana Universities) from 1996 to 2003. In total, the 96 barrel modules contain 52544 kapton straws, each 4 mm in diameter and strung with a 30 micron gold-plated tungsten wire. Each wire was manually inserted, a feat in itself! The inner layer modules contain 329 straws, the middle layer modules have 520 straws and the outer layer, 793 straws. Thirty- two modules of each type form a full layer. Their special geometry was designed such as to leave no dead region. On average, a particle will cross 36 straws. Kirill Egorov, Chuck Mahlon and John Callahan inserted the last module in the Barrel Support Structure. After completion in the US, all modules were transferred...

  7. LHCf completes its first run

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    LHCf, one of the three smaller experiments at the LHC, has completed its first run. The detectors were removed last week and the analysis of data is continuing. The first results will be ready by the end of the year.   One of the two LHCf detectors during the removal operations inside the LHC tunnel. LHCf is made up of two independent detectors located in the tunnel 140 m either side of the ATLAS collision point. The experiment studies the secondary particles created during the head-on collisions in the LHC because they are similar to those created in a cosmic ray shower produced when a cosmic particle hits the Earth’s atmosphere. The focus of the experiment is to compare the various shower models used to estimate the primary energy of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. The energy of proton-proton collisions at the LHC will be equivalent to a cosmic ray of 1017eV hitting the atmosphere, very close to the highest energies observed in the sky. “We have now completed the fir...

  8. Complete family of separability criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, Andrew C.; Spedalieri, Federico M.; Parrilo, Pablo A.

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a family of separability criteria that are based on the existence of extensions of a bipartite quantum state ρ to a larger number of parties satisfying certain symmetry properties. It can be easily shown that all separable states have the required extensions, so the nonexistence of such an extension for a particular state implies that the state is entangled. One of the main advantages of this approach is that searching for the extension can be cast as a convex optimization problem known as a semidefinite program. Whenever an extension does not exist, the dual optimization constructs an explicit entanglement witness for the particular state. These separability tests can be ordered in a hierarchical structure whose first step corresponds to the well-known positive partial transpose (Peres-Horodecki) criterion, and each test in the hierarchy is at least as powerful as the preceding one. This hierarchy is complete, in the sense that any entangled state is guaranteed to fail a test at some finite point in the hierarchy, thus showing it is entangled. The entanglement witnesses corresponding to each step of the hierarchy have well-defined and very interesting algebraic properties that, in turn, allow for a characterization of the interior of the set of positive maps. Coupled with some recent results on the computational complexity of the separability problem, which has been shown to be NP hard, this hierarchy of tests gives a complete and also computationally and theoretically appealing characterization of mixed bipartite entangled states

  9. SPS completes LS1 activities

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    On 27 June, the SPS closed its doors to the LS1 engineers, bringing to an end almost 17 months of activities. The machine now enters the hardware-testing phase in preparation for an October restart.   Photo 1: The SPS transfer tunnel, TT10, reinforced with steal beams. Having completed their LS1 activities right on schedule (to the day!), the SPS team is now preparing the machine for its restart. Over the next eight weeks, hardware tests of the SPS dipole and quadrupole power converters will be underway, led by the TE-EPC (Electrical Power Converters) team. "OP start-up test activities will also be running in parallel, utilising the off hours when EPC is not using the machine," says David McFarlane, the SPS technical coordinator from the Engineering Department. "The primary beam testing phase will start at the beginning of September, once hardware tests and DSO safety tests have been completed." It has been a long journey to this point, with several major...

  10. AEgIS installation completed

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Gravity. Despite first being described over three centuries ago, it remains one of the least understood of the fundamental forces explored by physicists. At CERN’s recently completed AEgIS experiment, a team has set out to examine the effect of gravity on an as-yet-uncharted realm: antimatter.   The complete AEgIS set-up. Located in the AD hall, the AEgIS experiment plans to  make the first direct measurement of Earth’s gravitation effect on antimatter. By sending a beam of antihydrogen atoms through very thin gratings, the experiment will be able to measure how far the antihydrogen atoms fall and in how much time – giving the AEgIS team a measurement of the gravitational coupling. “By the end of 2012, we had finished by putting all the elements of the experiment together,” explains Michael Doser, AEgIS Spokesperson. “Now we have to show that they can all work together and, unfortunately, we will have no antiproton beams fo...

  11. Safety system for pressure suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, L.E.; Ludwig, G.J.; Tulsa, O.

    1975-01-01

    The rupture disk with rated breaking points is constrained by two supporting elements and has a convex-concave shape. For pressure suppression, it is reversable inversely to its bulging. Its surface has notches which are the rated breaking points and respond to higher pressures. The centre of the rupture disk contains an area of relatively smaller thickness that will burst at lower pressure and thus makes it applicable for lower pressures. For the response of the rupture disk centre, a thrust ring with a central opening may also be used. Its edge is formed into a convex-concave section supported on the edge of the rupture disk on the exit side. The free centre of the rupture disk is then the area of relative weakness. (RW/AK) [de

  12. Mitochondrial Respiration and Oxygen Tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Daniel S; Meitha, Karlia; Considine, Michael J; Foyer, Christine H

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of respiration and oxygen tension in plant organs allow a precise understanding of mitochondrial capacity and function within the context of cellular oxygen metabolism. Here we describe methods that can be routinely used for the isolation of intact mitochondria, and the determination of respiratory electron transport, together with techniques for in vivo determination of oxygen tension and measurement of respiration by both CO 2 production and O 2 consumption that enables calculation of the respiratory quotient [CO 2 ]/[O 2 ].

  13. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Dennis P [Maplewood, MN; Schmoeckel, Alison K [Stillwater, MN; Vernstrom, George D [Cottage Grove, MN; Atanasoski, Radoslav [Edina, MN; Wood, Thomas E [Stillwater, MN; Yang, Ruizhi [Halifax, CA; Easton, E Bradley [Halifax, CA; Dahn, Jeffrey R [Hubley, CA; O'Neill, David G [Lake Elmo, MN

    2011-03-22

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  14. Oxygen potentials of transuranium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruyoshi Otobe; Mituso Akabori; Arai Yasuo; Kazuo Minato

    2008-01-01

    The oxygen potentials of pyrochlore-type Pu 2 Zr 2 O 7+y , fluorite-type (Pu 0.5 Zr 0.5 )O 2-x and AmO 2-x have been measured by the electromotive force (EMF) method with a zirconia solid-electrolyte. The oxygen potentials of these oxides were reviewed. The phase relations, microstructure, equilibrium state of these oxides were discussed, referring to the isothermal curve of the oxygen potentials. (authors)

  15. MEK5 suppresses osteoblastic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneshiro, Shoichi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Japan Community Health Care Organization Osaka Hospital, 4-2-78 Fukushima, Fukushima Ward, Osaka City, Osaka 553-0003 (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Otsuki, Dai; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Higuchi, Chikahisa, E-mail: c-higuchi@umin.ac.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2015-07-31

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and is activated by its upstream kinase, MAPK kinase 5 (MEK5), which is a member of the MEK family. Although the role of MEK5 has been investigated in several fields, little is known about its role in osteoblastic differentiation. In this study, we have demonstrated the role of MEK5 in osteoblastic differentiation in mouse preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and bone marrow stromal ST2 cells. We found that treatment with BIX02189, an inhibitor of MEK5, increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the gene expression of ALP, osteocalcin (OCN) and osterix, as well as it enhanced the calcification of the extracellular matrix. Moreover, osteoblastic cell proliferation decreased at a concentration of greater than 0.5 μM. In addition, knockdown of MEK5 using siRNA induced an increase in ALP activity and in the gene expression of ALP, OCN, and osterix. In contrast, overexpression of wild-type MEK5 decreased ALP activity and attenuated osteoblastic differentiation markers including ALP, OCN and osterix, but promoted cell proliferation. In summary, our results indicated that MEK5 suppressed the osteoblastic differentiation, but promoted osteoblastic cell proliferation. These results implied that MEK5 may play a pivotal role in cell signaling to modulate the differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts. Thus, inhibition of MEK5 signaling in osteoblasts may be of potential use in the treatment of osteoporosis. - Highlights: • MEK5 inhibitor BIX02189 suppresses proliferation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 knockdown and MEK5 inhibitor promote differentiation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 overexpression inhibits differentiation of osteoblasts.

  16. Hyperglycemia Induces Cellular Hypoxia through Production of Mitochondrial ROS Followed by Suppression of Aquaporin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, Kiminori; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Kukidome, Daisuke; Yoshinaga, Tomoaki; Kajihara, Nobuhiro; Sonoda, Kazuhiro; Senokuchi, Takafumi; Motoshima, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Takeshi; Araki, Eiichi

    2016-01-01

    We previously proposed that hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) generation is a key event in the development of diabetic complications. Interestingly, some common aspects exist between hyperglycemia and hypoxia-induced phenomena. Thus, hyperglycemia may induce cellular hypoxia, and this phenomenon may also be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. In endothelial cells (ECs), cellular hypoxia increased after incubation with high glucose (HG). A similar phenomenon was observed in glomeruli of diabetic mice. HG-induced cellular hypoxia was suppressed by mitochondria blockades or manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) overexpression, which is a specific SOD for mtROS. Overexpression of MnSOD also increased the expression of aquaporin-1 (AQP1), a water and oxygen channel. AQP1 overexpression in ECs suppressed hyperglycemia-induced cellular hypoxia, endothelin-1 and fibronectin overproduction, and apoptosis. Therefore, hyperglycemia-induced cellular hypoxia and mtROS generation may promote hyperglycemic damage in a coordinated manner.

  17. Charmonium formation and suppression in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jiajun; Wang Jia; Zhuang Chao; Zhuang Pengfei

    2005-01-01

    The coupling Schroedinger equations describing the evolution of cc-bar states in nuclear matter are analytically and systematically solved via perturbation method, and the correlation between charmonium formation and nuclear absorption is investigated. After calculating J/Ψ and Ψ' suppression in nucleon-nucleus collisions and comparing with experiment data, it is found that the formation time effect plays an important rule in charmonium suppression, especially in Ψ' suppression. (authors)

  18. Poppers: more evidence of suppressed immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1999-08-20

    Evidence from studies in mice shows that exposure to isobutyl nitrite suppresses the immune system. This immune suppression allows for bacterial growth in the lungs and livers of infected mice and can inhibit the ability of mediastinal lymph nodes to respond to antigen-specific stimulation. The mechanism for immune suppression may be a reduction in CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations in the mediastinal lymph nodes following pulmonary infection with Listeria monocytogenes.

  19. Application of one-way ANOVA in completely randomized experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Zaharah; Izwan Latiff, Ahmad; Ahmad, Kartini

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes an application of a statistical technique one-way ANOVA in completely randomized experiments with three replicates. This technique was employed to a single factor with four levels and multiple observations at each level. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between chemical oxygen demand index and location on-sites. Two different approaches are employed for the analyses; critical value and p-value. It also presents key assumptions of the technique to be satisfied by the data in order to obtain valid results. Pairwise comparisons by Turkey method are also considered and discussed to determine where the significant differences among the means is after the ANOVA has been performed. The results revealed that there are statistically significant relationship exist between the chemical oxygen demand index and the location on-sites.

  20. Is quantum theory predictably complete?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupczynski, M [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Ottawa, 585 King-Edward Avenue, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Departement de l' Informatique, UQO, Case postale 1250, succursale Hull, Gatineau, Quebec J8X 3X 7 (Canada)], E-mail: mkupczyn@uottawa.ca

    2009-07-15

    Quantum theory (QT) provides statistical predictions for various physical phenomena. To verify these predictions a considerable amount of data has been accumulated in the 'measurements' performed on the ensembles of identically prepared physical systems or in the repeated 'measurements' on some trapped 'individual physical systems'. The outcomes of these measurements are, in general, some numerical time series registered by some macroscopic instruments. The various empirical probability distributions extracted from these time series were shown to be consistent with the probabilistic predictions of QT. More than 70 years ago the claim was made that QT provided the most complete description of 'individual' physical systems and outcomes of the measurements performed on 'individual' physical systems were obtained in an intrinsically random way. Spin polarization correlation experiments (SPCEs), performed to test the validity of Bell inequalities, clearly demonstrated the existence of strong long-range correlations and confirmed that the beams hitting far away detectors somehow preserve the memory of their common source which would be destroyed if the individual counts of far away detectors were purely random. Since the probabilities describe the random experiments and are not the attributes of the 'individual' physical systems, the claim that QT provides a complete description of 'individual' physical systems seems not only unjustified but also misleading and counter productive. In this paper, we point out that we even do not know whether QT is predictably complete because it has not been tested carefully enough. Namely, it was not proven that the time series of existing experimental data did not contain some stochastic fine structures that could have been averaged out by describing them in terms of the empirical probability distributions. In this paper, we advocate various statistical tests that

  1. Deconstructing Interocular Suppression: Attention and Divisive Normalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hung Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In interocular suppression, a suprathreshold monocular target can be rendered invisible by a salient competitor stimulus presented in the other eye. Despite decades of research on interocular suppression and related phenomena (e.g., binocular rivalry, flash suppression, continuous flash suppression, the neural processing underlying interocular suppression is still unknown. We developed and tested a computational model of interocular suppression. The model included two processes that contributed to the strength of interocular suppression: divisive normalization and attentional modulation. According to the model, the salient competitor induced a stimulus-driven attentional modulation selective for the location and orientation of the competitor, thereby increasing the gain of neural responses to the competitor and reducing the gain of neural responses to the target. Additional suppression was induced by divisive normalization in the model, similar to other forms of visual masking. To test the model, we conducted psychophysics experiments in which both the size and the eye-of-origin of the competitor were manipulated. For small and medium competitors, behavioral performance was consonant with a change in the response gain of neurons that responded to the target. But large competitors induced a contrast-gain change, even when the competitor was split between the two eyes. The model correctly predicted these results and outperformed an alternative model in which the attentional modulation was eye specific. We conclude that both stimulus-driven attention (selective for location and feature and divisive normalization contribute to interocular suppression.

  2. Deconstructing Interocular Suppression: Attention and Divisive Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hsin-Hung; Carrasco, Marisa; Heeger, David J

    2015-10-01

    In interocular suppression, a suprathreshold monocular target can be rendered invisible by a salient competitor stimulus presented in the other eye. Despite decades of research on interocular suppression and related phenomena (e.g., binocular rivalry, flash suppression, continuous flash suppression), the neural processing underlying interocular suppression is still unknown. We developed and tested a computational model of interocular suppression. The model included two processes that contributed to the strength of interocular suppression: divisive normalization and attentional modulation. According to the model, the salient competitor induced a stimulus-driven attentional modulation selective for the location and orientation of the competitor, thereby increasing the gain of neural responses to the competitor and reducing the gain of neural responses to the target. Additional suppression was induced by divisive normalization in the model, similar to other forms of visual masking. To test the model, we conducted psychophysics experiments in which both the size and the eye-of-origin of the competitor were manipulated. For small and medium competitors, behavioral performance was consonant with a change in the response gain of neurons that responded to the target. But large competitors induced a contrast-gain change, even when the competitor was split between the two eyes. The model correctly predicted these results and outperformed an alternative model in which the attentional modulation was eye specific. We conclude that both stimulus-driven attention (selective for location and feature) and divisive normalization contribute to interocular suppression.

  3. Oxygen diffusion and oxygen effect in tumor tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, H.M.; Hehn, G.

    1979-06-01

    The diffusion of oxygen in tumor cords of bronchus carcinoma of the lung have been studied with refined computer methods for solving the diffusion equation in axis symmetric tumor structures. In this tumor configuration we may find three different regions consisting of euoxic cells, hypoxic tumor cells and necrotic parts. In the case of oxygen supply from a capillary inside a cylinder of tumor tissue with radius 200 μm or in a tumor cord of radius 300 μm with oxygen supply by capillaries outside, we get a relation of well oxygenated cells to hypoxic cells approximately as 1:8 or as 1:1.1 respectively. Of course most of the tumor cords observed in histological slices have smaller diameters, so that an average of approximately 20% hypoxic cells can be assumed. Based on the work of Ardenne, the diffusion of oxygen and glucose in a tumor of type DS-carcinosarcom has been investigated in both intact tumor and tumor treated with ionizing radiation. We can show that a strong reoxygenation effect takes place in that the well supplied regions may increase in some tumor configurations up to a factor of four by volume. The biological consequences of the oxygen pressure determined in tumor cells are discussed in detail. The investigation of oxygen diffusion in the intercapillary tumor region should give a quantitative physical basis for considering the oxygen effect with the aim to explain the advantages of neutron therapy against conventional radiotherapy. (orig./MG) [de

  4. Integration of oxygen membranes for oxygen production in cement plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Søgaard, Martin; Hjuler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The present paper describes the integration of oxygen membranes in cement plants both from an energy, exergy and economic point of view. Different configurations for oxygen enrichment of the tertiary air for combustion in the pre-calciner and full oxy-fuel combustion in both pre-calciner and kiln...

  5. DAQ INSTALLATION IN USC COMPLETED

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Racz

    After one year of work at P5 in the underground control rooms (USC55-S1&S2), the DAQ installation in USC55 is completed. The first half of 2006 was dedicated to the DAQ infrastructures installation (private cable trays, rack equipment for a very dense cabling, connection to services i.e. water, power, network). The second half has been spent to install the custom made electronics (FRLs and FMMs) and place all the inter-rack cables/fibers connecting all sub-systems to central DAQ (more details are given in the internal pages). The installation has been carried out by DAQ group members, coming from the hardware and software side as well. The pictures show the very nice team spirit !

  6. Limitations of potentiometric oxygen sensors operating at low oxygen levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anders; Jacobsen, Torben; Hansen, Karin Vels

    2011-01-01

    The electrochemical processes that limit the range of oxygen partial pressures in which potentiometric oxygen sensors can be used, were analysed using a theoretical and an experimental approach. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was performed on porous Pt/yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ......) electrodes between 10−6 and 0.2 bar and at temperatures between 500 and 950 °C. The flow of oxide ions and electron holes through a sensor cell, with a YSZ electrolyte, were calculated under similar conditions. The oxygen permeation of the sensor cell was insignificant at an oxygen partial pressure of 10......−6 bar for an inlet flow rate higher than 2 L h−1 between 600 and 800 °C. The polarisation resistance measured between 10−6 and 10−4 bar was found to be inversely proportional to the oxygen partial pressure, nearly temperature independent and inversely proportional to the inlet gas flow rate, which shows...

  7. A control technique of oxygen contamination by Ga beam irradiation in InN MOMBE growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isamoto, K.; Uesaka, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Hashimoto, A.

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated about a control technique of oxygen contamination into the InN layers by simultaneous irradiation of Ga beam during RF-MOMBE growth using the combination of the TMIn and the RF-plasma nitrogen sources. Red shifts of the band gap energy and the improvement of the electrical properties have been achieved by the Ga beam irradiation. The suppression mechanism of the oxygen contamination has been discussed from the experimental results of the InN growth by the RF-MOMBE with the Ga beam irradiation. The present results strongly indicate that the simultaneous irradiation of the Ga beam would be useful to suppress the oxygen contamination into the InN layers during the growth. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. In situ removal of carbon contamination from a chromium-coated mirror: ideal optics to suppress higher-order harmonics in the carbon K-edge region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, Akio; Kikuchi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Mase, Kazuhiko; Amemiya, Kenta

    2015-11-01

    Carbon-free chromium-coated optics are ideal in the carbon K-edge region (280-330 eV) because the reflectivity of first-order light is larger than that of gold-coated optics while the second-order harmonics (560-660 eV) are significantly suppressed by chromium L-edge and oxygen K-edge absorption. Here, chromium-, gold- and nickel-coated mirrors have been adopted in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray branch beamline BL-13B at the Photon Factory in Tsukuba, Japan. Carbon contamination on the chromium-coated mirror was almost completely removed by exposure to oxygen at a pressure of 8 × 10(-2) Pa for 1 h under irradiation of non-monochromated synchrotron radiation. The pressure in the chamber recovered to the order of 10(-7) Pa within a few hours. The reflectivity of the chromium-coated mirror of the second-order harmonics in the carbon K-edge region (560-660 eV) was found to be a factor of 0.1-0.48 smaller than that of the gold-coated mirror.

  9. Oxygen consumption by sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L. ) exposed to zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brafield, A.E.; Matthiessen, P.

    1976-10-01

    The rate of oxygen consumption by sticklebacks has been studied by long-term continuous-flow respirometry. Exposure to 1 ppM zinc in calcium-free water causes wide variations in individual responses, but oxygen uptake tends to rise and then become extremely erratic, before declining as death approaches. Behavioural abnormalities such as increased ventilation rate, loss of balance, and long periods of inactivity alternating with spasmodic swimming also occur. Exposure to 6.5 ppM zinc in high-calcium water generally causes a rise in oxygen consumption, followed by fluctuations in the rate of uptake, but no behavioural abnormalities occur and deaths are rare even after exposure for 400 h. If restored to zinc-free water after 40 h exposure to zinc, recovery is generally complete, although fluctuating rates of oxygen uptake persist. These results are discussed in relation to previous work on the effects of heavy metals on fish respiration.

  10. The interaction of impurity oxygen in silicon with vacancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, A.A.; Babayan, S.A.; Eritsyan, G.N.; Kholodar, G.A.; Melkonyan, R.A.; Vinetskij, V.L.

    1981-01-01

    Silicon specimens irradiated with 50 MeV electrons, containing along with isolated oxygen atoms more complicated oxy-quasi-molecules of SiOsub(n) (n=1,2,3,...) type are investigated. At isochronal and isothermal annealing in the temperature range 300-350 deg C, besides the reaction of vacancy capturing by oxygen atoms with formation of A-centres, there occur more complicated reactions with participation of vacancies, A-centres, oxygen containing quasi-molecules, and a variety of sinks. The kinetics of the processing taking place at irradiation and annealing was studied with respect to the measurement of IR absorption spectra in the region 1-16 μm. A model is suggested to describe the observed processes that differ qualitatively from those taking place in specimens containing completely dissociated oxygen [ru

  11. The oxygen in the track hypothesis: microdosimetric implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baverstock, K.F.; Burns, W.G.; May, R.

    1978-01-01

    We have applied diffusion kinetics to a simple competition between self-repair, self-fixation and reaction with oxygen to model the LET dependence of the OER in two cellular organisms, Shigella flexneri and Chlamydomonas reinhardii, using track yields of oxygen suggested by the experiments with metal ions, and obtain good agreement with the data of Alper and Bryant (1974). The calculations suggest that the reaction with track oxygen is almost complete before that with added oxygen begins, and they provide an order-of-magnitude estimate for the G value of initial lesions. We conclude that the dependence of OER on LET is not directly linked to microdosimetric considerations and that the processes which determine RBE take place before intra-track reactions

  12. Suppression of saturated nucleate boiling by forced convective flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.L.; Davis, M.W.; Hertzler, B.L.

    1980-01-01

    Tube-side forced convective boiling nitrogen and oxygen and thin film shell-side forced convective boiling R-11 data demonstrate a reduction in the heat transfer coefficient associated with nucleate boiling as the two-phase friction pressure drop increases. Techniques proposed in the literature to account for nucleate boiling during forced convective boiling are discussed. The observed suppression of nucleate boiling for the tube-side data is compared against the Chen correlation. Although general agreement is exhibited, supporting the interactive heat transfer mechanism theory, better agreement is obtained by defining a bubble growth region within the thermal boundary layer. The data suggests that the size of the bubble growth region is independent of the friction drop, but is only a function of the physical properties of the boiling liquid. 15 refs

  13. Functional inhibition of UQCRB suppresses angiogenesis in zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yoon Sun; Jung, Hye Jin [Chemical Genomics National Research Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Seok, Seung Hyeok [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute for Experimental Animals, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Payumo, Alexander Y.; Chen, James K. [Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kwon, Ho Jeong, E-mail: kwonhj@yonsei.ac.kr [Chemical Genomics National Research Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: ► This is the first functional characterization of UQCRB in vivo model. ► Angiogenesis is inhibited with UQCRB loss of function in zebrafish. ► UQCRB is introduced as a prognostic marker for mitochondria- and angiogenesis-related diseases. -- Abstract: As a subunit of mitochondrial complex III, UQCRB plays an important role in complex III stability, electron transport, and cellular oxygen sensing. Herein, we report UQCRB function regarding angiogenesis in vivo with the zebrafish (Danio rerio). UQCRB knockdown inhibited angiogenesis in zebrafish leading to the suppression of VEGF expression. Moreover, the UQCRB-targeting small molecule terpestacin also inhibited angiogenesis and VEGF levels in zebrafish, supporting the role of UQCRB in angiogenesis. Collectively, UQCRB loss of function by either genetic and pharmacological means inhibited angiogenesis, indicating that UQCRB plays a key role in this process and can be a prognostic marker of angiogenesis- and mitochondria-related diseases.

  14. Functional inhibition of UQCRB suppresses angiogenesis in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yoon Sun; Jung, Hye Jin; Seok, Seung Hyeok; Payumo, Alexander Y.; Chen, James K.; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This is the first functional characterization of UQCRB in vivo model. ► Angiogenesis is inhibited with UQCRB loss of function in zebrafish. ► UQCRB is introduced as a prognostic marker for mitochondria- and angiogenesis-related diseases. -- Abstract: As a subunit of mitochondrial complex III, UQCRB plays an important role in complex III stability, electron transport, and cellular oxygen sensing. Herein, we report UQCRB function regarding angiogenesis in vivo with the zebrafish (Danio rerio). UQCRB knockdown inhibited angiogenesis in zebrafish leading to the suppression of VEGF expression. Moreover, the UQCRB-targeting small molecule terpestacin also inhibited angiogenesis and VEGF levels in zebrafish, supporting the role of UQCRB in angiogenesis. Collectively, UQCRB loss of function by either genetic and pharmacological means inhibited angiogenesis, indicating that UQCRB plays a key role in this process and can be a prognostic marker of angiogenesis- and mitochondria-related diseases

  15. Oxygen therapy for cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anja S; Barloese, Mads Cj; Lund, Nunu Lt

    2017-01-01

    -controlled, crossover inpatient study, and 102 CH attacks were treated with 100% oxygen delivered by demand valve oxygen (DVO), O2ptimask or simple mask (15 liters/min) or placebo delivered by DVO for 15 minutes. Primary endpoint: Two-point decrease of pain on a five-point rating scale within 15 minutes. Results Only...

  16. Mars oxygen production system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Charles E.; Pillow, Linda K.; Perkinson, Robert C.; Brownlie, R. P.; Chwalowski, P.; Carmona, M. F.; Coopersmith, J. P.; Goff, J. C.; Harvey, L. L.; Kovacs, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    The design and construction phase is summarized of the Mars oxygen demonstration project. The basic hardware required to produce oxygen from simulated Mars atmosphere was assembled and tested. Some design problems still remain with the sample collection and storage system. In addition, design and development of computer compatible data acquisition and control instrumentation is ongoing.

  17. Oxygen Effects in Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshai Botheju

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of free oxygen in bio-gasification is a sparsely studied area, apart from the common argument of oxygen being toxic and inhibitory for anaerobic micro-cultures. Some studies have, however, revealed increased solubilisation of organic matter in the presence of some free oxygen in anaerobic digestion. This article analyses these counterbalancing phenomena with a mathematical modelling approach using the widely accepted biochemical model ADM 1. Aerobic oxidation of soluble carbon and inhibition of obligatory anaerobic organisms are modelled using standard saturation type kinetics. Biomass dependent first order hydrolysis kinetics is used to relate the increased hydrolysis rate with oxygen induced increase in biomass growth. The amended model, ADM 1-Ox (oxygen, has 25 state variables and 22 biochemical processes, presented in matrix form. The computer aided simulation tool AQUASIM 2.1 is used to simulate the developed model. Simulation predictions are evaluated against experimental data obtained using a laboratory batch test array comprising miniature anaerobic bio-reactors of 100 ml total volume each, operated under different initial air headspaces giving rise to the different oxygen loading conditions. The reactors were initially fed with a glucose solution and incubated at 35 Celsius, for 563 hours. Under the oxygen load conditions of 22, 44 and 88 mg/L, the ADM1-Ox model simulations predicted the experimental methane potentials quite adequately. Both the experimental data and the simulations suggest a linear reduction of methane potential with respect to the increase in oxygen load within this range.

  18. Environmental science: Oceans lose oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Denis

    2017-02-01

    Oxygen is essential to most life in the ocean. An analysis shows that oxygen levels have declined by 2% in the global ocean over the past five decades, probably causing habitat loss for many fish and invertebrate species. See Letter p.335

  19. Misconceptions in Reporting Oxygen Saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toffaletti, John; Zijlstra, Willem G.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We describe some misconceptions that have become common practice in reporting blood gas and cooximetry results. In 1980, oxygen saturation was incorrectly redefined in a report of a new instrument for analysis of hemoglobin (Hb) derivatives. Oxygen saturation (sO(2)) was redefined as the

  20. On the Go with Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for both the patient and the oxygen supply company. There are two types of concentrators: Stationary concentrators plug into an electrical ... stationary unit. If your oxygen needs change, the type of system can ... supply company should explain and demonstrate whatever system you choose. ...

  1. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2002-01-01

    Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals

  2. ATLAS Magnet System Nearing Completion

    CERN Document Server

    ten Kate, H H J

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is equipped with a superconducting magnet system that consists of a Barrel Toroid, two End-Cap Toroids and a Central Solenoid. The four magnets generate the magnetic field for the muon- and inner tracking detectors, respectively. After 10 years of construction in industry, integration and on-surface tests at CERN, the magnets are now in the underground cavern where they undergo the ultimate test before data taking in the detector can start during the course of next year. The system with outer dimensions of 25 m length and 22 m diameter is based on using conduction cooled aluminum stabilized NbTi conductors operating at 4.6 K and 20.5 kA maximum coil current with peak magnetic fields in the windings of 4.1 T and a system stored magnetic energy of 1.6 GJ. The Barrel Toroid and Central Solenoid were already successfully charged after installation to full current in autumn 2006. This year the system is completed with two End Cap Toroids. The ultimate test of...

  3. A complete history of everything

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanclos, Kyle; Deich, William T. S.

    2012-09-01

    This paper discusses Lick Observatory's local solution for retaining a complete history of everything. Leveraging our existing deployment of a publish/subscribe communications model that is used to broadcast the state of all systems at Lick Observatory, a monitoring daemon runs on a dedicated server that subscribes to and records all published messages. Our success with this system is a testament to the power of simple, straightforward approaches to complex problems. The solution itself is written in Python, and the initial version required about a week of development time; the data are stored in PostgreSQL database tables using a distinctly simple schema. Over time, we addressed scaling issues as the data set grew, which involved reworking the PostgreSQL database schema on the back-end. We also duplicate the data in flat files to enable recovery or migration of the data from one server to another. This paper will cover both the initial design as well as the solutions to the subsequent deployment issues, the trade-offs that motivated those choices, and the integration of this history database with existing client applications.

  4. Self Completeness of Einstein Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2010-01-01

    We argue, that in Einsteinian gravity the Planck length is the shortest length of nature, and any attempt of resolving trans-Planckian physics bounces back to macroscopic distances due to black hole formation. In Einstein gravity trans-Planckian propagating quantum degrees of freedom cannot exist, instead they are equivalent to the classical black holes that are fully described by lighter infra-red degrees of freedom and give exponentially-soft contribution into the virtual processes. Based on this property we argue that pure-Einstein (super)gravity and its high-dimensional generalizations are self-complete in deep-UV, but not in standard Wilsonian sense. We suggest that certain strong-coupling limit of string theory is built-in in pure Einstein gravity, whereas the role of weakly-coupled string theory limit is to consistently couple gravity to other particle species, with their number being set by the inverse string coupling. We also discuss some speculative ideas generalizing the notion of non-Wilsonian sel...

  5. Formation and Migration of Oxygen Vacancies in SrCoO3 and their effect on Oxygen Evolution Reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, Hassan A.

    2016-07-18

    Perovskite SrCoO3 is a potentially useful material for promoting the electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction, with high activities predicted theoretically and observed experimentally for closely related doped perovskite materials. However, complete stoichiometric oxidation is very difficult to realize experimentally – in almost all cases there are significant fractions of oxygen vacancies present. Here, using first principles calculations we study oxygen vacancies in perovskite SrCoO3 from thermodynamic, electronic and kinetic points of view. We find that an oxygen vacancy donates two electrons to neighboring Co sites in the form of localized charge. The formation energy of a single vacancy is very low and estimated to be 1.26 eV in the dilute limit. We find that a vacancy is quite mobile with a migration energy of ~0.5 eV. Moreover, we predict that oxygen vacancies exhibit a tendency towards clustering which is in accordance with the material’s ability to form a variety of oxygen-deficient structures. These vacancies have a profound effect on the material’s ability to facilitate OER, increasing the overpotential from ~0.3 V for the perfect material to ~0.7 for defective surfaces. A moderate compressive biaxial strain (2%) is predicted here to increase the surface oxygen vacancy formation energy by ca. 30%, thus reducing the concentration of surface vacancies and thereby preserving the OER activity of the material.

  6. Formation and Migration of Oxygen Vacancies in SrCoO3 and their effect on Oxygen Evolution Reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, Hassan A.; Tan, Xin; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Smith, Sean C.

    2016-01-01

    Perovskite SrCoO3 is a potentially useful material for promoting the electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction, with high activities predicted theoretically and observed experimentally for closely related doped perovskite materials. However, complete stoichiometric oxidation is very difficult to realize experimentally – in almost all cases there are significant fractions of oxygen vacancies present. Here, using first principles calculations we study oxygen vacancies in perovskite SrCoO3 from thermodynamic, electronic and kinetic points of view. We find that an oxygen vacancy donates two electrons to neighboring Co sites in the form of localized charge. The formation energy of a single vacancy is very low and estimated to be 1.26 eV in the dilute limit. We find that a vacancy is quite mobile with a migration energy of ~0.5 eV. Moreover, we predict that oxygen vacancies exhibit a tendency towards clustering which is in accordance with the material’s ability to form a variety of oxygen-deficient structures. These vacancies have a profound effect on the material’s ability to facilitate OER, increasing the overpotential from ~0.3 V for the perfect material to ~0.7 for defective surfaces. A moderate compressive biaxial strain (2%) is predicted here to increase the surface oxygen vacancy formation energy by ca. 30%, thus reducing the concentration of surface vacancies and thereby preserving the OER activity of the material.

  7. Calibration Of Partial-Pressure-Of-Oxygen Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, David W.; Heronimus, Kevin

    1995-01-01

    Report and analysis of, and discussion of improvements in, procedure for calibrating partial-pressure-of-oxygen sensors to satisfy Spacelab calibration requirements released. Sensors exhibit fast drift, which results in short calibration period not suitable for Spacelab. By assessing complete process of determining total drift range available, calibration procedure modified to eliminate errors and still satisfy requirements without compromising integrity of system.

  8. Magnetic nanoparticles: reactive oxygen species generation and potential therapeutic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Trang; Hilt, J. Zach

    2017-07-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been demonstrated to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), which play a major role in various cellular pathways, via Fenton and Haber-Weiss reaction. ROS act as a double-edged sword inside the body. At normal conditions, the generation of ROS is in balance with their elimination by scavenger systems, and they can promote cell proliferation as well as differentiation. However, at an increased level, they can cause damages to protein, lead to cellular apoptosis, and contribute to many diseases including cancer. Many recent studies proposed a variety of strategies to either suppress toxicity of ROS generation or exploit the elevated ROS levels for cancer therapy.

  9. Boiling Suppression in Convective Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aounallah, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The development of convective boiling heat transfer correlations and analytical models has almost exclusively been based on measurements of the total heat flux, and therefore on the overall two-phase heat transfer coefficient, when the well-known heat transfer correlations have often assumed additive mechanisms, one for each mode of heat transfer, convection and boiling. While the global performance of such correlations can readily be assessed, the predictive capability of the individual components of the correlation has usually remained elusive. This becomes important when, for example, developing mechanistic models for subcooled void formation based on the partitioning of the wall heat flux into a boiling and a convective component, or when extending a correlation beyond its original range of applications where the preponderance of the heat transfer mechanisms involved can be significantly different. A new examination of existing experimental heat transfer data obtained under fixed hydrodynamic conditions, whereby the local flow conditions are decoupled from the local heat flux, has allowed the unequivocal isolation of the boiling contribution over a broad range of thermodynamic qualities (0 to 0.8) for water at 7 MPa. Boiling suppression, as the quality increases, has consequently been quantified, thus providing valuable new insights on the functionality and contribution of boiling in convective flows. (author)

  10. Reactor water quality degradation suppressing method upon reactor start up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Katsuharu.

    1993-01-01

    Preceding to reactor start-up, vacuum degree in a condenser is increased, and after the vacuum degree has been increased sufficiently, a desalting tower is inserted. Then, water feed to the reactor is started and the reactor is operated so that water is supplied gradually. Thus, dissolved oxygen in the feedwater and condensates is kept low and an entire organic carbon leaching rate from resins in the condensate desalting tower is reduced. Further, since feedwater is gradually supplied after the start-up, the entire organic carbon brought into the reactor is decomposed by heat and radiation and efficiently removed by a reactor coolant cleanup system. As a result, corrosion of stainless steel or the like is suppressed, as well as integrity of fuels can be maintained. Further, degradation of water quality can be suppressed effectively not by additionally putting the condensate desalting towers to in-service in accordance with the increase of the feedwater flow rate accompanying the power up but by previously putting the condensate desalting towers to in-service. (N.H.)

  11. Advanced Oxygen Systems for Aircraft (Systemes d’Oxygene Avances)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Oxygen Generating System (NAOGS), SAM-TR-80-12, Brooks AFB TX 78235, 1980. 11. Horch TC, Miller RL, Bomar JB, Tedor JB, Holden RD, Ikels KG, and...sieve oxygen generation sys- tem. Data from Horch et al (15). cabin altitude. The minimum and maximum oxygen concen- tration lines depict the...an AV-8A Aircraft; Naval Air Test Center Report No. SY-136R-81, 1981. 15. Horch TC, Miller RL, Bomar JB Jr, Tedor JB, Holden RD, Ikels KG, and

  12. Chinese Islam: A Complete Concert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvi Ben-Dor Benite

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Matthew S. Erie, China and Islam: The Prophet, the Party, and Law. Cambridge University Press, 2016. 472 pp. $140 (cloth/e-book. Jonathan Lipman, ed., Islamic Thought in China: Sino-Muslim Intellectual Evolution from the 17th to the 20th Century. Edinburgh University Press, 2016. 288 pp. £70 (cloth; e-book. Roberta Tontini, Muslim Sanzijing: Shifts and Continuities in the Definition of Islam in China. Brill, 2016. 238 pp. $125 (cloth. Why study a Chinese “minority” and its history? The task of scholars of Chinese Islam since the 1990s has been twofold: on the one hand, we have wanted to study Islam in China in its Chinese social and cultural context, as opposed to imagining it as a single separate entity, and to show that its history is relevant and meaningful for Chinese history in general. One could almost say that this goal was achieved a while ago. The next task has been to make the study of Chinese Islam and its history meaningful and useful for the greater community of scholars of Islam in general. It seems to me that with the books reviewed here, and with others in the making, we are getting close to reaching this target. In 1910, Marshall Broomhall’s Islam in China declared that Chinese Islam was a “neglected problem.” These books show that it is no longer neglected, and no longer a “problem”; rather, it is an exciting topic. Indeed, a complete, even if not harmonious, concert.

  13. Combination of chemical suppression techniques for dual suppression of fat and silicone at diffusion-weighted MR imaging in women with breast implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Dow-Mu; Hughes, J. [Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sutton (United Kingdom); Blackledge, M.; Leach, M.O.; Collins, D.J. [Institute of Cancer Research, CR UK-EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Sutton (United Kingdom); Burns, S. [Nuada 3T MRI Centre, London (United Kingdom); Stemmer, A.; Kiefer, B. [Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Silicone breast prostheses prove technically challenging when performing diffusion-weighted MR imaging in the breasts. We describe a combined fat and chemical suppression scheme to achieve dual suppression of fat and silicone, thereby improving the quality of diffusion-weighted images in women with breast implants. MR imaging was performed at 3.0 and 1.5 T in women with silicone breast implants using short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) fat-suppressed echo-planar (EPI) diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) on its own and combined with the slice-select gradient-reversal (SSGR) technique. Imaging was performed using dedicated breast imaging coils. Complete suppression of the fat and silicone signal was possible at 3.0 T using EPI DWI with STIR and SSGR, evaluated with dedicated breast coils. However, a residual silicone signal was still perceptible at 1.5 T using this combined approach. Nevertheless, a further reduction in silicone signal at 1.5 T could be achieved by employing thinner slice partitions and the addition of the chemical-selective fat-suppression (CHESS) technique. DWI using combined STIR and SSGR chemical suppression techniques is feasible to eliminate or reduce silicone signal from prosthetic breast implants. (orig.)

  14. Simultaneous Monitoring of Vascular Oxygenation and Tissue Oxygen Tension of Breast Tumors Under Hyperbaric Oxygen Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    28. Alagoz, T., R. Buller, B. Anderson, K. Terrell , R...and oxygenation Ann . New Acad. Sci. 838 29–45 Chapman J D, Stobbe C C, Arnfield M R, Santus R, Lee J and McPhee M S 1991 Oxygen dependency of tumor

  15. The role of oxygen in the uptake of deuterium in lithiated graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, C. N.; Luitjohan, K. E. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Dadras, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37998 (United States); Allain, J. P. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Birck Nanotechnology Center, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Krstic, P. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37998 (United States); Joint Institute of Computational Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37998 (United States); Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Skinner, C. H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2013-12-14

    We investigate the mechanism of deuterium retention by lithiated graphite and its relationship to the oxygen concentration through surface sensitive experiments and atomistic simulations. Deposition of lithium on graphite yielded 5%–8% oxygen surface concentration and when subsequently irradiated with D ions at energies between 500 and 1000 eV/amu and fluences over 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2} the oxygen concentration rose to between 25% and 40%. These enhanced oxygen levels were reached in a few seconds compared to about 300 h when the lithiated graphite was allowed to adsorb oxygen from the ambient environment under equilibrium conditions. Irradiating graphite without lithium deposition, however, resulted in complete removal of oxygen to levels below the detection limit of XPS (e.g., <1%). These findings confirm the predictions of atomistic simulations, which had concluded that oxygen was the primary component for the enhanced hydrogen retention chemistry on the lithiated graphite surface.

  16. A 3D-Printed Oxygen Control Insert for a 24-Well Plate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin D Brennan

    Full Text Available 3D printing has emerged as a method for directly printing complete microfluidic devices, although printing materials have been limited to oxygen-impermeable materials. We demonstrate the addition of gas permeable PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane membranes to 3D-printed microfluidic devices as a means to enable oxygen control cell culture studies. The incorporation of a 3D-printed device and gas-permeable membranes was demonstrated on a 24-well oxygen control device for standard multiwell plates. The direct printing allows integrated distribution channels and device geometries not possible with traditional planar lithography. With this device, four different oxygen conditions were able to be controlled, and six wells were maintained under each oxygen condition. We demonstrate enhanced transcription of the gene VEGFA (vascular endothelial growth factor A with decreasing oxygen levels in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. This is the first 3D-printed device incorporating gas permeable membranes to facilitate oxygen control in cell culture.

  17. A survey of suppression of public health information by Australian governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazahmeidi, Boshra; Holman, C D'Arcy J

    2007-12-01

    It is cause for concern when a democratically elected government suppresses embarrassing information by hindering public health research or the publication of research findings. We conducted a survey of Australian public health academics to estimate the level of acts of suppression of research by Australian governments, to characterise these events, and to gather views on what interventions might be effective in curbing them. A total of 302 academics in 17 institutions completed a postal questionnaire in August 2006 (46% of 652 invited). The instrument sought details of suppression events they had witnessed since 2001. There were 142 suppression events, including 85 personally experienced by 21.2% (n=64) of respondents. The rates were higher in 2005/06 than in earlier years. No State or Territory was immune from suppression. Although governments most commonly hindered research by sanitising, delaying or prohibiting publications (66% of events), no part of the research process was unaffected. Researchers commonly believed their work was targeted because it drew attention to failings in health services (48%), the health status of a vulnerable group (26%), or pointed to a harm in the environment (11%). The government agency seeking to suppress the health information mostly succeeded (87%) and, consequently, the public was left uninformed or given a false impression. Respondents identified a full range of participative, cognitive, structural and legislative control strategies. The suppression of public health information is widely practised by Australian governments. Systemic interventions are necessary to preserve the integrity of public health research conducted with government involvement.

  18. Oxygen dependency of porfiromycin cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.S.; Rauth, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors determined the oxygen dependency of toxicity for the bioreductive alkylating agents mitomycin C (MMC) and porfiromycin (PM) to investigate whether the toxicities of these agents increase in the range of oxygen tensions over which cells become increasingly radioresistant. In the present work the oxygen dependency of PM in CHO cells was determined by assaying survival as a function of time of exposure to 1.0 μg/ml PM under various known levels of oxygen. While PM demonstrated preferential hypoxic cell toxicity, aerobic cell survival was reduced ten-fold after five hours of exposure. Conversely, PM toxicity after a five hour hypoxic exposure to <0.001% oxygen appeared to be greater than that observed for similar MMC exposures, suggesting that PM may be more selective than MMC in killing hypoxic rather than aerobic cells. The authors are currently investigating this preferential toxicity in two human cell lines, one of which is resistant to these agents. At present, these observations suggest that PM may be more effective than MMC at destroying tumour cells in regions of intermediate and low oxygen tensions which may survive radiotherapy, though the range of oxygen tensions which mediate toxicity is similar for both agents

  19. Completely quantized collapse and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearle, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Promotion of quantum theory from a theory of measurement to a theory of reality requires an unambiguous specification of the ensemble of realizable states (and each state's probability of realization). Although not yet achieved within the framework of standard quantum theory, it has been achieved within the framework of the continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) wave-function collapse model. In CSL, a classical random field w(x,t) interacts with quantum particles. The state vector corresponding to each w(x,t) is a realizable state. In this paper, I consider a previously presented model, which is predictively equivalent to CSL. In this completely quantized collapse (CQC) model, the classical random field is quantized. It is represented by the operator W(x,t) which satisfies [W(x,t),W(x ' ,t ' )]=0. The ensemble of realizable states is described by a single state vector, the 'ensemble vector'. Each superposed state which comprises the ensemble vector at time t is the direct product of an eigenstate of W(x,t ' ), for all x and for 0≤t ' ≤t, and the CSL state corresponding to that eigenvalue. These states never interfere (they satisfy a superselection rule at any time), they only branch, so the ensemble vector may be considered to be, as Schroedinger put it, a 'catalog' of the realizable states. In this context, many different interpretations (e.g., many worlds, environmental decoherence, consistent histories, modal interpretation) may be satisfactorily applied. Using this description, a long-standing problem is resolved, where the energy comes from the particles gain due to the narrowing of their wave packets by the collapse mechanism. It is shown how to define the energy of the random field and its energy of interaction with particles so that total energy is conserved for the ensemble of realizable states. As a by-product, since the random-field energy spectrum is unbounded, its canonical conjugate, a self-adjoint time operator, can be discussed. Finally, CSL

  20. Burst suppression probability algorithms: state-space methods for tracking EEG burst suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemali, Jessica; Ching, ShiNung; Purdon, Patrick L.; Solt, Ken; Brown, Emery N.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. Burst suppression is an electroencephalogram pattern in which bursts of electrical activity alternate with an isoelectric state. This pattern is commonly seen in states of severely reduced brain activity such as profound general anesthesia, anoxic brain injuries, hypothermia and certain developmental disorders. Devising accurate, reliable ways to quantify burst suppression is an important clinical and research problem. Although thresholding and segmentation algorithms readily identify burst suppression periods, analysis algorithms require long intervals of data to characterize burst suppression at a given time and provide no framework for statistical inference. Approach. We introduce the concept of the burst suppression probability (BSP) to define the brain's instantaneous propensity of being in the suppressed state. To conduct dynamic analyses of burst suppression we propose a state-space model in which the observation process is a binomial model and the state equation is a Gaussian random walk. We estimate the model using an approximate expectation maximization algorithm and illustrate its application in the analysis of rodent burst suppression recordings under general anesthesia and a patient during induction of controlled hypothermia. Main result. The BSP algorithms track burst suppression on a second-to-second time scale, and make possible formal statistical comparisons of burst suppression at different times. Significance. The state-space approach suggests a principled and informative way to analyze burst suppression that can be used to monitor, and eventually to control, the brain states of patients in the operating room and in the intensive care unit.

  1. Oxygen treatment of cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anja S; Barloese, Mads C J; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Our aim was to review the existing literature to document oxygen's therapeutic effect on cluster headache. METHOD: A PubMed search resulted in 28 hits, and from these and their references we found in total 11 relevant studies. We included six studies that investigated the efficacy......, but not a prophylactic effect. Despite the fact that only a few high-quality RCT studies are available, oxygen treatment is close to an ideal treatment because it is effective and safe. However, sufferers of cluster headache do not always have access to oxygen because of logistic and financial concerns....

  2. Oxygen diffusion in cuprate superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routbort, J.L.; Rothman, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    Superconducting properties of the cuprate superconductors depend on the oxygen content of the material; the diffusion of oxygen is thus an important process in the fabrication and application of these materials. This article reviews studies of the diffusion of oxygen in La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 , YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7- δ, YBa 2 Cu 4 O 8 , and the Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca n-1 Cu n O 2+4 (n = 1, and 2) superconductors, and attempt to elucidate the atomic mechanisms responsible

  3. Oxygen permeation modelling of perovskites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hassel, Bart A.; van Hassel, B.A.; Kawada, Tatsuya; Sakai, Natsuko; Yokokawa, Harumi; Dokiya, Masayuki; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    1993-01-01

    A point defect model was used to describe the oxygen nonstoichiometry of the perovskites La0.75Sr0.25CrO3, La0.9Sr0.1FeO3, La0.9Sr0.1CoO3 and La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 as a function of the oxygen partial pressure. Form the oxygen vacancy concentration predicte by the point defect model, the ionic conductivity

  4. Psychopathology and Thought Suppression: A Quantitative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Joshua C.; Harden, K. Paige; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analogue samples were expected to show greater recurrence of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression attempts than non-clinical samples. However, results showed no overall differences in the recurrence of thoughts due to thought suppression between groups with and without psychopathology. There was, nevertheless, variation in the recurrence of thoughts across different forms of psychopathology, including relatively less recurrence during thought suppression for samples with symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, compared to non-clinical samples. However, these differences were typically small and provided only mixed support for existing theories. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusive thoughts are discussed, including proposed mechanisms underlying thought suppression. PMID:22388007

  5. Volatile suppressing method for radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Atsushi; Haruguchi, Keiko.

    1997-01-01

    In the present invention, a metal plate is disposed above the pool water surface of a suppression chamber disposed to a reactor container in order to reduce evaporation of radioactive iodine released from a suppression pool. A metal plate is disposed above the pool water surface of the suppression chamber disposed to the reactor container. In addition, a metal plate is disposed around the space connecting a bent tube extending from a dry well to underwater of suppression pool water and a gas bent tube extending from the suppression chamber to an emergency gas processing system. Spray water is supplied for cooling the suppression chamber d as a means for cooling the metal plate. Then, among iodine released to the suppression chamber, elemental iodine liberated from the pool water is deposited on the surface of the metal plate, and the amount of iodine to be flown into and processed by an emergency gas processing system or a filter bent system can be reduced. (T.M.)

  6. On the Relationship Between Musicianship and Contralateral Suppression of Transient-Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Andrew; Daughtrey, Emma R

    2016-04-01

    The medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent reflex that modulates outer hair cell function has been shown to be more robust in musicians versus nonmusicians as evidenced in greater contralateral suppression of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs). All previous research comparing musical ability and MOC efferent strength has defined musicianship dichotomously (i.e., high-level music students or professional classical musicians versus nonmusicians). The objective of the study was to further explore contralateral suppression of TEOAEs among adults with a full spectrum of musicianship ranging from no history of musicianship to professional musicians. Musicianship was defined by both self-report and with an objective test to quantify individual differences in perceptual music skills. A single-factor between-subjects and correlational research designs were employed. Forty-five normal-hearing young adults participated. Participants completed a questionnaire concerning their music experience and completed the Brief Profile of Music Perception Skills (PROMS) to quantify perceptual musical skills across multiple musical domains (i.e., accent, melody, tempo, and tuning). TEOAEs were evaluated with 60 dB peak equivalent sound pressure level click stimuli with and without a contralateral 65 dB sound pressure level white noise suppressor. TEOAE suppression was expressed in two ways, absolute TEOAE suppression in dB and a normalized index of TEOAE suppression (i.e., percentage of suppression). Participants who considered themselves musicians scored significantly higher on all subscales and total Brief PROMS score (p 0.05). There were no statistically significant correlations or linear predictive relationships between subscale or total Brief PROMS scores with absolute and percentage of TEOAE suppression (p > 0.05). The findings do not support the notion of a graded enhancement of MOC efferent suppression among adults with varied degrees of musicianship from nonmusicians to

  7. Growth and Properties of Oxygen and Ion Doped BISMUTH(2) STRONTIUM(2) Calcium COPPER(2) Oxygen (8+DELTA) Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzi, David Brian

    1990-01-01

    A directional solidification method for growing large single crystals in the Bi_2Sr _2CaCu_2O _{8+delta} system is reported. Ion substitutions, with replacement of La for Sr and Y for Ca, as well as oxygen doping in these crystals has been explored. Ion doping results in little change of the superconducting transition for substitution levels below 20-25% (as a result of simultaneous oxygen intercalation), while beyond this level, the Meissner signal broadens and the low temperature Meissner signal decreases. Microprobe analysis and x-ray diffraction performed on these more highly substituted single crystals, provides evidence for inhomogeneity and phase segregation into regions of distinct composition. Annealing unsubstituted crystals in increasing partial pressures of oxygen reversibly depresses the superconducting transition temperature from 90K (as made) to 77K (oxygen pressure annealed) while the Hall concentrations increase from n = 3.1(3) times 10 ^{21} cm^{ -3} (0.34 holes/Cu site) to 4.6(3) times 10^{21} cm^{-3} (0.50 holes/Cu site). Further suppression of T_{c} to 72K is possible by annealing in oxygen pressures up to 100atm. No degradation of the Meissner transition or other indications of inhomogeneity or phase segregation with doping are noted, suggesting that oxygen doped Bi_2Sr _2CaCu_2O _{8+delta} is a suitable system for pursuing doping studies. The decrease in T _{c} with concentration for 0.34 <=q n <=q 0.50 indicates that a high carrier concentration regime exists where T_{c} decreases with n and suggests that this decrease does not arise from material inhomogeneity or other materials problems. The physical properties of these Bi _2Sr_2CaCu _2O_{8+delta} crystals, in this high carrier concentration regime, will be discussed.

  8. Regional Extent of Peripheral Suppression in Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Raiju J; Clavagnier, Simon; Bobier, William R; Thompson, Benjamin; Hess, Robert F

    2017-04-01

    Previously, we have mapped amblyopic eye suppression within the central 20° of the visual field and observed a gradient of suppression that is strongest in central vision and weakens with increasing eccentricity. In this study, using a large dichoptic display, we extend our novel suppression mapping approach further into the periphery (from 20°-60°) to assess whether suppression continues to decline with eccentricity or plateaus. Sixteen participants with amblyopia (10 with strabismus, 6 with anisometropia without strabismus; mean age: 37.9 ± 11 years) and six normal observers (mean age: 28.3 ± 5 years) took part. The visual stimulus (60° diameter), viewed from 57 cm, was composed of four concentric annuli (5° radius) with alternate contrast polarities starting from an eccentricity of 10°. Each annulus was divided into eight sectors subtending 45° of visual angle. Participants adjusted the contrast of a single sector presented to the fellow eye to match the perceived contrast of the remaining stimulus elements that were presented to the amblyopic eye. A matching contrast that was lower in the fellow eye than the amblyopic eye indicated suppression. Patients with strabismus exhibited significantly stronger interocular suppression than controls across all eccentricities (P = 0.01). Patients with anisometropia did not differ from controls (P = 0.58). Suppression varied significantly with eccentricity (P = 0.005) but this effect did not differ between patient groups (P = 0.217). In amblyopia, suppression is present beyond the central 10° in patients with strabismus. Suppression becomes weaker at greater eccentricities and this may enable peripheral fusion that could be used by binocular treatment methods.

  9. Oxygenates to hike gasoline price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that cost of achieving required US gasoline formulations this winter in Environmental Protection Agency carbon monoxide (CO) nonattainment areas could reach 3-5 cents/gal, an Energy Information Administration analysis has found. EIA says new winter demand for gasoline blending oxygenates such as methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) or ethanol created by 190 amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA) will exceed US oxygenate production by 140,000-220,000 b/d. The shortfall must be made up from inventory or imports. EIA estimates the cost of providing incremental oxygenate to meet expected gasoline blending demand likely will result in a price premium of about 20 cents/gal of MTBE equivalent over traditional gasoline blend octane value. That cost likely will be added to the price of oxygenated gasoline

  10. Test facility of the VVER-440 condensation-type pressure suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, H.; Arndt, S.

    2004-01-01

    Since the early nineties, GRS has supported regulatory authorities in Central and Eastern Europe in performing safety assessments of nuclear power plants. Especially studies of the condensation-type pressure suppression system of VVER-440/V-213-type plants have been important in this respect. Major steps in demonstrating complete functioning of the condensation-type pressure suppression system under accident conditions by experiments run in the Russian large scale test facility, BC V-213, have been completed in the past two years within the framework of various international experimental programs. The test results were used to validate specifically for power plants with VVER-400/V-213 reactors the COCOSYS GRS computer code, which is used in the safety assessments. The results of recalculations of the C02 EREC test, which simulates a break of a main steam pipe, demonstrate the present state of validation of COCOSYS for VVER condensation-type pressure suppression systems. (orig.) [de

  11. Anoxygenic photosynthesis modulated Proterozoic oxygen and sustained Earth's middle age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, D. T.; Wolfe-Simon, F.; Pearson, A.; Knoll, A. H.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular oxygen (O2) began to accumulate in the atmosphere and surface ocean ca. 2,400 million years ago (Ma), but the persistent oxygenation of water masses throughout the oceans developed much later, perhaps beginning as recently as 580–550 Ma. For much of the intervening interval, moderately oxic surface waters lay above an oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) that tended toward euxinia (anoxic and sulfidic). Here we illustrate how contributions to primary production by anoxygenic photoautotrophs (including physiologically versatile cyanobacteria) influenced biogeochemical cycling during Earth's middle age, helping to perpetuate our planet's intermediate redox state by tempering O2 production. Specifically, the ability to generate organic matter (OM) using sulfide as an electron donor enabled a positive biogeochemical feedback that sustained euxinia in the OMZ. On a geologic time scale, pyrite precipitation and burial governed a second feedback that moderated sulfide availability and water column oxygenation. Thus, we argue that the proportional contribution of anoxygenic photosynthesis to overall primary production would have influenced oceanic redox and the Proterozoic O2 budget. Later Neoproterozoic collapse of widespread euxinia and a concomitant return to ferruginous (anoxic and Fe2+ rich) subsurface waters set in motion Earth's transition from its prokaryote-dominated middle age, removing a physiological barrier to eukaryotic diversification (sulfide) and establishing, for the first time in Earth's history, complete dominance of oxygenic photosynthesis in the oceans. This paved the way for the further oxygenation of the oceans and atmosphere and, ultimately, the evolution of complex multicellular organisms. PMID:19805080

  12. Oxygen Concentration Inside a Functioning Photosynthetic Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Kihara, Shigeharu; Hartzler, Daniel A.; Savikhin, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    The excess oxygen concentration in the photosynthetic membranes of functioning oxygenic photosynthetic cells was estimated using classical diffusion theory combined with experimental data on oxygen production rates of cyanobacterial cells. The excess oxygen concentration within the plesiomorphic cyanobacterium Gloeobactor violaceus is only 0.025 μM, or four orders of magnitude lower than the oxygen concentration in air-saturated water. Such a low concentration suggests that the first oxygenic...

  13. Apocynin suppresses the progression of atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice by inactivation of macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Takeshi; Ishii, Norio; Fukuda, Kazuki; Senokuchi, Takafumi; Motoshima, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Tatsuya; Taketa, Kayo; Kawasaki, Shuji; Hanatani, Satoko; Takeya, Motohiro; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Araki, Eiichi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examined the anti-athrogenic effect of apocynin in atherosclerotic model mice. ► Apocynin prevented atherosclerotic lesion formation. ► Apocynin suppressed ROS production in aorta and in macrophages. ► Apocynin suppressed cytokine expression and cell proliferation in macrophages. ► Apocynin may be beneficial compound for the prevention of atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other proinflammatory substances by macrophages plays an important role in atherogenesis. Apocynin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-acetophenone), which is well known as a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, has anti-inflammatory effects including suppression of the generation of ROS. However, the suppressive effects of apocynin on the progression of atherosclerosis are not clearly understood. Thus, we investigated anti-atherosclerotic effects of apocynin using apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE –/– ) mice in vivo and in mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. In atherosclerosis-prone apoE –/– mice, apocynin suppressed the progression of atherosclerosis, decreased 4-hydroxynonenal-positive area in atherosclerotic lesions, and mRNA expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in aorta. In mouse peritoneal macrophages, apocynin suppressed the Ox-LDL-induced ROS generation, mRNA expression of MCP-1, IL-6 and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and cell proliferation. Moreover, immunohistochemical studies revealed that apocynin decreased the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions of apoE –/– mice. These results suggested that apocynin suppressed the formation of atherosclerotic lesions, at least in part, by inactivation of macrophages. Therefore, apocynin may be a potential therapeutic material to prevent the progression of atherosclerosis

  14. Apocynin suppresses the progression of atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice by inactivation of macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Hiroyuki [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Matsumura, Takeshi, E-mail: takeshim@gpo.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Ishii, Norio; Fukuda, Kazuki; Senokuchi, Takafumi; Motoshima, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Tatsuya; Taketa, Kayo; Kawasaki, Shuji; Hanatani, Satoko [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Takeya, Motohiro [Department of Cell Pathology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Nishikawa, Takeshi; Araki, Eiichi [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan)

    2013-02-08

    Highlights: ► We examined the anti-athrogenic effect of apocynin in atherosclerotic model mice. ► Apocynin prevented atherosclerotic lesion formation. ► Apocynin suppressed ROS production in aorta and in macrophages. ► Apocynin suppressed cytokine expression and cell proliferation in macrophages. ► Apocynin may be beneficial compound for the prevention of atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other proinflammatory substances by macrophages plays an important role in atherogenesis. Apocynin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-acetophenone), which is well known as a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, has anti-inflammatory effects including suppression of the generation of ROS. However, the suppressive effects of apocynin on the progression of atherosclerosis are not clearly understood. Thus, we investigated anti-atherosclerotic effects of apocynin using apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE{sup –/–}) mice in vivo and in mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. In atherosclerosis-prone apoE{sup –/–} mice, apocynin suppressed the progression of atherosclerosis, decreased 4-hydroxynonenal-positive area in atherosclerotic lesions, and mRNA expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in aorta. In mouse peritoneal macrophages, apocynin suppressed the Ox-LDL-induced ROS generation, mRNA expression of MCP-1, IL-6 and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and cell proliferation. Moreover, immunohistochemical studies revealed that apocynin decreased the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions of apoE{sup –/–} mice. These results suggested that apocynin suppressed the formation of atherosclerotic lesions, at least in part, by inactivation of macrophages. Therefore, apocynin may be a potential therapeutic material to prevent the progression of atherosclerosis.

  15. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase IV Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, M.F.

    2003-04-30

    Novel furnace designs based on Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) technology were developed under subcontract by Techint Technologies, Coraopolis, PA, to fully exploit the energy and environmental capabilities of DOC technology and to provide a competitive offering for new furnace construction opportunities. Capital cost, fuel, oxygen and utility costs, NOx emissions, oxide scaling performance, and maintenance requirements were compared for five DOC-based designs and three conventional air5-fired designs using a 10-year net present value calculation. A furnace direct completely with DOC burners offers low capital cost, low fuel rate, and minimal NOx emissions. However, these benefits do not offset the cost of oxygen and a full DOC-fired furnace is projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is roughly $6/lb NOx, compared with an estimated $3/lb. NOx for equ8pping a conventional furnace with selective catalytic reduction (SCCR) technology. A furnace fired with DOC burners in the heating zone and ambient temperature (cold) air-fired burners in the soak zone offers low capital cost with less oxygen consumption. However, the improvement in fuel rate is not as great as the full DOC-fired design, and the DOC-cold soak design is also projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The NOx improvement with the DOC-cold soak design is also not as great as the full DOC fired design, and the incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is nearly $9/lb NOx. These results indicate that a DOC-based furnace design will not be generally competitive with conventional technology for new furnace construction under current market conditions. Fuel prices of $7/MMBtu or oxygen prices of $23/ton are needed to make the DOC furnace economics favorable. Niche applications may exist, particularly where access to capital is limited or floor space limitations

  16. A Compton-suppressed spectrometer for studies of chaos in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, J.F. Jr. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville (United States); Bilpuch, E.G. [Duke University Press, Durham, NC (United States); Bybee, C.R. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Mitchell, G.E. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Moore, E.F. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Shriner, J.D. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Westerfeldt, C.R. [Duke University Press, Durham, NC (United States)

    1995-05-01

    One approach to studying chaos in quantum systems utilizes the statistical behavior of eigenvalues. Such analyses require data of very high quality, since both completeness and purity are essential. The design of a Compton-suppressed {gamma}-ray spectrometer for the purpose of establishing a nearly complete level scheme in {sup 30}P via the {sup 29}Si(p, {gamma}) reaction is described. Design criteria and implementation are discussed, and early results from the system are presented. (orig.).

  17. The contribution of thought-action fusion and thought suppression in the development of obsession-like intrusions in normal participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, E

    2001-09-01

    Both thought-action fusion (TAF: i.e., a cognitive bias implying an inflated sense of responsibility for one's own thoughts) and thought suppression have been claimed to contribute to the development of obsession-like intrusions. Therefore, it seems plausible that conjunction of these phenomena results in highly intense intrusions. However, possible interactions between TAF and thought suppression have not yet been investigated experimentally. In the current study, healthy volunteers were exposed to a TAF-like intrusion. They were, then, randomly assigned to a suppression (n=21) or non-suppression condition (n=19). Next, visual analogue scales (VASs) were completed measuring anxiety, feelings of responsibility and guilt, urge to neutralise and so on. Contrary to expectation, several VAS scores were lower for participants in the suppression group than for those in the non-suppression group. Hence, it is concluded that thought suppression may, at least in the short term, alleviate discomfort caused by TAF-like intrusions.

  18. Chondromalacia patellae: fat-suppressed MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, P M; Demlow, T A; Szumowski, J; Quinn, S F

    1994-11-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of fat-suppressed magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in diagnosing chondromalacia patellae. Seventy-one patients underwent fat-suppressed MR imaging and arthroscopy of the patellofemoral compartment. Findings were classified as early or advanced chondromalacia or as normal and were correlated with arthroscopic findings. Early and advanced stages of chondromalacia patellae were reliably detected, with positive predictive values of 85% and 92%, respectively. Specificity in early stages was 94% and in late stages was 98%. However, the overall accuracies did not differ substantially from those reported in studies that did not use fat-suppressed imaging. Axial, fat-suppressed MR imaging accurately depicts changes caused by chondromalacia patellae. Early stages can be seen as intrasubstance changes of increased signal intensity. Results of this study suggest a high degree of specificity in excluding both early and advanced changes.

  19. METHOD OF SUPPRESSING GASTROINTESTINAL UREASE ACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visek, W.J.

    1963-04-23

    This patent shows a method of increasing the growth rate of chicks. Certain diacyl substituted ureas such as alloxan, murexide, and barbituric acid are added to their feed, thereby suppressing gastrointestinal urease activity and thus promoting growth. (AEC)

  20. Suppression factors in diffractive photoproduction of dijets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasen, Michael; Kramer, Gustav

    2010-06-01

    After new publications of H1 data for the diffractive photoproduction of dijets, which overlap with the earlier published H1 data and the recently published data of the ZEUS collaboration, have appeared, we have recalculated the cross sections for this process in next-to-leading order (NLO) of perturbative QCD to see whether they can be interpreted consistently. The results of these calculations are compared to the data of both collaborations. We find that the NLO cross sections disagree with the data, showing that factorization breaking occurs at that order. If direct and resolved contributions are both suppressed by the same amount, the global suppression factor depends on the transverse-energy cut. However, by suppressing only the resolved contribution, also reasonably good agreement with all the data is found with a suppression factor independent of the transverse-energy cut. (orig.)

  1. Attention modulates sensory suppression during back movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hulle, Lore; Juravle, Georgiana; Spence, Charles; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan

    2013-06-01

    Tactile perception is often impaired during movement. The present study investigated whether such sensory suppression also occurs during back movements, and whether this would be modulated by attention. In two tactile detection experiments, participants simultaneously engaged in a movement task, in which they executed a back-bending movement, and a perceptual task, consisting of the detection of subtle tactile stimuli administered to their upper or lower back. The focus of participants' attention was manipulated by raising the probability that one of the back locations would be stimulated. The results revealed that tactile detection was suppressed during the execution of the back movements. Furthermore, the results of Experiment 2 revealed that when the stimulus was always presented to the attended location, tactile suppression was substantially reduced, suggesting that sensory suppression can be modulated by top-down attentional processes. The potential of this paradigm for studying tactile information processing in clinical populations is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Suppression of instability in rotatory hydromagnetic convection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    first time by Lord Rayleigh [9] for the idealized case of two free boundaries. Rayleigh's theory shows that the gravity-dominated thermal instability in liquid layer ... suppressed for oscillatory perturbations by the simultaneous application of a ...

  3. Combustion suppressing device for leaked sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooto, Akihiro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress the atmospheric temperature to secure the building safety and shorten the recovery time after the leakage in a chamber for containing sodium leaked from coolant circuit equipments or pipeways of LMFBR type rector by suppressing the combustion of sodium contained in the chamber. Constitution: To the inner wall of a chamber for containing sodium handling equipments, are vertically disposed a panel having a coolant supply port at the upper portion and a coolant discharge port at the lower portion thereof and defined with a coolant flowing channel and a panel for sucking the coolant discharged from the abovementioned panel and exhausting the same externally. Further, a corrugated combustion suppressing plate having apertures for draining the condensated leaked sodium is disposed near the sodium handling equipments. If ruptures are resulted to the sodium handling equipments or pipeway, leaked sodium is passed through the drain apertures in the suppressing plate and stored at the bottom of the containing chamber. (Horiuchi, T.)

  4. Oxygen control as a possible BWR pipe cracking remedy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, B.M.; Gordon, G.M.; Kiss, E.

    1982-01-01

    Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) of weld sensitized Type 304 stainless steel piping has occurred in both Pressurised and Boiling Water Reactors (PWRs and BWRs). Although not a safety problem, IGSCC has resulted in loss of plant availability and high costs for subsequent repair. For the BWRs, the problem has been resolved in plants under construction with qualified highly resistant piping alloys such as the low carbon Types 316 or 304 Nuclear Grade stainless steel, or by the use of fully qualified improved weld processing techniques or solution annealing that eliminates the weld sensitized material in contact with the environment. The Induction Heating Stress Improvement (IHSI) technique produces a very favorable weld residual tensile stress through the use of induction heating to create a through-wall stress gradient. Another potential mitigating technique that looks promising is the suppression of the oxygen in the primary system through the use of hydrogen overpressure. This technique offers unique advantages to older operating plants and can provide an even greater margin to plants using improved weld processing techniques. The effectiveness of using hydrogen to achieve oxygen suppression is discussed and results which indicate that this technique has a high probability of mitigating stress corrosion cracking are presented. (author)

  5. Suppressing Tsetse Flies to Improve Lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potterton, Louise; Pavlicek, Petr; Parker, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the government-run Southern Tsetse Eradication Project (STEP) in Ethiopia, with the support of the IAEA, started to carry out intensive activities to suppress the fly population using insecticides. The fly population is now down by 90%. The benefits of tsetse suppression can be seen all over the region. Diary produce is now widely available at markets and healthy animals can be seen everywhere in farming and transport

  6. Gamma camera scatter suppression unit WAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Haruo; Shibahara, Noriyuki; Hirose, Yoshiharu; Shimonishi, Yoshihiro; Oumura, Masahiro; Ikeda, Hozumi; Hamada, Kunio; Ochi, Hironobu; Itagane, Hiroshi.

    1990-01-01

    In gamma camera imaging, scattered radiation is one of big factors to decrease image contrast. Simply, scatter suppression makes signal to noise ratio larger, but it makes statistics error because of radionuclide injection limit to the human body. EWA is a new method that suppresses scattered radiation and improves image contrast. In this article, WAM which is commercialized EWA method by Siemens Gammasonics Inc. is presented. (author)

  7. Simultaneous Monitoring of Vascular Oxygenation and Tissue Oxygen Tension of Breast Tumors Under Hyperbaric Oxygen Exposure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xia, Mengna

    2005-01-01

    The goals of the study in the first stage are 1) to develop a mathematic model by which we can derive tumor blood flow and metabolic rate of oxygen from hemoglobin concentration during interventions, 2...

  8. Suppression sours sacrifice: emotional and relational costs of suppressing emotions in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impett, Emily A; Kogan, Aleksandr; English, Tammy; John, Oliver; Oveis, Christopher; Gordon, Amie M; Keltner, Dacher

    2012-06-01

    What happens when people suppress their emotions when they sacrifice for a romantic partner? This multimethod study investigates how suppressing emotions during sacrifice shapes affective and relationship outcomes. In Part 1, dating couples came into the laboratory to discuss important romantic relationship sacrifices. Suppressing emotions was associated with emotional costs for the partner discussing his or her sacrifice. In Part 2, couples participated in a 14-day daily experience study. Within-person increases in emotional suppression during daily sacrifice were associated with decreases in emotional well-being and relationship quality as reported by both members of romantic dyads. In Part 3, suppression predicted decreases in relationship satisfaction and increases in thoughts about breaking up with a romantic partner 3 months later. In the first two parts of the study, authenticity mediated the costly effects of suppression. Implications for research on close relationships and emotion regulation are discussed.

  9. Stellar Oxygen Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jeremy

    1994-04-01

    This dissertation addresses several issues concerning stellar oxygen abundances. The 7774 {\\AA} O I triplet equivalent widths of Abia & Rebolo [1989, AJ, 347, 186] for metal-poor dwarfs are found to be systematically too high. I also argue that current effective temperatures used in halo star abundance studies may be ~150 K too low. New color-Teff relations are derived for metal-poor stars. Using the revised Teff values and improved equivalent widths for the 7774A O I triplet, the mean [O/Fe] ratio for a handful of halo stars is found to be +0.52 with no dependence on Teff or [Fe/H]. Possible cosmological implications of the hotter Teff scale are discussed along with additional evidence supporting the need for a higher temperature scale for metal-poor stars. Our Teff scale leads to a Spite Li plateau value of N(Li)=2.28 +/- 0.09. A conservative minimal primordial value of N(Li)=2.35 is inferred. If errors in the observations and models are considered, consistency with standard models of Big Bang nucleosynthesis is still achieved with this larger Li abundance. The revised Teff scale raises the observed B/Be ratio of HD 140283 from 10 to 12, making its value more comfortably consistent with the production of the observed B and Be by ordinary spallation. Our Teff values are found to be in good agreement with values predicted from both the Victoria and Yale isochrone color-Teff relations. Thus, it appears likely that no changes in globular cluster ages would result. Next, we examine the location of the break in the [O/Fe] versus [Fe/H] plane in a quantitative fashion. Analysis of a relatively homogeneous data set does not favor any unique break point in the range -1.7 /= -3), in agreement with the new results for halo dwarfs. We find that the gap in the observed [O/H] distribution, noted by Wheeler et al. [1989, ARAA, 27, 279], persists despite the addition of more O data and may betray the occurrence of a hiatus in star formation between the end of halo formation and

  10. Oxygen sensitive polymeric nanocapsules for optical dissolved oxygen sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhijuan; Cai, Chenxin; Guo, Fei; Ye, Changhuai; Luo, Yingwu; Ye, Shuming; Luo, Jianchao; Zhu, Fan; Jiang, Chunyue

    2018-04-01

    Immobilization of the oxygen-sensitive probes (OSPs) in the host matrix greatly impacts the performance and long-term usage of the optical dissolved oxygen (DO) sensors. In this work, fluorescent dyes, as the OSPs, were encapsulated with a crosslinked fluorinated polymer shell by interfacial confined reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer miniemulsion polymerization to fabricate oxygen sensitive polymeric nanocapsules (NCs). The location of fluorescent dyes and the fluorescent properties of the NCs were fully characterized by fourier transform infrared spectrometer, x-ray photoelectron spectrometer and fluorescent spectrum. Dye-encapsulated capacity can be precisely tuned from 0 to 1.3 wt% without self-quenching of the fluorescent dye. The crosslinked fluorinated polymer shell is not only extremely high gas permeability, but also prevents the fluorescent dyes from leakage in aqueous as well as in various organic solvents, such as ethanol, acetone and tetrahydrofuran (THF). An optical DO sensor based on the oxygen sensitive NCs was fabricated, showing high sensitivity, short response time, full reversibility, and long-term operational stability of online monitoring DO. The sensitivity of the optical DO sensor is 7.02 (the ratio of the response value in fully deoxygenated and saturated oxygenated water) in the range 0.96-14.16 mg l-1 and the response time is about 14.3 s. The sensor’s work curve was fit well using the modified Stern-Volmer equation by two-site model, and its response values are hardly affected by pH ranging from 2 to 12 and keep constant during continuous measurement for 3 months. It is believed that the oxygen sensitive polymeric NCs-based optical DO sensor could be particularly useful in long-term online DO monitoring in both aqueous and organic solvent systems.

  11. Suppression of suprathermal ions from a colloidal microjet target containing SnO2 nanoparticles by using double laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Kaku, Masanori; Katto, Masahito; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2007-01-01

    We have demonstrated suppression of suprathermal ions from a colloidal microjet target plasma containing tin-dioxide (SnO 2 ) nanoparticles irradiated by double laser pulses. We observed a significant decrease of the tin and oxygen ion signals in the charged-state-separated energy spectra when double laser pulses were irradiated. The peak energy of the singly ionized tin ions decreased from 9 to 3 keV when a preplasma was produced. The decrease in the ion energy, considered as debris suppression, is attributed to the interaction between an expanding low-density preplasma and a main laser pulse

  12. Suppression of suprathermal ions from a colloidal microjet target containing SnO2 nanoparticles by using double laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Kaku, Masanori; Katto, Masahito; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2007-10-01

    We have demonstrated suppression of suprathermal ions from a colloidal microjet target plasma containing tin-dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticles irradiated by double laser pulses. We observed a significant decrease of the tin and oxygen ion signals in the charged-state-separated energy spectra when double laser pulses were irradiated. The peak energy of the singly ionized tin ions decreased from 9to3keV when a preplasma was produced. The decrease in the ion energy, considered as debris suppression, is attributed to the interaction between an expanding low-density preplasma and a main laser pulse.

  13. Oxygen-Partial-Pressure Sensor for Aircraft Oxygen Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Mark; Pettit, Donald

    2003-01-01

    A device that generates an alarm when the partial pressure of oxygen decreases to less than a preset level has been developed to help prevent hypoxia in a pilot or other crewmember of a military or other high-performance aircraft. Loss of oxygen partial pressure can be caused by poor fit of the mask or failure of a hose or other component of an oxygen distribution system. The deleterious physical and mental effects of hypoxia cause the loss of a military aircraft and crew every few years. The device is installed in the crewmember s oxygen mask and is powered via communication wiring already present in all such oxygen masks. The device (see figure) includes an electrochemical sensor, the output potential of which is proportional to the partial pressure of oxygen. The output of the sensor is amplified and fed to the input of a comparator circuit. A reference potential that corresponds to the amplified sensor output at the alarm oxygen-partial-pressure level is fed to the second input of the comparator. When the sensed partial pressure of oxygen falls below the minimum acceptable level, the output of the comparator goes from the low state (a few millivolts) to the high state (near the supply potential, which is typically 6.8 V for microphone power). The switching of the comparator output to the high state triggers a tactile alarm in the form of a vibration in the mask, generated by a small 1.3-Vdc pager motor spinning an eccentric mass at a rate between 8,000 and 10,000 rpm. The sensation of the mask vibrating against the crewmember s nose is very effective at alerting the crewmember, who may already be groggy from hypoxia and is immersed in an environment that is saturated with visual cues and sounds. Indeed, the sensation is one of rudeness, but such rudeness could be what is needed to stimulate the crewmember to take corrective action in a life-threatening situation.

  14. Oxygenation measurements in head and neck cancers during hyperbaric oxygenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, A.; Kuhnt, T.; Dunst, J.; Liedtke, H.; Krivokuca, A.; Bloching, M.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Tumor hypoxia has proven prognostic impact in head and neck cancers and is associated with poor response to radiotherapy. Hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) offers an approach to overcome hypoxia. We have performed pO 2 measurements in selected patients with head and neck cancers under HBO to determine in how far changes in the oxygenation occur and whether a possible improvement of oxygenation parameters is maintained after HBO. Patients and Methods: Seven patients (five male, two female, age 51-63 years) with squamous cell cancers of the head and neck were investigated (six primaries, one local recurrence). The median pO 2 prior to HBO was determined with the Eppendorf histograph. Sites of measurement were enlarged cervical lymph nodes (n = 5), the primary tumor (n = 1) and local recurrence (n = 1). Patients then underwent HBO (100% O 2 at 240 kPa for 30 minutes) and the continuous changes in the oxygenation during HBO were determined with a Licox probe. Patients had HBO for 30 minutes (n = 6) to 40 minutes (n = 1). HBO was continued because the pO 2 had not reached a steady state after 30 minutes. After decompression, patients ventilated pure oxygen under normobaric conditions and the course of the pO 2 was further measured over about 15 minutes. Results: Prior to HBO, the median tumor pO 2 in the Eppendorf histography was 8.6 ± 5.4 mm Hg (range 3-19 mm Hg) and the pO 2 measured with the Licox probe was 17.3 ± 25.5 mm Hg (range 0-73 mm Hg). The pO 2 increased significantly during HBO to 550 ± 333 mm Hg (range 85-984 mm Hg, p = 0.018). All patients showed a marked increase irrespective of the oxygenation prior to HBO. The maximum pO 2 in the tumor was reached after 10-33 minutes (mean 17 minutes). After leaving the hyperbaric chamber, the pO 2 was 282 ± 196 mm Hg. All patients maintained an elevated pO 2 for further 5-25 minutes (138 ± 128 mm Hg, range 42-334 mm Hg, p = 0.028 vs the pO 2 prior to HBO). Conclusions: Hyperbaric oxygenation resulted in a

  15. Thickness independent reduced forming voltage in oxygen engineered HfO{sub 2} based resistive switching memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharath, S. U., E-mail: sharath@oxide.tu-darmstadt.de; Kurian, J.; Komissinskiy, P.; Hildebrandt, E.; Alff, L. [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Bertaud, T.; Walczyk, C.; Calka, P. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt Oder (Germany); Schroeder, T. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt Oder (Germany); Brandenburgische Technische Universität, Konrad-Zuse-Strasse 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)

    2014-08-18

    The conducting filament forming voltage of stoichiometric hafnium oxide based resistive switching layers increases linearly with layer thickness. Using strongly reduced oxygen deficient hafnium oxide thin films grown on polycrystalline TiN/Si(001) substrates, the thickness dependence of the forming voltage is strongly suppressed. Instead, an almost constant forming voltage of about 3 V is observed up to 200 nm layer thickness. This effect suggests that filament formation and switching occurs for all samples in an oxidized HfO{sub 2} surface layer of a few nanometer thickness while the highly oxygen deficient thin film itself merely serves as a oxygen vacancy reservoir.

  16. Impurities of oxygen in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, V.M.S.

    1985-01-01

    The electronic structure of oxygen complex defects in silicon, using molecular cluster model with saturation by watson sphere into the formalism of Xα multiple scattering method is studied. A systematic study of the simulation of perfect silicon crystal and an analysis of the increasing of atom number in the clusters are done to choose the suitable cluster for the calculations. The divacancy in three charge states (Si:V 2 + , Si:V 2 0 , Si:V 2 - ), of the oxygen pair (Si:O 2 ) and the oxygen-vacancy pair (Si:O.V) neighbours in the silicon lattice, is studied. Distortions for the symmetry were included in the Si:V 2 + and Si:O 2 systems. The behavior of defect levels related to the cluster size of Si:V 2 0 and Si:O 2 systems, the insulated oxygen impurity of silicon in interstitial position (Si:O i ), and the complexes involving four oxygen atoms are analysed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  17. A bacterial cysteine protease effector protein interferes with photosynthesis to suppress plant innate immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Herva, José J; González-Melendi, Pablo; Cuartas-Lanza, Raquel; Antúnez-Lamas, María; Río-Alvarez, Isabel; Li, Ziduo; López-Torrejón, Gema; Díaz, Isabel; Del Pozo, Juan C; Chakravarthy, Suma; Collmer, Alan; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; López-Solanilla, Emilia

    2012-05-01

    The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 suppresses plant innate immunity with effector proteins injected by a type III secretion system (T3SS). The cysteine protease effector HopN1, which reduces the ability of DC3000 to elicit programmed cell death in non-host tobacco, was found to also suppress the production of defence-associated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and callose when delivered by Pseudomonas fluorescens heterologously expressing a P. syringae T3SS. Purified His(6) -tagged HopN1 was used to identify tomato PsbQ, a member of the oxygen evolving complex of photosystem II (PSII), as an interacting protein. HopN1 localized to chloroplasts and both degraded PsbQ and inhibited PSII activity in chloroplast preparations, whereas a HopN1(D299A) non-catalytic mutant lost these abilities. Gene silencing of NtPsbQ in tobacco compromised ROS production and programmed cell death by DC3000. Our data reveal PsbQ as a contributor to plant immunity responses and a target for pathogen suppression. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. The role of rare earth oxide nanoparticles in suppressing the photobleaching of fluorescent organic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Anubhav; Basu, Anindita

    2013-03-01

    Organic dyes are widely used for both industrial as well as in scientific applications such as the fluorescent tagging of materials. However the process of photobleaching can rapidly degrade dye fluorescence rendering the material non-functional. Thus exploring novel methods for preventing photobleaching can have widespread benefits. In this work we show that the addition of minute quantities of rare earth (RE) oxide nanoparticles can significantly suppress the photobleaching of dyes. The fluorescence of Rhodamine and AlexaFluor dyes was measured as a function of time with and without the addition of CeO2 and La2O3 nanoparticle additives (two RE oxides that contain an oxygen vacancy based defect structure), as well as with FeO nanoparticles (which has an oxygen excess stoichiometry). We find that the rare earth oxides significantly prolonged the lifetimes of the dyes. The results allow us to develop a model based upon the presence of oxygen vacancies defects that allow the RE oxides to act as oxygen scavengers. This enables the RE oxide particles to effectively remove reactive oxygen free radicals generated in the dye solutions during the photoabsorption process. Current affiliation: Harvard University

  19. The relationship of thought suppression and recent rape to disordered eating in emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brittany; Fischer, Sarah; Stojek, Monika; Becker, Kendra

    2014-02-01

    This study utilizes a prospective design to examine the interaction of recent rape/attempted rape with individual differences in thought suppression on increases in disordered eating symptoms during late adolescence/emerging adulthood. Thought suppression is the attempt to suppress unwanted thoughts. We propose that emerging adult women who have experienced recent rape/attempted rape and tend to use thought suppression as a coping mechanism are at risk for increases in disordered eating. 319 women completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, the Sexual Experiences Survey, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the White Bear Thought Suppression Inventory in their first month of college and three months later. The experience of recent rape/attempted rape in the three months prior to the assessment accounted for unique variance in disordered eating at Time 2. Levels of thought suppression assessed at Time 1 significantly moderated the influence of recent rape/attempted rape on disordered eating at Time 2. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Multi-functional magnesium alloys containing interstitial oxygen atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H; Choi, H J; Kang, S W; Shin, S E; Choi, G S; Bae, D H

    2016-03-15

    A new class of magnesium alloys has been developed by dissolving large amounts of oxygen atoms into a magnesium lattice (Mg-O alloys). The oxygen atoms are supplied by decomposing titanium dioxide nanoparticles in a magnesium melt at 720 °C; the titanium is then completely separated out from the magnesium melt after solidification. The dissolved oxygen atoms are located at the octahedral sites of magnesium, which expand the magnesium lattice. These alloys possess ionic and metallic bonding characteristics, providing outstanding mechanical and functional properties. A Mg-O-Al casting alloy made in this fashion shows superior mechanical performance, chemical resistance to corrosion, and thermal conductivity. Furthermore, a similar Mg-O-Zn wrought alloy shows high elongation to failure (>50%) at room temperature, because the alloy plastically deforms with only multiple slips in the sub-micrometer grains (alloys are expected to open a new paradigm in commercial alloy design.

  1. Zirconium metal-water oxidation kinetics. III. Oxygen diffusion in oxide and alpha Zircaloy phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawel, R.E.

    1976-10-01

    The reaction of Zircaloy in steam at elevated temperature involves the growth of discrete layers of oxide and oxygen-rich alpha Zircaloy from the parent beta phase. The multiphase, moving boundary diffusion problem involved is encountered in a number of important reaction schemes in addition to that of Zircaloy-oxygen and can be completely (albeitly ideally) characterized through an appropriate model in terms of oxygen diffusion coefficients and equilibrium concentrations for the various phases. Conversely, kinetic data for phase growth and total oxygen consumption rates can be used to compute diffusion coefficients. Equations are developed that express the oxygen diffusion coefficients in the oxide and alpha phases in terms of the reaction rate constants and equilibrium solubility values. These equations were applied to recent experimental kinetic data on the steam oxidation of Zircaloy-4 to determine the effective oxygen diffusion coefficients in these phases over the temperature range 1000--1500 0 C

  2. Effect of vapor-phase oxygen on chemical vapor deposition growth of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasawa, Tomo-o.; Saiki, Koichiro

    2015-03-01

    To obtain a large-area single-crystal graphene, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth on Cu is considered the most promising. Recently, the surface oxygen on Cu has been found to suppress the nucleation of graphene. However, the effect of oxygen in the vapor phase was not elucidated sufficiently. Here, we investigate the effect of O2 partial pressure (PO2) on the CVD growth of graphene using radiation-mode optical microscopy. The nucleation density of graphene decreases monotonically with PO2, while its growth rate reaches a maximum at a certain pressure. Our results indicate that PO2 is an important parameter to optimize in the CVD growth of graphene.

  3. Inactivation of Neurospora crassa conidia by singlet molecular oxygen generated by a photosensitized reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, M.; Egashira, T.; Takahama, U.

    1979-01-01

    Photodynamic damage of Neurospora crassa conidia was studied in the presence of the photosensitizing dye, toluidine blue O. Conidia which germinated to form colonies decreased in number as irradiation time became longer. The photoinactivation of conidia was suppressed by azide, bovine serum albumin, and histidine, and was stimulated in deuterium oxide. Wild-type conidia were less sensitive to the irradiation that albino conidia. In the wild type, carotenoid-enriched conidia were more resistant against the lethal damage than the conidia which contained small amounts of carotenoids. These results suggest that singlet molecular oxygen causes photodynamic lethal damage to N. crassa conidia and that singlet molecular oxygen is quenched by endogenous carotenoids

  4. A compact clinical instrument for quantifying suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Joanne M; Thompson, Benjamin; Maehara, Goro; Hess, Robert F

    2011-02-01

    We describe a compact and convenient clinical apparatus for the measurement of suppression based on a previously reported laboratory-based approach. In addition, we report and validate a novel, rapid psychophysical method for measuring suppression using this apparatus, which makes the technique more applicable to clinical practice. By using a Z800 dual pro head-mounted display driven by a MAC laptop, we provide dichoptic stimulation. Global motion stimuli composed of arrays of moving dots are presented to each eye. One set of dots move in a coherent direction (termed signal) whereas another set of dots move in a random direction (termed noise). To quantify performance, we measure the signal/noise ratio corresponding to a direction-discrimination threshold. Suppression is quantified by assessing the extent to which it matters which eye sees the signal and which eye sees the noise. A space-saving, head-mounted display using current video technology offers an ideal solution for clinical practice. In addition, our optimized psychophysical method provided results that were in agreement with those produced using the original technique. We made measures of suppression on a group of nine adult amblyopic participants using this apparatus with both the original and new psychophysical paradigms. All participants had measurable suppression ranging from mild to severe. The two different psychophysical methods gave a strong correlation for the strength of suppression (rho = -0.83, p = 0.006). Combining the new apparatus and new psychophysical method creates a convenient and rapid technique for parametric measurement of interocular suppression. In addition, this apparatus constitutes the ideal platform for suppressors to combine information between their eyes in a similar way to binocularly normal people. This provides a convenient way for clinicians to implement the newly proposed binocular treatment of amblyopia that is based on antisuppression training.

  5. The complete branchial fistula: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, C; Kumar, R; Kumar, R; Mishra, S K; Roy, M; Bhavana, K

    2005-10-01

    The incomplete branchial fistula is not an uncommon congenital anomaly of branchial apparatus but a complete one is rare. Here we report a case of complete congenital branchial fistula with an internal opening near the tonsillar fossa.

  6. The complete branchial fistula: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Shekhar, C.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, R.; Mishra, S. K.; Roy, M.; Bhavana, K.

    2005-01-01

    The incomplete branchial fistula is not an uncommon congenital anomaly of branchial apparatus but a complete one is rare. Here we report a case of complete congenital branchial fistula with an internal opening near the tonsillar fossa.

  7. Complete albinism in a Podarcis muralis newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Spadola

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a case of complete albinism in a Podarcis muralis newborn, from Chieti (Abruzzo, central Italy in September 2004. This is the first complete albinism case in a Podarcis spp. In the world.

  8. Jacobi fields of completely integrable Hamiltonian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giachetta, G.; Mangiarotti, L.; Sardanashvily, G.

    2003-01-01

    We show that Jacobi fields of a completely integrable Hamiltonian system of m degrees of freedom make up an extended completely integrable system of 2m degrees of freedom, where m additional first integrals characterize a relative motion

  9. Influence of hydrogen effusion from hydrogenated silicon nitride layers on the regeneration of boron-oxygen related defects in crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilking, S.; Ebert, S.; Herguth, A.; Hahn, G.

    2013-01-01

    The degradation effect boron doped and oxygen-rich crystalline silicon materials suffer from under illumination can be neutralized in hydrogenated silicon by the application of a regeneration process consisting of a combination of slightly elevated temperature and carrier injection. In this paper, the influence of variations in short high temperature steps on the kinetics of the regeneration process is investigated. It is found that hotter and longer firing steps allowing an effective hydrogenation from a hydrogen-rich silicon nitride passivation layer result in an acceleration of the regeneration process. Additionally, a fast cool down from high temperature to around 550 °C seems to be crucial for a fast regeneration process. It is suggested that high cooling rates suppress hydrogen effusion from the silicon bulk in a temperature range where the hydrogenated passivation layer cannot release hydrogen in considerable amounts. Thus, the hydrogen content of the silicon bulk after the complete high temperature step can be increased resulting in a faster regeneration process. Hence, the data presented here back up the theory that the regeneration process might be a hydrogen passivation of boron-oxygen related defects

  10. HYPERBARIC OXYGENATION AND AEROBIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irvine D. Prather

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The continuing desire to improve performance, particularly at the national and international levels, has led to the use of ergogenic aids. Ergogenic aids are defined as 'a procedure or agent that provides the athlete with a competitive edge beyond that obtained via normal training methods'. Random drug testing has been implemented in an effort to minimize an athlete's ability to gain an unfair advantage. However, other means of improving performance have been tried. Blood doping has been used to enhance endurance performance by improving oxygen delivery to working muscles. As oxygen is carried in combination with the hemoglobin, it seems logical that increasing the number of red blood cells (RBC's in the body would increase the oxygen carrying capacity to the tissues and result in improved performance. The first experiments of removing and then reinfusing blood showed a significant improvement in performance time

  11. Photoacoustic Imaging in Oxygen Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Cao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen level, including blood oxygen saturation (sO2 and tissue oxygen partial pressure (pO2, are crucial physiological parameters in life science. This paper reviews the importance of these two parameters and the detection methods for them, focusing on the application of photoacoustic imaging in this scenario. sO2 is traditionally detected with optical spectra-based methods, and has recently been proven uniquely efficient by using photoacoustic methods. pO2, on the other hand, is typically detected by PET, MRI, or pure optical approaches, yet with limited spatial resolution, imaging frame rate, or penetration depth. Great potential has also been demonstrated by employing photoacoustic imaging to overcome the existing limitations of the aforementioned techniques.

  12. Oxygen diffusion in cuprate superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Routbort, J.L.; Rothman, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    Superconducting properties of the cuprate superconductors depend on the oxygen content of the material; the diffusion of oxygen is thus an important process in the fabrication and application of these materials. This article reviews studies of the diffusion of oxygen in La{sub 2}{sub {minus}}{sub {times}}Sr{sub {times}}CuO{sub 4}, YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}{sub {minus}}{delta}, YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8}, and the Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub n}{sub {minus}}{sub 1}Cu{sub n}O{sub 2}{sub +}{sub 4} (n = 1, and 2) superconductors, and attempt to elucidate the atomic mechanisms responsible.

  13. Completion of a Dislocated Metric Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sumati Kumari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a construction for the completion of a dislocated metric space (abbreviated d-metric space; we also prove that the completion of the metric associated with a d-metric coincides with the metric associated with the completion of the d-metric.

  14. Isaac Newton and Student College Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinto, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Success in college is built upon classroom success, but success in the classroom does not in itself ensure college completion. Completion arises from success in a sequence of classes one after another over time. It does so most frequently when students are presented with coherent course pathways to degree completion, are able to gain degree credit…

  15. Long-term tinnitus suppression with linear octave frequency transposition hearing AIDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Peltier

    Full Text Available Over the last three years of hearing aid dispensing, it was observed that among 74 subjects fitted with a linear octave frequency transposition (LOFT hearing aid, 60 reported partial or complete tinnitus suppression during day and night, an effect still lasting after several months or years of daily use. We report in more details on 38 subjects from whom we obtained quantified measures of tinnitus suppression through visual analog scaling and several additional psychoacoustic and audiometric measures. The long-term suppression seems independent of subject age, and of duration and subjective localization of tinnitus. A small but significant correlation was found with audiogram losses but not with high frequency loss slope. Long-term tinnitus suppression was observed for different etiologies, but with a low success rate for sudden deafness. It should be noted that a majority of subjects (23 had a history of noise exposure. Tinnitus suppression started after a few days of LOFT hearing aid use and reached a maximum after a few weeks of daily use. For nine subjects different amounts of frequency shifting were tried and found more or less successful for long-term tinnitus suppression, no correlation was found with tinnitus pitch. When the use of the LOFT hearing aid was stopped tinnitus reappeared within a day, and after re-using the LOFT aid it disappeared again within a day. For about one third of the 38 subjects a classical amplification or a non linear frequency compression aid was also tried, and no such tinnitus suppression was observed. Besides improvements in audiometric sensitivity to high frequencies and in speech discrimination scores, LOFT can be considered as a remarkable opportunity to suppress tinnitus over a long time scale. From a pathophysiological viewpoint these observations seem to fit with a possible re-attribution of activity to previously deprived cerebral areas corresponding to high frequency coding.

  16. With medium-chain triglycerides, higher and faster oxygen radical production by stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes occurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruimel, J W; Naber, A H; Curfs, J H; Wenker, M A; Jansen, J B

    2000-01-01

    Parenteral lipid emulsions are suspected of suppressing the immune function. However, study results are contradictory and mainly concern the conventional long-chain triglyceride emulsions. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes were preincubated with parenteral lipid emulsions. The influence of the lipid emulsions on the production of oxygen radicals by these stimulated leukocytes was studied by measuring chemiluminescence. Three different parenteral lipid emulsions were tested: long-chain triglycerides, a physical mixture of medium- and long-chain triglycerides, and structured triglycerides. Structured triglycerides consist of triglycerides where the medium- and long-chain fatty acids are attached to the same glycerol molecule. Stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes preincubated with the physical mixture of medium- and long-chain triglycerides showed higher levels of oxygen radicals (p triglycerides or structured triglycerides. Additional studies indicated that differences in results of various lipid emulsions were not caused by differences in emulsifier. The overall production of oxygen radicals was significantly lower after preincubation with the three lipid emulsions compared with controls without lipid emulsion. A physical mixture of medium- and long-chain triglycerides induced faster production of oxygen radicals, resulting in higher levels of oxygen radicals, compared with long-chain triglycerides or structured triglycerides. This can be detrimental in cases where oxygen radicals play either a pathogenic role or a beneficial one, such as when rapid phagocytosis and killing of bacteria is needed. The observed lower production of oxygen radicals by polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the presence of parenteral lipid emulsions may result in immunosuppression by these lipids.

  17. Fire feedbacks over geological time and the evolution of atmospheric oxygen concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, B.; Belcher, C.; Lenton, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    During the 4.5 billion year history of the Earth, the concentration of oxygen in the atmosphere has risen from trace levels to today's 21%. Yet over the last 400 million years, O2 concentration appears to have remained within a relatively narrow range (around 15% - 30%), despite dramatic changes in the nature of global biogeochemical cycling. This stability has been crucial for continued animal evolution, and is thought to have arisen through feedbacks between oxygen, wildfire and plant productivity: the strong oxygen- dependence of fire initiation and spread means that global photosynthetic primary productivity is suppressed when oxygen levels are high, and enhanced when levels are low. We present biogeochemical modelling of the long term carbon and oxygen cycles, which aims to capture the operation of the wildfire feedback alongside other key processes. We find that wildfire can effectively stabilize long term oxygen concentrations, but that the nature of this feedback has changed as plant evolution has provided different fuels. Specifically, the evolution of early angiosperms during the Cretaceous period provided new understory fuels that more easily facilitated crown and canopy fires. Adding these dynamics to our model produces a more stable system over long timescales, and the model predicts that oxygen concentration has declined towards the present day - a prediction that is supported by other independent estimates.

  18. Kinetics of oxygen uncoupling of a copper based oxygen carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wenting; Donat, Felix; Scott, S.A.; Dennis, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The kinetics of a Cu-based oxygen carrier was determined using a TGA. • A diffusion model was applied to remove mass transfer effects from rate parameters. • Thermodynamics are separated from kinetics, usually difficult for the CLOU reaction. • The rate parameters correctly described the behaviour in a fluidised bed. • The rate parameters can be used to predict performance of large CLOU systems. - Abstract: Here, an oxygen carrier consisting of 60 wt% CuO supported on a mixture of Al_2O_3 and CaO (23 wt% and 17 wt% respectively) was synthesised by wet-mixing powdered CuO, Al(OH)_3 and Ca(OH)_2, followed by calcination at 1000 °C. Its suitability for chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) was investigated. After 25 repeated redox cycles in either a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) or a laboratory-scale fluidised bed, (with 5 vol% H_2 in N_2 as the fuel, and air as the oxidant) no significant change in either the oxygen uncoupling capacity or the overall oxygen availability of the carrier was found. In the TGA, it was found that the rate of oxygen release from the material was controlled by intrinsic chemical kinetics and external transfer of mass from the surface of the particles to the bulk gas. By modelling the various resistances, values of the rate constant for the decomposition were obtained. The activation energy of the reaction was found to be 59.7 kJ/mol (with a standard error of 5.6 kJ/mol) and the corresponding pre-exponential factor was 632 m"3/mol/s. The local rate of conversion within a particle was assumed to occur either (i) by homogeneous chemical reaction, or (ii) in uniform, non-porous grains, each reacting as a kinetically-controlled shrinking core. Upon cross validation against a batch fluidised bed experiment, the homogeneous reaction model was found to be more plausible. By accurately accounting for the various artefacts (e.g. mass transfer resistances) present in both TGA and fluidised bed experiments, it was

  19. CONDITIONS FOR CSR MICROBUNCHING GAIN SUPPRESSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Cheng Ying [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Douglas, David R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Li, Rui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Tennant, Christopher D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); di Mitri, Simone [Elettra–Sincrotrone Trieste, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste, Italy

    2016-05-01

    The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) of a high brightness electron beam traversing a series of dipoles, such as transport arcs, may result in phase space degradation. On one hand, the CSR can perturb electron transverse motion in dispersive regions along the beamline, causing emittance growth. On the other hand, the CSR effect on the longitudinal beam dynamics could result in microbunching gain enhancement. For transport arcs, several schemes have been proposed* to suppress the CSR-induced emittance growth. Similarly, several scenarios have been introduced** to suppress CSR-induced microbunching gain, which however mostly aim for linac-based machines. In this paper we try to provide sufficient conditions for suppression of CSR-induced microbunching gain along a transport arc, analogous to*. Several example lattices are presented, with the relevant microbunching analyses carried out by our semi-analytical Vlasov solver***. The simulation results show that lattices satisfying the proposed conditions indeed have microbunching gain suppressed. We expect this analysis can shed light on lattice design approach that could suppress the CSR-induced microbunching gain.

  20. Interocular suppression in children with deprivation amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Lisa; Chen, Zidong; Li, Jinrong; Black, Joanna; Dai, Shuan; Yuan, Junpeng; Yu, Minbin; Thompson, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    In patients with anisometropic or strabismic amblyopia, interocular suppression can be minimized by presenting high contrast stimulus elements to the amblyopic eye and lower contrast elements to the fellow eye. This suggests a structurally intact binocular visual system that is functionally suppressed. We investigated whether suppression can also be overcome by contrast balancing in children with deprivation amblyopia due to childhood cataracts. To quantify interocular contrast balance, contrast interference thresholds were measured using an established dichoptic global motion technique for 21 children with deprivation amblyopia, 14 with anisometropic or mixed strabismic/anisometropic amblyopia and 10 visually normal children (mean age mean=9.9years, range 5-16years). We found that interocular suppression could be overcome by contrast balancing in most children with deprivation amblyopia, at least intermittently, and all children with anisometropic or mixed anisometropic/strabismic amblyopia. However, children with deprivation amblyopia due to early unilateral or bilateral cataracts could tolerate only very low contrast levels to the stronger eye indicating strong suppression. Our results suggest that treatment options reliant on contrast balanced dichoptic presentation could be attempted in a subset of children with deprivation amblyopia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Role of Oxygen Sensors, Hydroxylases, and HIF in Cardiac Function and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Davin Townley-Tilson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Oxygen-sensing proteins are critical components of the physiological response to hypoxia and reperfusion injury, but the role of oxygen and oxygen-mediated effects is complex in that they can be cardioprotective or deleterious to the cardiac tissue. Over 200 oxygen-sensing proteins mediate the effects of oxygen tension and use oxygen as a substrate for posttranslational modification of other proteins. Hydroxylases are an essential component of these oxygen-sensing proteins. While a major role of hydroxylases is regulating the transcription factor HIF, we investigate the increasing scope of hydroxylase substrates. This review discusses the importance of oxygen-mediated effects in the heart as well as how the field of oxygen-sensing proteins is expanding, providing a more complete picture into how these enzymes play a multifaceted role in cardiac function and disease. We also review how oxygen-sensing proteins and hydroxylase function could prove to be invaluable in drug design and therapeutic targets for heart disease.

  2. Energized Oxygen : Speiser Current Sheet Bifurcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D. E.; Jahn, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    A single population of energized Oxygen (O+) is shown to produce a cross-tail bifurcated current sheet in 2.5D PIC simulations of the magnetotail without the influence of magnetic reconnection. Treatment of oxygen in simulations of space plasmas, specifically a magnetotail current sheet, has been limited to thermal energies despite observations of and mechanisms which explain energized ions. We performed simulations of a homogeneous oxygen background, that has been energized in a physically appropriate manner, to study the behavior of current sheets and magnetic reconnection, specifically their bifurcation. This work uses a 2.5D explicit Particle-In-a-Cell (PIC) code to investigate the dynamics of energized heavy ions as they stream Dawn-to-Dusk in the magnetotail current sheet. We present a simulation study dealing with the response of a current sheet system to energized oxygen ions. We establish a, well known and studied, 2-species GEM Challenge Harris current sheet as a starting point. This system is known to eventually evolve and produce magnetic reconnection upon thinning of the current sheet. We added a uniform distribution of thermal O+ to the background. This 3-species system is also known to eventually evolve and produce magnetic reconnection. We add one additional variable to the system by providing an initial duskward velocity to energize the O+. We also traced individual particle motion within the PIC simulation. Three main results are shown. First, energized dawn- dusk streaming ions are clearly seen to exhibit sustained Speiser motion. Second, a single population of heavy ions clearly produces a stable bifurcated current sheet. Third, magnetic reconnection is not required to produce the bifurcated current sheet. Finally a bifurcated current sheet is compatible with the Harris current sheet model. This work is the first step in a series of investigations aimed at studying the effects of energized heavy ions on magnetic reconnection. This work differs

  3. Al-doped TiO{sub 2} mesoporous material supported Pd with enhanced catalytic activity for complete oxidation of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Jing, E-mail: mlczjsls123@163.com; Mu, Wentao, E-mail: mwt15035687833@163.com; Su, Liqing, E-mail: suliqing0163@163.com; Li, Xingying, E-mail: lixingying0479@link.tyut.edu.cn; Guo, Yuyu, E-mail: guoyuyu0455@link.tyut.edu.cn; Zhang, Shen, E-mail: zhangshen0472@link.tyut.edu.cn; Li, Zhe, E-mail: lizhe@tyut.edu.cn

    2017-04-15

    Pd catalysts supported on Al-doped TiO{sub 2} mesoporous materials were evaluated in complete oxidation of ethanol. The catalysts synthesized by wet impregnation based on evaporation-induced self-assembly were characterized by X-ray diffraction, measurement of pore structure, XPS, FT-IR, temperature programmed reduction and TEM. Characteristic results showed that the aluminium was doped into the lattice of mesoporous anatase TiO{sub 2} to form Al-O-Ti defect structure. Catalytic results revealed that Al-doped catalysts were much more active than the pristine one, especially at low temperature (≤200 °C). This should be ascribed to the introduction of aluminium ions that suppressed the strong metal-support interaction and increased the active sites of Pd oxides, enhanced the stabilized anatase TiO{sub 2}, improved well dispersed high valence palladium species with high reducibility and enriched chemisorption oxygen. - Graphical abstract: Al-doped Pd/TiO{sub 2} exhibited optimal catalytic performance for ethanol oxidation and CO{sub 2} yield by the suppression of SMSI. - Highlights: • Palladium catalysts supported on Al-doped TiO{sub 2} mesoporous materials were studied. • The introduction of Al can enhance anatase stabilization and increase defect TiO{sub 2}. • The Pd/Al-TiO{sub 2} catalysts show higher ethanol conversion and CO{sub 2} yield than Pd/TiO{sub 2}. • The influence of Al on SMSI and catalytic performance were evaluated by TPR and XPS.

  4. Instrumenting a pressure suppression experiment for a Mark I boiling water reactor: another measurements engineering challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shay, W.M.; Brough, W.G.; Miller, T.B.

    1978-01-01

    A 1 / 5 -scale test facility of a pressure-suppression system from a Mark I boiling water reactor was instrumented with seven types of transducers to obtain high-accuracy, dynamic loading data during a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident. A total of 27 air tests have been completed with an average of 175 transducers recorded for each test. An end-to-end calibration of the total measurement system was run to establish accuracy of the data. The instrumentation verified the analysis of the dynamic loading of the pressure-suppression system

  5. Fusion enhancement/suppression and irreversibility in reactions induced by weakly bound nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, P.R.S.; Lubian, J.; Canto, L.F.; Chamon, L.C.; Crema, E.; Hussein, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    We show that halo effects enhance fusion cross sections of weakly bound systems, comparing with the situation when there is no-halo. We introduce dimensionless fusion functions and energy variable quantity to investigate systematical trends in the fusion cross sections of weakly bound nuclei at near-barrier energies. We observe very clearly complete fusion suppression at energies above the barrier due to dynamic effects of the breakup on fusion. We explain this suppression in terms of the repulsive polarization potential produced by the breakup. (author)

  6. Hypertonic Saline Suppresses NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation and Promotes Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajantha Nadesalingam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tonicity of saline (NaCl is important in regulating cellular functions and homeostasis. Hypertonic saline is administered to treat many inflammatory diseases, including cystic fibrosis. Excess neutrophil extracellular trap (NET formation, or NETosis, is associated with many pathological conditions including chronic inflammation. Despite the known therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline, its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the effects of hypertonic saline in modulating NETosis. For this purpose, we purified human neutrophils and induced NETosis using agonists such as diacylglycerol mimetic phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, Gram-negative bacterial cell wall component lipopolysaccharide (LPS, calcium ionophores (A23187 and ionomycin from Streptomyces conglobatus, and bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. We then analyzed neutrophils and NETs using Sytox green assay, immunostaining of NET components and apoptosis markers, confocal microscopy, and pH sensing reagents. This study found that hypertonic NaCl suppresses nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH2 or NOX2-dependent NETosis induced by agonists PMA, Escherichia coli LPS (0111:B4 and O128:B12, and P. aeruginosa. Hypertonic saline also suppresses LPS- and PMA- induced reactive oxygen species production. It was determined that supplementing H2O2 reverses the suppressive effect of hypertonic saline on NOX2-dependent NETosis. Many of the aforementioned suppressive effects were observed in the presence of equimolar concentrations of choline chloride and osmolytes (d-mannitol and d-sorbitol. This suggests that the mechanism by which hypertonic saline suppresses NOX2-dependent NETosis is via neutrophil dehydration. Hypertonic NaCl does not significantly alter the intracellular pH of neutrophils. We found that hypertonic NaCl induces apoptosis while suppressing NOX2-dependent NETosis. In contrast, hypertonic

  7. Control of seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana by atmospheric oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, A.; Crispi, M.; Musgrave, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    Seed development is known to be inhibited completely when plants are grown in oxygen concentrations below 5.1 kPa, but apart from reports of decreased seed weight little is known about embryogenesis at subambient oxygen concentrations above this critical level. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants were grown full term under continuous light in premixed atmospheres with oxygen partial pressures of 2.5, 5.1, 10.1, 16.2 and 21.3 kPa O2, 0.035 kPa CO2 and the balance nitrogen. Seeds were harvested for germination tests and microscopy when siliques had yellowed. Seed germination was depressed in O2 treatments below 16.2 kPa, and seeds from plants grown in 2.5 kPa O2 did not germinate at all. Fewer than 25% of the seeds from plants grown in 5.1 kPa oxygen germinated and most of the seedlings appeared abnormal. Light and scanning electron microscopic observation of non-germinated seeds showed that these embryos had stopped growing at different developmental stages depending upon the prevailing oxygen level. Embryos stopped growing at the heart-shaped to linear cotyledon stage in 5.1 kPa O2, at around the curled cotyledon stage in 10.1 kPa O2, and at the premature stage in 16.2 kPa O2. Globular and heart-shaped embryos were observed in sectioned seeds from plants grown in 2.5 kPa O2. Tissue degeneration caused by cell autolysis and changes in cell structure were observed in cotyledons and radicles. Transmission electron microscopy of mature seeds showed that storage substances, such as protein bodies, were reduced in subambient oxygen treatments. The results demonstrate control of embryo development by oxygen in Arabidopsis.

  8. A numerical two layer model for blood oxygenation in lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aminatai, A.

    2001-01-01

    In the modelling of the simultaneous transport of O 2 and CO 2 in the pulmonary circulation described in our earlier studies, the blood has been treated as a homogeneous layer of haemoglobin solution. Since the size of the erythrocyte is not negligible in comparison with that of the capillary, the blood can no longer be considered as a homogeneous fluid and hence, It is worthwhile to consider the blood flow as a two-phase flow consisting of cells and plasma. In the present study, the heterogeneous nature of blood has been proposed by considering the axial train model for the flow [whitmore (1967)], in order to analyze the effect of cell free plasma layer on the process of blood oxygenation in pulmonary capillaries. The proposed model consists of a core of suspended erythrocytes surrounded by a cell free plasma layer near the wall. The coupled system of convective diffusion equaions together with the physiologically relevant boundary, entrance and interface conditions is solved numerically by a four-point semi-implicit scheme to gether with a fixed point iterative technique. The distance traversed by the blood before getting fully oxygenated is computed. It is shown that the core haematocrit and the thickness of the cell depleted layer affect the oxygenation process significantly. It is found that (i) oxygen takes longest and carbondioxide is the fastest to attain equilibraton, (ii) the blood is completely oxygenated within one-fifth part of its transit and (iii) the rate of oxygenation is smaller in case of homogeneous model than that in heterogenous model in the capillary. Finally, the effect of various physiological parameters on the rate of oxygenation has been examined

  9. Development of oxygen scavenger additives for jet fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaver, B.D.; Demunshi, R.; Sharief, V.; Tian, D.; Teng, Y. [Duquesne Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Our current research program is in response to the US Air Force`s FY93 New Initiative entitled {open_quotes}Advanced Fuel Composition and Use.{close_quotes} The critical goal of this initiative is to develop aircraft fuels which can operate at supercritical conditions. This is a vital objective since future aircraft designs will transfer much higher heat loads into the fuel as compared with current heat loads. In this paper it is argued that the thermal stability of most jet fuels would be dramatically improved by the efficient in flight-removal of a fuel`s dissolved oxygen. It is proposed herein to stabilize the bulk fuel by the addition of an additive which will be judiciously designed and programmed to react with oxygen and produce an innocuous product. It is envisioned that a thermally activated reaction will occur, between the oxygen scavenging additive and dissolved oxygen, in a controlled and directed manner. Consequently formation of insoluble thermal degradation products will be limited. It is believed that successful completion of this project will result in the development of a new type of jet fuel additive which will enable current conventional jet fuels to obtain sufficient thermal stability to function in significantly higher temperature regimes. In addition, it is postulated that the successful development of thermally activated oxygen scavengers will also provide the sub-critical thermal stability necessary for future development of endothermic fuels.

  10. Reclaimed wastewater quality enhancement by oxygen injection during transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, L E; Alvarez, M; Rodríguez-Sevilla, J; Marrero, M C; Hernández, A

    2011-01-01

    In-sewer treatments have been studied in sewer systems, but few have been carried out on reclaimed wastewater systems. A study of oxygen injection has been performed in a completely filled gravity pipe, 0.6 m in diameter and 62 km long, in cast iron with concrete inside coating, which is part of the reclaimed wastewater reuse scheme of Tenerife (Spain). A high pressure oxygen injection system was installed at 16.0 km from pipe inlet and a constant dosage of 30 mg/L O(2) has been injected during six months, under three different operational modes (low COD, 63 mg/L; high COD, 91 mg/L; and partially nitrified water). Oxygen has been consumed in nitrification and organic matter reduction. Generally, nitrification is clearly favored instead of the organic matter oxidation. Nitrification occurs, in general, with nitrite accumulation due to the presence of free ammonia above 1 mg/L. Denitrification is in all cases incomplete due to a limitation of easily biodegradable organic matter content, inhibiting the appearance of anaerobic conditions and sulfide generation. A notable reduction of organic matter parameters is achieved (TSS below 10 mg/L), which is significantly higher than that observed under the ordinary transport conditions without oxygen. This leads to a final cost reduction, and the oxygen injection system helps water reuse managers to maintain a final good water quality in the case of a treatment plant malfunction.

  11. Evaluation of Oxygen Deficit Stress on Germination Indicators and Seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Hoseini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship oxygen deficit stress on germination indicators and seedling growth of five wheat cultivars in laboratory condition, an experiment with Randomized Complete Block design in factorial arrangement with three replications was conducted in 2008. The treatments consisted of five wheat cultivars (Chamran, Flat, Roshan, Stare and Shole as A factor, and two oxygen level (normal seed and seed under oxygen deficit stress conditions as B factor in each of these figures was done. Results showed that oxygen deficit stress caused to decrease for various cultivars germination percentage, germination rate, allometric coefficient, seed vigor index and other germination indicators. Therefore, this test as a suitable method for determining the quality of various seed lot can be used in the water logging condition. In addition, among different cultivars characterized that Roshan cultivar was more resistant to oxygen deficit stress than Chamran, Flat and Star cultivars. Although Chamran cultivar is common cultivar in Khouzestan, but of look most germination indicators arranged as weak seed class. The highest correlation coefficients among the tested cultivars have been related to seed vigor with seedling length and dry weight of radicle with seedling with 0.92 and 0.90, respectively.

  12. A pilot study examining diagnostic differences among exercise and weight suppression in bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Brian J; Steffen, Kristine J; Mitchell, James E; Otto, Maxwell; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crow, Scott; Hill, Laura; Le Grange, Daniel; Powers, Pauline

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate diagnostic differences in weight suppression (e.g., the difference between one's current body weight and highest non-pregnancy adult body weight) and exercise among Bulimia Nervosa (BN) and Binge Eating Disorder (BED). Because exercise may be a key contributor to weight suppression in BN, we were interested in examining the potential moderating effect of exercise on weight suppression in BN or BED. Participants with BN (n = 774) and BED (n = 285) completed self-report surveys of weight history, exercise and eating disorder symptoms. Generalised linear model analyses were used to examine the associations among diagnosis, exercise frequency and their interaction on weight suppression. Exercise frequency and BN/BED diagnosis were both associated with weight suppression. Additionally, exercise frequency moderated the relationship between diagnosis and weight suppression. Specifically, weight suppression was higher in BN than in BED among those with low exercise frequency but comparable in BN and BED among those with high exercise frequency. Our results suggest that exercise frequency may contribute to different weight suppression outcomes among BN and BED. This may inform clinical implications of exercise in these disorders. Specifically, much understanding of the differences among exercise frequency and the compensatory use of exercise in BN and BED is needed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  13. Correlating oxygen vacancies and phase ratio/interface with efficient photocatalytic activity in mixed phase TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Ranjana; Samdarshi, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The correlation of interfacial behavior and oxygen vacancies in mixed phase titania nanoparticles on their performance as photocatalyst has been investigated to explain the impact of photoactivity under UV and visible irradiation compared to pristine counterparts. The defects at the junction effectively reduce the band gap as well decrease the carrier recombination to enhance the photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • Pristine and mixed phases (A/R ratio) TiO 2 synthesized by sol gel route. • Photoactivity variation has been correlated with the changes in the phase ratio. • Enhanced UV and visible activity attributable to oxygen vacancy present at the interface. • Role of A/R ratio and oxygen vacancy in the photoactivity of mixed TiO 2 depicted through a model. - Abstract: The photocatalytic activity is a result of the synergy of a succession of phenomena-photogeneration, separation, and participation of the charge carriers in redox reaction at the catalyst surface. While the extent of photogeneration is assessable in terms of absorption spectrum (band gap), the redox reaction can be correlated to specific surface area. However the respective change in the photocatalytic activity has not been rationally and consistently correlated with the above mentioned parameters. A satisfactory explanation of suppression of recombination based on separation of carriers due to differential mobility/diffusivity in the material phase(s) and/or intrinsic potential barrier exists but its correlation with common identifiable parameter/characteristics is still elusive. This paper attempts to address this issue by correlating the carrier separation with the phase ratio (phase interface) in mixed phase titania and generalizing it with the presence of oxygen vacancy at the phase interface. It essentially appears to complete the quest for identifiable parameters in the sequence of phenomena, which endow a photocatalyst with an efficient activity level. It has

  14. Wing rock suppression using forebody vortex control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T. T.; Ong, L. Y.; Suarez, C. J.; Malcolm, G. N.

    1991-01-01

    Static and free-to-roll tests were conducted in a water tunnel with a configuration that consisted of a highly-slender forebody and 78-deg sweep delta wings. Flow visualization was performed and the roll angle histories were obtained. The fluid mechanisms governing the wing rock of this configuration were identified. Different means of suppressing wing rock by controlling the forebody vortices using small blowing jets were also explored. Steady blowing was found to be capable of suppressing wing rock, but significant vortex asymmetries had to be induced at the same time. On the other hand, alternating pulsed blowing on the left and right sides of the forebody was demonstrated to be potentially an effective means of suppressing wing rock and eliminating large asymmetric moments at high angles of attack.

  15. Quantum-mechanical suppression of bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker-Szendy, R.; Keller, L.; Niemi, G.; Perl, M.; Rochester, L. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Anthony, P. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bosted, P. [American Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Kelley, L.; Klein, S. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-01

    The authors have studied quantum-mechanical suppression of bremsstrahlung of low-energy 1-500 MeV photons from high-energy 25 GeV electrons. They have measured the LPM effect, where multiple scattering of the radiating electron destroys coherence required for the emission of low-energy photons, and the dielectric effect, where the emitted photon traveling in the radiator medium interferes with itself. For the experiment, the collaboration developed a novel method of extracting a parasitic low-intensity high-energy electron beam into the fixed target area during normal SLC operation of the accelerator. The results agree quantitatively with Migdal`s calculation of the LPM effect. Surface effects, for which there is no satisfactory theoretical prediction, are visible at low photon energies. For very thin targets, the suppression disappears, as expected. Preliminary results on dielectric suppression of bremsstrahlung are in qualitative agreement with the expectation.

  16. Shielding design of ITER pressure suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Michinori; Sato, Satoshi; Nishitani, Takeo; Kawasaki, Hiromitsu

    2006-01-01

    The duct shield from streaming D-T neutrons has been designed for the ITER pressure suppression system. Streaming calculations are performed with the DUCT-III code for the region from the inlet of the pressure relief line to the rupture disk. Next, the neutron permeation through the shield is studied by Monte Carlo calculations with the MCNP code. It is found that 0.15 m thick iron shield is enough to suppress the permeating component from the outside. In addition, it is suggested that the volume of the shield can be reduced by about 30% if the optimized iron shield structure having localized thickness across intense permeation paths is employed to shield the pressure suppression line. (T.I.)

  17. Salidroside Suppresses HUVECs Cell Injury Induced by Oxidative Stress through Activating the Nrf2 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Zhu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Salidroside (SAL, one of the main effective constituents of Rhodiola rosea, has been reported to suppress oxidative stress-induced cardiomyocyte injury and necrosis by promoting transcription of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2-regulated genes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and NAD(PH dehydrogenase (quinone1 (NQO1. However, it has not been indicated whether SAL might ameliorate endothelial injury induced by oxidative stress. Here, our study demonstrated that SAL might suppress HUVEC cell injury induced by oxidative stress through activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway. The results of our study indicated that SAL decreased the levels of intercellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA, and improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT, resulting in protective effects against oxidative stress-induced cell damage in HUVECs. It suppressed oxidative stress damage by inducing Nrf2 nuclear translocation and activating the expression of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant enzyme genes such as HO-1 and NQO1 in HUVECs. Knockdown of Nrf2 with siRNA abolished the cytoprotective effects against oxidative stress, decreased the expression of Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO1, and inhibited the nucleus translocation of Nrf2 in HUVECs. This study is the first to demonstrate that SAL suppresses HUVECs cell injury induced by oxidative stress through activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway.

  18. Singlet Oxygen at the Laundromat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeports, David

    1995-09-01

    Singlet molecular oxygen is an interesting molecule both visually and theoretically, since its red chemiluminescence can be analyzed by the application of simple molecular orbital theory. It can be produced from the reaction of hydrogen peroxide from either chlorine gas or hypochlorite ion from household bleach. Here we demostrate how to produce it using simple laundry cleansers.

  19. Recombinator of hydrogen and oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stejskal, J.; Klein, O.; Scholtz, G.; Schmidt, P.; Olaussson, A.

    1976-01-01

    Improvements are proposed for the well known reactors for the catalytic recombination of hydrogen and oxygen, which should permit this being used in contiuous operation in nuclear reactors (BWRs). The improvements concern the geometric arrangement of gas-inlet and -outlet pipes, the inclination of the axis of the catalyst container and the introduction of remote operation. (UWI) [de

  20. Oxygen depletion of bismuth molybdates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong, L.K.; Howe, R.F.; Keulks, G.W.; Hall, W.K.

    1978-05-01

    Pure ..cap alpha..-phase bismuth molybdate (Bi/sub 2/Mo/sub 3/O/sub 12/), which is known to be weakly active for selective oxidation, and pure ..gamma..-phase bismuth molybdate (Bi/sub 2/MoO/sub 6/), which has good activity, were subjected to oxidation-reduction cycles with known amounts of hydrogen and oxygen, at 300/sup 0/-570/sup 0/C and with evacuation steps between treatments. The volume of oxygen consumed during reoxidation was equal to half the hydrogen consumed during the reduction on the ..cap alpha..-phase, which indicated that no hydrogen was retained during reduction. For the ..gamma..-phase, the oxygen consumption was greater than half of the hydrogen consumption and it increased with extent of reduction. The excess oxygen was apparently consumed by filling anion vacancies formed during outgassing subsequent to the reduction step. ESR spectroscopy and temperature-programed oxidation-reduction indicated that lattice oxide ions which bridge between bismuth and molybdenum layers of the koechlinite structure become more labile when the catalyst is in a partially reduced state, and that this effect is greater in the ..gamma..- than the ..cap alpha..-phase. Table and 15 references.

  1. Glow discharge in singlet oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, N.P.; Ionin, A.A.; Klimachev, Yu.M.; Sinitsyn, D.V.; Yuryshev, N.N.; Kochetov, I.V.; Napartovich, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    Currently, there is no experimental data on the plasma balance in gas mixtures with a high content of singlet delta oxygen O 2 ( 1 Δ g ). These data can be obtained by studying the parameters of an electric discharge in singlet oxygen produced by a chemical generator. The O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) molecules significantly change the kinetics of electrons and negative ions in plasma. Hence, the discharge conditions at low and high O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) concentrations are very different. Here, the parameters of the positive column of a glow discharge in a gas flow from a chemical singlet-oxygen generator are studied. It is experimentally shown that, at an O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) concentration of 50% and at pressures of 1.5 and 2 torr, the electric field required to sustain the discharge is considerably lower than in the case when all of the oxygen molecules are in the ground state. A theoretical model of the glow discharge is proposed whose predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data

  2. Biotechnological sulphide removal with oxygen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buisman, C.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis deals with the development of a new process for biotechnological sulphide removal from wastewater, in which it is attempted to convert sulphide into elemental sulphur by colourless sulphur bacteria. The toxicity, corrosive properties, unpleasant odor and high oxygen demand of sulphide

  3. Suppression of charmonium production in hadron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faustov, R.N.; Vasilevskaya, I.G.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of J/ψ charmonium production suppression under heavy ion collisions is investigated. The processes of charmonium disintegration in hadron gas are considered: π+J/ψ → π+c+c-bar and ρ+J/ψ → D+D. Based on the results obtained one can assume that charmonium disintegration contribution to J/ψ production suppression under collisions with gas hadrons and the contribution conditioned by the production of quark-gluon plasma, appear to be the effects of similar order of magnitude

  4. Jet suppression measurement with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00443411; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A hot medium with a high density of unscreened color charges is produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Jets are produced at the early stages of this collision and are known to become attenuated as they propagate through the hot matter. One manifestation of this energy loss is a lower yield of jets emerging from the medium than expected in the absence of medium effects. Another manifestation of the energy loss is the modification of the dijet balance and the modification of fragmentation functions. In these proceedings, the latest ATLAS results on single jet suppression, dijet suppression, and modification of the jet internal structure in \\PbPb~collisions are presented.

  5. Star formation suppression in compact group galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatalo, K.; Appleton, P. N.; Lisenfeld, U.

    2015-01-01

    , bars, rings, tidal tails, and possibly nuclear outflows, though the molecular gas morphologies are more consistent with spirals and earlytype galaxies than mergers and interacting systems. Our CO-imaged HCG galaxies, when plotted on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, shows star formation (SF) suppression...... color space. This supports the idea that at least some galaxies in HCGs are transitioning objects, where a disruption of the existing molecular gas in the system suppresses SF by inhibiting the molecular gas from collapsing and forming stars efficiently. These observations, combined with recent work...

  6. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Dissolved Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the dissolved oxygen module, when to list dissolved oxygen as a candidate cause, ways to measure dissolved oxygen, simple and detailed conceptual model diagrams for dissolved oxygen, references for the dissolved oxygen module.

  7. ANESTHETIC INDUCTION AND RECOVERY PARAMETERS IN BEARDED DRAGONS (POGONA VITTICEPS): COMPARISON OF ISOFLURANE DELIVERED IN 100% OXYGEN VERSUS 21% OXYGEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O, Odette; Churgin, Sarah M; Sladky, Kurt K; Smith, Lesley J

    2015-09-01

    Inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps, n=6) were anesthetized for 1 hr using isoflurane in either 100% oxygen or 21% oxygen (FI 21; medical-grade room air). Parameters of anesthetic depth were recorded throughout both induction and recovery by an observer blinded to the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), including the loss and return of withdrawal and righting reflexes, muscle tone, ability to intubate or extubate, and return to spontaneous respiration. Physiologic data were recorded every 5 min throughout the anesthetic procedures, including heart rate, body temperature, end-tidal CO2, hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2), and percent expired isoflurane. Lizards were subjected to application of a noxious stimulus (needle stick) at 0, 30, and 60 min, and responses recorded. Following a minimum 7-day washout period, the experiment was repeated with each lizard subjected to the other protocol in a randomized, complete crossover design. The only statistically significant difference was a lower mean SpO2 in the group inspiring 21% oxygen (P<0.0020). No statistically significant differences were detected in any parameters during induction or recovery; however, all values were uniformly shorter for the FI 21 group, indicating a possible clinically significant difference. A larger sample size may have detected statistically significant differences. Further studies are needed to evaluate these effects in other reptile species and with the concurrent use of injectable anesthetic and analgesic drugs.

  8. Diffusion of oxygen in cork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequin, Sonia; Chassagne, David; Karbowiak, Thomas; Simon, Jean-Marc; Paulin, Christian; Bellat, Jean-Pierre

    2012-04-04

    This work reports measurements of effective oxygen diffusion coefficient in raw cork. Kinetics of oxygen transfer through cork is studied at 298 K thanks to a homemade manometric device composed of two gas compartments separated by a cork wafer sample. The first compartment contains oxygen, whereas the second one is kept under dynamic vacuum. The pressure decrease in the first compartment is recorded as a function of time. The effective diffusion coefficient D(eff) is obtained by applying Fick's law to transient state using a numerical method based on finite differences. An analytical model derived from Fick's law applied to steady state is also proposed. Results given by these two methods are in close agreement with each other. The harmonic average of the effective diffusion coefficients obtained from the distribution of 15 cork wafers of 3 mm thickness is 1.1 × 10(-9) m(2) s(-1) with a large distribution over four decades. The statistical analysis of the Gaussian distribution obtained on a 3 mm cork wafer is extrapolated to a 48 mm cork wafer, which length corresponds to a full cork stopper. In this case, the probability density distribution gives a mean value of D(eff) equal to 1.6 × 10(-9) m(2) s(-1). This result shows that it is possible to obtain the effective diffusion coefficient of oxygen through cork from short time (few days) measurements performed on a thin cork wafer, whereas months are required to obtain the diffusion coefficient for a full cork stopper. Permeability and oxygen transfer rate are also calculated for comparison with data from other studies.

  9. Oxygen concentration inside a functioning photosynthetic cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Shigeharu; Hartzler, Daniel A; Savikhin, Sergei

    2014-05-06

    The excess oxygen concentration in the photosynthetic membranes of functioning oxygenic photosynthetic cells was estimated using classical diffusion theory combined with experimental data on oxygen production rates of cyanobacterial cells. The excess oxygen concentration within the plesiomorphic cyanobacterium Gloeobactor violaceus is only 0.025 μM, or four orders of magnitude lower than the oxygen concentration in air-saturated water. Such a low concentration suggests that the first oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria in solitary form could have evolved ∼2.8 billion years ago without special mechanisms to protect them against reactive oxygen species. These mechanisms instead could have been developed during the following ∼500 million years while the oxygen level in the Earth's atmosphere was slowly rising. Excess oxygen concentrations within individual cells of the apomorphic cyanobacteria Synechocystis and Synechococcus are 0.064 and 0.25 μM, respectively. These numbers suggest that intramembrane and intracellular proteins in isolated oxygenic photosynthetic cells are not subjected to excessively high oxygen levels. The situation is different for closely packed colonies of photosynthetic cells. Calculations show that the excess concentration within colonies that are ∼40 μm or larger in diameter can be comparable to the oxygen concentration in air-saturated water, suggesting that species forming colonies require protection against reactive oxygen species even in the absence of oxygen in the surrounding atmosphere. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Suppression of adoptive antituberculosis immunity by normal recipient animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefford, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Adoptive immunity is poorly expressed in normal syngeneic mice. This phenomenon was studied by using experimental antituberculosis immunity as a model system representing pure cell-mediated immunity. Expression of adoptive immunity was facilitated by pretreating recipients with sublethal ionizing radiation (500 rads) or high doses (200 mg/kg) of cyclophosphamide or by using adult thymectomized, lethally irradiated, bone-marrow-reconstituted (TXB) mice. Adult thymectomy was less effective, and a low dose of cyclophosphamide (20 mg/kg) was completely ineffective. The beneficial effect of sublethal irradiation was reduced over time; it persisted for 4 weeks and was absent after 8 weeks. Attempts to restore the suppressed state of normal mice to sublethally irradiated mice by using normal spleen or thymus cells did not succeed. Even in rats, which express adoptive antituberculosis immunity without immunosuppressive treatment, the use of sublethally irradiated or TXB recipients potentiated adoptive immunity. It was concluded that suppression of adoptive immunization in normal recipient mice is mediated predominantly, if not exclusively, by T lymphocytes that are sensitive to a number of immunosuppressive agents. The suppressor cells are long-lived and can be regenerated from precursors that are resistant to 500 but not to 900 rads of ionizing radiation

  11. Anoxygenic Photosynthesis Controls Oxygenic Photosynthesis in a Cyanobacterium from a Sulfidic Spring

    KAUST Repository

    Klatt, Judith M.

    2015-03-15

    Before the Earth\\'s complete oxygenation (0.58 to 0.55 billion years [Ga] ago), the photic zone of the Proterozoic oceans was probably redox stratified, with a slightly aerobic, nutrient-limited upper layer above a light-limited layer that tended toward euxinia. In such oceans, cyanobacteria capable of both oxygenic and sulfide-driven anoxygenic photosynthesis played a fundamental role in the global carbon, oxygen, and sulfur cycle. We have isolated a cyanobacterium, Pseudanabaena strain FS39, in which this versatility is still conserved, and we show that the transition between the two photosynthetic modes follows a surprisingly simple kinetic regulation controlled by this organism\\'s affinity for H2S. Specifically, oxygenic photosynthesis is performed in addition to anoxygenic photosynthesis only when H2S becomes limiting and its concentration decreases below a threshold that increases predictably with the available ambient light. The carbon-based growth rates during oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis were similar. However, Pseudanabaena FS39 additionally assimilated NO3 - during anoxygenic photosynthesis. Thus, the transition between anoxygenic and oxygenic photosynthesis was accompanied by a shift of the C/N ratio of the total bulk biomass. These mechanisms offer new insights into the way in which, despite nutrient limitation in the oxic photic zone in the mid-Proterozoic oceans, versatile cyanobacteria might have promoted oxygenic photosynthesis and total primary productivity, a key step that enabled the complete oxygenation of our planet and the subsequent diversification of life.

  12. Anoxygenic photosynthesis controls oxygenic photosynthesis in a cyanobacterium from a sulfidic spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, Judith M; Al-Najjar, Mohammad A A; Yilmaz, Pelin; Lavik, Gaute; de Beer, Dirk; Polerecky, Lubos

    2015-03-01

    Before the Earth's complete oxygenation (0.58 to 0.55 billion years [Ga] ago), the photic zone of the Proterozoic oceans was probably redox stratified, with a slightly aerobic, nutrient-limited upper layer above a light-limited layer that tended toward euxinia. In such oceans, cyanobacteria capable of both oxygenic and sulfide-driven anoxygenic photosynthesis played a fundamental role in the global carbon, oxygen, and sulfur cycle. We have isolated a cyanobacterium, Pseudanabaena strain FS39, in which this versatility is still conserved, and we show that the transition between the two photosynthetic modes follows a surprisingly simple kinetic regulation controlled by this organism's affinity for H2S. Specifically, oxygenic photosynthesis is performed in addition to anoxygenic photosynthesis only when H2S becomes limiting and its concentration decreases below a threshold that increases predictably with the available ambient light. The carbon-based growth rates during oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis were similar. However, Pseudanabaena FS39 additionally assimilated NO3 (-) during anoxygenic photosynthesis. Thus, the transition between anoxygenic and oxygenic photosynthesis was accompanied by a shift of the C/N ratio of the total bulk biomass. These mechanisms offer new insights into the way in which, despite nutrient limitation in the oxic photic zone in the mid-Proterozoic oceans, versatile cyanobacteria might have promoted oxygenic photosynthesis and total primary productivity, a key step that enabled the complete oxygenation of our planet and the subsequent diversification of life. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Anoxygenic Photosynthesis Controls Oxygenic Photosynthesis in a Cyanobacterium from a Sulfidic Spring

    KAUST Repository

    Klatt, Judith M.; Alnajjar, Mohammad Ahmad; Yilmaz, Pelin; Lavik, Gaute; de Beer, Dirk; Polerecky, Lubos

    2015-01-01

    Before the Earth's complete oxygenation (0.58 to 0.55 billion years [Ga] ago), the photic zone of the Proterozoic oceans was probably redox stratified, with a slightly aerobic, nutrient-limited upper layer above a light-limited layer that tended toward euxinia. In such oceans, cyanobacteria capable of both oxygenic and sulfide-driven anoxygenic photosynthesis played a fundamental role in the global carbon, oxygen, and sulfur cycle. We have isolated a cyanobacterium, Pseudanabaena strain FS39, in which this versatility is still conserved, and we show that the transition between the two photosynthetic modes follows a surprisingly simple kinetic regulation controlled by this organism's affinity for H2S. Specifically, oxygenic photosynthesis is performed in addition to anoxygenic photosynthesis only when H2S becomes limiting and its concentration decreases below a threshold that increases predictably with the available ambient light. The carbon-based growth rates during oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis were similar. However, Pseudanabaena FS39 additionally assimilated NO3 - during anoxygenic photosynthesis. Thus, the transition between anoxygenic and oxygenic photosynthesis was accompanied by a shift of the C/N ratio of the total bulk biomass. These mechanisms offer new insights into the way in which, despite nutrient limitation in the oxic photic zone in the mid-Proterozoic oceans, versatile cyanobacteria might have promoted oxygenic photosynthesis and total primary productivity, a key step that enabled the complete oxygenation of our planet and the subsequent diversification of life.

  14. The clinical benefits of antiretroviral therapy in severely immunocompromised HIV-1-infected patients with and without complete viral suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Bannister, Wendy P; Kirk, Ole

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a protective effect of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on the development of clinical events in patients with ongoing severe immunosuppression.......The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a protective effect of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on the development of clinical events in patients with ongoing severe immunosuppression....

  15. Road Signs for UV-Completion

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar

    2012-01-01

    We confront the concepts of Wilsonian UV-completion versus self-completion by Classicalization in theories with derivatively-coupled scalars. We observe that the information about the UV-completion road is encoded in the sign of the derivative terms. We note that the sign of the derivative couplings for which there is no consistent Wilsonian UV-completion is the one that allows for consistent classicalons. This is an indication that for such a sign the vertex must be treated as fundamental and the theory self-protects against potential inconsistencies, such as superluminality, via self-completion by classicalization. Applying this reasoning to the UV-completion of the Standard Model, we see that the information about the Higgs versus classicalization is encoded in the sign of the scattering amplitude of longitudinal W-bosons. Negative sign excludes Higgs or any other weakly-coupled Wilsonian physics.

  16. Prevention of alloimmunization by ultraviolet-B irradiation. Inactivation of leukocytes and the generation of active oxygen and radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Tsuneo; Mogi, Yuko; Sekiguchi, Sadayoshi; Akasaka, Junichi; Kamo, Naoki; Kuwabara, Mikinori.

    1994-01-01

    UV-B irradiation of platelet concentrates (PC) has been tried in several institutes to inactivate leukocytes in PC and prevent alloimmunization on platelet transfusion. However, the mechanism of inactivation of leukocytes contaminating PC has not been fully understood. It is known that UV-B light is absorbed by photosensitizers in cells and produces active oxygen and radicals, such as singlet oxygen, superioxide anions and hydroxyl radicals. These active oxygen or radicals should injure cellular components and this could cause the suppression of cellular functions. In this study, we investigated the relationships among UV-B irradiation, free radical generation and leukocyte inactivation. We found the evidence that active oxygen and radicals were produced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by UV-B irradiation. UV-B irradiation suppressed the stimulatory function of leukocytes in a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR), and the suppression depended on the dosage of UV-B. Even a low dosage of UV-B, 10 J/m 2 , could inhibit the MLR if the irradiated cells were incubated at 37degC for 24 hours before co-culture with responder cells. Treatments of cells with the exogenous singlet oxygen or superoxide anions also caused suppression of the stimulatory function in the MLR, inhibition of capping formation of HLA-DR antigens, and an increase of intracellular free Ca 2+ levels as did the UV-B treatment. These results indicate that the active oxygen or radicals generated in UV-B-irradiated leukocytes could be one of the causes of leukocyte inactivation. (author0

  17. Oxygen enhances phosphine toxicity for postharvest pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Biao

    2011-10-01

    Phosphine fumigations under superatmospheric oxygen levels (oxygenated phosphine fumigations) were significantly more effective than the fumigations under the normal 20.9% atmospheric oxygen level against western flower thrips [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)] adults and larvae, leafminer Liriomyza langei Frick pupae, grape mealybug [Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn)] eggs, and Indianmeal moth [Plodia interpunctella (Hübner)] eggs and pupae. In 5-h fumigations with 1,000 ppm phosphine at 5 degrees C, mortalities of western flower thrips increased significantly from 79.5 to 97.7% when oxygen was increased from 20.9 to 40% and reached 99.3% under 80% O2. Survivorships of leafminer pupae decreased significantly from 71.2% under 20.9% O2 to 16.2% under 40% O2 and reached 1.1% under 80% O2 in 24-h fumigations with 500 ppm phosphine at 5 degrees C. Complete control of leafminer pupae was achieved in 24-h fumigations with 1,000 ppm phosphine at 5 degrees C under 60% O2 or higher. Survivorships of grape mealybug eggs also decreased significantly in 48-h fumigations with 1,000 ppm phosphine at 2 degrees C under 60% O2 compared with the fumigations under 20.9% O2. Indian meal moth egg survivorships decreased significantly from 17.4 to 0.5% in responses to an oxygen level increase from 20.9 to 40% in 48-h fumigations with 1,000 ppm phosphine at 10 degrees C and reached 0.2% in fumigations under 80% O2. When the oxygen level was reduced from 20.9 to 15 and 10% in fumigations, survivorships of Indianmeal moth eggs increased significantly from 17.4 to 32.9 and 39.9%, respectively. Increased O2 levels also resulted in significantly lower survival rates of Indianmeal moth pupae in response to 24-h fumigations with 500 and 1,000 ppm phosphine at 10 degrees C and a complete control was achieved in the 1,000 ppm phosphine fumigations under 60% O2. Oxygenated phosphine fumigations have marked potential to improve insecticidal efficacy. Advantages and limitations of oxygenated

  18. Nominal completion for rewrite systems with binders

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Maribel; Rubio Gimeno, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    We design a completion procedure for nominal rewriting systems, based on a generalisation of the recursive path ordering to take into account alpha equivalence. Nominal rewriting generalises first-order rewriting by providing support for the specification of binding operators. Completion of rewriting systems with binders is a notably difficult problem; the completion procedure presented in this paper is the first to deal with binders in rewrite rules. Peer Reviewed

  19. Tensor Completion Algorithms in Big Data Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Qingquan; Ge, Hancheng; Caverlee, James; Hu, Xia

    2017-01-01

    Tensor completion is a problem of filling the missing or unobserved entries of partially observed tensors. Due to the multidimensional character of tensors in describing complex datasets, tensor completion algorithms and their applications have received wide attention and achievement in areas like data mining, computer vision, signal processing, and neuroscience. In this survey, we provide a modern overview of recent advances in tensor completion algorithms from the perspective of big data an...

  20. Efficient Low Rank Tensor Ring Completion

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wenqi; Aggarwal, Vaneet; Aeron, Shuchin

    2017-01-01

    Using the matrix product state (MPS) representation of the recently proposed tensor ring decompositions, in this paper we propose a tensor completion algorithm, which is an alternating minimization algorithm that alternates over the factors in the MPS representation. This development is motivated in part by the success of matrix completion algorithms that alternate over the (low-rank) factors. In this paper, we propose a spectral initialization for the tensor ring completion algorithm and ana...

  1. Edge enhancement and noise suppression for infrared image based on feature analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Meng

    2018-06-01

    Infrared images are often suffering from background noise, blurred edges, few details and low signal-to-noise ratios. To improve infrared image quality, it is essential to suppress noise and enhance edges simultaneously. To realize it in this paper, we propose a novel algorithm based on feature analysis in shearlet domain. Firstly, as one of multi-scale geometric analysis (MGA), we introduce the theory and superiority of shearlet transform. Secondly, after analyzing the defects of traditional thresholding technique to suppress noise, we propose a novel feature extraction distinguishing image structures from noise well and use it to improve the traditional thresholding technique. Thirdly, with computing the correlations between neighboring shearlet coefficients, the feature attribute maps identifying the weak detail and strong edges are completed to improve the generalized unsharped masking (GUM). At last, experiment results with infrared images captured in different scenes demonstrate that the proposed algorithm suppresses noise efficiently and enhances image edges adaptively.

  2. Improving professional IT doctorate completion rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Kisalay Burmeister

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Professional doctorates in Information Technology (IT have been a relatively recent phenomenon, giving IT professionals career management choices not previously available to them. However, successful completion rates are the lowest of all disciplines. Completed doctorates rate in quality equivalent to PhDs, and retention has been identified as a major obstacle to completion. This qualitative study, involving 44 semi-structured interviews with students, supervisors and institutional support personnel, investigated the obstacles. Amongst the strategies discovered to improve completion rates were retention, student engagement with supervisors, feedback on progress, student engagement in the course, and student involvement in institutional communities of practice.

  3. On characterizations of quasi-metric completeness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dag, H.; Romaguera, S.; Tirado, P.

    2017-07-01

    Hu proved in [4] that a metric space (X, d) is complete if and only if for any closed subspace C of (X, d), every Banach contraction on C has fixed point. Since then several authors have investigated the problem of characterizing the metric completeness by means of fixed point theorems. Recently this problem has been studied in the more general context of quasi-metric spaces for different notions of completeness. Here we present a characterization of a kind of completeness for quasi-metric spaces by means of a quasi-metric versions of Hu’s theorem. (Author)

  4. Oxygen Deficit: The Bio-energetic Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABHAY KUMAR PANDEY

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Scarcity of oxygen in humans arises via three modes. The environment may have low oxygen to breath. There can be disease in respiratory system causing hindrance to uptake of oxygen from environment and the circulatory system may be sluggish to supply to body parts that starve for oxygen. Thirdly the chemico-cellular components of blood which carry oxygen may be lowered or defective. In reference to body cells several limiting sites and mechanisms affect the amount of oxygen delivered to them, and these are under regulatory control of several functional and metabolic systems.

  5. The oxygen effect and cellular adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshcherikova, V.V.; Vajnson, A.A.; Yarmonenko, S.P.

    1979-01-01

    The radiomodifying effect of oxygen was shown to depend on the level of cellular oxygenation prior to irradiation. Acute hypoxia created at the time of irradiation protects previously normally oxygenated cells with DMF approximately 1.4 times larger than that of cells cultured for 24 hours under conditions of mild hypoxia. It is suggested that a decrease in the radioprotective effect of acute hypoxia on chronically hypoxic cells is correlated with an appreciable decrease in the rate of oxygen consumption by these cells, due to which the oxygen concentration near the intracellular targets in chronically hypoxic cells may be higher than in normal cells under conditions of poor oxygenation

  6. Determination of sulphite in wines using suppressed ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Kenji; Uekusa, Yuki; Sakuragawa, Akio

    2015-05-01

    Suppressed ion chromatography with the use of a conductivity detector was developed for the determination of sulphite ions in wine samples. When a mixed solution of sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, and acetone was used as the mobile phase, simultaneous determination of eight inorganic anions (i.e., fluoride, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, sulphite, phosphate, sulphate, and thiosulphate) was completed in approximately 25 min. Linearity, reproducibility, and detection limits were determined for the proposed method. In the case of sulphite detection, a linear calibration curve with a good correlation coefficient of 0.9992 was obtained from the peak height of sulphite with a relative standard deviation (n = 6) 1.48%. In addition, the detection limit of sulphite was 0.27 mg/L at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. Further, the developed method was applied for the determination of sulphite contained in several wine samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Proton-induced knockout reactions with netron-rich oxygen isotopes at R{sup 3}B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atar, Leyla [IKP, TU Darmstadt (Germany); GSI (Germany); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    Proton-induced knockout reactions are one of the main goal of the experimental program at the future R{sup 3}B (Reactions with Relativistic Radioactive Beams) Experiment at FAIR. It allows us to obtain spectroscopic information about valence and deeply bound single-nucleon states and to study their evolution over a large variation in isospin. Recent studies have shown that the occupancies of loosely bound valence nucleons in neutron- or proton-rich nuclei have a spectroscopic factor close to unity, whereas single-particle strength for deeply bound nucleons is suppressed in isospin asymmetric systems compared to the predictions of the many-body shell model. Further experimental and theoretical studies are needed for a qualitative and quantitative understanding. For this aim a series of measurements have been performed on the complete oxygen isotopic chain using the existing experimental setup LAND/R{sup 3}B at GSI. We present the main scientific goals, the concepts of the experiment and the preliminary results.

  8. Suppression Situations in Multiple Linear Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes alternative expressions for the two most prevailing definitions of suppression without resorting to the standardized regression modeling. The formulation provides a simple basis for the examination of their relationship. For the two-predictor regression, the author demonstrates that the previous results in the literature are…

  9. Cortisol suppresses radiation transformation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    It is reported that 10 -7 M cortisol has a significant suppressive effect on radiation-induced transformation in vitro in C3H10T 1/2 cells. Previously reported data showed a significant enhancing effect for similar experiments performed with cortisone. Thus, these two structurally similar glucocorticoid hormones have opposite effects on transformation induced by ionizing radiation. (author)

  10. Cooling device for reactor suppression pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togasaki, Susumu; Kato, Kiyoshi.

    1994-01-01

    In a cooling device of a reactor suppression pool, when a temperature of pool water is abnormally increased and a heat absorbing portion is heated by, for example, occurrence of an accident, coolants are sent to the outside of the reactor container to actuates a thermally operating portion by the heat energy of coolants and drive heat exchanging fluids of a secondary cooling system. If the heat exchanging fluids are sent to a cooling portion, the coolants are cooled and returned to the heat absorbing portion of the suppression pool water. If the heat absorbing portion is heat pipes, the coolants are evaporated by heat absorbed from the suppression pool water, steams are sent to the thermally operating portion, then coolants are liquefied and caused to return to the heat absorbing portion. If the thermal operation portion is a gas turbine, the gas turbine is operated by the coolants, and it is converted to a rotational force to drive heat exchanging fluids by pumps. By constituting the cooling portion with a condensator, the coolants are condensed and liquefied and returned to the heat absorbing portion of the suppression pool water. (N.H.)

  11. Efflux inhibitor suppresses Streptococcus mutans virulence properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huihui; Liu, Jia; Ling, Junqi

    2017-04-01

    It is well established that efflux pumps play important roles in bacterial pathogenicity and efflux inhibitors (EIs) have been proved to be effective in suppressing bacterial virulence properties. However, little is known regarding the EI of Streptococcus mutans, a well-known caries-inducing bacterium. In this study, we identified the EI of S. mutans through ethidium bromide efflux assay and investigated how EI affected S. mutans virulence regarding the cariogenicity and stress response. Results indicated that reserpine, the identified EI, suppressed acid tolerance, mutacin production and transformation efficiency of S. mutans, and modified biofilm architecture and extracellular polysaccharide distribution. Suppressed glycosyltransferase activity was also noted after reserpine exposure. The data from quantitative real-time-PCR demonstrated that reserpine significantly altered the expression profile of quorum-sensing and virulence-associated genes. These findings suggest that reserpine represents a promising adjunct anticariogenic agent in that it suppresses virulence properties of S. mutans. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Suppressive competition: how sounds may cheat sight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Christoph; Remedios, Ryan

    2012-02-23

    In this issue of Neuron, Iurilli et al. (2012) demonstrate that auditory cortex activation directly engages local GABAergic circuits in V1 to induce sound-driven hyperpolarizations in layer 2/3 and layer 6 pyramidal neurons. Thereby, sounds can directly suppress V1 activity and visual driven behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Measuring colour rivalry suppression in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofeldt, T S; Hofeldt, A J

    1999-11-01

    To determine if the colour rivalry suppression is an index of the visual impairment in amblyopia and if the stereopsis and fusion evaluator (SAFE) instrument is a reliable indicator of the difference in visual input from the two eyes. To test the accuracy of the SAFE instrument for measuring the visual input from the two eyes, colour rivalry suppression was measured in six normal subjects. A test neutral density filter (NDF) was placed before one eye to induce a temporary relative afferent defect and the subject selected the NDF before the fellow eye to neutralise the test NDF. In a non-paediatric private practice, 24 consecutive patients diagnosed with unilateral amblyopia were tested with the SAFE. Of the 24 amblyopes, 14 qualified for the study because they were able to fuse images and had no comorbid disease. The relation between depth of colour rivalry suppression, stereoacuity, and interocular difference in logMAR acuity was analysed. In normal subjects, the SAFE instrument reversed temporary defects of 0.3 to 1. 8 log units to within 0.6 log units. In amblyopes, the NDF to reverse colour rivalry suppression was positively related to interocular difference in logMAR acuity (beta=1.21, psuppression as measured with the SAFE was found to agree closely with the degree of visual acuity impairment in non-paediatric patients with amblyopia.

  14. Pressure suppression facility for reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashi; Fukui, Toru; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Tominaga, Kenji.

    1993-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor comprising heat transfer surfaces from a pressure suppression pool at the inside to the outer circumferential pool at the outside, a means for supplying water from a water supply source at the outside of the container to the pools is disposed. Then, a heat transfer means is disposed between the pressure suppression chamber and the water cooling pool. The water supply means comprises a pressurization means for applying pressure to water of the water supply source and a water supply channel. Water is supplied into the pressure suppression pool and the outer circumferential pool to elevate the water level and extend the region of heat contact with the water cooling heat transfer means. In addition, since dynamic pressure is applied to the feedwater, for example, by pressurizing the water surface of the water supply source, water can be supplied without using dynamic equipments such as pumps. Then, since water-cooling heat transfer surface can be extended after occurrence of accident, enlargement of a reactor container and worsening of earthquake proofness can be avoided as much as possible, to improve function for suppressing the pressure in the container. Further, since water-cooling heat transfer region can be extended, the arrangement of the water source and the place to which water is supplied is made optional without considering the relative height therebetween, to improve earthquake proofness. (N.H.)

  15. Quarkonium suppression: Gluonic dissociation vs. colour screening

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mechanism comes into play for the initial conditions taken from the self screened parton cascade model in these studies. Keywords. Quark gluon plasma; J ψ; suppression; dissociation; colour screening. PACS No. 12.38.M. 1. Introduction. The last two decades have seen hectic activity towards identifying unique signatures ...

  16. Aralia elata (Miquel) Seemann Suppresses Inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic) ... The LPS-induced increase in the production of nitric oxide was concentration- dependently suppressed ... Aralia elata ethanol extract (AEE) exhibits protective ... temperature for 72 h and filtered. The filtered .... scavenging activity in a dose-dependent manner showing a ...

  17. Suppressive therapy for radiation-associated nodular thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Kazuo; Shimaoka, Katsutaro; Tsukada, Yoshiaki; Razack, M.S.; Sciasicia, Michael.

    1981-01-01

    A thyroid screening program for individuals who had irradiation to the head and neck areas was started at Roswell Park Memorial Institute in February 1977 and by June 1979, 1,071 patients were seen in the clinic. Three hundred and ninety-six patients were found to have palpable abnormalities of the thyroid, and following pretreatment evaluation, suppressive therapy with triiodothyronine (T3) (50 μg/day) or DT (desiccated thyroid) (120 mg/day) was administered in a double-blind fashion. Two hundred fifty patients with nodular disease completed 6 mo of treatment and are analyzed in this paper. Pretreatment thyroid function tests showed that two patients had hypothyroidism with a high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and a low thyroxine level. A high incidence of thyroid autoantibodies was also noted and surgical findings confirmed a high incidence of chronic thyroiditis. Complete disappearance of the nodules was seen in 29% of the patients, and in addition, 38% of the patients were seen to have significant shrinkage of the nodules, indicating that radiation-associated thyroid nodules were as sensitive to the thyroactive agents as nonirradiated nodular thyroid disease. There was little difference in the response rate between T3 and DT. Both agents suppressed circulating TSH levels to an unmeasurable level in 76% of the patients. There was no correlation between scan findings and response rates. Thyroid carcinoma was found in 19% of the patients who underwent surgery; although all were well-differentiated carcinomas, two-thirds of the patients already had evidence of dissemination and/or invasion suggesting the aggressive nature of postirradiation thyroid carcinoma. (author)

  18. Garlic Sulfur Compounds Suppress Cancerogenesis and Oxidative Stress: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvořáková M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Garlic has long been considered a food with many health benefits. Several studies have confirmed that sulfur compounds are responsible for the positive effects of garlic on organisms. Garlic acts as an antioxidant by increasing antioxidant enzyme activity, reducing reactive oxygen species generation, and protecting proteins and lipids from oxidation. Garlic suppresses carcinogenesis through several mechanisms: (1 it reduces oxidative stress, and therefore, prevents damage to DNA; (2 it induces apoptosis or cell cycle arrest in cancer cells; and (3 it modifies gene expression through histon acetylation. The positive effects of garlic could be mediated by several mechanisms. It influences signalling pathways of gasotransmitters such as hydrogen sulfide. Garlic enhances hydrogen sulfide production both through its direct release and through an increase in activity of enzymes which produce hydrogen sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide acts as a signalling molecule in various tissues and participates in the regulation of many physiological processes. We can presume that garlic, which is able to release hydrogen sulfide, exhibits effects similar to those of this gasotransmitter.

  19. Oxygenated thawing and rewarming alleviate rewarming injury of cryopreserved pancreatic islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Hirotake; Barriga, Alyssa; Medrano, Leonard; Omori, Keiko; Kandeel, Fouad; Mullen, Yoko

    2017-05-06

    Pancreatic islet transplantation is an effective treatment for Type 1 diabetic patients to eliminate insulin injections; however, a shortage of donor organs hinders the widespread use. Although long-term islet storage, such as cryopreservation, is considered one of the key solutions, transplantation of cryopreserved islets is still not practical due to the extensive loss during the cryopreservation-rewarming process. We have previously reported that culturing islets in a hyperoxic environment is an effective treatment to prevent islet death from the hypoxic injury during culture. In this study, we explored the effectiveness of thawing and rewarming cryopreserved islets in a hyperoxic environment. Following cryopreservation of isolated human islets, the thawing solution and culture media were prepared with or without pre-equilibration to 50% oxygen. Thawing/rewarming and the pursuant two-day culture were performed with or without oxygenation. Short-term recovery rate, defined as the volume change during cryopreservation and thawing/rewarming, was assessed. Ischemia-associated and inflammation-associated gene expressions were examined using qPCR after the initial rewarming period. Long-term recovery rate, defined as the volume change during the two-day culture after the thawing/rewarming, was also examined. Islet metabolism and function were assessed by basal oxygen consumption rate and glucose stimulated insulin secretion after long-term recovery. Oxygenated thawing/rewarming did not alter the short-term recovery rate. Inflammation-associated gene expressions were elevated by the conventional thawing/rewarming method and suppressed by the oxygenated thawing/rewarming, whereas ischemia-associated gene expressions did not change between the thawing/rewarming methods. Long-term recovery rate experiments revealed that only the combination therapy of oxygenated thawing/rewarming and oxygenated culture alleviated islet volume loss. These islets showed higher metabolism

  20. Theoretical status of J/ψ suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, S.

    1993-03-01

    High energy heavy ion collisions are expected to produce hadron densities far beyond the density in nuclei, ρ 0 = 0.16 fm -3 . Remarkably, no single measurement from the AGS and SPS light ion programs with projectiles A ≤ 32 stands out as unambiguous evidence of these extreme densities. To separate the high density signals from the background effects that result, e.g. from scattering with primary nucleons, careful systematic studies of hadron-nucleus, hA, and nucleus-nucleus, AB, data are needed. In this talk the author surveys the ongoing systematic study of the most notorious case in point -- J/ψ suppression. In principle, measurements of J/ψ suppression provide a probe of the densities obtained in AB collisions that is also sensitive to quark gluon plasma production. The latest results from SPS experiment NA38 reported by A. Romana in these proceedings show that the ratio of cross sections in the dimuon channel B μμ σ ψ /σ cont is reduced by a factor 0.50 ± 0.05 in central S+U compared to minimum bias pU collisions at 200 AGeV. This is precisely the sort of suppression that one expects if high densities are obtained. On the other hand, a target-mass dependence suggestive of this suppression is found in hA collisions where high densities are not expected. At 200 GeV, NA38 finds that B μμ σ ψ /σ cont falls to 0.84 ± 0.08 in pU compared to pCu. The hA suppression in this kinematic regime is likely due to a combination of nuclear effects: nucleon absorption and shadowing

  1. Nasal Cannula Apneic Oxygenation Prevents Desaturation During Endotracheal Intubation: An Integrative Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill R. Christian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients requiring emergency airway management may be at greater risk of acute hypoxemic events because of underlying lung pathology, high metabolic demands, insufficient respiratory drive, obesity, or the inability to protect their airway against aspiration. Emergency tracheal intubation is often required before complete information needed to assess the risk of procedural hypoxia is acquired (i.e., arterial blood gas level, hemoglobin value, or chest radiograph. During pre-oxygenation, administering high-flow nasal oxygen in addition to a non-rebreather face mask can significantly boost the effective inspired oxygen. Similarly, with the apnea created by rapid sequence intubation (RSI procedures, the same high-flow nasal cannula can help maintain or increase oxygen saturation during efforts to secure the tube (oral intubation. Thus, the use of nasal oxygen during pre-oxygenation and continued during apnea can prevent hypoxia before and during intubation, extending safe apnea time, and improve first-pass success attempts. We conducted a literature review of nasal-cannula apneic oxygenation during intubation, focusing on two components: oxygen saturation during intubation, and oxygen desaturation time. We performed an electronic literature search from 1980 to November 2017, using PubMed, Elsevier, ScienceDirect, and EBSCO. We identified 14 studies that pointed toward the benefits of using nasal cannula during emergency intubation.

  2. Completely integrable operator evolution equations. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, D.V.

    1979-01-01

    The author continues the investigation of operator classical completely integrable systems. The main attention is devoted to the stationary operator non-linear Schroedinger equation. It is shown that this equation can be used for separation of variables for a large class of completely integrable equations. (Auth.)

  3. 14 CFR 413.13 - Complete application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Complete application. 413.13 Section 413.13 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE APPLICATION PROCEDURES § 413.13 Complete application. The FAA's acceptance of an...

  4. The Magnets Puzzle is NP-Complete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kölker, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    In a Magnets puzzle, one must pack magnets in a box subjet to polarity and numeric constraints. We show that solvability of Magnets instances is NP-complete.......In a Magnets puzzle, one must pack magnets in a box subjet to polarity and numeric constraints. We show that solvability of Magnets instances is NP-complete....

  5. Rank 2 fusion rings are complete intersections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Bak

    We give a non-constructive proof that fusion rings attached to a simple complex Lie algebra of rank 2 are complete intersections.......We give a non-constructive proof that fusion rings attached to a simple complex Lie algebra of rank 2 are complete intersections....

  6. Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

    2012-12-04

    A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

  7. Oxygen-hydrogen recombination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shuichiro; Takejima, Masaki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To avoid reduction in the performance of catalyst used for an oxygen-hydrogen recombiner in the off gas processing system of a nuclear reactor. Constitution: A thermometer is provided for the detection of temperature in an oxygen-hydrogen recombiner. A cooling pipe is provided in the recombiner and cooling medium is introduced externally. The cooling medium may be water or air. In accordance with the detection value from the thermometer, ON-OFF control is carried out for a valve to control the flow rate of the cooling medium thereby rendering the temperature in the recombiner to a predetermined value. This can prevent the catalyst from being exposed to high temperature and avoid the reduction in the performance of the catalyst. (Ikeda, J.)

  8. Oxygen and carbon dioxide sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fan (Inventor); Pearton, Stephen John (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) capable of performing as a CO.sub.2 or O.sub.2 sensor is disclosed, hi one implementation, a polymer solar cell can be connected to the HEMT for use in an infrared detection system. In a second implementation, a selective recognition layer can be provided on a gate region of the HEMT. For carbon dioxide sensing, the selective recognition layer can be, in one example, PEI/starch. For oxygen sensing, the selective recognition layer can be, in one example, indium zinc oxide (IZO). In one application, the HEMTs can be used for the detection of carbon dioxide and oxygen in exhaled breath or blood.

  9. Measurement of forearm oxygen consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    1988-01-01

    The classical forearm technique widely used for studies of skeletal muscle metabolism requires arterial cannulation. To avoid arterial puncture it is becoming more common to arterialize blood from a contralateral hand vein by local heating. This modification and the classical method have produced...... blood flow and decreases skeletal muscle blood flow. This facilitates mixing of superficial blood with deep venous blood. Contralateral heating increased deep venous oxygen saturation and abolished the pronounced glucose-induced increase in oxygen consumption observed in the control experiments after...... contradictory results regarding the contribution of skeletal muscle to glucose-induced thermogenesis. The effect on forearm circulation and the metabolism of heating the contralateral hand was examined before and after an oral glucose load. The results suggest that contralateral heating increases subcutaneous...

  10. Oxygen transfer in slurry bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Y; Moo-Young, M

    1991-04-25

    The oxygen transfer in bioreactors with slurries having a yield stress was investigated. The volumetric mass transfer coefficients in a 40-L bubble column with simulated fermentation broths, the Theological properties of which were represented by the Casson model, were measured. Experimental data were compared with a theoretical correlation developed on the basis of a combination of Higbie's penetration theory and Kolmogoroff's theory of isotropic turbulence. Comparisons between the proposed correlation and data for the simulated broths show good agreement. The mass transfer data for actual mycelial fermentation broths reported previously by the authors were re-examined. Their Theological data was correlated by the Bingham plastic model. The oxygen transfer rate data in the mycelial fermentation broths fit the predictions of the proposed theoretical correlation.

  11. Weight suppression predicts total weight gain and rate of weight gain in outpatients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Frances A; Boden, Joseph M; Jordan, Jennifer; McIntosh, Virginia V W; Bulik, Cynthia M; Joyce, Peter R

    2015-11-01

    The present study sought to replicate the finding of Wildes and Marcus, Behav Res Ther, 50, 266-274, 2012 that higher levels of weight suppression at pretreatment predict greater total weight gain, faster rate of weight gain, and bulimic symptoms amongst patients admitted with anorexia nervosa. Participants were 56 women with anorexia nervosa diagnosed by using strict or lenient weight criteria, who were participating in a randomized controlled psychotherapy trial (McIntosh et al., Am J Psychiatry, 162, 741-747, 2005). Thirty-five women completed outpatient treatment and post-treatment assessment. Weight suppression was the discrepancy between highest lifetime weight at adult height and weight at pretreatment assessment. Outcome variables were total weight gain, rate of weight gain, and bulimic symptoms in the month prior to post-treatment assessment [assessed using the Eating Disorders Examination (Fairburn et al., Binge-Eating: Nature, Assessment and Treatment. New York: Guilford, 1993)]. Weight suppression was positively associated with total weight gain and rate of weight gain over treatment. Regression models showed that this association could not be explained by covariates (age at onset of anorexia nervosa and treatment modality). Weight suppression was not significantly associated with bulimic symptoms in the month prior to post-treatment assessment, regardless of whether bulimic symptoms were examined as continuous or dichotomous variables. The present study reinforces the previous finding that weight suppression predicts total weight gain and rate of weight gain amongst patients being treated for anorexia nervosa. Methodological issues may explain the failure of the present study to find that weight suppression predicts bulimic symptoms. Weight suppression at pretreatment for anorexia nervosa should be assessed routinely and may inform treatment planning. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Lyoluminescence of irradiated carbohydrates - the role of dissolution rate and oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baugh, P.J.; Laflin, P.

    1980-01-01

    The lyoluminescent emission from γ-irradiated carbohydrates is shown to be strictly controlled by the rate of dissolution of the solid and the availability of oxygen for reaction during dissolution. These effects are explained in terms of oxidation of trapped radicals diffusing from the dissolving carbohydrate which react in an 'active volume' set up at the onset of dissolution at the crystal-water interface. At irradiation doses greater than 82.5 krad for mannose there is a suppression of the emission which results from an incomplete oxidation of the diffusing radicals due to insufficient O 2 in the active volume leading to a reaction involving unoxidised radicals and peroxyl radicals which are believed to be the precursors of the emission. This reaction is suppressed when the oxygen supply to the 'active volume' is increased. This can be achieved by increasing the oxygen content of the injector gas and indirectly by decreasing the solubility of the carbohydrate. Under these conditions the linear dose range of the lyoluminescence response is extended to ca. 330 krad close to the dose at which trapped radicals saturate in the irradiated solid carbohydrate. Although lyoluminescence is a liquid surface-layer effect as expected the generation of the emission is greatly influenced by oxygen present in the injection atmosphere. Quenching of lyoluminescence by adding peroxyl radical quenchers Cu(II) ions and hydroquinone, suggests that the reaction involving these quenchers also occurs in the 'active volume'. The results generally can be interpreted in terms of a diffusion model. (author)

  13. Mochovce Unit 3 and 4 Completion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilanti, G.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose of the Feasibility Study was to define in detail all technical, economic, financial, legal and authorization aspects of Mochovce NPP Unit 3 and 4 completion in order to provide Slovenske Elektrarne, a. s. (SE) and ENEL Top Management with all the necessary information for a final decision on Mochovce Unit 3 and 4. Feasibility study has started in January 2006. SE had the commitment to complete the Feasibility Study within 12 months from Closing of SE acquisition (April 2007). In order not to delay completion of Mochovce Unit 3 and 4, SE has decided to perform, in parallel to the Feasibility study, also all design and permitting activities which are required for the completion of Plant. This has involved anticipation of expenses for approximately 700 MSKK (or approx. 20 MEuro). SE was able to announce the positive decision about completion on Mochovce NPP Unit 3 and 4, two months in advance of the deadline.

  14. Improving horizontal completions on heterogeneous tight shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Rivera, Roberto; Deenadayalu, Chaitanya; Chertov, Maxim; Novalo Hartanto, Ricardo; Gathogo, Patrick [Schlumberger (United States); Kunjir, Rahul [University of Utah (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Evaluation of the two formation characteristics conducive to economic well production is important when tight shale formation characterization and completion design are being considered. This paper presents the basic understanding required to improve the efficiency of horizontal completions in oil and gas producing shales. Guidelines are defined for effective perforation and fracturing to improve the efficiency and sustainability of horizontal completions using extensive laboratory characterization of mechanical properties on core, core/log integration and continuous mapping of these properties by logging-while-drilling (LWD) methods. The objective is to improve completion design efficiency. This is accomplished by suitable selection of perforation intervals based on an understanding of the relevant physical processes and rock characterization. Conditions at two reservoir regions, the near-wellbore and the far-wellbore, are outlined and are essential to completion design. From the study, it can be concluded that tight shales are strongly anisotropic and cannot be approximated using isotropic models.

  15. Completions in sand and fractured shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Fonseca, C F

    1968-01-01

    The development in the Candeias-Macui area depends little on well completion. The results obtained show that the practice adopted for stimulating fractured shale is not yet defined. It is necessary to improve hole quality, to undertake the research that will prove which prospective intervals are productive, to determine the possible origin of formation damage, and then to select the most suitable stimulation technique. With this, it will be possible to study the technology of ideal completion to be used on new wells in relation to a chosen type of stimulation and future workovers. From the discussion of general completion problems in RPBA, it is concluded that there is an immediate need for training engineers in the specialties of completion, workover and well stimulation. It is also concluded that the meaning of completion must be clarified, so that sectors of responsibility may be defined in order to determine when and how each sector enters into well operations.

  16. Effects of mindfulness, reappraisal, and suppression on sad mood and cognitive resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keng, Shian-Ling; Tan, Elysia Li Yan; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A; Smoski, Moria J

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated the relative effects of mindfulness, reappraisal and suppression in reducing sadness, and the extent to which implementation of these strategies affects cognitive resources in a laboratory context. A total of 171 Singaporean undergraduate participants were randomly assigned to receive brief training in mindfulness, reappraisal, or suppression prior to undergoing a sad mood induction. Individual adherence to Asian cultural values was assessed as a potential moderator of strategy effectiveness. Participants rated their mood and completed a Color-Word Stroop task before and after mood regulation instructions. Analyses using multi-level modelling showed that the suppression condition caused less robust declines in sadness over time compared to mindfulness. There was also a nonsignificant trend in which mindfulness was associated with greater sadness recovery compared to reappraisal. Suppression resulted in lower average sadness compared to mindfulness among those high on Asian cultural values, but not those low on Asian cultural values. Both mindfulness and reappraisal buffered against increases in Stroop interference from pre-to post-regulation compared to suppression. The findings highlight the advantage of mindfulness as a strategy effective not only in the regulation of sad mood, but also in the preservation of cognitive resources in the context of mood regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Posttraumatic Stress Among Syrian Refugees: Trauma Exposure Characteristics, Trauma Centrality, and Emotional Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Man Cheung; Shakra, Mudar; AlQarni, Nowf; AlMazrouei, Mariam; Al Mazrouei, Sara; Al Hashimi, Shurooq

    2018-03-01

    This study revisited the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and examined a hypothesized model describing the interrelationship between trauma exposure characteristics, trauma centrality, emotional suppression, PTSD, and psychiatric comorbidity among Syrian refugees. A total of 564 Syrian refugees participated in the study and completed the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Centrality of Event Scale, and Courtauld Emotional Control Scale. Of the participants, 30% met the cutoff for PTSD. Trauma exposure characteristics (experiencing or witnessing horror and murder, kidnapping or disappearance of family members or friends) were associated with trauma centrality, which was associated with emotional suppression. Emotional suppression was associated with PTSD and psychiatric comorbid symptom severities. Suppression mediated the path between trauma centrality and distress outcomes. Almost one-third of refugees can develop PTSD and other psychiatric problems following exposure to traumatic events during war. A traumatized identity can develop, of which life-threatening experiences is a dominant feature, leading to suppression of depression with associated psychological distress.

  18. Assessing the efficiency of Wolbachia driven Aedes mosquito suppression by delay differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mugen; Luo, Jiaowan; Hu, Linchao; Zheng, Bo; Yu, Jianshe

    2017-12-14

    To suppress wild population of Aedes mosquitoes, the primary transmission vector of life-threatening diseases such as dengue, malaria, and Zika, an innovative strategy is to release male mosquitoes carrying the bacterium Wolbachia into natural areas to drive female sterility by cytoplasmic incompatibility. We develop a model of delay differential equations, incorporating the strong density restriction in the larval stage, to assess the delicate impact of life table parameters on suppression efficiency. Through mathematical analysis, we find the sufficient and necessary condition for global stability of the complete suppression state. This condition, combined with the experimental data for Aedes albopictus population in Guangzhou, helps us predict a large range of releasing intensities for suppression success. In particular, we find that if the number of released infected males is no less than four times the number of mosquitoes in wild areas, then the mosquito density in the peak season can be reduced by 95%. We introduce an index to quantify the dependence of suppression efficiency on parameters. The invariance of some quantitative properties of the index values under various perturbations of the same parameter justifies the applicability of this index, and the robustness of our modeling approach. The index yields a ranking of the sensitivity of all parameters, among which the adult mortality has the highest sensitivity and is considerably more sensitive than the natural larvae mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Oxygen abundances in halo stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessell, Michael S.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Ruan, Kui

    1991-12-01

    The present study determines the oxygen abundance for a sample of metal-poor G dwarfs by analysis of OH lines between 3080 and 3200 A and the permitted high-excitation far-red O I triple. The oxygen abundances determined from the low-excitation OH lines are up to 0.55 dex lower than those measured from the high-excitation O I lines. The abundances for the far-red O I triplet lines agree with those rederived from Abia and Rebolo (1989), and the abundances from the OH lines in dwarfs and giants are in agreement with the rederived O abundances of Barbuy (1988) and others from the forbidden resonance O I line. Because the chi = 0.1.7 eV OH lines are formed in the same layers as the majority of Fe, Ti, and other neutral metal lines used for abundance analyses, it is argued that the OH lines and the forbidden O I line yield the true oxygen abundances relative to the metals.

  20. In-Situ Resource Utilization: Oxygen Production

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The leading option for extracting oxygen from the Mars atmospheric carbon dioxide is to use a solid oxide electrolyzer, which removes one oxygen atom from the CO2...

  1. Mathematical Modelling of Intraretinal Oxygen Partial Pressure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The system of non-linear differential equations was solved numerically using Runge-kutta. Nystroms method. ... artery occlusion. Keywords: Mathematical modeling, Intraretinal oxygen pressure, Retinal capillaries, Oxygen ..... Mass transfer,.

  2. Oxygen-Methane Thruster, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Orion Propulsion, Inc. proposes to develop an Oxygen and Methane RCS Thruster to advance the technology of alternate fuels. A successful Oxygen/CH4 RCS Thruster will...

  3. Effect of Humid Aging on the Oxygen Adsorption in SnO₂ Gas Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Koichi; Ma, Nan; Watanabe, Ken; Yuasa, Masayoshi; Kida, Tetsuya; Shimanoe, Kengo

    2018-01-16

    To investigate the effect of aging at 580 °C in wet air (humid aging) on the oxygen adsorption on the surface of SnO₂ particles, the electric properties and the sensor response to hydrogen in dry and humid atmospheres for SnO₂ resistive-type gas sensors were evaluated. The electric resistance in dry and wet atmospheres at 350 °C was strongly increased by humid aging. From the results of oxygen partial pressure dependence of the electric resistance, the oxygen adsorption equilibrium constants ( K ₁; for O - adsorption, K ₂; for O 2- adsorption) were estimated on the basis of the theoretical model of oxygen adsorption. The K ₁ and K ₂ in dry and wet atmospheres at 350 °C were increased by humid aging at 580 °C, indicating an increase in the adsorption amount of both O - and O 2- . These results suggest that hydroxyl poisoning on the oxygen adsorption is suppressed by humid aging. The sensor response to hydrogen in dry and wet atmosphere at 350 °C was clearly improved by humid aging. Such an improvement of the sensor response seems to be caused by increasing the oxygen adsorption amount. Thus, the humid aging offers an effective way to improve the sensor response of SnO₂ resistive-type gas sensors in dry and wet atmospheres.

  4. Effect of Humid Aging on the Oxygen Adsorption in SnO2 Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Suematsu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of aging at 580 °C in wet air (humid aging on the oxygen adsorption on the surface of SnO2 particles, the electric properties and the sensor response to hydrogen in dry and humid atmospheres for SnO2 resistive-type gas sensors were evaluated. The electric resistance in dry and wet atmospheres at 350 °C was strongly increased by humid aging. From the results of oxygen partial pressure dependence of the electric resistance, the oxygen adsorption equilibrium constants (K1; for O− adsorption, K2; for O2− adsorption were estimated on the basis of the theoretical model of oxygen adsorption. The K1 and K2 in dry and wet atmospheres at 350 °C were increased by humid aging at 580 °C, indicating an increase in the adsorption amount of both O− and O2−. These results suggest that hydroxyl poisoning on the oxygen adsorption is suppressed by humid aging. The sensor response to hydrogen in dry and wet atmosphere at 350 °C was clearly improved by humid aging. Such an improvement of the sensor response seems to be caused by increasing the oxygen adsorption amount. Thus, the humid aging offers an effective way to improve the sensor response of SnO2 resistive-type gas sensors in dry and wet atmospheres.

  5. Oxygen influence on luminescence properties of rare-earth doped NaLaF{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomela, A., E-mail: anu.tuomela@oulu.fi [Research Center of Molecular Materials, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 (Finland); Pankratov, V., E-mail: vladimirs.pankratovs@oulu.fi [Research Center of Molecular Materials, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 (Finland); Sarakovskis, A.; Doke, G.; Grinberga, L. [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, 8 Kengaraga, LV-1063 Riga (Latvia); Vielhauer, S. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, Tartu 51014 (Estonia); Huttula, M. [Research Center of Molecular Materials, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 (Finland)

    2016-11-15

    Luminescence properties of erbium and europium doped NaLaF{sub 4} with different oxygen content have been studied. Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) excitation luminescence spectroscopy technique has been applied by using synchrotron radiation excitation. It was found that oxygen impurity leads to significant degradation of Er{sup 3+} or Eu{sup 3+} emission under VUV excitation. The intensive O{sup 2−}–Er{sup 3+} charge transfer excitation band has been detected from oxygen abundant NaLaF{sub 4} in the 150–165 nm spectral range. This band reveals a competing absorption mechanism in oxygen containing NaLaF{sub 4}. It is clearly demonstrated that one reason for the Er{sup 3+} emission degradation in oxygen abundant NaLaF{sub 4} is strong suppression of 4f–5d transitions in Er{sup 3+} ion. The degradation of the Eu{sup 3+} emission under VUV excitation was explained by diminishing of F{sup −}–Eu{sup 3+} charge transfer absorption band as well as by competing relaxation centers in the oxygen abundant NaLaF{sub 4}.

  6. Oxygen tracer studies of ferroelectric fatigue in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schloss, Lawrence F.; McIntyre, Paul C.; Hendrix, Bryan C.; Bilodeau, Steven M.; Roeder, Jeffrey F.; Gilbert, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    Long-range oxygen motion has been observed in Pt/Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 /Ir thin-film structures after electrical fatigue cycling at room temperature. Through an exchange anneal, isotopic 18 O was incorporated as a tracer into bare Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 (PZT) films, allowing secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements of the tracer profile evolution as a function of the number of polarization reversals. Observation of 18 O tracer redistribution during voltage cycling, which is presumably mediated by oxygen vacancy motion, was found to be strongly dependent upon the thermal history of the film. However, there was no strong correlation between the extent of 18 O tracer redistribution and the extent of polarization suppression induced by voltage cycling. Our results suggest that oxygen vacancy motion plays, at most, a secondary role in ferroelectric fatigue of PZT thin films

  7. Suppressed visual looming stimuli are not integrated with auditory looming signals: Evidence from continuous flash suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moors, Pieter; Huygelier, Hanne; Wagemans, Johan; de-Wit, Lee; van Ee, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies using binocular rivalry have shown that signals in a modality other than the visual can bias dominance durations depending on their congruency with the rivaling stimuli. More recently, studies using continuous flash suppression (CFS) have reported that multisensory integration influences how long visual stimuli remain suppressed. In this study, using CFS, we examined whether the contrast thresholds for detecting visual looming stimuli are influenced by a congruent auditory stimulus. In Experiment 1, we show that a looming visual stimulus can result in lower detection thresholds compared to a static concentric grating, but that auditory tone pips congruent with the looming stimulus did not lower suppression thresholds any further. In Experiments 2, 3, and 4, we again observed no advantage for congruent multisensory stimuli. These results add to our understanding of the conditions under which multisensory integration is possible, and suggest that certain forms of multisensory integration are not evident when the visual stimulus is suppressed from awareness using CFS.

  8. Oxygen - a limiting factor for brain recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Hadanny, Amir; Efrati, Shai

    2015-01-01

    Effective brain metabolism is highly dependent on a narrow therapeutic window of oxygen. In major insults to the brain (e.g., intracerebral hemorrhage), a slight decrease in oxygen supply, as occurs in a hypobaric environment at high altitude, has devastating effects on the injured brain tissue. Conversely, increasing brain oxygenation, by the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, can improve brain metabolism and its dependent regenerative processes.

  9. Benchmark enclosure fire suppression experiments - phase 1 test report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, Victor G.; Nichols, Robert Thomas; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-06-01

    A series of fire benchmark water suppression tests were performed that may provide guidance for dispersal systems for the protection of high value assets. The test results provide boundary and temporal data necessary for water spray suppression model development and validation. A review of fire suppression in presented for both gaseous suppression and water mist fire suppression. The experimental setup and procedure for gathering water suppression performance data are shown. Characteristics of the nozzles used in the testing are presented. Results of the experiments are discussed.

  10. [The advances of suppression in research of amblyopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S; Liu, H

    2016-04-11

    Suppression that is the result of interocular competition is an important machanism of amblyopia. The imbalance of suppression may lead the consequence to amblyopia. In the early study, researchers had raised the theory of II. Quadratic Summation which had revealed the relationship of interocular interaction and suppression. In some basic researches, other studies had showed the most possible anatomic location of suppression. Recently, researchers found a new method to quantify the interocular suppression named the noise model. Further studies found a novel disinhibition therapy to treat amblyopia. We summarized the research advances in suppression and disinhibition treatment in amblyopia. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 305-308).

  11. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus velezensis G341, a strain with a broad inhibitory spectrum against plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Hee; Park, Jungwook; Lim, Jae Yun; Kim, Hun; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Seo, Young-Su

    2015-10-10

    Bacillus velezensis G341 can suppress plant pathogens by producing antagonistic active compounds including bacillomycin D, fengycin, and (oxy) difficidin. The complete genome sequence of this bacterium was characterized by one circular chromosome of 4,009,746bp with 3953 open reading frames. The genome contained 36 pseudogenes, 30 rRNA operons, and 95 tRNAs. This complete genome sequence provides an additional resource for the development of antimicrobial compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Proton density-weighted MR imaging of the knee: fat suppression versus without fat suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Sun Ki; Jee, Won-Hee; Kim, Jung-Man

    2011-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression for detecting meniscal tears. The study involved 48 patients who underwent arthroscopy less than 3 months after proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression. Sagittal images were independently reviewed by two radiologists for the presence of meniscal tears. Medial and lateral menisci were separately analyzed in terms of anterior horn, body, and posterior horn. Interobserver agreement was assessed using κ coefficients. The McNemar test was used to determine any differences between the two methods in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Arthroscopy findings were used as the diagnostic reference standard. Arthroscopy revealed 71 tears involving 85 meniscal segments: 34 medial meniscal segments and 51 lateral meniscal segments. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each radiologist were 95% (81/85), 92% (186/203), and 93% (267/288), and 93% (79/85), 93% (189/203), and 93% (268/288) when using fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging, and 91% (77/85), 93% (189/203), and 92% (266/288), and 91% (77/85), 93% (188/203), and 92% (265/288) when using proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression, respectively. Interobserver agreement for meniscal tears was very high with proton-weighted imaging with (κ = 0.87) or without (κ = 0.86) fat suppression. There were no significant differences for detection of medial meniscal tears when using proton density-weighted imaging with or without fat suppression for both readers (p > 0.05). Fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging can replace proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression for the detection of meniscal tears. (orig.)

  13. Proton density-weighted MR imaging of the knee: fat suppression versus without fat suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Sun Ki [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jee, Won-Hee [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Catholic University of Korea, Diagnostic Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung-Man [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression for detecting meniscal tears. The study involved 48 patients who underwent arthroscopy less than 3 months after proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression. Sagittal images were independently reviewed by two radiologists for the presence of meniscal tears. Medial and lateral menisci were separately analyzed in terms of anterior horn, body, and posterior horn. Interobserver agreement was assessed using {kappa} coefficients. The McNemar test was used to determine any differences between the two methods in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Arthroscopy findings were used as the diagnostic reference standard. Arthroscopy revealed 71 tears involving 85 meniscal segments: 34 medial meniscal segments and 51 lateral meniscal segments. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each radiologist were 95% (81/85), 92% (186/203), and 93% (267/288), and 93% (79/85), 93% (189/203), and 93% (268/288) when using fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging, and 91% (77/85), 93% (189/203), and 92% (266/288), and 91% (77/85), 93% (188/203), and 92% (265/288) when using proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression, respectively. Interobserver agreement for meniscal tears was very high with proton-weighted imaging with ({kappa} = 0.87) or without ({kappa} = 0.86) fat suppression. There were no significant differences for detection of medial meniscal tears when using proton density-weighted imaging with or without fat suppression for both readers (p > 0.05). Fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging can replace proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression for the detection of meniscal tears. (orig.)

  14. The effect of inhaling concentrated oxygen on performance during repeated anaerobic exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Heller

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the pilot study was to test the effect of inhaling 99.5% oxygen on recovery. The source of concentrated oxygen was O-PUR (Oxyfit. Research subjects completed two thirty-second Wingate tests at an interval of ten minutes, and in the interval between the tests the subjects inhaled either oxygen or a placebo in random order. This procedure was then repeated. The pilot study revealed a significantly (p<0.03 smaller performance drop in the second Wingate test following the inhalation of 99.5% oxygen when compared with the placebo. The results of the study indicate that inhaling concentrated oxygen may have a positive effect on short-term recovery processes.

  15. Matrix completion by deep matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jicong; Cheng, Jieyu

    2018-02-01

    Conventional methods of matrix completion are linear methods that are not effective in handling data of nonlinear structures. Recently a few researchers attempted to incorporate nonlinear techniques into matrix completion but there still exists considerable limitations. In this paper, a novel method called deep matrix factorization (DMF) is proposed for nonlinear matrix completion. Different from conventional matrix completion methods that are based on linear latent variable models, DMF is on the basis of a nonlinear latent variable model. DMF is formulated as a deep-structure neural network, in which the inputs are the low-dimensional unknown latent variables and the outputs are the partially observed variables. In DMF, the inputs and the parameters of the multilayer neural network are simultaneously optimized to minimize the reconstruction errors for the observed entries. Then the missing entries can be readily recovered by propagating the latent variables to the output layer. DMF is compared with state-of-the-art methods of linear and nonlinear matrix completion in the tasks of toy matrix completion, image inpainting and collaborative filtering. The experimental results verify that DMF is able to provide higher matrix completion accuracy than existing methods do and DMF is applicable to large matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. EPR oxygen imaging and hyperpolarized (13) C MRI of pyruvate metabolism as noninvasive biomarkers of tumor treatment response to a glycolysis inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsumoto, Shingo; Saito, Keita; Yasui, Hironobu

    2013-01-01

    The hypoxic nature of tumors results in treatment resistance and poor prognosis. To spare limited oxygen for more crucial pathways, hypoxic cancerous cells suppress mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and promote glycolysis for energy production. Thereby, inhibition of glycolysis has...... the potential to overcome treatment resistance of hypoxic tumors. Here, EPR imaging was used to evaluate oxygen dependent efficacy on hypoxia-sensitive drug. The small molecule 3-bromopyruvate blocks glycolysis pathway by inhibiting hypoxia inducible enzymes and enhanced cytotoxicity of 3-bromopyruvate under...

  17. Oxygen requirements of the earliest animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mills, Daniel Brady; Ward, Lewis M.; Jones, CarriAyne

    2014-01-01

    likely exhibited a physiology and morphology similar to that of a modern sponge, its oxygen demands may have been met well before the enhanced oxygenation of the Ediacaran Period. Therefore, the origin of animals may not have been triggered by a contemporaneous rise in the oxygen content...

  18. Oxygen diffusion in glasses and ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolitsch, A.; Richter, E.; Wolf, M.

    1978-10-01

    A survey is given on the published works to study oxygen diffusion in glasses and ceramic materials in the last years. In the first part methods are described for the measurement of oxygen diffusion coefficients and in the second part the published reports on oxygen diffusion in glasses, ceramic and other oxides are discussed. The most important results are summarized in different tables. (author)

  19. Fuel cell serves as oxygen level detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Monitoring the oxygen level in the air is accomplished by a fuel cell detector whose voltage output is proportional to the partial pressure of oxygen in the sampled gas. The relationship between output voltage and partial pressure of oxygen can be calibrated.

  20. 21 CFR 868.5580 - Oxygen mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxygen mask. 868.5580 Section 868.5580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5580 Oxygen mask. (a) Identification. An oxygen mask is a device...